Science.gov

Sample records for analysis issues relating

  1. Issues related to criticality safety analysis for burnup credit applications

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, M.D.; Parks, C.V.

    1995-12-01

    Spent fuel transportation and storage cask designs based on a burnup credit approach must consider issues that are not relevant in casks designed under a fresh fuel loading assumption. Parametric analyses are required to characterize the importance of fuel assembly and fuel cycle parameters on spent fuel composition and reactivity. Numerical models are evaluated to determine the sensitivity of criticality safety calculations to modeling assumptions. This paper discusses the results of studies to determine the effect of two important modeling assumptions on the criticality analysis of pressurized-water reactor (PWR) spent fuel: (1) the effect of assumed burnup history (i.e., specific power during and time-dependent variations in operational power) during depletion calculations, and (2) the effect of axial burnup distributions on the neutron multiplication factor calculated for a three-dimensional (3-D) conceptual cask design.

  2. Analysis of coaxial spray combustion flames and related numerical issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, P. Y.

    1986-01-01

    An approach to the simulation of strongly coupled multiphase flows in combustion hardware is sketched and its unique requirements highlighted. An example of a successful application to a coaxial injector flame is presented. Furthermore, several numerical issues that tend to interact with the physics of the problem are discussed with special regard to their potential impact on the choices of numerical parameters by the analyst. These include the issues of stability, numerical diffusivity, stiffness, and boundary conditions. The theme of this paper focuses on the intriguing relationships among the grid, the solution algorithm, and the actual physical mechanisms themselves.

  3. Gender relations and economic issues.

    PubMed

    Elson, D

    1993-10-01

    While most discussions of economic issues pay no explicit attention to gender relations, most economic policy is marked by male bias which provides women with an unequal access to resources. This situation exists because most economists, officials, and business managers lack the imagination to see the gender impact of economic issues and most women's groups and researchers lack the language to portray this connection. This article explores some aspects of this gap and aims to provide women with the ability to effectively discuss economic issues. After an introduction, the article considers the basic problem caused by the fact that the economy is defined primarily in terms of money-making activities. This leads to a male bias since much of women's work occurs outside of the monetary sphere. The next section looks at how a failure to understand the significance of gender relations will interfere with the fulfillment of policy objectives. This discussion is followed by a description of how cutbacks in government expenditures increase the burden on women who must replace the services. Problems with the option of the private-sector replacing government services, such as the fact that increasing disposable income in households does not guarantee that unpaid labor will be reduced and the fact that the private sector may fail to expand in a productive way, are covered. The article then touches on the new emphasis placed by some economists and policy makers on cooperative and interactive solutions to these problems and ends by mentioning three new initiatives which seek to build capacity for gender-aware economic analysis: the development of a training program at Manchester University in the UK, coordination of an international research workshop by the University of Utah in the US, and development of an international association for feminist economics based in the US. PMID:12320735

  4. Policy Analysis Series. Issues Related to the Welsch Consent Decree. Volumes I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Planning Agency, St. Paul.

    This two-volume compilation of 21 papers discusses issues stemming from the Welsch versus Likins suit (1974). The suit led to the 1980 Welsch-Noot consent decree requiring the State of Minnesota to reduce the overall population of mentally retarded persons residing in state institutions by nearly one-third over 6 years. The 11 papers in Volume I…

  5. Ethical Issues Related to Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Patricia L.; Schuh, John H.

    1995-01-01

    Offers a framework for thinking about ethical principles through the use of codes of ethics. Examines the ethical issues of restructuring and discusses specific ethical dilemmas. Specifically outlines ethics related to resources allocation and management, and details critical points in restructuring. Argues that ethical guidelines help shape…

  6. Issues in Perceptual Speech Analysis in Cleft Palate and Related Disorders: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, Debbie

    2005-01-01

    Perceptual speech assessment is central to the evaluation of speech outcomes associated with cleft palate and velopharyngeal dysfunction. However, the complexity of this process is perhaps sometimes underestimated. To draw together the many different strands in the complex process of perceptual speech assessment and analysis, and make…

  7. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. III. Water level fluctuation

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S.G.

    1980-10-01

    Potential environmental impacts in reservoirs and downstream river reaches below dams that may be caused by the water level fluctuation resulting from development and operation of small scale (under 25MW) hydroelectric projects are identified. The impacts discussed will be of potential concern at only those small-scale hydroelectric projects that are operated in a store and release (peaking) mode. Potential impacts on physical and chemical characteristics in reservoirs resulting from water level fluctuation include resuspension and redistribution of bank and bed sediment; leaching of soluble organic matter from sediment in the littoral zone; and changes in water quality resulting from changes in sediment and nutrient trap efficiency. Potential impacts on reservoir biota as a result of water level fluctuation include habitat destruction and the resulting partial or total loss of aquatic species; changes in habitat quality, which result in reduced standing crop and production of aquatic biota; and possible shifts in species diversity. The potential physical effects of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams are streambed and bank erosion and water quality problems related to resuspension and redistribution of these materials. Potential biological impacts of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams result from changes in current velocity, habitat reduction, and alteration in food supply. These alterations, either singly or in combination, can adversely affect aquatic populations below dams. The nature and potential significance of adverse impacts resulting from water level fluctuation are discussed. Recommendations for site-specific evaluation of water level fluctuation at small-scale hydroelectric projects are presented.

  8. Issues in data analysis.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Denis

    2015-05-01

    NURSE RESEARCHER publishes a wide range of methodology papers, many of which aim to give guidance to early researchers. Here I comment on two papers. The first, Qualitative case study data analysis: an example from practice ( Houghton et al 2015 ) is clearly comprehendible by novice researchers. The second, Multiple imputation method for handling missing data: A case study of a secondary data analysis study ( Walani and Cleland 2015 ) is a rather different case. This is a useful paper but deals with a complex issue in quantitative data analysis. If you have looked at this paper and found it hard going then please read the following few paragraphs where I try to put this paper into context. PMID:25976530

  9. Analysis of Environmental Issues Related to Small-Scale Hydroelectric Development IV: Fish Mortality Resulting From Turbine Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Turbak, Susan C.; Reichle, Donna R.; Shriner, Carole R.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide summary information for use by potential developers and regulators of small-scale hydroelectric projects (defined as existing dams that can be retrofitted to a total site capacity of ≤30 MW), where turbine-related mortality of fish is a potential issue affecting site-specific development. Mitigation techniques for turbine-related mortality are not covered in this report.

  10. Labor Relations. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kara, Comp.

    This paper examines labor issues that affect school employees. It is divided into four sections: school reform; teacher compensation; scope of bargaining; and collaborative (nonadversarial) bargaining. The longest section, which focuses on various reform movements in the schools, examines accountability, school choice, and the questions…

  11. Deployment-related Respiratory Issues.

    PubMed

    Morris, Michael J; Rawlins, Frederic A; Forbes, Damon A; Skabelund, Andrew J; Lucero, Pedro F

    2016-01-01

    Military deployment to Southwest Asia since 2003 in support of Operations Enduring Freedom/Iraqi Freedom/New Dawn has presented unique challenges from a pulmonary perspective. Various airborne hazards in the deployed environment include suspended geologic dusts, burn pit smoke, vehicle exhaust emissions, industrial air pollution, and isolated exposure incidents. These exposures may give rise to both acute respiratory symptoms and in some instances development of chronic lung disease. While increased respiratory symptoms during deployment are well documented, there is limited data on whether inhalation of airborne particulate matter is causally related to an increase in either common or unique pulmonary diseases. While disease processes such as acute eosinophilic pneumonia and exacerbation of preexisting asthma have been adequately documented, there is significant controversy surrounding the potential effects of deployment exposures and development of rare pulmonary disorders such as constrictive bronchiolitis. The role of smoking and related disorders has yet to be defined. This article presents the current evidence for deployment-related respiratory symptoms and ongoing Department of Defense studies. Further, it also provides general recommendations for evaluating pulmonary health in the deployed military population. PMID:27215888

  12. Deployment-related Respiratory Issues.

    PubMed

    Morris, Michael J; Rawlins, Frederic A; Forbes, Damon A; Skabelund, Andrew J; Lucero, Pedro F

    2016-01-01

    Military deployment to Southwest Asia since 2003 in support of Operations Enduring Freedom/Iraqi Freedom/New Dawn has presented unique challenges from a pulmonary perspective. Various airborne hazards in the deployed environment include suspended geologic dusts, burn pit smoke, vehicle exhaust emissions, industrial air pollution, and isolated exposure incidents. These exposures may give rise to both acute respiratory symptoms and in some instances development of chronic lung disease. While increased respiratory symptoms during deployment are well documented, there is limited data on whether inhalation of airborne particulate matter is causally related to an increase in either common or unique pulmonary diseases. While disease processes such as acute eosinophilic pneumonia and exacerbation of preexisting asthma have been adequately documented, there is significant controversy surrounding the potential effects of deployment exposures and development of rare pulmonary disorders such as constrictive bronchiolitis. The role of smoking and related disorders has yet to be defined. This article presents the current evidence for deployment-related respiratory symptoms and ongoing Department of Defense studies. Further, it also provides general recommendations for evaluating pulmonary health in the deployed military population.

  13. Immigration Reform and Related Issues. Perspectivas Publicas. Issue Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    Asserting that immigration reform and related issues have commanded sustained attention in the opening weeks of the 99th Congress, this paper provides an overview of important developments in this area, and highlights steps taken by the National Council of La Raza to help shape these developments. The developments discussed include: (1) The…

  14. Teaching Science-Related Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Offers a brief introduction and resource list on teaching about science-related social issues. Provides three complete lesson plans for elementary, middle school, and high school use. The topics covered in the lessons are energy production and consumption in the United States; nuclear power concepts, issues, and controversies; and the arms race.…

  15. Sampling and Analysis Issues Relating to the ACGIH Notice of Intended Change for the Beryllium Threshold Limit Value

    SciTech Connect

    Brisson, Michael J.; Ashley, Kevin

    2005-08-16

    Beryllium in various forms is widely used throughout the world in ceramics, aerospace and military applications, electronics, and sports equipment. Workplace exposure to beryllium is a growing industrial hygiene concern due to the potential for development of chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a lung condition with no known cure, in a small percentage of those exposed. There are workplace exposure limits for beryllium that have been in place for several decades. However, recent studies suggest that the current American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) may not be sufficiently protective for workers who are potentially exposed to airborne beryllium. Early in 2005, ACGIH issued a Notice of Intended Change (NIC) to the current TLV for beryllium which entails a 100-fold reduction (from 2 to 0.02 micrograms per cubic meter of sampled air). It is noted that ACGIH TLVs do not carry legal force in the manner that OSHA PELs or other federal regulations do. Nevertheless, OSHA plans a beryllium rulemaking in the near future, and a reduction in the PEL is anticipated. Also, if this change in the TLV for beryllium is adopted, it is reasonable to assume that at least some sampling and analysis activities will need to be modified to address airborne beryllium at the lower levels. There are implications to both the industrial hygiene and the laboratory communities, which are discussed.

  16. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. VI. Dissolved oxygen concentrations below operating dams

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.; Kumar, K.D.; Solomon, J.A.; Hildebrand, S.G.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of an effort aimed at determining whether or not water quality degradation, as exemplified by dissolved oxygen concentrations, is a potentially significant issue affecting small-scale hydropower development in the US. The approach was to pair operating hydroelectric sites of all sizes with dissolved oxygen measurements from nearby downstream US Geological Survey water quality stations (acquired from the WATSTORE data base). The USGS data were used to calculate probabilities of non-compliance (PNCs), i.e., the probabilities that dissolved oxygen concentrations in the discharge waters of operating hydroelectric dams will drop below 5 mg/l. PNCs were estimated for each site, season (summer vs remaining months), and capacity category (less than or equal to 30 MW vs >30 MW). Because of the low numbers of usable sites in many states, much of the subsequent analysis was conducted on a regional basis. During the winter months (November through June) all regions had low mean PNCs regardless of capacity. Most regions had higher mean PNCs in summer than in winter, and summer PNCs were greater for large-scale than for small-scale sites. Among regions, the highest mean summer PNCs were found in the Great Basin, the Southeast, and the Ohio Valley. To obtain a more comprehensive picture of the effects of season and capacity on potential dissolved oxygen problems, cumulative probability distributions of PNC were developed for selected regions. This analysis indicates that low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the tailwaters below operating hydroelectric projects are a problem largely confined to large-scale facilities.

  17. Issues related to field testing in tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.M.

    1982-12-31

    This paper has brought out the unique properties of tuffs and related them to needs associated with their use as a host rock for a high level nuclear waste repository. Major issues of temperature, pore water, joints, and depositional patterns have been identified and related responses and impacts outlined in Table 1. Planned experiments have been outlined and their relationships to the rock mechanics issues summarized in Table 2. The conclusions from this paper are: (1) tuff is a complex rock and basic phenomenological understanding is incomplete; and (2) available field test facilities will be used for a series of experiments designed to improve phenomenological understanding and support repository design efforts.

  18. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  19. Teachers' Attitudes Toward Death-Related Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkes, A. Cordell

    1978-01-01

    Reports a study to assess teachers attitudes toward death-related issues. A questionnaire was given to 61 teachers in a graduate education course. It was found that the teachers tended to favor liberal abortion laws (67 percent), euthanasia (83 percent), and the majority (65 percent) believed in life after death. (SLH)

  20. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. V. Instream flow needs for fishery resources

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Sale, M.J.

    1981-10-01

    The growing recognition nationwide of the importance of protecting these instream uses of water has coincided with the recent emphasis on the development of small-scale hydropower resources. The issue of instream flow maintenance in hydropower development is essentially a problem of evaluating the effects of planned modifications in hydrologic patterns. Because hydroelectric projects can alter natural flow regimes on both spatial and temporal scales, downstream water users and the aquatic ecosystem and primarily fish, can be adversely affected. Numerous methods which differ in their use of hydrologic records, hydraulic simulation techniques, and habitat rating criteria have been developed to assess the effects of stream flow regulation on aquatic biota and to provide instream flow recommendations. Consequently, guidance is needed to ensure that the most appropriate methods are selected for instream flow assessments at small-scale hydroelectric sites.

  1. Issues Relating to Confounding and Meta-analysis When Including Non-Randomized Studies in Systematic Reviews on the Effects of Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Jeffrey C.; Thompson, Simon G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Confounding caused by selection bias is often a key difference between non-randomized studies (NRS) and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions. Key methodological issues: In this third paper of the series, we consider issues relating to the inclusion of NRS in systematic reviews on the effects of interventions. We discuss…

  2. Issues in Midterm Analysis and Forecasting

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    Final issue of this report. Presents a series of eight papers, which cover topics in analysis and modeling that underlie the Annual Energy Outlook 1999, as well as other significant issues in midterm energy markets.

  3. Issues in workforce composition analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Koeck, D.C.; Rogers, J.D.

    1996-05-01

    An issue of paramount interest to US industry is the supply and quality of human resources available for this country`s scientific and technological activities. The changing composition of the workforce and the responsibility that an organization has to assure equal opportunity, give rise to various issues. This paper discusses some of the issues associated with the scientific and technical workforce. Specifically, it explores some of the questions pertaining to workforce composition and measures of workforce composition. This paper should be useful to those responsible for personnel policies.

  4. Unsolved issues related to human mitochondrial diseases.

    PubMed

    Lombès, Anne; Auré, Karine; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine; Gilleron, Mylène; Jardel, Claude

    2014-05-01

    Human mitochondrial diseases, defined as the diseases due to a mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation defect, represent a large group of very diverse diseases with respect to phenotype and genetic causes. They present with many unsolved issues, the comprehensive analysis of which is beyond the scope of this review. We here essentially focus on the mechanisms underlying the diversity of targeted tissues, which is an important component of the large panel of these diseases phenotypic expression. The reproducibility of genotype/phenotype expression, the presence of modifying factors, and the potential causes for the restricted pattern of tissular expression are reviewed. Special emphasis is made on heteroplasmy, a specific feature of mitochondrial diseases, defined as the coexistence within the cell of mutant and wild type mitochondrial DNA molecules. Its existence permits unequal segregation during mitoses of the mitochondrial DNA populations and consequently heterogeneous tissue distribution of the mutation load. The observed tissue distributions of recurrent human mitochondrial DNA deleterious mutations are diverse but reproducible for a given mutation demonstrating that the segregation is not a random process. Its extent and mechanisms remain essentially unknown despite recent advances obtained in animal models.

  5. Environmental Awareness: Relating Current Issues to Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFina, Anthony

    1995-01-01

    Presents examples of incorporating environmental issues into lesson plans to raise the level of students' environmental awareness. Topics include: ecology, taxonomy, biochemistry, energy reactions, cell structure and function, genetics and development, and human biology. (JRH)

  6. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    SciTech Connect

    Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.

  7. Health Related Legal Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Stephen B.

    This monograph analyzes health and safety issues in education in terms of relevant constitutional and statutory provisions. Chapter 1, an introduction, summarizes Fourteenth Amendment equal protection and due process clauses and defines "handicapped" under the Rehabilitation Act. State assistance and student eligibility under the Education for All…

  8. Children with Cancer: School Related Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartin, Barbara C.; Murdick, Nikki L.

    2009-01-01

    School gives purpose to a student's life. Today, students with cancer and cancer survivors are encouraged to continue their educational experiences to maintain a sense of normalcy. This manuscript discusses the research findings on medical, physical, and cognitive issues that students with cancer and cancer survivors may encounter in their…

  9. Environmental issues related to biomass: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, M.; Ranney, J.W.

    1993-12-31

    Now that public attention has grown increasingly focused on environmentalism and climate change, the commercial use of biomass could greatly accelerate. Renewable feedstocks like biomass can provide better environmentally balanced sources of energy and other nonfood products than fossil fuels. The future of biomass is uncertain, however, because public attention focuses on both its potential and its challenges. This paper is divided into five sections. Section 2 briefly addresses economic environmental issues. The extent to which externalities are accounted for in the market price of fuels plays a significant role in determining both the ultimate size of biofuel markets and the extent of the environmental benefits of feedstock cultivation and conversion processes. Sections 3 and 4 catalog the main hazards and benefits that are likely to arise in the large-scale commercialization of biomass fuel and note where the major uncertainties lay. Environmental issues arise with the cultivation of each feedstock and with each step in the process of its conversion to fuel. Feedstocks are discussed in Section 3 in terms of three main groups: wastes, energy crops, and traditional agricultural crops. In Section 4, conversion processes are also divided into three groups, on the basis of the end energy carrier: gas, liquid, and solid and electricity. Section 5 provides a conclusion and summary.

  10. Parkinson's disease and issues related to driving.

    PubMed

    Uitti, Ryan J

    2009-12-01

    Driving a motor vehicle represents an important activity associated with personal independence and freedom. Being told that one can no longer drive is itself associated with loss of independence, depression, low self-esteem and reduced activities [1,2]. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), therefore, understandably wish to continue to be able to maintain their ability to drive automobiles, motorcycles, airplanes, and boats, etc. The ability to determine if and when a PD patient is no longer fit to drive a motor vehicle is important for maintaining safety for the PD patient and the public. There are numerous requirements for being able to drive a motor vehicle safely. When any of these capacities deteriorate, the ability to drive safely may be lost. This review will concentrate upon common issues that would be peculiar to patients with PD.

  11. Parkinson's disease and issues related to driving.

    PubMed

    Uitti, Ryan J

    2009-12-01

    Driving a motor vehicle represents an important activity associated with personal independence and freedom. Being told that one can no longer drive is itself associated with loss of independence, depression, low self-esteem and reduced activities [1,2]. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), therefore, understandably wish to continue to be able to maintain their ability to drive automobiles, motorcycles, airplanes, and boats, etc. The ability to determine if and when a PD patient is no longer fit to drive a motor vehicle is important for maintaining safety for the PD patient and the public. There are numerous requirements for being able to drive a motor vehicle safely. When any of these capacities deteriorate, the ability to drive safely may be lost. This review will concentrate upon common issues that would be peculiar to patients with PD. PMID:20082971

  12. Disclosure analysis procedures: reliability issues.

    PubMed

    Hux, K; Sanger, D; Reid, R; Maschka, A

    1997-01-01

    Performing disclosure analyses to supplement assessment procedures and facilitate intervention planning is only valuable if the observations are reliable. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare four methods of assessing reliability on one discourse analysis procedure--a modified version of Damico's Clinical Discourse Analysis (1985a, 1985b, 1992). The selected methods were: (a) Pearson product-moment correlations, (b) interobserver agreement, (c) Cohen's kappa, and (d) generalizability coefficients. Results showed high correlation coefficients and high percentages of interobserver agreement when error type was not taken into account. However, interobserver agreement percentages obtained solely for target behavior occurrences and Cohen's kappa revealed that much of the agreement between rates was due to chance and the high frequency of target behavior non-occurrence. Generalizability coefficients revealed that the procedure was fair to good for discriminating among persons with differing levels of language competency for some aspects of communication performance but was less than desirable for others; the aggregate score was below recommended standards for differentiating among people for diagnostic purposes.

  13. 40 CFR 300.220 - Related Title III issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PLAN Planning and Preparedness § 300.220 Related Title III issues. Other related Title III requirements are found in 40 CFR part 355. ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Related Title III issues....

  14. Anticancer oral therapy: emerging related issues.

    PubMed

    Banna, Giuseppe Luigi; Collovà, Elena; Gebbia, Vittorio; Lipari, Helga; Giuffrida, Pietro; Cavallaro, Sebastiano; Condorelli, Rosaria; Buscarino, Calogero; Tralongo, Paolo; Ferraù, Francesco

    2010-12-01

    The use of oral anticancer drugs has shown a steady increase. Most patients prefer anticancer oral therapy to intravenous treatment primarily for the convenience of a home-based therapy, although they require that the efficacy of oral therapy must be equivalent and toxicity not superior than those expected with the intravenous treatment. A better patient compliance, drug tolerability, convenience and possible better efficacy for oral therapy as compared to intravenous emerge as the major reasons to use oral anticancer agents among oncologists. Inter- and intra-individual pharmacokinetic variations in the bioavailability of oral anticancer drugs may be more relevant than for intravenous agents. Compliance is particularly important for oral therapy because it determines the dose-intensity of the treatment and ultimately treatment efficacy and toxicity. Patient stands as the most important determinant of compliance. Possible measures for an active and safe administration of oral therapy include a careful preliminary medical evaluation and selection of patients based on possible barriers to an adequate compliance, pharmacologic issues, patient-focused education, an improvement of the accessibility to healthcare service, as well as the development of home-care nursing symptom-focused interventions. Current evidences show similar quality of life profile between oral and intravenous treatments, although anticancer oral therapy seems to be more convenient in terms of administration and reduced time lost for work or other activities. Regarding cost-effectiveness, current evidences are in favor of oral therapy, mainly due to reduced need of visits and/or day in hospital for the administration of the drug and/or the management of adverse events. PMID:20570443

  15. Ethical Issues Relating to Living Organ Donation in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Yang, T; Li, L; Ma, W

    2016-01-01

    Although great developments have been made in living organ donation, the ethical issues relating to living organ donation still face dilemmas in China. In this report, we discuss several ethical issues concerning living organ donation in China. It is argued that living organ donation in China could make further progress if the ethical issues proposed in this report are carefully considered. PMID:27569914

  16. Ethical issues related to screening for preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Jennifer M; Hedley, Paula L; Gjerris, Mickey; Christiansen, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The implementation of new methods of treating and preventing disease raises many question of both technical and moral character. Currently, many studies focus on developing a screening test for preeclampsia (PE), a disease complicating 2-8% of pregnancies, potentially causing severe consequences for pregnant women and their fetuses. The purpose is to develop a test that can identify pregnancies at high risk for developing PE sufficiently early in pregnancy to allow for prophylaxis. However, the question of implementing a screening test for PE does not only involve an evaluation of technical feasibility and clinical efficacy, it also requires an analysis of how the test influences the conditions and choices for those tested. This study evaluates state-of-the-art techniques for preeclampsia screening in an ethical framework, pointing out the central areas of moral relevance within the context of such screening activity. Furthermore, we propose ethical guidelines that a screening programme for PE should meet in order to become an uncontroversial addition to prenatal health care.

  17. Management issues in automated audit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, K.A.; Hochberg, J.G.; Wilhelmy, S.K.; McClary, J.F.; Christoph, G.G.

    1994-03-01

    This paper discusses management issues associated with the design and implementation of an automated audit analysis system that we use to detect security events. It gives the viewpoint of a team directly responsible for developing and managing such a system. We use Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter (NADIR) as a case in point. We examine issues encountered at Los Alamos, detail our solutions to them, and where appropriate suggest general solutions. After providing an introduction to NADIR, we explore four general management issues: cost-benefit questions, privacy considerations, legal issues, and system integrity. Our experiences are of general interest both to security professionals and to anyone who may wish to implement a similar system. While NADIR investigates security events, the methods used and the management issues are potentially applicable to a broad range of complex systems. These include those used to audit credit card transactions, medical care payments, and procurement systems.

  18. Issues in midterm analysis and forecasting 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    Issues in Midterm Analysis and Forecasting 1998 (Issues) presents a series of nine papers covering topics in analysis and modeling that underlie the Annual Energy Outlook 1998 (AEO98), as well as other significant issues in midterm energy markets. AEO98, DOE/EIA-0383(98), published in December 1997, presents national forecasts of energy production, demand, imports, and prices through the year 2020 for five cases -- a reference case and four additional cases that assume higher and lower economic growth and higher and lower world oil prices than in the reference case. The forecasts were prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), using EIA`s National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The papers included in Issues describe underlying analyses for the projections in AEO98 and the forthcoming Annual Energy Outlook 1999 and for other products of EIA`s Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting. Their purpose is to provide public access to analytical work done in preparation for the midterm projections and other unpublished analyses. Specific topics were chosen for their relevance to current energy issues or to highlight modeling activities in NEMS. 59 figs., 44 tabs.

  19. Failure analysis issues in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).

    SciTech Connect

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen

    2005-07-01

    Failure analysis and device characterization of MEMS components are critical steps in understanding the root causes of failure and improving device performance. At the wafer and die level these tasks can be performed with little or no sample preparation. Larger challenges occur after fabrication when the device is packaged, capped, sealed, or otherwise obstructed from view. The challenges and issues of MEMS failure analysis lie in identifying the root cause of failure for these packaged, capped, and sealed devices without perturbing the device or its immediate environment. Novel methods of gaining access to the device or preparing the device for analysis are crucial to accurately determining the root cause of failure. This paper will discuss issues identified in performing root cause failure analysis of packaged MEMS devices, as well as the methods employed to analyze them.

  20. Web Usability Test Findings and Analysis Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Jae Soon; Park, Su-Hong; Baek, Eun-Ok

    This paper discusses findings and data analysis issues that resulted from a case usability test. The case usability test was conducted as part of a redesign project that aimed to update the existing home page of Indiana University Bloomington. The home page contained links to the Web sites that various institutions in the university had already…

  1. Digital telephony analysis model and issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keuthan, Lynn M.

    1995-09-01

    Experts in the fields of digital telephony and communications security have stated the need for an analytical tool for evaluating complex issues. Some important policy issues discussed by experts recently include implementing digital wire-taps, implementation of the 'Clipper Chip', required registration of encryption/decryption keys, and export control of cryptographic equipment. Associated with the implementation of these policies are direct costs resulting from implementation, indirect cost benefits from implementation, and indirect costs resulting from the risks of implementation or factors reducing cost benefits. Presented herein is a model for analyzing digital telephony policies and systems and their associated direct costs and indirect benefit and risk factors. In order to present the structure of the model, issues of national importance and business-related issues are discussed. The various factors impacting the implementation of the associated communications systems and communications security are summarized, and various implementation tradeoffs are compared based on economic benefits/impact. The importance of the issues addressed herein, as well as other digital telephony issues, has greatly increased with the enormous increases in communication system connectivity due to the advance of the National Information Infrastructure.

  2. Practical Issues in Component Aging Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dana L. Kelly; Andrei Rodionov; Jens Uwe-Klugel

    2008-09-01

    This paper examines practical issues in the statistical analysis of component aging data. These issues center on the stochastic process chosen to model component failures. The two stochastic processes examined are repair same as new, leading to a renewal process, and repair same as old, leading to a nonhomogeneous Poisson process. Under the first assumption, times between failures can treated as statistically independent observations from a stationary process. The common distribution of the times between failures is called the renewal distribution. Under the second process, the times between failures will not be independently and identically distributed, and one cannot simply fit a renewal distribution to the cumulative failure times or the times between failures. The paper illustrates how the assumption made regarding the repair process is crucial to the analysis. Besides the choice of stochastic process, other issues that are discussed include qualitative graphical analysis and simple nonparametric hypothesis tests to help judge which process appears more appropriate. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the issues discussed in the paper.

  3. How do medical journalists treat cancer-related issues?

    PubMed Central

    Nakada, Haruka; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kishi, Yukiko; Yuji, Koichiro; Matsumura, Tomoko; Kami, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Cancer patients can obtain information about their illness through a variety of media sources. Therefore, it is important to know how medical journalists treat cancer-related issues; to that end, we sent self-administered questionnaires to 364 journalists in 82 organisations who had reported on medical issues for the Japanese media, asking for their reasons for reporting on cancer-related issues and the difficulties they had faced. The most common reason for reporting on health-related issues was their personal interest in a particular issue (n = 36). They mainly covered conventional therapies (n = 33), healthcare policy (n = 30), new therapies (n = 25), and diagnosis (n = 25). All of the journalists that were surveyed experienced some difficulties in reporting health issues. Significant concerns included the quality of information (n = 36), social impact (n = 35), lack of technical knowledge (n = 35), and difficulty in understanding technical terms (n = 35). Journalists commonly used personal networks, including physicians, as information sources (n = 42), as well as social media (e.g., e-mail, Twitter and Facebook) (n = 32). Topic selection was biased, with 35 of 48 journalists having never reported on topics concerning hospices. Physicians were the most trusted source of information about cancer, and journalists attached high importance to interviewing them. As medical knowledge is advancing rapidly, journalists may have increasing difficulty covering cancer-related issues. PMID:25729415

  4. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01

    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  5. Social justice issues related to uneven distribution of resources.

    PubMed

    Ervin, Naomi E; Bell, Sue Ellen

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the social justice issues resulting from the uneven distribution of resources. In this article, justice theories are discussed in relation to two of these issues: lack of adequate food and shelter and inequitable access to an appropriate continuum of health care. Public health nurses have the obligation to deal with the results of poverty and the uneven distribution of resources, which pose a threat to the common good in the United States and throughout the global community.

  6. Do medical students require education on issues related to plagiarism?

    PubMed

    Varghese, Joe; Jacob, Molly

    2015-01-01

    In the course of our professional experience, we have seen that many medical students plagiarise. We hypothesised that they do so out of ignorance and that they require formal education on the subject. With this objective in mind, we conducted a teaching session on issues related to plagiarism. As a part of this, we administered a quiz to assess their baseline knowledge on plagiarism and a questionnaire to determine their attitudes towards it. We followed this up with an interactive teaching session, in which we discussed various aspects of plagiarism. We subjected the data obtained from the quiz and questionnaire to bivariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 423 medical students participated in the study. Their average score for the quiz was 4.96±1.67 (out of 10). Age, gender and years in medical school were not significantly associated with knowledge regarding plagiarism. The knowledge scores were negatively correlated with permissive attitudes towards plagiarism and positively correlated with attitudes critical of the practice. Men had significantly higher scores on permissive attitudes compared to women . In conclusion, we found that the medical students' knowledge regarding plagiarism was limited. Those with low knowledge scores tended to have permissive attitudes towards plagiarism and were less critical of the practice. We recommend the inclusion of formal instruction on this subject in the medical curriculum, so that this form of academic misconduct can be tackled.

  7. Nutrition and cancer: issues related to treatment and survivorship.

    PubMed

    Witham, Gary

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews nutritional issues related to cancer treatment and further explores nutritional needs pertinent to cancer survivorship. It examines the major problems with nutrition when patients undergo the main cancer treatment modalities of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Particular attention is paid to long-term dietary advice in acknowledgement of the improved effectiveness of cancer treatment and the chronic nature of the condition.

  8. Issues Related to Equipment and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Mary Frances

    A multi-year project was initiated to examine production equipment issues related to implementation of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). The purposes of the research project were to determine foodservice directors' opinions regarding use and appropriateness of equipment in school foodservice, to identify the number and variety of menu…

  9. Teenage Pregnancy Prevention and Related Issues. Memo No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Richard; Russell, Pam

    This memo is an update of a previous memo to the Special Committee on Teenage Pregnancy Prevention and Related Issues. It lists the suggestions that have been submitted by Committee members to staff as of February 21, 1991; and includes suggestions made since the January 24, 1991 meeting of the Special Committee. The suggestions are broken down…

  10. 76 FR 63573 - Roundtable on Issues Relating to Conflict Minerals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 229 and 249 Roundtable on Issues Relating to Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and... conflict minerals originating in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and adjoining countries. Roundtable... reporting regulations regarding the use of conflict minerals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo...

  11. University Students' Perceptions of Issues Related to Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Robert, Jr.; Lawver, David E.

    1995-01-01

    Telephone interviews with 390 of 400 college students revealed an overall favorable impression of food safety and agriculture's impact on the economy and environment. Males were more positive about animal welfare and production agriculture. Gender, college major, and hometown were related to attitudes about agriculture issues. (SK)

  12. Everyday Issues Related to Justice and Other Gospel Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kealey, Robert J.

    This manual presents situations that occur in the lives of most children and suggests to the teacher related activities which might cause students to reflect on the deeper meaning and significance of the situations. It seeks to make the teacher, and thus students, aware of the fact that peace, justice, and other value issues are part of daily…

  13. [An exploration of the issues involved in family related research].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiu-Li; Dai, Yu-Tzu; Yeh, Mei Chang; Weng, Li-Chueh

    2007-06-01

    Nowadays, health care delivery systems are changing from hospital-based services to more family-oriented or community-oriented care. The development of family nursing and family research is the focus of more attention than ever before. A family is composed of individuals. It combines the characteristics of individuals and collective groups, which makes family research more complex than studies of individuals. Consequently, research into family-oriented areas presents additional challenges concerning conceptual methodological issues. This article focuses on the issues of family research concepts, research designs, definitions of family, sampling, study tools, and data analysis. In order to promote high-quality family research outcomes, we propose below suggestions to serve as a guide to conducting family research: (1) identify the definition of family involved in a particular research question and choose a suitable methodology; (2) determine the number of family members and un its of analysis on theoretical bases; (3) select high-validity, high-reliability research tools in answering research questions; (4) analysis methods must match the concept of family and the characteristics of the units of analysis; (5) ethical issues must be respected in the recruitment of family members. PMID:17554671

  14. Radiation safety issues related to radiolabeled antibodies. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, D.E.; Baum, J.W.; Meinhold, C. B. )

    1991-03-01

    Techniques related to the use of radiolabeled antibodies in humans are reviewed and evaluated in this report. It is intended as an informational resource for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and NRC licensees. Descriptions of techniques and health and safety issues are provided. Principal methods for labeling antibodies are summarized to help identify related radiation safety problems in the preparation of dosages for administration to patients. The descriptions are derived from an extensive literature review and consultations with experts in the field. A glossary of terms and acronyms is also included. An assessment was made of the extent of the involvement of organizations (other than the NRC) with safety issues related to radiolabeled antibodies, in order to identify regulatory issues which require attention. Federal regulations and guides were also reviewed for their relevance. A few (but significant) differences between the use of common radiopharmaceuticals and radiolabeled antibodies were observed. The clearance rate of whole, radiolabeled immunoglobulin is somewhat slower than common radiopharmaceuticals, and new methods of administration are being used. New nuclides are being used or considered (e.g., Re-186 and At-211) for labeling antibodies. Some of these nuclides present new dosimetry, instrument calibration, and patient management problems. Subjects related to radiation safety that require additional research are identified. 149 refs., 3 figs., 20 tabs.

  15. Assistance to States on Policies Related to Wind Energy Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Matthew, H; Decesaro, Jennifer; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-07-15

    This final report summarizes work carried out under agreement with the US Department of Energy, related to wind energy policy issues. This project has involved a combination of outreach and publications on wind energy, with a specific focus on educating state-level policymakers. Education of state policymakers is vitally important because state policy (in the form of incentives or regulation) is a crucial part of the success of wind energy. State policymakers wield a significant influence over all of these policies. They are also in need of high quality, non-biased educational resources which this project provided. This project provided outreach to legislatures, in the form of meetings designed specifically for state legislators and legislative staff, responses to information requests on wind energy, and publications. The publications addressed: renewable energy portfolio standards, wind energy transmission, wind energy siting, case studies of wind energy policy, avian issues, economic development, and other related issues. These publications were distributed to legislative energy committee members, and chairs, legislative staff, legislative libraries, and other related state officials. The effect of this effort has been to provide an extensive resource of information about wind information for state policymakers in a form that is useful to them. This non-partisan information has been used as state policymakers attempt to develop their own policy proposals related to wind energy in the states.

  16. Direct normal irradiance related definitions and applications: The circumsolar issue

    DOE PAGES

    Blanc, P.; Espinar, B.; Geuder, N.; Gueymard, C.; Meyer, R.; Pitz-Paal, R.; Reinhardt, B.; Renne, D.; Segupta, M.; Wald, L.; et al

    2014-10-21

    The direct irradiance received on a plane normal to the sun, called direct normal irradiance (DNI), is of particular relevance to concentrated solar technologies, including concentrating solar thermal plants and concentrated photovoltaic systems. Following various standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the DNI definition is related to the irradiance from a small solid angle of the sky, centered on the position of the sun. Half-angle apertures of pyrheliometers measuring DNI have varied over time, up to ≈10°. The current recommendation of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for this half-angle is 2.5°. Solar concentrating collectors have an angular acceptancemore » function that can be significantly narrower, especially for technologies with high concentration ratios. The disagreement between the various interpretations of DNI, from the theoretical definition used in atmospheric physics and radiative transfer modeling to practical definitions corresponding to specific measurements or conversion technologies is significant, especially in the presence of cirrus clouds or large concentration of aerosols. Under such sky conditions, the circumsolar radiation—i.e. the diffuse radiation coming from the vicinity of the sun—contributes significantly to the DNI ground measurement, although some concentrating collectors cannot utilize the bulk of it. These issues have been identified in the EU-funded projects MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate-Interim Implementation) and SFERA (Solar Facilities for the European Research Area), and have been discussed within a panel of international experts in the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) program of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) Task 46 “Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting”. In accordance with these discussions, the terms of reference related to DNI are specified here. The important role of circumsolar radiation is

  17. Direct normal irradiance related definitions and applications: The circumsolar issue

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, P.; Espinar, B.; Geuder, N.; Gueymard, C.; Meyer, R.; Pitz-Paal, R.; Reinhardt, B.; Renne, D.; Segupta, M.; Wald, L.; Wilbert, S.

    2014-10-21

    The direct irradiance received on a plane normal to the sun, called direct normal irradiance (DNI), is of particular relevance to concentrated solar technologies, including concentrating solar thermal plants and concentrated photovoltaic systems. Following various standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the DNI definition is related to the irradiance from a small solid angle of the sky, centered on the position of the sun. Half-angle apertures of pyrheliometers measuring DNI have varied over time, up to ≈10°. The current recommendation of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for this half-angle is 2.5°. Solar concentrating collectors have an angular acceptance function that can be significantly narrower, especially for technologies with high concentration ratios. The disagreement between the various interpretations of DNI, from the theoretical definition used in atmospheric physics and radiative transfer modeling to practical definitions corresponding to specific measurements or conversion technologies is significant, especially in the presence of cirrus clouds or large concentration of aerosols. Under such sky conditions, the circumsolar radiation—i.e. the diffuse radiation coming from the vicinity of the sun—contributes significantly to the DNI ground measurement, although some concentrating collectors cannot utilize the bulk of it. These issues have been identified in the EU-funded projects MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate-Interim Implementation) and SFERA (Solar Facilities for the European Research Area), and have been discussed within a panel of international experts in the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) program of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) Task 46 “Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting”. In accordance with these discussions, the terms of reference related to DNI are specified here. The important role of circumsolar radiation is evidenced

  18. Artificial intelligence issues related to automated computing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornfeck, William A.

    1989-01-01

    Large data processing installations represent target systems for effective applications of artificial intelligence (AI) constructs. The system organization of a large data processing facility at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is presented. The methodology and the issues which are related to AI application to automated operations within a large-scale computing facility are described. Problems to be addressed and initial goals are outlined.

  19. Materials Issues Related to Catalysts for Treatment of Diesel Exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Daw, C Stuart; Hoard, John W.; Hammer, T.

    2005-01-01

    The driver for lean NO{sub x} treatment is the need to meet regulatory standards for diesel engines and gasoline direct injection spark-ignited engines that offer better fuel economy. Efforts over the last decade have been focused toward finding an active lean NO{sub x} catalyst that can reduce NO{sub x} under oxidizing conditions or strategies such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR), plasma-catalysis, plasma catalyst SCR, and lean NO{sub x} traps with varying degrees of success. At present, it appears that SCR with urea and lean NO{sub x} traps are the leading contender technologies for commercial deployment. Key issues that remain to be resolved for these two technologies include byproduct formation, dosing control, and durability. In this review, we summarize material-related issues that are unique to each of these technologies, and point out the improvements necessary to facilitate their deployment.

  20. Adherence issues related to sublingual immunotherapy as perceived by allergists

    PubMed Central

    Scurati, Silvia; Frati, Franco; Passalacqua, Gianni; Puccinelli, Paola; Hilaire, Cecile; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is a viable alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy to treat allergic rhinitis and asthma, and is widely used in clinical practice in many European countries. The clinical efficacy of SLIT has been established in a number of clinical trials and meta-analyses. However, because SLIT is self-administered by patients without medical supervision, the degree of patient adherence with treatment is still a concern. The objective of this study was to evaluate the perception by allergists of issues related to SLIT adherence. Methods: We performed a questionnaire-based survey of 296 Italian allergists, based on the adherence issues known from previous studies. The perception of importance of each item was assessed by a VAS scale ranging from 0 to 10. Results: Patient perception of clinical efficacy was considered the most important factor (ranked 1 by 54% of allergists), followed by the possibility of reimbursement (ranked 1 by 34%), and by the absence of side effects (ranked 1 by 21%). Patient education, regular follow-up, and ease of use of SLIT were ranked first by less than 20% of allergists. Conclusion: These findings indicate that clinical efficacy, cost, and side effects are perceived as the major issues influencing patient adherence to SLIT, and that further improvement of adherence is likely to be achieved by improving the patient information provided by prescribers. PMID:20622914

  1. A Research on Issues Related to RFID Security and Privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongki; Yang, Chao; Jeon, Jinhwan

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology for automated identification of objects and people. RFID systems have been gaining more popularity in areas especially in supply chain management and automated identification systems. However, there are many existing and potential problems in the RFID systems which could threat the technology's future. To successfully adopt RFID technology in various applications, we need to develop the solutions to protect the RFID system's data information. This study investigates important issues related to privacy and security of RFID based on the recent literature and suggests solutions to cope with the problem.

  2. Codes of practice and related issues in biomedical waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Moy, D.; Watt, C.

    1996-12-31

    This paper outlines the development of a National Code of Practice for biomedical waste management in Australia. The 10 key areas addressed by the code are industry mission statement; uniform terms and definitions; community relations - public perceptions and right to know; generation, source separation, and handling; storage requirements; transportation; treatment and disposal; disposal of solid and liquid residues and air emissions; occupational health and safety; staff awareness and education. A comparison with other industry codes in Australia is made. A list of outstanding issues is also provided; these include the development of standard containers, treatment effectiveness, and reusable sharps containers.

  3. Issues Related to Development of Anti-Epileptogenic Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Pitkänen, Asla; Nehlig, Astrid; Brooks-Kayal, Amy R.; Dudek, F. Edward; Friedman, Daniel; Galanopoulou, Aristea S.; Jensen, Frances E.; Kaminski, Rafal M.; Kapur, Jaideep; Klitgaard, Henrik; Löscher, Wolfgang; Mody, Istvan; Schmidt, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Summary Several preclinical proof-of-concept studies have provided evidence for positive treatment effects on epileptogenesis. However, none of these hypothetical treatments has advanced to clinic. The experience in other fields of neurology such as stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has indicated several problems in the design of pre-clinical studies which likely contribute to failures in translating the positive preclinical data to clinic. The Working Group on “Issues related to development of anti-epileptogenic therapies” of the International League Against Epilepsy and the American Society for Epilepsy has considered the possible problems that arise when moving from proof-of-concept antiepileptogenesis (AEG) studies to preclinical AEG trials, and eventually to clinical AEG trials. This article summarizes the discussions and provides recommendations on how to design a preclinical AEG monotherapy trial in adult animals. We specifically address study design, animal and model selection, number of studies needed, issues related to administration of the treatment, outcome measures, statistics, and reporting. In addition, we give recommendations for future actions to advance the pre-clinical AEG testing. PMID:23909852

  4. Grid related issues for static and dynamic geometry problems using systems of overset structured grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meakin, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Grid related issues of the Chimera overset grid method are discussed in the context of a method of solution and analysis of unsteady three-dimensional viscous flows. The state of maturity of the various pieces of support software required to use the approach is considered. Current limitations of the approach are identified.

  5. Ethical issues related to epilepsy care in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chong-Tin; Avanzini, Giuliano

    2009-05-01

    There are three major issues of ethical concern related to epilepsy care in the developing world. First, is it ethical for a developing country to channel its limited resources from direct epilepsy care to research? The main considerations in addressing this question are the particular research questions to be addressed and whether such research will bring direct benefits to the local community. Second, in a country with limited resources, when does ignoring the high treatment gap become an ethical issue? This question is of particular concern when the community has enough resources to afford treatment for its poor, yet is not providing such care because of gross wastage and misallocation of the national resources. Third, do countries with plentiful resources have an ethical responsibility to help relieve the high epilepsy treatment gap of poor countries? Indeed, we believe that reasonable health care is a basic human right, and that human rights transcend national boundaries. Although health care is usually the responsibility of the nation-state, many modern states in the developing world are arbitrary creations of colonization. There is often a long process from the establishment of a political-legal state to a mature functional nation. During the long process of nation building, help from neighboring countries is often required.

