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Sample records for analysis 200 area savannah

  1. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, W.C.; Lee, R.; Allen, P.M.; Gouge, A.P.

    1991-07-01

    The nev HB-Line, located on the fifth and sixth levels of Building 221-H, is designed to replace the aging existing HB-Line production facility. The nev HB-Line consists of three separate facilities: the Scrap Recovery Facility, the Neptunium Oxide Facility, and the Plutonium Oxide Facility. There are three separate safety analyses for the nev HB-Line, one for each of the three facilities. These are issued as supplements to the 200-Area Safety Analysis (DPSTSA-200-10). These supplements are numbered as Sup 2A, Scrap Recovery Facility, Sup 2B, Neptunium Oxide Facility, Sup 2C, Plutonium Oxide Facility. The subject of this safety analysis, the, Plutonium Oxide Facility, will convert nitrate solutions of {sup 238}Pu to plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) powder. All these new facilities incorporate improvements in: (1) engineered barriers to contain contamination, (2) barriers to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contamination, (3) shielding and remote operations to decrease radiation exposure, and (4) equipment and ventilation design to provide flexibility and improved process performance.

  2. Safety analysis -- 200 Area Savannah River Plant, F-Canyon Operations. Supplement 4

    SciTech Connect

    Beary, M.M.; Collier, C.D.; Fairobent, L.A.; Graham, R.F.; Mason, C.L.; McDuffee, W.T.; Owen, T.L.; Walker, D.H.

    1986-02-01

    The F-Canyon facility is located in the 200 Separations Area and uses the Purex process to recover plutonium from reactor-irradiated uranium. The irradiated uranium is normally in the form of solid or hollow cylinders called slugs. These slugs are encased in aluminum cladding and are sent to the F-Canyon from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) reactor areas or from the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF). This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the F-Canyon operations and is an update to a section of a previous SAR. The previous SAR documented an analysis of the entire 200 Separations Area operations. This SAR documents an analysis of the F-Canyon and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the Savannah River Implementation Plans. A substantial amount of the information supporting the conclusions of this SAR is found in the Systems Analysis. Some F-Canyon equipment has been updated during the time between the Systems Analysis and this SAR and a complete description of this equipment is included in this report. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the F-Canyon can be operated without undue risk to onsite or offsite populations and to the environment. In this report, risk is defined as the expected frequency of an accident, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequence in person-rem. The units of risk for radiological dose are person-rem/year. Maximum individual exposure values have also been calculated and reported.

  3. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant H-Canyon operations. Supplement 5

    SciTech Connect

    Beary, M M; Collier, C D; Fairobent, L A; Graham, R F; Mason, C L; McDuffee, W T; Owen, T L; Walker, D H

    1986-02-01

    The H-Canyon facility is located in the 200 Separations Area and uses the HM process to separate uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and fission products. Irradiated uranium fuels containing {sup 235}U at enrichments from 1.1% to 94% are processed and recovered, along with neptunium and plutonium isotopes. This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the H-Canyon operations and is an update to a section of a previous SAR. This SAR documents an analysis of the H-Canyon and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the Savannah River Implementation Plans. A substantial amount of the information supporting the Conclusions of this SAR is found in the Systems Analysis. Some H-Canyon equipment has been updated during the time between the Systems Analysis and this SAR and a complete description of this equipment is included in this report. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the H-Carbon can be operated without due risk to onsite or offsite populations and to the environment. In this report, risk is defined an the expected frequency of an accident, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequence in person-rem. The units of risk for radiological does are person-rem/year. Maximum individual exposure values have also been calculated and reported.

  4. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations. Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuel (Supplement 3)

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, P M

    1983-09-01

    Analysis of the Savannah River Plant RBOF and RRF included an evaluation of the reliability of process equipment and controls, administrative controls, and engineered safety features. The evaluation also identified potential scenarios and radiological consequences. Risks were calculated in terms of 50-year population dose commitment per year (man-rem/year) to the onsite and offsite population within an 80 Km radius of RBOF and RRF, and to an individual at the plant boundary. The total 50-year onsite and offsite population radiological risks of operating the RBOF and RRF were estimated to be 1.0 man-rem/year. These risks are significantly less than the population dose of 54,000 man/rem/yr for natural background radiation in a 50-mile radius. The 50-year maximum offsite individual risk from operating the facility was estimated to be 2.1 {times} 10{sup 5} rem/yr. These risks are significantly lower than 93 mrem/yr an individual is expected to receive from natural background radiation in this area. The analysis shows. that the RBOF and RRF can be operated without undue risk to onsite personnel or to the general public.

  5. Safety analysis--200 Area Savannah River Site: Separations Area operations Building 211-H Outside Facilities. Supplement 11, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The H-Area Outside Facilities are located in the 200-H Separations Area and are comprised of a number of processes, utilities, and services that support the separations function. Included are enriched uranium loadout, bulk chemical storage, water handling, acid recovery, general purpose evaporation, and segregated solvent facilities. In addition, services for water, electricity, and steam are provided. This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the H-Area Outside Facilities and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the SR Implementation Plan for DOE order 5481.1A. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the facility can be operated without undue risk to onsite or offsite populations, to the environment, and to operating personnel. In this report, risks are defined as the expected frequencies of accidents, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequences in person-rem. Following the summary description of facility and operations is the site evaluation including the unique features of the H-Area Outside Facilities. The facility and process design are described in Chapter 3.0 and a description of operations and their impact is given in Chapter 4.0. The accident analysis in Chapter 5.0 is followed by a list of safety related structures and systems (Chapter 6.0) and a description of the Quality Assurance program (Chapter 7.0). The accident analysis in this report focuses on estimating the risk from accidents as a result of operation of the facilities. The operations were evaluated on the basis of three considerations: potential radiological hazards, potential chemical toxicity hazards, and potential conditions uniquely different from normal industrial practice.

  6. Fire Hazards Analysis for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-01-06

    This documents the Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area. The Interim Storage Cask, Rad-Vault, and NAC-1 Cask are analyzed for fire hazards and the 200 Area Interim Storage Area is assessed according to HNF-PRO-350 and the objectives of DOE Order 5480 7A. This FHA addresses the potential fire hazards associated with the Interim Storage Area (ISA) facility in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480 7A. It is intended to assess the risk from fire to ensure there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public and to ensure property damage potential from fire is within acceptable limits. This FHA will be in the form of a graded approach commensurate with the complexity of the structure or area and the associated fire hazards.

  7. Digital model analysis of the principal artesian aquifer, Savannah, Georgia area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counts, H.B.; Krause, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    A digital model of the principal artesian aquifer has been developed for the Savannah, Georgia, area. The model simulates the response of the aquifer system to various hydrologic stresses. Model results of the water levels and water-level changes are shown on maps. Computations may be extended in time, indicating changes in pumpage were applied to the system and probable results calculated. Drawdown or water-level differences were computed, showing comparisons of different water management alternatives. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Zone of capture analysis for the A/M area of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Haselow, J.; Beaudoin, C.M.; Schreuder, P.J.

    1991-12-01

    The groundwater of the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS) is contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) as the result of the past use and disposal of these solvents. For the purpose of remediating this contamination, the A/M Area of the SRS has been divided into three sectors termed the central, northern (or SRL), and southern sectors. The central portion of the A/M Area has had an active remediation system of eleven recovery wells since 1985 and its effectiveness has been evaluated through groundwater modeling. Remediation will soon begin at the northern or SRL sector with a pump and treat system of six wells distributed at four different locations with total pumping of approximately 250 gallons per minute (gpm). The locations and effectiveness of the capture system for each sector has been estimated through groundwater modeling without full consideration of the central recovery system. This report will provide an estimate of the number of recovery wells required for the southern sector and also consider the effects of the current and planned recovery systems for the northern and central plumes. The southern sector contamination (which is defined as the area south of the M-Area basin) has been initially characterized and one recovery well (RWM-16) has been installed, for which an aquifer test was performed. However, to date a recovery well system has not been designed for the southern sector nor has a comprehensive evaluation of the recovery systems for all three sectors been completed. The purpose of this groundwater modeling study is to: (1) determine the location and number of recovery wells necessary to contain or remediate the southern sector, and (2) complete an analysis of the combined central, northern and estimated southern sector remediation so that the interactions of the systems can be determined.

  9. Analysis of the effects of proposed pumping from the principal artesian aquifer, Savannah, Georgia area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Randolph, R.B.; Krause, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite-difference model of the principal artesian aquifer in the Savannah, Georgia, area, originally developed by Counts and Krause (1976), has been expanded and refined. The model was updated and the grid redesigned to provide more current and accurate detail for ground-water resources management alternatives. Improvements in the definition of the flow system were made possible by the acquisition of additional data in the area and by recently completed regional models that include the area. The model was initially calibrated by using the estimated predevelopment potentiometric surface of 1880. The flow system under predevelopment conditions was sluggish and only 100 cubic feet per second (65 million gallons per day) flowed through the model area. It was then tested for acceptance by using the May 1980 potentiometric surface and corresponding pumping stress of approximately 85 million gallons per day in the Savannah, Georgia-Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, area. The flow through the system under 1980 conditions was about 390 cubic feet per second (250 million gallons per day) and the vertical inflow from the overlying surficial aquifer more than doubled due to formerly rejected recharge that now flows vertically into the aquifer. Calibration was accurate + or - 10 feet. The absolute error per node was 3.4 feet. A hypothetical 25-percent increase in pumpage over the entire area was used to represent a gradual growth in commercial and municipal pumpage over the next 20 to 30 years. The increase produced a maximum decline of 30 feet below the existing water level of 135 feet below sea level at the center of the cone of depression in Savannah, and a 5-foot decline at a radius of 20 miles from the center of the cone of depression. (USGS)

  10. Annex D-200 Area Interim Storage Area Final Safety Analysis Report [FSAR] [Section 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect

    CARRELL, R D

    2002-07-16

    The 200 Area Interim Storage Area (200 Area ISA) at the Hanford Site provides for the interim storage of non-defense reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) housed in aboveground dry cask storage systems. The 200 Area ISA is a relatively simple facility consisting of a boundary fence with gates, perimeter lighting, and concrete and gravel pads on which to place the dry storage casks. The fence supports safeguards and security and establishes a radiation protection buffer zone. The 200 Area ISA is nominally 200,000 ft{sup 2} and is located west of the Canister Storage Building (CSB). Interim storage at the 200 Area ISA is intended for a period of up to 40 years until the materials are shipped off-site to a disposal facility. This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) does not address removal from storage or shipment from the 200 Area ISA. Three different SNF types contained in three different dry cask storage systems are to be stored at the 200 Area ISA, as follows: (1) Fast Flux Test Facility Fuel--Fifty-three interim storage casks (ISC), each holding a core component container (CCC), will be used to store the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) SNF currently in the 400 Area. (2) Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA'--One Rad-Vault' container will store two DOT-6M3 containers and six NRF TRIGA casks currently stored in the 400 Area. (3) Commercial Light Water Reactor Fuel--Six International Standards Organization (ISO) containers, each holding a NAC-I cask4 with an inner commercial light water reactor (LWR) canister, will be used for commercial LWR SNF from the 300 Area. An aboveground dry cask storage location is necessary for the spent fuel because the current storage facilities are being shut down and deactivated. The spent fuel is being transferred to interim storage because there is no permanent repository storage currently available.

  11. Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Rinne, C.A.; Daly, K.S.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of the Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan (Development Plan) is to guide the physical development of the 200 Areas (which refers to the 200 East Area, 200 West Area, and 200 Area Corridor, located between the 200 East and 200 West Areas) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4320.lB (DOE 1991a) by performing the following: Establishing a land-use plan and setting land-use categories that meet the needs of existing and proposed activities. Coordinating existing, 5-year, and long-range development plans and guiding growth in accordance with those plans. Establishing development guidelines to encourage cost-effective development and minimize conflicts between adjacent activities. Identifying site development issues that need further analysis. Integrating program plans with development plans to ensure a logical progression of development. Coordinate DOE plans with other agencies [(i.e., Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)]. Being a support document to the Hanford Site Development Plan (DOE-RL 1990a) (parent document) and providing technical site information relative to the 200 Areas.

  12. Offsite radiological consequence analysis for the bounding unplanned excavation/drilling of 200 area soils

    SciTech Connect

    STEPHENS, L.S.

    2003-03-21

    This analysis calculates the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding unplanned excavation/drilling of 200 Area soils accident. The US. Department of Energy (DOE) standard DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', requires the formal quantification of a limited subset of accidents representing a complete set of bounding conditions. The results of these analyses are then evaluated to determine if they challenge the DOE-STD-3009-94 Appendix A, ''Evaluation Guideline,'' of 25 rem total effective dose equivalent to identify and evaluate safety-class structures, systems, and components. This document supports the development of the unplanned excavation/drilling of 200 Area soils accident in the tank farm documented safety analysis. Consequently, it: (1) Provides a comprehensive review of potential unplanned excavation scenarios (i.e., backhoe, buried pressurized line ruptures, drilling, Guzzler vacuum) to determine the representative activity that would bound unmitigated, unplanned, or inadvertent excavations of 200 Area soils. (2) Evaluates radiological isotope inventories of all current Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) liquid waste disposal sites [i.e., cribs, ditches, and ponds (including French drains)], and isotope inventories of unplanned release sites (UPR) and plume columns. (3) Establishes the radiological consequences to the maximum offsite individual (MOI) from an unplanned/inadvertent 200 Area soil disturbance based on bounding site development and representative accident determination.

  13. 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Effluent Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN, M.J.

    2000-05-18

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been developed to comply with effluent monitoring requirements at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), as stated in Washington State Waste Discharge Permit No. ST 4502 (Ecology 2000). This permit, issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) under the authority of Chapter 90.48 Revised Code of Washington (RCW) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 173-216, is an April 2000 renewal of the original permit issued on April 1995.

  14. Waste analysis plan for the 200 area effluent treatment facility and liquid effluent retention facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ballantyne, N.A.

    1995-10-02

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for startup of the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) and operation of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF), which are located on the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to obtain and analyze representative samples of dangerous waste managed in these units, and of the nondangerous treated effluent that is discharged to the State-Approved Land Disposal System (SALDS). Groundwater Monitoring at the SALDS will be addressed in a separate plan

  15. Offsite Radiological Consequence Analysis for the Bounding Unplanned Excavation/Drilling of 200 Area Soils

    SciTech Connect

    STARLING, J.H.

    2003-07-30

    The purpose of the calculation documented here is to predict consequences for an unplanned excavation or drilling within the 200 Area in support of the DSA. Revision 1 incorporates comments received from Office of River Protection.

  16. Addendum to Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, Marcel P.; Freeman, Eugene J.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Kincaid, Charles T.; Coony, Mike M.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Eslinger, Paul W.

    2001-09-28

    This report summarizes efforts to complete an addendum analysis to the first iteration of the Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site (Composite Analysis). This document describes the background and performance objectives of the Composite Analysis and this addendum analysis. The methods used, results, and conclusions for this Addendum analysis are summarized, and recommendations are made for work to be undertaken in anticipation of a second analysis.

  17. Addendum to the performance assessment analysis for low-level waste disposal in the 200 west area active burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-20

    An addendum was completed to the performance assessment (PA) analysis for the active 200 West Area low-level solid waste burial grounds. The addendum includes supplemental information developed during the review of the PA analysis, an ALARA analysis, a comparison of PA results with the Hanford Groundwater Protection Strategy, and a justification for the assumption of 500 year deterrence to the inadvertent intruder.

  18. Visualization and Time-Series Analysis of Ground-Water Data for C-Area, Savannah River Site, South Carolina, 1984-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conrads, Paul A.; Roehl, Edwin A.; Daamen, Ruby C.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Lowery, Mark A.; Mundry, Uwe H.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, initiated a study of historical ground-water data of C-Area on the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The soils and ground water at C-Area are contaminated with high concentrations of trichloroethylene and lesser amounts of tetrachloroethylene. The objectives of the investigation were (1) to analyze the historical data to determine if data-mining techniques could be applied to the historical database to ascertain whether natural attenuation of recalcitrant contaminants, such as volatile organic compounds, is occurring and (2) to determine whether inferential (surrogate) analytes could be used for more cost-effective monitoring. Twenty-one years of data (1984-2004) were collected from 396 wells in the study area and converted from record data to time-series data for analysis. A Ground-Water Data Viewer was developed to allow users to spatially and temporally visualize the analyte data. Overall, because the data were temporally and spatially sparse, data analysis was limited to only qualitative descriptions.

  19. Spatial Analysis of Contaminants in 200 West Area Groundwater in Support of the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit Pre-Conceptual Remedy Design

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Christopher J.; Bott, Yi-Ju

    2008-12-30

    This report documents a preliminary spatial and geostatistical analysis of the distribution of several contaminants of interest (COIs) in groundwater within the unconfined aquifer beneath the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The contaminant plumes of interest extend within the 200-ZP-1 and 200-UP-1 groundwater operable units. The COIs included in the PNNL study were carbon tetrachloride (CTET), technetium-99 (Tc-99), iodine-129 (I-129), chloroform, plutonium, uranium, trichloroethylene (TCE), and nitrate. The project included three tasks. Task 1 involved the development of a database that includes all relevant depth-discrete data on the distribution of COIs in the study area. The second task involved a spatial analysis of the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of data for the COIs in the study area. The main focus of the task was to determine if sufficient data are available for geostatistical mapping of the COIs in 3D. Task 3 involved the generation of numerical grids of the concentration of CTET, chloroform, and Tc-99.

  20. Composite analysis for low-level waste disposal in the 200 area plateau of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kincaid, C.T.; Bergeron, M.P.; Cole, C.R.

    1998-03-01

    This report presents the first iteration of the Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site (Composite Analysis) prepared in response to the U.S. Department of Energy Implementation Plan for the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 94-2. The Composite Analysis is a companion document to published analyses of four active or planned low-level waste disposal actions: the solid waste burial grounds in the 200 West Area, the solid waste burial grounds in the 200 East Area, the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility, and the disposal facilities for immobilized low-activity waste. A single Composite Analysis was prepared for the Hanford Site considering only sources on the 200 Area Plateau. The performance objectives prescribed in U.S. Department of Energy guidance for the Composite Analysis were 100 mrem in a year and examination of a lower dose (30 mrem in a year) to ensure the {open_quotes}as low as reasonably achievable{close_quotes} concept is followed. The 100 mrem in a year limit was the maximum allowable all-pathways dose for 1000 years following Hanford Site closure, which is assumed to occur in 2050. These performance objectives apply to an accessible environment defined as the area between a buffer zone surrounding an exclusive waste management area on the 200 Area Plateau, and the Columbia River. Estimating doses to hypothetical future members of the public for the Composite Analysis was a multistep process involving the estimation or simulation of inventories; waste release to the environment; migration through the vadose zone, groundwater, and atmospheric pathways; and exposure and dose. Doses were estimated for scenarios based on agriculture, residential, industrial, and recreational land use. The radionuclides included in the vadose zone and groundwater pathway analyses of future releases were carbon-14, chlorine-36, selenium-79, technetium-99, iodine-129, and uranium isotopes.

  1. Catch tank inhibitor addition 200-East and 200-West Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Palit, A.N.

    1996-06-21

    Reported is the study of 11 catch tanks in the 200-East Area and the 7 catch tanks in the 200-West Area listed as active. The location, capacity, material of construction, annual total accumulation, annual rain intrusion, waste transfer rate, and access for chemical injection in these tanks are documented. The present and future utilization and isolation plans for the catch tanks are established.

  2. Socioeconomic baseline characterization for the Savannah River Plant area

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the social and economic characteristics of the environs of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The characterization is keyed to those areas of the social and economic environment that could be impacted by the construction and operation of major facilities at SRP. The data consists of past trends and existing characteristics of the area's land use; its demographic, social, and economic profile; regional government; community services; housing, transportation; and historical, scenic, and archeological resources. Published documents, reports, and brochures were the primary sources of all the data presented in this document. When current published data was unavailable, representatives of federal, state, and local agencies were contacted by telephone. Conversations were followed by letters of verification, which were reviewed and verified by the agency representative.

  3. Critical Radionuclide and Pathway Analysis for the Savannah River Site, 2016 Update

    SciTech Connect

    Jannik, Tim; Hartman, Larry

    2016-09-08

    During the operational history of Savannah River Site, many different radionuclides have been released from site facilities. However, as shown in this analysis, only a relatively small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to doses to the offsite public. This report is an update to the 2011 analysis, Critical Radionuclide and Pathway Analysis for the Savannah River Site. SRS-based Performance Assessments for E-Area, Saltstone, F-Tank Farm, H-Tank Farm, and a Comprehensive SRS Composite Analysis have been completed. The critical radionuclides and pathways identified in those extensive reports are also detailed and included in this analysis.

  4. Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site, Southeast Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Kincaid, Charles T.; Bergeron, Marcel P.; Cole, Charles R.; Freshley, Mark D.; Johnson, Vernon G.; Kaplan, D. I.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Streile, Gary P.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Vail, Lance W.; Whyatt, Greg A.; Wurstner, Signe K.

    2000-03-01

    A composite analysis of low-level radioactive waste disposal and other radioactive sources was recently completed for the Hanford Site in Southeast Washington State. Impacts from source release and environmental transport were estimated for a 1000-year period following Site closure in a multi-step process involving 1) estimation of radiological inventories and release, 2) assessment of contaminant migration through the vadose zone, groundwater, and atmospheric pathways, 3) and estimation of doses. The analysis showed that most of the radionuclide inventory in past-practice liquid discharge sites and pre-1988 solid waste burial grounds on the 200 Area Plateau will be released in the first several hundred years following Hanford Site closure, well before projected releases from active and planned disposals of solid waste. The maximum predicted agricultural dose was less than 6 mrem/y in 2050 and declined thereafter. The maximum doses for the residential, industrial, and recreational scenarios, were 2.2, 0.7, and 0.04 mrem/y, respectively, and also declined after 2050.

  5. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations.

  6. Subsurface stratigraphy and structure of A/M area at the Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fallaw, W.C.; Sims, W.R.; Haselow, J.S.

    1991-08-01

    This report is a study of the stratigraphy and structure of the A/M Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Post-Closure Care Permit process on the Savannah River Site. The data from the lithologic and geophysical logs of 93 wells is the basis of this analysis.

  7. Subsurface stratigraphy and structure of A/M area at the Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Fallaw, W.C.; Sims, W.R.; Haselow, J.S.

    1991-08-01

    This report is a study of the stratigraphy and structure of the A/M Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Post-Closure Care Permit process on the Savannah River Site. The data from the lithologic and geophysical logs of 93 wells is the basis of this analysis.

  8. 200 West Area Dust Mitigation Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Becker, James M.

    2001-04-12

    Various strategies were developed for the purpose of mitigating respirable dust experienced at facilities in the southwest corner of the 200 West Area. These strategies focused on treatment of that portion of the dust source located within the 200 West Expansion Area. Strategies included direct shielding of the facilities via establishment of a poplar windbreak and installation of an artificial windscreen; soil stabilization via seeding of herbaceous plants, soil fixatives, straw crimping, straw blankets, gravel mulches, drift fences, baled straw, and living fences; and various irrigation systems that would function both to water seeded herbs and to suppress dust.

  9. 200 Area treated effluent disposal facility operational test report

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, A.F.

    1995-03-01

    This document reports the results of the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (200 Area TEDF) operational testing activities. These completed operational testing activities demonstrated the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area TEDF have been met.

  10. Revised Geostatistical Analysis of the Inventory of Carbon Tetrachloride in the Unconfined Aquifer in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Christopher J.; Bott, Yi-Ju

    2008-12-30

    This report provides an updated estimate of the inventory of carbon tetrachloride (CTET) in the unconfined aquifer in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The contaminant plumes of interest extend within the 200-ZP-1 and 200-UP-1 operable units. CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) currently is preparing a plan identifying locations for groundwater extraction wells, injection wells, transfer stations, and one or more treatment facilities to address contaminants of concern identified in the 200-ZP-1 CERCLA Record of Decision. To accomplish this, a current understanding of the inventory of CTET is needed throughout the unconfined aquifer in the 200 West Area. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) previously developed an estimate of the CTET inventory in the area using a Monte Carlo approach based on geostatistical simulation of the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of CTET and chloroform in the aquifer. Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) (the previous site contractor) requested PNNL to update that inventory estimate using as input a set of geostatistical realizations of CTET and chloroform recently created for a related but separate project, referred to as the mapping project. The scope of work for the inventory revision complemented the scope of work for the mapping project, performed for FH by PNNL. This report briefly describes the spatial and univariate distribution of the CTET and chloroform data, along with the results of the geostatistical analysis and simulation performed for the mapping project.

  11. Intensive archeological survey of the proposed Saltcrete area of the Defense Waste Processing Facility, Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina. Research manuscript series 172

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, R.D.

    1981-06-01

    An intensive archeological survey of the proposed Saltcrete (200-Z) area of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina was conducted. The purpose was to locate, describe and assess the archeological resources within the proposed construction area and to provide the Department of Energy with the recommendations as to the significance of the resources. This report presents a summary of the background, methods, results and recommendations resulting from the Saltcrete area intensive survey.

  12. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations. Building 221-H, B-Line, Scrap Recovery Facility (Supplement 2A): Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1991-07-01

    The now HB-Line is located an top of the 221-H Building on the fifth and sixth levels and is designed to replace the aging existing HB-Line production facility. The new HB-Line consists of three separate facilities: the Scrap Recovery Facility, Neptunium Facility, and Plutonium Oxide Facility. The Scrap Recovery Facility is designed to routinely generate nitrate solutions of {sup 235}U{sup 239}Pu and Pu-238 fromscrap for purification by anion exchange or by solvent extraction in the canyon. The now facility incorporates improvements in: (1) engineered controls for nuclear criticality, (2) cabinet integrity and engineered barriers to contain contamination and minimize personnel exposure to airborne contamination, (3) shielding and remote operations to decrease radiation exposure, and (4) equipment and ventilation design to provide flexibility and improved process performance.

  13. Hanford 200 area (sanitary) waste water system

    SciTech Connect

    Danch, D.A.; Gay, A.E.

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Site is approximately 1,450 sq. km (560 sq. mi) of semiarid land set aside for activities of the DOE. The reactor fuel processing and waste management facilities are located in the 200 Areas. Over the last 50 years at Hanford dicard of hazardous and sanitary waste water has resulted in billions of liters of waste water discharged to the ground. As part of the TPA, discharges of hazardous waste water to the ground and waters of Washington State are to be eliminated in 1995. Currently sanitary waste water from the 200 Area Plateau is handled with on-site septic tank and subsurface disposal systems, many of which were constructed in the 1940s and most do not meet current standards. Features unique to the proposed new sanitary waste water handling systems include: (1) cost effective operation of the treatment system as evaporative lagoons with state-of-the-art liner systems, and (2) routing collection lines to avoid historic contamination zones. The paper focuses on the challenges met in planning and designing the collection system.

  14. 33 CFR 165.756 - Regulated Navigation Area; Savannah River, Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Savannah River, Georgia. 165.756 Section 165.756 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...

  15. Plutonium Surveillance Destructive Examination Requirements at Savannah River National Laboratory for K-Area Interim Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Stefek, T. M.

    2005-09-29

    The DOE 3013 storage standard requires nested, welded 300 series stainless steel containers to store plutonium-bearing materials for up to 50 years. Packaged contents include stabilized plutonium-bearing residues that contain chloride salts and a low (< 0.5 weight %) water content. The DOE 3013 STD requires surveillance of the packages over the 50 year lifetime. These surveillance requirements have been further defined by the Integrated Surveillance Program to include both non-destructive examination (NDE) and destructive examination (DE) of the 3013 container. The DE portion of surveillance involves examining the 3013 nested containers, analyzing the head space gas, and evaluating the plutonium oxide chemistry. At SRS, the stored 3013 containers will undergo preparation for the DE surveillance activities in facilities located in K-Area. The actual DE surveillance will be performed in SRNL. This report provides preliminary functional requirements for the destructive examination (DE) of plutonium-bearing oxide materials and containers in support of K-Area Interim Surveillance (KIS). The KIS project will install interim facilities to prepare the samples for analysis in SRNL. This document covers the requirements for the interim period beginning in 2007, and lasting until the Container Storage and Surveillance Capability (CSSC) project provides the permanent facilities in K-Area to perform sampling and repackaging operations associated with the 3013 container storage and surveillance program. Initial requirements for the CSSC project have been previously defined in WSRC-TR-2004-00584 ''Plutonium Surveillance Destructive Examination Requirements at Savannah River National Laboratory''. As part of the Plutonium Surveillance Program of 3013 Containers at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) will receive the emptied 3013 container components, plutonium oxide samples and headspace gas samples from K-Area. The DE program scope

  16. Summary of the Preliminary Analysis of Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-10-13

    This report summarizes a preliminary special analysis of the Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide waste stream (SVRSURANIUM03, Revision 2). The analysis is considered preliminary because a final waste profile has not been submitted for review. The special analysis is performed to determine the acceptability of the waste stream for shallow land burial at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide waste stream requires a special analysis because the waste stream’s sum of fractions exceeds one. The 99Tc activity concentration is 98 percent of the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria and the largest single contributor to the sum of fractions.

  17. Aeroradioactivity Survey and Areal Geology of the Savannah River Plant Area, South Carolina and Georgia (ARMS-I)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1962-03-01

    Savannah River Plant area where it is found along the Savannah River near the Effingham-Screven county line, Ga., and possibly also near the Edisto River , S...layers found on the east bank of the North Fork of the Edisto River (along State Highway 215, southwest of Pelion in Lexington County, S. C.) are...distinctly higher or lower than the surrounding Coastal Plain. Parts of the Ogeechee River (Ga.), Savannah River and Edisto River (S. C.) flood plains

  18. Salt-water encroachment, geology, and ground-water resources of Savannah area, Georgia and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counts, H.B.; Donsky, Ellis

    1964-01-01

    The Savannah area consists of about 2,300 square miles of the Coastal Plain along the coast of eastern Georgia and southeastern South Carolina. Savannah is near the center of the area. Most of the large ground-water developments are in or near Savannah. About 98 percent of the approximately 60 mgd of ground water used is pumped from the principal artesian aquifer, which is composed of about 600 feet of limestone of middle Eocene, Oligocene, and early Miocene ages. Industrial and other wells of large diameter yield as much as 4,200 gpm from the principal artesian aquifer. Pumping tests and flow-net analyses show that the coefficient of transmissibility averages about 200,000 gpd per ft in the immediate Savannah area. The specific capacity of wells in the principal artesian aquifer generally is about 50 gpm per ft of drawdown. The coefficient of storage of the principal artesian aquifer is about 0.0003 in the Savannah area. Underlying the Savannah area are a series of unconsolidated and semiconsolidated sediments ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to Recent. The Upper Cretaceous, Paleocene, and lower Eocene sediments supply readily available and usable water in other parts of the Coastal Plain, but although the character and physical properties of these formations are similar in the Savannah area to the same properties in other areas, the hydraulic and structural conditions appear to be different. Deep test wells are needed to evaluate the ground-water potential of these rocks. The lower part of the sediments of middle Eocene age acts as a confining layer to the vertical movement of water into or out of the principal artesian aquifer. Depending on the location and depth, the principal artesian aquifer consists of from one to five geologic units. The lower boundary of the aquifer is determined by a reduction in permeability and an increase in salt-water content. Although the entire limestone section is considered water bearing, most of the ground water used in the

  19. Geospatial Information Systems Analysis of Regional Environmental Change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Twumasi, Yaw A.; Merem, Edmund C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS); and descriptive statistics in the assessment of environmental change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia. Results of the study show that Savannah River basin side of Georgia has been experiencing environmental change due to several decades of relentless pressure induced by anthropocentric activities and host of other socio-economic factors. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis of the area also shows a decline in vegetation cover. The pace of ecological change showed some variations across time and space. Generally, the results point to a decline in water bodies, vegetation, and increase in population, loss of harvested cropland, farms and increasing threats to the environmental systems of the region. PMID:18441406

  20. Estimating Vadose Zone Drainage From a Capped Seepage Basin, F Area, Savannah River Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, J.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Denham, M.

    2011-12-01

    Large volumes of waste solutions were commonly discharged into unlined seepage basins at many different facilities in the past. Plutonium was extracted from depleted uranium from 1955 to 1988 at the F-Area within the Savannah River Site, with contaminated process waters disposed of in permeable seepage basins. The primarily acidic solutions contained radioactive components (including tritium, 129I, and multiple isotopes of U, Pu, Sr, and Cs), elevated nitrate, and some metals (Hg, Pb, Cd). Basin 3 was the largest F-Area seepage basin, covering 2.0 hectare, with the water table typically at about 20 m below the soil surface. The local groundwater flows at an average velocity of 200 m/y in the approximately 10 m thick shallow aquifer, and is underlain by the low permeability Tan Clay. We used nearly 20 years of groundwater quality data from a monitoring well immediately downstream of Basin 3 to estimate the post-closure drainage of waste solutions through its underlying vadose zone, into the shallow aquifer. The measurements of tritium, nitrate, and specific conductance, were used as plume tracers in our estimates of vadose zone drainage. These calculations indicate that early stages of post-closure waste drainage occurred with high fluxes (≈ 1 m/y), and quickly declined. However, even after 20 years, drainage continues at a low but significant rate of several cm/y. These estimated drainage fluxes can help constrain predictions on the waste plume behavior, especially with respect to its emerging trailing gradient and anticipated time scales suitable for monitored natural attenuation.

  1. Modelling malaria incidence with environmental dependency in a locality of Sudanese savannah area, Mali

    PubMed Central

    Gaudart, Jean; Touré, Ousmane; Dessay, Nadine; Dicko, A lassane; Ranque, Stéphane; Forest, Loic; Demongeot, Jacques; Doumbo, Ogobara K

    2009-01-01

    Background The risk of Plasmodium falciparum infection is variable over space and time and this variability is related to environmental variability. Environmental factors affect the biological cycle of both vector and parasite. Despite this strong relationship, environmental effects have rarely been included in malaria transmission models. Remote sensing data on environment were incorporated into a temporal model of the transmission, to forecast the evolution of malaria epidemiology, in a locality of Sudanese savannah area. Methods A dynamic cohort was constituted in June 1996 and followed up until June 2001 in the locality of Bancoumana, Mali. The 15-day composite vegetation index (NDVI), issued from satellite imagery series (NOAA) from July 1981 to December 2006, was used as remote sensing data. The statistical relationship between NDVI and incidence of P. falciparum infection was assessed by ARIMA analysis. ROC analysis provided an NDVI value for the prediction of an increase in incidence of parasitaemia. Malaria transmission was modelled using an SIRS-type model, adapted to Bancoumana's data. Environmental factors influenced vector mortality and aggressiveness, as well as length of the gonotrophic cycle. NDVI observations from 1981 to 2001 were used for the simulation of the extrinsic variable of a hidden Markov chain model. Observations from 2002 to 2006 served as external validation. Results The seasonal pattern of P. falciparum incidence was significantly explained by NDVI, with a delay of 15 days (p = 0.001). An NDVI threshold of 0.361 (p = 0.007) provided a Diagnostic Odd Ratio (DOR) of 2.64 (CI95% [1.26;5.52]). The deterministic transmission model, with stochastic environmental factor, predicted an endemo-epidemic pattern of malaria infection. The incidences of parasitaemia were adequately modelled, using the observed NDVI as well as the NDVI simulations. Transmission pattern have been modelled and observed values were adequately predicted. The error

  2. DOE Research Set-Aside Areas of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, C.E.; Janecek, L.L.

    1997-08-31

    Designated as the first of seven National Environmental Research Parks (NERPs) by the Atomic Energy Commission (now the Department of Energy), the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an important ecological component of the Southeastern Mixed Forest Ecoregion located along the Savannah River south of Aiken, South Carolina. Integral to the Savannah River Site NERP are the DOE Research Set-Aside Areas. Scattered across the SRS, these thirty tracts of land have been set aside for ecological research and are protected from public access and most routine Site maintenance and forest management activities. Ranging in size from 8.5 acres (3.44 ha) to 7,364 acres (2,980 ha), the thirty Set-Aside Areas total 14,005 acres (5,668 ha) and comprise approximately 7% of the Site`s total area. This system of Set-Aside Areas originally was established to represent the major plant communities and habitat types indigenous to the SRS (old-fields, sandhills, upland hardwood, mixed pine/hardwood, bottomland forests, swamp forests, Carolina bays, and fresh water streams and impoundments), as well as to preserve habitats for endangered, threatened, or rare plant and animal populations. Many long-term ecological studies are conducted in the Set-Asides, which also serve as control areas in evaluations of the potential impacts of SRS operations on other regions of the Site. The purpose of this document is to give an historical account of the SRS Set-Aside Program and to provide a descriptive profile of each of the Set-Aside Areas. These descriptions include a narrative for each Area, information on the plant communities and soil types found there, lists of sensitive plants and animals documented from each Area, an account of the ecological research conducted in each Area, locator and resource composition maps, and a list of Site-Use permits and publications associated with each Set-Aside.

  3. Environmental assessment for the salvage/demolition of 200 West Area, 200 East Area, and 300 Area steam plants

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This environmental assessment has been prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the US Department of Energy`s proposed action: the salvage/demolition of the 200 West Area, 200 East Area, and 300 Area Steam Plants and steam distribution piping. Impact information will be used by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Manager, to determine if the proposed action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the proposed action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the proposed action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) will be issued and the action can proceed. The proposed action involves the salvage and demolition of the 200 West Area, 200 East Are, and 300 Area steam plants and their associated steam distribution piping, equipment, and ancillary facilities. Activities include the salvaging and recycling of all materials, wastes, and equipment where feasible, with waste minimization efforts utilized.

  4. Root cause analysis at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Paradies, M; Busch, D

    1988-01-01

    Events (or near misses) provide important information about ways to improve plant performance. Any particular event may have several /open quotes/root causes/close quotes/ that need correcting to prevent recurrence of the event and, thereby, improve the safety of the plant. Also, by reviewing a large number of events, one can identify cause trends or /open quotes/generic concerns./close quotes/ A method has been developed at Savannah River Plant (SRP) to systematically evaluate events, identify their root causes, record the root causes, and analyze the root cause trends. By providing a systematic method to identify correctable root causes, the system helps the event investigator ask the right questions during the investigation. It also provides an independent safety analysis group and management with statistics indicating existing and developing trouble spots. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Hydrologic budget for A/M Area, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Haselow, J.S.; Jackson, D.G.; Ehrke, L.

    1994-09-01

    In this investigation different components of the hydrologic budget for the groundwater flow system beneath the A/M Area were quantified. To accomplish this a regional groundwater flow mode, previously calibrated to the groundwater flow system beneath the A/M Area, was used to generate flux terms which could then be used to quantify specific components of the hydrologic budget. Sub-zones within the constructed model were defined in terms of groups of model nodes using the US Geological Survey code ZONEBUDGET. Cell-by-cell flux terms generated by the groundwater model for each node were used as input to calculate the hydrologic budgets for each of the defined sub-zones. Results were tabulated both as actual groundwater fluxes and as normalized quantities to allow easy comparison of flux magnitudes for different sub-zones. In the process of defining sub-zones and calculating the flux magnitude for different components of the hydrologic flow system, the adequacy of the groundwater flow model in describing the actual flow system was better determined. In effect, quantification of flux terms from the groundwater model functioned as a ``calibration tool`` in that specific changes to the groundwater model which would enhance its calibration were identified and are described in this report.

