Science.gov

Sample records for analysis issues relating

  1. Gender relations and economic issues.

    PubMed

    Elson, D

    1993-10-01

    While most discussions of economic issues pay no explicit attention to gender relations, most economic policy is marked by male bias which provides women with an unequal access to resources. This situation exists because most economists, officials, and business managers lack the imagination to see the gender impact of economic issues and most women's groups and researchers lack the language to portray this connection. This article explores some aspects of this gap and aims to provide women with the ability to effectively discuss economic issues. After an introduction, the article considers the basic problem caused by the fact that the economy is defined primarily in terms of money-making activities. This leads to a male bias since much of women's work occurs outside of the monetary sphere. The next section looks at how a failure to understand the significance of gender relations will interfere with the fulfillment of policy objectives. This discussion is followed by a description of how cutbacks in government expenditures increase the burden on women who must replace the services. Problems with the option of the private-sector replacing government services, such as the fact that increasing disposable income in households does not guarantee that unpaid labor will be reduced and the fact that the private sector may fail to expand in a productive way, are covered. The article then touches on the new emphasis placed by some economists and policy makers on cooperative and interactive solutions to these problems and ends by mentioning three new initiatives which seek to build capacity for gender-aware economic analysis: the development of a training program at Manchester University in the UK, coordination of an international research workshop by the University of Utah in the US, and development of an international association for feminist economics based in the US.

  2. The Press Relations of a Local School District: An Analysis of the Emergence of School Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jon R.; Guenter, Cornelius

    Press coverage of a suburban midwest school district is analyzed as a set of time series of observations including the amount and quality of coverage. Possible shifts in these series because of the emergence of controversial issues are analyzed statistically using the Integrated Moving Average Time Series Model. Evidence of significant shifts in…

  3. Issues in Perceptual Speech Analysis in Cleft Palate and Related Disorders: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, Debbie

    2005-01-01

    Perceptual speech assessment is central to the evaluation of speech outcomes associated with cleft palate and velopharyngeal dysfunction. However, the complexity of this process is perhaps sometimes underestimated. To draw together the many different strands in the complex process of perceptual speech assessment and analysis, and make…

  4. Analysis on the distinguishing features of traditional Chinese therapeutics and related statistical issues.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jingqing; Qiao, Jie; Kang, Deying; Liu, Baoyan

    2011-06-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the rarely existing ancient traditional medicines that hold systematic theories as well as preventative and therapeutic methods for diseases in practice. From the 1950s, such research methods as mathematics, statistics, and data mining (DM) have been gradually introduced to TCM studies, making it more scientific. Meanwhile, the distinct features of TCM theories and diagnostic-model have constantly challenged the methodology of statistics. This paper introduces the following scientific features of traditional Chinese therapeutics: 1) its goal is to balance the functions and conditions of human body; 2) it emphasizes on holism and individualization; 3) it stresses the longitudinal regulation and evaluation mode, which is a circle of syndrome diagnosis, treatment and evaluation; 4) the interventions of TCM are abundant, compound and natural; and 5) humanistic thought is everywhere. Some statistical problems are raised based on these features. First, complex statistical methods that can analyze subjective indexes and latent variables, multidimensional and multistage data, non-equilibrium designed studies, and longitudinal data are required. Second, comprehensive evaluation on multiple-target mechanism has been brought in by combination treatment. Third, there is a need to analyze how humanity and related cultural factors may influence the effect of interventions. Thus, promoting implemented studies of statistics as well as carrying out the TCM scientific propositions have become the common expectations of both TCM and modern medicine.

  5. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. III. Water level fluctuation

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S.G.

    1980-10-01

    Potential environmental impacts in reservoirs and downstream river reaches below dams that may be caused by the water level fluctuation resulting from development and operation of small scale (under 25MW) hydroelectric projects are identified. The impacts discussed will be of potential concern at only those small-scale hydroelectric projects that are operated in a store and release (peaking) mode. Potential impacts on physical and chemical characteristics in reservoirs resulting from water level fluctuation include resuspension and redistribution of bank and bed sediment; leaching of soluble organic matter from sediment in the littoral zone; and changes in water quality resulting from changes in sediment and nutrient trap efficiency. Potential impacts on reservoir biota as a result of water level fluctuation include habitat destruction and the resulting partial or total loss of aquatic species; changes in habitat quality, which result in reduced standing crop and production of aquatic biota; and possible shifts in species diversity. The potential physical effects of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams are streambed and bank erosion and water quality problems related to resuspension and redistribution of these materials. Potential biological impacts of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams result from changes in current velocity, habitat reduction, and alteration in food supply. These alterations, either singly or in combination, can adversely affect aquatic populations below dams. The nature and potential significance of adverse impacts resulting from water level fluctuation are discussed. Recommendations for site-specific evaluation of water level fluctuation at small-scale hydroelectric projects are presented.

  6. Analysis of Environmental Issues Related to Small-Scale Hydroelectric Development IV: Fish Mortality Resulting From Turbine Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Turbak, Susan C.; Reichle, Donna R.; Shriner, Carole R.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide summary information for use by potential developers and regulators of small-scale hydroelectric projects (defined as existing dams that can be retrofitted to a total site capacity of ≤30 MW), where turbine-related mortality of fish is a potential issue affecting site-specific development. Mitigation techniques for turbine-related mortality are not covered in this report.

  7. Immigration Reform and Related Issues. Perspectivas Publicas. Issue Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    Asserting that immigration reform and related issues have commanded sustained attention in the opening weeks of the 99th Congress, this paper provides an overview of important developments in this area, and highlights steps taken by the National Council of La Raza to help shape these developments. The developments discussed include: (1) The…

  8. Sampling and Analysis Issues Relating to the ACGIH Notice of Intended Change for the Beryllium Threshold Limit Value

    SciTech Connect

    Brisson, Michael J.; Ashley, Kevin

    2005-08-16

    Beryllium in various forms is widely used throughout the world in ceramics, aerospace and military applications, electronics, and sports equipment. Workplace exposure to beryllium is a growing industrial hygiene concern due to the potential for development of chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a lung condition with no known cure, in a small percentage of those exposed. There are workplace exposure limits for beryllium that have been in place for several decades. However, recent studies suggest that the current American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) may not be sufficiently protective for workers who are potentially exposed to airborne beryllium. Early in 2005, ACGIH issued a Notice of Intended Change (NIC) to the current TLV for beryllium which entails a 100-fold reduction (from 2 to 0.02 micrograms per cubic meter of sampled air). It is noted that ACGIH TLVs do not carry legal force in the manner that OSHA PELs or other federal regulations do. Nevertheless, OSHA plans a beryllium rulemaking in the near future, and a reduction in the PEL is anticipated. Also, if this change in the TLV for beryllium is adopted, it is reasonable to assume that at least some sampling and analysis activities will need to be modified to address airborne beryllium at the lower levels. There are implications to both the industrial hygiene and the laboratory communities, which are discussed.

  9. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. VI. Dissolved oxygen concentrations below operating dams

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.; Kumar, K.D.; Solomon, J.A.; Hildebrand, S.G.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of an effort aimed at determining whether or not water quality degradation, as exemplified by dissolved oxygen concentrations, is a potentially significant issue affecting small-scale hydropower development in the US. The approach was to pair operating hydroelectric sites of all sizes with dissolved oxygen measurements from nearby downstream US Geological Survey water quality stations (acquired from the WATSTORE data base). The USGS data were used to calculate probabilities of non-compliance (PNCs), i.e., the probabilities that dissolved oxygen concentrations in the discharge waters of operating hydroelectric dams will drop below 5 mg/l. PNCs were estimated for each site, season (summer vs remaining months), and capacity category (less than or equal to 30 MW vs >30 MW). Because of the low numbers of usable sites in many states, much of the subsequent analysis was conducted on a regional basis. During the winter months (November through June) all regions had low mean PNCs regardless of capacity. Most regions had higher mean PNCs in summer than in winter, and summer PNCs were greater for large-scale than for small-scale sites. Among regions, the highest mean summer PNCs were found in the Great Basin, the Southeast, and the Ohio Valley. To obtain a more comprehensive picture of the effects of season and capacity on potential dissolved oxygen problems, cumulative probability distributions of PNC were developed for selected regions. This analysis indicates that low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the tailwaters below operating hydroelectric projects are a problem largely confined to large-scale facilities.

  10. Southern Nevada residents` views about the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository and related issues: A comparative analysis of urban and rural survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Krannich, R.S.; Little, R.L.; Mushkatel, A.; Pijawka, K.D.; Jones, P.

    1991-10-01

    two separate surveys were undertaken in 1988 to ascertain southern Nevadans` views about the Yucca Mountain repository and related issues. The first of these studies focused on the attitudes and perceptions of residents in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. The second study addressed similar issues, but focused on the views of residents in six rural communities in three counties adjacent to the Yucca Mountain site. However, parallel findings from the two data sets have not been jointly analyzed in order to identify ways in which the views and orientations of residents in the rural and urban study areas may be similar or different. The purpose of this report is to develop and present a comparative assessment of selected issues addressed in the rural and urban surveys. Because both urban and rural populations would potentially be impacted by the Yucca Mountain repository, such an analysis will provide important insights into possible repository impacts on the well-being of residents throughout southern Nevada.

  11. College Living: Issues Related to Housecleaning Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Shirley M.; Turner, G. Marc; Vieira, Ana; Brunotte, Joshua

    2005-01-01

    Cleanliness preferences may be related to the compatibility of college roommates and hence relevant to students' satisfaction with and retention at a college or university. Two studies were conducted to develop a scale and examine issues related to housecleaning attitudes In the first study 457 college students completed an Attitude toward…

  12. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  13. Teachers' Attitudes Toward Death-Related Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkes, A. Cordell

    1978-01-01

    Reports a study to assess teachers attitudes toward death-related issues. A questionnaire was given to 61 teachers in a graduate education course. It was found that the teachers tended to favor liberal abortion laws (67 percent), euthanasia (83 percent), and the majority (65 percent) believed in life after death. (SLH)

  14. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development IV: fish mortality resulting from turbine passage

    SciTech Connect

    Turbak, S. C.; Reichle, D. R.; Shriner, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    This document presents a state-of-the-art review of literature concerning turbine-related fish mortality. The review discusses conventional and, to a lesser degree, pumped-storage (reversible) hydroelectric facilities. Much of the research on conventional facilities discussed in this report deals with studies performed in the Pacific Northwest and covers both prototype and model studies. Research conducted on Kaplan and Francis turbines during the 1950s and 1960s has been extensively reviewed and is discussed. Very little work on turbine-related fish mortality has been undertaken with newer turbine designs developed for more modern small-scale hydropower facilities; however, one study on a bulb unit (Kaplan runner) has recently been released. In discussing turbine-related fish mortality at pumped-storage facilities, much of the literature relates to the Ludington Pumped Storage Power Plant. As such, it is used as the principal facility in discussing research concerning pumped storage.

  15. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-02

    address nuclear proliferation concerns related to Iran and North Korea . While working with China to revive the global economy, the United States has...the United Nations Security Council, to help block the nuclear ambitions of Iran and North Korea . With the United States and China now the two...global and regional issues, from rebalancing the global economy to reining in the nuclear programs of Iran and North Korea , the United States

  16. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-12

    capacity to become a “responsible stakeholder” in the broader global system , or will ideological differences and Beijing’s preoccupation with domestic...contributes to peace, stability and prosperity in the region.” Ibid. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues Congressional Research Service 3 systems ...support the U.S. policies of economic engagement and encouraging China’s participation in the international system . Robert Zoellick, Assistant

  17. Issues Relating to Confounding and Meta-analysis When Including Non-Randomized Studies in Systematic Reviews on the Effects of Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Jeffrey C.; Thompson, Simon G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Confounding caused by selection bias is often a key difference between non-randomized studies (NRS) and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions. Key methodological issues: In this third paper of the series, we consider issues relating to the inclusion of NRS in systematic reviews on the effects of interventions. We discuss…

  18. Fukushima Health Management Survey and Related Issues.

    PubMed

    Yasumura, Seiji; Abe, Masafumi

    2017-03-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident occurred. The Fukushima prefectural government decided to launch the Fukushima Health Management Survey; Fukushima Medical University was entrusted to design and implement the survey. The survey process and development is described from the standpoint of its background and aim. An overview of the basic survey and 4 detailed surveys is briefly provided. Issues related to the survey are discussed from the perspective of supporting the Fukushima residents.

  19. Global sensitivity analysis of a model related to memory formation in synapses: Model reduction based on epistemic parameter uncertainties and related issues.

    PubMed

    Kulasiri, Don; Liang, Jingyi; He, Yao; Samarasinghe, Sandhya

    2017-02-09

    We investigate the epistemic uncertainties of parameters of a mathematical model that describes the dynamics of CaMKII-NMDAR complex related to memory formation in synapses using global sensitivity analysis (GSA). The model, which was published in this journal, is nonlinear and complex with Ca(2+) patterns with different level of frequencies as inputs. We explore the effects of parameter on the key outputs of the model to discover the most sensitive ones using GSA and partial ranking correlation coefficient (PRCC) and to understand why they are sensitive and others are not based on the biology of the problem. We also extend the model to add presynaptic neurotransmitter vesicles release to have action potentials as inputs of different frequencies. We perform GSA on this extended model to show that the parameter sensitivities are different for the extended model as shown by PRCC landscapes. Based on the results of GSA and PRCC, we reduce the original model to a less complex model taking the most important biological processes into account. We validate the reduced model against the outputs of the original model. We show that the parameter sensitivities are dependent on the inputs and GSA would make us understand the sensitivities and the importance of the parameters. A thorough phenomenological understanding of the relationships involved is essential to interpret the results of GSA and hence for the possible model reduction.

  20. Issues in Midterm Analysis and Forecasting

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    Final issue of this report. Presents a series of eight papers, which cover topics in analysis and modeling that underlie the Annual Energy Outlook 1999, as well as other significant issues in midterm energy markets.

  1. Issues in workforce composition analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Koeck, D.C.; Rogers, J.D.

    1996-05-01

    An issue of paramount interest to US industry is the supply and quality of human resources available for this country`s scientific and technological activities. The changing composition of the workforce and the responsibility that an organization has to assure equal opportunity, give rise to various issues. This paper discusses some of the issues associated with the scientific and technical workforce. Specifically, it explores some of the questions pertaining to workforce composition and measures of workforce composition. This paper should be useful to those responsible for personnel policies.

  2. Unsolved issues related to human mitochondrial diseases.

    PubMed

    Lombès, Anne; Auré, Karine; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine; Gilleron, Mylène; Jardel, Claude

    2014-05-01

    Human mitochondrial diseases, defined as the diseases due to a mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation defect, represent a large group of very diverse diseases with respect to phenotype and genetic causes. They present with many unsolved issues, the comprehensive analysis of which is beyond the scope of this review. We here essentially focus on the mechanisms underlying the diversity of targeted tissues, which is an important component of the large panel of these diseases phenotypic expression. The reproducibility of genotype/phenotype expression, the presence of modifying factors, and the potential causes for the restricted pattern of tissular expression are reviewed. Special emphasis is made on heteroplasmy, a specific feature of mitochondrial diseases, defined as the coexistence within the cell of mutant and wild type mitochondrial DNA molecules. Its existence permits unequal segregation during mitoses of the mitochondrial DNA populations and consequently heterogeneous tissue distribution of the mutation load. The observed tissue distributions of recurrent human mitochondrial DNA deleterious mutations are diverse but reproducible for a given mutation demonstrating that the segregation is not a random process. Its extent and mechanisms remain essentially unknown despite recent advances obtained in animal models.

  3. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    SciTech Connect

    Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.

  4. Children with Cancer: School Related Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartin, Barbara C.; Murdick, Nikki L.

    2009-01-01

    School gives purpose to a student's life. Today, students with cancer and cancer survivors are encouraged to continue their educational experiences to maintain a sense of normalcy. This manuscript discusses the research findings on medical, physical, and cognitive issues that students with cancer and cancer survivors may encounter in their…

  5. Health Related Legal Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Stephen B.

    This monograph analyzes health and safety issues in education in terms of relevant constitutional and statutory provisions. Chapter 1, an introduction, summarizes Fourteenth Amendment equal protection and due process clauses and defines "handicapped" under the Rehabilitation Act. State assistance and student eligibility under the…

  6. Critical Issues in Mycobiota Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Halwachs, Bettina; Madhusudhan, Nandhitha; Krause, Robert; Nilsson, R. Henrik; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Högenauer, Christoph; Thallinger, Gerhard G.; Gorkiewicz, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    Fungi constitute an important part of the human microbiota and they play a significant role for health and disease development. Advancements made in the culture-independent analysis of microbial communities have broadened our understanding of the mycobiota, however, microbiota analysis tools have been mainly developed for bacteria (e.g., targeting the 16S rRNA gene) and they often fall short if applied to fungal marker-gene based investigations (i.e., internal transcribed spacers, ITS). In the current paper we discuss all major steps of a fungal amplicon analysis starting with DNA extraction from specimens up to bioinformatics analyses of next-generation sequencing data. Specific points are discussed at each step and special emphasis is placed on the bioinformatics challenges emerging during operational taxonomic unit (OTU) picking, a critical step in mycobiota analysis. By using an in silico ITS1 mock community we demonstrate that standard analysis pipelines fall short if used with default settings showing erroneous fungal community representations. We highlight that switching OTU picking to a closed reference approach greatly enhances performance. Finally, recommendations are given on how to perform ITS based mycobiota analysis with the currently available measures. PMID:28261162

  7. Critical Issues in Mycobiota Analysis.

    PubMed

    Halwachs, Bettina; Madhusudhan, Nandhitha; Krause, Robert; Nilsson, R Henrik; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Högenauer, Christoph; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Gorkiewicz, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    Fungi constitute an important part of the human microbiota and they play a significant role for health and disease development. Advancements made in the culture-independent analysis of microbial communities have broadened our understanding of the mycobiota, however, microbiota analysis tools have been mainly developed for bacteria (e.g., targeting the 16S rRNA gene) and they often fall short if applied to fungal marker-gene based investigations (i.e., internal transcribed spacers, ITS). In the current paper we discuss all major steps of a fungal amplicon analysis starting with DNA extraction from specimens up to bioinformatics analyses of next-generation sequencing data. Specific points are discussed at each step and special emphasis is placed on the bioinformatics challenges emerging during operational taxonomic unit (OTU) picking, a critical step in mycobiota analysis. By using an in silico ITS1 mock community we demonstrate that standard analysis pipelines fall short if used with default settings showing erroneous fungal community representations. We highlight that switching OTU picking to a closed reference approach greatly enhances performance. Finally, recommendations are given on how to perform ITS based mycobiota analysis with the currently available measures.

  8. Environmental issues related to biomass: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, M.; Ranney, J.W.

    1993-12-31

    Now that public attention has grown increasingly focused on environmentalism and climate change, the commercial use of biomass could greatly accelerate. Renewable feedstocks like biomass can provide better environmentally balanced sources of energy and other nonfood products than fossil fuels. The future of biomass is uncertain, however, because public attention focuses on both its potential and its challenges. This paper is divided into five sections. Section 2 briefly addresses economic environmental issues. The extent to which externalities are accounted for in the market price of fuels plays a significant role in determining both the ultimate size of biofuel markets and the extent of the environmental benefits of feedstock cultivation and conversion processes. Sections 3 and 4 catalog the main hazards and benefits that are likely to arise in the large-scale commercialization of biomass fuel and note where the major uncertainties lay. Environmental issues arise with the cultivation of each feedstock and with each step in the process of its conversion to fuel. Feedstocks are discussed in Section 3 in terms of three main groups: wastes, energy crops, and traditional agricultural crops. In Section 4, conversion processes are also divided into three groups, on the basis of the end energy carrier: gas, liquid, and solid and electricity. Section 5 provides a conclusion and summary.

  9. Human biomonitoring issues related to lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Nieboer, Evert; Tsuji, Leonard J S; Martin, Ian D; Liberda, Eric N

    2013-10-01

    Lead as a toxic environmental metal has been an issue of concern for 30-40 years. Even though the exposures experienced by the general public have been significantly reduced, so have the acceptable blood lead concentrations assessed to safeguard health (specifically of children). The impact of these concurrent changes are reviewed and discussed in terms of the following: blood lead as the primary biomarker of exposure; pertinent toxicokinetic issues including modelling; legacy and newer sources of this toxic metal; improvements in lead quantification techniques and its characterization (chemical forms) in exposure media; and in vivo markers of lead sources. It is concluded that the progress in the quantification of lead and its characterization in exposure media have supported the efforts to identify statistical associations of lead in blood and tissues with adverse health outcomes, and have guided strategies to reduce human exposure (especially for children). To clarify the role of lead as a causative factor in disease, greater research efforts in biomarkers of effect and susceptibility seem timely.

  10. Parkinson's disease and issues related to driving.

    PubMed

    Uitti, Ryan J

    2009-12-01

    Driving a motor vehicle represents an important activity associated with personal independence and freedom. Being told that one can no longer drive is itself associated with loss of independence, depression, low self-esteem and reduced activities [1,2]. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), therefore, understandably wish to continue to be able to maintain their ability to drive automobiles, motorcycles, airplanes, and boats, etc. The ability to determine if and when a PD patient is no longer fit to drive a motor vehicle is important for maintaining safety for the PD patient and the public. There are numerous requirements for being able to drive a motor vehicle safely. When any of these capacities deteriorate, the ability to drive safely may be lost. This review will concentrate upon common issues that would be peculiar to patients with PD.

  11. [Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: concepts and related issues].

    PubMed

    Lai, Maode

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) has been gradually increasing and most of NENs are located in gastroenteropancreatic system. With the application of target therapeutic drugs in recent years, the precise pathological diagnosis is required critically for effective clinical treatment: target therapy needs targeted pathological diagnosis. In this article, the definition of NENs, and the century-long evolution of diagnostic terms and grades are reviewed. The eight steps of pathological diagnosis of NENs for clinical needs are described. Four inconsistent concepts in NENs diagnosis are also discussed, that is immunohistochemical biomarkers of pathological diagnosis, subpopulation of neuroendocrine neoplasms with high proliferative activity, general adenocarcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation and molecular genetics characteristics. To correctly understand these issues would be of great value for diagnosis and treatment of NENs.

  12. Issues in the Ethics of Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Peter K.

    There is little doubt that the field of public relations needs to be concerned with both the ethical standards and behaviors of practitioners and the perceptions of these standards and actions held by clients, other communications professionals, and the public. What constitutes ethical standards and practices, however, continues to be debated…

  13. NATO, MBFR and Some Related Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-06

    US-European Relations. These revolve around trade, investment, and monetary arrange- ments at one level and economic burden sharing for defense and...President Nixon’s Foreign Policy Report to the Congress of 3 May 197333 Bhould illustrate the complexity of these criteria: /’r „w.^,,, j,,.,^,,« ^i’iHif...SeDt/So? l^SHJ* *S! MBFR•,, extracted by Survival Policy reoor? to 22 ^ltl0n fron> Resident Nixon’s üffiT roxicy report to the Congress on 3 May 1973

  14. Management issues in automated audit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, K.A.; Hochberg, J.G.; Wilhelmy, S.K.; McClary, J.F.; Christoph, G.G.

    1994-03-01

    This paper discusses management issues associated with the design and implementation of an automated audit analysis system that we use to detect security events. It gives the viewpoint of a team directly responsible for developing and managing such a system. We use Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter (NADIR) as a case in point. We examine issues encountered at Los Alamos, detail our solutions to them, and where appropriate suggest general solutions. After providing an introduction to NADIR, we explore four general management issues: cost-benefit questions, privacy considerations, legal issues, and system integrity. Our experiences are of general interest both to security professionals and to anyone who may wish to implement a similar system. While NADIR investigates security events, the methods used and the management issues are potentially applicable to a broad range of complex systems. These include those used to audit credit card transactions, medical care payments, and procurement systems.

  15. Classification issues related to neuropathic trigeminal pain.

    PubMed

    Zakrzewska, Joanna M

    2004-01-01

    The goal of a classification system of medical conditions is to facilitate accurate communication, to ensure that each condition is described uniformly and universally and that all data banks for the storage and retrieval of research and clinical data related to the conditions are consistent. Classification entails deciding which kinds of diagnostic entities should be recognized and how to order them in a meaningful way. Currently there are 3 major pain classification systems of relevance to orofacial pain: The International Association for the Study of Pain classification system, the International Headache Society classification system, and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). All use different methodologies, and only the RDC/TMD take into account social and psychologic factors in the classification of conditions. Classification systems need to be reliable, valid, comprehensive, generalizable, and flexible, and they need to be tested using consensus views of experts as well as the available literature. There is an urgent need for a robust classification system for neuropathic trigeminal pain.

  16. Issues in midterm analysis and forecasting 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    Issues in Midterm Analysis and Forecasting 1998 (Issues) presents a series of nine papers covering topics in analysis and modeling that underlie the Annual Energy Outlook 1998 (AEO98), as well as other significant issues in midterm energy markets. AEO98, DOE/EIA-0383(98), published in December 1997, presents national forecasts of energy production, demand, imports, and prices through the year 2020 for five cases -- a reference case and four additional cases that assume higher and lower economic growth and higher and lower world oil prices than in the reference case. The forecasts were prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), using EIA`s National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The papers included in Issues describe underlying analyses for the projections in AEO98 and the forthcoming Annual Energy Outlook 1999 and for other products of EIA`s Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting. Their purpose is to provide public access to analytical work done in preparation for the midterm projections and other unpublished analyses. Specific topics were chosen for their relevance to current energy issues or to highlight modeling activities in NEMS. 59 figs., 44 tabs.

  17. Assessment of combustion and related issues in the DWPF and ITP waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, T.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a review of the safety analyses described in the DWPF Safety Analysis Report, the combustion analysis of the ITP Tanks 48 and 49, and presents conclusions drawn from interviews staff on issues related to accident analysis, in particular on issues related to combustion phenomena. The major objectives of this report are to clarify the issues related to the modes of combustion and expected loads on process vessels and structures and, in addition, to offer recommendations which would improve the defense-in-depth posture of the DWPF.

  18. Emerging Issues and Opportunities Prospective Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Sharlene A.

    This paper discusses 14 issues related to gender equity in intercollegiate athletics, including: (1) the cost dilemma, in which institutions have to cut men's sports to introduce women's sports; (2) equal pay for the coaches of men's and women's teams; (3) the gender of coaches, namely men coaching women's teams; (4) peer harassment among…

  19. ON STATISTICAL ISSUES RELATED TO FARMWORKER STUDIES (9418LET)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product is a response to a letter to the editor regarding an Environmental Health Perspective research article titled: "A Survey of Laboratory and Statistical Issues Related to Farmworker Exposure Studies".

  20. Korea: U.S.-Korean Relations -- Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-16

    wounded in the Korean War (1950-53). The United States agreed to defend South Korea from external aggression in the 1954 Mutual Defense Treaty. The... Korean RelationsIssues for Congress Updated June 16, 2005 Larry A. Niksch Foreign Affairs, Defense , and Trade Division Report Documentation Page...A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Korea : U.S.- Korean Relations -- Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  1. Practical Issues in Component Aging Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dana L. Kelly; Andrei Rodionov; Jens Uwe-Klugel

    2008-09-01

    This paper examines practical issues in the statistical analysis of component aging data. These issues center on the stochastic process chosen to model component failures. The two stochastic processes examined are repair same as new, leading to a renewal process, and repair same as old, leading to a nonhomogeneous Poisson process. Under the first assumption, times between failures can treated as statistically independent observations from a stationary process. The common distribution of the times between failures is called the renewal distribution. Under the second process, the times between failures will not be independently and identically distributed, and one cannot simply fit a renewal distribution to the cumulative failure times or the times between failures. The paper illustrates how the assumption made regarding the repair process is crucial to the analysis. Besides the choice of stochastic process, other issues that are discussed include qualitative graphical analysis and simple nonparametric hypothesis tests to help judge which process appears more appropriate. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the issues discussed in the paper.

  2. Public Relations Manager Involvement in Strategic Issue Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauzen, Martha M.

    1995-01-01

    Reports on an exploratory study that seeks to build theoretical understanding of how public relations practitioner involvement in one type of strategic organizational decision making--strategic issue diagnosis--is related to shared values with top management, diagnosis accuracy, strategy pursued, and the power of the public relations function. (TB)

  3. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: substrate-related issues.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiu-Mei; Cui, Yan; Xu, Yan-Hui; Ren, Bin; Tian, Zhong-Qun

    2009-08-01

    After over 30 years of development, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is now facing a very important stage in its history. The explosive development of nanoscience and nanotechnology has assisted the rapid development of SERS, especially during the last 5 years. Further development of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is mainly limited by the reproducible preparation of clean and highly surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active substrates. This review deals with some substrate-related issues. Various methods will be introduced for preparing SERS substrates of Ag and Au for analytical purposes, from SERS substrates prepared by electrochemical or vacuum methods, to well-dispersed Au or Ag nanoparticle sols, to nanoparticle thin film substrates, and finally to ordered nanostructured substrates. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of the advantages and weaknesses of different methods in preparing SERS substrates. Closely related to the application of SERS in the analysis of trace sample and unknown systems, the existing cleaning methods for SERS substrates are analyzed and a combined chemical adsorption and electrochemical oxidation method is proposed to eliminate the interference of contaminants. A defocusing method is proposed to deal with the laser-induced sample decomposition problem frequently met in SERS measurement to obtain strong signals. The existing methods to estimate the surface enhancement factor, a criterion to characterize the SERS activity of a substrate, are analyzed and some guidelines are proposed to obtain the correct enhancement factor.

  4. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01

    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  5. Issues in Quantitative Analysis of Ultraviolet Imager (UV) Data: Airglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Germany, G. A.; Richards, P. G.; Spann, J. F.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Parks, G. K.

    1999-01-01

    The GGS Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) has proven to be especially valuable in correlative substorm, auroral morphology, and extended statistical studies of the auroral regions. Such studies are based on knowledge of the location, spatial, and temporal behavior of auroral emissions. More quantitative studies, based on absolute radiometric intensities from UVI images, require a more intimate knowledge of the instrument behavior and data processing requirements and are inherently more difficult than studies based on relative knowledge of the oval location. In this study, UVI airglow observations are analyzed and compared with model predictions to illustrate issues that arise in quantitative analysis of UVI images. These issues include instrument calibration, long term changes in sensitivity, and imager flat field response as well as proper background correction. Airglow emissions are chosen for this study because of their relatively straightforward modeling requirements and because of their implications for thermospheric compositional studies. The analysis issues discussed here, however, are identical to those faced in quantitative auroral studies.

  6. Nurses' perceptions of ethical issues related to patients' rights law.

    PubMed

    Yakov, Gila; Shilo, Yehudit; Shor, Tzippy

    2010-07-01

    August 2006 marked the 10th anniversary of landmark legislation when Israel's parliament passed the unique Patient's Rights Law. This law underscores the importance of medical ethics in Israeli society. During a seminar at the Shaare Zedek School of Nursing, third-year students performed a qualitative research study investigating ethical issues arising in the field of nursing, and how nursing staff dealt with these issues in relation to the law. The research was conducted using semistructured questionnaires. The results showed that the staff participants knew the law, but did not differentiate between legal and ethical problems. The establishment of a framework for dealing with these issues would help to promote professional ethics, encourage broad-based agreements related to ethical decisions, reduce ethical conflict, and increase implementation of the law on patients' rights.

  7. Issues Related to Equipment and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Mary Frances

    A multi-year project was initiated to examine production equipment issues related to implementation of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). The purposes of the research project were to determine foodservice directors' opinions regarding use and appropriateness of equipment in school foodservice, to identify the number and variety of menu…

  8. 40 CFR 300.220 - Related Title III issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Related Title III issues. 300.220 Section 300.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Planning and Preparedness §...

  9. 40 CFR 300.220 - Related Title III issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Related Title III issues. 300.220 Section 300.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Planning and Preparedness §...

  10. 40 CFR 300.220 - Related Title III issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Related Title III issues. 300.220 Section 300.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Planning and Preparedness §...

  11. Do medical students require education on issues related to plagiarism?

    PubMed

    Varghese, Joe; Jacob, Molly

    2015-01-01

    In the course of our professional experience, we have seen that many medical students plagiarise. We hypothesised that they do so out of ignorance and that they require formal education on the subject. With this objective in mind, we conducted a teaching session on issues related to plagiarism. As a part of this, we administered a quiz to assess their baseline knowledge on plagiarism and a questionnaire to determine their attitudes towards it. We followed this up with an interactive teaching session, in which we discussed various aspects of plagiarism. We subjected the data obtained from the quiz and questionnaire to bivariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 423 medical students participated in the study. Their average score for the quiz was 4.96±1.67 (out of 10). Age, gender and years in medical school were not significantly associated with knowledge regarding plagiarism. The knowledge scores were negatively correlated with permissive attitudes towards plagiarism and positively correlated with attitudes critical of the practice. Men had significantly higher scores on permissive attitudes compared to women . In conclusion, we found that the medical students' knowledge regarding plagiarism was limited. Those with low knowledge scores tended to have permissive attitudes towards plagiarism and were less critical of the practice. We recommend the inclusion of formal instruction on this subject in the medical curriculum, so that this form of academic misconduct can be tackled.

  12. Psycho-social issues related to counseling bisexuals.

    PubMed

    Lourea, D N

    1985-01-01

    An increasing number of persons who experience bisexual feelings or behaviors are seeking professional counseling. This article explores the psycho-social issues related to counseling individuals and couples concerned about their own or their partner's feelings, fantasies, or behaviors with both men and women, and the appropriateness or inappropriateness of adopting a bisexual identity or developing a bisexual life-style. The steps for helping individuals to differentiate problems, handle confusion, and conceptualize bisexuality are outlined. The counseling process with bisexuals includes developing support systems, examining internalized homophobia and sex-role stereotyping, helping them deal with heterosexual concerns, and with issues which affect partners when one or both is bisexual.

  13. Health care labor relations law--understanding the issues.

    PubMed

    Pepe, S P; Keith, C L

    1981-01-01

    The 1974 amendments to the Labor Management Relations Act have created new problems of statutory interpretation in the rapidly evolving area of health care labor law. By including nonprofit hospitals under the auspices of the Act, the amendments have opened up a new area for unionization and have given rise to questions concerning the types of bargaining units that are appropriate in health care facilities. In the following article, the authors discuss these questions and other current issues in health care labor relations law. The issues include the determination of relevant bargaining units, the status of state nursing associations as labor organizations, and the ten-day strike notice requirement of the Labor Management Relations Act.

  14. Radiation safety issues related to radiolabeled antibodies. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, D.E.; Baum, J.W.; Meinhold, C. B. )

    1991-03-01

    Techniques related to the use of radiolabeled antibodies in humans are reviewed and evaluated in this report. It is intended as an informational resource for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and NRC licensees. Descriptions of techniques and health and safety issues are provided. Principal methods for labeling antibodies are summarized to help identify related radiation safety problems in the preparation of dosages for administration to patients. The descriptions are derived from an extensive literature review and consultations with experts in the field. A glossary of terms and acronyms is also included. An assessment was made of the extent of the involvement of organizations (other than the NRC) with safety issues related to radiolabeled antibodies, in order to identify regulatory issues which require attention. Federal regulations and guides were also reviewed for their relevance. A few (but significant) differences between the use of common radiopharmaceuticals and radiolabeled antibodies were observed. The clearance rate of whole, radiolabeled immunoglobulin is somewhat slower than common radiopharmaceuticals, and new methods of administration are being used. New nuclides are being used or considered (e.g., Re-186 and At-211) for labeling antibodies. Some of these nuclides present new dosimetry, instrument calibration, and patient management problems. Subjects related to radiation safety that require additional research are identified. 149 refs., 3 figs., 20 tabs.

  15. Assistance to States on Policies Related to Wind Energy Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Matthew, H; Decesaro, Jennifer; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-07-15

    This final report summarizes work carried out under agreement with the US Department of Energy, related to wind energy policy issues. This project has involved a combination of outreach and publications on wind energy, with a specific focus on educating state-level policymakers. Education of state policymakers is vitally important because state policy (in the form of incentives or regulation) is a crucial part of the success of wind energy. State policymakers wield a significant influence over all of these policies. They are also in need of high quality, non-biased educational resources which this project provided. This project provided outreach to legislatures, in the form of meetings designed specifically for state legislators and legislative staff, responses to information requests on wind energy, and publications. The publications addressed: renewable energy portfolio standards, wind energy transmission, wind energy siting, case studies of wind energy policy, avian issues, economic development, and other related issues. These publications were distributed to legislative energy committee members, and chairs, legislative staff, legislative libraries, and other related state officials. The effect of this effort has been to provide an extensive resource of information about wind information for state policymakers in a form that is useful to them. This non-partisan information has been used as state policymakers attempt to develop their own policy proposals related to wind energy in the states.

  16. Practical Issues Related to the Interferometric Imaging of Geosats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, H.; Restaino, S.; Mozurkewich, D.; Mason, J.; Bock, K.; Dank, J.; Armstrong, J. T.; Baines, E.; Feller, G.

    2014-09-01

    Imaging geostationary satellites from the ground is an important Space Situational Awareness diagnostic tool that will require the use of optical interferometry. We developed a series of imaging and data quality simulations that allow us to investigate issues related to the interferometric imaging of such targets. We will discuss the number of baselines and sampling density needed to achieve different resolutions. We will also discuss some issues that are specific to the problem of imaging geosats, such as the size of the target relative to the resolving power of a single telescope in the interferometer, the precision needed in order to determine and correct for different sources of delay (atmospheric turbulence, telescope and target motion), and retrieve phase information from multiple baselines. The results presented here will be important to guide the design of future optical interferometers dedicated to the imaging of geosats.

  17. Artificial intelligence issues related to automated computing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornfeck, William A.

    1989-01-01

    Large data processing installations represent target systems for effective applications of artificial intelligence (AI) constructs. The system organization of a large data processing facility at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is presented. The methodology and the issues which are related to AI application to automated operations within a large-scale computing facility are described. Problems to be addressed and initial goals are outlined.

  18. U.S.-Vietnam Relations: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-31

    that defeated the U.S.-backed South Vietnam in 1975. Currently, factors generating interest in the relationship include growing trade and investment...bilateral discussions of human rights issues. Ultimately, the pace and extent of the improvement in bilateral relations likely is limited by several factors ... malaria problems. Coinciding with these developments, the Senate Select Committee on POW/MIA affairs conducted what many consider the most extensive

  19. Military Retirement, Concurrent Receipt, and Related Major Legislative Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-12

    Order Code RL33449 Military Retirement, Concurrent Receipt, and Related Major Legislative Issues Updated February 12, 2008 Charles A. Henning...recent legislative activity involves whether some or all military retirees should be allowed to receive both military retired pay and any VA disability...can first receive retired pay from 60 to 55. The arguments in favor of these benefit increases have been equally strong. Proponents suggest that even

  20. Direct normal irradiance related definitions and applications: The circumsolar issue

    DOE PAGES

    Blanc, P.; Espinar, B.; Geuder, N.; ...

    2014-10-21

    The direct irradiance received on a plane normal to the sun, called direct normal irradiance (DNI), is of particular relevance to concentrated solar technologies, including concentrating solar thermal plants and concentrated photovoltaic systems. Following various standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the DNI definition is related to the irradiance from a small solid angle of the sky, centered on the position of the sun. Half-angle apertures of pyrheliometers measuring DNI have varied over time, up to ≈10°. The current recommendation of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for this half-angle is 2.5°. Solar concentrating collectors have an angular acceptancemore » function that can be significantly narrower, especially for technologies with high concentration ratios. The disagreement between the various interpretations of DNI, from the theoretical definition used in atmospheric physics and radiative transfer modeling to practical definitions corresponding to specific measurements or conversion technologies is significant, especially in the presence of cirrus clouds or large concentration of aerosols. Under such sky conditions, the circumsolar radiation—i.e. the diffuse radiation coming from the vicinity of the sun—contributes significantly to the DNI ground measurement, although some concentrating collectors cannot utilize the bulk of it. These issues have been identified in the EU-funded projects MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate-Interim Implementation) and SFERA (Solar Facilities for the European Research Area), and have been discussed within a panel of international experts in the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) program of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) Task 46 “Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting”. In accordance with these discussions, the terms of reference related to DNI are specified here. The important role of circumsolar radiation is

  1. Direct normal irradiance related definitions and applications: The circumsolar issue

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, P.; Espinar, B.; Geuder, N.; Gueymard, C.; Meyer, R.; Pitz-Paal, R.; Reinhardt, B.; Renne, D.; Segupta, M.; Wald, L.; Wilbert, S.

    2014-10-21

    The direct irradiance received on a plane normal to the sun, called direct normal irradiance (DNI), is of particular relevance to concentrated solar technologies, including concentrating solar thermal plants and concentrated photovoltaic systems. Following various standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the DNI definition is related to the irradiance from a small solid angle of the sky, centered on the position of the sun. Half-angle apertures of pyrheliometers measuring DNI have varied over time, up to ≈10°. The current recommendation of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for this half-angle is 2.5°. Solar concentrating collectors have an angular acceptance function that can be significantly narrower, especially for technologies with high concentration ratios. The disagreement between the various interpretations of DNI, from the theoretical definition used in atmospheric physics and radiative transfer modeling to practical definitions corresponding to specific measurements or conversion technologies is significant, especially in the presence of cirrus clouds or large concentration of aerosols. Under such sky conditions, the circumsolar radiation—i.e. the diffuse radiation coming from the vicinity of the sun—contributes significantly to the DNI ground measurement, although some concentrating collectors cannot utilize the bulk of it. These issues have been identified in the EU-funded projects MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate-Interim Implementation) and SFERA (Solar Facilities for the European Research Area), and have been discussed within a panel of international experts in the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) program of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) Task 46 “Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting”. In accordance with these discussions, the terms of reference related to DNI are specified here. The important role of circumsolar radiation is evidenced

  2. Educational paper: formulation-related issues in pediatric clinical pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Tuleu, Catherine; Breitkreutz, Joerg

    2013-06-01

    Developmental physiological changes occur throughout childhood, with important changes observed within the first few weeks and months from birth, potentially affecting drug pharmacokinetics. The impact of confounding factors in relation to the availability of clinically relevant and adequate drug formulations and administration devices is underestimated. Hence, it is important to highlight presently the relevance of formulation issues. Since 2007, the EU Paediatric Regulation enforces paediatric investigation plans in which the applicant has to justify the clinical relevance of each dosage form proposed in relation to age subsets involved and the suitability of administration modalities. Therefore, pediatric drug development has become more relevant, and the importance of using age-appropriate drug formulations has been acknowledged by investigators and other stakeholders. Palatability and acceptability assessment is considered to be important by the regulatory bodies as well as excipient safety and tolerability, as it can be an issue particularly in very young children. However, there remains a lack of research into pediatric biopharmaceutics (methodological input regarding in vitro tools and bridging studies). Clinical pharmacologists with expertise ranging from pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, adverse drug effects, and toxicology should actively contribute in advancing drug formulation issues in children.

  3. Issues related to line-oriented flight training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauber, J. K.

    1981-01-01

    The use of a training simulator along with carefully structured, detailed, line trip scenarios was envisioned by NASA as a means of providing a controllable, repeatable way to observe line crews in a highly realistic simulation of their working environment and obtain better understanding operationally significant human factors problems and issues. Relevant research done by the agency and the results of full-mission simulation scenarios revealed potential implications for flight training. Aspects to be considered in creating training programs closely related to the actual line environment with a total crew application in real world incident experiences include: (1) operational, environmental, equipment, and crew problems in scenario design; (2) real time line oriented flight training operation; (3) performance assessment and debriefing; (4) instructor qualification and training; and (5) other issues such as ub un initial, transition, and upgrade training; procedures developent and evaluation, and equipment evaluation.