  6. Issues Related to the Updated 2014 Korean Guidelines for Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Seuk

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem in South Korea. The Joint Committee for the Development of Korean Guidelines for Tuberculosis published the Korean Guidelines for Tuberculosis in 2011 to provide evidence-based practical recommendations to health care workers caring for patients with TB in South Korea. After reviewing recent national and international scientific data on TB, the committee updated the Korean guidelines for TB in 2014. This article presents some practical issues related to the 2014 updated guidelines: namely use of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis - polymerase chain reaction assay and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay in the diagnosis of TB, as well as medical treatment for patients with multidrug-resistant TB.

  7. Mitigating Issues Related to the Modeling of Insurgent Recruitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, Erica; Trewhitt, Ethan; Weiss, Lora; Whitaker, Elizabeth

    Modeling the specific motivations and influences related to an individual's decision to become involved in insurgent warfare presents its own collection of unique challenges. The difficulty of the problem often necessitates simplifications that, while making the task more manageable, may inadvertently 'smooth away' critical aspects of the problem. Augmenting the challenge is that research into the motivations of terrorism has found there is not a definitive set of variables that serve as reliable indicators of an individual's involvement. This paper addresses techniques aimed toward mitigating issues that manifest in the modeling of insurgent recruitment so that these complications do not lessen the viability of models that are used in the prediction and evaluation of terrorist activity.

  8. Legislative and regulatory issues related to reusable launch systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peinemann, Manfred K. A.

    1996-03-01

    The development of reusable launch systems with private investment funds for primarily commercial launch services raises a number of novel legal and regulatory issues. The issues discussed include requirements for a whole new spectrum of safety and environmental issues; new certification rules, procedures and oversight organizations; liability and jurisdiction definitions, taxation treatments; government commitments and/or participation in commercial enterprises; and international legal and business issues. The satisfactory solution to all of these issues is a necessary condition for the development and operation of reusable launch vehicles to be a viable commercial enterprise.

  9. Water and wastewater related issues in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Bandara, N J G J

    2003-01-01

    The primary problems concerning water resources in Sri Lanka are the depletion and degradation of the resource caused by various anthropogenic activities. Surface inland waters in urban areas are polluted heavily with domestic sewage and industrial effluents, and in rural areas with agricultural runoff. With regard to ground water in certain areas of the dry zone, there is a high fluoride content and in hard, rocky, alluvial areas, there is a high concentration of iron. In urban over-crowded cities, there is biological contamination of ground water. Over-utilization, particularly through tube wells, is another major problem affecting ground water resources in Sri Lanka. Oil spills, dumping of waste from ships, coral and sand mining, and activities are the main causes of marine pollution in the country. Except for pipe-borne water supply, irrigation and hydropower schemes, in general water resources in Sri Lanka are managed very poorly. Regulations are available to control most water related problems but enforcement of these regulations is lacking. The ultimate result of degradation and depletion of water resources is the increasing health hazards. Water-borne and vector-borne diseases are prevalent, particularly amongst urban low-income communities with poor sanitary facilities and drainage. Despite government initiatives and legislation, very slow progress has been made towards combating water pollution. This paper examines the most significant water and wastewater related issues in Sri Lanka and their controlling mechanisms. PMID:12926703

  10. Addressing security issues related to virtual institute distributed activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2008-03-01

    One issue confounding the development and experimentation of distributed modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its activities are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the

  11. An analysis of issues concerning acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    GAO examines the implications of current scientific knowledge for policy decisions on acid rain and offers a series of observations on the following issues involved in the debate: to what extent has it been scientifically demonstrated that acid rain is resulting in damage to the environment. What are the causes of acid rain and where is it most prevalent. What alternatives exist for controlling acid rain and what are their economic effects.

  12. A Survey of Solver-Related Geometry and Meshing Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, James; Daniel, Derick; Gudenkauf, Jared; Hine, David; Sideroff, Chris

    2016-01-01

    There is a concern in the computational fluid dynamics community that mesh generation is a significant bottleneck in the CFD workflow. This is one of several papers that will help set the stage for a moderated panel discussion addressing this issue. Although certain general "rules of thumb" and a priori mesh metrics can be used to ensure that some base level of mesh quality is achieved, inadequate consideration is often given to the type of solver or particular flow regime on which the mesh will be utilized. This paper explores how an analyst may want to think differently about a mesh based on considerations such as if a flow is compressible vs. incompressible or hypersonic vs. subsonic or if the solver is node-centered vs. cell-centered. This paper is a high-level investigation intended to provide general insight into how considering the nature of the solver or flow when performing mesh generation has the potential to increase the accuracy and/or robustness of the solution and drive the mesh generation process to a state where it is no longer a hindrance to the analysis process.

  13. Monitoring asthma in childhood: management-related issues.

    PubMed

    Rottier, Bart L; Eber, Ernst; Hedlin, Gunilla; Turner, Steve; Wooler, Edwina; Mantzourani, Eva; Kulkarni, Neeta

    2015-06-01

    Management-related issues are an important aspect of monitoring asthma in children in clinical practice. This review summarises the literature on practical aspects of monitoring including adherence to treatment, inhalation technique, ongoing exposure to allergens and irritants, comorbid conditions and side-effects of treatment, as agreed by the European Respiratory Society Task Force on Monitoring Asthma in Childhood. The evidence indicates that it is important to discuss adherence to treatment in a non-confrontational way at every clinic visit, and take into account a patient's illness and medication beliefs. All task force members teach inhalation techniques at least twice when introducing a new inhalation device and then at least annually. Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, combustion-derived air pollutants, house dust mites, fungal spores, pollens and pet dander deserve regular attention during follow-up according to most task force members. In addition, allergic rhinitis should be considered as a cause for poor asthma control. Task force members do not screen for gastro-oesophageal reflux and food allergy. Height and weight are generally measured at least annually to identify individuals who are susceptible to adrenal suppression and to calculate body mass index, even though causality between obesity and asthma has not been established. In cases of poor asthma control, before stepping up treatment the above aspects of monitoring deserve closer attention.

  14. Technical Issues Related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garwin, Richard L.

    2003-04-01

    The National Academy of Sciences recently published a detailed study of technical factors related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), with emphasis on those issues that arose when the Senate declined to ratify the Treaty in 1999. The study considered (1) the capacity of the United States to maintain confidence in the safety and reliability of its nuclear weapons without nuclear testing; (2) the capabilities of the international nuclear-test monitoring system; and (3) the advances in nuclear weapons capabilities that other countries might make through low-yield testing that might escape detection. Excluding political factors, the committee considered three possible future worlds: (1) a world without a CTBT; (2) a world in which the signatories comply with a CTBT; and (3) a world in the signatories evade its strictures within the limits set by the detection system. The talk and ensuing discussion will elaborate on the study. The principal conclusion of the report, based solely on technical reasons, is that the national security of the United States is better served with a CTBT in force than without it, whether or not other signatories conduct low level but undetected tests in violation of the treaty. Moreover, the study finds that nuclear testing would not add substantially to the US Stockpile Stewardship Program in allowing the United States to maintain confidence in the assessment of its existing nuclear weapons.

  15. Technical Issues Related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-03-01

    The National Academy of Sciences recently completed a detailed study of the technical factors related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), with emphasis on those issues that arose when the Senate declined to ratify the Treaty in 1999. The study considered (1) the capacity of the United States to maintain confidence in the safety and reliability of its nuclear weapons without nuclear testing; (2) the capabilities of the international nuclear-test monitoring system; and (3) the advances in nuclear weapons capabilities that other countries might make through low-yield testing that might escape detection. While political factors were excluded, the committee considered three possible future worlds: (1) a world without a CTBT; (2) a world in which the signatories comply with a CTBT; and (3) a world in the signatories evade its strictures within the limits set by the detection system. The talk will elaborate on the study. The primary conclusion, based solely on technical reasons, is that the national security of the United States is better served with a CTBT in force than without it, whether or not other signatories conduct low level but undetected tests in violation of the treaty. Moreover, the study finds that nuclear testing would not add substantially to the US Stockpile Stewardship Program in allowing the United States to maintain confidence in the assessment of its existing nuclear weapons."

  16. Relating realist metatheory to issues of gender and mental health.

    PubMed

    Bergin, M; Wells, John S G; Owen, Sara

    2010-06-01

    This paper seeks to advance the debate that considers critical realism as an alternative approach for understanding gender and mental health and its relatedness to mental health research and practice. The knowledge base of how 'sex' and 'gender' affect mental health and illness is expanding. However, the way we conceptualize gender is significant and challenging as quite often our ability to think about 'gender' as independent of 'sex' is not common. The influences and interplay of how sex (biological) and gender (social) affect mental health and illness requires consideration. Critical realism suggests a shared ontology and epistemology for the natural and social sciences. While much of the debate surrounding gender is guided within a constructivist discourse, an exploration of the concept 'gender' is reflected on and some key realist propositions are considered for mental health research and practice. This is achieved through the works of some key realist theorists. Critical realism offers potential for research and practice in relation to gender and mental health because it facilitates changes in our understanding, while simultaneously, not discarding that which is already known. In so doing, it allows the biological (sex) and social (gender) domains of knowledge for mental health and illness to coexist, without either being reduced to or defined by the other. Arguably, greater depth and explanations for gender and mental health issues are presented within a realist metatheory.

  17. Epidemiologic methods in analysis of scientific issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdreich, Linda S.

    2003-10-01

    Studies of human populations provide much of the information that is used to evaluate compensation cases for hearing loss, including rates of hearing loss by age, and dose-response relationships. The reference data used to make decisions regarding workman's compensation is based on epidemiologic studies of cohorts of workers exposed to various noise levels. Epidemiology and its methods can be used in other ways in the courtroom; to assess the merits of a complaint, to support Daubert criteria, and to explain scientific issues to the trier of fact, generally a layperson. Using examples other than occupational noise induced hearing loss, these methods will be applied to respond to a complaint that hearing loss followed exposure to a sudden noise, a medication, or an occupational chemical, and thus was caused by said exposure. The standard criteria for assessing the weight of the evidence, and epidemiologic criteria for causality show the limits of such anecdotal data and incorporate quantitative and temporal issues. Reports of clusters of cases are also intuitively convincing to juries. Epidemiologic methods provide a scientific approach to assess whether rates of the outcome are indeed increased, and the extent to which increased rates provide evidence for causality.

  18. WATER ANALYSIS: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers developments in Water Analysis over the period of 2001-2002. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2003 are also included. Previous Water Analysis reviews have been very comprehensive; however, in 2001, Analytical Chemistry c...

  19. Analysis of issues concerning acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Bowsher, C.A.

    1984-12-11

    Although science has largely determined that man-made emissions cause acid rain, there is uncertainty concerning the extent and timing of its anticipated effects. Thus, at the present time scientific information alone does not lead unequivocally to a conclusion on whether it is appropriate to begin control actions now or to await better understanding. Given this uncertainty, decisionmakers must weigh the risks of further, potentially avoidable environmental damage against the risks of economic impacts from acid rain control actions which may ultimately prove to be unwarranted. GAO examines the implications of current scientific knowledge for policy decisions on acid rain and offers a series of observations on the following issues involved in the debate: To what extent has it been scientifically demonstrated that acid rain is resulting in damage to the environment. What are the causes of acid rain and where is it most prevalent. What alternatives exist for controlling acid rain and what are their economic effects. 5 figures, 20 tables.

  20. Love versus abuse: crossgenerational sexual relations of minors: a gay rights issue?

    PubMed

    Graupner, H

    1999-01-01

    The question discussed is how far crossgenerational sexual relations with or by minors could be considered to be a gay rights issue. The author discusses the issue from the perspective of general principles found in the case-law of the European Court on Human Rights. These principles suggest that the basic right to privacy should be interpreted as providing comprehensive protection of the right of children and adolescents to sexual self-determination, namely both the right to effective protection from (unwanted) sex and abuse on the one hand and the right to (wanted) sex on the other. The analysis is based upon the findings of natural and social science as well as an extensive international survey of national legal provisions and it leads to the conclusion that consensual sexual relations of and with adolescents over 14 (out of relations of authority) should be qualified a gay rights issue; likewise (as the exception to the rule) the possibility of filtering out cases from prosecution where a contact/relation is proven (beyond reasonable doubt) as consensual and harmless even though the minor involved is under 14. The legalization of (objectively consensual) sexual relations with persons under 14 as such, however, should not be considered to be a gay rights issue.

  1. Love versus abuse: crossgenerational sexual relations of minors: a gay rights issue?

    PubMed

    Graupner, H

    1999-01-01

    The question discussed is how far crossgenerational sexual relations with or by minors could be considered to be a gay rights issue. The author discusses the issue from the perspective of general principles found in the case-law of the European Court on Human Rights. These principles suggest that the basic right to privacy should be interpreted as providing comprehensive protection of the right of children and adolescents to sexual self-determination, namely both the right to effective protection from (unwanted) sex and abuse on the one hand and the right to (wanted) sex on the other. The analysis is based upon the findings of natural and social science as well as an extensive international survey of national legal provisions and it leads to the conclusion that consensual sexual relations of and with adolescents over 14 (out of relations of authority) should be qualified a gay rights issue; likewise (as the exception to the rule) the possibility of filtering out cases from prosecution where a contact/relation is proven (beyond reasonable doubt) as consensual and harmless even though the minor involved is under 14. The legalization of (objectively consensual) sexual relations with persons under 14 as such, however, should not be considered to be a gay rights issue. PMID:10482330

  2. Cabin Safety Issues Related to Pre-Departure and Inflight Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) in a partnership between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), participating carriers, and labor organizations. It is designed to improve the National Airspace System by collecting and studying reports detailing unsafe conditions and events in the aviation industry. Employees are able to report safety issues or concerns with confidentiality and without fear of discipline. Safety reports highlighting the human element in cabin safety issues and concerns.

  3. Damage Tolerance Issues as Related to Metallic Rotorcraft Dynamic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, R. A., Jr.; Elber, W.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper issues related to the use of damage tolerance in life managing rotorcraft dynamic components are reviewed. In the past, rotorcraft fatigue design has combined constant amplitude tests of full-scale parts with flight loads and usage data in a conservative manner to provide "safe life" component replacement times. In contrast to the safe life approach over the past twenty years the United States Air Force and several other NATO nations have used damage tolerance design philosophies for fixed wing aircraft to improve safety and reliability. The reliability of the safe life approach being used in rotorcraft started to be questioned shortly after presentations at an American Helicopter Society's specialist meeting in 1980 showed predicted fatigue lives for a hypothetical pitch-link problem to vary from a low of 9 hours to a high in excess of 2594 hours. This presented serious cost, weight, and reliability implications. Somewhat after the U.S. Army introduced its six nines reliability on fatigue life, attention shifted towards using a possible damage tolerance approach to the life management of rotorcraft dynamic components. The use of damage tolerance in life management of dynamic rotorcraft parts will be the subject of this paper. This review will start with past studies on using damage tolerance life management with existing helicopter parts that were safe life designed. Also covered will be a successful attempt at certifying a tail rotor pitch rod using damage tolerance, which was designed using the safe life approach. The FAA review of rotorcraft fatigue design and their recommendations along with some on-going U.S. industry research in damage tolerance on rotorcraft will be reviewed. Finally, possible problems and future needs for research will be highlighted.

  4. Damage Tolerance Issues as Related to Metallic Rotorcraft Dynamic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, R. A., Jr.; Elber, W.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper issues related to the use of damage tolerance in life managing rotorcraft dynamic components are reviewed. In the past, rotorcraft fatigue design has combined constant amplitude tests of full-scale parts with flight loads and usage data in a conservative manner to provide "safe life" component replacement times. In contrast to the safe life approach over the past twenty years the United States Air Force and several other NATO nations have used damage tolerance design philosophies for fixed wing aircraft to improve safety and reliability. The reliability of the safe life approach being used in rotorcraft started to be questioned shortly after presentations at an American Helicopter Society's specialist meeting in 1980 showed predicted fatigue lives for a hypothetical pitch-link problem to vary from a low of 9 hours to a high in excess of 2594 hours. This presented serious cost, weight, and reliability implications. Somewhat after the U.S. Army introduced its six nines reliability on fatigue life, attention shifted towards using a possible damage tolerance approach to the life management of rotorcraft dynamic components. The use of damage tolerance in life management of dynamic rotorcraft parts will be the subject of this paper. This review will start with past studies on using damage tolerance life management with existing helicopter parts that were safe life designed. Also covered will be a successful attempt at certifying a tail rotor pitch rod using damage tolerance, which was designed using the safe life approach. The FAA review of rotorcraft fatigue design and their recommendations along with some on-going U.S. industry research in damage tolerance on rotorcraft will be reviewed.

  5. Issues in midterm analysis and forecasting, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This document consists of papers which cover topics in analysis and modeling that underlie the Annual Energy Outlook 1996. Topics include: The Potential Impact of Technological Progress on U.S. Energy Markets; The Outlook for U.S. Import Dependence; Fuel Economy, Vehicle Choice, and Changing Demographics, and Annual Energy Outlook Forecast Evaluation.

  6. Mining Health-Related Issues in Consumer Product Reviews by Using Scalable Text Analytics.

    PubMed

    Torii, Manabu; Tilak, Sameer S; Doan, Son; Zisook, Daniel S; Fan, Jung-Wei

    2016-01-01

    In an era when most of our life activities are digitized and recorded, opportunities abound to gain insights about population health. Online product reviews present a unique data source that is currently underexplored. Health-related information, although scarce, can be systematically mined in online product reviews. Leveraging natural language processing and machine learning tools, we were able to mine 1.3 million grocery product reviews for health-related information. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) conduct quantitative and qualitative analysis on the types of health issues found in consumer product reviews; (2) develop a machine learning classifier to detect reviews that contain health-related issues; and (3) gain insights about the task characteristics and challenges for text analytics to guide future research. PMID:27375358

  7. Mining Health-Related Issues in Consumer Product Reviews by Using Scalable Text Analytics.

    PubMed

    Torii, Manabu; Tilak, Sameer S; Doan, Son; Zisook, Daniel S; Fan, Jung-Wei

    2016-01-01

    In an era when most of our life activities are digitized and recorded, opportunities abound to gain insights about population health. Online product reviews present a unique data source that is currently underexplored. Health-related information, although scarce, can be systematically mined in online product reviews. Leveraging natural language processing and machine learning tools, we were able to mine 1.3 million grocery product reviews for health-related information. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) conduct quantitative and qualitative analysis on the types of health issues found in consumer product reviews; (2) develop a machine learning classifier to detect reviews that contain health-related issues; and (3) gain insights about the task characteristics and challenges for text analytics to guide future research.

  8. Mining Health-Related Issues in Consumer Product Reviews by Using Scalable Text Analytics

    PubMed Central

    Torii, Manabu; Tilak, Sameer S.; Doan, Son; Zisook, Daniel S.; Fan, Jung-wei

    2016-01-01

    In an era when most of our life activities are digitized and recorded, opportunities abound to gain insights about population health. Online product reviews present a unique data source that is currently underexplored. Health-related information, although scarce, can be systematically mined in online product reviews. Leveraging natural language processing and machine learning tools, we were able to mine 1.3 million grocery product reviews for health-related information. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) conduct quantitative and qualitative analysis on the types of health issues found in consumer product reviews; (2) develop a machine learning classifier to detect reviews that contain health-related issues; and (3) gain insights about the task characteristics and challenges for text analytics to guide future research. PMID:27375358

  9. 16 CFR 456.5 - Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... contact lenses and related issues. Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues may be found at 16 CFR part 315 (Contact Lens Rule). ... contact lenses and related issues. 456.5 Section 456.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION...

  10. 16 CFR 456.5 - Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contact lenses and related issues. Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues may be found at 16 CFR part 315 (Contact Lens Rule). ... contact lenses and related issues. 456.5 Section 456.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION...

  11. ROV intervention issues relating to pipelay operations in ultra deepwater

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, S.E.; McCoy, R.W.

    1994-12-31

    Recently, there has been a rapid increase in the water depths for some of the development projects of oil and gas fields. Not just in the installation of producing facilities, but of the transportation infrastructure. While ROVs are used extensively in support of deepwater pipelay operations, with the recent advances in J-Lay operations and the investigation into projects which may take this method to what is now being called ``ultra deepwater`` (i.e. 10,000 feet), there are new issues which must be addressed for continued ROV intervention to be successful. This paper will attempt to bring forth some of those issues and offer some potential solutions. It is necessary to begin thinking of these potential problem areas, as the solutions could impact the economics of the projects. These issues may well begin to influence the way the ROV industry further develops and refines it`s fleet to meet the needs of the authors clients in the future.

  12. Outstanding issues related to thermospheric measurements and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, Kenneth; Moe, Mildred M.; Doornbos, Eelco

    Semi-empirical thermospheric models are dependent on measurements made in orbit. Out-standing issues regarding the interpretation of those measurements and the effects on models are considered. These include the present state of knowledge of drag coefficients, long-term trends, instrument calibration, radiation pressure, and spacecraft geometry. Many recent and ongoing efforts to evaluate and improve thermospheric models will be described. The advent of attitude-controlled nanosatellites of simple shapes presents opportunities to resolve some of these outstanding issues in conjunction with the forthcoming SWARM program.

  13. CSI related dynamics and control issues in space robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Eric; Ramey, Madison

    1993-01-01

    The research addressed includes: (1) CSI issues in space robotics; (2) control of elastic payloads, which includes 1-DOF example, and 3-DOF harmonic drive arm with elastic beam; and (3) control of large space arms with elastic links, which includes testbed description, modeling, and experimental implementation of colocated PD and end-point tip position controllers.

  14. Problems and Issues Related to Legislative Process: The State Dimension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reibman, Jeanette F.

    Issues of concern to higher education in Pennsylvania and possible roles for the state government are addressed by a state senator. The difficulty of providing postsecondary education in view of reduced funds is noted. It is suggested that the expectation that adult students will help solve the problem of fewer traditional aged college students…

  15. Methodological issues in HIV-related social research in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Erinosho, Olayiwola; Joseph, Richard; Isiugo-Abanihe, Uche; Dike, Nkem; Aderinto, Adeyinka A

    2013-12-01

    This paper is about methodological issues in a community-wide study in Nigeria on an infectious disease, namely HIV/AIDS. The study was designed to ascertain the risk factors that contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS and how that can be tackled in order to bring about behavioural change. The research team believed at the onset that a study on the interplay between HIV/AIDS and sensitive issues like sexual mores and sexuality requires much more than a straightjacket social science method, such as simply doing a cross-section study and/or using interview schedule. This paper reviews the essence of cross-disciplinary approach; team building; as well as the use of a non-participatory observational approach in data collection. It also shows why ample consideration was given to ethical issues which are often glossed over in social research in developing countries. The lessons from the study underscore the methodological imperatives in social research that focus on sensitive issues in largely non-literate context like Nigeria. Although there are formidable challenges in community-based studies in largely non-literate societies, nevertheless they could easily be surmounted if there are ample time and resources to navigate the various sticking points.

  16. Contemporary Issues in U.S.-Mexico Relations, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Amy; Kim, Pearl; Lai, Selena; Mukai, Gary; Nunez, Lucia; Valadez, Martin

    The lessons in this 3-part series are intended to provide students with a basic understanding of the relationship between the United States and Mexico, with emphasis on multiple perspectives, conflict and cooperation, and interdependence. This curriculum unit, Part 2, examines three contemporary issues: immigration, the North American Free Trade…

  17. Issues Relating to the Assessment of Flexible Efficient Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nacke, Phil L.

    An integral dimension in the concept of flexible efficient reading is the process of skimming, which is defined as the reading behavior in which information is processed without looking at all or most of the words in continuous printed discourse. Measurement of flexible reading efficiency presents problems which revolve around four major issues.…

  18. College Students' Misconceptions of Environmental Issues Related to Global Warming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

    Students are currently exposed to world environmental problems--including global warming and the greenhouse effect--in science classes at various points during their K-12 and college experience. However, the amount and depth of explosure to these issues can be quite variable. Students are also exposed to sources of misinformation leading to…

  19. Caregiving, Marriage and Work Related Issues as Differentiated by Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastorello, Thomas; And Others

    A recently published national profile of caregivers of the frail elderly suggests potentially negative consequences of caregiving for work and employment for as many as one-third of the employed caregivers in a large 1983 sample. The study was undertaken to explore a comprehensive set of issues on informal caregiving and to determine the extent to…

  20. Safety, Efficacy, and Legal Issues Related to Dietary Supplements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the effects of dietary supplements on collegiate and adult populations. Anabolic steroids, amphetamines, and other drugs have been used for decades to improve athletic performance. However, the legal issues and dangers associated with these drugs have resulted in reluctance by many athletes to use them. Because dietary…

  1. Issues related to SPR joints subjected to fatigue loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, A.; Senatore, F.; Greco, A.

    2016-05-01

    SPR joints will represent an alternative solution to spot welding in automotive field. However, their fatigue behavior shows several critical issues. After a brief introduction of this new solution, different crack modes are described, emphasizing the parameters that characterize them, i.e. the applied loads, the geometry of the joint and other phenomenon as fretting, vibration and corrosion.

  2. Ecological Issues Related to Children's Health and Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Jerry; Kohler, Maxie

    2009-01-01

    Issues concerning the health and safety of children and youth occur at multiple levels. Bronfenbrenner (1995) proposed an ecological systems approach in which multiple systems interact to enhance or diminish children's development. The same systems are at work in health promotion. The authors present and review articles that reflect the multiple…

  3. Teacher-Student Sexual Relations: Key Risks and Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics…

  4. Relating Social Inclusion and Environmental Issues in Botanic Gardens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergou, Asimina; Willison, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Botanic gardens have been evolving, responding to the changing needs of society, from their outset as medicinal gardens of monasteries and university gardens to more recently as organizations that contribute to the conservation of plant genetic resources. Considering that social and environmental issues are deeply intertwined and cannot be tackled…

  5. Theme Issue "Multitemporal remote sensing data analysis"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallet, Clément; Chehata, Nesrine; Mercier, Grégoire

    2015-09-01

    The remote sensing and photogrammetric community has witnessed significant evolution during the last decade and is facing today a new paradigm in data processing and analysis. Indeed, the development of new satellite remote sensing missions leads to an increasing amount of multi-temporal data, with improved spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, available at various scales (Berger and Aschbacher, 2012; Belward and Skøien, 2015). In parallel, data becomes available for free, often through dedicated infrastructures, with the opening of satellite and aerial image archives (Landsat and Spot World Heritage, Sentinel missions (Wulder and Coops, 2014)) and with the growing power of benchmark contests, more focused on very high resolution data provision (Benedek and Szirányi, 2009; Rottensteiner et al., 2014; Vallet et al., 2015) or on data fusion (Debes et al., 2014). Consequently, it has never been so easy to collect multiple observations for large areas of the Earth's surface, which has significantly raised the interest of the scientific community and permitted the development of innovative methods for handling and analysing temporal series of (multimodal) datasets (Bovolo et al., 2013).

  6. Socioeconomic and political issues in radiology: a historical analysis.

    PubMed

    Stiles, R G; Belt, H C

    1991-09-01

    Radiology literature indexes were searched for articles concerning socioeconomic and political issues published during two 21-year periods: 1920-1940 and 1970-1990. Of 200 articles found, 96 were considered appropriate for study, 40 from 1920-1940 and 56 from 1970-1990. All except two of the articles were from Radiology or the American Journal of Roentgenology. The articles were organized into 16 categories. By quantifying the number of times these socioeconomic and political issues appeared and comparing quotations from the articles, the authors demonstrated many common issues in the two periods, despite drastic differences in radiology practice. Analysis of historical literature provides perspective on current socioeconomic and political issues and may help formulate solutions to current problems. Documentation of such issues facilitates historical analysis and is an important function of the radiology literature.

  7. Nutritional and growth issues related to child neglect.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M; Drennen, Chloe R

    2014-11-01

    Child neglect and obesity are major public health problems that undermine children's health and contribute to lifelong disparities. Most of the past research has focused on relations between child neglect and failure to thrive. This article finds that evidence linking child neglect with obesity is mixed. In a recent meta-analysis, five of the eight studies reviewed did not find an increased risk of obesity among neglected children. The case study and three longitudinal studies that reported a relationship between neglect and obesity were conducted among young children, and used caregiver or teacher/clinician definitions of neglect, rather than referrals to state protective service agencies. Dysregulation of the neuroendocrine system associated with neglect has been implicated, but further research is needed to understand the mechanisms that may increase children's risk for obesity. Findings suggest that under some conditions neglect may increase the risk for excessive weight gain, and that high body mass index may be an indicator of possible neglect. By exploring both possibilities, clinicians can promote children's healthy growth and development and prevent subsequent health disparities. PMID:25369579

  8. System Issues Related to Implementing on the Internet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, William; Bagg, Thomas C., III

    1999-01-01

    Implementing capabilities on the World Wide Web should never be taken lightly. A good systems engineer is able to examine such implementations from all points of view, including political, legal, security, access, technical deployment, and quality. The evacuation discussed in this paper was conducted to ensure that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was proceeding in a correct direction by implementing RECALL a Lessons Learned System on the Web and, subsequently, did so successfully. The systems approach extended well beyond technical implementation to several issue that are not often addressed by an implementation team. The resulting evaluation increased the team's sensitivity to such issues and, in fact, the authors believe that the evaluation provided as much benefit as the system itself.

  9. Ethical issues regarding related and nonrelated living organ donors.

    PubMed

    Testa, Giuliano

    2014-07-01

    The ethics of the clinical practice of transplanting human organs for end-stage organ disease is a fascinating topic. Who is the "owner" of the transplantable organs of a deceased, brain-dead patient? Who should have a right to receive these organs? Who set the boundaries between a living donor's autonomy and a "paternalistic" doctor? What constitutes a proper consent? These questions are only some of the ethical issues that have been discussed in the last 60 years. All of these ethical issues are intensified by the fact that supply of human organs does not match demand, and that, as a consequence, living-donor organ transplantation is widely utilized. The aim of this article is not to be exhaustive but to present the general ethical principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice as applied to organ transplantation. Moreover, the topic of reimbursement for organ donation is also discussed. PMID:24705806

  10. Chlorofluorocarbon environmental issues related to conservation acquisition in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Marseille, T.J.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Recent scientific evidence strongly suggests that the release of large quantities of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases into the atmosphere will result in environmentally harmful long-term effects. Because of those effects, a massive worldwide effort is currently under way to ban their use. At request of the Bonneville Power Administration, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a literature search to identify the issues surrounding the CFC phaseout. The search was focused on how these issues impact the commercial building sector. Information was obtained that describes: How the release of CFCs into the atmosphere may affect the global environment; legislative and regulatory programs initiated to restrict CFCs; potential impacts the reduced CFC supply will have on commercial buildings; the most promising CFC substitute technologies; and the potential costs of CFC restriction. 11 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Compensability of, and legal issues related to, coccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Haley, Luann

    2007-09-01

    Legal issues that may develop when treating patients with coccidioidomycosis include allegations of medical malpractice, claims for workers' compensation benefits, and civil actions against business owners. In states where the disease is most prevalent, California recognizes cocci diodomycosis as a compensable condition, although Arizona does not. In civil actions, the state courts have not imposed liability on any business or institution for those that claim to have developed cocci diodomycosis on or near the premises of the business.

  12. Behavior analysts and cultural analysis: Troubles and issues

    PubMed Central

    Malagodi, E. F.; Jackson, Kevin

    1989-01-01

    Three strategic suggestions are offered to behavior analysts who are concerned with extending the interests of our discipline into domains traditionally assigned to the social sciences: (1) to expand our world-view perspectives beyond the boundaries commonly accepted by psychologists in general; (2) to build a cultural analytic framework upon the foundations we have developed for the study of individuals; and (3) to study the works of those social scientists whose views are generally compatible with, and complementary to, our own. Sociologist C. Wright Mills' distinction between troubles and issues and anthropologist Marvin Harris's principles of cultural materialism are related to topics raised by these three strategies. The pervasiveness of the “psychocentric” world view within psychology and the social sciences, and throughout our culture at large, is discussed from the points of view of Skinner, Mills, and Harris. It is suggested that a thorough commitment to radical behaviorism, and continuation of interaction between radical behaviorism and cultural materialism, are necessary for maintaining and extending an issues orientation within the discipline of behavior analysis and for guarding against dilutions and subversions of that orientation by “deviation-dampening” contingencies that exist in our profession and in our culture at large. PMID:22478014

  13. Analysis of Adverse Events in Identifying GPS Human Factors Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Hwoschinsky, Peter V.; Adams, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze GPS related adverse events such as accidents and incidents (A/I), Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) reports and Pilots Deviations (PDs) to create a framework for developing a human factors risk awareness program. Although the occurrence of directly related GPS accidents is small the frequency of PDs and ASRS reports indicated there is a growing problem with situational awareness in terminal airspace related to different types of GPs operational issues. This paper addresses the findings of the preliminary research and a brief discussion of some of the literature on related GPS and automation issues.

  14. Ground motion issues for seismic analysis of tall buildings: A status report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bozorgnia, Y.; Campbell, K.W.; Luco, N.; Moehle, J.P.; Naeim, F.; Somerville, P.; Yang, T.Y.

    2007-01-01

    The Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) is coordinating a major multidisciplinary programme, the Tall Buildings Initiative (TBI), to address critical technical issues related to the design and analysis of new tall buildings located in coastal California. The authors of this paper, listed alphabetically, are involved in various research studies related to ground motion modelling, selection, modification and simulation for analysis of tall buildings. This paper summarizes the scope and progress of ongoing activities related to ground motion issues for response history analysis of tall buildings.

  15. Dealing with quantum weirdness: Holism and related issues

    SciTech Connect

    Elby, A.R.

    1995-12-01

    Various issues are discussed in interpretation of quantum mechanics. All these explorations point toward the same conclusion, that some systems are holistically connected, i.e., some composite systems have properties that cannot, even in principle, be reduced to the properties of its subsystems. This is argued to be the central metaphysical lesson of quantum theory; this will remain pertinent even if quantum mechanics gets replaced by a superior theory. Chap. 2 discusses nonlocality and rules out hidden-variable theories that approximately reproduce the perfect correlations of quantum mechanics, as well as theories that obey locality conditions weaker than those needed to derive Bell`s inequality. Chap. 3 shows that SQUID experiments can rule out non-invasive measurability if not macrorealism. Chap. 4 looks at interpretational issues surrounding decoherence, the dissipative interaction between a system and its environment. Decoherence klcan help ``modal`` interpretations pick out the desired ``preferred`` basis. Chap. 5 explores what varieties of causation can and cannot ``explain`` EPR correlations. Instead of relying on ``watered down`` causal explanations, we should instead develop new, holistic explanatory frameworks.

  16. Levothyroxine: therapeutic use and regulatory issues related to bioequivalence.

    PubMed

    Wartofsky, Leonard

    2002-06-01

    Levothyroxine is the overwhelming choice of clinicians for the treatment of hypothyroidism and for the suppression of goitre and thyroid nodules in selected cases. The monitoring of serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone is necessary for appropriate dosage adjustment of levothyroxine. Levothyroxine has a narrow therapeutic index: both underdosage (subclinical hypothyroidism) and excessive dosage (subclinical hyperthyroidism) are associated with adverse symptoms and pathophysiological effects and are to be avoided. The consequent necessity for careful titration of doses has had an impact on the issue of switchability, or bioequivalence, of the various marketed levothyroxine products. In this article, the basis for concern about currently accepted standards of the FDA for pharmacological bioequivalence are examined in the context of levothyroxine. The history and status of the recent request by the FDA for a new drug application for all levothyroxine products, and its impact on the market leader Synthroid, is also discussed.

  17. Issues related to regulatory control of naturally occurring radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.Y.

    1997-04-01

    Nearly 80% of human radiation exposure is from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). While exposure from man-made sources of radiation has been well regulated, no consistent regulatory controls exist for NORM. Because elevated radiation levels have resulted from NORM enhancement activities such as occur in the petroleum, fertilizer, mining, and processing industries, some form of regulatory control is in order. In the US, regulation of NORM by federal agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the Environmental Protection Agency is not anticipated in the near future because there are no authorizing federal statutes. Important issues for addressing the control of NORM include source characterization and generation, radiation protection concerns, waste management and disposition, and the regulatory framework.

  18. Health and safety issues relating to Maine's fishing industry.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Allison P; Roy, Joyce; Stacey-Scott, Norma; Joy, Joanne E A; Bogdan, Greg

    2004-01-01

    The Maine Agricultural Safety and Health Program performed a needs assessment to determine the health and safety concerns of Maine's fishing community. Information for the assessment was obtained from clinicians, focus groups of wives of fishers, and government agencies. Reports from the United States Coast Guard showed that during 1993-1994, sixty-five people were injured on commercial fishing vessels and eight people died. Decompression illness was the most frequently reported non-fatal injury (n = 15). Chronic injuries reported by clinicians included back pain, tendinitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, dysbaric osteonecrosis. Clinicians and family members were also concerned about hand and arm infections from the bait and sun exposure. Family health issues and access to care are addressed in the report. Recommendations include, in part, increasing surveillance, reducing barriers to access, increasing clinicians' knowledge about the fishing industry, and fostering collaboration between agencies providing health and safety information to fishers.

  19. Ethical issues relating to renal transplantation from prediabetic living donor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Mexico, diabetes mellitus is the main cause of end − stage kidney disease, and some patients may be transplant candidates. Organ supply is limited because of cultural issues. And, there is a lack of standardized clinical guidelines regarding organ donation. These issues highlight the tension surrounding the fact that living donors are being selected despite being prediabetic. This article presents, examines and discusses using the principles of non-maleficience, autonomy, justice and the constitutionally guaranteed right to health, the ethical considerations that arise from considering a prediabetic person as a potential kidney donor. Discussion Diabetes is an absolute contraindication for donating a kidney. However, the transplant protocols most frequently used in Mexico do not consider prediabetes as exclusion criteria. In prediabetic persons there are well known metabolic alterations that may compromise the long − term outcomes of the transplant if such donors are accepted. Even so, many of them are finally included because there are not enough donor candidates. Both, families and hospitals face the need to rapidly accept prediabetic donors before the clinical conditions of the recipient and the evolution of the disease exclude him/her as a transplant candidate; however, when using a kidney potentially damaged by prediabetes, neither the donor’s nor the recipient’s long term health is usually considered. Considering the ethical implication as well as the clinical and epidemiological evidence, we conclude that prediabetic persons are not suitable candidates for kidney donation. This recommendation should be taken into consideration by Mexican health institutions who should rewrite their transplant protocols. Summary We argue that the decision to use a kidney from a living donor known to be pre-diabetic or from those persons with family history of T2DM, obesity, hypertension, or renal failure, should be considered unethical in Mexico

  20. Ethical and legal issues relating to abortion in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Silber, T J

    1989-04-01

    At least 1 million teenagers in the United States get pregnant every year; 350,000 teenagers choose to terminate their pregnancies by abortion. Doctors who examine teenagers usually find that their patients come in fairly late, and some teenagers may carry their pregnancy to term while others request abortions as late as the 2nd trimester. Abortion as well as full-term pregnancy are procedures that carry extreme mental stress. Many teenagers that go through with either procedure suffer mental breakdowns. Adolescents' stages of moral development can be classified into a 3 major categories: preconventional; conventional; or postconventional. Preconventional behavior may consist of worry about the reactions of individuals holding power over the adolescent's life; conventional behavior may consist of the adolescent conforming, as well as maintaining societal rules; and postconventional behavior may consist of the wishes of the adolescent outweighing societal expectations in their decision-making. The legal aspects concerning adolescents seeking abortions are governed by the "mature minor doctrine". Some abortions can be performed on adolescents without parental support; however, recent court decisions have provided certain measures for "immature minors." Recent debates on ethical and moral issues have been on the autonomy of the adolescent to make decisions on their own and the rights of the fetus versus the mother. Counseling is available for adolescents unsure of what decisions to make the unable to get support from their families.

  1. [Related reproductive issues on male autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Cai, Hong-cai; Shang, Xue-jun; Huang, Yu-feng

    2015-11-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a most common inherited renal disease, about 50% with a family history, although the exact etiology not yet clear. To date, ADPKD, a multisystem disorder without effective preventive and therapeutic means, has been shown to be detrimental to human health. Recent studies show that severe oligoasthenozoospermia, necrospermia, immotile sperm, azoospermia, epididymal cyst, seminal vesicle cyst, and ejaculatory duct cyst found in male ADPKD patients may lead to male infertility, though the specific mechanisms remain unknown. Structural anomaly of spermatozoa, defect of polycystin, mutation of PKD genes, and micro-deletion of the AZF gene could be the reasons for the higher incidence of abnormal semen quality in male ADPKD patients. Assisted reproductive techniques can increase the chances of pregnancy, whereas the health of the offspring should be taken into consideration. This article presents an overview of reproductive issues concerning infertile male ADPKD patients from the perspective of the morbidity, pathophysiological mechanism, diagnosis, and management of the disease. PMID:26738331

  2. Invited review: gender issues related to spaceflight: a NASA perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, D. L.; Jennings, R. T.; Meck, J. V.; Powell, M. R.; Putcha, L.; Sams, C. P.; Schneider, S. M.; Shackelford, L. C.; Smith, S. M.; Whitson, P. A.

    2001-01-01

    This minireview provides an overview of known and potential gender differences in physiological responses to spaceflight. The paper covers cardiovascular and exercise physiology, barophysiology and decompression sickness, renal stone risk, immunology, neurovestibular and sensorimotor function, nutrition, pharmacotherapeutics, and reproduction. Potential health and functional impacts associated with the various physiological changes during spaceflight are discussed, and areas needing additional research are highlighted. Historically, studies of physiological responses to microgravity have not been aimed at examining gender-specific differences in the astronaut population. Insufficient data exist in most of the discipline areas at this time to draw valid conclusions about gender-specific differences in astronauts, in part due to the small ratio of women to men. The only astronaut health issue for which a large enough data set exists to allow valid conclusions to be drawn about gender differences is orthostatic intolerance following shuttle missions, in which women have a significantly higher incidence of presyncope during stand tests than do men. The most common observation across disciplines is that individual differences in physiological responses within genders are usually as large as, or larger than, differences between genders. Individual characteristics usually outweigh gender differences per se.

  3. Legal issues related to adolescent pregnancy: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, A M

    1986-09-01

    Adolescent pregnancies have risen in recent years. Options open to the pregnant adolescent are: terminating the pregnancy; giving birth to the child out of wedlock; keeping the baby; giving the baby up for adoption; and marriage before or after the birth of the baby. Each of these options carries certain legal ramifications, since the adolescent patients have not reached the age of majority. The state or the parents usually assume the role of decision making on behalf of the adolescent or assist in the decision making process. Court rulings since the early seventies have legalized abortion and enlarged the rights of minors seeking termination of their pregnancies. Both parents and minors have rights under the certain state laws; parent have the right to notification, minors have the right to privacy. Keeping the child, out of wedlock, might result in legal battles over custody and/or establishing financial support from the father. Some adolescent mothers give up their children for adoption. There are 2 legal procedures that have to be accomplished before a child can be adopted: termination of the rights of the natural parents and adoption proceedings. If the parents marry after the birth of the child, the child is then considered legitimate and the father does not have to go through the process of adopting the child. Other issues requiring parental or individual consent include consent to treatment, contraception, or sterilization. In the case of forcible rape or incest, the physician is required to report incidents to law enforcement officials. PMID:3602637

  4. Current Issues in the Neurology and Genetics of Learning-Related Traits and Disorders: Introduction to the Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilger, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    This introductory article briefly describes each of the following eight articles in this special issue on the neurology and genetics of learning related disorders. It notes the greater appreciation of learning disability as a set of complex disorders with broad and intricate neurological bases and of the large individual differences in how these…

  5. Problematic Issues Related to the Systematic Teaching of Affective Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruff, Frances K.; Roberts, Jane M. E.

    This paper presents a discussion of three problem areas that were delineated during the course of a field test designed to assess the effects of the "Heartsmart Adventures," an interpersonal skills curriculum developed from the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation (FIRO) Theory as described by William C. Schutz. Students and teachers…

  6. Should relatives witness resuscitation? Ethical issues and practical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Rosenczweig, C

    1998-01-01

    In winning second prize in the Logie Medical Ethics Essay Contest in 1997, Carolyn Rosenczweig raised questions about the role patients' family members should be allowed to play during resuscitative efforts by medical staff. She concluded that even though their presence might complicate resuscitation attempts, "blanket policies that exclude all relatives from being present seem a knee-jerk reaction." PMID:9526478

  7. Relating Work and Education. Current Issues in Higher Education 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermilye, Dyckman; Ferris, William, Eds.

    The relationship between education and work is examined in relation to improving the quality of life. Part one provides a philosophical framework in which the authors reject the idea that work and education should be oriented toward porducing goods and making money, but should contribute to the growth and development of the workers. Part two…

  8. Kenyan government to establish special tribunal for HIV-related issues.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Kelly

    2010-06-01

    On 21 January 2010, Kenyan government officials formally announced the creation of the first-ever tribunal dedicated to hearing legal issues related to HIV/AIDS. Among other things, the Tribunal will handle issues relating to the transmission of HIV; confidentiality of medical information and records; testing; access to healthcare services; discriminatory acts and policies; and HIV-related research.

  9. Implementation of the NCSS Guidelines for Teaching Science-Related Social Issues: Exemplar Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Robert A., Ed.