  6. Onchocerciasis and optic atrophy in the Savannah area of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Berghout, E

    1987-10-01

    The ocular findings in the male population of 3 villages from a hyperendemic area of onchocerciasis in North Ghana have been recorded. Vector control in the Volta River Basin has led to reduced microfilarial loads and improved tolerance of treatment with diethylcarbamazine-citrate (DEC-C). Prevalence of posterior eye lesions increased sharply above the age of 30 years in the survey population. In patients with palpable onchocercomas (nodules) serious pathology of the posterior segment of the eye was found twice as frequently as in onchocerciasis patients without nodules. In the village visited by the Mobile Eye Team since 1978 the prevalence of serious eye lesions was slightly lower than in the two villages never visited by the eye team. Desirability to give treatment to the younger population with low incidence of serious eye lesions is expressed. Attention is drawn to the increased danger of adverse reactions to treatment in the presence of posterior eye lesions.

  7. Comparison of vertical resolved leaf area index measurements in an open canopy savannah-type forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piayda, Arndt; Cuntz, Matthias; Dubbert, Maren; Werner, Christiane; Pereira, Joao S.

    2013-04-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a very important vegetation parameter in soil-vegetation-atmosphere exchange modeling. To represent the structure of ecosystems in vertically distributed modeling, vertical resolved LAI distributions as well as vertically and angular gap fraction (Pgap) distributions are needed, but rarely available. Additionally, former studies neglect woody plant components when using light interception or digital photography based methods for LAI or Pgap observations. This can lead to significantly biased results, particularly in semi-arid savannah-type ecosystems with low LAI values. The objective of this study is to compare three non-destructive LAI measurement techniques in a sparse savannah-type cork oak canopy in central Portugal in order to derive vertically resolved LAI as well as vertically and angular resolved Pgap. Since established canopy analyzers, such as the LAI-2000, rely on diffuse light conditions, which are rarely realized in semi-arid regions, we also employed fast, digital cover photography (DCP) working independently from diffuse light conditions. We used vertical and angular distributed DCP and applied object-based image analysis techniques to exclude woody plant components from Pgap estimation and LAI determination. We compared the results with vertically distributed LAI-2000 measurements, and additionally with vertical estimates based on easily measurable forest canopy parameters. We employed bootstrap resampling methods to determine the accuracy of all measurements depending on sample size. Leaf inclination measurements indicate planophile leaf orientation. Thus LAI was calculated with Pgap and the leaf inclination information. This led to a spatial averaged LAI of 0.52 +- 0.06 for DCP while LAI-2000 measurements resulted in 0.67 +- 0.07. Uncertainty bounds of LAI converge much faster with increasing sample size for the DCP than for the LAI-2000. This allows a more efficient sampling design, which is of great importance in

  8. Waste site grouping for 200 Areas soil investigations

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify logical waste site groups for characterization based on criteria established in the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy (DOE-RL 1996a). Specific objectives of the document include the following: finalize waste site groups based on the approach and preliminary groupings identified in the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy; prioritize the waste site groups based on criteria developed in the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy; select representative site(s) that best represents typical and worse-case conditions for each waste group; develop conceptual models for each waste group. This document will serve as a technical baseline for implementing the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy. The intent of the document is to provide a framework, based on waste site groups, for organizing soil characterization efforts in the 200 Areas and to present initial conceptual models.

  9. Mineral resource potential map of the Savannah Roadless Area, Liberty County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, Sam H.; Schmidt, Walter; Crandall, Thomas M.

    1982-01-01

    The Savannah Roadless Area is underlain by sedimentary rocks having low potential for oil and gas and minerals. The low potential for oil or gas notwithstanding, the possibilities for discovery cannot be ruled out because the area and nearby lands have not been thoroughly explored. No minerals have been mined within the Savannah Roadless Area, and the only production nearby has been the digging of clayey sand used in stabilizing U.S. Forest Service roads. Fuller's earth, quartz sand and gravel, clayey sand, and common clay presently are produced elsewhere in the region, and limestone and peat have been produced in the past. No clay suitable for structural clay products or fuller's earth is present in the roadless area; however, a bed of quartz sand and gravel of excellent quality was penetrated at a depth interval of 37-50 ft by one drill hole. Although this bed is coarser grained-and therefore is more suitable for many uses-than the sand deposits worked elsewhere in the Big Bend region, its mineral resource potential is reduced by the thickness of overburden above it and by its distance from markets in population centers. The Apalachicola National Forest has been explored for phosphate and reconnoitered for heavy minerals, but no valuable deposits of either have been found.

  10. Protected area networks and savannah bird biodiversity in the face of climate change and land degradation.

    PubMed

    Beale, Colin M; Baker, Neil E; Brewer, Mark J; Lennon, Jack J

    2013-08-01

    The extent to which climate change might diminish the efficacy of protected areas is one of the most pressing conservation questions. Many projections suggest that climate-driven species distribution shifts will leave protected areas impoverished and species inadequately protected while other evidence suggests that intact ecosystems within protected areas will be resilient to change. Here, we tackle this problem empirically. We show how recent changes in distribution of 139 Tanzanian savannah bird species are linked to climate change, protected area status and land degradation. We provide the first evidence of climate-driven range shifts for an African bird community. Our results suggest that the continued maintenance of existing protected areas is an appropriate conservation response to the challenge of climate and environmental change.

  11. CRITICAL RADIONUCLIDE AND PATHWAY ANALYSIS FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Jannik, T.

    2011-08-30

    This report is an update to the analysis, Assessment of SRS Radiological Liquid and Airborne Contaminants and Pathways, that was performed in 1997. An electronic version of this large original report is included in the attached CD to this report. During the operational history (1954 to the present) of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released to the environment from the various production facilities. However, as will be shown by this updated radiological critical contaminant/critical pathway analysis, only a small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to potential doses and risks to offsite people. The analysis covers radiological releases to the atmosphere and to surface waters, the principal media that carry contaminants offsite. These releases potentially result in exposure to offsite people. The groundwater monitoring performed at the site shows that an estimated 5 to 10% of SRS has been contaminated by radionuclides, no evidence exists from the extensive monitoring performed that groundwater contaminated with these constituents has migrated off the site (SRS 2011). Therefore, with the notable exception of radiological source terms originating from shallow surface water migration into site streams, onsite groundwater was not considered as a potential exposure pathway to offsite people. In addition, in response to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Order 435.1, several Performance Assessments (WSRC 2008; LWO 2009; SRR 2010; SRR 2011) and a Comprehensive SRS Composite Analysis (SRNO 2010) have recently been completed at SRS. The critical radionuclides and pathways identified in these extensive reports are discussed and, where applicable, included in this analysis.

  12. External events analysis for the Savannah River Site K reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Brandyberry, M.D.; Wingo, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    The probabilistic external events analysis performed for the Savannah River Site K-reactor PRA considered many different events which are generally perceived to be external'' to the reactor and its systems, such as fires, floods, seismic events, and transportation accidents (as well as many others). Events which have been shown to be significant contributors to risk include seismic events, tornados, a crane failure scenario, fires and dam failures. The total contribution to the core melt frequency from external initiators has been found to be 2.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} per year, from which seismic events are the major contributor (1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} per year). Fire initiated events contribute 1.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} per year, tornados 5.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} per year, dam failures 1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} per year and the crane failure scenario less than 10{sup {minus}4} per year to the core melt frequency. 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Archaeological survey of the 200 East and 200 West Areas, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Chatters, J.C.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1990-03-01

    Responding to a heavy demand for cultural resource reviews of excavation sites, the Westinghouse Hanford Company contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory to conduct a comprehensive archaeological resource review for the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site, Washington. This was accomplished through literature and records review and an intensive pedestrian survey of all undisturbed portions of the 200 East Area and a stratified random sample of the 200 West Area. The survey, followed the Secretary of the Interior's guidelines for the identification of historic properties. The result of the survey is a model of cultural resource distributions that has been used to create cultural resource zones with differing degrees of sensitivity. 11 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Methodology for completing Hanford 200 Area tank waste physical/chemical profile estimations

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A.A.

    1996-04-29

    The purpose of the Methodology for Completing Hanford 200 Area Tank Waste Physical/Chemical Profile Estimations is to capture the logic inherent to completing 200 Area waste tank physical and chemical profile estimates. Since there has been good correlation between the estimate profiles and actual conditions during sampling and sub-segment analysis, it is worthwhile to document the current estimate methodology.

  15. Characterization of Large Area APDs for the EXO-200 Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, R.; LePort, F.; Pocar, A.; Kumar, K.; Odian, A.; Prescott, C.Y.; Tenev, V.; Ackerman, N.; Akimov, D.; Auger, M.; Benitez-Medina, C.; Breidenbach, M.; Burenkov, A.; Conley, R.; Cook, S.; deVoe, R.; Dolinski, M.J.; Fairbank, W., Jr.; Farine, J.; Fierlinger, P.; Flatt, B.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Bern U., LHEP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Maryland U. /Colorado State U. /Laurentian U. /Carleton U. /SLAC /Maryland U. /Moscow, ITEP /Alabama U. /SLAC /Colorado State U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Alabama U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Alabama U. /SLAC /Carleton U. /SLAC /Maryland U. /Moscow, ITEP /Carleton U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Bern U., LHEP /SLAC /Laurentian U. /SLAC /Maryland U.

    2011-12-02

    EXO-200 uses 468 large area avalanche photodiodes (LAAPDs) for detection of scintillation light in an ultra-low-background liquid xenon (LXe) detector. We describe initial measurements of dark noise, gain and response to xenon scintillation light of LAAPDs at temperatures from room temperature to 169 K - the temperature of liquid xenon. We also describe the individual characterization of more than 800 LAAPDs for selective installation in the EXO-200 detector.

  16. Environmental measurement-while-drilling-gamma ray spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system technology demonstration plan for use at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Gruebel, R.D.

    1996-08-01

    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling-Gamma Ray Spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides the capability of producing real-time environmental and drillbit data during drilling operations. This demonstration plan presents information on the EMWD-GRS technology, demonstration design, Cs-137 contamination at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin, responsibilities of demonstration participants, and the policies and procedures for the demonstration to be conducted at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin. The EMWD-GRS technology demonstration will consist of continuously monitoring for gamma-radiation contamination while drilling two horizontal boreholes below the backfilled retention basin. These boreholes will pass near previously sampled vertical borehole locations where concentrations of contaminant levels are known. Contaminant levels continuously recorded by the EMWD-GRS system during drilling will be compared to contaminant levels previously determined through quantitative laboratory analysis of soil samples.

  17. 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities -- Quality assurance program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, L.

    1995-03-13

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance and management controls used by the 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEF) to perform its activities in accordance with DOE Order 5700.6C. The 200 Area LEF consists of the following facilities: Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF); Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF); Liquid Effluent Retention facility (LERF); and Truck Loading Facility -- (Project W291). The intent is to ensure that all activities such as collection of effluents, treatment, concentration of secondary wastes, verification, sampling and disposal of treated effluents and solids related with the LEF operations, conform to established requirements.

  18. Structural Model of the Basement in the Central Savannah River Area, South Carolina and Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, D.; Stieve, A.

    1992-03-01

    Interpretation of several generations of seismic reflection data and potential field data suggests the presence of several crustal blocks within the basement beneath the Coastal Plain in the Central Savannah River Area (CSRA). The seismic reflection and refraction data include a grid of profiles that capture shallow and deep reflection events and traverse the Savannah River Site and vicinity. Potential field data includes aeromagnetic, ground magnetic surveys, reconnaissance and detailed gravity surveys. Subsurface data from recovered core are used to constrain the model.Interpretation of these data characteristically indicate a southeast dipping basement surface with some minor highs and lows suggesting an erosional pre-Cretaceous unconformity. This surface is interrupted by several basement faults, most of which offset only early Cretaceous sedimentary horizons overlying the erosional surface. The oldest fault is perhaps late Paleozoic because it is truncated at the basement/Coastal Plain interface. This fault is related in timing and mechanism to the underlying Augusta fault. The youngest faults deform Coastal Plain sediments of at least Priabonian age (40-36.6 Ma). One of these young faults is the Pen Branch faults, identified as the southeast dipping master fault for the Triassic Dunbarton basin. All the Cenozoic faults are probably related in time and mechanism to the nearby, well studied Belair fault.The study area thus contains a set of structures evolved from the Alleghanian orogeny through Mesozoic extension to Cenozoic readjustment of the crust. There is a metamorphosed crystalline terrane with several reflector/fault packages, a reactivated Triassic basin, a mafic terrane separating the Dunbarton basin from the large South Georgia basin to the southeast, and an overprint of reverse faults, some reactivated, and some newly formed.

  19. 200-Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks locations

    SciTech Connect

    Brevick, C.H.

    1997-12-01

    Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) has been tasked by Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) to incorporate current location data for 64 of the 200-Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUST) into the centralized mapping computer database for the Hanford facilities. The IMUST coordinate locations and tank names for the tanks currently assigned to the Hanford Site contractors are listed in Appendix A. The IMUST are inactive tanks installed in underground vaults or buried directly in the ground within the 200-East and 200-West Areas of the Hanford Site. The tanks are categorized as tanks with a capacity of less than 190,000 liters (50,000 gal). Some of the IMUST have been stabilized, pumped dry, filled with grout, or may contain an inventory or radioactive and/or hazardous materials. The IMUST have been out of service for at least 12 years.

  20. Central Savannah River Area P-16 Professional Development School Network: A Reflective Summary of Four Years of Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Mary Gendernalik

    This article traces the development of the Central Savannah River Area P-16 Professional Development School Network Initiative (PDSNI), which began in 1998 as a collaboration between the Department of Teacher Development at Augusta State University, Georgia, and four adjacent school systems. The collaboration's mission was to cultivate a network…

  1. 77 FR 43047 - Foreign-Trade Zone 104-Savannah, GA; Application for Reorganization (Expansion of Service Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 104--Savannah, GA; Application for Reorganization (Expansion of Service Area) and Expansion of Zone Under Alternative Site Framework An application has...

  2. 200 Area Deactivation Project Facilities Authorization Envelope Document

    SciTech Connect

    DODD, E.N.

    2000-03-28

    Project facilities as required by HNF-PRO-2701, Authorization Envelope and Authorization Agreement. The Authorization Agreements (AA's) do not identify the specific set of environmental safety and health requirements that are applicable to the facility. Therefore, the facility Authorization Envelopes are defined here to identify the applicable requirements. This document identifies the authorization envelopes for the 200 Area Deactivation.

  3. Activated carbon testing for the 200 area effluent treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, R.N.

    1997-01-17

    This report documents pilot and laboratory scale testing of activated carbon for use in the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility peroxide decomposer columns. Recommendations are made concerning column operating conditions and hardware design, the optimum type of carbon for use in the plant, and possible further studies.

  4. Analysis of Removal Alternatives for the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, M.B.

    1996-08-01

    This engineering study was developed to evaluate different options for decommissioning of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) at the Savannah River Site. This document will be placed in the DOE-SRS Area reading rooms for a period of 30 days in order to obtain public input to plans for the demolition of HWCTR.

  5. Treatment of M-area mixed wastes at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy has prepared this environmental assessment, DOE/EA-0918, to assess the potential environmental impacts of the treatment of mixed wastes currently stored in the M-Area at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE is proposing to treat and stabilize approximately 700,000 gallons of mixed waste currently stored in the Interim Treatment/Storage Facility (IT/SF) and Mixed Waste Storage Shed (MWSS). This waste material is proposed to be stabilized using a vitrification process and temporarily stored until final disposal is available by the year 2005. This document has been prepared to assess the potential environmental impacts attributable to the treatment and stabilization of M-area mixed wastes, the closure of the interim storage area, and storage of the vitrified waste until disposal in onsite RCRA vaults. Based on the analyses in the environmental assessment, the Department of Energy has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and the Department of Energy is issuing this finding of no significant impact.

  6. CORRELATION BETWEEN RAINFALL PATTERNS AND THE WATER TABLE IN THEGENERAL SEPARATIONS AREA OF THE SAVANNAH RIVERSITE

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.

    2009-08-10

    The objective of the study was to evaluate rainfall and water table elevation data in search of a correlation that could be used to understand and predict water elevation changes. This information will be useful in placing screen zones for future monitoring wells and operations of groundwater treatment units. Fifteen wells in the General Separations Area (GSA) at Savannah River Site were evaluated from 1986 through 2001. The study revealed that the water table does respond to rainfall with minimal delay. (Water level information was available monthly, which restricted the ability to evaluate a shorter delay period.) Water elevations were found to be related to the cumulative sum (Q-Delta Sum) of the difference between the average rainfall for a specific month and the actual rainfall for that month, calculated from an arbitrary starting point. Water table elevations could also be correlated between wells, but using the right well for correlation was very important. The strongest correlation utilized a quadratic equation that takes into account the rainfall in a specific area and the rainfall from an adjacent area that contributes through a horizontal flow. Specific values vary from well to well as a result of geometry and underground variations. R2's for the best models ranged up to 0.96. The data in the report references only GSA wells but other wells (including confined water tables) on the site have been observed to return similar water level fluctuation patterns.

  7. PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION TESTING FOR THE 200 AREA EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    HALGREN DL

    2010-03-12

    The hydrogen peroxide decomposer columns at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) have been taken out of service due to ongoing problems with particulate fines and poor destruction performance from the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the columns. An alternative search was initiated and led to bench scale testing and then pilot scale testing. Based on the bench scale testing three manganese dioxide based catalysts were evaluated in the peroxide destruction pilot column installed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The ten inch diameter, nine foot tall, clear polyvinyl chloride (PVC) column allowed for the same six foot catalyst bed depth as is in the existing ETF system. The flow rate to the column was controlled to evaluate the performance at the same superficial velocity (gpm/ft{sup 2}) as the full scale design flow and normal process flow. Each catalyst was evaluated on peroxide destruction performance and particulate fines capacity and carryover. Peroxide destruction was measured by hydrogen peroxide concentration analysis of samples taken before and after the column. The presence of fines in the column headspace and the discharge from carryover was generally assessed by visual observation. All three catalysts met the peroxide destruction criteria by achieving hydrogen peroxide discharge concentrations of less than 0.5 mg/L at the design flow with inlet peroxide concentrations greater than 100 mg/L. The Sud-Chemie T-2525 catalyst was markedly better in the minimization of fines and particle carryover. It is anticipated the T-2525 can be installed as a direct replacement for the GAC in the peroxide decomposer columns. Based on the results of the peroxide method development work the recommendation is to purchase the T-2525 catalyst and initially load one of the ETF decomposer columns for full scale testing.

  8. Analysis of Savannah Survey Sediment Collections of 30 Sep 04

    SciTech Connect

    Wimer, N; Hutcheon, I; Esser, B; Ramon, E

    2004-12-03

    This report summarizes laboratory radiochemical analyses of sediment samples collected by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency during the DoD Savannah Survey operations of Sep 04. The analytic goal was to determine if Wassaw Sound sediment collections of 30 Sep 04 display evidence for local anthropogenic uranium, as distinct from the recognized regional background stemming from the Savannah River Site (SRS). Radiochemical methods were selected to maximize detection sensitivity for such anthropogenic uranium. Within the suite of twelve collections, there would be evidence for a localized source if individual collections were to differ from the population as a whole. If in fact non-natural uranium were observed, definitive determination of whether the source was SRS effluent or a localized release would likely involve additional field sampling. These collections were logged by the LLNL Forensics Science Center, photographed, and laboratory chain-of-custody was begun. The inventory received at LLNL is reported in Table 1. The separate collections were not assigned any relative priority among them. LLNL has separately reviewed detailed records of the item in question, and determined what materials are involved and what radiochemical assays are of value. Attempting quantitative estimates of source-item material release, transport, and collection levels would be quite uncertain. Rather, present assays examine for departure from natural background isotopic compositions. To summarize the findings, analyses for all collections displayed natural uranium isotopic composition--considering the {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U and {sup 236}U/{sup 235}U ratios--within measurement uncertainties, which were quite low. No one collection or set of collections stood apart from the others in its uranium isotopes. These {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U data uncertainty levels also determined with 99.5% confidence (a three-standard-deviation determination) that no more than 0.46% of the total uranium present

  9. 3D Geological Modeling of the General Separations Area, Savannah River Site: A Preliminary Workflow and Model

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.P.

    2002-10-29

    The Savannah River Site, located in South Carolina, contains nuclear defense products and nuclear waste byproducts as result of national defense operations dating to the 1950s. The facility has been the subject of a variety of scientific investigations focusing on potential groundwater transportation of nuclides and other hazardous materials through the different aquifers within the air. The area of particular interest, and the subject of this report, is the General Separations Area.

  10. AREA COMPLETION STRATEGIES AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE: CHARACTERIZATION FOR CLOSURE AND BEYOND

    SciTech Connect

    Bagwell, L; Mark Amidon, M; Sadika Baladi, S

    2007-06-11

    During the first four decades of its 56 year existence, the Savannah River Site (SRS) was a key supplier of nuclear material for national defense. During the 1990s, the site's primary missions became waste site closure, environmental restoration, and deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of remnant cold war apparatus. Since 1989, with the approval of State and Federal regulatory agencies and with the participation of interested stakeholders, SRS has implemented a final remedy for a majority of the more than 500 individual waste sites at the former nuclear materials complex. These waste sites range from small, inert rubble pits to large, heavy industrial areas and radioactive waste disposal grounds. The closure and final remediation of these waste sites mark significant progress toward achieving SRS's overarching goal of reducing or eliminating future environmental damage and human health threats. However, larger challenges remain. For example, what are appropriate and achievable end-states for decommissioned nuclear facilities? What environmental and human health risks are associated with these end-states? To answer these questions within the strictures of smaller budgets and accelerated schedules, SRS is implementing an ''area completion'' strategy that: (1) unites several discrete waste units into one conceptual model, (2) integrates historically disparate environmental characterization and D&D activities, (3) reduces the number of required regulatory documents, and (4) in some cases, compresses schedules for achieving a stakeholder-approved end-state.

  11. Savannah River Site/K Area Complex getter life extension report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Woodsmall, Todd; Nissen, April

    2008-08-01

    The K Area Complex (KAC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been utilizing HiTop hydrogen getter material in 9975 Shipping Containers to prevent the development of flammable environments during storage of moisture-containing plutonium oxides. Previous testing and subsequent reports have been performed and produced by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to demonstrate the suitability and longevity of the getter during storage at bounding thermal conditions. To date, results have shown that after 18 months of continuous storage at 70 C, the getter is able to both recombine gaseous hydrogen and oxygen into water when oxygen is available, and irreversibly getter (i.e. scavenge) hydrogen from the vapor space when oxygen is not available, both under a CO{sub 2} environment. [Refs. 1-5] Both of these reactions are catalytically enhanced and thermodynamically favorable. The purpose of this paper is to establish the justification that maintaining the current efforts of biannual testing is no longer necessary due to the robust performance of the getter material, the very unlikely potential that the recombination reaction will fail during storage conditions in KAC, and the insignificant aging effects that have been seen in the testing to date.

  12. Basic Data Report -- Defense Waste Processing Facility Sludge Plant, Savannah River Plant 200-S Area

    SciTech Connect

    Amerine, D.B.

    1982-09-01

    This Basic Data Report for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)--Sludge Plant was prepared to supplement the Technical Data Summary. Jointly, the two reports were intended to form the basis for the design and construction of the DWPF. To the extent that conflicting information may appear, the Basic Data Report takes precedence over the Technical Data Summary. It describes project objectives and design requirements. Pertinent data on the geology, hydrology, and climate of the site are included. Functions and requirements of the major structures are described to provide guidance in the design of the facilities. Revision 9 of the Basic Data Report was prepared to eliminate inconsistencies between the Technical Data Summary, Basic Data Report and Scopes of Work which were used to prepare the September, 1982 updated CAB. Concurrently, pertinent data (material balance, curie balance, etc.) have also been placed in the Basic Data Report. It is intended that these balances be used as a basis for the continuing design of the DWPF even though minor revisions may be made in these balances in future revisions to the Technical Data Summary.

  13. 29. "TEST TRACK, STATION '0' THROUGH '200' AREA." Specifications No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. "TEST TRACK, STATION '0' THROUGH '200' AREA." Specifications No. ENG-OC-1-57-75, Drawing No. AF-6009-15, sheet 53 of 96, D.O. Series No. AF 1394/73, Rev. C. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 5296 Rev. C, Date: 19 NOV 59. Drawing includes plan, section, and details of track. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. Area Completion Strategies at Savannah River Site: Characterization for Closure and Beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Bagwell, Laura; O'Quinn, Sadika; Amidon, Mark

    2008-01-15

    During the first four decades of its 56 year existence, the Savannah River Site (SRS) was a key supplier of nuclear material for national defense. During the 1990's, the site's primary missions became waste site closure, environmental restoration, and deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of remnant cold war apparatus. Since 1989, with the approval of State and Federal regulatory agencies and with the participation of interested stakeholders, SRS has implemented a final remedy for a majority of the more than 500 individual waste sites at the former nuclear materials complex. These waste sites range from small, inert rubble pits to large, heavy industrial areas and radioactive waste disposal grounds. The closure and final remediation of these waste sites mark significant progress toward achieving SRS's overarching goal of reducing or eliminating future environmental damage and human health threats. However, larger challenges remain. For example, what are appropriate and achievable end-states for decommissioned nuclear facilities? What environmental and human health risks are associated with these end-states? To answer these questions within the strictures of smaller budgets and accelerated schedules, SRS is implementing an 'area completion' strategy that: - unites several discrete waste units into one conceptual model, - integrates historically disparate environmental characterization and D and D activities - reduces the number of required regulatory documents, - and, in some cases, compresses schedules for achieving a stakeholder-approved end-state. The area completion approaches being implemented at SRS reflect an evolution of the traditional RCRA/ CERCLA remedial process. Area completion strategies: - group waste units and/or D and D facilities together for characterization, remediation, and possible reuse; - identify data needs and integrate data collection activities for D and D, characterization, and remediation; - identify problems that require action

  15. Compliance of the Savannah River Site D-Area cooling system with environmental regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.; Mackey, H.E.; Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.; Wilde, E.W.

    1990-08-01

    This document presents information relating to a demonstration under Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act for the 400-D Area cooling system at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The demonstration was mandated because the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for SRS (SC0000175), granted on January 1, 1984, specified in-stream temperature limits in SRS streams of 32.2{degree}C and a {Delta}T limit of 2.8{degree}C above ambient. To achieve compliance with in-stream temperature limits, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) entered into a Consent Order (84-4-W) which temporarily superseded the temperature requirements and identified a process for attaining compliance. The preferred option for achieving thermal compliance in Beaver Dam Creek consisted of increased flow, with mixing of the raw water basin overflow with the cooling water discharge during the summer months. Although this action can achieve instream temperatures of less than 32.2{degree}C, {Delta}T's still exceed 2.8{degree}C. Therefore, a 316 (a) Demonstration was initiated to determine whether a balanced indigenous biological community can be supported in the receiving stream with {Delta}T's in excess of 2.8{degree}C. A Biological Monitoring Program for Beaver Dam Creek was approved by SCDHEC in June 1988 and implemented in September 1988. The program monitored the water quality, habitat formers, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, fish, other vertebrate wildlife and threatened and endangered species in Beaver Dam Creek for an 18-month period (September 1988-February 1990). This document summarizes information collected during the monitoring program and evaluates the data to determine whether Beaver Dam Creek presently supports a balanced indigenous biological community. 97 refs., 32 figs., 51 tabs.

  16. Fall 1998 200 East area biological vector contamination report

    SciTech Connect

    CONNELL, D.J.

    1999-03-17

    The purpose of this report is to document the investigation into the cause of the spread of radioactive contamination in September and October 1998 at the Hanford Site's 200 East Area and its subsequent spread to the City of Richland Landfill; identify the source of the contamination; and present corrective actions. The focus and thrust of managing the incident was based on the need to accomplish the following, listed in order of importance: (1) protect the health and safety of the Site workers and the public; (2) contain and control the spread of contamination; (3) identify the source of contamination and the pathways for its spread; and (4) identify the causal factors enabling the contamination.

  17. Recovery Act Weekly Video: 200 Area Asbestos Removal, U-Ancillary Demolition, 200 West Transfer Building Footings

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    A weekly update of the Recovery Act at work. Demolition of U-Ancillary that was contaminated with uranium and asbestos as well as removing asbestos from the Steam Generation Plant in the 200 East Area.

  18. Recovery Act Weekly Video: 200 Area Asbestos Removal, U-Ancillary Demolition, 200 West Transfer Building Footings

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    A weekly update of the Recovery Act at work. Demolition of U-Ancillary that was contaminated with uranium and asbestos as well as removing asbestos from the Steam Generation Plant in the 200 East Area.

  19. Birds of the Savannah Harbor Navigation Project, Dredged Material Disposal Areas, 19942012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    additional mitigation requirement, another bird island was created nearshore called Tomkins Island. This island provides approxi- mately 5 acres of...use vocalizations (e.g., pishing sounds or a mimicked or recorded screech owl call , or a combination of both). If no birds were detected within 15...ER D C/ EL T R- 16 -4 Dredging Operations Technical Support Program Birds of the Savannah Harbor Navigation Project, Dredged Material

  20. 17 CFR 200.23a - Office of Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Office of Economic Analysis. 200.23a Section 200.23a Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Organization § 200.23a Office of Economic Analysis. The Office of Economic Analysis is responsible...

  1. N.S. Savannah Reactor Vessel Metal Extraction and Radiochemical Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ranellone, Richard; Bowen, John; Stouky, Jon; Wiegand, John

    2008-01-15

    In early 2006 a project was concluded to determine radioisotopic inventory and Curie content of the N.S. Savannah Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV), Internals and Neutron Shield Tank (NST) by extracting metal samples and performing radiochemical analysis. The objective of this project was to determine if the RPV and internals could be removed, packaged, shipped and disposed as Class A radioactive waste without opening the RPV or conducting further sampling of the RPV/Internals. The N.S. Savannah is de-fueled and has been shut down for 37 years. The following conclusions can be drawn from this project: - Results are consistent with previous analyses and are based upon conservative methodology and assumptions. - Nuclide concentration for the N/S Savannah reactor pressure vessel and internals package are shown to be within Class A disposal limits when averaged over the entire volume of metal in the Reactor Pressure Vessel and internals. - Performance of N.S. Savannah's nuclear reactor was excellent. During normal operations, the reactor seldom operated above 80% of its rated power level, thereby minimizing thermal stresses on the fuel cladding. In addition, the fuel rods were not subjected to any accident or severe transient conditions that could result in cladding breeches with subsequent release of fission products and fuel particles to the primary coolant loop. The trace quantities of Cesium-137 observed in the primary loop water indicate that some pinhole penetrations of fuel rod cladding may have occurred during operations. Another source of Cesium-137 could be the presence of uranium fuel on the exterior of the fuel rod cladding (tramp uranium), a condition not uncommon in the N.S. Savannah fuel fabrication time frame. Fissioning of this 'tramp uranium' would cause the rapid release of chemically active Cesium-137 into the reactor coolant. However, the absence of other fission products (e.g., Strontium-90) as well as uranium and transuranic isotopes in the reactor

  2. 33 CFR 165.T0704 - Safety Zone: Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zone: Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia. 165.T0704 Section 165.T0704 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF....T0704 Safety Zone: Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia. (a) Location. The following area is a safety...

  3. 33 CFR 165.T0704 - Safety Zone: Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone: Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia. 165.T0704 Section 165.T0704 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF....T0704 Safety Zone: Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia. (a) Location. The following area is a safety...

  4. 33 CFR 165.T0704 - Safety Zone: Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety Zone: Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia. 165.T0704 Section 165.T0704 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF....T0704 Safety Zone: Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia. (a) Location. The following area is a safety...

  5. Lithological and hydrological characteristics of the tertiary hydrostratigraphic systems of the general separations area at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Aadland, R.K. ); Harris, M.K.; Westbrook, T.M. )

    1990-01-01

    The General Separations Area (GSA) is an approximately 15-square-mile area near the geographic center of the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS is located in the Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province of South Carolina on the Aiken Plateau at an elevation of approximately 300 feet above mean sea level. The sedimentary sequence of the GSA comprises unconsolidated sediments ranging in age from Cretaceous to Holocene with isolated zones of consolidated sediments. The Tertiary sediments are composed of sand, silt, clay, and calcareous materials of varying composition. The alpha-numeric hydrostratigraphic nomenclature proposed by Aadland (1990) is used herein. The Tertiary-age lithostratigraphic sequence at the GSA is composed predominantly of terrigenous clastics interspersed with carbonate-rich clastics and limestones. The calcareous lithologies are discontinuous and divided into a lower and upper zone. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Hydrostratigraphy of the General Separations Area, Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Aadland, R.K.; Harris, M.K.; Lewis, C.M.; Gaughan, T.F. ); Westbrook, T.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Detailed analysis and synthesis of geophysical, core, and hydrologic data from 230 wells were used to delineate the hydrostratigraphy and aquifer characteristics of the General Separations Area at SRS. The study area is hydrologically bounded on the north and northwest by Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) and on the south by Fourmile Branch (FB). The Cretaceous-Tertiary sedimentary sequence underlying the study area is divided into two Aquifer Systems; in ascending order, Aquifer Systems I and 11. The study concentrated on Aquifer System U, which includes all the Tertiary sediments above the Black Mingo Group (Paleocene) to the water table. This report includes a series of lithostratigraphic cross-sections, piezometric gradient profiles, head ratio contour maps, aquifer isopach maps, and potentiometric surface maps which illustrate the aquifer characteristics of the study area.

  7. Final report of the environmental measurement-while-drilling-gamma ray spectrometer system technology demonstration at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Williams, C.V.

    1997-08-01

    The environmental measurement-while-drilling-gamma ray spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides real-time environmental and drill bit data during drilling operations. The EMWD-GRS technology was demonstrated at Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin. The EMWD-GRS technology demonstration consisted of continuously monitoring for gamma-radiation-producing contamination while drilling two horizontal boreholes below the backfilled retention basin. These boreholes passed near previously sampled vertical borehole locations where concentrations of contaminant levels of cesium had been measured. Contaminant levels continuously recorded by the EMWD-GRs system during drilling are compared to contaminant levels previously determined through quantitative laboratory analysis of soil samples.

  8. Analysis and evaluation of VOC removal technologies demonstrated at Savannah River

    SciTech Connect

    Chesnut, D.A.; Wagoner, J.; Nitao, J.J.; Boyd, S.; Shaffer, R.J.; Kansa, E.J.; Buscheck, T.A.; Pruess, K.; Falta, R.W.

    1993-09-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds, or VOCs, are ubiquitous subsurface contaminants at industrial as well as DOE sites. At the Savannah River Plant, the principles VOCs contaminating the subsurface below A-Area and M-Area are Trichloroethylene (C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3}, or TCE) and Tetrachloroethylene (C{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}, or PCE). These compounds were used extensively as degreasing solvents from 1952 until 1979, and the waste solvent which did not evaporate (on the order of 2{times}10{sup 6} pounds) was discharged to a process sewer line leading to the M-Area Seepage Basin (Figure I.2). These compounds infiltrated into the soil and underlying sediments from leaks in the sewer line and elsewhere thereby contaminating the vadose zone between the surface and the water table as well as the aquifer.

  9. Tier II Analysis of Vadose Zone Sediments from UPRS 200-E-81 and 200-E-86

    SciTech Connect

    Valenta, Michelle M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2009-04-01

    The overall goals of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by Washington River Protection Solutions, are to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities; identify and evaluate the efficacy of interim measures; and aid, via collection of geochemical information and data, the future decisions that must be made by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regarding the near-term operations, future waste retrieval, and final closure activities for the single-shell tank waste management areas (WMAs). To meet the investigative goals of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, the Environmental Sciences Laboratory performed geochemical analyses on vadose zone sediments collected within Waste Management Area C. Tier one analyses of UPR-200-E-86, which includes direct push probe holes C5952, C5958 and C5960, were performed between 3/25/08 and 4/14/08. Preliminary results were presented to CH2M Hill Hanford Group on 6/5/08. As a result of the tier one investigations, further tier two analyses were requested. Tier two investigations include particle size and mineralogy analyses on samples collected between 80 to 120 feet below ground surface that were found to contain high concentrations of chloride and sulfate. Tier one analyses on sediments retrieved near UPR-200-E-81, direct push probe hole C6394, were performed between 6/20/08 and 7/22/08. Preliminary results of the tier one analyses were presented on 8/15/08. As a result of the tier one investigations, further tier two analyses were requested. Tier two analyses include determining whether U-236 exists in samples at approximately 42 feet below the ground surface. Confirmation of U-236 will determine whether the U-238 seen in the leaches performed on samples at that depth is a result of contamination and not from leaching natural uranium. Using the water and acid extract U-238 concentrations from the tier one analysis, equilibrium Kd values were requested to be calculated. Additional tier two analysis includes

  10. SRP engineering and design history, Vol III, 200 F and H Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Banick, C.J.

    2000-04-17

    This volume combines the record of events relating to the development of design for both the 200-F and H Areas. Chronologically, the definition of plant facilities was first established for the 200-F Area. The second area, 200-H, was projected initially to be a supplementary plutonium separations facility. This history explains the differences in character and capacity of the manufacturing facilities in both areas as production requirements and experience with separations processes advanced.

  11. Vegetation communities associated with the 100-Area and 200-Area facilities on the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Stegen, J.A.

    1994-01-17

    The Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, lies within the broad semi-arid shrub-steppe vegetation zone of the Columbia Basin. Thirteen different habitat types on the Hanford Site have been mapped in Habitat Types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and Plant Species of Concern (Downs et al. 1993). In a broad sense, this classification is correct. On a smaller scale, however, finer delineations are possible. This study was conducted to determine the plant communities and estimate vegetation cover in and directly adjacent to the 100 and 200 Areas, primarily in relation to waste sites, as part of a comprehensive ecological study for the Compensation Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) characterization of the 100 and 200 Areas. During the summer of 1993, field surveys were conducted and a map of vegetation communities in each area, including dominant species associations, was produced. The field surveys consisted of qualitative community delineations. The community delineations described were made by field reconnaissance and are qualitative in nature. The delineations were made by visually determining the dominant plant species or vegetation types and were based on the species most apparent at the time of inspection. Additionally, 38 transects were run in these plant communities to try to obtain a more accurate representation of the community. Because habitat disturbances from construction/operations activities continue to occur in these areas, users of this information should be cautious in applying these maps without a current ground survey. This work will complement large-scale habitat maps of the Hanford Site.

  12. Revised Hydrogeology for the Suprabasalt Aquifer System, 200-West Area and Vicinity, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Bruce A.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schalla, Ronald; Webber, William D.

    2002-05-14

    The primary objective of this study was to refine the conceptual groundwater flow model for the 200-West Area and vicinity. This is the second of two reports that combine to cover the 200 Area Plateau, an area that holds the largest inventory of radionuclide and chemical waste on the Hanford Site.