  4. Adherence issues related to sublingual immunotherapy as perceived by allergists

    PubMed Central

    Scurati, Silvia; Frati, Franco; Passalacqua, Gianni; Puccinelli, Paola; Hilaire, Cecile; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is a viable alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy to treat allergic rhinitis and asthma, and is widely used in clinical practice in many European countries. The clinical efficacy of SLIT has been established in a number of clinical trials and meta-analyses. However, because SLIT is self-administered by patients without medical supervision, the degree of patient adherence with treatment is still a concern. The objective of this study was to evaluate the perception by allergists of issues related to SLIT adherence. Methods: We performed a questionnaire-based survey of 296 Italian allergists, based on the adherence issues known from previous studies. The perception of importance of each item was assessed by a VAS scale ranging from 0 to 10. Results: Patient perception of clinical efficacy was considered the most important factor (ranked 1 by 54% of allergists), followed by the possibility of reimbursement (ranked 1 by 34%), and by the absence of side effects (ranked 1 by 21%). Patient education, regular follow-up, and ease of use of SLIT were ranked first by less than 20% of allergists. Conclusion: These findings indicate that clinical efficacy, cost, and side effects are perceived as the major issues influencing patient adherence to SLIT, and that further improvement of adherence is likely to be achieved by improving the patient information provided by prescribers. PMID:20622914

  5. Codes of practice and related issues in biomedical waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Moy, D.; Watt, C.

    1996-12-31

    This paper outlines the development of a National Code of Practice for biomedical waste management in Australia. The 10 key areas addressed by the code are industry mission statement; uniform terms and definitions; community relations - public perceptions and right to know; generation, source separation, and handling; storage requirements; transportation; treatment and disposal; disposal of solid and liquid residues and air emissions; occupational health and safety; staff awareness and education. A comparison with other industry codes in Australia is made. A list of outstanding issues is also provided; these include the development of standard containers, treatment effectiveness, and reusable sharps containers.

  6. Software safety and reliability issues in safety-related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zucconi, L.

    1992-09-01

    The increasing number of accidents attributed to computer-based systems is causing increased public awareness of the risk associated with these systems' use in safety-related applications. Examples include the Therac-25 medical LINAC deaths, the growing number of Airbus A320 crashes, the AT T Long-Lines disaster on Martin Luther King Day in 1990, the spate of regional telephone outages of the summer of 1991, and many more. How do safety and reliability sometimes conflict What practical computer system and software development technologies and processes can be applied to increase the safety and reliability of computer systems What are the technical and managerial issues contributing to the construction of less-than-safe computer-based systems How can systems engineers and software engineers work together. to address the issues related to safety and reliability of computer systems This paper will address these topics and include an assessment of the best current state-of-the-practice and upcoming technologies that will carry us into the 21st century.

  7. Safety and reliability issues in safety-related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zucconi, L.

    1992-03-20

    The increasing number of accidents attributed to computer-based systems is causing increased public awareness of the risk associated with these systems` use in safety-related applications. Examples include the Therac-25 medical LINAC deaths, the growing number of Airbus A320 crashes, the AT&T Long-Lines disaster on Martin Luther King Day in 1990, the spate of regional telephone outages of the summer of 1991, and many more. How do safety and reliability sometimes conflict? What practical computer system and software development technologies and processes can be applied to increase the safety and reliability of computer systems? What are the technical and managerial issues contributing to the construction of less-than-safe computer-based systems? How can systems engineers and software engineers work together to address the issues related safety and reliability of computer systems? This paper will address these topics and include an assessment of the best current state-of-the-practice and of upcoming technologies that will carry us into the 21st century.

  8. Safety and reliability issues in safety-related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zucconi, L.

    1992-03-20

    The increasing number of accidents attributed to computer-based systems is causing increased public awareness of the risk associated with these systems' use in safety-related applications. Examples include the Therac-25 medical LINAC deaths, the growing number of Airbus A320 crashes, the AT T Long-Lines disaster on Martin Luther King Day in 1990, the spate of regional telephone outages of the summer of 1991, and many more. How do safety and reliability sometimes conflict What practical computer system and software development technologies and processes can be applied to increase the safety and reliability of computer systems What are the technical and managerial issues contributing to the construction of less-than-safe computer-based systems How can systems engineers and software engineers work together to address the issues related safety and reliability of computer systems This paper will address these topics and include an assessment of the best current state-of-the-practice and of upcoming technologies that will carry us into the 21st century.

  9. Software safety and reliability issues in safety-related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zucconi, L.

    1992-09-01

    The increasing number of accidents attributed to computer-based systems is causing increased public awareness of the risk associated with these systems` use in safety-related applications. Examples include the Therac-25 medical LINAC deaths, the growing number of Airbus A320 crashes, the AT&T Long-Lines disaster on Martin Luther King Day in 1990, the spate of regional telephone outages of the summer of 1991, and many more. How do safety and reliability sometimes conflict? What practical computer system and software development technologies and processes can be applied to increase the safety and reliability of computer systems? What are the technical and managerial issues contributing to the construction of less-than-safe computer-based systems? How can systems engineers and software engineers work together. to address the issues related to safety and reliability of computer systems? This paper will address these topics and include an assessment of the best current state-of-the-practice and upcoming technologies that will carry us into the 21st century.

  10. Grid related issues for static and dynamic geometry problems using systems of overset structured grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meakin, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Grid related issues of the Chimera overset grid method are discussed in the context of a method of solution and analysis of unsteady three-dimensional viscous flows. The state of maturity of the various pieces of support software required to use the approach is considered. Current limitations of the approach are identified.

  11. Questions and Answers Related to Policy Issues about Students with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Exceptional Children Div.

    This document is designed to provide information to North Carolina administrators and teachers on policy issues related to students with disabilities. Policy letters from the U.S. Office of Special Education Programs and the Office of Civil Rights, as well as "Analysis of Comments and Changes" and "Notice of Interpretations on…

  12. Psychosocial Issues Related to Thyroid Examination After a Radiation Disaster.

    PubMed

    Midorikawa, Sanae; Tanigawa, Koichi; Suzuki, Satoru; Ohtsuru, Akira

    2017-03-01

    A thyroid ultrasound examination program has been conducted in the aftermath of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to address concerns about the increased risk of thyroid cancer similar to those experienced by local residents after the 1986 Chernobyl accident. This is the second-largest thyroid cancer screening in younger age ever, following only that conducted after Chernobyl. As the natural history of thyroid cancer in younger populations is not well characterized, large-scale screening using thyroid ultrasound could result in overdiagnosis, even with careful planning, as has been experienced in South Korea. Awareness regarding the thyroid gland is generally low among residents, who tend to directly associate examination results with radiation exposure and are likely to develop newfound anxiety and feelings of self-condemnation and guilt. We reviewed the dilemma surrounding cancer screening and particularly underscored the need to address psychosocial issues associated with possible overdiagnosis. We modified our approach to address individual and social anxiety induced by results of screening conducted after the Fukushima accident. These findings and our experiences regarding the psychosocial issues related to thyroid examination should assist residents in their lifelong decision making and help them prepare for future disasters.

  13. [Physiological changes and related nursing care issues during hunger strike].

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yeu-Shan; Chen, Shiu-Lien

    2005-08-01

    The use of hunger strike as a tool to assert grievances has been around for ages and has occasionally happened in the world. Hunger strikers' motives may differ, but their tool is the same--the voluntary refusal of food. Fasting not only results in body weight loss, but also in physiological and neurological function changes, and, of course, it may even threaten life. The health care of hunger strikers is complex. It involves medical staff, medical ethics and guidance for the management of the hunger strikers. Improper medical management may not only undermine the hunger striker's dignity but also risk further damage to his or her health. By understanding hunger strikers' physiological changes and related ethical issues, therefore, we aim to identify appropriate forms of nursing care management and guidance for the care of hunger strikers.

  14. Mitigating Issues Related to the Modeling of Insurgent Recruitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, Erica; Trewhitt, Ethan; Weiss, Lora; Whitaker, Elizabeth

    Modeling the specific motivations and influences related to an individual's decision to become involved in insurgent warfare presents its own collection of unique challenges. The difficulty of the problem often necessitates simplifications that, while making the task more manageable, may inadvertently 'smooth away' critical aspects of the problem. Augmenting the challenge is that research into the motivations of terrorism has found there is not a definitive set of variables that serve as reliable indicators of an individual's involvement. This paper addresses techniques aimed toward mitigating issues that manifest in the modeling of insurgent recruitment so that these complications do not lessen the viability of models that are used in the prediction and evaluation of terrorist activity.

  15. Students' Rights: Issues in Constitutional Freedoms. The Analysis of Public Issues Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Richard S.; And Others

    This monograph examines the broad topic of student rights and focuses in turn on a number of related constitutional issues. Chapter 1 outlines some of the social changes affecting American education and briefly touches on many of the sources of school-based conflict. Chapter 2 deals specifically with the issue of school dress codes and efforts by…

  16. Communication between breast cancer patients and their physicians about breast-related body image issues.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Mallory; Anderson, Rebecca C; Jensik, Kathleen; Xiang, Qun; Pruszynski, Jessica; Walker, Alonzo P

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer patients encounter body image changes throughout their diagnosis, treatment, and recovery from breast cancer. No prospective studies were identified investigating communication between physicians and breast cancer patients related to body image. This qualitative pilot study determines (1) how breast cancer patients prefer their physicians communicate regarding body image changes and (2) how comfortable physicians are in discussing body image issues with their patients. Data were collected from patients over 12 weeks through the breast evaluation questionnaire (BEQ), a valid and reliable instrument, and a qualitative questionnaire. Ten physicians completed a qualitative questionnaire. The data were analyzed using frequency analysis. Nearly 70% of the patients reported there was more the physician could do to improve patient comfort in discussing breast-related body image concerns. Honesty, openness, and directness were important to the patients. Thirty-three percent of the patients answered that their physicians should be honest, open, and direct while discussing these issues. On a five-point Likert scale (1 = very uncomfortable and 5 = very comfortable), the physicians most frequently answered a 4 when asked how comfortable they are speaking about breast-related body image issues; however, only four out of 10 always address the topic themselves during the patient's visit. These data suggest that patients want honesty, openness, and directness from their physicians during the discussion of breast-related body image issues. The physicians report they are comfortable speaking about breast-related body image issues; yet, they do not directly initiate the topic.

  17. Module Cluster: IFE-003.00 (GSC) Analysis of Selected Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahn, R. D.

    This module is one of several designed for the Camden Teacher Corps project. The general objectives of the module are a) to develop or increase the student's awareness of selected, abiding issues related to education facing New Jersey and the nation; b) to develop the student's thinking and analysis as they relate to the issues; and c) to provide…

  18. Addressing security issues related to virtual institute distributed activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2008-03-01

    One issue confounding the development and experimentation of distributed modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its activities are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the

  19. Water and wastewater related issues in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Bandara, N J G J

    2003-01-01

    The primary problems concerning water resources in Sri Lanka are the depletion and degradation of the resource caused by various anthropogenic activities. Surface inland waters in urban areas are polluted heavily with domestic sewage and industrial effluents, and in rural areas with agricultural runoff. With regard to ground water in certain areas of the dry zone, there is a high fluoride content and in hard, rocky, alluvial areas, there is a high concentration of iron. In urban over-crowded cities, there is biological contamination of ground water. Over-utilization, particularly through tube wells, is another major problem affecting ground water resources in Sri Lanka. Oil spills, dumping of waste from ships, coral and sand mining, and activities are the main causes of marine pollution in the country. Except for pipe-borne water supply, irrigation and hydropower schemes, in general water resources in Sri Lanka are managed very poorly. Regulations are available to control most water related problems but enforcement of these regulations is lacking. The ultimate result of degradation and depletion of water resources is the increasing health hazards. Water-borne and vector-borne diseases are prevalent, particularly amongst urban low-income communities with poor sanitary facilities and drainage. Despite government initiatives and legislation, very slow progress has been made towards combating water pollution. This paper examines the most significant water and wastewater related issues in Sri Lanka and their controlling mechanisms.

  20. The Concept of Cultural Relativity in Moral Judgments Concerning Gender-Related Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, D. R.; And Others

    The comparative study was designed to determine whether cultural relativism and ethical reasoning develop in a hierarchical manner when applied to culturally different phenomena. The phenomena investigated were moral judgments concerning gender-related issues. Thirty-six first through sixth-grade students from two private schools and 130…

  1. A Survey of Solver-Related Geometry and Meshing Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, James; Daniel, Derick; Gudenkauf, Jared; Hine, David; Sideroff, Chris

    2016-01-01

    There is a concern in the computational fluid dynamics community that mesh generation is a significant bottleneck in the CFD workflow. This is one of several papers that will help set the stage for a moderated panel discussion addressing this issue. Although certain general "rules of thumb" and a priori mesh metrics can be used to ensure that some base level of mesh quality is achieved, inadequate consideration is often given to the type of solver or particular flow regime on which the mesh will be utilized. This paper explores how an analyst may want to think differently about a mesh based on considerations such as if a flow is compressible vs. incompressible or hypersonic vs. subsonic or if the solver is node-centered vs. cell-centered. This paper is a high-level investigation intended to provide general insight into how considering the nature of the solver or flow when performing mesh generation has the potential to increase the accuracy and/or robustness of the solution and drive the mesh generation process to a state where it is no longer a hindrance to the analysis process.

  2. Epidemiologic methods in analysis of scientific issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdreich, Linda S.

    2003-10-01

    Studies of human populations provide much of the information that is used to evaluate compensation cases for hearing loss, including rates of hearing loss by age, and dose-response relationships. The reference data used to make decisions regarding workman's compensation is based on epidemiologic studies of cohorts of workers exposed to various noise levels. Epidemiology and its methods can be used in other ways in the courtroom; to assess the merits of a complaint, to support Daubert criteria, and to explain scientific issues to the trier of fact, generally a layperson. Using examples other than occupational noise induced hearing loss, these methods will be applied to respond to a complaint that hearing loss followed exposure to a sudden noise, a medication, or an occupational chemical, and thus was caused by said exposure. The standard criteria for assessing the weight of the evidence, and epidemiologic criteria for causality show the limits of such anecdotal data and incorporate quantitative and temporal issues. Reports of clusters of cases are also intuitively convincing to juries. Epidemiologic methods provide a scientific approach to assess whether rates of the outcome are indeed increased, and the extent to which increased rates provide evidence for causality.

  3. EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is releasing for external peer review and public comment an important draft document reviewing the literature on the health effects of dioxin and related compounds (also referred to as 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin). At the request of Administrator Jackson, EPA is in the process of re-assessing the science on the effects of dioxin, a toxic chemical that is emitted by multiple sources, on the public’s health. This draft dioxin report is EPA’s response to key comments and recommendations made by the National Academy of Sciences on the Agency’s draft dioxin reassessment. This assessment has been in progress for many years and raises health issues of broad interest to scientists and policymakers across the federal family. The Agency’s draft report includes significant new analyses on potential cancer and non-cancer human health effects that may result from exposures to dioxins and includes an oral reference dose for what is considered to be the most toxic of the dioxin-like compounds. EPA’s Science

  4. Material issues relating to high power spallation neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futakawa, M.

    2015-02-01

    Innovative researches using neutrons are being performed at the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), in which a mercury target system is installed for MW-class pulse spallation neutron sources. In order to produce neutrons by the spallation reaction, proton beams are injected into the mercury target. At the moment, when the intense proton beam hits the target, pressure waves are generated in mercury because of the abrupt heat deposition. The pressure waves interact with the target vessel, leading to negative pressure that may cause cavitation along the vessel wall, i.e. on the interface between liquid and solid metals. On the other hand, the structural materials are subjected to irradiation damage due to protons and neutrons, very high cycle fatigue damages and so-called "liquid metal embrittlement". That is, the structural materials must be said to be exposed to the extremely severe environments. In the paper, research and development relating to the material issues in the high power spallation neutron sources that has been performed so far at J-PARC is summarized.

  5. Monitoring asthma in childhood: management-related issues.

    PubMed

    Rottier, Bart L; Eber, Ernst; Hedlin, Gunilla; Turner, Steve; Wooler, Edwina; Mantzourani, Eva; Kulkarni, Neeta

    2015-06-01

    Management-related issues are an important aspect of monitoring asthma in children in clinical practice. This review summarises the literature on practical aspects of monitoring including adherence to treatment, inhalation technique, ongoing exposure to allergens and irritants, comorbid conditions and side-effects of treatment, as agreed by the European Respiratory Society Task Force on Monitoring Asthma in Childhood. The evidence indicates that it is important to discuss adherence to treatment in a non-confrontational way at every clinic visit, and take into account a patient's illness and medication beliefs. All task force members teach inhalation techniques at least twice when introducing a new inhalation device and then at least annually. Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, combustion-derived air pollutants, house dust mites, fungal spores, pollens and pet dander deserve regular attention during follow-up according to most task force members. In addition, allergic rhinitis should be considered as a cause for poor asthma control. Task force members do not screen for gastro-oesophageal reflux and food allergy. Height and weight are generally measured at least annually to identify individuals who are susceptible to adrenal suppression and to calculate body mass index, even though causality between obesity and asthma has not been established. In cases of poor asthma control, before stepping up treatment the above aspects of monitoring deserve closer attention.

  6. Relating realist metatheory to issues of gender and mental health.

    PubMed

    Bergin, M; Wells, John S G; Owen, Sara

    2010-06-01

    This paper seeks to advance the debate that considers critical realism as an alternative approach for understanding gender and mental health and its relatedness to mental health research and practice. The knowledge base of how 'sex' and 'gender' affect mental health and illness is expanding. However, the way we conceptualize gender is significant and challenging as quite often our ability to think about 'gender' as independent of 'sex' is not common. The influences and interplay of how sex (biological) and gender (social) affect mental health and illness requires consideration. Critical realism suggests a shared ontology and epistemology for the natural and social sciences. While much of the debate surrounding gender is guided within a constructivist discourse, an exploration of the concept 'gender' is reflected on and some key realist propositions are considered for mental health research and practice. This is achieved through the works of some key realist theorists. Critical realism offers potential for research and practice in relation to gender and mental health because it facilitates changes in our understanding, while simultaneously, not discarding that which is already known. In so doing, it allows the biological (sex) and social (gender) domains of knowledge for mental health and illness to coexist, without either being reduced to or defined by the other. Arguably, greater depth and explanations for gender and mental health issues are presented within a realist metatheory.

  7. Reprogramming cancer cells in endocrine-related tumors: open issues.

    PubMed

    Tafani, M; Perrone, G A; Pucci, B; Russo, A; Bizzarri, M; Mechanick, J I; Carpi, A; Russo, M A

    2014-01-01

    Reprogramming technologies have been developed to revert somatic differentiated cells into pluripotent stem cells that can be differentiated into different lineages potentially useful in stem cell therapy. Reprogramming methods have been progressively refined to increase their efficiency, to obtain a cell population suitable for differentiation, and to eliminate viral plasmid which could be responsible for many unwanted side-effects when used in personalized medicine. All these methods are aimed to introduce into the cell genes or mRNAs encoding a set of four transcription factors (OCT- 4, SOX-2, KLF-4 and c-MYC) or a set of three lincRNAs (large intragenic non-coding RNAs) acting downstream of the reprogramming transcription factors OCT-4, SOX-2 and NANOG. Translational clinical applications in human pathologies and in developmental, repair and cancer biology have been numerous. Cancer cells can be, at least in principle, reprogrammed into a normal phenotype. This is a recently raised issue, rapidly advancing in many human tumors, especially endocrine-related cancers, such as breast, prostate and ovarian ca. The present review aims to describe basic phenomena observed in reprogramming tumor cells and solid tumors and to discuss their meaning in human hormone-related cancers. We will also discuss the fact that some of the targeted transcription factors are "normally" activated in a number of physiological processes, such as morphogenesis, hypoxia and wound healing, suggesting an in vivo role of reprogramming for development and homeostasis. Finally, we will review concerns and warnings raised for in vivo reprogramming of human tumors and for the use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in human therapy.

  8. WATER ANALYSIS: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers developments in Water Analysis over the period of 2001-2002. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2003 are also included. Previous Water Analysis reviews have been very comprehensive; however, in 2001, Analytical Chemistry c...

  9. Cabin Safety Issues Related to Pre-Departure and Inflight Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) in a partnership between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), participating carriers, and labor organizations. It is designed to improve the National Airspace System by collecting and studying reports detailing unsafe conditions and events in the aviation industry. Employees are able to report safety issues or concerns with confidentiality and without fear of discipline. Safety reports highlighting the human element in cabin safety issues and concerns.

  10. Damage Tolerance Issues as Related to Metallic Rotorcraft Dynamic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, R. A., Jr.; Elber, W.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper issues related to the use of damage tolerance in life managing rotorcraft dynamic components are reviewed. In the past, rotorcraft fatigue design has combined constant amplitude tests of full-scale parts with flight loads and usage data in a conservative manner to provide "safe life" component replacement times. In contrast to the safe life approach over the past twenty years the United States Air Force and several other NATO nations have used damage tolerance design philosophies for fixed wing aircraft to improve safety and reliability. The reliability of the safe life approach being used in rotorcraft started to be questioned shortly after presentations at an American Helicopter Society's specialist meeting in 1980 showed predicted fatigue lives for a hypothetical pitch-link problem to vary from a low of 9 hours to a high in excess of 2594 hours. This presented serious cost, weight, and reliability implications. Somewhat after the U.S. Army introduced its six nines reliability on fatigue life, attention shifted towards using a possible damage tolerance approach to the life management of rotorcraft dynamic components. The use of damage tolerance in life management of dynamic rotorcraft parts will be the subject of this paper. This review will start with past studies on using damage tolerance life management with existing helicopter parts that were safe life designed. Also covered will be a successful attempt at certifying a tail rotor pitch rod using damage tolerance, which was designed using the safe life approach. The FAA review of rotorcraft fatigue design and their recommendations along with some on-going U.S. industry research in damage tolerance on rotorcraft will be reviewed. Finally, possible problems and future needs for research will be highlighted.

  11. Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-03

    January 2010. 15 Jorge Rocha Quintero , “Public Security and Human Rights,” in Police and Public Security in Mexico, edited by Robert A. Donnelly and...Specialist in Latin American Affairs Mark P. Sullivan Specialist in Latin American Affairs June S. Beittel Analyst in Latin American Affairs...cooperation on a range of bilateral and international issues. In recent years, security issues have dominated the bilateral agenda, as the United States

  12. Issues in midterm analysis and forecasting, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This document consists of papers which cover topics in analysis and modeling that underlie the Annual Energy Outlook 1996. Topics include: The Potential Impact of Technological Progress on U.S. Energy Markets; The Outlook for U.S. Import Dependence; Fuel Economy, Vehicle Choice, and Changing Demographics, and Annual Energy Outlook Forecast Evaluation.

  13. 78 FR 9020 - Wireline Competition Bureau Seeks Further Comment on Specific Issues Related to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 54 Wireline Competition Bureau Seeks Further Comment on Specific Issues Related to the...: In this document, the Wireline Competition Bureau seeks further comment on specific issues relating... Bureau now seeks further detailed comment on issues relating to the implementation of the Remote...

  14. 16 CFR 456.5 - Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contact lenses and related issues. 456.5 Section 456.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE... contact lenses and related issues. Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues may be found at 16 CFR part 315 (Contact Lens Rule)....

  15. 16 CFR 456.5 - Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contact lenses and related issues. 456.5 Section 456.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE... contact lenses and related issues. Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues may be found at 16 CFR part 315 (Contact Lens Rule)....

  16. 16 CFR 456.5 - Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... contact lenses and related issues. 456.5 Section 456.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE... contact lenses and related issues. Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues may be found at 16 CFR part 315 (Contact Lens Rule)....

  17. 16 CFR 456.5 - Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contact lenses and related issues. 456.5 Section 456.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE... contact lenses and related issues. Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues may be found at 16 CFR part 315 (Contact Lens Rule)....

  18. 16 CFR 456.5 - Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contact lenses and related issues. 456.5 Section 456.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE... contact lenses and related issues. Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues may be found at 16 CFR part 315 (Contact Lens Rule)....

  19. Mining Health-Related Issues in Consumer Product Reviews by Using Scalable Text Analytics

    PubMed Central

    Torii, Manabu; Tilak, Sameer S.; Doan, Son; Zisook, Daniel S.; Fan, Jung-wei

    2016-01-01

    In an era when most of our life activities are digitized and recorded, opportunities abound to gain insights about population health. Online product reviews present a unique data source that is currently underexplored. Health-related information, although scarce, can be systematically mined in online product reviews. Leveraging natural language processing and machine learning tools, we were able to mine 1.3 million grocery product reviews for health-related information. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) conduct quantitative and qualitative analysis on the types of health issues found in consumer product reviews; (2) develop a machine learning classifier to detect reviews that contain health-related issues; and (3) gain insights about the task characteristics and challenges for text analytics to guide future research. PMID:27375358

  20. Optimization Issues with Complex Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Joanne L.; Young, Katherine C.; Tarzanin, Frank J.; Hirsh, Joel E.; Young, Darrell K.

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of the general purpose automatic differentiation (AD) tool called Automatic Differentiation of FORTRAN (ADIFOR) as a means of generating sensitivity derivatives for use in Boeing Helicopter's proprietary comprehensive rotor analysis code (VII). ADIFOR transforms an existing computer program into a new program that performs a sensitivity analysis in addition to the original analysis. In this study both the pros (exact derivatives, no step-size problems) and cons (more CPU, more memory) of ADIFOR are discussed. The size (based on the number of lines) of the VII code after ADIFOR processing increased by 70 percent and resulted in substantial computer memory requirements at execution. The ADIFOR derivatives took about 75 percent longer to compute than the finite-difference derivatives. However, the ADIFOR derivatives are exact and are not functions of step-size. The VII sensitivity derivatives generated by ADIFOR are compared with finite-difference derivatives. The ADIFOR and finite-difference derivatives are used in three optimization schemes to solve a low vibration rotor design problem.

  1. Outstanding issues related to thermospheric measurements and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, Kenneth; Moe, Mildred M.; Doornbos, Eelco

    Semi-empirical thermospheric models are dependent on measurements made in orbit. Out-standing issues regarding the interpretation of those measurements and the effects on models are considered. These include the present state of knowledge of drag coefficients, long-term trends, instrument calibration, radiation pressure, and spacecraft geometry. Many recent and ongoing efforts to evaluate and improve thermospheric models will be described. The advent of attitude-controlled nanosatellites of simple shapes presents opportunities to resolve some of these outstanding issues in conjunction with the forthcoming SWARM program.

  2. Relating Social Inclusion and Environmental Issues in Botanic Gardens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergou, Asimina; Willison, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Botanic gardens have been evolving, responding to the changing needs of society, from their outset as medicinal gardens of monasteries and university gardens to more recently as organizations that contribute to the conservation of plant genetic resources. Considering that social and environmental issues are deeply intertwined and cannot be tackled…

  3. Ecological Issues Related to Children's Health and Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Jerry; Kohler, Maxie

    2009-01-01

    Issues concerning the health and safety of children and youth occur at multiple levels. Bronfenbrenner (1995) proposed an ecological systems approach in which multiple systems interact to enhance or diminish children's development. The same systems are at work in health promotion. The authors present and review articles that reflect the multiple…

  4. Teacher-Student Sexual Relations: Key Risks and Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics…

  5. Safety, Efficacy, and Legal Issues Related to Dietary Supplements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the effects of dietary supplements on collegiate and adult populations. Anabolic steroids, amphetamines, and other drugs have been used for decades to improve athletic performance. However, the legal issues and dangers associated with these drugs have resulted in reluctance by many athletes to use them. Because dietary…

  6. Contemporary Issues in U.S.-Mexico Relations, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Amy; Kim, Pearl; Lai, Selena; Mukai, Gary; Nunez, Lucia; Valadez, Martin

    The lessons in this 3-part series are intended to provide students with a basic understanding of the relationship between the United States and Mexico, with emphasis on multiple perspectives, conflict and cooperation, and interdependence. This curriculum unit, Part 2, examines three contemporary issues: immigration, the North American Free Trade…

  7. Jordan: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-14

    161-page report alleging sweatshop -like conditions in 28 out of 100 Qualified Industrial Zone (QIZ) plants in Jordan. Jordan’s trade minister Sharif...Committee (NLC), a New York-based human rights advocacy group, issued a 161-page report alleging sweatshop -like conditions in 28 out of 100 Qualified

  8. Issues related to SPR joints subjected to fatigue loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, A.; Senatore, F.; Greco, A.

    2016-05-01

    SPR joints will represent an alternative solution to spot welding in automotive field. However, their fatigue behavior shows several critical issues. After a brief introduction of this new solution, different crack modes are described, emphasizing the parameters that characterize them, i.e. the applied loads, the geometry of the joint and other phenomenon as fretting, vibration and corrosion.

  9. CSI related dynamics and control issues in space robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Eric; Ramey, Madison

    1993-01-01

    The research addressed includes: (1) CSI issues in space robotics; (2) control of elastic payloads, which includes 1-DOF example, and 3-DOF harmonic drive arm with elastic beam; and (3) control of large space arms with elastic links, which includes testbed description, modeling, and experimental implementation of colocated PD and end-point tip position controllers.

  10. Cyprus: Status of U.N. Negotiations and Related Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-20

    advance an overall settlement, the focus shifted to secondary issues. On December 29, the Turkish Cypriots began dismantling a footbridge (a metal...solely on the removal of the footbridge but also on the security for those using it. President Papadopoulos said that he would take down a defense wall

  11. Behavior analysts and cultural analysis: Troubles and issues.

    PubMed

    Malagodi, E F; Jackson, K

    1989-01-01

    THREE STRATEGIC SUGGESTIONS ARE OFFERED TO BEHAVIOR ANALYSTS WHO ARE CONCERNED WITH EXTENDING THE INTERESTS OF OUR DISCIPLINE INTO DOMAINS TRADITIONALLY ASSIGNED TO THE SOCIAL SCIENCES: (1) to expand our world-view perspectives beyond the boundaries commonly accepted by psychologists in general; (2) to build a cultural analytic framework upon the foundations we have developed for the study of individuals; and (3) to study the works of those social scientists whose views are generally compatible with, and complementary to, our own. Sociologist C. Wright Mills' distinction between troubles and issues and anthropologist Marvin Harris's principles of cultural materialism are related to topics raised by these three strategies. The pervasiveness of the "psychocentric" world view within psychology and the social sciences, and throughout our culture at large, is discussed from the points of view of Skinner, Mills, and Harris. It is suggested that a thorough commitment to radical behaviorism, and continuation of interaction between radical behaviorism and cultural materialism, are necessary for maintaining and extending an issues orientation within the discipline of behavior analysis and for guarding against dilutions and subversions of that orientation by "deviation-dampening" contingencies that exist in our profession and in our culture at large.

  12. Methodological issues relating to in vivo cortical myelography using MRI.

    PubMed

    Clare, Stuart; Bridge, Holly

    2005-12-01

    The relationship between neocortical structure and function is a key area of research in neuroscience. Most studies of neural function, whether using neurophysiology or neuroimaging methods, are interpreted with relation to the underlying cortical myelo- and cytoarchitecture. For functional neuroimaging studies this often means using cytoarchitectonic maps based on the study of a limited number of brains, despite evidence for substantial interindividual variation. Improvements in MR technology, resulting in wider availability of high-field MRI systems, have led to an increase in the achievable resolution in MR scans. Several groups have reported the in vivo detection of myelination patterns within the cortex, consistent with those observed in postmortem tissue. This leads to the possibility of predefining areas for fMRI analysis based on the cortical architecture. To do this it is essential to know, in a quantitative way, how reliably myeloarchitectonic areas and boundaries can be detected using MRI. Here we investigate the striate cortex, known to be coincident with V1, to assess the detectability of the stria of Gennari across V1 and across subjects. Under optimal conditions, 80% of the stria of Gennari was visualized using our methodology, although there was considerable variability in the level of detection across subjects. We discuss the limitations of the methodology and propose ways to improve the detection level of cortical myeloarchitecture more generally.

  13. Nutritional and growth issues related to child neglect.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M; Drennen, Chloe R

    2014-11-01

    Child neglect and obesity are major public health problems that undermine children's health and contribute to lifelong disparities. Most of the past research has focused on relations between child neglect and failure to thrive. This article finds that evidence linking child neglect with obesity is mixed. In a recent meta-analysis, five of the eight studies reviewed did not find an increased risk of obesity among neglected children. The case study and three longitudinal studies that reported a relationship between neglect and obesity were conducted among young children, and used caregiver or teacher/clinician definitions of neglect, rather than referrals to state protective service agencies. Dysregulation of the neuroendocrine system associated with neglect has been implicated, but further research is needed to understand the mechanisms that may increase children's risk for obesity. Findings suggest that under some conditions neglect may increase the risk for excessive weight gain, and that high body mass index may be an indicator of possible neglect. By exploring both possibilities, clinicians can promote children's healthy growth and development and prevent subsequent health disparities.

  14. Legal issues related to postoperative pulmonary thromboembolism in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bo Young; Kim, Min Ji; Kang, So Ra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Currently, development of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) after surgery is frequently being followed by legal action in Korea, as consequences may be fatal. In the current study, we assessed possible countermeasures that medical teams can take when faced with conflicting opinions on responsibility for PTE. Methods A retrospective analysis of claims handled by the Supreme Court and subordinate courts, from 1999 to 2015, was performed. We analyzed the type of procedure, associated complications, and critical legal points from the recorded judgments along with any liability limitations on surgeons. Results After reviewing cases between 1999 and 2015, a total of 18 cases were analyzed. There were no cases in which the surgeon was held accountable between 1999 and 2002. From 2003, there were instances of the surgeon being held accountable, with a peak of cases in 2013. Legal standards applied in judicial decision-making related to appropriate use of preventive measures, operation characteristics, doctor's reaction towards symptom occurrence, obligation of postoperative medical care, and duty of explanation. Conclusion The courts in Korea have changed their position from one of denying doctors' liability to one of enforcing responsibility for PTE. Surgeons are therefore being held responsible with greater frequency, depending on the details of the case. Lessons can be learnt from precedents that can be incorporated into medical education and training programs with the aim of reducing both major PTE complication rates and litigation costs. PMID:27904854

  15. Identification of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) Issues Relevant to Individuals with HD

    PubMed Central

    Tulsky, David S.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explored health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in individuals with Huntington disease (HD). Sixteen focus groups were conducted (n=6 groups with symptomatic HD individuals; n=5 with individuals who are at-risk or prodromal for HD; n=3 non-clinical HD caregivers; n=2 groups with HD clinicians). Qualitative analysis indicated that 28% of focus group comments were related to emotional health, 27% to social participation, 26% to physical health, 10% to cognitive health, and 9% to end of life issues. Findings highlight the importance of developing HD-targeted items to ensure sensitive assessment of HRQOL in HD research and clinical practice. PMID:22427174

  16. Chlorofluorocarbon environmental issues related to conservation acquisition in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Marseille, T.J.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Recent scientific evidence strongly suggests that the release of large quantities of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases into the atmosphere will result in environmentally harmful long-term effects. Because of those effects, a massive worldwide effort is currently under way to ban their use. At request of the Bonneville Power Administration, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a literature search to identify the issues surrounding the CFC phaseout. The search was focused on how these issues impact the commercial building sector. Information was obtained that describes: How the release of CFCs into the atmosphere may affect the global environment; legislative and regulatory programs initiated to restrict CFCs; potential impacts the reduced CFC supply will have on commercial buildings; the most promising CFC substitute technologies; and the potential costs of CFC restriction. 11 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. System Issues Related to Implementing on the Internet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, William; Bagg, Thomas C., III

    1999-01-01

    Implementing capabilities on the World Wide Web should never be taken lightly. A good systems engineer is able to examine such implementations from all points of view, including political, legal, security, access, technical deployment, and quality. The evacuation discussed in this paper was conducted to ensure that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was proceeding in a correct direction by implementing RECALL a Lessons Learned System on the Web and, subsequently, did so successfully. The systems approach extended well beyond technical implementation to several issue that are not often addressed by an implementation team. The resulting evaluation increased the team's sensitivity to such issues and, in fact, the authors believe that the evaluation provided as much benefit as the system itself.

  18. Manufacturing issues related to combining different antigens: an industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Van Hoof, J

    2001-12-15

    Despite the growing demand for combination vaccines, many challenges have been encountered in developing them. It is difficult to predict the physical compatibility and stability of antigens in combination, because these characteristics are highly dependent on vaccine excipients. Clinical evaluation of potential modifications of efficacy of antigens in combination may be alleviated by use of appropriate animal models. Manufacturing issues, such as batch-release testing, storage of intermediate products, and the shift to preservative-free products, are of particular concern because they have the potential to affect the supply chain. Managing changes in the manufacture of one antigen that is a component of several different combination vaccines is also difficult. However, most potential issues can be resolved through the simplification of regulatory processes and harmonization of requirements, such as the acceptance of comparability protocols and antigen master files. Continued collaboration between industry and authorities is necessary to develop effective means of handling all submissions pertaining to combination vaccines.

  19. Ground motion issues for seismic analysis of tall buildings: A status report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bozorgnia, Y.; Campbell, K.W.; Luco, N.; Moehle, J.P.; Naeim, F.; Somerville, P.; Yang, T.Y.

    2007-01-01

    The Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) is coordinating a major multidisciplinary programme, the Tall Buildings Initiative (TBI), to address critical technical issues related to the design and analysis of new tall buildings located in coastal California. The authors of this paper, listed alphabetically, are involved in various research studies related to ground motion modelling, selection, modification and simulation for analysis of tall buildings. This paper summarizes the scope and progress of ongoing activities related to ground motion issues for response history analysis of tall buildings.

  20. Analysis of Adverse Events in Identifying GPS Human Factors Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Hwoschinsky, Peter V.; Adams, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze GPS related adverse events such as accidents and incidents (A/I), Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) reports and Pilots Deviations (PDs) to create a framework for developing a human factors risk awareness program. Although the occurrence of directly related GPS accidents is small the frequency of PDs and ASRS reports indicated there is a growing problem with situational awareness in terminal airspace related to different types of GPs operational issues. This paper addresses the findings of the preliminary research and a brief discussion of some of the literature on related GPS and automation issues.

  1. Compensability of, and legal issues related to, coccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Haley, Luann

    2007-09-01

    Legal issues that may develop when treating patients with coccidioidomycosis include allegations of medical malpractice, claims for workers' compensation benefits, and civil actions against business owners. In states where the disease is most prevalent, California recognizes cocci diodomycosis as a compensable condition, although Arizona does not. In civil actions, the state courts have not imposed liability on any business or institution for those that claim to have developed cocci diodomycosis on or near the premises of the business.

  2. Central Issue Facility at Fort Benning and Related Army Policies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-21

    1 0 0 Yes Parka 1 0 0 Yes Trousers 1 0 0 Yes Parka, Wet Weather 1 0 0 Yes Trousers, Wet Weather 1 0 0 Yes Poncho , Wet Weather 1 0 1 Yes Liner... Poncho , Wet 1 0 1 Yes Chitosan Dressing 1 0 0 Yes Note: Deploying personnel are also issued a Chemical-Biological M40A1. *Army and Air Force

  3. NASA Issues Related to use of Halon: Past, Present, Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Michelle M.

    1999-01-01

    NASA began an official halon phaseout program in 1990. NASA has led the way in halon bank management and has participated in the search for halon alternatives. NASA representatives participate in technical committees of the National Fire Protection Association and United Nations Environment Program providing guidance on Halon Phaseout and acceptance, design, installation, and maintenance of Halon Alternatives. This paper addresses some of the key issues that are leading the agency away from dependence on halons for fire protection.

  4. U.S.-Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-11

    NAFTA, the U.S. Economy, and Maquiladoras,” El Paso Business Frontier, 2001. maquiladora operation, Delphi Automotive Systems, headquartered in the...Dallas, El Paso Branch, “Workers’ Remittances to Mexico,” El Paso Business Frontier, Issue 1, 2004. 20 The Federal Reserve Bank report “Workers...when returning from other North American countries.25 U.S. Commerce Secretary Carlos Gutierrez and Mexican Economy Minister Fernando Canales met on

  5. Delphi analysis: a technique for identifying and ranking environmental and natural resource policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Leitch, J.A.; Leistritz, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    A Delphi-type survey and a consensus-building workshop were carried out to identify the most significant natural resource issues and problems emerging in the Great Plains and Rocky Mountain states. Approximately 107 issues initially were identified through a literature search and an inquiry Delphi round. Delphi round enabled the list to be narrowed to 25 issues. While consensus was found on the top 25 issues as a group, neither the Delphi panel nor the workshop participants agreed on the top five. Specific issues related to water and energy comprised the majority of those identified as most significant. Overall, the Delphi method appears to be a powerful and flexible tool for evaluating emerging environmental issues and problems. The analysis suggests that Delphi findings are quite robust with respect to minor changes in panel composition. Delphi thus appears to be an approach that may find increasing application in environmental policy analysis. 11 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  6. Four issues in undernutrition-related health impact modeling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Undernutrition modeling makes it possible to evaluate the potential impact of such events as a food-price shock or harvest failure on the prevalence and severity of undernutrition. There are, however, uncertainties in such modeling. In this paper we discuss four methodological issues pertinent to impact estimation: (1) the conventional emphasis on energy intake rather than dietary quality; (2) the importance of the distribution of nutrient intakes; (3) the timing of both the ‘food shock’ and when the response is assessed; and (4) catch-up growth and risk accumulation. PMID:24073617

  7. Dealing with quantum weirdness: Holism and related issues

    SciTech Connect

    Elby, Andrew Richard

    1995-12-01

    Various issues are discussed in interpretation of quantum mechanics. All these explorations point toward the same conclusion, that some systems are holistically connected, i.e., some composite systems have properties that cannot, even in principle, be reduced to the properties of its subsystems. This is argued to be the central metaphysical lesson of quantum theory; this will remain pertinent even if quantum mechanics gets replaced by a superior theory. Chap. 2 discusses nonlocality and rules out hidden-variable theories that approximately reproduce the perfect correlations of quantum mechanics, as well as theories that obey locality conditions weaker than those needed to derive Bell`s inequality. Chap. 3 shows that SQUID experiments can rule out non-invasive measurability if not macrorealism. Chap. 4 looks at interpretational issues surrounding decoherence, the dissipative interaction between a system and its environment. Decoherence klcan help ``modal`` interpretations pick out the desired ``preferred`` basis. Chap. 5 explores what varieties of causation can and cannot ``explain`` EPR correlations. Instead of relying on ``watered down`` causal explanations, we should instead develop new, holistic explanatory frameworks.

  8. PRECISION MEASUREMENT OF MUON G-2 AND ACCELERATOR RELATED ISSUES

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,H.N.; BUNCE,G.; CAREY,R.M.; CUSHMAN,P.; DANBY,G.T.; DEBEVEC,P.T.; DEILE,M.; DENG,H.; DENINGER,W.; DHAWAN,S.K.; ET AL; MENG,W.

    2001-09-21

    A precision measurement of the anomalous g value, a{sub {mu}}=(g-2)/2, for the positive muon has been made using high intensity protons available at the Brookhaven AGS. The result based on the 1999 data a{sub {mu}}=11659202(14)(6) x 10{sup 10} (1.3ppm) is in good agreement with previous measurements and has an error one third that of the combined previous data. The current theoretical value from the standard model is a{sub {mu}} (SM)=11659159.6(6.7) x 10{sup 10} (0.57 ppm) and differ by over 2.5 standard deviation with experiment. Issues with reducing systematic errors and enhancing the injection and storage efficiencies are discussed.

  9. Ethical issues relating to renal transplantation from prediabetic living donor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Mexico, diabetes mellitus is the main cause of end − stage kidney disease, and some patients may be transplant candidates. Organ supply is limited because of cultural issues. And, there is a lack of standardized clinical guidelines regarding organ donation. These issues highlight the tension surrounding the fact that living donors are being selected despite being prediabetic. This article presents, examines and discusses using the principles of non-maleficience, autonomy, justice and the constitutionally guaranteed right to health, the ethical considerations that arise from considering a prediabetic person as a potential kidney donor. Discussion Diabetes is an absolute contraindication for donating a kidney. However, the transplant protocols most frequently used in Mexico do not consider prediabetes as exclusion criteria. In prediabetic persons there are well known metabolic alterations that may compromise the long − term outcomes of the transplant if such donors are accepted. Even so, many of them are finally included because there are not enough donor candidates. Both, families and hospitals face the need to rapidly accept prediabetic donors before the clinical conditions of the recipient and the evolution of the disease exclude him/her as a transplant candidate; however, when using a kidney potentially damaged by prediabetes, neither the donor’s nor the recipient’s long term health is usually considered. Considering the ethical implication as well as the clinical and epidemiological evidence, we conclude that prediabetic persons are not suitable candidates for kidney donation. This recommendation should be taken into consideration by Mexican health institutions who should rewrite their transplant protocols. Summary We argue that the decision to use a kidney from a living donor known to be pre-diabetic or from those persons with family history of T2DM, obesity, hypertension, or renal failure, should be considered unethical in Mexico

  10. Transportation as a "Related Service": Issues that Involve Transition Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Missouri LINC.

