Science.gov

Sample records for analysis issues relating

  1. Resistance in the Classroom: A Phenomenological Analysis of Student Responses to Gender-Related Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobel, Christina

    Examining how students respond to gender-related issues, a study observed six classroom discussions of Fundamentals of Interpersonal Communication, an introductory level college course which integrated gender issues. Four different classes, each consisting of 25-30 male and female students averaging 18-20 years of age, participated in the study.…

  2. Software Archive Related Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelini, Lorella

    2008-01-01

    With the archive opening of the major X-ray and Gamma ray missions, the school is intended to provide information on the resource available in the data archive and the public software. This talk reviews the archive content, the data format for the major active missions Chandra, XMM-Newton, Swift, RXTE, Integral and Suzaku and the available software for each of these missions. It will explain the FITS format in general and the specific layout for the most popular mission, explaining the role of keywords and how they fit in the multimission standard approach embrace by the High Energy Community. Specifically, it reviews : the difference data levels and the difference software applicable; the popular/standard method of analysis for high level products such as spectra, timing and images; the role of calibration in the multi mission approach; how to navigate the archive query databases. It will present also how the school is organized and how the information provided will be relevant to each of the afternoon science projects that will be proposed to the students and led by a project leader

  3. Gender relations and economic issues.

    PubMed

    Elson, D

    1993-10-01

    While most discussions of economic issues pay no explicit attention to gender relations, most economic policy is marked by male bias which provides women with an unequal access to resources. This situation exists because most economists, officials, and business managers lack the imagination to see the gender impact of economic issues and most women's groups and researchers lack the language to portray this connection. This article explores some aspects of this gap and aims to provide women with the ability to effectively discuss economic issues. After an introduction, the article considers the basic problem caused by the fact that the economy is defined primarily in terms of money-making activities. This leads to a male bias since much of women's work occurs outside of the monetary sphere. The next section looks at how a failure to understand the significance of gender relations will interfere with the fulfillment of policy objectives. This discussion is followed by a description of how cutbacks in government expenditures increase the burden on women who must replace the services. Problems with the option of the private-sector replacing government services, such as the fact that increasing disposable income in households does not guarantee that unpaid labor will be reduced and the fact that the private sector may fail to expand in a productive way, are covered. The article then touches on the new emphasis placed by some economists and policy makers on cooperative and interactive solutions to these problems and ends by mentioning three new initiatives which seek to build capacity for gender-aware economic analysis: the development of a training program at Manchester University in the UK, coordination of an international research workshop by the University of Utah in the US, and development of an international association for feminist economics based in the US.

  4. A Categorical Content Analysis of Highly Cited Literature Related to Trends and Issues in Special Education.

    PubMed

    Arden, Sarah V; Pentimonti, Jill M; Cooray, Rochana; Jackson, Stephanie

    2017-07-01

    This investigation employs categorical content analysis processes as a mechanism to examine trends and issues in a sampling of highly cited (100+) literature in special education journals. The authors had two goals: (a) broadly identifying trends across publication type, content area, and methodology and (b) specifically identifying articles with disaggregated outcomes for students with learning disabilities (LD). Content analyses were conducted across highly cited (100+) articles published during a 20-year period (1992-2013) in a sample ( n = 3) of journals focused primarily on LD, and in one broad, cross-categorical journal recognized for its impact in the field. Results indicated trends in the article type (i.e., commentary and position papers), content (i.e., reading and behavior), and methodology (i.e., small proportions of experimental and quasi-experimental designs). Results also revealed stability in the proportion of intervention research studies when compared to previous analyses and a decline in the proportion of those that disaggregated data specifically for students with LD.

  5. A Review of Issues Related to Data Acquisition and Analysis in EEG/MEG Studies

    PubMed Central

    Puce, Aina; Hämäläinen, Matti S.

    2017-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are non-invasive electrophysiological methods, which record electric potentials and magnetic fields due to electric currents in synchronously-active neurons. With MEG being more sensitive to neural activity from tangential currents and EEG being able to detect both radial and tangential sources, the two methods are complementary. Over the years, neurophysiological studies have changed considerably: high-density recordings are becoming de rigueur; there is interest in both spontaneous and evoked activity; and sophisticated artifact detection and removal methods are available. Improved head models for source estimation have also increased the precision of the current estimates, particularly for EEG and combined EEG/MEG. Because of their complementarity, more investigators are beginning to perform simultaneous EEG/MEG studies to gain more complete information about neural activity. Given the increase in methodological complexity in EEG/MEG, it is important to gather data that are of high quality and that are as artifact free as possible. Here, we discuss some issues in data acquisition and analysis of EEG and MEG data. Practical considerations for different types of EEG and MEG studies are also discussed. PMID:28561761

  6. The Press Relations of a Local School District: An Analysis of the Emergence of School Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jon R.; Guenter, Cornelius

    Press coverage of a suburban midwest school district is analyzed as a set of time series of observations including the amount and quality of coverage. Possible shifts in these series because of the emergence of controversial issues are analyzed statistically using the Integrated Moving Average Time Series Model. Evidence of significant shifts in…

  7. Policy Analysis Series. Issues Related to the Welsch Consent Decree. Volumes I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Planning Agency, St. Paul.

    This two-volume compilation of 21 papers discusses issues stemming from the Welsch versus Likins suit (1974). The suit led to the 1980 Welsch-Noot consent decree requiring the State of Minnesota to reduce the overall population of mentally retarded persons residing in state institutions by nearly one-third over 6 years. The 11 papers in Volume I…

  8. Issues in Perceptual Speech Analysis in Cleft Palate and Related Disorders: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, Debbie

    2005-01-01

    Perceptual speech assessment is central to the evaluation of speech outcomes associated with cleft palate and velopharyngeal dysfunction. However, the complexity of this process is perhaps sometimes underestimated. To draw together the many different strands in the complex process of perceptual speech assessment and analysis, and make…

  9. Issues in Perceptual Speech Analysis in Cleft Palate and Related Disorders: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, Debbie

    2005-01-01

    Perceptual speech assessment is central to the evaluation of speech outcomes associated with cleft palate and velopharyngeal dysfunction. However, the complexity of this process is perhaps sometimes underestimated. To draw together the many different strands in the complex process of perceptual speech assessment and analysis, and make…

  10. An Analysis of Legal Issues Relating to the Least Restrictive Environment Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alquraini, Turki Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    The lack of clear language in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which is the federal law that governs the provision of special education and related services to children with disabilities in the USA, has led to inconsistencies in school districts' decisions regarding the least restrictive environment (LRE). This uncertainty…

  11. Analysis on the distinguishing features of traditional Chinese therapeutics and related statistical issues.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jingqing; Qiao, Jie; Kang, Deying; Liu, Baoyan

    2011-06-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the rarely existing ancient traditional medicines that hold systematic theories as well as preventative and therapeutic methods for diseases in practice. From the 1950s, such research methods as mathematics, statistics, and data mining (DM) have been gradually introduced to TCM studies, making it more scientific. Meanwhile, the distinct features of TCM theories and diagnostic-model have constantly challenged the methodology of statistics. This paper introduces the following scientific features of traditional Chinese therapeutics: 1) its goal is to balance the functions and conditions of human body; 2) it emphasizes on holism and individualization; 3) it stresses the longitudinal regulation and evaluation mode, which is a circle of syndrome diagnosis, treatment and evaluation; 4) the interventions of TCM are abundant, compound and natural; and 5) humanistic thought is everywhere. Some statistical problems are raised based on these features. First, complex statistical methods that can analyze subjective indexes and latent variables, multidimensional and multistage data, non-equilibrium designed studies, and longitudinal data are required. Second, comprehensive evaluation on multiple-target mechanism has been brought in by combination treatment. Third, there is a need to analyze how humanity and related cultural factors may influence the effect of interventions. Thus, promoting implemented studies of statistics as well as carrying out the TCM scientific propositions have become the common expectations of both TCM and modern medicine.

  12. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. III. Water level fluctuation

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S.G.

    1980-10-01

    Potential environmental impacts in reservoirs and downstream river reaches below dams that may be caused by the water level fluctuation resulting from development and operation of small scale (under 25MW) hydroelectric projects are identified. The impacts discussed will be of potential concern at only those small-scale hydroelectric projects that are operated in a store and release (peaking) mode. Potential impacts on physical and chemical characteristics in reservoirs resulting from water level fluctuation include resuspension and redistribution of bank and bed sediment; leaching of soluble organic matter from sediment in the littoral zone; and changes in water quality resulting from changes in sediment and nutrient trap efficiency. Potential impacts on reservoir biota as a result of water level fluctuation include habitat destruction and the resulting partial or total loss of aquatic species; changes in habitat quality, which result in reduced standing crop and production of aquatic biota; and possible shifts in species diversity. The potential physical effects of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams are streambed and bank erosion and water quality problems related to resuspension and redistribution of these materials. Potential biological impacts of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams result from changes in current velocity, habitat reduction, and alteration in food supply. These alterations, either singly or in combination, can adversely affect aquatic populations below dams. The nature and potential significance of adverse impacts resulting from water level fluctuation are discussed. Recommendations for site-specific evaluation of water level fluctuation at small-scale hydroelectric projects are presented.

  13. Respite Care: A Supportive and Preventive Service for Families. Issues Related to Welsch v. Levine. Policy Analysis Series No. 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Planning Agency, St. Paul.

    The paper examines issues of respite care specifically as they relate to developmentally disabled persons in Minnesota. A review of the literature focuses upon the status of respite care services in the state as well as the need for respite care and its role in an array of family support services. Family services are described in terms of those in…

  14. Analysis of Environmental Issues Related to Small-Scale Hydroelectric Development IV: Fish Mortality Resulting From Turbine Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Turbak, Susan C.; Reichle, Donna R.; Shriner, Carole R.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide summary information for use by potential developers and regulators of small-scale hydroelectric projects (defined as existing dams that can be retrofitted to a total site capacity of ≤30 MW), where turbine-related mortality of fish is a potential issue affecting site-specific development. Mitigation techniques for turbine-related mortality are not covered in this report.

  15. Teachers' Beliefs about Pedagogy and Related Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Vicki E.; Roehl, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    This study explores teachers' beliefs about pedagogical issues as well as related educational and professional issues. Six hundred K-12 teachers in three Midwestern states received surveys and 60% returned them. Results of the survey indicated that teachers were relatively unified in their beliefs, and few differences emerged around demographic…

  16. Immigration Reform and Related Issues. Perspectivas Publicas. Issue Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    Asserting that immigration reform and related issues have commanded sustained attention in the opening weeks of the 99th Congress, this paper provides an overview of important developments in this area, and highlights steps taken by the National Council of La Raza to help shape these developments. The developments discussed include: (1) The…

  17. Sampling and Analysis Issues Relating to the ACGIH Notice of Intended Change for the Beryllium Threshold Limit Value

    SciTech Connect

    Brisson, Michael J.; Ashley, Kevin

    2005-08-16

    Beryllium in various forms is widely used throughout the world in ceramics, aerospace and military applications, electronics, and sports equipment. Workplace exposure to beryllium is a growing industrial hygiene concern due to the potential for development of chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a lung condition with no known cure, in a small percentage of those exposed. There are workplace exposure limits for beryllium that have been in place for several decades. However, recent studies suggest that the current American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) may not be sufficiently protective for workers who are potentially exposed to airborne beryllium. Early in 2005, ACGIH issued a Notice of Intended Change (NIC) to the current TLV for beryllium which entails a 100-fold reduction (from 2 to 0.02 micrograms per cubic meter of sampled air). It is noted that ACGIH TLVs do not carry legal force in the manner that OSHA PELs or other federal regulations do. Nevertheless, OSHA plans a beryllium rulemaking in the near future, and a reduction in the PEL is anticipated. Also, if this change in the TLV for beryllium is adopted, it is reasonable to assume that at least some sampling and analysis activities will need to be modified to address airborne beryllium at the lower levels. There are implications to both the industrial hygiene and the laboratory communities, which are discussed.

  18. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. VI. Dissolved oxygen concentrations below operating dams

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.; Kumar, K.D.; Solomon, J.A.; Hildebrand, S.G.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of an effort aimed at determining whether or not water quality degradation, as exemplified by dissolved oxygen concentrations, is a potentially significant issue affecting small-scale hydropower development in the US. The approach was to pair operating hydroelectric sites of all sizes with dissolved oxygen measurements from nearby downstream US Geological Survey water quality stations (acquired from the WATSTORE data base). The USGS data were used to calculate probabilities of non-compliance (PNCs), i.e., the probabilities that dissolved oxygen concentrations in the discharge waters of operating hydroelectric dams will drop below 5 mg/l. PNCs were estimated for each site, season (summer vs remaining months), and capacity category (less than or equal to 30 MW vs >30 MW). Because of the low numbers of usable sites in many states, much of the subsequent analysis was conducted on a regional basis. During the winter months (November through June) all regions had low mean PNCs regardless of capacity. Most regions had higher mean PNCs in summer than in winter, and summer PNCs were greater for large-scale than for small-scale sites. Among regions, the highest mean summer PNCs were found in the Great Basin, the Southeast, and the Ohio Valley. To obtain a more comprehensive picture of the effects of season and capacity on potential dissolved oxygen problems, cumulative probability distributions of PNC were developed for selected regions. This analysis indicates that low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the tailwaters below operating hydroelectric projects are a problem largely confined to large-scale facilities.

  19. Critical Issues in School Employee Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, David L.

    1995-01-01

    Salient school employee-relations issues include elimination of positions because of budgetary austerity; and managerial initiatives toward higher productivity through enhanced technology and an ever-smaller, core, full-time workforce. (MLF)

  20. Southern Nevada residents` views about the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository and related issues: A comparative analysis of urban and rural survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Krannich, R.S.; Little, R.L.; Mushkatel, A.; Pijawka, K.D.; Jones, P.

    1991-10-01

    two separate surveys were undertaken in 1988 to ascertain southern Nevadans` views about the Yucca Mountain repository and related issues. The first of these studies focused on the attitudes and perceptions of residents in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. The second study addressed similar issues, but focused on the views of residents in six rural communities in three counties adjacent to the Yucca Mountain site. However, parallel findings from the two data sets have not been jointly analyzed in order to identify ways in which the views and orientations of residents in the rural and urban study areas may be similar or different. The purpose of this report is to develop and present a comparative assessment of selected issues addressed in the rural and urban surveys. Because both urban and rural populations would potentially be impacted by the Yucca Mountain repository, such an analysis will provide important insights into possible repository impacts on the well-being of residents throughout southern Nevada.

  1. College Living: Issues Related to Housecleaning Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Shirley M.; Turner, G. Marc; Vieira, Ana; Brunotte, Joshua

    2005-01-01

    Cleanliness preferences may be related to the compatibility of college roommates and hence relevant to students' satisfaction with and retention at a college or university. Two studies were conducted to develop a scale and examine issues related to housecleaning attitudes In the first study 457 college students completed an Attitude toward…

  2. College Living: Issues Related to Housecleaning Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Shirley M.; Turner, G. Marc; Vieira, Ana; Brunotte, Joshua

    2005-01-01

    Cleanliness preferences may be related to the compatibility of college roommates and hence relevant to students' satisfaction with and retention at a college or university. Two studies were conducted to develop a scale and examine issues related to housecleaning attitudes In the first study 457 college students completed an Attitude toward…

  3. Similarity issues of confluence of fuzzy relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhr, Tomas; Vychodil, Vilem

    2012-04-01

    We study similarity issues of confluence and related properties of fuzzy relations. The ordinary notions of divergence, convergence, convertibility, and confluence are essential properties of relations which appear in abstract rewriting systems. In a graded setting, we can introduce analogous notions related to the idea of approximate rewriting. This paper is a continuation of our previous paper (Belohlavek et al. 2010), where we have introduced such notions using residuated structures of truth degrees, leaving the ordinary notions a particular case when the underlying structure of truth degrees is the two-valued Boolean algebra. In this paper, we focus on similarity issues of confluence and present formulas which provide approximations of degrees of confluence and related properties based on similarity of the original fuzzy relations.

  4. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  5. Addressing Measurement Issues Related to Bullying Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casper, Deborah M.; Meter, Diana J.; Card, Noel A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we address measurement issues related to select aspects of bullying involvement with the goal of moving psychometrically sound measurement practices toward applied bullying research. We first provide a nontechnical introduction to psychometric considerations in measuring bullying involvement, highlighting the importance of…

  6. [National Issues Relating to Children and Families].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranston, Alan

    This speech by the chairman of the Child and Human Development Subcommittee of the Senate Labor and Human Resources Committee focuses on issues relating to the needs and problems of children and families. Programs under the jurisdiction of the Subcommittee include child abuse, child care, domestic violence, aspects of adoption and foster care…

  7. Teachers' Attitudes Toward Death-Related Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkes, A. Cordell

    1978-01-01

    Reports a study to assess teachers attitudes toward death-related issues. A questionnaire was given to 61 teachers in a graduate education course. It was found that the teachers tended to favor liberal abortion laws (67 percent), euthanasia (83 percent), and the majority (65 percent) believed in life after death. (SLH)

  8. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  9. Teachers' Attitudes Toward Death-Related Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkes, A. Cordell

    1978-01-01

    Reports a study to assess teachers attitudes toward death-related issues. A questionnaire was given to 61 teachers in a graduate education course. It was found that the teachers tended to favor liberal abortion laws (67 percent), euthanasia (83 percent), and the majority (65 percent) believed in life after death. (SLH)

  10. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development IV: fish mortality resulting from turbine passage

    SciTech Connect

    Turbak, S. C.; Reichle, D. R.; Shriner, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    This document presents a state-of-the-art review of literature concerning turbine-related fish mortality. The review discusses conventional and, to a lesser degree, pumped-storage (reversible) hydroelectric facilities. Much of the research on conventional facilities discussed in this report deals with studies performed in the Pacific Northwest and covers both prototype and model studies. Research conducted on Kaplan and Francis turbines during the 1950s and 1960s has been extensively reviewed and is discussed. Very little work on turbine-related fish mortality has been undertaken with newer turbine designs developed for more modern small-scale hydropower facilities; however, one study on a bulb unit (Kaplan runner) has recently been released. In discussing turbine-related fish mortality at pumped-storage facilities, much of the literature relates to the Ludington Pumped Storage Power Plant. As such, it is used as the principal facility in discussing research concerning pumped storage.

  11. Analysis weighs issues in divestiture decisions.

    PubMed

    Spallina, J M

    1990-07-01

    Financial managers faced with the task of recommending whether diversified services should be dissolved or continued need a logical means of analysis. Their evaluations should consider not only the venture's financial results but concerns specific to the hospital and its market, as well as related social and legal issues. Failure analysis, a function of business portfolio management, helps put these variables in perspective and provides a framework for decision making.

  12. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-12

    Two Chinese-born Americans, Xue Feng , a geologist, and Hu Zhicheng, an automotive engineer, remain under detention in China while facing criminal...raised the issue of Xue Feng to China’s leaders.15 U.S.-PRC Dialogues The Strategic and Economic Dialogue (S&ED) On April 1, 2009, on the sidelines of...former President Chen Shui -bian’s eight-year record of governance. President Ma moved quickly to implement improvements in cross-strait relations

  13. Issues Relating to Confounding and Meta-analysis When Including Non-Randomized Studies in Systematic Reviews on the Effects of Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Jeffrey C.; Thompson, Simon G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Confounding caused by selection bias is often a key difference between non-randomized studies (NRS) and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions. Key methodological issues: In this third paper of the series, we consider issues relating to the inclusion of NRS in systematic reviews on the effects of interventions. We discuss…

  14. Issues Relating to Confounding and Meta-analysis When Including Non-Randomized Studies in Systematic Reviews on the Effects of Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Jeffrey C.; Thompson, Simon G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Confounding caused by selection bias is often a key difference between non-randomized studies (NRS) and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions. Key methodological issues: In this third paper of the series, we consider issues relating to the inclusion of NRS in systematic reviews on the effects of interventions. We discuss…

  15. Exploring work-related issues on corporate sustainability.

    PubMed

    Brunoro, C M; Bolis, I; Sznelwar, L I

    2015-01-01

    In a research project about work-related issues and corporate sustainability conducted in Brazil, the goal was to better understand how work-related issues were addressed in the corporate context. Particularly, there are some specific initiatives that serve as guides to organizational decisions, which make their performance indicators for the context of corporate sustainability. 1) To explore the presence of work-related issues and their origins in corporate sustainability approach, analyzing a) corporate disclosures; b) sustainability guidelines that are identified as relevant in corporate disclosures; c) documents that are related to sustainable development and also identified as key-documents for these guidelines and initiatives. 2) To present the activity-centered ergonomics and psychodynamics of work contributions to work-related issues in a corporate sustainability approach. An exploratory study based on multiple sources of evidence that were performed from 2012 to 2013, including interviews with companies that engaged in corporate sustainability and document analysis using the content analysis approach. Work-related issues have been presented since the earliest sustainable development documents. It is feasible to construct an empirical framework for work-related issues and corporate sustainability approaches. 1) Although some authors argue that corporate sustainability has its roots based only on the environmental dimension, there is strong empirical evidence showing that social dimension aspects such as work-related issues have been present since the beginning. 2) Some indicators should be redesigned to more precisely translate the reality of some workplaces, particularly those indicators related to organizational design and mental health.

  16. Global sensitivity analysis of a model related to memory formation in synapses: Model reduction based on epistemic parameter uncertainties and related issues.

    PubMed

    Kulasiri, Don; Liang, Jingyi; He, Yao; Samarasinghe, Sandhya

    2017-02-09

    We investigate the epistemic uncertainties of parameters of a mathematical model that describes the dynamics of CaMKII-NMDAR complex related to memory formation in synapses using global sensitivity analysis (GSA). The model, which was published in this journal, is nonlinear and complex with Ca(2+) patterns with different level of frequencies as inputs. We explore the effects of parameter on the key outputs of the model to discover the most sensitive ones using GSA and partial ranking correlation coefficient (PRCC) and to understand why they are sensitive and others are not based on the biology of the problem. We also extend the model to add presynaptic neurotransmitter vesicles release to have action potentials as inputs of different frequencies. We perform GSA on this extended model to show that the parameter sensitivities are different for the extended model as shown by PRCC landscapes. Based on the results of GSA and PRCC, we reduce the original model to a less complex model taking the most important biological processes into account. We validate the reduced model against the outputs of the original model. We show that the parameter sensitivities are dependent on the inputs and GSA would make us understand the sensitivities and the importance of the parameters. A thorough phenomenological understanding of the relationships involved is essential to interpret the results of GSA and hence for the possible model reduction.

  17. Fukushima Health Management Survey and Related Issues.

    PubMed

    Yasumura, Seiji; Abe, Masafumi

    2017-03-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident occurred. The Fukushima prefectural government decided to launch the Fukushima Health Management Survey; Fukushima Medical University was entrusted to design and implement the survey. The survey process and development is described from the standpoint of its background and aim. An overview of the basic survey and 4 detailed surveys is briefly provided. Issues related to the survey are discussed from the perspective of supporting the Fukushima residents.

  18. Issues in Midterm Analysis and Forecasting

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    Final issue of this report. Presents a series of eight papers, which cover topics in analysis and modeling that underlie the Annual Energy Outlook 1999, as well as other significant issues in midterm energy markets.

  19. Issues in Midterm Analysis and Forecasting

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    Final issue of this report. Presents a series of eight papers, which cover topics in analysis and modeling that underlie the Annual Energy Outlook 1999, as well as other significant issues in midterm energy markets.

  20. Issues in workforce composition analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Koeck, D.C.; Rogers, J.D.

    1996-05-01

    An issue of paramount interest to US industry is the supply and quality of human resources available for this country`s scientific and technological activities. The changing composition of the workforce and the responsibility that an organization has to assure equal opportunity, give rise to various issues. This paper discusses some of the issues associated with the scientific and technical workforce. Specifically, it explores some of the questions pertaining to workforce composition and measures of workforce composition. This paper should be useful to those responsible for personnel policies.

  1. The "Missing Males" and Other Gender-Related Issues in Music Education: A Critical Analysis of Evidence from the Music Supervisors' Journal, 1914-1924.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koza, Julia Eklund

    Boys' reluctance to participate in music education programs, particularly in school singing groups -- termed in this paper the "missing males" problem -- is just one among many pressing gender problems in music education. In order to discover whether boys' lack of participation in music, along with other gender-related issues, are merely…

  2. Unsolved issues related to human mitochondrial diseases.

    PubMed

    Lombès, Anne; Auré, Karine; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine; Gilleron, Mylène; Jardel, Claude

    2014-05-01

    Human mitochondrial diseases, defined as the diseases due to a mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation defect, represent a large group of very diverse diseases with respect to phenotype and genetic causes. They present with many unsolved issues, the comprehensive analysis of which is beyond the scope of this review. We here essentially focus on the mechanisms underlying the diversity of targeted tissues, which is an important component of the large panel of these diseases phenotypic expression. The reproducibility of genotype/phenotype expression, the presence of modifying factors, and the potential causes for the restricted pattern of tissular expression are reviewed. Special emphasis is made on heteroplasmy, a specific feature of mitochondrial diseases, defined as the coexistence within the cell of mutant and wild type mitochondrial DNA molecules. Its existence permits unequal segregation during mitoses of the mitochondrial DNA populations and consequently heterogeneous tissue distribution of the mutation load. The observed tissue distributions of recurrent human mitochondrial DNA deleterious mutations are diverse but reproducible for a given mutation demonstrating that the segregation is not a random process. Its extent and mechanisms remain essentially unknown despite recent advances obtained in animal models.

  3. An Analysis of Minnesota Property Values of Community Intermediate Care Facilities for Mentally Retarded (ICF-MRs). Issues Related to Welsch v. Noot. Policy Analysis Series No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Governor's Planning Council on Developmental Disabilities, St. Paul.

    The paper analyzes one issue, property values, as an impact of Welsch v. Noot which affected zoning practices regarding group homes for mentally retarded persons. Assessed value was used to measure property vaues of 14 group home neighborhoods for the year preceding and following establishment of the home. Data were obtained from local tax…

  4. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    SciTech Connect

    Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.

  5. Environmental Awareness: Relating Current Issues to Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFina, Anthony

    1995-01-01

    Presents examples of incorporating environmental issues into lesson plans to raise the level of students' environmental awareness. Topics include: ecology, taxonomy, biochemistry, energy reactions, cell structure and function, genetics and development, and human biology. (JRH)

  6. Photography consent and related legal issues.

    PubMed

    Segal, Jeffrey; Sacopulos, Michael J

    2010-05-01

    The use of photography is an integral part of any plastic surgery practice. Photographs are part of the patient's medical record and thus are covered by both federal and state privacy laws. Liability issues may arise when patients are photographed without their knowledge and consent. With proper written consent, practices may use "before" and "after" photographs of patients. However, some states have specific requirements as to the manner in which these photographs are taken and what claims may appear as text with the photographs. This article seeks to discuss legal issues associated with the use of photography in plastic surgery practices, and provides sample agreements to serve as a basis for addressing these issues. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Critical Issues in Mycobiota Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Halwachs, Bettina; Madhusudhan, Nandhitha; Krause, Robert; Nilsson, R. Henrik; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Högenauer, Christoph; Thallinger, Gerhard G.; Gorkiewicz, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    Fungi constitute an important part of the human microbiota and they play a significant role for health and disease development. Advancements made in the culture-independent analysis of microbial communities have broadened our understanding of the mycobiota, however, microbiota analysis tools have been mainly developed for bacteria (e.g., targeting the 16S rRNA gene) and they often fall short if applied to fungal marker-gene based investigations (i.e., internal transcribed spacers, ITS). In the current paper we discuss all major steps of a fungal amplicon analysis starting with DNA extraction from specimens up to bioinformatics analyses of next-generation sequencing data. Specific points are discussed at each step and special emphasis is placed on the bioinformatics challenges emerging during operational taxonomic unit (OTU) picking, a critical step in mycobiota analysis. By using an in silico ITS1 mock community we demonstrate that standard analysis pipelines fall short if used with default settings showing erroneous fungal community representations. We highlight that switching OTU picking to a closed reference approach greatly enhances performance. Finally, recommendations are given on how to perform ITS based mycobiota analysis with the currently available measures. PMID:28261162

  8. Critical Issues in Mycobiota Analysis.

    PubMed

    Halwachs, Bettina; Madhusudhan, Nandhitha; Krause, Robert; Nilsson, R Henrik; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Högenauer, Christoph; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Gorkiewicz, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    Fungi constitute an important part of the human microbiota and they play a significant role for health and disease development. Advancements made in the culture-independent analysis of microbial communities have broadened our understanding of the mycobiota, however, microbiota analysis tools have been mainly developed for bacteria (e.g., targeting the 16S rRNA gene) and they often fall short if applied to fungal marker-gene based investigations (i.e., internal transcribed spacers, ITS). In the current paper we discuss all major steps of a fungal amplicon analysis starting with DNA extraction from specimens up to bioinformatics analyses of next-generation sequencing data. Specific points are discussed at each step and special emphasis is placed on the bioinformatics challenges emerging during operational taxonomic unit (OTU) picking, a critical step in mycobiota analysis. By using an in silico ITS1 mock community we demonstrate that standard analysis pipelines fall short if used with default settings showing erroneous fungal community representations. We highlight that switching OTU picking to a closed reference approach greatly enhances performance. Finally, recommendations are given on how to perform ITS based mycobiota analysis with the currently available measures.

  9. Health Related Legal Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Stephen B.

    This monograph analyzes health and safety issues in education in terms of relevant constitutional and statutory provisions. Chapter 1, an introduction, summarizes Fourteenth Amendment equal protection and due process clauses and defines "handicapped" under the Rehabilitation Act. State assistance and student eligibility under the…

  10. Health Related Legal Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Stephen B.

    This monograph analyzes health and safety issues in education in terms of relevant constitutional and statutory provisions. Chapter 1, an introduction, summarizes Fourteenth Amendment equal protection and due process clauses and defines "handicapped" under the Rehabilitation Act. State assistance and student eligibility under the…

  11. Children with Cancer: School Related Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartin, Barbara C.; Murdick, Nikki L.

    2009-01-01

    School gives purpose to a student's life. Today, students with cancer and cancer survivors are encouraged to continue their educational experiences to maintain a sense of normalcy. This manuscript discusses the research findings on medical, physical, and cognitive issues that students with cancer and cancer survivors may encounter in their…

  12. Environmental issues related to biomass: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, M.; Ranney, J.W.

    1993-12-31

    Now that public attention has grown increasingly focused on environmentalism and climate change, the commercial use of biomass could greatly accelerate. Renewable feedstocks like biomass can provide better environmentally balanced sources of energy and other nonfood products than fossil fuels. The future of biomass is uncertain, however, because public attention focuses on both its potential and its challenges. This paper is divided into five sections. Section 2 briefly addresses economic environmental issues. The extent to which externalities are accounted for in the market price of fuels plays a significant role in determining both the ultimate size of biofuel markets and the extent of the environmental benefits of feedstock cultivation and conversion processes. Sections 3 and 4 catalog the main hazards and benefits that are likely to arise in the large-scale commercialization of biomass fuel and note where the major uncertainties lay. Environmental issues arise with the cultivation of each feedstock and with each step in the process of its conversion to fuel. Feedstocks are discussed in Section 3 in terms of three main groups: wastes, energy crops, and traditional agricultural crops. In Section 4, conversion processes are also divided into three groups, on the basis of the end energy carrier: gas, liquid, and solid and electricity. Section 5 provides a conclusion and summary.

  13. Human biomonitoring issues related to lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Nieboer, Evert; Tsuji, Leonard J S; Martin, Ian D; Liberda, Eric N

    2013-10-01

    Lead as a toxic environmental metal has been an issue of concern for 30-40 years. Even though the exposures experienced by the general public have been significantly reduced, so have the acceptable blood lead concentrations assessed to safeguard health (specifically of children). The impact of these concurrent changes are reviewed and discussed in terms of the following: blood lead as the primary biomarker of exposure; pertinent toxicokinetic issues including modelling; legacy and newer sources of this toxic metal; improvements in lead quantification techniques and its characterization (chemical forms) in exposure media; and in vivo markers of lead sources. It is concluded that the progress in the quantification of lead and its characterization in exposure media have supported the efforts to identify statistical associations of lead in blood and tissues with adverse health outcomes, and have guided strategies to reduce human exposure (especially for children). To clarify the role of lead as a causative factor in disease, greater research efforts in biomarkers of effect and susceptibility seem timely.

  14. [Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: concepts and related issues].

    PubMed

    Lai, Maode

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) has been gradually increasing and most of NENs are located in gastroenteropancreatic system. With the application of target therapeutic drugs in recent years, the precise pathological diagnosis is required critically for effective clinical treatment: target therapy needs targeted pathological diagnosis. In this article, the definition of NENs, and the century-long evolution of diagnostic terms and grades are reviewed. The eight steps of pathological diagnosis of NENs for clinical needs are described. Four inconsistent concepts in NENs diagnosis are also discussed, that is immunohistochemical biomarkers of pathological diagnosis, subpopulation of neuroendocrine neoplasms with high proliferative activity, general adenocarcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation and molecular genetics characteristics. To correctly understand these issues would be of great value for diagnosis and treatment of NENs.

  15. Parkinson's disease and issues related to driving.

    PubMed

    Uitti, Ryan J

    2009-12-01

    Driving a motor vehicle represents an important activity associated with personal independence and freedom. Being told that one can no longer drive is itself associated with loss of independence, depression, low self-esteem and reduced activities [1,2]. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), therefore, understandably wish to continue to be able to maintain their ability to drive automobiles, motorcycles, airplanes, and boats, etc. The ability to determine if and when a PD patient is no longer fit to drive a motor vehicle is important for maintaining safety for the PD patient and the public. There are numerous requirements for being able to drive a motor vehicle safely. When any of these capacities deteriorate, the ability to drive safely may be lost. This review will concentrate upon common issues that would be peculiar to patients with PD.

  16. Mermaid health - identifying health issues related to mermaiding.

    PubMed

    Guitton, Matthieu J

    2017-01-01

    Mermaiding - swimming with a leg-covering monofin mimicking the tail of a mermaid - is an emerging aquatic activity, which has gained a marked popularity over the last few years. However, no study so far has documented the potential health issues or risks of injuries related to this practice. This study surveyed professional mermaids cumulating an estimated total of 19,147 h of in-water mermaiding, regarding their health issues and injuries. While mermaiding bears some risks, the occurrence of problematic conditions appears limited. Interestingly, the profile of health issues experienced by professional mermaids is unique and specific, and clearly different from both professional swimmers and surfers. Self-reported health issues related to mermaiding could be divided into issues specifically related to mermaiding activities (ear issues, reported by 87.5% of the respondents; sea life encounters, 50%; cold-related issues, 37.5%; compromised access to air, 25%), issues related to the tail and fins (back pain, 50%; lower limbs issues, 37.5%), and issues related to water quality (eye issues, 25%; waterborne diseases, 12.5%). Clear differences appear between professional and recreational mermaiding activities. The results presented here will help to build safer conditions for mermaiding activities and to develop adapted responses from health specialists to help this unique yet growing population of aquatic performers and athletes.

  17. Management issues in automated audit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, K.A.; Hochberg, J.G.; Wilhelmy, S.K.; McClary, J.F.; Christoph, G.G.

    1994-03-01

    This paper discusses management issues associated with the design and implementation of an automated audit analysis system that we use to detect security events. It gives the viewpoint of a team directly responsible for developing and managing such a system. We use Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter (NADIR) as a case in point. We examine issues encountered at Los Alamos, detail our solutions to them, and where appropriate suggest general solutions. After providing an introduction to NADIR, we explore four general management issues: cost-benefit questions, privacy considerations, legal issues, and system integrity. Our experiences are of general interest both to security professionals and to anyone who may wish to implement a similar system. While NADIR investigates security events, the methods used and the management issues are potentially applicable to a broad range of complex systems. These include those used to audit credit card transactions, medical care payments, and procurement systems.

  18. Issues in the Ethics of Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Peter K.

    There is little doubt that the field of public relations needs to be concerned with both the ethical standards and behaviors of practitioners and the perceptions of these standards and actions held by clients, other communications professionals, and the public. What constitutes ethical standards and practices, however, continues to be debated…

  19. Issues in the Ethics of Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Peter K.

    There is little doubt that the field of public relations needs to be concerned with both the ethical standards and behaviors of practitioners and the perceptions of these standards and actions held by clients, other communications professionals, and the public. What constitutes ethical standards and practices, however, continues to be debated…

  20. Issues in midterm analysis and forecasting 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    Issues in Midterm Analysis and Forecasting 1998 (Issues) presents a series of nine papers covering topics in analysis and modeling that underlie the Annual Energy Outlook 1998 (AEO98), as well as other significant issues in midterm energy markets. AEO98, DOE/EIA-0383(98), published in December 1997, presents national forecasts of energy production, demand, imports, and prices through the year 2020 for five cases -- a reference case and four additional cases that assume higher and lower economic growth and higher and lower world oil prices than in the reference case. The forecasts were prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), using EIA`s National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The papers included in Issues describe underlying analyses for the projections in AEO98 and the forthcoming Annual Energy Outlook 1999 and for other products of EIA`s Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting. Their purpose is to provide public access to analytical work done in preparation for the midterm projections and other unpublished analyses. Specific topics were chosen for their relevance to current energy issues or to highlight modeling activities in NEMS. 59 figs., 44 tabs.

  1. Digital telephony analysis model and issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keuthan, Lynn M.

    1995-09-01

    Experts in the fields of digital telephony and communications security have stated the need for an analytical tool for evaluating complex issues. Some important policy issues discussed by experts recently include implementing digital wire-taps, implementation of the 'Clipper Chip', required registration of encryption/decryption keys, and export control of cryptographic equipment. Associated with the implementation of these policies are direct costs resulting from implementation, indirect cost benefits from implementation, and indirect costs resulting from the risks of implementation or factors reducing cost benefits. Presented herein is a model for analyzing digital telephony policies and systems and their associated direct costs and indirect benefit and risk factors. In order to present the structure of the model, issues of national importance and business-related issues are discussed. The various factors impacting the implementation of the associated communications systems and communications security are summarized, and various implementation tradeoffs are compared based on economic benefits/impact. The importance of the issues addressed herein, as well as other digital telephony issues, has greatly increased with the enormous increases in communication system connectivity due to the advance of the National Information Infrastructure.

  2. Emerging Issues and Opportunities Prospective Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Sharlene A.

    This paper discusses 14 issues related to gender equity in intercollegiate athletics, including: (1) the cost dilemma, in which institutions have to cut men's sports to introduce women's sports; (2) equal pay for the coaches of men's and women's teams; (3) the gender of coaches, namely men coaching women's teams; (4) peer harassment among…

  3. Practical Issues in Component Aging Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dana L. Kelly; Andrei Rodionov; Jens Uwe-Klugel

    2008-09-01

    This paper examines practical issues in the statistical analysis of component aging data. These issues center on the stochastic process chosen to model component failures. The two stochastic processes examined are repair same as new, leading to a renewal process, and repair same as old, leading to a nonhomogeneous Poisson process. Under the first assumption, times between failures can treated as statistically independent observations from a stationary process. The common distribution of the times between failures is called the renewal distribution. Under the second process, the times between failures will not be independently and identically distributed, and one cannot simply fit a renewal distribution to the cumulative failure times or the times between failures. The paper illustrates how the assumption made regarding the repair process is crucial to the analysis. Besides the choice of stochastic process, other issues that are discussed include qualitative graphical analysis and simple nonparametric hypothesis tests to help judge which process appears more appropriate. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the issues discussed in the paper.

  4. Assessment of combustion and related issues in the DWPF and ITP waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, T.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a review of the safety analyses described in the DWPF Safety Analysis Report, the combustion analysis of the ITP Tanks 48 and 49, and presents conclusions drawn from interviews staff on issues related to accident analysis, in particular on issues related to combustion phenomena. The major objectives of this report are to clarify the issues related to the modes of combustion and expected loads on process vessels and structures and, in addition, to offer recommendations which would improve the defense-in-depth posture of the DWPF.

  5. ON STATISTICAL ISSUES RELATED TO FARMWORKER STUDIES (9418LET)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product is a response to a letter to the editor regarding an Environmental Health Perspective research article titled: "A Survey of Laboratory and Statistical Issues Related to Farmworker Exposure Studies".

  6. Korea: U.S.-Korean Relations -- Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-16

    wounded in the Korean War (1950-53). The United States agreed to defend South Korea from external aggression in the 1954 Mutual Defense Treaty. The... Korean RelationsIssues for Congress Updated June 16, 2005 Larry A. Niksch Foreign Affairs, Defense , and Trade Division Report Documentation Page...A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Korea : U.S.- Korean Relations -- Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  7. Public Relations Manager Involvement in Strategic Issue Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauzen, Martha M.

    1995-01-01

    Reports on an exploratory study that seeks to build theoretical understanding of how public relations practitioner involvement in one type of strategic organizational decision making--strategic issue diagnosis--is related to shared values with top management, diagnosis accuracy, strategy pursued, and the power of the public relations function. (TB)

  8. Public Relations Manager Involvement in Strategic Issue Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauzen, Martha M.

    1995-01-01

    Reports on an exploratory study that seeks to build theoretical understanding of how public relations practitioner involvement in one type of strategic organizational decision making--strategic issue diagnosis--is related to shared values with top management, diagnosis accuracy, strategy pursued, and the power of the public relations function. (TB)

  9. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: substrate-related issues.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiu-Mei; Cui, Yan; Xu, Yan-Hui; Ren, Bin; Tian, Zhong-Qun

    2009-08-01

    After over 30 years of development, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is now facing a very important stage in its history. The explosive development of nanoscience and nanotechnology has assisted the rapid development of SERS, especially during the last 5 years. Further development of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is mainly limited by the reproducible preparation of clean and highly surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active substrates. This review deals with some substrate-related issues. Various methods will be introduced for preparing SERS substrates of Ag and Au for analytical purposes, from SERS substrates prepared by electrochemical or vacuum methods, to well-dispersed Au or Ag nanoparticle sols, to nanoparticle thin film substrates, and finally to ordered nanostructured substrates. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of the advantages and weaknesses of different methods in preparing SERS substrates. Closely related to the application of SERS in the analysis of trace sample and unknown systems, the existing cleaning methods for SERS substrates are analyzed and a combined chemical adsorption and electrochemical oxidation method is proposed to eliminate the interference of contaminants. A defocusing method is proposed to deal with the laser-induced sample decomposition problem frequently met in SERS measurement to obtain strong signals. The existing methods to estimate the surface enhancement factor, a criterion to characterize the SERS activity of a substrate, are analyzed and some guidelines are proposed to obtain the correct enhancement factor.

  10. Issues in Quantitative Analysis of Ultraviolet Imager (UV) Data: Airglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Germany, G. A.; Richards, P. G.; Spann, J. F.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Parks, G. K.

    1999-01-01

    The GGS Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) has proven to be especially valuable in correlative substorm, auroral morphology, and extended statistical studies of the auroral regions. Such studies are based on knowledge of the location, spatial, and temporal behavior of auroral emissions. More quantitative studies, based on absolute radiometric intensities from UVI images, require a more intimate knowledge of the instrument behavior and data processing requirements and are inherently more difficult than studies based on relative knowledge of the oval location. In this study, UVI airglow observations are analyzed and compared with model predictions to illustrate issues that arise in quantitative analysis of UVI images. These issues include instrument calibration, long term changes in sensitivity, and imager flat field response as well as proper background correction. Airglow emissions are chosen for this study because of their relatively straightforward modeling requirements and because of their implications for thermospheric compositional studies. The analysis issues discussed here, however, are identical to those faced in quantitative auroral studies.