  13. Proposed Holistic Strategy for the Closure of F-Area, A Large Nuclear Industrial Complex at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    SHEDROW, CB

    2004-02-10

    F-Area is a large nuclear complex located near the center of the Department of Energy's (DOEs) Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The present closure strategy for F-Area is based on established SRS protocol for a site-specific, graded approach to deactivation and decommissioning. Uncontaminated facilities will be closed under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Facilities requiring removal or in-situ disposition of residual chemical and/or radiological inventories will be decommissioned under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The F-Area Tank Farm, which is permitted under the Clean Water Act, will be closed in accordance with an industrial wastewater closure plan. F-Area closure will also involve the near- and long-term remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater resources. The proposed holistic F-Area closure strategy would enhance the existing project-specific SRS closure protocol by incorporating a comprehensive area-wide groundwater modeling tool, or Composite Analysis. The use of this methodology would allow for the assessment of the relative impacts of individual projects, as well as the cumulative effect of all F-Area closure actions, on area groundwater resources. Other critical elements of the proposed strategy include (i) the consistent use of site-specific Risk Assessments (RAs) and Performance Assessments (PAs), (ii) the closer integration of selected soil and groundwater closure projects and near-term D and D projects, and (iii) the creation of an Area Core Team (ACT) consisting of DOE and selected regulator decision-makers to direct area D and D and environmental restoration activities. This holistic approach would facilitate the effective targeting of agency resources on high priority projects whose closure would have the greatest impact on achieving the desired area-wide risk-based end-state and accelerate delisting of F-Area from the National Priority List (NPL).

  14. 24 CFR 598.200 - Who nominates an area for designation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES: ROUND TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Nomination Procedure § 598.200 Who nominates an area for designation? Applicants for...

  15. 33 CFR 162.200 - Marina del Rey, Calif.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marina del Rey, Calif.; restricted area. 162.200 Section 162.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.200...

  16. 33 CFR 162.200 - Marina del Rey, Calif.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marina del Rey, Calif.; restricted area. 162.200 Section 162.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.200...

  17. Blanket Biological Review for General Maintenance Activities within Active Burial Grounds, 200 E and 200 W Areas, ECR No. 99-200-042

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Charles A.

    1999-04-30

    No plant and animal species protected under the Endangered Species Act, candidates for such protection, or species listed by the Washington state government were observed in the vicinity of the proposed sites. Piper's daisy is a Washington State Sensitive plant species, and as such is a Level III resource under the Hanford Site Biological Resources Management Plan. Compensatory mitigation is appropriate for this species when adverse impacts cannot be avoided. The stalked pod and crouching milkvetchs are relatively common throughout 200 West area, therefore even if the few individuals within the active burial grounds are disturbed, it is not likely that the overall local population will be adversely affected. The Watch List is the lowest level of listing for plant species of concern in the State of Washington. No adverse impacts to species or habitats of concern are expected to occur from routine maintenance within the active portions of the 218-W-4C, 218-W-4B, 218-W-3, 218-W-3A, a nd 218-W-5 burial grounds, as well as the portion of 218-E-12B currently used for storage of retired submarine reactor cores. The remaining portions of the 218-E-12B burial ground, the entire 218-E-10 burial ground, and the 218-W-6 burial ground currently have extensive vegetative cover and it is highly likely that migratory birds, such as meadow larks, horned larks, and curlews will nest in these areas. Therefore, it is recommended that if removal of the existing vegetation is required for burial ground operations, such removal only occur during the August through March time period (i.e. when the birds are not actively nesting). If vegetation removal is required prior to August 1999 or after 1 April 2000, please contact the ECAP staff for an additional analysis to ensure compliance with the Migratory Bird Treaty Act.

  18. Geophysical investigation of the 216-B-3-1 ditch, Operable Unit 200-BP-11, 200 East Area

    SciTech Connect

    Bergstrom, K.A.

    1994-09-13

    Ditch 216-B-3-1 is located within the 200-BP-11 Operable Unit, located immediately northeast of the 200 East Area. At one time, it drained into B Pond. The ditch has been filled with soil and the surrounding area reclaimed. There is no remaining physical evidence showing the original location of the ditch. Survey stakes were recently emplaced that show the documented location of the ditch from survey coordinates. The objective of this investigation was to verify the staked location of the ditch with non-intrusive geophysical methods. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) were the methods selected for the investigation. GPR has been used successfully to locate similar ditches in other parts of the Hanford Reservation. EMI was used because it is much quicker to collected and interprets, and if successful, could be used to rapidly map the entire length of the ditch. Results are discussed.

  19. 2002 Hyperspectral Analysis of Hazardous Waste Sites on the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gladden, J.B.

    2003-08-28

    Hazardous waste site inspection is a labor intensive, time consuming job, performed primarily on the ground using visual inspection and instrumentation. It is an expensive process to continually monitor hazardous waste and/or landfill sites to determine if they are maintaining their integrity. In certain instances, it may be possible to monitor aspects of the hazardous waste sites and landfills remotely. The utilization of multispectral data was suggested for the mapping of clays and iron oxides associated with contaminated groundwater, vegetation stress, and methane gas emissions (which require longer wavelength detectors). The Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, S.C. is a United States Department of Energy facility operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. For decades the SRS was responsible for developing weapons grade plutonium and other materials for the nation's nuclear defense. Hazardous waste was generated during this process. Waste storage site inspection is a particularly important issue at the SRS because there are over 100 hazardous waste sites scattered throughout the 300 mile complex making it difficult to continually monitor all of the facilities. The goal is to use remote sensing technology to identify surface anomalies on the hazardous waste sites as early as possible so that remedial work can take place rapidly to maintain the integrity of the storage sites. The anomalous areas are then targeted for intensive in situ human examination and measurement. During the 1990s, many of the hazardous waste sites were capped with protective layers of polyethelene sheeting and soil, and planted with bahia grass and/or centipede grass. This research investigated hyperspectral remote sensing technology to determine if it can be used to measure accurately and monitor possible indicators of change on vegetated hazardous waste sites. Specifically, it evaluated the usefulness of hyperspectral remote sensing to assess the condition of vegetation on clay

  20. Uranium(VI) adsorption and surface complexation modeling onto background sediments from the F-Area Savannah River Site.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wenming; Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Davis, James A; Wan, Jiamin

    2012-02-07

    The mobility of an acidic uranium waste plume in the F-Area of Savannah River Site is of great concern. In order to understand and predict uranium mobility, U(VI) adsorption experiments were performed as a function of pH using background F-Area aquifer sediments and reference goethite and kaolinite (major reactive phases of F-Area sediments), and a component-additivity (CA) based surface complexation model (SCM) was developed. Our experimental results indicate that the fine fractions (≤45 μm) in sediments control U(VI) adsorption due to their large surface area, although the quartz sands show a stronger adsorption ability per unit surface area than the fine fractions at pH < 5.0. Kaolinite is a more important sorbent for U(VI) at pH < 4.0, while goethite plays a major role at pH > 4.0. Our CA model combines an existing U(VI) SCM for goethite and a modified U(VI) SCM for kaolinite along with estimated relative surface area abundances of these component minerals. The modeling approach successfully predicts U(VI) adsorption behavior by the background F-Area sediments. The model suggests that exchange sites on kaolinite dominate U(VI) adsorption at pH < 4.0, goethite and kaolinite edge sites cocontribute to U(VI) adsorption at pH 4.0-6.0, and goethite dominates U(VI) adsorption at pH > 6.0.

  1. 40 CFR 265.200 - Waste analysis and trial tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Waste analysis and trial tests. 265.200 Section 265.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE,...

  2. 40 CFR 265.200 - Waste analysis and trial tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Waste analysis and trial tests. 265.200 Section 265.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE,...

  3. 40 CFR 265.200 - Waste analysis and trial tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Waste analysis and trial tests. 265.200 Section 265.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE,...

  4. Statistical evaluation of effluent monitoring data for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    CJ Chou; VG Johnson

    2000-04-04

    The 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) consists of a pair of infiltration basins that receive wastewater originating from the 200 West and 200 East Areas of the Hanford Site. TEDF has been in operation since 1995 and is regulated by State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 (Ecology 1995) under the authority of Chapter 90.48 Revised Code of Washington (RCW) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 173-216. The permit stipulates monitoring requirements for effluent (or end-of-pipe) discharges and groundwater monitoring for TEDF. Groundwater monitoring began in 1992 prior to TEDF construction. Routine effluent monitoring in accordance with the permit requirements began in late April 1995 when the facility began operations. The State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 included a special permit condition (S.6). This condition specified a statistical study of the variability of permitted constituents in the effluent from TEDF during its first year of operation. The study was designed to (1) demonstrate compliance with the waste discharge permit; (2) determine the variability of all constituents in the effluent that have enforcement limits, early warning values, and monitoring requirements (WHC 1995); and (3) determine if concentrations of permitted constituents vary with season. Additional and more frequent sampling was conducted for the effluent variability study. Statistical evaluation results were provided in Chou and Johnson (1996). Parts of the original first year sampling and analysis plan (WHC 1995) were continued with routine monitoring required up to the present time.

  5. Baseline mapping study of the Steed Pond aquifer and vadose zone beneath A/M Area, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.G. Jr.

    2000-01-27

    This report presents the second phase of a baseline mapping project conducted for the Environmental Restoration Department (ERD) at Savannah River Site. The purpose of this second phase is to map the structure and distribution of mud (clay and silt-sized sediment) within the vadose zone beneath A/M Area. The results presented in this report will assist future characterization and remediation activities in the vadose zone and upper aquifer zones in A/M Area.

  6. Electrical distribution studies for the 200 Area tank farms

    SciTech Connect

    Fisler, J.B.

    1994-08-26

    This is an engineering study providing reliability numbers for various design configurations as well as computer analyses (Captor/Dapper) of the existing distribution system to the 480V side of the unit substations. The objective of the study was to assure the adequacy of the existing electrical system components from the connection at the high voltage supply point through the transformation and distribution equipment to the point where it is reduced to its useful voltage level. It also was to evaluate the reasonableness of proposed solutions of identified deficiencies and recommendations of possible alternate solutions. The electrical utilities are normally considered the most vital of the utility systems on a site because all other utility systems depend on electrical power. The system accepts electric power from the external sources, reduces it to a lower voltage, and distributes it to end-use points throughout the site. By classic definition, all utility systems extend to a point 5 feet from the facility perimeter. An exception is made to this definition for the electric utilities at this site. The electrical Utility System ends at the low voltage section of the unit substation, which reduces the voltage from 13.8 kV to 2,400, 480, 277/480 or 120/208 volts. These transformers are located at various distances from existing facilities. The adequacy of the distribution system which transports the power from the main substation to the individual area substations and other load centers is evaluated and factored into the impact of the future load forecast.

  7. Blanket Biological Review for General Maintenance Activities Within Active Burial Grounds, 200 East and 200 West Areas, ECR No.2003-200-035

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2003-08-25

    No plant and animal species protected under the ESA, candidates for such protection, or species listed by the Washington state government were observed in the vicinity of the proposed sites. Piper's daisy may still occur in some of the burial grounds (218-E-12, 218-E-10). This is a Washington State Sensitive plant species, and as such is a Level III resource under the Hanford Site Biological Resources Management Plan. Compensatory mitigation is appropriate for this species when adverse impacts cannot be avoided. The stalked-pod and crouching milkvetch, Watch List species, are relatively common throughout 200 West area, therefore even if the few individuals within the active burial grounds are disturbed, it is not likely that the overall local population will be adversely affected. The Watch List is the lowest level of listing for plant species of concern in the State of Washington. No adverse impacts to species or habitats of concern are expected to occur from routine maintenance within the active portions of the 218-W-4C, 218-W-4B, 218-W-3, 218-W-3A, and 218-W-5 burial grounds, as well as the portion of 218-E-12B currently used for storage of retired submarine reactor cores. The remaining portions of the 218-E-12B burial ground and the entire 218-E-10 burial ground currently have extensive vegetative cover and it is highly likely that migratory birds, such as meadowlarks, horned larks, and curlews may nest in these areas. Therefore, it is recommended that if removal of the existing vegetation is required for burial ground operations, such removal only occur during the August through March time period (i.e. when the birds are not actively nesting). If vegetation removal is required prior to August 2003 or after 1 April 2004, please contact the ECAP staff for an additional analysis to ensure compliance with the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. Workers should be advised to watch for nesting birds within the burial grounds, if any are encountered, please contact the ECAP

  8. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 east area burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-15

    A performance assessment analysis was completed for the 200 East Area Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) to satisfy compliance requirements in DOE Order 5820.2A. In the analysis, scenarios of radionuclide release from the 200 East Area Low-Level waste facility was evaluated. The analysis focused on two primary scenarios leading to exposure. The first was inadvertent intrusion. In this scenario, it was assumed that institutional control of the site and knowledge of the disposal facility has been lost. Waste is subsequently exhumed and dose from exposure is received. The second scenario was groundwater contamination.In this scenario, radionuclides are leached from the waste by infiltrating precipitation and transported through the soil column to the underlying unconfined aquifer. The contaminated water is pumped from a well 100 m downstream and consumed,causing dose. Estimates of potential contamination of the surrounding environment were developed and the associated doses to the maximum exposed individual were calculated. The doses were compared with performance objective dose limits, found primarily in the DOE order 5850.2A. In the 200 East Area LLBG,it was shown that projected doses are estimated to be well below the limits because of the combination of environmental, waste inventory, and disposal facility characteristics of the 200 East Area LLBG. Waste acceptance criteria were also derived to ensure that disposal of future waste inventories in the 200 East Area LLBG will not cause an unacceptable increase in estimated dose.

  9. 17 CFR 200.23a - Office of Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Office of Economic Analysis... Organization § 200.23a Office of Economic Analysis. The Office of Economic Analysis is responsible for providing an objective economic perspective to understand and evaluate the economic dimension of...

  10. 17 CFR 200.23a - Office of Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Office of Economic Analysis... Organization § 200.23a Office of Economic Analysis. The Office of Economic Analysis is responsible for providing an objective economic perspective to understand and evaluate the economic dimension of...

  11. 17 CFR 200.23a - Office of Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Office of Economic Analysis... Organization § 200.23a Office of Economic Analysis. The Office of Economic Analysis is responsible for providing an objective economic perspective to understand and evaluate the economic dimension of...

  12. 17 CFR 200.23a - Office of Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Office of Economic Analysis... Organization § 200.23a Office of Economic Analysis. The Office of Economic Analysis is responsible for... Commission's regulatory oversight. It performs economic analyses of proposed rule changes, current...

  13. 40 CFR 246.200-8 - Recommended procedures: Cost analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Recommended procedures: Cost analysis... § 246.200-8 Recommended procedures: Cost analysis. After potential markets have been located (but prior... paper and residual solid waste have been established, an analysis should be conducted which compares...

  14. 40 CFR 246.200-8 - Recommended procedures: Cost analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Cost analysis... § 246.200-8 Recommended procedures: Cost analysis. After potential markets have been located (but prior... paper and residual solid waste have been established, an analysis should be conducted which compares...

  15. 40 CFR 246.200-8 - Recommended procedures: Cost analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Cost analysis... § 246.200-8 Recommended procedures: Cost analysis. After potential markets have been located (but prior... paper and residual solid waste have been established, an analysis should be conducted which compares...

  16. Development and testing of a contamination potential mapping system for a portion of the General Separations Area, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rine, J.M.; Berg, R.C.; Shafer, J.M.; Covington, E.R.; Reed, J.K.; Bennett, C.B.; Trudnak, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    A methodology was developed to evaluate and map the contamination potential or aquifer sensitivity of the upper groundwater flow system of a portion of the General Separations Area (GSA) at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to integrate diverse subsurface geologic data, soils data, and hydrology utilizing a stack-unit mapping approach to construct mapping layers. This is the first time that such an approach has been used to delineate the hydrogeology of a coastal plain environment. Unit surface elevation maps were constructed for the tops of six Tertiary units derived from over 200 boring logs. Thickness or isopach maps were created for five hydrogeologic units by differencing top and basal surface elevations. The geologic stack-unit map was created by stacking the five isopach maps and adding codes for each stack-unit polygon. Stacked-units were rated according to their hydrogeologic properties and ranked using a logarithmic approach (utility theory) to establish a contamination potential index. Colors were assigned to help display relative importance of stacked-units in preventing or promoting transport of contaminants. The sensitivity assessment included the effects of surface soils on contaminants which are particularly important for evaluating potential effects from surface spills. Hydrogeologic/hydrologic factors did not exhibit sufficient spatial variation to warrant incorporation into contamination potential assessment. Development of this contamination potential mapping system provides a useful tool for site planners, environmental scientists, and regulatory agencies.A methodology was developed to evaluate and map the contamination potential or aquifer sensitivity of the upper groundwater flow system of a portion of the General Separations Area (GSA) at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to

  17. Conservation outside protected areas and the effect of human-dominated landscapes on stress hormones in Savannah elephants.

    PubMed

    Ahlering, M A; Maldonado, J E; Eggert, L S; Fleischer, R C; Western, D; Brown, J L

    2013-06-01

    Biodiversity conservation strategies are increasingly focused on regions outside national protected areas, where animals face numerous anthropogenic threats and must coexist with human settlements, livestock, and agriculture. The effects of these potential threats are not always clear, but they could have profound implications for population viability. We used savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana) as a case study to assess the physiological stress associated with living in a human-livestock-dominated landscape. We collected samples over two 3-month periods in 2007 and 2008. We used fecal DNA to identify 96 individual elephants in a community conservation area (CCA) and measured fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations as a proxy for stress. The CCA is community Maasai land managed for livestock and wildlife. We compared the FGM concentrations from the CCA to FGM concentrations of 40 elephants in Amboseli National Park and 32 elephants in the Maasai Mara National Reserve, where human settlements and intense livestock grazing were absent. In the CCA, we found no significant individual differences in FGM concentrations among the elephants in 2007 (p = 0.312) or 2008 (p = 0.412) and no difference between years (p = 0.616). The elephants in the CCA had similar FGM concentrations to the Maasai Mara population, but Amboseli elephants had significantly lower FGM concentrations than those in either Maasai Mara or the CCA (Tukey pairwise test, p < 0.001), due primarily to females excreting significantly lower FGM relative to males (p = 0.025). In the CCA, there was no relation among female group size, average pairwise group relatedness, and average group FGM concentration. We found no clear evidence of chronic stress in elephants living on CCA communal land, which is encouraging for conservation strategies promoting the protection of animals living outside protected areas.

  18. 200 area liquid effluent facility quality assurance program plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, N.J.

    1995-10-10

    Direct revision of Supporting Document WHC-SD-LEF-QAPP-001, Rev. 0. 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities Quality Assurance Program Plan. Incorporates changes to references in tables. Revises test to incorporate WHC-SD-LEF-CSCM-001, Computer Software Configuration Management Plan for 200 East/West Liquid Effluent Facilities

  19. Interpretation of Geological Correlation Borings 1, 2, 3 in the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.E.; Cumbest, R.J.; Aadland, R.K.; Syms, F.H.; Stephenson, D.E.; Sherrill, J.C.

    1997-06-01

    The Geophysical Correlation Boring (GCB) Program was organized to provide a comprehensive correlation capability between geological core and advanced borehole geophysical data, surface high resolution reflection seismic information and, when available, borehole geochemical and cone penetrometer data. This report provides results and initial geological interpretations of borings one, two, and three (GCB-1, GCB-2, GCB-3) located within the Upper Three Runs Watershed (A/M Area) of the Savannah River Site.

  20. Deerskins and Cotton. Ecological impacts of historical land use in the Central Savannah River Area of the Southeastern US before 1950.

    SciTech Connect

    D.L. White

    2004-01-01

    White, D.L. 2004. Deerskins and Cotton. Ecological impacts of historical land use in the Central Savannah River Area of the Southeastern US before 1950. Final Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 324 pp. Abstract: The history of land use for an area is the history of the way in which humans have manipulated or altered the environment. Most land use activities can be viewed as disturbance to ecosystems. Within a given climatic regime, the interaction of the disturbance regime with vegetation, soil, and landform factors largely determines the distribution and composition of plant and associated animal communities. For these reasons, a greater understanding of the ecological impacts of both human and non-human related disturbance is needed to improve our ability to make natural resource management decisions. This document outlines the land use history of the Savannah River Site and surrounding areas from about 1780 thru 1950, when the site was converted to a government facility for the purposes of national defense.

  1. Results of Aquifer Tests Performed Near R-Area, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hiergesell, R.A.

    2001-01-31

    The aquifer testing described in this report was conducted in response to USEPA comments (WSRC, 1998) on the Rev. 0 R-Reactor Seepage Basins RFI/RI Report (WSRC, 1998a), Appendix G, Groundwater Contaminant Transport Modeling for the R-Reactor Seepage Basins (RRSB)/108-4R Overflow Basin Operable Unit. The R-area regional flow model described in Appendix G of the RFI/RI is based on small-scale and/or indirect measures of hydraulic conductivity, including laboratory tests, slug tests, cone penetration testing (CPT) and lithologic core descriptions. The USEPA proposed and SRS- agreed that large-scale conductivity estimates from multiple well pumping tests would be beneficial for validating the model conductivity field. Overall, the aquifer test results validate the 1998 R-area regional groundwater flow model.

  2. Groundwater monitoring program evaluation For A/M Area, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Bollinger, J.S.

    1996-12-01

    This investigation was undertaken with the primary purpose of assessing the groundwater monitoring program within the A/M Area to identify ways in which the monitoring program could be improved. The task was difficult due to the large number of wells located within the A/M Area and the huge database of analytical data. It was recognized early in this investigation that one of the key tasks was to develop a way to gain access to the groundwater databases so that recommendations could be made. To achieve this, geographic information systems (GIS) technology was used to extract pertinent groundwater quality information from the Geochemical Information Management System (GIMS) groundwater database and display the extracted information spatially. GIS technology was also used to determine the location of well screen and annular material zones within the A/M Area hydrostratigraphy and to identify wells that may breach confining units. Recommendations developed from this study address: (1) wells that may not be providing reliable data but continue to be routinely sampled (2) wells that may be inappropriately located but continue to be routinely sampled and (3) further work that should be undertaken, including well development, evaluation of wells that may be breaching confining units, and development of an automated link to GIMS using GIS so that GIMS data can easily be accessed and displayed geographically.

  3. H-Area Seepage Basins: Groundwater quality assessment report, Savannah River Site. Second quarter, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    During the second quarter of 1990 the wells which make up the H-Area Seepage Basins (H-HWMF) monitoring network were sampled. Laboratory analyses were performed to measure levels of hazardous constituents, indicator parameters, tritium, nonvolatile beta, and gross alpha. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) scan was performed on all wells sampled to determine any hazardous organic constituents present in the groundwater. The primary contaminants observed at wells monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins are tritium, nitrate, mercury, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and total radium. Concentrations of at least one of the following constituents: tritium, nitrate, total radium, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, mercury, lead, cadmium, trichloroethylene chromium, and arsenic in excess of the primary drinking water standard (PDWS) were observed in at least one well monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins. Elevated levels of tritium above the PDWS were exhibited in seventy-seven of the 105 (73%) groundwater monitoring wells. Elevated levels of nitrate in excess of the PDWS were exhibited in forty-four of the 105 (42%) monitoring wells.

  4. H-Area Seepage Basins: Groundwater quality assessment report, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    During the second quarter of 1990 the wells which make up the H-Area Seepage Basins (H-HWMF) monitoring network were sampled. Laboratory analyses were performed to measure levels of hazardous constituents, indicator parameters, tritium, nonvolatile beta, and gross alpha. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) scan was performed on all wells sampled to determine any hazardous organic constituents present in the groundwater. The primary contaminants observed at wells monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins are tritium, nitrate, mercury, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and total radium. Concentrations of at least one of the following constituents: tritium, nitrate, total radium, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, mercury, lead, cadmium, trichloroethylene chromium, and arsenic in excess of the primary drinking water standard (PDWS) were observed in at least one well monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins. Elevated levels of tritium above the PDWS were exhibited in seventy-seven of the 105 (73%) groundwater monitoring wells. Elevated levels of nitrate in excess of the PDWS were exhibited in forty-four of the 105 (42%) monitoring wells.

  5. Preliminary characterization of the F-Area Railroad Crosstie Pile at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    Historical information about the F-Area Railroad Crosstie Pile is limited. The unit is believed to have been a borrow area for earth fill that began receiving railroad crossties during the 1960s. The number of crossties at the unit began to increase significantly in 1984 when major repair of the SRS rail system was initiated. An estimated 100,000 used railroad crossties have accumulated at the unit since 1984. In an effort to determine the impact of the railroad crossties on the environment a total of 28 soil samples were collected from four test borings in March of 1991. Sample depths ranged from ground surface to 21.5 feet. Three of the borings were extended to the water table and groundwater samples were collected, one in an upgradient background'' area, and two downgradient from the unit. Few analytes were reported above detection limits. Test results are summarized in Section 4.0 and analytes not detected are summarized in Appendix A to this report. In three soil samples collected from depths between 10 and 21.5 feet, copper occurred at levels slightly above background. These copper values were detected in the sidegradient test boring and in the two downgradient test borings. Three organic analytes, acetone, pyridine, and Toluene, were reported above detection limits but well below drinking water standards (DWS) in all test borings, including the upgradient boring. Radionuclide activities were reported above background in both soil and water samples from all test borings. There do not appear to be any statistically significant trends in radionuclide activities with depth, or between upgradient or downgradient borings. The analytes detected in the test borings downgradient from the unit cannot be attributed to the railroad crosstie pile as they are not significantly different than the values reported for the upgradient, background test boring.

  6. MOVING BEYOND PUMP AND TREAT TOWARD ENHANCED ATTENUATION AND COMBINED REMEDIES T-AREA, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B; Brian Riha, B; Warren Hyde, W; Jay Noonkester, J; Gerald Blount, G

    2008-04-03

    Groundwater beneath T-Area, a former laboratory and semiworks operation at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site, is contaminated by chlorinated solvents (cVOCs). Since the contamination was detected in the 1980s, the cVOCs at T-Area have been treated by a combination of soil vapor extraction and groundwater pump and treat. The site has received approval to discontinue the active treatments and implement a full scale test of enhanced attenuation--an engineering and regulatory strategy that has recently been developed by DOE and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council. Enhanced attenuation uses active engineering solutions to alter the target site in such a way that the contaminant plume will passively stabilize and shrink and to document that the action will be effective, timely, and sustainable. The paradigm recognizes that attenuation remedies are fundamentally based on a mass balance. Thus, long-term plume dynamics can be altered either by reducing the contaminant loading from the source or by increasing the rate of natural attenuation processes within all, or part of, the plume volume. The combination of technologies that emerged for T-Area included: (1) neat (pure) vegetable oil deployment in the deep vadose zone in the former source area, (2) emulsified vegetable oil deployment within the footprint of the groundwater plume, and (3) identification of attenuation mechanisms and rates for the distal portion of the plume. In the first part, neat oil spreads laterally forming a thin layer on the water table to intercept and reduce future cVOC loading (via partitioning) and reduce oxygen inputs (via biostimulation). In the second and third parts, emulsified oil forms active bioremediation reactor zones within the plume footprint to degrade existing groundwater contamination (via reductive dechlorination) and stimulates long-term attenuation capacity in the distal plume (via cometabolism). For T-Area, the enhanced attenuation development

  7. Ecomorphological analysis of trophic niche partitioning in a tropical savannah bat community.

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Luis F; Herrel, Anthony; van Damme, R; Matthysen, E

    2002-01-01

    The exceptional diversity of neotropical bat communities is sustained by an intricate partitioning of available resources among the member species. Trophical specialization is considered an important evolutionary avenue towards niche partitioning in neotropical phyllostomid bats. From an ancestral insectivorous condition, phyllostomids evolved into highly specialized frugivorous, carnivorous, nectarivorous, piscivorous and even sanguivorous species. Previously, correlations between cranial morphology and trophic ecology within this group have been documented. Here, we examine the evolutionary relationships between bite force and head shape in over 20 species of bats from a single tropical savannah bat community. The results show that bite force increases exponentially with body size across all species examined. Despite the significant differences between large dietary groups using traditional analysis (i.e. non-phylogenetic) and the strong evolutionary correlations between body mass and bite force, phylogenetic analyses indicated no differences in bite performance between insectivorous, omnivorous and frugivorous bats. Comparisons of three species with highly specialized feeding habits (nectarivory, piscivory and sanguivory) with the rest of the species in the community indicate that specialization into these niches comes at the expense of bite performance and, hence, may result in a reduction of the trophic niche breadth. PMID:12065044

  8. Analysis of censored data in groundwater monitoring wells at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, J.H.

    1994-07-01

    It is common in environmental analyses to deal with censored data. Censored data characteristically arise through laboratory analysis of samples with contaminant concentrations less than what the analytical method is able to reliably detect. These data are called ``less than detectable.`` Comparisons between downgradient or monitoring groundwater wells and upgradient or background wells are frequently done to determine if downgradient wells are more contaminated than background or some established maximum concentration limits (MCL`s). In addition, parameter estimates are often desired. The presence of censored data complicates the statistics that can be used as estimators for individual populations or to estimate differences between two populations. This paper describes the current process at Savannah River Site (SRS) to determine constituents of concern (COC`s) for complying with groundwater monitoring and clean-up regulations. COC`s are analytes found in downgradient monitoring wells in concentrations significantly greater than in background wells or significantly greater than the MCL`S. Both parametric and non-parametric statistics are explored. Data plots are examined for outliers, trends, laboratory or sampling contamination, and unusually large detection limits for censored results. Wells are grouped by similar concentration levels to form a ``characteristic`` well, improving the estimation and decision process.

  9. Sediment toxicity in Savannah Harbor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Savannah Harbor, located near the mouth of the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina, is impacted by industrial and municipal effluents. Potential release of contaminants stored in harbor sediments through dredging and shipping operations requires that contaminated areas be identified for proper management of the system and protection of wildlife resources. During 1991, Hyalella azteca were exposed in 10-d static-renewal toxicity tests to pore-water and solid-phase sediment samples collected from 26 sites within Savannah Harbor. Pore-water toxicity was more pronounced than that for solidphase sediment. Toxicity and reduced leaf consumption demonstrated impaired sediment quality at specific sites within Savannah Harbor and Back River. Factors responsible for the decreased sediment quality were ammonia, alkalinity, and metal concentrations (cadmium, chromium, lead, molybdenum, and nickel). Elevated concentrations of metals and toxicities in Back River sediments indicated impacts from adjacent dredge-spoil areas.

  10. Historical records of radioactive contamination in biota at the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.R.; Markes, B.M.; Schmidt, J.W.; Shah, A.N.; Weiss, S.G.; Wilson, K.J.

    1994-06-01

    This document summarizes and reports a literature search of 85 environmental monitoring records of wildlife and vegetation (biota) at the 200 East Area and the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site since 1965. These records were published annually and provided the majority of the data in this report. Additional sources of data have included records of specific facilities, such as site characterization documents and preoperational environmental surveys. These documents have been released for public use. Records before 1965 were still being researched and therefore not included in this document. The intent of compiling these data into a single source was to identify past and current concentrations of radionuclides in biota at specific facilities and waste sites within each operable unit that may be used to help guide cleanup activities in the 200 Areas to be completed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response and Liability Act (CERCLA). The 200 East Area and 200 West Area were the locations of the Hanford Site separation and process facilities and waste management units. For the purposes of this document, a sample was of interest if a Geiger-Mueller counter equipped with a pancake probe-indicated beta/gamma emitting radioactivity above 200 counts per minute (cpm), or if laboratory radioanalyses indicated a radionuclide concentration equaled or exceeded 10 picocuries per gram (pCi/g). About 4,500 individual cases of monitoring for radionuclide uptake or transport in biota in the 200 Areas environs were included in the documents reviewed. About 1,900 (i.e., 42%) of these biota had radionuclide concentrations in excess of 10 pCi/g. These radionuclide transport or uptake cases were distributed among 45 species of wildlife (primarily small mammals and feces) and 30 species of vegetation. The wildlife species most commonly associated with radioactive contamination were the house mouse and the deer mouse and of vegetation species, the Russian thistle.

  11. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 10): Hanford 200 Area (USDOE), operable unit 200-zp-1, Benton County, WA, May 24, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The decision document presents the selected interim remedial measure (IRM) for the USDOE Hanford 200-ZP-1 operable unit, 200 Area, Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington. The selected remedy uses groundwater pump and treat and is intended to minimize further migration of carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and trichloroethylene (TCE) in the groundwater of the 200 West Area. To do this, the IRM is designed to stabilize and reduce contaminant mass in the high concentration portion of the plume. The high concentration portion of the plume corresponds to the area within the 2000 - 3000 parts per billion (ppb) contour of carbon tetrachloride.

  12. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 10): Hanford 200 Area (USDOE), (200-UP-1 Operable Unit), Benton County, WA, February 11, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This decision document presents the selected Interim Remedial Action (IRA) for the US Department of Energy (US DOE) Hanford 200-UP-1 Operable Unit (OU), 200 Area, Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington. The selected remedy consists of pumping the highest concentration zone of the contaminated groundwater plume at 200-UP-1 and treatment using the existing Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) located in the 200 East Area. The selected remedy is intended to reduce contaminant mass within the plume and minimize migration of uranium and technetium-99 from the 200 West Area. The selected remedy will remove and treat these two contaminants of concern, in addition to the specific co-contaminants of nitrate and carbon tetrachloride which exist within the groundwater.

  13. TREATABILITY STUDY FOR EDIBLE OIL DEPLOYMENT FOR ENHANCED CVOC ATTENUATION FOR T-AREA, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Riha, B.; Looney, B.; Noonkester, J.; Hyde, W.; Walker, R.

    2012-05-15

    Groundwater beneath T-Area, a former laboratory and semiworks operation at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS), is contaminated by chlorinated solvents (cVOCs). Since the contamination was detected in the 1980s, the cVOCs at T-Area have been treated by a combination of soil vapor extraction and groundwater pump and treat. The site received approval to temporarily discontinue the active groundwater treatment and implement a treatability study of enhanced attenuation - an engineering and regulatory strategy that has recently been developed by DOE and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC 2007). Enhanced attenuation uses active engineering solutions to alter the target site in such a way that the contaminant plume will passively stabilize and shrink and to document that the action will be effective, timely, and sustainable. The paradigm recognizes that attenuation remedies are fundamentally based on a mass balance. Thus, long-term plume dynamics can be altered either by reducing the contaminant loading from the source or by increasing the rate of natural attenuation processes within all, or part of, the plume volume. The combination of technologies that emerged for T-Area included: (1) neat (pure) vegetable oil deployment in the deep vadose zone in the former source area, (2) emulsified vegetable oil deployment within the footprint of the groundwater plume, and (3) identification of attenuation mechanisms and rates for the distal portion of the plume. In the first part, neat oil spreads laterally forming a thin layer on the water table to intercept and reduce future cVOC loading (via partitioning) and reduce oxygen inputs (via biostimulation). In the second and third parts, emulsified oil forms active bioremediation reactor zones within the plume footprint to degrade existing groundwater contamination (via reductive dechlorination and/or cometabolism) and stimulates long-term attenuation capacity in the distal plume (via

  14. BLANKET BIOLOGICAL REVIEW FOR GENERAL MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES WITHIN ACTIVE BURIAL GROUNDS, 200 E and 200 W Areas, ECR No.2001-200-048

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2002-05-08

    No plant and animal species protected under the ESA, candidates for such protection, or species listed by the Washington state government were observed in the vicinity of the proposed sites. Piper's daisy may still occur in some of the burial grounds. This is a Washington State Sensitive plant species, and as such is a Level III resource under the Hanford Site Biological Resources Management Plan. Compensatory mitigation is appropriate for this species when adverse impacts cannot be avoided. The Ecological Compliance Assessment Project (ECAP) staff should consulted prior to the initiation of major work activities within areas where this species has been identified (218-E-12, 218-E-10). The stalked-pod and crouching milkvetch are relatively common throughout 200 West area, therefore even if the few individuals within the active burial grounds are disturbed, it is not likely that the overall local population will be adversely affected. The Watch List is the lowest level of listing for plant species of concern in the State of Washington. No adverse impacts to species or habitats of concern are expected to occur from routine maintenance within the active portions of the 218-W-4C, 218-W-4B, 218-W-3, 218-W-3A, and 218-W-5 burial grounds, as well as the portion of 218-E-12B currently used for storage of retired submarine reactor cores. The remaining portions of the 218-E-12B burial ground, the entire 218-E-10 burial ground, and the 218-W-6 burial ground currently have extensive vegetative cover and it is highly likely that migratory birds, such as meadow larks, horned larks, and curlews will nest in these areas. Therefore, it is recommended that if removal of the existing vegetation is required for burial ground operations, such removal only occur during the August through March time period (i.e. when the birds are not actively nesting). This blanket review does not apply to the portions of 218-W-4C, and 218-W-6 previously described.

  15. BLANKET BIOLOGICAL REVIEW FOR GENERAL MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES WITHIN ACTIVE BURIAL GROUNDS, 200 E and 200 W Areas, ECR No. 2002-200-034

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2003-06-26

    No plant and animal species protected under the ESA, candidates for such protection, or species listed by the Washington state government were observed in the vicinity of the proposed sites. Piper's daisy may still occur in some of the burial grounds. This is a Washington State Sensitive plant species, and as such is a Level III resource under the Hanford Site Biological Resources Management Plan. Compensatory mitigation is appropriate for this species when adverse impacts cannot be avoided. The Ecological Compliance Assessment Project (ECAP) staff should consulted prior to the initiation of major work activities within areas where this species has been identified (218-E-12, 218-E-10). The stalked-pod and crouching milkvetch are relatively common throughout 200 West area, therefore even if the few individuals within the active burial grounds are disturbed, it is not likely that the overall local population will be adversely affected. The Watch List is the lowest level of listing for pl ant species of concern in the State of Washington. No adverse impacts to species or habitats of concern are expected to occur from routine maintenance within the active portions of the 218-W-4C, 218-W-4B, 218-W-3, 218-W-3A, and 218-W-5 burial grounds, as well as the portion of 218-E-12B currently used for storage of retired submarine reactor cores. The remaining portions of the 218-E-12B burial ground, the entire 218-E-10 burial ground, and the 218-W-6 burial ground currently have extensive vegetative cover and it is highly likely that migratory birds, such as meadow larks, horned larks, and curlews will nest in these areas. Therefore, it is recommended that if removal of the existing vegetation is required for burial ground operations, such removal only occur during the August through March time period (i.e. when the birds are not actively nesting). This blanket review does not apply to the portions of 218-W-4C, and 218-W-6 previously described.