    The paper discusses transportation as a related service for students with disabilities expecially as related to school-to-work transition activities. First, the legislative and legal basis for providing transportation services is discussed in the form of answers to frequently asked questions: why provide transportation? what is the basis for…

  11. Revised classification/nomenclature of vitiligo and related issues: the Vitiligo Global Issues Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Ezzedine, K; Lim, H W; Suzuki, T; Katayama, I; Hamzavi, I; Lan, C C E; Goh, B K; Anbar, T; Silva de Castro, C; Lee, A Y; Parsad, D; van Geel, N; Le Poole, I C; Oiso, N; Benzekri, L; Spritz, R; Gauthier, Y; Hann, S K; Picardo, M; Taieb, A

    2012-05-01

    During the 2011 International Pigment Cell Conference (IPCC), the Vitiligo European Taskforce (VETF) convened a consensus conference on issues of global importance for vitiligo clinical research. As suggested by an international panel of experts, the conference focused on four topics: classification and nomenclature; definition of stable disease; definition of Koebner's phenomenon (KP); and 'autoimmune vitiligo'. These topics were discussed in seven working groups representing different geographical regions. A consensus emerged that segmental vitiligo be classified separately from all other forms of vitiligo and that the term 'vitiligo' be used as an umbrella term for all non-segmental forms of vitiligo, including 'mixed vitiligo' in which segmental and non-segmental vitiligo are combined and which is considered a subgroup of vitiligo. Further, the conference recommends that disease stability be best assessed based on the stability of individual lesions rather than the overall stability of the disease as the latter is difficult to define precisely and reliably. The conference also endorsed the classification of KP for vitiligo as proposed by the VETF (history based, clinical observation based, or experimentally induced). Lastly, the conference agreed that 'autoimmune vitiligo' should not be used as a separate classification as published evidence indicates that the pathophysiology of all forms of vitiligo likely involves autoimmune or inflammatory mechanisms.

  12. Revised classification/nomenclature of vitiligo and related issues: the Vitiligo Global Issues Consensus Conference

    PubMed Central

    Ezzedine, K.; Lim, H. W.; Suzuki, T.; Katayama, I.; Hamzavi, I.; Lan, C. C. E.; Goh, B. K.; Anbar, T.; de Castro, C. Silva; Lee, A. Y.; Parsad, D.; van Geel, N.; Le Poole, I. C.; Oiso, N.; Benzekri, L.; Spritz, R.; Gauthier, Y.; Hann, S. K.; Picardo, M.; Taieb, A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary During the 2011 International Pigment Cell Conference (IPCC), the Vitiligo European Taskforce (VETF) convened a consensus conference on issues of global importance for vitiligo clinical research. As suggested by an international panel of experts, the conference focused on four topics: classification and nomenclature; definition of stable disease; definition of Koebner’s phenomenon (KP); and ‘autoimmune vitiligo’. These topics were discussed in seven working groups representing different geographical regions. A consensus emerged that segmental vitiligo be classified separately from all other forms of vitiligo and that the term ‘vitiligo’ be used as an umbrella term for all non-segmental forms of vitiligo, including ‘mixed vitiligo’ in which segmental and non-segmental vitiligo are combined and which is considered a subgroup of vitiligo. Further, the conference recommends that disease stability be best assessed based on the stability of individual lesions rather than the overall stability of the disease as the latter is difficult to define precisely and reliably. The conference also endorsed the classification of KP for vitiligo as proposed by the VETF (history based, clinical observation based, or experimentally induced). Lastly, the conference agreed that ‘autoimmune vitiligo’ should not be used as a separate classification as published evidence indicates that the pathophysiology of all forms of vitiligo likely involves autoimmune or inflammatory mechanisms. PMID:22417114

  13. Current Issues in the Neurology and Genetics of Learning-Related Traits and Disorders: Introduction to the Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilger, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    This introductory article briefly describes each of the following eight articles in this special issue on the neurology and genetics of learning related disorders. It notes the greater appreciation of learning disability as a set of complex disorders with broad and intricate neurological bases and of the large individual differences in how these…

  14. Kenyan government to establish special tribunal for HIV-related issues.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Kelly

    2010-06-01

    On 21 January 2010, Kenyan government officials formally announced the creation of the first-ever tribunal dedicated to hearing legal issues related to HIV/AIDS. Among other things, the Tribunal will handle issues relating to the transmission of HIV; confidentiality of medical information and records; testing; access to healthcare services; discriminatory acts and policies; and HIV-related research.

  15. Essential medical issues related to HIV in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Moswin, Arthur H; Epstein, Joel B

    2007-12-01

    Management of HIV infection has progressed dramatically since the disease was first recognized, to the point that HIV infection is now considered a chronic condition. Some of these new approaches in management are related to the strides that have been made in understanding the pathogenesis of this condition. Such changes in medical care may also affect the provision of oral health care. Dental providers must therefore be aware of current management practices. This paper reviews current approaches to managing HIV-related disease.

  16. Implementation of the NCSS Guidelines for Teaching Science-Related Social Issues: Exemplar Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Robert A., Ed.

    This document contains the Guidelines for Teaching Science-Related Social Issues adopted in 1982 by the National Council for the Social Studies and 10 examplar lessons each keyed to particular guidelines and drawing upon contemporary issues. The premise upon which the guidelines are based is that science is a social issue and that the examination…

  17. [Related reproductive issues on male autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Cai, Hong-cai; Shang, Xue-jun; Huang, Yu-feng

    2015-11-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a most common inherited renal disease, about 50% with a family history, although the exact etiology not yet clear. To date, ADPKD, a multisystem disorder without effective preventive and therapeutic means, has been shown to be detrimental to human health. Recent studies show that severe oligoasthenozoospermia, necrospermia, immotile sperm, azoospermia, epididymal cyst, seminal vesicle cyst, and ejaculatory duct cyst found in male ADPKD patients may lead to male infertility, though the specific mechanisms remain unknown. Structural anomaly of spermatozoa, defect of polycystin, mutation of PKD genes, and micro-deletion of the AZF gene could be the reasons for the higher incidence of abnormal semen quality in male ADPKD patients. Assisted reproductive techniques can increase the chances of pregnancy, whereas the health of the offspring should be taken into consideration. This article presents an overview of reproductive issues concerning infertile male ADPKD patients from the perspective of the morbidity, pathophysiological mechanism, diagnosis, and management of the disease.

  18. Invited review: gender issues related to spaceflight: a NASA perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, D. L.; Jennings, R. T.; Meck, J. V.; Powell, M. R.; Putcha, L.; Sams, C. P.; Schneider, S. M.; Shackelford, L. C.; Smith, S. M.; Whitson, P. A.

    2001-01-01

    This minireview provides an overview of known and potential gender differences in physiological responses to spaceflight. The paper covers cardiovascular and exercise physiology, barophysiology and decompression sickness, renal stone risk, immunology, neurovestibular and sensorimotor function, nutrition, pharmacotherapeutics, and reproduction. Potential health and functional impacts associated with the various physiological changes during spaceflight are discussed, and areas needing additional research are highlighted. Historically, studies of physiological responses to microgravity have not been aimed at examining gender-specific differences in the astronaut population. Insufficient data exist in most of the discipline areas at this time to draw valid conclusions about gender-specific differences in astronauts, in part due to the small ratio of women to men. The only astronaut health issue for which a large enough data set exists to allow valid conclusions to be drawn about gender differences is orthostatic intolerance following shuttle missions, in which women have a significantly higher incidence of presyncope during stand tests than do men. The most common observation across disciplines is that individual differences in physiological responses within genders are usually as large as, or larger than, differences between genders. Individual characteristics usually outweigh gender differences per se.

  19. ISSUES RELATED TO SOLUTION CHEMISTRY IN MERCURY SAMPLING IMPINGERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of mercury (Hg) speciation in combustion flue gases is often accomplished in standardized sampling trains in which the sample is passed sequentially through a series of aqueous solutions to capture and separate oxidized Hg (Hg2+) and elemental Hg (Hgo). Such methods incl...

  20. Relating Work and Education. Current Issues in Higher Education 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermilye, Dyckman; Ferris, William, Eds.

    The relationship between education and work is examined in relation to improving the quality of life. Part one provides a philosophical framework in which the authors reject the idea that work and education should be oriented toward porducing goods and making money, but should contribute to the growth and development of the workers. Part two…

  1. Legal issues related to vascular access devices and infusion therapy.

    PubMed

    Masoorli, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Infusion therapies are being delivered in many healthcare settings including hospitals, homecare settings, long-term care facilities, occupational health facilities, outpatient units, and physician offices. Nurses who infuse medications must be properly educated to recognize vascular access complications and initiate the proper interventions. This article discusses the high-risk areas of nursing malpractice related to infusion therapies.

  2. Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-30

    some of Koizumi and Abe’s platform may be placed on hold. If political jockeying weakens Tokyo’s focus on U.S.-Japan relations as an aging Japanese...After U.S. “Delists” North Korea . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Gridlock and Uncertainty in Japanese Politics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 The...Development Agenda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Japanese Politics

  3. Design and analysis issues of integrated control systems for high-speed civil transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, Craig A.; Feather, John B.; Dykman, John R.; Page, Mark A.; Hodgkinson, John

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify, rank, and define development plans for the critical guidance and control design and analysis issues as related to economically viable and environmentally acceptable high-speed civil transport. The issues were identified in a multistep process. First, pertinent literature on supersonic cruise aircraft was reviewed, and experts were consulted to establish the fundamental characteristics and problems inherent to supersonic cruise aircraft. Next, the advanced technologies and strategies being pursued for the high-speed civil transport were considered to determine any additional unique control problems the transport may have. Finally, existing technologies and methods were examined to determine their capabilities for the design and analysis of high-speed civil transport control systems and to identify the shortcomings and issues. Three priority levels - mandatory, highly beneficial, and desirable - were established. Within each of these levels, the issues were further ranked. Technology development plans for each issue were defined. Each plan contains a task breakdown and schedule.

  4. Why Map Issues? On Controversy Analysis as a Digital Method.

    PubMed

    Marres, Noortje

    2015-09-01

    This article takes stock of recent efforts to implement controversy analysis as a digital method in the study of science, technology, and society (STS) and beyond and outlines a distinctive approach to address the problem of digital bias. Digital media technologies exert significant influence on the enactment of controversy in online settings, and this risks undermining the substantive focus of controversy analysis conducted by digital means. To address this problem, I propose a shift in thematic focus from controversy analysis to issue mapping. The article begins by distinguishing between three broad frameworks that currently guide the development of controversy analysis as a digital method, namely, demarcationist, discursive, and empiricist. Each has been adopted in STS, but only the last one offers a digital "move beyond impartiality." I demonstrate this approach by analyzing issues of Internet governance with the aid of the social media platform Twitter.

  5. Why Map Issues? On Controversy Analysis as a Digital Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article takes stock of recent efforts to implement controversy analysis as a digital method in the study of science, technology, and society (STS) and beyond and outlines a distinctive approach to address the problem of digital bias. Digital media technologies exert significant influence on the enactment of controversy in online settings, and this risks undermining the substantive focus of controversy analysis conducted by digital means. To address this problem, I propose a shift in thematic focus from controversy analysis to issue mapping. The article begins by distinguishing between three broad frameworks that currently guide the development of controversy analysis as a digital method, namely, demarcationist, discursive, and empiricist. Each has been adopted in STS, but only the last one offers a digital “move beyond impartiality.” I demonstrate this approach by analyzing issues of Internet governance with the aid of the social media platform Twitter. PMID:26336325

  6. Merging Two Futures Concepts: Issues Management and Policy Impact Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfro, William L.; Morrison, James L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a workshop held during the 1982 World Future Society's Fourth General Assembly on the combined application of issues management and policy impact analysis. The workshop participants applied futures research, forecasting, goal-setting, and policy development techniques to future problems in educational policy. (AM)

  7. Using the "Issues Analysis Team" Concept To Develop Administrative Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theel, Ronald K.

    The factors for an effective administrative task force are examined in this report on the Syracuse school superintendent's Issue Analysis Team. The team, composed of voluntary potential administrators, acts as a special task force to facilitate informed decision making by the school superintendent. Topics discussed are member selection, role…

  8. Korea-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-25

    Bush Administration in 2008 committed 500,000 tons of foodgrains.. South Korea followed a conciliation policy toward North Korea under the...dollars in foreign exchange earnings since 1998 to import food or medicines . The regime has not adopted agricultural reforms similar to those of... conciliation policy were: the extension of South Korean economic and humanitarian aid to North Korea, the promotion of North-South economic relations

  9. U.S.-China Relations: An Overview of Policy Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    prevent China’s re-emergence as a great power. China, for its part, has pledged to follow “the path of peaceful development.” Washington has wrestled...term debt, expansionary monetary policy, and alleged barriers to Chinese investment in the United States. Mistrust is particularly pronounced on...as a “new type of great power relations.” China has now dropped that translation, using the term “major country relationship” instead of “ great power

  10. Legal Problems in Broadcasting: Identification and Analysis of Selected Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toohey, Daniel W.; And Others

    This book is designed as an introduction and reference to broadcast law for commercial and noncommercial station managers and staff, college students of radio and television, and general readers. It is divided into two sections, "Freedom of Expression and Related Issues" and "Business Aspects of Programming." The first section contains seven…

  11. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    SciTech Connect

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  12. Sleep better than medicine? Ethical issues related to "wake enhancement".

    PubMed

    Ravelingien, A; Sandberg, A

    2008-09-01

    This paper deals with new pharmacological and technological developments in the manipulation and curtailment of our sleep needs. While humans have used various methods throughout history to lengthen diurnal wakefulness, recent advances have been achieved in manipulating the architecture of the brain states involved in sleep. The progress suggests that we will gradually become able to drastically manipulate our natural sleep-wake cycle. Our goal here is to promote discussion on the desirability and acceptability of enhancing our control over biological sleep, by illustrating various potential attendant ethical problems. We draw attention to the risks involved, possible conflicts of interests underlying the development of wake enhancement, and the potential impact on accountability for fatigue related errors.

  13. Issues Related to Large Flight Hardware Acoustic Qualification Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; Perry, Douglas C.; Kern, Dennis L.

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of acoustical testing volumes generated by reverberant chambers or a circle of loudspeakers with and without large flight hardware within the testing volume are significantly different. The parameters attributing to these differences are normally not accounted for through analysis or acoustic tests prior to the qualification testing without the test hardware present. In most cases the control microphones are kept at least 2-ft away from hardware surfaces, chamber walls, and speaker surfaces to minimize the impact of the hardware in controlling the sound field. However, the acoustic absorption and radiation of sound by hardware surfaces may significantly alter the sound pressure field controlled within the chamber/speaker volume to a given specification. These parameters often result in an acoustic field that may provide under/over testing scenarios for flight hardware. In this paper the acoustic absorption by hardware surfaces will be discussed in some detail. A simple model is provided to account for some of the observations made from Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft that recently underwent acoustic qualification tests in a reverberant chamber.

  14. Breaking bad news: issues relating to nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Warnock, Clare

    2014-07-15

    The breaking of bad news was traditionally regarded to be the time when a doctor and nurse sat down with a patient and family members to provide information about, for example, a life-limiting diagnosis or a poor prognosis. However, breaking bad news is now generally accepted as a process, not a one-off event, and is considered to refer to any bad, sad or difficult information that alters patients' perceptions of their present and future. Nurses have an important role in the process of providing information and helping patients prepare for, receive, understand and cope with the bad news they have been given. This article aims to help nurses understand the process of breaking bad news and discuss the challenges and difficulties that nurses can face when they are involved with patients who have been given bad news. It also provides guidance with regard to preparing for breaking bad news, giving difficult information, responding to possible reactions, and supporting patients and their relatives after they have received bad news.

  15. KDD for science data analysis: Issues and examples

    SciTech Connect

    Fayyad, U.; Haussler, D.; Stolorz, P.

    1996-12-31

    The analysis of the massive data sets collected by scientific instruments demands automation as a prerequisite to analysis. There is an urgent need to create an intermediate level at which scientists can operate effectively; isolating them from the massive sizes and harnessing human analysis capabilities to focus on tasks in which machines do not even remotely approach humans-namely, creative data analysis, theory and hypothesis formation, and drawing insights into underlying phenomena. We give an overview of the main issues in the exploitation of scientific datasets, present five case studies where KDD tools play important and enabling roles, and conclude with future challenges for data mining and KDD techniques in science data analysis.

  16. SPECIAL ISSUE OF ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT FOR PARTICULATE MATTER SUPERSITES PROGRAM AND RELATED STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This special issue of Atmospheric Environment provides a selection of papers that were presented at the 2005 AAAR PM Supersites Program and Related Studies International Specialty Conference held in Atlanta, GA, 7-11 February 2005. Topics of papers in this issue range from the e...

  17. A Review of Policy Issues Related to Competency Testing for High School Graduation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elford, George

    A number of significant policy issues related to the use of competency tests in basic skills as a requirement for high school graduation are discussed. Issues contributing to the interest in this practice include test score decline, the widespread offering of electives in high school, the complaints of employers about the skill level of high…

  18. Controversial Biological Issues: An Exploratory Tool for Accessing Teacher Thinking in Relation to Classroom Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina S.

    The research reported here focuses on the beliefs, values and attitudes of one experienced biology teacher (Teacher A) in relation to the teaching of controversial biological issues. Of specific interest is the thinking behind what this teacher conceptualizes are the possibilities and problems for the teaching of controversial issues as part of…

  19. A Cross-Case Analysis of Gender Issues in Desktop Virtual Reality Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausburn, Lynna J.; Martens, Jon; Washington, Andre; Steele, Debra; Washburn, Earlene

    2009-01-01

    This study examined gender-related issues in using new desktop virtual reality (VR) technology as a learning tool in career and technical education (CTE). Using relevant literature, theory, and cross-case analysis of data and findings, the study compared and analyzed the outcomes of two recent studies conducted by a research team at Oklahoma State…

  20. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to research design and data analysis in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is increasingly desirable to use multiple methods in research, but questions arise as to how best to design and analyze the data generated by mixed methods projects. I offer a conceptualization for such…

  1. Notification: Evaluation of EPA's Management of Resistance Issues Related to Herbicide Tolerant Genetically Engineered Crops

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OPE-FY16-0023, March 25, 2016. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research to assess the EPA's management and oversight of resistance issues related to herbicide tolerant genetically engineered crops.

  2. Government Collection of Private Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-23

    Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization Anna C. Henning, Coordinator Legislative Attorney Elizabeth B. Bazan Legislative Attorney...of Private Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Congressional Research Service Summary Congress enacted the USA PATRIOT Act soon after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The most controversial sections of

  3. Government Collection of Private Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-02

    Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization Anna C. Henning, Coordinator Legislative Attorney Elizabeth B. Bazan Legislative Attorney...Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Service Summary Congress enacted the USA PATRIOT Act soon after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The most controversial sections of the act facilitate

  4. Government Collection of Private Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-09

    Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization Anna C. Henning, Coordinator Legislative Attorney Elizabeth B. Bazan Legislative Attorney...Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Research Service Summary Congress enacted the USA PATRIOT Act soon after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The most controversial sections of the Act

  5. Interdisciplinary team discussion on work environment issues related to low back disability: a multiple case study.

    PubMed

    Costa-Black, Kátia M; Durand, Marie-José; Imbeau, Daniel; Baril, Raymond; Loisel, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    From both a social and cost-benefit perspective, disability prevention and associated management strategies for assisting employees with back pain are only successful if they address critical return-to-work (RTW) determining factors present in the workplace, including ergonomic factors. Despite our current knowledge of the importance of an integrated team approach targeting these factors, questions remain regarding the conceptual framework adopted by contemporary rehabilitation teams as it relates to work-oriented interventions to accommodate employees back to work. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the work environment issues discussed by an interdisciplinary team engaged in the work rehabilitation process of low back disability cases. A qualitative content analysis was conducted for 10 sample cases that underwent a rehabilitation program in Quebec (Canada). Drawing on the results of these analyses, a framework representing a synopsis of practitioners' involvement in the person-environment dynamic is presented and discussed. This study makes a unique contribution to the understanding of the 'real-life' content of an interdisciplinary activity in disability management, thus, helping rehabilitation practitioners to build knowledge on the practical application of a cross-disciplinary framework to address work environment issues during the RTW process of those patients sick-listed due to back pain.

  6. Methods uncovering usability issues in medication-related alerting functions: results from a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Marcilly, Romaric; Vasseur, Francis; Ammenwerth, Elske; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at listing the methods used to evaluate the usability of medication-related alerting functions and at knowing what type of usability issues those methods allow to detect. A sub-analysis of data from this systematic review has been performed. Methods applied in the included papers were collected. Then, included papers were sorted in four types of evaluation: "expert evaluation", "user- testing/simulation", "on site observation" and "impact studies". The types of usability issues (usability flaws, usage problems and negative outcomes) uncovered by those evaluations were analyzed. Results show that a large set of methods are used. The largest proportion of papers uses "on site observation" evaluation. This is the only evaluation type for which every kind of usability flaws, usage problems and outcomes are detected. It is somehow surprising that, in a usability systematic review, most of the papers included use a method that is not often presented as a usability method. Results are discussed about the opportunity to provide usability information collected after the implementation of the technology during their design process, i.e. before their implementation.

  7. Proliferation resistance for fast reactors and related fuel cycles: issues and impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph F

    2010-01-01

    an assessment of the issues surrounding, and the prospects for, efforts to develop proliferation resistance for fast reactors and related fuel cycles in the context of a nuclear renaissance. The focus of the analysis is on fast reactors.

  8. Two issues concerning the analysis of grouped data

    SciTech Connect

    Selvin, S.

    1986-02-01

    Simple statistical models are used to illustrate two important issues arising in the analysis of grouped data. The consequences are explored of grouping continuous data and analyzing the resulting contingency table. Specifically, an expression for the loss of power is derived when an odds ratio is used to assess risk measured by a continuous variable. Also explored are the consequences of employing correlation and regression coefficients to analyze summary variables derived from grouped data (ecologic data). An expression is given that demonstrates the magnitude of a bias (ecologic fallacy) resulting from analyzing a specific type of grouped data. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Seismic Analysis Issues in Design Certification Applications for New Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, M.; Morante, R.; Xu, J.

    2011-07-17

    The licensing framework established by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission under Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 52, “Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants,” provides requirements for standard design certifications (DCs) and combined license (COL) applications. The intent of this process is the early reso- lution of safety issues at the DC application stage. Subsequent COL applications may incorporate a DC by reference. Thus, the COL review will not reconsider safety issues resolved during the DC process. However, a COL application that incorporates a DC by reference must demonstrate that relevant site-specific de- sign parameters are within the bounds postulated by the DC, and any departures from the DC need to be justified. This paper provides an overview of several seismic analysis issues encountered during a review of recent DC applications under the 10 CFR Part 52 process, in which the authors have participated as part of the safety review effort.

  10. Practical issues of hyperspectral imaging analysis of solid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Amigo, José Manuel

    2010-09-01

    Hyperspectral imaging techniques have widely demonstrated their usefulness in different areas of interest in pharmaceutical research during the last decade. In particular, middle infrared, near infrared, and Raman methods have gained special relevance. This rapid increase has been promoted by the capability of hyperspectral techniques to provide robust and reliable chemical and spatial information on the distribution of components in pharmaceutical solid dosage forms. Furthermore, the valuable combination of hyperspectral imaging devices with adequate data processing techniques offers the perfect landscape for developing new methods for scanning and analyzing surfaces. Nevertheless, the instrumentation and subsequent data analysis are not exempt from issues that must be thoughtfully considered. This paper describes and discusses the main advantages and drawbacks of the measurements and data analysis of hyperspectral imaging techniques in the development of solid dosage forms.

  11. Instructional Technology: Policy Issues for State Education Agencies. An Issues Analysis Paper. Discussion Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Kenneth H.

    Policy issues and their implications in the introduction of computer technology in the Northwest and Pacific schools are examined. Eight issues, focused on instructional uses of computer technology, are covered. (1) Establishing an overall state education agency (SEA) position will set the tone for statewide development of instructional…

  12. 76 FR 52731 - On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Office of the Secretary On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation AGENCY... public to electronically submit aviation service-related complaints against air carriers. DATES: Comments... U.S.C., Subtitle VII, to investigate and enforce consumer protection and civil rights laws...

  13. University Intervention into Community Issues as Dialogic Public Relations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Jamie M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines a study of the wastewater collection and treatment issues of Little Rock and North Little Rock, Arkansas by University of Arkansas at Little Rock personnel and how it constitutes dialogic public relations. The paper defines dialogic public relations using Kent and Taylor's work and then uses their criteria to describe how this…

  14. Introduction to the Special Issue: New and Interdisciplinary Approaches to Linguistic Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasopoulos, Panos; Bylund, Emanuel; Casasanto, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This Special Issue of "Language Learning" presents an interdisciplinary state-of-the-art overview of current approaches to linguistic relativity. It contains empirical and theoretical studies and reflections on linguistic relativity from a variety of perspectives, such as associative learning, conceptual transfer, multilingual awareness,…

  15. National Technology Standards for K-12 Schools: A Case Study of Unresolved Issues in Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.; Kealy, William A.; Sullivan, Ashley

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses an important need--the dissemination of information relating to technology as a public relations tool--and the associated exigency for administrator and teacher technology training. Specifically, we identify the increased expectations for the performance of school leaders and teachers, as well as unresolved issues in public…

  16. Medical Big Data for Research Use: Current Status and Related Issues*1

    PubMed Central

    ISHIKAWA, Koichi Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Advances in the computerization of information and development of technology have mitigated restrictions on handling of a large amount of information. This has resulted in growth of expectations for the use of large-scale databases, or so-called “big data.” This is also the case in the field of healthcare. Projects that involve building of the national receipt database (NDB) of medical fee bill (receipt) information and special health check-up information based on the Act on Assurance of Medical Care for Elderly People and the development of medical information databases have been pursued by the national government, and considerable attention has also been focused on researches conducted through the secondary uses of publicly collected data. Aside from these trends, there are numerous projects which collect diagnosis procedure combination (DPC) data to build large-scale databases for research purposes. Following to the ethics guidelines for epidemiologic studies, they collect and analyze anonymized DPC data from cooperating institutions. This communication concentrates on the use of DPC data, and outlines the scale of data currently available for research use. Examples on the use of DPC data will be shown for analysis on the current status of clinical practice from the microscopic perspective and macroscopic analysis of community medical care provision. Additionally, potential for extending studies to long-term outcomes research, limitations and issues related to the use of medical big data will also be discussed. PMID:28299245

  17. Medical Big Data for Research Use: Current Status and Related Issues.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Koichi Benjamin

    2016-09-01

    Advances in the computerization of information and development of technology have mitigated restrictions on handling of a large amount of information. This has resulted in growth of expectations for the use of large-scale databases, or so-called "big data." This is also the case in the field of healthcare. Projects that involve building of the national receipt database (NDB) of medical fee bill (receipt) information and special health check-up information based on the Act on Assurance of Medical Care for Elderly People and the development of medical information databases have been pursued by the national government, and considerable attention has also been focused on researches conducted through the secondary uses of publicly collected data. Aside from these trends, there are numerous projects which collect diagnosis procedure combination (DPC) data to build large-scale databases for research purposes. Following to the ethics guidelines for epidemiologic studies, they collect and analyze anonymized DPC data from cooperating institutions. This communication concentrates on the use of DPC data, and outlines the scale of data currently available for research use. Examples on the use of DPC data will be shown for analysis on the current status of clinical practice from the microscopic perspective and macroscopic analysis of community medical care provision. Additionally, potential for extending studies to long-term outcomes research, limitations and issues related to the use of medical big data will also be discussed.

  18. Containment-emergency-sump performance. Technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue A-43. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This report summarizes key technical findings related to the Unresolved Safety Issue A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance, and provides recommendations for resolution of attendant safety issues. The key safety questions relate to: (a) effects of insulation debris on sump performance; (b) sump hydraulic performance as determined by design features, submergence, and plant induced effects, and (c) recirculation pump performance wherein air and/or particulate ingestion can occur. The technical findings presented in this report provide information relevant to the design and performance evaluation of the containment emergency sump.

  19. Issues concerning spectral analysis of water samples for monitoring and treatment of public water resources.

    PubMed

    Lee, M; Lambrakos, S G; Yapijakis, C; Huang, L; Ramsey, S; Shabaev, A; Massa, L; Peak, J

    2014-01-01

    Experimental measurements conducted in the laboratory, involving hyperspectral analysis of water samples taken from public water resources, have motivated a re-evaluation of issues concerning the potential application of this type of analysis for water monitoring, treatment and evaluation prior to filtration. One issue concerns hyperspectral monitoring of contaminants with respect to types and relative concentrations. This implies a need to better understand the statistical profiles of water contaminants in terms of spatial-temporal distributions of electromagnetic absorption spectra ranging from the ultraviolet to infrared, which are associated with specific water resources. This issue also implies the need to establish correlations between hyperspectral signatures and types of contaminants to be found within specific water resources. Another issue concerns the use of absorption spectra to determine changes in chemical and physical characteristics of contaminants after application of water treatments, in order to determine levels of toxicity with respect to the environment. This paper presents a prototype spectral analysis showing various aspects relevant to water monitoring and discusses the use of basic theory for the interpretation of spectral features associated with water contaminants, as well as discussing inverse analysis of hyperspectral measurements.

  20. Assessment of computational issues associated with analysis of high-lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, R.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Waggoner, Edgar G.

    1992-01-01

    Thin-layer Navier-Stokes calculations for wing-fuselage configurations from subsonic to hypersonic flow regimes are now possible. However, efficient, accurate solutions for using these codes for two- and three-dimensional high-lift systems have yet to be realized. A brief overview of salient experimental and computational research is presented. An assessment of the state-of-the-art relative to high-lift system analysis and identification of issues related to grid generation and flow physics which are crucial for computational success in this area are also provided. Research in support of the high-lift elements of NASA's High Speed Research and Advanced Subsonic Transport Programs which addresses some of the computational issues is presented. Finally, fruitful areas of concentrated research are identified to accelerate overall progress for high lift system analysis and design.

  1. Ethical and regulatory issues related to pregnancy registries and their outcomes.

    PubMed

    French, Jacqueline A; Meador, Kimford; Cnaan, Avital; Gilliam, Frank; Conway, Jill; Araojo, Richardae; Feibus, Karen

    2008-05-01

    Pregnancy registries should be devised so that the interests of science, society, and the individual are all considered. For example, there may be ethical issues that relate to how women are chosen to participate in the registry and how informed consent is obtained. In most cases, consent is required for both the mother and the infant. Some institutional review boards will require that consent be obtained by someone other than the woman's physician. Once data are obtained, there may be an issue as to when results should be released. Options are to release data when there is the first indication of a concerning finding, thereby potentially preventing exposure in the largest number of women, versus waiting until the finding is absolutely confirmed. In a related issue, there are questions of when and how regulatory agencies should change labeling based on findings.

  2. The Asilomar Survey: Stakeholders' Opinions on Ethical Issues Related to Brain-Computer Interfacing.

    PubMed

    Nijboer, Femke; Clausen, Jens; Allison, Brendan Z; Haselager, Pim

    2013-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research and (future) applications raise important ethical issues that need to be addressed to promote societal acceptance and adequate policies. Here we report on a survey we conducted among 145 BCI researchers at the 4(th) International BCI conference, which took place in May-June 2010 in Asilomar, California. We assessed respondents' opinions about a number of topics. First, we investigated preferences for terminology and definitions relating to BCIs. Second, we assessed respondents' expectations on the marketability of different BCI applications (BCIs for healthy people, BCIs for assistive technology, BCIs-controlled neuroprostheses and BCIs as therapy tools). Third, we investigated opinions about ethical issues related to BCI research for the development of assistive technology: informed consent process with locked-in patients, risk-benefit analyses, team responsibility, consequences of BCI on patients' and families' lives, liability and personal identity and interaction with the media. Finally, we asked respondents which issues are urgent in BCI research.

  3. Environmental issues related to commercialization of CulnSe{sub 2}- based photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Eberspacher, C.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1996-07-01

    One of the most promising materials for low-cost thin film photovoltaic cells is copper indium selenide (CuInSe{sub 2} or CIS). As with any new material, successful commercialization of CIS photovoltaic (PV) technology will require attention to environmental issues related to the sources of raw materials, their usage, and the disposal and/or recycling of products at the end of their useful life. This paper focuses on three specific environmental issues related to CIS technology: (i) Economics of the use and re-use of materials; (ii) regulations on environmental disposal and waste handling, and (iii) logistics and economics of recycling and disposing of products by industries faced with comparable environmental issues.

  4. Students' Understandings of Religious Identities and Relations: Issues of Social Cohesion and Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The focus in this article is on issues of social cohesion and citizenship as they relate to students' understandings of religion and religious identity. The article draws on data gathered from a study conducted at a highly diverse English comprehensive school and is set amid broader anxieties about religion, community disharmony and national…

  5. How Do Learners in Developed and Developing Countries Relate to Environmental Issues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out in the framework of earlier research on environmental education for sustainability, using data collected in the ROSE Project. Attention was focused mainly on students' responses to sections and items related to environmental issues, regarding their countries' degree of development. The research questions dealt…

  6. Prospective Teachers' Perceptions about the Concept of Sustainable Development and Related Issues in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambusaidi, Abdullah; Al Washahi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate, from the Omani's prospective, teachers' perceptions about the concept of sustainable development (SD) and three related issues (cultural diversity, renewable energy and equity). The sample consisted of 159 prospective teachers from Sultan Qaboos University. Data were collected via a questionnaire comprising a list…

  7. A Study of Current Trends and Issues Related to Technical/Engineering Design Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Aaron C.; Scales Alice

    2000-01-01

    Presents results from a survey of engineering design graphics educators who responded to questions related to current trends and issues in the profession of graphics education. Concludes that there is a clear trend in institutions towards the teaching of constraint-based modeling and computer-aided manufacturing. (Author/YDS)

  8. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the Environmental... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unique issues related to environmental claims. 536.35 Section 536.35 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...

  9. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the Environmental... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Unique issues related to environmental claims. 536.35 Section 536.35 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...

  10. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the Environmental... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Unique issues related to environmental claims. 536.35 Section 536.35 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...

  11. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the Environmental... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Unique issues related to environmental claims. 536.35 Section 536.35 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...

  12. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the Environmental... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unique issues related to environmental claims. 536.35 Section 536.35 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...

  13. Organizational Issues Related to Governance and Management of Off-Campus Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macklin, Cedric Dewayne

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research has been conducted on students pursuing degrees off-campus; however, limited studies have been directed to explain the growing practice of students enrolling in courses and degrees at off-campus degree centers. The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the organizational issues related to governance and management of…

  14. Mediating Effects of Stress, Weight-Related Issues, and Depression on Suicidality in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sydney S.; Smith Carter, Jocelyn; Karczewski, Sabrina; Pivarunas, Bernadette; Suffoletto, Shannon; Munin, Art

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Through a holistic health lens, the current study examines the effects of weight-related issues and stress on suicidality while controlling for depressive symptoms in college students. Participants: In total, 872 undergraduate and graduate students at DePaul University completed the American College Health Association-National College…

  15. 75 FR 57469 - Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data Retention and Other Related Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data Retention and Other Related Issues AGENCY: Office for Human Research Protections, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Office of... Research Protections (OHRP), within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, is announcing...

  16. Teacher to Teacher: What Texts Effectively Raise Issues Related to 9/11 for Secondary Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Journal, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with texts that effectively raise issues related to 9/11 for secondary students, as discussed by several teachers. Kevin J. Collins from St. Thomas Aquinas High School says, "Elephant," Gus Van Sant's exploration of a Columbine-like tragedy, underscores the current generation's attempt to define the meaning of events in…

  17. Allostatic Load: Single Parents, Stress-Related Health Issues, and Social Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johner, Randy L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the possible relationships between allostatic load (AL) and stress-related health issues in the low-income single-parent population, using both a population health perspective (PHP) and a biological framework. A PHP identifies associations among such factors as gender, income, employment, and social support and their…

  18. Water resources and environmental input-output analysis and its key study issues: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YANG, Z.; Xu, X.

    2013-12-01

    inland water resources IOA. Recent internal study references related to environmental input-output table, pollution discharge analysis and environmental impact assessment had taken the leading position. Pollution discharge analysis mainly aiming at CO2 discharge had been regard as a new hotspot of environmental IOA. Environmental impact assessment was an important direction of inland environmental IOA in recent years. Key study issues including Domestic Technology Assumption(DTA) and Sectoral Aggregation(SA) had been mentioned remarkably. It was pointed out that multiply multi-region input-output analysis(MIOA) may be helpful to solve DTA. Because there was little study using effective analysis tools to quantify the bias of SA and the exploration of the appropriate sectoral aggregation degree was scarce, research dedicating to explore and solve these two key issues was deemed to be urgently needed. According to the study status, several points of outlook were proposed in the end.

  19. Using public relations to promote health: a framing analysis of public relations strategies among health associations.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyojung; Reber, Bryan H

    2010-01-01

    This study explored health organizations' public relations efforts to frame health issues through their press releases. Content analysis of 316 press releases from three health organizations-the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, and the American Diabetes Association-revealed that they used the medical research frame most frequently and emphasized societal responsibility for health issues. There were differences, however, among the organizations regarding the main frames and health issues: the American Diabetes Association was more likely to focus on the issues related to social support and education, while the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society were more likely to address medical research and scientific news. To demonstrate their initiatives for public health, all the organizations employed the social support/educational frame most frequently. Researchers and medical doctors frequently were quoted as trusted sources in the releases.

  20. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  1. Materials compatibility issues related to thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faget, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to results obtained to date in developmental investigations of a thermal energy storage (TES) system for the projected NASA Space Station's solar dynamic power system; these tests have concentrated on issues related to materials compatibility for phase change materials (PCMs) and their containment vessels' materials. The five PCMs tested have melting temperatures that correspond to the operating temperatures of either the Brayton or Rankine heat engines, which were independently chosen for their high energy densities.

  2. Materials compatibility issues related to thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faget, N. M.

    Attention is given to results obtained to date in developmental investigations of a thermal energy storage (TES) system for the projected NASA Space Station's solar dynamic power system; these tests have concentrated on issues related to materials compatibility for phase change materials (PCMs) and their containment vessels' materials. The five PCMs tested have melting temperatures that correspond to the operating temperatures of either the Brayton or Rankine heat engines, which were independently chosen for their high energy densities.

  3. Smog chamber experiments to test oxidant related control strategy issues. Final report 1978-81

    SciTech Connect

    Kamens, R.M.; Jeffries, H.E.; Sexton, K.G.; Gerhardt, A.A.

    1982-03-01

    Outdoor smog chamber experiments were performed to address various issues relating to ozone (O3) production and oxidant control strategies. Temperature effects on single hydrocarbon-NOx systems were studied. Propylene-NOx systems were modeled with particular attention to peroxynitric acid chemistry. Mechanisms were developed to model the O3 reactions with the two major isoprene daughter products, methylvinylketone and methacrolein. Chamber systems with isoprene and O3 were also modeled.

  4. Invariance of molecular charge transport upon changes of extended molecule size and several related issues

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary As a sanity test for the theoretical method employed, studies on (steady-state) charge transport through molecular devices usually confine themselves to check whether the method in question satisfies the charge conservation. Another important test of the theory’s correctness is to check that the computed current does not depend on the choice of the central region (also referred to as the “extended molecule”). This work addresses this issue and demonstrates that the relevant transport and transport-related properties are indeed invariant upon changing the size of the extended molecule, when the embedded molecule can be described within a general single-particle picture (namely, a second-quantized Hamiltonian bilinear in the creation and annihilation operators). It is also demonstrates that the invariance of nonequilibrium properties is exhibited by the exact results but not by those computed approximately within ubiquitous wide- and flat-band limits (WBL and FBL, respectively). To exemplify the limitations of the latter, the phenomenon of negative differential resistance (NDR) is considered. It is shown that the exactly computed current may exhibit a substantial NDR, while the NDR effect is absent or drastically suppressed within the WBL and FBL approximations. The analysis done in conjunction with the WBLs and FBLs reveals why general studies on nonequilibrium properties require a more elaborate theoretical than studies on linear response properties (e.g., ohmic conductance and thermopower) at zero temperature. Furthermore, examples are presented that demonstrate that treating parts of electrodes adjacent to the embedded molecule and the remaining semi-infinite electrodes at different levels of theory (which is exactly what most NEGF-DFT approaches do) is a procedure that yields spurious structures in nonlinear ranges of current–voltage curves. PMID:27335734

  5. On the Conceptual Issues Surrounding the Notion of Relational Bohmian Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassallo, Antonio; Ip, Pui Him

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a program to construct a non-relativistic relational Bohmian theory, that is, a theory of N moving point-like particles that dispenses with space and time as fundamental background structures. The relational program proposed is based on the best-matching framework originally developed by Julian Barbour. In particular, the paper focuses on the conceptual problems that arise when trying to implement such a program. It is argued that pursuing a relational strategy in the Bohmian context leads to a more parsimonious ontology than that of standard Bohmian mechanics without betraying the original motivations for adopting a primitive ontology approach to quantum physics. It is also shown how a relational Bohmian approach might clarify the issue of the timelessness of the dynamics resulting from the quantization of a classical relational system of particles.

  6. Best management practices for environmental issues related to highway and street maintenance. A synthesis of highway practice

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, W.A.; Vary, D.

    1999-01-01

    Highway and street maintenance is a diverse and complex set of undertakings: pavement crack and joint scaling; bridge painting; snow and ice control; erosion control; roadside vegetation management; and light, sign, and traffic signal repair and replacement. Pertinent environmental issues cut across all areas of public and regulatory concern including air quality, water quality, wetland and habitat preservation, noise, and energy usage. Moreover, driver safety and the occupational health and safety of maintenance personnel are critical issues. This report contains BMPs that fall into three categories: (1) High-level, broad-based BMPs applicable to an entire maintenance program--planning, programmatic environmental analysis, pollution prevention programs, classification of generated wastes in the conduct of site reviews or audits, and the development of a comprehensive training curriculum that addresses maintenance related environmental issues. These BMPs may be undertaken by managers of a department-wide level; (2) BMPs pertinent to specific maintenance activities or program areas--winter operations, vegetation management, bridge maintenance, buildings and ground maintenance, vehicle maintenance, collection of litter and debris, and maintenance of signs, striping, and markers; (3) BMPs pertinent to specific environmental issues--hazardous wastes, wildlife and habitat, water quality, and noise.

  7. Best management practices for environmental issues related to highway and street maintenance. A synthesis of highway practice

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, W.A.; Vary, D.

    1999-11-01

    Highway and street maintenance is a diverse and complex set of undertakings: pavement crack and joint scaling; bridge painting; snow and ice control; erosion control; roadside vegetation management; and light, sign, and traffic signal repair and replacement. Pertinent environmental issues cut across all areas of public and regulatory concern including air quality, water quality, wetland and habitat preservation, noise, and energy usage. Moreover, driver safety and the occupational health and safety of maintenance personnel are critical issues. This report contains BMPs that fall into three categories: (1) High-level, broad-based BMPs applicable to an entire maintenance program--planning, programmatic environmental analysis, pollution prevention programs, classification of generated wastes in the conduct of site reviews or audits, and the development of a comprehensive training curriculum that addresses maintenance related environmental issues. These BMPs may be undertaken by managers of a department-wide level; (2) BMPs pertinent to specific maintenance activities or program areas--winter operations, vegetation management, bridge maintenance, buildings and ground maintenance, vehicle maintenance, collection of litter and debris, and maintenance of signs, striping, and markers; (3) BMPs pertinent to specific environmental issues--hazardous wastes, wildlife and habitat, water quality, and noise.