  11. Issues in Quantitative Analysis of Ultraviolet Imager (UV) Data: Airglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Germany, G. A.; Richards, P. G.; Spann, J. F.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Parks, G. K.

    1999-01-01

    The GGS Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) has proven to be especially valuable in correlative substorm, auroral morphology, and extended statistical studies of the auroral regions. Such studies are based on knowledge of the location, spatial, and temporal behavior of auroral emissions. More quantitative studies, based on absolute radiometric intensities from UVI images, require a more intimate knowledge of the instrument behavior and data processing requirements and are inherently more difficult than studies based on relative knowledge of the oval location. In this study, UVI airglow observations are analyzed and compared with model predictions to illustrate issues that arise in quantitative analysis of UVI images. These issues include instrument calibration, long term changes in sensitivity, and imager flat field response as well as proper background correction. Airglow emissions are chosen for this study because of their relatively straightforward modeling requirements and because of their implications for thermospheric compositional studies. The analysis issues discussed here, however, are identical to those faced in quantitative auroral studies.

  12. Social justice issues related to uneven distribution of resources.

    PubMed

    Ervin, Naomi E; Bell, Sue Ellen

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the social justice issues resulting from the uneven distribution of resources. In this article, justice theories are discussed in relation to two of these issues: lack of adequate food and shelter and inequitable access to an appropriate continuum of health care. Public health nurses have the obligation to deal with the results of poverty and the uneven distribution of resources, which pose a threat to the common good in the United States and throughout the global community.

  13. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01

    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  14. Nurses' perceptions of ethical issues related to patients' rights law.

    PubMed

    Yakov, Gila; Shilo, Yehudit; Shor, Tzippy

    2010-07-01

    August 2006 marked the 10th anniversary of landmark legislation when Israel's parliament passed the unique Patient's Rights Law. This law underscores the importance of medical ethics in Israeli society. During a seminar at the Shaare Zedek School of Nursing, third-year students performed a qualitative research study investigating ethical issues arising in the field of nursing, and how nursing staff dealt with these issues in relation to the law. The research was conducted using semistructured questionnaires. The results showed that the staff participants knew the law, but did not differentiate between legal and ethical problems. The establishment of a framework for dealing with these issues would help to promote professional ethics, encourage broad-based agreements related to ethical decisions, reduce ethical conflict, and increase implementation of the law on patients' rights.

  15. 76 FR 63573 - Roundtable on Issues Relating to Conflict Minerals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... [Release No. 34-65508; File No. S7-40-10] Roundtable on Issues Relating to Conflict Minerals AGENCY... regarding conflict minerals originating in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and adjoining countries... reporting regulations regarding the use of conflict minerals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and...

  16. Everyday Issues Related to Justice and Other Gospel Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kealey, Robert J.

    This manual presents situations that occur in the lives of most children and suggests to the teacher related activities which might cause students to reflect on the deeper meaning and significance of the situations. It seeks to make the teacher, and thus students, aware of the fact that peace, justice, and other value issues are part of daily…

  17. University Students' Perceptions of Issues Related to Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Robert, Jr.; Lawver, David E.

    1995-01-01

    Telephone interviews with 390 of 400 college students revealed an overall favorable impression of food safety and agriculture's impact on the economy and environment. Males were more positive about animal welfare and production agriculture. Gender, college major, and hometown were related to attitudes about agriculture issues. (SK)

  18. Issues Related to Equipment and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Mary Frances

    A multi-year project was initiated to examine production equipment issues related to implementation of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). The purposes of the research project were to determine foodservice directors' opinions regarding use and appropriateness of equipment in school foodservice, to identify the number and variety of menu…

  19. 40 CFR 300.220 - Related Title III issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Related Title III issues. 300.220 Section 300.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Planning and Preparedness §...

  20. 40 CFR 300.220 - Related Title III issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Related Title III issues. 300.220 Section 300.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Planning and Preparedness §...

  1. 40 CFR 300.220 - Related Title III issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Related Title III issues. 300.220 Section 300.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Planning and Preparedness §...

  2. Do medical students require education on issues related to plagiarism?

    PubMed

    Varghese, Joe; Jacob, Molly

    2015-01-01

    In the course of our professional experience, we have seen that many medical students plagiarise. We hypothesised that they do so out of ignorance and that they require formal education on the subject. With this objective in mind, we conducted a teaching session on issues related to plagiarism. As a part of this, we administered a quiz to assess their baseline knowledge on plagiarism and a questionnaire to determine their attitudes towards it. We followed this up with an interactive teaching session, in which we discussed various aspects of plagiarism. We subjected the data obtained from the quiz and questionnaire to bivariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 423 medical students participated in the study. Their average score for the quiz was 4.96±1.67 (out of 10). Age, gender and years in medical school were not significantly associated with knowledge regarding plagiarism. The knowledge scores were negatively correlated with permissive attitudes towards plagiarism and positively correlated with attitudes critical of the practice. Men had significantly higher scores on permissive attitudes compared to women . In conclusion, we found that the medical students' knowledge regarding plagiarism was limited. Those with low knowledge scores tended to have permissive attitudes towards plagiarism and were less critical of the practice. We recommend the inclusion of formal instruction on this subject in the medical curriculum, so that this form of academic misconduct can be tackled.

  3. Psycho-social issues related to counseling bisexuals.

    PubMed

    Lourea, D N

    1985-01-01

    An increasing number of persons who experience bisexual feelings or behaviors are seeking professional counseling. This article explores the psycho-social issues related to counseling individuals and couples concerned about their own or their partner's feelings, fantasies, or behaviors with both men and women, and the appropriateness or inappropriateness of adopting a bisexual identity or developing a bisexual life-style. The steps for helping individuals to differentiate problems, handle confusion, and conceptualize bisexuality are outlined. The counseling process with bisexuals includes developing support systems, examining internalized homophobia and sex-role stereotyping, helping them deal with heterosexual concerns, and with issues which affect partners when one or both is bisexual.

  4. Health care labor relations law--understanding the issues.

    PubMed

    Pepe, S P; Keith, C L

    1981-01-01

    The 1974 amendments to the Labor Management Relations Act have created new problems of statutory interpretation in the rapidly evolving area of health care labor law. By including nonprofit hospitals under the auspices of the Act, the amendments have opened up a new area for unionization and have given rise to questions concerning the types of bargaining units that are appropriate in health care facilities. In the following article, the authors discuss these questions and other current issues in health care labor relations law. The issues include the determination of relevant bargaining units, the status of state nursing associations as labor organizations, and the ten-day strike notice requirement of the Labor Management Relations Act.

  5. Radiation safety issues related to radiolabeled antibodies. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, D.E.; Baum, J.W.; Meinhold, C. B. )

    1991-03-01

    Techniques related to the use of radiolabeled antibodies in humans are reviewed and evaluated in this report. It is intended as an informational resource for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and NRC licensees. Descriptions of techniques and health and safety issues are provided. Principal methods for labeling antibodies are summarized to help identify related radiation safety problems in the preparation of dosages for administration to patients. The descriptions are derived from an extensive literature review and consultations with experts in the field. A glossary of terms and acronyms is also included. An assessment was made of the extent of the involvement of organizations (other than the NRC) with safety issues related to radiolabeled antibodies, in order to identify regulatory issues which require attention. Federal regulations and guides were also reviewed for their relevance. A few (but significant) differences between the use of common radiopharmaceuticals and radiolabeled antibodies were observed. The clearance rate of whole, radiolabeled immunoglobulin is somewhat slower than common radiopharmaceuticals, and new methods of administration are being used. New nuclides are being used or considered (e.g., Re-186 and At-211) for labeling antibodies. Some of these nuclides present new dosimetry, instrument calibration, and patient management problems. Subjects related to radiation safety that require additional research are identified. 149 refs., 3 figs., 20 tabs.

  6. Assistance to States on Policies Related to Wind Energy Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Matthew, H; Decesaro, Jennifer; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-07-15

    This final report summarizes work carried out under agreement with the US Department of Energy, related to wind energy policy issues. This project has involved a combination of outreach and publications on wind energy, with a specific focus on educating state-level policymakers. Education of state policymakers is vitally important because state policy (in the form of incentives or regulation) is a crucial part of the success of wind energy. State policymakers wield a significant influence over all of these policies. They are also in need of high quality, non-biased educational resources which this project provided. This project provided outreach to legislatures, in the form of meetings designed specifically for state legislators and legislative staff, responses to information requests on wind energy, and publications. The publications addressed: renewable energy portfolio standards, wind energy transmission, wind energy siting, case studies of wind energy policy, avian issues, economic development, and other related issues. These publications were distributed to legislative energy committee members, and chairs, legislative staff, legislative libraries, and other related state officials. The effect of this effort has been to provide an extensive resource of information about wind information for state policymakers in a form that is useful to them. This non-partisan information has been used as state policymakers attempt to develop their own policy proposals related to wind energy in the states.

  7. Practical Issues Related to the Interferometric Imaging of Geosats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, H.; Restaino, S.; Mozurkewich, D.; Mason, J.; Bock, K.; Dank, J.; Armstrong, J. T.; Baines, E.; Feller, G.

    2014-09-01

    Imaging geostationary satellites from the ground is an important Space Situational Awareness diagnostic tool that will require the use of optical interferometry. We developed a series of imaging and data quality simulations that allow us to investigate issues related to the interferometric imaging of such targets. We will discuss the number of baselines and sampling density needed to achieve different resolutions. We will also discuss some issues that are specific to the problem of imaging geosats, such as the size of the target relative to the resolving power of a single telescope in the interferometer, the precision needed in order to determine and correct for different sources of delay (atmospheric turbulence, telescope and target motion), and retrieve phase information from multiple baselines. The results presented here will be important to guide the design of future optical interferometers dedicated to the imaging of geosats.

  8. Artificial intelligence issues related to automated computing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornfeck, William A.

    1989-01-01

    Large data processing installations represent target systems for effective applications of artificial intelligence (AI) constructs. The system organization of a large data processing facility at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is presented. The methodology and the issues which are related to AI application to automated operations within a large-scale computing facility are described. Problems to be addressed and initial goals are outlined.

  9. Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-02

    Prime Minister Shinzo Abe paid a political price for prioritizing constitutional and security reforms over the economic issues that were foremost in...Washington and Tokyo. Former Prime Minister Abe rose to prominence based on his hardline position on Pyongyang’s responsibility to disclose the fate...which has been keen to shore up its foreign relations before the 2008 Summer Olympics, both Abe and Fukuda substantially warmed Sino-Japanese ties

  10. Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-04

    stance on historical issues is somewhat less clear than his predecessors’ positions. Both Hatoyama and Kan pledged not to visit Yasukuni Shrine (a...associated with the credit crisis and the related economic recession, together with the impact of the March 11 disasters, have played a role in the...Shinto shrine that honors Japanese soldiers who died in war, including several convicted Class A war criminals), thereby removing an obstacle that

  11. South Africa: Current Issues and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-07

    World Factbook , UNAIDS. South Africa: Current Issues and U.S. Relations Background The people of South Africa are highly diverse. Black Africans make...strengths, however, the country ranks as one of the most unequal societies in the world in terms of income distribution. The majority of black South Africans...which the ANC won almost 70% of the votes. South Africa’s politics continue to be dominated by the ANC, which has enjoyed support among many black

  12. Military Retirement, Concurrent Receipt, and Related Major Legislative Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-12

    Order Code RL33449 Military Retirement, Concurrent Receipt, and Related Major Legislative Issues Updated February 12, 2008 Charles A. Henning...recent legislative activity involves whether some or all military retirees should be allowed to receive both military retired pay and any VA disability...can first receive retired pay from 60 to 55. The arguments in favor of these benefit increases have been equally strong. Proponents suggest that even

  13. Direct normal irradiance related definitions and applications: The circumsolar issue

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, P.; Espinar, B.; Geuder, N.; Gueymard, C.; Meyer, R.; Pitz-Paal, R.; Reinhardt, B.; Renne, D.; Segupta, M.; Wald, L.; Wilbert, S.

    2014-10-21

    The direct irradiance received on a plane normal to the sun, called direct normal irradiance (DNI), is of particular relevance to concentrated solar technologies, including concentrating solar thermal plants and concentrated photovoltaic systems. Following various standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the DNI definition is related to the irradiance from a small solid angle of the sky, centered on the position of the sun. Half-angle apertures of pyrheliometers measuring DNI have varied over time, up to ≈10°. The current recommendation of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for this half-angle is 2.5°. Solar concentrating collectors have an angular acceptance function that can be significantly narrower, especially for technologies with high concentration ratios. The disagreement between the various interpretations of DNI, from the theoretical definition used in atmospheric physics and radiative transfer modeling to practical definitions corresponding to specific measurements or conversion technologies is significant, especially in the presence of cirrus clouds or large concentration of aerosols. Under such sky conditions, the circumsolar radiation—i.e. the diffuse radiation coming from the vicinity of the sun—contributes significantly to the DNI ground measurement, although some concentrating collectors cannot utilize the bulk of it. These issues have been identified in the EU-funded projects MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate-Interim Implementation) and SFERA (Solar Facilities for the European Research Area), and have been discussed within a panel of international experts in the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) program of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) Task 46 “Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting”. In accordance with these discussions, the terms of reference related to DNI are specified here. The important role of circumsolar radiation is evidenced

  14. Direct normal irradiance related definitions and applications: The circumsolar issue

    DOE PAGES

    Blanc, P.; Espinar, B.; Geuder, N.; ...

    2014-10-21

    The direct irradiance received on a plane normal to the sun, called direct normal irradiance (DNI), is of particular relevance to concentrated solar technologies, including concentrating solar thermal plants and concentrated photovoltaic systems. Following various standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the DNI definition is related to the irradiance from a small solid angle of the sky, centered on the position of the sun. Half-angle apertures of pyrheliometers measuring DNI have varied over time, up to ≈10°. The current recommendation of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for this half-angle is 2.5°. Solar concentrating collectors have an angular acceptancemore » function that can be significantly narrower, especially for technologies with high concentration ratios. The disagreement between the various interpretations of DNI, from the theoretical definition used in atmospheric physics and radiative transfer modeling to practical definitions corresponding to specific measurements or conversion technologies is significant, especially in the presence of cirrus clouds or large concentration of aerosols. Under such sky conditions, the circumsolar radiation—i.e. the diffuse radiation coming from the vicinity of the sun—contributes significantly to the DNI ground measurement, although some concentrating collectors cannot utilize the bulk of it. These issues have been identified in the EU-funded projects MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate-Interim Implementation) and SFERA (Solar Facilities for the European Research Area), and have been discussed within a panel of international experts in the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) program of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) Task 46 “Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting”. In accordance with these discussions, the terms of reference related to DNI are specified here. The important role of circumsolar radiation is

  15. The relationship between press release and newspaper coverage of tobacco-related issues in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung Sook; Yoon, Jangho

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates an association between press release and news media response on tobacco-related issues in South Korea. We retrieved 231 tobacco-related newspaper articles from all major dailies throughout the year 2005. In total, 37 press releases on tobacco-related issues and policies published by the Korea Ministry of Health and Welfare were obtained from the Ministry website. Content analysis and appropriate statistical tests were performed. Results from our content analysis suggest that producing more press releases on tobacco-related issues may result in a greater volume of newspaper articles, and that a press release on a new topical issue may effect more intense media coverage. Findings also show that when Korean newspaper articles overall held less favorable views of tobacco-related policies and programs in 2005, taxation was the most frequent theme with a non-positive opinion. Findings from our multivariate logistic regression models imply that a newspaper article with a source press release-especially about a new topical issue-is more likely than an article without a source press release to discuss tobacco-related issues more positively. Our findings suggest that a press release may serve as an effective media strategy for reaching out to the public by disseminating tobacco-control efforts and policies.

  16. Twenty-fifth water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 2: Human reliability analysis and human performance evaluation; Technical issues related to rulemakings; Risk-informed, performance-based initiatives; High burn-up fuel research

    SciTech Connect

    Monteleone, S.

    1998-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the conference. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Japan, Norway, and Russia. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. This volume contains the following: (1) human reliability analysis and human performance evaluation; (2) technical issues related to rulemakings; (3) risk-informed, performance-based initiatives; and (4) high burn-up fuel research. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Educational paper: formulation-related issues in pediatric clinical pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Tuleu, Catherine; Breitkreutz, Joerg

    2013-06-01

    Developmental physiological changes occur throughout childhood, with important changes observed within the first few weeks and months from birth, potentially affecting drug pharmacokinetics. The impact of confounding factors in relation to the availability of clinically relevant and adequate drug formulations and administration devices is underestimated. Hence, it is important to highlight presently the relevance of formulation issues. Since 2007, the EU Paediatric Regulation enforces paediatric investigation plans in which the applicant has to justify the clinical relevance of each dosage form proposed in relation to age subsets involved and the suitability of administration modalities. Therefore, pediatric drug development has become more relevant, and the importance of using age-appropriate drug formulations has been acknowledged by investigators and other stakeholders. Palatability and acceptability assessment is considered to be important by the regulatory bodies as well as excipient safety and tolerability, as it can be an issue particularly in very young children. However, there remains a lack of research into pediatric biopharmaceutics (methodological input regarding in vitro tools and bridging studies). Clinical pharmacologists with expertise ranging from pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, adverse drug effects, and toxicology should actively contribute in advancing drug formulation issues in children.

  18. Issues related to line-oriented flight training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauber, J. K.

    1981-01-01

    The use of a training simulator along with carefully structured, detailed, line trip scenarios was envisioned by NASA as a means of providing a controllable, repeatable way to observe line crews in a highly realistic simulation of their working environment and obtain better understanding operationally significant human factors problems and issues. Relevant research done by the agency and the results of full-mission simulation scenarios revealed potential implications for flight training. Aspects to be considered in creating training programs closely related to the actual line environment with a total crew application in real world incident experiences include: (1) operational, environmental, equipment, and crew problems in scenario design; (2) real time line oriented flight training operation; (3) performance assessment and debriefing; (4) instructor qualification and training; and (5) other issues such as ub un initial, transition, and upgrade training; procedures developent and evaluation, and equipment evaluation.

  19. Adherence issues related to sublingual immunotherapy as perceived by allergists

    PubMed Central

    Scurati, Silvia; Frati, Franco; Passalacqua, Gianni; Puccinelli, Paola; Hilaire, Cecile; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is a viable alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy to treat allergic rhinitis and asthma, and is widely used in clinical practice in many European countries. The clinical efficacy of SLIT has been established in a number of clinical trials and meta-analyses. However, because SLIT is self-administered by patients without medical supervision, the degree of patient adherence with treatment is still a concern. The objective of this study was to evaluate the perception by allergists of issues related to SLIT adherence. Methods: We performed a questionnaire-based survey of 296 Italian allergists, based on the adherence issues known from previous studies. The perception of importance of each item was assessed by a VAS scale ranging from 0 to 10. Results: Patient perception of clinical efficacy was considered the most important factor (ranked 1 by 54% of allergists), followed by the possibility of reimbursement (ranked 1 by 34%), and by the absence of side effects (ranked 1 by 21%). Patient education, regular follow-up, and ease of use of SLIT were ranked first by less than 20% of allergists. Conclusion: These findings indicate that clinical efficacy, cost, and side effects are perceived as the major issues influencing patient adherence to SLIT, and that further improvement of adherence is likely to be achieved by improving the patient information provided by prescribers. PMID:20622914

  20. Codes of practice and related issues in biomedical waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Moy, D.; Watt, C.

    1996-12-31

    This paper outlines the development of a National Code of Practice for biomedical waste management in Australia. The 10 key areas addressed by the code are industry mission statement; uniform terms and definitions; community relations - public perceptions and right to know; generation, source separation, and handling; storage requirements; transportation; treatment and disposal; disposal of solid and liquid residues and air emissions; occupational health and safety; staff awareness and education. A comparison with other industry codes in Australia is made. A list of outstanding issues is also provided; these include the development of standard containers, treatment effectiveness, and reusable sharps containers.

  1. EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is releasing the draft report, EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1), that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from other Federal agencies and White House Offices are provided below with external peer review panel comments. The objective of this report is to respond to the NAS coments on dose-response modeling conducted in the EPA Reassessment of the health effects associated with dioxin exposure.

  2. Software safety and reliability issues in safety-related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zucconi, L.

    1992-09-01

    The increasing number of accidents attributed to computer-based systems is causing increased public awareness of the risk associated with these systems` use in safety-related applications. Examples include the Therac-25 medical LINAC deaths, the growing number of Airbus A320 crashes, the AT&T Long-Lines disaster on Martin Luther King Day in 1990, the spate of regional telephone outages of the summer of 1991, and many more. How do safety and reliability sometimes conflict? What practical computer system and software development technologies and processes can be applied to increase the safety and reliability of computer systems? What are the technical and managerial issues contributing to the construction of less-than-safe computer-based systems? How can systems engineers and software engineers work together. to address the issues related to safety and reliability of computer systems? This paper will address these topics and include an assessment of the best current state-of-the-practice and upcoming technologies that will carry us into the 21st century.

  3. Safety and reliability issues in safety-related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zucconi, L.

    1992-03-20

    The increasing number of accidents attributed to computer-based systems is causing increased public awareness of the risk associated with these systems' use in safety-related applications. Examples include the Therac-25 medical LINAC deaths, the growing number of Airbus A320 crashes, the AT T Long-Lines disaster on Martin Luther King Day in 1990, the spate of regional telephone outages of the summer of 1991, and many more. How do safety and reliability sometimes conflict What practical computer system and software development technologies and processes can be applied to increase the safety and reliability of computer systems What are the technical and managerial issues contributing to the construction of less-than-safe computer-based systems How can systems engineers and software engineers work together to address the issues related safety and reliability of computer systems This paper will address these topics and include an assessment of the best current state-of-the-practice and of upcoming technologies that will carry us into the 21st century.

  4. Safety and reliability issues in safety-related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zucconi, L.

    1992-03-20

    The increasing number of accidents attributed to computer-based systems is causing increased public awareness of the risk associated with these systems` use in safety-related applications. Examples include the Therac-25 medical LINAC deaths, the growing number of Airbus A320 crashes, the AT&T Long-Lines disaster on Martin Luther King Day in 1990, the spate of regional telephone outages of the summer of 1991, and many more. How do safety and reliability sometimes conflict? What practical computer system and software development technologies and processes can be applied to increase the safety and reliability of computer systems? What are the technical and managerial issues contributing to the construction of less-than-safe computer-based systems? How can systems engineers and software engineers work together to address the issues related safety and reliability of computer systems? This paper will address these topics and include an assessment of the best current state-of-the-practice and of upcoming technologies that will carry us into the 21st century.

  5. Software safety and reliability issues in safety-related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zucconi, L.

    1992-09-01

    The increasing number of accidents attributed to computer-based systems is causing increased public awareness of the risk associated with these systems' use in safety-related applications. Examples include the Therac-25 medical LINAC deaths, the growing number of Airbus A320 crashes, the AT T Long-Lines disaster on Martin Luther King Day in 1990, the spate of regional telephone outages of the summer of 1991, and many more. How do safety and reliability sometimes conflict What practical computer system and software development technologies and processes can be applied to increase the safety and reliability of computer systems What are the technical and managerial issues contributing to the construction of less-than-safe computer-based systems How can systems engineers and software engineers work together. to address the issues related to safety and reliability of computer systems This paper will address these topics and include an assessment of the best current state-of-the-practice and upcoming technologies that will carry us into the 21st century.

  6. Students' Rights: Issues in Constitutional Freedoms. The Analysis of Public Issues Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Richard S.; And Others

    This monograph examines the broad topic of student rights and focuses in turn on a number of related constitutional issues. Chapter 1 outlines some of the social changes affecting American education and briefly touches on many of the sources of school-based conflict. Chapter 2 deals specifically with the issue of school dress codes and efforts by…

  7. Grid related issues for static and dynamic geometry problems using systems of overset structured grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meakin, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Grid related issues of the Chimera overset grid method are discussed in the context of a method of solution and analysis of unsteady three-dimensional viscous flows. The state of maturity of the various pieces of support software required to use the approach is considered. Current limitations of the approach are identified.

  8. Questions and Answers Related to Policy Issues about Students with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Exceptional Children Div.

    This document is designed to provide information to North Carolina administrators and teachers on policy issues related to students with disabilities. Policy letters from the U.S. Office of Special Education Programs and the Office of Civil Rights, as well as "Analysis of Comments and Changes" and "Notice of Interpretations on…

  9. An analysis of issues concerning acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    GAO examines the implications of current scientific knowledge for policy decisions on acid rain and offers a series of observations on the following issues involved in the debate: to what extent has it been scientifically demonstrated that acid rain is resulting in damage to the environment. What are the causes of acid rain and where is it most prevalent. What alternatives exist for controlling acid rain and what are their economic effects.

  10. Psychosocial Issues Related to Thyroid Examination After a Radiation Disaster.

    PubMed

    Midorikawa, Sanae; Tanigawa, Koichi; Suzuki, Satoru; Ohtsuru, Akira

    2017-03-01

    A thyroid ultrasound examination program has been conducted in the aftermath of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to address concerns about the increased risk of thyroid cancer similar to those experienced by local residents after the 1986 Chernobyl accident. This is the second-largest thyroid cancer screening in younger age ever, following only that conducted after Chernobyl. As the natural history of thyroid cancer in younger populations is not well characterized, large-scale screening using thyroid ultrasound could result in overdiagnosis, even with careful planning, as has been experienced in South Korea. Awareness regarding the thyroid gland is generally low among residents, who tend to directly associate examination results with radiation exposure and are likely to develop newfound anxiety and feelings of self-condemnation and guilt. We reviewed the dilemma surrounding cancer screening and particularly underscored the need to address psychosocial issues associated with possible overdiagnosis. We modified our approach to address individual and social anxiety induced by results of screening conducted after the Fukushima accident. These findings and our experiences regarding the psychosocial issues related to thyroid examination should assist residents in their lifelong decision making and help them prepare for future disasters.

  11. Module Cluster: IFE-003.00 (GSC) Analysis of Selected Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahn, R. D.

    This module is one of several designed for the Camden Teacher Corps project. The general objectives of the module are a) to develop or increase the student's awareness of selected, abiding issues related to education facing New Jersey and the nation; b) to develop the student's thinking and analysis as they relate to the issues; and c) to provide…

  12. [Physiological changes and related nursing care issues during hunger strike].

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yeu-Shan; Chen, Shiu-Lien

    2005-08-01

    The use of hunger strike as a tool to assert grievances has been around for ages and has occasionally happened in the world. Hunger strikers' motives may differ, but their tool is the same--the voluntary refusal of food. Fasting not only results in body weight loss, but also in physiological and neurological function changes, and, of course, it may even threaten life. The health care of hunger strikers is complex. It involves medical staff, medical ethics and guidance for the management of the hunger strikers. Improper medical management may not only undermine the hunger striker's dignity but also risk further damage to his or her health. By understanding hunger strikers' physiological changes and related ethical issues, therefore, we aim to identify appropriate forms of nursing care management and guidance for the care of hunger strikers.

  13. Mitigating Issues Related to the Modeling of Insurgent Recruitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, Erica; Trewhitt, Ethan; Weiss, Lora; Whitaker, Elizabeth

    Modeling the specific motivations and influences related to an individual's decision to become involved in insurgent warfare presents its own collection of unique challenges. The difficulty of the problem often necessitates simplifications that, while making the task more manageable, may inadvertently 'smooth away' critical aspects of the problem. Augmenting the challenge is that research into the motivations of terrorism has found there is not a definitive set of variables that serve as reliable indicators of an individual's involvement. This paper addresses techniques aimed toward mitigating issues that manifest in the modeling of insurgent recruitment so that these complications do not lessen the viability of models that are used in the prediction and evaluation of terrorist activity.

  14. Communication between breast cancer patients and their physicians about breast-related body image issues.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Mallory; Anderson, Rebecca C; Jensik, Kathleen; Xiang, Qun; Pruszynski, Jessica; Walker, Alonzo P

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer patients encounter body image changes throughout their diagnosis, treatment, and recovery from breast cancer. No prospective studies were identified investigating communication between physicians and breast cancer patients related to body image. This qualitative pilot study determines (1) how breast cancer patients prefer their physicians communicate regarding body image changes and (2) how comfortable physicians are in discussing body image issues with their patients. Data were collected from patients over 12 weeks through the breast evaluation questionnaire (BEQ), a valid and reliable instrument, and a qualitative questionnaire. Ten physicians completed a qualitative questionnaire. The data were analyzed using frequency analysis. Nearly 70% of the patients reported there was more the physician could do to improve patient comfort in discussing breast-related body image concerns. Honesty, openness, and directness were important to the patients. Thirty-three percent of the patients answered that their physicians should be honest, open, and direct while discussing these issues. On a five-point Likert scale (1 = very uncomfortable and 5 = very comfortable), the physicians most frequently answered a 4 when asked how comfortable they are speaking about breast-related body image issues; however, only four out of 10 always address the topic themselves during the patient's visit. These data suggest that patients want honesty, openness, and directness from their physicians during the discussion of breast-related body image issues. The physicians report they are comfortable speaking about breast-related body image issues; yet, they do not directly initiate the topic.

  15. Epidemiologic methods in analysis of scientific issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdreich, Linda S.

    2003-10-01

    Studies of human populations provide much of the information that is used to evaluate compensation cases for hearing loss, including rates of hearing loss by age, and dose-response relationships. The reference data used to make decisions regarding workman's compensation is based on epidemiologic studies of cohorts of workers exposed to various noise levels. Epidemiology and its methods can be used in other ways in the courtroom; to assess the merits of a complaint, to support Daubert criteria, and to explain scientific issues to the trier of fact, generally a layperson. Using examples other than occupational noise induced hearing loss, these methods will be applied to respond to a complaint that hearing loss followed exposure to a sudden noise, a medication, or an occupational chemical, and thus was caused by said exposure. The standard criteria for assessing the weight of the evidence, and epidemiologic criteria for causality show the limits of such anecdotal data and incorporate quantitative and temporal issues. Reports of clusters of cases are also intuitively convincing to juries. Epidemiologic methods provide a scientific approach to assess whether rates of the outcome are indeed increased, and the extent to which increased rates provide evidence for causality.

  16. WATER ANALYSIS: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers developments in Water Analysis over the period of 2001-2002. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2003 are also included. Previous Water Analysis reviews have been very comprehensive; however, in 2001, Analytical Chemistry c...

  17. WATER ANALYSIS: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers developments in Water Analysis over the period of 2001-2002. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2003 are also included. Previous Water Analysis reviews have been very comprehensive; however, in 2001, Analytical Chemistry c...

  18. Addressing security issues related to virtual institute distributed activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2008-03-01

    One issue confounding the development and experimentation of distributed modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its activities are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the

  19. Water and wastewater related issues in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Bandara, N J G J

    2003-01-01

    The primary problems concerning water resources in Sri Lanka are the depletion and degradation of the resource caused by various anthropogenic activities. Surface inland waters in urban areas are polluted heavily with domestic sewage and industrial effluents, and in rural areas with agricultural runoff. With regard to ground water in certain areas of the dry zone, there is a high fluoride content and in hard, rocky, alluvial areas, there is a high concentration of iron. In urban over-crowded cities, there is biological contamination of ground water. Over-utilization, particularly through tube wells, is another major problem affecting ground water resources in Sri Lanka. Oil spills, dumping of waste from ships, coral and sand mining, and activities are the main causes of marine pollution in the country. Except for pipe-borne water supply, irrigation and hydropower schemes, in general water resources in Sri Lanka are managed very poorly. Regulations are available to control most water related problems but enforcement of these regulations is lacking. The ultimate result of degradation and depletion of water resources is the increasing health hazards. Water-borne and vector-borne diseases are prevalent, particularly amongst urban low-income communities with poor sanitary facilities and drainage. Despite government initiatives and legislation, very slow progress has been made towards combating water pollution. This paper examines the most significant water and wastewater related issues in Sri Lanka and their controlling mechanisms.

  20. Analysis of issues concerning acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Bowsher, C.A.

    1984-12-11

    Although science has largely determined that man-made emissions cause acid rain, there is uncertainty concerning the extent and timing of its anticipated effects. Thus, at the present time scientific information alone does not lead unequivocally to a conclusion on whether it is appropriate to begin control actions now or to await better understanding. Given this uncertainty, decisionmakers must weigh the risks of further, potentially avoidable environmental damage against the risks of economic impacts from acid rain control actions which may ultimately prove to be unwarranted. GAO examines the implications of current scientific knowledge for policy decisions on acid rain and offers a series of observations on the following issues involved in the debate: To what extent has it been scientifically demonstrated that acid rain is resulting in damage to the environment. What are the causes of acid rain and where is it most prevalent. What alternatives exist for controlling acid rain and what are their economic effects. 5 figures, 20 tables.

  1. A Survey of Solver-Related Geometry and Meshing Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, James; Daniel, Derick; Gudenkauf, Jared; Hine, David; Sideroff, Chris

    2016-01-01

    There is a concern in the computational fluid dynamics community that mesh generation is a significant bottleneck in the CFD workflow. This is one of several papers that will help set the stage for a moderated panel discussion addressing this issue. Although certain general "rules of thumb" and a priori mesh metrics can be used to ensure that some base level of mesh quality is achieved, inadequate consideration is often given to the type of solver or particular flow regime on which the mesh will be utilized. This paper explores how an analyst may want to think differently about a mesh based on considerations such as if a flow is compressible vs. incompressible or hypersonic vs. subsonic or if the solver is node-centered vs. cell-centered. This paper is a high-level investigation intended to provide general insight into how considering the nature of the solver or flow when performing mesh generation has the potential to increase the accuracy and/or robustness of the solution and drive the mesh generation process to a state where it is no longer a hindrance to the analysis process.

  2. Issues in midterm analysis and forecasting, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This document consists of papers which cover topics in analysis and modeling that underlie the Annual Energy Outlook 1996. Topics include: The Potential Impact of Technological Progress on U.S. Energy Markets; The Outlook for U.S. Import Dependence; Fuel Economy, Vehicle Choice, and Changing Demographics, and Annual Energy Outlook Forecast Evaluation.

  3. The Concept of Cultural Relativity in Moral Judgments Concerning Gender-Related Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, D. R.; And Others

    The comparative study was designed to determine whether cultural relativism and ethical reasoning develop in a hierarchical manner when applied to culturally different phenomena. The phenomena investigated were moral judgments concerning gender-related issues. Thirty-six first through sixth-grade students from two private schools and 130…

  4. The Concept of Cultural Relativity in Moral Judgments Concerning Gender-Related Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, D. R.; And Others

    The comparative study was designed to determine whether cultural relativism and ethical reasoning develop in a hierarchical manner when applied to culturally different phenomena. The phenomena investigated were moral judgments concerning gender-related issues. Thirty-six first through sixth-grade students from two private schools and 130…

  5. EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is releasing for external peer review and public comment an important draft document reviewing the literature on the health effects of dioxin and related compounds (also referred to as 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin). At the request of Administrator Jackson, EPA is in the process of re-assessing the science on the effects of dioxin, a toxic chemical that is emitted by multiple sources, on the public’s health. This draft dioxin report is EPA’s response to key comments and recommendations made by the National Academy of Sciences on the Agency’s draft dioxin reassessment. This assessment has been in progress for many years and raises health issues of broad interest to scientists and policymakers across the federal family. The Agency’s draft report includes significant new analyses on potential cancer and non-cancer human health effects that may result from exposures to dioxins and includes an oral reference dose for what is considered to be the most toxic of the dioxin-like compounds. EPA’s Science

  6. EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is releasing for external peer review and public comment an important draft document reviewing the literature on the health effects of dioxin and related compounds (also referred to as 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin). At the request of Administrator Jackson, EPA is in the process of re-assessing the science on the effects of dioxin, a toxic chemical that is emitted by multiple sources, on the public’s health. This draft dioxin report is EPA’s response to key comments and recommendations made by the National Academy of Sciences on the Agency’s draft dioxin reassessment. This assessment has been in progress for many years and raises health issues of broad interest to scientists and policymakers across the federal family. The Agency’s draft report includes significant new analyses on potential cancer and non-cancer human health effects that may result from exposures to dioxins and includes an oral reference dose for what is considered to be the most toxic of the dioxin-like compounds. EPA’s Science

  7. Material issues relating to high power spallation neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futakawa, M.

    2015-02-01

    Innovative researches using neutrons are being performed at the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), in which a mercury target system is installed for MW-class pulse spallation neutron sources. In order to produce neutrons by the spallation reaction, proton beams are injected into the mercury target. At the moment, when the intense proton beam hits the target, pressure waves are generated in mercury because of the abrupt heat deposition. The pressure waves interact with the target vessel, leading to negative pressure that may cause cavitation along the vessel wall, i.e. on the interface between liquid and solid metals. On the other hand, the structural materials are subjected to irradiation damage due to protons and neutrons, very high cycle fatigue damages and so-called "liquid metal embrittlement". That is, the structural materials must be said to be exposed to the extremely severe environments. In the paper, research and development relating to the material issues in the high power spallation neutron sources that has been performed so far at J-PARC is summarized.

  8. Monitoring asthma in childhood: management-related issues.

    PubMed

    Rottier, Bart L; Eber, Ernst; Hedlin, Gunilla; Turner, Steve; Wooler, Edwina; Mantzourani, Eva; Kulkarni, Neeta

    2015-06-01

    Management-related issues are an important aspect of monitoring asthma in children in clinical practice. This review summarises the literature on practical aspects of monitoring including adherence to treatment, inhalation technique, ongoing exposure to allergens and irritants, comorbid conditions and side-effects of treatment, as agreed by the European Respiratory Society Task Force on Monitoring Asthma in Childhood. The evidence indicates that it is important to discuss adherence to treatment in a non-confrontational way at every clinic visit, and take into account a patient's illness and medication beliefs. All task force members teach inhalation techniques at least twice when introducing a new inhalation device and then at least annually. Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, combustion-derived air pollutants, house dust mites, fungal spores, pollens and pet dander deserve regular attention during follow-up according to most task force members. In addition, allergic rhinitis should be considered as a cause for poor asthma control. Task force members do not screen for gastro-oesophageal reflux and food allergy. Height and weight are generally measured at least annually to identify individuals who are susceptible to adrenal suppression and to calculate body mass index, even though causality between obesity and asthma has not been established. In cases of poor asthma control, before stepping up treatment the above aspects of monitoring deserve closer attention.

  9. Relating realist metatheory to issues of gender and mental health.

    PubMed

    Bergin, M; Wells, John S G; Owen, Sara

    2010-06-01

    This paper seeks to advance the debate that considers critical realism as an alternative approach for understanding gender and mental health and its relatedness to mental health research and practice. The knowledge base of how 'sex' and 'gender' affect mental health and illness is expanding. However, the way we conceptualize gender is significant and challenging as quite often our ability to think about 'gender' as independent of 'sex' is not common. The influences and interplay of how sex (biological) and gender (social) affect mental health and illness requires consideration. Critical realism suggests a shared ontology and epistemology for the natural and social sciences. While much of the debate surrounding gender is guided within a constructivist discourse, an exploration of the concept 'gender' is reflected on and some key realist propositions are considered for mental health research and practice. This is achieved through the works of some key realist theorists. Critical realism offers potential for research and practice in relation to gender and mental health because it facilitates changes in our understanding, while simultaneously, not discarding that which is already known. In so doing, it allows the biological (sex) and social (gender) domains of knowledge for mental health and illness to coexist, without either being reduced to or defined by the other. Arguably, greater depth and explanations for gender and mental health issues are presented within a realist metatheory.

  10. Reprogramming cancer cells in endocrine-related tumors: open issues.

    PubMed

    Tafani, M; Perrone, G A; Pucci, B; Russo, A; Bizzarri, M; Mechanick, J I; Carpi, A; Russo, M A

    2014-01-01

    Reprogramming technologies have been developed to revert somatic differentiated cells into pluripotent stem cells that can be differentiated into different lineages potentially useful in stem cell therapy. Reprogramming methods have been progressively refined to increase their efficiency, to obtain a cell population suitable for differentiation, and to eliminate viral plasmid which could be responsible for many unwanted side-effects when used in personalized medicine. All these methods are aimed to introduce into the cell genes or mRNAs encoding a set of four transcription factors (OCT- 4, SOX-2, KLF-4 and c-MYC) or a set of three lincRNAs (large intragenic non-coding RNAs) acting downstream of the reprogramming transcription factors OCT-4, SOX-2 and NANOG. Translational clinical applications in human pathologies and in developmental, repair and cancer biology have been numerous. Cancer cells can be, at least in principle, reprogrammed into a normal phenotype. This is a recently raised issue, rapidly advancing in many human tumors, especially endocrine-related cancers, such as breast, prostate and ovarian ca. The present review aims to describe basic phenomena observed in reprogramming tumor cells and solid tumors and to discuss their meaning in human hormone-related cancers. We will also discuss the fact that some of the targeted transcription factors are "normally" activated in a number of physiological processes, such as morphogenesis, hypoxia and wound healing, suggesting an in vivo role of reprogramming for development and homeostasis. Finally, we will review concerns and warnings raised for in vivo reprogramming of human tumors and for the use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in human therapy.

  11. Optimization Issues with Complex Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Joanne L.; Young, Katherine C.; Tarzanin, Frank J.; Hirsh, Joel E.; Young, Darrell K.

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of the general purpose automatic differentiation (AD) tool called Automatic Differentiation of FORTRAN (ADIFOR) as a means of generating sensitivity derivatives for use in Boeing Helicopter's proprietary comprehensive rotor analysis code (VII). ADIFOR transforms an existing computer program into a new program that performs a sensitivity analysis in addition to the original analysis. In this study both the pros (exact derivatives, no step-size problems) and cons (more CPU, more memory) of ADIFOR are discussed. The size (based on the number of lines) of the VII code after ADIFOR processing increased by 70 percent and resulted in substantial computer memory requirements at execution. The ADIFOR derivatives took about 75 percent longer to compute than the finite-difference derivatives. However, the ADIFOR derivatives are exact and are not functions of step-size. The VII sensitivity derivatives generated by ADIFOR are compared with finite-difference derivatives. The ADIFOR and finite-difference derivatives are used in three optimization schemes to solve a low vibration rotor design problem.

  12. Cabin Safety Issues Related to Pre-Departure and Inflight Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) in a partnership between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), participating carriers, and labor organizations. It is designed to improve the National Airspace System by collecting and studying reports detailing unsafe conditions and events in the aviation industry. Employees are able to report safety issues or concerns with confidentiality and without fear of discipline. Safety reports highlighting the human element in cabin safety issues and concerns.

  13. Mediating effects of stress, weight-related issues, and depression on suicidality in college students.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sydney S; Smith Carter, Jocelyn; Karczewski, Sabrina; Pivarunas, Bernadette; Suffoletto, Shannon; Munin, Art

    2015-01-01

    Through a holistic health lens, the current study examines the effects of weight-related issues and stress on suicidality while controlling for depressive symptoms in college students. In total, 872 undergraduate and graduate students at DePaul University completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II Web-based survey in Spring 2010. Measures of suicidality, depression, weight-related issues, and life stressors were assessed, along with gender differences. Females reported experiencing more weight loss attempts and total stressors than males. Weight-related issues and stress both significantly predicted depressive symptoms in a path analysis; depressive symptoms, in turn, significantly predicted suicidality. Gender differences were found; depressive symptoms mediate the relation between stress and suicidal behavior for females but not for males. This investigation furthers previous research on suicidality in college students and suggests that all-inclusive interventions that address weight-related issues and stress may help reduce depressive symptoms, which then may reduce suicidal behavior.