    This document contains the Guidelines for Teaching Science-Related Social Issues adopted in 1982 by the National Council for the Social Studies and 10 examplar lessons each keyed to particular guidelines and drawing upon contemporary issues. The premise upon which the guidelines are based is that science is a social issue and that the examination…

  10. Beyond BMI: Conceptual Issues Related to Overweight and Obese Patients.

    PubMed

    Müller, Manfred James; Braun, Wiebke; Enderle, Janna; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2016-01-01

    BMI is widely used as a measure of weight status and disease risks; it defines overweight and obesity based on statistical criteria. BMI is a score; neither is it biologically sound nor does it reflect a suitable phenotype worthwhile to study. Because of its limited value, BMI cannot provide profound insight into obesity biology and its co-morbidity. Alternative assessments of weight status include detailed phenotyping by body composition analysis (BCA). However, predicting disease risks, fat mass, and fat-free mass as assessed by validated techniques (i.e., densitometry, dual energy X ray absorptiometry, and bioelectrical impedance analysis) does not exceed the value of BMI. Going beyond BMI and descriptive BCA, the concept of functional body composition (FBC) integrates body components into regulatory systems. FBC refers to the masses of body components, organs, and tissues as well as to their inter-relationships within the context of endocrine, metabolic and immune functions. FBC can be used to define specific phenotypes of obesity, e.g. the sarcopenic-obese patient. Well-characterized obesity phenotypes are a precondition for targeted research (e.g., on the genomics of obesity) and patient-centered care (e.g., adequate treatment of individual obese phenotypes such as the sarcopenic-obese patient). FBC contributes to a future definition of overweight and obesity based on physiological criteria rather than on body weight alone. PMID:27286962

  11. Why Map Issues? On Controversy Analysis as a Digital Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article takes stock of recent efforts to implement controversy analysis as a digital method in the study of science, technology, and society (STS) and beyond and outlines a distinctive approach to address the problem of digital bias. Digital media technologies exert significant influence on the enactment of controversy in online settings, and this risks undermining the substantive focus of controversy analysis conducted by digital means. To address this problem, I propose a shift in thematic focus from controversy analysis to issue mapping. The article begins by distinguishing between three broad frameworks that currently guide the development of controversy analysis as a digital method, namely, demarcationist, discursive, and empiricist. Each has been adopted in STS, but only the last one offers a digital “move beyond impartiality.” I demonstrate this approach by analyzing issues of Internet governance with the aid of the social media platform Twitter. PMID:26336325

  12. Certification and Accreditation: Background, Issue Analysis, and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, William E.; Palmer, John R.

    An analysis of issues concerning the certification of teachers and the accreditation and approval of teacher education institutions is presented. In the first part, generally accepted definitions of certification, licensure, program review, and accreditation are clarified. A brief historical overview is presented of the state's role in controlling…

  13. Issues of Aid to Nonpublic Schools. Summary Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Donald A.; Madaus, George F.

    This is a summary analysis of Volumes I, II, III, and IV (see ED 058 486--489 of Issues of Aid to Nonpublic Schools. The cardinal ideas in these volumes are discussed under the following topics: Popular Fallacies as to the Role of Nonpublic Schools; The Nature of the Crisis in Nonpublic Schools; and Perils of Public Policy. The central outcomes of…

  14. Delay related issues in integrated voice and data networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, J. G.

    1981-06-01

    The described investigation is concerned with the problem of transmitting voice with data in a computer communications network. The motivations for considering mixed voice and data traffic in such a shared network environment include the advent of new voice related applications with the technology now existing to economically support them, and the desire to plan for and design future integrated networks for reasons of economy and flexibility. Attention is given to the problem of variable delays in a shared network environment handling voice traffic. Previous work in packetized voice, as well as various approaches to integrated voice and data transmission, are reviewed. These approaches may be regarded as enhanced versions of circuit, packet, and hybrid switching. The impact of network interfacing and delay considerations for voice traffic is discussed.

  15. Accelerators for charged particle therapy: PAMELA and related issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peach, Ken

    2014-05-01

    Cancer is a dreadful disease that will affect one in three people at some point in their life; radiotherapy is used in more than half of all cancer treatment, and contributes about 40% to the successful treatment of cancer. Charged Particle Therapy uses protons and other light ions to deliver the lethal dose to the tumor while being relatively sparing of healthy tissue and, because of the finite range of the particles, is able to avoid giving any dose to vital organs. While there are adequate technologies currently available to deliver the required energies and fluxes, the two main technologies (cyclotrons and synchrotrons) have limitations. PAMELA (the Particle Accelerator for MEdicaLApplications) uses the newly-developed non-scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient accelerator concepts to deliver therapeutically relevant beams. The status of the development of the PAMELA conceptual design is discussed.

  16. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    SciTech Connect

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  17. Some issues related to evidence-based implantology.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Gunnar E

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews relevant dental literature to answer some frequent questions related to evidence-based implantology. There are hundreds of implant systems on the market, but the majority lack clinical documentation. Recommended number of implants for full-arch fixed prostheses is four or five in the mandible but at least six in the maxilla. Less expensive implant-retained overdentures make implant treatment available to a greater portion of edentulous subjects. Mandibular overdentures on two implants, and even one implant, have shown excellent long-term outcomes. In the maxilla, less than four implants are not recommended for good results. Single implant restorations have good prognosis, but placement of the implant should be postponed until adulthood. Osseointegrated implants have revolutionized clinical dentistry. However, in a global perspective, implants make up only a small part of all prosthodontic treatment. Knowledge and skill in conventional prosthodontics must be maintained as it will remain the most common part of the specialty.

  18. Design and analysis issues of integrated control systems for high-speed civil transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, Craig A.; Feather, John B.; Dykman, John R.; Page, Mark A.; Hodgkinson, John

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify, rank, and define development plans for the critical guidance and control design and analysis issues as related to economically viable and environmentally acceptable high-speed civil transport. The issues were identified in a multistep process. First, pertinent literature on supersonic cruise aircraft was reviewed, and experts were consulted to establish the fundamental characteristics and problems inherent to supersonic cruise aircraft. Next, the advanced technologies and strategies being pursued for the high-speed civil transport were considered to determine any additional unique control problems the transport may have. Finally, existing technologies and methods were examined to determine their capabilities for the design and analysis of high-speed civil transport control systems and to identify the shortcomings and issues. Three priority levels - mandatory, highly beneficial, and desirable - were established. Within each of these levels, the issues were further ranked. Technology development plans for each issue were defined. Each plan contains a task breakdown and schedule.

  19. Issues Related to Large Flight Hardware Acoustic Qualification Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; Perry, Douglas C.; Kern, Dennis L.

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of acoustical testing volumes generated by reverberant chambers or a circle of loudspeakers with and without large flight hardware within the testing volume are significantly different. The parameters attributing to these differences are normally not accounted for through analysis or acoustic tests prior to the qualification testing without the test hardware present. In most cases the control microphones are kept at least 2-ft away from hardware surfaces, chamber walls, and speaker surfaces to minimize the impact of the hardware in controlling the sound field. However, the acoustic absorption and radiation of sound by hardware surfaces may significantly alter the sound pressure field controlled within the chamber/speaker volume to a given specification. These parameters often result in an acoustic field that may provide under/over testing scenarios for flight hardware. In this paper the acoustic absorption by hardware surfaces will be discussed in some detail. A simple model is provided to account for some of the observations made from Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft that recently underwent acoustic qualification tests in a reverberant chamber.

  20. [Therapeutic practice of bisphosphonate use and related pharmaceutical issues I].

    PubMed

    Veszelyné Kotán, Edit; Mészaros, Ágnes

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic use of Bisphosphonates was common in Hungary for the past two and a half decades. The main clinical application of Bisphosphonates is the therapy of osteoporosis and bone manifestations of malignant diseases. Patients' quality of life depends on the prevalence of the typical fragility fractures and their complications. Bisphosphonates are the basis of the therapy in both therapeutic areas, since they are able to decrease progression of the disease. In patients with good compliance adequate therapy is proven to minimize the number of bone fractures. In the present paper we summarize the pharmacological knowledge of the therapeutic use of Bisphosphonates in the two main therapeutic areas: osteoporosis and osseal manifestations of malignancies. In the second part of our paper we present analysis of the prescribed bisphosphonate drug use, reimbursed by the National Health Insurance Fund. Our results provide data on the changes of druguse and reimbursement strategy of Bisphosphonates in Hungary. Our data highlights the fact that pharmacists have to pay a special attention to the growing aging population affected by osteoporosis, moreover there should be a special focus on osteoporotic patients, since there is a decreasing rate of treated patients. To help lowering this therapeutic gap in osteoporosis, pharmacists should take an active role in the therapy management.

  1. [Therapeutic practice of bisphosphonate use and related pharmaceutical issues I].

    PubMed

    Veszelyné Kotán, Edit; Mészaros, Ágnes

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic use of Bisphosphonates was common in Hungary for the past two and a half decades. The main clinical application of Bisphosphonates is the therapy of osteoporosis and bone manifestations of malignant diseases. Patients' quality of life depends on the prevalence of the typical fragility fractures and their complications. Bisphosphonates are the basis of the therapy in both therapeutic areas, since they are able to decrease progression of the disease. In patients with good compliance adequate therapy is proven to minimize the number of bone fractures. In the present paper we summarize the pharmacological knowledge of the therapeutic use of Bisphosphonates in the two main therapeutic areas: osteoporosis and osseal manifestations of malignancies. In the second part of our paper we present analysis of the prescribed bisphosphonate drug use, reimbursed by the National Health Insurance Fund. Our results provide data on the changes of druguse and reimbursement strategy of Bisphosphonates in Hungary. Our data highlights the fact that pharmacists have to pay a special attention to the growing aging population affected by osteoporosis, moreover there should be a special focus on osteoporotic patients, since there is a decreasing rate of treated patients. To help lowering this therapeutic gap in osteoporosis, pharmacists should take an active role in the therapy management. PMID:27295873

  2. Processing and post-processing issues related to polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Chad David

    1998-12-01

    In Chapter 1, the effect of heat sealing variables on seal strength of a linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) was examined. Blown films were heat sealed for various times and temperatures so that the films ranged from partially to fully melted. A temperature of 115sp°C or higher was required to form a good seal and was related to the heterogeneous composition of the LLDPE studied. At 115sp°C, the lower molecular weight, more highly branched chains easily diffused across the interface. However, because these chains represented a small fraction of the crystallinity and the molecular weight was low, they contributed much less than the full peel strength. Conversely, chains with less branching represented the main fraction of crystallinity (anchors for tie chains) and the highest molecular weights (more entanglements). Only at temperatures where the higher molecular weight, less branched chains began to melt and diffuse across the interface could high peel strengths be achieved. In Chapter 2, a novel coextrusion process used to create microlayered hierarchically structured films is described. With this technology, two or three polymers can be multiplied into tens or thousands of alternating layers. This unique coextrusion process can be used to combine polymers of widely dissimilar solid state morphologies and properties into unique layered and gradient structures. In addition, the effect of the viscosity ratio of the component materials and the effect of the layer multiplier geometry on the layer structure and uniformity was investigated. In Chapter 3, the development of a breathable film produced by the microlayer process is described. Two systems were produced: one with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and CaCOsb3-filled LLDPE and the other with PEO and CaCOsb3-filled polypropylene. The water vapor transport (WVT) behavior of these films was measured and related to the tortuousity of the path through the PEO and filled polyolefin domains. PEO is water soluble and has

  3. Legal Problems in Broadcasting: Identification and Analysis of Selected Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toohey, Daniel W.; And Others

    This book is designed as an introduction and reference to broadcast law for commercial and noncommercial station managers and staff, college students of radio and television, and general readers. It is divided into two sections, "Freedom of Expression and Related Issues" and "Business Aspects of Programming." The first section contains seven…

  4. Suicide Prevention in Schools. A Center Policy Issues Analysis Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Policy makers remain in conflict over whether schools should play a institutionalized role in preventing student suicide. This brief highlights two other major related questions that are at issue: (1) Does suicide education stigmatize some students and increase that risk of suicide ideation? and (2) Should schools be involved in monitoring…

  5. Breaking bad news: issues relating to nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Warnock, Clare

    2014-07-15

    The breaking of bad news was traditionally regarded to be the time when a doctor and nurse sat down with a patient and family members to provide information about, for example, a life-limiting diagnosis or a poor prognosis. However, breaking bad news is now generally accepted as a process, not a one-off event, and is considered to refer to any bad, sad or difficult information that alters patients' perceptions of their present and future. Nurses have an important role in the process of providing information and helping patients prepare for, receive, understand and cope with the bad news they have been given. This article aims to help nurses understand the process of breaking bad news and discuss the challenges and difficulties that nurses can face when they are involved with patients who have been given bad news. It also provides guidance with regard to preparing for breaking bad news, giving difficult information, responding to possible reactions, and supporting patients and their relatives after they have received bad news.

  6. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Unique issues related to environmental claims... issues related to environmental claims. Claims for property damage, personal injury, or death arising in... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the...

  7. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unique issues related to environmental claims... issues related to environmental claims. Claims for property damage, personal injury, or death arising in... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the...

  8. 75 FR 57469 - Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data Retention and Other Related Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data Retention and Other Related Issues... Retention and Other Related Issues.'' The guidance document provides OHRP's first formal guidance on this... (73 FR 72804). OHRP received comments on the draft guidance document from 30 individuals...

  9. Calculating contingencies in natural environments: issues in the application of sequential analysis.

    PubMed

    McComas, Jennifer J; Moore, Timothy; Dahl, Norm; Hartman, Ellie; Hoch, John; Symons, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Analysis and interpretation of behavior-environment relations are increasingly being conducted with data that have been derived descriptively. This paper provides an overview of the logic that underlies a sequential analytic approach to the analysis of descriptive data. Several methods for quantifying sequential relations are reviewed along with their strengths and weaknesses. Data from descriptive analyses are used to illustrate key points. Issues germane to contingency analysis in natural environments are discussed briefly. It is concluded that the conceptual distinctions among contiguity, contingency, and dependency are critical if the logic of sequential analysis is to be extended successfully to a behavior-analytic account of reinforcement in natural environments.

  10. Touching the Screen: Issues Related to the Use of Touchscreen Technology in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeo, Geoff; Edwards, Suzy; McNamara, Sue; Walker, Ian; Ziguras, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Reports on research that investigated use of touchscreens by children in early childhood and junior primary settings by introducing touchscreens in five classrooms in Melbourne, Australia. Five themes were identified, relating to developmental issues, input device performance, technical issues, individual differences in children's use of…

  11. SPECIAL ISSUE OF ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT FOR PARTICULATE MATTER SUPERSITES PROGRAM AND RELATED STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This special issue of Atmospheric Environment provides a selection of papers that were presented at the 2005 AAAR PM Supersites Program and Related Studies International Specialty Conference held in Atlanta, GA, 7-11 February 2005. Topics of papers in this issue range from the e...

  12. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to research design and data analysis in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is increasingly desirable to use multiple methods in research, but questions arise as to how best to design and analyze the data generated by mixed methods projects. I offer a conceptualization for such…

  13. Inclusion of Ethical Issues in Dementia Guidelines: A Thematic Text Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Knüppel, Hannes; Schmidhuber, Martina; Neitzke, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) aim to improve professionalism in health care. However, current CPG development manuals fail to address how to include ethical issues in a systematic and transparent manner. The objective of this study was to assess the representation of ethical issues in general CPGs on dementia care. Methods and Findings To identify national CPGs on dementia care, five databases of guidelines were searched and national psychiatric associations were contacted in August 2011 and in June 2013. A framework for the assessment of the identified CPGs' ethical content was developed on the basis of a prior systematic review of ethical issues in dementia care. Thematic text analysis and a 4-point rating score were employed to assess how ethical issues were addressed in the identified CPGs. Twelve national CPGs were included. Thirty-one ethical issues in dementia care were identified by the prior systematic review. The proportion of these 31 ethical issues that were explicitly addressed by each CPG ranged from 22% to 77%, with a median of 49.5%. National guidelines differed substantially with respect to (a) which ethical issues were represented, (b) whether ethical recommendations were included, (c) whether justifications or citations were provided to support recommendations, and (d) to what extent the ethical issues were explained. Conclusions Ethical issues were inconsistently addressed in national dementia guidelines, with some guidelines including most and some including few ethical issues. Guidelines should address ethical issues and how to deal with them to help the medical profession understand how to approach care of patients with dementia, and for patients, their relatives, and the general public, all of whom might seek information and advice in national guidelines. There is a need for further research to specify how detailed ethical issues and their respective recommendations can and should be addressed in dementia guidelines. Please

  14. Qualitative Data Analysis of Issue Interrelations and Interdependencies for E-Government Research Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Bicking, Melanie

    Science and technology roadmapping is currently a popular method to develop long-term strategies for e-government. In the scope of the EC-co-funded research project eGovRTD2020, an innovative methodology has been developed, which combines scenarios and roadmapping to support long-term strategic policy-making for e-government research. This approach bases on systematically analyzing qualitative data throughout the whole roadmapping process based on individual issues and their interrelations. The paper explores the complex analysis of the network of relations and interdependencies between these issues. We introduce a concept for the systematic analysis of interlinks between single issues, which helps improving the quality of analysis and advances the consolidation of results to form well grounded strategic policy-making. A case example extracted from the project serves as proof of concept.

  15. Health-related biotechnology in Africa: managing the legislative and regulatory issues.

    PubMed

    Andanda, A P

    2007-01-01

    The challenges that most African countries face in an attempt to join the ongoing quest for the development and transfer of the products derived from health biotechnology are threefold: High research costs, inadequate regulatory capacity and unfavourable intellectual property arrangements. It is argued in this paper that these challenges are representative of the legislative and regulatory issues that require proper management in order to enable African countries to focus on the key research areas that are related to the burden of diseases that are prevalent in the region and to harness the products of such research for the benefit of the region. This paper discusses the challenges involved in managing the legislative and regulatory issues in health biotechnology and proposes specific ideas on the way forward for Africa. The methodology used is a review of the manner in which three African countries, Cameroon, Kenya and Nigeria, have encountered and dealt with such regulatory challenges. The review is carried out from policy and legal analysis perspectives.

  16. Interdisciplinary team discussion on work environment issues related to low back disability: a multiple case study.

    PubMed

    Costa-Black, Kátia M; Durand, Marie-José; Imbeau, Daniel; Baril, Raymond; Loisel, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    From both a social and cost-benefit perspective, disability prevention and associated management strategies for assisting employees with back pain are only successful if they address critical return-to-work (RTW) determining factors present in the workplace, including ergonomic factors. Despite our current knowledge of the importance of an integrated team approach targeting these factors, questions remain regarding the conceptual framework adopted by contemporary rehabilitation teams as it relates to work-oriented interventions to accommodate employees back to work. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the work environment issues discussed by an interdisciplinary team engaged in the work rehabilitation process of low back disability cases. A qualitative content analysis was conducted for 10 sample cases that underwent a rehabilitation program in Quebec (Canada). Drawing on the results of these analyses, a framework representing a synopsis of practitioners' involvement in the person-environment dynamic is presented and discussed. This study makes a unique contribution to the understanding of the 'real-life' content of an interdisciplinary activity in disability management, thus, helping rehabilitation practitioners to build knowledge on the practical application of a cross-disciplinary framework to address work environment issues during the RTW process of those patients sick-listed due to back pain.

  17. Proliferation resistance for fast reactors and related fuel cycles: issues and impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph F

    2010-01-01

    an assessment of the issues surrounding, and the prospects for, efforts to develop proliferation resistance for fast reactors and related fuel cycles in the context of a nuclear renaissance. The focus of the analysis is on fast reactors.

  18. Two issues concerning the analysis of grouped data

    SciTech Connect

    Selvin, S.

    1986-02-01

    Simple statistical models are used to illustrate two important issues arising in the analysis of grouped data. The consequences are explored of grouping continuous data and analyzing the resulting contingency table. Specifically, an expression for the loss of power is derived when an odds ratio is used to assess risk measured by a continuous variable. Also explored are the consequences of employing correlation and regression coefficients to analyze summary variables derived from grouped data (ecologic data). An expression is given that demonstrates the magnitude of a bias (ecologic fallacy) resulting from analyzing a specific type of grouped data. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Seismic Analysis Issues in Design Certification Applications for New Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, M.; Morante, R.; Xu, J.

    2011-07-17

    The licensing framework established by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission under Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 52, “Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants,” provides requirements for standard design certifications (DCs) and combined license (COL) applications. The intent of this process is the early reso- lution of safety issues at the DC application stage. Subsequent COL applications may incorporate a DC by reference. Thus, the COL review will not reconsider safety issues resolved during the DC process. However, a COL application that incorporates a DC by reference must demonstrate that relevant site-specific de- sign parameters are within the bounds postulated by the DC, and any departures from the DC need to be justified. This paper provides an overview of several seismic analysis issues encountered during a review of recent DC applications under the 10 CFR Part 52 process, in which the authors have participated as part of the safety review effort.

  20. National Technology Standards for K-12 Schools: A Case Study of Unresolved Issues in Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.; Kealy, William A.; Sullivan, Ashley

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses an important need--the dissemination of information relating to technology as a public relations tool--and the associated exigency for administrator and teacher technology training. Specifically, we identify the increased expectations for the performance of school leaders and teachers, as well as unresolved issues in public…

  1. University Intervention into Community Issues as Dialogic Public Relations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Jamie M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines a study of the wastewater collection and treatment issues of Little Rock and North Little Rock, Arkansas by University of Arkansas at Little Rock personnel and how it constitutes dialogic public relations. The paper defines dialogic public relations using Kent and Taylor's work and then uses their criteria to describe how this…

  2. Introduction to the Special Issue: New and Interdisciplinary Approaches to Linguistic Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasopoulos, Panos; Bylund, Emanuel; Casasanto, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This Special Issue of "Language Learning" presents an interdisciplinary state-of-the-art overview of current approaches to linguistic relativity. It contains empirical and theoretical studies and reflections on linguistic relativity from a variety of perspectives, such as associative learning, conceptual transfer, multilingual awareness,…

  3. Containment-emergency-sump performance. Technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue A-43. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This report summarizes key technical findings related to the Unresolved Safety Issue A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance, and provides recommendations for resolution of attendant safety issues. The key safety questions relate to: (a) effects of insulation debris on sump performance; (b) sump hydraulic performance as determined by design features, submergence, and plant induced effects, and (c) recirculation pump performance wherein air and/or particulate ingestion can occur. The technical findings presented in this report provide information relevant to the design and performance evaluation of the containment emergency sump.

  4. Assessment of computational issues associated with analysis of high-lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, R.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Waggoner, Edgar G.

    1992-01-01

    Thin-layer Navier-Stokes calculations for wing-fuselage configurations from subsonic to hypersonic flow regimes are now possible. However, efficient, accurate solutions for using these codes for two- and three-dimensional high-lift systems have yet to be realized. A brief overview of salient experimental and computational research is presented. An assessment of the state-of-the-art relative to high-lift system analysis and identification of issues related to grid generation and flow physics which are crucial for computational success in this area are also provided. Research in support of the high-lift elements of NASA's High Speed Research and Advanced Subsonic Transport Programs which addresses some of the computational issues is presented. Finally, fruitful areas of concentrated research are identified to accelerate overall progress for high lift system analysis and design.

  5. Issues related to the inter-utility transfer of material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    An option that utilities have for obtaining material is to procure the desired item(s) from another utility. There are several reasons utilities choose another utility as the procurement source including item obsolescence, prohibitive cost on the commercial market, and excessive lead time. This document provides information on the technical, quality, and commercial issues which utilities may need to address when selling material to or procuring material from other utilities. This report provides suggested approaches for each of the following technical and quality issues: Design considerations; item acceptability considerations; original supplier considerations; commercial grade item dedication considerations; reportability considerations; packaging, shipping, and storage considerations; documentation considerations; receipt inspection considerations. The information is provided primarily for the inter-utility transfer of safety-related material. Several of the topics, however, may also apply to the transfer of non-safety-related material. The report also provides considerations on commercial issues which may be addressed during the inter-utility transfer of materials.

  6. Environmental issues related to commercialization of CulnSe{sub 2}- based photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Eberspacher, C.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1996-07-01

    One of the most promising materials for low-cost thin film photovoltaic cells is copper indium selenide (CuInSe{sub 2} or CIS). As with any new material, successful commercialization of CIS photovoltaic (PV) technology will require attention to environmental issues related to the sources of raw materials, their usage, and the disposal and/or recycling of products at the end of their useful life. This paper focuses on three specific environmental issues related to CIS technology: (i) Economics of the use and re-use of materials; (ii) regulations on environmental disposal and waste handling, and (iii) logistics and economics of recycling and disposing of products by industries faced with comparable environmental issues.

  7. The Portability of Computer-Related Educational Resources: An Overview of Issues and Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Betty A.; De Diana, Italo

    1990-01-01

    Provides an overview of the articles in this special issue, which deals with the portability, or transferability, of educational computer software. Motivations for portable software relating to cost, personnel, and time are discussed, and factors affecting portability are described, including technical factors, educational factors, social/cultural…

  8. 78 FR 9020 - Wireline Competition Bureau Seeks Further Comment on Specific Issues Related to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ..., 76 FR 73830, November 29, 2011 and 76 FR 78384, December 16, 2011, which comprehensively reformed and... accompanying FNPRM, 76 FR 78384, December 16, 2011, the Commission sought comment on various issues relating to... Proceedings, 63 FR 24121, May 1, 1998. Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed electronically using...

  9. Teacher to Teacher: What Texts Effectively Raise Issues Related to 9/11 for Secondary Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Journal, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with texts that effectively raise issues related to 9/11 for secondary students, as discussed by several teachers. Kevin J. Collins from St. Thomas Aquinas High School says, "Elephant," Gus Van Sant's exploration of a Columbine-like tragedy, underscores the current generation's attempt to define the meaning of events in…

  10. Telerobotic control issues related to real task applications in the space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Wayne

    1990-01-01

    Recent findings concerning the definition of the expected control environment associated with the Space Station are examined. The range of expected near-term and far-term task applications for robotic systems is provided, and the essential control issues related to the application environment are derived. In addition, an approximate control envelope for teleoperated and autonomous robotic systems is established.

  11. Allostatic Load: Single Parents, Stress-Related Health Issues, and Social Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johner, Randy L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the possible relationships between allostatic load (AL) and stress-related health issues in the low-income single-parent population, using both a population health perspective (PHP) and a biological framework. A PHP identifies associations among such factors as gender, income, employment, and social support and their…

  12. Transition Issues Related to Students with Visual Disabilities. PRO-ED Series on Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erin, Jane N.; Wolffe, Karen E.

    Part of a series that provides practical resources to transition personnel on topics essential to the process of preparing individuals with disabilities for adulthood, this manual focuses on transition issues related to students with visual impairments. Chapter 1 discusses the nature of visual impairment and reactions to visual impairment. Chapter…

  13. Technical Note: Some Issues Related to the Selection of Polymers for Aerospace Oxygen Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Beeson, Harold

    2004-01-01

    Materials intended for use in aerospace oxygen systems are commonly screened for oxygen compatibility following NASA STD 6001. This standard allows qualification of materials based on results provided by only one test method. Potential issues related to this practice are reviewed and recommendations are proposed that would lead to improved aerospace oxygen systems safety.

  14. 76 FR 52731 - On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice and request for comments....

  15. 16 CFR 456.5 - Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues. 456.5 Section 456.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE... may be found at 16 CFR part 315 (Contact Lens Rule)....

  16. 16 CFR 456.5 - Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues. 456.5 Section 456.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE... may be found at 16 CFR part 315 (Contact Lens Rule)....

  17. 16 CFR 456.5 - Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues. 456.5 Section 456.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE... may be found at 16 CFR part 315 (Contact Lens Rule)....

  18. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... issues related to environmental claims. Claims for property damage, personal injury, or death arising in... Torts Branch of DOJ. Such claims arising overseas must be reported to the Command Claims Service with... is not usually feasible because settlement of property damage claims must cover all...

  19. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... issues related to environmental claims. Claims for property damage, personal injury, or death arising in... Torts Branch of DOJ. Such claims arising overseas must be reported to the Command Claims Service with... is not usually feasible because settlement of property damage claims must cover all...

  20. Issues Relating to the Implementation and Management of an Integrated Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Carl; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Issues discussed relating to the University of Minnesota's Integrated Information Center (IIC) include the impact of the legal environment within which it must operate, its organizational structures, and its funding. In addition, the reactions of key stakeholders at the University of Minnesota to the model IIC are discussed. (two references) ( SD)

  1. Prospective Teachers' Perceptions about the Concept of Sustainable Development and Related Issues in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambusaidi, Abdullah; Al Washahi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate, from the Omani's prospective, teachers' perceptions about the concept of sustainable development (SD) and three related issues (cultural diversity, renewable energy and equity). The sample consisted of 159 prospective teachers from Sultan Qaboos University. Data were collected via a questionnaire comprising a list…

  2. A Study of Current Trends and Issues Related to Technical/Engineering Design Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Aaron C.; Scales Alice

    2000-01-01

    Presents results from a survey of engineering design graphics educators who responded to questions related to current trends and issues in the profession of graphics education. Concludes that there is a clear trend in institutions towards the teaching of constraint-based modeling and computer-aided manufacturing. (Author/YDS)

  3. Mediating Effects of Stress, Weight-Related Issues, and Depression on Suicidality in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sydney S.; Smith Carter, Jocelyn; Karczewski, Sabrina; Pivarunas, Bernadette; Suffoletto, Shannon; Munin, Art

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Through a holistic health lens, the current study examines the effects of weight-related issues and stress on suicidality while controlling for depressive symptoms in college students. Participants: In total, 872 undergraduate and graduate students at DePaul University completed the American College Health Association-National College…

  4. Students' Understandings of Religious Identities and Relations: Issues of Social Cohesion and Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The focus in this article is on issues of social cohesion and citizenship as they relate to students' understandings of religion and religious identity. The article draws on data gathered from a study conducted at a highly diverse English comprehensive school and is set amid broader anxieties about religion, community disharmony and national…

  5. Weight-Related Issues and High-Risk Sexual Behaviors among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Lust, Katherine D.

    2005-01-01

    Individuals with high body mass index (BMI), negative body image, and unhealthy weight control behaviors may be more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors than others. Researchers have not fully investigated these relationships in a sample of college students. The authors collected data regarding several weight-related issues and…

  6. 76 FR 22340 - Further Inquiry Into Tribal Issues Relating to Establishment of a Mobility Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ..., Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 75 FR 67060, November 1, 2010 (Mobility Fund NPRM), to use reserves... of Proposed Rulemaking, 76 FR 18476, April 4, 2011, proposes a variety of options for Tribal entities... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 1 Further Inquiry Into Tribal Issues Relating to Establishment of a Mobility...

  7. African American College Students' Health Behaviors and Perceptions of Related Health Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Denyce S.; Goode, Carolyn R.

    1994-01-01

    A study of African American college students compared students' health-related behaviors with their perceptions of corresponding health issues. Students had low smoking rates but higher alcohol consumption. Most students did not practice good nutrition or daily physical activity. Over half managed stress well, and three-quarters were sexually…

  8. Issues in Relating Evaluation to Theory, Policy, and Practice in Continuing Education and Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lawrence W.; Lewis, Frances Marcus

    1981-01-01

    Reviews a number of issues relating to the results of evaluation studies: standards of acceptability; clinical vs. statistical significance; fallacies in the use of theory; and program, theory, measurement, and design failure. (Journal availability: Subscription Manager, MOBIUS, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA 94720.) (SK)

  9. Japanese and American Preservice Teachers' Attitudes Toward Global Issues and Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Walter; Glenn, Allen; Mizoue, Yasushi; Meriwether, Crystal; Gardner, William

    1997-01-01

    Compared Japanese and U.S. preservice teachers' attitudes about global issues and global relations, surveying preservice elementary teachers at one Japanese and two American universities. Results indicated that the groups were moderately worldminded overall, and they differed significantly in their levels of worldmindedness. Four out of ten survey…

  10. Early Childhood Education: Status, Trends, and Issues Related to Electronic Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Donna

    As part of a broad investigation of the role of large-scale, satellite-based, educational telecommunication systems, the trends and issues in early childhood education in relation to electronic delivery are discussed in some detail. The population and numbers currently served by pre-primary programs, and school setting by type of control (public…

  11. How Do Learners in Developed and Developing Countries Relate to Environmental Issues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out in the framework of earlier research on environmental education for sustainability, using data collected in the ROSE Project. Attention was focused mainly on students' responses to sections and items related to environmental issues, regarding their countries' degree of development. The research questions dealt…

  12. Water resources and environmental input-output analysis and its key study issues: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YANG, Z.; Xu, X.

    2013-12-01

    inland water resources IOA. Recent internal study references related to environmental input-output table, pollution discharge analysis and environmental impact assessment had taken the leading position. Pollution discharge analysis mainly aiming at CO2 discharge had been regard as a new hotspot of environmental IOA. Environmental impact assessment was an important direction of inland environmental IOA in recent years. Key study issues including Domestic Technology Assumption(DTA) and Sectoral Aggregation(SA) had been mentioned remarkably. It was pointed out that multiply multi-region input-output analysis(MIOA) may be helpful to solve DTA. Because there was little study using effective analysis tools to quantify the bias of SA and the exploration of the appropriate sectoral aggregation degree was scarce, research dedicating to explore and solve these two key issues was deemed to be urgently needed. According to the study status, several points of outlook were proposed in the end.

  13. Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beelman, R.J.; Fletcher, C.D.; Modro, S.M.

    1992-08-01

    Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging computational problems to current thermal-hydraulic systems analysis codes. Additionally, the safety systems generally interact closely with one another, requiring accurate, integrated simulation of the nuclear steam supply system, engineered safeguards and containment. Furthermore, numerical safety analysis of these advanced passive reactor designs wig necessitate simulation of long-duration, slowly-developing transients compared with current reactor designs. The composite effects of small computational inaccuracies on induced system interactions and perturbations over long periods may well lead to predicted results which are significantly different than would otherwise be expected or might actually occur. Comparisons between the engineered safety features of competing US advanced light water reactor designs and analogous present day reactor designs are examined relative to the adequacy of existing thermal-hydraulic safety codes in predicting the mechanisms of passive safety. Areas where existing codes might require modification, extension or assessment relative to passive safety designs are identified. Conclusions concerning the applicability of these codes to advanced passive light water reactor safety analysis are presented.

  14. Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beelman, R.J.; Fletcher, C.D.; Modro, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging computational problems to current thermal-hydraulic systems analysis codes. Additionally, the safety systems generally interact closely with one another, requiring accurate, integrated simulation of the nuclear steam supply system, engineered safeguards and containment. Furthermore, numerical safety analysis of these advanced passive reactor designs wig necessitate simulation of long-duration, slowly-developing transients compared with current reactor designs. The composite effects of small computational inaccuracies on induced system interactions and perturbations over long periods may well lead to predicted results which are significantly different than would otherwise be expected or might actually occur. Comparisons between the engineered safety features of competing US advanced light water reactor designs and analogous present day reactor designs are examined relative to the adequacy of existing thermal-hydraulic safety codes in predicting the mechanisms of passive safety. Areas where existing codes might require modification, extension or assessment relative to passive safety designs are identified. Conclusions concerning the applicability of these codes to advanced passive light water reactor safety analysis are presented.

  15. Bio-ethical and legal issues in relation to HIV/AIDS: the Uganda experience.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, N K

    1998-01-01

    In Uganda, as in many other countries, there is a vacuum regarding an appropriate legal and ethical response to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Whereas much has been done to address the HIV/AIDS pandemic in a multidisciplinary way, very little has been done regarding legal and ethical issues. Hence, cases of claimants to have cures for AIDS, spiritual healers and sale of fake drugs plus unauthorized vaccine and drug trials are on the increase. The rights and needs of people infected with HIV/AIDS are not adequately addressed. The property rights of those affected by the pandemic continue to be abused. Therefore there is need to mobilize doctors, lawyers and human rights activists who should advocate and address these issues. This paper therefore highlights the critical bio-ethical and legal issues in relation to HIV/AIDS. PMID:10396922

  16. On the issues related to compliance assessment of ICNIRP 2010 basic restrictions.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Valerio; Chen, Xi Lin

    2014-06-01

    This article discusses technical issues related to compliance assessment of ICNIRP 2010 basic restrictions. Several difficulties are identified in this study when assessing the spatial average and 99th percentile value of the electric field. These issues are mainly attributed to the lack of clarity in the guideline specifications, which leads to inadequate or irreproducible results. Effects on compliance results due to such ambiguous procedures are hereby investigated, with particular focus on technical issues rather than biological ones. Examples spanning from simple canonical test cases to realistic applications have been selected to highlight the strong variability in dosimetry results. Based on our findings, revisiting the ICNIRP 2010 guidelines is strongly recommended, and proposed alternative solutions are outlined. PMID:24705441

  17. Using public relations to promote health: a framing analysis of public relations strategies among health associations.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyojung; Reber, Bryan H

    2010-01-01

    This study explored health organizations' public relations efforts to frame health issues through their press releases. Content analysis of 316 press releases from three health organizations-the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, and the American Diabetes Association-revealed that they used the medical research frame most frequently and emphasized societal responsibility for health issues. There were differences, however, among the organizations regarding the main frames and health issues: the American Diabetes Association was more likely to focus on the issues related to social support and education, while the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society were more likely to address medical research and scientific news. To demonstrate their initiatives for public health, all the organizations employed the social support/educational frame most frequently. Researchers and medical doctors frequently were quoted as trusted sources in the releases.

  18. Using public relations to promote health: a framing analysis of public relations strategies among health associations.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyojung; Reber, Bryan H

    2010-01-01

    This study explored health organizations' public relations efforts to frame health issues through their press releases. Content analysis of 316 press releases from three health organizations-the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, and the American Diabetes Association-revealed that they used the medical research frame most frequently and emphasized societal responsibility for health issues. There were differences, however, among the organizations regarding the main frames and health issues: the American Diabetes Association was more likely to focus on the issues related to social support and education, while the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society were more likely to address medical research and scientific news. To demonstrate their initiatives for public health, all the organizations employed the social support/educational frame most frequently. Researchers and medical doctors frequently were quoted as trusted sources in the releases. PMID:20390976

  19. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  20. State Legislators’ Work on Public Health-Related Issues: What Influences Priorities?

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Elizabeth A.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.; Chalifour, Stephanie; Haire-Joshu, Debra; McBride, Timothy; Brownson, Ross C.

    2014-01-01

    Context Policies are an effective way to influence population health and prevent disease. Unfortunately, public health research is often not well translated for policy audiences. Furthermore, researchers seeking to influence policy face an incomplete understanding of what influences legislators’ decisions regarding which issues will receive their limited time and focus. Objective The objective of this analysis was to examine various factors that may influence state legislators’ decisions about which health issues they address. Design Cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a randomized trial. Setting State legislatures. Participants State-level legislators. Main Outcome Measure(s) Measures included a rating of the influence of various factors on health policy priorities. A 7-point scale was used to measure political ideology on social and fiscal issues. Standard demographic questions were included on age, gender, and level of education. Results Seventy-five legislators completed surveys. Sixty-three percent were aged 55 years or older, and 76% male. When they were asked to rate factors according to importance in determining what health issues to work on, the top-rated factor was constituents’ needs or opinions followed by evidence of scientific effectiveness. Ratings were also examined by subgroups. Conclusions These findings point to several important applications for public health practitioners and researchers. Because legislators value constituents’ opinions, it is critical to inform and educate constituents about public health issues as well as policy options that may be effective in addressing problems. The results also highlight the importance of public health researchers and practitioners improving dissemination efforts to ensure that evidence-based scientific information is shared with policymakers in an effective and timely manner. PMID:23169400

  1. Invariance of molecular charge transport upon changes of extended molecule size and several related issues.

    PubMed

    Bâldea, Ioan

    2016-01-01

    As a sanity test for the theoretical method employed, studies on (steady-state) charge transport through molecular devices usually confine themselves to check whether the method in question satisfies the charge conservation. Another important test of the theory's correctness is to check that the computed current does not depend on the choice of the central region (also referred to as the "extended molecule"). This work addresses this issue and demonstrates that the relevant transport and transport-related properties are indeed invariant upon changing the size of the extended molecule, when the embedded molecule can be described within a general single-particle picture (namely, a second-quantized Hamiltonian bilinear in the creation and annihilation operators). It is also demonstrates that the invariance of nonequilibrium properties is exhibited by the exact results but not by those computed approximately within ubiquitous wide- and flat-band limits (WBL and FBL, respectively). To exemplify the limitations of the latter, the phenomenon of negative differential resistance (NDR) is considered. It is shown that the exactly computed current may exhibit a substantial NDR, while the NDR effect is absent or drastically suppressed within the WBL and FBL approximations. The analysis done in conjunction with the WBLs and FBLs reveals why general studies on nonequilibrium properties require a more elaborate theoretical than studies on linear response properties (e.g., ohmic conductance and thermopower) at zero temperature. Furthermore, examples are presented that demonstrate that treating parts of electrodes adjacent to the embedded molecule and the remaining semi-infinite electrodes at different levels of theory (which is exactly what most NEGF-DFT approaches do) is a procedure that yields spurious structures in nonlinear ranges of current-voltage curves. PMID:27335734

  2. Invariance of molecular charge transport upon changes of extended molecule size and several related issues

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary As a sanity test for the theoretical method employed, studies on (steady-state) charge transport through molecular devices usually confine themselves to check whether the method in question satisfies the charge conservation. Another important test of the theory’s correctness is to check that the computed current does not depend on the choice of the central region (also referred to as the “extended molecule”). This work addresses this issue and demonstrates that the relevant transport and transport-related properties are indeed invariant upon changing the size of the extended molecule, when the embedded molecule can be described within a general single-particle picture (namely, a second-quantized Hamiltonian bilinear in the creation and annihilation operators). It is also demonstrates that the invariance of nonequilibrium properties is exhibited by the exact results but not by those computed approximately within ubiquitous wide- and flat-band limits (WBL and FBL, respectively). To exemplify the limitations of the latter, the phenomenon of negative differential resistance (NDR) is considered. It is shown that the exactly computed current may exhibit a substantial NDR, while the NDR effect is absent or drastically suppressed within the WBL and FBL approximations. The analysis done in conjunction with the WBLs and FBLs reveals why general studies on nonequilibrium properties require a more elaborate theoretical than studies on linear response properties (e.g., ohmic conductance and thermopower) at zero temperature. Furthermore, examples are presented that demonstrate that treating parts of electrodes adjacent to the embedded molecule and the remaining semi-infinite electrodes at different levels of theory (which is exactly what most NEGF-DFT approaches do) is a procedure that yields spurious structures in nonlinear ranges of current–voltage curves. PMID:27335734

  3. Safety-related issues associated with implementing wireless systems in nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kaldenbach, B. J.; Ewing, P. D.; Moore, M. R.; Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C. E.; Govan, T. V.

    2006-07-01

    Currently, wireless technology is not used as an integral element of safety-related systems in nuclear facilities. The most prevalent introductory uses of wireless technology are for in-facility communications among personnel and for supplemental information transmission. However, further system upgrades and implementations at new facilities might introduce wireless communications into safety-significant applications. This paper documents the deployment issues and implementation considerations that can contribute to the technical basis for guidance on wireless systems. (authors)

  4. Smog chamber experiments to test oxidant related control strategy issues. Final report 1978-81

    SciTech Connect

    Kamens, R.M.; Jeffries, H.E.; Sexton, K.G.; Gerhardt, A.A.

    1982-03-01

    Outdoor smog chamber experiments were performed to address various issues relating to ozone (O3) production and oxidant control strategies. Temperature effects on single hydrocarbon-NOx systems were studied. Propylene-NOx systems were modeled with particular attention to peroxynitric acid chemistry. Mechanisms were developed to model the O3 reactions with the two major isoprene daughter products, methylvinylketone and methacrolein. Chamber systems with isoprene and O3 were also modeled.

  5. On the Conceptual Issues Surrounding the Notion of Relational Bohmian Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassallo, Antonio; Ip, Pui Him

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a program to construct a non-relativistic relational Bohmian theory, that is, a theory of N moving point-like particles that dispenses with space and time as fundamental background structures. The relational program proposed is based on the best-matching framework originally developed by Julian Barbour. In particular, the paper focuses on the conceptual problems that arise when trying to implement such a program. It is argued that pursuing a relational strategy in the Bohmian context leads to a more parsimonious ontology than that of standard Bohmian mechanics without betraying the original motivations for adopting a primitive ontology approach to quantum physics. It is also shown how a relational Bohmian approach might clarify the issue of the timelessness of the dynamics resulting from the quantization of a classical relational system of particles.

  6. The law and emergencies: surveillance for public health-related legal issues during Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Rachel I; McKie, Karen L; Goodman, Richard A

    2007-04-01

    Law influenced every aspect of the public health response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, from evacuation orders, to waivers of medical licensing requirements, to the clean-up of public health threats on private property. We used public health surveillance of news reports to identify and characterize legal issues arising during the disaster response in 5 Gulf Coast states. Data collected from news reports of the events in real time were followed-up by interviews with selected state legal and emergency management officials. Our analysis indicates the value of surveillance during and after emergency responses in identifying public health-related legal issues and helps to inform the strengthening of legal preparedness frameworks for future disasters.

  7. Analysis of governmental Web sites on food safety issues: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Namkung, Young; Almanza, Barbara A

    2006-10-01

    Despite a growing concern over food safety issues, as well as a growing dependence on the Internet as a source of information, little research has been done to examine the presence and relevance of food safety-related information on Web sites. The study reported here conducted Web site analysis in order to examine the current operational status of governmental Web sites on food safety issues. The study also evaluated Web site usability, especially information dimensionalities such as utility, currency, and relevance of content, from the perspective of the English-speaking consumer. Results showed that out of 192 World Health Organization members, 111 countries operated governmental Web sites that provide information about food safety issues. Among 171 searchable Web sites from the 111 countries, 123 Web sites (71.9 percent) were accessible, and 81 of those 123 (65.9 percent) were available in English. The majority of Web sites offered search engine tools and related links for more information, but their availability and utility was limited. In terms of content, 69.9 percent of Web sites offered information on foodborne-disease outbreaks, compared with 31.5 percent that had travel- and health-related information.