  8. The Law and Emergencies: Surveillance for Public Health–Related Legal Issues During Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Rachel I.; McKie, Karen L.; Goodman, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Law influenced every aspect of the public health response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, from evacuation orders, to waivers of medical licensing requirements, to the clean-up of public health threats on private property. We used public health surveillance of news reports to identify and characterize legal issues arising during the disaster response in 5 Gulf Coast states. Data collected from news reports of the events in real time were followed-up by interviews with selected state legal and emergency management officials. Our analysis indicates the value of surveillance during and after emergency responses in identifying public health–related legal issues and helps to inform the strengthening of legal preparedness frameworks for future disasters. PMID:17413083

  9. DOD Financial Management: Actions Are Needed on Audit Issues Related to the Marine Corps 2012 Schedule of Budgetary Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    DOD FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Actions Are Needed on Audit Issues Related to the Marine Corps’ 2012 Schedule of Budgetary...DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DOD Financial Management: Actions Are Needed on Audit Issues Related to the...2015 DOD FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Actions Are Needed on Audit Issues Related to the Marine Corps’ 2012 Schedule of Budgetary Activity Why GAO Did

  10. Analysis of governmental Web sites on food safety issues: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Namkung, Young; Almanza, Barbara A

    2006-10-01

    Despite a growing concern over food safety issues, as well as a growing dependence on the Internet as a source of information, little research has been done to examine the presence and relevance of food safety-related information on Web sites. The study reported here conducted Web site analysis in order to examine the current operational status of governmental Web sites on food safety issues. The study also evaluated Web site usability, especially information dimensionalities such as utility, currency, and relevance of content, from the perspective of the English-speaking consumer. Results showed that out of 192 World Health Organization members, 111 countries operated governmental Web sites that provide information about food safety issues. Among 171 searchable Web sites from the 111 countries, 123 Web sites (71.9 percent) were accessible, and 81 of those 123 (65.9 percent) were available in English. The majority of Web sites offered search engine tools and related links for more information, but their availability and utility was limited. In terms of content, 69.9 percent of Web sites offered information on foodborne-disease outbreaks, compared with 31.5 percent that had travel- and health-related information.

  11. A Survey of Laboratory and Statistical Issues Related to Farmworker Exposure Studies

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Dana B.; Landsittel, Doug; Nishioka, Marcia; Thomas, Kent; Curwin, Brian; Raymer, James; Donnelly, Kirby C.; McCauley, Linda; Ryan, P. Barry

    2006-01-01

    Developing internally valid, and perhaps generalizable, farmworker exposure studies is a complex process that involves many statistical and laboratory considerations. Statistics are an integral component of each study beginning with the design stage and continuing to the final data analysis and interpretation. Similarly, data quality plays a significant role in the overall value of the study. Data quality can be derived from several experimental parameters including statistical design of the study and quality of environmental and biological analytical measurements. We discuss statistical and analytic issues that should be addressed in every farmworker study. These issues include study design and sample size determination, analytical methods and quality control and assurance, treatment of missing data or data below the method’s limits of detection, and post-hoc analyses of data from multiple studies. PMID:16760001

  12. Megatrends in American Society: Policy Issues for State Education Agencies. An Issues Analysis Paper. Discussion Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Kenneth H.

    This paper attempts to match identified large-scale social trends (derived from the popular book "Megatrends" by John Naisbitt) to possible state education agency (SEA) policy positions. The first part of the analysis explores possible implications of these "megatrends" for SEA policy development. The trends discussed show…

  13. Contributions to the Content Analysis of Gender Roles: An Introduction to a Special Issue

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Lucy; Linz, Daniel G.

    2011-01-01

    This special issue on gender-related content analysis is the second of two parts (see Rudy et al. 2010b). The current special issue is more diverse than was the first in the number of countries that are represented and in the variety of media genres and content types that are included. The primary aim of this paper is to outline some of the contributions of the individual papers in this second special issue. Some of these advancements and innovations include (a) examining underresearched measures, countries, time spans, sexual orientations, and individual media programs; (b) addressing both international and intranational differences in gender-role portrayals; (c) comparing multiple content formats within the same media unit; (d) updating past findings to take into consideration the current media landscape; (e) employing established measures in novel ways and novel contexts; (f) uncovering limitations in established intercultural measures and media-effects theories; (g) suggesting variables that could predict additional differences in gender-role portrayals; (h) adopting virtually identical methods and measures across distinct content categories in order to facilitate comparisons; (i) conducting multiple tests of a given hypothesis; (j) examining, from multiple perspectives, the implications of racial differences in gender portrayals; and (k) examining the implications of underrepresentation of women and the perspectives that women hold. In addition to the original content-analytical research presented in this special issue, two reviews, one methodological and the other analytical, offer recommendations of procedures and perspectives to be implemented in future research. PMID:21423330

  14. Paternalism in nursing and healthcare: central issues and their relation to theory.

    PubMed

    Cody, William K

    2003-10-01

    Paternalistic practices, wherein providers confer a treatment or service upon a person or persons without their consent, ostensibly by reason of their limited autonomy or diminished capacity, are widespread in healthcare and in societies around the world. In the United States, paternalism in health and human services is widespread and probably increasing with newly emergent forms. Numerous issues surround paternalistic practices. In this column, the author examines these issues in relation to theory development in healthcare and nursing as well as theory as a guide to practice. It is suggested that scientific and ethical knowing are not separate but must be united in theoretical structures that include both in unity, along with an appreciation of the infinite complexity of life as it is humanly lived. It is also suggested that nursing's unique theory base of frameworks that honor human dignity and focus on human experience offers an opportunity for leadership in further developing theoretical frameworks that transcend paternalistic practices.

  15. Current research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, John A.; Shakesby, Richard A.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Cannon, Susan H.; Martin, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Research into post-wildfire effects began in the United States more than 70 years ago and only later extended to other parts of the world. Post-wildfire responses are typically transient, episodic, variable in space and time, dependent on thresholds, and involve multiple processes measured by different methods. These characteristics tend to hinder research progress, but the large empirical knowledge base amassed in different regions of the world suggests that it should now be possible to synthesize the data and make a substantial improvement in the understanding of post-wildfire runoff and erosion response. Thus, it is important to identify and prioritize the research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion. Priority research issues are the need to: (1) organize and synthesize similarities and differences in post-wildfire responses between different fire-prone regions of the world in order to determine common patterns and generalities that can explain cause and effect relations; (2) identify and quantify functional relations between metrics of fire effects and soil hydraulic properties that will better represent the dynamic and transient conditions after a wildfire; (3) determine the interaction between burned landscapes and temporally and spatially variable meso-scale precipitation, which is often the primary driver of post-wildfire runoff and erosion responses; (4) determine functional relations between precipitation, basin morphology, runoff connectivity, contributing area, surface roughness, depression storage, and soil characteristics required to predict the timing, magnitudes, and duration of floods and debris flows from ungaged burned basins; and (5) develop standard measurement methods that will ensure the collection of uniform and comparable runoff and erosion data. Resolution of these issues will help to improve conceptual and computer models of post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes.

  16. Modeling, Analysis, and Optimization Issues for Large Space Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinson, L. D. (Compiler); Amos, A. K. (Compiler); Venkayya, V. B. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Topics concerning the modeling, analysis, and optimization of large space structures are discussed including structure-control interaction, structural and structural dynamics modeling, thermal analysis, testing, and design.

  17. Ecology versus Issue Interpretation: The Analysis of Two Different Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrie, Elizabeth; Knapp, Doug

    1998-01-01

    Approximately 1,500 students in grades 4 through 6 attended two half-day interpretive programs at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore; one focused on ecological information, the other on environmental issues associated with the site. Each program significantly increased students' knowledge but had little impact on students' environmental attitudes or…

  18. Analysis of Intellectual Property Protection Issues in Offshore Outsourcing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Satinder Pal

    2013-01-01

    Offshore outsourcing is a business strategy that involves contracting with a partner who can take over certain aspects of a company's business, such as information technology (IT) functions, in the interests of efficiency and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to analyze the intellectual property protection issues to achieve a better…

  19. Faculty Attitudes about Multiculturalism Issues: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennen, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    The demographics of the United States continue to change, and cultural landscape changes along with it. The American Psychological Association (APA) has begun to address these issues within the field of psychology. These efforts are being made to bring understanding to ethnic identity formation, explore the dangers of ignoring ethnic differences…

  20. Current issues in the identification, assessment, and management of concussions in sports-related injuries.

    PubMed

    McKeever, Catherine K; Schatz, Philip

    2003-01-01

    The recent literature has focused on the need for appropriate identification, assessment, and management of sports-related concussion. This article addresses current issues in the prevalence and assessment of sports-related concussion. Despite a paucity of research on female athletes and youth athletes, there is evidence that female athletes are at higher risk for injury than males and that concussions may affect children and young adolescents differently than older adolescents and adults. Sideline, baseline, and postconcussion assessments have become prevalent in documenting preinjury and postinjury performance, tracking recovery rates, and assisting return-to-play decisions. New computerized assessment procedures are growing in popularity and use. Future directions in the assessment and management of sports-related concussion include increased research on prevalence rates and effects of concussions for females and youth athletes, educating parents of youth athletes as well as family physicians on the importance of baseline and postconcussion cognitive assessments, and further validation of computerized assessment measures.

  1. Rearward Visibility Issues Related to Agricultural Tractors and Self-Propelled Machinery: Contributing Factors, Potential Solutions.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, S G; Field, W E

    2016-01-01

    As the size, complexity, and speed of agricultural tractors and self-propelled machinery have increased, so have the visibility-related issues, placing significant importance on the visual skills, alertness, and reactive abilities of the operator. Rearward movement of large agricultural equipment has been identified in the literature as causing both fatalities and injuries to bystanders who were not visible to the operator and damage to both the machine and stationary objects. The addition of monitoring assistance, while not a new concept, has advanced significantly, offering agricultural machinery operators greater options for increasing their awareness of the area surrounding the machine. In this research, we attempt to (1) identify and describe the key contributors to agricultural machinery visibility issues, i.e., operator-related and machine-related factors, and (2) enumerate and evaluate the potential solutions being offered that address these factors. Enhanced operator safety and efficiency should result from a better understanding of the efforts to solve the visibility problems inherent in large tractors and self-propelled agricultural machinery.

  2. Hospital Malnutrition Related to Fasting and Underfeeding: Is It an Ethical Issue?

    PubMed

    Arenas Moya, Diego; Plascencia Gaitán, Alejandra; Ornelas Camacho, Denisse; Arenas Márquez, Humberto

    2016-06-01

    Hospital malnutrition is a relevant clinical issue present in about 50% of patients that is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and cost of care. Because of the relation of malnutrition with chronic and acute inflammatory processes secondary to disease, nutrition therapy is considered an important medical treatment. However, there is little discussion about the impact of another critical issue related to hospital malnutrition, that is, lack of appropriate food or nutrition therapy given to the patients. Unnecessary fasting practices and the use of inappropriate nutrition prescriptions result in underfeeding that can be a related or direct cause of hospital malnutrition, independent of disease or inflammatory state. Suboptimal prescription of oral, enteral, and parenteral nutrition should be analyzed and discussed from an ethical perspective since this practice has the potential to harm patients. In addition, absence or inadequate provision of nutrition may present barriers for improved patient outcomes and could be prevented by simply recognizing lack of knowledge, skills, or experience in nutrition and entrusting nutrition prescription to interdisciplinary teams with clinicians well prepared in nutrition sciences. This article reviews potential barriers to the prevention or treatment of hospital malnutrition and proposes specific actions that can help clinicians to overcome and implement optimal nutrition not just as medical therapy but also as a basic comfort care that may help patients nutritionally, clinically, physically, and emotionally.

  3. Environmental, health and safety issues related to commercializing CuInSe{sub 2}-based photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Eberspacher, C.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowtiz, P.D.

    1996-07-01

    Photovoltaics technology is rapidly evolving towards a new generation of low-cost thin film technologies. One of the most promising materials in this new generation is copper indium selenide (CuInSe{sub 2} or CIS). As with any new material, successful commercialization of CIS photovoltaic (PV) technology will require attention to environmental, health and safety issues, including consideration of the sources, usage, and end-of-product-life disposal and/or recycling of the constituent materials. This work focuses on three specific environmental, health and safety (EH and S) issues related to CIS PV: (1) economics are analyzed to determine their impact on materials use and re-use; (2) Federal and California State environmental disposal and waste handling regulations are analyzed to evaluate their impact on PV module manufacturing and end-of-life module handling; and (3) the logistics and economics of product recycling and waste disposal by industries with comparable EH and S issues are examined to quantify the corresponding options available for handling, disposing of and/or recycling manufacturing by-products and end-of-life modules.

  4. 75 FR 62514 - Notice of Availability of Report on Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... of Availability of Report on Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid Technologies AGENCY... Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid Technologies.'' In this report, DOE discusses existing... accommodate the deployment of Smart Grid technologies. DOE also provides a comprehensive summary of...

  5. 75 FR 35800 - Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... AGENCY Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Extension of public comment period. SUMMARY: On May 21, 2010, EPA released the draft report entitled, ``EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related...

  6. 76 FR 44507 - Joint Public Roundtable on International Issues Relating to the Implementation of Title VII of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... International Issues Relating to the Implementation of Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and... issues related to the implementation of Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer... Centre, 1155 21st Street, NW., Washington, DC. The discussion will be open to the public with...

  7. Work-related stress and bullying: gender differences and forensic medicine issues in the diagnostic procedure

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The attention of international agencies and scientific community on bullying and work-related stress is increasing. This study describes the gender differences found in victims of bullying and work-related stress in an Italian case series and analyzes the critical issues in the diagnostic workup. Methods Between 2001 and 2009 we examined 345 outpatients (148 males, 197 females; mean age: 41 ± 10.49) for suspected psychopathological work-related problems. Diagnosis of bullying was established using international criteria (ICD-10 and DSM-IV). Results After interdisciplinary diagnostic evaluation (Occupational Medicine Unit, Psychology and Psychiatry Service), the diagnosis of bullying was formulated in 35 subjects, 12 males and 23 females (2 cases of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and 33 of Adjustment Disorder). Fifty-four (20 males, 34 females) suffered from work-related anxiety, while work-unrelated Adjustment Disorder and other psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 7 and 112 subjects, respectively. Women between 34 and 45 years showed a high prevalence (65%) of "mobbing syndrome" or other work-related stress disorders. Conclusions At work, women are more subject to harassment (for personal aspects related to emotional and relational factors) than men. The knowledge of the phenomenon is an essential requisite to contrast bullying; prevention can be carried out only through effective information and training of workers and employers, who have the legal obligation to preserve the integrity of the mental and physical status of their employees during work. PMID:22088163

  8. Economic and demographic issues related to deployment of the Satellite Power System (SPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, T. E.; Hill, L. G.; Santini, D. J.; Stenehjem, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Growth in energy consumption stimulated interest in exploitation of renewable sources of electric energy. One technology that was proposed is the Satellite Power System (SPS). Before committing the U.S. to such a large program, the Department of Energy and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are jointly participating in an SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program. This white paper on industrial and population relocation is part of the FY 78 preliminary evaluation of related socio-economic issues. Results of four preliminary assessment activities are documented.

  9. Impact of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) on patient health-related behaviors and issues.

    PubMed

    Polen, Hyla H; Khanfar, Nile M; Clauson, Kevin A

    2009-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry spends billions of dollars annually on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA). Patient perspectives on the impact of televised DTCA on health-related behaviors and issues were assessed by means of a 68-question survey. 58.6% of respondents believed that DTCA allowed consumers to have a more active role in managing their health. However, 27.6% felt DTCA caused confusion, and an alarming 17.8% of respondents stopped taking their medication because of concerns about serious side effects mentioned in DTCA. Overall, participants believed DTCA plays a useful role in health self-management; however, a considerable percentage thought that the cost outweighs the benefits.

  10. Time-related degradation, a key issue in nuclear plant safety evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L.L.; Bustard, L.D.; Clough, R.L.; Gillen, K.T.

    1982-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is conducting a number of programs under NRC sponsorship which deal with safety-related equipment qualification issues, including the important aspect of aging. Among these is the Qualification Testing Evaluation (QTE) program which was probably the first to devote significant effort towards aging research and was one of the primary motivators leading to the Workshop. The thrust of the QTE aging efforts has been on elastomeric materials, typically used in electrical cables, seals, gaskets, and the like; currently, efforts are being pursued on plant ambient environments measurements, aging of electronics, and aging of motors. A brief status report is presented in this paper.

  11. Equation of state and fragmentation issues in computational lethality analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Trucano, T.G.

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the status of computational analysis of hypervelocity impact lethality in relatively nontechnical terms from the perspective of the author. It is not intended to be a review of the technical literature on the problems of concern. The discussion is focused by concentrating on two phenomenology areas which are of particular concern in computational impact studies. First, the material`s equation of state, specifically the treatment of expanded states of metals undergoing shock vaporization, is discussed. Second, the process of dynamic fragmentation is addressed. In both cases, the context of the discussion deals with inaccuracies and difficulties associated with numerical hypervelocity impact simulations. Laboratory experimental capabilities in hypervelocity impact for impact velocities greater than 10.0 km/s are becoming increasingly viable. This paper also gives recommendations for experimental thrusts which utilize these capabilities that will help to resolve the uncertainties in the numerical lethality studies that are pointed out in the present report.

  12. Profiles of Students' Interest in Science Issues around the World: Analysis of data from PISA 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vegar Olsen, Rolf; Lie, Svein

    2011-01-01

    The Programme for International Student Assessment in 2006 included several measures of students' interest in science. These measures were constructed by combining information from several items where students are asked to respond to statements along Likert scale categories. Since there is evidence for Likert scales providing culturally biased country scores, we demonstrate in this article that the relative profiles of interest can be meaningfully analysed across countries. Hence, we have developed national relative profiles of interest in science constructed from the country- and item-specific residuals at the item level. Subsequently, these relative profiles of interest have been used as input in a cluster analysis providing identification of distinct groups of countries with similar item-by-item patterns of interest in science. The most notable feature of the analysis is an overall division between two larger groups of countries, roughly corresponding to European/Western countries in one group and non-European countries, with only a few exceptions, in the other group. A number of meaningful clusters of countries, partly defined by language and partly by localisation, are identified within each of the two main clusters. In order to develop a more detailed understanding of the characteristic features of the various clusters, descriptive information about the items is included in the analysis. The most notable finding is the strong relative preference for life and health issues among the non-European countries, contrasted with the distinct favouring of items relating to physical/technological systems in the European/Western countries.

  13. Defense Acquisition Reform: Background, Analysis, and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-23

    MIT professor Harvey Sapolsky wrote The limited number of available reforms have all been recycled. You can centralize or decentralize. You can...Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress, by Ronald O’Rourke, p. 9. 16 Harvey Sapolsky, “Let’s Skip Acquisition Reform This Time...challenges of an ever changing landscape and that fundamental reforms are necessary.42 In 2009, Norman Augustine (former CEO of Lockheed Martin) and

  14. Design and analysis issues in gene and environment studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen-yu; Maity, Arnab; Lin, Xihong; Wright, Robert O; Christiani, David C

    2012-12-19

    Both nurture (environmental) and nature (genetic factors) play an important role in human disease etiology. Traditionally, these effects have been thought of as independent. This perspective is ill informed for non-mendelian complex disorders which result as an interaction between genetics and environment. To understand health and disease we must study how nature and nurture interact. Recent advances in human genomics and high-throughput biotechnology make it possible to study large numbers of genetic markers and gene products simultaneously to explore their interactions with environment. The purpose of this review is to discuss design and analytic issues for gene-environment interaction studies in the "-omics" era, with a focus on environmental and genetic epidemiological studies. We present an expanded environmental genomic disease paradigm. We discuss several study design issues for gene-environmental interaction studies, including confounding and selection bias, measurement of exposures and genotypes. We discuss statistical issues in studying gene-environment interactions in different study designs, such as choices of statistical models, assumptions regarding biological factors, and power and sample size considerations, especially in genome-wide gene-environment studies. Future research directions are also discussed.

  15. Design and analysis issues in gene and environment studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Both nurture (environmental) and nature (genetic factors) play an important role in human disease etiology. Traditionally, these effects have been thought of as independent. This perspective is ill informed for non-mendelian complex disorders which result as an interaction between genetics and environment. To understand health and disease we must study how nature and nurture interact. Recent advances in human genomics and high-throughput biotechnology make it possible to study large numbers of genetic markers and gene products simultaneously to explore their interactions with environment. The purpose of this review is to discuss design and analytic issues for gene-environment interaction studies in the “-omics” era, with a focus on environmental and genetic epidemiological studies. We present an expanded environmental genomic disease paradigm. We discuss several study design issues for gene-environmental interaction studies, including confounding and selection bias, measurement of exposures and genotypes. We discuss statistical issues in studying gene-environment interactions in different study designs, such as choices of statistical models, assumptions regarding biological factors, and power and sample size considerations, especially in genome-wide gene-environment studies. Future research directions are also discussed. PMID:23253229

  16. CADDIS Volume 4. Data Analysis: Basic Principles & Issues

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Use of inferential statistics in causal analysis, introduction to data independence and autocorrelation, methods to identifying and control for confounding variables, references for the Basic Principles section of Data Analysis.

  17. Progress in Addressing DNFSB Recommendation 2002-1 Issues: Improving Accident Analysis Software Applications

    SciTech Connect

    VINCENT, ANDREW

    2005-04-25

    Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2002-1 (''Quality Assurance for Safety-Related Software'') identified a number of quality assurance issues on the use of software in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for analyzing hazards, and designing and operating controls to prevent or mitigate potential accidents. Over the last year, DOE has begun several processes and programs as part of the Implementation Plan commitments, and in particular, has made significant progress in addressing several sets of issues particularly important in the application of software for performing hazard and accident analysis. The work discussed here demonstrates that through these actions, Software Quality Assurance (SQA) guidance and software tools are available that can be used to improve resulting safety analysis. Specifically, five of the primary actions corresponding to the commitments made in the Implementation Plan to Recommendation 2002-1 are identified and discussed in this paper. Included are the web-based DOE SQA Knowledge Portal and the Central Registry, guidance and gap analysis reports, electronic bulletin board and discussion forum, and a DOE safety software guide. These SQA products can benefit DOE safety contractors in the development of hazard and accident analysis by precluding inappropriate software applications and utilizing best practices when incorporating software results to safety basis documentation. The improvement actions discussed here mark a beginning to establishing stronger, standard-compliant programs, practices, and processes in SQA among safety software users, managers, and reviewers throughout the DOE Complex. Additional effort is needed, however, particularly in: (1) processes to add new software applications to the DOE Safety Software Toolbox; (2) improving the effectiveness of software issue communication; and (3) promoting a safety software quality assurance culture.

  18. Public School Choice: Recent Developments and Analysis of Issues. CRS Report for Congress No. 89-219 EPW.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Wayne C.; Stedman, James B.

    Policymakers are considering ways of providing more opportunities for students and their parents to exercise choice in public education. This report provides background information on current public school choice programs and proposals, and an analysis of selected issues related to this topic. The first part of the paper presents background…

  19. Preface--Environmental issues related to oil and gas exploration and production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Otton, James K.

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the essential commodity that powers the expanding global economy. Starting in the 1950s, oil and natural gas became the main sources of primary energy for the rapidly increasing world population (Edwards, 1997). In 2003, petroleum was the source for 62.1% of global energy, and projections by energy information administration (EIA) indicate that oil and gas will continue their dominance, supplying 59.5% of global energy in 2030 (EIA, 2007). Unfortunately petroleum and coal consumption carry major detrimental environmental impacts that may be regional or global in scale, including air pollution, global climate change and oil spills. This special volume of Applied Geochemistry, devoted to “Environmental Issues Related to Oil and Gas Exploration and Production”, does not address these major impacts directly because air pollution and global climate change are issues related primarily to the burning of petroleum and coal, and major oil spills generally occur during ocean transport, such as the Exxon Valdez 1989 spill of 42,000 m3 (260,000 bbl) oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska.

  20. Developing a research agenda on ethical issues related to using social media in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Adams, Samantha A; Van Veghel, Dennis; Dekker, Lukas

    2015-07-01

    The consequences of using publicly available social media applications specifically for healthcare purposes are largely unaddressed in current research. Where they are addressed, the focus is primarily on issues of privacy and data protection. We therefore use a case study of the first live Twitter heart operation in the Netherlands, in combination with recent literature on social media from other academic fields, to identify a wide range of ethical issues related to using social media for health-related purposes. Although this case reflects an innovative approach to public education and patient centeredness, it also illustrates the need for institutions to weigh the various aspects of use and to develop a plan to deal with these on a per case basis. Given the continual development of technologies, researchers may not yet be able to oversee and anticipate all of the potential implications. Further development of a research agenda on this topic, the promotion of guidelines and policies, and the publication of case studies that reveal the granularity of individual situations will therefore help raise awareness and assist physicians and institutions in using social media to support existing care services.

  1. Neurologists' and neurology residents' knowledge of issues related to pregnancy for women with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jodie I; Metcalfe, Amy; Abdulla, Fatema; Wiebe, Samuel; Hanson, Alexandra; Federico, Paolo; Jetté, Nathalie

    2011-10-01

    We aimed to assess physician knowledge for 2009 guidelines established by the American Academy of Neurology and American Epilepsy Society regarding issues related to pregnancy for women with epilepsy. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to all neurologists and neurology residents practicing in a large Canadian health region serving a population of 1.4 million. Descriptive statistics were obtained and percentage of correct responses was calculated. Forty-five physicians completed the survey (response rate = 83.3%), with a median correct score of 50%. Residents were more likely (93.3%) to state that this information was important to their practice than staff physicians (40.0%). Overall knowledge of outcomes associated with specific AEDs was poor; less than half of the physicians correctly indicated which AEDs were associated with adverse outcomes for the majority of drug-related questions. We recommend multifaceted, interactive implementation strategies for increasing knowledge of guideline contents.

  2. Forestry policy reform in Mali: An analysis of implementation issues

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkerhoff, D.W.; Gage, J.D.

    1993-09-01

    Mali is revising its forestry code to facilitate natural resource management at the local level. Issues involved in implementing the new code, which is expected to be formally adopted in the near future, are analyzed in the report. Section II discusses the evolution of Mali's forestry code from the 1935 decree which vested authority of natural resources in the hands of the state. Section III examines the forthcoming code using a model that associates six conditions with successful policy implementation, namely, the extent to which the policy and/or its statutes. Faced with these problems, Mali's forestry policy reformers need to adopt a strategic perspective on managing policy change.

  3. tDCS for Memory Enhancement: Analysis of the Speculative Aspects of Ethical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Voarino, Nathalie; Dubljević, Veljko; Racine, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising technology to enhance cognitive and physical performance. One of the major areas of interest is the enhancement of memory function in healthy individuals. The early arrival of tDCS on the market for lifestyle uses and cognitive enhancement purposes lead to the voicing of some important ethical concerns, especially because, to date, there are no official guidelines or evaluation procedures to tackle these issues. The aim of this article is to review ethical issues related to uses of tDCS for memory enhancement found in the ethics and neuroscience literature and to evaluate how realistic and scientifically well-founded these concerns are? In order to evaluate how plausible or speculative each issue is, we applied the methodological framework described by Racine et al. (2014) for “informed and reflective” speculation in bioethics. This framework could be succinctly presented as requiring: (1) the explicit acknowledgment of factual assumptions and identification of the value attributed to them; (2) the validation of these assumptions with interdisciplinary literature; and (3) the adoption of a broad perspective to support more comprehensive reflection on normative issues. We identified four major considerations associated with the development of tDCS for memory enhancement: safety, autonomy, justice and authenticity. In order to assess the seriousness and likelihood of harm related to each of these concerns, we analyzed the assumptions underlying the ethical issues, and the level of evidence for each of them. We identified seven distinct assumptions: prevalence, social acceptance, efficacy, ideological stance (bioconservative vs. libertarian), potential for misuse, long term side effects, and the delivery of complete and clear information. We conclude that ethical discussion about memory enhancement via tDCS sometimes involves undue speculation, and closer attention to scientific and social facts would

  4. Job Search and Employment-Related Issues in Athletic Training Education Programs

    PubMed Central

    Stilger, Vincent G.; Meador, Randy; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the amount of classroom instruction appropriated for employment-related issues and how career service centers were used by students in National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA)-approved/Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP)-accredited undergraduate athletic training curriculums. Design and Setting: We developed a job placement survey and mailed it to subjects. The study was conducted through the School of Physical Education at West Virginia University. Subjects: The subjects were all undergraduate athletic training curriculum directors employed in an NATA-approved or CAAHEP-accredited program. Measurements: We developed a survey instrument based on our experiences with instructional and educational issues in athletic training. The survey instrument consisted of items that investigated the amount of classroom time and education devoted to different aspects of preparing athletic training students for the job market. Results: A total of 74 surveys were returned, for an 88% return rate. Eighty-six percent of the curriculum directors spent an average of 116 minutes (mean = 116 ± 142.09; range, 5 to 780) instructing students about employment issues. Curriculum directors spent 63 minutes (mean = 63 ± 47.86; range, 10 to 270) instructing students on how to develop a résumé. Most curriculum directors (74%) spent time with students discussing how to prepare for an interview (mean = 51 ± 47.07 minutes; range, 1 to 270). Nearly all curriculum directors (97%) responded that students learned about recognizing allied health postgraduate career options other than athletic training. College or university career service centers were available to 96% of students, but only 53% sought instructional assistance from them. Curriculum directors spent an average of 38 ± 49.31 minutes (range, 15 to 120) discussing programs available at career service centers. Conclusions: Athletic training curriculum directors were

  5. Dimensional Analysis and General Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovatt, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Newton's law of gravitation is a central topic in the first-year physics curriculum. A lecturer can go beyond the physical details and use the history of gravitation to discuss the development of scientific ideas; unfortunately, the most recent chapter in this history, general relativity, is not covered in first-year courses. This paper discusses…

  6. Coming out of the Dark: Content Analysis of Articles Pertaining to Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Issues in Couple and Family Therapy Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwell, Erica E.; Serovich, Julianne M.; Grafsky, Erika L.; Kerr, Zachary Y.

    2012-01-01

    The present study seeks to extend previous research regarding literature related to gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) issues published in couple and family therapy (CFT)-related journals by presenting the results from a content analysis of GLB studies in CFT-related journals from 1996 to 2010. Results of the analysis revealed a 238.8% increase in…

  7. Issues in performing a network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Senn, Stephen; Gavini, Francois; Magrez, David; Scheen, André

    2013-04-01

    The example of the analysis of a collection of trials in diabetes consisting of a sparsely connected network of 10 treatments is used to make some points about approaches to analysis. In particular various graphical and tabular presentations, both of the network and of the results are provided and the connection to the literature of incomplete blocks is made. It is clear from this example that is inappropriate to treat the main effect of trial as random and the implications of this for analysis are discussed. It is also argued that the generalisation from a classic random-effect meta-analysis to one applied to a network usually involves strong assumptions about the variance components involved. Despite this, it is concluded that such an analysis can be a useful way of exploring a set of trials.

  8. NursingQuest: supporting an analysis of nursing issues.

    PubMed

    Bassendowski, Sandra L

    2007-02-01

    With the development and use of new strategies, practices, applications, and resources in technology, the teaching and learning context is shifting. Nurse educators are challenged to create instructional strategies that appeal to the newer generation of students and have the potential to enhance learning. Effective learning programs for these students require new digital communication skills, new pedagogies, and new practices. Nursing students should not be seeking the right answer as much as they should be seeking appropriate information and then developing approaches to issues or resolutions for problems. The focus of the teaching and learning context is shifting from the individual to the group, with the purpose of constructing new knowledge from available information. This article discusses the value of WebQuest activities as inquiry-oriented strategies and the process of adapting the WebQuest format for the development of a strategy called NursingQuest.

  9. Pedagogical issues for effective teaching of biosignal processing and analysis.

    PubMed

    Sandham, William A; Hamilton, David J

    2010-01-01

    Biosignal processing and analysis is generally perceived by many students to be a challenging topic to understand, and to become adept with the necessary analytical skills. This is a direct consequence of the high mathematical content involved, and the many abstract features of the topic. The MATLAB and Mathcad software packages offer an excellent algorithm development environment for teaching biosignal processing and analysis modules, and can also be used effectively in many biosignal, and indeed bioengineering, research areas. In this paper, traditional introductory and advanced biosignal processing (and analysis) syllabi are reviewed, and the use of MATLAB and Mathcad for teaching and research is illustrated with a number of examples.

  10. The growing use of herbal medicines: issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety

    PubMed Central

    Ekor, Martins

    2014-01-01

    The use of herbal medicinal products and supplements has increased tremendously over the past three decades with not less than 80% of people worldwide relying on them for some part of primary healthcare. Although therapies involving these agents have shown promising potential with the efficacy of a good number of herbal products clearly established, many of them remain untested and their use are either poorly monitored or not even monitored at all. The consequence of this is an inadequate knowledge of their mode of action, potential adverse reactions, contraindications, and interactions with existing orthodox pharmaceuticals and functional foods to promote both safe and rational use of these agents. Since safety continues to be a major issue with the use of herbal remedies, it becomes imperative, therefore, that relevant regulatory authorities put in place appropriate measures to protect public health by ensuring that all herbal medicines are safe and of suitable quality. This review discusses toxicity-related issues and major safety concerns arising from the use of herbal medicinal products and also highlights some important challenges associated with effective monitoring of their safety. PMID:24454289

  11. Male occupational therapists in Ontario: a survey of work-related issues.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, J; Hay, J A

    1994-12-01

    Job satisfaction greatly influences an individual's decision to remain in his or her work situation. In many studies, one of the primary reasons for men leaving the profession of occupational therapy was due to job dissatisfaction. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the issue of job satisfaction in male occupational therapists. In March 1992, a survey was mailed to all (n = 82) male occupational therapists practicing in Ontario. A 67% (n = 55) response rate was obtained. This study addressed several factors pertaining to job satisfaction and other work-related issues. When using the median years of OT work experience (ie. seven) to divide the sample, two items were found to be significantly different when using one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA's): "satisfaction with the standing of the profession" and cumulative "satisfaction variable" items. In this study, less experienced male occupational therapists reported themselves to be less satisfied, more inclined to leave the profession or pursue another profession, but did not feel more isolated than their more experienced counterparts. The means of all items revealed a feeling of dissatisfaction on the Likert-scale used in this survey. Although no statistical significance could be achieved, a clear trend existed toward a lower level of satisfaction among the less experienced group.

  12. Review of cross-cultural issues related to quality of life after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Tate, Denise; Forchheimer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is a dynamic concept that means different things to different people, both in the general public and within the research community. Because of this, a common definition of QOL has been hard to achieve. This article reviews cross-cultural issues related to QOL research in spinal cord injury (SCI). Many factors influence QOL for persons with SCI, including observable and objective indicators and subjective self-report ones. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Function, Disability and Health is used in this article as a framework to better understand how these factors may influence QOL. A number of important steps are summarized with respect to measurement issues in QOL. A comparison between data from 2 countries (United States and Brazil) using the International SCI QOL Basic Data Set shows similarities in scores and good reliability in the Brazilian sample. Substantial, significant correlations were observed among the SCI QOL Basic Data Set items and the WHOQOL-BREF within the US sample. The article ends with a set of recommendations for the development of cross-cultural measures of QOL for use in the SCI population.

  13. A Needs Assessment of Health Issues Related to Maternal Mortality Rates in Afghanistan: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Naim, Ali; Feldman, Robert; Sawyer, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Maternal death rates in Afghanistan were among the highest in the world during the reign of the Taliban. Although these figures have improved, current rates are still alarming. The aim of this pilot study was to develop a needs assessment of the major health issues related to the high maternal mortality rates in Afghanistan. In-depth interviews were conducted with managerial midwives, clinical midwives, and mothers. Results of the interviews indicate that the improvement in the maternal mortality rate may be attributed to the increase in the involvement of midwives in the birthing process. However, barriers to decreasing maternal mortality still exist. These include transportation, access to care, and sociocultural factors such as the influence of the husband and mother-in-law in preventing access to midwives. Therefore, any programs to decrease maternal mortality need to address infrastructure issues (making health care more accessible) and sociocultural factors (including husbands and mother-in-laws in maternal health education). However, it should be noted that these findings are based on a small pilot study to help develop a larger scale need assessment.

  14. Attitudes of cystic fibrosis patients and parents toward carrier screening and related reproductive issues

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Sandra; Chokoshvilli, Davit; Binst, Carmen; Mahieu, Inge; Henneman, Lidewij; De Paepe, Anne; Borry, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-limiting autosomal recessive disorder affecting ~1 in 2500–4000 Caucasians. As most CF patients have no family history of the disorder, carrier screening for CF has the potential to prospectively identify couples at risk of conceiving an affected child. At-risk couples may consequently choose to act on the provided information and take steps to avoid the birth of a child with CF. Although carrier screening is widely believed to enhance reproductive autonomy of prospective parents, the practice also raises important ethical questions. A written questionnaire was administered to adult patients and parents of children with CF with the aim to explore participants' attitudes toward CF carrier screening and related reproductive issues. The study population was recruited from a CF patient registry in Belgium and comprised 111 participants (64 parents, 47 patients aged 16 or older). We found that more than 80% of all participants were in favor of preconception carrier screening for CF. However, some were concerned over potential negative consequences of population-wide CF carrier screening. Regarding future reproductive intentions, 43% of the participants indicated a desire to have children. Among these, preimplantation genetic diagnosis was found to be the most preferred reproductive option, closely followed by spontaneous pregnancy and prenatal diagnosis. Although the findings of our study suggest that patients and parents of children with CF support a population-based carrier screening program for CF, they also highlight some issues deserving particular attention when implementing such a program. PMID:26220700

  15. Attitudes of cystic fibrosis patients and parents toward carrier screening and related reproductive issues.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Sandra; Chokoshvilli, Davit; Binst, Carmen; Mahieu, Inge; Henneman, Lidewij; De Paepe, Anne; Borry, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-limiting autosomal recessive disorder affecting ~1 in 2500-4000 Caucasians. As most CF patients have no family history of the disorder, carrier screening for CF has the potential to prospectively identify couples at risk of conceiving an affected child. At-risk couples may consequently choose to act on the provided information and take steps to avoid the birth of a child with CF. Although carrier screening is widely believed to enhance reproductive autonomy of prospective parents, the practice also raises important ethical questions. A written questionnaire was administered to adult patients and parents of children with CF with the aim to explore participants' attitudes toward CF carrier screening and related reproductive issues. The study population was recruited from a CF patient registry in Belgium and comprised 111 participants (64 parents, 47 patients aged 16 or older). We found that more than 80% of all participants were in favor of preconception carrier screening for CF. However, some were concerned over potential negative consequences of population-wide CF carrier screening. Regarding future reproductive intentions, 43% of the participants indicated a desire to have children. Among these, preimplantation genetic diagnosis was found to be the most preferred reproductive option, closely followed by spontaneous pregnancy and prenatal diagnosis. Although the findings of our study suggest that patients and parents of children with CF support a population-based carrier screening program for CF, they also highlight some issues deserving particular attention when implementing such a program.

  16. Review of Cross-Cultural Issues Related to Quality of Life After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is a dynamic concept that means different things to different people, both in the general public and within the research community. Because of this, a common definition of QOL has been hard to achieve. This article reviews cross-cultural issues related to QOL research in spinal cord injury (SCI). Many factors influence QOL for persons with SCI, including observable and objective indicators and subjective self-report ones. The World Health Organization’s International Classification of Function, Disability and Health is used in this article as a framework to better understand how these factors may influence QOL. A number of important steps are summarized with respect to measurement issues in QOL. A comparison between data from 2 countries (United States and Brazil) using the International SCI QOL Basic Data Set shows similarities in scores and good reliability in the Brazilian sample. Substantial, significant correlations were observed among the SCI QOL Basic Data Set items and the WHOQOL-BREF within the US sample. The article ends with a set of recommendations for the development of cross-cultural measures of QOL for use in the SCI population. PMID:25484564

  17. THE NGA-DOE GRANT TO EXAMINE CRITICAL ISSUES RELATED TO RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND MATERIALS DISPOSITION INVOLVING DOE FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Ann M. Beauchesne

    1999-01-31

    Through the National Governors' Association (NGA) project ''Critical Issues Related to Radioactive Waste and Materials Disposition Involving DOE Facilities'' NGA brings together Governors' policy advisors, state regulators, and DOE officials to examine critical issues related to the cleanup and operation of DOE nuclear weapons and research facilities. Topics explored through this project include: (1) Decisions involving disposal of mixed, low-level, and transuranic (TRU) waste and disposition of nuclear materials; (2) Decisions involving DOE budget requests and their effect on environmental cleanup and compliance at DOE facilities; (3) Strategies to treat mixed, low-level, and transuranic (TRU) waste and their effect on individual sites in the complex; (4) Changes to the FFCA site treatment plans as a result of proposals in the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure plan and contractor integration analysis; (5) Interstate waste and materials shipments; and (6) Reforms to existing RCRA and CERCLA regulations/guidance to address regulatory overlap and risks posed by DOE wastes. The overarching theme of this project is to help the Department improve coordination of its major program decisions with Governors' offices and state regulators and to ensure such decisions reflect input from these key state officials and stakeholders. This report summarizes activities conducted during the quarter from October 1, 1998 through January 31, 1999, under the NGA grant. The work accomplished by the NGA project team during the past four months can be categorized as follows: (1) maintained open communication with DOE on a variety of activities and issues within the DOE environmental management complex; (2) maintained communication with NGA Federal Facilities Compliance Task Force members regarding DOE efforts to formulate a configuration for mixed low-level waste and low-level treatment and disposal, external regulation of DOE; and EM Integration activities; and (3

  18. THE NGA-DOE GRANT TO EXAMINE CRITICAL ISSUES RELATED TO RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND MATERIALS DISPOSITION INVOLVING DOE FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Ann B. Beauchesne

    1998-09-30

    Through the National Governors' Association (NGA) project ''Critical Issues Related to Radioactive Waste and Materials Disposition Involving DOE Facilities'' NGA brings together Governors' policy advisors, state regulators, and DOE officials to examine critical issues related to the cleanup and operation of DOE nuclear weapons and research facilities. Topics explored through this project include: (1) Decisions involving disposal of mixed, low-level, and transuranic (TRU) waste and disposition of nuclear materials; (2) Decisions involving DOE budget requests and their effect on environmental cleanup and compliance at DOE facilities; (3) Strategies to treat mixed, low-level, and transuranic (TRU) waste and their effect on individual sites in the complex; (4) Changes to the FFCA site treatment plans as a result of proposals in the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure plan and contractor integration analysis; (5) Interstate waste and materials shipments; and (6) Reforms to existing RCRA and CERCLA regulations/guidance to address regulatory overlap and risks posed by DOE wastes. The overarching theme of this project is to help the Department improve coordination of its major program decisions with Governors' offices and state regulators and to ensure such decisions reflect input from these key state officials and stakeholders. This report summarizes activities conducted during the quarter from June 1, 1998 through September 30, 1998, under the NGA grant. The work accomplished by the NGA project team during the past four months can be categorized as follows: (1) maintained open communication with DOE on a variety of activities and issues within the DOE environmental management complex; (2) maintained communication with NGA Federal Facilities Compliance Task Force members regarding DOE efforts to formulate a configuration for mixed low-level waste and low-level treatment and disposal, external regulation of DOE; and EM Integration activities; and (3

  19. Thin Solid Films Topical Special Issue on ZnO related transparent conductive oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Jinn P.; Endo, Tamio; Ellmer, Klaus; Gessert, Tim; Ginley, David

    2016-04-01

    World-wide research activities on ZnO and related transparent conductive oxides (TCO) in thin film, nanostructured, and multilayered forms are driven by the vast potential of these materials for optoelectronic, microelectronic, and photovoltaic applications. Renewed interest in ZnO applications is partly stimulated by cost reduction in material processing and device development. One of the most important issues is doping and alloying with Al, Ga, In, Sn, etc. in order to tune properties. When highly doped, these materials are used as transparent-conducting contacts on solar cells, as well as in catalytic, spintronic, and surface acoustic wave devices. Film growth conditions, including substrate type and orientation, growth temperature, deposition rate, and ambient atmosphere, all play important roles in determining structural, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties.