  14. Damage Tolerance Issues as Related to Metallic Rotorcraft Dynamic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, R. A., Jr.; Elber, W.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper issues related to the use of damage tolerance in life managing rotorcraft dynamic components are reviewed. In the past, rotorcraft fatigue design has combined constant amplitude tests of full-scale parts with flight loads and usage data in a conservative manner to provide "safe life" component replacement times. In contrast to the safe life approach over the past twenty years the United States Air Force and several other NATO nations have used damage tolerance design philosophies for fixed wing aircraft to improve safety and reliability. The reliability of the safe life approach being used in rotorcraft started to be questioned shortly after presentations at an American Helicopter Society's specialist meeting in 1980 showed predicted fatigue lives for a hypothetical pitch-link problem to vary from a low of 9 hours to a high in excess of 2594 hours. This presented serious cost, weight, and reliability implications. Somewhat after the U.S. Army introduced its six nines reliability on fatigue life, attention shifted towards using a possible damage tolerance approach to the life management of rotorcraft dynamic components. The use of damage tolerance in life management of dynamic rotorcraft parts will be the subject of this paper. This review will start with past studies on using damage tolerance life management with existing helicopter parts that were safe life designed. Also covered will be a successful attempt at certifying a tail rotor pitch rod using damage tolerance, which was designed using the safe life approach. The FAA review of rotorcraft fatigue design and their recommendations along with some on-going U.S. industry research in damage tolerance on rotorcraft will be reviewed. Finally, possible problems and future needs for research will be highlighted.

  15. Awareness of legal and social issues related to reproductive health among adolescent girls in rural Varanasi.

    PubMed

    Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Sweta; Kumar, Alok

    2017-01-01

    Data on awareness of adolescent's on the legal and social issues/acts related to reproductive health, especially in rural areas, are scarce. The aim of the present cross-sectional study is to assess the awareness level of legal and social issues related to reproductive health and its association with the various individual and family/household level characteristics. 650 adolescent girls in the age group of 15-19 years were interviewed with the help of pretested and semistructured questionnaire and focus group discussions were also conducted for qualitative findings in Chiraigaon block of district Varanasi. It was observed that 42.9% of the respondents were aware of legal age of marriage, 14.9% knew about the right age of childbearing. Dowry prohibition act and domestic violence act were known to 46% and 27% respondents, respectively, and only 2.6% were aware of medical termination of pregnancy act. Logistic regression analysis shows the significant effect of education on awareness of legal age of marriage, right age of childbearing, domestic violence, and dowry prohibition acts, which is also supported by qualitative findings. All the important legal issues/acts should be included in high school curriculum and female teachers should be involved in training program for adolescents. Role of mass media in creating awareness about these issues in their routine programs should be ascertained. Accredited Social Health Activist and Anganwadi workers should be aware of and include these issues/acts in adolescent meetings.

  16. 16 CFR 456.5 - Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contact lenses and related issues. 456.5 Section 456.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE... contact lenses and related issues. Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues may be found at 16 CFR part 315 (Contact Lens Rule)....

  17. 16 CFR 456.5 - Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contact lenses and related issues. 456.5 Section 456.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE... contact lenses and related issues. Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues may be found at 16 CFR part 315 (Contact Lens Rule)....

  18. 16 CFR 456.5 - Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... contact lenses and related issues. 456.5 Section 456.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE... contact lenses and related issues. Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues may be found at 16 CFR part 315 (Contact Lens Rule)....

  19. 16 CFR 456.5 - Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contact lenses and related issues. 456.5 Section 456.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE... contact lenses and related issues. Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues may be found at 16 CFR part 315 (Contact Lens Rule)....

  20. 16 CFR 456.5 - Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contact lenses and related issues. 456.5 Section 456.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE... contact lenses and related issues. Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues may be found at 16 CFR part 315 (Contact Lens Rule)....

  1. Mining Health-Related Issues in Consumer Product Reviews by Using Scalable Text Analytics

    PubMed Central

    Torii, Manabu; Tilak, Sameer S.; Doan, Son; Zisook, Daniel S.; Fan, Jung-wei

    2016-01-01

    In an era when most of our life activities are digitized and recorded, opportunities abound to gain insights about population health. Online product reviews present a unique data source that is currently underexplored. Health-related information, although scarce, can be systematically mined in online product reviews. Leveraging natural language processing and machine learning tools, we were able to mine 1.3 million grocery product reviews for health-related information. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) conduct quantitative and qualitative analysis on the types of health issues found in consumer product reviews; (2) develop a machine learning classifier to detect reviews that contain health-related issues; and (3) gain insights about the task characteristics and challenges for text analytics to guide future research. PMID:27375358

  2. Mining Health-Related Issues in Consumer Product Reviews by Using Scalable Text Analytics.

    PubMed

    Torii, Manabu; Tilak, Sameer S; Doan, Son; Zisook, Daniel S; Fan, Jung-Wei

    2016-01-01

    In an era when most of our life activities are digitized and recorded, opportunities abound to gain insights about population health. Online product reviews present a unique data source that is currently underexplored. Health-related information, although scarce, can be systematically mined in online product reviews. Leveraging natural language processing and machine learning tools, we were able to mine 1.3 million grocery product reviews for health-related information. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) conduct quantitative and qualitative analysis on the types of health issues found in consumer product reviews; (2) develop a machine learning classifier to detect reviews that contain health-related issues; and (3) gain insights about the task characteristics and challenges for text analytics to guide future research.

  3. Behavior analysts and cultural analysis: Troubles and issues.

    PubMed

    Malagodi, E F; Jackson, K

    1989-01-01

    THREE STRATEGIC SUGGESTIONS ARE OFFERED TO BEHAVIOR ANALYSTS WHO ARE CONCERNED WITH EXTENDING THE INTERESTS OF OUR DISCIPLINE INTO DOMAINS TRADITIONALLY ASSIGNED TO THE SOCIAL SCIENCES: (1) to expand our world-view perspectives beyond the boundaries commonly accepted by psychologists in general; (2) to build a cultural analytic framework upon the foundations we have developed for the study of individuals; and (3) to study the works of those social scientists whose views are generally compatible with, and complementary to, our own. Sociologist C. Wright Mills' distinction between troubles and issues and anthropologist Marvin Harris's principles of cultural materialism are related to topics raised by these three strategies. The pervasiveness of the "psychocentric" world view within psychology and the social sciences, and throughout our culture at large, is discussed from the points of view of Skinner, Mills, and Harris. It is suggested that a thorough commitment to radical behaviorism, and continuation of interaction between radical behaviorism and cultural materialism, are necessary for maintaining and extending an issues orientation within the discipline of behavior analysis and for guarding against dilutions and subversions of that orientation by "deviation-dampening" contingencies that exist in our profession and in our culture at large.

  4. Analysis of Adverse Events in Identifying GPS Human Factors Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Hwoschinsky, Peter V.; Adams, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze GPS related adverse events such as accidents and incidents (A/I), Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) reports and Pilots Deviations (PDs) to create a framework for developing a human factors risk awareness program. Although the occurrence of directly related GPS accidents is small the frequency of PDs and ASRS reports indicated there is a growing problem with situational awareness in terminal airspace related to different types of GPs operational issues. This paper addresses the findings of the preliminary research and a brief discussion of some of the literature on related GPS and automation issues.

  5. Outstanding issues related to thermospheric measurements and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, Kenneth; Moe, Mildred M.; Doornbos, Eelco

    Semi-empirical thermospheric models are dependent on measurements made in orbit. Out-standing issues regarding the interpretation of those measurements and the effects on models are considered. These include the present state of knowledge of drag coefficients, long-term trends, instrument calibration, radiation pressure, and spacecraft geometry. Many recent and ongoing efforts to evaluate and improve thermospheric models will be described. The advent of attitude-controlled nanosatellites of simple shapes presents opportunities to resolve some of these outstanding issues in conjunction with the forthcoming SWARM program.

  6. Ground motion issues for seismic analysis of tall buildings: A status report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bozorgnia, Y.; Campbell, K.W.; Luco, N.; Moehle, J.P.; Naeim, F.; Somerville, P.; Yang, T.Y.

    2007-01-01

    The Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) is coordinating a major multidisciplinary programme, the Tall Buildings Initiative (TBI), to address critical technical issues related to the design and analysis of new tall buildings located in coastal California. The authors of this paper, listed alphabetically, are involved in various research studies related to ground motion modelling, selection, modification and simulation for analysis of tall buildings. This paper summarizes the scope and progress of ongoing activities related to ground motion issues for response history analysis of tall buildings.

  7. Issues related to SPR joints subjected to fatigue loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, A.; Senatore, F.; Greco, A.

    2016-05-01

    SPR joints will represent an alternative solution to spot welding in automotive field. However, their fatigue behavior shows several critical issues. After a brief introduction of this new solution, different crack modes are described, emphasizing the parameters that characterize them, i.e. the applied loads, the geometry of the joint and other phenomenon as fretting, vibration and corrosion.

  8. College Students' Misconceptions of Environmental Issues Related to Global Warming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

    Students are currently exposed to world environmental problems--including global warming and the greenhouse effect--in science classes at various points during their K-12 and college experience. However, the amount and depth of explosure to these issues can be quite variable. Students are also exposed to sources of misinformation leading to…

  9. Jordan: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-14

    161-page report alleging sweatshop -like conditions in 28 out of 100 Qualified Industrial Zone (QIZ) plants in Jordan. Jordan’s trade minister Sharif...Committee (NLC), a New York-based human rights advocacy group, issued a 161-page report alleging sweatshop -like conditions in 28 out of 100 Qualified

  10. Relating Social Inclusion and Environmental Issues in Botanic Gardens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergou, Asimina; Willison, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Botanic gardens have been evolving, responding to the changing needs of society, from their outset as medicinal gardens of monasteries and university gardens to more recently as organizations that contribute to the conservation of plant genetic resources. Considering that social and environmental issues are deeply intertwined and cannot be tackled…

  11. Safety, Efficacy, and Legal Issues Related to Dietary Supplements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the effects of dietary supplements on collegiate and adult populations. Anabolic steroids, amphetamines, and other drugs have been used for decades to improve athletic performance. However, the legal issues and dangers associated with these drugs have resulted in reluctance by many athletes to use them. Because dietary…

  12. Teacher-Student Sexual Relations: Key Risks and Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics…

  13. Cyprus: Status of U.N. Negotiations and Related Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-20

    advance an overall settlement, the focus shifted to secondary issues. On December 29, the Turkish Cypriots began dismantling a footbridge (a metal...solely on the removal of the footbridge but also on the security for those using it. President Papadopoulos said that he would take down a defense wall

  14. Ecological Issues Related to Children's Health and Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Jerry; Kohler, Maxie

    2009-01-01

    Issues concerning the health and safety of children and youth occur at multiple levels. Bronfenbrenner (1995) proposed an ecological systems approach in which multiple systems interact to enhance or diminish children's development. The same systems are at work in health promotion. The authors present and review articles that reflect the multiple…

  15. Ecological Issues Related to Children's Health and Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Jerry; Kohler, Maxie

    2009-01-01

    Issues concerning the health and safety of children and youth occur at multiple levels. Bronfenbrenner (1995) proposed an ecological systems approach in which multiple systems interact to enhance or diminish children's development. The same systems are at work in health promotion. The authors present and review articles that reflect the multiple…

  16. Safety, Efficacy, and Legal Issues Related to Dietary Supplements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the effects of dietary supplements on collegiate and adult populations. Anabolic steroids, amphetamines, and other drugs have been used for decades to improve athletic performance. However, the legal issues and dangers associated with these drugs have resulted in reluctance by many athletes to use them. Because dietary…

  17. CSI related dynamics and control issues in space robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Eric; Ramey, Madison

    1993-01-01

    The research addressed includes: (1) CSI issues in space robotics; (2) control of elastic payloads, which includes 1-DOF example, and 3-DOF harmonic drive arm with elastic beam; and (3) control of large space arms with elastic links, which includes testbed description, modeling, and experimental implementation of colocated PD and end-point tip position controllers.

  18. Contemporary Issues in U.S.-Mexico Relations, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Amy; Kim, Pearl; Lai, Selena; Mukai, Gary; Nunez, Lucia; Valadez, Martin

    The lessons in this 3-part series are intended to provide students with a basic understanding of the relationship between the United States and Mexico, with emphasis on multiple perspectives, conflict and cooperation, and interdependence. This curriculum unit, Part 2, examines three contemporary issues: immigration, the North American Free Trade…

  19. Relating Social Inclusion and Environmental Issues in Botanic Gardens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergou, Asimina; Willison, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Botanic gardens have been evolving, responding to the changing needs of society, from their outset as medicinal gardens of monasteries and university gardens to more recently as organizations that contribute to the conservation of plant genetic resources. Considering that social and environmental issues are deeply intertwined and cannot be tackled…

  20. Delphi analysis: a technique for identifying and ranking environmental and natural resource policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Leitch, J.A.; Leistritz, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    A Delphi-type survey and a consensus-building workshop were carried out to identify the most significant natural resource issues and problems emerging in the Great Plains and Rocky Mountain states. Approximately 107 issues initially were identified through a literature search and an inquiry Delphi round. Delphi round enabled the list to be narrowed to 25 issues. While consensus was found on the top 25 issues as a group, neither the Delphi panel nor the workshop participants agreed on the top five. Specific issues related to water and energy comprised the majority of those identified as most significant. Overall, the Delphi method appears to be a powerful and flexible tool for evaluating emerging environmental issues and problems. The analysis suggests that Delphi findings are quite robust with respect to minor changes in panel composition. Delphi thus appears to be an approach that may find increasing application in environmental policy analysis. 11 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  1. Revisiting Methodological Issues in Transcript Analysis: Negotiated Coding and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, D. R.; Cleveland-Innes, M.; Koole, Marguerite; Kappelman, James

    2006-01-01

    Transcript analysis is an important methodology to study asynchronous online educational discourse. The purpose of this study is to revisit reliability and validity issues associated with transcript analysis. The goal is to provide researchers with guidance in coding transcripts. For validity reasons, it is suggested that the first step is to…

  2. Global hydrobelts: improved reporting scale for water-related issues?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meybeck, M.; Kummu, M.; Dürr, H. H.

    2012-08-01

    appropriate for water-relative global analysis and reporting than conventional continental or political divisions.

  3. Legal issues related to postoperative pulmonary thromboembolism in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bo Young; Kim, Min Ji; Kang, So Ra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Currently, development of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) after surgery is frequently being followed by legal action in Korea, as consequences may be fatal. In the current study, we assessed possible countermeasures that medical teams can take when faced with conflicting opinions on responsibility for PTE. Methods A retrospective analysis of claims handled by the Supreme Court and subordinate courts, from 1999 to 2015, was performed. We analyzed the type of procedure, associated complications, and critical legal points from the recorded judgments along with any liability limitations on surgeons. Results After reviewing cases between 1999 and 2015, a total of 18 cases were analyzed. There were no cases in which the surgeon was held accountable between 1999 and 2002. From 2003, there were instances of the surgeon being held accountable, with a peak of cases in 2013. Legal standards applied in judicial decision-making related to appropriate use of preventive measures, operation characteristics, doctor's reaction towards symptom occurrence, obligation of postoperative medical care, and duty of explanation. Conclusion The courts in Korea have changed their position from one of denying doctors' liability to one of enforcing responsibility for PTE. Surgeons are therefore being held responsible with greater frequency, depending on the details of the case. Lessons can be learnt from precedents that can be incorporated into medical education and training programs with the aim of reducing both major PTE complication rates and litigation costs. PMID:27904854

  4. Methodological issues relating to in vivo cortical myelography using MRI.

    PubMed

    Clare, Stuart; Bridge, Holly

    2005-12-01

    The relationship between neocortical structure and function is a key area of research in neuroscience. Most studies of neural function, whether using neurophysiology or neuroimaging methods, are interpreted with relation to the underlying cortical myelo- and cytoarchitecture. For functional neuroimaging studies this often means using cytoarchitectonic maps based on the study of a limited number of brains, despite evidence for substantial interindividual variation. Improvements in MR technology, resulting in wider availability of high-field MRI systems, have led to an increase in the achievable resolution in MR scans. Several groups have reported the in vivo detection of myelination patterns within the cortex, consistent with those observed in postmortem tissue. This leads to the possibility of predefining areas for fMRI analysis based on the cortical architecture. To do this it is essential to know, in a quantitative way, how reliably myeloarchitectonic areas and boundaries can be detected using MRI. Here we investigate the striate cortex, known to be coincident with V1, to assess the detectability of the stria of Gennari across V1 and across subjects. Under optimal conditions, 80% of the stria of Gennari was visualized using our methodology, although there was considerable variability in the level of detection across subjects. We discuss the limitations of the methodology and propose ways to improve the detection level of cortical myeloarchitecture more generally.

  5. First wall material issues and related activities at JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Ciattaglia, S.; Coad, P.; Penzhorn, R.-D.; Philipps, V.; EFDA-JET Fusion Technology Task Force; Task Force E

    2002-12-01

    To close the JET tritium material balance a comprehensive programme to determine the tritium inventory in a selected poloidal set of JET tiles was initiated. First results strongly suggest that a significant fraction of the tritium remaining in the machine is immobilised in flakes accumulated in the sub-divertor region. Measurements performed with tiles and flakes retrieved from JET after the DTE1 campaign revealed a chronic tritium release at room temperature, possibly caused by a radiation-induced mechanism. Deposited films of the order of 5 μm thick are found at the vertical surfaces of the inner divertor. Recent analysis of the distribution of beryllium across the divertor shows factors of ≈10 higher beryllium concentrations (relative to carbon) in these deposits than found in the main camber walls. Very little beryllium is found on the outer divertor. Also no beryllium is detectable in the thick deposits accumulated in the shadowed regions of the inner divertor. These results suggest that in ITER migration of beryllium from the main chamber to the divertor surfaces could substantially reduce the chemical erosion and consequently the retention of tritium.

  6. Nutritional and growth issues related to child neglect.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M; Drennen, Chloe R

    2014-11-01

    Child neglect and obesity are major public health problems that undermine children's health and contribute to lifelong disparities. Most of the past research has focused on relations between child neglect and failure to thrive. This article finds that evidence linking child neglect with obesity is mixed. In a recent meta-analysis, five of the eight studies reviewed did not find an increased risk of obesity among neglected children. The case study and three longitudinal studies that reported a relationship between neglect and obesity were conducted among young children, and used caregiver or teacher/clinician definitions of neglect, rather than referrals to state protective service agencies. Dysregulation of the neuroendocrine system associated with neglect has been implicated, but further research is needed to understand the mechanisms that may increase children's risk for obesity. Findings suggest that under some conditions neglect may increase the risk for excessive weight gain, and that high body mass index may be an indicator of possible neglect. By exploring both possibilities, clinicians can promote children's healthy growth and development and prevent subsequent health disparities.

  7. Chlorofluorocarbon environmental issues related to conservation acquisition in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Marseille, T.J.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Recent scientific evidence strongly suggests that the release of large quantities of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases into the atmosphere will result in environmentally harmful long-term effects. Because of those effects, a massive worldwide effort is currently under way to ban their use. At request of the Bonneville Power Administration, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a literature search to identify the issues surrounding the CFC phaseout. The search was focused on how these issues impact the commercial building sector. Information was obtained that describes: How the release of CFCs into the atmosphere may affect the global environment; legislative and regulatory programs initiated to restrict CFCs; potential impacts the reduced CFC supply will have on commercial buildings; the most promising CFC substitute technologies; and the potential costs of CFC restriction. 11 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Manufacturing issues related to combining different antigens: an industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Van Hoof, J

    2001-12-15

    Despite the growing demand for combination vaccines, many challenges have been encountered in developing them. It is difficult to predict the physical compatibility and stability of antigens in combination, because these characteristics are highly dependent on vaccine excipients. Clinical evaluation of potential modifications of efficacy of antigens in combination may be alleviated by use of appropriate animal models. Manufacturing issues, such as batch-release testing, storage of intermediate products, and the shift to preservative-free products, are of particular concern because they have the potential to affect the supply chain. Managing changes in the manufacture of one antigen that is a component of several different combination vaccines is also difficult. However, most potential issues can be resolved through the simplification of regulatory processes and harmonization of requirements, such as the acceptance of comparability protocols and antigen master files. Continued collaboration between industry and authorities is necessary to develop effective means of handling all submissions pertaining to combination vaccines.

  9. System Issues Related to Implementing on the Internet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, William; Bagg, Thomas C., III

    1999-01-01

    Implementing capabilities on the World Wide Web should never be taken lightly. A good systems engineer is able to examine such implementations from all points of view, including political, legal, security, access, technical deployment, and quality. The evacuation discussed in this paper was conducted to ensure that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was proceeding in a correct direction by implementing RECALL a Lessons Learned System on the Web and, subsequently, did so successfully. The systems approach extended well beyond technical implementation to several issue that are not often addressed by an implementation team. The resulting evaluation increased the team's sensitivity to such issues and, in fact, the authors believe that the evaluation provided as much benefit as the system itself.

  10. System Issues Related to Implementing on the Internet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, William; Bagg, Thomas C., III

    1999-01-01

    Implementing capabilities on the World Wide Web should never be taken lightly. A good systems engineer is able to examine such implementations from all points of view, including political, legal, security, access, technical deployment, and quality. The evacuation discussed in this paper was conducted to ensure that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was proceeding in a correct direction by implementing RECALL a Lessons Learned System on the Web and, subsequently, did so successfully. The systems approach extended well beyond technical implementation to several issue that are not often addressed by an implementation team. The resulting evaluation increased the team's sensitivity to such issues and, in fact, the authors believe that the evaluation provided as much benefit as the system itself.

  11. Identification of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) Issues Relevant to Individuals with HD

    PubMed Central

    Tulsky, David S.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explored health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in individuals with Huntington disease (HD). Sixteen focus groups were conducted (n=6 groups with symptomatic HD individuals; n=5 with individuals who are at-risk or prodromal for HD; n=3 non-clinical HD caregivers; n=2 groups with HD clinicians). Qualitative analysis indicated that 28% of focus group comments were related to emotional health, 27% to social participation, 26% to physical health, 10% to cognitive health, and 9% to end of life issues. Findings highlight the importance of developing HD-targeted items to ensure sensitive assessment of HRQOL in HD research and clinical practice. PMID:22427174

  12. Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-24

    market and second-largest source of imports. Japanese firms are the United States’ second-largest source of foreign direct investment, and Japanese...the TPP talks in July 2013, the U.S. and Japan have been negotiating their own market access and an array of sensitive trade issues bilaterally, in...on autos and agriculture, the two most challenging aspects of the bilateral talks. U.S. negotiators reportedly are struggling with Japan’s market

  13. NASA Issues Related to use of Halon: Past, Present, Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Michelle M.

    1999-01-01

    NASA began an official halon phaseout program in 1990. NASA has led the way in halon bank management and has participated in the search for halon alternatives. NASA representatives participate in technical committees of the National Fire Protection Association and United Nations Environment Program providing guidance on Halon Phaseout and acceptance, design, installation, and maintenance of Halon Alternatives. This paper addresses some of the key issues that are leading the agency away from dependence on halons for fire protection.

  14. Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-24

    which sets down rules on “child abduction” cases. The increased publicity has raised awareness of the issue in Japan, particularly among Diet Members...purchasing F-22A Raptor aircraft from the United States to replace its aging fleet of F-4 fighters. Some Japanese defense officials regard the potential...knowledge of the practice have consistently denied, even in Diet testimony, that it took place. The controversy has raised questions about the

  15. Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-25

    three LDP prime ministers— Shinzo Abe , Yasuo Fukuda, and Taro Aso—who each lasted approximately one year. Significantly, all had been chosen by the...LDP Prime Minister Shinzo Abe paid a political price for prioritizing constitutional and security reforms over the economic issues that were...and Tokyo. Former Prime Minister Abe rose to prominence based on his hard-line position on Pyongyang’s responsibility to disclose the fate and/or

  16. Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-03

    in July 2007 and the abrupt resignations of both Shinzo Abe and Yasuo Fukuda from the Prime Minister post has shaken the traditional power structure...Minister Shinzo Abe paid a political price for prioritizing constitutional and security reforms over the economic issues that were foremost in most...Former Prime Minister Abe rose to prominence based on his hardline position on Pyongyang’s responsibility to disclose the fate and/or whereabouts of

  17. Compensability of, and legal issues related to, coccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Haley, Luann

    2007-09-01

    Legal issues that may develop when treating patients with coccidioidomycosis include allegations of medical malpractice, claims for workers' compensation benefits, and civil actions against business owners. In states where the disease is most prevalent, California recognizes cocci diodomycosis as a compensable condition, although Arizona does not. In civil actions, the state courts have not imposed liability on any business or institution for those that claim to have developed cocci diodomycosis on or near the premises of the business.

  18. Data Analysis and Data Mining: Current Issues in Biomedical Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Bellazzi, Riccardo; Diomidous, Marianna; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Takabayashi, Katsuhiko; Ziegler, Andreas; McCray, Alexa T.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Medicine and biomedical sciences have become data-intensive fields, which, at the same time, enable the application of data-driven approaches and require sophisticated data analysis and data mining methods. Biomedical informatics provides a proper interdisciplinary context to integrate data and knowledge when processing available information, with the aim of giving effective decision-making support in clinics and translational research. Objectives To reflect on different perspectives related to the role of data analysis and data mining in biomedical informatics. Methods On the occasion of the 50th year of Methods of Information in Medicine a symposium was organized, that reflected on opportunities, challenges and priorities of organizing, representing and analysing data, information and knowledge in biomedicine and health care. The contributions of experts with a variety of backgrounds in the area of biomedical data analysis have been collected as one outcome of this symposium, in order to provide a broad, though coherent, overview of some of the most interesting aspects of the field. Results The paper presents sections on data accumulation and data-driven approaches in medical informatics, data and knowledge integration, statistical issues for the evaluation of data mining models, translational bioinformatics and bioinformatics aspects of genetic epidemiology. Conclusions Biomedical informatics represents a natural framework to properly and effectively apply data analysis and data mining methods in a decision-making context. In the future, it will be necessary to preserve the inclusive nature of the field and to foster an increasing sharing of data and methods between researchers. PMID:22146916

  19. Four issues in undernutrition-related health impact modeling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Undernutrition modeling makes it possible to evaluate the potential impact of such events as a food-price shock or harvest failure on the prevalence and severity of undernutrition. There are, however, uncertainties in such modeling. In this paper we discuss four methodological issues pertinent to impact estimation: (1) the conventional emphasis on energy intake rather than dietary quality; (2) the importance of the distribution of nutrient intakes; (3) the timing of both the ‘food shock’ and when the response is assessed; and (4) catch-up growth and risk accumulation. PMID:24073617

  20. U.S.-China Relations: An Overview of Policy Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 01 AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES...territorial claims in the South China Sea and East China Sea, and its continuing threat to use force to bring Taiwan under its control . With U.S...but some observers believe that U.S. government advocacy on rights issues has taken a back seat to the focus on trying to shape Chinese behavior in the

  1. Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-30

    controversial Futenma Marine Air Station to a less densely populated location on Okinawa . The move is to be the first part of a planned realignment...of U.S. forces in Asia, designed in part to reduce the footprint of U.S. forces on Okinawa by redeploying 8,000 U.S. Marines and their dependents...if not most major issues. Approval by both chambers of the Diet generally is needed to pass legislation. Few believe that Prime Minister Naoto Kan

  2. Central Issue Facility at Fort Benning and Related Army Policies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-21

    Neckerchief 1 0 0 No Cap, Cold Weather 1 0 0 No Balaclava or Neck Gaiter 1 0 0 No Inserts 2 0 2 No Gloves 1 0 1 No Drawers, Polypropylene 2 0 2...No Undershirts, Polypropylene 2 0 2 No Undershirts, Silk 2 0 0 No Drawers, Silk 2 0 0 No Shirt, Fleece 1 0 0 Yes Liner, Trousers 1 0 0 Yes Coat... business processes at the central issue facilities at Army installations. The module provides a standard Army-wide, automated system for the receipt

  3. U.S.-Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-11

    Maquiladora Industry,” Southwest Economy, Issue 6, November/December 1999. 9 Maquila Portal, Mexico Now, Year 2, Number 9, March-April 2004, p. 14...50% of total exports.9 Of the top twenty maquiladora operations in 2004, ten have U.S. parent companies. The largest CRS-8 10 Maquila Portal, “100...Top Maquilas ,” see [http://www.maquilaportal.com]. 11 “ Maquila Scoreboard,” Twin Plant News, see [http://www.twinplantnews.com]. 12 Vargas, Lucinda

  4. Dealing with quantum weirdness: Holism and related issues

    SciTech Connect

    Elby, Andrew Richard

    1995-12-01

    Various issues are discussed in interpretation of quantum mechanics. All these explorations point toward the same conclusion, that some systems are holistically connected, i.e., some composite systems have properties that cannot, even in principle, be reduced to the properties of its subsystems. This is argued to be the central metaphysical lesson of quantum theory; this will remain pertinent even if quantum mechanics gets replaced by a superior theory. Chap. 2 discusses nonlocality and rules out hidden-variable theories that approximately reproduce the perfect correlations of quantum mechanics, as well as theories that obey locality conditions weaker than those needed to derive Bell`s inequality. Chap. 3 shows that SQUID experiments can rule out non-invasive measurability if not macrorealism. Chap. 4 looks at interpretational issues surrounding decoherence, the dissipative interaction between a system and its environment. Decoherence klcan help ``modal`` interpretations pick out the desired ``preferred`` basis. Chap. 5 explores what varieties of causation can and cannot ``explain`` EPR correlations. Instead of relying on ``watered down`` causal explanations, we should instead develop new, holistic explanatory frameworks.

  5. Dealing with Quantum Weirdness: Holism and Related Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elby, Andrew Richard

    1995-01-01

    I discuss a variety of issues in the interpretation of quantum mechanics. All of these explorations point toward the same conclusion, that some systems are holistically connected. In other words, some composite systems possess properties that cannot, even in principle, be reduced to (or "built up" from) the properties of its subsystems. This, I argue, is a central metaphysical lesson of quantum theory, a lesson that will pertain even if quantum mechanics eventually gets replaced by a superior theory. After outlining this dissertation in chapter 1, I jump into issues of nonlocality in chapter 2. There, I establish a new, probabilistic framework in which to formulate "algebraic" (perfect correlations) nonlocality proofs. Working within that framework, I rule out hidden -variable theories that approximately reproduce the perfect correlations of quantum mechanics, as well as theories that obey locality conditions weaker than those needed to derive Bell's inequality. In chapter 3, I discuss Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs). Contra Leggett, I show that SQUID experiments cannot rule out Macrorealism. What they can rule out is non-invasive measurability, the assumption that it's possible (in principle) to measure a system with arbitrarily small disturbance to its future dynamics. Failure of non-invasive measurability is best explained as resulting from a holistic connection between measuring device and measured system. Chapter 4 looks at the interpretational issues surrounding decoherence, the dissipative interaction between a system and its environment. Decoherence alone neither constitutes nor points to a specific interpretation of the quantum formalism. It can, however, help "modal" interpretations pick out the desired "preferred" basis. After raising some potentially fatal objections to the modal interpretation, I show in detail how decoherence comes to the rescue. Modal interpretations explicitly incorporate holism. Finally, in chapter 5, I

  6. Revised classification/nomenclature of vitiligo and related issues: the Vitiligo Global Issues Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Ezzedine, K; Lim, H W; Suzuki, T; Katayama, I; Hamzavi, I; Lan, C C E; Goh, B K; Anbar, T; Silva de Castro, C; Lee, A Y; Parsad, D; van Geel, N; Le Poole, I C; Oiso, N; Benzekri, L; Spritz, R; Gauthier, Y; Hann, S K; Picardo, M; Taieb, A

    2012-05-01

    During the 2011 International Pigment Cell Conference (IPCC), the Vitiligo European Taskforce (VETF) convened a consensus conference on issues of global importance for vitiligo clinical research. As suggested by an international panel of experts, the conference focused on four topics: classification and nomenclature; definition of stable disease; definition of Koebner's phenomenon (KP); and 'autoimmune vitiligo'. These topics were discussed in seven working groups representing different geographical regions. A consensus emerged that segmental vitiligo be classified separately from all other forms of vitiligo and that the term 'vitiligo' be used as an umbrella term for all non-segmental forms of vitiligo, including 'mixed vitiligo' in which segmental and non-segmental vitiligo are combined and which is considered a subgroup of vitiligo. Further, the conference recommends that disease stability be best assessed based on the stability of individual lesions rather than the overall stability of the disease as the latter is difficult to define precisely and reliably. The conference also endorsed the classification of KP for vitiligo as proposed by the VETF (history based, clinical observation based, or experimentally induced). Lastly, the conference agreed that 'autoimmune vitiligo' should not be used as a separate classification as published evidence indicates that the pathophysiology of all forms of vitiligo likely involves autoimmune or inflammatory mechanisms.

  7. Revised classification/nomenclature of vitiligo and related issues: the Vitiligo Global Issues Consensus Conference

    PubMed Central

    Ezzedine, K.; Lim, H. W.; Suzuki, T.; Katayama, I.; Hamzavi, I.; Lan, C. C. E.; Goh, B. K.; Anbar, T.; de Castro, C. Silva; Lee, A. Y.; Parsad, D.; van Geel, N.; Le Poole, I. C.; Oiso, N.; Benzekri, L.; Spritz, R.; Gauthier, Y.; Hann, S. K.; Picardo, M.; Taieb, A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary During the 2011 International Pigment Cell Conference (IPCC), the Vitiligo European Taskforce (VETF) convened a consensus conference on issues of global importance for vitiligo clinical research. As suggested by an international panel of experts, the conference focused on four topics: classification and nomenclature; definition of stable disease; definition of Koebner’s phenomenon (KP); and ‘autoimmune vitiligo’. These topics were discussed in seven working groups representing different geographical regions. A consensus emerged that segmental vitiligo be classified separately from all other forms of vitiligo and that the term ‘vitiligo’ be used as an umbrella term for all non-segmental forms of vitiligo, including ‘mixed vitiligo’ in which segmental and non-segmental vitiligo are combined and which is considered a subgroup of vitiligo. Further, the conference recommends that disease stability be best assessed based on the stability of individual lesions rather than the overall stability of the disease as the latter is difficult to define precisely and reliably. The conference also endorsed the classification of KP for vitiligo as proposed by the VETF (history based, clinical observation based, or experimentally induced). Lastly, the conference agreed that ‘autoimmune vitiligo’ should not be used as a separate classification as published evidence indicates that the pathophysiology of all forms of vitiligo likely involves autoimmune or inflammatory mechanisms. PMID:22417114

  8. PRECISION MEASUREMENT OF MUON G-2 AND ACCELERATOR RELATED ISSUES

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,H.N.; BUNCE,G.; CAREY,R.M.; CUSHMAN,P.; DANBY,G.T.; DEBEVEC,P.T.; DEILE,M.; DENG,H.; DENINGER,W.; DHAWAN,S.K.; ET AL; MENG,W.

    2001-09-21

    A precision measurement of the anomalous g value, a{sub {mu}}=(g-2)/2, for the positive muon has been made using high intensity protons available at the Brookhaven AGS. The result based on the 1999 data a{sub {mu}}=11659202(14)(6) x 10{sup 10} (1.3ppm) is in good agreement with previous measurements and has an error one third that of the combined previous data. The current theoretical value from the standard model is a{sub {mu}} (SM)=11659159.6(6.7) x 10{sup 10} (0.57 ppm) and differ by over 2.5 standard deviation with experiment. Issues with reducing systematic errors and enhancing the injection and storage efficiencies are discussed.

  9. Issues related to regulatory control of naturally occurring radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.Y.

    1997-04-01

    Nearly 80% of human radiation exposure is from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). While exposure from man-made sources of radiation has been well regulated, no consistent regulatory controls exist for NORM. Because elevated radiation levels have resulted from NORM enhancement activities such as occur in the petroleum, fertilizer, mining, and processing industries, some form of regulatory control is in order. In the US, regulation of NORM by federal agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the Environmental Protection Agency is not anticipated in the near future because there are no authorizing federal statutes. Important issues for addressing the control of NORM include source characterization and generation, radiation protection concerns, waste management and disposition, and the regulatory framework.

  10. Ethical issues relating to renal transplantation from prediabetic living donor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Mexico, diabetes mellitus is the main cause of end − stage kidney disease, and some patients may be transplant candidates. Organ supply is limited because of cultural issues. And, there is a lack of standardized clinical guidelines regarding organ donation. These issues highlight the tension surrounding the fact that living donors are being selected despite being prediabetic. This article presents, examines and discusses using the principles of non-maleficience, autonomy, justice and the constitutionally guaranteed right to health, the ethical considerations that arise from considering a prediabetic person as a potential kidney donor. Discussion Diabetes is an absolute contraindication for donating a kidney. However, the transplant protocols most frequently used in Mexico do not consider prediabetes as exclusion criteria. In prediabetic persons there are well known metabolic alterations that may compromise the long − term outcomes of the transplant if such donors are accepted. Even so, many of them are finally included because there are not enough donor candidates. Both, families and hospitals face the need to rapidly accept prediabetic donors before the clinical conditions of the recipient and the evolution of the disease exclude him/her as a transplant candidate; however, when using a kidney potentially damaged by prediabetes, neither the donor’s nor the recipient’s long term health is usually considered. Considering the ethical implication as well as the clinical and epidemiological evidence, we conclude that prediabetic persons are not suitable candidates for kidney donation. This recommendation should be taken into consideration by Mexican health institutions who should rewrite their transplant protocols. Summary We argue that the decision to use a kidney from a living donor known to be pre-diabetic or from those persons with family history of T2DM, obesity, hypertension, or renal failure, should be considered unethical in Mexico

  11. Current Issues in the Neurology and Genetics of Learning-Related Traits and Disorders: Introduction to the Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilger, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    This introductory article briefly describes each of the following eight articles in this special issue on the neurology and genetics of learning related disorders. It notes the greater appreciation of learning disability as a set of complex disorders with broad and intricate neurological bases and of the large individual differences in how these…

  12. Current Issues in the Neurology and Genetics of Learning-Related Traits and Disorders: Introduction to the Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilger, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    This introductory article briefly describes each of the following eight articles in this special issue on the neurology and genetics of learning related disorders. It notes the greater appreciation of learning disability as a set of complex disorders with broad and intricate neurological bases and of the large individual differences in how these…

  13. Transportation as a "Related Service": Issues that Involve Transition Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Missouri LINC.

    The paper discusses transportation as a related service for students with disabilities expecially as related to school-to-work transition activities. First, the legislative and legal basis for providing transportation services is discussed in the form of answers to frequently asked questions: why provide transportation? what is the basis for…

  14. Transportation as a "Related Service": Issues that Involve Transition Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Missouri LINC.

    The paper discusses transportation as a related service for students with disabilities expecially as related to school-to-work transition activities. First, the legislative and legal basis for providing transportation services is discussed in the form of answers to frequently asked questions: why provide transportation? what is the basis for…

  15. Certification and Accreditation: Background, Issue Analysis, and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, William E.; Palmer, John R.

    An analysis of issues concerning the certification of teachers and the accreditation and approval of teacher education institutions is presented. In the first part, generally accepted definitions of certification, licensure, program review, and accreditation are clarified. A brief historical overview is presented of the state's role in controlling…

  16. Using the "Issues Analysis Team" Concept To Develop Administrative Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theel, Ronald K.

    The factors for an effective administrative task force are examined in this report on the Syracuse school superintendent's Issue Analysis Team. The team, composed of voluntary potential administrators, acts as a special task force to facilitate informed decision making by the school superintendent. Topics discussed are member selection, role…

  17. Merging Two Futures Concepts: Issues Management and Policy Impact Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfro, William L.; Morrison, James L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a workshop held during the 1982 World Future Society's Fourth General Assembly on the combined application of issues management and policy impact analysis. The workshop participants applied futures research, forecasting, goal-setting, and policy development techniques to future problems in educational policy. (AM)

  18. Why Map Issues? On Controversy Analysis as a Digital Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article takes stock of recent efforts to implement controversy analysis as a digital method in the study of science, technology, and society (STS) and beyond and outlines a distinctive approach to address the problem of digital bias. Digital media technologies exert significant influence on the enactment of controversy in online settings, and this risks undermining the substantive focus of controversy analysis conducted by digital means. To address this problem, I propose a shift in thematic focus from controversy analysis to issue mapping. The article begins by distinguishing between three broad frameworks that currently guide the development of controversy analysis as a digital method, namely, demarcationist, discursive, and empiricist. Each has been adopted in STS, but only the last one offers a digital “move beyond impartiality.” I demonstrate this approach by analyzing issues of Internet governance with the aid of the social media platform Twitter. PMID:26336325

  19. Why Map Issues? On Controversy Analysis as a Digital Method.

    PubMed

    Marres, Noortje

    2015-09-01

    This article takes stock of recent efforts to implement controversy analysis as a digital method in the study of science, technology, and society (STS) and beyond and outlines a distinctive approach to address the problem of digital bias. Digital media technologies exert significant influence on the enactment of controversy in online settings, and this risks undermining the substantive focus of controversy analysis conducted by digital means. To address this problem, I propose a shift in thematic focus from controversy analysis to issue mapping. The article begins by distinguishing between three broad frameworks that currently guide the development of controversy analysis as a digital method, namely, demarcationist, discursive, and empiricist. Each has been adopted in STS, but only the last one offers a digital "move beyond impartiality." I demonstrate this approach by analyzing issues of Internet governance with the aid of the social media platform Twitter.

  20. Design and analysis issues of integrated control systems for high-speed civil transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, Craig A.; Feather, John B.; Dykman, John R.; Page, Mark A.; Hodgkinson, John

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify, rank, and define development plans for the critical guidance and control design and analysis issues as related to economically viable and environmentally acceptable high-speed civil transport. The issues were identified in a multistep process. First, pertinent literature on supersonic cruise aircraft was reviewed, and experts were consulted to establish the fundamental characteristics and problems inherent to supersonic cruise aircraft. Next, the advanced technologies and strategies being pursued for the high-speed civil transport were considered to determine any additional unique control problems the transport may have. Finally, existing technologies and methods were examined to determine their capabilities for the design and analysis of high-speed civil transport control systems and to identify the shortcomings and issues. Three priority levels - mandatory, highly beneficial, and desirable - were established. Within each of these levels, the issues were further ranked. Technology development plans for each issue were defined. Each plan contains a task breakdown and schedule.

  1. Implementation of the NCSS Guidelines for Teaching Science-Related Social Issues: Exemplar Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Robert A., Ed.

    This document contains the Guidelines for Teaching Science-Related Social Issues adopted in 1982 by the National Council for the Social Studies and 10 examplar lessons each keyed to particular guidelines and drawing upon contemporary issues. The premise upon which the guidelines are based is that science is a social issue and that the examination…

  2. Implementation of the NCSS Guidelines for Teaching Science-Related Social Issues: Exemplar Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Robert A., Ed.

    This document contains the Guidelines for Teaching Science-Related Social Issues adopted in 1982 by the National Council for the Social Studies and 10 examplar lessons each keyed to particular guidelines and drawing upon contemporary issues. The premise upon which the guidelines are based is that science is a social issue and that the examination…

  3. Kenyan government to establish special tribunal for HIV-related issues.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Kelly

    2010-06-01

    On 21 January 2010, Kenyan government officials formally announced the creation of the first-ever tribunal dedicated to hearing legal issues related to HIV/AIDS. Among other things, the Tribunal will handle issues relating to the transmission of HIV; confidentiality of medical information and records; testing; access to healthcare services; discriminatory acts and policies; and HIV-related research.

  4. Essential medical issues related to HIV in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Moswin, Arthur H; Epstein, Joel B

    2007-12-01

    Management of HIV infection has progressed dramatically since the disease was first recognized, to the point that HIV infection is now considered a chronic condition. Some of these new approaches in management are related to the strides that have been made in understanding the pathogenesis of this condition. Such changes in medical care may also affect the provision of oral health care. Dental providers must therefore be aware of current management practices. This paper reviews current approaches to managing HIV-related disease.