  16. BLANKET BIOLOGICAL REVIEW FOR GENERAL MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES WITHIN ACTIVE BURIAL GROUNDS, 200 E and 200 W Areas, ECR #2000-200-013

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2002-04-04

    No plant and animal species protected under the ESA, candidates for such protection, or species listed by the Washington state government were observed in the vicinity of the proposed sites. Piper's daisy may still occur in some of the burial grounds. This is a Washington State Sensitive plant species, and as such is a Level III resource under the Hanford Site Biological Resources Management Plan. Compensatory mitigation is appropriate for this species when adverse impacts cannot be avoided. The Ecological Compliance Assessment Project (ECAP) staff should consulted prior to the initiation of major work activities within areas where this species has been identified (218-E-12, 218-E-10). The stalked-pod and crouching milkvetch are relatively common throughout 200 West area, therefore even if the few individuals within the active burial grounds are disturbed, it is not likely that the overall local population will be adversely affected. The Watch List is the lowest level of listing for plant species of concern in the State of Washington. No adverse impacts to species or habitats of concern are expected to occur from routine maintenance within the active portions of the 218-W-4C, 218-W-4B, 218-W-3, 218-W-3A, and 218-W-5 burial grounds, as well as the portion of 218-E-12B currently used for storage of retired submarine reactor cores. The remaining portions of the 218-E-12B burial ground, the entire 218-E-10 burial ground, and the 218-W-6 burial ground currently have extensive vegetative cover and it is highly likely that migratory birds, such as meadow larks, horned larks, and curlews will nest in these areas. Therefore, it is recommended that if removal of the existing vegetation is required for burial ground operations, such removal only occur during the August through March time period (i.e. when the birds are not actively nesting). This blanket review does not apply to the portions of 218-W-4C, and 218-W-6 previously described.

  17. Evaluation of groundwater monitoring results at the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D.B.

    1998-09-01

    The Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) has operated since June 1995. Groundwater monitoring has been conducted quarterly in the three wells surrounding the facility since 1992, with contributing data from nearby B Pond System wells. Cumulative hydrologic and geochemical information from the TEDF well network and other surrounding wells indicate no discernable effects of TEDF operations on the uppermost aquifer in the vicinity of the TEDF. The lateral consistency and impermeable nature of the Ringold Formation lower mud unit, and the contrasts in hydraulic conductivity between this unit and the vadose zone sediments of the Hanford formation suggest that TEDF effluent is spreading laterally with negligible mounding or downward movement into the uppermost aquifer. Hydrographs of TEDF wells show that TEDF operations have had no detectable effects on hydraulic heads in the uppermost aquifer, but show a continuing decay of the hydraulic mound generated by past operations at the B Pond System. Comparison of groundwater geochemistry from TEDF wells and other, nearby RCRA wells suggests that groundwater beneath TEDF is unique; different from both effluent entering TEDF and groundwater in the B Pond area. Tritium concentrations, major ionic proportions, and lower-than-background concentrations of other species suggest that groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the TEDF bears characteristics of water in the upper basalt confined aquifer system. This report recommends retaining the current groundwater well network at the TEDF, but with a reduction of sampling/analysis frequency and some modifications to the list of constituents sought.

  18. Analysis of Numerical Simulation Results of LIPS-200 Lifetime Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Juanjuan; Zhang, Tianping; Geng, Hai; Jia, Yanhui; Meng, Wei; Wu, Xianming; Sun, Anbang

    2016-06-01

    Accelerator grid structural and electron backstreaming failures are the most important factors affecting the ion thruster's lifetime. During the thruster's operation, Charge Exchange Xenon (CEX) ions are generated from collisions between plasma and neutral atoms. Those CEX ions grid's barrel and wall frequently, which cause the failures of the grid system. In order to validate whether the 20 cm Lanzhou Ion Propulsion System (LIPS-200) satisfies China's communication satellite platform's application requirement for North-South Station Keeping (NSSK), this study analyzed the measured depth of the pit/groove on the accelerator grid's wall and aperture diameter's variation and estimated the operating lifetime of the ion thruster. Different from the previous method, in this paper, the experimental results after the 5500 h of accumulated operation of the LIPS-200 ion thruster are presented firstly. Then, based on these results, theoretical analysis and numerical calculations were firstly performed to predict the on-orbit lifetime of LIPS-200. The results obtained were more accurate to calculate the reliability and analyze the failure modes of the ion thruster. The results indicated that the predicted lifetime of LIPS-200's was about 13218.1 h which could satisfy the required lifetime requirement of 11000 h very well.

  19. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.D.; Hagel, D.L.

    1995-08-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office, under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive material that has been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities from startup in 1944 through calendar year 1994. This report does not include backlog waste: solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WHC 1988), liquid waste data are not included in this document.

  20. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.D.; Hagel, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Areas radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Areas radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities since startup in 1944 through calendar year 1993. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive waste in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, ``Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria,`` (WHC 1988), liquid waste data are not included in this document.

  1. Revised Hydrogeology for the Suprabasalt Aquifer System, 200-East Area and Vicinity, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Bruce A.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schalla, Ronald; Webber, William D.

    2000-04-20

    This study supports the Hanford Groundwater/Vadose integration project objectives to better understand the risk of groundwater contamination and potential risk to the public via groundwater flow paths. The primary objective of this study was to refine the conceptual groundwater flow model for the 200-East Area and vicinity.

  2. Identifying source populations and genetic structure for savannah elephants in human-dominated landscapes and protected areas in the Kenya-Tanzania borderlands.

    PubMed

    Ahlering, Marissa A; Eggert, Lori S; Western, David; Estes, Anna; Munishi, Linus; Fleischer, Robert; Roberts, Melissa; Maldonado, Jesus E

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the genetic metapopulation structure of elephants across the trans Rift Valley region of Kenya and Tanzania, one of the remaining strongholds for savannah elephants (Loxodonata africana) in East Africa, using microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. We then examined this population structure to determine the source population for a recent colonization event of savannah elephants on community-owned land within the trans rift valley region. Four of the five sampled populations showed significant genetic differentiation (p<0.05) as measured with both mtDNA haplotypes and microsatellites. Only the samples from the adjacent Maasai Mara and Serengeti ecosystems showed no significant differentiation. A phylogenetic neighbour-joining tree constructed from mtDNA haplotypes detected four clades. Clade four corresponds to the F clade of previous mtDNA studies that reported to have originated in forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) but to also be present in some savannah elephant populations. The split between clade four and the other three clades corresponded strongly to the geographic distribution of mtDNA haplotypes across the rift valley in the study area. Clade four was the dominant clade detected on the west side of the rift valley with rare occurrences on the east side. Finally, the strong patterns of population differentiation clearly indicated that the recent colonists to the community-owned land in Kenya came from the west side of the rift valley. Our results indicate strong female philopatry within the isolated populations of the trans rift valley region, with gene flow primarily mediated via male movements. The recent colonization event from Maasai Mara or Serengeti suggests there is hope for maintaining connectivity and population viability outside formal protected areas in the region.

  3. Identifying Source Populations and Genetic Structure for Savannah Elephants in Human-Dominated Landscapes and Protected Areas in the Kenya-Tanzania Borderlands

    PubMed Central

    Ahlering, Marissa A.; Eggert, Lori S.; Western, David; Estes, Anna; Munishi, Linus; Fleischer, Robert; Roberts, Melissa; Maldonado, Jesus E.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the genetic metapopulation structure of elephants across the trans Rift Valley region of Kenya and Tanzania, one of the remaining strongholds for savannah elephants (Loxodonata africana) in East Africa, using microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. We then examined this population structure to determine the source population for a recent colonization event of savannah elephants on community-owned land within the trans rift valley region. Four of the five sampled populations showed significant genetic differentiation (p<0.05) as measured with both mtDNA haplotypes and microsatellites. Only the samples from the adjacent Maasai Mara and Serengeti ecosystems showed no significant differentiation. A phylogenetic neighbour-joining tree constructed from mtDNA haplotypes detected four clades. Clade four corresponds to the F clade of previous mtDNA studies that reported to have originated in forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) but to also be present in some savannah elephant populations. The split between clade four and the other three clades corresponded strongly to the geographic distribution of mtDNA haplotypes across the rift valley in the study area. Clade four was the dominant clade detected on the west side of the rift valley with rare occurrences on the east side. Finally, the strong patterns of population differentiation clearly indicated that the recent colonists to the community-owned land in Kenya came from the west side of the rift valley. Our results indicate strong female philopatry within the isolated populations of the trans rift valley region, with gene flow primarily mediated via male movements. The recent colonization event from Maasai Mara or Serengeti suggests there is hope for maintaining connectivity and population viability outside formal protected areas in the region. PMID:23300634

  4. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M.I.; Khaleel, R.; Rittmann, P.D.; Lu, A.H.; Finfrock, S.H.; DeLorenzo, T.H.; Serne, R.J.; Cantrell, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied.

  5. Groundwater monitoring plan for the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    DB Barnett

    2000-05-17

    Seven years of groundwater monitoring at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) have shown that the uppermost aquifer beneath the facility is unaffected by TEDF effluent. Effluent discharges have been well below permitted and expected volumes. Groundwater mounding from TEDF operations predicted by various models has not been observed, and waterlevels in TEDF wells have continued declining with the dissipation of the nearby B Pond System groundwater mound. Analytical results for constituents with enforcement limits indicate that concentrations of all these are below Practical Quantitation Limits, and some have produced no detections. Likewise, other constituents on the permit-required list have produced results that are mostly below sitewide background. Comprehensive geochemical analyses of groundwater from TEDF wells has shown that most constituents are below background levels as calculated by two Hanford Site-wide studies. Additionally, major ion proportions and anomalously low tritium activities suggest that groundwater in the aquifer beneath the TEDF has been sequestered from influences of adjoining portions of the aquifer and any discharge activities. This inference is supported by recent hydrogeologic investigations which indicate an extremely slow rate of groundwater movement beneath the TEDF. Detailed evaluation of TEDF-area hydrogeology and groundwater geochemistry indicate that additional points of compliance for groundwater monitoring would be ineffective for this facility, and would produce ambiguous results. Therefore, the current groundwater monitoring well network is retained for continued monitoring. A quarterly frequency of sampling and analysis is continued for all three TEDF wells. The constituents list is refined to include only those parameters key to discerning subtle changes in groundwater chemistry, those useful in detecting general groundwater quality changes from upgradient sources, or those retained for comparison with end

  6. Biological monitoring of Upper Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina. Final report on macroinvertebrate stream assessments for F/H area ETF effluent discharge, July 1987--February 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-10-01

    In anticipation of the fall 1988 start up of effluent discharges into Upper Three Creek by the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC, a two and one half year biological study was initiated in June 1987. Upper Three Runs Creek is an intensively studied fourth order stream known for its high species richness. Designed to assess the potential impact of F?H area effluent on the creek, the study includes qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrate stream surveys at five sites, chronic toxicity testing of the effluent, water chemistry and bioaccumulation analysis. This final report presents the results of both pre-operational and post-operational qualitative and quantitative (artificial substrate) macroinvertebrate studies. Six quantitative and three qualitative studies were conducted prior to the initial release of the F/H ETF effluent and five quantitative and two qualitative studies were conducted post-operationally.

  7. Wellfield strategy and recommendations for the 200 West Area carbon tetrachloride expedited response action

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-04-01

    On December 20, 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) requested the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Field Office (RL) to proceed with the detailed planning, including nonintrusive field work, required to implement an Expedited Response Action (ERA) for removing carbon tetrachloride contamination in the unsaturated soils in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The request was based on concerns that the carbon tetrachloride residing in the soils was continuing to spread to the groundwater and, if left unchecked, would significantly increase the area of groundwater contamination. The purpose of this ERA is to minimize carbon tetrachloride migration within the unsaturated zone beneath and,away from the carbon tetrachloride disposal sites in the 200 West Area.

  8. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 216-S-26 Crib, 200 West Area

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, J.W.; Evelo, S.D.; Alexander, D.J.

    1993-11-01

    This report assesses the impact of wastewater discharged to the 216-S-26 Crib on groundwater quality. The 216-S-26 Crib, located in the southern 200 West Area, has been in use since 1984 to dispose of liquid effluents from the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The 222-S Laboratory Complex effluent stream includes wastewater from four sources: the 222-S Laboratory, the 219-S Waste Storage Facility, the 222-SA Chemical Standards Laboratory, and the 291-S Exhaust Fan Control House and Stack. Based on assessment of groundwater chemistry and flow data, contaminant transport predictions, and groundwater chemistry data, the 216-S-26 Crib has minimal influence on groundwater contamination in the southern 200 West Area.

  9. Hydrogeology of the Hanford Site Central Plateau – A Status Report for the 200 West Area

    SciTech Connect

    Last, George V.; Thorne, Paul D.; Horner, Jacob A.; Parker, Kyle R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Lanigan, David C.; Williams, Bruce A.

    2009-08-27

    The Remediation Decisions Support (RDS) function of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (managed by CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]) is responsible for facilitating the development of consistent data, parameters, and conceptual models to resolve technical issues and support efforts to estimate contaminant migration and impacts (i.e., the assessment process). In particular, the RDS function is working to update electronic data sources and conceptual models of the geologic framework and associated hydraulic and geochemical parameters to facilitate traceability, transparency, defensibility, and consistency in support of environmental assessments. This report summarizes the efforts conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists in fiscal year 2008 (FY08) that focused primarily on the 200 West Area, as well as a secondary effort initiated on the 200 East Area.

  10. Statistical Evaluation of Effluent Monitoring Data for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Charissa J.; Johnson, Vernon G.

    2000-03-08

    This report updates the original effluent variability study for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) and provides supporting justification for modifying the effluent monitoring portion of the discharge permit. Four years of monitoring data were evaluated and used to statistically justify changes in permit effluent monitoring conditions. As a result, the TEDF effluent composition and variability of the effluent waste stream are now well defined.

  11. Intensive archaeological survey of the F/H Surface Enhancement Project Area, Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Sassaman, K.E.; Gillam, J.C.

    1993-08-01

    Twelve archaeological sites and four artifact occurrences were located by intensive survey of two tracts of land for the F and H Surface Enhancement Project on the Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Fieldwork in the 480-acre project area included surface reconnaissance of 3.6 linear kilometers of transects, 140 shovel tests along 4.2 linear kilometers of transects, an additional 162 shovel tests at sites and occurrences, and the excavation of six l {times} 2 m test units. All but one of the sites contained artifacts of the prehistoric era; the twelfth site consists of the remains of a twentieth-century home place. The historic site and six of the prehistoric sites consist of limited and/or disturbed contexts of archaeological deposits that have little research potential and are therefore considered ineligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). The remaining five sites have sufficient content and integrity to yield information important to ongoing investigations into upland site use. These sites (38AK146, 38AK535, 38AK539, 38AK541, and 38AK543) are thus deemed eligible for nomination to the NRHP and the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) recommends that they be preserved through avoidance or data recovery.

  12. Testing of stack-unit/aquifer sensitivity analysis using contaminant plume distribution in the subsurface of Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rine, J.M.; Shafer, J.M.; Covington, E.; Berg, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    Published information on the correlation and field-testing of the technique of stack-unit/aquifer sensitivity mapping with documented subsurface contaminant plumes is rare. The inherent characteristic of stack-unit mapping, which makes it a superior technique to other analyses that amalgamate data, is the ability to deconstruct the sensitivity analysis on a unit-by-unit basis. An aquifer sensitivity map, delineating the relative sensitivity of the Crouch Branch aquifer of the Administrative/Manufacturing Area (A/M) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina, USA, incorporates six hydrostratigraphic units, surface soil units, and relevant hydrologic data. When this sensitivity map is compared with the distribution of the contaminant tetrachloroethylene (PCE), PCE is present within the Crouch Branch aquifer within an area classified as highly sensitive, even though the PCE was primarily released on the ground surface within areas classified with low aquifer sensitivity. This phenomenon is explained through analysis of the aquifer sensitivity map, the groundwater potentiometric surface maps, and the plume distributions within the area on a unit-by- unit basis. The results of this correlation show how the paths of the PCE plume are influenced by both the geology and the groundwater flow. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  13. State waste discharge permit application: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    As part of the original Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Concent Order negotiations, US DOE, US EPA and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground to the Hanford Site are subject to permitting in the State Waste Discharge Permit Program (SWDP). This document constitutes the SWDP Application for the 200 Area TEDF stream which includes the following streams discharged into the area: Plutonium Finishing Plant waste water; 222-S laboratory Complex waste water; T Plant waste water; 284-W Power Plant waste water; PUREX chemical Sewer; B Plant chemical sewer, process condensate, steam condensate; 242-A-81 Water Services waste water.

  14. Assessment of unsaturated zone radionuclide contamination in the 200 areas of the Hanford site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Brodeur, J.R.; Wittreich, C.D.

    1993-03-01

    The 200 East and 200 West Areas at the Department of Energy`s Hanford site in southeastern Washington, contain chemical and nuclear fuel processing facilities that disposed of large volumes of chemical and radionuclide effluents to the ground via various structures such as ponds, cribs and ditches. A geophysical logging investigation was implemented in 1992 to assess the nature and extent of contamination beneath select liquid disposal sites in the 200 Areas. The borehole geophysical logging was accomplished with a recently developed spectral gamma-ray logging system called the Radionuclide Logging System (RLS). This system has a high-resolution, intrinsic germanium detector mounted in a downhole probe and is calibrated and operated specifically for use in a borehole environment. It provides a means to develop in-situ, gamma-emitting radioelement concentration profiles. Approximately 50 boreholes were logged in this study. The RLS log data provided information about the migration and deposition patterns of specific radionuclides in the unsaturated zone and their impacts on the groundwater. Approximately 10 radionuclide species were detected and quantified. Results of the field investigation are being used to refine site specific conceptual models, support Hanford Site remediation decisions and focus future characterization activities.

  15. TRITIUM UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS FOR SURFACE WATER SAMPLES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, R.

    2012-07-31

    Radiochemical analyses of surface water samples, in the framework of Environmental Monitoring, have associated uncertainties for the radioisotopic results reported. These uncertainty analyses pertain to the tritium results from surface water samples collected at five locations on the Savannah River near the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). Uncertainties can result from the field-sampling routine, can be incurred during transport due to the physical properties of the sample, from equipment limitations, and from the measurement instrumentation used. The uncertainty reported by the SRS in their Annual Site Environmental Report currently considers only the counting uncertainty in the measurements, which is the standard reporting protocol for radioanalytical chemistry results. The focus of this work is to provide an overview of all uncertainty components associated with SRS tritium measurements, estimate the total uncertainty according to ISO 17025, and to propose additional experiments to verify some of the estimated uncertainties. The main uncertainty components discovered and investigated in this paper are tritium absorption or desorption in the sample container, HTO/H{sub 2}O isotopic effect during distillation, pipette volume, and tritium standard uncertainty. The goal is to quantify these uncertainties and to establish a combined uncertainty in order to increase the scientific depth of the SRS Annual Site Environmental Report.

  16. Critical radionuclide/critical pathway analysis for the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site.

    PubMed

    Jannik, G T

    1999-06-01

    Many different radionuclides have been released to the environment from the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the facility's operational history. However, as shown by this analysis, only a small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to potential doses and risks to off-site people. This article documents the radiological critical contaminant/critical pathway analysis performed for SRS. If site missions and operations remain constant over the next 30 years, only tritium oxide releases are projected to exceed a maximally exposed individual (MEI) risk of 1.0E-06 for either the airborne or liquid pathways. The critical exposure pathways associated with site airborne releases are inhalation and vegetation consumption, whereas the critical exposure pathways associated with liquid releases are drinking water and fish consumption. For the SRS-specific, nontypical exposure pathways (i.e., recreational fishing and deer and hog hunting), cesium-137 is the critical radionuclide.

  17. Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Mamatey, A.R.

    2003-07-21

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), one of the facilities in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex, was constructed during the early 1950s to produce basic materials (such as plutonium-239 and tritium) used in nuclear weapons. The site covers approximately 310 square miles in South Carolina and borders the Savannah River. Various industrial, manufacturing, medical, and farming operations are conducted near the site. Several major industrial and manufacturing facilities are located in the area, and a variety of crops is produced on local farms. SRS is bounded on its southwestern border by the Savannah River for about 35 river miles and is approximately 160 river miles from the Atlantic Ocean. The SRS region is part of the Southern Bottomland Hardwood Swamp region, which extends south from Virginia to Florida and west along the Gulf of Mexico to the Mississippi River drainage basin. Originally, site facilities generated materials for nuclear weapons. Since the end of the Cold War in 199 1, however, their purpose has shifted to the stabilization of nuclear materials from onsite and offsite sources to ensure safe long-term storage or disposal. SRS has always been concerned about the safety of the public. The site is committed to protecting human health and reducing the risks associated with past, current, and future operations. Sampling locations, sample media, sampling frequency, and types of analysis are selected based on environmental regulations, exposure pathways, public concerns, and measurement capabilities.

  18. Persistent source influences on the trailing edge of a groundwater plume, and natural attenuation timeframes: the F-Area Savannah River Site.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jiamin; Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Dong, Wenming; Denham, Miles E; Hubbard, Susan S

    2012-04-17

    At the Savannah River Site's F-Area, wastewaters containing radionuclides were disposed into seepage basins for decades. After closure and capping in 1991, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has being monitoring and remediating the groundwater plume. Despite numerous studies of the plume, its persistence for over 20 years has not been well understood. To better understand the plume dynamics, a limited number of deep boreholes were drilled to determine the current plume characteristics. A mixing model was developed to predict plume tritium and nitrate concentrations. We found that the plume trailing edges have emerged for some contaminants, and that contaminant recharge from the basin's vadose zone is still important. The model's estimated time-dependent basin drainage rates combined with dilution from natural recharge successfully predicted plume tritium and nitrate concentrations. This new understanding of source zone influences can help guide science-based remediation, and improve predictions of the natural attenuation timeframes.

  19. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds: An interim report: Volume 1, Text

    SciTech Connect

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.; Wallace, D.W.; Newcomer, D.R.; Schramke, J.A.; Chamness, M.A.; Cline, C.S.; Airhart, S.P.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived from the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. This volume contains the main text. Volume 2 contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text. This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report are the preliminary interpretations of the hydrogeologic environment of six low-level burial grounds, which comprise four waste management areas (WMAs) located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretations were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the construction of 35 ground-water monitoring wells as well as a multitude of previously existing boreholes. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a ground-water monitoring program initiated in 1986. This ground-water monitoring program is based on requirements for interim status facilities in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976).

  20. Request for modification of 200 Area effluent treatment facility final delisting

    SciTech Connect

    BOWMAN, R.C.

    1998-11-19

    A Delisting Petition submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in August 1993 addressed effluent to be generated at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility from treating Hanford Facility waste streams. This Delisting Petition requested that 71.9 million liters per year of treated effluent, bearing the designation 'F001' through 'F005', and/or 'F039' that is derived from 'F001' through 'F005' waste, be delisted. On June 13, 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency published the final rule (Final Delisting), which formally excluded 71.9 million liters per year of 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility effluent from ''being listed as hazardous wastes'' (60 FR 31115 now promulgated in 40 CFR 261). Given the limited scope, it is necessary to request a modification of the Final Delisting to address the management of a more diverse multi-source leachate (F039) at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility. From past operations and current cleanup activities on the Hanford Facility, a considerable amount of both liquid and solid Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 regulated mixed waste has been and continues to be generated. Ultimately this waste will be treated as necessary to meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Land Disposal Restrictions. The disposal of this waste will be in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act--compliant permitted lined trenches equipped with leachate collection systems. These operations will result in the generation of what is referred to as multi-source leachate. This newly generated waste will receive the listed waste designation of F039. This waste also must be managed in compliance with the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  1. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-08-15

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  2. Historical tank content estimate for the southeast quadrant of the Hanford 200 area

    SciTech Connect

    Brevick, C.H.; Stroup, J.L.; Funk, J.W., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-14

    The Historical Tank Content Estimate for the Quadrant provides historical information on a tank-by-tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground single-shell tanks for the Hanford 200 Areas. This report summarized historical information such as waste history, level history, temperature history, riser configuration, tank integrity, and inventory estimates on a tank- by-tank basis. Tank farm aerial photographs and interior tank montages are also provided for each tank. A description of the development of data for the document of the inventory estimates provided by Los Alamos National Laboratory are also given in this report.

  3. Historical tank content estimate for the northwest quadrant ofthe Hanford 200 west area

    SciTech Connect

    Brevick, C.H.; Stroup, J.L.; Funk, J.W., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-06

    The Historical Tank Content Estimate for the Quadrant provides historical information on a tank-by-tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground single-shell tanks for the Hanford 200 West Area. This report summarized historical information such as waste history, level history, temperature history, riser configuration, tank integrity, and inventory estimates on a tank-by-tank basis. Tank farm aerial photographs and interior tank montages are also provided for each tank. A description of the development of data for the document of the inventory estimates provided by Los Alamos National Labo1368ratory are also given in this report.

  4. Review of Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) Assessments for the Hanford 200 Areas (Non-Seismic)

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, Robert L.; Ross, Steven B.; Sullivan, Robin S.

    2010-09-24

    The purpose of this review is to assess the need for updating Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) assessments for the Hanford 200 Areas, as required by DOE Order 420.1B Chapter IV, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, based on significant changes in state-of-the-art NPH assessment methodology or site-specific information. The review includes all natural phenomena hazards with the exception of seismic/earthquake hazards, which are being addressed under a separate effort. It was determined that existing non-seismic NPH assessments are consistent with current design methodology and site specific data.

  5. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds: An interim report: Volume 2, Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.; Wallace, D.W.; Newcomer, D.R.; Schramke, J.A.; Chamness, M.A.; Cline, C.S.; Airhart, S.P.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived form the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the main text. This Volume contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text.

  6. Report on Analysis of Forest Floor Bulk Density and Depth at the Savannah River Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard R. Parresol

    2005-10-01

    The forest floor data from the Savannah River Site consists of two layers, the litter layer and the duff layer. The purpose for the study was to determine bulk density conversion factors to convert litter and duff depth values in inches to forest floor fuel values in tons per acre. The primary objective was to collect litter and duff samples to adequately characterize forest floor depth and bulk density for combinations of 4 common forest types (loblolly/slash pine, longleaf pine, pine and hardwood mix, upland hardwood), 3 age classes (5-20, 20-40, 40+ years old) and 3 categories of burning history (0-3, 3-10, 10+ years since last burn).

  7. Dry Deposition Velocity Estimation for the Savannah River Site: Part 1 – Parametric Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.

    2012-01-16

    Values for the dry deposition velocity of airborne particles were estimated with the GENII Version 2.10 computer code for the Savannah River site using assumptions about surface roughness parameters and particle size and density. Use of the GENII code is recommended by the U.S. Department of Energy for this purpose. Meteorological conditions evaluated include atmospheric stability classes D, E, and F and wind speeds of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 m/s. Local surface roughness values ranging from 0.03 to 2 meters were evaluated. Particles with mass mean diameters of 1, 5, and 10 microns and densities of 1, 3, and 5 g/cm3 were evaluated.

  8. Cultural variation in savannah sparrow, Passerculus sandwichensis, songs: an analysis using the meme concept.

    PubMed

    Burnell

    1998-10-01

    I used the meme concept to investigate patterns of cultural variation among the songs of eight, geographically distinct populations of savannah sparrows. Memes composed of only one syllable were geographically widespread and randomly distributed among populations, but memes of two-, three- and four-syllables became progressively more restricted in their geographical distribution. Thus, the populations were memetically more similar with respect to one-syllable memes and more divergent with respect to larger memes. These results suggest that differences in memetic mutation rates and susceptibility to loss by memetic drift could be sufficient to create the observed pattern of greater divergence among populations for large memes. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  9. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application documentation consists of both Part A and a Part B permit application documentation. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this treatment and storage unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Once the initial Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit is issued, the following process will be used. As final, certified treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific documents are developed, and completeness notifications are made by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology, additional unit-specific permit conditions will be incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit through the permit modification process. All treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that are included in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application will operate under interim status until final status conditions for these units are incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility contains information current as of May 1, 1993.

  10. Savannah River Technology Center, monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This is the monthly report to detail the research currently being conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center. The areas of research are in Tritium, Seperation processes, Environmental Engineering, and Waste Management.

  11. Seismic design spectra 200 West and East Areas DOE Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Tallman, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    This document presents equal hazard response spectra for the W236A project for the 200 East and West new high-level waste tanks. The hazard level is based upon WHC-SD-W236A-TI-002, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis, DOE Hanford Site, Washington. Spectral acceleration amplification is plotted with frequency (Hz) for horizontal and vertical motion and attached to this report. The vertical amplification is based upon the preliminary draft revision of Standard ASCE 4-86. The vertical spectral acceleration is equal to the horizontal at frequencies above 3.3Hz because of near-field, less than 15 km, sources.

  12. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public.

  13. Woody encroachment over 70 years in South African savannahs: overgrazing, global change or extinction aftershock?

    PubMed

    Stevens, Nicola; Erasmus, B F N; Archibald, S; Bond, W J

    2016-09-19

    Woody encroachment in 'open' biomes like grasslands and savannahs is occurring globally. Both local and global drivers, including elevated CO2, have been implicated in these increases. The relative importance of different processes is unresolved as there are few multi-site, multi-land-use evaluations of woody plant encroachment. We measured 70 years of woody cover changes over a 1020 km(2) area covering four land uses (commercial ranching, conservation with elephants, conservation without elephants and communal rangelands) across a rainfall gradient in South African savannahs. Different directions of woody cover change would be expected for each different land use, unless a global factor is causing the increases. Woody cover change was measured between 1940 and 2010 using the aerial photo record. Detection of woody cover from each aerial photograph was automated using eCognitions' Object-based image analysis (OBIA). Woody cover doubled in all land uses across the rainfall gradient, except in conservation areas with elephants in low-rainfall savannahs. Woody cover in 2010 in low-rainfall savannahs frequently exceeded the maximum woody cover threshold predicted for African savannahs. The results indicate that a global factor, of which elevated CO2 is the likely candidate, may be driving encroachment. Elephants in low-rainfall savannahs prevent encroachment and localized megafaunal extinction is a probable additional cause of encroachment.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation'.

  14. New approaches in hydrogeophysical model predictions: Case studies from the P Reactor area, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron Gonzalez, Antonio Eduardo

    The shallow subsurface of the earth is an extremely important geologic zone, one that yields much of our water resources, supports our agriculture and ecosystems, and influences our climate. Indeed, this zone also serves as the repository for most of our municipal, industrial, and governmental wastes and contaminants, intentional or otherwise. Many agencies and councils have recently described the urgent need to more fully develop tools and approaches that can be used to characterize, monitor, and investigate hydrogeological parameters and processes in the shallow subsurface at relevant spatial scales in a minimally invasive manner. Near-surface geophysical methods hold the potential to provide qualitative and quantitative information about subsurface hydrogeological parameters and/or processes. This research examines the advantages and challenges associated with the applicability, performance, and hydrogeological parameter estimation using surface and borehole ground penetrating radar (GPR), P-wave seismic reflection, and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data collected at a contaminant site located in the vicinity of the P Reactor at Savannah River Site, South Carolina. These near-surface geophysical methods provide information at different scales of resolution, making it difficult to model the heterogeneity of the shallow subsurface. However, this research demonstrates that the combined use of these methods, calibrated with cone penetrometer testing (CPT) data, can achieve the desired result, which is a more accurate geologic model. Historically, the P-waves have been the type of seismic waves used in near-surface seismic applications. However, this research validates that surface waves collected during high resolution seismic surveys can be useful to predict hydrogeological parameters and provide additional valuable information about the shallow subsurface. Finally, the application of geostatistical techniques demonstrates that the combination of

  15. Evaluating DNAPL Source and Migration Zones: M-Area Settling Basin and the Western Sector of A/M Area, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.G.

    2001-09-11

    The objective of this investigation is to critically evaluate previous characterization and remediation data to determine the current extent and distribution of DNAPL associated with releases at the M-Area Basin within A/M Area. The primary objective of the effort is to develop an approximate recommendation for the target treatment location and volume near the M Area Settling Basin. Through this analysis the final objective is to identify those subsurface regions having specific geometry and character necessary to cost-effectively deploy DNAPL specific remediation alternatives.

  16. Water Monitoring Report for the 200 W Area Tree Windbreak, Hanford Site Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W. ); Carr, Jennifer S. ); Goreham, John O. ); Strickland, Christopher E. )

    2002-09-18

    Water inputs to the vadose zone from irrigation of a tree windbreak in the 200 W Area of the Hanford Site were monitored during the summer of 2002. Water flux and soil-water contents were measured within the windbreak and at two locations just east of the windbreak to assess the impact of the irrigation on the vadose zone and to assist in optimizing the irrigation applications. In May 2002, instrumentation was placed in auger holes and backfilled with local soil. Sensors were connected to a data acquisition system (DAS), and the data were telemetered to the laboratory via digital modem in late June 2002. Data files and graphics were made web accessible for instantaneous retrieval. Precipitation, drip irrigation, deep-water flux, soil-water content, and soil-water pressures have been monitored on a nearly continuous basis from the tree-line site since June 26, 2002.

  17. Historical Tank Content Estimate for the Northwest Quandrant of the Hanford 200 East Area

    SciTech Connect

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Pickett, W.W.

    1994-06-01

    Historical Tank Content Estimate of the Northeast Quadrant provides historical evaluations on a tank by tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground single-shell tanks of the Hanford 200 East area. This report summaries historical information such at waste history, temperature, tank integrity, inventory estimates and tank level history on a tank by tank basis. Tank Farm aerial photos and in-tank photos of each tank are provided. A brief description of instrumentation methods used for waste tank surveillance, along with the components of the data management effort, such as waste status and Transaction Record Summary, Tank Layering Model, Defined Waste Types, and Inventory Estimates to generate these tank content estimates are also given in this report.

  18. Xenon purity analysis for EXO-200 via mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobi, A.; Hall, C.; Slutsky, S.; Yen, Y.-R.; Aharmin, B.; Auger, M.; Barbeau, P. S.; Benitez-Medina, C.; Breidenbach, M.; Cleveland, B.; Conley, R.; Cook, J.; Cook, S.; Counts, I.; Craddock, W.; Daniels, T.; Davis, C. G.; Davis, J.; deVoe, R.; Dixit, M.; Dolinski, M. J.; Donato, K.; Fairbank, W.; Farine, J.; Fierlinger, P.; Franco, D.; Giroux, G.; Gornea, R.; Graham, K.; Gratta, G.; Green, C.; Hagemann, C.; Hall, K.; Hallman, D.; Hargrove, C.; Herrin, S.; Hughes, M.; Hodgson, J.; Juget, F.; Karelin, A.; Kaufman, L. J.; Kuchenkov, A.; Kumar, K.; Leonard, D. S.; Lutter, G.; Mackay, D.; MacLellan, R.; Marino, M.; Mong, B.; Montero Díez, M.; Morgan, P.; Müller, A. R.; Neilson, R.; Odian, A.; O'Sullivan, K.; Piepke, A.; Pocar, A.; Prescott, C. Y.; Pushkin, K.; Rivas, A.; Rollin, E.; Rowson, P. C.; Sabourov, A.; Sinclair, D.; Skarpaas, K.; Stekhanov, V.; Strickland, V.; Swift, M.; Twelker, K.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Vuilleumier, J.-M.; Weber, M.; Wichoski, U.; Wodin, J.; Wright, J. D.; Yang, L.

    2012-05-01

    We describe purity measurements of the natural and enriched xenon stockpiles used by the EXO-200 double beta decay experiment based on a mass spectrometry technique. The sensitivity of the spectrometer is enhanced by several orders of magnitude by the presence of a liquid nitrogen cold trap, and many impurity species of interest can be detected at the level of one part-per-billion or better. We have used the technique to screen the EXO-200 xenon before, during, and after its use in our detector, and these measurements have proven useful. This is the first application of the cold trap mass spectrometry technique to an operating physics experiment.

  19. Summary and Status of DNAPL Characterization and Remediation Activities in the A/M-Area, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Vangelas, K.M.

    2001-03-02

    This report summarizes historical A/M-Area DNAPL activities and data, and presents the overall A/M-Area strategy flowchart, the status work for each DNAPL source zone (or potential source zone), and future A/M-Area DNAPL plans.

  20. Assessment of tree toxicity near the F- and H-Area seepage basins of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C. ); Richardson, C.J.; Greenwood, K.P.; Hane, M.E.; Lander, A.J. )

    1990-12-01

    Areas of tree mortality, originating in 1979, have been documented downslope of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins. The basins were used as discharge areas for low-level radioactive and nonradioactive waste. Preliminary studies indicated that there are three possible causes of stress: altered hydrology; hazardous chemicals; and nonhazardous chemicals. It was originally hypothesized that the most likely hydrological stressors to Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora were flooding where water levels cover the lenticels for more than 26 percent of the growing season, resulting in low oxygen availability, and toxins produced under anaerobic conditions. In fact, trees began to show stress only flowing a drought year (1977) rather than a wet year. Dry conditions could exacerbate stress by concentrating contaminants, particularly salt. Study of the soil and water chemical parameters in the impacted sites indicated that salt concentrations in the affected areas have produced abnormally high exchangeable sodium percentages. Furthermore, significantly elevated concentrations of heavy metals were found in each impacted site, although no one metal was consistently elevated. Evaluation of the concentrations of various chemicals toxic to Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora revealed that aluminum was probably the most toxic in the F-Area. Manganese, cadmium, and zinc had concentrations great enough to be considered possible causes of tree mortality in the F-Area. Aluminum was the most likely cause of mortality in the H-Area. Controlled experiments testing metal and salt concentration effects on Nyssa sylvatica would be needed to specifically assign cause and effect mortality relationships.

  1. Fabrication of 200 nanometer period centimeter area hard x-ray absorption gratings by multilayer deposition

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, S K; Liu, C; Morgan, N Y; Xiao, X; Gomella, A A; Mazilu, D; Bennett, E E; Assoufid, L; de Carlo, F; Wen, H

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design and fabrication trials of x-ray absorption gratings of 200 nm period and up to 100:1 depth-to-period ratios for full-field hard x-ray imaging applications. Hard x-ray phase-contrast imaging relies on gratings of ultra-small periods and sufficient depth to achieve high sensitivity. Current grating designs utilize lithographic processes to produce periodic vertical structures, where grating periods below 2.0 μm are difficult due to the extreme aspect ratios of the structures. In our design, multiple bilayers of x-ray transparent and opaque materials are deposited on a staircase substrate, and mostly on the floor surfaces of the steps only. When illuminated by an x-ray beam horizontally, the multilayer stack on each step functions as a micro-grating whose grating period is the thickness of a bilayer. The array of micro-gratings over the length of the staircase works as a single grating over a large area when continuity conditions are met. Since the layers can be nanometers thick and many microns wide, this design allows sub-micron grating periods and sufficient grating depth to modulate hard x-rays. We present the details of the fabrication process and diffraction profiles and contact radiography images showing successful intensity modulation of a 25 keV x-ray beam. PMID:23066175

  2. Characterization of decontamination and decommissioning wastes expected from the major processing facilities in the 200 Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Amato, L.C.; Franklin, J.D.; Hyre, R.A.; Lowy, R.M.; Millar, J.S.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Duncan, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    This study was intended to characterize and estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the major processing and handling facilities in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site are decontaminated and decommissioned. The facilities in this study were selected based on processing history and on the magnitude of the estimated decommissioning cost cited in the Surplus Facilities Program Plan; Fiscal Year 1993 (Winship and Hughes 1992). The facilities chosen for this study include B Plant (221-B), T Plant (221-T), U Plant (221-U), the Uranium Trioxide (UO{sub 3}) Plant (224-U and 224-UA), the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) or S Plant (202-S), the Plutonium Concentration Facility for B Plant (224-B), and the Concentration Facility for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and REDOX (233-S). This information is required to support planning activities for current and future solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal operations and facilities.