  20. Approach and issues relating to shield material design to protect astronauts from space radiation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J W; Cucinotta, F A; Miller, J; Shinn, J L; Thibeault, S A; Singleterry, R C; Simonsen, L C; Kim, M H

    2001-10-01

    One major obstacle to human space exploration is the possible limitations imposed by the adverse effects of long-term exposure to the space environment. Even before human spaceflight began, the potentially brief exposure of astronauts to the very intense random solar energetic particle (SEP) events was of great concern. A new challenge appears in deep space exploration from exposure to the low-intensity heavy-ion flux of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) since the missions are of long duration and the accumulated exposures can be high. Since aluminum (traditionally used in spacecraft to avoid potential radiation risks) leads to prohibitively expensive mission launch costs, alternative materials need to be explored. An overview of the materials related issues and their impact on human space exploration will be given.

  1. Verification, validation, and accreditation issues related to a new IR sensor test capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elrod, Parker D.; Lowry, Heard S.; Mattasits, Gary R.

    1994-07-01

    The Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) has developed new test technologies and methodologies for realistic mission simulations testing of IR space-based sensors. These technologies and methodologies have been combined into an integrated approach for space sensor testing. Direct write scene generation plays a critical role in this integrated approach and is being applied in two new AEDC test facilities. Prior to performing the first test in such a new facility, a critical but often overlooked process must be completed. This critical process demonstrates that the test facility can indeed provide a realistic, NIST traceable simulation of a sensor's mission. This process is complex and must be uniquely tailored for each individual test facility and sensor mission. Such a process can be designed to address both developmental test and evaluation and operational test and evaluation concerns. A case study based on AEDC's direct write scene generation technology will be used to illustrate the issues related to the validation, verification, and accreditation process.

  2. Senior Seminar Focusing on Societal Issues Related to Chemistry and Biochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Harold B., III; Johnston, Murray V.; Panar, Manuel

    2000-12-01

    The lack of a clearly defined content or structure provided the opportunity to transform a one-credit, pass-fail senior seminar course into a meaningful capstone experience for chemistry and biochemistry majors. In addition to individual and class exercises associated with employment, graduate school, communication skills, and professional ethics, small groups of students worked together to create informative Web sites that took positions on important societal issues related to chemistry. Each group presented a seminar and responded to questions from their peers and two or more unannounced visitors, "wild cards" who often had expertise in the seminar topic. Throughout the course, the instructors placed particular emphasis on developing students' ability to work cooperatively, locate and evaluate information, make informed judgments based on available information, and logically develop and defend their positions. Input from a retired industrial chemist helped define these skill elements.

  3. Issues relating to the subtraction phase in EOG artefact correction of the EEG.

    PubMed

    Croft, Rodney J; Barry, Robert J

    2002-06-01

    An important method for removing the effect of ocular artefact from the EEG is 'EOG correction'. This method estimates the proportion of ocular artefact that is in the EEG, and removes it by subtraction. To date, EOG correction research has focused on problems relating to the estimation of the correction coefficients. Using both mathematical rationale and empirical data, this paper addresses issues relating to the subtraction phase, such as the magnitude of error that can be expected due to EOG correction. Using ERP methodology, principal component and regression analyses, it is shown that the N1P2 complex propagates forward to the horizontal and radial (but not vertical) electrooculograms (EOG), and it is shown mathematically that this will result in EOG-correction error. Assuming an accurate estimate of ocular contamination of the EEG, maximal subtraction-phase error of the N1P2 complex was found to be a prefrontal attenuation of 15-22%, decreasing to central and occipital enhancements of 3-4% and 13-14%, respectively. The magnitude of this subtraction-phase error is compared to between-subject ERP variability and to error associated with EOG rejection (omitting data contaminated by ocular artefact). It is argued that such EOG correction error is small relative to both artefact rejection procedures and to normal variability found in ERP studies, and that it is less pernicious than artefact rejection procedures.

  4. Private troubles to public issue: empowering communities to reduce alcohol-related harm in Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lasimbang, Helen Benedict; Shoesmith, Wendy; Mohd Daud, Mohd Nazri Bin; Kaur, Nirmal; Jin, Margaret Chin Pau; Singh, Jaswant; John, Wilfred; Salumbi, Edna; Amir, Lidwina

    2015-09-27

    Alcohol is the number three contributor to the burden of disease worldwide so must remain a priority health promotion issue internationally. Malaysia is a Muslim country and alcohol-related harm was not seen as a priority until recently, because it only affects a minority of the population. Sabah has more than 30 different ethnic groups, and alcohol has a traditional role in the cultural practices of many of these groups. In 2009, the Intervention Group for Alcohol Misuse (IGAM) was formed, under the umbrella of Mercy Malaysia by a group of healthcare workers, academics, members of the Clergy and people who were previously alcohol-dependent concerned about the harmful effects of excessive alcohol consumption. IGAM in collaboration with other bodies have organized public seminars, visited villages and schools, encouraged the formation of a support group and trained healthcare professionals in health promotion intervention. The focus later changed to empowering communities to find solutions to alcohol-related harm in their community in a way which is sensitive to their culture. A standard tool-kit was developed using WHO materials as a guide. Village committees were formed and adapted the toolkit according to their needs. This strategy has been shown to be effective, in that 90% of the 20 committees formed are actively and successfully involved in health promotion to reduce alcohol-related harm in their communities.

  5. Newspaper Coverage of the 1992 Presidential Campaign: A Content Analysis of Character/Competence/Image Issues versus Platform/Political Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Judy R.; Giordano, Joseph

    A research study assessed the amount of front page newspaper coverage allotted to "character/competence/image" issues versus "platform/political" issues in the 1992 presidential campaign. Using textual analysis, methodology of content analysis, researchers coded the front page of the following 5 newspapers between August 1 and…

  6. Budget Issues: Analysis of Unexpected Balances at Selected Civil Agencies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    analysis would have to be made at an account or line -item level to determine if the balances needed to be adjusted. Just because large unobliqated...specific account balances. Detailed analysis would have to be made at an account or line -item level to determine if the balances are excessive. We...APPENDIX I % % JOB METHODOLOGY 5~~ 0~~~~ ~ 5* UPAE TTSISO UNEXPENED BALACES AN DEVELOPE A DATABASE FO AND.5 __-SAF DEVLOED AUG DATA ASNFO EXAENES

  7. U.S. immigration reform: policy issues and economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M J; Mcdowell, J M

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the US immigration issue which has resurfaced in the last 10 years because the foreign born population grew by 4.5 million between 1970 and 1980. Because immigration accounts for 25% of the US population growth during the 1970s, reconsideration of US immigration policy by the government is underway. The Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy was established in 1979 to evaluate existing laws and policies on admitting immigrants into the US. Presently, these policies focus on family reunification, as opposed to labor considerations. In 1984, the Senate and House passed the Simpson-Mazzoli Bill, but the bill died in the conference committee that was established to reconcile the differences between the 2 versions. 3 provisions of debate surround the proposed act: 1) control of illegal immigration - - the Senate arguing for the requirement of a national identification card to verify an individual is authorized for US employment; 2) legalization of alien status - - the House refusing to confer immediate permanent resident status on any alien; and 3) reform of legal immigration - - a provision that the House altogether ignores. Immigration takes jobs from Americans, depresses domestic wages, and worsens working conditions. On the other hand, immigrants fill the jobs which domestic workers find undesirable. The compromises reached by the conference committee concentrate on employer sanctions and the legalization of illegal aliens; reform of legal immigration failed to gain approval.

  8. Gender Issues in Psychology: A Content Analysis of Introductory Psychology Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor-Greene, Patti; And Others

    This paper assesses the attention given to gender issues in 17 psychology textbooks published between 1985 and 1987 and used in college undergraduate introductory courses. The methodology used was the analysis of content and research citations. Specific issues that were examined included: (1) the explanation of the distinction between gender and…

  9. An Analysis of Critical Issues in Korean Teacher Evaluation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hee Jun; Park, Ji-Hye

    2016-01-01

    Korea has used three different teacher evaluation systems since the 1960s: teacher performance rating, teacher performance-based pay and teacher evaluation for professional development. A number of studies have focused on an analysis of each evaluation system in terms of its advent, development, advantages and disadvantages, but these studies have…

  10. Qualitative research in nutrition and dietetics: data analysis issues.

    PubMed

    Fade, S A; Swift, J A

    2011-04-01

    Although much of the analysis conducted in qualitative research falls within the broad church of thematic analysis, the wide scope of qualitative enquiry presents the researcher with a number of choices regarding data analysis techniques. This review, the third in the series, provides an overview of a number of techniques and practical steps that can be taken to provide some structure and focus to the intellectual work of thematic analysis in nutrition and dietetics. Because appropriate research methods are crucial to ensure high-quality research, it also describes a process for choosing appropriate analytical methods that considers the extent to which they help answer the research question(s) and are compatible with the philosophical assumptions about ontology, epistemology and methodology that underpin the overall design of a study. Other reviews in this series provide a model for embarking on a qualitative research project in nutrition and dietetics, an overview of the principal techniques of data collection, sampling and quality assessment of this kind of research and some practical advice relevant to nutrition and dietetics, along with glossaries of key terms.

  11. WATER ANALYSIS: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES, 2005 REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This biennial review covers developments in Water Analysis over the period of 2003-2004. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2005 are also included. Analytical Chemistry's current policy is to limit reviews to include 100-200 significant refe...

  12. WATER ANALYSIS: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES: 2007 REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This biennial review covers developments in Water Analysis over the period of 2005-2006. A few significant references that appeared between January and March 2007 are also included. Analytical Chemistry's current policy is to limit reviews to include 200-250 significant referen...

  13. Water Analysis: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues (2009 Review)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This biennial review covers developments in Water Analysis for Emerging Environmental Contaminants over the period of 2007-2008. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2009 are also included. Analytical Chemistry’s current policy is to limit rev...

  14. Methodological Issues of Sample Collection and Analysis of Exhaled Breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recommended standardized procedures have been developed for measurement of exhaled lower respiratory nitric oxide (NO) and nasal NO. It would be desirable to develop similar guidelines for the sampling of exhaled breath related to other compounds. For such systemic volatile o...

  15. Validating retinal fundus image analysis algorithms: issues and a proposal.

    PubMed

    Trucco, Emanuele; Ruggeri, Alfredo; Karnowski, Thomas; Giancardo, Luca; Chaum, Edward; Hubschman, Jean Pierre; Al-Diri, Bashir; Cheung, Carol Y; Wong, Damon; Abràmoff, Michael; Lim, Gilbert; Kumar, Dinesh; Burlina, Philippe; Bressler, Neil M; Jelinek, Herbert F; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Quellec, Gwénolé; Macgillivray, Tom; Dhillon, Bal

    2013-05-01

    This paper concerns the validation of automatic retinal image analysis (ARIA) algorithms. For reasons of space and consistency, we concentrate on the validation of algorithms processing color fundus camera images, currently the largest section of the ARIA literature. We sketch the context (imaging instruments and target tasks) of ARIA validation, summarizing the main image analysis and validation techniques. We then present a list of recommendations focusing on the creation of large repositories of test data created by international consortia, easily accessible via moderated Web sites, including multicenter annotations by multiple experts, specific to clinical tasks, and capable of running submitted software automatically on the data stored, with clear and widely agreed-on performance criteria, to provide a fair comparison.

  16. Summary of tank information relating salt well pumping to flammable gas safety issues

    SciTech Connect

    Caley, S.M.; Mahoney, L.A.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Hanford Site has 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. Active use of these SSTs was phased out completely by November 1980, and the first step toward final disposal of the waste in the SSTs is interim stabilization, which involves removing essentially all of the drainable liquid from the tank. Stabilization can be achieved administratively, by jet pumping to remove drainable interstitial liquid, or by supernatant pumping. To date, 116 tanks have been declared interim stabilized; 44 SSTs have had drainable liquid removed by salt well jet pumping. Of the 149 SSTs, 19 are on the Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL) because the waste in these tanks is known or suspected, in all but one case, to generate and retain mixtures of flammable gases, including; hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Salt well pumping to remove the drainable interstitial liquid from these SSTs is expected to cause the release of much of the retained gas, posing a number of safety concerns. The scope of this work is to collect and summarize information, primarily tank data and observations, that relate salt well pumping to flammable gas safety issues. While the waste within FGWL SSTs is suspected offering flammable gases, the effect of salt well pumping on the waste behavior is not well understood. This study is being conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company as part of the Flammable Gas Project at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Understanding the historical tank behavior during and following salt well pumping will help to resolve the associated safety issues.

  17. Application of Radiation Chemistry to Some Selected Technological Issues Related to the Development of Nuclear Energy.

    PubMed

    Bobrowski, Krzysztof; Skotnicki, Konrad; Szreder, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    The most important contributions of radiation chemistry to some selected technological issues related to water-cooled reactors, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes, and fuel evolution during final radioactive waste disposal are highlighted. Chemical reactions occurring at the operating temperatures and pressures of reactors and involving primary transients and stable products from water radiolysis are presented and discussed in terms of the kinetic parameters and radiation chemical yields. The knowledge of these parameters is essential since they serve as input data to the models of water radiolysis in the primary loop of light water reactors and super critical water reactors. Selected features of water radiolysis in heterogeneous systems, such as aqueous nanoparticle suspensions and slurries, ceramic oxides surfaces, nanoporous, and cement-based materials, are discussed. They are of particular concern in the primary cooling loops in nuclear reactors and long-term storage of nuclear waste in geological repositories. This also includes radiation-induced processes related to corrosion of cladding materials and copper-coated iron canisters, dissolution of spent nuclear fuel, and changes of bentonite clays properties. Radiation-induced processes affecting stability of solvents and solvent extraction ligands as well oxidation states of actinide metal ions during recycling of the spent nuclear fuel are also briefly summarized.

  18. A review of return to play issues and sports-related concussion.

    PubMed

    Doolan, Amy W; Day, Daniel D; Maerlender, Arthur C; Goforth, Michael; Gunnar Brolinson, P

    2012-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury in sports has become a significant public health concern which has not only received the general public's attention through multiple news media stories involving athletic concussions, but has also resulted in local, state, and national legislative efforts to improve recognition and management. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature for return to play (RTP) guidelines. State, regional, national, and professional legislation on sport-related concussion RTP management issues will be reviewed. This article will be helpful in developing a generalized systematic approach to concussion management and highlight specific RTP guidelines. The article will also touch upon specific contraindications to RTP, the role of neuropsychological testing in RTP, and other considerations and complications that affect an athlete's ability to return to competition. Finally, considerations for terminating an athlete's competitive season or ending a career after sustaining a concussion resulting in prolonged and protracted symptomatology or repeated concussions will be reviewed. PubMed and Google were searched using the key terms mentioned below. In addition, the author's library of concussion-related articles was reviewed for the relevant literature.

  19. 43 CFR 2931.2 - What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... recreation-related uses of public lands? 2931.2 Section 2931.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Permits for Recreation; General § 2931.2 What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands? The regulations in this part...

  20. Formal Methods for Cryptographic Protocol Analysis: Emerging Issues and Trends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Research Laboratory...Ferguson and Schneier [27] found an attack in which an intruder could trick an initiator into agreeing on the wrong SA by making use of the fact that...of some the techniques used for this last). The trick now, of course, is to integrate the formal analysis into the standard- ization process. With the

  1. Cultural Crisis? An Analysis of the Issues Affecting the Ascension of Women in the Australian Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    publication of The Army Wife Handbook.92 In spite of the author’s attempt to downplay the stereotyped title, it clearly portrays the role of women ...CULTURAL CRISIS? AN ANALYSIS OF THE ISSUES AFFECTING THE ASCENSION OF WOMEN IN THE AUSTRALIAN ARMY A thesis presented to the...To) AUG 2013 – JUNE 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cultural Crisis? An Analysis of the Issues Affecting the Ascension of Women in the Australian

  2. Approach to ecological assessment of power-plant-intake (316b) related issues: the Prairie Island case

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Vaughan, D.S.; Hildebrand, S.G.; Kumar, K.D.

    1981-04-01

    Assessment approaches and strategies useful in addressing important issues in section 316(b) of the 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act are illustrated in this report through the analysis and evaluation of the Prairie Island Nuclear Station 316(b) data base. The main issues in 316(b) demonstrations, cooling water intake operation and location, involve determining the impacts of entrainment and impingement. Entrainment impacts were addressed by applying the equivalent adult approach and correcting for inherent biases and by determining the through-plant survival of zooplankton. An assessment of impingement impacts was made by comparing for each of various species the number of fish impinged to estimates of population size. Densities of plankton and fish were compared between the intake area and an alternate area to determine if the location of the present intake minimizes impacts. No definitive conclusion relative to the best location of the intake could be made because of high year to year variability in the data and the differential dominance of trophic groups between areas.

  3. Relativity Concept Inventory: Development, Analysis, and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example,…

  4. Stress and law enforcers: testing the relationship between law enforcement work stressors and health-related issues.

    PubMed

    Avdija, Avdi S

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between law enforcement work-related stressors and health issues. Specifically, this study attempts to determine the effects of stress-producing factors (e.g. vigorous activities at work, shift change, perceived danger associated with police work, etc.) on physiological health-related issues (e.g. the number of reported health issues, high blood pressure, back pain, and headaches) and psychosocial behavior problems (e.g. alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking) among police officers. The analyses are based on a total 1632 law enforcement officers, who represent 51 police agencies in the three major cities, New York City, Dallas Texas, and Minneapolis, USA. The research findings that emerged from this study show that the number of days in vigorous activities and perceived physiological demands have the strongest influence on the number of health-related issues. Working without a partner and frequent shift changes had the strongest influence on alcohol consumption by police officers.

  5. Issues in Benchmarking Human Reliability Analysis Methods: A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; John A. Forester; Tuan Q. Tran; Erasmia Lois

    2010-06-01

    There is a diversity of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods available for use in assessing human performance within probabilistic risk assessments (PRA). Due to the significant differences in the methods, including the scope, approach, and underlying models, there is a need for an empirical comparison investigating the validity and reliability of the methods. To accomplish this empirical comparison, a benchmarking study comparing and evaluating HRA methods in assessing operator performance in simulator experiments is currently underway. In order to account for as many effects as possible in the construction of this benchmarking study, a literature review was conducted, reviewing past benchmarking studies in the areas of psychology and risk assessment. A number of lessons learned through these studies are presented in order to aid in the design of future HRA benchmarking endeavors.

  6. Issues in benchmarking human reliability analysis methods : a literature review.

    SciTech Connect

    Lois, Erasmia; Forester, John Alan; Tran, Tuan Q.; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt; Boring, Ronald L.

    2008-04-01

    There is a diversity of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods available for use in assessing human performance within probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Due to the significant differences in the methods, including the scope, approach, and underlying models, there is a need for an empirical comparison investigating the validity and reliability of the methods. To accomplish this empirical comparison, a benchmarking study is currently underway that compares HRA methods with each other and against operator performance in simulator studies. In order to account for as many effects as possible in the construction of this benchmarking study, a literature review was conducted, reviewing past benchmarking studies in the areas of psychology and risk assessment. A number of lessons learned through these studies are presented in order to aid in the design of future HRA benchmarking endeavors.

  7. Multitemporal image analysis of the green space dynamics: raising issues from the Bucharest case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaman, Florian; Aldea, Mihaela; Petrescu, Florian; Parlow, Eberhard; Luca, Oana; Sercaianu, Mihai; Iacoboaea, Cristina

    2016-08-01

    The dynamics of the green space in urban areas are key components for the urban environment monitoring options and of the urban planning strategies. In the European Union, specific regulations provide the quantitative measures for green space areas necessary for each inhabitant of a city. To assess the situation in the case of Bucharest, we used the multitemporal analysis of remotely sensed imagery based on Landsat archive available. This enabled us to characterize the possibility to monitor and assess the changes in the vegetation cover over a quarter of a century, and raised a series of issues based on the remote sensing observations and image processing. The quantitative assessment of the green spaces is further developed into proposals related to the green space provisions in urban planning, but also revisions of the quantitative measures used in regulations.

  8. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners.

  9. Issues related to handling Exploration Seismic data within the EU FP7 GeoSeas project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diviacco, Paolo; Cox, Simon

    2010-05-01

    GeoSeas is a sibling of the SeaDataNet initiative, aiming at creating an e-infrastructure where users will be able to identify, locate and access pan-European, harmonized and federated marine Geological and Geophysical data. GeoSeas adopts many of the technologies developed within SeaDataNet. While for most of the designated data types, only minor tuning is required, the case of Exploration Seismics poses several issues needing specific solutions. The main issue is the sampling strategy, where the technologies, practices and the legacies of exploration geophysics differ considerably from those found in Oceanography (the original research field considered by SeaDataNet). Specific extensions to the SeaDataNet framework were required at many levels. The most significant interventions concerned the Common Data Index (CDI) metadatabase and data access mechanisms. The primary feature of interest in marine exploration geophysics is the seismic line (in the 2D case) or the seismic volume (3D). For various reasons seismic lines are often segmented, which poses serious problems to the one-to-one correspondence between the CDI and data files. Furthermore, common practice is for positioning and the observation data to be managed separately. Another issue is that the catalogue of metadata items needed for Seismic data discovery and browsing needs parameters that are not available in the standard CDI. However, in the context of data discovery a common framework for all data types is preferable, so we should avoid unnecessary customization for this data type. Both of these issues have been addressed using the framework provided by the OGC Observations and Measurements standard (O&M - see Cox, this conference). O&M provides a structure for observation metadata, allowing the description of the feature of interest, observation procedure, sampling features and the relationships between them, while still allowing the original encoding of the actual observation result. Thus, the

  10. Issues in International Energy Consumption Analysis: Canadian Energy Demand

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The residential sector is one of the main end-use sectors in Canada accounting for 16.7% of total end-use site energy consumption in 2009 (computed from NRCan 2012. pp, 4-5). In this year, the residential sector accounted for 54.5% of buildings total site energy consumption. Between 1990 and 2009, Canadian household energy consumption grew by less than 11%. Nonetheless, households contributed to 14.6% of total energy-related greenhouse gas emissions in Canada in 2009 (computed from NRCan 2012). This is the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s second study to help provide a better understanding of the factors impacting residential energy consumption and intensity in North America (mainly the United States and Canada) by using similar methodology for analyses in both countries.

  11. Vocational technical and adult education: Status, trends and issues related to electronic delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothenberg, D.

    1973-01-01

    Data are analyzed, and trends and issues are discussed to provide information useful to the systems designer who wishes to identify and assess the opportunities for large scale electronic delivery in vocational/technical and adult education. Issues connected with vocational/technical education are investigated, with emphasis on those issues in the current spotlight which are relevant to the possibilities of electronic delivery. The current role of media is examined in vocational/technical instruction.

  12. Addressing practical issues related to nursing care for international visitors to Hiroshima.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Mariko; Niiya, Kiyoka; Okayasu, Masako

    2014-04-01

    When nine million foreigners visited Japan in 2013, the federal government set a goal to attract an additional two and a half million visitors including medical tourists by 2020. This research investigates the attitudes and concerns of Japanese nurses when they are in a situation dealing with foreign patients. The data were collected from March through September 2010, from 114 nurses at three hospitals, in close proximity to popular tourist destinations in Hiroshima. A questionnaire was developed for this research, named Mari Meter, which included a section to write answers to an open question for the nurses to express their opinions. These responses were examined statistically and by word analysis using Text Mining Studio. Japanese nurses expressed greatest concern about payment options, foreign language skills, and issues of informed consent, when dealing with foreigners. The results confirm that, in order to provide a high quality of patient care, extra preparation and a greater knowledge of international workers and visitors are required by nursing professionals in Japan.

  13. Review and Prioritization of Technical Issues Related to Burnup Credit for LWR Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C V; DeHart, M D; Wagner, John C

    2000-03-13

    This report has been prepared to review relevant background information and provide technical discussion that will help initiate a PIRT (Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables) process for use of burnup credit in light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel storage and transport cask applications. The PIRT process will be used by the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research to help prioritize and guide a coordinated program of research and as a means to obtain input/feedback from industry and other interested parties. The review and discussion in this report are based on knowledge and experience gained from work performed in the United States and other countries. Current regulatory practice and perceived industry needs are also reviewed as a background for prioritizing technical needs that will facilitate safe practice in the use of burnup credit. Relevant physics and analysis phenomenon are identified, and an assessment of their importance to burnup credit implementation is given. Finally, phenomena that need to be better understood for effective licensing, together with technical issues that require resolution, are presented and discussed in the form of a prioritization ranking and initial draft program plan.

  14. [Health-related quality of life in patients treated for ovarian cancer: tools and issues].

    PubMed

    Bryand, A; Hamidou, Z; Paget-Bailly, S; Bonnetain, F; Mathelin, C; Baldauf, J-J; Akladios, C

    2015-02-01

    Health-related quality of life (QoL) in patients treated for ovarian cancer is directly and heavily impacted by the natural history of cancer, its evolution and its therapeutic modalities. The evaluation and consideration of various parameters of QoL seems to be a major issue. Indeed, on the one hand, it is essential to take into account the opinion of patients in the choice of therapeutic strategies for this cancer with a poor prognosis and, on the other hand, more and more studies show that QoL is an independent prognostic factor in ovarian cancer. Improvement in this case, in addition to being an endpoint by itself, would potentially improve the overall survival of patients. To date there are several tools to assess QOL of patients with ovarian cancer. The 2 questionnaires most commonly used are: FACT-O and the EORTC QLQ-OV28. The aim of our study was to evaluate from a review of the literature, the reciprocal effects of ovarian cancer on QoL and QoL on ovarian cancer survival, as well as specificities of each of the 2 questionnaires most commonly used in assessing the QoL.

  15. Xylitol: a review on bioproduction, application, health benefits, and related safety issues.

    PubMed

    Ur-Rehman, Salim; Mushtaq, Zarina; Zahoor, Tahir; Jamil, Amir; Murtaza, Mian Anjum

    2015-01-01

    Xylitol is a pentahydroxy sugar-alcohol which exists in a very low quantity in fruits and vegetables (plums, strawberries, cauliflower, and pumpkin). On commercial scale, xylitol can be produced by chemical and biotechnological processes. Chemical production is costly and extensive in purification steps. However, biotechnological method utilizes agricultural and forestry wastes which offer the possibilities of economic production of xylitol by reducing required energy. The precursor xylose is produced from agricultural biomass by chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis and can be converted to xylitol primarily by yeast strain. Hydrolysis under acidic condition is the more commonly used practice influenced by various process parameters. Various fermentation process inhibitors are produced during chemical hydrolysis that reduce xylitol production, a detoxification step is, therefore, necessary. Biotechnological xylitol production is an integral process of microbial species belonging to Candida genus which is influenced by various process parameters such as pH, temperature, time, nitrogen source, and yeast extract level. Xylitol has application and potential for food and pharmaceutical industries. It is a functional sweetener as it has prebiotic effects which can reduce blood glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol level. This review describes recent research developments related to bioproduction of xylitol from agricultural wastes, application, health, and safety issues.

  16. Health, safety and environmental issues relating to cadmium usage in photovoltaic energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M. ); Zweibel, K. )

    1989-12-01

    This paper discusses the current technology base and hazards associated with two promising thin-film photovoltaic cells that contain cadmium compounds -- cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}). More specifically, this paper summarizes the toxicological information on cadmium (Cd) compounds; evaluates potential health, safety and environmental hazards associated with cadmium usage in the photovoltaics industry; describes regulatory requirements associated with the use, handling and disposal of cadmium compounds; and lists management options to permit the safe and continued use of these materials. Handling of cadmium in photovoltaic production can present hazards to health, safety and the environment. Prior recognition of these hazards can allow device manufacturers and regulators to implement appropriate and readily available hazard management strategies. Hazards associated with product use (i.e., array fires) and disposal remain controversial and partially unresolved. The most likely effects that could be expected would be those associated with chronic low-level exposures to cadmium wastes. Because of the general immobility of the cadmium present in these devices and availability of environmental and biomonitoring protocols, chronic hazards can be monitored, and remediated if necessary. Nevertheless, concern about cadmium hazards should continue to be emphasized to ensure that health, safety and environmental issues are properly managed. At the same time, the potential role that these systems can play in ameliorating some important health and environmental hazards related to other energy systems should not be ignored. 27 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Issues about axial diffusion during segmental hair analysis.

    PubMed

    Kintz, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    matrix or changes in the hair structure due to cosmetic treatments might mislead the final result of hair analysis. To qualify for a single exposure in hair, the author proposes to consider that the highest drug concentration must be detected in the segment corresponding to the period of the alleged event (calculated with a hair growth rate at 1 cm/mo) and that the measured concentration be at least 3 times higher than those measured in the previous or the following segments. This must only be done using scalp hair after cutting the hair directly close to the scalp.

  18. Gender Issues and Related Social Stigma Affecting Patients with a Disorder of Sex Development in India.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Angela Ann; Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Shabir, Iram; Marumudi, Eunice; George, Tony Sam; Sagar, Rajesh; Mehta, Manju; Ammini, Ariachery C

    2017-02-01

    Children with disorders of sex development (DSD) manifest at birth with malformed genitalia or later with atypical pubertal development. Those born with malformed genitalia are often diagnosed at birth. However, in resource-poor countries like India, where not all births are supervised by healthcare workers, some of these children remain undiagnosed until puberty or even later. The aim of this study was to assess the gender issues and psychosocial problems of children with DSD. Participants included 205 children with DSD (103 with 46,XX DSD and 102 with 46,XY DSD). Both the children with DSD and their parents underwent semistructured interviews by a clinical psychologist. The birth of a child with DSD was perceived as a major medical and social problem by parents from all socioeconomic strata. Mothers were distressed as many believed the DSD condition was transmitted through the mother. Children who were not diagnosed and treated during infancy or early childhood experienced considerable social discrimination not only from relatives and friends but also from medical and paramedical staff in hospitals. Several patients had been operated during infancy without an etiological diagnosis and without provision of adequate information to the parents. Some children had problems related to complications of surgery. Most teenage patients with 5α-reductase-2 deficiency reared as females presented with gender dysphoria, while children with androgen insensitivity (except for one) or with gonadal dysgenesis developed a gender identity concordant with their gender of rearing. Parents of children with DSD preferred a male gender assignment for their children (if that was possible) because of the social advantages of growing up male in a patriarchal society.

  19. Public health issues related with the consumption of food obtained from genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Paparini, Andrea; Romano-Spica, Vincenzo

    2004-01-01

    Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are a fact of modern agriculture and a major field of discussion in biotechnology. As science incessantly achieves innovative and unexpected breakthroughs, new medical, political, ethical and religious debates arise over the production and consumption of transgenic organisms. Despite no described medical condition being directly associated with a diet including approved GM crops in large exposed populations such as 300,000,000 Americans and a billion Chinese, public opinion seems to look at this new technology with either growing concern or even disapproval. It is generally recognized that a high level of vigilance is necessary and highly desirable, but it should also be considered that GMOs are a promising new challenge for the III Millennium societies, with remarkable impact on many disciplines and fields related to biotechnology. To acquire a basic knowledge on GMO production, GM-food consumption, GMO interaction with humans and environment is of primary importance for risk assessment. It requires availability of clear data and results from rigorous experiments. This review will focus on public health risks related with a GMO-containing diet. The objective is to summarize state of the art research, provide fundamental technical information, point out problems and perspectives, and make available essential tools for further research. Are GMO based industries and GMO-derived foods safe to human health? Can we consider both social, ethical and public health issues by means of a constant and effective monitoring of the food chain and by a clear, informative labeling of the products? Which are the so far characterized or alleged hazards of GMOs? And, most importantly, are these hazards actual, potential or merely contrived? Several questions remain open; answers and solutions belong to science, to politics and to the personal opinion of each social subject.

  20. Addressing Individual Difficulties in Reading: Issues Relating to Reading Recovery and Pause, Prompt, Praise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wearmouth, Janice

    2004-01-01

    Recently the DfES has issued guidance on ways to address the needs of students who experience difficulties in literacy through Wave Three provision in the National Literacy Strategy (DfES, 2002). This guidance raises the issue of what kind of programmes might be initiated in mainstream schools that will improve what is available generally for…

  1. Current Issues Related to Associate Degree Nursing: Their Impact on Directors, Faculty, and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavenar, Mary G.

    Perceptions of students, faculty members, and associate degree nursing (ADN) program directors/coordinators concerning seven issues affecting ADN programs were obtained in 1982. The issues, which were identified through a review of the literature, were: entry into practice, professional and technical nurses, developing competency statements,…

  2. U.S.-Vietnam Relations in 2010: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-07

    Human Rights Act .................................................................................... 18 Refugees in Cambodia...6 The United States has followed a policy of neutrality on the claims by the parties, which also include Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia , the...by Vietnam’s general cooperation on refugee issues. All of these issues remain on Vietnam’s bilateral agenda. President Clinton visited Vietnam

  3. Related Critical Psychometric Issues and Their Resolutions during Development of PE Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Connie; Zhu, Weimo; Park, Youngsik; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Graber, Kim C.; Dyson, Ben; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Placek, Judith H.; Rink, Judy; Raynes, De

    2011-01-01

    In addition to validity and reliability evidence, other psychometric qualities of the PE Metrics assessments needed to be examined. This article describes how those critical psychometric issues were addressed during the PE Metrics assessment bank construction. Specifically, issues included (a) number of items or assessments needed, (b) training…

  4. School Administrators' Perceptions of Trends, Issues, and Responsibilities Relating to the Modern Educational Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, William L.; Walter, James K.

    In 1995, a group of school administrators affiliated with the Indiana Executive Fellows Program identified important educational issues. This paper presents findings of a 1997 study that asked a different sample of superintendents to rank a list of educational issues on the basis of importance. Questionnaires were sent to 325 superintendents in…

  5. Minimizing Disparities and Developing Support by Identifying Differences in Confidence and Knowledge Related to Water Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Melissa; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2016-01-01

    Extension educators face challenges as they strive to keep up with critical issues in their communities, such as those surrounding water. A growing population and a diminishing water supply necessitate that Florida residents become more knowledgeable about water issues. We conducted research to determine how confident both the general public and…

  6. Economic analysis of U.S. ethanol expansion issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Malika

    The dependency of the U.S. economy on crude oil imported from politically unstable countries, escalating energy demand world wide, growing nationwide environmental consciousness, and the Renewable Fuels Standards (RFS) government mandates are some of the primary factors that have provided a favorable environment for the growth and development of the U.S. ethanol industry. The first essay derives decision rules for a discrete-time dynamic hedging model in a multiple commodity framework under expected utility maximization and basis risk. It compares hedging performance of three types of hedging models, namely constant hedging, time-varying static hedging model and the new dynamic hedging rule derived in this study. Findings show that natural gas futures contracts were effective instruments for hedging ethanol spot price risk before March, 2005, when ethanol futures trading was initiated on the CBOT. However, post-March, 2005, corn and ethanol futures contracts proved to be efficient hedging instruments. Results also indicate that ethanol producers may effectively decrease variance of cumulative cash flows by hedging using ethanol, natural gas and corn futures prices using the traditional techniques. The study concludes that using the new dynamic hedge model in a three period and two commodity set up, producers can effectively reduce variance of cumulative cash flow by 13.2% as compared to the 'no hedge' scenario. In my second essay, I use choice based, conjoint analysis methods to estimate consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for alternative transportation fuels in the U.S. In this study, I consider unleaded gasoline and ethanol, which may be derived from corn or three different sources of cellulosic biomass as alternative transportation fuels. Results suggest that age and household income are some of the socioeconomic variables that significantly influence consumer's choice behavior. Results indicate considerable consumer preference heterogeneity. Welfare effects are

  7. Safety and security issues relating to low capacity storage of AN-based fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Marlair, Guy; Kordek, Marie-Astrid

    2005-08-31

    Motivated by both the Toulouse explosion, and a series of recent unexpected handling and storage accidents in well-developed countries, the safety issues associated with the storage of fertilizer grades of ammonium nitrate (AN) are considered with a focus on low storage capacity premises. Such facilities are numerous and, in large agricultural countries, include thousands of end-users and hundreds of small distributors. The strong oxidative (sometimes explosive) properties of products containing significant amounts of AN have led to a long history of major accidents including mass explosions in large storage units and pre 1950s, to mass explosions in ships. A major breakthrough in safety was achieved in the 1950s, with the promotion - amongst other improvements - of better anti-caking agents. Although modern AN fertilizers complying with current standards are not considered as explosive material per se, the latent risk of accidental detonation under specific conditions remains a real issue, and from a scientific point of view, cannot be completely ruled out-as dramatically demonstrated by the Toulouse disaster in France. The new insight provided here is derived from: (1) a literature review on hazardous properties of AN and AN-based fertilizers; (2) a review of accidents focusing more particularly on the reporting of recent new cases involving relatively small quantities of previously 'thought safe' products; (3) an examination of both the relevant regulatory framework and the level of hazard control achieved; (4) appropriate discussions of the economical, technical and organizational factors that could lead to some underestimation of the risk compared to large scale storage facilities. In terms of research requirements, the complex potential scenario 'mass explosion following a fire' requires further attention, as does the role and properties of molten ammonium nitrate, which could be the precursor for such an event to occur. Beyond research needs, reinforced

  8. Optimal Management Strategy for Groundwater Protection and Restoration Along with Discussions on Related Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.

    2003-12-01

    Contamination of groundwater systems is an increasingly critical problem. The limited available resources or budget for groundwater protection and restoration and sustainable development in a country or region require a corresponding strategy for groundwater protection and restoration to maximize resource or budget utilization and minimize an adverse impact on the sustainable development. An innovative strategy for groundwater protection and restoration has been established based on the optimization principles and considerations of both risk assessments of groundwater contamination and difficulties or costs of groundwater remediation and protection measures. Site investigations and groundwater modeling are two critical components to implement this strategy. Cost for groundwater protection and restoration can be categorized as Existing Contaminated Site Investigation Cost (ECSIC), Existing Contaminated Site Remediation Cost (ECSRC), Projected Contamination Site Investigation Cost (PCSIC), Projected Contamination Site Protection Cost (PCSPC), and Projected Contamination Site Remediation Cost (PCSRC). The objective function for optimization analyses consists of risk reduction components with variables of the above different costs from all individual site remediation and protection measures. The optimal distribution of the limited available resources is determined by such proper selections of those variables that the objective function reaches its maximum. Several important issues related to implementations of the strategy for groundwater protection and restoration are discussed. Those issues include uncertainty from aquifer heterogeneity, modeling for fractured geologic media, irreversible sorption, and implementations of natural attenuation. Specifically, Monte Carlo simulations through a numerical flow and transport model can be performed to develop a heterogeneity dispersivity matrix to account for the effects of different attributes of aquifer heterogeneity. In

  9. An Issue Hiding in Plain Sight: When Are Speech-Language Pathologists Special Educators Rather than Related Services Providers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giangreco, Michael F.; Prelock, Patricia A.; Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Under the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA; as amended, 2004), speech-language pathology services may be either special education or a related service. Given the absence of guidance documents or research on this issue, the purposes of this clinical exchange are to (a) present and analyze the IDEA definitions related to…

  10. Relating Needs Assessment and Needs Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger; Valentine, Glenn

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the necessity of relating needs assessment and needs analysis in performance management. Topics discussed include measurable objectives; the identification and selection of needs; performance improvement; the Organizational Elements Model (OEM), which helps to identify means and ends; and training requirements analysis. (eight…

  11. Modeling and resonance issues of wind farm integration with related facts applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auddy, Soubhik

    This thesis deals with electromechanical oscillations, torsional oscillations and resonance issues in power systems fed by conventional steam-turbine generators and emerging wind turbine generators. Solutions to several of these problems are proposed using Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) Controllers. Inter-area oscillations are investigated in the IEEE 39 bus system and are damped by a novel Static VAR Compensator (SVC) control signal utilizing a weighted sum of remote generator speeds derived from bus voltage angles. The weights are calculated from participation factor analysis using commercial software Dynamic Security Assessment (DSA) Power Tools and are validated by EMTDC/PSCAD simulations. Subsynchronous resonance (SSR) in steam-turbine generators has been traditionally damped with SVC using either local signals or signals derived from a combination of local signals. This thesis proposes a novel SVC controller based on remote generator speed for alleviating SSR. This controller is shown from EMTDC/PSCAD simulations to be much more effective than the previously reported controllers for the IEEE First SSR Benchmark system. The efficacy is demonstrated for all the four critical series compensation levels. With the worldwide growth of renewable energy, large wind farms are likely to be connected to series compensated networks for evacuation of bulk power. This may lead to the potential of SSR in the wind turbine generators. For the first time, a detailed electromagnetic transient study using EMTDC/PSCAD has been conducted in this thesis to demonstrate that subsynchronous resonance can be a cause of concern in series compensated wind farms at realistic levels of power flow and series compensation levels. Novel controllers for two FACTS devices - a Static VAR Compensator (SVC) and a Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) - are proposed to mitigate SSR under all realistic compensation levels in a modified IEEE First Benchmark system. It is further

  12. Evaluation of structural issues related to isolation of the 100-KE/100-KW discharge chute

    SciTech Connect

    Winkel, B.V.; Hyde, L.L.

    1995-03-10

    The issue of excessive post-seismic leakage in the discharge chute of the K East and K West fuel storage basins was resolved by designing isolation barriers to maintain basin water levels if the discharge chute should drain. This report addresses the structural issues associated with isolation of the discharge chute. The report demonstrates the structural adequacy of the components associated with chute isolation for normal and seismic loading. Associated issues, such as hardware drop accidents and seismic slosh heights are also addressed.

  13. Television and Attitudes toward Mental Health Issues: Cultivation Analysis and the Third-Person Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diefenbach, Donald L.; West, Mark D.

    2007-01-01

    A television content analysis and survey of 419 community respondents supports the hypothesis that media stereotypes affect public attitudes toward mental health issues. A content analysis of network, prime-time television demonstrates that portrayals are violent, false, and negative. The mentally disordered are portrayed as 10 times more likely…

  14. Special Issues Analysis Center Annual Report: Year One. Volumes I-V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Associates, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    The Special Issues Analysis Center (SIAC) provides technical assistance to the Department of Education's Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs (OBEMLA) in its mission of serving limited-English-proficient (LEP) students. The SIAC carries out data gathering and analysis, research, and other support services to inform OBEMLA…

  15. Relativity concept inventory: Development, analysis, and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, C. M.

    2013-06-01

    We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example, high confidence correlated with incorrect answers suggests a misconception. A novel aspect of our data analysis is the use of Monte Carlo simulations to determine the significance of correlations. This approach is particularly useful for small sample sizes, such as ours. Our results show a gender bias that was not present in course assessment, similar to that reported for the Force Concept Inventory.

  16. Statistical issues related to dietary intake as the response variable in intervention trials

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Raymond J.; Tooze, Janet A.; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I.; Freedman, Laurence S.