  5. Legal Problems in Broadcasting: Identification and Analysis of Selected Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toohey, Daniel W.; And Others

    This book is designed as an introduction and reference to broadcast law for commercial and noncommercial station managers and staff, college students of radio and television, and general readers. It is divided into two sections, "Freedom of Expression and Related Issues" and "Business Aspects of Programming." The first section contains seven…

  6. Suicide Prevention in Schools. A Center Policy Issues Analysis Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Policy makers remain in conflict over whether schools should play a institutionalized role in preventing student suicide. This brief highlights two other major related questions that are at issue: (1) Does suicide education stigmatize some students and increase that risk of suicide ideation? and (2) Should schools be involved in monitoring…

  7. Legal Problems in Broadcasting: Identification and Analysis of Selected Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toohey, Daniel W.; And Others

    This book is designed as an introduction and reference to broadcast law for commercial and noncommercial station managers and staff, college students of radio and television, and general readers. It is divided into two sections, "Freedom of Expression and Related Issues" and "Business Aspects of Programming." The first section contains seven…

  8. Invited review: gender issues related to spaceflight: a NASA perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, D. L.; Jennings, R. T.; Meck, J. V.; Powell, M. R.; Putcha, L.; Sams, C. P.; Schneider, S. M.; Shackelford, L. C.; Smith, S. M.; Whitson, P. A.

    2001-01-01

    This minireview provides an overview of known and potential gender differences in physiological responses to spaceflight. The paper covers cardiovascular and exercise physiology, barophysiology and decompression sickness, renal stone risk, immunology, neurovestibular and sensorimotor function, nutrition, pharmacotherapeutics, and reproduction. Potential health and functional impacts associated with the various physiological changes during spaceflight are discussed, and areas needing additional research are highlighted. Historically, studies of physiological responses to microgravity have not been aimed at examining gender-specific differences in the astronaut population. Insufficient data exist in most of the discipline areas at this time to draw valid conclusions about gender-specific differences in astronauts, in part due to the small ratio of women to men. The only astronaut health issue for which a large enough data set exists to allow valid conclusions to be drawn about gender differences is orthostatic intolerance following shuttle missions, in which women have a significantly higher incidence of presyncope during stand tests than do men. The most common observation across disciplines is that individual differences in physiological responses within genders are usually as large as, or larger than, differences between genders. Individual characteristics usually outweigh gender differences per se.

  9. Imaging motor imagery: Methodological issues related to expertise#

    PubMed Central

    Milton, John; Small, Steven L.; Solodkin, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Mental imagery (MI) is the mental rehearsal of movements without overt execution. Brain imaging techniques have made it possible to identify the brain regions that are activated during MI and, for voluntary motor tasks involving hand and finger movements, to make direct comparison with those areas activated during actual movement. However, the fact that brain activation differs for different types of imagery (visual or kinetic) and depends on the skill level of the individual (e.g. novice or elite athlete) raises a number of important methodological issues for the design of brain imaging protocols to study MI. These include instructing the subject concerning the type of imagery to use, objective measurement of skill level, the design of motor tasks sufficiently difficult to produce a range of skill levels, the effect of different environments on skill level (including the imaging device), and so on. It is suggested that MI is more about the neurobiology of the development of motor skills that have already been learned, but not perfected, than it is about learning motor skills de novo. PMID:18762138

  10. Invited review: gender issues related to spaceflight: a NASA perspective.

    PubMed

    Harm, D L; Jennings, R T; Meck, J V; Powell, M R; Putcha, L; Sams, C P; Schneider, S M; Shackelford, L C; Smith, S M; Whitson, P A

    2001-11-01

    This minireview provides an overview of known and potential gender differences in physiological responses to spaceflight. The paper covers cardiovascular and exercise physiology, barophysiology and decompression sickness, renal stone risk, immunology, neurovestibular and sensorimotor function, nutrition, pharmacotherapeutics, and reproduction. Potential health and functional impacts associated with the various physiological changes during spaceflight are discussed, and areas needing additional research are highlighted. Historically, studies of physiological responses to microgravity have not been aimed at examining gender-specific differences in the astronaut population. Insufficient data exist in most of the discipline areas at this time to draw valid conclusions about gender-specific differences in astronauts, in part due to the small ratio of women to men. The only astronaut health issue for which a large enough data set exists to allow valid conclusions to be drawn about gender differences is orthostatic intolerance following shuttle missions, in which women have a significantly higher incidence of presyncope during stand tests than do men. The most common observation across disciplines is that individual differences in physiological responses within genders are usually as large as, or larger than, differences between genders. Individual characteristics usually outweigh gender differences per se.

  11. [Related reproductive issues on male autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Cai, Hong-cai; Shang, Xue-jun; Huang, Yu-feng

    2015-11-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a most common inherited renal disease, about 50% with a family history, although the exact etiology not yet clear. To date, ADPKD, a multisystem disorder without effective preventive and therapeutic means, has been shown to be detrimental to human health. Recent studies show that severe oligoasthenozoospermia, necrospermia, immotile sperm, azoospermia, epididymal cyst, seminal vesicle cyst, and ejaculatory duct cyst found in male ADPKD patients may lead to male infertility, though the specific mechanisms remain unknown. Structural anomaly of spermatozoa, defect of polycystin, mutation of PKD genes, and micro-deletion of the AZF gene could be the reasons for the higher incidence of abnormal semen quality in male ADPKD patients. Assisted reproductive techniques can increase the chances of pregnancy, whereas the health of the offspring should be taken into consideration. This article presents an overview of reproductive issues concerning infertile male ADPKD patients from the perspective of the morbidity, pathophysiological mechanism, diagnosis, and management of the disease.

  12. State legislatures demonstrate continuing interest in fertility-related issues.

    PubMed

    1978-02-01

    51 (15%) were enacted into law. More abortion laws were enacted than in any year since 1973 (when the Supreme Court declared women have a right to first trimester abortions); none of them had the effect of increasing access to abortion, and 5 laws restricted its availability to minors. 2 states (California and Michigan) passed bills broadening the scope of sex education. Although 2 states (Missouri and North Carolina) passed laws permitting minors to consent to pregnancy-related medical care, both excluded abortion, 1 (North Carolina) excluded sterilization, and neither gave minors authority to consent to contraceptive services. 3 laws were enacted relating to sterilization: 2 in North Carolina (repeal of requirement for a 2nd physician to be consulted before performing a sterilization, and abolishment of the eugenics commission which oversaw the sterilization of certain mentally ill or retarded persons) and 1 in Massachusetts (requiring informed consent for sterilization). 4 of the 9 new family planning laws related to financing state family planning programs, 3 of which are appropriations bills, and the other 5 laws related to sale of prophylactics and the distribution of family planning information in maternity hospitals and prisons. New insurance laws ensure coverage of family planning services or equal treatment of pregnancy-related disabilities. 10 resolutions were adopted in 6 states (Arkansas, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Rhode Island, South Dakota, and Utah) asking Congress to call a constitutional convention for proposing an amendment on abortion, i.e., prohibiting abortion.

  13. Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-03

    Shirk, “Drug Violence in Mexico: Data and Analysis from 2001- 2009,” Trans-Border Institute (TBI), January 2010, citing data gathered by Reforma ...newspaper. For a description as to why Reforma data are used instead of other sources, see p. 2-3 of the TBI report, available at: http

  14. ISSUES RELATED TO SOLUTION CHEMISTRY IN MERCURY SAMPLING IMPINGERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of mercury (Hg) speciation in combustion flue gases is often accomplished in standardized sampling trains in which the sample is passed sequentially through a series of aqueous solutions to capture and separate oxidized Hg (Hg2+) and elemental Hg (Hgo). Such methods incl...

  15. High energy density physics issues related to Future Circular Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, N. A.; Burkart, F.; Schmidt, R.; Shutov, A.; Wollmann, D.; Piriz, A. R.

    2017-07-01

    A design study for a post-Large Hadron Collider accelerator named, Future Circular Collider (FCC), is being carried out by the International Scientific Community. A complete design report is expected to be ready by spring 2018. The FCC will accelerate two counter rotating beams of 50 TeV protons in a tunnel having a length (circumference) of 100 km. Each beam will be comprised of 10 600 proton bunches, with each bunch having an intensity of 1011 protons. The bunch length is of 0.5 ns, and two neighboring bunches are separated by 25 ns. Although there is an option for 5 ns bunch separation as well, in the present studies, we consider the former case only. The total energy stored in each FCC beam is about 8.5 GJ, which is equivalent to the kinetic energy of Airbus 380 (560 t) flying at a speed of 850 km/h. Machine protection is a very important issue while operating with such powerful beams. It is important to have an estimate of the damage caused to the equipment and accelerator components due to the accidental release of a partial or total beam at a given point. For this purpose, we carried out numerical simulations of full impact of one FCC beam on an extended solid copper target. These simulations have been done employing an energy deposition code, FLUKA, and a two-dimensional hydrodynamic code, BIG2, iteratively. This study shows that although the static range of a single FCC proton and its shower is about 1.5 m in solid copper, the entire beam will penetrate around 350 m into the target. This substantial increase in the range is due to the hydrodynamic tunneling of the beam. Our calculations also show that a large part of the target will be converted into high energy density matter including warm dense matter and strongly coupled plasmas.

  16. Aeromedical Issues Related to Positive Pressure Breathing for +Gz Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    centrifuge. e) Right-to-left shunt: Available Literature: The literature indicates 20-30% of adults possess a probe- patent foramen ovale (PPFO...permission to manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention that may in any way be related thereto. The Office of Public Affairs has reviewed this paper

  17. Legal issues related to vascular access devices and infusion therapy.

    PubMed

    Masoorli, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Infusion therapies are being delivered in many healthcare settings including hospitals, homecare settings, long-term care facilities, occupational health facilities, outpatient units, and physician offices. Nurses who infuse medications must be properly educated to recognize vascular access complications and initiate the proper interventions. This article discusses the high-risk areas of nursing malpractice related to infusion therapies.

  18. Relating Work and Education. Current Issues in Higher Education 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermilye, Dyckman; Ferris, William, Eds.

    The relationship between education and work is examined in relation to improving the quality of life. Part one provides a philosophical framework in which the authors reject the idea that work and education should be oriented toward porducing goods and making money, but should contribute to the growth and development of the workers. Part two…

  19. Relating Work and Education. Current Issues in Higher Education 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermilye, Dyckman; Ferris, William, Eds.

    The relationship between education and work is examined in relation to improving the quality of life. Part one provides a philosophical framework in which the authors reject the idea that work and education should be oriented toward porducing goods and making money, but should contribute to the growth and development of the workers. Part two…

  20. Ottoman-American Relations, Francis Hopkins Smith and Armenian Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akalin, Berrin

    2015-01-01

    The Ottoman-American relations, started upon arrival of American merchant ships to Izmir port in 1797, gained a new dimension by signing a treaty of commerce between two states in 1830 and David Porter was assigned as an acting ambassador and moved from Algeria to Istanbul in 1831. Ottoman state gave the privileged country status to America…

  1. Fixed or random effects meta-analysis? Common methodological issues in systematic reviews of effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Tufanaru, Catalin; Munn, Zachary; Stephenson, Matthew; Aromataris, Edoardo

    2015-09-01

    Systematic review aims to systematically identify, critically appraise, and summarize all relevant studies that match predefined criteria and answer predefined questions. The most common type of systematic review is that assessing the effectiveness of an intervention or therapy. In this article, we discuss some of the common methodological issues that arise when conducting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of effectiveness data, including issues related to study designs, meta-analysis, and the use and interpretation of effect sizes.

  2. Firearm-related injuries in Canada: issues for prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Chapdelaine, A; Samson, E; Kimberley, M D; Viau, L

    1991-01-01

    We reviewed the available data on firearm-related injuries in Canada to suggest strategies for prevention in the context of the proposed amendments to the Criminal Code (Bill C-17) currently before Parliament. The risk of death from a firearm in Canada is equivalent to the risk of death from a motor vehicle crash. We discuss the risks associated with firearms with regard to suicides, homicides and "accidents." We also discuss the accessibility of firearms. This article builds upon a recently published update on the epidemiologic basis of the public health approach for the prevention of firearm-related injuries and deaths. The key to the etiologic approach to preventing such injuries and deaths is to view the incidents, regardless of their medicolegal circumstances, as having one factor in common: the discharge of a firearm. PMID:1933704

  3. Korea-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-25

    Bush Administration in 2008 committed 500,000 tons of foodgrains.. South Korea followed a conciliation policy toward North Korea under the...dollars in foreign exchange earnings since 1998 to import food or medicines . The regime has not adopted agricultural reforms similar to those of... conciliation policy were: the extension of South Korean economic and humanitarian aid to North Korea, the promotion of North-South economic relations

  4. Beyond BMI: Conceptual Issues Related to Overweight and Obese Patients.

    PubMed

    Müller, Manfred James; Braun, Wiebke; Enderle, Janna; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2016-01-01

    BMI is widely used as a measure of weight status and disease risks; it defines overweight and obesity based on statistical criteria. BMI is a score; neither is it biologically sound nor does it reflect a suitable phenotype worthwhile to study. Because of its limited value, BMI cannot provide profound insight into obesity biology and its co-morbidity. Alternative assessments of weight status include detailed phenotyping by body composition analysis (BCA). However, predicting disease risks, fat mass, and fat-free mass as assessed by validated techniques (i.e., densitometry, dual energy X ray absorptiometry, and bioelectrical impedance analysis) does not exceed the value of BMI. Going beyond BMI and descriptive BCA, the concept of functional body composition (FBC) integrates body components into regulatory systems. FBC refers to the masses of body components, organs, and tissues as well as to their inter-relationships within the context of endocrine, metabolic and immune functions. FBC can be used to define specific phenotypes of obesity, e.g. the sarcopenic-obese patient. Well-characterized obesity phenotypes are a precondition for targeted research (e.g., on the genomics of obesity) and patient-centered care (e.g., adequate treatment of individual obese phenotypes such as the sarcopenic-obese patient). FBC contributes to a future definition of overweight and obesity based on physiological criteria rather than on body weight alone. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  5. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-08

    gluten to reports of pet deaths from kidney failure in the United States. The pet food contamination was the beginning of a series of well publicized...and the state of Sino-Tibetan relations. Tibet remains an issue of concern for Congress and a sensitive issue in U.S.-China relations. Controversy...and high-level military exchanges. Taiwan The island democracy of Taiwan remains the most sensitive and complex issue that U.S. policymakers face

  6. Malaysian public perception towards nuclear power energy-related issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misnon, Fauzan Amin; Hu, Yeoh Siong; Rahman, Irman Abd.; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia had considered nuclear energy as an option for future electricity generation during the 9th Malaysia Development Plan. Since 2009, Malaysia had implemented a number of important preparatory steps towards this goal, including the establishment of Nuclear Power Corporation of Malaysia (MNPC) as first Nuclear Energy Programme Implementing Organization (NEPIO) in Malaysia. In light of the establishment of MNPC, the National Nuclear Policy was formulated in 2010 and a new comprehensive nuclear law to replace the existing Atomic Energy Licensing Act (Act 304) is currently in the pipeline. Internationally, public acceptance is generally used to gauge the acceptance of nuclear energy by the public whenever a government decides to engage in nuclear energy. A public survey was conducted in between 14 March 2016 to 10 May 2016 focusing on the Malaysian public acceptance and perception towards the implementation of nuclear energy in Malaysia. The methodology of this research was aim on finding an overview of the general knowledge, public-relation recommendation, perception and acceptance of Malaysian towards the nuclear power development program. The combination of information gathered from this study can be interpreted as an indication of the complexity surrounding the development of nuclear energy and its relationship with the unique background of Malaysian demography. This paper will focus mainly on energy-related section in the survey in comparison with nuclear energy.

  7. Sleep better than medicine? Ethical issues related to "wake enhancement".

    PubMed

    Ravelingien, A; Sandberg, A

    2008-09-01

    This paper deals with new pharmacological and technological developments in the manipulation and curtailment of our sleep needs. While humans have used various methods throughout history to lengthen diurnal wakefulness, recent advances have been achieved in manipulating the architecture of the brain states involved in sleep. The progress suggests that we will gradually become able to drastically manipulate our natural sleep-wake cycle. Our goal here is to promote discussion on the desirability and acceptability of enhancing our control over biological sleep, by illustrating various potential attendant ethical problems. We draw attention to the risks involved, possible conflicts of interests underlying the development of wake enhancement, and the potential impact on accountability for fatigue related errors.

  8. Some issues related to evidence-based implantology

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Gunnar E.

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews relevant dental literature to answer some frequent questions related to evidence-based implantology. There are hundreds of implant systems on the market, but the majority lack clinical documentation. Recommended number of implants for full-arch fixed prostheses is four or five in the mandible but at least six in the maxilla. Less expensive implant-retained overdentures make implant treatment available to a greater portion of edentulous subjects. Mandibular overdentures on two implants, and even one implant, have shown excellent long-term outcomes. In the maxilla, less than four implants are not recommended for good results. Single implant restorations have good prognosis, but placement of the implant should be postponed until adulthood. Osseointegrated implants have revolutionized clinical dentistry. However, in a global perspective, implants make up only a small part of all prosthodontic treatment. Knowledge and skill in conventional prosthodontics must be maintained as it will remain the most common part of the specialty. PMID:27141159

  9. (Environmental issues related to hydroelectric development in the Unites States)

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S.G.

    1988-06-01

    The traveler delivered a report and met with principal scientists at UNESCO at the invitation of Mr. Nelson da Franca, Project Officer for the IHP. The traveler reviewed contributions to an IHP project from two scientists in Czechoslovakia and discussed the format of the final report on the project to be developed to be developed in early 1989. The traveler was briefed on the next phase of the IHP activities by several members of the staff of UNESCO and was invited to submit new projects related to energy and water to be considered at the Intergovernmental Council meeting of the IHP in June of 1988. This next phase of the IHP deals with water resources for sustainable development in a changing environment. Several potentially exciting opportunities for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) were identified.

  10. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    SciTech Connect

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  11. Issues Related to Large Flight Hardware Acoustic Qualification Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; Perry, Douglas C.; Kern, Dennis L.

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of acoustical testing volumes generated by reverberant chambers or a circle of loudspeakers with and without large flight hardware within the testing volume are significantly different. The parameters attributing to these differences are normally not accounted for through analysis or acoustic tests prior to the qualification testing without the test hardware present. In most cases the control microphones are kept at least 2-ft away from hardware surfaces, chamber walls, and speaker surfaces to minimize the impact of the hardware in controlling the sound field. However, the acoustic absorption and radiation of sound by hardware surfaces may significantly alter the sound pressure field controlled within the chamber/speaker volume to a given specification. These parameters often result in an acoustic field that may provide under/over testing scenarios for flight hardware. In this paper the acoustic absorption by hardware surfaces will be discussed in some detail. A simple model is provided to account for some of the observations made from Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft that recently underwent acoustic qualification tests in a reverberant chamber.

  12. Issues Related to Large Flight Hardware Acoustic Qualification Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; Perry, Douglas C.; Kern, Dennis L.

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of acoustical testing volumes generated by reverberant chambers or a circle of loudspeakers with and without large flight hardware within the testing volume are significantly different. The parameters attributing to these differences are normally not accounted for through analysis or acoustic tests prior to the qualification testing without the test hardware present. In most cases the control microphones are kept at least 2-ft away from hardware surfaces, chamber walls, and speaker surfaces to minimize the impact of the hardware in controlling the sound field. However, the acoustic absorption and radiation of sound by hardware surfaces may significantly alter the sound pressure field controlled within the chamber/speaker volume to a given specification. These parameters often result in an acoustic field that may provide under/over testing scenarios for flight hardware. In this paper the acoustic absorption by hardware surfaces will be discussed in some detail. A simple model is provided to account for some of the observations made from Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft that recently underwent acoustic qualification tests in a reverberant chamber.

  13. Breaking bad news: issues relating to nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Warnock, Clare

    2014-07-15

    The breaking of bad news was traditionally regarded to be the time when a doctor and nurse sat down with a patient and family members to provide information about, for example, a life-limiting diagnosis or a poor prognosis. However, breaking bad news is now generally accepted as a process, not a one-off event, and is considered to refer to any bad, sad or difficult information that alters patients' perceptions of their present and future. Nurses have an important role in the process of providing information and helping patients prepare for, receive, understand and cope with the bad news they have been given. This article aims to help nurses understand the process of breaking bad news and discuss the challenges and difficulties that nurses can face when they are involved with patients who have been given bad news. It also provides guidance with regard to preparing for breaking bad news, giving difficult information, responding to possible reactions, and supporting patients and their relatives after they have received bad news.

  14. KDD for science data analysis: Issues and examples

    SciTech Connect

    Fayyad, U.; Haussler, D.; Stolorz, P.

    1996-12-31

    The analysis of the massive data sets collected by scientific instruments demands automation as a prerequisite to analysis. There is an urgent need to create an intermediate level at which scientists can operate effectively; isolating them from the massive sizes and harnessing human analysis capabilities to focus on tasks in which machines do not even remotely approach humans-namely, creative data analysis, theory and hypothesis formation, and drawing insights into underlying phenomena. We give an overview of the main issues in the exploitation of scientific datasets, present five case studies where KDD tools play important and enabling roles, and conclude with future challenges for data mining and KDD techniques in science data analysis.

  15. Task Analysis - Its Relation to Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Robert M.

    Task analysis is a procedure having the purpose of identifying different kinds of performances which are outcomes of learning, in order to make possible the specification of optimal instructional conditions for each kind of outcome. Task analysis may be related to content analysis in two different ways: (1) it may be used to identify the probably…

  16. Current issues relating to psychosocial job strain and cardiovascular disease research.

    PubMed

    Theorell, T; Karasek, R A

    1996-01-01

    The authors comment on recent reviews of cardiovascular job strain research by P. L. Schnall and P. A. Landsbergis (1994), and by T. S. Kristensen (1995), which conclude that job strain as defined by the demand-control model (the combination of contributions of low job decision latitudes and high psychological job demands) is confirmed as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in a large majority of studies. Lack of social support at work appears to further increase risk. Several still-unresolved research questions are examined in light of recent studies: (a) methodological issues related to use of occupational aggregate estimations and occupational career aggregate assessments, use of standard scales for job analysis and recall bias issues in self-reporting; (b) confounding factors and differential strengths of association by subgroups in job strain-cardiovascular disease analyses with respect to social class, gender, and working hours; and (c) review of results of monitoring job strain-blood pressure associations and associated methodological issues.

  17. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-10

    investigation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) linked tainted PRC exports of pet food with wheat gluten to reports of pet deaths from kidney...policy toward Tibet and the state of Sino-Tibetan relations. Tibet remains an issue of concern for Congress and a sensitive issue in U.S.-China... sensitive and complex issue that U.S. policymakers face in bilateral Sino-U.S. relations.41 It is the issue that many observers most fear could lead

  18. Inclusion of Ethical Issues in Dementia Guidelines: A Thematic Text Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Knüppel, Hannes; Schmidhuber, Martina; Neitzke, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) aim to improve professionalism in health care. However, current CPG development manuals fail to address how to include ethical issues in a systematic and transparent manner. The objective of this study was to assess the representation of ethical issues in general CPGs on dementia care. Methods and Findings To identify national CPGs on dementia care, five databases of guidelines were searched and national psychiatric associations were contacted in August 2011 and in June 2013. A framework for the assessment of the identified CPGs' ethical content was developed on the basis of a prior systematic review of ethical issues in dementia care. Thematic text analysis and a 4-point rating score were employed to assess how ethical issues were addressed in the identified CPGs. Twelve national CPGs were included. Thirty-one ethical issues in dementia care were identified by the prior systematic review. The proportion of these 31 ethical issues that were explicitly addressed by each CPG ranged from 22% to 77%, with a median of 49.5%. National guidelines differed substantially with respect to (a) which ethical issues were represented, (b) whether ethical recommendations were included, (c) whether justifications or citations were provided to support recommendations, and (d) to what extent the ethical issues were explained. Conclusions Ethical issues were inconsistently addressed in national dementia guidelines, with some guidelines including most and some including few ethical issues. Guidelines should address ethical issues and how to deal with them to help the medical profession understand how to approach care of patients with dementia, and for patients, their relatives, and the general public, all of whom might seek information and advice in national guidelines. There is a need for further research to specify how detailed ethical issues and their respective recommendations can and should be addressed in dementia guidelines. Please

  19. A Cross-Case Analysis of Gender Issues in Desktop Virtual Reality Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausburn, Lynna J.; Martens, Jon; Washington, Andre; Steele, Debra; Washburn, Earlene

    2009-01-01

    This study examined gender-related issues in using new desktop virtual reality (VR) technology as a learning tool in career and technical education (CTE). Using relevant literature, theory, and cross-case analysis of data and findings, the study compared and analyzed the outcomes of two recent studies conducted by a research team at Oklahoma State…

  20. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to research design and data analysis in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is increasingly desirable to use multiple methods in research, but questions arise as to how best to design and analyze the data generated by mixed methods projects. I offer a conceptualization for such…

  1. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to research design and data analysis in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is increasingly desirable to use multiple methods in research, but questions arise as to how best to design and analyze the data generated by mixed methods projects. I offer a conceptualization for such…

  2. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-09

    with China ($256 billion in 2007). Democratic Taiwan, over which China claims sovereignty, remains the most sensitive bilateral issue and the one many...pet food with wheat gluten from China to reports of pet deaths from kidney failure in the United States. The pet food contamination was the beginning...Taiwan remains the most sensitive and complex issue that U.S. policymakers face in bilateral Sino-U.S. relations.24 It is the issue that many

  3. SPECIAL ISSUE OF ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT FOR PARTICULATE MATTER SUPERSITES PROGRAM AND RELATED STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This special issue of Atmospheric Environment provides a selection of papers that were presented at the 2005 AAAR PM Supersites Program and Related Studies International Specialty Conference held in Atlanta, GA, 7-11 February 2005. Topics of papers in this issue range from the e...

  4. Controversial Biological Issues: An Exploratory Tool for Accessing Teacher Thinking in Relation to Classroom Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina S.

    The research reported here focuses on the beliefs, values and attitudes of one experienced biology teacher (Teacher A) in relation to the teaching of controversial biological issues. Of specific interest is the thinking behind what this teacher conceptualizes are the possibilities and problems for the teaching of controversial issues as part of…

  5. SPECIAL ISSUE OF ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT FOR PARTICULATE MATTER SUPERSITES PROGRAM AND RELATED STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This special issue of Atmospheric Environment provides a selection of papers that were presented at the 2005 AAAR PM Supersites Program and Related Studies International Specialty Conference held in Atlanta, GA, 7-11 February 2005. Topics of papers in this issue range from the e...

  6. A Review of Policy Issues Related to Competency Testing for High School Graduation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elford, George

    A number of significant policy issues related to the use of competency tests in basic skills as a requirement for high school graduation are discussed. Issues contributing to the interest in this practice include test score decline, the widespread offering of electives in high school, the complaints of employers about the skill level of high…

  7. Touching the Screen: Issues Related to the Use of Touchscreen Technology in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeo, Geoff; Edwards, Suzy; McNamara, Sue; Walker, Ian; Ziguras, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Reports on research that investigated use of touchscreens by children in early childhood and junior primary settings by introducing touchscreens in five classrooms in Melbourne, Australia. Five themes were identified, relating to developmental issues, input device performance, technical issues, individual differences in children's use of…

  8. Seismic Analysis Issues in Design Certification Applications for New Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, M.; Morante, R.; Xu, J.

    2011-07-17

    The licensing framework established by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission under Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 52, “Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants,” provides requirements for standard design certifications (DCs) and combined license (COL) applications. The intent of this process is the early reso- lution of safety issues at the DC application stage. Subsequent COL applications may incorporate a DC by reference. Thus, the COL review will not reconsider safety issues resolved during the DC process. However, a COL application that incorporates a DC by reference must demonstrate that relevant site-specific de- sign parameters are within the bounds postulated by the DC, and any departures from the DC need to be justified. This paper provides an overview of several seismic analysis issues encountered during a review of recent DC applications under the 10 CFR Part 52 process, in which the authors have participated as part of the safety review effort.

  9. Two issues concerning the analysis of grouped data

    SciTech Connect

    Selvin, S.

    1986-02-01

    Simple statistical models are used to illustrate two important issues arising in the analysis of grouped data. The consequences are explored of grouping continuous data and analyzing the resulting contingency table. Specifically, an expression for the loss of power is derived when an odds ratio is used to assess risk measured by a continuous variable. Also explored are the consequences of employing correlation and regression coefficients to analyze summary variables derived from grouped data (ecologic data). An expression is given that demonstrates the magnitude of a bias (ecologic fallacy) resulting from analyzing a specific type of grouped data. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Notification: Evaluation of EPA's Management of Resistance Issues Related to Herbicide Tolerant Genetically Engineered Crops

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OPE-FY16-0023, March 25, 2016. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research to assess the EPA's management and oversight of resistance issues related to herbicide tolerant genetically engineered crops.

  11. Important issues related to using pooled samples for environmental chemical biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Caudill, Samuel P

    2011-02-28

    Pooling samples for analysis was first proposed in the 1940s to reduce analytical measurement costs associated with screening World War II recruits for syphilis. Later, it progressed to more complex screening strategies, to population prevalence estimation for discrete quantities, and to population mean estimation for continuous quantities. Recently, pooled samples have also been used to provide efficient alternatives for gene microarray analyses, epidemiologic studies of biomarkers of exposure, and characterization of populations regarding environmental chemical exposures. In this study, we address estimation and bias issues related to using pooled-sample variance information from an auxiliary source to augment pooled-sample variance estimates from the study of interest. The findings are illustrated by using pooled samples from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2002 to assess exposures to perfluorooctanesulfonate and other polyfluoroalkyl compounds in the U.S. population. Published in 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Practical issues of hyperspectral imaging analysis of solid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Amigo, José Manuel

    2010-09-01

    Hyperspectral imaging techniques have widely demonstrated their usefulness in different areas of interest in pharmaceutical research during the last decade. In particular, middle infrared, near infrared, and Raman methods have gained special relevance. This rapid increase has been promoted by the capability of hyperspectral techniques to provide robust and reliable chemical and spatial information on the distribution of components in pharmaceutical solid dosage forms. Furthermore, the valuable combination of hyperspectral imaging devices with adequate data processing techniques offers the perfect landscape for developing new methods for scanning and analyzing surfaces. Nevertheless, the instrumentation and subsequent data analysis are not exempt from issues that must be thoughtfully considered. This paper describes and discusses the main advantages and drawbacks of the measurements and data analysis of hyperspectral imaging techniques in the development of solid dosage forms.

  13. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-29

    March and April 2007, when an investigation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) linked tainted PRC exports of pet food with wheat gluten to...reviewing U.S. policy toward Tibet and the state of Sino-Tibetan relations. Tibet remains an issue of concern for Congress and a sensitive issue in U.S...exchanges. Taiwan The island democracy of Taiwan remains the most sensitive and complex issue that U.S. policymakers face in bilateral Sino-U.S. relations

  14. Methods uncovering usability issues in medication-related alerting functions: results from a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Marcilly, Romaric; Vasseur, Francis; Ammenwerth, Elske; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at listing the methods used to evaluate the usability of medication-related alerting functions and at knowing what type of usability issues those methods allow to detect. A sub-analysis of data from this systematic review has been performed. Methods applied in the included papers were collected. Then, included papers were sorted in four types of evaluation: "expert evaluation", "user- testing/simulation", "on site observation" and "impact studies". The types of usability issues (usability flaws, usage problems and negative outcomes) uncovered by those evaluations were analyzed. Results show that a large set of methods are used. The largest proportion of papers uses "on site observation" evaluation. This is the only evaluation type for which every kind of usability flaws, usage problems and outcomes are detected. It is somehow surprising that, in a usability systematic review, most of the papers included use a method that is not often presented as a usability method. Results are discussed about the opportunity to provide usability information collected after the implementation of the technology during their design process, i.e. before their implementation.

  15. Interdisciplinary team discussion on work environment issues related to low back disability: a multiple case study.

    PubMed

    Costa-Black, Kátia M; Durand, Marie-José; Imbeau, Daniel; Baril, Raymond; Loisel, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    From both a social and cost-benefit perspective, disability prevention and associated management strategies for assisting employees with back pain are only successful if they address critical return-to-work (RTW) determining factors present in the workplace, including ergonomic factors. Despite our current knowledge of the importance of an integrated team approach targeting these factors, questions remain regarding the conceptual framework adopted by contemporary rehabilitation teams as it relates to work-oriented interventions to accommodate employees back to work. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the work environment issues discussed by an interdisciplinary team engaged in the work rehabilitation process of low back disability cases. A qualitative content analysis was conducted for 10 sample cases that underwent a rehabilitation program in Quebec (Canada). Drawing on the results of these analyses, a framework representing a synopsis of practitioners' involvement in the person-environment dynamic is presented and discussed. This study makes a unique contribution to the understanding of the 'real-life' content of an interdisciplinary activity in disability management, thus, helping rehabilitation practitioners to build knowledge on the practical application of a cross-disciplinary framework to address work environment issues during the RTW process of those patients sick-listed due to back pain.

  16. Instructional Technology: Policy Issues for State Education Agencies. An Issues Analysis Paper. Discussion Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Kenneth H.

    Policy issues and their implications in the introduction of computer technology in the Northwest and Pacific schools are examined. Eight issues, focused on instructional uses of computer technology, are covered. (1) Establishing an overall state education agency (SEA) position will set the tone for statewide development of instructional…

  17. Proliferation resistance for fast reactors and related fuel cycles: issues and impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph F

    2010-01-01

    an assessment of the issues surrounding, and the prospects for, efforts to develop proliferation resistance for fast reactors and related fuel cycles in the context of a nuclear renaissance. The focus of the analysis is on fast reactors.

  18. Development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of the domestic violence--related financial issues scale (DV-FI).

    PubMed

    Weaver, Terri L; Sanders, Cynthia K; Campbell, Carole L; Schnabel, Meg

    2009-04-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) occurs at disproportionate rates within impoverished groups of women and can include economic abuse as a form of psychological maltreatment. The current study developed a comprehensive assessment of the unique financial issues facing female victims of IPV using a sheltered sample (N = 113). An exploratory factor analysis (principal-axis factoring with varimax rotation) was conducted on 24 items of the newly developed Domestic Violence-Related Financial Issues Scale. Preliminary results supported five extracted factors, which accounted for approximately 53% of the total common variance in the women's responses. Psychometric properties of the instrument are presented.

  19. Physician-hospital transactions: developing a process for handling valuation-related issues.

    PubMed

    Becker, S; Callahan, J

    1996-01-01

    Hospitals are increasingly attempting to integrate their operations with physician constituents through the development of hospital-physician joint ventures and acquisition of physician practices. This article provides an overview of valuation-related issues that result with respect to such affiliation efforts and guidance to assist the health care financial and legal professional in resolving such issues consistent with the business objectives of the transaction parties.

  20. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-20

    exports of pet food with wheat gluten to reports of pet deaths from kidney failure in the United States. The pet food contamination was the beginning of a...of concern for Congress and a sensitive issue in U.S.-China relations. Controversy continues over Tibet’s current political status as part of China...military exchanges. Taiwan The island democracy of Taiwan remains the most sensitive and complex issue that U.S. policymakers face in bilateral Sino

  1. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-02

    food with wheat gluten to reports of pet deaths from kidney failure in the United States. The pet food contamination was the beginning of a series of... sensitive issue in U.S.-China relations. Controversy continues over Tibet’s current political status as part of China, the role of the Dalai Lama and...understanding to plan for joint military exercises (July 2008). Taiwan The island democracy of Taiwan remains the most sensitive and complex issue

  2. Early childhood education: Status trends, and issues related to electronic delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothenberg, D.

    1973-01-01

    The status of, and trends and issues within, early childhood education which are related to the possibilities of electronic delivery of educational service are considered in a broader investigation of the role of large scale, satellite based educational telecommunications systems. Data are analyzed and trends and issues discussed to provide information useful to the system designer who wishes to identify and assess the opportunities for large scale electronic delivery in early childhood education.

  3. National Technology Standards for K-12 Schools: A Case Study of Unresolved Issues in Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.; Kealy, William A.; Sullivan, Ashley

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses an important need--the dissemination of information relating to technology as a public relations tool--and the associated exigency for administrator and teacher technology training. Specifically, we identify the increased expectations for the performance of school leaders and teachers, as well as unresolved issues in public…

  4. Introduction to the Special Issue: New and Interdisciplinary Approaches to Linguistic Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasopoulos, Panos; Bylund, Emanuel; Casasanto, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This Special Issue of "Language Learning" presents an interdisciplinary state-of-the-art overview of current approaches to linguistic relativity. It contains empirical and theoretical studies and reflections on linguistic relativity from a variety of perspectives, such as associative learning, conceptual transfer, multilingual awareness,…

  5. Introduction to the Special Issue: New and Interdisciplinary Approaches to Linguistic Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasopoulos, Panos; Bylund, Emanuel; Casasanto, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This Special Issue of "Language Learning" presents an interdisciplinary state-of-the-art overview of current approaches to linguistic relativity. It contains empirical and theoretical studies and reflections on linguistic relativity from a variety of perspectives, such as associative learning, conceptual transfer, multilingual awareness,…

  6. 76 FR 52731 - On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Office of the Secretary On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation AGENCY... public to electronically submit aviation service-related complaints against air carriers. DATES: Comments... U.S.C., Subtitle VII, to investigate and enforce consumer protection and civil rights laws...

  7. University Intervention into Community Issues as Dialogic Public Relations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Jamie M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines a study of the wastewater collection and treatment issues of Little Rock and North Little Rock, Arkansas by University of Arkansas at Little Rock personnel and how it constitutes dialogic public relations. The paper defines dialogic public relations using Kent and Taylor's work and then uses their criteria to describe how this…

  8. National Technology Standards for K-12 Schools: A Case Study of Unresolved Issues in Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.; Kealy, William A.; Sullivan, Ashley

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses an important need--the dissemination of information relating to technology as a public relations tool--and the associated exigency for administrator and teacher technology training. Specifically, we identify the increased expectations for the performance of school leaders and teachers, as well as unresolved issues in public…

  9. University Intervention into Community Issues as Dialogic Public Relations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Jamie M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines a study of the wastewater collection and treatment issues of Little Rock and North Little Rock, Arkansas by University of Arkansas at Little Rock personnel and how it constitutes dialogic public relations. The paper defines dialogic public relations using Kent and Taylor's work and then uses their criteria to describe how this…

  10. Issues concerning spectral analysis of water samples for monitoring and treatment of public water resources.

    PubMed

    Lee, M; Lambrakos, S G; Yapijakis, C; Huang, L; Ramsey, S; Shabaev, A; Massa, L; Peak, J

    2014-01-01

    Experimental measurements conducted in the laboratory, involving hyperspectral analysis of water samples taken from public water resources, have motivated a re-evaluation of issues concerning the potential application of this type of analysis for water monitoring, treatment and evaluation prior to filtration. One issue concerns hyperspectral monitoring of contaminants with respect to types and relative concentrations. This implies a need to better understand the statistical profiles of water contaminants in terms of spatial-temporal distributions of electromagnetic absorption spectra ranging from the ultraviolet to infrared, which are associated with specific water resources. This issue also implies the need to establish correlations between hyperspectral signatures and types of contaminants to be found within specific water resources. Another issue concerns the use of absorption spectra to determine changes in chemical and physical characteristics of contaminants after application of water treatments, in order to determine levels of toxicity with respect to the environment. This paper presents a prototype spectral analysis showing various aspects relevant to water monitoring and discusses the use of basic theory for the interpretation of spectral features associated with water contaminants, as well as discussing inverse analysis of hyperspectral measurements.

  11. Assessment of computational issues associated with analysis of high-lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, R.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Waggoner, Edgar G.

    1992-01-01

    Thin-layer Navier-Stokes calculations for wing-fuselage configurations from subsonic to hypersonic flow regimes are now possible. However, efficient, accurate solutions for using these codes for two- and three-dimensional high-lift systems have yet to be realized. A brief overview of salient experimental and computational research is presented. An assessment of the state-of-the-art relative to high-lift system analysis and identification of issues related to grid generation and flow physics which are crucial for computational success in this area are also provided. Research in support of the high-lift elements of NASA's High Speed Research and Advanced Subsonic Transport Programs which addresses some of the computational issues is presented. Finally, fruitful areas of concentrated research are identified to accelerate overall progress for high lift system analysis and design.

  12. Medical Big Data for Research Use: Current Status and Related Issues.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Koichi Benjamin

    2016-09-01

    Advances in the computerization of information and development of technology have mitigated restrictions on handling of a large amount of information. This has resulted in growth of expectations for the use of large-scale databases, or so-called "big data." This is also the case in the field of healthcare. Projects that involve building of the national receipt database (NDB) of medical fee bill (receipt) information and special health check-up information based on the Act on Assurance of Medical Care for Elderly People and the development of medical information databases have been pursued by the national government, and considerable attention has also been focused on researches conducted through the secondary uses of publicly collected data. Aside from these trends, there are numerous projects which collect diagnosis procedure combination (DPC) data to build large-scale databases for research purposes. Following to the ethics guidelines for epidemiologic studies, they collect and analyze anonymized DPC data from cooperating institutions. This communication concentrates on the use of DPC data, and outlines the scale of data currently available for research use. Examples on the use of DPC data will be shown for analysis on the current status of clinical practice from the microscopic perspective and macroscopic analysis of community medical care provision. Additionally, potential for extending studies to long-term outcomes research, limitations and issues related to the use of medical big data will also be discussed.

  13. Medical Big Data for Research Use: Current Status and Related Issues*1

    PubMed Central

    ISHIKAWA, Koichi Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Advances in the computerization of information and development of technology have mitigated restrictions on handling of a large amount of information. This has resulted in growth of expectations for the use of large-scale databases, or so-called “big data.” This is also the case in the field of healthcare. Projects that involve building of the national receipt database (NDB) of medical fee bill (receipt) information and special health check-up information based on the Act on Assurance of Medical Care for Elderly People and the development of medical information databases have been pursued by the national government, and considerable attention has also been focused on researches conducted through the secondary uses of publicly collected data. Aside from these trends, there are numerous projects which collect diagnosis procedure combination (DPC) data to build large-scale databases for research purposes. Following to the ethics guidelines for epidemiologic studies, they collect and analyze anonymized DPC data from cooperating institutions. This communication concentrates on the use of DPC data, and outlines the scale of data currently available for research use. Examples on the use of DPC data will be shown for analysis on the current status of clinical practice from the microscopic perspective and macroscopic analysis of community medical care provision. Additionally, potential for extending studies to long-term outcomes research, limitations and issues related to the use of medical big data will also be discussed. PMID:28299245

  14. Challenges and Issues Related to Implementation of Nursing Vocabularies in Computer-based Systems

    PubMed Central

    Button, Patricia; Androwich, Ida; Hibben, Lyn; Kern, Valeria; Madden, Gay; Marek, Karen; Westra, Bonnie; Zingo, Chris; Mead, Charles N.

    1998-01-01

    As key stakeholders from the clinical setting and vendor communities, the authors share a summary of their collective experience related to the challenges and issues associated with implementing the vocabularies recognized by the American Nurses Association in several installations of commercially available clinical information systems. Although the focus of the article is on summarizing the challenges and issues, it is of note that the authors' experiences across care settings suggest that the experience and effort of using one of the ANA-recognized vocabularies in a computer-based system are essentially worthwhile and positive. The issues and challenges fall into two categories: 1) those related to the developmental status of nursing vocabularies, and 2) those related to the adoption or implementation of new technology. PMID:9670129

  15. Improving the Conditions and Quality of Teaching: State Policy Issues and Options. An Issues Analysis Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Kenneth H.