  8. Analysis of governmental Web sites on food safety issues: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Namkung, Young; Almanza, Barbara A

    2006-10-01

    Despite a growing concern over food safety issues, as well as a growing dependence on the Internet as a source of information, little research has been done to examine the presence and relevance of food safety-related information on Web sites. The study reported here conducted Web site analysis in order to examine the current operational status of governmental Web sites on food safety issues. The study also evaluated Web site usability, especially information dimensionalities such as utility, currency, and relevance of content, from the perspective of the English-speaking consumer. Results showed that out of 192 World Health Organization members, 111 countries operated governmental Web sites that provide information about food safety issues. Among 171 searchable Web sites from the 111 countries, 123 Web sites (71.9 percent) were accessible, and 81 of those 123 (65.9 percent) were available in English. The majority of Web sites offered search engine tools and related links for more information, but their availability and utility was limited. In terms of content, 69.9 percent of Web sites offered information on foodborne-disease outbreaks, compared with 31.5 percent that had travel- and health-related information. PMID:17066944

  9. Surface water resources issues analysis: Wheeler Reservoir watershed region

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.P.

    1990-02-01

    This report is one in a continuing series of periodic water resources issues analyses (WRIAs) conducted within the various local drainage basins that comprise the larger Tennessee River drainage basin. These analyses, based primarily upon existing information gathered from a variety of sources, perform several functions: document known or probable water quality issues that should be addressed by TVA or others; identify specific needs for additional information; guide routine surface water monitoring programs; and provide focus for planning and setting priorities for subsequent water quality assessments, mitigative activities, and resource management projects. 4 refs., 1 fig., 16 tabs.

  10. Paternalism in nursing and healthcare: central issues and their relation to theory.

    PubMed

    Cody, William K

    2003-10-01

    Paternalistic practices, wherein providers confer a treatment or service upon a person or persons without their consent, ostensibly by reason of their limited autonomy or diminished capacity, are widespread in healthcare and in societies around the world. In the United States, paternalism in health and human services is widespread and probably increasing with newly emergent forms. Numerous issues surround paternalistic practices. In this column, the author examines these issues in relation to theory development in healthcare and nursing as well as theory as a guide to practice. It is suggested that scientific and ethical knowing are not separate but must be united in theoretical structures that include both in unity, along with an appreciation of the infinite complexity of life as it is humanly lived. It is also suggested that nursing's unique theory base of frameworks that honor human dignity and focus on human experience offers an opportunity for leadership in further developing theoretical frameworks that transcend paternalistic practices.

  11. Modeling, Analysis, and Optimization Issues for Large Space Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinson, L. D. (Compiler); Amos, A. K. (Compiler); Venkayya, V. B. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Topics concerning the modeling, analysis, and optimization of large space structures are discussed including structure-control interaction, structural and structural dynamics modeling, thermal analysis, testing, and design.

  12. Current research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, John A.; Shakesby, Richard A.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Cannon, Susan H.; Martin, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Research into post-wildfire effects began in the United States more than 70 years ago and only later extended to other parts of the world. Post-wildfire responses are typically transient, episodic, variable in space and time, dependent on thresholds, and involve multiple processes measured by different methods. These characteristics tend to hinder research progress, but the large empirical knowledge base amassed in different regions of the world suggests that it should now be possible to synthesize the data and make a substantial improvement in the understanding of post-wildfire runoff and erosion response. Thus, it is important to identify and prioritize the research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion. Priority research issues are the need to: (1) organize and synthesize similarities and differences in post-wildfire responses between different fire-prone regions of the world in order to determine common patterns and generalities that can explain cause and effect relations; (2) identify and quantify functional relations between metrics of fire effects and soil hydraulic properties that will better represent the dynamic and transient conditions after a wildfire; (3) determine the interaction between burned landscapes and temporally and spatially variable meso-scale precipitation, which is often the primary driver of post-wildfire runoff and erosion responses; (4) determine functional relations between precipitation, basin morphology, runoff connectivity, contributing area, surface roughness, depression storage, and soil characteristics required to predict the timing, magnitudes, and duration of floods and debris flows from ungaged burned basins; and (5) develop standard measurement methods that will ensure the collection of uniform and comparable runoff and erosion data. Resolution of these issues will help to improve conceptual and computer models of post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes.

  13. Current research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, John A.; Shakesby, Richard A.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Cannon, Susan H.; Martin, Deborah A.

    Research into post-wildfire effects began in the United States more than 70 years ago and only later extended to other parts of the world. Post-wildfire responses are typically transient, episodic, variable in space and time, dependent on thresholds, and involve multiple processes measured by different methods. These characteristics tend to hinder research progress, but the large empirical knowledge base amassed in different regions of the world suggests that it should now be possible to synthesize the data and make a substantial improvement in the understanding of post-wildfire runoff and erosion response. Thus, it is important to identify and prioritize the research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion. Priority research issues are the need to: (1) organize and synthesize similarities and differences in post-wildfire responses between different fire-prone regions of the world in order to determine common patterns and generalities that can explain cause and effect relations; (2) identify and quantify functional relations between metrics of fire effects and soil hydraulic properties that will better represent the dynamic and transient conditions after a wildfire; (3) determine the interaction between burned landscapes and temporally and spatially variable meso-scale precipitation, which is often the primary driver of post-wildfire runoff and erosion responses; (4) determine functional relations between precipitation, basin morphology, runoff connectivity, contributing area, surface roughness, depression storage, and soil characteristics required to predict the timing, magnitudes, and duration of floods and debris flows from ungaged burned basins; and (5) develop standard measurement methods that will ensure the collection of uniform and comparable runoff and erosion data. Resolution of these issues will help to improve conceptual and computer models of post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes.

  14. Google and Women’s Health-Related Issues: What Does the Search Engine Data Reveal?

    PubMed Central

    Baazeem, Mazin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Identifying the gaps in public knowledge of women’s health related issues has always been difficult. With the increasing number of Internet users in the United States, we sought to use the Internet as a tool to help us identify such gaps and to estimate women’s most prevalent health concerns by examining commonly searched health-related keywords in Google search engine. Methods We collected a large pool of possible search keywords from two independent practicing obstetrician/gynecologists and classified them into five main categories (obstetrics, gynecology, infertility, urogynecology/menopause and oncology), and measured the monthly average search volume within the United States for each keyword with all its possible combinations using Google AdWords tool. Results We found that pregnancy related keywords were less frequently searched in general compared to other categories with an average of 145,400 hits per month for the top twenty keywords. Among the most common pregnancy-related keywords was “pregnancy and sex’ while pregnancy-related diseases were uncommonly searched. HPV alone was searched 305,400 times per month. Of the cancers affecting women, breast cancer was the most commonly searched with an average of 247,190 times per month, followed by cervical cancer then ovarian cancer. Conclusion The commonly searched keywords are often issues that are not discussed in our daily practice as well as in public health messages. The search volume is relatively related to disease prevalence with the exception of ovarian cancer which could signify a public fear. PMID:25422723

  15. Contributions to the Content Analysis of Gender Roles: An Introduction to a Special Issue

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Lucy; Linz, Daniel G.

    2011-01-01

    This special issue on gender-related content analysis is the second of two parts (see Rudy et al. 2010b). The current special issue is more diverse than was the first in the number of countries that are represented and in the variety of media genres and content types that are included. The primary aim of this paper is to outline some of the contributions of the individual papers in this second special issue. Some of these advancements and innovations include (a) examining underresearched measures, countries, time spans, sexual orientations, and individual media programs; (b) addressing both international and intranational differences in gender-role portrayals; (c) comparing multiple content formats within the same media unit; (d) updating past findings to take into consideration the current media landscape; (e) employing established measures in novel ways and novel contexts; (f) uncovering limitations in established intercultural measures and media-effects theories; (g) suggesting variables that could predict additional differences in gender-role portrayals; (h) adopting virtually identical methods and measures across distinct content categories in order to facilitate comparisons; (i) conducting multiple tests of a given hypothesis; (j) examining, from multiple perspectives, the implications of racial differences in gender portrayals; and (k) examining the implications of underrepresentation of women and the perspectives that women hold. In addition to the original content-analytical research presented in this special issue, two reviews, one methodological and the other analytical, offer recommendations of procedures and perspectives to be implemented in future research. PMID:21423330

  16. Faculty Attitudes about Multiculturalism Issues: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennen, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    The demographics of the United States continue to change, and cultural landscape changes along with it. The American Psychological Association (APA) has begun to address these issues within the field of psychology. These efforts are being made to bring understanding to ethnic identity formation, explore the dangers of ignoring ethnic differences…

  17. Analysis of Intellectual Property Protection Issues in Offshore Outsourcing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Satinder Pal

    2013-01-01

    Offshore outsourcing is a business strategy that involves contracting with a partner who can take over certain aspects of a company's business, such as information technology (IT) functions, in the interests of efficiency and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to analyze the intellectual property protection issues to achieve a better…

  18. Issues and Analysis; A Teaching Strategy for the Real World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronholm, Martha; Ramsey, John

    1991-01-01

    Recounts how a fifth-grade class applied the extended case study strategy to study a regional environmental issue, the Timber Wolf Recovery Plan. Students wrote essays; identified involved players' positions, beliefs, and values; conducted a survey of local residents' beliefs and attitudes; and devised a plan of action. (MDH)

  19. Dimensional Analysis and General Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovatt, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Newton's law of gravitation is a central topic in the first-year physics curriculum. A lecturer can go beyond the physical details and use the history of gravitation to discuss the development of scientific ideas; unfortunately, the most recent chapter in this history, general relativity, is not covered in first-year courses. This paper discusses…

  20. Equation of state and fragmentation issues in computational lethality analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Trucano, T.G.

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the status of computational analysis of hypervelocity impact lethality in relatively nontechnical terms from the perspective of the author. It is not intended to be a review of the technical literature on the problems of concern. The discussion is focused by concentrating on two phenomenology areas which are of particular concern in computational impact studies. First, the material`s equation of state, specifically the treatment of expanded states of metals undergoing shock vaporization, is discussed. Second, the process of dynamic fragmentation is addressed. In both cases, the context of the discussion deals with inaccuracies and difficulties associated with numerical hypervelocity impact simulations. Laboratory experimental capabilities in hypervelocity impact for impact velocities greater than 10.0 km/s are becoming increasingly viable. This paper also gives recommendations for experimental thrusts which utilize these capabilities that will help to resolve the uncertainties in the numerical lethality studies that are pointed out in the present report.

  1. Work-related stress and bullying: gender differences and forensic medicine issues in the diagnostic procedure

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The attention of international agencies and scientific community on bullying and work-related stress is increasing. This study describes the gender differences found in victims of bullying and work-related stress in an Italian case series and analyzes the critical issues in the diagnostic workup. Methods Between 2001 and 2009 we examined 345 outpatients (148 males, 197 females; mean age: 41 ± 10.49) for suspected psychopathological work-related problems. Diagnosis of bullying was established using international criteria (ICD-10 and DSM-IV). Results After interdisciplinary diagnostic evaluation (Occupational Medicine Unit, Psychology and Psychiatry Service), the diagnosis of bullying was formulated in 35 subjects, 12 males and 23 females (2 cases of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and 33 of Adjustment Disorder). Fifty-four (20 males, 34 females) suffered from work-related anxiety, while work-unrelated Adjustment Disorder and other psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 7 and 112 subjects, respectively. Women between 34 and 45 years showed a high prevalence (65%) of "mobbing syndrome" or other work-related stress disorders. Conclusions At work, women are more subject to harassment (for personal aspects related to emotional and relational factors) than men. The knowledge of the phenomenon is an essential requisite to contrast bullying; prevention can be carried out only through effective information and training of workers and employers, who have the legal obligation to preserve the integrity of the mental and physical status of their employees during work. PMID:22088163

  2. Hospital Malnutrition Related to Fasting and Underfeeding: Is It an Ethical Issue?

    PubMed

    Arenas Moya, Diego; Plascencia Gaitán, Alejandra; Ornelas Camacho, Denisse; Arenas Márquez, Humberto

    2016-06-01

    Hospital malnutrition is a relevant clinical issue present in about 50% of patients that is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and cost of care. Because of the relation of malnutrition with chronic and acute inflammatory processes secondary to disease, nutrition therapy is considered an important medical treatment. However, there is little discussion about the impact of another critical issue related to hospital malnutrition, that is, lack of appropriate food or nutrition therapy given to the patients. Unnecessary fasting practices and the use of inappropriate nutrition prescriptions result in underfeeding that can be a related or direct cause of hospital malnutrition, independent of disease or inflammatory state. Suboptimal prescription of oral, enteral, and parenteral nutrition should be analyzed and discussed from an ethical perspective since this practice has the potential to harm patients. In addition, absence or inadequate provision of nutrition may present barriers for improved patient outcomes and could be prevented by simply recognizing lack of knowledge, skills, or experience in nutrition and entrusting nutrition prescription to interdisciplinary teams with clinicians well prepared in nutrition sciences. This article reviews potential barriers to the prevention or treatment of hospital malnutrition and proposes specific actions that can help clinicians to overcome and implement optimal nutrition not just as medical therapy but also as a basic comfort care that may help patients nutritionally, clinically, physically, and emotionally. PMID:27208012

  3. Environmental, health and safety issues related to commercializing CuInSe{sub 2}-based photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Eberspacher, C.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowtiz, P.D.

    1996-07-01

    Photovoltaics technology is rapidly evolving towards a new generation of low-cost thin film technologies. One of the most promising materials in this new generation is copper indium selenide (CuInSe{sub 2} or CIS). As with any new material, successful commercialization of CIS photovoltaic (PV) technology will require attention to environmental, health and safety issues, including consideration of the sources, usage, and end-of-product-life disposal and/or recycling of the constituent materials. This work focuses on three specific environmental, health and safety (EH and S) issues related to CIS PV: (1) economics are analyzed to determine their impact on materials use and re-use; (2) Federal and California State environmental disposal and waste handling regulations are analyzed to evaluate their impact on PV module manufacturing and end-of-life module handling; and (3) the logistics and economics of product recycling and waste disposal by industries with comparable EH and S issues are examined to quantify the corresponding options available for handling, disposing of and/or recycling manufacturing by-products and end-of-life modules.

  4. Time-related degradation, a key issue in nuclear plant safety evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L.L.; Bustard, L.D.; Clough, R.L.; Gillen, K.T.

    1982-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is conducting a number of programs under NRC sponsorship which deal with safety-related equipment qualification issues, including the important aspect of aging. Among these is the Qualification Testing Evaluation (QTE) program which was probably the first to devote significant effort towards aging research and was one of the primary motivators leading to the Workshop. The thrust of the QTE aging efforts has been on elastomeric materials, typically used in electrical cables, seals, gaskets, and the like; currently, efforts are being pursued on plant ambient environments measurements, aging of electronics, and aging of motors. A brief status report is presented in this paper.

  5. Economic and demographic issues related to deployment of the Satellite Power System (SPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, T. E.; Hill, L. G.; Santini, D. J.; Stenehjem, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Growth in energy consumption stimulated interest in exploitation of renewable sources of electric energy. One technology that was proposed is the Satellite Power System (SPS). Before committing the U.S. to such a large program, the Department of Energy and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are jointly participating in an SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program. This white paper on industrial and population relocation is part of the FY 78 preliminary evaluation of related socio-economic issues. Results of four preliminary assessment activities are documented.

  6. Profiles of Students' Interest in Science Issues around the World: Analysis of data from PISA 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vegar Olsen, Rolf; Lie, Svein

    2011-01-01

    The Programme for International Student Assessment in 2006 included several measures of students' interest in science. These measures were constructed by combining information from several items where students are asked to respond to statements along Likert scale categories. Since there is evidence for Likert scales providing culturally biased country scores, we demonstrate in this article that the relative profiles of interest can be meaningfully analysed across countries. Hence, we have developed national relative profiles of interest in science constructed from the country- and item-specific residuals at the item level. Subsequently, these relative profiles of interest have been used as input in a cluster analysis providing identification of distinct groups of countries with similar item-by-item patterns of interest in science. The most notable feature of the analysis is an overall division between two larger groups of countries, roughly corresponding to European/Western countries in one group and non-European countries, with only a few exceptions, in the other group. A number of meaningful clusters of countries, partly defined by language and partly by localisation, are identified within each of the two main clusters. In order to develop a more detailed understanding of the characteristic features of the various clusters, descriptive information about the items is included in the analysis. The most notable finding is the strong relative preference for life and health issues among the non-European countries, contrasted with the distinct favouring of items relating to physical/technological systems in the European/Western countries.

  7. Risk assessment related to veterinary biologicals: specific issues in developing nations.

    PubMed

    Ward, D E

    1995-12-01

    The author reviews both technical and socio-economic issues in developing nations, in relation to veterinary biologicals. Health risk assessment is a specific process to estimate the likelihood that animals, humans or ecological systems will be affected adversely by a chemical or physical agent, or biological product, under a specific set of conditions. Some technical issues (quality assurance, good manufacturing practice, education of end-users, field monitoring) apply equally well in developed, industrialised and in developing, pre-industrialised nations. Many regions have documented unique diseases (trypanosomosis, tick diseases, theileriosis) or high disease prevalence which may influence risk assessment results. This emphasises the need for scientifically-valid risk assessment methodologies in developing nations. Developing nations also have various socio-economic concerns, which may not be based on scientific fact but, nonetheless, affect trade in, and use of, veterinary biologicals. These non-scientific but perceived problems and issues are briefly discussed, and possible solutions are presented. The way in which countries deal with such perceived problems and issues in a context of internationally harmonised norms for risk assessment impinges on livestock farmers in developing nations. Finally, the author presents possible ways to correct the potentially widening cost gap between conventional, proven veterinary biologicals and newly-developed products. The results of risk assessment of veterinary biologicals influence risk management in both developed and less-developed nations. It is important to agree upon scientifically-based risk management guidelines which may be applied in all countries. The effect of the agreements of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade on trade in veterinary biologicals in developing nations is reviewed.

  8. Design and analysis issues in gene and environment studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen-yu; Maity, Arnab; Lin, Xihong; Wright, Robert O; Christiani, David C

    2012-01-01

    Both nurture (environmental) and nature (genetic factors) play an important role in human disease etiology. Traditionally, these effects have been thought of as independent. This perspective is ill informed for non-mendelian complex disorders which result as an interaction between genetics and environment. To understand health and disease we must study how nature and nurture interact. Recent advances in human genomics and high-throughput biotechnology make it possible to study large numbers of genetic markers and gene products simultaneously to explore their interactions with environment. The purpose of this review is to discuss design and analytic issues for gene-environment interaction studies in the "-omics" era, with a focus on environmental and genetic epidemiological studies. We present an expanded environmental genomic disease paradigm. We discuss several study design issues for gene-environmental interaction studies, including confounding and selection bias, measurement of exposures and genotypes. We discuss statistical issues in studying gene-environment interactions in different study designs, such as choices of statistical models, assumptions regarding biological factors, and power and sample size considerations, especially in genome-wide gene-environment studies. Future research directions are also discussed.

  9. 75 FR 62514 - Notice of Availability of Report on Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... of Availability of Report on Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid Technologies AGENCY... Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid Technologies.'' In this report, DOE discusses existing trends, consensus, and potential best practices emerging as States use or adapt existing legal regimes...

  10. 17 CFR 230.488 - Effective date of registration statements relating to securities to be issued in certain business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... statements relating to securities to be issued in certain business combination transactions. 230.488 Section... REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Investment Companies; Business Development Companies § 230.488 Effective date of registration statements relating to securities to be issued in certain business...

  11. Dimensional Analysis and General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovatt, Ian

    2009-02-01

    Newton's law of gravitation is a central topic in the first-year physics curriculum. A lecturer can go beyond the physical details and use the history of gravitation to discuss the development of scientific ideas; unfortunately, the most recent chapter in this history, general relativity, is not covered in first-year courses. This paper discusses some topics that can be introduced with the judicious use of the dimensionless quantity GM/Rc2: deflection of light by a massive object, perihelion precession, gravitational redshifts, and the Global Positioning System (GPS).

  12. Shock tube investigation of hydrodynamic issues related to inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. H.; Puranik, B. P.; Oakley, J. G.; Brooks, P. W.; Bonazza, R.

    A shock tube investigation of two hydrodynamic issues related to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is undertaken. ICF is a promising source of energy for the future. There has been a considerable increase in the interest in ICF with the development of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). However, much remains to be investigated before a useful yield is obtained from a fusion reaction for power generation. The physics involved in carrying out a fusion reaction combines hydrodynamics, plasma physics and radiation effects superimposed on each other, at extremely small scales, making the problem very complex. One such phenomenon occurring in the deuterium-tritium pellet implosion is the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability occuring at each layer of the fuel which results in the mixing of the ablator with the fuel. This causes dilution of the fuel and reduces the yield of the reaction. Another issue is the impulsive loading of ICF reactor cooling tubes due to the shock wave produced as a result of the fusion reaction. These tubes must withstand the impulse of the shock wave. A shock tube provides an ideal environment to study these issues at large geometric scales with the isolation of hydrodynamics from other effects. A new vertical, square shock tube has been designed specifically for the purpose of studying these fluid flow phenomena from a fundamental point of view. The shock tube is vertical, with a large square inner cross-section and is designed to allow for the release of a M=5 shock into air at atmospheric pressure. In this paper, we describe the new shock tube and related instrumentation in detail and present a few preliminary results on the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability and shock-cylinder interactions.

  13. African American college students' health behaviors and perceptions of related health issues.

    PubMed

    Ford, D S; Goode, C R

    1994-03-01

    The authors identify specific health-related behaviors of African American college students and compare them with the students' perceptions of corresponding health issues. Among students surveyed, the rate of cigarette smoking (4%) was very low compared with smoking rates found in a national survey (14%); but alcohol consumption was relatively high (63%), although lower than the national average of 91%. More men than women smoked, but more women than men reported they drank alcoholic beverages. Most students (90.2%) said they did not usually eat breakfast, 73.6% reported that their diets were not nutritionally balanced, and the majority (55.4%) were not involved in daily physical activity. More than half (63%) of the students reported satisfactorily handling stress, and 74.1% indicated that they were sexually active. Respondents perceived the most important health issues facing college students as HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), birth control, date rape, stress management, suicide, and alcohol and other drugs. PMID:8201133

  14. Developing a research agenda on ethical issues related to using social media in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Adams, Samantha A; Van Veghel, Dennis; Dekker, Lukas

    2015-07-01

    The consequences of using publicly available social media applications specifically for healthcare purposes are largely unaddressed in current research. Where they are addressed, the focus is primarily on issues of privacy and data protection. We therefore use a case study of the first live Twitter heart operation in the Netherlands, in combination with recent literature on social media from other academic fields, to identify a wide range of ethical issues related to using social media for health-related purposes. Although this case reflects an innovative approach to public education and patient centeredness, it also illustrates the need for institutions to weigh the various aspects of use and to develop a plan to deal with these on a per case basis. Given the continual development of technologies, researchers may not yet be able to oversee and anticipate all of the potential implications. Further development of a research agenda on this topic, the promotion of guidelines and policies, and the publication of case studies that reveal the granularity of individual situations will therefore help raise awareness and assist physicians and institutions in using social media to support existing care services.

  15. Issues related to the use of blood in food and animal feed.

    PubMed

    Ofori, Jack A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P

    2014-01-01

    Blood has traditionally been used as a high protein ingredient in both human food and animal feed, with resulting economic, environmental and nutritional benefits. However, potentially serious health and safety issues related to blood consumption, particularly the risk of pathogenic or harmful metabolic materials, the infectivity of prion diseases, and the presence of identified allergens such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), are causing many consumers to shy away from any product containing either animal blood or ingredients derived from animal blood. Thus, despite the significant volumes of blood produced by slaughterhouses, blood is currently underutilized as a food ingredient. This article reviews the use of animal blood as an ingredient in food intended for human consumption or for animal feed and discusses the related consumer concerns.

  16. Progress in Addressing DNFSB Recommendation 2002-1 Issues: Improving Accident Analysis Software Applications

    SciTech Connect

    VINCENT, ANDREW

    2005-04-25

    Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2002-1 (''Quality Assurance for Safety-Related Software'') identified a number of quality assurance issues on the use of software in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for analyzing hazards, and designing and operating controls to prevent or mitigate potential accidents. Over the last year, DOE has begun several processes and programs as part of the Implementation Plan commitments, and in particular, has made significant progress in addressing several sets of issues particularly important in the application of software for performing hazard and accident analysis. The work discussed here demonstrates that through these actions, Software Quality Assurance (SQA) guidance and software tools are available that can be used to improve resulting safety analysis. Specifically, five of the primary actions corresponding to the commitments made in the Implementation Plan to Recommendation 2002-1 are identified and discussed in this paper. Included are the web-based DOE SQA Knowledge Portal and the Central Registry, guidance and gap analysis reports, electronic bulletin board and discussion forum, and a DOE safety software guide. These SQA products can benefit DOE safety contractors in the development of hazard and accident analysis by precluding inappropriate software applications and utilizing best practices when incorporating software results to safety basis documentation. The improvement actions discussed here mark a beginning to establishing stronger, standard-compliant programs, practices, and processes in SQA among safety software users, managers, and reviewers throughout the DOE Complex. Additional effort is needed, however, particularly in: (1) processes to add new software applications to the DOE Safety Software Toolbox; (2) improving the effectiveness of software issue communication; and (3) promoting a safety software quality assurance culture.

  17. Grade, Pubertal Status, and Gender-Related Variations in Conflictual Issues among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Dennis R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Junior and senior high school students (N=279) completed measures of pubertal status, demographics, and Issues Checklist. Intensity of School Issues and Household Behavior Issues was greater among seventh and ninth graders than among eleventh graders. Self-Responsibility Issues were most intense among transpubertal adolescents. Boys perceived more…

  18. The Application of Bayesian Analysis to Issues in Developmental Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Lawrence J.; Gustafson, Paul; Frimer, Jeremy A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the concepts and methods of Bayesian statistical analysis, which can offer innovative and powerful solutions to some challenging analytical problems that characterize developmental research. In this article, we demonstrate the utility of Bayesian analysis, explain its unique adeptness in some circumstances, address some…

  19. Issues in performing a network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Senn, Stephen; Gavini, Francois; Magrez, David; Scheen, André

    2013-04-01

    The example of the analysis of a collection of trials in diabetes consisting of a sparsely connected network of 10 treatments is used to make some points about approaches to analysis. In particular various graphical and tabular presentations, both of the network and of the results are provided and the connection to the literature of incomplete blocks is made. It is clear from this example that is inappropriate to treat the main effect of trial as random and the implications of this for analysis are discussed. It is also argued that the generalisation from a classic random-effect meta-analysis to one applied to a network usually involves strong assumptions about the variance components involved. Despite this, it is concluded that such an analysis can be a useful way of exploring a set of trials.

  20. Issues in performing a network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Senn, Stephen; Gavini, Francois; Magrez, David; Scheen, André

    2013-04-01

    The example of the analysis of a collection of trials in diabetes consisting of a sparsely connected network of 10 treatments is used to make some points about approaches to analysis. In particular various graphical and tabular presentations, both of the network and of the results are provided and the connection to the literature of incomplete blocks is made. It is clear from this example that is inappropriate to treat the main effect of trial as random and the implications of this for analysis are discussed. It is also argued that the generalisation from a classic random-effect meta-analysis to one applied to a network usually involves strong assumptions about the variance components involved. Despite this, it is concluded that such an analysis can be a useful way of exploring a set of trials. PMID:22218368

  1. Pedagogical issues for effective teaching of biosignal processing and analysis.

    PubMed

    Sandham, William A; Hamilton, David J

    2010-01-01

    Biosignal processing and analysis is generally perceived by many students to be a challenging topic to understand, and to become adept with the necessary analytical skills. This is a direct consequence of the high mathematical content involved, and the many abstract features of the topic. The MATLAB and Mathcad software packages offer an excellent algorithm development environment for teaching biosignal processing and analysis modules, and can also be used effectively in many biosignal, and indeed bioengineering, research areas. In this paper, traditional introductory and advanced biosignal processing (and analysis) syllabi are reviewed, and the use of MATLAB and Mathcad for teaching and research is illustrated with a number of examples.

  2. Coming out of the Dark: Content Analysis of Articles Pertaining to Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Issues in Couple and Family Therapy Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwell, Erica E.; Serovich, Julianne M.; Grafsky, Erika L.; Kerr, Zachary Y.

    2012-01-01

    The present study seeks to extend previous research regarding literature related to gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) issues published in couple and family therapy (CFT)-related journals by presenting the results from a content analysis of GLB studies in CFT-related journals from 1996 to 2010. Results of the analysis revealed a 238.8% increase in…

  3. Error analysis and implementation issues for energy density probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locey, Lance L.; Woolford, Brady L.; Sommerfeldt, Scott D.; Blotter, Jonathan D.

    2001-05-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the utility of acoustic energy density measurements as a means to gain a greater understanding of acoustic fields. Three spherical energy density probe designs are under development. The first probe design has three orthogonal pairs of surface mounted microphones. The second probe design utilizes a similarly sized sphere with four surface mounted microphones. The four microphones are located at the origin and unit vectors of a Cartesian coordinate system, where the origin and the tips of the three unit vectors all lie on the surface of the sphere. The third probe design consists of a similarly sized sphere, again with four surface microphones, each placed at the vertices of a regular tetrahedron. The sensing elements of all three probes are Panasonic electret microphones. The work presented here will expand on previously reported work, and address bias errors, spherical scattering effects, and practical implementation issues. [Work supported by NASA.

  4. Review of cross-cultural issues related to quality of life after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Tate, Denise; Forchheimer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is a dynamic concept that means different things to different people, both in the general public and within the research community. Because of this, a common definition of QOL has been hard to achieve. This article reviews cross-cultural issues related to QOL research in spinal cord injury (SCI). Many factors influence QOL for persons with SCI, including observable and objective indicators and subjective self-report ones. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Function, Disability and Health is used in this article as a framework to better understand how these factors may influence QOL. A number of important steps are summarized with respect to measurement issues in QOL. A comparison between data from 2 countries (United States and Brazil) using the International SCI QOL Basic Data Set shows similarities in scores and good reliability in the Brazilian sample. Substantial, significant correlations were observed among the SCI QOL Basic Data Set items and the WHOQOL-BREF within the US sample. The article ends with a set of recommendations for the development of cross-cultural measures of QOL for use in the SCI population.

  5. Review of Cross-Cultural Issues Related to Quality of Life After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is a dynamic concept that means different things to different people, both in the general public and within the research community. Because of this, a common definition of QOL has been hard to achieve. This article reviews cross-cultural issues related to QOL research in spinal cord injury (SCI). Many factors influence QOL for persons with SCI, including observable and objective indicators and subjective self-report ones. The World Health Organization’s International Classification of Function, Disability and Health is used in this article as a framework to better understand how these factors may influence QOL. A number of important steps are summarized with respect to measurement issues in QOL. A comparison between data from 2 countries (United States and Brazil) using the International SCI QOL Basic Data Set shows similarities in scores and good reliability in the Brazilian sample. Substantial, significant correlations were observed among the SCI QOL Basic Data Set items and the WHOQOL-BREF within the US sample. The article ends with a set of recommendations for the development of cross-cultural measures of QOL for use in the SCI population. PMID:25484564

  6. Review of cross-cultural issues related to quality of life after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Tate, Denise; Forchheimer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is a dynamic concept that means different things to different people, both in the general public and within the research community. Because of this, a common definition of QOL has been hard to achieve. This article reviews cross-cultural issues related to QOL research in spinal cord injury (SCI). Many factors influence QOL for persons with SCI, including observable and objective indicators and subjective self-report ones. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Function, Disability and Health is used in this article as a framework to better understand how these factors may influence QOL. A number of important steps are summarized with respect to measurement issues in QOL. A comparison between data from 2 countries (United States and Brazil) using the International SCI QOL Basic Data Set shows similarities in scores and good reliability in the Brazilian sample. Substantial, significant correlations were observed among the SCI QOL Basic Data Set items and the WHOQOL-BREF within the US sample. The article ends with a set of recommendations for the development of cross-cultural measures of QOL for use in the SCI population. PMID:25484564

  7. The growing use of herbal medicines: issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety

    PubMed Central

    Ekor, Martins

    2014-01-01

    The use of herbal medicinal products and supplements has increased tremendously over the past three decades with not less than 80% of people worldwide relying on them for some part of primary healthcare. Although therapies involving these agents have shown promising potential with the efficacy of a good number of herbal products clearly established, many of them remain untested and their use are either poorly monitored or not even monitored at all. The consequence of this is an inadequate knowledge of their mode of action, potential adverse reactions, contraindications, and interactions with existing orthodox pharmaceuticals and functional foods to promote both safe and rational use of these agents. Since safety continues to be a major issue with the use of herbal remedies, it becomes imperative, therefore, that relevant regulatory authorities put in place appropriate measures to protect public health by ensuring that all herbal medicines are safe and of suitable quality. This review discusses toxicity-related issues and major safety concerns arising from the use of herbal medicinal products and also highlights some important challenges associated with effective monitoring of their safety. PMID:24454289

  8. A Needs Assessment of Health Issues Related to Maternal Mortality Rates in Afghanistan: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Naim, Ali; Feldman, Robert; Sawyer, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Maternal death rates in Afghanistan were among the highest in the world during the reign of the Taliban. Although these figures have improved, current rates are still alarming. The aim of this pilot study was to develop a needs assessment of the major health issues related to the high maternal mortality rates in Afghanistan. In-depth interviews were conducted with managerial midwives, clinical midwives, and mothers. Results of the interviews indicate that the improvement in the maternal mortality rate may be attributed to the increase in the involvement of midwives in the birthing process. However, barriers to decreasing maternal mortality still exist. These include transportation, access to care, and sociocultural factors such as the influence of the husband and mother-in-law in preventing access to midwives. Therefore, any programs to decrease maternal mortality need to address infrastructure issues (making health care more accessible) and sociocultural factors (including husbands and mother-in-laws in maternal health education). However, it should be noted that these findings are based on a small pilot study to help develop a larger scale need assessment.

  9. Relativity Concept Inventory: Development, Analysis, and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example,…

  10. Impact of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) on patient health-related behaviors and issues.

    PubMed

    Polen, Hyla H; Khanfar, Nile M; Clauson, Kevin A

    2009-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry spends billions of dollars annually on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA). Patient perspectives on the impact of televised DTCA on health-related behaviors and issues were assessed by means of a 68-question survey. 58.6% of respondents believed that DTCA allowed consumers to have a more active role in managing their health. However, 27.6% felt DTCA caused confusion, and an alarming 17.8% of respondents stopped taking their medication because of concerns about serious side effects mentioned in DTCA. Overall, participants believed DTCA plays a useful role in health self-management; however, a considerable percentage thought that the cost outweighs the benefits. PMID:19197587

  11. Approach and issues relating to shield material design to protect astronauts from space radiation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J W; Cucinotta, F A; Miller, J; Shinn, J L; Thibeault, S A; Singleterry, R C; Simonsen, L C; Kim, M H

    2001-10-01

    One major obstacle to human space exploration is the possible limitations imposed by the adverse effects of long-term exposure to the space environment. Even before human spaceflight began, the potentially brief exposure of astronauts to the very intense random solar energetic particle (SEP) events was of great concern. A new challenge appears in deep space exploration from exposure to the low-intensity heavy-ion flux of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) since the missions are of long duration and the accumulated exposures can be high. Since aluminum (traditionally used in spacecraft to avoid potential radiation risks) leads to prohibitively expensive mission launch costs, alternative materials need to be explored. An overview of the materials related issues and their impact on human space exploration will be given. PMID:12194183

  12. Approach and Issues Relating to Shield Material Design to Protect Astronauts from Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Miller, J.; Shinn, J. L.; Thibeault, S. A.; Singleterry, R. C.; Simonsen, L. C.; Kim, M. H.

    2001-01-01

    One major obstacle to human space exploration is the possible limitations imposed by the adverse effects of long-term exposure to the space environment. Even before human spaceflight began, the potentially brief exposure of astronauts to the very intense random solar energetic particle (SEP) events was of great concern. A new challenge appears in deep space exploration from exposure to the low-intensity heavy-ion flux of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) since the missions are of long duration and the accumulated exposures can be high. Since aluminum (traditionally used in spacecraft to avoid potential radiation risks) leads to prohibitively expensive mission launch costs, alternative materials need to be explored. An overview of the materials related issues and their impact on human space exploration will be given.

  13. Introduction to the special issue on ''relations between gambling and alcohol use''.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Sherry H; Kushner, Matt G

    2005-01-01

    It has long been recognized that gambling is an activity that is often combined with alcohol intake. Not only do the behaviors of drinking and gambling frequently co-occur, alcohol use disorders and pathological gambling are also commonly co-morbid conditions in both clinical and non-clinical samples. This article introduces a special issue of the Journal of Gambling Studies focusing on cutting edge findings on the relations between gambling and alcohol use behaviors and their associated disorders. We set the stage for the following series of six novel empirical papers and integrative commentary by reviewing the theoretical pathways through which alcohol use and gambling disorders may be linked. We conclude by describing some of the novel contributions of each of the empirical studies from within the context of these theoretical models.

  14. Basic issues related to quantity and quality of health care, and quality assurance in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Jacobalis, S

    1989-01-01

    Issues and problems related to the needs for quantity and quality in health care have been presented. The need for quantity has been quite successfully addressed in the last 20 years. Better quality of health care is very much in the minds of policy makers, providers and the informed public. Quality assessment and assurance as a programmed and on-going process in individual hospitals is systematically promoted and developed. An accreditation system for hospitals is planned for the future. This paper has not been able to contribute anything of value to the current practice of quality assurance. The industrialized world has passed the stages Indonesia is now going through. To some Australian colleagues, this presentation perhaps has revealed that one of their closest neighbours is struggling hard to improve the quality of life of its people, despite the tremendous problems and constraints with which it is confronted. Australia has always provided a helping hand in this struggle.

  15. Review of Technical Issues Related to Predicting Isotopic Compositions and Source Terms for High-Burnup LWR Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, I. C.; Parks, C. V.

    2000-12-11

    This report has been prepared to review the technical issues important to the prediction of isotopic compositions and source terms for high-burnup, light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel as utilized in the licensing of spent fuel transport and storage systems. The current trend towards higher initial 235U enrichments, more complex assembly designs, and more efficient fuel management schemes has resulted in higher spent fuel burnups than seen in the past. This trend has led to a situation where high-burnup assemblies from operating LWRs now extend beyond the area where available experimental data can be used to validate the computational methods employed to calculate spent fuel inventories and source terms. This report provides a brief review of currently available validation data, including isotopic assays, decay heat measurements, and shielded dose-rate measurements. Potential new sources of experimental data available in the near term are identified. A review of the background issues important to isotopic predictions and some of the perceived technical challenges that high-burnup fuel presents to the current computational methods are discussed. Based on the review, the phenomena that need to be investigated further and the technical issues that require resolution are presented. The methods and data development that may be required to address the possible shortcomings of physics and depletion methods in the high-burnup and high-enrichment regime are also discussed. Finally, a sensitivity analysis methodology is presented. This methodology is currently being investigated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a computational tool to better understand the changing relative significance of the underlying nuclear data in the different enrichment and burnup regimes and to identify the processes that are dominant in the high-burnup regime. The potential application of the sensitivity analysis methodology to help establish a range of applicability for experimental

  16. Issues related to symptomatic and disease-modifying treatments affecting cognitive and neuropsychiatric comorbidities of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Brooks-Kayal, Amy R; Bath, Kevin G; Berg, Anne T; Galanopoulou, Aristea S; Holmes, Gregory L; Jensen, Frances E; Kanner, Andres M; O'Brien, Terence J; Whittemore, Vicky H; Winawer, Melodie R; Patel, Manisha; Scharfman, Helen E

    2013-08-01

    Many symptoms of neurologic or psychiatric illness--such as cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety, attention deficits, and migraine--occur more frequently in people with epilepsy than in the general population. These diverse comorbidities present an underappreciated problem for people with epilepsy and their caregivers because they decrease quality of life, complicate treatment, and increase mortality. In fact, it has been suggested that comorbidities can have a greater effect on quality of life in people with epilepsy than the seizures themselves. There is increasing recognition of the frequency and impact of cognitive and behavioral comorbidities of epilepsy, highlighted in the 2012 Institute of Medicine report on epilepsy. Comorbidities have also been acknowledged, as a National Institutes of Health (NIH) Benchmark area for research in epilepsy. However, relatively little progress has been made in developing new therapies directed specifically at comorbidities. On the other hand, there have been many advances in understanding underlying mechanisms. These advances have made it possible to identify novel targets for therapy and prevention. As part of the International League Against Epilepsy/American Epilepsy Society workshop on preclinical therapy development for epilepsy, our working group considered the current state of understanding related to terminology, models, and strategies for therapy development for the comorbidities of epilepsy. Herein we summarize our findings and suggest ways to accelerate development of new therapies. We also consider important issues to improve research including those related to methodology, nonpharmacologic therapies, biomarkers, and infrastructure.

  17. Issues in the Analysis of Data in Developmental Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Marcus

    This paper illustrates the relevance and utility of non-parametric statistical tests, such as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov two sample test, for analysis of developmental phenomena. This statistic tests the null hypothesis that two samples have been drawn from the same population by comparing their whole distributions, rather than specific parameters and…

  18. An Analysis of Ethical Issues in Governmental Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, John R.

    A research review examined the ethical responsibilities of a communicator in contemporary American society, particularly in governmental communication. Various scholars have suggested standards of ethical governmental communication and have questioned the ethics of governmental officials in several cases. Ethical analysis of President Ronald…

  19. WATER ANALYSIS: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES: 2007 REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This biennial review covers developments in Water Analysis over the period of 2005-2006. A few significant references that appeared between January and March 2007 are also included. Analytical Chemistry's current policy is to limit reviews to include 200-250 significant referen...

  20. Methodological Issues of Sample Collection and Analysis of Exhaled Breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recommended standardized procedures have been developed for measurement of exhaled lower respiratory nitric oxide (NO) and nasal NO. It would be desirable to develop similar guidelines for the sampling of exhaled breath related to other compounds. For such systemic volatile o...

  1. Gender Issues in Psychology: A Content Analysis of Introductory Psychology Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor-Greene, Patti; And Others

    This paper assesses the attention given to gender issues in 17 psychology textbooks published between 1985 and 1987 and used in college undergraduate introductory courses. The methodology used was the analysis of content and research citations. Specific issues that were examined included: (1) the explanation of the distinction between gender and…

  2. Computational issue in the analysis of adaptive control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosut, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Adaptive systems under slow parameter adaption can be analyzed by the method of averaging. This provides a means to assess stability (and instability) properties of most adaptive systems, either continuous-time or (more importantly for practice) discrete-time, as well as providing an estimate of the region of attraction. Although the method of averaging is conceptually straightforward, even simple examples are well beyond hand calculations. Specific software tools are proposed which can provide the basis for user-friendly environment to perform the necessary computations involved in the averaging analysis.

  3. Application of Radiation Chemistry to Some Selected Technological Issues Related to the Development of Nuclear Energy.

    PubMed

    Bobrowski, Krzysztof; Skotnicki, Konrad; Szreder, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    The most important contributions of radiation chemistry to some selected technological issues related to water-cooled reactors, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes, and fuel evolution during final radioactive waste disposal are highlighted. Chemical reactions occurring at the operating temperatures and pressures of reactors and involving primary transients and stable products from water radiolysis are presented and discussed in terms of the kinetic parameters and radiation chemical yields. The knowledge of these parameters is essential since they serve as input data to the models of water radiolysis in the primary loop of light water reactors and super critical water reactors. Selected features of water radiolysis in heterogeneous systems, such as aqueous nanoparticle suspensions and slurries, ceramic oxides surfaces, nanoporous, and cement-based materials, are discussed. They are of particular concern in the primary cooling loops in nuclear reactors and long-term storage of nuclear waste in geological repositories. This also includes radiation-induced processes related to corrosion of cladding materials and copper-coated iron canisters, dissolution of spent nuclear fuel, and changes of bentonite clays properties. Radiation-induced processes affecting stability of solvents and solvent extraction ligands as well oxidation states of actinide metal ions during recycling of the spent nuclear fuel are also briefly summarized.

  4. Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: Historical, Ethical, and Legal Issues Associated With Prescribing

    PubMed Central

    Faiman, Beth; Pillai, Aiswarya Lekshmi Pillai Chandran; Benghiac, Ana Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The long-term effects of many drugs are unknown. Established risks are communicated to patients who participate in clinical trials during the informed consent process. However, unknown and unanticipated side effects of medications may occur years after treatment. Patients with metastatic bone cancer experience an imbalance between tumor cells and the bone marrow microenvironment. Increased cytokine release, osteoclastic activity, and uncoupled osteoblastic activity lead to weakened bone structure and osteolytic lesions. The bisphosphonates are a class of drugs available in IV and oral formulations to treat and prevent bone loss and decrease the risk of skeletal-related events. Intravenous bisphosphonates such as zoledronic acid and pamidronate disodium are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of bone pain and hypercalcemia of malignancy and the prevention of painful bone fractures in patients with metastatic bone cancer. Oral bisphosphonates such as alendronate, risedronate, and etidronate are used to reduce the risk of skeletal fractures in patients with osteoporosis and in breast cancer. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a rare but painful complication of treatment characterized by infection, exposed bone, and poor wound healing. In this article, we discuss BRONJ and identify past, present, and future ethical and legal issues surrounding bisphosphonate administration. PMID:25031978

  5. Application of Radiation Chemistry to Some Selected Technological Issues Related to the Development of Nuclear Energy.