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is dietary intervention trials. We explore the statistical issues involved when the response variable, intake of a food or nutrient, is based on self‐report data that are subject to inherent measurement error. There has been little work on handling error in this context. A particular feature of self‐reported dietary intake data is that the error may be differential by intervention group. Measurement error methods require information on the nature of the errors in the self‐report data. We assume that there is a calibration sub‐study in which unbiased biomarker data are available. We outline methods for handling measurement error in this setting and use theory and simulations to investigate how self‐report and biomarker data may be combined to estimate the intervention effect. Methods are illustrated using data from the Trial of Nonpharmacologic Intervention in the Elderly, in which the intervention was a sodium‐lowering diet and the response was sodium intake. Simulations are used to investigate the methods under differential error, differing reliability of self‐reports relative to biomarkers and different proportions of individuals in the calibration sub‐study. When the reliability of self‐report measurements is comparable with that of the biomarker, it is advantageous to use the self‐report data in addition to the biomarker to estimate the intervention effect. If, however, the reliability of the self‐report data is low compared with that in the biomarker, then, there is little to be gained by using the self‐report data. Our findings have important implications for the design of dietary intervention trials. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27324170

  17. Ethical issues relating to the banking of umbilical cord blood in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Umbilical cord banks are a central component, as umbilical cord tissue providers, in both medical treatment and scientific research with stem cells. But, whereas the creation of umbilical cord banks is seen as successful practice, it is perceived as a risky style of play by others. This article examines and discusses the ethical, medical and legal considerations that arise from the operation of umbilical cord banks in Mexico. Discussion A number of experts have stated that the use of umbilical cord goes beyond the mere utilization of human tissues for the purpose of treatment. This tissue is also used in research studies: genetic studies, studies to evaluate the effectiveness of new antibiotics, studies to identify new proteins, etc. Meanwhile, others claim that the law and other norms for the functioning of cord banks are not consistent and are poorly defined. Some of these critics point out that the confidentiality of donor information is handled differently in different places. The fact that private cord banks offer their services as "biological insurance" in order to obtain informed consent by promising the parents that the tissue that will be stored insures the health of their child in the future raises the issue of whether the consent is freely given or given under coercion. Another consideration that must be made in relation to privately owned cord banks has to do with the ownership of the stored umbilical cord. Summary Conflicts between moral principles and economic interests (non-moral principles) cause dilemmas in the clinical practice of umbilical cord blood storage and use especially in privately owned banks. This article presents a reflection and some of the guidelines that must be followed by umbilical cord banks in order to deal with these conflicts. This reflection is based on the fundamental notions of ethics and public health and seeks to be a contribution towards the improvement of umbilical cord banks' performance. PMID:19678958

  18. A Qualitative Study of Service Provision for Alcohol Related Health Issues in Mid to Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Haighton, Catherine; Wilson, Graeme; Ling, Jonathan; McCabe, Karen; Crosland, Ann; Kaner, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    Aims Epidemiological surveys over the last 20 years show a steady increase in the amount of alcohol consumed by older age groups. Physiological changes and an increased likelihood of health problems and medication use make older people more likely than younger age groups to suffer negative consequences of alcohol consumption, often at lower levels. However, health services targeting excessive drinking tend to be aimed at younger age groups. The aim of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of experiences of, and attitudes towards, support for alcohol related health issues in people aged 50 and over. Methods Qualitative interviews (n = 24, 12 male/12 female, ages 51–90 years) and focus groups (n = 27, 6 male/21 female, ages 50–95 years) were carried out with a purposive sample of participants who consumed alcohol or had been dependent. Findings Participants’ alcohol misuse was often covert, isolated and carefully regulated. Participants tended to look first to their General Practitioner for help with alcohol. Detoxification courses had been found effective for dependent participants but only in the short term; rehabilitation facilities were appreciated but seen as difficult to access. Activities, informal groups and drop-in centres were endorsed. It was seen as difficult to secure treatment for alcohol and mental health problems together. Barriers to seeking help included functioning at a high level, concern about losing positive aspects of drinking, perceived stigma, service orientation to younger people, and fatalistic attitudes to help-seeking. Facilitators included concern about risk of fatal illness or pressure from significant people. Conclusion Primary care professionals need training on improving the detection and treatment of alcohol problems among older people. There is also a compelling need to ensure that aftercare is in place to prevent relapse. Strong preferences were expressed for support to be provided by those who had experienced

  19. Special Issue of Selected Papers from Visualization and Data Analysis 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David L.; Wong, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    This special issue features the best papers that were selected from the 18th SPIE Conference on Visualization and Data Analysis (VDA 2011). This annual conference is a major international forum for researchers and practitioners interested in data visualization and analytics research, development, and applications. VDA 2011 received 42 high-quality submissions from around the world. Twenty-four papers were selected for full conference papers. The top five papers have been expanded and reviewed for this special issue.

  20. Identification of a senior superfund official for addressing special npl site-related issues. Directive

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-22

    The directive identifies a senior Superfund official responsible for reviewing and addressing specific issues at NPL (National Priorities List) sites that cannot be resolved at the Regional level and identifies criteria for NPL site referrals to this official.

  1. Issues related to setting exemption levels for oil and gas NORM

    SciTech Connect

    Blunt, D. L.; Gooden, D. S.; Smith, K. P.

    1999-11-12

    In the absence of any federal regulations that specifically address the handling and disposal of wastes containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), individual states have taken responsibility for developing their own regulatory programs for NORM. A key issue in developing NORM rules is defining exemption levels--specific levels or concentrations that determine which waste materials are subject to controlled management. In general, states have drawn upon existing standards and guidelines for similar waste types in establishing exemption levels for NORM. Simply adopting these standards may not be appropriate for oil and gas NORM for several reasons. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission's NORM Subcommittee has summarized the issues involved in setting exemption levels in a report titled ``Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM): Issues from the Oil and Gas Point of View''. The committee has also recommended a set of exemption levels for controlled practices and for remediation activities on the basis of the issues discussed.

  2. SOME STATISTICAL ISSUES RELATED TO MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION MODELING OF BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a fast and effective technique, the multiple linear regression (MLR) method has been widely used in modeling and prediction of beach bacteria concentrations. Among previous works on this subject, however, several issues were insufficiently or inconsistently addressed. Those is...

  3. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-20

    Policy Congressional Research Service 4 issues, Iran’s nuclear program, and progress on North Korea . According to one news account, several... North Korea nuclear issue, the overall security situation in the Asia-Pacific, and the travel of U.S. planes and ships through China’s 200-mile...initiatives, and worked closely on the Six Party Talks to restrain and eliminate North Korea’s nuclear weapons activities. These and other initiatives of

  4. Scientific Productivity on Research in Ethical Issues over the Past Half Century: A JoinPoint Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Long, Nguyen Phuoc; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Trang, Nguyen Thi Huyen; Luan, Nguyen Thien; Anh, Nguyen Hoang; Nghi, Tran Diem; Hieu, Mai Van; Hirayama, Kenji; Karbwang, Juntra

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ethics is one of the main pillars in the development of science. We performed a JoinPoint regression analysis to analyze the trends of ethical issue research over the past half century. The question is whether ethical issues are neglected despite their importance in modern research. METHOD: PubMed electronic library was used to retrieve publications of all fields and ethical issues. JoinPoint regression analysis was used to identify the significant time trends of publications of all fields and ethical issues, as well as the proportion of publications on ethical issues to all fields over the past half century. Annual percent changes (APC) were computed with their 95% confidence intervals, and a p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: We found that publications of ethical issues increased during the period of 1965–1996 but slightly fell in recent years (from 1996 to 2013). When comparing the absolute number of ethics related articles (APEI) to all publications of all fields (APAF) on PubMed, the results showed that the proportion of APEI to APAF statistically increased during the periods of 1965–1974, 1974–1986, and 1986–1993, with APCs of 11.0, 2.1, and 8.8, respectively. However, the trend has gradually dropped since 1993 and shown a marked decrease from 2002 to 2013 with an annual percent change of –7.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Scientific productivity in ethical issues research on over the past half century rapidly increased during the first 30-year period but has recently been in decline. Since ethics is an important aspect of scientific research, we suggest that greater attention is needed in order to emphasize the role of ethics in modern research. PMID:25324690

  5. Genetically Engineered Plants and Foods: A Scientist's Analysis of the Issues (Part I).

    PubMed

    Lemaux, Peggy G

    2008-01-01

    Through the use of the new tools of genetic engineering, genes can be introduced into the same plant or animal species or into plants or animals that are not sexually compatible-the latter is a distinction with classical breeding. This technology has led to the commercial production of genetically engineered (GE) crops on approximately 250 million acres worldwide. These crops generally are herbicide and pest tolerant, but other GE crops in the pipeline focus on other traits. For some farmers and consumers, planting and eating foods from these crops are acceptable; for others they raise issues related to safety of the foods and the environment. In Part I of this review some general and food issues raised regarding GE crops and foods will be addressed. Responses to these issues, where possible, cite peer-reviewed scientific literature. In Part II to appear in 2009, issues related to environmental and socioeconomic aspects of GE crops and foods will be covered.

  6. Legal and Ethical Issues Related to the Management of Cultural Heritage in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Justin

    in space. The United Nations Outer Space Treaty of 1967 -the primary document governing how nations act in outer space -is now hopelessly out-of-date. There is no mention in the treaty of cultural heritage (the UNESCO convention that concerns international protection of cultural heritage on Earth was not completed until 1970), nor was there any recognition of the role private groups and individuals might play in space exploration. This paper will outline key legal and ethical issues related to cultural heritage management and protection. It will also suggest some ways in which culturally significant sites in space can be protected for future study and even touristic appreciation.

  7. Policy issues related to educating the future Israeli medical workforce: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Schoenbaum, Stephen C; Crome, Peter; Curry, Raymond H; Gershon, Elliot S; Glick, Shimon M; Katz, David R; Paltiel, Ora; Shapiro, Jo

    2015-01-01

    A 2014 external review of medical schools in Israel identified several issues of importance to the nation's health. This paper focuses on three inter-related policy-relevant topics: planning the physician and healthcare workforce to meet the needs of Israel's population in the 21(st) century; enhancing the coordination and efficiency of medical education across the continuum of education and training; and the financing of medical education. All three involve both education and health care delivery. The physician workforce is aging and will need to be replenished. Several physician specialties have been in short supply, and some are being addressed through incentive programs. Israel's needs for primary care clinicians are increasing due to growth and aging of the population and to the increasing prevalence of chronic conditions at all ages. Attention to the structure and content of both undergraduate and graduate medical education and to aligning incentives will be required to address current and projected workforce shortage areas. Effective workforce planning depends upon data that can inform the development of appropriate policies and on recognition of the time lag between developing such policies and seeing the results of their implementation. The preclinical and clinical phases of Israeli undergraduate medical education (medical school), the mandatory rotating internship (stáge), and graduate medical education (residency) are conducted as separate "silos" and not well coordinated. The content of basic science education should be relevant to clinical medicine and research. It should stimulate inquiry, scholarship, and lifelong learning. Clinical exposures should begin early and be as hands-on as possible. Medical students and residents should acquire specific competencies. With an increasing shift of medical care from hospitals to ambulatory settings, development of ambulatory teachers and learning environments is increasingly important. Objectives such as these

  8. Global climate change policy issues related to the movement of industry from developed to rapidly industrializing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.; Waltemath, L.A.

    1990-10-01

    Global climate change policies adopted by developed countries may encourage industries to move to countries with less restrictive policies. The purpose of this study is to identify policy-driven issues that may result in such a movement. This report (1) summarizes the conclusions of previous studies that have explored the relationship between environmental regulations and industrial movement, (2) identifies and summarizes existing and proposed US global climate change policy options, and (3) discusses issues and topics relating to possible industrial relocation because of the global climate change policy options. It concludes with recommendations for further research. Although federal global climate change policy options are the primary focus of this report, some international and regional efforts addressing this issue are also included. A potential regional industrial migration issue is highlighted. 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. A preliminary examination of audience-related communications issues for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, C.W.

    1991-04-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project will estimate radiation doses people may have received from exposure to radioactive materials released during past operations at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The HEDR Project was initiated in response to public concerns about possible health impacts from past releases of radioactive materials from Hanford. The TSP recognized early in the project that special mechanisms would be required to effectively communicate to the many different concerned audiences. Accordingly, the TSP directed PNL to examine methods for communicating causes and effects of uncertainties in the dose estimates. After considering the directive and discussing it with the Communications Subcommittee of the TSP, PNL undertook a broad investigation of communications methods to consider for inclusion in the TSP's current communications program. As part of this investigation, a literature review was conducted regarding risk communications. A key finding was that, in order to successfully communicate risk-related information, a thorough understanding of the knowledge level, concerns and information needs of the intended recipients (i.e., the audience) is necessary. Hence, a preliminary audience analysis was conducted as part of the present research. This report summarizes the results of this analysis. 1 ref., 9 tabs.

  10. Specifying the Concept of Future Generations for Addressing Issues Related to High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    PubMed

    Kermisch, Celine

    2016-12-01

    The nuclear community frequently refers to the concept of "future generations" when discussing the management of high-level radioactive waste. However, this notion is generally not defined. In this context, we have to assume a wide definition of the concept of future generations, conceived as people who will live after the contemporary people are dead. This definition embraces thus each generation following ours, without any restriction in time. The aim of this paper is to show that, in the debate about nuclear waste, this broad notion should be further specified and to clarify the related implications for nuclear waste management policies. Therefore, we provide an ethical analysis of different management strategies for high-level waste in the light of two principles, protection of future generations-based on safety and security-and respect for their choice. This analysis shows that high-level waste management options have different ethical impacts across future generations, depending on whether the memory of the waste and its location is lost, or not. We suggest taking this distinction into account by introducing the notions of "close future generations" and "remote future generations", which has important implications on nuclear waste management policies insofar as it stresses that a retrievable disposal has fewer benefits than usually assumed.

  11. Surveillance of social and geographic inequalities in housing-related issues: the case of the Eastern Townships, Quebec (Canada).

    PubMed

    Roy, Mathieu; Généreux, Mélissa; Laverdière, Emélie; Vanasse, Alain

    2014-05-06

    Even though health inequalities are conditioned by many aspects of the environment, much of the existing research focuses on the social environment. This emphasis has the effect to neglect other environmental aspects such as its physical dimension. The physical environment, which is linked to housing conditions, may contribute to the uneven distribution of health. In this study, we examined 19 housing-related issues among a representative sample of 2,000 adults residing in a Quebec (Canada) health region characterized by a mix of rural, semi-rural, and urban areas. The distribution of these issues was examined according to socioeconomic and geographic indicators of social position. Summary measures of inequalities were assessed. Our results showed that the prevalence of nearly all housing-related issues was higher among low-income households compared to more affluent ones. Highly educated individuals showed better housing conditions, whereas different issues tended to cluster in deprived or densely populated areas. To conclude, we observed steep gradients between social class and poor housing conditions. This may explain a substantial part of health inequality on the regional scale. The surveillance of housing-related issues is therefore essential to properly inform and mobilize local stakeholders and to develop interventions that target vulnerable groups on this level.

  12. Overview of regulatory/policy/economic issues related to carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Leaf, Dennis; Verolme, Hans J H; Hunt, William F

    2003-06-01

    This is an overview of Session 2c dealing with the regulatory, policy and economic issues related to carbon dioxide and its impact on global climate change. The information is taken from the two papers presented in this session (the U.S. Perspective by Dennis Leaf and the European Perspective by Hans J.H. Verolme) and from the panel discussion that took place at the end of the session. The overview focuses primarily on the policy responses of both the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) to changes in global atmospheric pollution. To a lesser extent, the progress of policy responses to these changes is discussed. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has been signed and ratified by over 180 countries. The UNFCCC contained no binding targets or timetables for emissions reductions. The Kyoto Protocol [United Nations. Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. UNEP.IUC/99/10. Chatlelaine, Switzerland: United Nations Environment Programme's Information Unit for Conventions, for the Climate Change Secretariat, 1997] to the UNFCCC did contain targets and timetables for reductions of greenhouse gases on the part of developed countries. The US has signed but not ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The US has experienced some movement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions on the part of various levels of government, as well as the private sector. The UK's commitment to reducing green house gases is laid down in the UK Climate Change Programme 2000. The UK is a member of the European Union (EU). In this context, an example of EU-wide progress, the voluntary agreement with car manufacturers to reduce CO(2) emissions in new vehicles, will be discussed. In addition, there will be some discussion on the UK CO(2) trading scheme that created the first market in the world in April 2001. Overall, the policy process is constantly informed by scientific research. In the case of climate change, much of this work is carried

  13. Analysis of Aircraft Fuels and Related Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    9) Hypodermic syringes and needles (10) Laboratory detergent preparation for glassware 533...AFWAL-TR-82-2082 ANALYSIS OF AIRCR ’ELS AND RELATED MATERIALS F. Neil Hodgson, Edward A. Steinmetz. John D. Tobias, Billy B. Bowles, and Charlotte D...80 Discussion 80 7. Analysis of Rman Spectroscopy Data for Goodness-Of-Fit to Four Statistical Distributions 86 S. Analyses to Determine Cause of

  14. Issues Relating to Selective Reporting When Including Non-Randomized Studies in Systematic Reviews on the Effects of Healthcare Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Susan L.; Moher, David; Reeves, Barnaby C.; Shea, Beverley; Loke, Yoon; Garner, Sarah; Anderson, Laurie; Tugwell, Peter; Wells, George

    2013-01-01

    Background: Selective outcome and analysis reporting (SOR and SAR) occur when only a subset of outcomes measured and analyzed in a study is fully reported, and are an important source of potential bias. Key methodological issues: We describe what is known about the prevalence and effects of SOR and SAR in both randomized controlled trials (RCTs)…

  15. Incorporating spatial context into the analysis of salmonid habitat relations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torgersen, Christian E.; Baxter, Colden V.; Ebersole, J.L.; Gresswell, Bob; Church, Michael; Biron, Pascale M.; Roy, Andre G.

    2012-01-01

    In this response to the chapter by Lapointe (this volume), we discuss the question of why it is so difficult to predict salmonid-habitat relations in gravel-bed rivers and streams. We acknowledge that this cannot be an exhaustive treatment of the subject and, thus, identify what we believe are several key issues that demonstrate the necessity of incorporating spatial context into the analysis of fish-habitat data. Our emphasis is on spatial context (i.e., scale and location), but it is important to note that the same principles may be applied with some modification to temporal context, which is beyond the scope of this chapter.

  16. Guidance in Social and Ethical Issues Related to Clinical, Diagnostic Care and Novel Therapies for Hereditary Neuromuscular Rare Diseases: “Translating“ the Translational

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Pauline; Woods, Simon; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Hagger, Lynn; Herczegfalvi, Agnes; Heslop, Emma; Irwin, Joseph; Kirschner, Janbernd; Moeschen, Patrick; Muntoni, Francesco; Ouillade, Marie-Christine; Rahbek, Jes; Rehmann-Sutter, Christoph; Rouault, Francoise; Sejersen, Thomas; Vroom, Elizabeth; Straub, Volker; Bushby, Kate; Ferlini, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Drug trials in children engage with many ethical issues, from drug-related safety concerns to communication with patients and parents, and recruitment and informed consent procedures. This paper addresses the field of neuromuscular disorders where the possibility of genetic, mutation-specific treatments, has added new complexity. Not only must trial design address issues of equity of access, but researchers must also think through the implications of adopting a personalised medicine approach, which requires a precise molecular diagnosis, in addition to other implications of developing orphan drugs. It is against this background of change and complexity that the Project Ethics Council (PEC) was established within the TREAT-NMD EU Network of Excellence. The PEC is a high level advisory group that draws upon the expertise of its interdisciplinary membership which includes clinicians, lawyers, scientists, parents, representatives of patient organisations, social scientists and ethicists. In this paper we describe the establishment and terms of reference of the PEC, give an indication of the range and depth of its work and provide some analysis of the kinds of complex questions encountered. The paper describes how the PEC has responded to substantive ethical issues raised within the TREAT-NMD consortium and how it has provided a wider resource for any concerned parent, patient, or clinician to ask a question of ethical concern. Issues raised range from science related ethical issues, issues related to hereditary neuromuscular diseases and the new therapeutic approaches and questions concerning patients rights in the context of patient registries and bio-banks. We conclude by recommending the PEC as a model for similar research contexts in rare diseases. PMID:23330068

  17. Ethical Issues Relative to Autonomy and Personal Control in Independent and Cognitively Impaired Elders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Virginia Hill; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ethical issues surrounding health care for independent elders, those in long-term care, and those with cognitive impairments, as well as death, dying, euthanasia, and assisted suicide. Suggests that nurses should focus on older adults' choice, autonomy, and personal control. (SK)

  18. Teachers' Controversial Issue Decisions Related to Race, Gender, and Religion during the 2008 Presidential Election

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journell, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Using the 2008 Presidential Election as a case of curricular controversy, the author describes how six high school government teachers responded to the racial, gender, and religious diversity included on the presidential tickets of the two major political parties. Teachers had to decide whether the issue of Americans challenging the tradition of…

  19. Using Popular Culture Texts in the Classroom to Interrogate Issues of Gender Transgression Related Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happel-Parkins, Alison; Esposito, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how undergraduate instructors of pre-service educators can address complex issues of sexuality and sexual orientation within the classroom. First, we explain our own backgrounds and positionalities to provide a context for our ensuing ideas and discussions. Second, by reviewing the literature on homophobic bullying, we…

  20. Selected Issues Relating to Community Colleges. Report No. 84-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Ronald

    Designed to provide the Washington State Legislature with information for use in making future legislative determinations concerning selected community college issues, this report presents information on the state's community colleges including policies on annual leave, allocation of resources, and salary increments. Part I outlines the scope and…

  1. Identification of a senior Superfund official for addressing special NPL site-related issues. Directive

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-22

    The directive describes the process for identifying a senior Superfund official responsible for reviewing and addressing specific issues at National Priorities List sites that cannot be resolved at the Regional level, and for identifying criteria for NPL site referrals to this official.

  2. Work-Related Issues Facing Nurse Anesthetists During Deployment on a Military Operation Other Than War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    an every day occurrence at the majority of sites. There were mosquitoes, banana rats, iguanas , and sand crabs in Cuba; camel spiders, mice, scorpions...www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/new_pubs/jpl_02. pdf NURSE ANESTHETIST DEPLOYMENT ISSUES 62 Kincheloe, J.L

  3. Work-Related Issues Facing Nurse Anesthetists During Deployment on Military Operation Other Than War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    sites. There were mosquitoes, banana rats, iguanas , and sand crabs in Cuba; camel spiders, mice, scorpions, snakes, and "attack" flies in Saudi Arabia...doctrine/jel/new_pubs/jplO2. pdf NURSE ANESTHETIST DEPLOYMENT ISSUES 62 Kincheloe, J.L., & McLaren, P.L. (1994). Rethinking critical theory and qualitative

  4. Ethical Issues Relating to Teaching via an Interactive Two-Way Television System (ITV).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoms, Karen Jarrett

    The information age has introduced new methods of delivering educational materials to students. One method is two-way interactive television (ITV). As more schools utilize ITV, for distance education and other educational purposes, certain administrative, legal, and ethical issues need to be addressed. This paper focuses on human and ethical…

  5. Public Higher Education Funding, Budget Drivers, and Related Issues: The State Community College Director Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsinas, Stephen G.; D'Amico, Mark M.; Friedel, Janice N.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents results from the 2012 National Survey of Access and Finance Issues conducted by the National Council of State Directors of Community Colleges (NCSDCC), an affiliated council of the American Association of Community Colleges, and includes a comparison of survey results from previous years dating back to 2003, with the…

  6. Educational Finance. Briefing Paper: Texas Public School Finance and Related Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Catherine P.; England, Claire

    This document explores various issues that affect Texas public school finance. It opens with an overview of the Texas public school system, which comprises 1,043 independent school districts, with an average of 6.4 campuses per district. The federal role in financing schools is examined, along with education finance and the state budget. Four…

  7. An Exploration of School Leadership Issues Relating to the "December Dilemma"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Anna L.; Vasek, Austin; Davis, Derek

    2012-01-01

    School leadership is required to navigate difficult issues concerning the religious liberties of their students. December is a month filled with secular and religious holidays. It is the one month on the school calendar filled with joyous cultural celebrations. However, it can also become a quandary for leadership when attempting to balance the…

  8. Education of the handicapped child: Status, trend, and issues related to electronic delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothenberg, D.

    1973-01-01

    This study is part of a broader investigation of the role of large-scale educational telecommunications systems. Thus, data are analyzed and trends and issues discussed to provide information useful to the systems designer who wishes to identify and assess the opportunities for large-scale electronic delivery of education for the handicapped.

  9. The Target Income Hypothesis and Related Issues in Health Manpower Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Manpower.

    The target income hypothesis as applied to health personnel is discussed in seven papers and three commentaries. The hypothesis pertains to the economic behavior of physicians, and it has recently been applied to dentists as well. The issues concern the production/supply of practitioners and the resulting cost for their services. Whether…

  10. From Professional Development to Classroom Instruction: Addressing Issues Related to Science Inquiry Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2009-01-01

    In this rejoinder, I first provide a more detailed account of the discourse-focused professional development activities facilitated as part of the SMIT'N program, specifically addressing issues raised by van Zee with regard to the institute's overall format, goals and development strategies. Next, I resort to Peter Medawar's metaphorical view of…

  11. COSTS AND ISSUES RELATED TO REMEDIATION OF PETROLEUM-CONTAMINATED SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The remediation costs required at sites contaminated with petroleum-derived compounds remains a relevant issue because of the large number of existing underground storage tanks the United States and the presence of benzene, MTBE, and TBA in some drinking water supplies. Cost inf...

  12. COSTS AND ISSUES RELATED TO REMEDIATION OF PETROLEUM-CONTAMINATED SITES (NEW ORLEANS, LA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The remediation costs required at sites contaminated with petroleum-derived compounds remains a relevant issue because of the large number of existing underground storage tanks the United States and the presence of benzene, MTBE, and TBA in some drinking water supplies. Cost inf...

  13. Issues Related to the Construction of a Purpose-Built Domain-Specific Word Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa; Pfister, H. Peter; Peterson, Peter

    2004-01-01

    There is growing interest in the use of semantic collections in order to identify and analyse domain knowledge. This paper describes some technical issues to consider when contemplating research which incorporates small-to-medium domain-specific word sets. The purpose of the corpus construction described was to provide an external word collection…

  14. Secondary School Students' Interests, Attitudes and Values Concerning School Science Related to Environmental Issues in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Byman, Reijo; Meisalo, Veijo

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between students' interests in environmental issues, attitudes to environmental responsibility and biocentric values in school science education. The factors were investigated within the framework of three moderators: gender, school and residential area of the school. The survey was carried out using the…

  15. Issues Related to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shattuck, Paul T.; Grosse, Scott D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores issues and implications for diagnosis and treatment, stemming from the growing number of children identified with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Recent developments and innovations in special education and Medicaid programs are emphasized. Eligibility determination policies, innovations in diagnostic practices, the cost and…

  16. CLASS A PROCESS USAGE AND RELATED ISSUES: A PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper looks at the factors influencing the land application of biosolids and usage of Class A processes. It reviews the commonly employed Class A processes for controlling pathogens; notes how extensively they are used; discusses issues and concerns with some of them; and it...

  17. Team Deliberate Practice in Medicine and Related Domains: A Consideration of the Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kevin R.; Eccles, David W.; Shatzer, John H.

    2017-01-01

    A better understanding of the factors influencing medical team performance and accounting for expert medical team performance should benefit medical practice. Therefore, the aim here is to highlight key issues with using deliberate practice to improve medical team performance, especially given the success of deliberate practice for developing…

  18. Turkish Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Children's Picture Books Reflecting LGBT-Related Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dedeoglu, Hakan; Ulusoy, Mustafa; Lamme, Linda L.

    2012-01-01

    This research study focuses on Turkish preservice teachers' perceptions of children's picture books containing lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender issues to lend support to encouraging diversity in teacher education programs and elementary school classrooms. The authors proposed that reading, listening, and responding to diverse children's…

  19. Factors Affecting Recruitment and Attrition in Randomised Controlled Trials of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Pregnancy-Related Issues

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) for pregnancy-related issues have encountered issues with recruitment and attrition. Little is known about the cause of these issues. Methods. Data was gathered from an antenatal CAM randomised controlled trial. During foetal anomaly appointments, women meeting inclusion criteria were invited to participate in the trial. Numbers of women invited and eligible were recorded. Reasons for noninterest were noted and analysed. Focus groups exploring trial experience of participants were also conducted. Findings. Of the 428 women invited to participate, 376 were eligible and just under a quarter participated. Reasons for nonparticipation included concerns about CAM and lack of interest in participation in research. Other factors negatively affecting recruitment included recruitment timing, competition for participants, limited support from staff, and inadequate trial promotion. Factors encouraging recruitment included being interested in research and seeking pain relief. Reasons for dropping out were time constraints, travel issues, work commitments, and pregnancy issues. Several women in the sham and usual care group dropped out due to dissatisfaction with treatment allocation. Conclusion. CAM researchers must explore problems encountered with recruitment and attrition so that evidence-based implementation strategies to address the issues can be developed. PMID:27956921

  20. 78 FR 60281 - Media Bureau Seeks Comment on Catalog of Eligible Expenses and Other Issues Related to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... COMMISSION Media Bureau Seeks Comment on Catalog of Eligible Expenses and Other Issues Related to the... (Commission) seeks comment on a Catalog of Eligible Expenses that includes costs broadcasters may incur as a... within the limitations of the Spectrum Act, the Commission seeks comment on the types of...

  1. EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1), that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the Methodological Issues Related to the Use of P Less than 0.05 in Health Behavior Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duryea, Elias; Graner, Stephen P.; Becker, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews methodological issues related to the use of P less than 0.05 in health behavior research and suggests how application and presentation of statistical significance may be improved. Assessment of sample size and P less than 0.05, the file drawer problem, the Law of Large Numbers and the statistical significance arguments in…

  2. U.S.-India Relations: The Asia Society. A Media Source Guide, Issues for the '80s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on International and Public Affairs, New York, NY.

    One of a series of guides dealing with diverse topics of concern to the U.S. media, this publication is intended to provide journalists with concise, authoritative background information on India and India-U.S. relations. The guide begins with a series of background papers (by Philip Oldenburg) discussing issues and interests in Indo-U.S.…

  3. [White House Conference on Aging, 1981: Health-Related and Medical Care Issues of the Elderly. Eighteen Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White House Conference on Aging, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the 18 papers on health-related and medical care issues of the elderly that were presented at the 1981 White House Conference on Aging. The materials focus on the following topics: physical mobility, death, heart disease, nutrition, injury, senile dementia, post-menopausaul women, gerontological nursing, learning and memory,…

  4. A Teacher Attitude Inventory: Identifying Teacher Positions in Relation to Educational Issues and Decisions. Research and Development Memorandum No. 118.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmore, Joanne Rand

    This memorandum reports on the preliminary research using a 24-item inventory designed to measure teacher's positions in relation to education issues and teaching decisions. The instrument, whose development is reported, is intended to identify representatives of two dichotomous styles of teaching: traditional, teacher-centered teaching and…

  5. 75 FR 28610 - Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... AGENCY Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Public Comment Period. SUMMARY: EPA is announcing a 90-day public comment period for the external review draft entitled, ``EPA's Reanalysis of...

  6. 75 FR 33615 - Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (EPA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... AGENCY Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (EPA/600/R-10/038A) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Listening Session. SUMMARY: EPA is announcing a listening session to be held on July 9, 2010, during the public...

  7. The Impact of Professional Development about Weight-Related Issues for Pre-Service Teachers: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Ireland, Alana; Peat, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    Many teachers do not have a working knowledge of body image or weight issues. This pilot project examined body image satisfaction and eating/weight-related behaviours before and after a professional in-service with physical education pre-service teachers (N = 16). At the three-month follow-up, measures were repeated and qualitative data (critical…

  8. The Relative Predictive Validity of ACT Scores and High School Grades in Making College Admission Decisions. Issues in College Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2008

    2008-01-01

    Postsecondary institutions often consider students' high school grades and ACT scores when making admission decisions. This issue brief summarizes ACT research on the relative weights of ACT scores and high school grades for predicting college persistence as well as selected indicators of academic success in college. (Contains 1 table and 3…

  9. EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

  1. Space Station Engineering Design Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  2. Issues of scale, location and geologic terrain related to Salt Lake City and Baltimore-Washington metropolitan areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleaves, E.T.; Godfrey, A.E.; ,

    2004-01-01

    Planning and development of expanding metropolitan regions require consideration of earth science issues related to issues involving scale, space (location), geologic terrain and physiographic units, and information transfer. This paper explores these matters with examples from the Salt Lake City, Utah area and Mid-Atlantic region of Baltimore-Washington that include water supply and natural hazards (earthquakes, landslides, and sinkholes.) Information transfer methods using physiographic units at national, regional, local and site scales serve to communicate relevant geologic constraint and natural resource information.

  3. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Laurids Boring

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  4. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-17

    inspection regimes, and the vulnerability of the U.S. food supply to accidental contamination or deliberate tampering. More specifically, the issue has...exports of pet food with wheat gluten from China to reports of pet deaths from kidney failure in the United States. The Canadian company that had imported...foods and other pet food manufacturers.3 On April 3, 2007, the FDA began halting imports of wheat gluten from a PRC company, the Xuzhou Anying Biologic

  5. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-23

    position, admitting on April 26, 2007, that PRC companies had exported melamine-laced wheat gluten to the United States.8 The pet food contamination was...inspection regimes, and the vulnerability of the U.S. food supply to accidental contamination or deliberate tampering. More specifically, the issue has...exports of pet food with wheat gluten from China to reports of pet deaths from kidney failure in the United States. The Canadian CRS-6 6 On April 12

  6. Environmental health and hazardous waste issues related to the U.S.-Mexico border.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, D E; Peña, C; Varady, R; Suk, W A

    1996-01-01

    Environmental health and environmental quality issues along the U.S.-Mexico border have been of concern for several years. The enactment of the North American Free Trade Agreement and the presence of the maquiladoras (foreign-owned industries using imported raw materials) have intensified those concerns recently. Efforts to assess these issues are complicated by the fact that many of the issues affecting the border region are within federal jurisdiction, but the problems are regional and local in nature. Thus, state and local governments become involved with public concerns about real and potential problems. One major problem is that environmental health data from this region are lacking, particularly from Mexico. Some new agencies such as the Border Environment Cooperation Commission, the United States-Mexico Border Health Commission, and the North American Commission on Environmental Cooperation have joined several existing agencies at the federal and state level to address environmental quality and health. Several studies have been initiated to determine air and water quality, but little is being done in the areas of hazardous waste and health assessment. Several problems are anticipated in the generation of such data, such as its format and accessibility. Data gaps and research needs are discussed. PMID:8793340

  7. Raising Critical Issues in the Analysis of Gender and Science in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sonya N.; Siry, Christina A.

    2009-01-01

    Trevor Owens' paper provides a critique of the role of gender and authority in selected children's books that presented biographies of Albert Einstein and Marie Curie. In the context of discussing Trevor's (2009) article about children's literature, this forum explores issues related to the (a) representation and construction of gender, science,…

  8. Research Trends on Socioscientific Issues: A Content Analysis of Publications in Selected Science Education Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekin, Nurcan; Aslan, Oktay; Yilmaz, Suleyman

    2016-01-01

    Socioscientific issues (SSIs) have gained recently more importance in science education. SSIs are an important component of scientific literacy. SSIs are social dilemmas including conceptual or technological links to science. The present study aims to determine SSIs related research trends via content analyses of the articles published from 2004…

  9. Key research issues in the pulsed fast-neutron analysis technique for cargo inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micklich, Bradley J.; Fink, Charles L.; Yule, Thomas J.

    1994-10-01

    Non-invasive inspection systems based on the use of fast neutrons are being studied for the inspection of large cargo containers. A key advantage of fast neutrons is their sensitivity to low-Z elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which are the primary constituents of explosives and narcotics. The high energy allows penetration of relatively large containers. The pulsed fast-neutron analysis (PFNA) technique is currently the baseline system. A workshop on the PFNA technique involving industrial, government, and university participants was held at Argonne National Laboratory in January 1994. The purpose of this workshop was to review the status of research on the key technical issues involved in PFNA, and to develop a list of those areas where additional modeling and/or experimentation were needed. The workshop also focused on development of a near-term experimental assessment program using existing prototypes and on development of a long-term test program at the Tacoma Testbed, where a PFNA prototype will be installed in 1995. A summary of conclusions reached at this workshop is presented. Results from analytic and Monte Carlo modeling of simplified PFNA systems are also presented.

  10. Key research issues in the pulsed fast-neutron analysis technique for cargo inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.; Yule, T.J.

    1994-07-01

    Non-invasive inspection systems based on the use of fast neutrons are being studied for the inspection of large cargo containers. A key advantage of fast neutrons is their sensitivity to low-Z elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which are the primary constituents of explosives and narcotics. The high energy allows penetration of relatively large containers. The pulsed fast-neutron analysis (PFNA) technique is currently the baseline system. A workshop on the PFNA technique involving industrial, government, and university participants was held at Argonne National Lab. in January 1994. The purpose of this workshop was to review the status of research on the key technical issues involved in PFNA, and to develop a list of those areas where additional modeling and/or experimentation were needed. The workshop also focused on development of a near-term experimental assessment program using existing prototypes and on development of a long-term test program at the Tacoma Testbed, where a PFNA prototype will be installed in 1995. A summary of conclusions reached at this workshop is presented. Results from analytic and Monte Carlo modeling of simplified PFNA systems are also presented.

  11. Issues in the use of acoustic cues for auditory scene analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bregman, Albert S.

    2003-04-01

    Issues concerning auditory scene analysis (ASA) raised by the previous speakers will be discussed: (1) Disorders of ASA in humans can tell us about the weighting of cues in ASA. (2) The apparent weakness of spatial cues for ASA may simply show that they interact strongly with other ASA cues (c.f., recent research in the author's lab). (3) The power of harmonic relations among partials as a grouping cue is not guaranteed, but depends on many other factors. (4) Abstract models of ASA may require the peripheral auditory system to carry out analyses that are questionable, based on current psychophysical and physiological findings. Is this where psychologists and computational ASA (CASA) modelers part company? (5) The ``old-plus-new heuristic,'' one of the most potent ASA mechanisms, is neglected by existing CASA models. (6) The different roles of bottom-up and top-down processes (e.g., in ``exclusive allocation'' of sensory evidence) should be reflected in models. (7) Should the output of a CASA system be the reconstructed signal of a single source, as a front end to a recognition system, or should grouping mechanisms merely form an interacting part of a larger system that outputs a higher-level description (e.g., a series of words)?

  12. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 153: Loss of essential service water in LWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Su, T.M.

    1993-08-01

    In this report, the staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission provides a regulatory analysis for the proposed resolution of Generic Issue 153 (GI-153), ``Loss of Essential Service Water in LWRS.`` GI-153 deals with the concerns pertaining to the reliability of essential service water (ESW) system and related problems for all light water reactors except the seven multi-unit sites addressed by GI-130. ``Essential Service Water Pump failures at Multi-Unit Sites.`` On the basis of the technical findings of a scoping study for GI-153, the staff recommends that the insights gained from the study serve as a complement to the on-going ESW performance inspection program. The staff also concludes that ESW system reliability is being addressed by various on-going regulatory programs. Therefore, the staff recommends that GI-153 should be considered ``RESOLVED.`` The need for future action(s) on ESW reliability is expected to be determined from these on-going programs.

  13. PBL triggers in relation to students’ generated learning issues and predetermined faculty objectives: Study in a Malaysian public university

    PubMed Central

    Ruslai, Nurul Hidayati; Salam, Abdus

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Foundational elements of problem based learning (PBL) are triggers, tutors and students. Ineffective triggers are important issues for students’ inability to generate appropriate learning issues. The objective of this study was to evaluate PBL triggers and to determine similarities of students’ generated learning issues with predetermined faculty objectives. Methods: It was a retrospective study conducted in 2014 analyzing all 24 PBL-triggers used at Centre for Foundation Studies, International Islamic University Malaysia, in four semesters during two consecutive years 2011 and 2012. Triggers were used as textual and illustration format equally in each semester. Total 16 PBL-triggers with highest and lowest achieving similarities of learning issues with predetermined faculty objectives were selected equally from each semester and format. The trigger quality and learning issues related to predetermine faculty objectives were analyzed and presented as mean and percent distribution. Results: Mean similarities score of students’ generated learning issues were 3.4 over 5 predetermined faculty objectives which was 68%, varied from 58% to 79%. More than 70% similarities were generated from five textual and four illustrated triggers, while <70% similarities observed from four illustrated and three textual triggers. Conclusion: Whatever the trigger formats in PBL, it is the designing considering influential variables that influence higher outcomes. Triggers should have planned clues that lead students to generate issues correlate with faculty objectives. Educational institution should emphasize on training needs of faculty at regular interval to develop and re-in force teachers’ skills in trigger design, thereby to promote a sustainable educational and organizational development. PMID:27182232

  14. [The environment as a health surveillance issue: analysis of nursing activities].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Maria Celeste Soares; Bertolozzi, Maria Rita

    2004-01-01

    The fact that the need for environmental conservation has been on the national and international agenda determined the development of this study, which aims to examine how the environment is an issue for nurses working in health surveillance services, according to their testimonies. From July to August 1999, eight female nurses described their routine. Their reports were studied by means of the discourse analysis technique. It was concluded that, in general, their actions were not aimed at environmental conservation and were limited to factual and emergency issues.

  15. The Soldier-Cyborg Transformation: A Framework for Analysis of Social and Ethical Issues of Future Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-26

    government agency. STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT THE SOLDIER- CYBORG TRANSFORMATION: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES OF FUTURE...UNCLASSIFIED USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT THE SOLDIER- CYBORG TRANSFORMATION: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES OF FUTURE...P) Donald A. Gagliano, M.D. TITLE: THE SOLDIER CYBORG TRANSFORMATION: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES OF FUTURE WARFARE

  16. Work design and analysis for space-based manufacturing: a case analysis of initial design issues.

    PubMed

    Casler, J G; Cook, J R

    2003-01-15

    The purpose of the present research was to investigate the nature of potential manufacturing tasks humans may execute in a space environment. The success of space-based manufacturing (SBM) is suggested to be a precursor to permanent human presence in space. A working hypothesis for this study was that human work in the SBM environment would be substantially different from terrestrial manufacturing work. To investigate this hypothesis, a case analysis approach was developed that employed a function allocation and task analysis of a representative SBM process: the production of tailored industrial crystals. This research approach was chosen as the current state of engineering design for SBM is in the conceptual and early flow sheeting phases of a system life cycle. Results of the task analysis and function allocation process suggest response to corrective maintenance functions and to abnormal system conditions should be allocated to humans as opposed to automation. These results are discussed in relation to human factors engineering challenges associated with long-duration human presence in an SBM environment.

  17. QA/QC Issues Related to Data From Volunteer Citizen Scientist Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, G. C.; Crimmins, M.; Vazquez, R.; Rupprecht, C.

    2007-12-01

    Earth science researchers increasingly are using field data gathered by volunteer citizen scientists, particularly where there is a need for dense or far-flung networks of instruments, or qualitative observations of environmental conditions (e.g., drought-caused plant stress, bird migration, spring ice break-up). Precipitation monitoring is a popular form of citizen science, with hundreds of local networks, and two regional networks - CoCoRaHS with observers in over 20 states, and RainLog, with over 1,200 observers in the Southwestern U.S. Dense networks of rain gages are especially valuable for capturing localized, convective storm events, with the data used for multiple purposes, including research, flood early warning, drought monitoring, and weather reporting. Researchers may be hesitant to use data collected by citizen scientists because of Quality Assurance/Quality Control issues associated with networks of volunteers. Gages vary in precision and accuracy, and citizen scientists have different levels of skill and experience. Backyard gages are not always ideally sited with respect to buildings and trees. Data entry issues include delays in reporting and input errors. Missing data are not only more prevalent than for official gages, the missing data are non-random. Spatial patterns of volunteers' gages reflect development patterns and socio-demographic factors, resulting in clusters and voids in gage distribution. Current interpolation methodologies do not handle these gage patterns well. RainLog is systematically quantifying these QA/QC issues, and where possible, developing procedures to mitigate them. Citizen scientists are kept informed and engaged and informed through a variety of web-based data visualization approaches. Automated monthly data reviews glean missing data and offer an opportunity to check outlier values. Various statistical approaches are used to estimate accuracy and precision for each gage. Finally, we are developing and implementing more

  18. Title V Applicability Issues Related to the Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  19. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-08

    terrorism efforts, the North Korea nuclear issue, the overall security situation in the Asia-Pacific, and the travel of U.S. planes and ships through...worked closely on the Six Party Talks to restrain and eliminate North Korea’s nuclear weapons activities. Although these and other initiatives of...Jiabao began a three-day, high-profile “goodwill” visit to North Korea . October 1, 2009—The PRC celebrated the 60th anniversary of its founding, with

  20. Scientific and Ethical Issues Related to Deep Brain Stimulation for Disorders of Mood, Behavior and Thought

    PubMed Central

    Rabins, Peter; Appleby, Brian S.; Brandt, Jason; DeLong, Mahlon R.; Dunn, Laura B.; Gabriëls, Loes; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Haber, Suzanne N.; Holtzheimer, Paul E.; Mari, Zoltan; Mayberg, Helen S.; McCann, Evelyn; Mink, Sallie P; Rasmussen, Steven; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Vawter, Dorothy E.; Vitek, Jerrold L.; Walkup, John; Mathews, Debra J. H.