    State Education Agencies (SEAs), in their pivotal role of representing the interests of both the public and the education establishment, must make constant reassessment of the directions which may be taken to improve education, and of the policy issues and options to be examined. These policy-level considerations can be brought into focus by…

  16. Containment-emergency-sump performance. Technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue A-43. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This report summarizes key technical findings related to the Unresolved Safety Issue A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance, and provides recommendations for resolution of attendant safety issues. The key safety questions relate to: (a) effects of insulation debris on sump performance; (b) sump hydraulic performance as determined by design features, submergence, and plant induced effects, and (c) recirculation pump performance wherein air and/or particulate ingestion can occur. The technical findings presented in this report provide information relevant to the design and performance evaluation of the containment emergency sump.

  17. Patients' Perspectives on Information and Communication About Sexual and Relational Issues in Rheumatology Health Care.

    PubMed

    Helland, Ylva; Dagfinrud, Hanne; Haugen, Mona-Iren; Kjeken, Ingvild; Zangi, Heidi

    2017-06-01

    Men and women with rheumatic diseases report a significantly negative impact on multiple areas of life, including sexuality. Research indicates that patients want to discuss sexual issues with health professionals (HPs) in rheumatology care but these issues are rarely addressed in consultations. The objective of the present study was to explore patients' experiences of communication with HPs about disease-related sexual issues, their perceptions of the relevance of these issues in rheumatology care and their preferences for how these topics should be handled. A qualitative design was used and 18 semi-structured interviews were performed, including eight women and ten men with inflammatory rheumatic joint diseases, aged 29-62 years. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed thematically. Four main themes were derived from the interviews: (i) relevance of sexual issues; (ii) vital conditions for communication; (iii) individual preferences in mode and timing of information and communication; and (iv) benefits of information and communication. The participants expressed that, although sexual issues are relevant, necessary conditions for good communication are largely lacking. HPs' knowledge, experience and personal skills, as well as having sufficient time were essential. HPs lack of initiating sexual topics contributed to uncertainty about whether their sexual challenges were disease related and whether it was a legitimate topic to discuss in rheumatology care. Patients wanted HPs to possess knowledge about possible disease-related challenges in sexual life and intimate relationships, and to facilitate communication about these aspects. There is a need to develop practice guidelines to enable HPs to integrate sexual issues as an aspect of healthcare delivery in a patient-friendly manner. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Water resources and environmental input-output analysis and its key study issues: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YANG, Z.; Xu, X.

    2013-12-01

    inland water resources IOA. Recent internal study references related to environmental input-output table, pollution discharge analysis and environmental impact assessment had taken the leading position. Pollution discharge analysis mainly aiming at CO2 discharge had been regard as a new hotspot of environmental IOA. Environmental impact assessment was an important direction of inland environmental IOA in recent years. Key study issues including Domestic Technology Assumption(DTA) and Sectoral Aggregation(SA) had been mentioned remarkably. It was pointed out that multiply multi-region input-output analysis(MIOA) may be helpful to solve DTA. Because there was little study using effective analysis tools to quantify the bias of SA and the exploration of the appropriate sectoral aggregation degree was scarce, research dedicating to explore and solve these two key issues was deemed to be urgently needed. According to the study status, several points of outlook were proposed in the end.

  19. The Asilomar Survey: Stakeholders' Opinions on Ethical Issues Related to Brain-Computer Interfacing.

    PubMed

    Nijboer, Femke; Clausen, Jens; Allison, Brendan Z; Haselager, Pim

    2013-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research and (future) applications raise important ethical issues that need to be addressed to promote societal acceptance and adequate policies. Here we report on a survey we conducted among 145 BCI researchers at the 4(th) International BCI conference, which took place in May-June 2010 in Asilomar, California. We assessed respondents' opinions about a number of topics. First, we investigated preferences for terminology and definitions relating to BCIs. Second, we assessed respondents' expectations on the marketability of different BCI applications (BCIs for healthy people, BCIs for assistive technology, BCIs-controlled neuroprostheses and BCIs as therapy tools). Third, we investigated opinions about ethical issues related to BCI research for the development of assistive technology: informed consent process with locked-in patients, risk-benefit analyses, team responsibility, consequences of BCI on patients' and families' lives, liability and personal identity and interaction with the media. Finally, we asked respondents which issues are urgent in BCI research.

  20. Ethical and regulatory issues related to pregnancy registries and their outcomes.

    PubMed

    French, Jacqueline A; Meador, Kimford; Cnaan, Avital; Gilliam, Frank; Conway, Jill; Araojo, Richardae; Feibus, Karen

    2008-05-01

    Pregnancy registries should be devised so that the interests of science, society, and the individual are all considered. For example, there may be ethical issues that relate to how women are chosen to participate in the registry and how informed consent is obtained. In most cases, consent is required for both the mother and the infant. Some institutional review boards will require that consent be obtained by someone other than the woman's physician. Once data are obtained, there may be an issue as to when results should be released. Options are to release data when there is the first indication of a concerning finding, thereby potentially preventing exposure in the largest number of women, versus waiting until the finding is absolutely confirmed. In a related issue, there are questions of when and how regulatory agencies should change labeling based on findings.

  1. Environmental issues related to commercialization of CulnSe{sub 2}- based photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Eberspacher, C.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1996-07-01

    One of the most promising materials for low-cost thin film photovoltaic cells is copper indium selenide (CuInSe{sub 2} or CIS). As with any new material, successful commercialization of CIS photovoltaic (PV) technology will require attention to environmental issues related to the sources of raw materials, their usage, and the disposal and/or recycling of products at the end of their useful life. This paper focuses on three specific environmental issues related to CIS technology: (i) Economics of the use and re-use of materials; (ii) regulations on environmental disposal and waste handling, and (iii) logistics and economics of recycling and disposing of products by industries faced with comparable environmental issues.

  2. Students' Understandings of Religious Identities and Relations: Issues of Social Cohesion and Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The focus in this article is on issues of social cohesion and citizenship as they relate to students' understandings of religion and religious identity. The article draws on data gathered from a study conducted at a highly diverse English comprehensive school and is set amid broader anxieties about religion, community disharmony and national…

  3. Organizational Issues Related to Governance and Management of Off-Campus Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macklin, Cedric Dewayne

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research has been conducted on students pursuing degrees off-campus; however, limited studies have been directed to explain the growing practice of students enrolling in courses and degrees at off-campus degree centers. The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the organizational issues related to governance and management of…

  4. An Examination Of Five Difficult Issues Related To School Drug Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Carl J.

    1972-01-01

    The author identifies such problems as emergency care and profiteering as they relate to the larger issue of drug abuse. His attention is on those problems which usually receive little consideration but which are an integral part of the drug scene. (BY)

  5. 76 FR 22340 - Further Inquiry Into Tribal Issues Relating to Establishment of a Mobility Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 1 Further Inquiry Into Tribal Issues Relating to Establishment of a Mobility Fund AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This document seeks comment...

  6. Technical Note: Some Issues Related to the Selection of Polymers for Aerospace Oxygen Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Beeson, Harold

    2004-01-01

    Materials intended for use in aerospace oxygen systems are commonly screened for oxygen compatibility following NASA STD 6001. This standard allows qualification of materials based on results provided by only one test method. Potential issues related to this practice are reviewed and recommendations are proposed that would lead to improved aerospace oxygen systems safety.

  7. Allostatic Load: Single Parents, Stress-Related Health Issues, and Social Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johner, Randy L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the possible relationships between allostatic load (AL) and stress-related health issues in the low-income single-parent population, using both a population health perspective (PHP) and a biological framework. A PHP identifies associations among such factors as gender, income, employment, and social support and their…

  8. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the Environmental... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unique issues related to environmental claims. 536.35 Section 536.35 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...

  9. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the Environmental... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Unique issues related to environmental claims. 536.35 Section 536.35 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...

  10. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the Environmental... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Unique issues related to environmental claims. 536.35 Section 536.35 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...

  11. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the Environmental... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Unique issues related to environmental claims. 536.35 Section 536.35 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...

  12. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the Environmental... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unique issues related to environmental claims. 536.35 Section 536.35 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...

  13. Organizational Issues Related to Governance and Management of Off-Campus Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macklin, Cedric Dewayne

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research has been conducted on students pursuing degrees off-campus; however, limited studies have been directed to explain the growing practice of students enrolling in courses and degrees at off-campus degree centers. The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the organizational issues related to governance and management of…

  14. U.S.-Vietnam Relations in 2010: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-07

    9 For more, see CRS Report R40755, U.S.-Vietnam Economic and Trade Relations: Issues for the 111th Congress, by Michael F. Martin. 10 Peru ...as electricity, energy, steel, and mining. The previous plan emphasized lighter industries such as foodstuffs, textiles , and electronics. According

  15. TPV energy conversion: A review of material and cell related issues

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, I.B.; Borrego, J.M.; Gutmann, R.J.; Ostrogorsky, A.G.

    1996-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion using low band gap semiconductor photovoltaic cells. Physics of PN junctions related to TPV cells is described and the factors that affect overall cell efficiencies are outlined. Current status of bulk and epitaxial growth of TPV materials and cell fabrication issues are also described.

  16. How Do Learners in Developed and Developing Countries Relate to Environmental Issues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out in the framework of earlier research on environmental education for sustainability, using data collected in the ROSE Project. Attention was focused mainly on students' responses to sections and items related to environmental issues, regarding their countries' degree of development. The research questions dealt…

  17. A Study of Current Trends and Issues Related to Technical/Engineering Design Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Aaron C.; Scales Alice

    2000-01-01

    Presents results from a survey of engineering design graphics educators who responded to questions related to current trends and issues in the profession of graphics education. Concludes that there is a clear trend in institutions towards the teaching of constraint-based modeling and computer-aided manufacturing. (Author/YDS)

  18. Issues Related to the Sexual Decision-Making of Inner-City Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Susan L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Two focus groups of high-risk inner-city African-American and Caucasian adolescent girls (15 to 16 years old) were organized to explore issues related to sexual decision making. Transcripts of the groups were reviewed for recurrent themes and viewpoints. Verbatim examples are presented. Participants reported pressures to have sex and a lack of…

  19. Teacher to Teacher: What Texts Effectively Raise Issues Related to 9/11 for Secondary Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Journal, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with texts that effectively raise issues related to 9/11 for secondary students, as discussed by several teachers. Kevin J. Collins from St. Thomas Aquinas High School says, "Elephant," Gus Van Sant's exploration of a Columbine-like tragedy, underscores the current generation's attempt to define the meaning of events in…

  20. A Study of Current Trends and Issues Related to Technical/Engineering Design Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Aaron C.; Scales Alice

    2000-01-01

    Presents results from a survey of engineering design graphics educators who responded to questions related to current trends and issues in the profession of graphics education. Concludes that there is a clear trend in institutions towards the teaching of constraint-based modeling and computer-aided manufacturing. (Author/YDS)

  1. Mediating Effects of Stress, Weight-Related Issues, and Depression on Suicidality in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sydney S.; Smith Carter, Jocelyn; Karczewski, Sabrina; Pivarunas, Bernadette; Suffoletto, Shannon; Munin, Art

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Through a holistic health lens, the current study examines the effects of weight-related issues and stress on suicidality while controlling for depressive symptoms in college students. Participants: In total, 872 undergraduate and graduate students at DePaul University completed the American College Health Association-National College…

  2. Allostatic Load: Single Parents, Stress-Related Health Issues, and Social Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johner, Randy L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the possible relationships between allostatic load (AL) and stress-related health issues in the low-income single-parent population, using both a population health perspective (PHP) and a biological framework. A PHP identifies associations among such factors as gender, income, employment, and social support and their…

  3. Mediating Effects of Stress, Weight-Related Issues, and Depression on Suicidality in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sydney S.; Smith Carter, Jocelyn; Karczewski, Sabrina; Pivarunas, Bernadette; Suffoletto, Shannon; Munin, Art

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Through a holistic health lens, the current study examines the effects of weight-related issues and stress on suicidality while controlling for depressive symptoms in college students. Participants: In total, 872 undergraduate and graduate students at DePaul University completed the American College Health Association-National College…

  4. Prospective Teachers' Perceptions about the Concept of Sustainable Development and Related Issues in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambusaidi, Abdullah; Al Washahi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate, from the Omani's prospective, teachers' perceptions about the concept of sustainable development (SD) and three related issues (cultural diversity, renewable energy and equity). The sample consisted of 159 prospective teachers from Sultan Qaboos University. Data were collected via a questionnaire comprising a list…

  5. Teacher to Teacher: What Texts Effectively Raise Issues Related to 9/11 for Secondary Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Journal, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with texts that effectively raise issues related to 9/11 for secondary students, as discussed by several teachers. Kevin J. Collins from St. Thomas Aquinas High School says, "Elephant," Gus Van Sant's exploration of a Columbine-like tragedy, underscores the current generation's attempt to define the meaning of events in…

  6. 75 FR 57469 - Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data Retention and Other Related Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data Retention and Other Related Issues AGENCY: Office for Human Research Protections, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Office of... Research Protections (OHRP), within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, is announcing...

  7. Students' Understandings of Religious Identities and Relations: Issues of Social Cohesion and Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The focus in this article is on issues of social cohesion and citizenship as they relate to students' understandings of religion and religious identity. The article draws on data gathered from a study conducted at a highly diverse English comprehensive school and is set amid broader anxieties about religion, community disharmony and national…

  8. Prospective Teachers' Perceptions about the Concept of Sustainable Development and Related Issues in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambusaidi, Abdullah; Al Washahi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate, from the Omani's prospective, teachers' perceptions about the concept of sustainable development (SD) and three related issues (cultural diversity, renewable energy and equity). The sample consisted of 159 prospective teachers from Sultan Qaboos University. Data were collected via a questionnaire comprising a list…

  9. Transition Issues Related to Students with Visual Disabilities. PRO-ED Series on Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erin, Jane N.; Wolffe, Karen E.

    Part of a series that provides practical resources to transition personnel on topics essential to the process of preparing individuals with disabilities for adulthood, this manual focuses on transition issues related to students with visual impairments. Chapter 1 discusses the nature of visual impairment and reactions to visual impairment. Chapter…

  10. Government Collection of Private Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-23

    Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization Anna C. Henning, Coordinator Legislative Attorney Elizabeth B. Bazan Legislative Attorney...Agency Described by the President, at 5, 17, Jan . 19, 2006, http://www.usdoj.gov/opa/whitepaperonnsalegalauthorities.pdf. See also CRS Report R40888...Presidential Authority to Conduct Warrantless Electronic Surveillance to Gather Foreign Intelligence Information, by Elizabeth B. Bazan and Jennifer K

  11. Early Childhood Education: Status, Trends, and Issues Related to Electronic Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Donna

    As part of a broad investigation of the role of large-scale, satellite-based, educational telecommunication systems, the trends and issues in early childhood education in relation to electronic delivery are discussed in some detail. The population and numbers currently served by pre-primary programs, and school setting by type of control (public…

  12. Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beelman, R.J.; Fletcher, C.D.; Modro, S.M.

    1992-08-01

    Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging computational problems to current thermal-hydraulic systems analysis codes. Additionally, the safety systems generally interact closely with one another, requiring accurate, integrated simulation of the nuclear steam supply system, engineered safeguards and containment. Furthermore, numerical safety analysis of these advanced passive reactor designs wig necessitate simulation of long-duration, slowly-developing transients compared with current reactor designs. The composite effects of small computational inaccuracies on induced system interactions and perturbations over long periods may well lead to predicted results which are significantly different than would otherwise be expected or might actually occur. Comparisons between the engineered safety features of competing US advanced light water reactor designs and analogous present day reactor designs are examined relative to the adequacy of existing thermal-hydraulic safety codes in predicting the mechanisms of passive safety. Areas where existing codes might require modification, extension or assessment relative to passive safety designs are identified. Conclusions concerning the applicability of these codes to advanced passive light water reactor safety analysis are presented.

  13. Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beelman, R.J.; Fletcher, C.D.; Modro, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging computational problems to current thermal-hydraulic systems analysis codes. Additionally, the safety systems generally interact closely with one another, requiring accurate, integrated simulation of the nuclear steam supply system, engineered safeguards and containment. Furthermore, numerical safety analysis of these advanced passive reactor designs wig necessitate simulation of long-duration, slowly-developing transients compared with current reactor designs. The composite effects of small computational inaccuracies on induced system interactions and perturbations over long periods may well lead to predicted results which are significantly different than would otherwise be expected or might actually occur. Comparisons between the engineered safety features of competing US advanced light water reactor designs and analogous present day reactor designs are examined relative to the adequacy of existing thermal-hydraulic safety codes in predicting the mechanisms of passive safety. Areas where existing codes might require modification, extension or assessment relative to passive safety designs are identified. Conclusions concerning the applicability of these codes to advanced passive light water reactor safety analysis are presented.

  14. Issues in the statistical analysis of small area health data.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, J; Elliott, P

    The availability of geographically indexed health and population data, with advances in computing, geographical information systems and statistical methodology, have opened the way for serious exploration of small area health statistics based on routine data. Such analyses may be used to address specific questions concerning health in relation to sources of pollution, to investigate clustering of disease or for hypothesis generation. We distinguish four types of analysis: disease mapping; geographic correlation studies; the assessment of risk in relation to a prespecified point or line source, and cluster detection and disease clustering. A general framework for the statistical analysis of small area studies will be considered. This framework assumes that populations at risk arise from inhomogeneous Poisson processes. Disease cases are then realizations of a thinned Poisson process where the risk of disease depends on the characteristics of the person, time and spatial location. Difficulties of analysis and interpretation due to data inaccuracies and aggregation will be addressed with particular reference to ecological bias and confounding. The use of errors-in-variables modelling in small area analyses will be discussed.

  15. Are Australians concerned about nanoparticles? A comparative analysis with established and emerging environmental health issues.

    PubMed

    Capon, Adam; Rolfe, Margaret; Gillespie, James; Smith, Wayne

    2015-02-01

    Introducing new technologies into society raises considerable public concern. We determine the public concern about nanoparticles, and compare this concern to other environmental health issues such as wind farms and coal seam gas production. A repeat cross sectional survey examining views on environmental health issues, risk, chemicals and trust was undertaken in more than 1,300 Australian residents in 2000 and 2013. Logistic regression and principal component analysis was used to investigate predictors of nanoparticle concern and identify a component structure for environmental health issues that could explain a trend of future nanoparticle concern. Australians have a relatively low level of concern about the risks of nanoparticles to health when compared to their concerns about other environmental health issues. Items associated with concern included gender, a general wish to avoid chemicals and possibly trust in politicians. Concern over nanoparticles clustered with similar views on technological risks. Current public concern over the risks of nanoparticles is low. However, a reframing of the issue towards 'chemicals' is likely to have a negative effect on risk perceptions. This paper raises questions about appropriate channels for the effective communication of risk. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  16. Relation chain based clustering analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng-ning; Zhao, Ming-yang; Luo, Hai-bo

    2011-08-01

    Clustering analysis is currently one of well-developed branches in data mining technology which is supposed to find the hidden structures in the multidimensional space called feature or pattern space. A datum in the space usually possesses a vector form and the elements in the vector represent several specifically selected features. These features are often of efficiency to the problem oriented. Generally, clustering analysis goes into two divisions: one is based on the agglomerative clustering method, and the other one is based on divisive clustering method. The former refers to a bottom-up process which regards each datum as a singleton cluster while the latter refers to a top-down process which regards entire data as a cluster. As the collected literatures, it is noted that the divisive clustering is currently overwhelming both in application and research. Although some famous divisive clustering methods are designed and well developed, clustering problems are still far from being solved. The k - means algorithm is the original divisive clustering method which initially assigns some important index values, such as the clustering number and the initial clustering prototype positions, and that could not be reasonable in some certain occasions. More than the initial problem, the k - means algorithm may also falls into local optimum, clusters in a rigid way and is not available for non-Gaussian distribution. One can see that seeking for a good or natural clustering result, in fact, originates from the one's understanding of the concept of clustering. Thus, the confusion or misunderstanding of the definition of clustering always derives some unsatisfied clustering results. One should consider the definition deeply and seriously. This paper demonstrates the nature of clustering, gives the way of understanding clustering, discusses the methodology of designing a clustering algorithm, and proposes a new clustering method based on relation chains among 2D patterns. In

  17. Some control-related issues in mini-robotics for endoluminal surgery.

    PubMed

    Poignet, Philippe; Chemori, Ahmed; Zemiti, Nabil; Liu, Chao

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces some issues related to the development of robotics for endoluminal surgery from control point of view. Endoluminal surgery are incisionless procedures performed through natural orifices within the natural pathways. New devices are then required to achieve these new surgical procedures. Besides the development of new devices, control issues arise in both technological and theoretical aspects. The paper presents some of them and we propose a teleoperation architecture that has already been tested for needle insertion that could be used for teleoperated endoluminal surgery especially for instance for biopsies or anastomoses.

  18. Numerical Relativity meets Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    Gravitational waveforms (GW) from coalescing black hole binaries obtained by Numerical Relativity (NR) play a crucial role in the construction and validation of waveform models used as templates in GW matched filter searches and parameter estimation. In previous efforts, notably the NINJA and NINJA-2 collaborations, NR groups and data analysts worked closely together to use NR waveforms as mock GW signals to test the search and parameter estimation pipelines employed by LIGO. Recently, however, NR groups have been able to simulate hundreds of different binary black holes systems. It is desirable to directly use these waveforms in GW data analysis, for example to assess systematic errors in waveform models, to test general relativity or to appraise the limitations of aligned-spin searches among many other applications. In this talk, I will introduce recent developments that aim to fully integrate NR waveforms into the data analysis pipelines through a standardized interface. I will highlight a number of select applications for this new infrastructure.

  19. Molecular epidemiology: issues in study design and statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Chia, K S; Shi, C Y; Lee, J; Seow, A; Lee, H P

    1996-01-01

    Traditional analytical epidemiology is directed at identifying the association between risk factors and occurrence of disease by using crude exposure data derived from questionnaires or clinical measures, and taking clinical disease as the end point. With the rapid development in molecular biology and laboratory methods, it is now possible to use biomarkers which are capable of identifying molecular events for epidemiologic research. This improved sensitivity enables us to develop a mechanistic understanding of disease causation: a step closer to the unravelling of the "black box" of traditional epidemiology. Biomarkers may be classified as internal indicators of exposure (biomarkers of exposure), indicators of preclinical adverse effect (biomarkers of effect) or indicators of an intrinsic or acquired susceptibility to disease (biomarkers of susceptibility). Biomarkers provide a better definition of exposure and disease status and consequently they could help to reduce misclassification bias in both exposure and disease, reduce the follow-up time in prospective studies, as well as identify possible interactions between risk factors on disease occurrence. However, a biomarker needs to be validated and its distribution in large populations described before it can be used profitably for aetiologic research. Also, the use of biomarkers in epidemiologic research raises other interesting epidemiological and statistical issues like confounding, effect modification and the analysis of repeated measurements. Molecular epidemiology is a multidisciplinary endeavour which comprises molecular biology, epidemiology and biostatistics. Clearly then, to carry out research in this field profitably, the molecular biologist, epidemiologist and biostatistician must acquire not only expertise in their respective fields, but also an integrated understanding of all three fields. The molecular biologist is not merely a laboratory bench worker; the epidemiologist, a field data-collector and

  20. National efforts to identify research issues related to prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Waters, Thomas R

    2004-02-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), including low back and upper extremity disorders, represent one of the greatest work-related health concerns facing industrialized nations. Recently, two national groups were charged with developing research agendas aimed at increasing our knowledge of the prevention of these disorders. The first agenda, developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's (NIOSH) National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) MSD team, was based on input from several hundred practitioners and safety and health experts representing industry, labor, and academia. The second agenda, developed by the National Research Council (NRC) and the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) National Panel on Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace, was based on input from leading researchers in the fields of medicine, information science, and ergonomics. This paper summarizes the findings of the two groups and compares the two research agendas.

  1. Ethical issues related to the nurse's role in fertility treatment and counseling for patients with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Rooks, C A

    1989-12-01

    Issues relating to treatment of clients with AIDS or HIV infections are not easy to resolve. It is important, however, to understand both sides of the issue prior to determining what actions or policies one might make. The ethical concerns presented here reflected issues related to the principles of autonomy, beneficence, justice, nonmaleficence, and fidelity. However, they are only a few of the possible ethical discussions concerning this debate. Most of the arguments centered on either providing fertility treatment and counseling or denying such treatment to clients with AIDS or who are HIV positive. Both sides of the issue used the principles of beneficence and fidelity as the ethical basis for justification of an action. Autonomy, or the violation thereof, also appeared on both sides of this controversial discussion. It is not known whether the scenario presented could ever occur in reality, but with the anticipated increase in the number of AIDS clients who are heterosexuals, the potential for nurses to face such dilemmas also increases. Nurses need to begin to discuss how they might handle such dilemmas and the reasons why they might respond in a particular manner. One hopes that nurses will continue to base their actions on a sensitive reflection of their moral and ethical values as they attempt to care for clients with AIDS.

  2. Health-Related Issues in Latina Youth: Racial/Ethnic, Gender, and Generational Status Differences.

    PubMed

    Martin-Gutierrez, Geraldy; Wallander, Jan L; Song, Anna V; Elliott, Marc N; Tortolero, Susan R; Schuster, Mark A

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have examined the early development of a broad range of health issues of importance in adolescence in Latina (female) youth, despite their being potentially a vulnerable group. This study compared suicide and depressive symptoms, substance use, violence exposure, injury prevention, obesity, and health-related quality of life among Latina, African-American, and white females as well as Latino (male) youth in fifth grade, as well as differences related to immigrant generational status for Latinas. Data were from the Healthy Passages study, including 3,349 African-American, Latina, and white females as well as Latino male fifth graders in three U.S. metropolitan areas. Self-report items and scales were used to compare status on health-related issues. Generational status was classified based on the parent report of birth location. Logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted, including adjustment for sociodemographic differences. Latinas showed higher vulnerability than white females for several health issues, whereas few remained after adjustments for sociodemographic differences (higher obesity, lower bike helmet use, and lower physical health-related quality of life). Latina's lower vulnerability compared with African-American females generally persisted after adjustments. Third generation Latinas, after adjustments, reported lower prevalence of alcohol use and fewer friends using alcohol, yet higher future intentions of alcohol use, than first and second generation Latinas. There were few differences between Latina and Latino youth. Latina youth generally report low vulnerability across health issues in preadolescence. To the extent they appear at higher vulnerability than white females, this may be related to their disadvantaged sociodemographic status. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Survival analysis for a large scale forest health issue: Missouri oak decline

    Treesearch

    C.W. Woodall; P.L. Grambsch; W. Thomas; W.K. Moser

    2005-01-01

    Survival analysis methodologies provide novel approaches for forest mortality analysis that may aid in detecting, monitoring, and mitigating of large-scale forest health issues. This study examined survivor analysis for evaluating a regional forest health issue - Missouri oak decline. With a statewide Missouri forest inventory, log-rank tests of the effects of...

  4. Google and Women's Health-Related Issues: What Does the Search Engine Data Reveal?

    PubMed

    Baazeem, Mazin; Abenhaim, Haim

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the gaps in public knowledge of women's health related issues has always been difficult. With the increasing number of Internet users in the United States, we sought to use the Internet as a tool to help us identify such gaps and to estimate women's most prevalent health concerns by examining commonly searched health-related keywords in Google search engine. We collected a large pool of possible search keywords from two independent practicing obstetrician/gynecologists and classified them into five main categories (obstetrics, gynecology, infertility, urogynecology/menopause and oncology), and measured the monthly average search volume within the United States for each keyword with all its possible combinations using Google AdWords tool. We found that pregnancy related keywords were less frequently searched in general compared to other categories with an average of 145,400 hits per month for the top twenty keywords. Among the most common pregnancy-related keywords was "pregnancy and sex' while pregnancy-related diseases were uncommonly searched. HPV alone was searched 305,400 times per month. Of the cancers affecting women, breast cancer was the most commonly searched with an average of 247,190 times per month, followed by cervical cancer then ovarian cancer. The commonly searched keywords are often issues that are not discussed in our daily practice as well as in public health messages. The search volume is relatively related to disease prevalence with the exception of ovarian cancer which could signify a public fear.

  5. Analysis of governmental Web sites on food safety issues: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Namkung, Young; Almanza, Barbara A

    2006-10-01

    Despite a growing concern over food safety issues, as well as a growing dependence on the Internet as a source of information, little research has been done to examine the presence and relevance of food safety-related information on Web sites. The study reported here conducted Web site analysis in order to examine the current operational status of governmental Web sites on food safety issues. The study also evaluated Web site usability, especially information dimensionalities such as utility, currency, and relevance of content, from the perspective of the English-speaking consumer. Results showed that out of 192 World Health Organization members, 111 countries operated governmental Web sites that provide information about food safety issues. Among 171 searchable Web sites from the 111 countries, 123 Web sites (71.9 percent) were accessible, and 81 of those 123 (65.9 percent) were available in English. The majority of Web sites offered search engine tools and related links for more information, but their availability and utility was limited. In terms of content, 69.9 percent of Web sites offered information on foodborne-disease outbreaks, compared with 31.5 percent that had travel- and health-related information.

  6. State Legislators’ Work on Public Health-Related Issues: What Influences Priorities?

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Elizabeth A.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.; Chalifour, Stephanie; Haire-Joshu, Debra; McBride, Timothy; Brownson, Ross C.

    2014-01-01

    Context Policies are an effective way to influence population health and prevent disease. Unfortunately, public health research is often not well translated for policy audiences. Furthermore, researchers seeking to influence policy face an incomplete understanding of what influences legislators’ decisions regarding which issues will receive their limited time and focus. Objective The objective of this analysis was to examine various factors that may influence state legislators’ decisions about which health issues they address. Design Cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a randomized trial. Setting State legislatures. Participants State-level legislators. Main Outcome Measure(s) Measures included a rating of the influence of various factors on health policy priorities. A 7-point scale was used to measure political ideology on social and fiscal issues. Standard demographic questions were included on age, gender, and level of education. Results Seventy-five legislators completed surveys. Sixty-three percent were aged 55 years or older, and 76% male. When they were asked to rate factors according to importance in determining what health issues to work on, the top-rated factor was constituents’ needs or opinions followed by evidence of scientific effectiveness. Ratings were also examined by subgroups. Conclusions These findings point to several important applications for public health practitioners and researchers. Because legislators value constituents’ opinions, it is critical to inform and educate constituents about public health issues as well as policy options that may be effective in addressing problems. The results also highlight the importance of public health researchers and practitioners improving dissemination efforts to ensure that evidence-based scientific information is shared with policymakers in an effective and timely manner. PMID:23169400

  7. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  8. Relative deprivation: Measurement issues and predictive role for body image dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Lucio; Villaseñor, Adrián

    2017-09-21

    The study of how relative standing in the socioeconomic hierarchy affects health outcomes faces a number of challenges. Two critical issues are the choice of the indicator quantifying relative standard of living and the collinearity which typically arises when absolute standard of living is controlled for. We address these issues by taking into examination linear and concave measures of relative deprivation and by showing that collinearity can be lessened through manipulations of the measures' formulae. Importantly, we argue that the two issues are intertwined and should be jointly considered by researchers. We illustrate the points above using nationally representative data from Mexico (N = 44,214) and studying relative deprivation as a predictor of body image dissatisfaction - a growing public health concern whose effects go well beyond eating disorders. Controlling for several individual characteristics, binary and multinomial logit regressions indicate relative deprivation as a risk factor for body image dissatisfaction. By conducting subsample analyses and by introducing an interaction term between gender and relative deprivation, we show evidence of a gender-based heterogeneity in the role of relative deprivation - which predicts feeling smaller than desired for both females and males and feeling larger than desired for females but not for males. This heterogeneity is discussed in the light of the different social pressures females and males face for slenderness and muscularity. Our evidence enriches the literature on socioeconomic gradients in health, pointing to an additional domain in which a low position in the socioeconomic ladder translates into greater likelihood of developing health problems and adopting health-compromising behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Megatrends in American Society: Policy Issues for State Education Agencies. An Issues Analysis Paper. Discussion Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Kenneth H.

    This paper attempts to match identified large-scale social trends (derived from the popular book "Megatrends" by John Naisbitt) to possible state education agency (SEA) policy positions. The first part of the analysis explores possible implications of these "megatrends" for SEA policy development. The trends discussed show…

  10. Megatrends in American Society: Policy Issues for State Education Agencies. An Issues Analysis Paper. Discussion Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Kenneth H.

    This paper attempts to match identified large-scale social trends (derived from the popular book "Megatrends" by John Naisbitt) to possible state education agency (SEA) policy positions. The first part of the analysis explores possible implications of these "megatrends" for SEA policy development. The trends discussed show…

  11. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-14

    province,” remains the most sensitive issue the two countries face and the one many observers fear could lead to Sino-U.S. conflict. But U.S. relations...arrested in 2005, went on trial in federal court in Los Angeles for allegedly providing China with sensitive high-tech Navy weapons technology that he...had helped develop while working for his employer, Power Paragon. According to the allegations, the technology included sensitive details about the

  12. Materials compatibility issues related to thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faget, N. M.

    Attention is given to results obtained to date in developmental investigations of a thermal energy storage (TES) system for the projected NASA Space Station's solar dynamic power system; these tests have concentrated on issues related to materials compatibility for phase change materials (PCMs) and their containment vessels' materials. The five PCMs tested have melting temperatures that correspond to the operating temperatures of either the Brayton or Rankine heat engines, which were independently chosen for their high energy densities.

  13. Federal-State-Local Relations: Trends of the Past Decade and Emerging Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    government has issued new ones. For example, in 1979, the Department of Labor extended Fair Labor Standards Act regulations to state and local...eoresent percentages of the average per capita Dersora: -e United States . Source: GAO calcula,on’s -,asea on U S Commerce Department Bureau of Econom,--c... United States General Accounting Office GAO Report to Congressional Committees AD-A280 710 March 1990 FEDERAL- STATE - LOCAL RELATIONS SDTIC ’T E• •CT

  14. Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 109th Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-02

    Latin America and Europe. He has promoted the so-called Puebla -Panama Plan, which promotes cooperative development efforts among the Central American...2003, allege violations of workers’ rights in garment factories in Puebla , Mexico. Under the trilateral CLC, the countries are cooperating in many...RL31386. Industry Trade Effects Related to NAFTA, by M. Angeles Villarreal. CRS-21 CRS Report 98-174. Mexican Drug Certification Issues: U.S

  15. Materials compatibility issues related to thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faget, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to results obtained to date in developmental investigations of a thermal energy storage (TES) system for the projected NASA Space Station's solar dynamic power system; these tests have concentrated on issues related to materials compatibility for phase change materials (PCMs) and their containment vessels' materials. The five PCMs tested have melting temperatures that correspond to the operating temperatures of either the Brayton or Rankine heat engines, which were independently chosen for their high energy densities.

  16. Government Collection of Private Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-09

    Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization Anna C. Henning, Coordinator Legislative Attorney Elizabeth B. Bazan Legislative Attorney...the Activities of the National Security Agency Described by the President, at 5, 17, Jan . 19, 2006, http://www.usdoj.gov/opa...Information, by Elizabeth B. Bazan and Jennifer K. Elsea. 195 The “procedures in [Title III of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act] and the

  17. Government Collection of Private Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-02

    Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization Anna C. Henning, Coordinator Legislative Attorney Elizabeth B. Bazan Legislative Attorney...Activities of the National Security Agency Described by the President, at 5, 17, Jan . 19, 2006, http://www.usdoj.gov/opa/whitepaperonnsalegalauthorities.pdf...Elizabeth B. Bazan and Jennifer K. Elsea. 197 The “procedures in [Title III of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act] and the Foreign

  18. Smog chamber experiments to test oxidant related control strategy issues. Final report 1978-81

    SciTech Connect

    Kamens, R.M.; Jeffries, H.E.; Sexton, K.G.; Gerhardt, A.A.

    1982-03-01

    Outdoor smog chamber experiments were performed to address various issues relating to ozone (O3) production and oxidant control strategies. Temperature effects on single hydrocarbon-NOx systems were studied. Propylene-NOx systems were modeled with particular attention to peroxynitric acid chemistry. Mechanisms were developed to model the O3 reactions with the two major isoprene daughter products, methylvinylketone and methacrolein. Chamber systems with isoprene and O3 were also modeled.

  19. Statistical issues in the design, conduct and analysis of two large safety studies.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The emergence, post approval, of serious medical events, which may be associated with the use of a particular drug or class of drugs, is an important public health and regulatory issue. The best method to address this issue is through a large, rigorously designed safety study. Therefore, it is important to elucidate the statistical issues involved in these large safety studies. Two such studies are PRECISION and EAGLES. PRECISION is the primary focus of this article. PRECISION is a non-inferiority design with a clinically relevant non-inferiority margin. Statistical issues in the design, conduct and analysis of PRECISION are discussed. Quantitative and clinical aspects of the selection of the composite primary endpoint, the determination and role of the non-inferiority margin in a large safety study and the intent-to-treat and modified intent-to-treat analyses in a non-inferiority safety study are shown. Protocol changes that were necessary during the conduct of PRECISION are discussed from a statistical perspective. Issues regarding the complex analysis and interpretation of the results of PRECISION are outlined. EAGLES is presented as a large, rigorously designed safety study when a non-inferiority margin was not able to be determined by a strong clinical/scientific method. In general, when a non-inferiority margin is not able to be determined, the width of the 95% confidence interval is a way to size the study and to assess the cost-benefit of relative trial size. A non-inferiority margin, when able to be determined by a strong scientific method, should be included in a large safety study. Although these studies could not be called "pragmatic," they are examples of best real-world designs to address safety and regulatory concerns. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Using public relations to promote health: a framing analysis of public relations strategies among health associations.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyojung; Reber, Bryan H

    2010-01-01

    This study explored health organizations' public relations efforts to frame health issues through their press releases. Content analysis of 316 press releases from three health organizations-the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, and the American Diabetes Association-revealed that they used the medical research frame most frequently and emphasized societal responsibility for health issues. There were differences, however, among the organizations regarding the main frames and health issues: the American Diabetes Association was more likely to focus on the issues related to social support and education, while the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society were more likely to address medical research and scientific news. To demonstrate their initiatives for public health, all the organizations employed the social support/educational frame most frequently. Researchers and medical doctors frequently were quoted as trusted sources in the releases.

  1. Invariance of molecular charge transport upon changes of extended molecule size and several related issues

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary As a sanity test for the theoretical method employed, studies on (steady-state) charge transport through molecular devices usually confine themselves to check whether the method in question satisfies the charge conservation. Another important test of the theory’s correctness is to check that the computed current does not depend on the choice of the central region (also referred to as the “extended molecule”). This work addresses this issue and demonstrates that the relevant transport and transport-related properties are indeed invariant upon changing the size of the extended molecule, when the embedded molecule can be described within a general single-particle picture (namely, a second-quantized Hamiltonian bilinear in the creation and annihilation operators). It is also demonstrates that the invariance of nonequilibrium properties is exhibited by the exact results but not by those computed approximately within ubiquitous wide- and flat-band limits (WBL and FBL, respectively). To exemplify the limitations of the latter, the phenomenon of negative differential resistance (NDR) is considered. It is shown that the exactly computed current may exhibit a substantial NDR, while the NDR effect is absent or drastically suppressed within the WBL and FBL approximations. The analysis done in conjunction with the WBLs and FBLs reveals why general studies on nonequilibrium properties require a more elaborate theoretical than studies on linear response properties (e.g., ohmic conductance and thermopower) at zero temperature. Furthermore, examples are presented that demonstrate that treating parts of electrodes adjacent to the embedded molecule and the remaining semi-infinite electrodes at different levels of theory (which is exactly what most NEGF-DFT approaches do) is a procedure that yields spurious structures in nonlinear ranges of current–voltage curves. PMID:27335734

  2. Contributions to the Content Analysis of Gender Roles: An Introduction to a Special Issue

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Lucy; Linz, Daniel G.

    2011-01-01

    This special issue on gender-related content analysis is the second of two parts (see Rudy et al. 2010b). The current special issue is more diverse than was the first in the number of countries that are represented and in the variety of media genres and content types that are included. The primary aim of this paper is to outline some of the contributions of the individual papers in this second special issue. Some of these advancements and innovations include (a) examining underresearched measures, countries, time spans, sexual orientations, and individual media programs; (b) addressing both international and intranational differences in gender-role portrayals; (c) comparing multiple content formats within the same media unit; (d) updating past findings to take into consideration the current media landscape; (e) employing established measures in novel ways and novel contexts; (f) uncovering limitations in established intercultural measures and media-effects theories; (g) suggesting variables that could predict additional differences in gender-role portrayals; (h) adopting virtually identical methods and measures across distinct content categories in order to facilitate comparisons; (i) conducting multiple tests of a given hypothesis; (j) examining, from multiple perspectives, the implications of racial differences in gender portrayals; and (k) examining the implications of underrepresentation of women and the perspectives that women hold. In addition to the original content-analytical research presented in this special issue, two reviews, one methodological and the other analytical, offer recommendations of procedures and perspectives to be implemented in future research. PMID:21423330

  3. Best management practices for environmental issues related to highway and street maintenance. A synthesis of highway practice

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, W.A.; Vary, D.

    1999-01-01

    Highway and street maintenance is a diverse and complex set of undertakings: pavement crack and joint scaling; bridge painting; snow and ice control; erosion control; roadside vegetation management; and light, sign, and traffic signal repair and replacement. Pertinent environmental issues cut across all areas of public and regulatory concern including air quality, water quality, wetland and habitat preservation, noise, and energy usage. Moreover, driver safety and the occupational health and safety of maintenance personnel are critical issues. This report contains BMPs that fall into three categories: (1) High-level, broad-based BMPs applicable to an entire maintenance program--planning, programmatic environmental analysis, pollution prevention programs, classification of generated wastes in the conduct of site reviews or audits, and the development of a comprehensive training curriculum that addresses maintenance related environmental issues. These BMPs may be undertaken by managers of a department-wide level; (2) BMPs pertinent to specific maintenance activities or program areas--winter operations, vegetation management, bridge maintenance, buildings and ground maintenance, vehicle maintenance, collection of litter and debris, and maintenance of signs, striping, and markers; (3) BMPs pertinent to specific environmental issues--hazardous wastes, wildlife and habitat, water quality, and noise.

  4. Best management practices for environmental issues related to highway and street maintenance. A synthesis of highway practice

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, W.A.; Vary, D.

    1999-11-01

    Highway and street maintenance is a diverse and complex set of undertakings: pavement crack and joint scaling; bridge painting; snow and ice control; erosion control; roadside vegetation management; and light, sign, and traffic signal repair and replacement. Pertinent environmental issues cut across all areas of public and regulatory concern including air quality, water quality, wetland and habitat preservation, noise, and energy usage. Moreover, driver safety and the occupational health and safety of maintenance personnel are critical issues. This report contains BMPs that fall into three categories: (1) High-level, broad-based BMPs applicable to an entire maintenance program--planning, programmatic environmental analysis, pollution prevention programs, classification of generated wastes in the conduct of site reviews or audits, and the development of a comprehensive training curriculum that addresses maintenance related environmental issues. These BMPs may be undertaken by managers of a department-wide level; (2) BMPs pertinent to specific maintenance activities or program areas--winter operations, vegetation management, bridge maintenance, buildings and ground maintenance, vehicle maintenance, collection of litter and debris, and maintenance of signs, striping, and markers; (3) BMPs pertinent to specific environmental issues--hazardous wastes, wildlife and habitat, water quality, and noise.