    PubMed

    Bobrowski, Krzysztof; Skotnicki, Konrad; Szreder, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    The most important contributions of radiation chemistry to some selected technological issues related to water-cooled reactors, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes, and fuel evolution during final radioactive waste disposal are highlighted. Chemical reactions occurring at the operating temperatures and pressures of reactors and involving primary transients and stable products from water radiolysis are presented and discussed in terms of the kinetic parameters and radiation chemical yields. The knowledge of these parameters is essential since they serve as input data to the models of water radiolysis in the primary loop of light water reactors and super critical water reactors. Selected features of water radiolysis in heterogeneous systems, such as aqueous nanoparticle suspensions and slurries, ceramic oxides surfaces, nanoporous, and cement-based materials, are discussed. They are of particular concern in the primary cooling loops in nuclear reactors and long-term storage of nuclear waste in geological repositories. This also includes radiation-induced processes related to corrosion of cladding materials and copper-coated iron canisters, dissolution of spent nuclear fuel, and changes of bentonite clays properties. Radiation-induced processes affecting stability of solvents and solvent extraction ligands as well oxidation states of actinide metal ions during recycling of the spent nuclear fuel are also briefly summarized. PMID:27573502

  6. 43 CFR 2931.2 - What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... recreation-related uses of public lands? 2931.2 Section 2931.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Permits for Recreation; General § 2931.2 What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands? The regulations in this part...

  7. 43 CFR 2931.2 - What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... recreation-related uses of public lands? 2931.2 Section 2931.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Permits for Recreation; General § 2931.2 What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands? The regulations in this part...

  8. 43 CFR 2931.2 - What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... recreation-related uses of public lands? 2931.2 Section 2931.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Permits for Recreation; General § 2931.2 What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands? The regulations in this part...

  9. 43 CFR 2931.2 - What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... recreation-related uses of public lands? 2931.2 Section 2931.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Permits for Recreation; General § 2931.2 What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands? The regulations in this part...

  10. Laser Applications to Chemical, Security, and Environmental Analysis: introduction to the feature issue

    SciTech Connect

    Dreizler, Andreas; Fried, Alan; Gord, James R

    2007-07-01

    This Applied Optics feature issue on Laser Applications to Chemical, Security,and Environmental Analysis (LACSEA) highlights papers presented at theLACSEA 2006 Tenth Topical Meeting sponsored by the Optical Society ofAmerica.

  11. Statistical analysis of test data for APM rod issue

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.B.; Harris, S.P.; Reeve, C.P.

    1992-05-01

    The uncertainty associated with the use of the K-Reactor axial power monitors (APMs) to measure roof-top-ratios is investigated in this report. Internal heating test data acquired under both DC-flow conditions and AC-flow conditions have been analyzed. These tests were conducted to simulate gamma heating at the lower power levels planned for reactor operation. The objective of this statistical analysis is to investigate the relationship between the observed and true roof-top-ratio (RTR) values and associated uncertainties at power levels within this lower operational range. Conditional on a given, known power level, a prediction interval for the true RTR value corresponding to a new, observed RTR is given. This is done for a range of power levels. Estimates of total system uncertainty are also determined by combining the analog-to-digital converter uncertainty with the results from the test data.

  12. Issues in Benchmarking Human Reliability Analysis Methods: A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; John A. Forester; Tuan Q. Tran; Erasmia Lois

    2010-06-01

    There is a diversity of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods available for use in assessing human performance within probabilistic risk assessments (PRA). Due to the significant differences in the methods, including the scope, approach, and underlying models, there is a need for an empirical comparison investigating the validity and reliability of the methods. To accomplish this empirical comparison, a benchmarking study comparing and evaluating HRA methods in assessing operator performance in simulator experiments is currently underway. In order to account for as many effects as possible in the construction of this benchmarking study, a literature review was conducted, reviewing past benchmarking studies in the areas of psychology and risk assessment. A number of lessons learned through these studies are presented in order to aid in the design of future HRA benchmarking endeavors.

  13. The gender analysis imperative: introduction to the special issue.

    PubMed

    Muecke, M

    1996-01-01

    It is the norm worldwide to provide care without regard to gender. The author, however, believes that men and women experience health care differently according to gender. Therefore unless the quality of health care for women is viewed from a gender perspective, it has little value and is inadequately known. Providers will likely overestimate the quality of care which women receive, and the need for a gender analysis of health care will remain unrecognized. The author describes how the adoption of a gender perspective has improved the quality of health care for women in different countries and in various venues of caregiving. She calls for a comprehensive approach to redress the situation, a direct approach involving health care researchers, practitioners, and policymakers in communication with the women to whom the services are directed.

  14. Issues in benchmarking human reliability analysis methods : a literature review.

    SciTech Connect

    Lois, Erasmia; Forester, John Alan; Tran, Tuan Q.; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt; Boring, Ronald L.

    2008-04-01

    There is a diversity of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods available for use in assessing human performance within probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Due to the significant differences in the methods, including the scope, approach, and underlying models, there is a need for an empirical comparison investigating the validity and reliability of the methods. To accomplish this empirical comparison, a benchmarking study is currently underway that compares HRA methods with each other and against operator performance in simulator studies. In order to account for as many effects as possible in the construction of this benchmarking study, a literature review was conducted, reviewing past benchmarking studies in the areas of psychology and risk assessment. A number of lessons learned through these studies are presented in order to aid in the design of future HRA benchmarking endeavors.

  15. Approach to ecological assessment of power-plant-intake (316b) related issues: the Prairie Island case

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Vaughan, D.S.; Hildebrand, S.G.; Kumar, K.D.

    1981-04-01

    Assessment approaches and strategies useful in addressing important issues in section 316(b) of the 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act are illustrated in this report through the analysis and evaluation of the Prairie Island Nuclear Station 316(b) data base. The main issues in 316(b) demonstrations, cooling water intake operation and location, involve determining the impacts of entrainment and impingement. Entrainment impacts were addressed by applying the equivalent adult approach and correcting for inherent biases and by determining the through-plant survival of zooplankton. An assessment of impingement impacts was made by comparing for each of various species the number of fish impinged to estimates of population size. Densities of plankton and fish were compared between the intake area and an alternate area to determine if the location of the present intake minimizes impacts. No definitive conclusion relative to the best location of the intake could be made because of high year to year variability in the data and the differential dominance of trophic groups between areas.

  16. Issues in International Energy Consumption Analysis: Canadian Energy Demand

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The residential sector is one of the main end-use sectors in Canada accounting for 16.7% of total end-use site energy consumption in 2009 (computed from NRCan 2012. pp, 4-5). In this year, the residential sector accounted for 54.5% of buildings total site energy consumption. Between 1990 and 2009, Canadian household energy consumption grew by less than 11%. Nonetheless, households contributed to 14.6% of total energy-related greenhouse gas emissions in Canada in 2009 (computed from NRCan 2012). This is the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s second study to help provide a better understanding of the factors impacting residential energy consumption and intensity in North America (mainly the United States and Canada) by using similar methodology for analyses in both countries.

  17. Relative error covariance analysis techniques and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, Peter, J.; Williams, Bobby G.

    1988-01-01

    A technique for computing the error covariance of the difference between two estimators derived from different (possibly overlapping) data arcs is presented. The relative error covariance is useful for predicting the achievable consistency between Kalman-Bucy filtered estimates generated from two (not necessarily disjoint) data sets. The relative error covariance analysis technique is then applied to a Venus Orbiter simulation.

  18. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners.

  19. [Ethical and social issues on the human genome analysis].

    PubMed

    Archer, L

    1992-03-01

    The modern technologies for human genome analysis raise a variety of ethical and social questions. The pre-symptomatic diagnostic of diseases of late expression is becoming possible for a rapidly increasing number of situations. The use of that knowledge by employers, insurance companies, schools, and society in general, could lead to discriminations and stigmatizations, in addition to adverse psychological reactions. DNA fingerprinting raises questions of privacy and personal autonomy in its applications to paternity proof, criminal proceedings, and establishment of data banks. The project of the immediate and complete sequencing of the human genome will lead to questions of economical ethics, as well as of access, commercialization and property rights of scientific information and materials obtained. It also favours a reducionistic mentality and international unbalances. The molecular biology of humans, which will follow the complete sequencing of the genome, may foster a rethinking of the concepts of freedom of self-determination (basic for moral responsibility) and of equality. The gene therapy and its possible extension to the betterment of the human species, pose questions of ethical limits to this technology. All these problems will have to be answered in terms of the application of the principle of ethical freedom for self-fulfillment, as a right of the human person, as well as of science and society. Scientific, economic and social interests have to be subordinated to the dignity of the human person.

  20. Multitemporal image analysis of the green space dynamics: raising issues from the Bucharest case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaman, Florian; Aldea, Mihaela; Petrescu, Florian; Parlow, Eberhard; Luca, Oana; Sercaianu, Mihai; Iacoboaea, Cristina

    2016-08-01

    The dynamics of the green space in urban areas are key components for the urban environment monitoring options and of the urban planning strategies. In the European Union, specific regulations provide the quantitative measures for green space areas necessary for each inhabitant of a city. To assess the situation in the case of Bucharest, we used the multitemporal analysis of remotely sensed imagery based on Landsat archive available. This enabled us to characterize the possibility to monitor and assess the changes in the vegetation cover over a quarter of a century, and raised a series of issues based on the remote sensing observations and image processing. The quantitative assessment of the green spaces is further developed into proposals related to the green space provisions in urban planning, but also revisions of the quantitative measures used in regulations.

  1. Vocational technical and adult education: Status, trends and issues related to electronic delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothenberg, D.

    1973-01-01

    Data are analyzed, and trends and issues are discussed to provide information useful to the systems designer who wishes to identify and assess the opportunities for large scale electronic delivery in vocational/technical and adult education. Issues connected with vocational/technical education are investigated, with emphasis on those issues in the current spotlight which are relevant to the possibilities of electronic delivery. The current role of media is examined in vocational/technical instruction.

  2. Relativity concept inventory: Development, analysis, and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, C. M.

    2013-06-01

    We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example, high confidence correlated with incorrect answers suggests a misconception. A novel aspect of our data analysis is the use of Monte Carlo simulations to determine the significance of correlations. This approach is particularly useful for small sample sizes, such as ours. Our results show a gender bias that was not present in course assessment, similar to that reported for the Force Concept Inventory.

  3. Review and Prioritization of Technical Issues Related to Burnup Credit for LWR Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C V; DeHart, M D; Wagner, John C

    2000-03-13

    This report has been prepared to review relevant background information and provide technical discussion that will help initiate a PIRT (Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables) process for use of burnup credit in light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel storage and transport cask applications. The PIRT process will be used by the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research to help prioritize and guide a coordinated program of research and as a means to obtain input/feedback from industry and other interested parties. The review and discussion in this report are based on knowledge and experience gained from work performed in the United States and other countries. Current regulatory practice and perceived industry needs are also reviewed as a background for prioritizing technical needs that will facilitate safe practice in the use of burnup credit. Relevant physics and analysis phenomenon are identified, and an assessment of their importance to burnup credit implementation is given. Finally, phenomena that need to be better understood for effective licensing, together with technical issues that require resolution, are presented and discussed in the form of a prioritization ranking and initial draft program plan.

  4. Health, safety and environmental issues relating to cadmium usage in photovoltaic energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M. ); Zweibel, K. )

    1989-12-01

    This paper discusses the current technology base and hazards associated with two promising thin-film photovoltaic cells that contain cadmium compounds -- cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}). More specifically, this paper summarizes the toxicological information on cadmium (Cd) compounds; evaluates potential health, safety and environmental hazards associated with cadmium usage in the photovoltaics industry; describes regulatory requirements associated with the use, handling and disposal of cadmium compounds; and lists management options to permit the safe and continued use of these materials. Handling of cadmium in photovoltaic production can present hazards to health, safety and the environment. Prior recognition of these hazards can allow device manufacturers and regulators to implement appropriate and readily available hazard management strategies. Hazards associated with product use (i.e., array fires) and disposal remain controversial and partially unresolved. The most likely effects that could be expected would be those associated with chronic low-level exposures to cadmium wastes. Because of the general immobility of the cadmium present in these devices and availability of environmental and biomonitoring protocols, chronic hazards can be monitored, and remediated if necessary. Nevertheless, concern about cadmium hazards should continue to be emphasized to ensure that health, safety and environmental issues are properly managed. At the same time, the potential role that these systems can play in ameliorating some important health and environmental hazards related to other energy systems should not be ignored. 27 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Xylitol: a review on bioproduction, application, health benefits, and related safety issues.

    PubMed

    Ur-Rehman, Salim; Mushtaq, Zarina; Zahoor, Tahir; Jamil, Amir; Murtaza, Mian Anjum

    2015-01-01

    Xylitol is a pentahydroxy sugar-alcohol which exists in a very low quantity in fruits and vegetables (plums, strawberries, cauliflower, and pumpkin). On commercial scale, xylitol can be produced by chemical and biotechnological processes. Chemical production is costly and extensive in purification steps. However, biotechnological method utilizes agricultural and forestry wastes which offer the possibilities of economic production of xylitol by reducing required energy. The precursor xylose is produced from agricultural biomass by chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis and can be converted to xylitol primarily by yeast strain. Hydrolysis under acidic condition is the more commonly used practice influenced by various process parameters. Various fermentation process inhibitors are produced during chemical hydrolysis that reduce xylitol production, a detoxification step is, therefore, necessary. Biotechnological xylitol production is an integral process of microbial species belonging to Candida genus which is influenced by various process parameters such as pH, temperature, time, nitrogen source, and yeast extract level. Xylitol has application and potential for food and pharmaceutical industries. It is a functional sweetener as it has prebiotic effects which can reduce blood glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol level. This review describes recent research developments related to bioproduction of xylitol from agricultural wastes, application, health, and safety issues.

  6. Efficacy of combining interview techniques in detecting deception related to bio-threat issues.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Charles A; Rabinowitz, Yaron; Leidy, Robert; Coric, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to assess the detecting deception efficacy of three well-validated "detecting deception" methods - i.e., forced choice testing (FCT), modified cognitive interviewing (MCI) and autobiographical implicit association testing (aIAT) - when applied to the issue of bio-threat. The detecting deception accuracies of FCT and MCI were 81% and 75%, respectively. Although the aIAT mean response times in block 5 differed significantly between deceptive and truthful persons, the classification accuracy was low. FCT alone reduced the group of 64 persons to 11 and detected 50% of the liars; the false positive rate was 9%. MCI alone reduced the group of 64 to 24 and detected 92% of the liars; the false positive rate was 54%. When FCT was paired with MCI, 75% of liars were detected and the false positive rate was 13%. Forced choice testing and MCI show promise as methods for detecting deception related to bio-threat under low-base-rate conditions. These methods took little time, enhanced the odds of detecting deceptive individuals and exhibited high positive likelihood ratios, suggesting that they have merit as screening tools. The aIAT required more time and was less accurate but may still serve as a useful screening tool. PMID:24549687

  7. Dietary acculturation and health-related issues of Indian immigrant families in Newfoundland.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Sujja; Moore-Orr, Robin

    2002-01-01

    Traditional Indian diets are high in grains, vegetables and fruits, and in this respect are substantially in accord with Canada s Food Guide to Healthy Eating. Adopting North American eating patterns carries potential health risks. In this study we explored migration-associated changes in eating patterns, lifestyle practices, and health-related issues of Indian immigrants and their families in Newfoundland. A cross-sectional survey employing a self-administered mailed questionnaire was conducted. A random sample of 132 subjects aged ten to 65+ took part. Participants were well established in Newfoundland and almost all were fluent in English. They were somewhat acculturated to foods commonly eaten in Canada. The majority reported that they were very or somewhat likely to engage in healthy lifestyle practices, and most (73%) wanted more relevant nutrition information. Consumption of grains, vegetables, and fruits was not in accordance with Canada s Food Guide to Healthy Eating. Sixty-five percent of participants reported that traditional Indian foods were not readily available, and 72% indicated a change in food-preparation methods. Studies of diverse ethnic groups are needed to guide effective nutrition education programs. University curricula and dietetic training programs should include cross-cultural courses to increase awareness of immigrants unique needs.

  8. Human factors in firefighting: ergonomic-, cardiopulmonary-, and psychogenic stress-related issues.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, T L

    1992-01-01

    There are many issues in firefighting that involve human factors and cardiopulmonary conditioning. Population-based mortality and disability surveillance studies suggest a relatively small but significant excess of disability but not mortality from nonmalignant cardiovascular disease for firefighters. More targeted cohort and case-control studies do not support such an excess and instead suggest a strong healthy worker effect. Pulmonary function among firefighters has been extensively studied, with contradictory findings. Extreme exposures and long-term exposure in combination with cigarette smoking may be risk factors for respiratory disorders and accelerated decline in airflow. It appears likely that individual firefighters who show early signs of illness are often selectively transferred out of active firefighting positions. Despite exposure to substances such as carbon monoxide that may predispose to cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, excesses are not consistently shown in mortality studies. Clinical studies of individual firefighters do suggest an elevated risk for myocardial ischemia. The ergonomic demands of firefighting are extreme at peak activity because of high energy costs for activities such as climbing aerial ladders, the positive heat balance from endogenous and absorbed environmental heat, and encumbrance by bulky but necessary protective equipment. The psychological stresses of firefighting include long periods of relative inactivity punctuated by highly stressful alarms and extremely stressful situations such as rescues, as reflected in physiological and biochemical indicators. Firefighters are at risk for depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, although morale overall is generally much higher than in comparable occupations. Women firefighter candidates as a group perform less well on selection test simulating the demands of active firefighting, but some individual women perform very well.

  9. Public health issues related with the consumption of food obtained from genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Paparini, Andrea; Romano-Spica, Vincenzo

    2004-01-01

    Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are a fact of modern agriculture and a major field of discussion in biotechnology. As science incessantly achieves innovative and unexpected breakthroughs, new medical, political, ethical and religious debates arise over the production and consumption of transgenic organisms. Despite no described medical condition being directly associated with a diet including approved GM crops in large exposed populations such as 300,000,000 Americans and a billion Chinese, public opinion seems to look at this new technology with either growing concern or even disapproval. It is generally recognized that a high level of vigilance is necessary and highly desirable, but it should also be considered that GMOs are a promising new challenge for the III Millennium societies, with remarkable impact on many disciplines and fields related to biotechnology. To acquire a basic knowledge on GMO production, GM-food consumption, GMO interaction with humans and environment is of primary importance for risk assessment. It requires availability of clear data and results from rigorous experiments. This review will focus on public health risks related with a GMO-containing diet. The objective is to summarize state of the art research, provide fundamental technical information, point out problems and perspectives, and make available essential tools for further research. Are GMO based industries and GMO-derived foods safe to human health? Can we consider both social, ethical and public health issues by means of a constant and effective monitoring of the food chain and by a clear, informative labeling of the products? Which are the so far characterized or alleged hazards of GMOs? And, most importantly, are these hazards actual, potential or merely contrived? Several questions remain open; answers and solutions belong to science, to politics and to the personal opinion of each social subject. PMID:15504704

  10. A discussion of issues related to hydrogeology of deep geologic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, C. F.; Niemi, A.

    2012-04-01

    The state of the deep hydrogeological system, including its hydraulic structures and flow patterns, distribution of permeability and porosity, and distribution of hydraulic head values, is very much an open research field. Much work needs to be done to obtain such data and to understand the current conditions at depth. Deep drilling projects worldwide have often been dominated by studies concerning the geological and geophysical processes, as well as the geochemical composition of the deep underground. Hydrogeological processes, on the other hand, have received relatively less attention. Yet many of the important chemical, thermal and mechanical processes of the deep underground are closely linked and cannot be properly addressed without an adequate understanding of fluid flow and solute migration. Hydrologic condition and its evolution may also play a significant role in long term geologic processes, such as orogenesis. Presently, intended to be part of the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP), a deep drilling project is under preparation on the Swedish Caledonides (www.sddp.se/cosc), with the objective to address, among other things, issues related to fluid flow and solute migration. Partly prompted by this project, and partly by the desire to compile the existing knowledge, a workshop was convened in September 2011 in Uppsala, Sweden, to review the state-of-the-art of hydrogeological studies of deep systems, both from the point of view of available observations and data, and from the point of view of modeling and generic conceptual considerations. The discussions and presentations were structured around the following topics: (1) Spatial Extent and Dynamics of the Fluid Flow in the Deep Subsurface; (2) Fluid Flow in Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Processes occurring at depth; and (3) Monitoring and Modeling Methods. The present talk will aim to present the main outcomes and recommendations from this workshop.

  11. Some issues relating to the use of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) samples as reference standards.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Gilles; Chittim, Brock; McAlees, Alan; McCrindle, Robert; Riddell, Nicole; Yeo, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Samples of potassium perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOSK) from three suppliers were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS for purity and by LC-ESI-MS for the percentage of linear isomer present. Our data indicated that the purity ranged from 80% to 98% and the percentages of linear isomer from 67% to 79%. The proportion of branched isomers present in the samples was also estimated using (19)F NMR. These results agreed quite closely with those found by LC-ESI-MS indicating that there is essentially no difference in overall SIM response factor for the branched isomers vs. that of the linear isomer. Several further observations relevant to the use of standards when analyzing for PFOS were encountered during this study. It appears unlikely that matrix effects attributable to the cation (sodium or potassium) present in PFOSNa or PFOSK internal standards is an issue. In seeking potential matrix effects, it was found that the chromatography was improved substantially when the standard was injected as a solution in 80:20 methanol/water rather than 100% methanol. Notably, in concert with the improvement in chromatography, an increase of about 10% in response was observed. In some closely related studies, when (18)O(2) mass-labeled perfluorohexanesulfonate was used as an internal standard, the actual and theoretical concentration ratios matched closely those for related native sulfonates as long as they did not co-elute. However, when they did co-elute, the peak intensities of the native species were enhanced by about 5%, while those of the labeled compound were suppressed by a similar amount. If this effect were not taken into account, the concentration of the native would be inflated by 10%.

  12. Public health issues related with the consumption of food obtained from genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Paparini, Andrea; Romano-Spica, Vincenzo

    2004-01-01

    Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are a fact of modern agriculture and a major field of discussion in biotechnology. As science incessantly achieves innovative and unexpected breakthroughs, new medical, political, ethical and religious debates arise over the production and consumption of transgenic organisms. Despite no described medical condition being directly associated with a diet including approved GM crops in large exposed populations such as 300,000,000 Americans and a billion Chinese, public opinion seems to look at this new technology with either growing concern or even disapproval. It is generally recognized that a high level of vigilance is necessary and highly desirable, but it should also be considered that GMOs are a promising new challenge for the III Millennium societies, with remarkable impact on many disciplines and fields related to biotechnology. To acquire a basic knowledge on GMO production, GM-food consumption, GMO interaction with humans and environment is of primary importance for risk assessment. It requires availability of clear data and results from rigorous experiments. This review will focus on public health risks related with a GMO-containing diet. The objective is to summarize state of the art research, provide fundamental technical information, point out problems and perspectives, and make available essential tools for further research. Are GMO based industries and GMO-derived foods safe to human health? Can we consider both social, ethical and public health issues by means of a constant and effective monitoring of the food chain and by a clear, informative labeling of the products? Which are the so far characterized or alleged hazards of GMOs? And, most importantly, are these hazards actual, potential or merely contrived? Several questions remain open; answers and solutions belong to science, to politics and to the personal opinion of each social subject.

  13. Economic analysis of U.S. ethanol expansion issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Malika

    The dependency of the U.S. economy on crude oil imported from politically unstable countries, escalating energy demand world wide, growing nationwide environmental consciousness, and the Renewable Fuels Standards (RFS) government mandates are some of the primary factors that have provided a favorable environment for the growth and development of the U.S. ethanol industry. The first essay derives decision rules for a discrete-time dynamic hedging model in a multiple commodity framework under expected utility maximization and basis risk. It compares hedging performance of three types of hedging models, namely constant hedging, time-varying static hedging model and the new dynamic hedging rule derived in this study. Findings show that natural gas futures contracts were effective instruments for hedging ethanol spot price risk before March, 2005, when ethanol futures trading was initiated on the CBOT. However, post-March, 2005, corn and ethanol futures contracts proved to be efficient hedging instruments. Results also indicate that ethanol producers may effectively decrease variance of cumulative cash flows by hedging using ethanol, natural gas and corn futures prices using the traditional techniques. The study concludes that using the new dynamic hedge model in a three period and two commodity set up, producers can effectively reduce variance of cumulative cash flow by 13.2% as compared to the 'no hedge' scenario. In my second essay, I use choice based, conjoint analysis methods to estimate consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for alternative transportation fuels in the U.S. In this study, I consider unleaded gasoline and ethanol, which may be derived from corn or three different sources of cellulosic biomass as alternative transportation fuels. Results suggest that age and household income are some of the socioeconomic variables that significantly influence consumer's choice behavior. Results indicate considerable consumer preference heterogeneity. Welfare effects are

  14. Legal and Program Issues Related to Child Custody and Late Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA. Training for Child Care Project.

    This bulletin, the third in a series on selected issues in day care, addresses two problems involving legal issues: (1) what are the implications for the day care program when parents or other legal guardians are involved in a dispute over the custody of children? and (2) what are the rights and responsibilities of day care programs when parents…

  15. Current Issues Related to Associate Degree Nursing: Their Impact on Directors, Faculty, and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavenar, Mary G.

    Perceptions of students, faculty members, and associate degree nursing (ADN) program directors/coordinators concerning seven issues affecting ADN programs were obtained in 1982. The issues, which were identified through a review of the literature, were: entry into practice, professional and technical nurses, developing competency statements,…

  16. What some African development plans say on population related issues in development.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    This discussion reviews what development plans say about population related issues in development in the countries of Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Senegal, Nigeria, Ivory Coast, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia Democratic Republic, Sudan, The United Republic of Cameroon, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Botswana's 1970-73 development plan recognized the need to have fewer children who would be better fed, well clothed, properly housed, and better educated. The government set a target of population growth not to exceed 2.5% for the 1970-80 period. The government of Kenya has expressed much concern about population growth and is devoted to continuing and strengthening the official family planning program instituted in 1967. Lesotho's 1980-81 to 1984-85 development plan emphasizes the need to enhance the well-being of the rural population. The orientation of the health sector strategy is towards primary health care, health education, family planning, water supply, sanitation, and nutrition. Nigeria's 1975-80 plan indicates that demographic factors do not appear as yet to constitute a significant or serious obstacle to domestic economic progress. The objective of the Ivory Coast's 1976-80 plan for economic, social, and cultural development is to increase population since the Ivory Coast still seems to be an underpopulated country. The 1979-83 National Development Plan of Seychelles includes the following objectives: to remedy the housing problem, to achieve full employment, and to introduce responsible family planning. Sierra Leone's development plan for 1974-75 to 1978-79 did not indicate a need to decrease population growth. Population variables in relation to development are not well articulated in the plan of the Somalia Democratic Republic. Like many other developing countries, Sudan's plan has objectives to improve all aspects of the standard of living. It recognizes the serious problem of absorbing a larger population in urban areas. In Tanzania family planning is

  17. An Issue Hiding in Plain Sight: When Are Speech-Language Pathologists Special Educators Rather than Related Services Providers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giangreco, Michael F.; Prelock, Patricia A.; Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Under the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA; as amended, 2004), speech-language pathology services may be either special education or a related service. Given the absence of guidance documents or research on this issue, the purposes of this clinical exchange are to (a) present and analyze the IDEA definitions related to…

  18. Metallomics integrated with proteomics in deciphering metal-related environmental issues.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, Macarena; García-Barrera, Tamara; Arias-Borrego, Ana; Jurado, Juan; Pueyo, Carmen; López-Barea, Juan; Gómez-Ariza, Jose L

    2009-10-01

    The present work shows the possibilities of metallomics to characterize metal-linking proteins in Mus Musculus that could be used in environmental assessment. The laboratory mouse M. musculus is used as reference of gene/protein sequence databases to address methodological approaches based on changes in transcripts regulation, proteins expression and metalloproteins profiles in the environmental bioindicator Mus spretus that has been demonstrated to be genetically homologous to M. Musculus. A metallomic approach using size exclusion chromatography with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry detection (SEC-ICP-MS) was applied to cytosolic extracts from different M. musculus organs: lung, liver, spleen, kidney, brain, testicle, hearth and muscle. The resulting profiles of metallobiomolecules revealed the presence of a Cu-binding fraction in the 7-10 kDa range which was not present in the other tissues, can be associated to low molecular mass metallothionein-like proteins. The application of reverse phase chromatography with ICP-MS detection to this fraction gives two peaks that have been isolated for later identification by tandem mass spectrometry. The mass balance of copper evaluated by ICP-MS analysis of the digested brain fractions isolated by SEC and RP chromatography reveals good recoveries of the separations. The application of 2-DE to both crude brain extract and SEC fraction (7-10 kDa) reveals the considerably reduction of the number of proteins confirming that a good purification has been attained by SEC. This integration of metallomics with proteomics and transcriptomics can be useful in further studies involving the free-living mouse M. spretus for assessment of environmental issues.

  19. Evaluation of structural issues related to isolation of the 100-KE/100-KW discharge chute

    SciTech Connect

    Winkel, B.V.; Hyde, L.L.

    1995-03-10

    The issue of excessive post-seismic leakage in the discharge chute of the K East and K West fuel storage basins was resolved by designing isolation barriers to maintain basin water levels if the discharge chute should drain. This report addresses the structural issues associated with isolation of the discharge chute. The report demonstrates the structural adequacy of the components associated with chute isolation for normal and seismic loading. Associated issues, such as hardware drop accidents and seismic slosh heights are also addressed.

  20. Quality and safety issues related to traditional animal medicine: role of taurine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Calculus Bovis (:C.Bovis) is one of the most precious and commonly-used medicinal materials in Japan and China. As the natural occurrence is very rare, a source of supply for C. Bovis is far behind the actual need and great efforts have been taken for some substitutes of natural C. Bovis. Unfortunately, very little information is available on the quality and/or clinical efficacy of medication based on C. Bovis. To ensure sustainable use of traditional therapeutic agents derived from C. Bovis, we felt that several issues needed to be addressed: 1) the source of the C. Bovis materials and quality control; 2) the role of taurine in the efficacy of C. Bovis. Methods Nine samples of natural C. Bovis and its substitutes were collected. ICP-MS was used for elemental analysis and the characterization was performed by principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) as multivariate approaches. The efficacy of C. Bovis was evaluated for morphology, viability and beating pattern on cultured cardiac myocytes and/or fibroblasts. Results PCA and multi-elemental focus was effective in discriminating C. Bovis samples derived from different habitats. A satisfactory classification using SIMCA was obtained among Australia C. Bovis, other habitats and the substitutes. Australian samples had better batch uniformity than other habitats and were composed of fewer elements. We have used Australian C. Bovis for assessment on its bioactive compounds. Rat cardiac cells incubated with C. Bovis extract (0.01-0.1mg/ml) maintained normal morphology, viability and beating pattern. Cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts treated for 48 h with CA (0.5mM) or DCA (0.1mM) caused cell injury, as reflected by changes in appearance and a reduction of viability detected by the MTS assay. In cardiomyocytes, 0.5 h exposure of CA (0.5mM) markedly decreased the velocity ratio of beating, whereas the simultaneous addition of 1 mM taurine largely prevented the

  1. Ethical issues relating to the banking of umbilical cord blood in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Umbilical cord banks are a central component, as umbilical cord tissue providers, in both medical treatment and scientific research with stem cells. But, whereas the creation of umbilical cord banks is seen as successful practice, it is perceived as a risky style of play by others. This article examines and discusses the ethical, medical and legal considerations that arise from the operation of umbilical cord banks in Mexico. Discussion A number of experts have stated that the use of umbilical cord goes beyond the mere utilization of human tissues for the purpose of treatment. This tissue is also used in research studies: genetic studies, studies to evaluate the effectiveness of new antibiotics, studies to identify new proteins, etc. Meanwhile, others claim that the law and other norms for the functioning of cord banks are not consistent and are poorly defined. Some of these critics point out that the confidentiality of donor information is handled differently in different places. The fact that private cord banks offer their services as "biological insurance" in order to obtain informed consent by promising the parents that the tissue that will be stored insures the health of their child in the future raises the issue of whether the consent is freely given or given under coercion. Another consideration that must be made in relation to privately owned cord banks has to do with the ownership of the stored umbilical cord. Summary Conflicts between moral principles and economic interests (non-moral principles) cause dilemmas in the clinical practice of umbilical cord blood storage and use especially in privately owned banks. This article presents a reflection and some of the guidelines that must be followed by umbilical cord banks in order to deal with these conflicts. This reflection is based on the fundamental notions of ethics and public health and seeks to be a contribution towards the improvement of umbilical cord banks' performance. PMID:19678958

  2. 1.5-μm optical up-conversion: wafer fusion and related issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Dayan; Luo, Hui; Liu, Hui-Chun; SpringThorpe, Anthony J.; Wasilewski, Zbigniew R.; Bezinger, Andrew; Bogdanov, Alexei; Buchanan, Margaret

    2004-11-01

    Imaging devices working in the near infrared (NIR), especially in the so-called eye-safe range, i.e., around 1.5 mm, have become increasingly important in many military and commercial applications; these include night vision, covert surveillance, range finding and semiconductor wafer inspection. We proposed a new approach in which a wafer-fused optical up-converter, combined with a commercially available charged coupled device (CCD), functions as an infrared camera. The optical up-converter converts incoming infrared light into shorter wavelength radiation that can be efficiently detected by the silicon CCD (cutoff wavelength about 1 mm). An optical up-converter with high efficiency at room-temperature is critical for low cost and large-area infrared imaging applications. A prototype 1.5 mm optical up-converter based on wafer fusion technology has been successfully fabricated. The device consists of an InGaAs/InP pin photodetector and a GaAs/AlGaAs light emitting diode. Experimental results show that the end-to-end up-conversion efficiency is 0.0177 W/W at room-temperature, corresponding to an internal quantum up-conversion efficiency of 76%. In this paper, the design, fabrications and characterization of the optical up-conversion devices is presented. Issues related to device optimization, such as improving internal and external up-conversion efficiency, are addressed. Preliminary results demonstrate the room-temperature up-conversion imaging operation of a pixelated wafer-fused device.

  3. Statistical issues related to dietary intake as the response variable in intervention trials

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Raymond J.; Tooze, Janet A.; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I.; Freedman, Laurence S.

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is dietary intervention trials. We explore the statistical issues involved when the response variable, intake of a food or nutrient, is based on self‐report data that are subject to inherent measurement error. There has been little work on handling error in this context. A particular feature of self‐reported dietary intake data is that the error may be differential by intervention group. Measurement error methods require information on the nature of the errors in the self‐report data. We assume that there is a calibration sub‐study in which unbiased biomarker data are available. We outline methods for handling measurement error in this setting and use theory and simulations to investigate how self‐report and biomarker data may be combined to estimate the intervention effect. Methods are illustrated using data from the Trial of Nonpharmacologic Intervention in the Elderly, in which the intervention was a sodium‐lowering diet and the response was sodium intake. Simulations are used to investigate the methods under differential error, differing reliability of self‐reports relative to biomarkers and different proportions of individuals in the calibration sub‐study. When the reliability of self‐report measurements is comparable with that of the biomarker, it is advantageous to use the self‐report data in addition to the biomarker to estimate the intervention effect. If, however, the reliability of the self‐report data is low compared with that in the biomarker, then, there is little to be gained by using the self‐report data. Our findings have important implications for the design of dietary intervention trials. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27324170

  4. A Qualitative Study of Service Provision for Alcohol Related Health Issues in Mid to Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Haighton, Catherine; Wilson, Graeme; Ling, Jonathan; McCabe, Karen; Crosland, Ann; Kaner, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    Aims Epidemiological surveys over the last 20 years show a steady increase in the amount of alcohol consumed by older age groups. Physiological changes and an increased likelihood of health problems and medication use make older people more likely than younger age groups to suffer negative consequences of alcohol consumption, often at lower levels. However, health services targeting excessive drinking tend to be aimed at younger age groups. The aim of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of experiences of, and attitudes towards, support for alcohol related health issues in people aged 50 and over. Methods Qualitative interviews (n = 24, 12 male/12 female, ages 51–90 years) and focus groups (n = 27, 6 male/21 female, ages 50–95 years) were carried out with a purposive sample of participants who consumed alcohol or had been dependent. Findings Participants’ alcohol misuse was often covert, isolated and carefully regulated. Participants tended to look first to their General Practitioner for help with alcohol. Detoxification courses had been found effective for dependent participants but only in the short term; rehabilitation facilities were appreciated but seen as difficult to access. Activities, informal groups and drop-in centres were endorsed. It was seen as difficult to secure treatment for alcohol and mental health problems together. Barriers to seeking help included functioning at a high level, concern about losing positive aspects of drinking, perceived stigma, service orientation to younger people, and fatalistic attitudes to help-seeking. Facilitators included concern about risk of fatal illness or pressure from significant people. Conclusion Primary care professionals need training on improving the detection and treatment of alcohol problems among older people. There is also a compelling need to ensure that aftercare is in place to prevent relapse. Strong preferences were expressed for support to be provided by those who had experienced

  5. Bioengineering issues related to in situ remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater.

    PubMed

    McCarty, P L

    1988-01-01

    This chapter presents some of the engineering challenges in biological degradation of organic contaminants in surface soils and the subsurface environment. Extraction of contaminants from the subsurface is generally costly, slow, and difficult. This has led to an interest in using in situ techniques for biodegradation of contaminants. For some contaminants that can be readily used as primary energy sources for bacteria with or without the presence of oxygen, bacterial removal is relatively simple and, in some situations, occurs naturally. In other cases, such as hydrocarbon spills, in situ treatment is still attractive, but has the added cost and difficulty of supplying required oxygen and nutrients for the fairly efficient aerobic oxidation. There are some indications that hydrocarbons may be biodegraded in the absence of oxygen; but, in these cases, the rates of degradation appear to be slow. More research in this area is desirable. The major challenge to both engineers and scientists lies in the decomposition of hazardous chemicals that appear to be transformed by the process of co-metabolism, or else are so low in concentration that they can only serve as secondary substrates. In either case, primary substrates are required to supply the major energy requirements for bacterial growth and/or for activation of enzymes necessary for the transformation. Engineering experience in the utilization of such processes for degradation of contaminants in the environment is very limited. Little is currently known about substrate interactions and how to optimize the bacterial transformations. Chemical requirements for achieving co-metabolism are high. In addition, knowledge is lacking about methods for getting the correct amounts of chemicals to the locations where needed and in the form needed. The solution of these important issues presents a significant challenge to the engineering and science communities, requiring both basic laboratory studies and field demonstrations

  6. Testing for Moderator Variables in Meta-Analysis: Issues and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Judith A.; Rosenthal, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the evaluation of moderator variables in meta-analysis: (1) issues in testing theory using moderator variables; (2) when to look for moderators; (3) how not to look for moderators; and (4) how to look for moderators using contrast analysis. (SR)

  7. Television and Attitudes toward Mental Health Issues: Cultivation Analysis and the Third-Person Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diefenbach, Donald L.; West, Mark D.

    2007-01-01

    A television content analysis and survey of 419 community respondents supports the hypothesis that media stereotypes affect public attitudes toward mental health issues. A content analysis of network, prime-time television demonstrates that portrayals are violent, false, and negative. The mentally disordered are portrayed as 10 times more likely…

  8. SOME STATISTICAL ISSUES RELATED TO MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION MODELING OF BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a fast and effective technique, the multiple linear regression (MLR) method has been widely used in modeling and prediction of beach bacteria concentrations. Among previous works on this subject, however, several issues were insufficiently or inconsistently addressed. Those is...

  9. Environmental issues related to mineral development in the Stillwater Complex, Mt. Information Circular/1985

    SciTech Connect

    Nigbor, M.T.; Iverson, S.R.; Hyndman, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    This Bureau of Mines publication identifies the significant environmental issues associated with the potential development of strategic and critical minerals in the Stillwater Complex, MT. The Stillwater Complex contains deposits of Cr, platinum-group metals (PGM), and Ni. Issues that must be addressed prior to minerals development include the effects mining, milling, and smelting will have on the land, water, and air, and methods of minimizing the environmental impacts.

  10. Multicultural Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Charrles; Kampfe, Charlene

    This chapter examines issues related to working with diverse populations with addictions. A brief history of multiculturalism and multicultural counseling is presented. Issues particular to the treatment of people with addictions are examined, as well as prevention and assessment issues. Substance abuse issues among people in the gay male and…

  11. Cancer patient perceptions on the ethical and legal issues related to biobanking

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the perception of patients on research ethics issues related to biobanking is important to enrich ethical discourse and help inform policy. Methods We examined the views of leukemia patients undergoing treatment in clinics located in the Princess Margaret Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. An initial written survey was provided to 100 patients (64.1% response rate) followed by a follow-up survey (62.5% response rate) covering the topics of informed consent, withdrawal, anonymity, incidental findings and the return of results, ownership, and trust. Results The majority (59.6%) preferred one-time consent, 30.3% desired a tiered consent approach that provides multiple options, and 10.1% preferred re-consent for future research. When asked different questions on re-consent, most (58%) reported that re-consent was a waste of time and money, but 51.7% indicated they would feel respected and involved if asked to re-consent. The majority of patients (62.2%) stated they had a right to withdraw their consent, but many changed their mind in the follow-up survey explaining that they should not have the right to withdraw consent. Nearly all of the patients (98%) desired being informed of incidental health findings and explained that the information was useful. Of these, 67.3% of patients preferred that researchers inform them and their doctors of the results. The majority of patients (62.2%) stated that the research institution owns the samples whereas 19.4% stated that the participants owned their samples. Patients had a great deal of trust in doctors, hospitals and government-funded university researchers, moderate levels of trust for provincial governments and industry-funded university researchers, and low levels of trust towards industry and insurance companies. Conclusions Many cancer patients surveyed preferred a one-time consent although others desired some form of control. The majority of participants wanted a continuing right to withdraw

  12. Legal and Ethical Issues Related to the Management of Cultural Heritage in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Justin

    in space. The United Nations Outer Space Treaty of 1967 -the primary document governing how nations act in outer space -is now hopelessly out-of-date. There is no mention in the treaty of cultural heritage (the UNESCO convention that concerns international protection of cultural heritage on Earth was not completed until 1970), nor was there any recognition of the role private groups and individuals might play in space exploration. This paper will outline key legal and ethical issues related to cultural heritage management and protection. It will also suggest some ways in which culturally significant sites in space can be protected for future study and even touristic appreciation.

  13. Ethical issues in the documentary data analysis of Internet posts and archives.

    PubMed

    Sixsmith, J; Murray, C D

    2001-05-01

    The documentary analysis of e-mail posts and archives for qualitative research has been outlined elsewhere. Although there is an increase in the number of studies being conducted on listserv and newsgroup material in health research, this has not always been accompanied by a careful, in-depth consideration of the concomitant ethical issues. Therefore, this article outlines the ethical considerations surrounding this form of research, including issues of accessing voices, consent, privacy, anonymity, interpretation, and ownership and authorship of research material.

  14. Special Issue of Selected Papers from Visualization and Data Analysis 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David L.; Wong, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    This special issue features the best papers that were selected from the 18th SPIE Conference on Visualization and Data Analysis (VDA 2011). This annual conference is a major international forum for researchers and practitioners interested in data visualization and analytics research, development, and applications. VDA 2011 received 42 high-quality submissions from around the world. Twenty-four papers were selected for full conference papers. The top five papers have been expanded and reviewed for this special issue.

  15. Genetically Engineered Plants and Foods: A Scientist's Analysis of the Issues (Part I).

    PubMed

    Lemaux, Peggy G

    2008-01-01

    Through the use of the new tools of genetic engineering, genes can be introduced into the same plant or animal species or into plants or animals that are not sexually compatible-the latter is a distinction with classical breeding. This technology has led to the commercial production of genetically engineered (GE) crops on approximately 250 million acres worldwide. These crops generally are herbicide and pest tolerant, but other GE crops in the pipeline focus on other traits. For some farmers and consumers, planting and eating foods from these crops are acceptable; for others they raise issues related to safety of the foods and the environment. In Part I of this review some general and food issues raised regarding GE crops and foods will be addressed. Responses to these issues, where possible, cite peer-reviewed scientific literature. In Part II to appear in 2009, issues related to environmental and socioeconomic aspects of GE crops and foods will be covered.

  16. A preliminary examination of audience-related communications issues for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, C.W.

    1991-04-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project will estimate radiation doses people may have received from exposure to radioactive materials released during past operations at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The HEDR Project was initiated in response to public concerns about possible health impacts from past releases of radioactive materials from Hanford. The TSP recognized early in the project that special mechanisms would be required to effectively communicate to the many different concerned audiences. Accordingly, the TSP directed PNL to examine methods for communicating causes and effects of uncertainties in the dose estimates. After considering the directive and discussing it with the Communications Subcommittee of the TSP, PNL undertook a broad investigation of communications methods to consider for inclusion in the TSP's current communications program. As part of this investigation, a literature review was conducted regarding risk communications. A key finding was that, in order to successfully communicate risk-related information, a thorough understanding of the knowledge level, concerns and information needs of the intended recipients (i.e., the audience) is necessary. Hence, a preliminary audience analysis was conducted as part of the present research. This report summarizes the results of this analysis. 1 ref., 9 tabs.

  17. Incorporating spatial context into the analysis of salmonid habitat relations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torgersen, Christian E.; Baxter, Colden V.; Ebersole, J.L.; Gresswell, Bob; Church, Michael; Biron, Pascale M.; Roy, Andre G.

    2012-01-01

    In this response to the chapter by Lapointe (this volume), we discuss the question of why it is so difficult to predict salmonid-habitat relations in gravel-bed rivers and streams. We acknowledge that this cannot be an exhaustive treatment of the subject and, thus, identify what we believe are several key issues that demonstrate the necessity of incorporating spatial context into the analysis of fish-habitat data. Our emphasis is on spatial context (i.e., scale and location), but it is important to note that the same principles may be applied with some modification to temporal context, which is beyond the scope of this chapter.