    2009-01-01

    A two-day consensus conference was held in order to examine scientific and ethical issues in the application of deep brain stimulation in the treatment of mood and behavioral disorders such as major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and Tourette syndrome. The primary objectives of the conference were to 1) establish consensus among participants about the design of future clinical trials of DBS for disorders of mood, behavior and thought and 2) develop standards for the protection of human subjects participating in such studies. Conference participants identified 16 key points for guiding research in this growing field. PMID:19736349

  1. Relative risk regression analysis of epidemiologic data.

    PubMed

    Prentice, R L

    1985-11-01

    Relative risk regression methods are described. These methods provide a unified approach to a range of data analysis problems in environmental risk assessment and in the study of disease risk factors more generally. Relative risk regression methods are most readily viewed as an outgrowth of Cox's regression and life model. They can also be viewed as a regression generalization of more classical epidemiologic procedures, such as that due to Mantel and Haenszel. In the context of an epidemiologic cohort study, relative risk regression methods extend conventional survival data methods and binary response (e.g., logistic) regression models by taking explicit account of the time to disease occurrence while allowing arbitrary baseline disease rates, general censorship, and time-varying risk factors. This latter feature is particularly relevant to many environmental risk assessment problems wherein one wishes to relate disease rates at a particular point in time to aspects of a preceding risk factor history. Relative risk regression methods also adapt readily to time-matched case-control studies and to certain less standard designs. The uses of relative risk regression methods are illustrated and the state of development of these procedures is discussed. It is argued that asymptotic partial likelihood estimation techniques are now well developed in the important special case in which the disease rates of interest have interpretations as counting process intensity functions. Estimation of relative risks processes corresponding to disease rates falling outside this class has, however, received limited attention. The general area of relative risk regression model criticism has, as yet, not been thoroughly studied, though a number of statistical groups are studying such features as tests of fit, residuals, diagnostics and graphical procedures. Most such studies have been restricted to exponential form relative risks as have simulation studies of relative risk estimation

  2. Measurement issues related to data collection on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Ora L; Moloney, Margaret F; Dietrich, Alexa S; Myerburg, Stuart; Cotsonis, George A; Johnson, Robert V

    2003-01-01

    As the World Wide Web has become more prominent as a mode of communication, it has opened up new possibilities for research data collection. This article identifies measurement issues that occur with Internet data collection that are relevant to qualitative and quantitative research approaches as they occurred in a triangulated Internet study of perimenopausal women with migraine headaches. Issues associated with quantitative data collection over the Internet include (a) selecting and designing Internet data collection protocols that adequately address study aims while also taking advantage of the Internet, (b) ensuring the reliability and validity of Internet data collected, (c) adapting quantitative paper-and-pencil data collection protocols for the Internet, (d) making Internet data collection practical for respondents and researchers, and (e) ensuring the quality of quantitative data collected. Qualitative data collection over the Internet needs to remain true to the philosophical stance of the qualitative approach selected. Researcher expertise in qualitative data collection must be combined with expertise in computer technology and information services if data are to be of ultimate quality The advantages and limitations of collecting qualitative data in real time or at a later time are explored, as well as approaches to enhance qualitative data collection over the Internet. It was concluded that like any research approach or method, Internet data collection requires considerable creativity, expertise, and planning to take advantage of the technology for the collection of reliable and valid research data.

  3. Team deliberate practice in medicine and related domains: a consideration of the issues.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kevin R; Eccles, David W; Shatzer, John H

    2017-03-01

    A better understanding of the factors influencing medical team performance and accounting for expert medical team performance should benefit medical practice. Therefore, the aim here is to highlight key issues with using deliberate practice to improve medical team performance, especially given the success of deliberate practice for developing individual expert performance in medicine and other domains. Highlighting these issues will inform the development of training for medical teams. The authors first describe team coordination and its critical role in medical teams. Presented next are the cognitive mechanisms that allow expert performers to accurately interpret the current situation via the creation of an accurate mental "model" of the current situation, known as a situation model. Following this, the authors propose that effective team performance depends at least in part on team members having similar models of the situation, known as a shared situation model. The authors then propose guiding principles for implementing team deliberate practice in medicine and describe how team deliberate practice can be used in an attempt to reduce barriers inherent in medical teams to the development of shared situation models. The paper concludes with considerations of limitations, and future research directions, concerning the implementation of team deliberate practice within medicine.

  4. Comparison of environmental issues related to development of small hydropower resources at new versus existing sites

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J. M.; Hildebrand, S. G.

    1980-01-01

    Many of the ecological issues associated with the development of small hydropower resources are similar at both new (undeveloped) sites and those with existing dams that will be retrofitted for hydroelectric generation. Issues that could occur with both types of development are: (1) blockage of fish migration routes; (2) water level fluctuations; (3) instream flows, (4) water quality; (5) dredging and dredged material disposal; and (6) threatened or endangered species. However, new site development projects require the alteration of existing aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems that will be, in most cases, significantly greater than the environmental changes associated with the retrofitting of existing dams. Although project design and operation are important factors controlling the nature and magnitude of the environmental impacts of small hydropower resource development, the mitigation of adverse impacts (and the optimization of beneficial effects) is dependent, in large measure, on our ability to accurately predict physical, chemical, and biological changes. Predicting the impacts of new impoundments may be considerably more difficult than predicting the impacts that might occur if an existing dam/impoundment system is developed. A comparative approach at the ecosystem level can provide valuable insights into the structure and function of reservoir systems and significantly increase our predictive capability.

  5. Language and thinking: analysis of breathing-related phraseology.

    PubMed

    Niebrój, L T

    2005-09-01

    In the contemporary bioethics, patient's autonomy is often recognized as the most important issue. This autonomy is interpreted as the right to self-determination regarding all medical-related decisions. An essential condition of autonomous decisions is the adequate knowledge of the issues involved. The "informed consent" has become a gold standard of bioethics. All this leads to focusing on the problems related to communication, and, in consequence, on the language as a fundamental tool of communication. The aim of the article was to reveal the meaning of "breath(e)/breathing" and in that way to contribute to a better communication between doctors and patients. An analysis was performed using a method of non-analytical philosophy of language. English, Italian, and Polish were chosen as subjects of this study. The results clearly show the multiplicity and variety of meanings that assume breathing-related linguistic expressions. All of them are classified in four main groups. In conclusion, the author submits that an improvement in the understanding of different meanings of words used in the doctor-patient relationship can contribute to maintaining ethical standards in medical practice.

  6. An Examination of Issues Related to a Europa Subsurface Component for the JIMO Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsey, F. D.; Hecht, M. H.; Wilcox, B. H.; Behar, A. E.; Holland, P. M.

    2003-01-01

    The Galileo Europa data set served to revolutionize our view of Europa. In particular the strong evidence of a large, cold, salty Ocean beneath 5-30 km of ice has profoundly altered the significance of Europa in our thinking, especially of context of habitability in the solar system. While much remains to be learned from spacecraft observations of several sorts, there are significant questions answerable only by in-situ techniques; these relate to the formation of Europa, the nature of its ocean, and the prospects for life in its ocean, sediments, and ice. We feel that wide-ranging discussion of an in-situ subsurface mission to Europa, as part of JIMO, should proceed. The science objective of the mission is to characterize the icy shell of Europa to resolve its provenance, estimate the composition of brine of the Europa ocean, and search for evidence of Earth-like life. Probably anyone would agree that an in-situ mission to Europa would be of great value, but he or she would also immediately take the position that such a mission is utterly impractical. We take the position here of defining the least complex mission that can nonetheless justify its cost and to argue that such a mission is realistic enough that it should be seriously considered. Our mission thinking has been: 1) Soft landing. A soft lander is required on a site sufficiently flat to offer a stable platform; no further site selectivity is required. 2) Subsurface exploration. The Europa subsurface must be examined. Surficial processes on Europa arguably have exposed the upper 200 m of shell to chemical effects from the Jovian radiation belts as well as cometary infall, etc; to examine native ice we must descend below that point to, for discussion, 300 m. At that depth we argue that the ice is characteristic of ice at depth and possibly is effectively sea ice. 3) Science data. A few simple measurements at various depths and at 300 m constitute a scientifically successful mission. Measurements would

  7. Capillary electrophoresis for the analysis of contaminants in emerging food safety issues and food traceability.

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aarón F

    2010-07-01

    This review presents an overview of the applicability of CE in the analysis of chemical and biological contaminants involved in emerging food safety issues. Additionally, CE-based genetic analyzers' usefulness as a unique tool in food traceability verification systems was presented. First, analytical approaches for the determination of melamine and specific food allergens in different foods were discussed. Second, natural toxin analysis by CE was updated from the last review reported in 2008. Finally, the analysis of prion proteins associated with the "mad cow" crises and the application of CE-based genetic analyzers for meat traceability were summarized.

  8. Chapter 2. General theoretical perspectives of narrative analysis of substance use-related dependency.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Sam; Lilja, John; von Braun, Therese; Sjöblom, Yvonne

    2013-11-01

    This chapter provides a short introduction to, and an overview for, using narrative analysis in the understanding of the use and misuse of alcohol and drugs. Important theoretical and methodological dimensions are discussed. Some tentative conclusions, limitations, and unresolved critical issues concerning the use of narrative research methods in the analysis of substance use-related dependency problems are also presented.

  9. Technical and policy issues related to semantically and spatially incompatible geodata

    SciTech Connect

    Bespalko, S.J.; Ganter, J.H.; Meter, M.D. Van

    1995-07-01

    Both the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and National Information Infrastructure (NU) efforts have ambitious goals that are expected to improve the fundamental infrastructure, commerce, and society of the United States. Achieving these goals will require rapid development and deployment of information compatibility methods through technical and institutional standards. These standards will have to be scaleable and flexible to support new, and as-yet-undiscovered, data. Yet they will also need to accommodate our valuable data reserves. The area of geospatial data, and thus the creation of a National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), is particularly challenging due to the profoundly different forms, evolutionary histories, and meanings attached to spatial data. We discuss technical issues resulting from the different natures and inaccuracy of existing geodata, and areas where federal policy could lead the way to greater compatibility.

  10. Will Duct Tape and Plastic Really Work? Issues Related to Expedient Shelter-In-Place

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.H.

    2002-08-30

    Expedient sheltering involves the use of common materials to enhance the safety of a room inside a building against the impacts of a chemical plume. The central premise behind taping and sealing with duct tape and plastic is to reduce airflow into a room. This paper reviews issues associated with the use of expedient sheltering materials and the effectiveness of this strategy. Expedient sheltering provides additional protection to people sheltering in place beyond that provided by the house and by a safe room without expedient measures. The materials chosen for taping and sealing--duct tape and plastic--are appropriate because they effectively reduce infiltration and the materials should withstand a vapor challenge. Taping is essential to reduce air infiltration. Plastic sheeting is not a critical element for reducing air infiltration, but it makes sealing off large windows easier.

  11. Overview: the HMO environment in the eighties and related issues in health education.

    PubMed

    Deeds, S G

    1981-01-01

    Solid, though unspectacular, growth of the HMO concept and its concomitant health education components is noted in the 1970s. This trend is expected to continue through the 80s. The overarching priority concern in this decade is cost containment. Two strategies for containment, competition and regulation, are examined for their health education implications. The growth of IPA's brings forth problems in the delivery of health education services within that type of HMO. Other implications and issues within health education practice are identified. These include multiple definitions of health education, the interactive behavioral model, incongruent values among professionals, the relationship of patient education to the quality of care, the marginality of health education, financing, and consumer rights. Realistic, immediate expectations coupled with strong vision of the future potential for health education is urged.

  12. Some critical issues and concerns related to research advances on toxicology of chemical mixtures.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, R S

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses some of the issues and concerns on research advances on the toxicology of chemical mixtures. Emphases will be selectively given to the following questions and answers: Can mechanistic studies be conducted on chemical mixtures? The fact that any studies, including mechanistic studies, of single chemicals are really the study of the parent chemical plus its metabolites underscores the relevance of mechanistic studies on chemical mixtures. Can predictions be made on the health effects of chemical mixtures? Some successes are already evident in the literature on simpler chemical mixtures. For more complex mixtures, it is possible and we propose an approach here. What can we learn from other disciplines (the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration)? Two aspects, the knowledge and methodologies available in clinical pharmacology and the latest advances in structure-oriented lumping in chemical engineering, are discussed in detail. Unrepeatable results: The possibility of magnification of biologic variability because of low-level exposures to chemical mixtures is suggested with special reference to some known examples, including the controversial study on synergistic interactions of endocrine disruptors. Is the driving force for scientific investigations on chemical mixtures the legislative and regulatory atmosphere? Two laws with chemical mixtures specifically in the language are quoted and discussed. Their implications regarding research funding and activities are described. What are the pitfalls of applying for research funding on investigating chemical mixtures? The dilemma at least one investigator faces in pursuing research funding is elaborated. The questions and issues listed above are not all inclusive, but they represent some of the aspects that need to be brought into the open in the scientific community for discussion and/or debate. Thus, the primary objective of this paper is to provide some momentum for the beginning of a fruitful

  13. Radio Frequency Radiation of Millimeter Wave Length: An Evaluation of Potential Occupational Safety Issues Relating to Surface Heating

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-14

    not efficiently remove heat that is deposited internally. A primary avenue of heat removal is blood flow in the retina. Other than conduction...SAFETY ISSUES RELATING TO SURFACE HEATING Kathy L. Ryan,*i John A. D’Andrea,+ James R. Jauchern,* and Patrick A. Mason** Abstract-Currently, technology...more and more systems come on line and are used in everyday applications, the possibility of inadvertent exposure of person- nel to MMWs increases

  14. Knowledge of laws regulating issues related to HIV and AIDS: development of the HIV/AIDS and the law scale.

    PubMed

    Paniagua, F A; Black, S A; O'Boyle, M; Jones, P

    1999-06-01

    42 middle-aged and older adults, ranging in age from 51 to 85 years, completed 10 items dealing with the assessment of knowledge regarding laws regulating issues related to HIV and AIDS. Participants also completed 40 items involving knowledge of risks for HIV infection. The Cronbach coefficient alpha and test-retest reliability coefficient on the HIV/AIDS and the Law Scale were .74 and .83, respectively. Over-all, the grand mean for correct answers was 46.9%, whereas the grand means for incorrect answers and "don't know" responses were 13.6% and 39.5%, suggesting substantial lack of knowledge of laws regulating issues related to HIV and AIDS. Women (50%) and younger participants (51 to 66 years old; 48.2%) showed more of this knowledge (50%) than men (43.0%) and older participants (46.2%). The sample reported a substantial amount of knowledge regarding HIV transmission assessed with factual (92.2% correct) and misconception (87.5% correct) items. The correlation between this knowledge and knowledge of laws regulating issues related to HIV and AIDS was .42 (p < .01). Research with this scale using adolescents and young adults as well as the utility of the scale in areas of clinical, legal, and policy development are discussed.

  15. The Context of Current Content Analysis of Gender Roles: An Introduction to a Special Issue.

    PubMed

    Rudy, Rena M; Popova, Lucy; Linz, Daniel G

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide context for the quantitative content analyses of gender roles that are to be included in both parts of this special issue. First, a timeline of historical uses of the content analysis methodology is presented. Second, research objectives that frequently drive content analysis of gender roles are described; these include: to support feminist claims, to compare media with real life, to predict effects on audiences, and to detect effects of media producers on content. Third, previous content analyses published in Sex Roles and other gender-focused journals are reviewed and categorized in terms of medium, genre, time span, gender, and nationality. Finally, contributions of each of the articles in this special issue are outlined.

  16. The Context of Current Content Analysis of Gender Roles: An Introduction to a Special Issue

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Lucy; Linz, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide context for the quantitative content analyses of gender roles that are to be included in both parts of this special issue. First, a timeline of historical uses of the content analysis methodology is presented. Second, research objectives that frequently drive content analysis of gender roles are described; these include: to support feminist claims, to compare media with real life, to predict effects on audiences, and to detect effects of media producers on content. Third, previous content analyses published in Sex Roles and other gender-focused journals are reviewed and categorized in terms of medium, genre, time span, gender, and nationality. Finally, contributions of each of the articles in this special issue are outlined. PMID:20694031

  17. Conceptual issues in the analysis of cost data within cluster randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Terry; Peters, Tim

    2005-04-01

    Cluster randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are increasingly used in economic evaluations of social, educational and health care interventions. Methodological research has, therefore, been spread across several disciplines, with the result that it has taken many years for guidelines on good statistical practice in the design and analysis of such trials to become easily accessible to health service researchers. These guidelines remain incomplete, however, because they do not take account of issues specific to the analysis of cost data. In particular, they fail to recognize that the calculation of confidence intervals around costs needed to inform health care priority setting raises unique methodological issues. If poorly designed trials are to be avoided in future (including those by the authors), then collaboration between triallists and health economists is required. This paper sets out a framework that should facilitate such collaboration and draws attention to problems that must be addressed quickly in the design of cluster-based economic evaluations.

  18. EPA Issues November 15, 2010 Memorandum: Integrated Reporting and Listing Decisions Related to Ocean Acidification

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The memorandum provides information to assist regions and states in preparing and reviewing Integrated Reports related to ocean acidification (OA) impacts under Sections 303(d), 305(b) and 314 of the Clean Water Act (CWA).

  19. Honesty in Religious Education: Some Further Remarks on the Legacy of Ninian Smart and Related Issues, in Reply to L. Philip Barnes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author makes some further remarks on the legacy of Ninian Smart and related issues in reply to L. Philip Barnes. In his judgement, the exchange between them is worth following up. Substantial issues are raised that are not resolved. In the Editorial of the issue of this journal in which Barnes' response appears, Vivienne…

  20. Joint Center for Operational Analysis Journal. Volume 9, Issue 2, June 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    20 years. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158:866- 870. Davidson PR, Parker KC. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing ( EMDR ): a meta-analysis. J...continue to turn a blind eye to issues in this report or we can face them and make changes to make our efforts better. It is as if we are victims to our...patient evacuation resources within the federal government. In such an event, control of patient staging, regulating, movement , and reporting is

  1. Calculating Contingencies in Natural Environments: Issues in the Application of Sequential Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComas, Jennifer J.; Moore, Timothy; Dahl, Norm; Hartman, Ellie; Hoch, John; Symons, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Analysis and interpretation of behavior-environment relations are increasingly being conducted with data that have been derived descriptively. This paper provides an overview of the logic that underlies a sequential analytic approach to the analysis of descriptive data. Several methods for quantifying sequential relations are reviewed along with…

  2. A brief survey of chemical defense, crew rest, and heat stress/physical training issues related to Operation Desert Storm.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, J A

    1992-06-01

    A brief questionnaire was administered to 148 soldiers, over two-thirds of whom were aviators, at the conclusion of Desert Storm. Questions were asked about chemical defense, work/rest schedules, an aspect of pharmacological support, and heat stress/physical training during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Follow-up face-to-face interviews also were conducted with some respondents. Some of the most noteworthy findings concerned (1) training issues and side effects related to pyridostigmine bromide, (2) problems with chemical defense clothing, (3) suggestions for improving crew rest, and (4) facts about the ways in which heat-related difficulties were minimized.

  3. Marketing nutrition & health-related benefits of food & beverage products: enforcement, litigation & liability issues.

    PubMed

    Roller, Sarah; Pippins, Raqiyyah

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the liability risks associated with food and beverage product marketing have increased significantly, particularly with respect to nutrition and health-related product benefit claims. FDA and FTC enforcement priorities appear to have contributed to the increasing liability trends that are associated with these nutrition and health-related claims. This article examines key enforcement and litigation developments involving conventional food and beverage product marketing claims during the first 18 months of President Obama's administration: Part I considers FDA enforcement priorities and recent warning letters; Part II considers FTC enforcement priorities, warning letters, and consent orders; and Part III considers the relationship between FDA and FTC enforcement priorities and recent false advertising cases brought by private parties challenging nutrition and health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products. The article makes recommendations concerning ways in which food and beverage companies can help minimize liability risks associated with health-related marketing claims. In addition, the article suggests that federal policy reforms may be required to counter the perverse chilling effects current food liability trends appear to be having on health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products, and proposes a number of specific reforms that would help encourage the responsible use of well-substantiated marketing claims that can help foster healthy dietary practices. In view of the obesity prevention and other diet-related public health priorities of the Obama administration, the article suggests that this is an opportune time to address the apparent chilling effects increasing food liability risks are having on nutrition and health-related marketing claims for healthy food and beverage products, and potential adverse consequences for public health.

  4. Integrated Systems for NGS Data Management and Analysis: Open Issues and Available Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Valerio; Ceol, Arnaud; Ogier, Alessandro G. E.; de Pretis, Stefano; Galeota, Eugenia; Kishore, Kamal; Bora, Pranami; Croci, Ottavio; Campaner, Stefano; Amati, Bruno; Morelli, Marco J.; Pelizzola, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have deeply changed our understanding of cellular processes by delivering an astonishing amount of data at affordable prices; nowadays, many biology laboratories have already accumulated a large number of sequenced samples. However, managing and analyzing these data poses new challenges, which may easily be underestimated by research groups devoid of IT and quantitative skills. In this perspective, we identify five issues that should be carefully addressed by research groups approaching NGS technologies. In particular, the five key issues to be considered concern: (1) adopting a laboratory management system (LIMS) and safeguard the resulting raw data structure in downstream analyses; (2) monitoring the flow of the data and standardizing input and output directories and file names, even when multiple analysis protocols are used on the same data; (3) ensuring complete traceability of the analysis performed; (4) enabling non-experienced users to run analyses through a graphical user interface (GUI) acting as a front-end for the pipelines; (5) relying on standard metadata to annotate the datasets, and when possible using controlled vocabularies, ideally derived from biomedical ontologies. Finally, we discuss the currently available tools in the light of these issues, and we introduce HTS-flow, a new workflow management system conceived to address the concerns we raised. HTS-flow is able to retrieve information from a LIMS database, manages data analyses through a simple GUI, outputs data in standard locations and allows the complete traceability of datasets, accompanying metadata and analysis scripts. PMID:27200084

  5. Integrated Systems for NGS Data Management and Analysis: Open Issues and Available Solutions.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Valerio; Ceol, Arnaud; Ogier, Alessandro G E; de Pretis, Stefano; Galeota, Eugenia; Kishore, Kamal; Bora, Pranami; Croci, Ottavio; Campaner, Stefano; Amati, Bruno; Morelli, Marco J; Pelizzola, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have deeply changed our understanding of cellular processes by delivering an astonishing amount of data at affordable prices; nowadays, many biology laboratories have already accumulated a large number of sequenced samples. However, managing and analyzing these data poses new challenges, which may easily be underestimated by research groups devoid of IT and quantitative skills. In this perspective, we identify five issues that should be carefully addressed by research groups approaching NGS technologies. In particular, the five key issues to be considered concern: (1) adopting a laboratory management system (LIMS) and safeguard the resulting raw data structure in downstream analyses; (2) monitoring the flow of the data and standardizing input and output directories and file names, even when multiple analysis protocols are used on the same data; (3) ensuring complete traceability of the analysis performed; (4) enabling non-experienced users to run analyses through a graphical user interface (GUI) acting as a front-end for the pipelines; (5) relying on standard metadata to annotate the datasets, and when possible using controlled vocabularies, ideally derived from biomedical ontologies. Finally, we discuss the currently available tools in the light of these issues, and we introduce HTS-flow, a new workflow management system conceived to address the concerns we raised. HTS-flow is able to retrieve information from a LIMS database, manages data analyses through a simple GUI, outputs data in standard locations and allows the complete traceability of datasets, accompanying metadata and analysis scripts.

  6. Prevalence of renal insufficiency in breast cancer patients and related pharmacological issues.

    PubMed

    Launay-Vacher, Vincent; Gligorov, Joseph; Le Tourneau, Christophe; Janus, Nicolas; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Oudard, Stéphane; Pourrat, Xavier; Morere, Jean-François; Deray, Gilbert; Beuzeboc, Philippe

    2010-12-01

    The Renal Insufficiency and Anticancer Medications (IRMA) study is a French national, observational study which demonstrated the high prevalence of abnormal renal function in a population of 4,684 solid tumour patients. Among them, 50-60% had decreased renal function defined as CrCl below 90 and 80% were treated with anticancer drugs that either necessitated dosage adjustment in case of RI or were potentially nephrotoxic drugs. Since patients and drugs used differ depending on the type of tumour, the IRMA Study Group started analyses in different subgroups of patients. In the 1898 IRMA patients with breast cancer, the prevalence of RI was still very high in spite of a normal serum creatinine in almost all cases. Some anticancer drugs, as in particular some bisphosphonates, capecitabine and platinum salts, may be nephrotoxic and/or need dosage adjustment. However other important drugs in breast cancer do not require dose reduction, and do not present with potential nephrotoxicity (anthracyclines, taxanes, trastuzumab). Both issues seem to be slightly but significantly more important in patients with bone metastases as compared to patients with a non-metastatic disease.

  7. Secondary School Students' Knowledge and Opinions on Astrobiology Topics and Related Social Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreiro, Raquel; Solbes, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin of life on Earth and the distribution of life in the Universe. Its multidisciplinary approach, social and philosophical implications, and appeal within the discipline and beyond make astrobiology a uniquely qualified subject for general science education. In this study, student knowledge and opinions on astrobiology topics were investigated. Eighty-nine students in their last year of compulsory education (age 15) completed a written questionnaire that consisted of 10 open questions on the topic of astrobiology. The results indicate that students have significant difficulties understanding the origin of life on Earth, despite exposure to the topic by way of the assigned textbooks. The students were often unaware of past or present achievements in the search for life within the Solar System and beyond, topics that are far less commonly seen in textbooks. Student questionnaire answers also indicated that students had problems in reasoning and critical thinking when asked for their opinions on issues such as the potential for life beyond Earth, the question of whether UFOs exist, or what our place is in the Universe. Astrobiology might help initiate student awareness as to current thinking on these matters and should be considered for general science education.

  8. Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, H A; Kleter, G A; Noteborn, H P; Kok, E J

    2001-09-01

    International consensus has been reached on the principles regarding evaluation of the food safety of genetically modified plants. The concept of substantial equivalence has been developed as part of a safety evaluation framework, based on the idea that existing foods can serve as a basis for comparing the properties of genetically modified foods with the appropriate counterpart. Application of the concept is not a safety assessment per se, but helps to identify similarities and differences between the existing food and the new product, which are then subject to further toxicological investigation. Substantial equivalence is a starting point in the safety evaluation, rather than an endpoint of the assessment. Consensus on practical application of the principle should be further elaborated. Experiences with the safety testing of newly inserted proteins and of whole genetically modified foods are reviewed, and limitations of current test methodologies are discussed. The development and validation of new profiling methods such as DNA microarray technology, proteomics, and metabolomics for the identification and characterization of unintended effects, which may occur as a result of the genetic modification, is recommended. The assessment of the allergenicity of newly inserted proteins and of marker genes is discussed. An issue that will gain importance in the near future is that of post-marketing surveillance of the foods derived from genetically modified crops. It is concluded, among others that, that application of the principle of substantial equivalence has proven adequate, and that no alternative adequate safety assessment strategies are available.

  9. Secondary School Students' Knowledge and Opinions on Astrobiology Topics and Related Social Issues.

    PubMed

    Oreiro, Raquel; Solbes, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin of life on Earth and the distribution of life in the Universe. Its multidisciplinary approach, social and philosophical implications, and appeal within the discipline and beyond make astrobiology a uniquely qualified subject for general science education. In this study, student knowledge and opinions on astrobiology topics were investigated. Eighty-nine students in their last year of compulsory education (age 15) completed a written questionnaire that consisted of 10 open questions on the topic of astrobiology. The results indicate that students have significant difficulties understanding the origin of life on Earth, despite exposure to the topic by way of the assigned textbooks. The students were often unaware of past or present achievements in the search for life within the Solar System and beyond, topics that are far less commonly seen in textbooks. Student questionnaire answers also indicated that students had problems in reasoning and critical thinking when asked for their opinions on issues such as the potential for life beyond Earth, the question of whether UFOs exist, or what our place is in the Universe. Astrobiology might help initiate student awareness as to current thinking on these matters and should be considered for general science education. Key Words: Astrobiology-Students' views-Science education. Astrobiology 17, 91-99.

  10. Indoor air quality issues related to the acquisition of conservation in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, M.C.; Hadley, D.L.; Marseille, T.J.

    1990-09-01

    The quality of indoor air in commercial buildings is dependent on the complex interaction between sources of indoor pollutants, environmental factors within buildings such as temperature and humidity, the removal of air pollutants by air-cleaning devices, and the removal and dilution of pollutants from outside air. To the extent that energy conservation measures (ECMs) may affect a number of these factors, the relationship between ECMs and indoor air quality is difficult to predict. Energy conservation measures may affect pollutant levels in other ways. Conservation measures, such as caulking and insulation, may introduce sources of indoor pollutants. Measures that reduce mechanical ventilation may allow pollutants to build up inside structures. Finally, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may provide surface areas for the growth of biogenic agents, or may encourage the dissemination of pollutants throughout a building. Information about indoor air quality and ventilation in both new and existing commercial buildings is summarized in this report. Sick building syndrome and specific pollutants are discussed, as are broader issues such as ventilation, general mitigation techniques, and the interaction between energy conservation activities and indoor air quality. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this review to aid the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in its assessment of potential environmental effects resulting from conservation activities in commercial buildings. 76 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs.

  11. Background issues relating to the proposed Mass Literacy Campaign in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinde, Charles O.; Omolewa, Michael

    1982-03-01

    Literacy education in Nigerian history finds its roots in the efforts of missionary endeavour. Subsequent work in the field has always been piecemeal and unco-ordinated, even though a degree of success has been achieved and valuable experience gained. The Federal Government's decision to launch a Mass Literacy Campaign in 1982 is primarily a political response to the needs and exigencies of a developing country rich both in natural and manpower resources. The campaign is seen not only as a necessary means of creating a permanently literate society within ten years but also as an assertion of the nation's unity. The problems of undertaking such a project are immensely complicated by the plethora of local languages and cultures, the preservation of which is seen to be imperative. But the campaign can succeed if the crucial issues identified in the article — functionality, personnel, training and materials, motivation, and above all the language to be used as the medium of literacy education — are resolved; if assistance from national development organisations and international bodies is matched by the determination of the government to create an environment capable of sustaining and reinforcing literacy and conducive to the use of the skills acquired; and if the illiterate respond with initiative and perseverence to the opportunity offered them.

  12. Cyanide hazards to plants and animals from gold mining and related water issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    2004-01-01

    Highly toxic sodium cyanide (NaCN) is used by the international mining community to extract gold and other precious metals through milling of high-grade ores and heap leaching of low-grade ores (Korte et al. 2000). The process to concentrate gold using cyanide was developed in Scotland in 1887 and was used almost immediately in the Witwatersrand gold fields of the Republic of South Africa. Heap leaching with cyanide was proposed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines in 1969 as a means of extracting gold from low-grade ores. The gold industry adopted the technique in the 1970s, soon making heap leaching the dominant technology in gold extraction (Da Rosa and Lyon 1997). The heap leach and milling processes, which involve dewatering of gold-bearing ores, spraying of dilute cyanide solutions on extremely large heaps of ores containing low concentrations of gold, or the milling of ores with the use of cyanide and subsequent recovery of the gold-cyanide complex, have created a number of serious environmental problems affecting wildlife and water management. In this account, we review the history of cyanide use in gold mining with emphasis on heap leach gold mining, cyanide hazards to plants and animals, water management issues associated with gold mining, and proposed mitigation and research needs.

  13. Information and issues related to the quantification of environmental externalities for new powerplants

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.D.; Callaway, J.M.; Glantz, C.S.; Baechler, M.C.; Foley, L.O.

    1990-10-01

    This report provides background information for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in its efforts to quantify the environmental externalities associated with new electricity resources. A more detailed companion document has been provided to Bonneville for internal use. This report defines what is meant by externalities, particularly in the context of electricity resources. It outlines the economics issues associated with assigning an economic value, such as cents per kilowatt hour, to the residual environmental impacts of electricity powerplants. It examines two generic theoretical approaches for estimating such values and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. The report also addresses the need to include relevant stages in the fuel cycle in estimating the costs of externalities. The fuel-cycle concept is defined and its importance is discussed. The approaches used by several states to quantify externalities are described. A review of the valuation efforts of various states and utilities indicates that three states have actually developed methodologies for assigning economic values to externalities. Information that Bonneville may need to request from resource developers to quantify externalities is discussed, and an appendix presents suggested forms for obtaining the required information. Summary information also is presented on models for analyzing the dispersion of powerplant plumes for the purpose of estimating environmental externality costs. 34 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  14. Identifying related journals through log analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhiyong; Xie, Natalie; Wilbur, W. John

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: With the explosion of biomedical literature and the evolution of online and open access, scientists are reading more articles from a wider variety of journals. Thus, the list of core journals relevant to their research may be less obvious and may often change over time. To help researchers quickly identify appropriate journals to read and publish in, we developed a web application for finding related journals based on the analysis of PubMed log data. Availability: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/IRET/Journals Contact: luzh@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19734155

  15. Module Cluster: IFE - 001.00 (GSC) Basic Terminology and Analysis of Writings Concerned with Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahn, R. D.

    This document is one of the module clusters developed for the Camden Teacher Corps project. The purpose of this module cluster is to enable students to define and use basic terminology in the discussion and analysis of educational issues, to use various approaches in studying an issue, and to apply critical analysis skills to written and spoken…

  16. Relative efficacy of drugs: an emerging issue between regulatory agencies and third-party payers.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Hans-Georg; Bloechl-Daum, Brigitte; Abadie, Eric; Barnett, David; König, Franz; Pearson, Steven

    2010-04-01

    Drug regulatory agencies have traditionally assessed the quality, safety and efficacy of drugs, and the current paradigm dictates that a new drug should be licensed when the benefits outweigh the risks. By contrast, third-party payers base their reimbursement decisions predominantly on the health benefits of the drug relative to existing treatment options (termed relative efficacy; RE). Over the past decade, the role of payers has become more prominent, and time-to-market no longer means time-to-licensing but time-to-reimbursement. Companies now have to satisfy the sometimes divergent needs of both regulators and payers, and to address RE during the pre-marketing stages. This article describes the current political background to the RE debate and presents the scientific and methodological challenges as they relate to RE assessment. In addition, we explain the impact of RE on drug development, and speculate on future developments and actions that are likely to be required from key players.

  17. Some issues in the simulation of two-phase flows: The relative velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gräbel, J.; Hensel, S.; Ueberholz, P.; Zeidan, D.; Farber, P.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we compare numerical approximations for solving the Riemann problem for a hyperbolic two-phase flow model in two-dimensional space. The model is based on mixture parameters of state where the relative velocity between the two-phase systems is taken into account. This relative velocity appears as a main discontinuous flow variable through the complete wave structure and cannot be recovered correctly by some numerical techniques when simulating the associated Riemann problem. Simulations are validated by comparing the results of the numerical calculation qualitatively with OpenFOAM software. Simulations also indicate that OpenFOAM is unable to resolve the relative velocity associated with the Riemann problem.

  18. Sino-Russian Relations in the Twenty-First Century: Prospects and Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    analysis of this relationship that incorporates political, economic, social , security, military, and geographical aspects that...current circumstances.16 This reality is due to a plethora of geopolitical, economic, social , and cultural problems that have combined to make the Russian...levels.18 These, combined with the other problems alluded to earlier, have had dramatic economic, social , and political effects on a region that

  19. Legal, ethical and human-rights issues related to the storage of oral history interviews in archives.

    PubMed

    Thurgood, Graham

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides some personal reflections that explore the legal, ethical and human rights issues of conducting oral history interviews with elderly retired nurses. The interviews are part of a research study into the history of nursing in the West Yorkshire towns of Halifax and Huddersfield, UK, between 1870-1960. The merit of this research is that it provides a unique account of the development of nursing and can enrich our understanding of the implications for present-day practice within the fast changing world of the 21st century. A literature review identified a 'gap in knowledge' of how and why local nursing developed. This study proposes to bridge this gap and provide an investigative account of the important issues for local nursing. The two methodological approaches are analysis of the primary and secondary documentary archival sources, and oral history interviewing of retired nurses. 'Word of mouth' or snowball sampling identified over 300 potential interviewees ranging from 65-97 years old. A final sample of 21 representative of location, age and career experience was selected to ensure a strategic purposive sample. The resultant audiotapes and transcripts will be stored in the university's archives. The main focus of the paper will be the legal, ethical and human rights issues of storing interviewees tapes/transcripts in archives. Reflections on these problems and attempts to overcome them have been provided. These are centred on the issue of whether to edit the tapes and/or transcripts. Arguments are provided for and against editing and potential practical solutions to some of the practical issues are identified. The main aim is to identify methods that will enable the protection of those who may be harmed in anyway by the tapes or transcripts been open to public access.

  20. Thermal analysis on the EAST tungsten plasma facing components with shaping structure counteracting the misalignment issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baoguo, Wang; Dahuan, Zhu; Rui, Ding; Junling, Chen

    2017-02-01

    Tungsten monoblock type tiles with ITER dimensions along with supporting cassette components were installed at EAST’s upper diverter during 2014 and EAST’s lower diverter will also be upgraded in the future. These cassette structures pose critical issues on the high cumulative incident heat flux due to the leading edges and misalignments (0 ˜ 1.5 mm), which may result in the destruction or even melting of the tungsten tile. The present work summarizes the thermal analysis using ANSYS multiphysics software 15.0 performed on the actively cooled W tiles to evaluate the shaping effect on surface temperature. In the current heat flux conditions (Q|| ˜ 100 MW m-2), the adopted chamfer shaping (1 × 1 mm) can only reduce the maximum temperature by about 14%, but it also has a melting risk at the maximum misalignment of 1.5 mm. The candidate shaping solutions elliptical (round) edge, dome and fish-scale are analyzed for comparison and are identified not as good as the dual chamfer structure. A relatively good dual chamfer (2 × 13 mm) shaping forming a symmetrical sloping roof structure can effectively counteract the 1.5 mm misalignment, reducing the maximum temperature by up to 50%. However, in the future heat flux conditions (Q|| ˜ 287 MW m-2), it may only endure about 0.5 mm misalignment. Moreover, no proper shaping solution has been found that can avoid melting at the maximum misalignment of 1.5 mm. Thus, the engineering misalignment has to be limited to an acceptable level. Supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB107004 and 2013GB105003) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11405209).

  1. Distributed analysis of simultaneous EEG-fMRI time-series: modeling and interpretation issues.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Fabrizio; Aragri, Adriana; Piccoli, Tommaso; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Goebel, Rainer; Di Salle, Francesco

    2009-10-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) represent brain activity in terms of a reliable anatomical localization and a detailed temporal evolution of neural signals. Simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings offer the possibility to greatly enrich the significance and the interpretation of the single modality results because the same neural processes are observed from the same brain at the same time. Nonetheless, the different physical nature of the measured signals by the two techniques renders the coupling not always straightforward, especially in cognitive experiments where spatially localized and distributed effects coexist and evolve temporally at different temporal scales. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the combination of simultaneously recorded EEG and fMRI signals exploiting the principles of EEG distributed source modeling. We define a common source space for fMRI and EEG signal projection and gather a conceptually unique framework for the spatial and temporal comparative analysis. We illustrate this framework in a graded-load working-memory simultaneous EEG-fMRI experiment based on the n-back task where sustained load-dependent changes in the blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signals during continuous item memorization co-occur with parametric changes in the EEG theta power induced at each single item. In line with previous studies, we demonstrate on two single-subject cases how the presented approach is capable of colocalizing in midline frontal regions two phenomena simultaneously observed at different temporal scales, such as the sustained negative changes in BOLD activity and the parametric EEG theta synchronization. We discuss the presented approach in relation to modeling and interpretation issues typically arising in simultaneous EEG-fMRI studies.

  2. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R.

    1993-11-01

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ``Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.`` The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ``generic`` insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency ({approximately}1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations.

  3. Experimental microbiological issues related to biocontamination and human life support inside manned space modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canganella, Francesco; Rettberg, Petra; Bianconi, G.; di Mattia, E.; Taddei, A. R.; Iylin, V.; Novikova, N.; Fani, R.; Brigidi, P.; Vitali, B.; Candela, M.; Lobascio, C.; Saverino, A.; Simone, A.; Fossati, F.; Ferraris, M.

    The issue of biocontamination in manned space modules is very important for the International Space Station (ISS) as well as for future planetary bases. We have previously carried out re-search activities concerning biofilm metabolic activities of some reference bacteria on materials commonly used for aerospace industry and currently examined for space greenhouses. It was evaluated the effect on these materials of a mixture of emulsifiers produced by Pseudomonas strain AD1 and recently characterized by chemical methods. The following materials were in-vestigated: Kevlar, Nomex, Betacloth, aluminized Kapton, conventional Kapton, Combitherm, Mylar, copper foil, Teflon, aluminum, carbon fiber composite, aluminum thermo-dissipating tex-tile, aluminum tape, Zylon, Ergoflex, Vectran. Results showed a diverse affinity of materials for bacterial biofilm formation and occasionally sessile colonization was rejected. Pre-conditioning with the emulsifying extract led in some cases to a diminish of biofilm dehydrogenase activity and development compared to untreated materials, taking into account both concentrations and experimental conditions. This also concerned the relationship between the physical traits of materials and the level of bacterial biofilm developed under the experimental conditions. Presently we are investigating microbial biofilm development on either conventional or innova-tive space materials, experimentally treated by biological or chemo-physical coating. VIABLE ISS is a flight experiment concerning the exposure of these materials inside an ISS module for about 4 years. Another initiative (MICHA) on progress is part of the MARS500 Programme, presently going on at the IBMP facility in Moscow. Data will be useful to select appropriate material to be used for life support hardware to decrease the risk of surface biocontamination and health problems inside space modules, a great challenge for both biological and medical research.

  4. Relational Safety and Liberating Training Spaces: An Application with a Focus on Sexual Orientation Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Pilar; Rankin, Pressley, IV

    2008-01-01

    This article describes and discusses a teaching case of a clinical training situation involving a gay marriage and family therapy student working with a same-sex affectional couple. The conceptual pillars of this teaching case, relational safety and liberating spaces, are advanced as illustrations of how the student developed his voice in the…

  5. Related Services for Handicapped Students: Legal Considerations. Research & Resources on Special Education: Issue II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Conference of State Legislatures, Washington, DC.

    The paper examines current problems, controversies, legal disputes, and judicial rulings regarding the provision of related services to handicapped students. Following a section on background information, statutory requirements are specified and compared in chart form. A summary of legal disputes focuses on specific services (such as…

  6. American Indian Women: Mental Health Issues Which Relate to Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medicine, Beatrice

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the sparse literature concerning the mental health of American Indian and Alaska Native women. Suggests research into various sources of stress experienced by Native women and related to drug and alcohol abuse. Discusses coping mechanisms and the particular stress factors affecting professional Native women. (SV)

  7. Introduction to the issue regarding research regarding age related macular degeneration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blindness is the second greatest fear among the elderly. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss among the elderly in most industrialized nations. AMD first compromises central high acuity vision. Subsequently, all vision may be lost. AMD is a progressive retinal d...