  5. On the Conceptual Issues Surrounding the Notion of Relational Bohmian Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassallo, Antonio; Ip, Pui Him

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a program to construct a non-relativistic relational Bohmian theory, that is, a theory of N moving point-like particles that dispenses with space and time as fundamental background structures. The relational program proposed is based on the best-matching framework originally developed by Julian Barbour. In particular, the paper focuses on the conceptual problems that arise when trying to implement such a program. It is argued that pursuing a relational strategy in the Bohmian context leads to a more parsimonious ontology than that of standard Bohmian mechanics without betraying the original motivations for adopting a primitive ontology approach to quantum physics. It is also shown how a relational Bohmian approach might clarify the issue of the timelessness of the dynamics resulting from the quantization of a classical relational system of particles.

  6. DOD Financial Management: Actions Are Needed on Audit Issues Related to the Marine Corps 2012 Schedule of Budgetary Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    DOD FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Actions Are Needed on Audit Issues Related to the Marine Corps’ 2012 Schedule of Budgetary...DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DOD Financial Management: Actions Are Needed on Audit Issues Related to the...2015 DOD FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Actions Are Needed on Audit Issues Related to the Marine Corps’ 2012 Schedule of Budgetary Activity Why GAO Did

  7. Special Education Hearings in Indiana: An Analysis of Fiscal Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, R. Craig; Carros, Dawn

    1988-01-01

    Investigates due process hearing officer decisions in issues (under the Education for All Handicapped Children Act) that could result in increased local education agency (LEA) expenditures in Indiana. Parents prevailed in 64 percent of the cases, indicating no hearing officer bias against increased LEA expenditures for required additional…

  8. Faculty Attitudes about Multiculturalism Issues: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennen, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    The demographics of the United States continue to change, and cultural landscape changes along with it. The American Psychological Association (APA) has begun to address these issues within the field of psychology. These efforts are being made to bring understanding to ethnic identity formation, explore the dangers of ignoring ethnic differences…

  9. Ecology versus Issue Interpretation: The Analysis of Two Different Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrie, Elizabeth; Knapp, Doug

    1998-01-01

    Approximately 1,500 students in grades 4 through 6 attended two half-day interpretive programs at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore; one focused on ecological information, the other on environmental issues associated with the site. Each program significantly increased students' knowledge but had little impact on students' environmental attitudes or…

  10. Analysis of Intellectual Property Protection Issues in Offshore Outsourcing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Satinder Pal

    2013-01-01

    Offshore outsourcing is a business strategy that involves contracting with a partner who can take over certain aspects of a company's business, such as information technology (IT) functions, in the interests of efficiency and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to analyze the intellectual property protection issues to achieve a better…

  11. Analysis of Intellectual Property Protection Issues in Offshore Outsourcing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Satinder Pal

    2013-01-01

    Offshore outsourcing is a business strategy that involves contracting with a partner who can take over certain aspects of a company's business, such as information technology (IT) functions, in the interests of efficiency and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to analyze the intellectual property protection issues to achieve a better…

  12. Faculty Attitudes about Multiculturalism Issues: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennen, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    The demographics of the United States continue to change, and cultural landscape changes along with it. The American Psychological Association (APA) has begun to address these issues within the field of psychology. These efforts are being made to bring understanding to ethnic identity formation, explore the dangers of ignoring ethnic differences…

  13. The Law and Emergencies: Surveillance for Public Health–Related Legal Issues During Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Rachel I.; McKie, Karen L.; Goodman, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Law influenced every aspect of the public health response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, from evacuation orders, to waivers of medical licensing requirements, to the clean-up of public health threats on private property. We used public health surveillance of news reports to identify and characterize legal issues arising during the disaster response in 5 Gulf Coast states. Data collected from news reports of the events in real time were followed-up by interviews with selected state legal and emergency management officials. Our analysis indicates the value of surveillance during and after emergency responses in identifying public health–related legal issues and helps to inform the strengthening of legal preparedness frameworks for future disasters. PMID:17413083

  14. Modeling, Analysis, and Optimization Issues for Large Space Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinson, L. D. (Compiler); Amos, A. K. (Compiler); Venkayya, V. B. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Topics concerning the modeling, analysis, and optimization of large space structures are discussed including structure-control interaction, structural and structural dynamics modeling, thermal analysis, testing, and design.

  15. A Survey of Laboratory and Statistical Issues Related to Farmworker Exposure Studies

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Dana B.; Landsittel, Doug; Nishioka, Marcia; Thomas, Kent; Curwin, Brian; Raymer, James; Donnelly, Kirby C.; McCauley, Linda; Ryan, P. Barry

    2006-01-01

    Developing internally valid, and perhaps generalizable, farmworker exposure studies is a complex process that involves many statistical and laboratory considerations. Statistics are an integral component of each study beginning with the design stage and continuing to the final data analysis and interpretation. Similarly, data quality plays a significant role in the overall value of the study. Data quality can be derived from several experimental parameters including statistical design of the study and quality of environmental and biological analytical measurements. We discuss statistical and analytic issues that should be addressed in every farmworker study. These issues include study design and sample size determination, analytical methods and quality control and assurance, treatment of missing data or data below the method’s limits of detection, and post-hoc analyses of data from multiple studies. PMID:16760001

  16. Equation of state and fragmentation issues in computational lethality analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Trucano, T.G.

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the status of computational analysis of hypervelocity impact lethality in relatively nontechnical terms from the perspective of the author. It is not intended to be a review of the technical literature on the problems of concern. The discussion is focused by concentrating on two phenomenology areas which are of particular concern in computational impact studies. First, the material`s equation of state, specifically the treatment of expanded states of metals undergoing shock vaporization, is discussed. Second, the process of dynamic fragmentation is addressed. In both cases, the context of the discussion deals with inaccuracies and difficulties associated with numerical hypervelocity impact simulations. Laboratory experimental capabilities in hypervelocity impact for impact velocities greater than 10.0 km/s are becoming increasingly viable. This paper also gives recommendations for experimental thrusts which utilize these capabilities that will help to resolve the uncertainties in the numerical lethality studies that are pointed out in the present report.

  17. Design and analysis issues in gene and environment studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Both nurture (environmental) and nature (genetic factors) play an important role in human disease etiology. Traditionally, these effects have been thought of as independent. This perspective is ill informed for non-mendelian complex disorders which result as an interaction between genetics and environment. To understand health and disease we must study how nature and nurture interact. Recent advances in human genomics and high-throughput biotechnology make it possible to study large numbers of genetic markers and gene products simultaneously to explore their interactions with environment. The purpose of this review is to discuss design and analytic issues for gene-environment interaction studies in the “-omics” era, with a focus on environmental and genetic epidemiological studies. We present an expanded environmental genomic disease paradigm. We discuss several study design issues for gene-environmental interaction studies, including confounding and selection bias, measurement of exposures and genotypes. We discuss statistical issues in studying gene-environment interactions in different study designs, such as choices of statistical models, assumptions regarding biological factors, and power and sample size considerations, especially in genome-wide gene-environment studies. Future research directions are also discussed. PMID:23253229

  18. Design and analysis issues in gene and environment studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen-yu; Maity, Arnab; Lin, Xihong; Wright, Robert O; Christiani, David C

    2012-12-19

    Both nurture (environmental) and nature (genetic factors) play an important role in human disease etiology. Traditionally, these effects have been thought of as independent. This perspective is ill informed for non-mendelian complex disorders which result as an interaction between genetics and environment. To understand health and disease we must study how nature and nurture interact. Recent advances in human genomics and high-throughput biotechnology make it possible to study large numbers of genetic markers and gene products simultaneously to explore their interactions with environment. The purpose of this review is to discuss design and analytic issues for gene-environment interaction studies in the "-omics" era, with a focus on environmental and genetic epidemiological studies. We present an expanded environmental genomic disease paradigm. We discuss several study design issues for gene-environmental interaction studies, including confounding and selection bias, measurement of exposures and genotypes. We discuss statistical issues in studying gene-environment interactions in different study designs, such as choices of statistical models, assumptions regarding biological factors, and power and sample size considerations, especially in genome-wide gene-environment studies. Future research directions are also discussed.

  19. Paternalism in nursing and healthcare: central issues and their relation to theory.

    PubMed

    Cody, William K

    2003-10-01

    Paternalistic practices, wherein providers confer a treatment or service upon a person or persons without their consent, ostensibly by reason of their limited autonomy or diminished capacity, are widespread in healthcare and in societies around the world. In the United States, paternalism in health and human services is widespread and probably increasing with newly emergent forms. Numerous issues surround paternalistic practices. In this column, the author examines these issues in relation to theory development in healthcare and nursing as well as theory as a guide to practice. It is suggested that scientific and ethical knowing are not separate but must be united in theoretical structures that include both in unity, along with an appreciation of the infinite complexity of life as it is humanly lived. It is also suggested that nursing's unique theory base of frameworks that honor human dignity and focus on human experience offers an opportunity for leadership in further developing theoretical frameworks that transcend paternalistic practices.

  20. Profiles of Students' Interest in Science Issues around the World: Analysis of data from PISA 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vegar Olsen, Rolf; Lie, Svein

    2011-01-01

    The Programme for International Student Assessment in 2006 included several measures of students' interest in science. These measures were constructed by combining information from several items where students are asked to respond to statements along Likert scale categories. Since there is evidence for Likert scales providing culturally biased country scores, we demonstrate in this article that the relative profiles of interest can be meaningfully analysed across countries. Hence, we have developed national relative profiles of interest in science constructed from the country- and item-specific residuals at the item level. Subsequently, these relative profiles of interest have been used as input in a cluster analysis providing identification of distinct groups of countries with similar item-by-item patterns of interest in science. The most notable feature of the analysis is an overall division between two larger groups of countries, roughly corresponding to European/Western countries in one group and non-European countries, with only a few exceptions, in the other group. A number of meaningful clusters of countries, partly defined by language and partly by localisation, are identified within each of the two main clusters. In order to develop a more detailed understanding of the characteristic features of the various clusters, descriptive information about the items is included in the analysis. The most notable finding is the strong relative preference for life and health issues among the non-European countries, contrasted with the distinct favouring of items relating to physical/technological systems in the European/Western countries.

  1. Current research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, John A.; Shakesby, Richard A.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Cannon, Susan H.; Martin, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Research into post-wildfire effects began in the United States more than 70 years ago and only later extended to other parts of the world. Post-wildfire responses are typically transient, episodic, variable in space and time, dependent on thresholds, and involve multiple processes measured by different methods. These characteristics tend to hinder research progress, but the large empirical knowledge base amassed in different regions of the world suggests that it should now be possible to synthesize the data and make a substantial improvement in the understanding of post-wildfire runoff and erosion response. Thus, it is important to identify and prioritize the research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion. Priority research issues are the need to: (1) organize and synthesize similarities and differences in post-wildfire responses between different fire-prone regions of the world in order to determine common patterns and generalities that can explain cause and effect relations; (2) identify and quantify functional relations between metrics of fire effects and soil hydraulic properties that will better represent the dynamic and transient conditions after a wildfire; (3) determine the interaction between burned landscapes and temporally and spatially variable meso-scale precipitation, which is often the primary driver of post-wildfire runoff and erosion responses; (4) determine functional relations between precipitation, basin morphology, runoff connectivity, contributing area, surface roughness, depression storage, and soil characteristics required to predict the timing, magnitudes, and duration of floods and debris flows from ungaged burned basins; and (5) develop standard measurement methods that will ensure the collection of uniform and comparable runoff and erosion data. Resolution of these issues will help to improve conceptual and computer models of post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes.

  2. CADDIS Volume 4. Data Analysis: Basic Principles & Issues

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Use of inferential statistics in causal analysis, introduction to data independence and autocorrelation, methods to identifying and control for confounding variables, references for the Basic Principles section of Data Analysis.

  3. Google and Women’s Health-Related Issues: What Does the Search Engine Data Reveal?

    PubMed Central

    Baazeem, Mazin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Identifying the gaps in public knowledge of women’s health related issues has always been difficult. With the increasing number of Internet users in the United States, we sought to use the Internet as a tool to help us identify such gaps and to estimate women’s most prevalent health concerns by examining commonly searched health-related keywords in Google search engine. Methods We collected a large pool of possible search keywords from two independent practicing obstetrician/gynecologists and classified them into five main categories (obstetrics, gynecology, infertility, urogynecology/menopause and oncology), and measured the monthly average search volume within the United States for each keyword with all its possible combinations using Google AdWords tool. Results We found that pregnancy related keywords were less frequently searched in general compared to other categories with an average of 145,400 hits per month for the top twenty keywords. Among the most common pregnancy-related keywords was “pregnancy and sex’ while pregnancy-related diseases were uncommonly searched. HPV alone was searched 305,400 times per month. Of the cancers affecting women, breast cancer was the most commonly searched with an average of 247,190 times per month, followed by cervical cancer then ovarian cancer. Conclusion The commonly searched keywords are often issues that are not discussed in our daily practice as well as in public health messages. The search volume is relatively related to disease prevalence with the exception of ovarian cancer which could signify a public fear. PMID:25422723

  4. Forestry policy reform in Mali: An analysis of implementation issues

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkerhoff, D.W.; Gage, J.D.

    1993-09-01

    Mali is revising its forestry code to facilitate natural resource management at the local level. Issues involved in implementing the new code, which is expected to be formally adopted in the near future, are analyzed in the report. Section II discusses the evolution of Mali's forestry code from the 1935 decree which vested authority of natural resources in the hands of the state. Section III examines the forthcoming code using a model that associates six conditions with successful policy implementation, namely, the extent to which the policy and/or its statutes. Faced with these problems, Mali's forestry policy reformers need to adopt a strategic perspective on managing policy change.

  5. Surface erosion issues and analysis for dissipative divertors

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, J.N.; Ruzic, D.N.; Hayden, D.B.; Turkot, R.B. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    Erosion/redeposition is examined for the sidewall of a dissipative divertor using coupled impurity transport, charge exchange, and sputtering codes, applied to a plasma solution for the ITER design. A key issue for this regime is possible runaway self-sputtering, due to the effect of a low boundary density and nearly parallel field geometry on redeposition parameters. Net erosion rates, assuming finite self-sputtering, vary with wall location, boundary conditions, and plasma solution, and are roughly of the following order: 200--2000 {angstrom}/s for beryllium, 10--100 {angstrom}/s for vanadium, and 0.3--3 {angstrom}/s for tungsten.

  6. Progress in Addressing DNFSB Recommendation 2002-1 Issues: Improving Accident Analysis Software Applications

    SciTech Connect

    VINCENT, ANDREW

    2005-04-25

    Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2002-1 (''Quality Assurance for Safety-Related Software'') identified a number of quality assurance issues on the use of software in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for analyzing hazards, and designing and operating controls to prevent or mitigate potential accidents. Over the last year, DOE has begun several processes and programs as part of the Implementation Plan commitments, and in particular, has made significant progress in addressing several sets of issues particularly important in the application of software for performing hazard and accident analysis. The work discussed here demonstrates that through these actions, Software Quality Assurance (SQA) guidance and software tools are available that can be used to improve resulting safety analysis. Specifically, five of the primary actions corresponding to the commitments made in the Implementation Plan to Recommendation 2002-1 are identified and discussed in this paper. Included are the web-based DOE SQA Knowledge Portal and the Central Registry, guidance and gap analysis reports, electronic bulletin board and discussion forum, and a DOE safety software guide. These SQA products can benefit DOE safety contractors in the development of hazard and accident analysis by precluding inappropriate software applications and utilizing best practices when incorporating software results to safety basis documentation. The improvement actions discussed here mark a beginning to establishing stronger, standard-compliant programs, practices, and processes in SQA among safety software users, managers, and reviewers throughout the DOE Complex. Additional effort is needed, however, particularly in: (1) processes to add new software applications to the DOE Safety Software Toolbox; (2) improving the effectiveness of software issue communication; and (3) promoting a safety software quality assurance culture.

  7. Current issues in the identification, assessment, and management of concussions in sports-related injuries.

    PubMed

    McKeever, Catherine K; Schatz, Philip

    2003-01-01

    The recent literature has focused on the need for appropriate identification, assessment, and management of sports-related concussion. This article addresses current issues in the prevalence and assessment of sports-related concussion. Despite a paucity of research on female athletes and youth athletes, there is evidence that female athletes are at higher risk for injury than males and that concussions may affect children and young adolescents differently than older adolescents and adults. Sideline, baseline, and postconcussion assessments have become prevalent in documenting preinjury and postinjury performance, tracking recovery rates, and assisting return-to-play decisions. New computerized assessment procedures are growing in popularity and use. Future directions in the assessment and management of sports-related concussion include increased research on prevalence rates and effects of concussions for females and youth athletes, educating parents of youth athletes as well as family physicians on the importance of baseline and postconcussion cognitive assessments, and further validation of computerized assessment measures.

  8. Environmental, health and safety issues related to commercializing CuInSe{sub 2}-based photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Eberspacher, C.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowtiz, P.D.

    1996-07-01

    Photovoltaics technology is rapidly evolving towards a new generation of low-cost thin film technologies. One of the most promising materials in this new generation is copper indium selenide (CuInSe{sub 2} or CIS). As with any new material, successful commercialization of CIS photovoltaic (PV) technology will require attention to environmental, health and safety issues, including consideration of the sources, usage, and end-of-product-life disposal and/or recycling of the constituent materials. This work focuses on three specific environmental, health and safety (EH and S) issues related to CIS PV: (1) economics are analyzed to determine their impact on materials use and re-use; (2) Federal and California State environmental disposal and waste handling regulations are analyzed to evaluate their impact on PV module manufacturing and end-of-life module handling; and (3) the logistics and economics of product recycling and waste disposal by industries with comparable EH and S issues are examined to quantify the corresponding options available for handling, disposing of and/or recycling manufacturing by-products and end-of-life modules.

  9. Hospital Malnutrition Related to Fasting and Underfeeding: Is It an Ethical Issue?

    PubMed

    Arenas Moya, Diego; Plascencia Gaitán, Alejandra; Ornelas Camacho, Denisse; Arenas Márquez, Humberto

    2016-06-01

    Hospital malnutrition is a relevant clinical issue present in about 50% of patients that is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and cost of care. Because of the relation of malnutrition with chronic and acute inflammatory processes secondary to disease, nutrition therapy is considered an important medical treatment. However, there is little discussion about the impact of another critical issue related to hospital malnutrition, that is, lack of appropriate food or nutrition therapy given to the patients. Unnecessary fasting practices and the use of inappropriate nutrition prescriptions result in underfeeding that can be a related or direct cause of hospital malnutrition, independent of disease or inflammatory state. Suboptimal prescription of oral, enteral, and parenteral nutrition should be analyzed and discussed from an ethical perspective since this practice has the potential to harm patients. In addition, absence or inadequate provision of nutrition may present barriers for improved patient outcomes and could be prevented by simply recognizing lack of knowledge, skills, or experience in nutrition and entrusting nutrition prescription to interdisciplinary teams with clinicians well prepared in nutrition sciences. This article reviews potential barriers to the prevention or treatment of hospital malnutrition and proposes specific actions that can help clinicians to overcome and implement optimal nutrition not just as medical therapy but also as a basic comfort care that may help patients nutritionally, clinically, physically, and emotionally.

  10. Rearward Visibility Issues Related to Agricultural Tractors and Self-Propelled Machinery: Contributing Factors, Potential Solutions.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, S G; Field, W E

    2016-01-01

    As the size, complexity, and speed of agricultural tractors and self-propelled machinery have increased, so have the visibility-related issues, placing significant importance on the visual skills, alertness, and reactive abilities of the operator. Rearward movement of large agricultural equipment has been identified in the literature as causing both fatalities and injuries to bystanders who were not visible to the operator and damage to both the machine and stationary objects. The addition of monitoring assistance, while not a new concept, has advanced significantly, offering agricultural machinery operators greater options for increasing their awareness of the area surrounding the machine. In this research, we attempt to (1) identify and describe the key contributors to agricultural machinery visibility issues, i.e., operator-related and machine-related factors, and (2) enumerate and evaluate the potential solutions being offered that address these factors. Enhanced operator safety and efficiency should result from a better understanding of the efforts to solve the visibility problems inherent in large tractors and self-propelled agricultural machinery.

  11. 75 FR 62514 - Notice of Availability of Report on Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... of Availability of Report on Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid Technologies AGENCY... Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid Technologies.'' In this report, DOE discusses existing... accommodate the deployment of Smart Grid technologies. DOE also provides a comprehensive summary of...

  12. 76 FR 44507 - Joint Public Roundtable on International Issues Relating to the Implementation of Title VII of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... International Issues Relating to the Implementation of Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and... issues related to the implementation of Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer... Centre, 1155 21st Street, NW., Washington, DC. The discussion will be open to the public with...

  13. Economic and demographic issues related to deployment of the Satellite Power System (SPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, T. E.; Hill, L. G.; Santini, D. J.; Stenehjem, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Growth in energy consumption stimulated interest in exploitation of renewable sources of electric energy. One technology that was proposed is the Satellite Power System (SPS). Before committing the U.S. to such a large program, the Department of Energy and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are jointly participating in an SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program. This white paper on industrial and population relocation is part of the FY 78 preliminary evaluation of related socio-economic issues. Results of four preliminary assessment activities are documented.

  14. Time-related degradation, a key issue in nuclear plant safety evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L.L.; Bustard, L.D.; Clough, R.L.; Gillen, K.T.

    1982-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is conducting a number of programs under NRC sponsorship which deal with safety-related equipment qualification issues, including the important aspect of aging. Among these is the Qualification Testing Evaluation (QTE) program which was probably the first to devote significant effort towards aging research and was one of the primary motivators leading to the Workshop. The thrust of the QTE aging efforts has been on elastomeric materials, typically used in electrical cables, seals, gaskets, and the like; currently, efforts are being pursued on plant ambient environments measurements, aging of electronics, and aging of motors. A brief status report is presented in this paper.

  15. Impact of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) on patient health-related behaviors and issues.

    PubMed

    Polen, Hyla H; Khanfar, Nile M; Clauson, Kevin A

    2009-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry spends billions of dollars annually on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA). Patient perspectives on the impact of televised DTCA on health-related behaviors and issues were assessed by means of a 68-question survey. 58.6% of respondents believed that DTCA allowed consumers to have a more active role in managing their health. However, 27.6% felt DTCA caused confusion, and an alarming 17.8% of respondents stopped taking their medication because of concerns about serious side effects mentioned in DTCA. Overall, participants believed DTCA plays a useful role in health self-management; however, a considerable percentage thought that the cost outweighs the benefits.

  16. Work-related stress and bullying: gender differences and forensic medicine issues in the diagnostic procedure

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The attention of international agencies and scientific community on bullying and work-related stress is increasing. This study describes the gender differences found in victims of bullying and work-related stress in an Italian case series and analyzes the critical issues in the diagnostic workup. Methods Between 2001 and 2009 we examined 345 outpatients (148 males, 197 females; mean age: 41 ± 10.49) for suspected psychopathological work-related problems. Diagnosis of bullying was established using international criteria (ICD-10 and DSM-IV). Results After interdisciplinary diagnostic evaluation (Occupational Medicine Unit, Psychology and Psychiatry Service), the diagnosis of bullying was formulated in 35 subjects, 12 males and 23 females (2 cases of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and 33 of Adjustment Disorder). Fifty-four (20 males, 34 females) suffered from work-related anxiety, while work-unrelated Adjustment Disorder and other psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 7 and 112 subjects, respectively. Women between 34 and 45 years showed a high prevalence (65%) of "mobbing syndrome" or other work-related stress disorders. Conclusions At work, women are more subject to harassment (for personal aspects related to emotional and relational factors) than men. The knowledge of the phenomenon is an essential requisite to contrast bullying; prevention can be carried out only through effective information and training of workers and employers, who have the legal obligation to preserve the integrity of the mental and physical status of their employees during work. PMID:22088163

  17. tDCS for Memory Enhancement: Analysis of the Speculative Aspects of Ethical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Voarino, Nathalie; Dubljević, Veljko; Racine, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising technology to enhance cognitive and physical performance. One of the major areas of interest is the enhancement of memory function in healthy individuals. The early arrival of tDCS on the market for lifestyle uses and cognitive enhancement purposes lead to the voicing of some important ethical concerns, especially because, to date, there are no official guidelines or evaluation procedures to tackle these issues. The aim of this article is to review ethical issues related to uses of tDCS for memory enhancement found in the ethics and neuroscience literature and to evaluate how realistic and scientifically well-founded these concerns are? In order to evaluate how plausible or speculative each issue is, we applied the methodological framework described by Racine et al. (2014) for “informed and reflective” speculation in bioethics. This framework could be succinctly presented as requiring: (1) the explicit acknowledgment of factual assumptions and identification of the value attributed to them; (2) the validation of these assumptions with interdisciplinary literature; and (3) the adoption of a broad perspective to support more comprehensive reflection on normative issues. We identified four major considerations associated with the development of tDCS for memory enhancement: safety, autonomy, justice and authenticity. In order to assess the seriousness and likelihood of harm related to each of these concerns, we analyzed the assumptions underlying the ethical issues, and the level of evidence for each of them. We identified seven distinct assumptions: prevalence, social acceptance, efficacy, ideological stance (bioconservative vs. libertarian), potential for misuse, long term side effects, and the delivery of complete and clear information. We conclude that ethical discussion about memory enhancement via tDCS sometimes involves undue speculation, and closer attention to scientific and social facts would

  18. Issues affecting the level of prosthetics research evidence: Secondary analysis of a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Brian J; Sawers, Andrew B

    2016-02-01

    Systematic reviews of scientific literature are valuable sources of synthesized knowledge. Systematic review results may also be used to inform readers about challenges inherent to an area of research, guide future research efforts, and facilitate improvements in evidence quality. To identify methodological issues that affected the overall level of scientific evidence reported in a contemporary systematic review and to offer suggestions for enhancing publications' contribution to the overall evidence. Secondary analysis of a systematic review. Publications included in a systematic review related to microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knees were analyzed with respect to established methodological quality criteria. Common issues were identified and discussed. Internal validity was commonly affected by variable comparison conditions, limited justification of accommodation time, potential fatigue and learning effects, lack of blinding, small sample sizes, limited evidence of measurement reliability, subject attrition, and limited descriptions of selection criteria. Similarly, external validity was affected by limited descriptions of the study sample, indeterminate representativeness, and suboptimal description of the interventions. Results suggest that efforts to address methodological limitations, educate evidence consumers, and improve research reporting are needed to advance the quality and use of evidence in the field of prosthetics. Critical analysis of the strengths and limitations of publications included in a systematic review can inform evidence consumers and contributors about challenges inherent to a field of research. Results of this analysis suggest that efforts to address identified limitations are needed to enhance the overall level of prosthetics evidence. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  19. Global Nursing Issues and Development: Analysis of World Health Organization Documents.

    PubMed

    Wong, Frances Kam Yuet; Liu, Huaping; Wang, Hui; Anderson, Debra; Seib, Charrlotte; Molasiotis, Alex

    2015-11-01

    To analyze World Health Organization (WHO) documents to identify global nursing issues and development. Qualitative content analysis. Documents published by the six WHO regions between 2007 and 2012 and with key words related to nurse/midwife or nursing/midwifery were included. Themes, categories, and subcategories were derived. The final coding reached 80% agreement among three independent coders, and the final coding for the discrepant coding was reached by consensus. Thirty-two documents from the regions of Europe (n = 19), the Americas (n = 6), the Western Pacific (n = 4), Africa (n = 1), the Eastern Mediterranean (n = 1), and Southeast Asia (n = 1) were examined. A total of 385 units of analysis dispersed in 31 subcategories under four themes were derived. The four themes derived (number of unit of analysis, %) were Management & Leadership (206, 53.5), Practice (75, 19.5), Education (70, 18.2), and Research (34, 8.8). The key nursing issues of concern at the global level are workforce, the impacts of nursing in health care, professional status, and education of nurses. International alliances can help advance nursing, but the visibility of nursing in the WHO needs to be strengthened. Organizational leadership is important in order to optimize the use of nursing competence in practice and inform policy makers regarding the value of nursing to promote people's health. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  20. The Application of Bayesian Analysis to Issues in Developmental Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Lawrence J.; Gustafson, Paul; Frimer, Jeremy A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the concepts and methods of Bayesian statistical analysis, which can offer innovative and powerful solutions to some challenging analytical problems that characterize developmental research. In this article, we demonstrate the utility of Bayesian analysis, explain its unique adeptness in some circumstances, address some…

  1. Issues in performing a network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Senn, Stephen; Gavini, Francois; Magrez, David; Scheen, André

    2013-04-01

    The example of the analysis of a collection of trials in diabetes consisting of a sparsely connected network of 10 treatments is used to make some points about approaches to analysis. In particular various graphical and tabular presentations, both of the network and of the results are provided and the connection to the literature of incomplete blocks is made. It is clear from this example that is inappropriate to treat the main effect of trial as random and the implications of this for analysis are discussed. It is also argued that the generalisation from a classic random-effect meta-analysis to one applied to a network usually involves strong assumptions about the variance components involved. Despite this, it is concluded that such an analysis can be a useful way of exploring a set of trials.

  2. NursingQuest: supporting an analysis of nursing issues.

    PubMed

    Bassendowski, Sandra L

    2007-02-01

    With the development and use of new strategies, practices, applications, and resources in technology, the teaching and learning context is shifting. Nurse educators are challenged to create instructional strategies that appeal to the newer generation of students and have the potential to enhance learning. Effective learning programs for these students require new digital communication skills, new pedagogies, and new practices. Nursing students should not be seeking the right answer as much as they should be seeking appropriate information and then developing approaches to issues or resolutions for problems. The focus of the teaching and learning context is shifting from the individual to the group, with the purpose of constructing new knowledge from available information. This article discusses the value of WebQuest activities as inquiry-oriented strategies and the process of adapting the WebQuest format for the development of a strategy called NursingQuest.

  3. [Materiality Analysis of Health Plans Based on Stakeholder Engagement and the Issues Included at ISO 26000:2010].

    PubMed

    Moyano Santiago, Miguel Angel; Rivera Lirio, Juana María

    2017-01-18

    Health plans of the Spanish autonomous communities can incorporate sustainable development criteria in its development. There have been no analysis or proposals about development and indicators. The goal is to add a contribution to help build better health plans aimed at sustainable development and help to manage economic, social and environmental impacts of health systems criteria. We used a variation of the RAND/UCLA or modified Delphi technique method. The process consisted of a bibliographical and context matters and issues related to health and social responsibility analysis based on ISO 26000: 2010. A survey by deliberately to a selection of 70 expert members of the identified stakeholders was carried out and a discussion group was held to determine the consensus on the issues addressed in the survey sample. The research was conducted in 2015. From the literature review 33 health issues included in ISO 26000:2010 were obtained. 7 survey proved relevant high consensus, 8 relevance and average consensus and 18 with less relevance and high level of dissent. The expert group excluded 4 of the 18 subjects with less consensus. 29 issues included 33 at work, divided into 7 subjects contained in the guide ISO 26000 of social responsibility, were relevant stakeholders regarding possible inclusion in health plans. Considering the direct relationship published by ISO (International Organization for Standardization) among the issues ISO 26000 and the economic, social and environmental indicators in GRI (Global Reporting Initiative) in its G4 version, a panel with monitoring indicators related to relevant issues were elaborated.

  4. Pedagogical issues for effective teaching of biosignal processing and analysis.

    PubMed

    Sandham, William A; Hamilton, David J

    2010-01-01

    Biosignal processing and analysis is generally perceived by many students to be a challenging topic to understand, and to become adept with the necessary analytical skills. This is a direct consequence of the high mathematical content involved, and the many abstract features of the topic. The MATLAB and Mathcad software packages offer an excellent algorithm development environment for teaching biosignal processing and analysis modules, and can also be used effectively in many biosignal, and indeed bioengineering, research areas. In this paper, traditional introductory and advanced biosignal processing (and analysis) syllabi are reviewed, and the use of MATLAB and Mathcad for teaching and research is illustrated with a number of examples.

  5. Preface--Environmental issues related to oil and gas exploration and production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Otton, James K.

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the essential commodity that powers the expanding global economy. Starting in the 1950s, oil and natural gas became the main sources of primary energy for the rapidly increasing world population (Edwards, 1997). In 2003, petroleum was the source for 62.1% of global energy, and projections by energy information administration (EIA) indicate that oil and gas will continue their dominance, supplying 59.5% of global energy in 2030 (EIA, 2007). Unfortunately petroleum and coal consumption carry major detrimental environmental impacts that may be regional or global in scale, including air pollution, global climate change and oil spills. This special volume of Applied Geochemistry, devoted to “Environmental Issues Related to Oil and Gas Exploration and Production”, does not address these major impacts directly because air pollution and global climate change are issues related primarily to the burning of petroleum and coal, and major oil spills generally occur during ocean transport, such as the Exxon Valdez 1989 spill of 42,000 m3 (260,000 bbl) oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska.

  6. Developing a research agenda on ethical issues related to using social media in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Adams, Samantha A; Van Veghel, Dennis; Dekker, Lukas

    2015-07-01

    The consequences of using publicly available social media applications specifically for healthcare purposes are largely unaddressed in current research. Where they are addressed, the focus is primarily on issues of privacy and data protection. We therefore use a case study of the first live Twitter heart operation in the Netherlands, in combination with recent literature on social media from other academic fields, to identify a wide range of ethical issues related to using social media for health-related purposes. Although this case reflects an innovative approach to public education and patient centeredness, it also illustrates the need for institutions to weigh the various aspects of use and to develop a plan to deal with these on a per case basis. Given the continual development of technologies, researchers may not yet be able to oversee and anticipate all of the potential implications. Further development of a research agenda on this topic, the promotion of guidelines and policies, and the publication of case studies that reveal the granularity of individual situations will therefore help raise awareness and assist physicians and institutions in using social media to support existing care services.

  7. Misperceptions of patients vs providers regarding medication-related communication issues.

    PubMed

    Lapane, Kate L; Dubé, Catherine E; Schneider, Karen L; Quilliam, Brian J

    2007-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that there is little concordance in perceptions of medication-related communication between patients and providers, with providers estimating greater frequency of such discussions than patients; and to determine whether discordance is less apparent among patients who received e-prescriptions. Data are from a convenience sample of 96 providers practicing in 6 states and 1100 of their patients. Twenty-nine practices used e-prescribing, and 3 practices were initiating e-prescribing. Patients' and providers' perceptions regarding discussions with their providers or patients regarding medication costs, adherence, and potential adverse effects were collected by survey. Relative to patients, providers estimated more frequent discussions of medication issues with patients. Most patients (83%) reported that they would never tell their physician if they did not plan on picking up a prescription. Patients receiving electronic prescriptions were more likely than patients with paper prescriptions (54% vs 43%) to report that their provider always checks the accuracy of their medication list. Although e-prescribing may not change the extent to which patients and physicians discuss medication issues, patients of e-prescribing providers more frequently report provider verification of medication lists.

  8. Coming out of the Dark: Content Analysis of Articles Pertaining to Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Issues in Couple and Family Therapy Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwell, Erica E.; Serovich, Julianne M.; Grafsky, Erika L.; Kerr, Zachary Y.

    2012-01-01

    The present study seeks to extend previous research regarding literature related to gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) issues published in couple and family therapy (CFT)-related journals by presenting the results from a content analysis of GLB studies in CFT-related journals from 1996 to 2010. Results of the analysis revealed a 238.8% increase in…

  9. Coming out of the Dark: Content Analysis of Articles Pertaining to Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Issues in Couple and Family Therapy Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwell, Erica E.; Serovich, Julianne M.; Grafsky, Erika L.; Kerr, Zachary Y.

    2012-01-01

    The present study seeks to extend previous research regarding literature related to gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) issues published in couple and family therapy (CFT)-related journals by presenting the results from a content analysis of GLB studies in CFT-related journals from 1996 to 2010. Results of the analysis revealed a 238.8% increase in…

  10. Various parallel and diversive aspects of the mathematical fluctuations theory with the related standing issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiralp, Metin

    2012-12-01

    This presentation is devoted to explain the important aspects of the Mathematical Fluctuations Theory. Although its name started to be used basically by us quite recently it is not a completely independent issue from the other existing ones. It uses many well known concepts of linear algebra, especially Hilbert spaces and matrix representations. This paper bears the characteristics of a review article together with the recent developments in the concrete applications and abstract ideas related to this theory. Main emphasis focuses on the definition and meaning of the fluctuation concept which is related to somehow truncation errors. Although all of them are originated from the same idea, the fluctuations in functions, in operators, and in matrix representations are tried to be distinguished from each others. To this end certain simple illustrations are given to easily explain the authors' ideas about these concepts and their utilization in some applications.

  11. Neurologists' and neurology residents' knowledge of issues related to pregnancy for women with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jodie I; Metcalfe, Amy; Abdulla, Fatema; Wiebe, Samuel; Hanson, Alexandra; Federico, Paolo; Jetté, Nathalie

    2011-10-01

    We aimed to assess physician knowledge for 2009 guidelines established by the American Academy of Neurology and American Epilepsy Society regarding issues related to pregnancy for women with epilepsy. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to all neurologists and neurology residents practicing in a large Canadian health region serving a population of 1.4 million. Descriptive statistics were obtained and percentage of correct responses was calculated. Forty-five physicians completed the survey (response rate = 83.3%), with a median correct score of 50%. Residents were more likely (93.3%) to state that this information was important to their practice than staff physicians (40.0%). Overall knowledge of outcomes associated with specific AEDs was poor; less than half of the physicians correctly indicated which AEDs were associated with adverse outcomes for the majority of drug-related questions. We recommend multifaceted, interactive implementation strategies for increasing knowledge of guideline contents.

  12. Job Search and Employment-Related Issues in Athletic Training Education Programs

    PubMed Central

    Stilger, Vincent G.; Meador, Randy; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the amount of classroom instruction appropriated for employment-related issues and how career service centers were used by students in National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA)-approved/Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP)-accredited undergraduate athletic training curriculums. Design and Setting: We developed a job placement survey and mailed it to subjects. The study was conducted through the School of Physical Education at West Virginia University. Subjects: The subjects were all undergraduate athletic training curriculum directors employed in an NATA-approved or CAAHEP-accredited program. Measurements: We developed a survey instrument based on our experiences with instructional and educational issues in athletic training. The survey instrument consisted of items that investigated the amount of classroom time and education devoted to different aspects of preparing athletic training students for the job market. Results: A total of 74 surveys were returned, for an 88% return rate. Eighty-six percent of the curriculum directors spent an average of 116 minutes (mean = 116 ± 142.09; range, 5 to 780) instructing students about employment issues. Curriculum directors spent 63 minutes (mean = 63 ± 47.86; range, 10 to 270) instructing students on how to develop a résumé. Most curriculum directors (74%) spent time with students discussing how to prepare for an interview (mean = 51 ± 47.07 minutes; range, 1 to 270). Nearly all curriculum directors (97%) responded that students learned about recognizing allied health postgraduate career options other than athletic training. College or university career service centers were available to 96% of students, but only 53% sought instructional assistance from them. Curriculum directors spent an average of 38 ± 49.31 minutes (range, 15 to 120) discussing programs available at career service centers. Conclusions: Athletic training curriculum directors were

  13. U.S. immigration reform: policy issues and economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M J; Mcdowell, J M

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the US immigration issue which has resurfaced in the last 10 years because the foreign born population grew by 4.5 million between 1970 and 1980. Because immigration accounts for 25% of the US population growth during the 1970s, reconsideration of US immigration policy by the government is underway. The Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy was established in 1979 to evaluate existing laws and policies on admitting immigrants into the US. Presently, these policies focus on family reunification, as opposed to labor considerations. In 1984, the Senate and House passed the Simpson-Mazzoli Bill, but the bill died in the conference committee that was established to reconcile the differences between the 2 versions. 3 provisions of debate surround the proposed act: 1) control of illegal immigration - - the Senate arguing for the requirement of a national identification card to verify an individual is authorized for US employment; 2) legalization of alien status - - the House refusing to confer immediate permanent resident status on any alien; and 3) reform of legal immigration - - a provision that the House altogether ignores. Immigration takes jobs from Americans, depresses domestic wages, and worsens working conditions. On the other hand, immigrants fill the jobs which domestic workers find undesirable. The compromises reached by the conference committee concentrate on employer sanctions and the legalization of illegal aliens; reform of legal immigration failed to gain approval.

  14. Budget Issues: Analysis of Unexpected Balances at Selected Civil Agencies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    analysis would have to be made at an account or line -item level to determine if the balances needed to be adjusted. Just because large unobliqated...specific account balances. Detailed analysis would have to be made at an account or line -item level to determine if the balances are excessive. We...APPENDIX I % % JOB METHODOLOGY 5~~ 0~~~~ ~ 5* UPAE TTSISO UNEXPENED BALACES AN DEVELOPE A DATABASE FO AND.5 __-SAF DEVLOED AUG DATA ASNFO EXAENES

  15. Dimensional Analysis and General Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovatt, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Newton's law of gravitation is a central topic in the first-year physics curriculum. A lecturer can go beyond the physical details and use the history of gravitation to discuss the development of scientific ideas; unfortunately, the most recent chapter in this history, general relativity, is not covered in first-year courses. This paper discusses…

  16. Dimensional Analysis and General Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovatt, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Newton's law of gravitation is a central topic in the first-year physics curriculum. A lecturer can go beyond the physical details and use the history of gravitation to discuss the development of scientific ideas; unfortunately, the most recent chapter in this history, general relativity, is not covered in first-year courses. This paper discusses…

  17. WATER ANALYSIS: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES, 2005 REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This biennial review covers developments in Water Analysis over the period of 2003-2004. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2005 are also included. Analytical Chemistry's current policy is to limit reviews to include 100-200 significant refe...

  18. WATER ANALYSIS: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES: 2007 REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This biennial review covers developments in Water Analysis over the period of 2005-2006. A few significant references that appeared between January and March 2007 are also included. Analytical Chemistry's current policy is to limit reviews to include 200-250 significant referen...

  19. Water Analysis: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues (2009 Review)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This biennial review covers developments in Water Analysis for Emerging Environmental Contaminants over the period of 2007-2008. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2009 are also included. Analytical Chemistry’s current policy is to limit rev...

  20. WATER ANALYSIS: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES: 2007 REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This biennial review covers developments in Water Analysis over the period of 2005-2006. A few significant references that appeared between January and March 2007 are also included. Analytical Chemistry's current policy is to limit reviews to include 200-250 significant referen...

  1. Qualitative research in nutrition and dietetics: data analysis issues.

    PubMed

    Fade, S A; Swift, J A

    2011-04-01

    Although much of the analysis conducted in qualitative research falls within the broad church of thematic analysis, the wide scope of qualitative enquiry presents the researcher with a number of choices regarding data analysis techniques. This review, the third in the series, provides an overview of a number of techniques and practical steps that can be taken to provide some structure and focus to the intellectual work of thematic analysis in nutrition and dietetics. Because appropriate research methods are crucial to ensure high-quality research, it also describes a process for choosing appropriate analytical methods that considers the extent to which they help answer the research question(s) and are compatible with the philosophical assumptions about ontology, epistemology and methodology that underpin the overall design of a study. Other reviews in this series provide a model for embarking on a qualitative research project in nutrition and dietetics, an overview of the principal techniques of data collection, sampling and quality assessment of this kind of research and some practical advice relevant to nutrition and dietetics, along with glossaries of key terms. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  2. Forestry sector analysis for developing countries: issues and methods.

    Treesearch

    R.W. Haynes

    1993-01-01

    A satellite meeting of the 10th Forestry World Congress focused on the methods used for forest sector analysis and their applications in both developed and developing countries. The results of that meeting are summarized, and a general approach for forest sector modeling is proposed. The approach includes models derived from the existing...