  3. Monitoring Plan for Fiscal Year 1999 Borehole Logging at 200 East Area Specific Retention Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, D.G.

    1999-07-12

    The Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project's vadose zone monitoring effort for fiscal year (FY) 1999 involves monitoring 30 boreholes for moisture content and gamma-ray emitting radionuclides. The boreholes are associated with specific retention trenches and cribs in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The facilities to be monitored are the 216-A-2, -4, and -7 cribs, the 216-A-18 trench, the 216-B-14 through -19 cribs, the 216-B-20 through -34, -53A, and -58 trenches, the 216-B-35 through -42 trenches, and the 216-C-5 crib. This monitoring plan describes the facilities and the vadose zone at the cribs and trenches to be monitored; the field activities to be accomplished; the constituents of interest and the monitoring methods, including calibration issues; and the quality assurance and quality control requirements governing the monitoring effort. The results from the FY 1999 monitoring will show the current configuration of subsurface contamination and will be compared with past monitoring results to determine whether changes in contaminant distribution have occurred since the last monitoring effort.

  4. Stratigraphic Control on CCl4 and CHCl3 Concentrations in the 200 West Area, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Winsor, Kelsey; Last, George V.

    2008-01-01

    An extensive subsurface contaminant plume of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is the focus of a remedial effort in the 200 West Area of Washington State’s Hanford Site. Remediation requires a high-resolution model of the region’s spatially variable lithofacies and of the effect these units have on CCl4 migration through the unconfined aquifer. To increase detail of previous models, a transect was chosen along the primary groundwater flow path in the most heavily contaminated area. Borehole logs of wells along this 3.7 km-long transect were systematized and used to create a cross section displaying lithofacies depth and continuity. Natural and spectral gamma geophysical logs were examined to pinpoint the depths of geologic units. Depth discrete concentrations of CCl4 and its reductive dechlorination product, chloroform (CHCl3), were overlain on this cross section. Comparison of stratigraphy to contaminant levels shows that peaks in CCl4 concentration occur in thin, fine-grained layers and other that fine-grained layers frequently form lower boundaries to regions of high concentration. Peaks in CCl4 concentrations are frequently located at different depths from those of CHCl3, suggesting that these concentrations are affected by dechlorination of CCl4. Transformation of CCl4 to CHCl3 appears to be more prevalent within reduced, iron-containing sediments. Influence of thin, fine-grained layers within the larger aquifer unit indicates that characterization of contamination in this locality should consider subsurface geology with at least as much resolution as provided in this study.

  5. Hydrogeological and Groundwater Flow Model for C, K, L, and P Reactor Areas, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.P.

    1999-02-24

    A regional groundwater flow model encompassing approximately 100 mi{sup 2} surrounding the C, K. L. and P reactor areas has been developed. The Reactor flow model is designed to meet the planning objectives outlined in the General Groundwater Strategy for Reactor Area Projects by providing a common framework for analyzing groundwater flow, contaminant migration and remedial alternatives within the Reactor Projects team of the Environmental Restoration Department.

  6. Regional groundwater flow model for C, K. L. and P reactor areas, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.P.

    2000-02-11

    A regional groundwater flow model encompassing approximately 100 mi2 surrounding the C, K, L, and P reactor areas has been developed. The reactor flow model is designed to meet the planning objectives outlined in the General Groundwater Strategy for Reactor Area Projects by providing a common framework for analyzing groundwater flow, contaminant migration and remedial alternatives within the Reactor Projects team of the Environmental Restoration Department. The model provides a quantitative understanding of groundwater flow on a regional scale within the near surface aquifers and deeper semi-confined to confined aquifers. The model incorporates historical and current field characterization data up through Spring 1999. Model preprocessing is automated so that future updates and modifications can be performed quickly and efficiently. The CKLP regional reactor model can be used to guide characterization, perform scoping analyses of contaminant transport, and serve as a common base for subsequent finer-scale transport and remedial/feasibility models for each reactor area.

  7. System design description for the 200 east area Double Shell Tank (DST) waste transfer system (DST Based)

    SciTech Connect

    REED, R.W.

    2003-05-30

    The 200 East Area Double-Shell Tank (DST) Waste Transfer System (WTS) consists of a network of buried transfer pipelines, operating equipment, and transfer structures (diversion boxes, valve pits, and pump pits) used to transfer high-level, radioactive waste between tank farm facilities. The primary purpose of the 200 East Area DST WTS is to support the overall mission of the River Protection Project (RPP) to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive waste from Hanford Site tanks in an environmentally safe, sound, and cost-effective manner. This system design description (SDD) describes the functions of the 200 East Area DST WTS, identifies the requirements and their bases to support the system functions, and discusses how the 200 East Area DST WTS, as designed, fulfills those requirements. This system design description of the 200 East Area Double-Shell Tank Waste Transfer System is intended to be a living compendium of design requirements, design bases, and system descriptions. The system design description includes references to relevant procedures, drawings, calculations, and supporting documents.

  8. DETAILED ANALYSIS OF THE MOST PROMISING ALTERNATIVES TO USING GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TO TREAT 200-ZP-1 GROUNDWATER AND 200-PW-1 SOIL VAPOR

    SciTech Connect

    BYRNES ME, KALMAR JA

    2007-11-26

    This document presents a detailed evaluation of selected alternative treatment options to granular activated carbon (GAC) for removing carbon tetrachloride generated from the groundwater pump-and-treat system at the 200-ZP-I Operable Unit (OU) in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This evaluation of alternative treatment options to GAC is also applicable to the vadose zone soil vapor extraction (SVE) system at the 200-PW-l OU, which is also located in the Hanford Site's 200 West Area.

  9. 33 CFR 100.724 - Annual Augusta Invitational Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA. 100.724 Section 100.724 Navigation and Navigable Waters... WATERS § 100.724 Annual Augusta Invitational Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA. (a) Definitions. (1) Regulated area. The regulated area is formed by a line drawn directly across the Savannah...

  10. 33 CFR 100.732 - Annual River Race Augusta; Savannah River, Augusta GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; Savannah River, Augusta GA. 100.732 Section 100.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... River Race Augusta; Savannah River, Augusta GA. (a) Definitions: (1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed by a line drawn directly across the Savannah River at the U.S. Highway 1 Bridge at...

  11. 33 CFR 100.732 - Annual River Race Augusta; Savannah River, Augusta GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; Savannah River, Augusta GA. 100.732 Section 100.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... River Race Augusta; Savannah River, Augusta GA. (a) Definitions: (1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed by a line drawn directly across the Savannah River at the U.S. Highway 1 Bridge at...

  12. 33 CFR 100.732 - Annual River Race Augusta; Savannah River, Augusta GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; Savannah River, Augusta GA. 100.732 Section 100.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... River Race Augusta; Savannah River, Augusta GA. (a) Definitions: (1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed by a line drawn directly across the Savannah River at the U.S. Highway 1 Bridge at...

  13. 33 CFR 100.732 - Annual River Race Augusta; Savannah River, Augusta GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; Savannah River, Augusta GA. 100.732 Section 100.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... River Race Augusta; Savannah River, Augusta GA. (a) Definitions: (1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed by a line drawn directly across the Savannah River at the U.S. Highway 1 Bridge at...

  14. 33 CFR 100.724 - Annual Augusta Invitational Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA. 100.724 Section 100.724 Navigation and Navigable Waters... WATERS § 100.724 Annual Augusta Invitational Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA. (a) Definitions. (1) Regulated area. The regulated area is formed by a line drawn directly across the Savannah...

  15. 33 CFR 100.732 - Annual River Race Augusta; Savannah River, Augusta GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; Savannah River, Augusta GA. 100.732 Section 100.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... River Race Augusta; Savannah River, Augusta GA. (a) Definitions: (1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed by a line drawn directly across the Savannah River at the U.S. Highway 1 Bridge at...

  16. 33 CFR 100.724 - Annual Augusta Invitational Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA. 100.724 Section 100.724 Navigation and Navigable Waters... WATERS § 100.724 Annual Augusta Invitational Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA. (a) Definitions. (1) Regulated area. The regulated area is formed by a line drawn directly across the Savannah...

  17. 33 CFR 100.724 - Annual Augusta Invitational Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA. 100.724 Section 100.724 Navigation and Navigable Waters... WATERS § 100.724 Annual Augusta Invitational Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA. (a) Definitions. (1) Regulated area. The regulated area is formed by a line drawn directly across the Savannah...

  18. 33 CFR 100.724 - Annual Augusta Invitational Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA. 100.724 Section 100.724 Navigation and Navigable Waters... WATERS § 100.724 Annual Augusta Invitational Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA. (a) Definitions. (1) Regulated area. The regulated area is formed by a line drawn directly across the Savannah...

  19. Estimating the Extent and Thickness of DNAPL within the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.G.; Payne, T.H.; Looney, B.B.; Rossabi, J.

    1996-12-20

    The objective of this study is to refine the current conceptual model for the extent, character, and thickness of DNAPL contamination in the A/M Area. The evaluation is based upon historical records of operations and waste management and on detailed screening of historical groundwater concentrations against solubility limits. The topology of the Green Clay confining zone is used as the primary factor determining DNAPL pool thickness and resulting migration paths.

  20. Development of Historical Water Table Maps of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site (1950-1970)

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, Teena M.; McDonald, John P.

    2006-09-15

    A series of detailed historical water-table maps for the 200-West Area of the Hanford Site was made to aid interpretation of contaminant distribution in the upper aquifer. The contaminants are the result of disposal of large volumes of waste to the ground during Hanford Site operations, which began in 1944 and continued into the mid-1990s. Examination of the contaminant plumes that currently exist on site shows that the groundwater beneath the 200-West Area has deviated from its pre-Hanford west-to-east flow direction during the past 50 years. By using historical water-level measurements from wells around the 200-West Area, it was possible to create water-table contour maps that show probable historic flow directions. These maps are more detailed than previously published water-table maps that encompass the entire Hanford Site.

  1. 33 CFR 166.200 - Shipping safety fairways and anchorage areas, Gulf of Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Navigation or danger markings must be installed as required by 33 CFR Subchapter C. (c) Special Conditions...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 166.200, see the List of CFR Sections Affected,...

  2. Preliminary characterization of the F-Area Railroad Crosstie Pile at the Savannah River Site. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    Historical information about the F-Area Railroad Crosstie Pile is limited. The unit is believed to have been a borrow area for earth fill that began receiving railroad crossties during the 1960s. The number of crossties at the unit began to increase significantly in 1984 when major repair of the SRS rail system was initiated. An estimated 100,000 used railroad crossties have accumulated at the unit since 1984. In an effort to determine the impact of the railroad crossties on the environment a total of 28 soil samples were collected from four test borings in March of 1991. Sample depths ranged from ground surface to 21.5 feet. Three of the borings were extended to the water table and groundwater samples were collected, one in an upgradient ``background`` area, and two downgradient from the unit. Few analytes were reported above detection limits. Test results are summarized in Section 4.0 and analytes not detected are summarized in Appendix A to this report. In three soil samples collected from depths between 10 and 21.5 feet, copper occurred at levels slightly above background. These copper values were detected in the sidegradient test boring and in the two downgradient test borings. Three organic analytes, acetone, pyridine, and Toluene, were reported above detection limits but well below drinking water standards (DWS) in all test borings, including the upgradient boring. Radionuclide activities were reported above background in both soil and water samples from all test borings. There do not appear to be any statistically significant trends in radionuclide activities with depth, or between upgradient or downgradient borings. The analytes detected in the test borings downgradient from the unit cannot be attributed to the railroad crosstie pile as they are not significantly different than the values reported for the upgradient, background test boring.

  3. [Clinical analysis of 200 cases of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura].

    PubMed

    García-Stivalet, Lilia Adela; Muñoz-Flores, Aarón; Montiel-Jarquín, Alvaro José; Barragán-Hervella, Rodolfo Gregorio; Bejarano-Huertas, Ruth; García-Carrasco, Mario; López-Colombo, Aurelio

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la púrpura trombocitopénica idiopática se caracteriza por la extravasación de sangre en el tejido subcutáneo, membranas, mucosas o piel, que puede generar manifestaciones clínicas de sangrado como lesiones equimóticas, petequias de aparición brusca, epistaxis, gingivorragia y complicaciones graves como hemorragia intracraneal, debido a destrucción plaquetaria mediada por anticuerpos dirigidos contra la superficie de las plaquetas. El objetivo de este informe es presentar las características clínicas de los pacientes con púrpura trombocitopénica idiopática en un hospital de tercer nivel de atención, con la finalidad de tener estadísticas para estudios analíticos posteriores. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio descriptivo de 200 pacientes atendidos en el servicio de hematología con diagnóstico de púrpura trombocitopénica idiopática. Se describen sus manifestaciones clínicas, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento médico y quirúrgico empleados.

  4. Access road from State Route 240 to the 200 West Area, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct an access road on the Hanford Site, from State Route (SR) 240 to Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area. Traffic volume during shift changes creates an extremely serious congestion and safety problem on Route 4S from the Wye barricade to the 200 Areas. A Risk Evaluation (Trost 1992) indicated that there is a probability of 1.53 fatal accidents on Route 4S within 2 years. To help alleviate this danger, a new 3.5-kilometer (2.2-mile)-long access road would be constructed from Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area to SR 240. In addition, administrative controls such as redirecting traffic onto alternate routes would be used to further reduce traffic volume. The proposed access road would provide an alternative travel-to-work route for many outer area personnel, particularly those with destinations in the 200 West Area. This proposal is the most reasonable alternative to reduce the problem. While traffic safety would be greatly improved, a small portion of the shrub-steppe habitat would be disturbed. The DOE would offset any habitat damage by re-vegetation or other appropriate habitat enhancement activities elsewhere on the Hanford Site. This Environmental Assessment (EA) provides information about the environmental impacts of the proposed action, so a decision can be made to either prepare an Environmental Impact Statement or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact.

  5. PRELIMINARY DATA REPORT: HUMATE INJECTION AS AN ENHANCED ATTENUATION METHOD AT THE F-AREA SEEPAGE BASINS, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Millings, M.

    2013-09-16

    A field test of a humate technology for uranium and I-129 remediation was conducted at the F-Area Field Research Site as part of the Attenuation-Based Remedies for the Subsurface Applied Field Research Initiative (ABRS AFRI) funded by the DOE Office of Soil and Groundwater Remediation. Previous studies have shown that humic acid sorbed to sediments strongly binds uranium at mildly acidic pH and potentially binds iodine-129 (I-129). Use of humate could be applicable for contaminant stabilization at a wide variety of DOE sites however pilot field-scale tests and optimization of this technology are required to move this technical approach from basic science to actual field deployment and regulatory acceptance. The groundwater plume at the F-Area Field Research Site contains a large number of contaminants, the most important from a risk perspective being strontium-90 (Sr-90), uranium isotopes, I-129, tritium, and nitrate. Groundwater remains acidic, with pH as low as 3.2 near the basins and increasing to the background pH of approximately 5at the plume fringes. The field test was conducted in monitoring well FOB 16D, which historically has shown low pH and elevated concentrations of Sr-90, uranium, I-129 and tritium. The field test included three months of baseline monitoring followed by injection of a potassium humate solution and approximately four and half months of post monitoring. Samples were collected and analyzed for numerous constituents but the focus was on attenuation of uranium, Sr-90, and I-129. This report provides background information, methodology, and preliminary field results for a humate field test. Results from the field monitoring show that most of the excess humate (i.e., humate that did not sorb to the sediments) has flushed through the surrounding formation. Furthermore, the data indicate that the test was successful in loading a band of sediment surrounding the injection point to a point where pH could return to near normal during the study

  6. Using Geoscience and Geostatistics to Optimize Groundwater Monitoring Networks at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Tuckfield, R.C.

    2001-03-22

    A team of scientists, engineers, and statisticians was assembled to review the operation efficiency of groundwater monitoring networks at US Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS). Subsequent to a feasibility study, this team selected and conducted an analysis of the A/M area groundwater monitoring well network. The purpose was to optimize the number of groundwater wells requisite for monitoring the plumes of the principal constituent of concern, viz., trichloroethylene (TCE). The project gathered technical expertise from the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), the Environmental Restoration Division (ERD), and the Environmental Protection Department (EPD) of SRS.

  7. Savannah River Site radioiodine atmospheric releases and offsite maximum doses

    SciTech Connect

    Marter, W.L.

    1990-11-01

    Radioisotopes of iodine have been released to the atmosphere from the Savannah River Site since 1955. The releases, mostly from the 200-F and 200-H Chemical Separations areas, consist of the isotopes, I-129 and 1-131. Small amounts of 1-131 and 1-133 have also been released from reactor facilities and the Savannah River Laboratory. This reference memorandum was issued to summarize our current knowledge of releases of radioiodines and resultant maximum offsite doses. This memorandum supplements the reference memorandum by providing more detailed supporting technical information. Doses reported in this memorandum from consumption of the milk containing the highest I-131 concentration following the 1961 1-131 release incident are about 1% higher than reported in the reference memorandum. This is the result of using unrounded 1-131 concentrations of I-131 in milk in this memo. It is emphasized here that this technical report does not constitute a dose reconstruction in the same sense as the dose reconstruction effort currently underway at Hanford. This report uses existing published data for radioiodine releases and existing transport and dosimetry models.

  8. 30 CFR 761.200 - Interpretative rule related to subsidence due to underground coal mining in areas designated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interpretative rule related to subsidence due... FOR MINING AREAS DESIGNATED BY ACT OF CONGRESS § 761.200 Interpretative rule related to subsidence due... or limited. Subsidence due to underground coal mining is not included in the definition of...

  9. 30 CFR 761.200 - Interpretative rule related to subsidence due to underground coal mining in areas designated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interpretative rule related to subsidence due... FOR MINING AREAS DESIGNATED BY ACT OF CONGRESS § 761.200 Interpretative rule related to subsidence due... or limited. Subsidence due to underground coal mining is not included in the definition of...

  10. 30 CFR 761.200 - Interpretative rule related to subsidence due to underground coal mining in areas designated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interpretative rule related to subsidence due... FOR MINING AREAS DESIGNATED BY ACT OF CONGRESS § 761.200 Interpretative rule related to subsidence due... or limited. Subsidence due to underground coal mining is not included in the definition of...

  11. 30 CFR 761.200 - Interpretative rule related to subsidence due to underground coal mining in areas designated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interpretative rule related to subsidence due... FOR MINING AREAS DESIGNATED BY ACT OF CONGRESS § 761.200 Interpretative rule related to subsidence due... or limited. Subsidence due to underground coal mining is not included in the definition of...

  12. 30 CFR 761.200 - Interpretative rule related to subsidence due to underground coal mining in areas designated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretative rule related to subsidence due... FOR MINING AREAS DESIGNATED BY ACT OF CONGRESS § 761.200 Interpretative rule related to subsidence due... or limited. Subsidence due to underground coal mining is not included in the definition of...

  13. Fluoride Analysis. Training Module 5.200.2.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with fluoride analysis procedures. Included are objectives, an instructor guide, student handouts, and a list of reference material. This module considers the determination of fluoride in water supplies using the SPANDS and electrode…

  14. Geochemical Characteristics of the Contaminant Waste Plume in the F-Area of the Savannah River Site: From Kilometer to Micrometer Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, W.; Wan, J.; Denham, M.; Seaman, J. C.; Rakshit, S.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Spycher, N.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2010-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) was a major DOE facility for plutonium production during the Cold War. Low-level radioactivity acidic waste solutions were discharged to a series of unlined seepage basins in the F-Area of the SRS from 1955-1989. Although the site has gone through many years of active remediation, the groundwater remains acidic with pH values as low as 3.2, and the concentrations of U and other radionuclides are still up to ten times higher than their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). In order to understand the current and predict the future contaminant behavior, a comprehensive investigation is being conducted, funded jointly by the DOE’s offices of Biological and Environmental Resources (BER) and Environmental Management (EM). Five boreholes were drilled outside and within the plume along the groundwater flow path. Samples were collected from varied depths of each borehole, sediment pore-waters were extracted by ultracentrifugation, and the solid phase and pore-water were characterized. We identified the sediment mineralogy as being composed predominantly fine quartz sand with 2 to 12% clay. Kaolinite and goethite are the major minerals of the clay-sized fraction, residing primarily as coatings of varied thicknesses on quartz sand grains, providing reactive surfaces for contaminant adsorption. The measured U “field” distribution coefficients (Kd) and U concentrations in the pore waters are strongly pH dependent. These results are consistent with laboratory equilibrium adsorption studies, where U adsorption onto SRS sediments increases sharply from pH 3 to 5, and reaches ≈100% at pH 6-7. The variability in U adsorption capacity in these sediments is mainly caused by differences in goethite/clay content and effective reactive specific surface area. Measured “field” Kd values are smaller than those obtained from laboratory equilibrium adsorption studies with the same contaminated sediments. The equilibrium pH-dependent U adsorption

  15. Data-driven modeling of radionuclide inventory at the Savannah River Site F-area seepage basins and implications for long-term behavior predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedmer, A.; Hunt, J. R.; Agarwal, D.; Faybishenko, B.

    2012-12-01

    The availability of data is a major constraint in the development of a conceptual model and predictions of physical and chemical processes impacting contaminant behavior in the subsurface. For example, a wealth of data has been collected over the past 60 years from a network of several hundred groundwater wells and surface water monitoring stations at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The data were collected during and following the release of low-level liquid waste into seepage basins, as well as during the application of various groundwater remediation techniques. The result is a dataset of over 350,000 measurements. To analyze these data, we used a new data management system being developed as part of the DOE initiative on Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM). This system was developed for easier access, management, visualization, and exploration of large amounts of heterogeneous data. Using this system, we developed a data-driven model for the evaluation of a mass balance and the inventory of the F-Area seepage basins and the groundwater plume. Process operations at the F-area led to the discharge of more than 4×109 L of low-level liquid radioactive waste containing tritium, uranium and fission products into the seepage basins. Between 1953 and 1989, 8.6×104 Ci (corrected for evaporation and decay to 1989) of tritium was released into the basins according to operational data. Starting in the 1960s, SRS monitored radioactivity in the Fourmile Branch (FMB) located downgradient of the basins. Through 1989 around 43% of the total release was detected in FMB, leaving an estimated inventory of 57% in the subsurface as of 1989. This model was used to assess t he sources of uncertainty in the mass balance calculations. The results of calculations of the tritium inventory in groundwater were compared with those from monitoring data prior to remediation, as well as were used to estimate the time needed to achieve

  16. Groundwater screening evaluation/monitoring plan: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H). Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D.B.; Davis, J.D.; Collard, L.B.; Freeman, P.B.; Chou, C.J.

    1995-05-01

    This report consists of the groundwater screening evaluation required by Section S.8 of the State Waste Discharge Permit for the 200 Area TEDF. Chapter 1.0 describes the purpose of the groundwater monitoring plan. The information in Chapter 2.0 establishes a water quality baseline for the facility and is the groundwater screening evaluation. The following information is included in Chapter 2.0: Facility description;Well locations, construction, and development data; Geologic and hydrologic description of the site and affected area; Ambient groundwater quality and current use; Water balance information; Hydrologic parameters; Potentiometric map, hydraulic gradients, and flow velocities; Results of infiltration and hydraulic tests; Groundwater and soils chemistry sampling and analysis data; Statistical evaluation of groundwater background data; and Projected effects of facility operation on groundwater flow and water quality. Chapter 3.0 defines, based on the information in Chapter 2.0, how effects of the TEDF on the environment will be evaluated and how compliance with groundwater quality standards will be documented in accordance with the terms and conditions of the permit. Chapter 3.0 contains the following information: Media to be monitored; Wells proposed as the point of compliance in the uppermost aquifer; Basis for monitoring well network and evidence of monitoring adequacy; Contingency planning approach for vadose zone monitoring wells; Which field parameters will be measured and how measurements will be made; Specification of constituents to be sampled and analyzed; and Specification of the sampling and analysis procedures that will be used. Chapter 4.0 provides information on how the monitoring results will be reported and the proposed frequency of monitoring and reporting. Chapter 5.0 lists all the references cited in this monitoring plan. These references should be consulted for additional or more detailed information.

  17. Developmental assessment of the multidimensional component in RELAP5 for Savannah River Site thermal hydraulic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, R.G.; Johnson, E.C.; Carlson, K.E.; Chou, C.Y.; Davis, C.B.; Martin, R.P.; Riemke, R.A.; Wagner, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    This report documents ten developmental assessment problems which were used to test the multidimensional component in RELAP5/MOD2.5, Version 3w. The problems chosen were a rigid body rotation problem, a pure radial symmetric flow problem, an r-[theta] symmetric flow problem, a fall problem, a rest problem, a basic one-dimensional flow test problem, a gravity wave problem, a tank draining problem, a flow through the center problem, and coverage analysis using PIXIE. The multidimensional code calculations are compared to analytical solutions and one-dimensional code calculations. The discussion section of each problem contains information relative to the code's ability to simulate these problems.

  18. Tornado risk analysis at Savannah River Plant using windspeed damage thresholds and single building strike frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.H.; McDonald, J.R.; Twisdale, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    In order to evaluate the safety of existing structures and properly design new structures, an analysis of tornado resistance was conducted on each process building at SRP and other buildings by type. Damage estimates were cataloged for each Fujita class windspeed interval and windspeeds were cataloged as a function of increased levels of damage. The probability, for any structure, of a tornado exceeding each windspeed threshold was calculated using the TORRISK computer code which was developed for calculating the probability of a tornado strike on nuclear power generating plants.

  19. Management of geohydrologic data using a geographic information system for a three-dimensional ground-water flow model of the Savannah River site area, South Carolina and Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.S.; McFadden, K.; Flexner, N.; Harrelson, L.G.; West, C.T. )

    1994-03-01

    Possible migration of ground-water contaminants beneath the Savannah River from South Carolina near the US Department of Energy (DOE), Savannah River Site (SRS), a nuclear processing and disposal facility, into Georgia is a source of recent environmental concern. SRS is adjacent to the Savannah River and is underlain by 650 to more than 1,000 feet of permeable, unconsolidated to poorly consolidated fluvial, deltaic, and marine Coastal Plain deposits of Cretaceous and Tertiary age, which locally have been modified by faulting. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy and the Georgia Department of natural Resources, is evaluating ground-water flow through six regional aquifers in these Coastal Plain sediments within a 3,000-square-mile study area using a modular, three-dimensional, finite-difference ground-water flow model (MODFLOW). ARC/INFO Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to manage and prepare data for input into the flow model. Temporally and areally spaced water-quality and ground-water level data are available for more than 2,800 wells on the 300-square-mile area of the SRS and in the surrounding rural area. Data related to topography, geology, elevations of aquifer tops, well construction characteristics, water levels, and aquifer characteristics were compiled into GIS files or coverages within the system. A menu-driven program was developed to derive hydrogeologic surfaces from point and contoured data over the study area; assign wells to aquifers based on well-construction data; discretize aquifer property data into model input arrays; graphically display geologic, hydrologic, and ground-water flow model output data; check for data errors; and alter and refine input arrays.

  20. Isotopic Systematics (U, nitrate and Sr) of the F-Area Acidic Contamination Plume at the Savannah River Site: Clues to Contaminant History and Mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, J. N.; Conrad, M. E.; Bill, M.; Denham, M.; Wan, J.; Rakshit, S.; Stringfellow, W. T.; Spycher, N.

    2010-12-01

    Seepage basins in the F-Area of the Savannah River Site were used from 1955 to 1989 for the disposal of low-level radioactive acidic (ave. pH ˜2.9) waste solutions from site operations involving irradiated uranium billets and other materials used in the production of radionuclides. These disposal activities resulted in a persistent acidic groundwater plume (pH as low as 3.2) beneath the F-Area including contaminants such as tritium, nitrate, 90Sr, 129I and uranium and that has impinged on surface water (Four Mile Branch) about 600 m from the basins. After cessation of disposal in 1989, the basins were capped in 1991. Since that time, remediation has consisted of a pump-and-treat system that has recently been replaced with in situ treatment using a funnel-and-gate system with injection of alkaline solutions in the gates to neutralize pH. In order to delineate the history of contamination and the current mobility and fate of contaminants in F-Area groundwater, we have undertaken a study of variations in the isotopic compositions of U (234U/238U, 235U/238U, 236U/238U), Sr (87Sr/86Sr) and nitrate (δ15N, δ18O) within the contaminant plume. This data can be used to trace U transport within the plume, evaluate chemical changes of nitrate, and potentially track plume/sediment chemical interaction and trace the migration of 90Sr. We have analyzed a suite of groundwater samples from monitoring wells, as well as pore-water samples extracted from aquifer sediment cores to map out the isotopic variation within the plume. The isotopic compositions of U from well samples and porewater samples are all consistent with the variable burn-up of depleted U. The variation in U isotopic composition requires at least three different endmembers, without any significant influence of background natural U. The δ15N and δ18O of nitrate from F-Area plume groundwater are distinct both from natural and unaltered synthetic nitrate, and likely represents fractionation due to waste volume

  1. Dry Deposition Velocity Estimation for the Savannah River Site: Part 2 -- Parametric and Site-Specific Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Cook, Kary M.

    2013-09-12

    Values for the dry deposition velocity of airborne particles were estimated with the GENII Version 2.10.1 computer code for the Savannah River site using assumptions about surface roughness parameters and particle size and density. Use of the GENII code is recommended by the U.S. Department of Energy for this purpose. Meteorological conditions evaluated include atmospheric stability classes D, E, and F and wind speeds of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 m/s. Local surface roughness values ranging from 0.03 to 2 meters were evaluated. Particles with mass mean diameters of 1, 5, and 10 microns and densities of 1, 3, 4, and 5 g/cm3 were evaluated. Site specific meteorology was used to predict deposition velocity for Savannah River conditions for a range of distances from 670 to 11,500 meters.

  2. Developmental assessment of the multidimensional component in RELAP5 for Savannah River Site thermal hydraulic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, R.G.; Johnson, E.C.; Carlson, K.E.; Chou, C.Y.; Davis, C.B.; Martin, R.P.; Riemke, R.A.; Wagner, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    This report documents ten developmental assessment problems which were used to test the multidimensional component in RELAP5/MOD2.5, Version 3w. The problems chosen were a rigid body rotation problem, a pure radial symmetric flow problem, an r-{theta} symmetric flow problem, a fall problem, a rest problem, a basic one-dimensional flow test problem, a gravity wave problem, a tank draining problem, a flow through the center problem, and coverage analysis using PIXIE. The multidimensional code calculations are compared to analytical solutions and one-dimensional code calculations. The discussion section of each problem contains information relative to the code`s ability to simulate these problems.

  3. Groundwater Monitoring and Tritium-Tracking Plan for the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. Brent

    2000-08-31

    The 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS) is a drainfield which receives treated wastewater, occasionally containing high levels of tritium from treatment of Hanford Site liquid wastes. Only the SALDS proximal wells (699-48-77A, 699-48-77C, and 699-48-77D) have been affected by tritium from the facility thus far; the highest activity observed (2.1E+6 pCi/L) occurred in well 699-48-77D in February 1998. Analytical results of groundwater geochemistry since groundwater monitoring began at the SALDS indicate that all constituents with permit enforcement limits have been below those limits with the exception of one measurement of total dissolved solids (TDS) in 1996. The revised groundwater monitoring sampling and analysis plan eliminates chloroform, acetone, tetrahydrofuran, benzene, and ammonia as constituents. Replicate field measurements will replace laboratory measurements of pH for compliance purposes. A deep companion well to well 699-51-75 will be monitored for tritium deeper in the uppermost aquifer.

  4. Low Level and Transuranic Waste Segregation and Low Level Waste Characterization at the 200 Area of the Hanford Site - 12424

    SciTech Connect

    Donohoue, Tom; Martin, E. Ray; Mason, John A.; Blackford, Ty; Estes, Michael; Jasen, William; Cahill, Michael

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the waste measurement and waste characterization activities carried out by ANTECH Corporation (ANTECH) and CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) at the 200 Area of the Hanford Site under Contracts No. 22394 and No. 40245 for the US Department of Energy (DOE). These include Low Level Waste (LLW) and Transuranic (TRU) Waste segregation and LLW characterization for both 55-gallon (200-litre) drums with gross weight up to 454 kg and 85-gallon over-pack drums. In order to achieve efficient and effective waste drum segregation and assay, ANTECH deployed an automated Gamma Mobile Assay Laboratory (G-MAL) at the trench face in both 200 Area West and East. The unit consists of a modified 40 foot ISO shipping container with an automatic flow through roller conveyor system with internal drum weigh scale, four measurement and drum rotation positions, and four high efficiency high purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors with both detector and shadow shields. The unit performs multiple far-field measurements and is able to segregate drums at levels well below 100 nCi/g. The system is sufficiently sensitive that drums, which are classified as LLW, are characterized at measurement levels that meet the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). With measurement times of between 20 and 30 minutes the unit can classify and characterize over 40 drums in an 8-hour shift. The system is well characterized with documented calibrations, lower limits of detection (LLD) and total measurement uncertainty. The calibrations are confirmed and verified using nationally traceable standards in keeping with the CHPRC measurement requirements. The performance of the system has been confirmed and validated throughout the measurement process by independent CHPRC personnel using traceable standards. All of the measurement and maintenance work has been conducted during the period under a Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) compliant with the

  5. Groundwater Monitoring and Tritium-Tracking Plan for the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    DB Barnett

    2000-08-31

    The 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS) is a drainfield which receives treated wastewater, occasionally containing tritium from treatment of Hanford Site liquid wastes at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Since operation of the SALDS began in December 1995, discharges of tritium have totaled {approx}304 Ci, only half of what was originally predicted for tritium quantity through 1999. Total discharge volumes ({approx}2.7E+8 L) have been commensurate with predicted volumes to date. This document reports the results of all tritium analyses in groundwater as determined from the SALDS tritium-tracking network since the first SALDS wells were installed in 1992 through July 1999, and provides interpretation of these results as they relate to SALDS operation and its effect on groundwater. Hydrologic and geochemical information are synthesized to derive a conceptual model, which is in turn used to arrive at an appropriate approach to continued groundwater monitoring at the facility.

  6. State waste discharge permit application for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Application is being made for a permit pursuant to Chapter 173--216 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), to discharge treated waste water and cooling tower blowdown from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to land at the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). The ETF is located in the 200 East Area and the SALDS is located north of the 200 West Area. The ETF is an industrial waste water treatment plant that will initially receive waste water from the following two sources, both located in the 200 Area on the Hanford Site: (1) the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and (2) the 242-A Evaporator. The waste water discharged from these two facilities is process condensate (PC), a by-product of the concentration of waste from DSTs that is performed in the 242-A Evaporator. Because the ETF is designed as a flexible treatment system, other aqueous waste streams generated at the Hanford Site may be considered for treatment at the ETF. The origin of the waste currently contained in the DSTs is explained in Section 2.0. An overview of the concentration of these waste in the 242-A Evaporator is provided in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 describes the LERF, a storage facility for process condensate. Attachment A responds to Section B of the permit application and provides an overview of the processes that generated the wastes, storage of the wastes in double-shell tanks (DST), preliminary treatment in the 242-A Evaporator, and storage at the LERF. Attachment B addresses waste water treatment at the ETF (under construction) and the addition of cooling tower blowdown to the treated waste water prior to disposal at SALDS. Attachment C describes treated waste water disposal at the proposed SALDS.

  7. Savannah River Site (SRS) environmental overview

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rear, M.G. ); Steele, J.L.; Kitchen, B.G. )

    1990-01-01

    The environmental surveillance activities at and in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site (SRS) (formerly the Savannah River Plant (SRP)) comprise one of the most comprehensive and extensive environmental monitoring programs in the United States. This overview contains monitoring data from routine and nonroutine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities, summaries of environmental protection programs in progress, a summary of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) activities, and a listing of environmental permits (Appendix A) issued by regulatory agencies. This overview provides information about the impact of SRS operations on the public and the environment. The SRS occupies a large area of approximately 300 square miles along the Savannah River, principally in Aiken and Barnwell counties of South Carolina. SRS's primary function is the production of tritium, plutonium, and other special nuclear materials for national defense, for other governmental uses, and for some civilian purposes. From August 1950 to March 31, 1989, SRS was operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by E. I. du Pont de Nemours Co. On April 1, 1989 the Westinghouse Savannah River Company assumed responsibility as the prime contractor for the Savannah River Site.

  8. Environmental Assessment for the Closure of the High-Level Waste Tanks in F- & H-Areas at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1996-07-31

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the closure of 51 high-level radioactive waste tanks and tank farm ancillary equipment (including transfer lines, evaporators, filters, pumps, etc) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. The waste tanks are located in the F- and H-Areas of SRS and vary in capacity from 2,839,059 liters (750,000 gallons) to 4,921,035 liters (1,300,000 gallons). These in-ground tanks are surrounded by soil to provide shielding. The F- and H-Area High-Level Waste Tanks are operated under the authority of Industrial Wastewater Permits No.17,424-IW; No.14520, and No.14338 issued by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). In accordance with the Permit requirements, DOE has prepared a Closure Plan (DOE, 1996) and submitted it to SCDHEC for approval. The Closure Plan identifies all applicable or relevant and appropriate regulations, statutes, and DOE Orders for closing systems operated under the Industrial Wastewater Permits. When approved by SCDHEC, the Closure Plan will present the regulatory process for closing all of the F- and H-Area High Level Waste Tanks. The Closure Plan establishes performance objectives or criteria to be met prior to closing any tank, group of tanks, or ancillary tank farm equipment. The proposed action is to remove the residual wastes from the tanks and to fill the tanks with a material to prevent future collapse and bind up residual waste, to lower human health risks, and to increase safety in and around the tanks. If required, an engineered cap consisting of clay, backfill (soil), and vegetation as the final layer to prevent erosion would be applied over the tanks. The selection of tank system closure method will be evaluated against the following Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) criteria described in 40

  9. Westinghouse Hanford Company effluent discharges and solid waste management report for calendar year 1989: 200/600 Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.J.; P'Pool, R.K.; Thomas, S.P.

    1990-05-01

    This report presents calendar year 1989 radiological and nonradiological effluent discharge data from facilities in the 200 Areas and the 600 Area of the Hanford Site. Both summary and detailed effluent data are presented. In addition, radioactive and nonradioactive solid waste storage and disposal data for calendar year 1989 are furnished. Where appropriate, comparisons to previous years are made. The intent of the report is to demonstrate compliance of Westinghouse Hanford Company-operated facilities with administrative control values for radioactive constituents and applicable guidelines and standards (including Federal permit limits) for nonradioactive constituents. 11 refs., 20 tabs.

  10. 33 CFR 334.200 - Chesapeake Bay, Point Lookout to Cedar Point; aerial and surface firing range and target area, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Maryland, danger zones. 334.200 Section 334.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.200... Station, Patuxent River, Maryland, danger zones. (a) Aerial firing range—(1) The danger zone. The...

  11. Land Use Baseline Report Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Noah, J.C.

    1995-06-29

    This document is to serve as a resource for Savannah River Site managers, planners, and SRS stakeholders by providing a general description of the site and land-use factors important to future use decisions and plans. The intent of this document is to be comprehensive in its review of SRS and the surrounding area.