  18. Pain related inflammation analysis using infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Bardhan, Shawli; Das, Kakali; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nath, Satyabrata

    2016-05-01

    Medical Infrared Thermography (MIT) offers a potential non-invasive, non-contact and radiation free imaging modality for assessment of abnormal inflammation having pain in the human body. The assessment of inflammation mainly depends on the emission of heat from the skin surface. Arthritis is a disease of joint damage that generates inflammation in one or more anatomical joints of the body. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent appearing form of arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most threatening form of them. In this study, the inflammatory analysis has been performed on the infrared images of patients suffering from RA and OA. For the analysis, a dataset of 30 bilateral knee thermograms has been captured from the patient of RA and OA by following a thermogram acquisition standard. The thermograms are pre-processed, and areas of interest are extracted for further processing. The investigation of the spread of inflammation is performed along with the statistical analysis of the pre-processed thermograms. The objectives of the study include: i) Generation of a novel thermogram acquisition standard for inflammatory pain disease ii) Analysis of the spread of the inflammation related to RA and OA using K-means clustering. iii) First and second order statistical analysis of pre-processed thermograms. The conclusion reflects that, in most of the cases, RA oriented inflammation affects bilateral knees whereas inflammation related to OA present in the unilateral knee. Also due to the spread of inflammation in OA, contralateral asymmetries are detected through the statistical analysis.

  19. Global hydrobelts and hydroregions: improved reporting scale for water-related issues?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meybeck, M.; Kummu, M.; Dürr, H. H.

    2013-03-01

    Global-scale water issues such as its availability, water needs or stress, or management, are mapped at various resolutions and reported at many scales, mostly along political or continental boundaries. As such, they ignore the fundamental heterogeneity of hydroclimates and natural boundaries of river basins. Here we describe the continental landmasses at two levels: eight hydrobelts strictly limited by river basins, defined at a 30' (0.5°) resolution, which are decomposed on continents as 26 hydroregions. The belts were defined and delineated, based primarily on the annual average temperature (T) and run-off (q), to maximise inter-belt differences and minimise intra-belt variability. This new global puzzle defines homogeneous and near-contiguous entities with similar hydrological and thermal regimes, glacial and postglacial basin histories, endorheism distribution and sensitivity to climate variations. The mid-latitude, dry and subtropical belts have northern and southern analogues and a general symmetry can be observed for T and q between them. The boreal and equatorial belts are unique. Population density between belts and between the continents varies greatly, resulting in pronounced differences between the belts with analogues in both hemispheres. Hydroregions (median size 4.7 M km2) are highly contrasted, with the average q ranging between 6 and 1393 mm yr-1 and the average T between -9.7 and +26.3 °C, and a population density ranging from 0.7 to 0.8 p km-2 for the North American boreal region and some Australian hydroregions to 280 p km-2 for some Asian hydroregions. The population/run-off ratio, normalised to a reference pristine region, is used to map and quantify the global population at risk of severe water quality degradation. Our initial tests suggest that hydrobelt and hydroregion divisions are often more appropriate than conventional continental or political divisions for the global analysis of river basins within the Earth system and of water

  20. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners. PMID:22224965

  1. Overview of regulatory/policy/economic issues related to carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Leaf, Dennis; Verolme, Hans J H; Hunt, William F

    2003-06-01

    This is an overview of Session 2c dealing with the regulatory, policy and economic issues related to carbon dioxide and its impact on global climate change. The information is taken from the two papers presented in this session (the U.S. Perspective by Dennis Leaf and the European Perspective by Hans J.H. Verolme) and from the panel discussion that took place at the end of the session. The overview focuses primarily on the policy responses of both the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) to changes in global atmospheric pollution. To a lesser extent, the progress of policy responses to these changes is discussed. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has been signed and ratified by over 180 countries. The UNFCCC contained no binding targets or timetables for emissions reductions. The Kyoto Protocol [United Nations. Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. UNEP.IUC/99/10. Chatlelaine, Switzerland: United Nations Environment Programme's Information Unit for Conventions, for the Climate Change Secretariat, 1997] to the UNFCCC did contain targets and timetables for reductions of greenhouse gases on the part of developed countries. The US has signed but not ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The US has experienced some movement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions on the part of various levels of government, as well as the private sector. The UK's commitment to reducing green house gases is laid down in the UK Climate Change Programme 2000. The UK is a member of the European Union (EU). In this context, an example of EU-wide progress, the voluntary agreement with car manufacturers to reduce CO(2) emissions in new vehicles, will be discussed. In addition, there will be some discussion on the UK CO(2) trading scheme that created the first market in the world in April 2001. Overall, the policy process is constantly informed by scientific research. In the case of climate change, much of this work is carried

  2. Global climate change policy issues related to the movement of industry from developed to rapidly industrializing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.; Waltemath, L.A.

    1990-10-01

    Global climate change policies adopted by developed countries may encourage industries to move to countries with less restrictive policies. The purpose of this study is to identify policy-driven issues that may result in such a movement. This report (1) summarizes the conclusions of previous studies that have explored the relationship between environmental regulations and industrial movement, (2) identifies and summarizes existing and proposed US global climate change policy options, and (3) discusses issues and topics relating to possible industrial relocation because of the global climate change policy options. It concludes with recommendations for further research. Although federal global climate change policy options are the primary focus of this report, some international and regional efforts addressing this issue are also included. A potential regional industrial migration issue is highlighted. 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Surveillance of social and geographic inequalities in housing-related issues: the case of the Eastern Townships, Quebec (Canada).

    PubMed

    Roy, Mathieu; Généreux, Mélissa; Laverdière, Emélie; Vanasse, Alain

    2014-05-06

    Even though health inequalities are conditioned by many aspects of the environment, much of the existing research focuses on the social environment. This emphasis has the effect to neglect other environmental aspects such as its physical dimension. The physical environment, which is linked to housing conditions, may contribute to the uneven distribution of health. In this study, we examined 19 housing-related issues among a representative sample of 2,000 adults residing in a Quebec (Canada) health region characterized by a mix of rural, semi-rural, and urban areas. The distribution of these issues was examined according to socioeconomic and geographic indicators of social position. Summary measures of inequalities were assessed. Our results showed that the prevalence of nearly all housing-related issues was higher among low-income households compared to more affluent ones. Highly educated individuals showed better housing conditions, whereas different issues tended to cluster in deprived or densely populated areas. To conclude, we observed steep gradients between social class and poor housing conditions. This may explain a substantial part of health inequality on the regional scale. The surveillance of housing-related issues is therefore essential to properly inform and mobilize local stakeholders and to develop interventions that target vulnerable groups on this level.

  4. Surveillance of Social and Geographic Inequalities in Housing-Related Issues: The Case of the Eastern Townships, Quebec (Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Mathieu; Généreux, Mélissa; Laverdière, Émélie; Vanasse, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Even though health inequalities are conditioned by many aspects of the environment, much of the existing research focuses on the social environment. This emphasis has the effect to neglect other environmental aspects such as its physical dimension. The physical environment, which is linked to housing conditions, may contribute to the uneven distribution of health. In this study, we examined 19 housing-related issues among a representative sample of 2,000 adults residing in a Quebec (Canada) health region characterized by a mix of rural, semi-rural, and urban areas. The distribution of these issues was examined according to socioeconomic and geographic indicators of social position. Summary measures of inequalities were assessed. Our results showed that the prevalence of nearly all housing-related issues was higher among low-income households compared to more affluent ones. Highly educated individuals showed better housing conditions, whereas different issues tended to cluster in deprived or densely populated areas. To conclude, we observed steep gradients between social class and poor housing conditions. This may explain a substantial part of health inequality on the regional scale. The surveillance of housing-related issues is therefore essential to properly inform and mobilize local stakeholders and to develop interventions that target vulnerable groups on this level. PMID:24806192

  5. Transplant Ethics: Let's Begin the Conversation Anew : A Critical Look at One Institute's Experience with Transplant Related Ethical Issues.

    PubMed

    Shafran, David; Smith, Martin L; Daly, Barbara J; Goldfarb, David

    2016-06-01

    Standardizing consultation processes is increasingly important as clinical ethics consultation (CEC) becomes more utilized in and vital to medical practice. Solid organ transplant represents a relatively nascent field replete with complex ethical issues that, while explored, have not been systematically classified. In this paper, we offer a proposed taxonomy that divides issues of resource allocation from viable solutions to the issue of organ shortage in transplant and then further distinguishes between policy and bedside level issues. We then identify all transplant related ethics consults performed at the Cleveland Clinic (CC) between 2008 and 2013 in order to identify how consultants conceptually framed their consultations by the domains they ascribe to the case. We code the CC domains to those in the Core Competencies for Healthcare Consultation Ethics in order to initiate a broader conversation regarding best practices in these highly complex cases. A discussion of the ethical issues underlying living donor and recipient related consults ensues. Finally, we suggest that the ethical domains prescribed in the Core Competencies provide a strong starting ground for a common intra-disciplinary language in the realm of formal CEC.

  6. Some physics and system issues in the security analysis of quantum key distribution protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, Horace P.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we review a number of issues on the security of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols that bear directly on the relevant physics or mathematical representation of the QKD cryptosystem. It is shown that the cryptosystem representation itself may miss out many possible attacks, which are not accounted for in the security analysis and proofs. Hence, the final security claims drawn from such analysis are not reliable, apart from foundational issues about the security criteria that are discussed elsewhere. The cases of continuous-variable QKD and multi-photon sources are elaborated upon.

  7. Issues Relating to Selective Reporting When Including Non-Randomized Studies in Systematic Reviews on the Effects of Healthcare Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Susan L.; Moher, David; Reeves, Barnaby C.; Shea, Beverley; Loke, Yoon; Garner, Sarah; Anderson, Laurie; Tugwell, Peter; Wells, George

    2013-01-01

    Background: Selective outcome and analysis reporting (SOR and SAR) occur when only a subset of outcomes measured and analyzed in a study is fully reported, and are an important source of potential bias. Key methodological issues: We describe what is known about the prevalence and effects of SOR and SAR in both randomized controlled trials (RCTs)…

  8. Teaching about Controversial Issues: Resolving Conflict between Creationism and Evolution through Law-Related Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morishita, Ford

    1991-01-01

    Presents a unit on evolution and creation theories in which students explore the legal issues surrounding the teaching of evolution and creation in biology. Students write preliminary essays, study conflict resolution techniques, and conduct a moot trial of the Scopes case of 1925. A course outline is provided. (MDH)

  9. Grade, Pubertal Status, and Gender Related Variations in Conflictual Issues among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Dennis R.; Savage, Catherine L.

    It is possible that conflicts in families with adolescents are linked to the transitions and individual development that occur during adolescence. A study was conducted to describe domains of conflictual issues associated with adolescent grade in school, pubertal status, and gender. The sample was comprised of 78 seventh graders, 115 ninth…

  10. Secondary School Students' Interests, Attitudes and Values Concerning School Science Related to Environmental Issues in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Byman, Reijo; Meisalo, Veijo

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between students' interests in environmental issues, attitudes to environmental responsibility and biocentric values in school science education. The factors were investigated within the framework of three moderators: gender, school and residential area of the school. The survey was carried out using the…

  11. From Professional Development to Classroom Instruction: Addressing Issues Related to Science Inquiry Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2009-01-01

    In this rejoinder, I first provide a more detailed account of the discourse-focused professional development activities facilitated as part of the SMIT'N program, specifically addressing issues raised by van Zee with regard to the institute's overall format, goals and development strategies. Next, I resort to Peter Medawar's metaphorical view of…

  12. Ethical Issues Relating to Teaching via an Interactive Two-Way Television System (ITV).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoms, Karen Jarrett

    The information age has introduced new methods of delivering educational materials to students. One method is two-way interactive television (ITV). As more schools utilize ITV, for distance education and other educational purposes, certain administrative, legal, and ethical issues need to be addressed. This paper focuses on human and ethical…

  13. Issues Related to the Use of Z39.50 To Emulate a Centralized Union Catalogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunau, Carrol; Turner, Fay

    The virtual Canadian union catalog (vCuc) project is a project among Canadian libraries to use Z39.50 (an information protocol standard) for searching distributed individual library catalogs and union catalogs. This paper summarizes the major technical, vendor, bibliographic data, and administrative issues that must be resolved before the…

  14. Turkish Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Children's Picture Books Reflecting LGBT-Related Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dedeoglu, Hakan; Ulusoy, Mustafa; Lamme, Linda L.

    2012-01-01

    This research study focuses on Turkish preservice teachers' perceptions of children's picture books containing lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender issues to lend support to encouraging diversity in teacher education programs and elementary school classrooms. The authors proposed that reading, listening, and responding to diverse children's…

  15. Federal Assistance to Libraries: Background Information and Issues Related to Current Programs. CRS Report for Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Wayne

    This report provides background--including information on structure, funding levels, program evaluation and issues--on federal programs which provide financial or material assistance to public, school, and college libraries. Federal library grant programs are covered in the following categories: (1) aid to public libraries under the Library…

  16. Teachers' Controversial Issue Decisions Related to Race, Gender, and Religion during the 2008 Presidential Election

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journell, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Using the 2008 Presidential Election as a case of curricular controversy, the author describes how six high school government teachers responded to the racial, gender, and religious diversity included on the presidential tickets of the two major political parties. Teachers had to decide whether the issue of Americans challenging the tradition of…

  17. COSTS AND ISSUES RELATED TO REMEDIATION OF PETROLEUM-CONTAMINATED SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The remediation costs required at sites contaminated with petroleum-derived compounds remains a relevant issue because of the large number of existing underground storage tanks the United States and the presence of benzene, MTBE, and TBA in some drinking water supplies. Cost inf...

  18. COSTS AND ISSUES RELATED TO REMEDIATION OF PETROLEUM-CONTAMINATED SITES (NEW ORLEANS, LA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The remediation costs required at sites contaminated with petroleum-derived compounds remains a relevant issue because of the large number of existing underground storage tanks the United States and the presence of benzene, MTBE, and TBA in some drinking water supplies. Cost inf...

  19. Education of the handicapped child: Status, trend, and issues related to electronic delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothenberg, D.

    1973-01-01

    This study is part of a broader investigation of the role of large-scale educational telecommunications systems. Thus, data are analyzed and trends and issues discussed to provide information useful to the systems designer who wishes to identify and assess the opportunities for large-scale electronic delivery of education for the handicapped.

  20. The Internet and Some International Regulatory Issues Relating to Content: A Pilot Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Broadcasting Authority.

    In December 1996 UNESCO commissioned the Australian Broadcasting Authority to conduct a pilot study which considered a range of online issues; this report outlines the findings of the pilot study, based on data collected between February and May 1997 and updated in July 1997. The objective is to identify the main types of Internet content which…

  1. Some School Finance Issues Related to the Implementation of Serrano and Proposition 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickert, Donald

    1985-01-01

    This article reviews the current status of school finance in California in the aftermath of Proposition 13 and the Serrano v. Priest decision (which required determination of school funding on some basis other than district property wealth). Specific trends and directions regarding reform issues of the future are identified. (TE)

  2. Psychological Terms, Logical Positivism, and Realism: Issues Related to Construct Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellett, Frederick S., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The standard conception of test validity which makes philosophical assumptions about the nature of scientific inquiry is discussed. The general kinds of questions and issues which psychologists and educators should address in order to develop a complete theory of test validity that is philosophically sound are outlined. (MT)

  3. Ethical Issues Relative to Autonomy and Personal Control in Independent and Cognitively Impaired Elders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Virginia Hill; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ethical issues surrounding health care for independent elders, those in long-term care, and those with cognitive impairments, as well as death, dying, euthanasia, and assisted suicide. Suggests that nurses should focus on older adults' choice, autonomy, and personal control. (SK)

  4. Using Popular Culture Texts in the Classroom to Interrogate Issues of Gender Transgression Related Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happel-Parkins, Alison; Esposito, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how undergraduate instructors of pre-service educators can address complex issues of sexuality and sexual orientation within the classroom. First, we explain our own backgrounds and positionalities to provide a context for our ensuing ideas and discussions. Second, by reviewing the literature on homophobic bullying, we…

  5. Ethical, legal, and social issues related to genomics and cancer research: the impending crisis.

    PubMed

    Ellerin, Bruce E; Schneider, Robert J; Stern, Arnold; Toniolo, Paolo G; Formenti, Silvia C

    2005-11-01

    Cancer research is a multibillion-dollar enterprise validated by the clinical trial process and increasingly defined by genomics. The continued success of the endeavor depends on the smooth functioning of the clinical trial system, which in turn depends on human subject participation. Yet human subject participation can exist only in an atmosphere of trust between research participants and research sponsors, and the advent of genomics has raised a multitude of ethical, legal, and social issues that threaten this trust. The authors examine 6 of these issues: (1) informed consent; (2) privacy, confidentiality, and family disclosure dilemmas; (3) property rights in genomic discoveries; (4) individual and institutional conflicts of interest; (5) insurance and employment issues; and (6) litigation under the federal False Claims Act. The authors conclude that failure to resolve these issues may lead to a sufficient impairment of trust in genomics-based clinical trials on the part of potential research participants that the clinical trial system may implode for lack of willing participants, thus threatening the future of cancer research.

  6. Public Higher Education Funding, Budget Drivers, and Related Issues: The State Community College Director Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsinas, Stephen G.; D'Amico, Mark M.; Friedel, Janice N.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents results from the 2012 National Survey of Access and Finance Issues conducted by the National Council of State Directors of Community Colleges (NCSDCC), an affiliated council of the American Association of Community Colleges, and includes a comparison of survey results from previous years dating back to 2003, with the…

  7. CLASS A PROCESS USAGE AND RELATED ISSUES: A PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper looks at the factors influencing the land application of biosolids and usage of Class A processes. It reviews the commonly employed Class A processes for controlling pathogens; notes how extensively they are used; discusses issues and concerns with some of them; and it...

  8. The Significance of an Approach to the Teaching of Societal Issues Related to Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Lindsey N.

    This research reports on a constructivist approach that was used in a unit of work with a final year high school biology class. The aim of the intervention was to promote students' awareness and communication of the biological, social, and ethnical issues associated with cancer. Students were encouraged to use an inquiry approach. They were also…

  9. Issues Related to the Construction of a Purpose-Built Domain-Specific Word Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa; Pfister, H. Peter; Peterson, Peter

    2004-01-01

    There is growing interest in the use of semantic collections in order to identify and analyse domain knowledge. This paper describes some technical issues to consider when contemplating research which incorporates small-to-medium domain-specific word sets. The purpose of the corpus construction described was to provide an external word collection…

  10. Recent clinical issues related to the use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera).

    PubMed

    Cromer, B A

    1999-10-01

    This report critically reviews recent original research articles concerning patient use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate. Specifically, recent studies have been conducted on the following clinical issues: depression, galactorrhea, weight gain, bone mineral density, epithelial and mucus changes in the lower genital tract, and the acceptability of and continuation rates with the use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate.

  11. Educational Finance. Briefing Paper: Texas Public School Finance and Related Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Catherine P.; England, Claire

    This document explores various issues that affect Texas public school finance. It opens with an overview of the Texas public school system, which comprises 1,043 independent school districts, with an average of 6.4 campuses per district. The federal role in financing schools is examined, along with education finance and the state budget. Four…

  12. Ethical issues in genetics.

    PubMed

    Shannon, T A

    1999-03-01

    The first section of the Notes on Moral Theology reviews ethical issues in genetics through the lenses of privacy-confidentiality; risk-benefit analysis in relation to prenatal diagnosis and gene therapy; and freedom-determinism/human dignity in the context of cloning. The author provides an overview of developments in genetics and highlights thematic issues common to these developments.

  13. Geoethical issues in long-term assessment of geohazards and related mitigation policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Long-term assessment of large-impact and relatively (or very) infrequent geohazards like earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions is nowadays a common practice for geoscientists and many groups have been and are involved in producing global and regional hazard maps in response of an increasing demand of the society. Though the societal needs are the basic motivations for such studies, often this aspect is not pondered enough and a lack of communication between geoscientists and the society might be a serious limit to the effective exploitation of the hazard assessment products and to the development of adequate mitigation policies. This paper is an analysis of the role of geoscientists in the process of the production of long-term assessments of dangerous natural phenomena (such as mapping of seismic, tsunami and volcanic hazards), with special emphasis given to the role of communicators and disseminators (with respect to the general public, to authorities, to restricted specialized audiences…), but also of providers of active support to the planners who should be given key elements for making decision. Geoethics imposes geoscientists to take clear and full responsibilities on the products resulting from their assessments, but also to be aware that these products are valuable insofar they are scientifically sound, known, understandable, and utilizable by a wide universe of users.

  14. Genetic structure of populations and conservation issues relating to an endangered catfish, Clarias batrachus, in India.

    PubMed

    Khedkar, Gulab D; Tiknaik, Anita; Kalyankar, Amol D; A, Chandra Sekhar Reddy; Khedkar, Chandraprakash D; Ron, Tetsuzan Benny; Haymer, David

    2016-01-01

    The Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758), is a highly valued species endemic to India that is currently in drastic decline in most of its natural habitat. The present study was undertaken to document the genetic structure of populations of this species using mitochondrial DNA markers, specifically from the cytochrome B and D-loop regions. Specimens from eight wild populations were collected and analyzed from different regions in India. The genetic variation within and among populations was evaluated using a range of descriptive statistics. The analysis described here provides a broad and consistent view of population structure and demographic history of populations of C. batrachus. Although there was some genetic structuring consistent with regional differences, all eight populations examined here showed relatively low levels of genetic variation in terms of both haplotype and nucleotide diversities in the different analyses used. However, a number of private haplotypes were discovered, and this may provide valuable information for future selective breeding program and conservation management. The results may aid in the design and implementation of strategies for the future management of this endangered catfish C. batrachus in India.

  15. Living independently as an ethnic minority elder: a relational perspective on the issues of aging and ethnic minorities.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Hye

    2014-06-01

    This study examines the residential experiences of Korean ethnic elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area, focusing on how patterns of social relationships that evolved around a geographical location and its urban infrastructure enabled the elders to achieve their desire for residential independence. Based on the theoretical concept of activity settings and social capital, the study suggests an integrated theoretical model where social capital is understood as an embedded asset of an activity setting. Methodologically, this study uses a combined method of qualitative interviews with 138 Korean elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area and a geographic analysis of their social relationships in order to present associations among social relationships, urban infrastructures, and the shared value of independence within their residential communities. The study findings indicate that the elders mobilized ethnic businesses, urban infrastructures, and the collective efficacy of groups to achieve the shared goal of maintaining residential independence. In each community, a cultural broker acted as an important bridge between the community of ethnic minorities and the larger social networks coexisting within the community boundary. The relational perspective as a potent ground for understanding and further solving the issues of aging and ethnicity is highlighted.

  16. Applications of gray relational analysis in gastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xue-Rui; Li, Yu-Guang; Chen, Ming-Zhe

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To introduce the basic methods of gray relational analysis (GRA) and to illustrate its applications in gastroenterology. METHODS: With the essential formulae of GRA and several typically practical examples, the procedure of GRA was introduced. Examples were drawn from the gastroenterological studies. Thus the trait of GRA could be demonstrated. RESULTS: The superiority of GRA in gastroenterological study was proved by the examples. CONCLUSION: GRA can be applied mechanically or flexibly in gastroenterology. PMID:15948254

  17. U.S.-India Relations: The Asia Society. A Media Source Guide, Issues for the '80s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on International and Public Affairs, New York, NY.

    One of a series of guides dealing with diverse topics of concern to the U.S. media, this publication is intended to provide journalists with concise, authoritative background information on India and India-U.S. relations. The guide begins with a series of background papers (by Philip Oldenburg) discussing issues and interests in Indo-U.S.…

  18. A Comparison of Thailand and New Zealand Students' Ideas about Energy Related to Technological and Societal Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuenyong, Chokchai; Jones, Alister; Yutakom, Naruemon

    2008-01-01

    This study is a cross-cultural comparison between the ideas of 49 Thai Grade 9 students and the 30 New Zealand Grade 9 students (approximately 15 years old), about energy related to technological and societal issues. Students' ideas were explored using the Questionnaire for exploring Students' ideas about Energy, Technological, and Societal issues…

  19. 75 FR 34750 - Web-Based Public Meeting To Discuss Issues Related to the Development of an Enforcement Action...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... Access and Advertising Regulation). FDA published the final rule on March 19, 2010 (75 FR 13225) and the... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Web-Based Public Meeting To Discuss Issues Related to the... Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of Web-based public meeting; request for data, information, and...

  20. EPA'S REANALYSIS OF KEY ISSUES RELATED TO DIOXIN TOXICITY AND RESPONSE TO NAS COMMENTS (VOLUME 1) (INTERAGENCY SCIENCE DISCUSSION DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1), that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the

  1. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Laurids Boring

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  2. Issues of scale, location and geologic terrain related to Salt Lake City and Baltimore-Washington metropolitan areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleaves, E.T.; Godfrey, A.E.; ,

    2004-01-01

    Planning and development of expanding metropolitan regions require consideration of earth science issues related to issues involving scale, space (location), geologic terrain and physiographic units, and information transfer. This paper explores these matters with examples from the Salt Lake City, Utah area and Mid-Atlantic region of Baltimore-Washington that include water supply and natural hazards (earthquakes, landslides, and sinkholes.) Information transfer methods using physiographic units at national, regional, local and site scales serve to communicate relevant geologic constraint and natural resource information.

  3. Work design and analysis for space-based manufacturing: a case analysis of initial design issues.

    PubMed

    Casler, J G; Cook, J R

    2003-01-15

    The purpose of the present research was to investigate the nature of potential manufacturing tasks humans may execute in a space environment. The success of space-based manufacturing (SBM) is suggested to be a precursor to permanent human presence in space. A working hypothesis for this study was that human work in the SBM environment would be substantially different from terrestrial manufacturing work. To investigate this hypothesis, a case analysis approach was developed that employed a function allocation and task analysis of a representative SBM process: the production of tailored industrial crystals. This research approach was chosen as the current state of engineering design for SBM is in the conceptual and early flow sheeting phases of a system life cycle. Results of the task analysis and function allocation process suggest response to corrective maintenance functions and to abnormal system conditions should be allocated to humans as opposed to automation. These results are discussed in relation to human factors engineering challenges associated with long-duration human presence in an SBM environment.

  4. U.S. Public Relations from an International Perspective: Curricular Issues and Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Cornelius B.; Ogbondah, Chris W.

    This paper establishes a rationale for international public relations courses in the curricula of university public relations education in the U.S. and outlines the content of such courses. Disagreements between practitioners and educators on a blueprint for public relations education are documented. Developments pointing to a crucial need for…

  5. Key research issues in the pulsed fast-neutron analysis technique for cargo inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.; Yule, T.J.

    1994-07-01

    Non-invasive inspection systems based on the use of fast neutrons are being studied for the inspection of large cargo containers. A key advantage of fast neutrons is their sensitivity to low-Z elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which are the primary constituents of explosives and narcotics. The high energy allows penetration of relatively large containers. The pulsed fast-neutron analysis (PFNA) technique is currently the baseline system. A workshop on the PFNA technique involving industrial, government, and university participants was held at Argonne National Lab. in January 1994. The purpose of this workshop was to review the status of research on the key technical issues involved in PFNA, and to develop a list of those areas where additional modeling and/or experimentation were needed. The workshop also focused on development of a near-term experimental assessment program using existing prototypes and on development of a long-term test program at the Tacoma Testbed, where a PFNA prototype will be installed in 1995. A summary of conclusions reached at this workshop is presented. Results from analytic and Monte Carlo modeling of simplified PFNA systems are also presented.

  6. Key research issues in the pulsed fast-neutron analysis technique for cargo inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micklich, Bradley J.; Fink, Charles L.; Yule, Thomas J.

    1994-10-01

    Non-invasive inspection systems based on the use of fast neutrons are being studied for the inspection of large cargo containers. A key advantage of fast neutrons is their sensitivity to low-Z elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which are the primary constituents of explosives and narcotics. The high energy allows penetration of relatively large containers. The pulsed fast-neutron analysis (PFNA) technique is currently the baseline system. A workshop on the PFNA technique involving industrial, government, and university participants was held at Argonne National Laboratory in January 1994. The purpose of this workshop was to review the status of research on the key technical issues involved in PFNA, and to develop a list of those areas where additional modeling and/or experimentation were needed. The workshop also focused on development of a near-term experimental assessment program using existing prototypes and on development of a long-term test program at the Tacoma Testbed, where a PFNA prototype will be installed in 1995. A summary of conclusions reached at this workshop is presented. Results from analytic and Monte Carlo modeling of simplified PFNA systems are also presented.

  7. Issues in the use of acoustic cues for auditory scene analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bregman, Albert S.

    2003-04-01

    Issues concerning auditory scene analysis (ASA) raised by the previous speakers will be discussed: (1) Disorders of ASA in humans can tell us about the weighting of cues in ASA. (2) The apparent weakness of spatial cues for ASA may simply show that they interact strongly with other ASA cues (c.f., recent research in the author's lab). (3) The power of harmonic relations among partials as a grouping cue is not guaranteed, but depends on many other factors. (4) Abstract models of ASA may require the peripheral auditory system to carry out analyses that are questionable, based on current psychophysical and physiological findings. Is this where psychologists and computational ASA (CASA) modelers part company? (5) The ``old-plus-new heuristic,'' one of the most potent ASA mechanisms, is neglected by existing CASA models. (6) The different roles of bottom-up and top-down processes (e.g., in ``exclusive allocation'' of sensory evidence) should be reflected in models. (7) Should the output of a CASA system be the reconstructed signal of a single source, as a front end to a recognition system, or should grouping mechanisms merely form an interacting part of a larger system that outputs a higher-level description (e.g., a series of words)?

  8. Raising Critical Issues in the Analysis of Gender and Science in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sonya N.; Siry, Christina A.

    2009-01-01

    Trevor Owens' paper provides a critique of the role of gender and authority in selected children's books that presented biographies of Albert Einstein and Marie Curie. In the context of discussing Trevor's (2009) article about children's literature, this forum explores issues related to the (a) representation and construction of gender, science,…

  9. Research Trends on Socioscientific Issues: A Content Analysis of Publications in Selected Science Education Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekin, Nurcan; Aslan, Oktay; Yilmaz, Suleyman

    2016-01-01

    Socioscientific issues (SSIs) have gained recently more importance in science education. SSIs are an important component of scientific literacy. SSIs are social dilemmas including conceptual or technological links to science. The present study aims to determine SSIs related research trends via content analyses of the articles published from 2004…

  10. QA/QC Issues Related to Data From Volunteer Citizen Scientist Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, G. C.; Crimmins, M.; Vazquez, R.; Rupprecht, C.

    2007-12-01

    Earth science researchers increasingly are using field data gathered by volunteer citizen scientists, particularly where there is a need for dense or far-flung networks of instruments, or qualitative observations of environmental conditions (e.g., drought-caused plant stress, bird migration, spring ice break-up). Precipitation monitoring is a popular form of citizen science, with hundreds of local networks, and two regional networks - CoCoRaHS with observers in over 20 states, and RainLog, with over 1,200 observers in the Southwestern U.S. Dense networks of rain gages are especially valuable for capturing localized, convective storm events, with the data used for multiple purposes, including research, flood early warning, drought monitoring, and weather reporting. Researchers may be hesitant to use data collected by citizen scientists because of Quality Assurance/Quality Control issues associated with networks of volunteers. Gages vary in precision and accuracy, and citizen scientists have different levels of skill and experience. Backyard gages are not always ideally sited with respect to buildings and trees. Data entry issues include delays in reporting and input errors. Missing data are not only more prevalent than for official gages, the missing data are non-random. Spatial patterns of volunteers' gages reflect development patterns and socio-demographic factors, resulting in clusters and voids in gage distribution. Current interpolation methodologies do not handle these gage patterns well. RainLog is systematically quantifying these QA/QC issues, and where possible, developing procedures to mitigate them. Citizen scientists are kept informed and engaged and informed through a variety of web-based data visualization approaches. Automated monthly data reviews glean missing data and offer an opportunity to check outlier values. Various statistical approaches are used to estimate accuracy and precision for each gage. Finally, we are developing and implementing more

  11. Methodological issues related to pooling results from panel studies of heart rate variability and its association with ambient air pollution.

    PubMed

    Buteau, Stephane; Goldberg, Mark S

    2015-07-01

    Reviews of observational studies and subsequent meta-analyses are challenging to interpret because of potential methodological issues and biases inherent in studies. In reviewing panel studies of the association between heart rate variability and ambient air pollution we identified a number of methodological issues that make difficult interpreting and pooling findings from longitudinal studies, notably issues related to associations arising from different type of designs, differences in design characteristics, including study populations, measurements of heart rate variability (e.g., duration and condition of the electrocardiogram recordings), exposure assessment (e.g., types of monitoring), metrics of exposure used, and parameters estimated from regression models. We conclude that many panel studies of the association between heart rate variability and ambient air pollution may not be comparable to each other, and thus caution must be exercised to avoid misleading conclusions.

  12. Issues of platinum group element concentration analysis: Do we have solutions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisel, T.; Becker, H.; Walker, R. J.

    2004-05-01

    When addressing digestion techniques, sample inhomogeneity, reagent blanks and spike sample equilibration are issues of major concern. The issue of complete digestions is often overseen or neglected. Reasons are a) the lack of reference materials certified for PGE concentrations to validate methods, b) too few collaborative trials concerning PGE analysis (proficiency tests), c) assumptions made on complete digestions, d) the lack of alternative digestions method to validate analytical methods and e) large measurement uncertainties that do not allow for detection of bias. Acid digestions in Carius tubes (CT) where originally introduced (ca 1860) to digest organic material for major element analyses. In the 1940 CT were described as effective digestion method of platinum group elements applying temperatures of up to 300° C. In the early 1990s CT heated to about 230° C for silicate rock digestions for the Re-Os isotopic analysis. With the increasing interest in determining PGE with isotope dilution ICP-MS, CT were later on used for sample digestions, partially replacing the classical fire assay technique with NiS. The temperature of 230° C was thought to be sufficient for complete digestion and was not raised due to safety concerns. Recent studies show that CT do not release all the PGE contained in peridotites. It can be demonstrated that higher temperatures (greater 300° C) need to be attained to achieve complete digestions. The use of a high pressure asher (HPA-S) device makes complete PGE digestions of less than 4 g of silicates or chromites at temperatures up to 320° C in a extremely safe environment possible. The recent reintroduction of the original constructions for CT digestions of the 1940s now allow digestions even at 345° C and more. The home made device, which was build after the plan from NIST, is probably as efficient as HPA-S digestions. One advantage of the classical NiS fire assay is the possibility to process large sample amounts which should

  13. PBL triggers in relation to students’ generated learning issues and predetermined faculty objectives: Study in a Malaysian public university

    PubMed Central

    Ruslai, Nurul Hidayati; Salam, Abdus

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Foundational elements of problem based learning (PBL) are triggers, tutors and students. Ineffective triggers are important issues for students’ inability to generate appropriate learning issues. The objective of this study was to evaluate PBL triggers and to determine similarities of students’ generated learning issues with predetermined faculty objectives. Methods: It was a retrospective study conducted in 2014 analyzing all 24 PBL-triggers used at Centre for Foundation Studies, International Islamic University Malaysia, in four semesters during two consecutive years 2011 and 2012. Triggers were used as textual and illustration format equally in each semester. Total 16 PBL-triggers with highest and lowest achieving similarities of learning issues with predetermined faculty objectives were selected equally from each semester and format. The trigger quality and learning issues related to predetermine faculty objectives were analyzed and presented as mean and percent distribution. Results: Mean similarities score of students’ generated learning issues were 3.4 over 5 predetermined faculty objectives which was 68%, varied from 58% to 79%. More than 70% similarities were generated from five textual and four illustrated triggers, while <70% similarities observed from four illustrated and three textual triggers. Conclusion: Whatever the trigger formats in PBL, it is the designing considering influential variables that influence higher outcomes. Triggers should have planned clues that lead students to generate issues correlate with faculty objectives. Educational institution should emphasize on training needs of faculty at regular interval to develop and re-in force teachers’ skills in trigger design, thereby to promote a sustainable educational and organizational development. PMID:27182232

  14. An Examination of Issues Related to a Europa Subsurface Component for the JIMO Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsey, F. D.; Hecht, M. H.; Wilcox, B. H.; Behar, A. E.; Holland, P. M.

    2003-01-01

    The Galileo Europa data set served to revolutionize our view of Europa. In particular the strong evidence of a large, cold, salty Ocean beneath 5-30 km of ice has profoundly altered the significance of Europa in our thinking, especially of context of habitability in the solar system. While much remains to be learned from spacecraft observations of several sorts, there are significant questions answerable only by in-situ techniques; these relate to the formation of Europa, the nature of its ocean, and the prospects for life in its ocean, sediments, and ice. We feel that wide-ranging discussion of an in-situ subsurface mission to Europa, as part of JIMO, should proceed. The science objective of the mission is to characterize the icy shell of Europa to resolve its provenance, estimate the composition of brine of the Europa ocean, and search for evidence of Earth-like life. Probably anyone would agree that an in-situ mission to Europa would be of great value, but he or she would also immediately take the position that such a mission is utterly impractical. We take the position here of defining the least complex mission that can nonetheless justify its cost and to argue that such a mission is realistic enough that it should be seriously considered. Our mission thinking has been: 1) Soft landing. A soft lander is required on a site sufficiently flat to offer a stable platform; no further site selectivity is required. 2) Subsurface exploration. The Europa subsurface must be examined. Surficial processes on Europa arguably have exposed the upper 200 m of shell to chemical effects from the Jovian radiation belts as well as cometary infall, etc; to examine native ice we must descend below that point to, for discussion, 300 m. At that depth we argue that the ice is characteristic of ice at depth and possibly is effectively sea ice. 3) Science data. A few simple measurements at various depths and at 300 m constitute a scientifically successful mission. Measurements would

  15. Mixed thermal convection: fundamental issues and analysis of the planar case.

    PubMed

    Padet, Jacques; Cotta, Renato M; Mladin, Emilia C; Padet, Colette

    2015-09-01

    This paper aims to renew interest on mixed thermal convection research and to emphasize three issues that arise from the present analysis: (i) a clear definition of the reference temperature in the Boussinesq approximation; (ii) a practical delimitation of the three convective modes, which are the forced convection (FC), mixed convection (MC) and natural (or free) convection (NC); (iii) and, finally, a uniform description of the set FC/MC/NC in the similarity framework. The planar case, for which analytical solutions are available, allows a detailed illustration of the answers here advanced to the above issues.

  16. Issues related to prediction of residual stresses in titanium alloy matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Rangaswamy, P.; Jayaraman, N.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, a detailed study of residual stresses on the as-processed SCS-6/Ti-24Al-11Nb [0]{sub 8} composite, and SCS-6/Beta-21S composites in unidirectional [0]{sub 4}, cross-ply [0/90]s, and quasi-isotropic [0/{+-}45/90]s lay-ups has been completed. In this study, residual stresses have been measured using x-ray diffraction (Sin{sup 2}{Psi}) technique. We have shown that the use of conventional unit cell models consisting of a quarter fiber surrounded by the matrix material to predict residual stresses for verification of experimental results is inadequate. Such models have successfully predicted the stresses at the fiber-matrix interface. However, experimental work to measure residual stresses have always been on surfaces far away from the interface region. In this paper, the approach taken in extending the conventional unit cell model to the concept of multi-fiber models to predict average stresses are presented. In this process, several modeling issues have been identified. These issues are (i) use of conventional unit models for prediction of average surface residual stresses, (ii) effect of orientation of the sub-surface plies on the residual stresses in the surface ply, (iii) residual stresses in the interior plies, and (iv) constituent material properties.

  17. Comparison of environmental issues related to development of small hydropower resources at new versus existing sites

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J. M.; Hildebrand, S. G.

    1980-01-01

    Many of the ecological issues associated with the development of small hydropower resources are similar at both new (undeveloped) sites and those with existing dams that will be retrofitted for hydroelectric generation. Issues that could occur with both types of development are: (1) blockage of fish migration routes; (2) water level fluctuations; (3) instream flows, (4) water quality; (5) dredging and dredged material disposal; and (6) threatened or endangered species. However, new site development projects require the alteration of existing aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems that will be, in most cases, significantly greater than the environmental changes associated with the retrofitting of existing dams. Although project design and operation are important factors controlling the nature and magnitude of the environmental impacts of small hydropower resource development, the mitigation of adverse impacts (and the optimization of beneficial effects) is dependent, in large measure, on our ability to accurately predict physical, chemical, and biological changes. Predicting the impacts of new impoundments may be considerably more difficult than predicting the impacts that might occur if an existing dam/impoundment system is developed. A comparative approach at the ecosystem level can provide valuable insights into the structure and function of reservoir systems and significantly increase our predictive capability.

  18. Measurement issues related to data collection on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Ora L; Moloney, Margaret F; Dietrich, Alexa S; Myerburg, Stuart; Cotsonis, George A; Johnson, Robert V

    2003-01-01

    As the World Wide Web has become more prominent as a mode of communication, it has opened up new possibilities for research data collection. This article identifies measurement issues that occur with Internet data collection that are relevant to qualitative and quantitative research approaches as they occurred in a triangulated Internet study of perimenopausal women with migraine headaches. Issues associated with quantitative data collection over the Internet include (a) selecting and designing Internet data collection protocols that adequately address study aims while also taking advantage of the Internet, (b) ensuring the reliability and validity of Internet data collected, (c) adapting quantitative paper-and-pencil data collection protocols for the Internet, (d) making Internet data collection practical for respondents and researchers, and (e) ensuring the quality of quantitative data collected. Qualitative data collection over the Internet needs to remain true to the philosophical stance of the qualitative approach selected. Researcher expertise in qualitative data collection must be combined with expertise in computer technology and information services if data are to be of ultimate quality The advantages and limitations of collecting qualitative data in real time or at a later time are explored, as well as approaches to enhance qualitative data collection over the Internet. It was concluded that like any research approach or method, Internet data collection requires considerable creativity, expertise, and planning to take advantage of the technology for the collection of reliable and valid research data.

  19. Chapter 2. General theoretical perspectives of narrative analysis of substance use-related dependency.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Sam; Lilja, John; von Braun, Therese; Sjöblom, Yvonne

    2013-11-01

    This chapter provides a short introduction to, and an overview for, using narrative analysis in the understanding of the use and misuse of alcohol and drugs. Important theoretical and methodological dimensions are discussed. Some tentative conclusions, limitations, and unresolved critical issues concerning the use of narrative research methods in the analysis of substance use-related dependency problems are also presented.

  20. Identifying related journals through log analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhiyong; Xie, Natalie; Wilbur, W. John

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: With the explosion of biomedical literature and the evolution of online and open access, scientists are reading more articles from a wider variety of journals. Thus, the list of core journals relevant to their research may be less obvious and may often change over time. To help researchers quickly identify appropriate journals to read and publish in, we developed a web application for finding related journals based on the analysis of PubMed log data. Availability: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/IRET/Journals Contact: luzh@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19734155

  1. An Examination of Issues Related to a Europa Subsurface Component for the JIMO Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsey, F. D.; Hecht, M. H.; Wilcox, B. H.; Behar, A. E.; Holland, P. M.

    2003-01-01

    The Galileo Europa data set served to revolutionize our view of Europa. In particular the strong evidence of a large, cold, salty Ocean beneath 5-30 km of ice has profoundly altered the significance of Europa in our thinking, especially of context of habitability in the solar system. While much remains to be learned from spacecraft observations of several sorts, there are significant questions answerable only by in-situ techniques; these relate to the formation of Europa, the nature of its ocean, and the prospects for life in its ocean, sediments, and ice. We feel that wide-ranging discussion of an in-situ subsurface mission to Europa, as part of JIMO, should proceed. The science objective of the mission is to characterize the icy shell of Europa to resolve its provenance, estimate the composition of brine of the Europa ocean, and search for evidence of Earth-like life. Probably anyone would agree that an in-situ mission to Europa would be of great value, but he or she would also immediately take the position that such a mission is utterly impractical. We take the position here of defining the least complex mission that can nonetheless justify its cost and to argue that such a mission is realistic enough that it should be seriously considered. Our mission thinking has been: 1) Soft landing. A soft lander is required on a site sufficiently flat to offer a stable platform; no further site selectivity is required. 2) Subsurface exploration. The Europa subsurface must be examined. Surficial processes on Europa arguably have exposed the upper 200 m of shell to chemical effects from the Jovian radiation belts as well as cometary infall, etc; to examine native ice we must descend below that point to, for discussion, 300 m. At that depth we argue that the ice is characteristic of ice at depth and possibly is effectively sea ice. 3) Science data. A few simple measurements at various depths and at 300 m constitute a scientifically successful mission. Measurements would

  2. Relations between Parenting Style and Children's Play Behavior. Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Mellisa A.; Robila, Mihaela

    2001-01-01

    Studied Baumrind's approach to parenting style to examine the relations between parenting style and preschool children's social competence manifested through peer play. Found that mothers' and fathers' parenting style is related to children's play with peers, with an authoritative parenting style correlating to more complex levels of play. (SD)

  3. Will Duct Tape and Plastic Really Work? Issues Related to Expedient Shelter-In-Place

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.H.

    2002-08-30

    Expedient sheltering involves the use of common materials to enhance the safety of a room inside a building against the impacts of a chemical plume. The central premise behind taping and sealing with duct tape and plastic is to reduce airflow into a room. This paper reviews issues associated with the use of expedient sheltering materials and the effectiveness of this strategy. Expedient sheltering provides additional protection to people sheltering in place beyond that provided by the house and by a safe room without expedient measures. The materials chosen for taping and sealing--duct tape and plastic--are appropriate because they effectively reduce infiltration and the materials should withstand a vapor challenge. Taping is essential to reduce air infiltration. Plastic sheeting is not a critical element for reducing air infiltration, but it makes sealing off large windows easier.