  3. An Analysis of Critical Issues in Korean Teacher Evaluation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hee Jun; Park, Ji-Hye

    2016-01-01

    Korea has used three different teacher evaluation systems since the 1960s: teacher performance rating, teacher performance-based pay and teacher evaluation for professional development. A number of studies have focused on an analysis of each evaluation system in terms of its advent, development, advantages and disadvantages, but these studies have…

  4. Water Analysis: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues (2009 Review)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This biennial review covers developments in Water Analysis for Emerging Environmental Contaminants over the period of 2007-2008. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2009 are also included. Analytical Chemistry’s current policy is to limit rev...

  5. Newspaper Coverage of the 1992 Presidential Campaign: A Content Analysis of Character/Competence/Image Issues versus Platform/Political Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Judy R.; Giordano, Joseph

    A research study assessed the amount of front page newspaper coverage allotted to "character/competence/image" issues versus "platform/political" issues in the 1992 presidential campaign. Using textual analysis, methodology of content analysis, researchers coded the front page of the following 5 newspapers between August 1 and…

  6. Methodological and ethical issues related to qualitative telephone interviews on sensitive topics.

    PubMed

    Mealer, Meredith; Jones Rn, Jacqueline

    2014-03-01

    To explore the methodological and ethical issues of conducting qualitative telephone interviews about personal or professional trauma with critical care nurses. The most common method for conducting interviews is face-to-face. However, there is evidence to support telephone interviewing on a variety of sensitive topics including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Qualitative telephone interviews can limit emotional distress because of the comfort experienced through virtual communication. Critical care nurses are at increased risk of developing PTSD due to the cumulative exposure to work-related stress in the intensive care unit. We explored the methodological and ethical issues of conducting qualitative telephone interviews, drawing on our experiences communicating with a group of critical care nurses. Qualitative research interviews with 27 critical care nurses. Fourteen of the nurses met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD; 13 did not and had scores consistent with high levels of resilience. This is a methodology paper on the authors' experiences of interviewing critical care nurses on sensitive topics via the telephone. The authors found that establishing rapport and connections with the participants and the therapeutic use of non-verbal communication were essential, and fostered trust and compassion. The ethical issues of this mode of communication include protecting the privacy and confidentiality associated with the disclosure of sensitive information, and minimising the risk of psychological harm to the researcher and participants. Qualitative telephone interviews are a valuable method of collecting information on sensitive topics. This paper explores a method of interviewing in the workplace. It will help inform interventions to promote healthy adaptation following trauma exposure in the intensive care unit.

  7. Gender Issues in Psychology: A Content Analysis of Introductory Psychology Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor-Greene, Patti; And Others

    This paper assesses the attention given to gender issues in 17 psychology textbooks published between 1985 and 1987 and used in college undergraduate introductory courses. The methodology used was the analysis of content and research citations. Specific issues that were examined included: (1) the explanation of the distinction between gender and…

  8. Gender Issues in Psychology: A Content Analysis of Introductory Psychology Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor-Greene, Patti; And Others

    This paper assesses the attention given to gender issues in 17 psychology textbooks published between 1985 and 1987 and used in college undergraduate introductory courses. The methodology used was the analysis of content and research citations. Specific issues that were examined included: (1) the explanation of the distinction between gender and…

  9. Health-equity issues related to childhood obesity: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Clemencia M; Stines, Elsie M; Granado, Herta S

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this scoping review was to determine the health-equity issues that relate to childhood obesity. Health-equity issues related to childhood obesity were identified by analyzing food environment, natural and built environment, and social environment. The authors searched Medline, PubMed, and Web of Science, using the keywords "children" and "obesity." Specific terms for each environment were added: "food desert," "advertising," "insecurity," "price," "processing," "trade," and "school" for food environment; "urban design," "land use," "transportation mode," "public facilities," and "market access" for natural and built environment; and "financial capacity/poverty," "living conditions," "transport access," "remoteness," "social support," "social cohesion," "working practices," "eating habits," "time," and "social norms" for social environment. Inclusion criteria were studies or reports with populations under age 12, conducted in the United States, and published in English in 2005 or later. The final search yielded 39 references (16 for food environment, 11 for built environment, and 12 for social environment). Most food-environment elements were associated with obesity, except food insecurity and food deserts. A natural and built environment that hinders access to physical activity resources and access to healthy foods increased the risk of childhood obesity. Similarly, a negative social environment was associated with childhood obesity. More research is needed on the effects of food production, living conditions, time for shopping, and exercise, as related to childhood obesity. Most elements of food, natural and built, and social-environments were associated with weight in children under age 12, except food insecurity and food deserts. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  10. Review of Selected Army-Funded Research on Fog Oil Smoke Characteristics as Related to Clean Air Act Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    FUNDED RESEARCH ON FOG OIL SMOKE CHARACTERISTICS AS RELATED TO CLEAN AIR ACT ISSUES Nancy A. Chester RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORATE March 1998...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Review of Selected Army-Funded Research on Fog Oil Smoke Characteristics as Related to Clean Air Act Issues 6. AUTHOR(S...distribution). The fate of fog oil is reported in relation to its deposition and persistence. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Fog oil Clean Air Act Environmental

  11. Bayesian hypothesis testing: Editorial to the Special Issue on Bayesian data analysis.

    PubMed

    Hoijtink, Herbert; Chow, Sy-Miin

    2017-06-01

    In the past 20 years, there has been a steadily increasing attention and demand for Bayesian data analysis across multiple scientific disciplines, including psychology. Bayesian methods and the related Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling techniques offered renewed ways of handling old and challenging new problems that may be difficult or impossible to handle using classical approaches. Yet, such opportunities and potential improvements have not been sufficiently explored and investigated. This is 1 of 2 special issues in Psychological Methods dedicated to the topic of Bayesian data analysis, with an emphasis on Bayesian hypothesis testing, model comparison, and general guidelines for applications in psychology. In this editorial, we provide an overview of the use of Bayesian methods in psychological research and a brief history of the Bayes factor and the posterior predictive p value. Translational abstracts that summarize the articles in this issue in very clear and understandable terms are included in the Appendix. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Methodological Issues of Sample Collection and Analysis of Exhaled Breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recommended standardized procedures have been developed for measurement of exhaled lower respiratory nitric oxide (NO) and nasal NO. It would be desirable to develop similar guidelines for the sampling of exhaled breath related to other compounds. For such systemic volatile o...

  13. Methodological Issues of Sample Collection and Analysis of Exhaled Breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recommended standardized procedures have been developed for measurement of exhaled lower respiratory nitric oxide (NO) and nasal NO. It would be desirable to develop similar guidelines for the sampling of exhaled breath related to other compounds. For such systemic volatile o...

  14. Validating retinal fundus image analysis algorithms: issues and a proposal.

    PubMed

    Trucco, Emanuele; Ruggeri, Alfredo; Karnowski, Thomas; Giancardo, Luca; Chaum, Edward; Hubschman, Jean Pierre; Al-Diri, Bashir; Cheung, Carol Y; Wong, Damon; Abràmoff, Michael; Lim, Gilbert; Kumar, Dinesh; Burlina, Philippe; Bressler, Neil M; Jelinek, Herbert F; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Quellec, Gwénolé; Macgillivray, Tom; Dhillon, Bal

    2013-05-01

    This paper concerns the validation of automatic retinal image analysis (ARIA) algorithms. For reasons of space and consistency, we concentrate on the validation of algorithms processing color fundus camera images, currently the largest section of the ARIA literature. We sketch the context (imaging instruments and target tasks) of ARIA validation, summarizing the main image analysis and validation techniques. We then present a list of recommendations focusing on the creation of large repositories of test data created by international consortia, easily accessible via moderated Web sites, including multicenter annotations by multiple experts, specific to clinical tasks, and capable of running submitted software automatically on the data stored, with clear and widely agreed-on performance criteria, to provide a fair comparison.

  15. Materials-related issues in the safety and licensing of nuclear fusion facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, N.; Merrill, B.; Cadwallader, L.; Di Pace, L.; El-Guebaly, L.; Humrickhouse, P.; Panayotov, D.; Pinna, T.; Porfiri, M.-T.; Reyes, S.; Shimada, M.; Willms, S.

    2017-09-01

    Fusion power holds the promise of electricity production with a high degree of safety and low environmental impact. Favourable characteristics of fusion as an energy source provide the potential for this very good safety and environmental performance. But to fully realize the potential, attention must be paid in the design of a demonstration fusion power plant (DEMO) or a commercial power plant to minimize the radiological hazards. These hazards arise principally from the inventory of tritium and from materials that become activated by neutrons from the plasma. The confinement of these radioactive substances, and prevention of radiation exposure, are the primary goals of the safety approach for fusion, in order to minimize the potential for harm to personnel, the public, and the environment. The safety functions that are implemented in the design to achieve these goals are dependent on the performance of a range of materials. Degradation of the properties of materials can lead to challenges to key safety functions such as confinement. In this paper the principal types of material that have some role in safety are recalled. These either represent a potential source of hazard or contribute to the amelioration of hazards; in each case the related issues are reviewed. The resolution of these issues lead, in some instances, to requirements on materials specifications or to limits on their performance.

  16. Attitudes of cystic fibrosis patients and parents toward carrier screening and related reproductive issues

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Sandra; Chokoshvilli, Davit; Binst, Carmen; Mahieu, Inge; Henneman, Lidewij; De Paepe, Anne; Borry, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-limiting autosomal recessive disorder affecting ~1 in 2500–4000 Caucasians. As most CF patients have no family history of the disorder, carrier screening for CF has the potential to prospectively identify couples at risk of conceiving an affected child. At-risk couples may consequently choose to act on the provided information and take steps to avoid the birth of a child with CF. Although carrier screening is widely believed to enhance reproductive autonomy of prospective parents, the practice also raises important ethical questions. A written questionnaire was administered to adult patients and parents of children with CF with the aim to explore participants' attitudes toward CF carrier screening and related reproductive issues. The study population was recruited from a CF patient registry in Belgium and comprised 111 participants (64 parents, 47 patients aged 16 or older). We found that more than 80% of all participants were in favor of preconception carrier screening for CF. However, some were concerned over potential negative consequences of population-wide CF carrier screening. Regarding future reproductive intentions, 43% of the participants indicated a desire to have children. Among these, preimplantation genetic diagnosis was found to be the most preferred reproductive option, closely followed by spontaneous pregnancy and prenatal diagnosis. Although the findings of our study suggest that patients and parents of children with CF support a population-based carrier screening program for CF, they also highlight some issues deserving particular attention when implementing such a program. PMID:26220700

  17. Attitudes of cystic fibrosis patients and parents toward carrier screening and related reproductive issues.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Sandra; Chokoshvilli, Davit; Binst, Carmen; Mahieu, Inge; Henneman, Lidewij; De Paepe, Anne; Borry, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-limiting autosomal recessive disorder affecting ~1 in 2500-4000 Caucasians. As most CF patients have no family history of the disorder, carrier screening for CF has the potential to prospectively identify couples at risk of conceiving an affected child. At-risk couples may consequently choose to act on the provided information and take steps to avoid the birth of a child with CF. Although carrier screening is widely believed to enhance reproductive autonomy of prospective parents, the practice also raises important ethical questions. A written questionnaire was administered to adult patients and parents of children with CF with the aim to explore participants' attitudes toward CF carrier screening and related reproductive issues. The study population was recruited from a CF patient registry in Belgium and comprised 111 participants (64 parents, 47 patients aged 16 or older). We found that more than 80% of all participants were in favor of preconception carrier screening for CF. However, some were concerned over potential negative consequences of population-wide CF carrier screening. Regarding future reproductive intentions, 43% of the participants indicated a desire to have children. Among these, preimplantation genetic diagnosis was found to be the most preferred reproductive option, closely followed by spontaneous pregnancy and prenatal diagnosis. Although the findings of our study suggest that patients and parents of children with CF support a population-based carrier screening program for CF, they also highlight some issues deserving particular attention when implementing such a program.

  18. The growing use of herbal medicines: issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety

    PubMed Central

    Ekor, Martins

    2014-01-01

    The use of herbal medicinal products and supplements has increased tremendously over the past three decades with not less than 80% of people worldwide relying on them for some part of primary healthcare. Although therapies involving these agents have shown promising potential with the efficacy of a good number of herbal products clearly established, many of them remain untested and their use are either poorly monitored or not even monitored at all. The consequence of this is an inadequate knowledge of their mode of action, potential adverse reactions, contraindications, and interactions with existing orthodox pharmaceuticals and functional foods to promote both safe and rational use of these agents. Since safety continues to be a major issue with the use of herbal remedies, it becomes imperative, therefore, that relevant regulatory authorities put in place appropriate measures to protect public health by ensuring that all herbal medicines are safe and of suitable quality. This review discusses toxicity-related issues and major safety concerns arising from the use of herbal medicinal products and also highlights some important challenges associated with effective monitoring of their safety. PMID:24454289

  19. A Needs Assessment of Health Issues Related to Maternal Mortality Rates in Afghanistan: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Naim, Ali; Feldman, Robert; Sawyer, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Maternal death rates in Afghanistan were among the highest in the world during the reign of the Taliban. Although these figures have improved, current rates are still alarming. The aim of this pilot study was to develop a needs assessment of the major health issues related to the high maternal mortality rates in Afghanistan. In-depth interviews were conducted with managerial midwives, clinical midwives, and mothers. Results of the interviews indicate that the improvement in the maternal mortality rate may be attributed to the increase in the involvement of midwives in the birthing process. However, barriers to decreasing maternal mortality still exist. These include transportation, access to care, and sociocultural factors such as the influence of the husband and mother-in-law in preventing access to midwives. Therefore, any programs to decrease maternal mortality need to address infrastructure issues (making health care more accessible) and sociocultural factors (including husbands and mother-in-laws in maternal health education). However, it should be noted that these findings are based on a small pilot study to help develop a larger scale need assessment.

  20. Review of cross-cultural issues related to quality of life after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Tate, Denise; Forchheimer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is a dynamic concept that means different things to different people, both in the general public and within the research community. Because of this, a common definition of QOL has been hard to achieve. This article reviews cross-cultural issues related to QOL research in spinal cord injury (SCI). Many factors influence QOL for persons with SCI, including observable and objective indicators and subjective self-report ones. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Function, Disability and Health is used in this article as a framework to better understand how these factors may influence QOL. A number of important steps are summarized with respect to measurement issues in QOL. A comparison between data from 2 countries (United States and Brazil) using the International SCI QOL Basic Data Set shows similarities in scores and good reliability in the Brazilian sample. Substantial, significant correlations were observed among the SCI QOL Basic Data Set items and the WHOQOL-BREF within the US sample. The article ends with a set of recommendations for the development of cross-cultural measures of QOL for use in the SCI population.

  1. Male occupational therapists in Ontario: a survey of work-related issues.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, J; Hay, J A

    1994-12-01

    Job satisfaction greatly influences an individual's decision to remain in his or her work situation. In many studies, one of the primary reasons for men leaving the profession of occupational therapy was due to job dissatisfaction. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the issue of job satisfaction in male occupational therapists. In March 1992, a survey was mailed to all (n = 82) male occupational therapists practicing in Ontario. A 67% (n = 55) response rate was obtained. This study addressed several factors pertaining to job satisfaction and other work-related issues. When using the median years of OT work experience (ie. seven) to divide the sample, two items were found to be significantly different when using one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA's): "satisfaction with the standing of the profession" and cumulative "satisfaction variable" items. In this study, less experienced male occupational therapists reported themselves to be less satisfied, more inclined to leave the profession or pursue another profession, but did not feel more isolated than their more experienced counterparts. The means of all items revealed a feeling of dissatisfaction on the Likert-scale used in this survey. Although no statistical significance could be achieved, a clear trend existed toward a lower level of satisfaction among the less experienced group.

  2. Review of Cross-Cultural Issues Related to Quality of Life After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is a dynamic concept that means different things to different people, both in the general public and within the research community. Because of this, a common definition of QOL has been hard to achieve. This article reviews cross-cultural issues related to QOL research in spinal cord injury (SCI). Many factors influence QOL for persons with SCI, including observable and objective indicators and subjective self-report ones. The World Health Organization’s International Classification of Function, Disability and Health is used in this article as a framework to better understand how these factors may influence QOL. A number of important steps are summarized with respect to measurement issues in QOL. A comparison between data from 2 countries (United States and Brazil) using the International SCI QOL Basic Data Set shows similarities in scores and good reliability in the Brazilian sample. Substantial, significant correlations were observed among the SCI QOL Basic Data Set items and the WHOQOL-BREF within the US sample. The article ends with a set of recommendations for the development of cross-cultural measures of QOL for use in the SCI population. PMID:25484564

  3. Discussing end-of-life care issues with terminally ill patients and their relatives: comparisons among physicians, nurses and psychologists.

    PubMed

    Iasevoli, Mario; Giantin, Valter; Voci, Alberto; Valentini, Elisabetta; Zurlo, Anna; Maggi, Stefania; Siviero, Paola; Orrù, Graziella; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Pegoraro, Renzo; Manzato, Enzo

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the end-of-life topics most frequently discussed by Italian physicians, nurses and psychologists with terminally ill patients and their relatives. Findings were compared with the levels of communication reported by physicians in other countries involved in the EURELD research project, in Europe and elsewhere. An ad hoc questionnaire was prepared to measure levels of communication and administered to 716 professionals (181 physicians, 454 nurses and 81 psychologists) employed in geriatric hospital wards, hospices and nursing homes, or registered with professional associations in the Veneto and Trentino Alto-Adige regions of north-east Italy. Statistical analyses (frequency analysis, multivariate logistic regression) were conducted on data from questionnaires returned by standard mail or email. Communication levels vary for the various end-of-life issues which physicians, nurses and psychologists are required to discuss and the individuals with whom they deal. Italian physicians are more communicative with relatives than with patients, whereas psychologists tend to discuss these problems more with patients than with members of their families. Nurses behave in much the same way with both patients and relatives. By comparison with their colleagues elsewhere in Europe, Italian physicians reveal more evident differences in their willingness to discuss end-of-life issues, depending on whether they are communicating with patients or relatives. Having received bio-ethical training helps physicians communicate with their patients. Communicating is a fundamental part of providing care for terminally ill patients and support for their families. The patient care process involves several kinds of professionals, who are all increasingly called upon to be prepared to discuss the end of a patient's life, and to develop a therapeutic relationship which includes communicating without evading any of the aspects (and problems) relating to this

  4. Review of Technical Issues Related to Predicting Isotopic Compositions and Source Terms for High-Burnup LWR Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, I. C.; Parks, C. V.

    2000-12-11

    This report has been prepared to review the technical issues important to the prediction of isotopic compositions and source terms for high-burnup, light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel as utilized in the licensing of spent fuel transport and storage systems. The current trend towards higher initial 235U enrichments, more complex assembly designs, and more efficient fuel management schemes has resulted in higher spent fuel burnups than seen in the past. This trend has led to a situation where high-burnup assemblies from operating LWRs now extend beyond the area where available experimental data can be used to validate the computational methods employed to calculate spent fuel inventories and source terms. This report provides a brief review of currently available validation data, including isotopic assays, decay heat measurements, and shielded dose-rate measurements. Potential new sources of experimental data available in the near term are identified. A review of the background issues important to isotopic predictions and some of the perceived technical challenges that high-burnup fuel presents to the current computational methods are discussed. Based on the review, the phenomena that need to be investigated further and the technical issues that require resolution are presented. The methods and data development that may be required to address the possible shortcomings of physics and depletion methods in the high-burnup and high-enrichment regime are also discussed. Finally, a sensitivity analysis methodology is presented. This methodology is currently being investigated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a computational tool to better understand the changing relative significance of the underlying nuclear data in the different enrichment and burnup regimes and to identify the processes that are dominant in the high-burnup regime. The potential application of the sensitivity analysis methodology to help establish a range of applicability for experimental

  5. Laser Applications to Chemical, Security, and Environmental Analysis: introduction to the feature issue

    SciTech Connect

    Dreizler, Andreas; Fried, Alan; Gord, James R

    2007-07-01

    This Applied Optics feature issue on Laser Applications to Chemical, Security,and Environmental Analysis (LACSEA) highlights papers presented at theLACSEA 2006 Tenth Topical Meeting sponsored by the Optical Society ofAmerica.

  6. Individual, work-, and flight-related issues in F-16 pilots reporting neck pain.

    PubMed

    De Loose, Veerle; Van den Oord, Marieke; Burnotte, Frédéric; Van Tiggelen, Damien; Stevens, Veerle; Cagnie, Barbara; Witvrouw, Erik; Danneels, Lieven

    2008-08-01

    Neck pain is a common problem in F-16 pilots. A cross-sectional survey was used to determine the self-reported 1-yr prevalence of neck pain and to compare individual, work-related, and flight-related characteristics in F-16 pilots with and without neck pain. There were 90 male F-16 pilots of the Belgian Air Force and The Royal Netherlands Air Force who voluntarily completed an anonymous survey. The 1-yr prevalence of neck pain was 18.9%. Pilots were divided into two groups: healthy (HG) and neck pain group (NPG). This study could not identify individual or specific flight-related differences between these two groups. High force demands, often sitting for a long time, frequently holding the neck in a forward bent posture, and being physically tired were all physical work-related factors that were reported significantly more often in the NPG. The NPG also reported significantly more psychosocial factors, such as being mentally tired at the end of the day and being annoyed by others at the workplace. Since the specific flight-related factors were not significantly different between the HG and the NPG, physical and psychosocial factors could have been important factors in the development or maintenance of neck pain in F-16 pilots. The results of this study highlight for the first time that, in addition to flight-related issues, other aspects must be considered in analyzing neck pain. These other aspects stress the importance of a broader approach when considering neck pain, even in this population that is exposed to very high loads during flight.

  7. THE NGA-DOE GRANT TO EXAMINE CRITICAL ISSUES RELATED TO RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND MATERIALS DISPOSITION INVOLVING DOE FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Ann M. Beauchesne

    1999-01-31

    Through the National Governors' Association (NGA) project ''Critical Issues Related to Radioactive Waste and Materials Disposition Involving DOE Facilities'' NGA brings together Governors' policy advisors, state regulators, and DOE officials to examine critical issues related to the cleanup and operation of DOE nuclear weapons and research facilities. Topics explored through this project include: (1) Decisions involving disposal of mixed, low-level, and transuranic (TRU) waste and disposition of nuclear materials; (2) Decisions involving DOE budget requests and their effect on environmental cleanup and compliance at DOE facilities; (3) Strategies to treat mixed, low-level, and transuranic (TRU) waste and their effect on individual sites in the complex; (4) Changes to the FFCA site treatment plans as a result of proposals in the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure plan and contractor integration analysis; (5) Interstate waste and materials shipments; and (6) Reforms to existing RCRA and CERCLA regulations/guidance to address regulatory overlap and risks posed by DOE wastes. The overarching theme of this project is to help the Department improve coordination of its major program decisions with Governors' offices and state regulators and to ensure such decisions reflect input from these key state officials and stakeholders. This report summarizes activities conducted during the quarter from October 1, 1998 through January 31, 1999, under the NGA grant. The work accomplished by the NGA project team during the past four months can be categorized as follows: (1) maintained open communication with DOE on a variety of activities and issues within the DOE environmental management complex; (2) maintained communication with NGA Federal Facilities Compliance Task Force members regarding DOE efforts to formulate a configuration for mixed low-level waste and low-level treatment and disposal, external regulation of DOE; and EM Integration activities; and (3

  8. THE NGA-DOE GRANT TO EXAMINE CRITICAL ISSUES RELATED TO RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND MATERIALS DISPOSITION INVOLVING DOE FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Ann B. Beauchesne

    1998-09-30

    Through the National Governors' Association (NGA) project ''Critical Issues Related to Radioactive Waste and Materials Disposition Involving DOE Facilities'' NGA brings together Governors' policy advisors, state regulators, and DOE officials to examine critical issues related to the cleanup and operation of DOE nuclear weapons and research facilities. Topics explored through this project include: (1) Decisions involving disposal of mixed, low-level, and transuranic (TRU) waste and disposition of nuclear materials; (2) Decisions involving DOE budget requests and their effect on environmental cleanup and compliance at DOE facilities; (3) Strategies to treat mixed, low-level, and transuranic (TRU) waste and their effect on individual sites in the complex; (4) Changes to the FFCA site treatment plans as a result of proposals in the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure plan and contractor integration analysis; (5) Interstate waste and materials shipments; and (6) Reforms to existing RCRA and CERCLA regulations/guidance to address regulatory overlap and risks posed by DOE wastes. The overarching theme of this project is to help the Department improve coordination of its major program decisions with Governors' offices and state regulators and to ensure such decisions reflect input from these key state officials and stakeholders. This report summarizes activities conducted during the quarter from June 1, 1998 through September 30, 1998, under the NGA grant. The work accomplished by the NGA project team during the past four months can be categorized as follows: (1) maintained open communication with DOE on a variety of activities and issues within the DOE environmental management complex; (2) maintained communication with NGA Federal Facilities Compliance Task Force members regarding DOE efforts to formulate a configuration for mixed low-level waste and low-level treatment and disposal, external regulation of DOE; and EM Integration activities; and (3

  9. Formal Methods for Cryptographic Protocol Analysis: Emerging Issues and Trends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Research Laboratory...Ferguson and Schneier [27] found an attack in which an intruder could trick an initiator into agreeing on the wrong SA by making use of the fact that...of some the techniques used for this last). The trick now, of course, is to integrate the formal analysis into the standard- ization process. With the

  10. Surface Modeling, Grid Generation, and Related Issues in Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choo, Yung K. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Steering Committee for Surface Modeling and Grid Generation (SMAGG) sponsored a workshop on surface modeling, grid generation, and related issues in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions at Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, May 9-11, 1995. The workshop provided a forum to identify industry needs, strengths, and weaknesses of the five grid technologies (patched structured, overset structured, Cartesian, unstructured, and hybrid), and to exchange thoughts about where each technology will be in 2 to 5 years. The workshop also provided opportunities for engineers and scientists to present new methods, approaches, and applications in SMAGG for CFD. This Conference Publication (CP) consists of papers on industry overview, NASA overview, five grid technologies, new methods/ approaches/applications, and software systems.

  11. Senior Seminar Focusing on Societal Issues Related to Chemistry and Biochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Harold B., III; Johnston, Murray V.; Panar, Manuel

    2000-12-01

    The lack of a clearly defined content or structure provided the opportunity to transform a one-credit, pass-fail senior seminar course into a meaningful capstone experience for chemistry and biochemistry majors. In addition to individual and class exercises associated with employment, graduate school, communication skills, and professional ethics, small groups of students worked together to create informative Web sites that took positions on important societal issues related to chemistry. Each group presented a seminar and responded to questions from their peers and two or more unannounced visitors, "wild cards" who often had expertise in the seminar topic. Throughout the course, the instructors placed particular emphasis on developing students' ability to work cooperatively, locate and evaluate information, make informed judgments based on available information, and logically develop and defend their positions. Input from a retired industrial chemist helped define these skill elements.

  12. Thin Solid Films Topical Special Issue on ZnO related transparent conductive oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Jinn P.; Endo, Tamio; Ellmer, Klaus; Gessert, Tim; Ginley, David

    2016-04-01

    World-wide research activities on ZnO and related transparent conductive oxides (TCO) in thin film, nanostructured, and multilayered forms are driven by the vast potential of these materials for optoelectronic, microelectronic, and photovoltaic applications. Renewed interest in ZnO applications is partly stimulated by cost reduction in material processing and device development. One of the most important issues is doping and alloying with Al, Ga, In, Sn, etc. in order to tune properties. When highly doped, these materials are used as transparent-conducting contacts on solar cells, as well as in catalytic, spintronic, and surface acoustic wave devices. Film growth conditions, including substrate type and orientation, growth temperature, deposition rate, and ambient atmosphere, all play important roles in determining structural, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties.

  13. Verification, validation, and accreditation issues related to a new IR sensor test capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elrod, Parker D.; Lowry, Heard S.; Mattasits, Gary R.

    1994-07-01

    The Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) has developed new test technologies and methodologies for realistic mission simulations testing of IR space-based sensors. These technologies and methodologies have been combined into an integrated approach for space sensor testing. Direct write scene generation plays a critical role in this integrated approach and is being applied in two new AEDC test facilities. Prior to performing the first test in such a new facility, a critical but often overlooked process must be completed. This critical process demonstrates that the test facility can indeed provide a realistic, NIST traceable simulation of a sensor's mission. This process is complex and must be uniquely tailored for each individual test facility and sensor mission. Such a process can be designed to address both developmental test and evaluation and operational test and evaluation concerns. A case study based on AEDC's direct write scene generation technology will be used to illustrate the issues related to the validation, verification, and accreditation process.

  14. Approach and Issues Relating to Shield Material Design to Protect Astronauts from Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Miller, J.; Shinn, J. L.; Thibeault, S. A.; Singleterry, R. C.; Simonsen, L. C.; Kim, M. H.

    2001-01-01

    One major obstacle to human space exploration is the possible limitations imposed by the adverse effects of long-term exposure to the space environment. Even before human spaceflight began, the potentially brief exposure of astronauts to the very intense random solar energetic particle (SEP) events was of great concern. A new challenge appears in deep space exploration from exposure to the low-intensity heavy-ion flux of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) since the missions are of long duration and the accumulated exposures can be high. Since aluminum (traditionally used in spacecraft to avoid potential radiation risks) leads to prohibitively expensive mission launch costs, alternative materials need to be explored. An overview of the materials related issues and their impact on human space exploration will be given.

  15. Doubly-Special Relativity: Facts, Myths and Some Key Open Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni

    I report on the status of the development of "doubly-special" relativistic ("DSR") theories with both an observer-independent high-velocity scale and an observer-independent small-length/large-momentum scale, with emphasis on some key open issues and some aspects that are particularly relevant for phenomenology. I also give a true-false characterization of the structure of these theories. In particular, I discuss a DSR scenario without modification of the energy-momentum dispersion relation and without the κ-Poincaré Hopf algebra, a scenario with deformed Poincaré symmetries which is not a DSR scenario, some scenarios with both an invariant length scale and an invariant velocity scale which are not DSR scenarios, and a DSR scenario in which it is easy to verify that some observable relativistic (but non-special-relativistic) features are insensitive to possible nonlinear redefinitions of symmetry generators.

  16. Basic issues related to quantity and quality of health care, and quality assurance in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Jacobalis, S

    1989-01-01

    Issues and problems related to the needs for quantity and quality in health care have been presented. The need for quantity has been quite successfully addressed in the last 20 years. Better quality of health care is very much in the minds of policy makers, providers and the informed public. Quality assessment and assurance as a programmed and on-going process in individual hospitals is systematically promoted and developed. An accreditation system for hospitals is planned for the future. This paper has not been able to contribute anything of value to the current practice of quality assurance. The industrialized world has passed the stages Indonesia is now going through. To some Australian colleagues, this presentation perhaps has revealed that one of their closest neighbours is struggling hard to improve the quality of life of its people, despite the tremendous problems and constraints with which it is confronted. Australia has always provided a helping hand in this struggle.

  17. Approach and issues relating to shield material design to protect astronauts from space radiation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J W; Cucinotta, F A; Miller, J; Shinn, J L; Thibeault, S A; Singleterry, R C; Simonsen, L C; Kim, M H

    2001-10-01

    One major obstacle to human space exploration is the possible limitations imposed by the adverse effects of long-term exposure to the space environment. Even before human spaceflight began, the potentially brief exposure of astronauts to the very intense random solar energetic particle (SEP) events was of great concern. A new challenge appears in deep space exploration from exposure to the low-intensity heavy-ion flux of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) since the missions are of long duration and the accumulated exposures can be high. Since aluminum (traditionally used in spacecraft to avoid potential radiation risks) leads to prohibitively expensive mission launch costs, alternative materials need to be explored. An overview of the materials related issues and their impact on human space exploration will be given. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  18. An analysis of ethical issues in using wastewater analysis to monitor illicit drug use.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne; Prichard, Jeremy; Kirkbride, Paul; Bruno, Raimondo; Thai, Phong K; Gartner, Coral; Lai, Foon Yin; Ort, Christoph; Mueller, Jochen F

    2012-10-01

    To discuss ethical issues that may arise in using WWA to monitor illicit drug use in the general population and in entertainment precincts, prisons, schools and work-places. Review current applications of WWA and identify ethical and social issues that may be raised with current and projected future uses of this method. Wastewater analysis (WWA) of drug residues is a promising method of monitoring illicit drug use that may overcome some limitations of other monitoring methods. When used for monitoring purposes in large populations, WWA does not raise major ethical concerns because individuals are not identified and the prospects of harming residents of catchment areas are remote. When WWA is used in smaller catchment areas (entertainment venues, prisons, schools or work-places) their results could, possibly, indirectly affect the occupants adversely. Researchers will need to take care in reporting their results to reduce media misreporting. Fears about possible use of WWA for mass individual surveillance by drug law enforcement officials are unlikely to be realized, but will need to be addressed because they may affect public support adversely for this type of research. Using wastewater analysis to monitor illicit drug use in large populations does not raise major ethical concerns, but researchers need to minimize possible adverse consequences in studying smaller populations, such as workers, prisoners and students. © 2012 The Authors. Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Results, potential effects, and implementation issues of the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, W C; Braun, P; Kelly, N L; Becker, E R

    1988-10-28

    This article presents the overall results of the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS) study. We present resource-based relative values for selected services in each of the 18 specialties we studied. We found that preservice and postservice work represents close to 50% of total work for invasive services and 33% of total work for evaluation/management services. We also found that the work per unit time (a measure of intensity) for invasive services is about three times that of evaluation/management. We developed a simple model and simulated an RBRVS-based fee schedule for the Medicare program under a "budget-neutral" assumption. Results for 30 commonly performed services show that office visit fees for evaluation/management services could rise by 70%, while some surgical fees could drop by 60%. We also simulated what the Medicare outlays would have been in 1986 for categories of medical services under an RBRVS-based fee schedule. We found that total Medicare payments for evaluation/management services would have increased by about 56%. Invasive, imaging, and laboratory services would have decreased by 42%, 30%, and 5%, respectively. We also discuss implementation issues related to an RBRVS-based fee schedule, such as the determination of a monetary conversion factor, practice costs, billing codes, and the need to evaluate the potential impacts of an RBRVS-based payment system on the cost and quality of health care.

  20. Private troubles to public issue: empowering communities to reduce alcohol-related harm in Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lasimbang, Helen Benedict; Shoesmith, Wendy; Mohd Daud, Mohd Nazri Bin; Kaur, Nirmal; Jin, Margaret Chin Pau; Singh, Jaswant; John, Wilfred; Salumbi, Edna; Amir, Lidwina

    2017-02-01

    Alcohol is the number three contributor to the burden of disease worldwide so must remain a priority health promotion issue internationally. Malaysia is a Muslim country and alcohol-related harm was not seen as a priority until recently, because it only affects a minority of the population. Sabah has more than 30 different ethnic groups, and alcohol has a traditional role in the cultural practices of many of these groups. In 2009, the Intervention Group for Alcohol Misuse (IGAM) was formed, under the umbrella of Mercy Malaysia by a group of healthcare workers, academics, members of the Clergy and people who were previously alcohol-dependent concerned about the harmful effects of excessive alcohol consumption. IGAM in collaboration with other bodies have organized public seminars, visited villages and schools, encouraged the formation of a support group and trained healthcare professionals in health promotion intervention. The focus later changed to empowering communities to find solutions to alcohol-related harm in their community in a way which is sensitive to their culture. A standard tool-kit was developed using WHO materials as a guide. Village committees were formed and adapted the toolkit according to their needs. This strategy has been shown to be effective, in that 90% of the 20 committees formed are actively and successfully involved in health promotion to reduce alcohol-related harm in their communities.

  1. Issues related to symptomatic and disease-modifying treatments affecting cognitive and neuropsychiatric comorbidities of epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Brooks-Kayal, Amy R.; Bath, Kevin G.; Berg, Anne T.; Galanopoulou, Aristea S.; Holmes, Gregory L.; Jensen, Frances E.; Kanner, Andres M.; O’Brien, Terence J.; Whittemore, Vicky H.; Winawer, Melodie R.; Patel, Manisha; Scharfman, Helen E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Many symptoms of neurologic or psychiatric illness—such as cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety, attention deficits, and migraine—occur more frequently in people with epilepsy than in the general population. These diverse comorbidities present an underappreciated problem for people with epilepsy and their caregivers because they decrease quality of life, complicate treatment, and increase mortality. In fact, it has been suggested that comorbidities can have a greater effect on quality of life in people with epilepsy than the seizures themselves. There is increasing recognition of the frequency and impact of cognitive and behavioral comorbidities of epilepsy, highlighted in the 2012 Institute of Medicine report on epilepsy. Comorbidities have also been acknowledged, as a National Institutes of Health (NIH) Benchmark area for research in epilepsy. However, relatively little progress has been made in developing new therapies directed specifically at comorbidities. On the other hand, there have been many advances in understanding underlying mechanisms. These advances have made it possible to identify novel targets for therapy and prevention. As part of the International League Against Epilepsy/American Epilepsy Society workshop on preclinical therapy development for epilepsy, our working group considered the current state of understanding related to terminology, models, and strategies for therapy development for the comorbidities of epilepsy. Herein we summarize our findings and suggest ways to accelerate development of new therapies. We also consider important issues to improve research including those related to methodology, nonpharmacologic therapies, biomarkers, and infrastructure. PMID:23909853

  2. Private troubles to public issue: empowering communities to reduce alcohol-related harm in Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lasimbang, Helen Benedict; Shoesmith, Wendy; Mohd Daud, Mohd Nazri Bin; Kaur, Nirmal; Jin, Margaret Chin Pau; Singh, Jaswant; John, Wilfred; Salumbi, Edna; Amir, Lidwina

    2015-09-27

    Alcohol is the number three contributor to the burden of disease worldwide so must remain a priority health promotion issue internationally. Malaysia is a Muslim country and alcohol-related harm was not seen as a priority until recently, because it only affects a minority of the population. Sabah has more than 30 different ethnic groups, and alcohol has a traditional role in the cultural practices of many of these groups. In 2009, the Intervention Group for Alcohol Misuse (IGAM) was formed, under the umbrella of Mercy Malaysia by a group of healthcare workers, academics, members of the Clergy and people who were previously alcohol-dependent concerned about the harmful effects of excessive alcohol consumption. IGAM in collaboration with other bodies have organized public seminars, visited villages and schools, encouraged the formation of a support group and trained healthcare professionals in health promotion intervention. The focus later changed to empowering communities to find solutions to alcohol-related harm in their community in a way which is sensitive to their culture. A standard tool-kit was developed using WHO materials as a guide. Village committees were formed and adapted the toolkit according to their needs. This strategy has been shown to be effective, in that 90% of the 20 committees formed are actively and successfully involved in health promotion to reduce alcohol-related harm in their communities.

  3. Issues relating to the subtraction phase in EOG artefact correction of the EEG.

    PubMed

    Croft, Rodney J; Barry, Robert J

    2002-06-01

    An important method for removing the effect of ocular artefact from the EEG is 'EOG correction'. This method estimates the proportion of ocular artefact that is in the EEG, and removes it by subtraction. To date, EOG correction research has focused on problems relating to the estimation of the correction coefficients. Using both mathematical rationale and empirical data, this paper addresses issues relating to the subtraction phase, such as the magnitude of error that can be expected due to EOG correction. Using ERP methodology, principal component and regression analyses, it is shown that the N1P2 complex propagates forward to the horizontal and radial (but not vertical) electrooculograms (EOG), and it is shown mathematically that this will result in EOG-correction error. Assuming an accurate estimate of ocular contamination of the EEG, maximal subtraction-phase error of the N1P2 complex was found to be a prefrontal attenuation of 15-22%, decreasing to central and occipital enhancements of 3-4% and 13-14%, respectively. The magnitude of this subtraction-phase error is compared to between-subject ERP variability and to error associated with EOG rejection (omitting data contaminated by ocular artefact). It is argued that such EOG correction error is small relative to both artefact rejection procedures and to normal variability found in ERP studies, and that it is less pernicious than artefact rejection procedures.

  4. Issues in Benchmarking Human Reliability Analysis Methods: A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; John A. Forester; Tuan Q. Tran; Erasmia Lois

    2010-06-01

    There is a diversity of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods available for use in assessing human performance within probabilistic risk assessments (PRA). Due to the significant differences in the methods, including the scope, approach, and underlying models, there is a need for an empirical comparison investigating the validity and reliability of the methods. To accomplish this empirical comparison, a benchmarking study comparing and evaluating HRA methods in assessing operator performance in simulator experiments is currently underway. In order to account for as many effects as possible in the construction of this benchmarking study, a literature review was conducted, reviewing past benchmarking studies in the areas of psychology and risk assessment. A number of lessons learned through these studies are presented in order to aid in the design of future HRA benchmarking endeavors.

  5. Issues in benchmarking human reliability analysis methods : a literature review.

    SciTech Connect

    Lois, Erasmia; Forester, John Alan; Tran, Tuan Q.; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt; Boring, Ronald L.

    2008-04-01

    There is a diversity of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods available for use in assessing human performance within probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Due to the significant differences in the methods, including the scope, approach, and underlying models, there is a need for an empirical comparison investigating the validity and reliability of the methods. To accomplish this empirical comparison, a benchmarking study is currently underway that compares HRA methods with each other and against operator performance in simulator studies. In order to account for as many effects as possible in the construction of this benchmarking study, a literature review was conducted, reviewing past benchmarking studies in the areas of psychology and risk assessment. A number of lessons learned through these studies are presented in order to aid in the design of future HRA benchmarking endeavors.

  6. Issue a Boil-Water Advisory or Wait for Definitive Information? A Decision Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Michael M.; Wallstrom, Garrick L.; Onisko, Agnieszka

    2005-01-01

    Objective Study the decision to issue a boil-water advisory in response to a spike in sales of diarrhea remedies or wait 72 hours for the results of definitive testing of water and people. Methods Decision analysis. Results In the base-case analysis, the optimal decision is test-and-wait. If the cost of issuing a boil-water advisory is less than 13.92 cents per person per day, the optimal decision is to issue the boil-water advisory immediately. Conclusions Decisions based on surveillance data that are suggestive but not conclusive about the existence of a disease outbreak can be modeled. PMID:16779145

  7. Issues in International Energy Consumption Analysis: Canadian Energy Demand

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The residential sector is one of the main end-use sectors in Canada accounting for 16.7% of total end-use site energy consumption in 2009 (computed from NRCan 2012. pp, 4-5). In this year, the residential sector accounted for 54.5% of buildings total site energy consumption. Between 1990 and 2009, Canadian household energy consumption grew by less than 11%. Nonetheless, households contributed to 14.6% of total energy-related greenhouse gas emissions in Canada in 2009 (computed from NRCan 2012). This is the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s second study to help provide a better understanding of the factors impacting residential energy consumption and intensity in North America (mainly the United States and Canada) by using similar methodology for analyses in both countries.

  8. Multitemporal image analysis of the green space dynamics: raising issues from the Bucharest case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaman, Florian; Aldea, Mihaela; Petrescu, Florian; Parlow, Eberhard; Luca, Oana; Sercaianu, Mihai; Iacoboaea, Cristina

    2016-08-01

    The dynamics of the green space in urban areas are key components for the urban environment monitoring options and of the urban planning strategies. In the European Union, specific regulations provide the quantitative measures for green space areas necessary for each inhabitant of a city. To assess the situation in the case of Bucharest, we used the multitemporal analysis of remotely sensed imagery based on Landsat archive available. This enabled us to characterize the possibility to monitor and assess the changes in the vegetation cover over a quarter of a century, and raised a series of issues based on the remote sensing observations and image processing. The quantitative assessment of the green spaces is further developed into proposals related to the green space provisions in urban planning, but also revisions of the quantitative measures used in regulations.