  8. Teachers for the Future: The Changing Nature of Society and Related Issues for the Teaching Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skilbeck, Malcolm; Connell, Helen

    2004-01-01

    During the next decade, the teaching profession in Australia will be transformed. Due mainly to age related retirements there will be a massive turnover and a huge influx of new entrants. At the same time, it can be expected that there will be more exacting requirements and expectations of teachers as new professional standards are set to meet the…

  9. Problems and Issues in Higher Education: Perspectives on Iran-United States Educational Relations and Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fereshteh, M. Hussein

    This review evaluates the writings and opinions of Americans and Iranians on relations and influences between institutions of higher education in Iran and the United States before and after the 1979 revolution. The review explores the arrival of modern western education in Iran, Egypt, and Turkey where a traditional education system had prevailed…

  10. Health-related biotechnology transfer to Africa: principal-agency relationship issues.

    PubMed

    Kirigia, J M; Muthuri, L K; Kirigia, D G

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to stimulate debate on the agency (principal-agent) in health-related biotechnology research. It attempts to answer the following questions: What is health-related biotechnology and biotechnology research? What is an agency? What factors are likely to undermine the principal's capacity to exercise informed consent? When might the principal-agency problem arise? How could the agency in biotechnology transfer be strengthened in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)? The transfer of health-related biotechnology to SSA ought to be preceded by research to ascertain the effectiveness of such technologies on population health. In that process, the national ethical review committee (REC), as an agent of every human research subject (principal), ought to ensure that international principles (e.g. beneficence, non-malfeasance, autonomy, justice, dignity, truthfulness and honesty) for human experimentation are observed by biotechnology researchers in order to satisfy moral, ethical and legal requirements. The key factors that undermine principals' sovereignty in exercising their right to informed consent to participate in biotechnology trials are discussed. The paper ends with a list of activities that can strengthen the agency, e.g. legislative requirement that all health-related biotechnology transfer should be preceded by rigorous evaluation; continuous update of the agents knowledge of the contents of the international ethical guidelines; and education of potential and actual principals on their human rights; among others.

  11. Scale Issues in Remote Sensing: A Review on Analysis, Processing and Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hua; Li, Zhao-Liang

    2009-01-01

    With the development of quantitative remote sensing, scale issues have attracted more and more the attention of scientists. Research is now suffering from a severe scale discrepancy between data sources and the models used. Consequently, both data interpretation and model application become difficult due to these scale issues. Therefore, effectively scaling remotely sensed information at different scales has already become one of the most important research focuses of remote sensing. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate scale issues from the points of view of analysis, processing and modeling and to provide technical assistance when facing scale issues in remote sensing. The definition of scale and relevant terminologies are given in the first part of this paper. Then, the main causes of scale effects and the scaling effects on measurements, retrieval models and products are reviewed and discussed. Ways to describe the scale threshold and scale domain are briefly discussed. Finally, the general scaling methods, in particular up-scaling methods, are compared and summarized in detail. PMID:22573986

  12. An Examination of Issues Related to U.S. Lake Erie Natural Gas Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    development of gas from beneath Lake Erie, they have jointly Initiated an environmental assessment program , preparatory to the development and issuance of... program . The results of research and analysis efforts described briefly at the end of this report are crucial to conclusions developed in the final... development of USLE natural gas resources, a strong, effective program is a necessity. Yet care must be taken to ensure that the sheer

  13. Fundamental issues related to the origin of melatonin and melatonin isomers during evolution: relation to their biological functions.

    PubMed

    Tan, Dun-Xian; Zheng, Xiaodong; Kong, Jin; Manchester, Lucien C; Hardeland, Ruediger; Kim, Seok Joong; Xu, Xiaoying; Reiter, Russel J

    2014-09-09

    Melatonin and melatonin isomers exist and/or coexist in living organisms including yeasts, bacteria and plants. The levels of melatonin isomers are significantly higher than that of melatonin in some plants and in several fermented products such as in wine and bread. Currently, there are no reports documenting the presence of melatonin isomers in vertebrates. From an evolutionary point of view, it is unlikely that melatonin isomers do not exist in vertebrates. On the other hand, large quantities of the microbial flora exist in the gut of the vertebrates. These microorganisms frequently exchange materials with the host. Melatonin isomers, which are produced by these organisms inevitably enter the host's system. The origins of melatonin and its isomers can be traced back to photosynthetic bacteria and other primitive unicellular organisms. Since some of these bacteria are believed to be the precursors of mitochondria and chloroplasts these cellular organelles may be the primary sites of melatonin production in animals or in plants, respectively. Phylogenic analysis based on its rate-limiting synthetic enzyme, serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT), indicates its multiple origins during evolution. Therefore, it is likely that melatonin and its isomer are also present in the domain of archaea, which perhaps require these molecules to protect them against hostile environments including extremely high or low temperature. Evidence indicates that the initial and primary function of melatonin and its isomers was to serve as the first-line of defence against oxidative stress and all other functions were acquired during evolution either by the process of adoption or by the extension of its antioxidative capacity.

  14. Fundamental Issues Related to the Origin of Melatonin and Melatonin Isomers during Evolution: Relation to Their Biological Functions

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Dun-Xian; Zheng, Xiaodong; Kong, Jin; Manchester, Lucien C.; Hardeland, Ruediger; Kim, Seok Joong; Xu, Xiaoying; Reiter, Russel J.

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin and melatonin isomers exist and/or coexist in living organisms including yeasts, bacteria and plants. The levels of melatonin isomers are significantly higher than that of melatonin in some plants and in several fermented products such as in wine and bread. Currently, there are no reports documenting the presence of melatonin isomers in vertebrates. From an evolutionary point of view, it is unlikely that melatonin isomers do not exist in vertebrates. On the other hand, large quantities of the microbial flora exist in the gut of the vertebrates. These microorganisms frequently exchange materials with the host. Melatonin isomers, which are produced by these organisms inevitably enter the host’s system. The origins of melatonin and its isomers can be traced back to photosynthetic bacteria and other primitive unicellular organisms. Since some of these bacteria are believed to be the precursors of mitochondria and chloroplasts these cellular organelles may be the primary sites of melatonin production in animals or in plants, respectively. Phylogenic analysis based on its rate-limiting synthetic enzyme, serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT), indicates its multiple origins during evolution. Therefore, it is likely that melatonin and its isomer are also present in the domain of archaea, which perhaps require these molecules to protect them against hostile environments including extremely high or low temperature. Evidence indicates that the initial and primary function of melatonin and its isomers was to serve as the first-line of defence against oxidative stress and all other functions were acquired during evolution either by the process of adoption or by the extension of its antioxidative capacity. PMID:25207599

  15. Talking about epilepsy: Challenges parents face when communicating with their child about epilepsy and epilepsy-related issues.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Stephanie; Lambert, Veronica; Gallagher, Pamela; Shahwan, Amre; Austin, Joan K

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the challenges that parents of children with epilepsy experienced when engaging in dialog with their child about epilepsy and epilepsy-related issues. Using a qualitative exploratory approach, interviews were conducted with 34 parents of children with epilepsy (aged 6-16 years), consisting of 27 mothers and 7 fathers. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed. Findings revealed five main themes: normalizing epilepsy, the invisibility of epilepsy, information concealment, fear of misinforming the child, and difficulty in discussing particular epilepsy-related issues. Many of the communicative challenges experienced by parents impacted on their ability to engage openly in parent-child dialog about epilepsy in the home. Parents face specific challenges when choosing to communicate with their child about epilepsy, relating to creating a sense of normality, reducing fear of causing their child worry, and having a lack of epilepsy-related knowledge. Healthcare professionals who work closely with families living with epilepsy should remain mindful of the importance of discussing family communication surrounding epilepsy and the challenges parents of children with epilepsy face when talking about epilepsy within the home.

  16. Oil, Water, and Wildlife: The Gulf of Mexico Disaster and Related Environmental Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Bickman, John W.

    2010-08-04

    The BP Macondo oil field spill in the Gulf of Mexico is the largest oil spill in U.S. history and has the potential to impact sea turtle and marine mammal populations, and others. This presentation will review the genotoxic effects of oil exposure in wildlife and discuss the potential for an oil spill to impact wildlife populations. Whereas some aspects of a spill are predictable, each spill is different because oils are highly variable, as are the environments in which they occur. The presentation will discuss what has been learned from previous spills, including the Exxon Valdez and the soviet oil legacy in Azerbaijan, and the potential dangers of offshore oil development in the Arctic. Related Purdue University research efforts in oil-spill related engineering and science also will be highlighted.

  17. The history of abortion-related acts and current issues in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Michiko

    2007-12-01

    In Japan abortion is categorized into two types by law; one is illegal feticide and the other is legal abortion. The present criminal law forbids feticide in principle and the life of a fetus is protected. However, abortion can be practiced under the "Eugenic Protection Act" established in 1948 (currently referred to as the "Maternal Protection Act"), and is readily available in Japan. In this paper, I have traced the historical origins of abortion law and attempted to clarify the problems related to the current laws relating to artificial abortion. As a result, the existence of contradictions between attitudes toward the life of the fetus and that of the mother, women's right to self determination, and women's rights under current legislation has been clarified.

  18. Oil, Water, and Wildlife: The Gulf of Mexico Disaster and Related Environmental Issues

    ScienceCinema

    Bickman, John W. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States

    2016-07-12

    The BP Macondo oil field spill in the Gulf of Mexico is the largest oil spill in U.S. history and has the potential to impact sea turtle and marine mammal populations, and others. This presentation will review the genotoxic effects of oil exposure in wildlife and discuss the potential for an oil spill to impact wildlife populations. Whereas some aspects of a spill are predictable, each spill is different because oils are highly variable, as are the environments in which they occur. The presentation will discuss what has been learned from previous spills, including the Exxon Valdez and the soviet oil legacy in Azerbaijan, and the potential dangers of offshore oil development in the Arctic. Related Purdue University research efforts in oil-spill related engineering and science also will be highlighted.

  19. Secondary school physics availability in an urban setting: Issues related to academic achievement and course offerings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Angela M.; Sheppard, Keith

    2009-10-01

    High school physics is a gateway course for post-secondary study in science, and an essential component in the formation of students' scientific literacy. The opportunity to study physics is not universally available for children in U.S. schools, particularly in urban areas. Restricted science opportunities result in inequitable participation and a barrier to future participation in STEM-related fields. Although the national trend in physics enrollment has recently shown an increase, the percentage of participation is much lower for students in urban schools. We examined the availability of physics in New York City, and whether access was related to academic achievement measures, such as prior science performance, and graduation and college attendance percentages. High schools that offered physics were compared to those that did not, and patterns in types of available physics courses were examined. The findings substantiate the compelling need to explore the barriers to increased physics access and participation for urban youth.

  20. Status of Cardiovascular Issues Related to Space Flight: implications for Future Research Directions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    challenges. Published by Elsevier B.V. 1. Introduction A fundamental objective of the 2008 International Space Life Science Working Group (ISLSWG) meeting was...evidenced-based approach. 2. Defining the ‘most important’ questions Space life science research related to the identification of phys- iological...lar risks prioritized by NASA since these generally represent many of the concerns identified by most international space life science investigators

  1. Chronic pain as expression of neural substrates. Issues from the neuronal dynamics and mutual relations.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, M; Manuguerra, M; Valente, M; Caramenti, G C; Sotgiu, M L; Biella, G E M

    2004-05-01

    The Thalamo-Cortical somatosensory loop shows important synaptic re-organization in cases of chronic pain. Animal models exhibit severe functional distortions, potentially related to the anatomic rearrangements. Connectivity and information theoretic measurement represent important tools to quantify the functional disarrays. We performed electrophysiological experiments with multisite, multielectrode simultaneous recordings in the Thalamus and in the Somatosensory Cortex. The recurrent anomalies in the analytic estimates induce to hypothesize a potential neurodynamical explanation of the sensory context.

  2. Scaling issues relating to phosphorus transfer from land to water in agricultural catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazier, R. E.; Heathwaite, A. L.; Liu, S.

    2005-03-01

    Various scales of input data exist to parameterise diffuse pollution models for the UK. For screening methodologies such as the phosphorus indicators tool—PIT [Heathwaite, A.L., Sharpley, A.N., Bechmann, M., 2003a. The conceptual basis for a decision support framework to assess the risk of phosphorus loss at the field scale across Europe. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 166, 1-12; Heathwaite, A.L., Burke, S., Quinn, P.F., 2003b. The nutrient export risk matrix (the NERM) for strategic application of biosolids to agricultural land. International Association for Hydrological Sciences Publication 285, 1-9], which is applied throughout England and Wales, some assessment of the implications of using input data derived at different scales must be made. This work is further driven by practical issues such as licensing costs and data availability, which mean that not all data are readily accessible for all end users. This paper represents a first step towards quantifying the 'value-added' to model predictions by using input data derived at three different scales: 50×50 m, 1×1 km and 5×5 km. Model runs using PIT were carried out against observed phosphorus water quality data from the River Start and River Gara, which are the main sub-catchments of Slapton Ley, a grade 1 National Nature Reserve in southwest England. Model runs for the main 46 km 2 Slapton catchment were also undertaken. The results show that some improvement in the ability of the model to capture the observed water quality behaviour may be made by using higher resolution DEM data, though these improvements may be outweighed by the extra data processing and computational time. Conversely, model runs driven by the 5 km data demonstrate consistent under-prediction for all three test catchments, which is perhaps not surprising given the greater degree of averaging underlying datasets at this scale. Results from the 1 km datasets provide the best agreement with observed water quality data, and

  3. News Framing of Population and Family Planning Issues via Syntactic Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legara, Erika; Monterola, Christopher; David, Clarissa; Mae Atun, Jenna

    Contentious political debates regarding the issues on population and family planning have been perennial over the past four decades especially in developing countries. While its prominence in the public agenda varies depending on other national issues vying for public attention, its presence in policy and political agendas is constant. Here, a computational approach to framing analysis is developed that examines the pattern of media coverage on the population issue in the Philippines. The content of 146 articles sampled from 1988 to 2007 in Manila Bulletin (one of the leading newspapers in the Philippines) is analyzed by creating a syntactic network of concept co-occurrences. The topological properties of the network indicates that the discussion of an article revolves around few central ideas. Moreover, cluster analysis of the network suggests three well-defined frame themes, namely: (1) Development Frame; (2) Maternal Health Frame; and (3) Framing by the Catholic Church. Our results support the thesis that the inability to fruitfully discuss points of contention to reach agreement about suitable population policies in the Philippines is due to the mismatched frames within which it is discussed.

  4. Stress-corrosion cracking issues related to a water-cooled ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. H.; Bruemmer, S. M.; Henager, C. H.

    1991-03-01

    A review of water impurity and temperature effects on stress-corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steel is presented. These results demonstrate that stress-corrosion crack growth can occur at ITER relevant temperatures for certain water chemistries and material conditions. A model developed at PNL to calculate the degree of sensitization was used to estimate the potential for sensitization of Type 316 SS and US PCA. This analysis shows that both materials can be severely sensitized but, with proper processing and fabrication, sensitization should be avoidable.

  5. Whole-body effective half-lives for radiolabeled antibodies and related issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kaurin, D.G.L.; Carsten, A.L.; Baum, J.W.; Barber, D.E.

    1996-08-01

    Radiolabeled antibodies (RABs) are being developed and used in medical imaging and therapy in rapidly increasing numbers. Data on the whole body half effective half-lives were calculated from external dose rates obtained from attending physicians and radiation safety officers at participating institutions. Calculations were made using exponential regression analysis of data from patients receiving single and multiple administrations. Theses data were analyzed on the basis of age, sex, isotope label, radiation energy, antibody type, disease treated, administration method, and number of administrations.

  6. Advice about Work-Related Issues to Peers and Employers from Head and Neck Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Dewa, Carolyn S.; Trojanowski, Lucy; Tamminga, Sietske J.; Ringash, Jolie; McQuestion, Maurene; Hoch, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this exploratory and descriptive study is to contribute to the sparse return-to-work literature on head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors. Interview participants were asked to reflect upon their work-related experience with cancer by answering two specific questions: (1) What advice would you give someone who has been newly diagnosed with head and neck cancer? (2) What advice would you give to employers of these people? Methods Data were gathered through 10 individual semi-structured in-depth interviews with HNC clinic patients at a regional cancer center’s head and neck clinic in Ontario, Canada. A constant comparative method of theme development was used. Codes identified in and derived from the data were discussed by research team members until consensus was reached. Codes with similar characteristics were grouped together and used to develop overarching themes. Results Work-related advice for peers focused on personal self-care and interactions within workplaces. Work-related advice to employers focused on demonstrating basic human values as well as the importance of communication. Discussion The study results suggest HNC clinic patients should be proactive with employers and help to set reasonable expectations and provide a realistic plan for work to be successfully completed. HNC clinic patients should develop communication skills to effectively disclose their cancer and treatment to employers. Conclusions In this exploratory study, HNC clinic patients’ advice was solution-focused underscoring the importance of self-care and pro-active communication and planning with employers. Employers were advised to demonstrate core human values throughout all phases of the work disability episode beginning at diagnosis. PMID:27070654

  7. Risk management regulations of 1996: Why is this a community relations issue?

    SciTech Connect

    Chaloux, S.

    1997-05-01

    The US EPA`s risk management regulations will require approximately 66,000 facilities nationwide to identify and disclose information about hazard assessments (including such worst-case scenarios as the off-site impact of accidental releases of cutely toxic or highly flammable materials), emergency response capabilities, and risk management efforts. These requirements were initiated to let information from these assessments drive action (prevention and preparedness) and stimulate dialogue on the local level. A brief summary of the major aspects of the final rule and their public relations implications is presented.

  8. Methamphetamine-induced toxicity: an updated review on issues related to hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Rae R.; Seminerio, Michael J.; Turner, Ryan C.; Robson, Matthew J.; Nguyen, Linda; Miller, Diane B.; O’Callaghan, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Reports of methamphetamine-related emergency room visits suggest that elevated body temperature is a universal presenting symptom, with lethal overdoses generally associated with extreme hyperthermia. This review summarizes the available information on methamphetamine toxicity as it pertains to elevations in body temperature. First, a brief overview of thermoregulatory mechanisms is presented. Next, central and peripheral targets that have been considered for potential involvement in methamphetamine hyperthermia are discussed. Finally, future areas of investigation are proposed, as further studies are needed to provide greater insight into the mechanisms that mediate the alterations in body temperature elicited by methamphetamine. PMID:24836729

  9. Issues with RNA-seq analysis in non-model organisms: A salmonid example.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Arvind; Tengs, Torstein; Grimholt, Unni

    2017-02-20

    High throughput sequencing (HTS) is useful for many purposes as exemplified by the other topics included in this special issue. The purpose of this paper is to look into the unique challenges of using this technology in non-model organisms where resources such as genomes, functional genome annotations or genome complexity provide obstacles not met in model organisms. To describe these challenges, we narrow our scope to RNA sequencing used to study differential gene expression in response to pathogen challenge. As a demonstration species we chose Atlantic salmon, which has a sequenced genome with poor annotation and an added complexity due to many duplicated genes. We find that our RNA-seq analysis pipeline deciphers between duplicates despite high sequence identity. However, annotation issues provide problems in linking differentially expressed genes to pathways. Also, comparing results between approaches and species are complicated due to lack of standardized annotation.

  10. Scientific issues related to Codex Alimentarius goals: a review of principles, with examples.

    PubMed

    Somogyi, Arpad; Hathcock, John; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Antoine, Jean-Michel; Edwards, Gareth; Prock, Peter

    2011-06-01

    The Codex Alimentarius provides the food standards and guidelines recognized by the World Trade Organization as the primary authority for use in settlement of related trade disputes. Codex bases its decisions primarily on scientific principles and evidence, although other legitimate factors such as economic and societal values may be considered. Codex has two primary aims: to protect consumers' health and assure fair practices in food trade. Codex documents may provide templates for individual nations but are not binding for domestic policies. Despite many advances over the last couple of decades, misunderstandings and controversies have interfered with important aspects of progress which Codex needs to accomplish, especially in the areas of claims of benefits related to food or nutrient consumption and the establishment of the safety of these items. Claims for health benefits should be based on the totality of available scientific evidence, including observational data collected from large populations as well as the results from randomized clinical trials. Safety should be evaluated by risk assessment on high quality experimental data, with anecdotal information having a lesser role. Regulatory policy would be improved if "history of safe use" were to be better defined and described.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Models in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Issues and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Schmier, Jordana K; Hulme-Lowe, Carolyn K

    2016-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common ophthalmic condition that can have few symptoms in its early stage but can progress to major visual impairment. While there are no treatments for early-stage AMD, there are multiple modalities of treatment for advanced disease. Given the increasing prevalence of the disease, there are dozens of analyses of cost effectiveness of AMD treatments, but methods and approaches vary broadly. The goal of this review was to identify, characterize, and critique published models in AMD and provide guidance for their interpretation. After a literature review was performed to identify studies, and exclusion criteria applied to limit the review to studies comparing treatments for AMD, we compared methods across the 36 studies meeting the review criteria. To some extent, variation was related to targeting different audiences or acknowledging the most appropriate population for a given treatment. However, the review identified potential areas of uncertainty and difficulty in interpretation, particularly regarding duration of observation periods and the importance of visual acuity as an endpoint or a proxy for patient-reported utilities. We urge thoughtful consideration of these study characteristics when comparing results.

  12. Drug-related deaths with evidences of body packing: Two case reports and medico-legal issues.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Simone; Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Bottoni, Edoardo; Fiore, Paola Antonella; Straccamore, Marco; Umani Ronchi, Federica; De Mari, Guido Maria; Ciallella, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    Body packing is a general term used to indicate the internal transportation of drug packages, mainly cocaine, heroin, amphetamines, and methamphetamine, within the gastrointestinal tract. We described two cases of accidental drug intoxication, observed over the last year period, with evidence of intracorporeal drug concealment. The first case concerned a body packer transporting 69 drug packages of heroin adulterated with piracetam. The second body packer transported 16 drug packages of cocaine adulterated with levamisole. For both cases, forensic examination and toxicological analysis of drug packages and biological samples were carried out. Authors also wants to highlight the main medico-legal issues that commonly arise in cases of suspected or ascertained body packers.

  13. CO{sub 2} dial transmitter/receiver noise characterization and related correlated noise issues

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, B.; Schmitt, M.; Goeller, R.; Czuchlewski, S.; Fuller, K.; Olivas, N.; Laubscher, B.; Sander, R.

    1996-02-01

    Our approach concerning the development of hard target return CO{sub 2} DIAL transmitter/receiver systems is two phased- (i) through analysis and experiment, develop a fundamental understanding of the transmitter/receiver physics specific to DIAL systems and (ii) apply these fundamentals in the development of optimal performance DIAL transmitter/receiver systems. We present our progress and results towards these objectives with the following topics addressed: A general overview of the DIAL transmitter/receiver system characterization effort with a focus on transceiver noise processes. The effects of correlated noise on DIAL performance, especially those effecting statistical convergence over long sample structures, is , introduced. And, preliminary measurements of a low-noise, ``white`` receiver prototype are presented.

  14. 41 CFR 102-34.320 - What Government-issued charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services? 102-34.320 Section 102-34.320....320 What Government-issued charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services? (a) You may use a fleet charge card specifically issued for this purpose. These cards are designed...

  15. 41 CFR 102-34.320 - What Government-issued charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services? 102-34.320 Section 102-34.320....320 What Government-issued charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services? (a) You may use a fleet charge card specifically issued for this purpose. These cards are designed...

  16. 41 CFR 102-34.320 - What Government-issued charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services? 102-34.320 Section 102-34.320....320 What Government-issued charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services? (a) You may use a fleet charge card specifically issued for this purpose. These cards are designed...

  17. 41 CFR 102-34.320 - What Government-issued charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services? 102-34.320 Section 102-34.320....320 What Government-issued charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services? (a) You may use a fleet charge card specifically issued for this purpose. These cards are designed...

  18. 41 CFR 102-34.320 - What Government-issued charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services? 102-34.320 Section 102-34.320....320 What Government-issued charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services? (a) You may use a fleet charge card specifically issued for this purpose. These cards are designed...

  19. Representations of the Americans with Disabilities Act Employment-Related Issues in the Wall Street Journal (1990-2008): A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soffer, Michal; Rimmerman, Arie

    2012-01-01

    This feasibility study examines the coverage of employment-related issues related to people with disabilities in the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The study is a first in a series of future studies focusing on disability issues in the international economic media. A survey of 39 newspaper articles published in the "Wall Street…

  20. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 143: Availability of chilled water system and room cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, V.T.

    1993-12-01

    This report presents the regulatory analysis for Generic Issue (GI-143), {open_quotes}Availability of Chilled Water System and Room Cooling.{close_quotes} The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and related auxiliaries are required to provide control of environmental conditions in areas in light water reactor (LWR) plants that contain safety-related equipment. In some plants, the HVAC and chilled water systems serve to maintain a suitable environment for both safety and non-safety-related areas. Although some plants have an independent chilled water system for the safety-related areas, the heat removal capability often depends on the operability of other supporting systems such as the service water system or the component cooling water system. The operability of safety-related components depends upon operation of the HVAC and chilled water systems to remove heat from areas containing the equipment. If cooling to dissipate the heat generated is unavailable, the ability of the safety-related equipment to operate as intended cannot be assured. Typical components or areas in the nuclear power plant that could be affected by the failure of cooling from HVAC or chilled water systems include the (1) emergency switchgear and battery rooms, (2) emergency diesel generator room, (3) pump rooms for residual heat removal, reactor core isolation cooling, high-pressure core spray, and low-pressure core spray, and (4) control room. The unavailability of such safety-related equipment or areas could cause the core damage frequency (CDF) to increase significantly.

  1. Processing-Related Issues for the Design and Lifing of SiC/SiC Hot-Section Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, J.; Bhatt, R.; Morscher, G.; Yun, H. M.

    2006-01-01

    For successful SiC/SiC engine components, numerous process steps related to the fiber, fiber architecture, interphase coating, and matrix need to be optimized. Under recent NASA-sponsored programs, it was determined that many of these steps in their initial approach were inadequate, resulting in less than optimum thermostructural and life properties for the as-fabricated components. This presentation will briefly review many of these process issues, the key composite properties they degrade, their underlying mechanisms, and current process remedies developed by NASA and others.

  2. Sports-related issues and biochemistry of natural and synthetic anabolic substances.

    PubMed

    Parr, Maria K; Flenker, Ulrich; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2010-03-01

    Testosterone is the principal male sex hormone. As with all natural steroids, it is biosynthesized from cholesterol. Phase I metabolism employs some very specific enzymes and pathways. Phase II metabolism and excretion follow more general patterns. The effects of testosterone are twofold: anabolic and androgenic. Because of its anabolic effects, testosterone is frequently abused in sports. Because of its endogenous nature, testosterone doping is difficult to detect. The standard procedure is based on the evaluation of the urinary steroid profile. Conspicuous samples then are submitted to compound-specific (13)C/(12)C analysis. Synthetic and endogenous steroids differ in this measure. Numerous xenobiotic compounds have been derived from testosterone. The modifications typically aim at a reduction of the androgenic properties while maintaining the anabolic potential. Most of these compounds have been withdrawn from the legal market. However, they are found to be illicitly added to otherwise inefficient nutritional supplements. These products represent a major problem to doping control. Recently, clinical trials with selective androgen receptor modulators have been started.

  3. Safety related issues of the unexpected Argon release into the tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorowski, M.; Malecha, Z. M.; Polinski, J.

    2015-12-01

    Modern physics laboratories require very large amounts of cryogenics fluids. Often the fluid must be transported along the tunnels or stored in the underground cavities. Currently, there are several ongoing projects where very large amounts of liquid (LAr) or gaseous Argon (GAr) will be used. One of them is a part of the LAGUNA-LBNO (Large Apparatus studying Grand Unification and Neutrino Astrophysics and Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillations) design study, where the GLACIER (Giant Liquid Argon Charge Imaging ExpeRiment) neutrino detector is considered. In order for it to properly operate, it requires the appropriate environment (it must be located in a deep, underground cavity) and approximately 150,000 tons of LAr. This huge amount of cryogen must be transported down the tunnel in cryogenic-tank trucks or by using pipelines. In both cases, there is a risk of uncontrolled LAr or GAr leakage into the tunnel, which can be dangerous for people, as well as during the installation itself. The presented work focuses on the risk analysis and consequences of unexpected Argon leakage into the tunnel. It shows the mathematical model and numerical tools which can serve to model the Argon cloud propagation, temperature distribution, and Oxygen deficiency. The results present a series of numerical experiments for Argon leakage into the tunnel with different external conditions (e.g. different ventilation regimes).

  4. Reporting diet-related health issues through newspapers: portrayal of cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hellyer, Nicole Elizabeth; Haddock-Fraser, Janet

    2011-02-01

    This study identifies (i) the extent to which newsprint media communicate to their readers the lifestyle factors associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes and (ii) newspaper portrayal of social determinants affecting onset of disease. A content analysis of five leading UK national newspapers and their Sunday equivalents was conducted over a 3-month period between January and March 2008. This study shows that cardiovascular disease had much higher press interest than Type 2 diabetes. 'Middle-market' and 'Quality' papers had higher levels of reporting than the 'Popular' press, but the patterns were more complex when the comprehensiveness of reporting was measured within each article. Social determinants affecting disease onset were poorly reported by newspapers, supporting similar research conducted in other countries. This research identifies that there is potential for newspapers to improve their reporting of lifestyle diseases, by including individual and social determinants of disease onset. Lower social classes who read the popular press receive the lowest frequency of reporting and could benefit most from this information. While the research identifies that newspapers are missing the potential to actively communicate and reinforce government health policy, it recognises that the commercial context of the print media may counter such behaviour.

  5. Control issues related to bilateral teleoperation of long-reach, flexible manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Love, L.J.

    1997-02-01

    A challenging problem presently being addressed by the Department of Energy (DOE) is the extraction of large volumes of hazardous waste from underground waste storage facilities. The nature of the material requires the use of robotic and teleoperated systems. Furthermore, the constraints of the storage tanks require the use of long reach manipulators. These robots are characterized by their large workspace and reduced mass. Unfortunately, this reduction in mass increases structural compliance, making these robots susceptible to vibration. Until recently, no attempt has been made to provide the operator any type of force reflection due to the compliance of the slave robot. This paper addresses the control of bilateral teleoperation systems that use long-reach, flexible manipulators. Analysis and experiments show that the compliance of the slave robot directly affects the stability of the teleoperation system. This study suggests that this may be controlled by increasing the damping on the master robot. However, this increase in target damping increases the energy an operator must exert during the execution of a task. A new teleoperation strategy adapts the target impedance of the master robot to variations in the identified impedance of the remote environment coupled to the slave robot. Experiments show increased performance due to a decrease in the energy the operator must provide during task execution.

  6. Family planning issues relating to maternal and infant mortality in the United States.

    PubMed

    Puffer, R R

    1993-01-01

    Both maternal and infant death rates in the United States are much higher than in many developed countries. The interrelationships between abortions and maternal and infant mortality have been analyzed on the basis of data from the 1970s and 1980s. The legalization of abortions in 1973 resulted in a marked increase in legal abortions and marked reductions in maternal and infant mortality over the course of the 1970s. However, a wide variation in abortion rates and in the number of abortion facilities indicates that such facilities were not readily available to all segments of the population in some areas. This probably accounts in part for higher maternal and infant death rates in such areas. Smoking, small weight gain, use of alcohol and drugs in pregnancy, and excessive maternal youth or age affected the outcome of pregnancy and contributed to high rates of infant death. Infant death rates were especially high among newborns of teenagers and young adult mothers; relatively high proportions of these newborns had low birthweights; a large share of the pregnancies involved were unintended; and slightly over half of the unintended pregnancies in teenagers and young women resulted in abortion. Comparisons with findings in Sweden reveal that the rates of unplanned pregnancy, abortion, and infant mortality were all much higher in the United States than in Sweden. The differences are attributed to better contraceptive services, which were made available free or very inexpensively in Sweden. Also, the frequency of low weight births was much lower in Sweden.

  7. An Examination of Data Confidentiality and Disclosure Issues Related to Publication of Empirical ROC Curves

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Gregory J.; Harel, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Grant funding institutions often require organizations to share their collected data as widely as possible while safeguarding the privacy of individuals. Summaries based on these data are often released. Here, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is explored for potential statistical disclosures in the presence of auxiliary data. Materials and Methods Formulas are introduced for calculating the missing data points from the full data set, given that a user has an empirical ROC curve and a subset of the data used to generate such a curve. Further, a discussion of the plausibility of this scenario is presented. Results Diagnostic test data were simulated and an ROC curve was produced. Using a subset of the true data and the points on the empirical ROC curve, an attempt was made to reproduce the missing parts of the data. Disease statuses were able to be determined exactly, whereas test scores were solved for up to their rank. Conclusions If an individual or organization possessed the points of an empirical ROC curve and a subset of the true data, the true data underlying the ROC curve can be reproduced relatively accurately. As a result, the release of summaries of data, including the ROC curve, must be given careful thought before their release from a statistical disclosure perspective. PMID:23747154

  8. Issues related to the characterization and fabrication of coiled carbon nanotube based inductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraby, Hasan Mohammad

    The superior inductive properties of coiled carbon nanotubes (CCNTs) have been demonstrated through numerical computations. It is shown, through computations, that a range of inductance values (in the pH to muH range) operational at THz frequencies could be obtained through a variation of CCNT geometric parameters, which can be accomplished through rational synthesis. A comparison of the proposed inductor material to conventional inductor material e.g. copper (Cu), in terms of both component footprint and material volume, indicated a greater quality factor (Q) through the use of the CCNTs. Experimental characterization of these CCNT inductors require high quality ohmic contacts. Focused ion beam based metal deposition is one of the easiest ways to create contacts on those nanostructures. Metal deposition with focused ion beam (FIB) systems result in material composed of carbon, oxygen, gallium and the primary metal from the metallo-organic precursor. Four point probe measurements to determine the material resistivity and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to determine the relative chemical composition were conducted on a wide range of FIB deposited platinum (Pt) and tungsten (W) lines. It has been shown that the gallium (Ga) percentage in the metal line plays a significant role in reducing the electrical resistivity of the material. Effective media theory (EMT), specifically using Mc Lachlan's general effective medium (GEM) equation is used to describe the relationship between the chemical compositions of the FIB deposited metal lines and the corresponding electrical resistivity. The relation between the chemical elements and the resistivity of the FIB deposited metal lines will make possible the accurate estimation of their resistance without using conventional probe stations. Like metals insulators can also be deposited using the FIB system. Insulator deposition by FIB systems results in SiO2 layers with impurities from gallium (Ga) and carbon (C). The

  9. Asbestos-related lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma of the pleura: selected current issues.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Steven

    2015-06-01

    Asbestos-related diseases persist, because millions of workers have had prior exposure and many industrializing countries continue to use asbestos. Globally, an estimated 107,000 people die annually from lung cancer, malignant mesothelioma, and asbestosis due to occupational asbestos exposure. Malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer are caused by all major types of asbestos. Asbestos causes more lung cancer deaths than malignant mesothelioma of the pleura; most cases of the latter are due to asbestos exposure. The cancer risk increases with cumulative asbestos exposure, with increased risk even at low levels of exposure to asbestos. Based on empirical studies, an estimated cumulative occupational exposure to asbestos of 1 fiber/mL-year substantially raises malignant mesothelioma risk. No safe threshold for asbestos exposure has been established for lung cancer and mesothelioma. The validity of fiber-type risk assessments depends critically on the quality of exposure assessments, which vary considerably, leading to a high degree of uncertainty. Asbestos exposure without asbestosis and smoking increases the risk of lung cancer. The joint effect of asbestos and smoking is supra-additive, which may depend in part on the presence of asbestosis. Asbestos workers who cease smoking experience a dramatic drop in lung cancer risk, which approaches that of nonsmokers after 30 years. Studies to date show that longer, thinner fibers have a stronger association with lung cancer than shorter, less thin fibers, but the latter nonetheless also show an association with lung cancer and mesothelioma. Low-dose chest computed tomographic scanning offers an unprecedented opportunity to detect early-stage lung cancers in asbestos-exposed workers.

  10. How to reduce delays on passenger aircraft: A study over non-weather-related issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelrazeq, Haneen Wadi

    The building sector is one of the main sectors in Qatar; however, it consumes a huge portion of primary energy sources. Today, there is a worldwide trend to utilize renewable sources of energy to cover buildings' energetic needs using local climate conditions. The common source of energy, the sun, can be efficiently utilized in covering energetic supplies of buildings. To be able to consume energy of the sun, various components and materials are designed. This thesis is focused on the preparation and complex physical characterization of heat absorbers based on Phase Change Materials Heat Absorbers (PCM-HA). The materials are designed based on recycled high-density polyethylene (W-HDPE) obtained directly from a local industrial company in Qatar, paraffin wax and expanded graphite (EG) which can all be used together as the main components in improving the passive heating or cooling of buildings. Thus, this work is directly related to environmental protection and energy conservation in buildings. A big attention is given to the long term stability of the PCM-HA. The materials were artificially aged at selected conditions (temperature, UV irradiation, humidity) to characterize their long term behavior. This type of characterization was rarely reported in literature. Thus, the obtained results conveyed valuable benefits. This long-term experimentation confirmed the significant reduction in paraffin leakage from the thermal system up to 9.83%. Thus, this also confirms the high ability of the materials to absorb and release reaching 70 J/g of heat energy. Samples mixed with EG did not lose their mechanical integrity and compactness even after 100 days of accelerated artificial aging. Adding to this, various PCMs are applicable not only in building sectors, but also in thermal protection of electronic devices. For this reason, the dielectric behavior of the developed materials are explored and results confirmed an increase in electrical conductivity due to addition of EG

  11. Issues in Athletic Administration: A Content Analysis of Syllabi from Intercollegiate Athletics Graduate Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comeaux, Eddie; Brown, Alan; Sieben, Nicole P.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined courses focused on intercollegiate athletics in sport-related graduate programs (e.g., Sport Leadership, Sport Management, and Athletic/Sport Administration). A content analysis of course syllabi was used to determine the alignment of course scope and content. Analysis included course type (i.e., required or elective),…

  12. Unsupervised learning framework for large-scale flight data analysis of cockpit human machine interaction issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidya, Abhishek B.

    As the level of automation within an aircraft increases, the interactions between the pilot and autopilot play a crucial role in its proper operation. Issues with human machine interactions (HMI) have been cited as one of the main causes behind many aviation accidents. Due to the complexity of such interactions, it is challenging to identify all possible situations and develop the necessary contingencies. In this thesis, we propose a data-driven analysis tool to identify potential HMI issues in large-scale Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) dataset. The proposed tool is developed using a multi-level clustering framework, where a set of basic clustering techniques are combined with a consensus-based approach to group HMI events and create a data-driven model from the FOQA data. The proposed framework is able to effectively compress a large dataset into a small set of representative clusters within a data-driven model, enabling subject matter experts to effectively investigate identified potential HMI issues.

  13. Methodology issues concerning the accuracy of kinematic data collection and analysis using the ariel performance analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmington, R. P.; Klute, Glenn K. (Editor); Carroll, Amy E. (Editor); Stuart, Mark A. (Editor); Poliner, Jeff (Editor); Rajulu, Sudhakar (Editor); Stanush, Julie (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Kinematics, the study of motion exclusive of the influences of mass and force, is one of the primary methods used for the analysis of human biomechanical systems as well as other types of mechanical systems. The Anthropometry and Biomechanics Laboratory (ABL) in the Crew Interface Analysis section of the Man-Systems Division performs both human body kinematics as well as mechanical system kinematics using the Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS). The APAS supports both analysis of analog signals (e.g. force plate data collection) as well as digitization and analysis of video data. The current evaluations address several methodology issues concerning the accuracy of the kinematic data collection and analysis used in the ABL. This document describes a series of evaluations performed to gain quantitative data pertaining to position and constant angular velocity movements under several operating conditions. Two-dimensional as well as three-dimensional data collection and analyses were completed in a controlled laboratory environment using typical hardware setups. In addition, an evaluation was performed to evaluate the accuracy impact due to a single axis camera offset. Segment length and positional data exhibited errors within 3 percent when using three-dimensional analysis and yielded errors within 8 percent through two-dimensional analysis (Direct Linear Software). Peak angular velocities displayed errors within 6 percent through three-dimensional analyses and exhibited errors of 12 percent when using two-dimensional analysis (Direct Linear Software). The specific results from this series of evaluations and their impacts on the methodology issues of kinematic data collection and analyses are presented in detail. The accuracy levels observed in these evaluations are also presented.

  14. A System Analysis for Determining Alternative Technological Issues for the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magistrale, V. J.; Small, J.

    1967-01-01

    A systems engineering methodology is provided, by which future technological ventures may be examined utilizing particular national, corporate, or individual value judgments. Three matrix analyses are presented. The first matrix is concerned with the effect of technology on population increase, war, poverty, health, resources, and prejudice. The second matrix explores an analytical technique for determining the relative importance of different areas of technology. The third matrix explores how an individual or corporate entity may determine how its capability may be used for future technological opportunities. No conclusions are presented since primary effort has been placed on the methodology of determining future technological issues.

  15. Raising critical issues in the analysis of gender and science in children's literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sonya N.; Siry, Christina A.

    2009-12-01

    Trevor Owens' paper provides a critique of the role of gender and authority in selected children's books that presented biographies of Albert Einstein and Marie Curie. In the context of discussing Trevor's (2009) article about children's literature, this forum explores issues related to the (a) representation and construction of gender, science, and childhood in literature for children; (b) the need to consider socio/historical/cultural contexts in analytical and theoretical frameworks; and (c) the importance of fostering critical literacy perspectives in pre- and in-service science teachers and the children whom they teach.

  16. SPS technical issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guttman, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    The technical issues which would either seriously impact or potentially negate the integrity of a solar power satellite program are enumerated. Issues are identified not only relating to the question of engineering feasibility, but also to the equally important areas of environmental and social acceptability and, especially, economic viability. Specific information required for resolution of the issues was developed and a planned overall approach for resolution was identified. Results of these analyses show that 60% of the technical issues can be resolved with analysis only; 10% require only ground testing for resolution; and the remaining 30% require space experiments or demonstrations for resolution. The results also show that 85% resolution of the issues may be accomplished prior to development of a protoype.

  17. EPA Growing DASEES (Decision Analysis For A Sustainable Environment, Economy & Society) - To Aid In Making Decisions On Complex Environmental Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Having a framework and tools to help sort through complicated environmental issues in an objective way would be useful to communities and risk managers, and all the stakeholders affected by these issues. This is one need that DASEES (Decision Analysis for a Sustainable En...

  18. The Race Issue in Mississippi Politics; A Content Analysis of Campaign Discourse in Mississippi's 1971 Gubernatorial Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Emma Lou

    Racial attitudes were an issue in the 1972 Mississippi gubernatorial campaign between Charles Evers and William Waller. This conclusion is supported by test evidence consisting of content analysis of candidate speeches, news coverage of speeches in the form of direct quotations, printed issue position papers, and printed campaign advertising. A…

  19. DIAGNOSIS, ANALYSIS, AND RESOLUTION OF THERMAL STABILITY ISSUES WITH HOM COUPLERS ON PROTOTYPE CEBAF SRF CAVITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Reece; Edward Daly; G. Davis; William Hicks; Timothy Rothgeb; H. Phillips; Joseph Preble; Haipeng Wang; Genfa Wu

    2008-02-12

    During initial testing of the prototype cavities incorporated into the developmental cryomodule Renascence severe thermal stability issues were encountered during CW operation. Additional diagnostic instrumentation was added. This enabled identification of an unanticipated thermal impedance between the HOM coupler probe feedthrough assembly and the cavity beamtube. Subsequent detailed FE analysis successfully modeled the situation and indicated the need for alternate cooling path for the couplers on those cavities. HOM damping was measured to be adequate employing only two of the four HOM couplers. The two pickup probes on the couplers at the input power coupler side of each cavity were removed, the remaining HOM probe feedthroughs were heat stationed to two-phase helium supply piping, and a novel heat sink was added to station both the inner and outer conductors of the remaining HOM rf cables. The characterization measurements, analysis, modifications, and resulting performance are presented.

  20. An Analysis of Security and Privacy Issues in Smart Grid Software Architectures on Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Simmhan, Yogesh; Kumbhare, Alok; Cao, Baohua; Prasanna, Viktor K.

    2011-07-09

    Power utilities globally are increasingly upgrading to Smart Grids that use bi-directional communication with the consumer to enable an information-driven approach to distributed energy management. Clouds offer features well suited for Smart Grid software platforms and applications, such as elastic resources and shared services. However, the security and privacy concerns inherent in an information rich Smart Grid environment are further exacerbated by their deployment on Clouds. Here, we present an analysis of security and privacy issues in a Smart Grids software architecture operating on different Cloud environments, in the form of a taxonomy. We use the Los Angeles Smart Grid Project that is underway in the largest U.S. municipal utility to drive this analysis that will benefit both Cloud practitioners targeting Smart Grid applications, and Cloud researchers investigating security and privacy.