  4. Some critical issues and concerns related to research advances on toxicology of chemical mixtures.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, R S

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses some of the issues and concerns on research advances on the toxicology of chemical mixtures. Emphases will be selectively given to the following questions and answers: Can mechanistic studies be conducted on chemical mixtures? The fact that any studies, including mechanistic studies, of single chemicals are really the study of the parent chemical plus its metabolites underscores the relevance of mechanistic studies on chemical mixtures. Can predictions be made on the health effects of chemical mixtures? Some successes are already evident in the literature on simpler chemical mixtures. For more complex mixtures, it is possible and we propose an approach here. What can we learn from other disciplines (the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration)? Two aspects, the knowledge and methodologies available in clinical pharmacology and the latest advances in structure-oriented lumping in chemical engineering, are discussed in detail. Unrepeatable results: The possibility of magnification of biologic variability because of low-level exposures to chemical mixtures is suggested with special reference to some known examples, including the controversial study on synergistic interactions of endocrine disruptors. Is the driving force for scientific investigations on chemical mixtures the legislative and regulatory atmosphere? Two laws with chemical mixtures specifically in the language are quoted and discussed. Their implications regarding research funding and activities are described. What are the pitfalls of applying for research funding on investigating chemical mixtures? The dilemma at least one investigator faces in pursuing research funding is elaborated. The questions and issues listed above are not all inclusive, but they represent some of the aspects that need to be brought into the open in the scientific community for discussion and/or debate. Thus, the primary objective of this paper is to provide some momentum for the beginning of a fruitful

  5. Space Station Engineering Design Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  6. Calculating Contingencies in Natural Environments: Issues in the Application of Sequential Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComas, Jennifer J.; Moore, Timothy; Dahl, Norm; Hartman, Ellie; Hoch, John; Symons, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Analysis and interpretation of behavior-environment relations are increasingly being conducted with data that have been derived descriptively. This paper provides an overview of the logic that underlies a sequential analytic approach to the analysis of descriptive data. Several methods for quantifying sequential relations are reviewed along with…

  7. Urban morphological analysis for mesoscale meteorological and dispersion modeling applications : current issues

    SciTech Connect

    Burian, S. J.; Brown, M. J.; Ching, J.; Cheuk, M. L.; Yuan, M.; McKinnon, A. T.; Han, W. S.

    2004-01-01

    morphology (i.e., ground elevation, building and tree height and geometry characteristics) and then processing the data to compute physical cover and morphological parameters. Many of the surface cover and morphological parameters required for mesoscale meteorological models are also needed by atmospheric dispersion models. Thus, most of the discussion below is relevant to both types of modeling. In this paper, the term urban morphological analysis will be used to define the component of urban terrain characterization concerned with the morphological parameters. Furthermore, the focus will be building morphological parameters; therefore, the term urban morphological analysis will refer exclusively to the task of inventorying, computing or estimating building morphological parameters. Several approaches to perform urban morphological analysis exist; however, all have in common three types of practice issues related to the uncertainty of (1) data, (2) parameter definitions and calculation methods, and (3) extrapolation techniques. The objective of this paper is to describe the state-of-the-practice of urban morphological analysis by reviewing the primary approaches presented in the literature and outlining and commenting on key aspects of the three types of practice issues listed above.

  8. Marketing nutrition & health-related benefits of food & beverage products: enforcement, litigation & liability issues.

    PubMed

    Roller, Sarah; Pippins, Raqiyyah

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the liability risks associated with food and beverage product marketing have increased significantly, particularly with respect to nutrition and health-related product benefit claims. FDA and FTC enforcement priorities appear to have contributed to the increasing liability trends that are associated with these nutrition and health-related claims. This article examines key enforcement and litigation developments involving conventional food and beverage product marketing claims during the first 18 months of President Obama's administration: Part I considers FDA enforcement priorities and recent warning letters; Part II considers FTC enforcement priorities, warning letters, and consent orders; and Part III considers the relationship between FDA and FTC enforcement priorities and recent false advertising cases brought by private parties challenging nutrition and health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products. The article makes recommendations concerning ways in which food and beverage companies can help minimize liability risks associated with health-related marketing claims. In addition, the article suggests that federal policy reforms may be required to counter the perverse chilling effects current food liability trends appear to be having on health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products, and proposes a number of specific reforms that would help encourage the responsible use of well-substantiated marketing claims that can help foster healthy dietary practices. In view of the obesity prevention and other diet-related public health priorities of the Obama administration, the article suggests that this is an opportune time to address the apparent chilling effects increasing food liability risks are having on nutrition and health-related marketing claims for healthy food and beverage products, and potential adverse consequences for public health. PMID:24479235

  9. The Context of Current Content Analysis of Gender Roles: An Introduction to a Special Issue

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Lucy; Linz, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide context for the quantitative content analyses of gender roles that are to be included in both parts of this special issue. First, a timeline of historical uses of the content analysis methodology is presented. Second, research objectives that frequently drive content analysis of gender roles are described; these include: to support feminist claims, to compare media with real life, to predict effects on audiences, and to detect effects of media producers on content. Third, previous content analyses published in Sex Roles and other gender-focused journals are reviewed and categorized in terms of medium, genre, time span, gender, and nationality. Finally, contributions of each of the articles in this special issue are outlined. PMID:20694031

  10. Background issues relating to the proposed Mass Literacy Campaign in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinde, Charles O.; Omolewa, Michael

    1982-03-01

    Literacy education in Nigerian history finds its roots in the efforts of missionary endeavour. Subsequent work in the field has always been piecemeal and unco-ordinated, even though a degree of success has been achieved and valuable experience gained. The Federal Government's decision to launch a Mass Literacy Campaign in 1982 is primarily a political response to the needs and exigencies of a developing country rich both in natural and manpower resources. The campaign is seen not only as a necessary means of creating a permanently literate society within ten years but also as an assertion of the nation's unity. The problems of undertaking such a project are immensely complicated by the plethora of local languages and cultures, the preservation of which is seen to be imperative. But the campaign can succeed if the crucial issues identified in the article — functionality, personnel, training and materials, motivation, and above all the language to be used as the medium of literacy education — are resolved; if assistance from national development organisations and international bodies is matched by the determination of the government to create an environment capable of sustaining and reinforcing literacy and conducive to the use of the skills acquired; and if the illiterate respond with initiative and perseverence to the opportunity offered them.

  11. Accelerator-based conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium: Plant layout study and related design issues

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, B.S.; Fontana, M.H.; Krakowski, R.A.; Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Davidson, J.W.; Sailor, W.C.; Williamson, M.A.

    1995-04-01

    In preparation for and in support of a detailed R and D Plan for the Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium, an ABC Plant Layout Study was conducted at the level of a pre-conceptual engineering design. The plant layout is based on an adaptation of the Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) detailed conceptual design that was completed in the early 1070s. Although the ABC Plant Layout Study included the Accelerator Equipment as an essential element, the engineering assessment focused primarily on the Target; Primary System (blanket and all systems containing plutonium-bearing fuel salt); the Heat-Removal System (secondary-coolant-salt and supercritical-steam systems); Chemical Processing; Operation and Maintenance; Containment and Safety; and Instrumentation and Control systems. Although constrained primarily to a reflection of an accelerator-driven (subcritical) variant of MSBR system, unique features and added flexibilities of the ABC suggest improved or alternative approaches to each of the above-listed subsystems; these, along with the key technical issues in need of resolution through a detailed R&D plan for ABC are described on the bases of the ``strawman`` or ``point-of-departure`` plant layout that resulted from this study.

  12. Information and issues related to the quantification of environmental externalities for new powerplants

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.D.; Callaway, J.M.; Glantz, C.S.; Baechler, M.C.; Foley, L.O.

    1990-10-01

    This report provides background information for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in its efforts to quantify the environmental externalities associated with new electricity resources. A more detailed companion document has been provided to Bonneville for internal use. This report defines what is meant by externalities, particularly in the context of electricity resources. It outlines the economics issues associated with assigning an economic value, such as cents per kilowatt hour, to the residual environmental impacts of electricity powerplants. It examines two generic theoretical approaches for estimating such values and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. The report also addresses the need to include relevant stages in the fuel cycle in estimating the costs of externalities. The fuel-cycle concept is defined and its importance is discussed. The approaches used by several states to quantify externalities are described. A review of the valuation efforts of various states and utilities indicates that three states have actually developed methodologies for assigning economic values to externalities. Information that Bonneville may need to request from resource developers to quantify externalities is discussed, and an appendix presents suggested forms for obtaining the required information. Summary information also is presented on models for analyzing the dispersion of powerplant plumes for the purpose of estimating environmental externality costs. 34 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  13. Cyanide hazards to plants and animals from gold mining and related water issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    2004-01-01

    Highly toxic sodium cyanide (NaCN) is used by the international mining community to extract gold and other precious metals through milling of high-grade ores and heap leaching of low-grade ores (Korte et al. 2000). The process to concentrate gold using cyanide was developed in Scotland in 1887 and was used almost immediately in the Witwatersrand gold fields of the Republic of South Africa. Heap leaching with cyanide was proposed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines in 1969 as a means of extracting gold from low-grade ores. The gold industry adopted the technique in the 1970s, soon making heap leaching the dominant technology in gold extraction (Da Rosa and Lyon 1997). The heap leach and milling processes, which involve dewatering of gold-bearing ores, spraying of dilute cyanide solutions on extremely large heaps of ores containing low concentrations of gold, or the milling of ores with the use of cyanide and subsequent recovery of the gold-cyanide complex, have created a number of serious environmental problems affecting wildlife and water management. In this account, we review the history of cyanide use in gold mining with emphasis on heap leach gold mining, cyanide hazards to plants and animals, water management issues associated with gold mining, and proposed mitigation and research needs.

  14. Indoor air quality issues related to the acquisition of conservation in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, M.C.; Hadley, D.L.; Marseille, T.J.

    1990-09-01

    The quality of indoor air in commercial buildings is dependent on the complex interaction between sources of indoor pollutants, environmental factors within buildings such as temperature and humidity, the removal of air pollutants by air-cleaning devices, and the removal and dilution of pollutants from outside air. To the extent that energy conservation measures (ECMs) may affect a number of these factors, the relationship between ECMs and indoor air quality is difficult to predict. Energy conservation measures may affect pollutant levels in other ways. Conservation measures, such as caulking and insulation, may introduce sources of indoor pollutants. Measures that reduce mechanical ventilation may allow pollutants to build up inside structures. Finally, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may provide surface areas for the growth of biogenic agents, or may encourage the dissemination of pollutants throughout a building. Information about indoor air quality and ventilation in both new and existing commercial buildings is summarized in this report. Sick building syndrome and specific pollutants are discussed, as are broader issues such as ventilation, general mitigation techniques, and the interaction between energy conservation activities and indoor air quality. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this review to aid the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in its assessment of potential environmental effects resulting from conservation activities in commercial buildings. 76 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, H A; Kleter, G A; Noteborn, H P; Kok, E J

    2001-09-01

    International consensus has been reached on the principles regarding evaluation of the food safety of genetically modified plants. The concept of substantial equivalence has been developed as part of a safety evaluation framework, based on the idea that existing foods can serve as a basis for comparing the properties of genetically modified foods with the appropriate counterpart. Application of the concept is not a safety assessment per se, but helps to identify similarities and differences between the existing food and the new product, which are then subject to further toxicological investigation. Substantial equivalence is a starting point in the safety evaluation, rather than an endpoint of the assessment. Consensus on practical application of the principle should be further elaborated. Experiences with the safety testing of newly inserted proteins and of whole genetically modified foods are reviewed, and limitations of current test methodologies are discussed. The development and validation of new profiling methods such as DNA microarray technology, proteomics, and metabolomics for the identification and characterization of unintended effects, which may occur as a result of the genetic modification, is recommended. The assessment of the allergenicity of newly inserted proteins and of marker genes is discussed. An issue that will gain importance in the near future is that of post-marketing surveillance of the foods derived from genetically modified crops. It is concluded, among others that, that application of the principle of substantial equivalence has proven adequate, and that no alternative adequate safety assessment strategies are available. PMID:11576435

  16. Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, H A; Kleter, G A; Noteborn, H P; Kok, E J

    2001-09-01

    International consensus has been reached on the principles regarding evaluation of the food safety of genetically modified plants. The concept of substantial equivalence has been developed as part of a safety evaluation framework, based on the idea that existing foods can serve as a basis for comparing the properties of genetically modified foods with the appropriate counterpart. Application of the concept is not a safety assessment per se, but helps to identify similarities and differences between the existing food and the new product, which are then subject to further toxicological investigation. Substantial equivalence is a starting point in the safety evaluation, rather than an endpoint of the assessment. Consensus on practical application of the principle should be further elaborated. Experiences with the safety testing of newly inserted proteins and of whole genetically modified foods are reviewed, and limitations of current test methodologies are discussed. The development and validation of new profiling methods such as DNA microarray technology, proteomics, and metabolomics for the identification and characterization of unintended effects, which may occur as a result of the genetic modification, is recommended. The assessment of the allergenicity of newly inserted proteins and of marker genes is discussed. An issue that will gain importance in the near future is that of post-marketing surveillance of the foods derived from genetically modified crops. It is concluded, among others that, that application of the principle of substantial equivalence has proven adequate, and that no alternative adequate safety assessment strategies are available.

  17. Issues Relating to the Usage and Conceptualization of Mental Health Constructs Employed By Gerontologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stones, M. J.; Kozma, A.

    1980-01-01

    Conclusions were that: (1) meanings of mental health constructs cluster differently depending on the analysis; (2) happiness may be considered the most apposite representative of the mental health constructs employed by gerontologists; and (3) contemporary models of happiness favor neither the expansionist nor contractionist positions as a means…

  18. Relative efficacy of drugs: an emerging issue between regulatory agencies and third-party payers.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Hans-Georg; Bloechl-Daum, Brigitte; Abadie, Eric; Barnett, David; König, Franz; Pearson, Steven

    2010-04-01

    Drug regulatory agencies have traditionally assessed the quality, safety and efficacy of drugs, and the current paradigm dictates that a new drug should be licensed when the benefits outweigh the risks. By contrast, third-party payers base their reimbursement decisions predominantly on the health benefits of the drug relative to existing treatment options (termed relative efficacy; RE). Over the past decade, the role of payers has become more prominent, and time-to-market no longer means time-to-licensing but time-to-reimbursement. Companies now have to satisfy the sometimes divergent needs of both regulators and payers, and to address RE during the pre-marketing stages. This article describes the current political background to the RE debate and presents the scientific and methodological challenges as they relate to RE assessment. In addition, we explain the impact of RE on drug development, and speculate on future developments and actions that are likely to be required from key players.

  19. Issues and Technical Problems in Research and Evaluation Related to Innovative Mathematics Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Sheldon S.

    Even after a number of innovative programs and proposals have met selective criteria, the Educational Research Commission will have a difficult task in assigning priorities and spreading resources. This paper offers many suggestions for handling the problems in research and evaluation related to innovative mathematics projects, especially K-3. For…

  20. Third Party Payments for Related Services: Policy Issues and Implications for Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John W.

    Insurance carriers and state directors of special education were contacted for information regarding policies regarding third party payments for related services mandated for handicapped students under P. L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. Insurance companies were queried regarding reimbursable services, conditions for…

  1. Equal Employment Opportunity for Racial and Ethnic Minorities: Affirmative Action, Reverse Discrimination, and Related Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uerling, Donald F.

    This paper discusses some basic constitutional and statutory principles related to affirmative action and reverse discrimination in employment of educational personnel. The specifications of the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, other statutes and regulations, and selected Supreme Court cases…

  2. Teachers for the Future: The Changing Nature of Society and Related Issues for the Teaching Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skilbeck, Malcolm; Connell, Helen

    2004-01-01

    During the next decade, the teaching profession in Australia will be transformed. Due mainly to age related retirements there will be a massive turnover and a huge influx of new entrants. At the same time, it can be expected that there will be more exacting requirements and expectations of teachers as new professional standards are set to meet the…

  3. Relational Safety and Liberating Training Spaces: An Application with a Focus on Sexual Orientation Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Pilar; Rankin, Pressley, IV

    2008-01-01

    This article describes and discusses a teaching case of a clinical training situation involving a gay marriage and family therapy student working with a same-sex affectional couple. The conceptual pillars of this teaching case, relational safety and liberating spaces, are advanced as illustrations of how the student developed his voice in the…

  4. Issues Related to Defining and Measuring Violence Against Women: Response to Kilpatrick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltzman, Linda E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper asserts that although there is considerable agreement in the U.S. and internationally about the importance of uniform terminology and measurement related to violence against women, we need a strategy for choosing standardized definitions and measures. Responding to Kilpatrick's comments at the October 2003 national research conference…

  5. Introduction to the issue regarding research regarding age related macular degeneration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blindness is the second greatest fear among the elderly. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss among the elderly in most industrialized nations. AMD first compromises central high acuity vision. Subsequently, all vision may be lost. AMD is a progressive retinal d...

  6. Fundamental Issues Related to the Origin of Melatonin and Melatonin Isomers during Evolution: Relation to Their Biological Functions

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Dun-Xian; Zheng, Xiaodong; Kong, Jin; Manchester, Lucien C.; Hardeland, Ruediger; Kim, Seok Joong; Xu, Xiaoying; Reiter, Russel J.

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin and melatonin isomers exist and/or coexist in living organisms including yeasts, bacteria and plants. The levels of melatonin isomers are significantly higher than that of melatonin in some plants and in several fermented products such as in wine and bread. Currently, there are no reports documenting the presence of melatonin isomers in vertebrates. From an evolutionary point of view, it is unlikely that melatonin isomers do not exist in vertebrates. On the other hand, large quantities of the microbial flora exist in the gut of the vertebrates. These microorganisms frequently exchange materials with the host. Melatonin isomers, which are produced by these organisms inevitably enter the host’s system. The origins of melatonin and its isomers can be traced back to photosynthetic bacteria and other primitive unicellular organisms. Since some of these bacteria are believed to be the precursors of mitochondria and chloroplasts these cellular organelles may be the primary sites of melatonin production in animals or in plants, respectively. Phylogenic analysis based on its rate-limiting synthetic enzyme, serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT), indicates its multiple origins during evolution. Therefore, it is likely that melatonin and its isomer are also present in the domain of archaea, which perhaps require these molecules to protect them against hostile environments including extremely high or low temperature. Evidence indicates that the initial and primary function of melatonin and its isomers was to serve as the first-line of defence against oxidative stress and all other functions were acquired during evolution either by the process of adoption or by the extension of its antioxidative capacity. PMID:25207599

  7. Integrated Systems for NGS Data Management and Analysis: Open Issues and Available Solutions.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Valerio; Ceol, Arnaud; Ogier, Alessandro G E; de Pretis, Stefano; Galeota, Eugenia; Kishore, Kamal; Bora, Pranami; Croci, Ottavio; Campaner, Stefano; Amati, Bruno; Morelli, Marco J; Pelizzola, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have deeply changed our understanding of cellular processes by delivering an astonishing amount of data at affordable prices; nowadays, many biology laboratories have already accumulated a large number of sequenced samples. However, managing and analyzing these data poses new challenges, which may easily be underestimated by research groups devoid of IT and quantitative skills. In this perspective, we identify five issues that should be carefully addressed by research groups approaching NGS technologies. In particular, the five key issues to be considered concern: (1) adopting a laboratory management system (LIMS) and safeguard the resulting raw data structure in downstream analyses; (2) monitoring the flow of the data and standardizing input and output directories and file names, even when multiple analysis protocols are used on the same data; (3) ensuring complete traceability of the analysis performed; (4) enabling non-experienced users to run analyses through a graphical user interface (GUI) acting as a front-end for the pipelines; (5) relying on standard metadata to annotate the datasets, and when possible using controlled vocabularies, ideally derived from biomedical ontologies. Finally, we discuss the currently available tools in the light of these issues, and we introduce HTS-flow, a new workflow management system conceived to address the concerns we raised. HTS-flow is able to retrieve information from a LIMS database, manages data analyses through a simple GUI, outputs data in standard locations and allows the complete traceability of datasets, accompanying metadata and analysis scripts. PMID:27200084

  8. Integrated Systems for NGS Data Management and Analysis: Open Issues and Available Solutions.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Valerio; Ceol, Arnaud; Ogier, Alessandro G E; de Pretis, Stefano; Galeota, Eugenia; Kishore, Kamal; Bora, Pranami; Croci, Ottavio; Campaner, Stefano; Amati, Bruno; Morelli, Marco J; Pelizzola, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have deeply changed our understanding of cellular processes by delivering an astonishing amount of data at affordable prices; nowadays, many biology laboratories have already accumulated a large number of sequenced samples. However, managing and analyzing these data poses new challenges, which may easily be underestimated by research groups devoid of IT and quantitative skills. In this perspective, we identify five issues that should be carefully addressed by research groups approaching NGS technologies. In particular, the five key issues to be considered concern: (1) adopting a laboratory management system (LIMS) and safeguard the resulting raw data structure in downstream analyses; (2) monitoring the flow of the data and standardizing input and output directories and file names, even when multiple analysis protocols are used on the same data; (3) ensuring complete traceability of the analysis performed; (4) enabling non-experienced users to run analyses through a graphical user interface (GUI) acting as a front-end for the pipelines; (5) relying on standard metadata to annotate the datasets, and when possible using controlled vocabularies, ideally derived from biomedical ontologies. Finally, we discuss the currently available tools in the light of these issues, and we introduce HTS-flow, a new workflow management system conceived to address the concerns we raised. HTS-flow is able to retrieve information from a LIMS database, manages data analyses through a simple GUI, outputs data in standard locations and allows the complete traceability of datasets, accompanying metadata and analysis scripts.

  9. Integrated Systems for NGS Data Management and Analysis: Open Issues and Available Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Valerio; Ceol, Arnaud; Ogier, Alessandro G. E.; de Pretis, Stefano; Galeota, Eugenia; Kishore, Kamal; Bora, Pranami; Croci, Ottavio; Campaner, Stefano; Amati, Bruno; Morelli, Marco J.; Pelizzola, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have deeply changed our understanding of cellular processes by delivering an astonishing amount of data at affordable prices; nowadays, many biology laboratories have already accumulated a large number of sequenced samples. However, managing and analyzing these data poses new challenges, which may easily be underestimated by research groups devoid of IT and quantitative skills. In this perspective, we identify five issues that should be carefully addressed by research groups approaching NGS technologies. In particular, the five key issues to be considered concern: (1) adopting a laboratory management system (LIMS) and safeguard the resulting raw data structure in downstream analyses; (2) monitoring the flow of the data and standardizing input and output directories and file names, even when multiple analysis protocols are used on the same data; (3) ensuring complete traceability of the analysis performed; (4) enabling non-experienced users to run analyses through a graphical user interface (GUI) acting as a front-end for the pipelines; (5) relying on standard metadata to annotate the datasets, and when possible using controlled vocabularies, ideally derived from biomedical ontologies. Finally, we discuss the currently available tools in the light of these issues, and we introduce HTS-flow, a new workflow management system conceived to address the concerns we raised. HTS-flow is able to retrieve information from a LIMS database, manages data analyses through a simple GUI, outputs data in standard locations and allows the complete traceability of datasets, accompanying metadata and analysis scripts. PMID:27200084

  10. Experimental microbiological issues related to biocontamination and human life support inside manned space modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canganella, Francesco; Rettberg, Petra; Bianconi, G.; di Mattia, E.; Taddei, A. R.; Iylin, V.; Novikova, N.; Fani, R.; Brigidi, P.; Vitali, B.; Candela, M.; Lobascio, C.; Saverino, A.; Simone, A.; Fossati, F.; Ferraris, M.

    The issue of biocontamination in manned space modules is very important for the International Space Station (ISS) as well as for future planetary bases. We have previously carried out re-search activities concerning biofilm metabolic activities of some reference bacteria on materials commonly used for aerospace industry and currently examined for space greenhouses. It was evaluated the effect on these materials of a mixture of emulsifiers produced by Pseudomonas strain AD1 and recently characterized by chemical methods. The following materials were in-vestigated: Kevlar, Nomex, Betacloth, aluminized Kapton, conventional Kapton, Combitherm, Mylar, copper foil, Teflon, aluminum, carbon fiber composite, aluminum thermo-dissipating tex-tile, aluminum tape, Zylon, Ergoflex, Vectran. Results showed a diverse affinity of materials for bacterial biofilm formation and occasionally sessile colonization was rejected. Pre-conditioning with the emulsifying extract led in some cases to a diminish of biofilm dehydrogenase activity and development compared to untreated materials, taking into account both concentrations and experimental conditions. This also concerned the relationship between the physical traits of materials and the level of bacterial biofilm developed under the experimental conditions. Presently we are investigating microbial biofilm development on either conventional or innova-tive space materials, experimentally treated by biological or chemo-physical coating. VIABLE ISS is a flight experiment concerning the exposure of these materials inside an ISS module for about 4 years. Another initiative (MICHA) on progress is part of the MARS500 Programme, presently going on at the IBMP facility in Moscow. Data will be useful to select appropriate material to be used for life support hardware to decrease the risk of surface biocontamination and health problems inside space modules, a great challenge for both biological and medical research.

  11. Bioimpedance analysis and HIV-related fatigue.

    PubMed

    Meynell, Janet; Barroso, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Although various physiological and psychological causes of fatigue in HIV-positive persons have been proposed, it is still not well understood. Bioimpedance analysis has proved to be an easily used, non-invasive measurement of body composition and cellular integrity. This study, looking at whether body composition as measured by bioimpedance analysis is associated with fatigue, is part of a pilot study looking for physiological and psychological biomarkers that could be factors in the fatigue experienced by HIV-positive people. Twenty-nine men and eleven women were measured for height, weight, and bioimpedance analysis. Correlations were examined between fatigue intensity and weight, body mass index, body cell mass, fat-free mass, extracellular mass, and phase angle. Because of the fat redistribution that has occurred with some people taking protease inhibitors, we also examined differences in weight, body mass index, body cell mass, fat-free mass, and fatigue intensity between those taking and those not taking protease inhibitors. There was no association between fatigue intensity and weight, body mass index, body cell mass, fat-free mass, or phase angle, nor were there differences between those taking and those not taking protease inhibitors. However, it was noted that both the phase angle and the ratio of extracellular mass to body cell mass (extracellular mass:body cell mass) were below their respective normal ranges, indicating that the participants were somewhat compromised nutritionally and with regard to cell membrane integrity. Although fatigue was not shown to be related to body composition measurement in this study, further work is needed on the causes of fatigue, because its effects on the lives of HIV-positive people can be devastating.

  12. Managerial implications of medical sales representative perceptions of job duties, job qualifications, and other performance-related issues.

    PubMed

    Tengilimoğlu, Dilaver; Korkmaz, Sezer; Akinci, Fevzi; Parsons, Amy L

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of medical sales representatives of job related duties, job qualifications needed, and motivating factors and tested for differences based on gender, age, years of experience and education using prior research as a base. This study also explored issues that may arise between sales people and physicians. The authors surveyed 132 medical sales representatives from pharmaceutical firms located in Ankara, Turkey. The authors' findings highlight the need in Turkey for developing in-service training programs for medical sales representatives, especially in the areas related to technical aspects of the product, effective marketing and personal selling strategies, and consumer relations. Training in these areas will help salespeople to better manage the problems typically encountered in physician-sales representative relations. While the study was conducted in Turkey, the results are similar to findings in prior research conducted in other countries and therefore may be of interest to all sales managers.

  13. Issues related to defining and measuring violence against women: response to Kilpatrick.

    PubMed

    Saltzman, Linda E

    2004-11-01

    This paper asserts that although there is considerable agreement in the U.S. and internationally about the importance of uniform terminology and measurement related to violence against women, we need a strategy for choosing standardized definitions and measures. Responding to Kilpatrick's comments at the October 2003 national research conference on violence against women, the author stresses the importance of developing and using uniform terminology related to violence against women, and discusses the lack of a formal mechanism to achieve uniformity of definitions and measurement. Uncertainty about the impact of context on survey findings and the lack of agreement about the optimal scope of measurement are discussed. The author also comments on some difficulties associated with implementing Kilpatrick's proposed modifications to existing measures of rape and sexual assault.

  14. The history of abortion-related acts and current issues in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Michiko

    2007-12-01

    In Japan abortion is categorized into two types by law; one is illegal feticide and the other is legal abortion. The present criminal law forbids feticide in principle and the life of a fetus is protected. However, abortion can be practiced under the "Eugenic Protection Act" established in 1948 (currently referred to as the "Maternal Protection Act"), and is readily available in Japan. In this paper, I have traced the historical origins of abortion law and attempted to clarify the problems related to the current laws relating to artificial abortion. As a result, the existence of contradictions between attitudes toward the life of the fetus and that of the mother, women's right to self determination, and women's rights under current legislation has been clarified. PMID:18284118

  15. Oil, Water, and Wildlife: The Gulf of Mexico Disaster and Related Environmental Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Bickman, John W.

    2010-08-04

    The BP Macondo oil field spill in the Gulf of Mexico is the largest oil spill in U.S. history and has the potential to impact sea turtle and marine mammal populations, and others. This presentation will review the genotoxic effects of oil exposure in wildlife and discuss the potential for an oil spill to impact wildlife populations. Whereas some aspects of a spill are predictable, each spill is different because oils are highly variable, as are the environments in which they occur. The presentation will discuss what has been learned from previous spills, including the Exxon Valdez and the soviet oil legacy in Azerbaijan, and the potential dangers of offshore oil development in the Arctic. Related Purdue University research efforts in oil-spill related engineering and science also will be highlighted.

  16. Oil, Water, and Wildlife: The Gulf of Mexico Disaster and Related Environmental Issues

    ScienceCinema

    Bickman, John W. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States

    2016-07-12

    The BP Macondo oil field spill in the Gulf of Mexico is the largest oil spill in U.S. history and has the potential to impact sea turtle and marine mammal populations, and others. This presentation will review the genotoxic effects of oil exposure in wildlife and discuss the potential for an oil spill to impact wildlife populations. Whereas some aspects of a spill are predictable, each spill is different because oils are highly variable, as are the environments in which they occur. The presentation will discuss what has been learned from previous spills, including the Exxon Valdez and the soviet oil legacy in Azerbaijan, and the potential dangers of offshore oil development in the Arctic. Related Purdue University research efforts in oil-spill related engineering and science also will be highlighted.

  17. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R.

    1993-11-01

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ``Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.`` The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ``generic`` insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency ({approximately}1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations.

  18. Scaling issues relating to phosphorus transfer from land to water in agricultural catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazier, R. E.; Heathwaite, A. L.; Liu, S.

    2005-03-01

    Various scales of input data exist to parameterise diffuse pollution models for the UK. For screening methodologies such as the phosphorus indicators tool—PIT [Heathwaite, A.L., Sharpley, A.N., Bechmann, M., 2003a. The conceptual basis for a decision support framework to assess the risk of phosphorus loss at the field scale across Europe. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 166, 1-12; Heathwaite, A.L., Burke, S., Quinn, P.F., 2003b. The nutrient export risk matrix (the NERM) for strategic application of biosolids to agricultural land. International Association for Hydrological Sciences Publication 285, 1-9], which is applied throughout England and Wales, some assessment of the implications of using input data derived at different scales must be made. This work is further driven by practical issues such as licensing costs and data availability, which mean that not all data are readily accessible for all end users. This paper represents a first step towards quantifying the 'value-added' to model predictions by using input data derived at three different scales: 50×50 m, 1×1 km and 5×5 km. Model runs using PIT were carried out against observed phosphorus water quality data from the River Start and River Gara, which are the main sub-catchments of Slapton Ley, a grade 1 National Nature Reserve in southwest England. Model runs for the main 46 km 2 Slapton catchment were also undertaken. The results show that some improvement in the ability of the model to capture the observed water quality behaviour may be made by using higher resolution DEM data, though these improvements may be outweighed by the extra data processing and computational time. Conversely, model runs driven by the 5 km data demonstrate consistent under-prediction for all three test catchments, which is perhaps not surprising given the greater degree of averaging underlying datasets at this scale. Results from the 1 km datasets provide the best agreement with observed water quality data, and

  19. Stress-corrosion cracking issues related to a water-cooled ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. H.; Bruemmer, S. M.; Henager, C. H.

    1991-03-01

    A review of water impurity and temperature effects on stress-corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steel is presented. These results demonstrate that stress-corrosion crack growth can occur at ITER relevant temperatures for certain water chemistries and material conditions. A model developed at PNL to calculate the degree of sensitization was used to estimate the potential for sensitization of Type 316 SS and US PCA. This analysis shows that both materials can be severely sensitized but, with proper processing and fabrication, sensitization should be avoidable.

  20. Whole-body effective half-lives for radiolabeled antibodies and related issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kaurin, D.G.L.; Carsten, A.L.; Baum, J.W.; Barber, D.E.

    1996-08-01

    Radiolabeled antibodies (RABs) are being developed and used in medical imaging and therapy in rapidly increasing numbers. Data on the whole body half effective half-lives were calculated from external dose rates obtained from attending physicians and radiation safety officers at participating institutions. Calculations were made using exponential regression analysis of data from patients receiving single and multiple administrations. Theses data were analyzed on the basis of age, sex, isotope label, radiation energy, antibody type, disease treated, administration method, and number of administrations.

  1. Transport of radioactive ion beams and related safety issues: The 132Sn+ case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osswald, F.; Bouquerel, E.; Boutin, D.; Dinkov, A.; Kazarinov, N.; Perrot, L.; Sellam, A.

    2014-12-01

    The transport of intense radioactive ion beam currents requires a careful design in order to limit the beam losses, the contamination and thus the dose rates. Some investigations based on numerical models and calculations have been performed in the framework of the SPIRAL 2 project to evaluate the performance of a low energy beam transport line located between the isotope separation on line (ISOL) production cell and the experiment areas. The paper presents the results of the transverse phase-space analysis, the beam losses assessment, the resulting contamination, and radioactivity levels. They show that reasonable beam transmission, emittance growth, and dose rates can be achieved considering the current standards.

  2. Transport of radioactive ion beams and related safety issues: the 132Sn+ case study.

    PubMed

    Osswald, F; Bouquerel, E; Boutin, D; Dinkov, A; Kazarinov, N; Perrot, L; Sellam, A

    2014-12-01

    The transport of intense radioactive ion beam currents requires a careful design in order to limit the beam losses, the contamination and thus the dose rates. Some investigations based on numerical models and calculations have been performed in the framework of the SPIRAL 2 project to evaluate the performance of a low energy beam transport line located between the isotope separation on line (ISOL) production cell and the experiment areas. The paper presents the results of the transverse phase-space analysis, the beam losses assessment, the resulting contamination, and radioactivity levels. They show that reasonable beam transmission, emittance growth, and dose rates can be achieved considering the current standards.

  3. Scale Issues in Remote Sensing: A Review on Analysis, Processing and Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hua; Li, Zhao-Liang

    2009-01-01

    With the development of quantitative remote sensing, scale issues have attracted more and more the attention of scientists. Research is now suffering from a severe scale discrepancy between data sources and the models used. Consequently, both data interpretation and model application become difficult due to these scale issues. Therefore, effectively scaling remotely sensed information at different scales has already become one of the most important research focuses of remote sensing. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate scale issues from the points of view of analysis, processing and modeling and to provide technical assistance when facing scale issues in remote sensing. The definition of scale and relevant terminologies are given in the first part of this paper. Then, the main causes of scale effects and the scaling effects on measurements, retrieval models and products are reviewed and discussed. Ways to describe the scale threshold and scale domain are briefly discussed. Finally, the general scaling methods, in particular up-scaling methods, are compared and summarized in detail. PMID:22573986

  4. Advice about Work-Related Issues to Peers and Employers from Head and Neck Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Dewa, Carolyn S.; Trojanowski, Lucy; Tamminga, Sietske J.; Ringash, Jolie; McQuestion, Maurene; Hoch, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this exploratory and descriptive study is to contribute to the sparse return-to-work literature on head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors. Interview participants were asked to reflect upon their work-related experience with cancer by answering two specific questions: (1) What advice would you give someone who has been newly diagnosed with head and neck cancer? (2) What advice would you give to employers of these people? Methods Data were gathered through 10 individual semi-structured in-depth interviews with HNC clinic patients at a regional cancer center’s head and neck clinic in Ontario, Canada. A constant comparative method of theme development was used. Codes identified in and derived from the data were discussed by research team members until consensus was reached. Codes with similar characteristics were grouped together and used to develop overarching themes. Results Work-related advice for peers focused on personal self-care and interactions within workplaces. Work-related advice to employers focused on demonstrating basic human values as well as the importance of communication. Discussion The study results suggest HNC clinic patients should be proactive with employers and help to set reasonable expectations and provide a realistic plan for work to be successfully completed. HNC clinic patients should develop communication skills to effectively disclose their cancer and treatment to employers. Conclusions In this exploratory study, HNC clinic patients’ advice was solution-focused underscoring the importance of self-care and pro-active communication and planning with employers. Employers were advised to demonstrate core human values throughout all phases of the work disability episode beginning at diagnosis. PMID:27070654

  5. Risk management regulations of 1996: Why is this a community relations issue?

    SciTech Connect

    Chaloux, S.

    1997-05-01

    The US EPA`s risk management regulations will require approximately 66,000 facilities nationwide to identify and disclose information about hazard assessments (including such worst-case scenarios as the off-site impact of accidental releases of cutely toxic or highly flammable materials), emergency response capabilities, and risk management efforts. These requirements were initiated to let information from these assessments drive action (prevention and preparedness) and stimulate dialogue on the local level. A brief summary of the major aspects of the final rule and their public relations implications is presented.

  6. Methamphetamine-induced toxicity: an updated review on issues related to hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Rae R.; Seminerio, Michael J.; Turner, Ryan C.; Robson, Matthew J.; Nguyen, Linda; Miller, Diane B.; O’Callaghan, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Reports of methamphetamine-related emergency room visits suggest that elevated body temperature is a universal presenting symptom, with lethal overdoses generally associated with extreme hyperthermia. This review summarizes the available information on methamphetamine toxicity as it pertains to elevations in body temperature. First, a brief overview of thermoregulatory mechanisms is presented. Next, central and peripheral targets that have been considered for potential involvement in methamphetamine hyperthermia are discussed. Finally, future areas of investigation are proposed, as further studies are needed to provide greater insight into the mechanisms that mediate the alterations in body temperature elicited by methamphetamine. PMID:24836729

  7. Finite-element analysis and multibody dynamics issues in rotorcraft dynamic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruzicka, Gene C.; Ormiston, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    There is general agreement that the development of effective rotorcraft analysis software will require the use of modern computational mechanics methodologies, especially finite element analysis and multibody dynamics. This paper examines the analysis of rotorcraft dynamics from the perspective of these methodologies. First, a general discussion of rotorcraft analysis and modeling is presented. Then, a hierarchy of rotorcraft analyses is presented, ranging from simple to complex kinematics, where it is shown that in comprehensive rotorcraft software, finite element analysis must be augmented by multibody dynamics in order to properly analyze large motions of rotorcraft components. Finally, a review of multibody dynamics is presented to further familiarize the rotorcraft community with this technology.

  8. Investigating and Evaluating Environmental Issues and Actions: Skill Development Modules. A Curriculum Development Project Designed to Teach Students How to Investigate and Evaluate Science-Related Social Issues. Modules I-VI. Teacher's Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerford, Harold R.; And Others

    Presented are the teacher and student editions for six modules designed to teach students how to investigate and evaluate science-related social issues. These modules (each of which includes an introduction, objectives, readings, and activities) focus on: (1) environmental problem solving; (2) preparing to investigate an environmental issue; (3)…

  9. News Framing of Population and Family Planning Issues via Syntactic Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legara, Erika; Monterola, Christopher; David, Clarissa; Mae Atun, Jenna

    Contentious political debates regarding the issues on population and family planning have been perennial over the past four decades especially in developing countries. While its prominence in the public agenda varies depending on other national issues vying for public attention, its presence in policy and political agendas is constant. Here, a computational approach to framing analysis is developed that examines the pattern of media coverage on the population issue in the Philippines. The content of 146 articles sampled from 1988 to 2007 in Manila Bulletin (one of the leading newspapers in the Philippines) is analyzed by creating a syntactic network of concept co-occurrences. The topological properties of the network indicates that the discussion of an article revolves around few central ideas. Moreover, cluster analysis of the network suggests three well-defined frame themes, namely: (1) Development Frame; (2) Maternal Health Frame; and (3) Framing by the Catholic Church. Our results support the thesis that the inability to fruitfully discuss points of contention to reach agreement about suitable population policies in the Philippines is due to the mismatched frames within which it is discussed.

  10. Ecological issues related to N deposition to natural ecosystems: research needs.

    PubMed

    Adams, Mary Beth

    2003-06-01

    There has and continues to be concern about the effects of elevated nitrogen (N) deposition on natural ecosystems. In this paper, research on natural ecosystems, including wetlands, heathlands, grasslands, steppe, naturally regenerated forests and deserts, is evaluated to determine what is known about nitrogen cycling in these ecosystems, the effects of elevated nitrogen on them and to identify research gaps. Aquatic ecosystems are not included in this review, except as they are part of the larger ecosystem. Research needs fall into several categories: (1) improved understanding and quantification of the N cycle, particularly relatively unstudied processes such as dry deposition, N fixation and decomposition/mineralization; (2) carbon cycling as affected by increased N deposition; (3) effects on arid ecosystems and other "neglected" ecosystems; (4) effects on complex ecosystems and interactions with other pollutants; (5) indicators and assessment tools for natural ecosystems. PMID:12676207

  11. Relational Issues Within Couples Coping With Parkinson's Disease: Implications and Ideas for Family-Focused Care.

    PubMed

    Martin, Summer C

    2016-05-01

    The ways in which Parkinson's disease (PD) impacts, and is experienced by, the couple (i.e., the individual with PD and his or her spouse or other romantic partner) have not been fully elucidated. Such research is strongly warranted because when one member of a couple is chronically ill, it can cause major distress for not only the patient but also for his or her partner and their relationship. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine how PD affects a couple's relationship. Data from 44 individual, in-depth interviews (with 21 persons with PD and 23 partners) revealed several challenges that PD commonly invokes in the patient-partner relationship, though most participants reported that PD had not decreased their overall relational closeness. The findings have significant practical implications for family-focused care.

  12. Ecological issues related to N deposition to natural ecosystems: research needs.

    PubMed

    Adams, Mary Beth

    2003-06-01

    There has and continues to be concern about the effects of elevated nitrogen (N) deposition on natural ecosystems. In this paper, research on natural ecosystems, including wetlands, heathlands, grasslands, steppe, naturally regenerated forests and deserts, is evaluated to determine what is known about nitrogen cycling in these ecosystems, the effects of elevated nitrogen on them and to identify research gaps. Aquatic ecosystems are not included in this review, except as they are part of the larger ecosystem. Research needs fall into several categories: (1) improved understanding and quantification of the N cycle, particularly relatively unstudied processes such as dry deposition, N fixation and decomposition/mineralization; (2) carbon cycling as affected by increased N deposition; (3) effects on arid ecosystems and other "neglected" ecosystems; (4) effects on complex ecosystems and interactions with other pollutants; (5) indicators and assessment tools for natural ecosystems.

  13. Health-related quality of life in mucopolysaccharidosis: looking beyond biomedical issues.

    PubMed

    Hendriksz, Christian J; Berger, Kenneth I; Lampe, Christina; Kircher, Susanne G; Orchard, Paul J; Southall, Rebecca; Long, Sarah; Sande, Stephen; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2016-01-01

    The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) comprise a heterogeneous family of rare, genetic lysosomal storage disorders that result in severe morbidity and reduced life expectancy. Emerging treatments for several of these disorders have triggered the search for clinically relevant biomarkers and clinical markers associated with treatment efficacy in populations and individuals. However, biomedical measures do not tell the whole story when characterizing a complex chronic disorder such as MPS. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) tools that utilize patient reported outcomes to address patient parameters such as symptoms (pain, fatigue, psychological health), functioning (activity and limitations), or quality of life, have been used to supplement traditional biomedical endpoints. Many of these HRQoL tools have demonstrated that quality of life is negatively impacted in patients with MPS. There is both the opportunity and need to formally standardize and validate HRQoL tools for the different MPS disorders. PMID:27561270

  14. Adherence-related issues in adolescents and young adults with hematological disorders.

    PubMed

    Leader, Avi; Raanani, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Nonadherence to medical recommendations is a widespread problem well documented in a multitude of clinical settings. Nonadherence may adversely affect clinical outcomes such as survival and quality of life and increase health-care-related costs. An understanding of the factors driving nonadherence is key to developing effective adherence-enhancing interventions (AEIs). There are ongoing attempts in contemporary adherence research to better define the various components of adherence, to find optimal measures of adherence and correlations with clinical outcomes, and to create a classification system for AEIs. Nonadherence is also widely prevalent among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with chronic hematological diseases, affecting up to 50% of patients and increasing with age. Combined use of objective (i.e. electronic monitoring, EM) and subjective (i.e. self-report) measures of adherence may be the preferred approach to assess adherence. The unique physical, social and emotional aspects of the AYA life stage are closely related to intricate causes of nonadherence in AYAs such as problems in transition to adult care. Until proven otherwise, the empirical target in AYAs with hematological disorders should be perfect adherence. Multilevel AEIs, EM feedback and behavioral interventions are among the most effective types of AEIs. Despite the magnitude of the problem, only a handful of AEIs have been evaluated among AYAs with hematological disorders. Thus, this is a field with unmet needs warranting high-quality trials using standardized and well-specified assessment methods and interventions. This review discusses the prevalence, definition, causes and clinical implications of nonadherence among AYAs with hematological disorders, along with strategies to measure and improve adherence. PMID:25228561

  15. Adherence-related issues in adolescents and young adults with hematological disorders.

    PubMed

    Leader, Avi; Raanani, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Nonadherence to medical recommendations is a widespread problem well documented in a multitude of clinical settings. Nonadherence may adversely affect clinical outcomes such as survival and quality of life and increase health-care-related costs. An understanding of the factors driving nonadherence is key to developing effective adherence-enhancing interventions (AEIs). There are ongoing attempts in contemporary adherence research to better define the various components of adherence, to find optimal measures of adherence and correlations with clinical outcomes, and to create a classification system for AEIs. Nonadherence is also widely prevalent among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with chronic hematological diseases, affecting up to 50% of patients and increasing with age. Combined use of objective (i.e. electronic monitoring, EM) and subjective (i.e. self-report) measures of adherence may be the preferred approach to assess adherence. The unique physical, social and emotional aspects of the AYA life stage are closely related to intricate causes of nonadherence in AYAs such as problems in transition to adult care. Until proven otherwise, the empirical target in AYAs with hematological disorders should be perfect adherence. Multilevel AEIs, EM feedback and behavioral interventions are among the most effective types of AEIs. Despite the magnitude of the problem, only a handful of AEIs have been evaluated among AYAs with hematological disorders. Thus, this is a field with unmet needs warranting high-quality trials using standardized and well-specified assessment methods and interventions. This review discusses the prevalence, definition, causes and clinical implications of nonadherence among AYAs with hematological disorders, along with strategies to measure and improve adherence.