  12. Quarterly environmental radiological survey summary. Third quarter 1995 100, 200, 300, and 600 Areas

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, S.M.; Markes, B.M.

    1995-09-01

    Routine radiological surveys are part of the near-facility environmental monitoring program which monitors and helps direct the reduction of the radiologically controlled areas at the Hanford Site. The routine radiological surveys are performed by the Southern Area Remediation Support Group and the Site Surveillance Radiological Control Group as directed by Near-Field Monitoring. The surveys included in this program consist of inactive waste sites; outdoor radiological control areas; tank farm perimeters and associated diversion boxes, lift stations, and vent stations; perimeters of active or uncovered waste sites such as burial grounds, retention basins, ponds, process trenches, and ditches; and road and rail surfaces. This report provides a summary of the radiological surveys performed during the Third Quarter of 1995. The status of corrective actions required from current and past reports are also discussed.

  13. Quarterly Environmental Radiological Survey Summary Third Quarter 1998, 100, 200, 300, and 600 Areas

    SciTech Connect

    MCKINNEY, S.M.

    1998-10-27

    This report provides a summary of the radiological surveys performed in support of near-facility environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site. The Third Quarter 1998 survey results and the status of actions required are summarized: (1) All of the eighty-five environmental radiological surveys scheduled during July, August and September were performed as planned. Fifty-one of the surveys were conducted at Project Hanford Management Contractors (PHMC) sites and thirty-four at Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) sites. Contamination above background levels was found at seventeen of the PHMC waste sites and two of the ERC waste sites. Contamination levels as high >1,000,000 disintegrations per minute (dpm) per 100 cm{sup 2} were reported. Of these contaminated surveys nine were in Underground Radioactive Material (URM) areas, three were in unposted areas and seven were in contamination areas. The contamination found within four of the URM and three of the CA areas was immediately cleaned up and no further action was required. The remaining five URM and two unposted sites were posted and along with the five CA sites will require remediation. Radiological Problem Reports (RPR's) were issued and the sites were turned over to the landlord for further action as required. (2) During the second quarter of 1998, 1.2 hectares (3.0 acres) were stabilized and radiologically down posted from Contamination Area (CA)/Soil Contamination (SC) to URM. (3) Four hectares (10 acres) located south and west of B-Plant were posted as a radiological buffer area as a result of a contamination spread. This off-normal occurrence is currently being investigated. (4) Four Surveillance Compliance Inspection Reports (SCIRs) remained open and had not been resolved. Tank Farms Operations has responsibility for the unresolved SCIRs.

  14. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Second quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This document contains information concerning the groundwater monitoring program at Savannah River Plant. The EPD/EMS (environmental protection department/environmental monitoring section) is responsible for monitoring constituents in the groundwater at approximately 135 waste sites in 16 areas at SRS. This report consolidates information from field reports, laboratory analysis, and quality control. The groundwater in these areas has been contaminated with radioactive materials, organic compounds, and heavy metals.

  15. 34 CFR 200.78 - Allocation of funds to school attendance areas and schools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) of the ESEA, in rank order on the basis of the total number of children from low-income families in each area or school. (2)(i) In calculating the total number of children from low-income families, the LEA must include children from low-income families who attend private schools. (ii) To obtain a...

  16. Ichthyoplankton entrainment study at the SRS Savannah River water intakes for Westinghouse Savannah River Company

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M. )

    1992-03-26

    Cooling water for L and K Reactors and makeup water for Par Pond is pumped from the Savannah River at the 1G, 3G, and 5G pump houses. Ichthyoplankton (drifting fish larvae and eggs) from the river are entrained into the reactor cooling systems with the river water and passed through the reactor's heat exchangers where temperatures may reach 70[degrees]C during full power operation. Ichthyoplankton mortality under such conditions is assumed to be 100 percent. The number of ichthyoplankton entrained into the cooling system depends on a variety of variables, including time of year, density and distribution of ichthyoplankton in the river, discharge levels in the river, and the volume of water withdrawn by the pumps. Entrainment at the 1 G pump house, which is immediately downstream from the confluence of Upper Three Runs Creek and the Savannah River, is also influenced by discharge rates and ichthyoplankton densities in Upper Three Runs Creek. Because of the anticipated restart of several SRS reactors and the growing concern surrounding striped bass and American shad stocks in the Savannah River, the Department of Energy requested that the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory sample ichthyoplankton at the SRS Savannah River intakes. Dams Moore, Inc., under a contract with Westinghouse Savannah River Company performed the sampling and data analysis for the ESS.

  17. 33 CFR 166.200 - Shipping safety fairways and anchorage areas, Gulf of Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... River) Safety Fairway—(i) Southwest Pass (Mississippi River) to Gulf Safety Fairway. The area enclosed...°24′48″ 28°47′24″ 89°26′30″ 28°00′36″ 90°08′18″ (ii) Southwest Pass (Mississippi River) to Sea Safety...′06″ (iii) Southwest Pass (Mississippi River) to South Pass (Mississippi River) Safety Fairway....

  18. 33 CFR 166.200 - Shipping safety fairways and anchorage areas, Gulf of Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... River) Safety Fairway—(i) Southwest Pass (Mississippi River) to Gulf Safety Fairway. The area enclosed...°24′48″ 28°47′24″ 89°26′30″ 28°00′36″ 90°08′18″ (ii) Southwest Pass (Mississippi River) to Sea Safety...′06″ (iii) Southwest Pass (Mississippi River) to South Pass (Mississippi River) Safety Fairway....

  19. 33 CFR 166.200 - Shipping safety fairways and anchorage areas, Gulf of Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... River) Safety Fairway—(i) Southwest Pass (Mississippi River) to Gulf Safety Fairway. The area enclosed...°24′48″ 28°47′24″ 89°26′30″ 28°00′36″ 90°08′18″ (ii) Southwest Pass (Mississippi River) to Sea Safety...′06″ (iii) Southwest Pass (Mississippi River) to South Pass (Mississippi River) Safety Fairway....

  20. Savannah River Site Robotics

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Meet Sandmantis and Frankie, two advanced robotic devices that are key to cleanup at Savannah River Site. Sandmantis cleans hard, residual waste off huge underground storage tanks. Frankie is equipped with unique satellite capabilities and sensing abilties that can determine what chemicals still reside in the tanks in a cost effective manner.

  1. Savannah River Site Robotics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Meet Sandmantis and Frankie, two advanced robotic devices that are key to cleanup at Savannah River Site. Sandmantis cleans hard, residual waste off huge underground storage tanks. Frankie is equipped with unique satellite capabilities and sensing abilties that can determine what chemicals still reside in the tanks in a cost effective manner.

  2. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 216-Z-20 Crib, 200 West Area

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, V.G.

    1993-10-01

    As required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order ([Tri-Party Agreement] Milestone M-17-00A), this report assesses the impact of wastewater discharges to the 216-Z-20 Crib on groundwater quality. The assessment reported herein extends the initial analysis conducted from 1989 through 1990 for the Liquid Effluent Study Final Project Report. Three primary issues are addressed in response to regulator concerns with the initial analysis: The magnitude and status of the soil column transuranic inventory. Potential interactions of wastewater with carbon tetrachloride from adjacent facilities. Preferential pathways created by unsealed monitoring wells.

  3. 33 CFR 166.200 - Shipping safety fairways and anchorage areas, Gulf of Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Santiago Pass Safety Fairway. The areas between rhumb lines joining points at: Latitude North Longitude... joining points at: Latitude North Longitude West 26°04′27″ 97°08′36″ 26°04′58″ 97°07′07″ 26°04′12″ 96°59... enclosed by rhumb lines joining points at: Latitude North Longitude West 26°02′57″ 97°07′11″ 26°02′06″...

  4. 78 FR 36431 - Safety Zone; Inbound Transit of M/V TEAL, Savannah River; Savannah, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... facilitates the safe transit and offload of four oversized ship to shore (STS) cranes. The moving safety zone... regulated navigation areas and other limited access areas: 33 U.S.C. 1231; 46 U.S.C. Chapter 701, 3306, 3703... safety zone to facilitate the safe transit of the M/V TEAL and four STS cranes on the Savannah River....

  5. 200 city survey. JEMS 2001 annual report on EMS operational & clinical trends in large, urban areas.

    PubMed

    Cady, Geoff

    2002-02-01

    This year's survey offered examples of evolving partnerships between the public and EMS providers with a growing number of systems implementing PAD programs. The apparent influence of a communication center's managing agency on prioritization strategies is concerning. However, further study is needed. EMS managers must pay careful attention to comm center practices and technology to ensure their ability to support response prioritization and the efficient management of EMS resources. The small reduction in the use of hot response (lights and siren) to every request for service is disappointing in light of medical literature and position statements that condemn this practice. Resource response can be safely prioritized using today's EMD protocol systems. Prioritization and changing response [figure: see text] time requirements to address impending revenue and service demand changes will require additional standardization of methodologies and reporting of response times to relate this measure to other system performance indicators (e.g., patient morbidity/mortality, cost, customer satisfaction, etc.). The future presents a difficult road for system administrators. However, the adoption of a growing number of information-management tools and changes in procedures and dispatch processes offer potential solutions. The increased use of hand-held computers or personal digital assistant (PDAs) to gather and provide information and the almost universal use of CAD will aid providers in performing the research necessary to change response time performance requirements, improving EMS system efficiency. Use of this technology will also likely improve patient care and reimbursement through more timely and accurate reporting and analysis. The medical director's role will be critical to ensuring potential changes don't compromise patient care. Obtaining a better understanding of how much time can safely elapse between the time of the 9-1-1 call and when patient-care activities

  6. Project analysis and integration area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the Project Analysis and Integration Area (PA&I) is to support the planning, analysis, integration, and decision making activities of the Flat-plate Solar Array FSA) Project. Accordingly, PA&I supports the Project by developing and documenting Project plans based, in part, on the technical and economic assessments performed by PA&I of the various technical options. Goals for module technical performance and costs, derived from National Photovoltaics Program goals, are established by PA&I for each of the major technical activities in the Project. Assessments of progress toward achievement of goals are made to guide decision making within the Project.

  7. Geologic setting of the New Production Reactor within the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Price, V.; Fallaw, W.C.; McKinney, J.B.

    1991-12-31

    The geology and hydrology of the reference New Production Reactor (NPR) site at Savannah River Site (SRS) have been summarized using the available information from the NPR site and areas adjacent to the site, particularly the away from reactor spent fuel storage site (AFR site). Lithologic and geophysical logs from wells drilled near the NPR site do not indicate any faults in the upper several hundred feet of the Coastal Plain sediments. However, the Pen Branch Fault is located about 1 mile south of the site and extends into the upper 100 ft of the Coastal Plain sequence. Subsurface voids, resulting from the dissolution of calcareous portions of the sediments, may be present within 200 ft of the surface at the NPR site. The water table is located within 30 to 70 ft of the surface. The NPR site is located on a groundwater divide, and groundwater flow for the shallowest hydraulic zones is predominantly toward local streams. Groundwater flow in deeper Tertiary sediments is north to Upper Three Runs Creek or west to the Savannah River Swamp. Groundwater flow in the Cretaceous sediments is west to the Savannah River.

  8. Rooting depth and distributions of deep-rooted plants in the 200 Area control zone of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Klepper, E.L.; Gano, K.A.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    This study was conducted to document rooting depths and distributions of deep-rooted plants common to the Hanford Site 200-Area plateau. The effort concentrated on excavating plant species suspected of having deep root systems, and species that have been reported in previous studies to contain radionuclides in above ground parts. The information obtained in this study will be useful in modeling radionuclide transport by plants and in designing covers and barriers for decommissioning low-level radioactive waste burial sites. Fourteen species including 58 individual plants were excavated to measure maximum rooting depth and root density distribution (g dry root/dm/sup 3/) through the root zone. Age and canopy volumes of shrubs were also determined. Eight of the 14 species excavated had average rooting depths of 150 cm or more. The two deepest rooted plants were antelope bitterbrush and sagebrush with average depths of 296 and 200 cm, respectively. Gray rabbitbrush had an average rooting depth of 183 cm. Summer annuals, Russian thistle and bursage, had average rooting depths of 172 and 162 cm, respectively. 7 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

  9. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the gp200 protein of Ehrlichia canis from dogs in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chia-Chia; Hsieh, Yu-Chen; Tsang, Chau-Loong; Chung, Yang-Tsung

    2010-12-01

    Ehrlichia (E.) canis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium responsible for canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Currently, the genetic diversity of E. canis strains worldwide is poorly defined. In the present study, sequence analysis of the nearly full-length 16S rDNA (1,620 bp) and the complete coding region (4,269 bp) of the gp200 gene, which encodes the largest major immunoreactive protein in E. canis, from 17 Taiwanese samples was conducted. The resultant 16S rDNA sequences were found to be identical to each other and have very high homology (99.4~100%) with previously reported E. canis sequences. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis of gp200 demonstrated that the E. canis Taiwanese genotype was genetically distinct from other reported isolates obtained from the United States, Brazil, and Israel, and that it formed a separate clade. Remarkable variations unique to the Taiwanese genotype were found throughout the deduced amino acid sequence of gp200, including 15 substitutions occurring in two of five known species-specific epitopes. The gp200 amino acid sequences of the Taiwanese genotype bore 94.4~94.6 identities with those of the isolates from the United States and Brazil, and 93.7% homology with that of the Israeli isolate. Taken together, these results suggest that the Taiwanese genotype represents a novel strain of E. canis that has not yet been characterized.

  10. UNDERWATER ANALYSIS OF IRRADIATED REACTOR SLUGS FOR Co-60 AND OTHER RADIONUCLIDES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    CASELLA, VITO

    2004-05-10

    Co-60 was produced in the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors in the 1970s, and the irradiated cobalt reactor slugs were stored in a reactor basin at SRS. Since the activity rates of these slugs were not accurately known, assaying was required. A sodium iodide gamma detector was placed above a specially designed air collimator assembly, so that the slug was eight to nine feet from the detector and was shielded by the basin water. Also, 18 curium sampler slugs, used to produce Cm-244 from Pu-239, were to be disposed of with the cobalt slugs. The curium slugs were also analyzed with a High Purity Germanium (HPGE) detector in an attempt to identify any additional radionuclides produced from the irradiation. Co-60 concentrations were determined for reactor disassembly basin cobalt slugs and the 18 curium sampler slugs. The total Co-60 activity of all of the assayed slugs in this work summed to 31,783 curies on 9/15/03. From the Co-60 concentrations of the curium sampler slugs, the irradiation flux was determined for the known irradiation time. The amounts of Pu-238,-239,-240,-241,-242; Am-241,-243; and Cm-242,-244 produced were then obtained based on the original amount of Pu-239 irradiated.

  11. Geohydrologic evaluation for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility State-Approved Land Disposal Site: Addendum to WAC 173-240 Engineering Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ballantyne, N.A.

    1993-08-01

    This document provides a geohydrologic evaluation for the disposal of liquid effluent from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at the Hanford Site. This work forms an addendum to the engineering report that supports the completion of the ETF.

  12. Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR), The NSLS 200 MeV Linear Electron Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Blumberg, L.N.; Ackerman, A.I.; Dickinson, T.; Heese, R.N.; Larson, R.A.; Neuls, C.W.; Pjerov, S.; Sheehan, J.F.

    1993-06-15

    The radiological, fire and electrical hazards posed by a 200 MeV electron Linear Accelerator, which the NSLS Department will install and commission within a newly assembled structure, are addressed in this Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Although it is clear that this accelerator is intended to be the injector for a future experimental facility, we address only the Linac in the present PSAR since neither the final design nor the operating characteristics of the experimental facility are known at the present time. The fire detection and control system to be installed in the building is judged to be completely adequate in terms of the marginal hazard presented - no combustible materials other than the usual cabling associated with such a facility have been identified. Likewise, electrical hazards associated with power supplies for the beam transport magnets and accelerator components such as the accelerator klystrons and electron gun are classified as marginal in terms of potential personnel injury, cost of equipment lost, program downtime and public impact perceptions as defined in the BNL Environmental Safety and Health Manual and the probability of occurrence is deemed to be remote. No unusual features have been identified for the power supplies or electrical distribution system, and normal and customary electrical safety standards as practiced throughout the NSLS complex and the Laboratory are specified in this report. The radiation safety hazards are similarly judged to be marginal in terms of probability of occurrence and potential injury consequences since, for the low intensity operation proposed - a factor of 25 less than the maximum Linac capability specified by the vendor - the average beam power is only 0.4 watts. The shielding specifications given in this report will give adequate protection to both the general public and nonradiation workers in areas adjacent to the building as well as radiation workers within the controlled access building.

  13. Meteorological annual report for 1995 at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C.H.; Tatum, C.P.

    1996-12-01

    The Environmental Technology Section (ETS) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) collects, archives, and analyzes basic meteorological data supporting a variety of activities at SRS. These activities include the design, construction, and operation of nuclear and non-nuclear facilities, emergency response, environmental compliance, resource management, and environmental research. This report contains tabular and graphical summaries of data collected during 1995 for temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, wind, barometric pressure, and solar radiation. Most of these data were collected at the central Climatology Facility. Summaries of temperature and relative humidity were generated with data from the lowest level of measurement at the Central Climatology Site tower (13 feet above ground). (Relative humidity is calculated from measurements of dew-point temperature.) Wind speed summaries were generated with data from the second measurement level (58 feet above ground). Wind speed measurements from this level are believed to best represent open, well-exposed areas of the Site. Precipitation summaries were based on data from the Building 773-A site since quality control algorithms for the central Climatology Facility rain gauge data were not finalized at the time this report was prepared. This report also contains seasonal and annual summaries of joint occurrence frequencies for selected wind speed categories by 22.5 degree wind direction sector (i.e., wind roses). Wind rose summaries are provided for the 200-foot level of the Central Climatology tower and for each of the eight 200-foot area towers.

  14. Determination of the 100-year flood plain on Upper Three Runs and selected tributaries, and the Savannah River at the Savannah River site, South Carolina, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanier, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The 100-year flood plain was determined for Upper Three Runs, its tributaries, and the part of the Savannah River that borders the Savannah River Site. The results are provided in tabular and graphical formats. The 100-year flood-plain maps and flood profiles provide water-resource managers of the Savannah River Site with a technical basis for making flood-plain management decisions that could minimize future flood problems and provide a basis for designing and constructing drainage structures along roadways. A hydrologic analysis was made to estimate the 100-year recurrence- interval flow for Upper Three Runs and its tributaries. The analysis showed that the well-drained, sandy soils in the head waters of Upper Three Runs reduce the high flows in the stream; therefore, the South Carolina upper Coastal Plain regional-rural-regression equation does not apply for Upper Three Runs. Conse- quently, a relation was established for 100-year recurrence-interval flow and drainage area using streamflow data from U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations on Upper Three Runs. This relation was used to compute 100-year recurrence-interval flows at selected points along the stream. The regional regression equations were applicable for the tributaries to Upper Three Runs, because the soil types in the drainage basins of the tributaries resemble those normally occurring in upper Coastal Plain basins. This was verified by analysis of the flood-frequency data collected from U.S. Geological Survey gaging station 02197342 on Fourmile Branch. Cross sections were surveyed throughout each reach, and other pertinent data such as flow resistance and land-use were col- lected. The surveyed cross sections and computed 100-year recurrence-interval flows were used in a step-backwater model to compute the 100-year flood profile for Upper Three Runs and its tributaries. The profiles were used to delineate the 100-year flood plain on topographic maps. The Savannah River forms the southwestern border

  15. Multivariate analysis of 200-m front crawl swimming performance in young male swimmers.

    PubMed

    Nasirzade, Alireza; Sadeghi, Heydar; Sobhkhiz, Azade; Mohammadian, Kamran; Nikouei, Ameneh; Baghaiyan, Mahdi; Fattahi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biomechanical (stroke rate, stroke length, and stroke index), anthropometrical (body height, body mass, body mass index, arm span, shoulders width, thigh, leg and upper arm lengths), and muscle architectural (muscle thickness, pennation angle, and fascicle length) parameters as predictors of 200-m front crawl swimming performance in young male swimmers. Twenty-two county level male swimmers (mean ±SD: age: 14.52 ± 0.77 years; body height: 173 ± 5 m; body mass: 60.5 ± 5.7 kg) performed a 200-m front crawl swimming test in a 25-m pool. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that biomechanical parameters (87%) characterized best 200-m front crawl swimming performance, followed by anthropometrical (82%) and muscle architectural (72%) parameters. Also, stroke length (R2 = 0.623), body height (R2 = 0.541), fascicle length of Triceps Brachii (R2 = 0.392) were the best single predictors that together explained 92% of the variability of the 200-m front crawl swimming performance in these swimmers. As a conclusion, with respect to higher performance prediction power of biomechanical parameters, technique should represent the core of the training program at these ages. In addition, these findings could be used for male young swimmers selection and talent identification.

  16. THE IMPACT OF SHRINKING HANFORD BOUNDARIES ON PERMITS FOR TOXIC AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM THE HANFORD 200 WEST AREA

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, R.E.

    2005-11-09

    This presentation (CE-580. Graduate Seminar) presents a brief description of an approach to use a simpler dispersion modeling method (SCREEN3) in conjunction with joint frequency tables for Hanford wind conditions to evaluate the impacts of shrinking the Hanford boundaries on the current permits for facilities in the 200 West Area. To fulfill requirements for the graduate student project (CE-702. Master's Special Problems), this evaluation will be completed and published over the next two years. Air toxic emissions play an important role in environmental quality and require a state approved permit. One example relates to containers or waste that are designated as Transuranic Waste (TRU), which are required to have venting devices due to hydrogen generation. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) determined that the filters used did not meet the definition of a ''pressure relief device'' and that a permit application would have to be submitted by the Central Waste Complex (CWC) for criteria pollutant and toxic air pollutant (TAP) emissions in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-400 and 173-460. The permit application submitted in 2000 to Ecology used Industrial Source Code III (ISCIII) dispersion modeling to demonstrate that it was not possible for CWC to release a sufficient quantity of fugitive Toxic Air Pollutant emissions that could exceed the Acceptable Source Impact Levels (ASILs) at the Hanford Site Boundary. The modeled emission rates were based on the diurnal breathing in and out through the vented drums (approximately 20% of the drums), using published vapor pressure, molecular weight, and specific gravity data for all 600+ compounds, with a conservative estimate of one exchange volume per day (208 liters per drum). Two permit applications were submitted also to Ecology for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility and the T Plant Complex. Both permit applications were based on the Central Waste Complex approach, and

  17. Sedimentological techniques applied to the hydrology of the Atlantic coastal plain in South Carolina and Georgia near the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Falls, F.W. ); Baum, J.S. ); Edwards, L.E. )

    1994-03-01

    Potential for migration of contaminants in ground water under the Savannah River from South Carolina into Georgia near the US Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS is located in the inner Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina and is underlain by 200 to more than 300 meters of permeable, unconsolidated to poorly consolidated sediments of Cretaceous and Tertiary age. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, is evaluating ground-water flow through the Coastal Plain sediments in the area. Preliminary hydrologic studies conducted to provide the data needed for digital modeling of the ground-water flow system identified the need for more extensive investigation into the influence of the geologic complexities on that flow system. The Coastal Plain physiographic province in South Carolina and Georgia is comprised of a complex wedge of fluvial, deltaic, and marine sedimentary deposits locally modified by faulting. Several techniques commonly used in petroleum basin analysis (sequence stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, detailed core description, and geophysical well log analysis), were used together with water-level measurements, aquifer-test data, and geochemical data to identify six regional aquifers. Hydraulic conductivity distribution maps within each of these aquifers were constructed using textural analysis of core materials, aquifer test data, and depositional system reconstruction. Sedimentological techniques were used to improve understanding of the depositional system and the ground-water flow system dynamics, and to help focus research in areas where additional hydrologic, geologic, and aquifer-test data are needed.

  18. Prognostic Value and Clinicopathology Significance of MicroRNA-200c Expression in Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Zhu, Weikang; Li, Yan; Yu, Yongchun

    2015-01-01

    MiR-200c has been shown to be related to cancer formation and progression. However, the prognostic and clinicopathologic significance of miR-200c expression in cancer remain inconclusive. We carried out this systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the prognostic value of miR-200c expression in cancer. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) of miR-200c for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated to measure the effective value of miR-200c expression on prognosis. The association between miR-200c expression and clinical significance was measured by odds ratios (ORs). Twenty-three studies were included in our meta-analysis. We found that miR-200c was not significantly correlated with OS (HR = 1.41, 95%Cl: 0.95-2.10; P = 0.09) and PFS (HR = 1.12, 95%Cl: 0.68-1.84; P = 0.67) in cancer. In our subgroup analysis, higher expression of miR-200c was significantly associated with poor OS in blood (HR = 2.10, 95%CI: 1.52-2.90, P<0.00001). Moreover, in clinicopathology analysis, miR-200c expression in blood was significantly associated with TNM stage, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis. MiR-200c may have the potential to become a new blood biomarker to monitor cancer prognosis and progression. PMID:26035744

  19. Three-dimensional simulation of groundwater flow and transport of chemical and low-level radioactive constituents within two production areas of the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, D.E.; Looney, B.B.; Andrews, C.B.; Buss, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Modeling of transport in the environmental media was performed. Predicting the future performance of any waste site or facility and postulated actions in terms of migration of potential hazardous materials requires mathematical models capable of simulating flow and transport in the groundwater. Three-dimensional groundwater flow and transport models were developed to simulate the groundwater movement and contaminant transport in the Raw Materials Fabrication Area and the Separations Area. The overall objective of the analysis was to develop groundwater flow models that quantifies the rate and direction of the groundwater movement from the waste sites to points of discharge. The USGS Modular 3D model uses the strongly implicit procedure to solve sets of simultaneous finite-difference equations that represent the groundwater flow process. The transport functions, which are the concentration or mass flux at time t due to continuous injection starting at time t', were obtained by solving the three-dimensional advection-dispersion equations using the Sandia Waste Isolation Flow and Transport (SWIFT) model. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. The Savannah River Technology Center, a leader in sensor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, W.C.

    1993-12-01

    This publication highlights the capabilities and achievements of the Savannah River Technology Center in the field of sensor technology. Sensors are developed to provide solutions for environmental and chemical analysis. Most of their sensor systems are based upon fiber optics. Fiber optic probes function in three main modes: as a reflected light probe, from opaque samples; as a transreflectance probe, which sample light reflected back from samples which can pass light; and a flow cell, which monitors light transmitted through a path which passes the process stream being tested. The sensor group has developed fiber optic based temperature probes, has combined fiber optics with sol-gel technology to monitor process streams using chemical indicators, has done development work on slip stream on-line sampling of chemical process streams, has developed software to aid in the analysis of chemical solutions, and has applied this technology in a wide range of emerging areas.

  1. Diets and habitat analyses of mule deer on the 200 areas of the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Uresk, D.W.; Uresk, V.A.

    1980-10-01

    Forty-four food items were identified in the fecal pellets of the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) on three areas of the Hanford Site. Microscopic analysis of plant fragments indicated that bitterbrush was the most common species occurring in the diets of deer from the B-C Cribs area. Russian thistle (Salsola kali) and goldenrod (Solidago sp.) were the most abundant plants found in the fecal pellets collected from B Pond and Gable Mountain Pond habitats, respectively. The similarity in diets among the habitats was low, ranging from 10% to 16%. Preference indices of forage plants among sites were not similar (7% to 19%). The B-C Cribs, B Pond and Gable Mountain Pond habitats were characterized for canopy cover and frequency of occurrence of plant species. Twelve species were sampled in the B-C Cribs and B Pond areas; 22 species were identified on the Gable Mountain site. The most commonly occurring plant was cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) in all three sites. The similarity in frequency and canopy cover of plants was low among sites. Mule deer inhabiting the Hanford site can serve as a pathway for movement of radioactive material from low-level radioactive waste management areas to man. Maximum levels of /sup 137/Cs found in deer pellet groups collected from B Pond and Gable Mountain Pond areas were 100 pCi/g and 128 pCi/g, respectively. Background levels were reported at B-C Cribs area. Maximum /sup 90/Sr values found in deer pellets at B Pond were 107 pCi/g and 184 pCi/g at Gable Mountain Pond.

  2. Chemical Properties of Pore Water and Sediment at Three Wetland Sites Near the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Friday, G.P.

    2001-05-15

    In 1980, vegetative stress and arboreal mortality in wetland plant communities down-gradient from the F- and H-Area seepage basins were detected using aerial imagery. By 1988, approximately six acres in H-Area and four acres in F-Area had been adversely impacted. Today, wetland plant communities have become well established at the H-Area tree-kill zone.

  3. 1994 conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride contamination in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-08-01

    Between 1955 and 1973, a total of 363,000 to 580,000 L (577,000 to kg) of liquid carbon tetrachloride, in mixtures with other organic and aqueous, actinide-bearing fluids, were discharged to the soil column at three disposal facilities -- the 216-Z-9 Trench, the 216-Z-lA TiTe Field, and the 216-Z-18 Crib -- in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site. In the mid-1980`s, dissolved carbon tetrachloride was found in the uppermost aquifer beneath the disposal facilities, and in late 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology requested that the US Department of Energy proceed with planning and implementation of an expedited response action (ERA) to minimize additional carbon tetrachloride contamination of the groundwater. In February 1992, soil vapor extraction was initiated to remove carbon tetrachloride from the unsaturated zone beneath these disposal facilities. By May 1994, a total of 10,560 L (16,790 kg) of carbon tetrachloride had been removed, amounting to an estimated 2% of the discharged inventory. In the spring of 1991, the Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) program selected the carbon tetrachloride-contaminated site for demonstration and deployment of new technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants in soils and groundwater at arid sites. Site investigations conducted in support of both the ERA and the VOC-Arid ID have been integrated because of their shared objective to refine the conceptual model of the site and to promote efficiency. Site characterization data collected in fiscal year 1993 have supported and led to refinement of the conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride site.

  4. Remote sensing at Savannah River

    SciTech Connect

    Corey, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses remote sensing systems used at the Savannah River Plant. They include three ground-based systems: ground penetrating radar, sniffers, and lasers; and four airborne systems: multispectral photography, lasers, thermal imaging, and radar systems. (ACR)

  5. Pen Branch Delta and Savannah River Swamp Hydraulic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.F.

    1999-05-13

    The proposed Savannah River Site (SRS) Wetlands Restoration Project area is located in Barnwell County, South Carolina on the southwestern boundary of the SRS Reservation. The swamp covers about 40.5 km2 and is bounded to the west and south by the Savannah River and to the north and east by low bluffs at the edge of the Savannah River floodplain. Water levels within the swamp are determined by stage along the Savannah River, local drainage, groundwater seepage, and inflows from four tributaries, Beaver Dam Creek, Fourmile Branch, Pen Branch, and Steel Creek. Historic discharges of heated process water into these tributaries scoured the streambed, created deltas in the adjacent wetland, and killed native vegetation in the vicinity of the delta deposits. Future releases from these tributaries will be substantially smaller and closer to ambient temperatures. One component of the proposed restoration project will be to reestablish indigenous wetland vegetation on the Pen Branch delta that covers about 1.0 km2. Long-term predictions of water levels within the swamp are required to determine the characteristics of suitable plants. The objective of the study was to predict water levels at various locations within the proposed SRS Wetlands Restoration Project area for a range of Savannah River flows and regulated releases from Pen Branch. TABS-MD, a United States Army Corps of Engineer developed two-dimensional finite element open channel hydraulic computer code, was used to model the SRS swamp area for various flow conditions.

  6. The evolution of the magmatic arc of Southern Peru (200-60 Ma), Arequipa area: insight from geochemical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demouy, S.; Benoit, M.; De Saint Blanquat, M.; Brunet, P.

    2012-12-01

    Cordilleran-type batholiths are built by prolonged arc activity along continental margins and may provide detailed magmatic records of the subduction system evolution. The magmas produced in subduction context involve both mantellic and crustal end members and are subject to various petrological processes. The MASH zones (Hildreth and Moorbath, 1988), at the basis of the continental crust, are the best places for the genesis of such hybrid magmas. The various geochemical signatures observed in the plutonic rocks, may also be attributed to source heterogeneities or generated by subsequent petrological processes. This study has focused in the Arequipa section of the Coastal Batholith of Southern Peru (200-60 Ma), in an area extending over 80x40 km. Major and trace elements as well as Sr and Nd isotopic analyses were performed in a set of 100 samples ranging from gabbro to granite. The obtained data highlight the wide heterogeneity of the geochemical signatures that is not related to the classification of the rocks. In first step, Rb/Sr systematic was used to isolate a set of samples plotting along a Paleocene isochron and defining a cogenetic suite. This suite appears to have evolved by simple fractional crystallization. By using reverse modeling, the parameters controlling the fractional crystallization process were defined, as partition coefficients, initial concentrations and amount of fractional crystallization. The other magmatic suites display a wide range of isotopic and geochemical signatures. To explain this heterogeneity, a model involving competition between fractional crystallization and magma mixing into MASH zones was proposed. A large range of hybrid magma types is potentially generated during the maturation of the system, but this range tends to disappear as fractionation and mixing occurs. Finally the model predicts the genesis of a homogeneous reservoir created at depth, from which magmas may evolve only by fractional crystallization. Therefore

  7. Comparative proteomic analysis of biofilm and planktonic cells of Lactobacillus plantarum DB200.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Maria; Siragusa, Sonya; Campanella, Daniela; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the relative abundance of extracellular and cell wall associated proteins (exoproteome), cytoplasmic proteins (proteome), and related phenotypic traits of Lactobacillus plantarum grown under planktonic and biofilm conditions. Lactobacillus plantarum DB200 was preliminarily selected due to its ability to form biofilms and to adhere to Caco2 cells. As shown by fluorescence microscope analysis, biofilm cells became longer and autoaggregated at higher levels than planktonic cells. The molar ratio between glucose consumed and lactate synthesised was markedly decreased under biofilm compared to planktonic conditions. DIGE analysis showed a differential exoproteome (115 protein spots) and proteome (44) between planktonic and biofilm L. plantarum DB200 cells. Proteins up- or downregulated by at least twofold (p < 0.05) were found to belong mainly to the following functional categories: cell wall and catabolic process, cell cycle and adhesion, transport, glycolysis and carbohydrate metabolism, exopolysaccharide metabolism, amino acid and protein metabolisms, fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis, purine and nucleotide metabolism, stress response, oxidation/reduction process, and energy metabolism. Many of the above proteins showed moonlighting behavior. In accordance with the high expression levels of stress proteins (e.g., DnaK, GroEL, ClpP, GroES, and catalase), biofilm cells demonstrated enhanced survival under conditions of environmental stress.

  8. Ichthyoplankton entrainment study at the SRS Savannah River water intakes for Westinghouse Savannah River Company. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.

    1992-03-26

    Cooling water for L and K Reactors and makeup water for Par Pond is pumped from the Savannah River at the 1G, 3G, and 5G pump houses. Ichthyoplankton (drifting fish larvae and eggs) from the river are entrained into the reactor cooling systems with the river water and passed through the reactor`s heat exchangers where temperatures may reach 70{degrees}C during full power operation. Ichthyoplankton mortality under such conditions is assumed to be 100 percent. The number of ichthyoplankton entrained into the cooling system depends on a variety of variables, including time of year, density and distribution of ichthyoplankton in the river, discharge levels in the river, and the volume of water withdrawn by the pumps. Entrainment at the 1 G pump house, which is immediately downstream from the confluence of Upper Three Runs Creek and the Savannah River, is also influenced by discharge rates and ichthyoplankton densities in Upper Three Runs Creek. Because of the anticipated restart of several SRS reactors and the growing concern surrounding striped bass and American shad stocks in the Savannah River, the Department of Energy requested that the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory sample ichthyoplankton at the SRS Savannah River intakes. Dams & Moore, Inc., under a contract with Westinghouse Savannah River Company performed the sampling and data analysis for the ESS.

  9. Virulence in Trypanosoma congolense Savannah subgroup. A comparison between strains and transmission cycles.

    PubMed

    Van den Bossche, P; Chitanga, S; Masumu, J; Marcotty, T; Delespaux, V

    2011-08-01

    Trypanosoma congolense strains have been shown to differ in their virulence both between subgroups and within the Savannah subgroup between strains. This review revisits these findings and complements them with information on the virulence of T. congolense Savannah subgroup strains isolated from cattle (domestic transmission cycle) in different geographical areas and of strains isolated in protected areas where trypanotolerant wildlife species are the reservoir of the trypanosomes (sylvatic transmission cycle). The virulence of a total of 62 T. congolense Savannah subgroup strains (50 domestic and 12 sylvatic), determined using a standard protocol in mice, was compared. Virulence varied substantially between strains with, depending on the strain, the median survival time of infected mice varying from five to more than sixty days. The proportion of highly virulent strains (median survival time <10 days) was significantly (P = 0·005) higher in strains from the sylvatic transmission cycle. The analysis highlights repercussions of the domestication of the trypanosomiasis transmission cycle that may have to be taken in consideration in the development of trypanosomiasis control strategies.

  10. The MOD-OA 200 kilowatt wind turbine generator design and analysis report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, T. S.; Bodenschatz, C. A.; Eggers, A. G.; Hughes, P. S.; Lampe, R. F.; Lipner, M. H.; Schornhorst, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The project requirements, approach, system description, design requirements, design, analysis, system tests, installation safety considerations, failure modes and effects analysis, data acquisition, and initial performance for the MOD-OA 200 kw wind turbine generator are discussed. The components, the rotor, driven train, nacelle equipment, yaw drive mechanism and brake, tower, foundation, electrical system, and control systems are presented. The rotor includes the blades, hub and pitch change mechanism. The drive train includes the low speed shaft, speed increaser, high speed shaft, and rotor brake. The electrical system includes the generator, switchgear, transformer, and utility connection. The control systems are the blade pitch, yaw, and generator control, and the safety system. Manual, automatic, and remote control and Dynamic loads and fatigue are analyzed.

  11. Savannah: Model Cities Community Mental Health Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Center for Continuing Education.

    This report details the development of a comprehensive and coordinated continuing education program of mental health training for professional and paraprofessional workers engaged in the delivery of human services to clients who live in a special catchment area formerly known as the Model Cities areas of Savannah, Georgia. The thrust of the…

  12. 77 FR 19534 - Special Local Regulations; Savannah Tall Ships Challenge, Savannah River, Savannah, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Benjamin Mercado, Marine Safety Unit Savannah Office of Waterways Management, Coast Guard; telephone (912) 652-4353, email Benjamin.Mercado@uscg.mil . If you have questions on viewing the docket, call Renee...