  9. Issues about axial diffusion during segmental hair analysis.

    PubMed

    Kintz, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    matrix or changes in the hair structure due to cosmetic treatments might mislead the final result of hair analysis. To qualify for a single exposure in hair, the author proposes to consider that the highest drug concentration must be detected in the segment corresponding to the period of the alleged event (calculated with a hair growth rate at 1 cm/mo) and that the measured concentration be at least 3 times higher than those measured in the previous or the following segments. This must only be done using scalp hair after cutting the hair directly close to the scalp.

  10. Summary of tank information relating salt well pumping to flammable gas safety issues

    SciTech Connect

    Caley, S.M.; Mahoney, L.A.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Hanford Site has 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. Active use of these SSTs was phased out completely by November 1980, and the first step toward final disposal of the waste in the SSTs is interim stabilization, which involves removing essentially all of the drainable liquid from the tank. Stabilization can be achieved administratively, by jet pumping to remove drainable interstitial liquid, or by supernatant pumping. To date, 116 tanks have been declared interim stabilized; 44 SSTs have had drainable liquid removed by salt well jet pumping. Of the 149 SSTs, 19 are on the Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL) because the waste in these tanks is known or suspected, in all but one case, to generate and retain mixtures of flammable gases, including; hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Salt well pumping to remove the drainable interstitial liquid from these SSTs is expected to cause the release of much of the retained gas, posing a number of safety concerns. The scope of this work is to collect and summarize information, primarily tank data and observations, that relate salt well pumping to flammable gas safety issues. While the waste within FGWL SSTs is suspected offering flammable gases, the effect of salt well pumping on the waste behavior is not well understood. This study is being conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company as part of the Flammable Gas Project at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Understanding the historical tank behavior during and following salt well pumping will help to resolve the associated safety issues.

  11. Application of Radiation Chemistry to Some Selected Technological Issues Related to the Development of Nuclear Energy.

    PubMed

    Bobrowski, Krzysztof; Skotnicki, Konrad; Szreder, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    The most important contributions of radiation chemistry to some selected technological issues related to water-cooled reactors, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes, and fuel evolution during final radioactive waste disposal are highlighted. Chemical reactions occurring at the operating temperatures and pressures of reactors and involving primary transients and stable products from water radiolysis are presented and discussed in terms of the kinetic parameters and radiation chemical yields. The knowledge of these parameters is essential since they serve as input data to the models of water radiolysis in the primary loop of light water reactors and super critical water reactors. Selected features of water radiolysis in heterogeneous systems, such as aqueous nanoparticle suspensions and slurries, ceramic oxides surfaces, nanoporous, and cement-based materials, are discussed. They are of particular concern in the primary cooling loops in nuclear reactors and long-term storage of nuclear waste in geological repositories. This also includes radiation-induced processes related to corrosion of cladding materials and copper-coated iron canisters, dissolution of spent nuclear fuel, and changes of bentonite clays properties. Radiation-induced processes affecting stability of solvents and solvent extraction ligands as well oxidation states of actinide metal ions during recycling of the spent nuclear fuel are also briefly summarized.

  12. A review of return to play issues and sports-related concussion.

    PubMed

    Doolan, Amy W; Day, Daniel D; Maerlender, Arthur C; Goforth, Michael; Gunnar Brolinson, P

    2012-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury in sports has become a significant public health concern which has not only received the general public's attention through multiple news media stories involving athletic concussions, but has also resulted in local, state, and national legislative efforts to improve recognition and management. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature for return to play (RTP) guidelines. State, regional, national, and professional legislation on sport-related concussion RTP management issues will be reviewed. This article will be helpful in developing a generalized systematic approach to concussion management and highlight specific RTP guidelines. The article will also touch upon specific contraindications to RTP, the role of neuropsychological testing in RTP, and other considerations and complications that affect an athlete's ability to return to competition. Finally, considerations for terminating an athlete's competitive season or ending a career after sustaining a concussion resulting in prolonged and protracted symptomatology or repeated concussions will be reviewed. PubMed and Google were searched using the key terms mentioned below. In addition, the author's library of concussion-related articles was reviewed for the relevant literature.

  13. 43 CFR 2931.2 - What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... recreation-related uses of public lands? 2931.2 Section 2931.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Permits for Recreation; General § 2931.2 What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands? The regulations in this part establish...

  14. Economic analysis of U.S. ethanol expansion issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Malika

    The dependency of the U.S. economy on crude oil imported from politically unstable countries, escalating energy demand world wide, growing nationwide environmental consciousness, and the Renewable Fuels Standards (RFS) government mandates are some of the primary factors that have provided a favorable environment for the growth and development of the U.S. ethanol industry. The first essay derives decision rules for a discrete-time dynamic hedging model in a multiple commodity framework under expected utility maximization and basis risk. It compares hedging performance of three types of hedging models, namely constant hedging, time-varying static hedging model and the new dynamic hedging rule derived in this study. Findings show that natural gas futures contracts were effective instruments for hedging ethanol spot price risk before March, 2005, when ethanol futures trading was initiated on the CBOT. However, post-March, 2005, corn and ethanol futures contracts proved to be efficient hedging instruments. Results also indicate that ethanol producers may effectively decrease variance of cumulative cash flows by hedging using ethanol, natural gas and corn futures prices using the traditional techniques. The study concludes that using the new dynamic hedge model in a three period and two commodity set up, producers can effectively reduce variance of cumulative cash flow by 13.2% as compared to the 'no hedge' scenario. In my second essay, I use choice based, conjoint analysis methods to estimate consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for alternative transportation fuels in the U.S. In this study, I consider unleaded gasoline and ethanol, which may be derived from corn or three different sources of cellulosic biomass as alternative transportation fuels. Results suggest that age and household income are some of the socioeconomic variables that significantly influence consumer's choice behavior. Results indicate considerable consumer preference heterogeneity. Welfare effects are

  15. Approach to ecological assessment of power-plant-intake (316b) related issues: the Prairie Island case

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Vaughan, D.S.; Hildebrand, S.G.; Kumar, K.D.

    1981-04-01

    Assessment approaches and strategies useful in addressing important issues in section 316(b) of the 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act are illustrated in this report through the analysis and evaluation of the Prairie Island Nuclear Station 316(b) data base. The main issues in 316(b) demonstrations, cooling water intake operation and location, involve determining the impacts of entrainment and impingement. Entrainment impacts were addressed by applying the equivalent adult approach and correcting for inherent biases and by determining the through-plant survival of zooplankton. An assessment of impingement impacts was made by comparing for each of various species the number of fish impinged to estimates of population size. Densities of plankton and fish were compared between the intake area and an alternate area to determine if the location of the present intake minimizes impacts. No definitive conclusion relative to the best location of the intake could be made because of high year to year variability in the data and the differential dominance of trophic groups between areas.

  16. Development of a patient-based questionnaire about emotional and social issues related to eating with dentures.

    PubMed

    Kelly, S A M; Hyland, R M; Ellis, J S; Thomason, J M; Moynihan, P J

    2012-08-01

    In order to fully assess the impact of prosthetic rehabilitation and to formulate appropriate dietary advice, in-depth information about patients' experiences of eating with dentures is needed. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire that accurately reflected the real concerns of patients with dental prostheses about the aspects of their life related to eating, using detailed information derived from qualitative interviews with patients. Themes around factors related to eating with dentures were derived from interviews with patients (n=66) with either implant-supported mandibular over-dentures or conventional dentures. The themes were used to design a self-completed questionnaire with questions scored on a visual analogue scale and additionally questions answered using free text. The content and face validity of the questionnaire was tested on a different group of patients (n=10) with implant-supported mandibular over-dentures ('implant-supported') or conventional dentures. Test-retest reliability analysis was conducted on a further group of 30 patients (n=15 implant-supported; n=15 conventional dentures). A questionnaire has been developed with 33 questions scored on a visual analogue scale and 31 open questions designed to collect further information as free text. Themes identified were around social, emotional and practical issues about eating. The instrument has good internal reliability with a Cronbach alpha values of 0.86-0.95 and good test-retest reliability with intra-class correlation coefficients 0.87-0.92 across the domains. A patient-based instrument has been developed to measure emotional and social issues related to eating with dentures (ESIRE questionnaire). The questionnaire will be a useful tool in future trials of prosthetic rehabilitation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Stress and law enforcers: testing the relationship between law enforcement work stressors and health-related issues.

    PubMed

    Avdija, Avdi S

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between law enforcement work-related stressors and health issues. Specifically, this study attempts to determine the effects of stress-producing factors (e.g. vigorous activities at work, shift change, perceived danger associated with police work, etc.) on physiological health-related issues (e.g. the number of reported health issues, high blood pressure, back pain, and headaches) and psychosocial behavior problems (e.g. alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking) among police officers. The analyses are based on a total 1632 law enforcement officers, who represent 51 police agencies in the three major cities, New York City, Dallas Texas, and Minneapolis, USA. The research findings that emerged from this study show that the number of days in vigorous activities and perceived physiological demands have the strongest influence on the number of health-related issues. Working without a partner and frequent shift changes had the strongest influence on alcohol consumption by police officers.

  18. Relativity Concept Inventory: Development, Analysis, and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example,…

  19. Relativity Concept Inventory: Development, Analysis, and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example,…

  20. Alcohol-related violence presenting to the emergency department: is 'glassing' the big issue?

    PubMed

    Laing, Anthony J; Sendall, Marguerite C; Barker, Ruth

    2013-12-01

    The study aims to describe the characteristics of patients presenting to EDs within Queensland, Australia with injuries because of assault with a glass implement ('glassing') and to set this within the broader context of presentations because of alcohol-related violence. This is an analysis of prospectively collected ED injury surveillance data collated by the Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit between 1999 and 2011. Cases of injury because of alcohol-related violence were identified and analysed using coded fields supplemented with qualitative data contained within the injury description text. Descriptive statistics were used to assess the characteristics of injury presentations because of alcohol-related violence. Violence included interpersonal violence and aggression (verbal aggression and object violence). A total of 4629 cases were studied. The study population was predominantly men (72%) and aged 18 to 24 (36%), with men in this age group comprising more than a quarter of the study population (28%). Nine per cent of alcohol-related assault injuries were a consequence of 'glassing'. The home was the most common location for alcohol-related violence (31%) and alcohol-related 'glassings' (33%). Overall, the most common glass object involved was a bottle (75%); however, within licensed venues an even mix of a drinking glass (44%) and glass bottle (45%) was identified. Contrary to public perception generated by media, 'glassing' incidents, particularly at licensed venues, constitute a relatively small proportion of all alcohol-related violence. The current study highlights the predominance of young men injured following alcohol-related violence, demonstrating a key focus area within the population for aiming prevention strategies. © 2013 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  1. Issues related to handling Exploration Seismic data within the EU FP7 GeoSeas project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diviacco, Paolo; Cox, Simon

    2010-05-01

    GeoSeas is a sibling of the SeaDataNet initiative, aiming at creating an e-infrastructure where users will be able to identify, locate and access pan-European, harmonized and federated marine Geological and Geophysical data. GeoSeas adopts many of the technologies developed within SeaDataNet. While for most of the designated data types, only minor tuning is required, the case of Exploration Seismics poses several issues needing specific solutions. The main issue is the sampling strategy, where the technologies, practices and the legacies of exploration geophysics differ considerably from those found in Oceanography (the original research field considered by SeaDataNet). Specific extensions to the SeaDataNet framework were required at many levels. The most significant interventions concerned the Common Data Index (CDI) metadatabase and data access mechanisms. The primary feature of interest in marine exploration geophysics is the seismic line (in the 2D case) or the seismic volume (3D). For various reasons seismic lines are often segmented, which poses serious problems to the one-to-one correspondence between the CDI and data files. Furthermore, common practice is for positioning and the observation data to be managed separately. Another issue is that the catalogue of metadata items needed for Seismic data discovery and browsing needs parameters that are not available in the standard CDI. However, in the context of data discovery a common framework for all data types is preferable, so we should avoid unnecessary customization for this data type. Both of these issues have been addressed using the framework provided by the OGC Observations and Measurements standard (O&M - see Cox, this conference). O&M provides a structure for observation metadata, allowing the description of the feature of interest, observation procedure, sampling features and the relationships between them, while still allowing the original encoding of the actual observation result. Thus, the

  2. Vocational technical and adult education: Status, trends and issues related to electronic delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothenberg, D.

    1973-01-01

    Data are analyzed, and trends and issues are discussed to provide information useful to the systems designer who wishes to identify and assess the opportunities for large scale electronic delivery in vocational/technical and adult education. Issues connected with vocational/technical education are investigated, with emphasis on those issues in the current spotlight which are relevant to the possibilities of electronic delivery. The current role of media is examined in vocational/technical instruction.

  3. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners.

  4. Addressing practical issues related to nursing care for international visitors to Hiroshima.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Mariko; Niiya, Kiyoka; Okayasu, Masako

    2014-04-01

    When nine million foreigners visited Japan in 2013, the federal government set a goal to attract an additional two and a half million visitors including medical tourists by 2020. This research investigates the attitudes and concerns of Japanese nurses when they are in a situation dealing with foreign patients. The data were collected from March through September 2010, from 114 nurses at three hospitals, in close proximity to popular tourist destinations in Hiroshima. A questionnaire was developed for this research, named Mari Meter, which included a section to write answers to an open question for the nurses to express their opinions. These responses were examined statistically and by word analysis using Text Mining Studio. Japanese nurses expressed greatest concern about payment options, foreign language skills, and issues of informed consent, when dealing with foreigners. The results confirm that, in order to provide a high quality of patient care, extra preparation and a greater knowledge of international workers and visitors are required by nursing professionals in Japan.

  5. Review and Prioritization of Technical Issues Related to Burnup Credit for LWR Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C V; DeHart, M D; Wagner, John C

    2000-03-13

    This report has been prepared to review relevant background information and provide technical discussion that will help initiate a PIRT (Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables) process for use of burnup credit in light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel storage and transport cask applications. The PIRT process will be used by the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research to help prioritize and guide a coordinated program of research and as a means to obtain input/feedback from industry and other interested parties. The review and discussion in this report are based on knowledge and experience gained from work performed in the United States and other countries. Current regulatory practice and perceived industry needs are also reviewed as a background for prioritizing technical needs that will facilitate safe practice in the use of burnup credit. Relevant physics and analysis phenomenon are identified, and an assessment of their importance to burnup credit implementation is given. Finally, phenomena that need to be better understood for effective licensing, together with technical issues that require resolution, are presented and discussed in the form of a prioritization ranking and initial draft program plan.

  6. Management issues related to effectively implementing a nutrition education program using peer educators.

    PubMed

    Taylor, T; Serrano, E; Anderson, J

    2001-01-01

    To explore the influence of administrative aspects of a nutrition education program with peer educators delivering the program. Telephone interviews with peer educators trained to deliver La Cocina Saludable, a nutrition education program for Hispanics. Open- and closed-ended questions. Abuelas (grandmothers) recruited and trained as peer educators for the program. The sample included peer educators no longer teaching (22%), currently teaching (30%), and who never taught after training. Motives and incentives for becoming peer educators, challenges for peer educators, and reasons peer educators withdrew from the program. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze quantitative data from the closed-ended questions. Qualitative analysis was applied to data from open-ended questions. Working with community and learning about nutrition were prime motivators. Recruiting participants and coordination of classes appeared to be major challenges. Personal issues and traveling in a large geographic area were cited as the main reasons for quitting. The effectiveness of using peer educators for La Cocina Saludable may be improved through empowerment, additional training, a structured and equitable reimbursement system, and assistance to carry out administrative tasks.

  7. Television and Attitudes toward Mental Health Issues: Cultivation Analysis and the Third-Person Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diefenbach, Donald L.; West, Mark D.

    2007-01-01

    A television content analysis and survey of 419 community respondents supports the hypothesis that media stereotypes affect public attitudes toward mental health issues. A content analysis of network, prime-time television demonstrates that portrayals are violent, false, and negative. The mentally disordered are portrayed as 10 times more likely…

  8. Special Issues Analysis Center Annual Report: Year One. Volumes I-V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Associates, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    The Special Issues Analysis Center (SIAC) provides technical assistance to the Department of Education's Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs (OBEMLA) in its mission of serving limited-English-proficient (LEP) students. The SIAC carries out data gathering and analysis, research, and other support services to inform OBEMLA…

  9. Management of multiple sclerosis in adolescents – current treatment options and related adherence issues

    PubMed Central

    Mah, Jean K; Thannhauser, Jennifer E

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system that is increasingly recognized in children and adolescents. This realization comes with additional concerns about existing therapeutic options and the impact of the disease on health-related outcomes of adolescents with MS. This five-part review provides an update on management strategies relevant to the pediatric MS population. The first section gives an overview on the epidemiology and natural history of early onset MS. The second section outlines currently available MS treatments, including medications during acute relapses and long-term immunomodulatory therapies. The third section highlights adherence issues pertaining to MS, including the challenges uniquely faced by adolescents. The fourth section provides a summary of research into quality of life and psychosocial consequences of pediatric onset MS. Attention is drawn to the grief experience of affected adolescents and the importance of peer relationships. Finally, the family resilience framework is presented as a conceptual model to facilitate optimal adaptation of adolescents with MS. Healthcare professionals can promote resilience and treatment adherence by ensuring that these individuals and their families are sufficiently informed about available MS treatments, providing instrumental support for managing potential medication side effects, and addressing age-appropriate developmental needs. PMID:24600259

  10. Health, safety and environmental issues relating to cadmium usage in photovoltaic energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M. ); Zweibel, K. )

    1989-12-01

    This paper discusses the current technology base and hazards associated with two promising thin-film photovoltaic cells that contain cadmium compounds -- cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}). More specifically, this paper summarizes the toxicological information on cadmium (Cd) compounds; evaluates potential health, safety and environmental hazards associated with cadmium usage in the photovoltaics industry; describes regulatory requirements associated with the use, handling and disposal of cadmium compounds; and lists management options to permit the safe and continued use of these materials. Handling of cadmium in photovoltaic production can present hazards to health, safety and the environment. Prior recognition of these hazards can allow device manufacturers and regulators to implement appropriate and readily available hazard management strategies. Hazards associated with product use (i.e., array fires) and disposal remain controversial and partially unresolved. The most likely effects that could be expected would be those associated with chronic low-level exposures to cadmium wastes. Because of the general immobility of the cadmium present in these devices and availability of environmental and biomonitoring protocols, chronic hazards can be monitored, and remediated if necessary. Nevertheless, concern about cadmium hazards should continue to be emphasized to ensure that health, safety and environmental issues are properly managed. At the same time, the potential role that these systems can play in ameliorating some important health and environmental hazards related to other energy systems should not be ignored. 27 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. [Health-related quality of life in patients treated for ovarian cancer: tools and issues].

    PubMed

    Bryand, A; Hamidou, Z; Paget-Bailly, S; Bonnetain, F; Mathelin, C; Baldauf, J-J; Akladios, C

    2015-02-01

    Health-related quality of life (QoL) in patients treated for ovarian cancer is directly and heavily impacted by the natural history of cancer, its evolution and its therapeutic modalities. The evaluation and consideration of various parameters of QoL seems to be a major issue. Indeed, on the one hand, it is essential to take into account the opinion of patients in the choice of therapeutic strategies for this cancer with a poor prognosis and, on the other hand, more and more studies show that QoL is an independent prognostic factor in ovarian cancer. Improvement in this case, in addition to being an endpoint by itself, would potentially improve the overall survival of patients. To date there are several tools to assess QOL of patients with ovarian cancer. The 2 questionnaires most commonly used are: FACT-O and the EORTC QLQ-OV28. The aim of our study was to evaluate from a review of the literature, the reciprocal effects of ovarian cancer on QoL and QoL on ovarian cancer survival, as well as specificities of each of the 2 questionnaires most commonly used in assessing the QoL.

  12. Heterogeneity in IBD allele sharing among covariate-defined subgroups: issues and findings for affected relatives.

    PubMed

    Bull, Shelley B; Mirea, Lucia; Briollais, Laurent; Logan, Alexander G

    2003-01-01

    Modelling of variation in identical-by-descent (IBD) allele sharing using covariates can increase power to detect linkage, identify covariate-defined subgroups linked to particular marker regions, and improve the design of subsequent studies to localize genes and characterize their effects. In this report, we highlight issues that arise in studies of families with affected relatives. Mirea et al. [Genet Epidemiol 2003, in press] extended linear and exponential linkage likelihood models [Kong and Cox, Am J Hum Genet 1997;61: 1179-1188] to model variation in NPL scores among covariate-defined groups of families, and proposed likelihood ratio (LR) and t statistics to detect differences in allele sharing between groups defined by a binary covariate. Here we evaluate factors affecting the power of these tests analytically and by example, as well as effects of constraints, nuisance parameters, and incomplete data on test validity by simulation of locus heterogeneity in families with affected siblings or affected cousins. Provided constraints on the parameters are avoided, these tests are particularly useful when one subgroup has less than expected IBD sharing. The distribution of the LR statistic depends on the extent of linkage, particularly in the presence of constraints. The t statistic may be biased by group differences in information content. We recommend that constraints be applied cautiously, and covariate effects in IBD allele sharing models interpreted with care. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Xylitol: a review on bioproduction, application, health benefits, and related safety issues.

    PubMed

    Ur-Rehman, Salim; Mushtaq, Zarina; Zahoor, Tahir; Jamil, Amir; Murtaza, Mian Anjum

    2015-01-01

    Xylitol is a pentahydroxy sugar-alcohol which exists in a very low quantity in fruits and vegetables (plums, strawberries, cauliflower, and pumpkin). On commercial scale, xylitol can be produced by chemical and biotechnological processes. Chemical production is costly and extensive in purification steps. However, biotechnological method utilizes agricultural and forestry wastes which offer the possibilities of economic production of xylitol by reducing required energy. The precursor xylose is produced from agricultural biomass by chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis and can be converted to xylitol primarily by yeast strain. Hydrolysis under acidic condition is the more commonly used practice influenced by various process parameters. Various fermentation process inhibitors are produced during chemical hydrolysis that reduce xylitol production, a detoxification step is, therefore, necessary. Biotechnological xylitol production is an integral process of microbial species belonging to Candida genus which is influenced by various process parameters such as pH, temperature, time, nitrogen source, and yeast extract level. Xylitol has application and potential for food and pharmaceutical industries. It is a functional sweetener as it has prebiotic effects which can reduce blood glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol level. This review describes recent research developments related to bioproduction of xylitol from agricultural wastes, application, health, and safety issues.

  14. Design of occupational therapy on-road test routes and related validity issues.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Marilyn; Macdonald, Wendy

    2012-02-01

    Specialist Occupational Therapy Driver Assessors and driver licensing authorities require on-road assessment procedures that are both valid and reliable. Assessment validity may be influenced by both test route characteristics and driver characteristics. To address these issues, this study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of test routes used by Occupational Therapy Driver Assessors (including associated driving manoeuvres and traffic conditions) and to explore Occupational Therapy Driver Assessor views relating to on-road assessment procedures. In-depth interviews of 22 Occupational Therapy Driver Assessors were conducted; seven of the routes examined were in rural or regional locations. Supplementary information was obtained by observation of routes and review of Occupational Therapy Driver Assessors' route documentation. All Occupational Therapy Driver Assessors reported using a standard test route for clients seeking an open (i.e. not geographically restricted) licence. Compliance with professional guidelines reassessment procedures was very high for test items designated as compulsory, but more variable for those designated only as desirable. Differences between rural/regional vs. urban routes were noted, with those in rural/regional areas being less cognitively demanding. This study highlighted variation in route complexity between urban and rural locations. Whereas compliance with current professional guidelines for compulsory route items was very high, more detailed specification of standard route requirements is needed to improve the construct and content validity of assessments. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2012 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  15. Special Issue of Selected Papers from Visualization and Data Analysis 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David L.; Wong, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    This special issue features the best papers that were selected from the 18th SPIE Conference on Visualization and Data Analysis (VDA 2011). This annual conference is a major international forum for researchers and practitioners interested in data visualization and analytics research, development, and applications. VDA 2011 received 42 high-quality submissions from around the world. Twenty-four papers were selected for full conference papers. The top five papers have been expanded and reviewed for this special issue.

  16. School Administrators' Perceptions of Trends, Issues, and Responsibilities Relating to the Modern Educational Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, William L.; Walter, James K.

    In 1995, a group of school administrators affiliated with the Indiana Executive Fellows Program identified important educational issues. This paper presents findings of a 1997 study that asked a different sample of superintendents to rank a list of educational issues on the basis of importance. Questionnaires were sent to 325 superintendents in…

  17. Related Critical Psychometric Issues and Their Resolutions during Development of PE Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Connie; Zhu, Weimo; Park, Youngsik; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Graber, Kim C.; Dyson, Ben; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Placek, Judith H.; Rink, Judy; Raynes, De

    2011-01-01

    In addition to validity and reliability evidence, other psychometric qualities of the PE Metrics assessments needed to be examined. This article describes how those critical psychometric issues were addressed during the PE Metrics assessment bank construction. Specifically, issues included (a) number of items or assessments needed, (b) training…

  18. Current Issues Related to Associate Degree Nursing: Their Impact on Directors, Faculty, and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavenar, Mary G.

    Perceptions of students, faculty members, and associate degree nursing (ADN) program directors/coordinators concerning seven issues affecting ADN programs were obtained in 1982. The issues, which were identified through a review of the literature, were: entry into practice, professional and technical nurses, developing competency statements,…

  19. Minimizing Disparities and Developing Support by Identifying Differences in Confidence and Knowledge Related to Water Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Melissa; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2016-01-01

    Extension educators face challenges as they strive to keep up with critical issues in their communities, such as those surrounding water. A growing population and a diminishing water supply necessitate that Florida residents become more knowledgeable about water issues. We conducted research to determine how confident both the general public and…

  20. Current Issues Related to Associate Degree Nursing: Their Impact on Directors, Faculty, and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavenar, Mary G.

    Perceptions of students, faculty members, and associate degree nursing (ADN) program directors/coordinators concerning seven issues affecting ADN programs were obtained in 1982. The issues, which were identified through a review of the literature, were: entry into practice, professional and technical nurses, developing competency statements,…

  1. Minimizing Disparities and Developing Support by Identifying Differences in Confidence and Knowledge Related to Water Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Melissa; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2016-01-01

    Extension educators face challenges as they strive to keep up with critical issues in their communities, such as those surrounding water. A growing population and a diminishing water supply necessitate that Florida residents become more knowledgeable about water issues. We conducted research to determine how confident both the general public and…

  2. Related Critical Psychometric Issues and Their Resolutions during Development of PE Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Connie; Zhu, Weimo; Park, Youngsik; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Graber, Kim C.; Dyson, Ben; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Placek, Judith H.; Rink, Judy; Raynes, De

    2011-01-01

    In addition to validity and reliability evidence, other psychometric qualities of the PE Metrics assessments needed to be examined. This article describes how those critical psychometric issues were addressed during the PE Metrics assessment bank construction. Specifically, issues included (a) number of items or assessments needed, (b) training…

  3. Confronting the Unknown: Principal Preparation Training in Issues Related to Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelle, Pamela; Bilton, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines principal preparation programs from the perspective of readiness to confront and/or support special education issues at the school building level. The purpose of this research was to answer the following questions: (1) What is the principal's readiness level upon program completion in dealing with special education issues in…

  4. Addressing Individual Difficulties in Reading: Issues Relating to Reading Recovery and Pause, Prompt, Praise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wearmouth, Janice

    2004-01-01

    Recently the DfES has issued guidance on ways to address the needs of students who experience difficulties in literacy through Wave Three provision in the National Literacy Strategy (DfES, 2002). This guidance raises the issue of what kind of programmes might be initiated in mainstream schools that will improve what is available generally for…

  5. Public health issues related with the consumption of food obtained from genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Paparini, Andrea; Romano-Spica, Vincenzo

    2004-01-01

    Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are a fact of modern agriculture and a major field of discussion in biotechnology. As science incessantly achieves innovative and unexpected breakthroughs, new medical, political, ethical and religious debates arise over the production and consumption of transgenic organisms. Despite no described medical condition being directly associated with a diet including approved GM crops in large exposed populations such as 300,000,000 Americans and a billion Chinese, public opinion seems to look at this new technology with either growing concern or even disapproval. It is generally recognized that a high level of vigilance is necessary and highly desirable, but it should also be considered that GMOs are a promising new challenge for the III Millennium societies, with remarkable impact on many disciplines and fields related to biotechnology. To acquire a basic knowledge on GMO production, GM-food consumption, GMO interaction with humans and environment is of primary importance for risk assessment. It requires availability of clear data and results from rigorous experiments. This review will focus on public health risks related with a GMO-containing diet. The objective is to summarize state of the art research, provide fundamental technical information, point out problems and perspectives, and make available essential tools for further research. Are GMO based industries and GMO-derived foods safe to human health? Can we consider both social, ethical and public health issues by means of a constant and effective monitoring of the food chain and by a clear, informative labeling of the products? Which are the so far characterized or alleged hazards of GMOs? And, most importantly, are these hazards actual, potential or merely contrived? Several questions remain open; answers and solutions belong to science, to politics and to the personal opinion of each social subject.

  6. Some issues relating to the use of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) samples as reference standards.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Gilles; Chittim, Brock; McAlees, Alan; McCrindle, Robert; Riddell, Nicole; Yeo, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Samples of potassium perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOSK) from three suppliers were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS for purity and by LC-ESI-MS for the percentage of linear isomer present. Our data indicated that the purity ranged from 80% to 98% and the percentages of linear isomer from 67% to 79%. The proportion of branched isomers present in the samples was also estimated using (19)F NMR. These results agreed quite closely with those found by LC-ESI-MS indicating that there is essentially no difference in overall SIM response factor for the branched isomers vs. that of the linear isomer. Several further observations relevant to the use of standards when analyzing for PFOS were encountered during this study. It appears unlikely that matrix effects attributable to the cation (sodium or potassium) present in PFOSNa or PFOSK internal standards is an issue. In seeking potential matrix effects, it was found that the chromatography was improved substantially when the standard was injected as a solution in 80:20 methanol/water rather than 100% methanol. Notably, in concert with the improvement in chromatography, an increase of about 10% in response was observed. In some closely related studies, when (18)O(2) mass-labeled perfluorohexanesulfonate was used as an internal standard, the actual and theoretical concentration ratios matched closely those for related native sulfonates as long as they did not co-elute. However, when they did co-elute, the peak intensities of the native species were enhanced by about 5%, while those of the labeled compound were suppressed by a similar amount. If this effect were not taken into account, the concentration of the native would be inflated by 10%.

  7. Human factors in firefighting: ergonomic-, cardiopulmonary-, and psychogenic stress-related issues.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, T L

    1992-01-01

    There are many issues in firefighting that involve human factors and cardiopulmonary conditioning. Population-based mortality and disability surveillance studies suggest a relatively small but significant excess of disability but not mortality from nonmalignant cardiovascular disease for firefighters. More targeted cohort and case-control studies do not support such an excess and instead suggest a strong healthy worker effect. Pulmonary function among firefighters has been extensively studied, with contradictory findings. Extreme exposures and long-term exposure in combination with cigarette smoking may be risk factors for respiratory disorders and accelerated decline in airflow. It appears likely that individual firefighters who show early signs of illness are often selectively transferred out of active firefighting positions. Despite exposure to substances such as carbon monoxide that may predispose to cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, excesses are not consistently shown in mortality studies. Clinical studies of individual firefighters do suggest an elevated risk for myocardial ischemia. The ergonomic demands of firefighting are extreme at peak activity because of high energy costs for activities such as climbing aerial ladders, the positive heat balance from endogenous and absorbed environmental heat, and encumbrance by bulky but necessary protective equipment. The psychological stresses of firefighting include long periods of relative inactivity punctuated by highly stressful alarms and extremely stressful situations such as rescues, as reflected in physiological and biochemical indicators. Firefighters are at risk for depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, although morale overall is generally much higher than in comparable occupations. Women firefighter candidates as a group perform less well on selection test simulating the demands of active firefighting, but some individual women perform very well.

  8. Gender Issues and Related Social Stigma Affecting Patients with a Disorder of Sex Development in India.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Angela Ann; Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Shabir, Iram; Marumudi, Eunice; George, Tony Sam; Sagar, Rajesh; Mehta, Manju; Ammini, Ariachery C

    2017-02-01

    Children with disorders of sex development (DSD) manifest at birth with malformed genitalia or later with atypical pubertal development. Those born with malformed genitalia are often diagnosed at birth. However, in resource-poor countries like India, where not all births are supervised by healthcare workers, some of these children remain undiagnosed until puberty or even later. The aim of this study was to assess the gender issues and psychosocial problems of children with DSD. Participants included 205 children with DSD (103 with 46,XX DSD and 102 with 46,XY DSD). Both the children with DSD and their parents underwent semistructured interviews by a clinical psychologist. The birth of a child with DSD was perceived as a major medical and social problem by parents from all socioeconomic strata. Mothers were distressed as many believed the DSD condition was transmitted through the mother. Children who were not diagnosed and treated during infancy or early childhood experienced considerable social discrimination not only from relatives and friends but also from medical and paramedical staff in hospitals. Several patients had been operated during infancy without an etiological diagnosis and without provision of adequate information to the parents. Some children had problems related to complications of surgery. Most teenage patients with 5α-reductase-2 deficiency reared as females presented with gender dysphoria, while children with androgen insensitivity (except for one) or with gonadal dysgenesis developed a gender identity concordant with their gender of rearing. Parents of children with DSD preferred a male gender assignment for their children (if that was possible) because of the social advantages of growing up male in a patriarchal society.

  9. Genetically Engineered Plants and Foods: A Scientist's Analysis of the Issues (Part I).

    PubMed

    Lemaux, Peggy G

    2008-01-01

    Through the use of the new tools of genetic engineering, genes can be introduced into the same plant or animal species or into plants or animals that are not sexually compatible-the latter is a distinction with classical breeding. This technology has led to the commercial production of genetically engineered (GE) crops on approximately 250 million acres worldwide. These crops generally are herbicide and pest tolerant, but other GE crops in the pipeline focus on other traits. For some farmers and consumers, planting and eating foods from these crops are acceptable; for others they raise issues related to safety of the foods and the environment. In Part I of this review some general and food issues raised regarding GE crops and foods will be addressed. Responses to these issues, where possible, cite peer-reviewed scientific literature. In Part II to appear in 2009, issues related to environmental and socioeconomic aspects of GE crops and foods will be covered.

  10. Safety and security issues relating to low capacity storage of AN-based fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Marlair, Guy; Kordek, Marie-Astrid

    2005-08-31

    Motivated by both the Toulouse explosion, and a series of recent unexpected handling and storage accidents in well-developed countries, the safety issues associated with the storage of fertilizer grades of ammonium nitrate (AN) are considered with a focus on low storage capacity premises. Such facilities are numerous and, in large agricultural countries, include thousands of end-users and hundreds of small distributors. The strong oxidative (sometimes explosive) properties of products containing significant amounts of AN have led to a long history of major accidents including mass explosions in large storage units and pre 1950s, to mass explosions in ships. A major breakthrough in safety was achieved in the 1950s, with the promotion - amongst other improvements - of better anti-caking agents. Although modern AN fertilizers complying with current standards are not considered as explosive material per se, the latent risk of accidental detonation under specific conditions remains a real issue, and from a scientific point of view, cannot be completely ruled out-as dramatically demonstrated by the Toulouse disaster in France. The new insight provided here is derived from: (1) a literature review on hazardous properties of AN and AN-based fertilizers; (2) a review of accidents focusing more particularly on the reporting of recent new cases involving relatively small quantities of previously 'thought safe' products; (3) an examination of both the relevant regulatory framework and the level of hazard control achieved; (4) appropriate discussions of the economical, technical and organizational factors that could lead to some underestimation of the risk compared to large scale storage facilities. In terms of research requirements, the complex potential scenario 'mass explosion following a fire' requires further attention, as does the role and properties of molten ammonium nitrate, which could be the precursor for such an event to occur. Beyond research needs, reinforced

  11. Optimal Management Strategy for Groundwater Protection and Restoration Along with Discussions on Related Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.

    2003-12-01

    Contamination of groundwater systems is an increasingly critical problem. The limited available resources or budget for groundwater protection and restoration and sustainable development in a country or region require a corresponding strategy for groundwater protection and restoration to maximize resource or budget utilization and minimize an adverse impact on the sustainable development. An innovative strategy for groundwater protection and restoration has been established based on the optimization principles and considerations of both risk assessments of groundwater contamination and difficulties or costs of groundwater remediation and protection measures. Site investigations and groundwater modeling are two critical components to implement this strategy. Cost for groundwater protection and restoration can be categorized as Existing Contaminated Site Investigation Cost (ECSIC), Existing Contaminated Site Remediation Cost (ECSRC), Projected Contamination Site Investigation Cost (PCSIC), Projected Contamination Site Protection Cost (PCSPC), and Projected Contamination Site Remediation Cost (PCSRC). The objective function for optimization analyses consists of risk reduction components with variables of the above different costs from all individual site remediation and protection measures. The optimal distribution of the limited available resources is determined by such proper selections of those variables that the objective function reaches its maximum. Several important issues related to implementations of the strategy for groundwater protection and restoration are discussed. Those issues include uncertainty from aquifer heterogeneity, modeling for fractured geologic media, irreversible sorption, and implementations of natural attenuation. Specifically, Monte Carlo simulations through a numerical flow and transport model can be performed to develop a heterogeneity dispersivity matrix to account for the effects of different attributes of aquifer heterogeneity. In

  12. Scientific Productivity on Research in Ethical Issues over the Past Half Century: A JoinPoint Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Long, Nguyen Phuoc; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Trang, Nguyen Thi Huyen; Luan, Nguyen Thien; Anh, Nguyen Hoang; Nghi, Tran Diem; Hieu, Mai Van; Hirayama, Kenji; Karbwang, Juntra

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ethics is one of the main pillars in the development of science. We performed a JoinPoint regression analysis to analyze the trends of ethical issue research over the past half century. The question is whether ethical issues are neglected despite their importance in modern research. METHOD: PubMed electronic library was used to retrieve publications of all fields and ethical issues. JoinPoint regression analysis was used to identify the significant time trends of publications of all fields and ethical issues, as well as the proportion of publications on ethical issues to all fields over the past half century. Annual percent changes (APC) were computed with their 95% confidence intervals, and a p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: We found that publications of ethical issues increased during the period of 1965–1996 but slightly fell in recent years (from 1996 to 2013). When comparing the absolute number of ethics related articles (APEI) to all publications of all fields (APAF) on PubMed, the results showed that the proportion of APEI to APAF statistically increased during the periods of 1965–1974, 1974–1986, and 1986–1993, with APCs of 11.0, 2.1, and 8.8, respectively. However, the trend has gradually dropped since 1993 and shown a marked decrease from 2002 to 2013 with an annual percent change of –7.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Scientific productivity in ethical issues research on over the past half century rapidly increased during the first 30-year period but has recently been in decline. Since ethics is an important aspect of scientific research, we suggest that greater attention is needed in order to emphasize the role of ethics in modern research. PMID:25324690

  13. Ethical and legal issues in the use of related donors for therapeutic insemination.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Lorna A

    2002-11-01

    Donor insemination involving family members can be complex. Although it may offer some advantages to the requesting individuals, to the donor, or to the family, related donation does raise a significant number of concerns. The specific circumstances of these requests should be considered carefully--in most cases more carefully than with anonymous sperm donation. Still, in the United States the freedom of couples or individuals to decide whether, when, and how to reproduce is highly valued. Respect for the autonomy of the involved family members would favor serious consideration of proposals for intrafamilial sperm donation, when all parties have freely consented to participate. Without exception, standards governing anonymous sperm donation should be followed in evaluating the proposed sperm donor for infectious and genetic diseases. The semen specimens should be frozen and quarantined for 180 days. In many cases, the 6-month delay that results from this quarantine will discourage a couple from pursuing intrafamilial sperm donation. Adequate time is essential to assess these relationships when requested. Multiple visits to physicians, nurses, counselors, and lawyers may be necessary for a thorough assessment. Programs should require prospective participants, including recipients, donors, and partners of donors, to undergo psychologic counseling by a professional knowledgeable about gamete donation. Counselors should address issues such as emotional risks, potential impact on family relationships, the donor-recipient relationship, the future role of the donor in the offspring's life, and what information will be disclosed to the offspring. The process of obtaining informed consent from the requesting individuals, the donor, and, possibly, the donor's wife should involve a thorough discussion of potential risks to all parties. Clinicians should assure that the decision to be a sperm donor has been voulntary and free from manipulative and coercive influences

  14. An Issue Hiding in Plain Sight: When Are Speech-Language Pathologists Special Educators Rather than Related Services Providers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giangreco, Michael F.; Prelock, Patricia A.; Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Under the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA; as amended, 2004), speech-language pathology services may be either special education or a related service. Given the absence of guidance documents or research on this issue, the purposes of this clinical exchange are to (a) present and analyze the IDEA definitions related to…

  15. 43 CFR 2931.2 - What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands? 2931.2 Section 2931.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON...

  16. 43 CFR 2931.2 - What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands? 2931.2 Section 2931.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON...

  17. 43 CFR 2931.2 - What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands? 2931.2 Section 2931.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON...

  18. Evaluation of structural issues related to isolation of the 100-KE/100-KW discharge chute

    SciTech Connect

    Winkel, B.V.; Hyde, L.L.

    1995-03-10

    The issue of excessive post-seismic leakage in the discharge chute of the K East and K West fuel storage basins was resolved by designing isolation barriers to maintain basin water levels if the discharge chute should drain. This report addresses the structural issues associated with isolation of the discharge chute. The report demonstrates the structural adequacy of the components associated with chute isolation for normal and seismic loading. Associated issues, such as hardware drop accidents and seismic slosh heights are also addressed.

  19. Modeling and resonance issues of wind farm integration with related facts applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auddy, Soubhik

    This thesis deals with electromechanical oscillations, torsional oscillations and resonance issues in power systems fed by conventional steam-turbine generators and emerging wind turbine generators. Solutions to several of these problems are proposed using Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) Controllers. Inter-area oscillations are investigated in the IEEE 39 bus system and are damped by a novel Static VAR Compensator (SVC) control signal utilizing a weighted sum of remote generator speeds derived from bus voltage angles. The weights are calculated from participation factor analysis using commercial software Dynamic Security Assessment (DSA) Power Tools and are validated by EMTDC/PSCAD simulations. Subsynchronous resonance (SSR) in steam-turbine generators has been traditionally damped with SVC using either local signals or signals derived from a combination of local signals. This thesis proposes a novel SVC controller based on remote generator speed for alleviating SSR. This controller is shown from EMTDC/PSCAD simulations to be much more effective than the previously reported controllers for the IEEE First SSR Benchmark system. The efficacy is demonstrated for all the four critical series compensation levels. With the worldwide growth of renewable energy, large wind farms are likely to be connected to series compensated networks for evacuation of bulk power. This may lead to the potential of SSR in the wind turbine generators. For the first time, a detailed electromagnetic transient study using EMTDC/PSCAD has been conducted in this thesis to demonstrate that subsynchronous resonance can be a cause of concern in series compensated wind farms at realistic levels of power flow and series compensation levels. Novel controllers for two FACTS devices - a Static VAR Compensator (SVC) and a Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) - are proposed to mitigate SSR under all realistic compensation levels in a modified IEEE First Benchmark system. It is further

  20. Relating Needs Assessment and Needs Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger; Valentine, Glenn

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the necessity of relating needs assessment and needs analysis in performance management. Topics discussed include measurable objectives; the identification and selection of needs; performance improvement; the Organizational Elements Model (OEM), which helps to identify means and ends; and training requirements analysis. (eight…