  16. Safety related issues of the unexpected Argon release into the tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorowski, M.; Malecha, Z. M.; Polinski, J.

    2015-12-01

    Modern physics laboratories require very large amounts of cryogenics fluids. Often the fluid must be transported along the tunnels or stored in the underground cavities. Currently, there are several ongoing projects where very large amounts of liquid (LAr) or gaseous Argon (GAr) will be used. One of them is a part of the LAGUNA-LBNO (Large Apparatus studying Grand Unification and Neutrino Astrophysics and Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillations) design study, where the GLACIER (Giant Liquid Argon Charge Imaging ExpeRiment) neutrino detector is considered. In order for it to properly operate, it requires the appropriate environment (it must be located in a deep, underground cavity) and approximately 150,000 tons of LAr. This huge amount of cryogen must be transported down the tunnel in cryogenic-tank trucks or by using pipelines. In both cases, there is a risk of uncontrolled LAr or GAr leakage into the tunnel, which can be dangerous for people, as well as during the installation itself. The presented work focuses on the risk analysis and consequences of unexpected Argon leakage into the tunnel. It shows the mathematical model and numerical tools which can serve to model the Argon cloud propagation, temperature distribution, and Oxygen deficiency. The results present a series of numerical experiments for Argon leakage into the tunnel with different external conditions (e.g. different ventilation regimes).

  17. Control issues related to bilateral teleoperation of long-reach, flexible manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Love, L.J.

    1997-02-01

    A challenging problem presently being addressed by the Department of Energy (DOE) is the extraction of large volumes of hazardous waste from underground waste storage facilities. The nature of the material requires the use of robotic and teleoperated systems. Furthermore, the constraints of the storage tanks require the use of long reach manipulators. These robots are characterized by their large workspace and reduced mass. Unfortunately, this reduction in mass increases structural compliance, making these robots susceptible to vibration. Until recently, no attempt has been made to provide the operator any type of force reflection due to the compliance of the slave robot. This paper addresses the control of bilateral teleoperation systems that use long-reach, flexible manipulators. Analysis and experiments show that the compliance of the slave robot directly affects the stability of the teleoperation system. This study suggests that this may be controlled by increasing the damping on the master robot. However, this increase in target damping increases the energy an operator must exert during the execution of a task. A new teleoperation strategy adapts the target impedance of the master robot to variations in the identified impedance of the remote environment coupled to the slave robot. Experiments show increased performance due to a decrease in the energy the operator must provide during task execution.

  18. Review of criticality safety and shielding analysis issues for transportation packages

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.; Broadhead, B.L.

    1995-12-31

    The staff of the Nuclear Engineering Applications Section (NEAS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been involved for over 25 years with the development and application of computational tools for use in analyzing the criticality safety and shielding features of transportation packages carrying radioactive material (RAM). The majority of the computational tools developed by ORNL/NEAS have been included within the SCALE modular code system (SCALE 1995). This code system has been used throughout the world for the evaluation of nuclear facility and package designs. With this development and application experience as a basis, this paper highlights a number of criticality safety and shielding analysis issues that confront the designer and reviewer of a new RAM package. Changes in the types and quantities of material that need to be shipped will keep these issues before the technical community and provide challenges to future package design and certification.

  19. Hemato-critical issues in quantitative analysis of dried blood spots: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    De Kesel, Pieter Mm; Sadones, Nele; Capiau, Sara; Lambert, Willy E; Stove, Christophe P

    2013-08-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling for quantitative determination of drugs in blood has entered the bioanalytical arena at a fast pace during the last decade, primarily owing to progress in analytical instrumentation. Despite the many advantages associated with this new sampling strategy, several issues remain, of which the hematocrit issue is undoubtedly the most widely discussed challenge, since strongly deviating hematocrit values may significantly impact DBS-based quantitation. In this review, an overview is given of the different aspects of the 'hematocrit problem' in quantitative DBS analysis. The different strategies that try to cope with this problem are discussed, along with their potential and limitations. Implementation of some of these strategies in practice may help to overcome this important hurdle in DBS assays, further allowing DBS to become an established part of routine quantitative bioanalysis.

  20. Genetically engineered plants and foods: a scientist's analysis of the issues (part II).

    PubMed

    Lemaux, Peggy G

    2009-01-01

    Genetic engineering provides a means to introduce genes into plants via mechanisms that are different in some respects from classical breeding. A number of commercialized, genetically engineered (GE) varieties, most notably canola, cotton, maize and soybean, were created using this technology, and at present the traits introduced are herbicide and/or pest tolerance. In 2007 these GE crops were planted in developed and developing countries on more than 280 million acres (113 million hectares) worldwide, representing nearly 10% of rainfed cropland. Although the United States leads the world in acres planted with GE crops, the majority of this planting is on large acreage farms. In developing countries, adopters are mostly small and resource-poor farmers. For farmers and many consumers worldwide, planting and eating GE crops and products made from them are acceptable and even welcomed; for others GE crops raise food and environmental safety questions, as well as economic and social issues. In Part I of this review, some general and food issues related to GE crops and foods were discussed. In Part II, issues related to certain environmental and socioeconomic aspects of GE crops and foods are addressed, with responses linked to the scientific literature.

  1. A comprehensive view of sex-specific issues related to cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Pilote, Louise; Dasgupta, Kaberi; Guru, Veena; Humphries, Karin H.; McGrath, Jennifer; Norris, Colleen; Rabi, Doreen; Tremblay, Johanne; Alamian, Arsham; Barnett, Tracie; Cox, Jafna; Ghali, William Amin; Grace, Sherry; Hamet, Pavel; Ho, Teresa; Kirkland, Susan; Lambert, Marie; Libersan, Danielle; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Paradis, Gilles; Petrovich, Milan; Tagalakis, Vicky

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in women. In fact, CVD is responsible for a third of all deaths of women worldwide and half of all deaths of women over 50 years of age in developing countries. The prevalence of CVD risk factor precursors is increasing in children. Retrospective analyses suggest that there are some clinically relevant differences between women and men in terms of prevalence, presentation, management and outcomes of the disease, but little is known about why CVD affects women and men differently. For instance, women with diabetes have a significantly higher CVD mortality rate than men with diabetes. Similarly, women with atrial fibrillation are at greater risk of stroke than men with atrial fibrillation. Historically, women have been underrepresented in clinical trials. The lack of good trial evidence concerning sex-specific outcomes has led to assumptions about CVD treatment in women, which in turn may have resulted in inadequate diagnoses and suboptimal management, greatly affecting outcomes. This knowledge gap may also explain why cardiovascular health in women is not improving as fast as that of men. Over the last decades, mortality rates in men have steadily declined, while those in women remained stable. It is also becoming increasingly evident that gender differences in cultural, behavioural, psychosocial and socioeconomic status are responsible, to various degrees, for the observed differences between women and men. However, the interaction between sex-and gender-related factors and CVD outcomes in women remains largely unknown. PMID:17353516

  2. A comprehensive view of sex-specific issues related to cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Pilote, Louise; Dasgupta, Kaberi; Guru, Veena; Humphries, Karin H; McGrath, Jennifer; Norris, Colleen; Rabi, Doreen; Tremblay, Johanne; Alamian, Arsham; Barnett, Tracie; Cox, Jafna; Ghali, William Amin; Grace, Sherry; Hamet, Pavel; Ho, Teresa; Kirkland, Susan; Lambert, Marie; Libersan, Danielle; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Paradis, Gilles; Petrovich, Milan; Tagalakis, Vicky

    2007-03-13

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in women. In fact, CVD is responsible for a third of all deaths of women worldwide and half of all deaths of women over 50 years of age in developing countries. The prevalence of CVD risk factor precursors is increasing in children. Retrospective analyses suggest that there are some clinically relevant differences between women and men in terms of prevalence, presentation, management and outcomes of the disease, but little is known about why CVD affects women and men differently. For instance, women with diabetes have a significantly higher CVD mortality rate than men with diabetes. Similarly, women with atrial fibrillation are at greater risk of stroke than men with atrial fibrillation. Historically, women have been underrepresented in clinical trials. The lack of good trial evidence concerning sex-specific outcomes has led to assumptions about CVD treatment in women, which in turn may have resulted in inadequate diagnoses and suboptimal management, greatly affecting outcomes. This knowledge gap may also explain why cardiovascular health in women is not improving as fast as that of men. Over the last decades, mortality rates in men have steadily declined, while those in women remained stable. It is also becoming increasingly evident that gender differences in cultural, behavioural, psychosocial and socioeconomic status are responsible, to various degrees, for the observed differences between women and men. However, the interaction between sex-and gender-related factors and CVD outcomes in women remains largely unknown. PMID:17353516

  3. Scientific and ethical issues related to stem cell research and interventions in neurodegenerative disorders of the brain.

    PubMed

    Barker, Roger A; de Beaufort, Inez

    2013-11-01

    Should patients with Parkinson's disease participate in research involving stem cell treatments? Are induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) the ethical solution to the moral issues regarding embryonic stem cells? How can we adapt trial designs to best assess small numbers of patients in receipt of invasive experimental therapies? Over the last 20 years there has been a revolution in our ability to make stem cells from different sources and use them for therapeutic gain in disorders of the brain. These cells, which are defined by their capacity to proliferate indefinitely as well as differentiate into selective phenotypic cell types, are viewed as being especially attractive for studying disease processes and for grafting in patients with chronic incurable neurodegenerative disorders of the CNS such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In this review we briefly discuss and summarise where our understanding of stem cell biology has taken us relative to the clinic and patients, before dealing with some of the major ethical issues that work of this nature generates. This includes issues to do with the source of the cells, their ownership and exploitation along with questions about patient recruitment, consent and trial design when they translate to the clinic for therapeutic use.

  4. Speaking from the Inside: Challenges Faced by Communication Researchers Investigating Disease-Related Issues in a Hospital Setting.

    PubMed

    Bourquin, Céline; Stiefel, Friedrich; Singy, Pascal

    2015-09-01

    This commentary came from within the framework of integrating the humanities in medicine and from accompanying research on disease-related issues by teams involving clinicians and researchers in medical humanities. The purpose is to reflect on the challenges faced by researchers when conducting emotionally laden research and on how they impact observations and subsequent research findings. This commentary is furthermore a call to action since it promotes the institutionalization of a supportive context for medical humanities researchers who have not been trained to cope with sensitive medical topics in research. To that end, concrete recommendations regarding training and supervision were formulated. PMID:25596851

  5. Issues related to the characterization and fabrication of coiled carbon nanotube based inductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraby, Hasan Mohammad

    The superior inductive properties of coiled carbon nanotubes (CCNTs) have been demonstrated through numerical computations. It is shown, through computations, that a range of inductance values (in the pH to muH range) operational at THz frequencies could be obtained through a variation of CCNT geometric parameters, which can be accomplished through rational synthesis. A comparison of the proposed inductor material to conventional inductor material e.g. copper (Cu), in terms of both component footprint and material volume, indicated a greater quality factor (Q) through the use of the CCNTs. Experimental characterization of these CCNT inductors require high quality ohmic contacts. Focused ion beam based metal deposition is one of the easiest ways to create contacts on those nanostructures. Metal deposition with focused ion beam (FIB) systems result in material composed of carbon, oxygen, gallium and the primary metal from the metallo-organic precursor. Four point probe measurements to determine the material resistivity and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to determine the relative chemical composition were conducted on a wide range of FIB deposited platinum (Pt) and tungsten (W) lines. It has been shown that the gallium (Ga) percentage in the metal line plays a significant role in reducing the electrical resistivity of the material. Effective media theory (EMT), specifically using Mc Lachlan's general effective medium (GEM) equation is used to describe the relationship between the chemical compositions of the FIB deposited metal lines and the corresponding electrical resistivity. The relation between the chemical elements and the resistivity of the FIB deposited metal lines will make possible the accurate estimation of their resistance without using conventional probe stations. Like metals insulators can also be deposited using the FIB system. Insulator deposition by FIB systems results in SiO2 layers with impurities from gallium (Ga) and carbon (C). The

  6. Issues in the Analysis and Analysis of Change of National Assessment Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    Approaches to data analysis used by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and possible alternative methodologies are reviewed. Since various components of the NAEP model affect analysis, key elements of that model, including procedures for developing objectives and exercises, drawing the sample, collecting data and reporting…

  7. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 143: Availability of chilled water system and room cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, V.T.

    1993-12-01

    This report presents the regulatory analysis for Generic Issue (GI-143), {open_quotes}Availability of Chilled Water System and Room Cooling.{close_quotes} The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and related auxiliaries are required to provide control of environmental conditions in areas in light water reactor (LWR) plants that contain safety-related equipment. In some plants, the HVAC and chilled water systems serve to maintain a suitable environment for both safety and non-safety-related areas. Although some plants have an independent chilled water system for the safety-related areas, the heat removal capability often depends on the operability of other supporting systems such as the service water system or the component cooling water system. The operability of safety-related components depends upon operation of the HVAC and chilled water systems to remove heat from areas containing the equipment. If cooling to dissipate the heat generated is unavailable, the ability of the safety-related equipment to operate as intended cannot be assured. Typical components or areas in the nuclear power plant that could be affected by the failure of cooling from HVAC or chilled water systems include the (1) emergency switchgear and battery rooms, (2) emergency diesel generator room, (3) pump rooms for residual heat removal, reactor core isolation cooling, high-pressure core spray, and low-pressure core spray, and (4) control room. The unavailability of such safety-related equipment or areas could cause the core damage frequency (CDF) to increase significantly.

  8. Issues in Athletic Administration: A Content Analysis of Syllabi from Intercollegiate Athletics Graduate Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comeaux, Eddie; Brown, Alan; Sieben, Nicole P.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined courses focused on intercollegiate athletics in sport-related graduate programs (e.g., Sport Leadership, Sport Management, and Athletic/Sport Administration). A content analysis of course syllabi was used to determine the alignment of course scope and content. Analysis included course type (i.e., required or elective),…

  9. A spatial analysis of voting on health care issues. United States House of Representatives, 86th Congress, First Session.

    PubMed

    Mullner, R; Andes, S; Tatalovich, R; Bardes, B

    1982-01-01

    This study examines the spatial patterns of congressional voting on health issues. Thirteen roll call votes on health care issues occurring during the 1st Session of the 96th Congress are factor analyzed. This analysis shows that health care questions cluster around two major issues: health care regulation and health care spending. The factor scores for each Representative are mapped, and a regression model is developed relating health care voting to characteristics of the Representative, the Congressional district, and the hospitals in that district. The most important findings were: (1) support for both health care spending and regulation is strongest in the Northeast and upper Midwest. (2) Although Representatives from most of the Southern states are opposed to health care regulation, they generally favor health care spending. (3) Representatives from a few of the Southern states, however, do not fit this generalization. (4) Although Representatives from the Pacific Coast states are the strongest proponents of regulation, they are opposed to spending (5) Opposition to health care spending is particularly strong among Representatives from suburban districts.

  10. 41 CFR 102-34.320 - What Government-issued charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services? 102-34.320 Section 102-34.320....320 What Government-issued charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services? (a) You may use a fleet charge card specifically issued for this purpose. These cards are designed...

  11. 41 CFR 102-34.320 - What Government-issued charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services? 102-34.320 Section 102-34.320....320 What Government-issued charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services? (a) You may use a fleet charge card specifically issued for this purpose. These cards are designed...

  12. 41 CFR 102-34.320 - What Government-issued charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services? 102-34.320 Section 102-34.320....320 What Government-issued charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services? (a) You may use a fleet charge card specifically issued for this purpose. These cards are designed...

  13. Representations of the Americans with Disabilities Act Employment-Related Issues in the Wall Street Journal (1990-2008): A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soffer, Michal; Rimmerman, Arie

    2012-01-01

    This feasibility study examines the coverage of employment-related issues related to people with disabilities in the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The study is a first in a series of future studies focusing on disability issues in the international economic media. A survey of 39 newspaper articles published in the "Wall Street Journal",…

  14. Methodology issues concerning the accuracy of kinematic data collection and analysis using the ariel performance analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmington, R. P.; Klute, Glenn K. (Editor); Carroll, Amy E. (Editor); Stuart, Mark A. (Editor); Poliner, Jeff (Editor); Rajulu, Sudhakar (Editor); Stanush, Julie (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Kinematics, the study of motion exclusive of the influences of mass and force, is one of the primary methods used for the analysis of human biomechanical systems as well as other types of mechanical systems. The Anthropometry and Biomechanics Laboratory (ABL) in the Crew Interface Analysis section of the Man-Systems Division performs both human body kinematics as well as mechanical system kinematics using the Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS). The APAS supports both analysis of analog signals (e.g. force plate data collection) as well as digitization and analysis of video data. The current evaluations address several methodology issues concerning the accuracy of the kinematic data collection and analysis used in the ABL. This document describes a series of evaluations performed to gain quantitative data pertaining to position and constant angular velocity movements under several operating conditions. Two-dimensional as well as three-dimensional data collection and analyses were completed in a controlled laboratory environment using typical hardware setups. In addition, an evaluation was performed to evaluate the accuracy impact due to a single axis camera offset. Segment length and positional data exhibited errors within 3 percent when using three-dimensional analysis and yielded errors within 8 percent through two-dimensional analysis (Direct Linear Software). Peak angular velocities displayed errors within 6 percent through three-dimensional analyses and exhibited errors of 12 percent when using two-dimensional analysis (Direct Linear Software). The specific results from this series of evaluations and their impacts on the methodology issues of kinematic data collection and analyses are presented in detail. The accuracy levels observed in these evaluations are also presented.

  15. Perceptions regarding a range of work-related issues and corresponding support needs of individuals with an intractable disease

    PubMed Central

    Imahashi, Kumiko; Fukatsu, Reiko; Nakajima, Yasoichi; Nakamura, Megumi; Ito, Tateo; Horigome, Mariko; Haruna, Yuichiro; Noda, Tatsuya; Itoyama, Yasuto

    2016-01-01

    Summary A number of persons with an intractable disease (ID) experience work-related problems that could lead to job loss. The aim of this study was to ascertain perceptions regarding a range of work-related issues and corresponding support needs of individuals with an ID. Potential participants were people ages 15 to 64 with one of the 130 intractable chronic diseases designated in the Act to Comprehensively Support the Daily and Social Activities of Persons with Disabilities (Comprehensive Support for the Disabled Act). Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. With the assistance of patients' organizations, 3,000 questionnaires were mailed to potential participants. Questions included demographic characteristics, family concerns, employment/supported employment, work accommodations, and other aspects of life. Responses were received from 889 (29.6%) participants, and respondents had 57 IDs. Forty-six-point-seven percent of respondents reported being unemployed due to fatigue and/or long-term treatment. Nearly half of the unemployed respondents reported that they had been unable to work despite their willingness to do so. Common requests for accommodation included flexible work hours, working at home, and job/workplace modifications. Only 30% of respondents knew about job training programs and supported work available for persons with disabilities. The results of the study are relevant for employees, employers, and occupational health/human resource professionals. The issue of reasonable accommodations for persons with an ID needs to be addressed in future research in order to promote continued work by those persons.

  16. Perceptions regarding a range of work-related issues and corresponding support needs of individuals with an intractable disease.

    PubMed

    Imahashi, Kumiko; Fukatsu, Reiko; Nakajima, Yasoichi; Nakamura, Megumi; Ito, Tateo; Horigome, Mariko; Haruna, Yuichiro; Noda, Tatsuya; Itoyama, Yasuto

    2016-08-01

    A number of persons with an intractable disease (ID) experience work-related problems that could lead to job loss. The aim of this study was to ascertain perceptions regarding a range of work-related issues and corresponding support needs of individuals with an ID. Potential participants were people ages 15 to 64 with one of the 130 intractable chronic diseases designated in the Act to Comprehensively Support the Daily and Social Activities of Persons with Disabilities (Comprehensive Support for the Disabled Act). Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. With the assistance of patients' organizations, 3,000 questionnaires were mailed to potential participants. Questions included demographic characteristics, family concerns, employment/supported employment, work accommodations, and other aspects of life. Responses were received from 889 (29.6%) participants, and respondents had 57 IDs. Forty-six-point-seven percent of respondents reported being unemployed due to fatigue and/or long-term treatment. Nearly half of the unemployed respondents reported that they had been unable to work despite their willingness to do so. Common requests for accommodation included flexible work hours, working at home, and job/workplace modifications. Only 30% of respondents knew about job training programs and supported work available for persons with disabilities. The results of the study are relevant for employees, employers, and occupational health/human resource professionals. The issue of reasonable accommodations for persons with an ID needs to be addressed in future research in order to promote continued work by those persons. PMID:27672543

  17. Exploring morally relevant issues facing families in their decisions to monitor the health-related behaviours of loved ones.

    PubMed

    Gammon, D; Christiansen, E K; Wynn, R

    2009-07-01

    Patient self-management of disease is increasingly supported by technologies that can monitor a wide range of behavioural and biomedical parameters. Incorporated into everyday devices such as cell phones and clothes, these technologies become integral to the psychosocial aspects of everyday life. Many technologies are likely to be marketed directly to families with ill members, and families may enlist the support of clinicians in shaping use. Current ethical frameworks are mainly conceptualised from the perspective of caregivers, researchers, developers and regulators in order to ensure the ethics of their own practices. This paper focuses on families as autonomous decision-makers outside the regulated context of healthcare. We discuss some morally relevant issues facing families in their decisions to monitor the health-related behaviours of loved ones. An example - remote parental monitoring of adolescent blood glucose - is presented and discussed through the lens of two contrasting accounts of ethics; one reflecting the predominant focus on health outcomes within the health technology assessment (HTA) framework and the other that attends to the broader sociocultural contexts shaping technologies and their implications. Issues discussed include the focus of assessments, informed consent and child assent, and family co-creation of system characteristics and implications. The parents' decisions to remotely monitor their child has relational implications that are likely to influence conflict levels and thus also health outcomes. Current efforts to better integrate outcome assessments with social and ethical assessments are particularly relevant for informed decision-making about health monitoring technologies in families.

  18. Raising critical issues in the analysis of gender and science in children's literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sonya N.; Siry, Christina A.

    2009-12-01

    Trevor Owens' paper provides a critique of the role of gender and authority in selected children's books that presented biographies of Albert Einstein and Marie Curie. In the context of discussing Trevor's (2009) article about children's literature, this forum explores issues related to the (a) representation and construction of gender, science, and childhood in literature for children; (b) the need to consider socio/historical/cultural contexts in analytical and theoretical frameworks; and (c) the importance of fostering critical literacy perspectives in pre- and in-service science teachers and the children whom they teach.

  19. Analysis of environmental issues for nursing aboard the USNS Mercy (T-AH 19).

    PubMed

    McKenzie, R T; Boren, D M

    2001-06-01

    The USNS Mercy (T-AH 19) is a unique environment for its staff and patients. Several environmental influences distinctively affect health, medical, and nursing care. Six main areas of environmental concern for operational nursing were examined. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to the internal environment of a hospital ship were explored. Findings indicate that the USNS Mercy meets or exceeds many environmental standards. However, there is significant room for improvement and nursing involvement in issues related to the management of infectious diseases, patient transport, care of patients with nuclear, biological, or chemical agents, and management of wastes aboard the ship. Nursing implications for research and practice are proposed.

  20. A System Analysis for Determining Alternative Technological Issues for the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magistrale, V. J.; Small, J.

    1967-01-01

    A systems engineering methodology is provided, by which future technological ventures may be examined utilizing particular national, corporate, or individual value judgments. Three matrix analyses are presented. The first matrix is concerned with the effect of technology on population increase, war, poverty, health, resources, and prejudice. The second matrix explores an analytical technique for determining the relative importance of different areas of technology. The third matrix explores how an individual or corporate entity may determine how its capability may be used for future technological opportunities. No conclusions are presented since primary effort has been placed on the methodology of determining future technological issues.

  1. Biostatistical issues in the design and analysis of multiple or repeated genotoxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Edler, L

    1994-01-01

    Tests for genotoxic or mutagenic effects of chemicals have prompted efficient biostatistical methods for the quantification of dose-response data, especially from the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay. A decision about the genotoxicity of a compound is, however, always based on several assays, and results from multiple or repeated genotoxicity assays have to be combined either qualitatively or, even better, quantitatively. The latter problem is considered here, and issues for design and analysis are addressed. General recommendations for designing genotoxicity assays are given. A long-known methodology for combining quantitative parameters from different experiments is updated and other statistical methods suitable for the combined analyses of multiple assays are presented. Some aspects of design and analysis are elucidated on count data from unscheduled DNA synthesis assays.

  2. Level of analysis issues in assessing treatment beliefs in substance abuse clinics.

    PubMed

    Mitchelson, Jacqueline K; Dickson, Marcus W; Arfken, Cynthia L; Agius, Elizabeth

    2007-12-01

    The current study applies the growing literature in the organizational sciences regarding levels of analysis issues to the analysis of substance abuse treatment beliefs. Research on clinicians' beliefs in substance abuse treatment is often based on the assumption that the beliefs are sufficiently shared by clinicians within a clinic and sufficiently vary across clinics that they can be treated as a group-level phenomenon. Further, efforts to introduce new innovations are often focused at the group or clinic level without testing this assumption, which can lead to failure to adopt or to successfully implement the innovation. We tested the assumption of sharedness by examining if there was sufficient agreement about treatment beliefs within clinics, within groups of clinics or within groups of clinicians to justify treating these aggregations as meaningful groups. Using three statistical approaches to examining level of analysis (Within and Between Analysis (WABA I), Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC(1)), and r(wg)), we found that variability in treatment beliefs largely occurred at the individual rather than at the tested aggregate levels of analysis. These findings serve as an example of the importance of testing the assumption of shared perceptions in future research.

  3. Level of analysis issues in assessing treatment beliefs in substance abuse clinics

    PubMed Central

    Mitchelson, Jacqueline K.; Dickson, Marcus W.; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Agius, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The current study applies the growing literature in the organizational sciences regarding levels of analysis issues to the analysis of substance abuse treatment beliefs. Research on clinicians' beliefs in substance abuse treatment is often based on the assumption that the beliefs are sufficiently shared by clinicians within a clinic and sufficiently vary across clinics that they can be treated as a group-level phenomenon. Further, efforts to introduce new innovations are often focused at the group or clinic level without testing this assumption, which can lead to failure to adopt or to successfully implement the innovation. We tested the assumption of sharedness by examining if there was sufficient agreement about treatment beliefs within clinics, within groups of clinics or within groups of clinicians to justify treating these aggregations as meaningful groups. Using three statistical approaches to examining level of analysis (Within and Between Analysis (WABA I), Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC(1)), and rwg), we found that variability in treatment beliefs largely occurred at the individual rather than at the tested aggregate levels of analysis. These findings serve as an example of the importance of testing the assumption of shared perceptions in future research. PMID:17570604

  4. EPA Growing DASEES (Decision Analysis For A Sustainable Environment, Economy & Society) - To Aid In Making Decisions On Complex Environmental Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Having a framework and tools to help sort through complicated environmental issues in an objective way would be useful to communities and risk managers, and all the stakeholders affected by these issues. This is one need that DASEES (Decision Analysis for a Sustainable En...

  5. Addressing Work-Related Issues in Medical Rehabilitation: Revision of an Online Information Tool for Healthcare Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Hans-Dieter; Gerlich, Christian; Vogel, Heiner; Neuderth, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Background. Medical rehabilitation increasingly considers occupational issues as determinants of health and work ability. Information on work-related rehabilitation concepts should therefore be made available to healthcare professionals. Objective. To revise a website providing healthcare professionals in medical rehabilitation facilities with information on work-related concepts in terms of updating existing information and including new topics, based on recommendations from implementation research. Method. The modification process included a questionnaire survey of medical rehabilitation centers (n = 28); two workshops with experts from rehabilitation centers, health payers, and research institutions (n = 14); the selection of new topics and revision of existing text modules based on expert consensus; and an update of good practice descriptions of work-related measures. Results. Health payers' requirements, workplace descriptions, and practical implementation aids were added as new topics. The database of good practice examples was extended to 63 descriptions. Information on introductory concepts was rewritten and supplemented by current data. Diagnostic tools were updated by including additional assessments. Conclusions. Recommendations from implementation research such as assessing user needs and including expert knowledge may serve as a useful starting point for the dissemination of information on work-related medical rehabilitation into practice. Web-based information tools such as the website presented here can be quickly adapted to current evidence and changes in medicolegal regulations.

  6. Addressing Work-Related Issues in Medical Rehabilitation: Revision of an Online Information Tool for Healthcare Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Hans-Dieter; Gerlich, Christian; Vogel, Heiner; Neuderth, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Background. Medical rehabilitation increasingly considers occupational issues as determinants of health and work ability. Information on work-related rehabilitation concepts should therefore be made available to healthcare professionals. Objective. To revise a website providing healthcare professionals in medical rehabilitation facilities with information on work-related concepts in terms of updating existing information and including new topics, based on recommendations from implementation research. Method. The modification process included a questionnaire survey of medical rehabilitation centers (n = 28); two workshops with experts from rehabilitation centers, health payers, and research institutions (n = 14); the selection of new topics and revision of existing text modules based on expert consensus; and an update of good practice descriptions of work-related measures. Results. Health payers' requirements, workplace descriptions, and practical implementation aids were added as new topics. The database of good practice examples was extended to 63 descriptions. Information on introductory concepts was rewritten and supplemented by current data. Diagnostic tools were updated by including additional assessments. Conclusions. Recommendations from implementation research such as assessing user needs and including expert knowledge may serve as a useful starting point for the dissemination of information on work-related medical rehabilitation into practice. Web-based information tools such as the website presented here can be quickly adapted to current evidence and changes in medicolegal regulations. PMID:27610246

  7. Addressing Work-Related Issues in Medical Rehabilitation: Revision of an Online Information Tool for Healthcare Professionals.

    PubMed

    Lukasczik, Matthias; Wolf, Hans-Dieter; Gerlich, Christian; Küffner, Roland; Vogel, Heiner; Neuderth, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Background. Medical rehabilitation increasingly considers occupational issues as determinants of health and work ability. Information on work-related rehabilitation concepts should therefore be made available to healthcare professionals. Objective. To revise a website providing healthcare professionals in medical rehabilitation facilities with information on work-related concepts in terms of updating existing information and including new topics, based on recommendations from implementation research. Method. The modification process included a questionnaire survey of medical rehabilitation centers (n = 28); two workshops with experts from rehabilitation centers, health payers, and research institutions (n = 14); the selection of new topics and revision of existing text modules based on expert consensus; and an update of good practice descriptions of work-related measures. Results. Health payers' requirements, workplace descriptions, and practical implementation aids were added as new topics. The database of good practice examples was extended to 63 descriptions. Information on introductory concepts was rewritten and supplemented by current data. Diagnostic tools were updated by including additional assessments. Conclusions. Recommendations from implementation research such as assessing user needs and including expert knowledge may serve as a useful starting point for the dissemination of information on work-related medical rehabilitation into practice. Web-based information tools such as the website presented here can be quickly adapted to current evidence and changes in medicolegal regulations. PMID:27610246

  8. Student-Reported Overt and Relational Aggression and Victimization in Grades 3-8. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 114

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishioka, Vicki; Coe, Michael; Burke, Art; Hanita, Makota; Sprague, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This secondary analysis of survey data from a voluntary sample of 11,561 grade 3-8 students examines the prevalence and distribution of aggression, victimization, and approval of aggression, both overt (verbally and physically aggressive behavior intended to threaten or harm) and relational (behavior intended to harm someone's relationships with…

  9. An Empirically Informed Analysis of the Ethical Issues Surrounding Split Liver Transplantation in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Moorlock, Greg; Neuberger, James; Bramhall, Simon; Draper, Heather

    2016-07-01

    Surgical advances have allowed for the development of split liver transplantation, providing two recipients with the opportunity to potentially benefit from one donated liver by splitting the liver into two usable parts. Although current data suggest that the splitting of livers provides overall benefit to the liver-recipient population, relatively low numbers of livers are actually split in the United Kingdom. This article addresses the question of whether ethical concerns are posing an unnecessary barrier to further increasing the number of life-saving transplantations. Recognizing that an important aspect of exploring these concerns is gaining insight into how transplant staff and patients regard splitting livers, the article presents the findings of a qualitative study examining the views of senior transplant staff and liver transplant patients in the UK and uses these to inform a commentary on the ethical issues relating to split liver transplantation. PMID:27348828

  10. Relations among Functional Systems in Behavior Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Travis

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes that an organism's integrated repertoire of operant behavior has the status of a biological system, similar to other biological systems, like the nervous, cardiovascular, or immune systems. Evidence from a number of sources indicates that the distinctions between biological and behavioral events is often misleading, engendering counterproductive explanatory controversy. A good deal of what is viewed as biological (often thought to be inaccessible or hypothetical) can become publicly measurable variables using currently available and developing technologies. Moreover, such endogenous variables can serve as establishing operations, discriminative stimuli, conjoint mediating events, and maintaining consequences within a functional analysis of behavior and need not lead to reductionistic explanation. I suggest that explanatory misunderstandings often arise from conflating different levels of analysis and that behavior analysis can extend its reach by identifying variables operating within a functional analysis that also serve functions in other biological systems. PMID:17575907

  11. Some folded issues related to over-shielded and unplanned rooms for medical linear accelerators - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Wazir; Ullah, Asad; Hussain, Amjad; Ali, Nawab; Alam, Khan; Khan, Gulzar; Matiullah; Maeng, Seongjin; Lee, Sang Hoon

    2015-08-01

    A medical linear accelerator (LINAC) room must be properly shielded to limit the outside radiation exposure to an acceptable safe level defined by individual state and international regulations. However, along with this prime objective, some additional issues are also important. The current case-study was designed to unfold the issues related to over-shielded and unplanned treatment rooms for LINACs. In this connection, an apparently unplanned and over-shielded treatment room of 610 × 610 cm2 in size was compared with a properly designed treatment room of 762 × 762 cm2 in size ( i.e., by following the procedures and recommendations of the IAEA Safety Reports Series No. 47 and NCRP 151). Evaluation of the unplanned room indicated that it was over-shielded and that its size was not suitable for total body irradiation (TBI), although the license for such a treatment facility had been acquired for the installed machine. An overall 14.96% reduction in the total shielding volume ( i.e., concrete) for an optimally planned room as compared to a non-planned room was estimated. Furthermore, the inner room's dimensions were increased by 25%, in order to accommodate TBI patients. These results show that planning and design of the treatment rooms are imperative to avoid extra financial burden to the hospitals and to provide enough space for easy and safe handling of the patients. A spacious room is ideal for storing treatment accessories and facilitates TBI treatment.

  12. Drug-related deaths with evidences of body packing: Two case reports and medico-legal issues.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Simone; Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Bottoni, Edoardo; Fiore, Paola Antonella; Straccamore, Marco; Umani Ronchi, Federica; De Mari, Guido Maria; Ciallella, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    Body packing is a general term used to indicate the internal transportation of drug packages, mainly cocaine, heroin, amphetamines, and methamphetamine, within the gastrointestinal tract. We described two cases of accidental drug intoxication, observed over the last year period, with evidence of intracorporeal drug concealment. The first case concerned a body packer transporting 69 drug packages of heroin adulterated with piracetam. The second body packer transported 16 drug packages of cocaine adulterated with levamisole. For both cases, forensic examination and toxicological analysis of drug packages and biological samples were carried out. Authors also wants to highlight the main medico-legal issues that commonly arise in cases of suspected or ascertained body packers. PMID:27161917

  13. Representations of the Americans with Disabilities Act employment-related issues in the Wall Street Journal (1990-2008): a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Soffer, Michal; Rimmerman, Arie

    2012-06-01

    This feasibility study examines the coverage of employment-related issues related to people with disabilities in the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The study is a first in a series of future studies focusing on disability issues in the international economic media. A survey of 39 newspaper articles published in the Wall Street Journal, a leading and most circulated business newspaper in the USA. Specifically, it comprised articles taken from three periods: 1990, the year the Americans with Disabilities Act was enacted; 2000, a decade later; and 2008, the year the amendments were revised with respect to definitions and employment. Data were analyzed by quantitative and qualitative content analysis. The results suggest a mixed representation: a decline in negative representations of disability throughout the years alongside the emergence of a legal-fiscal discourse of a disability that depicts persons with disabilities as a fiscal burden on employers. It seems that the new image of disability presents conflicting interests between the mission of the law, promoting employers' hiring of people with disabilities, and the economic realities of accommodating them at the workplace. Additional research is needed to examine whether this image is unique to the economic media or may reflect a concern in the business community.

  14. Differences in Moral Judgment on Animal and Human Ethics Issues between University Students in Animal-Related, Human Medical and Arts Programs.

    PubMed

    Verrinder, Joy M; Ostini, Remo; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues has rarely been investigated. Among the research that has been conducted, studies of veterinary students have shown greater use of reasoning based on universal principles for animal than human ethics issues. This study aimed to identify if this was unique to students of veterinary and other animal-related professions. The moral reasoning of first year students of veterinary medicine, veterinary technology, and production animal science was compared with that of students in non-animal related disciplines of human medicine and arts. All students (n = 531) completed a moral reasoning test, the VetDIT, with animal and human scenarios. When compared with reasoning on human ethics issues, the combined group of students evaluating animal ethics issues showed higher levels of Universal Principles reasoning, lower levels of Personal Interest reasoning and similar levels of Maintaining Norms reasoning. Arts students showed more personal interest reasoning than students in most animal-related programs on both animal and human ethics issues, and less norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues. Medical students showed more norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues than all of the animal-related groups. There were no differences in principled reasoning on animal ethics issues between program groups. This has implications for animal-related professions and education programs showing that students' preference for principled reasoning on animal ethics issues is not unique to animal-related disciplines, and highlighting the need to develop student (and professional) capacity to apply principled reasoning to address ethics issues in animal industries to reduce the risk of moral distress.

  15. Differences in Moral Judgment on Animal and Human Ethics Issues between University Students in Animal-Related, Human Medical and Arts Programs

    PubMed Central

    Verrinder, Joy M.; Ostini, Remo; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues has rarely been investigated. Among the research that has been conducted, studies of veterinary students have shown greater use of reasoning based on universal principles for animal than human ethics issues. This study aimed to identify if this was unique to students of veterinary and other animal-related professions. The moral reasoning of first year students of veterinary medicine, veterinary technology, and production animal science was compared with that of students in non-animal related disciplines of human medicine and arts. All students (n = 531) completed a moral reasoning test, the VetDIT, with animal and human scenarios. When compared with reasoning on human ethics issues, the combined group of students evaluating animal ethics issues showed higher levels of Universal Principles reasoning, lower levels of Personal Interest reasoning and similar levels of Maintaining Norms reasoning. Arts students showed more personal interest reasoning than students in most animal-related programs on both animal and human ethics issues, and less norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues. Medical students showed more norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues than all of the animal-related groups. There were no differences in principled reasoning on animal ethics issues between program groups. This has implications for animal-related professions and education programs showing that students’ preference for principled reasoning on animal ethics issues is not unique to animal-related disciplines, and highlighting the need to develop student (and professional) capacity to apply principled reasoning to address ethics issues in animal industries to reduce the risk of moral distress. PMID:26934582

  16. Differences in Moral Judgment on Animal and Human Ethics Issues between University Students in Animal-Related, Human Medical and Arts Programs.

    PubMed

    Verrinder, Joy M; Ostini, Remo; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues has rarely been investigated. Among the research that has been conducted, studies of veterinary students have shown greater use of reasoning based on universal principles for animal than human ethics issues. This study aimed to identify if this was unique to students of veterinary and other animal-related professions. The moral reasoning of first year students of veterinary medicine, veterinary technology, and production animal science was compared with that of students in non-animal related disciplines of human medicine and arts. All students (n = 531) completed a moral reasoning test, the VetDIT, with animal and human scenarios. When compared with reasoning on human ethics issues, the combined group of students evaluating animal ethics issues showed higher levels of Universal Principles reasoning, lower levels of Personal Interest reasoning and similar levels of Maintaining Norms reasoning. Arts students showed more personal interest reasoning than students in most animal-related programs on both animal and human ethics issues, and less norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues. Medical students showed more norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues than all of the animal-related groups. There were no differences in principled reasoning on animal ethics issues between program groups. This has implications for animal-related professions and education programs showing that students' preference for principled reasoning on animal ethics issues is not unique to animal-related disciplines, and highlighting the need to develop student (and professional) capacity to apply principled reasoning to address ethics issues in animal industries to reduce the risk of moral distress. PMID:26934582

  17. The role of time and time perspective in age-related processes: Introduction to the special issue.

    PubMed

    Fung, Helene H; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2016-09-01

    There currently appears to be a general consensus on the relationship between time perspective and aging, such that (a) future time is perceived as more limited with age and (b) older people are more present-focused and less future-focused than younger people. At the same time, there are debates about whether these age differences are positively related to well-being and to what extent there are boundary conditions beyond which these age differences would cease to occur. The 8 manuscripts included in this Special Issue attempt to shed light on these debates. In doing so, they refine the dominant theoretical perspective on the topic-socioemotional selectivity theory-and introduce new theoretical perspectives. New measures and methodologies for studying time perspective and aging are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27599019

  18. Perceptions regarding a range of work-related issues and corresponding support needs of individuals with an intractable disease

    PubMed Central

    Imahashi, Kumiko; Fukatsu, Reiko; Nakajima, Yasoichi; Nakamura, Megumi; Ito, Tateo; Horigome, Mariko; Haruna, Yuichiro; Noda, Tatsuya; Itoyama, Yasuto

    2016-01-01

    Summary A number of persons with an intractable disease (ID) experience work-related problems that could lead to job loss. The aim of this study was to ascertain perceptions regarding a range of work-related issues and corresponding support needs of individuals with an ID. Potential participants were people ages 15 to 64 with one of the 130 intractable chronic diseases designated in the Act to Comprehensively Support the Daily and Social Activities of Persons with Disabilities (Comprehensive Support for the Disabled Act). Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. With the assistance of patients' organizations, 3,000 questionnaires were mailed to potential participants. Questions included demographic characteristics, family concerns, employment/supported employment, work accommodations, and other aspects of life. Responses were received from 889 (29.6%) participants, and respondents had 57 IDs. Forty-six-point-seven percent of respondents reported being unemployed due to fatigue and/or long-term treatment. Nearly half of the unemployed respondents reported that they had been unable to work despite their willingness to do so. Common requests for accommodation included flexible work hours, working at home, and job/workplace modifications. Only 30% of respondents knew about job training programs and supported work available for persons with disabilities. The results of the study are relevant for employees, employers, and occupational health/human resource professionals. The issue of reasonable accommodations for persons with an ID needs to be addressed in future research in order to promote continued work by those persons. PMID:27672543

  19. Some legal, social, and ethical issues related to the genetic testing revolution, as exemplified in the long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liebman, J

    2001-01-01

    Molecular Biology is revolutionizing medicine. There are a number of conditions, particularly exemplified by the long QT syndrome, where there is no structural abnormality but where a subset of patients is prone to sudden death. The issues of appropriate care are very complex, because there is tremendous overlap between patients with prolongation of the QT who remain asymptomatic and those with prolongation who are very symptomatic. Furthermore, even those who are prone to have one of the abnormal genes, may be asymptomatic. A large literature has developed, from both legal and ethical aspects, related to the fact that in genetic disease per se, not only is the person at risk, but so are many members of his or her family. A large literature has also developed as to which should be prime, the patient's privacy or the responsibility to make sure the entire family is knowledgeable and perhaps tested. At the present moment our care is based upon the fact that the precise identification of the gene is not yet available on a routine basis. This of course, may soon change. But we will still have difficult decisions to make. Obviously, we have a responsibility as physicians to be as precise as our discipline allows, but we have a responsibility to be flexible. Relief of anxiety, as an example, has to be a prime issue. This is certainly the case now when any information related to infants with potential sudden death is still incomplete. We must not approach the care of the patient in such a way that protection of the physician may interfere with appropriate care. The discussion necessarily includes a variety of aspects. PMID:11781954

  20. Transect based analysis versus area based analysis to quantify shoreline displacement: spatial resolution issues.

    PubMed

    Anfuso, Giorgio; Bowman, Dan; Danese, Chiara; Pranzini, Enzo

    2016-10-01

    Field surveys, aerial photographs, and satellite images are the most commonly employed sources of data to analyze shoreline position, which are further compared by area based analysis (ABA) or transect based analysis (TBA) methods. The former is performed by computing the mean shoreline displacement for the identified coastal segments, i.e., dividing the beach area variation by the segment length; the latter is based on the measurement of the distance between each shoreline at set points along transects. The present study compares, by means of GIS tools, the ABA and TBA methods by computing shoreline displacements recorded on two stretches of the Tuscany coast (Italy): the beaches of Punta Ala, a linear coast without shore protection structures, and the one at Follonica, which is irregular due to the presence of groins and detached breakwaters. Surveys were carried out using a differential global positioning system (DGPS) in RTK mode. For each site, a 4800-m-long coastal segment was analyzed and divided into ninety-six 50-m-long sectors for which changes were computed using both the ABA and TBA methods. Sectors were progressively joined to have a length of 100, 200, 400, and 800 m to examine how this influenced results. ABA and TBA results are highly correlated for transect distance and sector length up to 100 m at both investigated locations. If longer transects are considered, the two methods still produce good correlated data on the smooth shoreline (i.e. at Punta Ala), but correlation became significantly lower on the irregular shoreline (i.e., at Follonica). PMID:27640163