  13. 230. Photocopy of Bird's Eye View of Savannah from Georgia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    230. Photocopy of Bird's Eye View of Savannah from Georgia Historical Society Augustus Koch, Publisher, Savannah 1891 DETAIL - Savannah Victorian Historic District, Bounded by Gwinnett, East Broad, West Broad Street & Anderson Lane, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  14. Lock 1 (Savannah River Lock), Elevation of North Wall, Detail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 1 (Savannah River Lock), Elevation of North Wall, Detail of Wall Foundation, Detail of Gate Pocket - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  15. MOD-0A 200 kW wind turbine generator design and analysis report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, T. S.; Bodenschatz, C. A.; Eggers, A. G.; Hughes, P. S.; Lampe, R. F.; Lipner, M. H.; Schornhorst, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The design, analysis, and initial performance of the MOD-OA 200 kW wind turbine generator at Clayton, NM is documented. The MOD-OA was designed and built to obtain operation and performance data and experience in utility environments. The project requirements, approach, system description, design requirements, design, analysis, system tests, installation, safety considerations, failure modes and effects analysis, data acquisition, and initial performance for the wind turbine are discussed. The design and analysis of the rotor, drive train, nacelle equipment, yaw drive mechanism and brake, tower, foundation, electricl system, and control systems are presented. The rotor includes the blades, hub, and pitch change mechanism. The drive train includes the low speed shaft, speed increaser, high speed shaft, and rotor brake. The electrical system includes the generator, switchgear, transformer, and utility connection. The control systems are the blade pitch, yaw, and generator control, and the safety system. Manual, automatic, and remote control are discussed. Systems analyses on dynamic loads and fatigue are presented.

  16. Spotting East African mammals in open savannah from space.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zheng; Wang, Tiejun; Skidmore, Andrew K; de Leeuw, Jan; Said, Mohammed Y; Freer, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of population dynamics is essential for managing and conserving wildlife. Traditional methods of counting wild animals such as aerial survey or ground counts not only disturb animals, but also can be labour intensive and costly. New, commercially available very high-resolution satellite images offer great potential for accurate estimates of animal abundance over large open areas. However, little research has been conducted in the area of satellite-aided wildlife census, although computer processing speeds and image analysis algorithms have vastly improved. This paper explores the possibility of detecting large animals in the open savannah of Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya from very high-resolution GeoEye-1 satellite images. A hybrid image classification method was employed for this specific purpose by incorporating the advantages of both pixel-based and object-based image classification approaches. This was performed in two steps: firstly, a pixel-based image classification method, i.e., artificial neural network was applied to classify potential targets with similar spectral reflectance at pixel level; and then an object-based image classification method was used to further differentiate animal targets from the surrounding landscapes through the applications of expert knowledge. As a result, the large animals in two pilot study areas were successfully detected with an average count error of 8.2%, omission error of 6.6% and commission error of 13.7%. The results of the study show for the first time that it is feasible to perform automated detection and counting of large wild animals in open savannahs from space, and therefore provide a complementary and alternative approach to the conventional wildlife survey techniques.

  17. Analyzing savannah vegetation phenology with remotely sensed data, lagged time-series models and phenopictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boke-Olén, Niklas; Lehsten, Veiko; Ardö, Jonas; Eklundh, Lars; Holst, Thomas; Beringer, Jason; Veenendaal, Elmar; Tagesson, Torbern

    2016-04-01

    It is predicted that savannah regions will see changes in precipitation patterns due to current climate change projections. The change will most likely affect leaf phenology which controls net primary production. It is therefore important to; 1) study those changes and its drivers, 2) to be able to correctly model the changes to vegetation phenology due to climate change. To our knowledge there is no existing global savannah phenology model that can capture both the phenological events and the vegetation state between the events. We therefore, investigate how day length, mean annual precipitation and soil moisture affects and controls the vegetation phenology of savannahs (using MODIS NDVI as a proxy for phenological state) with a lagged time series model for global application. We furthermore use phenological pictures (phenopictures) to investigate savannah tree and grass phenology. Phenopictures are pictures taken with a digital time-lapse camera with the purpose of recording and studying phenological events. We used climate data from 15 flux towers sites located in 4 continents together with normalized difference vegetation index from MODIS for the model development. Two of the sites located in Africa were further analyzed using phenopictures. The developed model identified all three considered variables as usable for modelling of savannah leaf phenology but showed some inconsistent result for some of the sites indicating the difficulties in creating a simple common model that works equally well across sites. We attribute some of these difficulties to site specific differences (e.g. grazing or tree and grass ratio) that the simplified model did not consider. But we expect it to on average give the cross-validated result (r2= 0.6, RMSE = 0.1) when applied to other savannah areas. The preliminary analysis of the phenological pictures with respect to tree and grass to some extent support this by showing differences in the start of the leaves development in the

  18. Audit of groundwater remediation plans at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-11

    The Department of Energy was required to reduce groundwater contamination that represented a risk to human health or the environment. To achieve this goal, the Savannah River Operations Office (Savannah River) entered into several formal agreements with Federal and State regulators. The agreements described how Savannah River would reduce the level of contamination until the risks to human health and the environment were lowered to an acceptable level. The agreements called for decreasing groundwater contamination to levels that would comply with South Carolina groundwater regulations, which would allow a hypothetical future resident to someday live above the F and H Areas and drink the groundwater. We believe basing the agreements on drinking water standards was unreasonable because no one will likely live above these areas or drink the groundwater. The more stringent drinking water standards were included in the planning process because Savannah River had not developed a Land Use Plan that would permit rational decision making for the entire site. Lacking a Land Use Plan, the environmental regulators assumed, and Savannah River acceded to, the most stringent usage scenario, that the groundwater under the F and H Areas might one day be used as a source of drinking water. It will take more than one hundred years for the subterranean groundwater to become safe enough for drinking water purposes. Consequently, Savannah River may continue to pursue expensive remediation projects for longer than would be necessary to protect human health and the environment. However, the cost impact of unnecessary clean-up activities is indeterminable because acceptable contamination limits would still have to be negotiated with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control.

  19. Simulation of saltwater movement in the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Savannah, Georgia-Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, area, predevelopment-2004, and projected movement for 2000 pumping conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Provost, Alden M.; Payne, Dorothy F.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2006-01-01

    A digital model was developed to simulate ground-water flow and solute transport for the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Savannah, Georgia-Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, area. The model was used to (1) simulate trends of saltwater intrusion from predevelopment to the present day (1885-2004), (2) project these trends from the present day into the future, and (3) evaluate the relative influence of different assumptions regarding initial and boundary conditions and physical properties. The model is based on a regional, single-density ground-water flow model of coastal Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida. Variable-density ground-water flow and solute transport were simulated using the U.S. Geological Survey finite-element, variable-density solute-transport simulator SUTRA, 1885-2004. The model comprises seven layers: the surficial aquifer system, the Brunswick aquifer system, the Upper Floridan aquifer, the Lower Floridan aquifer, and the intervening confining units. The model was calibrated to September 1998 water levels, for single-density freshwater conditions, then refined using variable density and chloride concentration to give a reasonable match to the trend in the chloride distribution in the Upper Floridan aquifer inferred from field measurements of specific conductance made during 2000, 2002, 2003, and 2004. The model was modified to simulate solute transport by allowing saltwater to enter the system through localized areas near the northern end of Hilton Head Island, at Pinckney Island, and near the Colleton River, and was calibrated to match chloride concentrations inferred from field measurements of specific conductance. This simulation is called the 'Base Case.'

  20. Savannah River Site Environmental Implentation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    This report describes the organizational responsibilities for the Savannah River Site Environmental program. Operations, Engineering and projects, Environment, safety, and health, Quality assurance, and the Savannah River Laboratory are described.

  1. Savannah River Site ECS-2 tests uncertainty report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, S.C.; Larson, R.A.

    1990-07-01

    This document presents a measurement uncertainty analysis for the instruments used in the ECS-2 test series conducted for the Savannah River Site at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The tests are a series of downflow dryout heat transfer experiments designed to support computer code development and verification in setting limits for the Savannah River Production reactors. The measurements include input current, voltage, and power; air and water flows, fluid and metal temperatures, and absolute and differential pressures. An analysis of the data acquisition system as it relates to these measurements is also included. 18 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Refined conceptual model for the Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Integrated Demonstration and 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action

    SciTech Connect

    Last, G.V.; Rohay, V.J.

    1993-03-01

    This report presents a refined geohydrologic and geochemical conceptual model of the host site (Hanford Reservation) for the Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) and 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) Expedited Response Action (ERA), based on the results from fiscal year 1992 site characterization activities. The ERA was initiated in December 1990 to minimize or stabilize CCl{sub 4} migration within the unsaturated (vadose) zone in the vicinity of three CCl{sub 4} disposal sites in the 200 West Area (216-Z-1A tile field, 216-Z-9 trench, and 216-Z-18 crib). Implementation of this ERA was based on concerns that CCl{sub 4} residing in the soils was continuing to spread to the groundwater and, if left unchecked, would significantly increase the area of groundwater contamination. A soil-vapor-extraction system began operating at the site in February 1992.

  3. 2004 Savannah River Cooling Tower Collection (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, Alfred; Parker, Matthew J.; Villa-Aleman, E.

    2005-05-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) collected ground truth in and around the Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area cooling tower during the spring and summer of 2004. The ground truth data consisted of air temperatures and humidity inside and around the cooling tower, wind speed and direction, cooling water temperatures entering; inside adn leaving the cooling tower, cooling tower fan exhaust velocities and thermal images taken from helicopters. The F-Area cooling tower had six cells, some of which were operated with fans off during long periods of the collection. The operating status (fan on or off) for each of the six cells was derived from operations logbooks and added to the collection database. SRNL collected the F-Area cooling tower data to produce a database suitable for validation of a cooling tower model used by one of SRNL's customer agencies. SRNL considers the data to be accurate enough for use in a model validation effort. Also, the thermal images of the cooling tower decks and throats combined with the temperature measurements inside the tower provide valuable information about the appearance of cooling towers as a function of fan operating status and time of day.

  4. 33 CFR 117.936 - Savannah River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Savannah River. 117.936 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.936 Savannah River. See § 117.371, Savannah River, listed under Georgia....

  5. 33 CFR 117.371 - Savannah River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Savannah River. 117.371 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Georgia § 117.371 Savannah River. (a) The draw of the Houlihan bridge (US 17) mile 21.6 at Savannah shall open on signal if at least three hours advance...

  6. 33 CFR 117.371 - Savannah River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Savannah River. 117.371 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Georgia § 117.371 Savannah River. (a) The draw of the Houlihan bridge (US 17) mile 21.6 at Savannah shall open on signal if at least three hours advance...

  7. 33 CFR 117.371 - Savannah River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Savannah River. 117.371 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Georgia § 117.371 Savannah River. (a) The draw of the Houlihan bridge (US 17) mile 21.6 at Savannah shall open on signal if at least three hours advance...

  8. 33 CFR 117.936 - Savannah River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Savannah River. 117.936 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.936 Savannah River. See § 117.371, Savannah River, listed under Georgia....

  9. 33 CFR 117.371 - Savannah River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Savannah River. 117.371 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Georgia § 117.371 Savannah River. (a) The draw of the Houlihan bridge (US 17) mile 21.6 at Savannah shall open on signal if at least three hours advance...

  10. 33 CFR 117.371 - Savannah River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Savannah River. 117.371 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Georgia § 117.371 Savannah River. (a) The draw of the Houlihan bridge (US 17) mile 21.6 at Savannah shall open on signal if at least three hours advance...

  11. 33 CFR 117.936 - Savannah River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Savannah River. 117.936 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.936 Savannah River. See § 117.371, Savannah River, listed under Georgia....

  12. 33 CFR 117.936 - Savannah River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Savannah River. 117.936 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.936 Savannah River. See § 117.371, Savannah River, listed under Georgia....

  13. 33 CFR 117.936 - Savannah River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Savannah River. 117.936 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.936 Savannah River. See § 117.371, Savannah River, listed under Georgia....

  14. Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) Underground and MGO Samples by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.; Ajo, H.; Brown, L.; Coleman, C.; Crump, S.; Diprete, C.; Diprete, D.; Ekechukwu, A.; Gregory, C.; Jones, M.; Missimer, D.; O'Rourke, P.; White, T.

    2014-12-31

    Analysis of the recent WIPP samples are summarized in this report; WIPP Cam Filters 4, 6, 9 (3, 7, 11 were analyzed with FAS-118 in a separate campaign); WIPP Drum Lip R16 C4; WIPP Standard Waste Box R15 C5; WIPP MgO R16 C2; WIPP MgO R16 C4; WIPP MgO R16 C6; LANL swipes of parent drum; LANL parent drum debris; LANL parent drum; IAEA Swipe; Unused “undeployed” Swheat; Unused “undeployed” MgO; and Masselin cloth “smears”. Analysis showed that the MgO samples were very pure with low carbonate and water content. Other samples showed the expected dominant presence of Mg, Na and Pb. Parent drum debris sample was mildly acidic. Interpretation of results is not provided in this document, but rather to present and preserve the analytical work that was performed. The WIPP Technical Analysis Team is responsible for result interpretation which will be written separately.

  15. Characterization Activities to Evaluate Chlorinated Solvent Discharges to Tims Branch from the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.G.

    2001-02-23

    The objective of this investigation was to identify those regions of plume outcrop along Tims Branch southeast of A/M Area and to establish fixed monitoring points along the seepline to evaluate proposed remediation needs and to support long-term monitoring activities in the vicinity of the seepline. The characterization approach employed in completing these tasks was dynamic and graded. Three stages of characterization were used to evaluate the outcrop region, with the results from each of the previous activities used to direct subsequent characterization.

  16. Savannah River Technology Center monthly report, September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, J.M.

    1992-09-01

    This is a monthly progress report from the Savannah River Laboratory for the month of September, 1992. It has sections dealing with work in the broad areas of reactor safety, tritium processes and absorption, separations programs and wastes, environmental concerns and responses, waste management practices, and general concerns.

  17. Savannah River Reactor Operation: Indices of risk for emergency planning

    SciTech Connect

    O'Kula, K.R.; East, J.M.

    1990-10-01

    Periodically it is necessary to re-examine the implications of new source terms for neighboring offsite populations as Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Severe Accident studies mature, and lead to a better understanding of the progression of hypothetical core melt accidents in the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors. In this application multiple-system failure, low-frequency events, and consequently higher radiological source terms than from normal operation or design basis accidents (DBAs) are considered. Measures of consequence such as constant dose vs distance, boundary doses, and health effects to close-in populations are usually examined in this context. A set of source terms developed for the Safety Information Document (SID) for support of the Reactor Operation Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) forms the basis for the revised risk evaluation discussed herein. The intent of this review is not to completely substantiate the sufficiency of the current Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ). However, the two principal measures (200-rem red-bone marrow dose vs distance and 300-rem thyroid dose vs distance) for setting an EPZ are considered. Additional dose-at-distance calculations and consideration of DBA doses would be needed to complete a re-evaluation of the current EPZ. These subject areas are not addressed in the current document. Also, this report evaluates the sensitivity of individual risk estimates to the extent of offsite evacuation assumed from a K reactor severe accident and compares these risks to the Draft DOE Safety Guidelines. 14 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. The impacts of land cover change to savannah on the convective rainfall in the southeastern Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mande, T.; Ceperley, N. C.; Katul, G. G.; Yacouba, H.; Tyler, S. W.; Van De Giesen, N.; Rinaldo, A.; Parlange, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    Resolving the pathways by which landcover changes impact rainfall occurrences is essential to sustaining ecosystem goods and services in water limited areas such as West Africa (southeastern Burkina Faso) where agriculture is primarily rain-fed. The focus of this work is to investigate the main causes of enhanced rainfall observed over savannah forest versus agricultural areas within this region. These two areas experience similar synoptic scale weather patterns but there are significant differences in land-cover properties. A model for predicting the time evolution of the mixed layer (ML) height as driven by measured sensible heat flux using a thermodynamic encroachment hypothesis was combined with a model for predicting the lifting condensation level (LCL) driven by measured mean air temperature and relative humidity collected above both land-cover types. Measured convective rainfall events from tipping bucket gauges were then identified following the crossing of the LCL and ML heights. The analysis revealed that the crossing of ML and LCL was 30% more frequent above the savannah forest when compared to the agricultural area because of increased sensible heat flux and not because of significant differences in LCL heights between the two sites. These enhancements in crossing statistics were commensurate with the 10-30% increases in annual rainfall recorded above the savannah forest when compared to the agricultural site. The probability density function (pdf) of the measured intensity (mm h-1) of the identified convective rainfall events (=x) at both sites scaled as an approximate power given by pdf(x)~xa, where the exponent a=-1.5 was computed for both sites. This exponent is in good agreement with reported exponents for summertime convective rainfall in other regions, lending further confidence in the identification of convective rainfall events here. The biotic (leaf area index) and abiotic (well drained soil) factors causing the enhanced sensible heat flux at

  19. Savannah River Site Environmental Data for 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Arnett, M.W.

    1994-12-16

    Tables in this document present data from routine environmental monitoring and surveillance programs at the Savannah River Site. An attempt has been made to include all available data from environmental research programs. The first section of the book is a collection of maps of radiological and non radiological sampling locations. Also included are a list of the media sampled, along with sample sizes and representative aliquots; the minimum detectable concentrations for gamma analysis of soil, food, fish and wildlife, and vegetation samples; and a list of the minimum detectable concentrations for Environmental Monitoring Section radiological analyses.

  20. Automatic emotional expression analysis from eye area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkoç, Betül; Arslan, Ahmet

    2015-02-01

    Eyes play an important role in expressing emotions in nonverbal communication. In the present study, emotional expression classification was performed based on the features that were automatically extracted from the eye area. Fırst, the face area and the eye area were automatically extracted from the captured image. Afterwards, the parameters to be used for the analysis through discrete wavelet transformation were obtained from the eye area. Using these parameters, emotional expression analysis was performed through artificial intelligence techniques. As the result of the experimental studies, 6 universal emotions consisting of expressions of happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, anger and fear were classified at a success rate of 84% using artificial neural networks.

  1. Robotics at Savannah River site: activity report

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.S.

    1984-09-01

    The objectives of the Robotics Technology Group at the Savannah River Laboratory are to employ modern industrial robots and to develop unique automation and robotic systems to enhance process operations at the Savannah River site (SRP and SRL). The incentives are to improve safety, reduce personnel radiation exposure, improve product quality and productivity, and to reduce operating costs. During the past year robotic systems have been installed to fill chemical dilution vials in a SRP laboratory at 772-F and remove radioactive waste materials in the SRL Californium Production Facility at 773-A. A robotic system to lubricate an extrusion press has been developed and demonstrated in the SRL robotics laboratory and is scheduled for installation at the 321-M fuel fabrication area. A mobile robot was employed by SRP for a radiation monitoring task at a waste tank top in H-Area. Several other robots are installed in the SRL robotics laboratories and application development programs are underway. The status of these applications is presented in this report.

  2. Analysis of removal alternatives for the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor at the Savannah River Site. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, M.B.

    1997-04-01

    This engineering study evaluates different alternatives for decontamination and decommissioning of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR). Cooled and moderated with pressurized heavy water, this uranium-fueled nuclear reactor was designed to test fuel assemblies for heavy water power reactors. It was operated for this purpose from march of 1962 until December of 1964. Four alternatives studied in detail include: (1) dismantlement, in which all radioactive and hazardous contaminants would be removed, the containment dome dismantled and the property restored to a condition similar to its original preconstruction state; (2) partial dismantlement and interim safe storage, where radioactive equipment except for the reactor vessel and steam generators would be removed, along with hazardous materials, and the building sealed with remote monitoring equipment in place to permit limited inspections at five-year intervals; (3) conversion for beneficial reuse, in which most radioactive equipment and hazardous materials would be removed and the containment building converted to another use such as a storage facility for radioactive materials, and (4) entombment, which involves removing hazardous materials, filling the below-ground structure with concrete, removing the containment dome and pouring a concrete cap on the tomb. Also considered was safe storage, but this approach, which has, in effect, been followed for the past 30 years, did not warrant detailed evaluation. The four other alternatives were evaluate, taking into account factors such as potential effects on the environment, risks, effectiveness, ease of implementation and cost. The preferred alternative was determined to be dismantlement. This approach is recommended because it ranks highest in the comparative analysis, would serve as the best prototype for the site reactor decommissioning program and would be most compatible with site property reuse plans for the future.

  3. Prognostic Role of the MicroRNA-200 Family in Various Carcinomas: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Soo; Ahn, Young-Ho; Won, Hye Sung; Sun, Der Sheng; Kim, Yeo Hyung

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims. The miRNA-200 (miR-200) family may act as key inhibitors of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. However, the potential prognostic value of miR-200s in various human malignancies remains controversial. This meta-analysis analyzed the associations between miR-200 levels and survival outcomes in a variety of tumors. Methods. Eligible published studies were identified by searching the Embase, PubMed, CINAHL, and Google scholar databases. Patient clinical data were pooled, and pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to calculate the strength of this association. Results. The pooled HRs suggested that high tissue expression of miR-200 family members was associated with better survival (overall survival [OS]: HR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.54–0.91; progression-free survival [PFS]: HR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.52–0.76) in thirty-four eligible articles. In contrast, higher expression of circulating miR-200 members was significantly associated with poor clinical outcome (OS, HR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.15–2.46; PFS, HR = 2.62, 95% CI 1.68–4.07). Conclusion. The results from this meta-analysis suggest that miR-200 family members are potential prognostic biomarkers in patients with various carcinomas. To apply these findings in the clinic, large prospective studies are needed to validate the prognostic values of miR-200s in individual cancer types. PMID:28321402

  4. The Regional Water Table of the Savannah River Site and Related Coverages

    SciTech Connect

    Hiergesell, R.A.

    1999-01-05

    A new regional-scale map of the water table configuration beneath the Savannah River Site and its surrounding area has been developed. This map is regarded as a more accurate representation of this surface than all previous maps.

  5. Spatial and temporal changes in bird assemblages in forest fragments in an eastern Amazonian savannah

    PubMed Central

    Cintra, Renato; Magnusson, William E; Albernaz, Ana

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of forest fragmentation on bird assemblages in an Amazonian savannah landscape with forest fragments that have been isolated for more than 100 years. The study was conducted in areas surrounding the village of Alter do Chão (2°31'S, 55°00'W), Santarém, Brazil. Bird surveys and measurements of tree density were undertaken in 25 areas, with 19 plots in forest fragments of different sizes and six in an area of continuous forest. Data on forest-fragment size, perimeter, and isolation were obtained from a georeferenced satellite image. Variation in number of bird species recorded per plot was not related to vegetation structure (tree density). The number of bird species recorded per plot increased significantly only with fragment area, but was not influenced by fragment shape or degree of isolation, even when considering species from the savannah matrix in the analysis. Fragments had fewer rare species. Multivariate ordination analyses (multiple dimensional scaling, [MDS]) indicated that bird species composition changed along a gradient from small to large forest fragments and continuous-forest areas. In the Amazonian savannah landscapes of Alter do Chão, the organization and composition of bird assemblages in forest fragments are affected by local long-term forest-fragmentation processes. Differences in the number of bird species recorded per plot and assemblage composition between forest fragments and continuous forest were not influenced by forest structure, suggesting that the observed patterns in species composition result from the effects of fragmentation per se rather than from preexisting differences in vegetation structure between sites. Nevertheless, despite their long history of isolation, the forest fragments still preserve a large proportion (on average 80%) of the avifauna found in continuous-forest areas. The fragments at Alter do Chão are surrounded by natural (rather than planted) grassland, with many trees in the

  6. Spatial and temporal changes in bird assemblages in forest fragments in an eastern Amazonian savannah.

    PubMed

    Cintra, Renato; Magnusson, William E; Albernaz, Ana

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effects of forest fragmentation on bird assemblages in an Amazonian savannah landscape with forest fragments that have been isolated for more than 100 years. The study was conducted in areas surrounding the village of Alter do Chão (2°31'S, 55°00'W), Santarém, Brazil. Bird surveys and measurements of tree density were undertaken in 25 areas, with 19 plots in forest fragments of different sizes and six in an area of continuous forest. Data on forest-fragment size, perimeter, and isolation were obtained from a georeferenced satellite image. Variation in number of bird species recorded per plot was not related to vegetation structure (tree density). The number of bird species recorded per plot increased significantly only with fragment area, but was not influenced by fragment shape or degree of isolation, even when considering species from the savannah matrix in the analysis. Fragments had fewer rare species. Multivariate ordination analyses (multiple dimensional scaling, [MDS]) indicated that bird species composition changed along a gradient from small to large forest fragments and continuous-forest areas. In the Amazonian savannah landscapes of Alter do Chão, the organization and composition of bird assemblages in forest fragments are affected by local long-term forest-fragmentation processes. Differences in the number of bird species recorded per plot and assemblage composition between forest fragments and continuous forest were not influenced by forest structure, suggesting that the observed patterns in species composition result from the effects of fragmentation per se rather than from preexisting differences in vegetation structure between sites. Nevertheless, despite their long history of isolation, the forest fragments still preserve a large proportion (on average 80%) of the avifauna found in continuous-forest areas. The fragments at Alter do Chão are surrounded by natural (rather than planted) grassland, with many trees in the

  7. Analysis of Proposed Solutions to the 5.56mm Blank Cartridge (M200) Malfunction Rate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    TO THE 5 . 56MM BLANK CARTRIDGE (M200 ) MALFUNCTION RATE. — 8 - TITLE CLASSIFICATION: UNCLASSIFIED — 9 - DESCRIPTIVE NOTE: FINAL NOTE, —10...REGION DOES NOT ALWAYS STACK AS SHOWN by Rock Island in Sept 1975. The tested items consisted of 3 weapons (produced by Colt), 300 rounds of M200 blank...round (stubs were not recorded). Therefore, the testing of the 20-round magazine with that weapon was discontinued. Three 30- round magazines were

  8. 77 FR 6039 - Special Local Regulations; Savannah Tall Ships Challenge, Savannah River, Savannah, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ...: If you have questions on this proposed rule, call or email Chief Petty Officer Benjamin Mercado... Benjamin.Mercado@uscg.mil . If you have questions on viewing or submitting material to the docket, call... Benjamin Mercado, Marine Safety Unit Savannah Office of Waterways Management, Coast Guard; telephone...

  9. Probabilities of Natural Events Occurring at Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.C.

    2001-07-17

    This report documents the comprehensive evaluation of probability models of natural events which are applicable to Savannah River Plant. The probability curves selected for these natural events are recommended to be used by all SRP/SRL safety analysts. This will ensure a consistency in analysis methodology for postulated SAR incidents involving natural phenomena.

  10. Savannah River site environmental report for 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Arnett, M.; Mamatey, A.

    1998-12-31

    The mission at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has changed from the production of nuclear weapons materials for national defense to the management of site-generated waste, restoration of the surrounding environment, and the development of industry in and around the site. However, SRS-through its prime operating contractor, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC)-continues to maintain a comprehensive environmental monitoring program. In 1996, effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance were conducted within a 31,000-square-mile area in and around SRS that includes neighboring cities, towns, and counties in Georgia and South Carolina and extends up to 100 miles from the site. Though the environmental monitoring program was streamlined in 1996-to improve its cost-effectiveness without compromising data quality or reducing its overall ability to produce critical information-thousands of samples of air, surface water, groundwater, food products, drinking water, wildlife, rainwater, soil, sediment, and vegetation were collected and analyzed for radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants.

  11. ROUGHNESS LENGTHS FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C.

    2012-03-28

    Surface roughness values for the areas surrounding the H, D and N-Area meteorological towers were computed from archived 2010 meteorological data. These 15-minute-averaged data were measured with cup anemometers and bidirectional wind vanes (bivanes) 61 m above the surface. The results of the roughness calculation using the standard deviation of elevation angle {sigma}{sub E}, and applying the simple formula based on tree canopy height, gave consistent estimates for roughness around the H-Area tower in the range of 1.76 to 1.86 m (95% confidence interval) with a mean value of 1.81 m. Application of the {sigma}{sub E} method for the 61-m level at D and N-Areas gave mean values of 1.71 and 1.81 with confidence ranges of 1.62-1.81 and 1.73-1.88 meters, respectively. Roughness results are azimuth dependent, and thus are presented as averages over compass sectors spanning 22.5 degrees. Calculated values were compared to other methods of determining roughness, including the standard deviation of the azimuth direction, {sigma}{sub A}, and standard deviation of the wind speed, {sigma}{sub U}. Additional data was obtained from a sonic anemometer at 61-m on the H-Area tower during a period of a few weeks in 2010. Results from the sonic anemometer support our use of {sigma}{sub E} to calculate roughness. Based on the H-Area tower results, a surface roughness of 1.8 m using is recommended for use in dispersion modeling applications that consider the impacts of a contaminant release to individuals along the Site boundary. The canopy surrounding the H-Area tower is relatively uniform (i.e., little variance in roughness by upwind direction), and data supplied by the U.S. Forest Service at Savannah River show that the canopy height and composition surrounding the H-Area tower is reasonably representative of forested areas throughout the SRS reservation. For dispersion modeling analyses requiring assessments of a co-located worker within the respective operations area, recommended

  12. Functional Analysis of the Short Isoform of Orf Virus Protein OV20.0

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yeu-Yang; Lin, Fong-Yuan; Cheng, Sun-Fang; Chulakasian, Songkhla; Chou, Chia-Chi; Liu, Ya-Fen; Chang, Wei-Shan; Wong, Min-Liang

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Orf virus (ORFV) OV20.0L is an ortholog of vaccinia virus (VACV) gene E3L. The function of VACV E3 protein as a virulence factor is well studied, but OV20.0 has received less attention. Here we show that like VACV E3L, OV20.0L encodes two proteins, a full-length protein and a shorter form (sh20). The shorter sh20 is an N-terminally truncated OV20.0 isoform generated when a downstream AUG codon is used for initiating translation. These isoforms differed in cellular localization, with full-length OV20.0 and sh20 found throughout the cell and predominantly in the cytoplasm, respectively. Nonetheless, both OV20.0 isoforms were able to bind double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR) and dsRNA. Moreover, both isoforms strongly inhibited PKR activation as shown by decreased phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α subunit and protection of Sindbis virus infection against the activity of interferon (IFN). In spite of this apparent conservation of function in vitro, a recombinant ORFV that was able to express only the sh20 isoform was attenuated in a mouse model. IMPORTANCE The OV20.0 protein of orf virus (ORFV) has two isoforms and contributes to virulence, but the roles of the two forms are not known. This study shows that the shorter isoform (sh20) arises due to use of a downstream initiation codon and is amino-terminally truncated. The sh20 form also differs in expression kinetics and cellular localization from full-length OV20.0. Similar to the full-length isoform, sh20 is able to bind dsRNA and PKR, inactivate PKR, and thus act as an antagonist of the interferon response in vitro. In vivo, however, wild-type OV20.0 could not be replaced with sh20 alone without a loss of virulence, suggesting that the functions of the isoforms are not simply redundant. PMID:25694596

  13. Westinghouse Savannah River Site Supplier Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Information Exchange Forum

    SciTech Connect

    Sturm, H.F. Jr.; Hottel, R.E.; Christoper, N.

    1994-06-01

    The Savannah River Site conducted its first Supplier Information Exchange in September 1993. The intent of the conference was to inform potential suppliers of the Savannah River Sites mission and research and development program objectives in the areas of environmental restoration and waste management, and to solicit proposals for innovative research in those areas. Major areas addressed were Solid Waste, Environmental Restoration, Environmental Monitoring, Transition/Decontamination and Decommissioning, and the Savannah River Technology Center. A total of 1062 proposals were received addressing the 89 abstracts presented. This paper will describe the forum the process for solicitation, the process for proposal review and selection, and review the overall results and benefits to Savannah River.

  14. Foreword to special issue: Papers from the 57th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Plasma Physics, November 16–20, 2015, Savannah, Georgia, USA

    DOE PAGES

    Meyerhofer, D. D.; Mauel, M. E.

    2016-05-18

    The 57th annual meeting of the APS Division of Plasma Physics (DPP) was held November 16–20, 2015 in Savannah, Georgia. The meeting brings together researchers (undergraduate students through retirees) from all areas of plasma physics. 1887 abstracts were included in the program, approximately 200 more than the previous year. The presentations included five invited review talks, 97 invited talks, three invited postdeadline talks, and four tutorials. Furthermore, there were approximately 1780 contributed presentations, with about 40% oral and 60% poster. Three mini-conferences were held concurrently.

  15. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality.

  16. 2. Photocopy of section of panoramic map of 'Savannah, Georgia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of section of panoramic map of 'Savannah, Georgia 1891' showing Savannah Repair Shops; drawn and published by Augustus Koch, Morning-News Lithograph, Savannah, GA. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  17. Savannah River Plant/Savannah River Laboratory radiation exposure report

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, C.D.; Hyman, S.D.; Keisler, L.L. and Co., Aiken, SC . Savannah River Plant); Reeder, D.F.; Jolly, L.; Spoerner, M.T.; Schramm, G.R. and Co., Aiken, SC . Savannah River Lab.)

    1989-01-01

    The protection of worker health and safety is of paramount concern at the Savannah River Site. Since the site is one of the largest nuclear sites in the nation, radiation safety is a key element in the protection program. This report is a compendium of the results in 1988 of the programs at the Savannah River Plant and the Savannah River Laboratory to protect the radiological health of employees. By any measure, the radiation protection performance at this site in 1988 was the best since the beginning of operations. This accomplishment was made possible by the commitment and support at all levels of the organizations to reduce radiation exposures to ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable). The report provides detailed information about the radiation doses received by departments and work groups within these organizations. It also includes exposure data for recent years to allow Plant and Laboratory units to track the effectiveness of their ALARA efforts. Many of the successful practices and methods that reduced radiation exposure are described. A new goal for personnel contamination cases has been established for 1989. Only through continual and innovative efforts to minimize exposures can the goals be met. The radiation protection goals for 1989 and previous years are included in the report. 27 figs., 58 tabs.

  18. Ecology and management of a forested landscape: fifty years on the Savannah River Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgo, John, C.; Blake, John, I.

    2005-07-01

    Kilgo, John, C., and John I. Blake. 2005. Ecology and management of a forested landscape; fifty years on the Savannah River Site. Island Press. Washington, DC. John C. Kilgo and John I. Blake, eds. 479 pp. Abstract: This book chronicles and catalogs the forest management and forest restoration practices over the last 50 years at the Savannah River Site. It includes a description of the land use history, physical environment, forest management, biotic communities, threatened and endangered species and harvestable natural resources of the area known today as the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

  19. Savannah River Technology Center monthly report, March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    Short summaries are given on the status of projects within the Savannah River Technology Center covering the following broad topical areas: Tritium; Separations; Environmental studies; Waste management; and General. Studies listed under this last area include: Reactor support; Site robotics support; Robotics for D and D; Robotics for mixed waste operation; Integrated demonstration of an underground storage tank; and Alliance for the Advancement of Robotic Technology (AART).

  20. Savannah River Site environmental report for 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Arnett, M.W.; Karapatakis, L.K.; Mamatey, A.R.

    1994-08-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) conducts effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance to ensure the safety of the public and the well-being of the environment. DOE Order 5400,1, ``General Environmental Protection Program,`` requires the submission of an environmental report that documents the impact of facility operations on the environment and on public health. SRS has had an extensive environmental surveillance program in place since 1951 (before site startup). At that time, data generated by the on-site surveillance program were reported in site documents. Beginning in 1959, data from off-site environmental monitoring activities were presented in reports issued for public dissemination. Separate reporting of SRS`s on- and off-site environmental monitoring activities continued until 1985, when data from both surveillance programs were merged into a single public document. The Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1993 is an overview of effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance activities conducted on and in the vicinity of SRS from January 1 through December 31, 1993. For complete program descriptions, consult the ``SRS Environmental Monitoring Plan`` (WSRC-3Ql-2-1000). It documents the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring program, the frequency of monitoring and analysis, the specific analytical and sampling procedures, and the quality assurance requirements.

  1. Savannah River Site environmental data for 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Arnett, M.W.

    1993-09-01

    The figures and tables in this report represent a capsule view of the routine environmental monitoring and surveillance programs at the Savannah River Site. An attempt has been made to include all available data from environmental research programs. The first section of the book is a collection of maps of radiological and nonradiological sampling locations. Also included are general radiological and nonradiological sampling and analysis schedules; a list of the media sampled, along with sample sizes and representative aliquots; a list of the lower limits of detection for radiological detection instruments; the minimum detectable concentrations for gamma analysis of water and air samples; and the minimum detectable concentrations for gamma analysis of soil, food, fish and wildlife, and vegetation samples. Following the first section are data tables containing radiological and nonradiological effluent monitoring results, radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance results, dose estimates, quality assurance activities, and results of nonroutine occurrences and special surveys.

  2. Savannah River Site environmental data for 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Arnett, M.W.

    1994-05-01

    The figures and tables in this report represent a capsule view of the routine environmental monitoring and surveillance programs at the Savannah River Site. An attempt has been made to include all available data from environmental research programs. The first section of the book is a collection of maps of radiological and nonradiological sampling locations. Also included are general radiological and nonradiological sampling and analysis schedules; a list of the media sampled, along with sample sizes and representative aliquots; a list of the lower limits of detection for radiological detection instruments; the minimum detectable concentrations for gamma analysis of water and air samples; and the minimum detectable concentrations for gamma analysis of soil, food, fish and wildlife, and vegetation samples. Following the first section are data tables containing radiological and nonradiological effluent monitoring results, radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance results, dose estimates, quality assurance activities, and results of nonroutine occurrences and special surveys.

  3. 25 Years Of Environmental Remediation In The General Separations Area Of The Savannah River Site: Lessons Learned About What Worked And What Did Not Work In Soil And Groundwater Cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Blount, Gerald; Thibault, Jeffrey; Millings, Margaret; Prater, Phil

    2015-03-16

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is owned and administered by the US Department of Energy (DOE). SRS covers an area of approximately 900 square kilometers. The General Separation Area (GSA) is located roughly in the center of the SRS and includes: radioactive material chemical separations facilities, radioactive waste tank farms, a variety of radioactive seepage basins, and the radioactive waste burial grounds. Radioactive wastes were disposed in the GSA from the mid-1950s through the mid-1990s. Radioactive operations at the F Canyon began in 1954; radioactive operations at H Canyon began in 1955. Waste water disposition to the F and H Seepage Basins began soon after operations started in the canyons. The Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground (ORWBG) began operations in 1952 to manage solid waste that could be radioactive from all the site operations, and ceased receiving waste in 1972. The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF) received radioactive solid waste from 1969 until 1995. Environmental legislation enacted in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s led to changes in waste management and environmental cleanup practices at SRS. The US Congress passed the Clean Air Act in 1970, and the Clean Water Act in 1972; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was enacted in 1976; the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) was enacted by Congress in 1980; the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA) was signed into law in 1992. Environmental remediation at the SRS essentially began with a 1987 Settlement Agreement between the SRS and the State of South Carolina (under the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control - SCDHEC), which recognized linkage between many SRS waste management facilities and RCRA. The SRS manages several of the larger groundwater remedial activities under RCRA for facilities recognized early on as environmental problems. All subsequent

  4. A 200-Channel Area-Power-Efficient Chemical and Electrical Dual-Mode Acquisition IC for the Study of Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Ng, Waichiu; Yuan, Jie; Li, Suwen; Chan, Mansun

    2016-06-01

    Microelectrode array (MEA) can be used in the study of neurodegenerative diseases by monitoring the chemical neurotransmitter release and the electrical potential simultaneously at the cellular level. Currently, the MEA technology is migrating to more electrodes and higher electrode density, which raises power and area constraints on the design of acquisition IC. In this paper, we report the design of a 200-channel dual-mode acquisition IC with highly efficient usage of power and area. Under the constraints of target noise and fast settling, the current channel design saves power by including a novel current buffer biased in discrete time (DT) before the TIA (transimpedance amplifier). The 200 channels are sampled at 20 kS/s and quantized by column-wise SAR ADCs. The prototype IC was fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. Silicon measurements show the current channel has 21.6 pArms noise with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and 0.48 pArms noise with constant amperometry (CA) while consuming 12.1 μW . The voltage channel has 4.07 μVrms noise in the bandwidth of 100 kHz and 0.2% nonlinearity while consuming 9.1 μW. Each channel occupies 0.03 mm(2) area, which is among the smallest.

  5. CYBER 200 Applications Seminar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, J. P. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Applications suited for the CYBER 200 digital computer are discussed. Various areas of application including meteorology, algorithms, fluid dynamics, monte carlo methods, petroleum, electronic circuit simulation, biochemistry, lattice gauge theory, economics and ray tracing are discussed.

  6. Downgrade of the Savannah River Sites FB-Line

    SciTech Connect

    SADOWSKI, ED; YOURCHAK, RANDY; PRETZELLO MARJI; MIXON, BONNIE; LYNN, ROBBIE

    2005-07-05

    This paper will discuss the Safeguards & Security (S&S) activities that resulted in the downgrade of the Savannah River Site's FB-Line (FBL) from a Category I Material Balance Area (MBA) in a Material Access Area (MAA) to a Category IV MBA in a Property Protection Area (PPA). The Safeguards activities included measurement of final product items, transferal of nuclear material to other Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities, discard of excess nuclear material items, and final measurements of holdup material. The Security activities included relocation and destruction of classified documents and repositories, decertification of a classified computer, access control changes, updates to planning documents, deactivation and removal of security systems, Human Reliability Program (HRP) removals, and information security training for personnel that will remain in the FBL PPA.

  7. Estimating and Analyzing Savannah Phenology with a Lagged Time Series Model.

    PubMed

    Boke-Olén, Niklas; Lehsten, Veiko; Ardö, Jonas; Beringer, Jason; Eklundh, Lars; Holst, Thomas; Veenendaal, Elmar; Tagesson, Torbern

    2016-01-01

    Savannah regions are predicted to undergo changes in precipitation patterns according to current climate change projections. This change will affect leaf phenology, which controls net primary productivity. It is of importance to study this since savannahs play an important role in the global carbon cycle due to their areal coverage and can have an effect on the food security in regions that depend on subsistence farming. In this study we investigate how soil moisture, mean annual precipitation, and day length control savannah phenology by developing a lagged time series model. The model uses climate data for 15 flux tower sites across four continents, and normalized difference vegetation index from satellite to optimize a statistical phenological model. We show that all three variables can be used to estimate savannah phenology on a global scale. However, it was not possible to create a simplified savannah model that works equally well for all sites on the global scale without inclusion of more site specific parameters. The simplified model showed no bias towards tree cover or between continents and resulted in a cross-validated r2 of 0.6 and root mean squared error of 0.1. We therefore expect similar average results when applying the model to other savannah areas and further expect that it could be used to estimate the productivity of savannah regions.

  8. Estimating and Analyzing Savannah Phenology with a Lagged Time Series Model

    PubMed Central

    Boke-Olén, Niklas; Lehsten, Veiko; Ardö, Jonas; Beringer, Jason; Eklundh, Lars; Holst, Thomas; Veenendaal, Elmar; Tagesson, Torbern

    2016-01-01

    Savannah regions are predicted to undergo changes in precipitation patterns according to current climate change projections. This change will affect leaf phenology, which controls net primary productivity. It is of importance to study this since savannahs play an important role in the global carbon cycle due to their areal coverage and can have an effect on the food security in regions that depend on subsistence farming. In this study we investigate how soil moisture, mean annual precipitation, and day length control savannah phenology by developing a lagged time series model. The model uses climate data for 15 flux tower sites across four continents, and normalized difference vegetation index from satellite to optimize a statistical phenological model. We show that all three variables can be used to estimate savannah phenology on a global scale. However, it was not possible to create a simplified savannah model that works equally well for all sites on the global scale without inclusion of more site specific parameters. The simplified model showed no bias towards tree cover or between continents and resulted in a cross-validated r2 of 0.6 and root mean squared error of 0.1. We therefore expect similar average results when applying the model to other savannah areas and further expect that it could be used to estimate the productivity of savannah regions. PMID:27128678

  9. 5. Photocopy of a photograph from Artwork in Savannah (Chicago: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of a photograph from Artwork in Savannah (Chicago: W.H. Parish Publishing Co., 1893) Photographer unknown, 1893 'RESIDENCE OF C.H. DORSETT' - Savannah Victorian Historic District, 215 West Gwinnett Street (House), Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  10. 229. Photocopy of Bird's Eye View of Savannah from Georgia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    229. Photocopy of Bird's Eye View of Savannah from Georgia Historical Society A. Ruger, Publisher, St. Louis 1871 DETAIL - Savannah Victorian Historic District, Bounded by Gwinnett, East Broad, West Broad Street & Anderson Lane, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  11. 1. Lowlevel birdseye view looking SW at the Savannah Repair ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Low-level birdseye view looking SW at the Savannah Repair Shops. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  12. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, November 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, J.M.

    1991-12-31

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation; tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  13. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  14. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, J.M.

    1991-12-31

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  15. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, J.M.

    1991-12-31

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separations operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  16. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separations operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  17. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation; tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  18. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, J.M.

    1991-12-31

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation; tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  19. Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Arnett, M.W.; Mamatey, A.; Spitzer, D.

    1994-12-16

    The mission at the Savannah River Site has changed from producing nuclear weapons materials for national defense to managing the waste it has generated, restoring the environment, and enhancing industrial development in and around the site. But no matter what the site`s mission is, it will continue to maintain its comprehensive environmental monitoring and surveillance program. In 1994, effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance were conducted within a 30,000-square-mile area in and around SRS that includes neighboring cities, towns, and counties in Georgia and South Carolina and extends up to 100 miles from the site. Thousands of samples of air, surface water, groundwater, foodstuffs, drinking water, wildlife, rainwater, soil, sediment, and vegetation were collected and analyzed for radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants.

  20. Sensitivity of East African savannah vegetation to historical moisture-balance variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ssemmanda, I.; Gelorini, V.; Verschuren, D.

    2014-11-01

    Fossil pollen records provide key insight into the sensitivity of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. However, tracing vegetation response to relatively modest historical climate fluctuations is often complicated by the overriding signature of anthropogenic landscape disturbance. Here we use high-resolution pollen data from a ~200-year lake-sediment record in open wooded savannah of Queen Elizabeth National Park (southwestern Uganda) to assess the sensitivity of the tropical lowland grassland-forest transition to historical, decade-scale moisture-balance fluctuations. Specifically we trace vegetation response to three episodes of higher average rainfall dated to the 1820s-1830s, ca. 1865-1890 and from 1962 to around 2000. Our pollen data indeed reveal a sequence of three wet periods, separated by two drier periods. During the inferred wetter episodes we find increases in the percent pollen abundance of trees and shrubs from moist semi-deciduous forest (Allophylus, Macaranga, Alchornea, Celtis), riparian forest (Phoenix reclinata) and wooded savannah (Acalypha, Rhus-type vulgaris, Combretaceae/Melastomataceae) as well as taxa common in the local rift-valley grasslands (Acacia, Ficus), together creating strong temporary reductions in Poaceae pollen (to 45-55% of the terrestrial pollen sum). During intervening dry periods, Poaceae pollen attained values of 65-75%, and dryland herbs such as Commelina, Justicia-type odora and Chenopodiaceae expanded at the expense of Asteraceae, Solanum-type, Swertia usambarensis-type, and (modestly so) Urticaceae. Noting that the overall richness of arboreal taxa remained high but their combined abundance low, we conclude that the landscape surrounding Lake Chibwera has been an open wooded savannah throughout the past 200 years, with historical moisture-balance variation exerting modest effects on local tree cover (mostly the abundance of Acacia and Ficus) and the occurrence of damp soil areas promoting Phoenix reclinata. The

  1. Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Combination Smokestack, Water Tank & Privies, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  2. Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Brick Storage Vaults under Jones Street, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  3. Analysis of the Hydrologic Response Associated with Shutdown and Restart of the 200-ZP-1 Pump-and-Treat System

    SciTech Connect

    Spane, Frank A.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2000-09-08

    A number of programs have been implemented on the Hanford Site that utilize the pumping and treatment of contaminated groundwater as part of their remediation strategy. Often the treated water is reinjected into the aquifer at injection well sites. The implementation of remedial pump and treat systems, however, results in hydraulic pressure responses, both areally and vertically (i.e., with depth) within the pumped aquifer. The area within the aquifer affected by the pump and treat system (i.e., radius of influence) is commonly estimated based on detecting associated water-level responses within surrounding monitor wells. Natural external stresses, such as barometric pressure fluctuations, however, can have a discernible impact on well water-level measurements. These temporal barometric effects may significantly mask water-level responses within more distant wells that are only slightly affected (< 0.10 m) by the test system. External stress effects, therefore, can lead to erroneous indications of the radius of influence of the imposed pump and treat system remediation activities and can greatly diminish the ability to analyze the associated well responses for hydraulic property characterization. When these extraneous influences are significant, adjustments or removal of the barometric effects from the test-response record may be required for quantitative hydrologic assessment. This report examines possible hydrologic effects of pump and treat remediation actions and provides a detailed analysis of water-level measurements for selected 200-ZP-1 pump and treat system monitor wells during the recent Y2K shutdown (December 1999) and restart activity (January 2000). The general findings presented in this report have universal application for unconfined and confined aquifer systems.

  4. 200-DV-1OU Sediment and Pore Water Analysis and Report for Samples at Borehole C8096

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Michael J.

    2011-10-01

    This is an analytical data report for sediment samples received at 200-DV-1 OU. On August 30, 2011 sediment samples were received from 200-DV-1 OU Borehole C8096 for geochemical studies. The analyses for this project were performed at the 331 building located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The analyses were performed according to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) approved procedures and/or nationally recognized test procedures. The data sets include the sample identification numbers, analytical results, estimated quantification limits (EQL), and quality control data. The preparatory and analytical quality control requirements, calibration requirements, acceptance criteria, and failure actions are defined in the on-line QA plan 'Conducting Analytical Work in Support of Regulatory Programs' (CAW). This QA plan implements the Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD) for PNNL.

  5. Phenomenological optical potential analysis of proton-carbon elastic scattering at 200 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidasaria, H. B.; Townsend, L. W.

    1982-01-01

    Differential cross sections for 200 MeV protons elastically scattered from C-12 were analyzed utilizing a local, complex, spin-dependent optical potential with a harmonic well radial dependence. Analyses were performed using the WKB and eikonal approximations. For the latter, first-order corrections to he phase shifts were incorporated to account for the spin-orbit contribution. Large disagreement between theory and experiment was observed when the usual Thomas form for the spin-orbit potential was utilized. Substantial improvement was obtained by allowing the parameters in the central and spin-orbit potential terms to vary independently.

  6. Sensitivity of the grassland-forest ecotone in East African open woodland savannah to historical rainfall variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ssemmanda, I.; Gelorini, V.; Verschuren, D.

    2014-04-01

    Fossil pollen records provide key insight into the sensitivity of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change at longer time scales. However, tracing vegetation response to relatively modest historical climate fluctuations is often complicated by the overriding signature of anthropogenic landscape disturbance. Here we use high-resolution pollen data from a ~200 year lake-sediment record in open woodland savannah of Queen Elisabeth National Park (southwestern Uganda) to assess the sensitivity of the tropical lowland grassland-forest ecotone to historical fluctuations in annual rainfall on the order of 10% lasting several decades. Specifically we trace vegetation response to three episodes of increased regional rainfall dated to the 1820s-1830s, ca. 1865-1890 and from 1962 to around 2000. During inferred wetter episodes we find increases in the relative pollen abundance from trees and shrubs of moist semi-deciduous forest (Allophylus, Macaranga, Celtis, Alchornea), riparian forest (Phoenix reclinata) and savannah woodland (Myrica, Acalypha, Combretaceae/Melostomataceae) as well as local savannah taxa (Acacia, Rhus type vulgaris, Ficus), together creating strong temporary reductions in Poaceae pollen (to 45-55% of the terrestrial pollen sum). During intervening dry episodes, most notably the period ca. 1920-1962, Poaceae pollen attained values of 65-75%, and dryland herbs such as Commelina, Justicia type odora and Chenopodiaceae expanded at the expense of Asteraceae, Solanum-type, Swertia usumbarensis-type, and (modestly so) Urticaceae. Noting that the overall diversity of arboreal taxa remained high but their combined abundance low, we conclude that the landscape surrounding Lake Chibwera has been an open woodland savannah throughout the past 200 years, with historical rainfall variation exerting modest effects on local tree cover (mostly the abundance of Acacia and Ficus) and the prevalence of damp soil areas promoting Phoenix reclinata. The strong apparent expansion

  7. 33 CFR 80.715 - Savannah River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Savannah River. 80.715 Section 80.715 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.715 Savannah River. A line drawn from...

  8. 33 CFR 80.715 - Savannah River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Savannah River. 80.715 Section 80.715 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.715 Savannah River. A line drawn from...

  9. 33 CFR 80.715 - Savannah River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Savannah River. 80.715 Section 80.715 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.715 Savannah River. A line drawn from...

  10. 33 CFR 80.715 - Savannah River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Savannah River. 80.715 Section 80.715 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.715 Savannah River. A line drawn from...

  11. 33 CFR 80.715 - Savannah River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Savannah River. 80.715 Section 80.715 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.715 Savannah River. A line drawn from...

  12. Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Arnett, M

    1999-06-09

    The mission at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is focused primarily on support of the national defense, nonproliferation, and environmental cleanup. SRS-through its prime operating contractor, Westinghouse Savannah River Company-continues to maintain a comprehensive environmental monitoring program.

  13. Special Analysis for Disposal of High-Concentration I-129 Waste in the Intermediate-Level Vaults at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Collard, L.B.

    2000-09-26

    This revision was prepared to address comments from DOE-SR that arose following publication of revision 0. This Special Analysis (SA) addresses disposal of wastes with high concentrations of I-129 in the Intermediate-Level (IL) Vaults at the operating, low-level radioactive waste disposal facility (the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility or LLWF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This SA provides limits for disposal in the IL Vaults of high-concentration I-129 wastes, including activated carbon beds from the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), based on their measured, waste-specific Kds.

  14. Geology and ground water of the Savannah River Plant and vicinity, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siple, George E.

    1967-01-01

    The area described in this report covers approximately 2,600 square miles in west-central South Carolina and includes the site of the Savannah River Plant, a major production facility of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The climate, surface drainage, and land forms of the study area are typical of the southern part of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Precipitation is normally abundant and fairly evenly distributed throughout the year, and the mean annual temperature is moderately warm (64?F). The major streams that drain the area (the Savannah, Salkehatchie, and Edisto Rivers) have low gradients and flow in a southeasterly direction toward the Atlantic Ocean. Surface features of the area include narrow, flat-bottomed, steep-sided valleys and broad gently rolling interfluvial areas. Those parts of the Coastal Plain included within the report area can be subdivided into the Aiken Plateau, the Congaree Sandhills, and the Coastal Terraces. The area is underlain by a sequence of unconsolidated and partly consolidated sediments of Late Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary age. The unconsolidated sediments were deposited unconformably on a basement of igneous and metamorphic rocks of Precambrian and Paleozoic age and sedimentary rocks of Triassic age. The basement rocks are similar to the granite-diorite complex of the Charlotte Belt, the metamorphosed rocks of the Carolina Slate Belt, and the consolidated sediments of the Newark Group. The unconsolidated sediments strike about N. 60 ? E. and dip 6-20 feet per mile to the southeast. They form a wedge-shaped mass that increases in thickness toward the southeast to slightly more than 1,200 feet in the vicinity of Allendale, S.C., on the southeast or downdip side of the study area. The oldest or lowermost unconsolidated sedimentary unit, the Tuscaloosa Formation of Late Cretaceous age, is overlain in the subsurface by beds that are also probably Late Cretaceous in age and that herein are named the Ellenton Formation. The Upper

  15. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT FOR 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Mamatey, A.; Dunaway-Ackerman, J.

    2011-08-16

    This report was prepared in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, 'Environment, Safety and Health Reporting,' to present summary environmental data for the purpose of: (a) characterizing site's environmental management performance; (b) summarizing environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; (c) describing compliance status with respect to environmental standards and requirements; and (d) highlighting significant site programs and efforts. This report is the principal document that demonstrates compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5, 'Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment,' and is a key component of DOE's effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at Savannah River Site (SRS). SRS has four primary missions: (1) Environmental Management - Cleaning up the legacy of the Cold War efforts and preparing decommissioned facilities and areas for long-term stewardship; (2) Nuclear Weapons Stockpile Support - Meeting the needs of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile through the tritium programs of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); (3) Nuclear Nonproliferation Support - Meeting the needs of the NNSA's nuclear nonproliferation programs by safely storing and dispositioning excess special nuclear materials; and (4) Research and Development - Supporting the application of science by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to meet the needs of SRS, the DOE complex, and other federal agencies During 2010, SRS worked to fulfill these missions and position the site for future operations. SRS continued to work with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to find and implement solutions and schedules for waste management and disposition. As part of its mission to clean up the Cold War legacy, SRS will continue to address the highest-risk waste

  16. Analysis of land use changes over the last 200 years in the catchment of Lake Czechowskie (Pomerania, northern Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyszkowski, Sebastian; Kaczmarek, Halina

    2014-05-01

    Changes in land cover in the catchment area are, beside climate change, some of the major factors affecting sedimentation processes in lakes. With increasing human impact, changes in land cover no longer depend primarily on climate. In relation to research on sediments of Lake Czechowskie in Pomeranian Province in North Poland, land use changes over the last 200 years were analysed, with particular reference to deforestation or afforestation. The study area was the lake catchment, which covers nearly 20 km2. The analysis was based on archival and contemporary cartographic and photogrammetric materials, georeferenced and rectified using ArcGIS software. The following materials were used: Schrötter-Engelhart, Karte von Ost-Preussen nebst Preussisch Litthauen und West-Preussen nebst dem Netzdistrict, 1:50 000, section 92, 93, 1796-1802; Map Messtishchblatt, 1:25000, sheet Czarnen, (mapping conducted in 1874), 1932; Map WIG (Military Geographical Institute - Wojskowy Instytut Geograficzny), 1:25000, sheet Osowo, (mapping conducted in 1929-31), 1933; aerial photos 1:13000, 1964, 1969; 1:25000, 1987; 1:26000, 1997; aerial ortophotomap , 1:5000, 2010. Today, over 60% of the catchment of Lake Czechowskie is covered with forests, dominated by planted Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), while the remaining areas are used for agricultural purposes or are built up. The first cartographic materials indicate that in the late 18th c., forest covered almost 50% of the catchment surface. By the year 1870, there was a significant reduction in the forested area, as its contribution fell to 40%. Deforestation took place mainly between the main villages. In the 1920s the forest cover increased to 44%. Today, almost the entire lake is surrounded by forest and a wetland belt (at least 0.5 km wide). Deforestation in the catchment should not be attributed solely to logging because the area of Tuchola Forests (Bory Tucholskie) was repeatedly affected by natural disasters. In the 19th c. these

  17. Percent area coverage through image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Chung M.; Hong, Sung M.; Liu, De-Ling

    2016-09-01

    The notion of percent area coverage (PAC) has been used to characterize surface cleanliness levels in the spacecraft contamination control community. Due to the lack of detailed particle data, PAC has been conventionally calculated by multiplying the particle surface density in predetermined particle size bins by a set of coefficients per MIL-STD-1246C. In deriving the set of coefficients, the surface particle size distribution is assumed to follow a log-normal relation between particle density and particle size, while the cross-sectional area function is given as a combination of regular geometric shapes. For particles with irregular shapes, the cross-sectional area function cannot describe the true particle area and, therefore, may introduce error in the PAC calculation. Other errors may also be introduced by using the lognormal surface particle size distribution function that highly depends on the environmental cleanliness and cleaning process. In this paper, we present PAC measurements from silicon witness wafers that collected fallouts from a fabric material after vibration testing. PAC calculations were performed through analysis of microscope images and compare them to values derived through the MIL-STD-1246C method. Our results showed that the MIL-STD-1246C method does provide a reasonable upper bound to the PAC values determined through image analysis, in particular for PAC values below 0.1.

  18. A 12-year analysis of pacing strategies in 200- and 400-m individual medley in international swimming competitions.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Jose M; Escalante, Yolanda; Garcia-Hermoso, Antonio; Arellano, Raul; Navarro, Fernando

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the pacing strategies employed in 200- and 400-m individual medley events and which style was the most determinant for the final performance as a function of sex and classification in international competitions. Twenty-six international competitions covering a 12-year period (2000-2011) were analyzed retrospectively: Olympic Games, World Championships, European Championships, Commonwealth Games, Pan Pacific Games, U.S. Olympic Team Trials, and Australian Olympic Trials. The data corresponded to a total of 1,643 swimmers' competition histories (821 men, 822 women). A 2-way analysis of variance (sex [2 levels: men, women] × classification [3 levels: 1st to 3rd, 4th to 8th, 9th to 16th]) was performed for each stroke (butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke, and freestyle). The Bonferroni post hoc test was used to compare means. Pearson's simple correlation coefficient was used to determine correlations between the style (sections time) and the final performance (total time). The men employed a smaller percentage of their event times in the breaststroke than did the women and a greater percentage in the freestyle in both the 200- and 400-m distances, with the fastest style for both sexes being the butterfly. Considering only the medalists, in men (200 and 400 m), the backstroke was the style that most determined their final performance, whereas in women, it was the backstroke (200 m) or freestyle (400 m). It was concluded that in general the men apply a positive pacing strategy in the 200- and 400-m individual medley events, whereas the women apply a negative pacing strategy. The practical application of the study is that it suggests the need for a differentiated approach in training men and women individual medley swimmers.

  19. Comparative phylogeography of African savannah ungulates.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, E D; Heller, R; Siegismund, H R

    2012-08-01

    The savannah biome of sub-Saharan Africa harbours the highest diversity of ungulates (hoofed mammals) on Earth. In this review, we compile population genetic data from 19 codistributed ungulate taxa of the savannah biome and find striking concordance in the phylogeographic structuring of species. Data from across taxa reveal distinct regional lineages, which reflect the survival and divergence of populations in isolated savannah refugia during the climatic oscillations of the Pleistocene. Data from taxa across trophic levels suggest distinct savannah refugia were present in West, East, Southern and South-West Africa. Furthermore, differing Pleistocene evolutionary biogeographic scenarios are proposed for East and Southern Africa, supported by palaeoclimatic data and the fossil record. Environmental instability in East Africa facilitated several spatial and temporal refugia and is reflected in the high inter- and intraspecific diversity of the region. In contrast, phylogeographic data suggest a stable, long-standing savannah refuge in the south.

  20. New osculating orbits for 110 comets and analysis of original orbits for 200 comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, B. G.; Sekanina, Z.; Everhart, E.

    1978-01-01

    Osculating orbits are presented for 110 nearly parabolic comets. Combining these with selected orbit determinations from other sources, a total of 200 orbits are considered where the available observations yield a result of very good (first-class) or good (second-class) quality. For each of these, the original and future orbits (referred to the barycenter of the solar system) are calculated. The Oort effect (a tendency for original reciprocal semimajor axis values to range from zero to +100 millionths per AU) is clearly seen among the first-class orbits but not among the second-class orbits. Modifications in original reciprocal semimajor axis values due to the effects of nongravitational forces are considered.

  1. Selecting the seismic HRA approach for Savannah River Plant PRA revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Papouchado, K.; Salaymeh, J.; Wingo, H.E.; Benhardt, H.C.; van Buijtenen, C.M.; Mitts, T.M.

    1993-10-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has prepared a level I probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), Rev. 0 of reactor operations for externally-initiated events including seismic events. The SRS PRA, Rev. 0 Seismic HRA received a critical review that expressed skepticism with the approach used for human reliability analysis because it had not been previously used and accepted in other published PRAs. This report provides a review of published probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), the associated methodology guidance documents, and the psychological literature to identify parameters important to seismic human reliability analysis (HRA). It also describes a recommended approach for use in the Savannah River Site (SRS) PRA. The SRS seismic event PRA performs HRA to account for the contribution of human errors in the accident sequences. The HRA of human actions during and after a seismic event is an area subject to many uncertainties and involves significant analyst judgment. The approach recommended by this report is based on seismic HRA methods and associated issues and concerns identified from the review of these referenced documents that represent the current state-of-the- art knowledge and acceptance in the seismic HRA field.

  2. MANAGEMENT OF TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE RETRIEVAL PROJECT RISKS SUCCESSES IN THE STARTUP OF THE HANFORD 200 AREA TRU WASTE RETRIEVAL PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    GREENWLL, R.D.

    2005-01-20

    A risk identification and mitigation method applied to the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Retrieval Project performed at the Hanford 200 Area burial grounds is described. Retrieval operations are analyzed using process flow diagramming. and the anticipated project contingencies are included in the Authorization Basis and operational plans. Examples of uncertainties assessed include degraded container integrity, bulged drums, unknown containers, and releases to the environment. Identification and mitigation of project risks contributed to the safe retrieval of over 1700 cubic meters of waste without significant work stoppage and below the targeted cost per cubic meter retrieved. This paper will be of interest to managers, project engineers, regulators, and others who are responsible for successful performance of waste retrieval and other projects with high safety and performance risks.

  3. Environmental information document: Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, B.F.; Looney, B.B.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-03-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy`s proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (CFR, 1986). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations.

  4. Tiger Team Assessment of the Savannah River Site: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This draft document contains findings identified during the Tiger Team Compliance Assessment of the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS), located in three countries (Aiken, Barnwell and Allendale), South Carolina. The Assessment was directed by the Department's Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health (ES H) and was conducted from January 29 to March 23, 1990. The Savannah River Site Tiger Team Compliance Assessment was broad in scope covering the Environment, Safety and Health, and Management areas and was designed to determine the site's compliance with applicable Federal (including DOE), state, and local regulations and requirements. The scope of the Environmental assessment was sitewide while the Safety and Health assessments included site operating facilities (except reactors), and the sitewide elements of Aviation Safety, Emergency Preparedness, Medical Services, and Packaging and Transportation. This report contains the appendices to the assessment.

  5. Tiger Team Assessment of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This draft document contains findings identified during the Tiger Team Compliance Assessment of the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS), located in three counties (Aiken, Barnwell and Allendale), South Carolina. The Assessment was directed by the Department's Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health (ES H) and was conducted from January 29 to March 23, 1990. The Savannah River Site Tiger Team Compliance Assessment was broad in scope covering the Environment, Safety and Health, and Management areas and was designed to determine the site's compliance with applicable Federal (including DOE), state, and local regulations and requirements. The scope of the Environmental assessment was sitewide while the Safety and Health assessments included site operating facilities (except reactors), and the sitewide elements of Aviation Safety, Emergency Preparedness, Medical Services, and Packaging and Transportation.

  6. Environmental audit of the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report documents the results of the environmental audit conducted at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), principally in Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. The audit was conducted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s), Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24), beginning September 13, 1993, and ending September 23, 1993. The scope of the audit at SREL was comprehensive, addressing environmental activities in the technical areas of air; surface water/drinking water; groundwater/soil, sediment, and biota; waste management; toxic and chemical materials; inactive Waste sites; radiation; quality assurance; and environmental management. Specifically assessed was the compliance of SREL operations and activities with Federal, state, and local regulations; DOE Orders; and best management practices.

  7. Sex and drugs in popular movies: an analysis of the top 200 films.

    PubMed

    Gunasekera, Hasantha; Chapman, Simon; Campbell, Sharon

    2005-10-01

    We analyse the portrayal of sex and drug use in the most popular movies of the last 20 years using the Internet Movie Database list of the top 200 movies of all time. Films released or set prior to the HIV era (pre 1983), animated, not about humans or G/PG rated, were excluded. Films were reviewed by one of two teams of two observers using a data extraction sheet tested for inter-rater reliability. Sexual activity, sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, birth control measures, drug use and any consequences discussed or depicted were recorded. There were 53 sex episodes in 28 (32%) of the 87 movies reviewed. There was only one suggestion of condom use, which was the only reference to any form of birth control. There were no depictions of important consequences of unprotected sex such as unwanted pregnancies, HIV or other STDs. Movies with cannabis (8%) and other non-injected illicit drugs (7%) were less common than those with alcohol intoxication (32%) and tobacco use (68%) but tended to portray their use positively and without negative consequences. There were no episodes of injected drug use. Sex depictions in popular movies of the last two decades lacked safe sex messages. Drug use, though infrequent, tended to be depicted positively. The social norm being presented is concerning given the HIV and illicit drug pandemics.

  8. The Savannah River Technology Center environmental monitoring field test platform

    SciTech Connect

    Rossabi, J.

    1993-03-05

    Nearly all industrial facilities have been responsible for introducing synthetic chemicals into the environment. The Savannah River Site is no exception. Several areas at the site have been contaminated by chlorinated volatile organic chemicals. Because of the persistence and refractory nature of these contaminants, a complete clean up of the site will take many years. A major focus of the mission of the Environmental Sciences Section of the Savannah River Technology Center is to develop better, faster, and less expensive methods for characterizing, monitoring, and remediating the subsurface. These new methods can then be applied directly at the Savannah River Site and at other contaminated areas in the United States and throughout the world. The Environmental Sciences Section has hosted field testing of many different monitoring technologies over the past two years primarily as a result of the Integrated Demonstration Program sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development. This paper provides an overview of some of the technologies that have been demonstrated at the site and briefly discusses the applicability of these techniques.

  9. 228. Photocopy of map from City of Savannah, Engineering Dept. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    228. Photocopy of map from City of Savannah, Engineering Dept. John McKinnon, surveyor of Chatham County 1800 CITY OF SAVANNAH AND ENVIRONS - Savannah Victorian Historic District, Bounded by Gwinnett, East Broad, West Broad Street & Anderson Lane, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  10. Influences on Mercury Bioaccumulation Factors for the Savannah River

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.

    2003-05-06

    Mercury TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads) are a regulatory instrument designed to reduce the amount of mercury entering a water body and ultimately to control the bioaccumulation of mercury in fish. TMDLs are based on a BAF (bioaccumulation factor), which is the ratio of methyl mercury in fish to dissolved methyl mercury in water. Analysis of fish tissue and aqueous methyl mercury samples collected at a number of locations and over several seasons in a 118 km reach of the Savannah River demonstrated that species specific BAFs varied by factors of three to eight. Factors contributing to BAF variability were location, habitat and season related differences in fish muscle tissue mercury levels and seasonal differences in dissolved methyl mercury levels. Overall (all locations, habitats, and seasons) average BAFs were 3.7 x 106 for largemouth bass, 1.4 x 106 for sunfishes, and 2.5 x 106 for white catfish. Inaccurate and imprecise BAFs can result in unnecessary economic impact or insufficient protection of human health. Determination of representative and precise BAFs for mercury in fish from large rivers necessitates collecting large and approximately equal numbers of fish and aqueous methyl mercury samples over a seasonal cycle from the entire area and all habitats to be represented by the TMDL.

  11. Influences on mercury bioaccumulation factors for the Savannah River.

    PubMed

    Paller, M H; Bowers, J A; Littrell, J W; Guanlao, A V

    2004-02-01

    Mercury TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads) are a regulatory instrument designed to reduce the amount of mercury entering a water body and ultimately to control the bioaccumulation of mercury in fish. TMDLs are based on a BAF (bioaccumulation factor), which is the ratio of methyl mercury in fish to dissolved methyl mercury in water. Analysis of fish tissue and aqueous methyl mercury samples collected at a number of locations and over several seasons in a 118-km reach of the Savannah River demonstrated that species-specific BAFs varied by factors of three to eight. Factors contributing to BAF variability were location, habitat, and season-related differences in fish muscle tissue mercury levels and seasonal differences in dissolved methyl mercury levels. Overall (all locations, habitats, and seasons) average BAFs were 3.7 x 10(6) for largemouth bass, 1.4 x 10(6) for sunfishes, and 2.5 X 10(6) for white catfish. Determination of representative BAFs for mercury in fish from large rivers necessitates collecting large and approximately equal numbers of fish and aqueous methyl mercury samples over a seasonal cycle from the entire area and all habitats to be represented by the TMDL.

  12. Building America Case Study: Savannah Gardens, Savannah, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    Southface Energy Institute (Southface) partnered with owners and/or builders with various market constraints and ultimate goals for three projects in different climate zones: Savannah, GA (CZ 2), Clemson, SC (CZ 3), and LaFayette, GA (CZ 4). This report documents the design process, computational energy modeling, construction, envelope performance metrics, long-term monitoring results, and successes and failures of the design and execution of these high performance homes. The three bedroom/two bathroom test home in Savannah Gardens on an elevated slab foundation has a semi-conditioned, encapsulated attic. A neighboring home built to EarthCraft specifications was also monitored as a control for exterior foam insulation and a heat pump water heater (HPWH). For the JMC Patrick Square, a single-story project in Clemson, the small-scale production builder wanted to increase their level of energy efficiency beyond their current green building practices, including bringing ducts into conditioned space. Through a combination of upgrade measures the team met this goal and achieved many Zero Energy Ready Home requirements. LaFayette Housing Authority undertook a development of 30 affordable rental housing units in 15 duplexes in LaFayette, GA. Because they would be long-term owners, their priorities were low utility bills for the residents and durable, maintainable buildings. The team employed BEopt to optimize building envelope and systems choices, including 2x6 advanced framed walls, insulated slab, and heat pump water heater in a utility closet which was ducted to/from an encapsulated attic.

  13. A desperate poor country: History and settlement patterning on the Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Savannah River Archaeological Research Papers 2

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, R.D.; Crass, D.C.

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of this monograph is twofold: first, to example historical trends and settlement patterning through time within the boundaries of the present-day Savannah River Site (SRS), and second, to establish a framework for future investigations of historic period occupation in the study area. Settlement patterns are defined as the distribution of archaeological sites across a landscape. Settlement patterning is a response to widely held cultural needs; therefore, it offers a strategic starting point for the functional interpretation of archaeological cultures. The analysis of settlement patterns if useful because it is practical, it shows the spatial dimension of the man-environment interrelationship that is relative to the technological level of the settlement`s inhabitants, and it can yield concrete clues regarding social organization.

  14. Available decontamination and decommissioning capabilities at the Savannah River Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Polizzi, L.M.; Norkus, J.K.; Paik, I.K.; Wooten, L.A.

    1992-08-19

    The Safety Analysis and Engineering Services Group has performed a survey of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) technical capabilities, skills, and experience in Decontamination and Decommissioning (D D) activities. The goal of this survey is to enhance the integration of the SRTC capabilities with the technical needs of the Environmental Restoration Department D D program and the DOE Office of Technology Development through the Integrated Demonstration Program. This survey has identified technical capabilities, skills, and experience in the following D D areas: Characterization, Decontamination, Dismantlement, Material Disposal, Remote Systems, and support on Safety Technology for D D. This review demonstrates the depth and wealth of technical capability resident in the SRTC in relation to these activities, and the unique qualifications of the SRTC to supply technical support in the area of DOE facility D D. Additional details on specific technologies and applications to D D will be made available on request.

  15. Available decontamination and decommissioning capabilities at the Savannah River Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Polizzi, L.M.; Norkus, J.K.; Paik, I.K.; Wooten, L.A.

    1992-08-19

    The Safety Analysis and Engineering Services Group has performed a survey of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) technical capabilities, skills, and experience in Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) activities. The goal of this survey is to enhance the integration of the SRTC capabilities with the technical needs of the Environmental Restoration Department D&D program and the DOE Office of Technology Development through the Integrated Demonstration Program. This survey has identified technical capabilities, skills, and experience in the following D&D areas: Characterization, Decontamination, Dismantlement, Material Disposal, Remote Systems, and support on Safety Technology for D&D. This review demonstrates the depth and wealth of technical capability resident in the SRTC in relation to these activities, and the unique qualifications of the SRTC to supply technical support in the area of DOE facility D&D. Additional details on specific technologies and applications to D&D will be made available on request.

  16. Biological monitoring of Upper Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-10-01

    In anticipation of the fall 1988 start up of effluent discharges into Upper Three Creek by the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC, a two and one half year biological study was initiated in June 1987. Upper Three Runs Creek is an intensively studied fourth order stream known for its high species richness. Designed to assess the potential impact of F H area effluent on the creek, the study includes qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrate stream surveys at five sites, chronic toxicity testing of the effluent, water chemistry and bioaccumulation analysis. This final report presents the results of both pre-operational and post-operational qualitative and quantitative (artificial substrate) macroinvertebrate studies. Six quantitative and three qualitative studies were conducted prior to the initial release of the F/H ETF effluent and five quantitative and two qualitative studies were conducted post-operationally.

  17. Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This report on the BCV OU 2 at the Y-12 Plant, was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. It provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation. It includes information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Field activities included collection of subsurface soil samples, groundwater and surface water samples, and sediments and seep at the Rust Spoil Area (RSA), SY-200 Yard, and SA-1.

  18. Vorticity analysis in the Zagros orogen, Shiraz area, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkarinejad, Khalil; Heibati, Zahra

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative vorticity analyses in orogenic belts are essential for studying the kinematics of deformation and can be performed using a range of methods. The combination of microstructural analysis for vorticity with other methods creates a more rigorous analysis. In order to determine the degree of non-coaxiality and spatial pattern of vorticity during deformation in the Zagros Orogenic Belt, a study area containing the boundary of the Zagros Folded Belt and the Zagros Fold-and-Thrust Belt is selected. The study area is situated in the Shiraz region of E-Zagros in Iran. The kinematic vorticity analysis is carried out using 4 methods based on: (1) the degree of asymmetry of the calcite c-axis fabric, (2) the assumption that the orientation of the long axes of calcite within an oblique stylolite foliation delineates the direction of the instantaneous stretching axis, (3) the assumption that the tension gash tips determine the direction of the instantaneous stretching axis and (4) stylolite teeth determine the direction of the instantaneous stretching axis. C-axis data from calcite give a kinematic vorticity number between 0.68 and 0.83, and the orientation of the long axes of calcite grains yields a range between 0.5 and 0.84. Stylolites provide a kinematic vorticity number between 0.5 and 0.79, and tension gashes provide a kinematic vorticity number between 0.56 and 0.81. This range of vorticity numbers confirms the contributions of both simple (33-59%) and pure shear (41-67%). Twining of calcite also reveals that the last stage of deformation occurred at a temperature of 170-200 °C. Spatial analysis reveals an increase in the simple shear component from the SW of the Zagros Folded Belt to the NE of the Zagros Fold-and-Thrust Belt.

  19. Savannah River Site 1991 Road Erosion Inventory.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Cliff.

    2007-06-22

    Final Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 28 pp. Abstract - This paper explains the rationale and results of a 1991 road erosion inventory conducted by members of the USDA Forest Service – Savannah River (FS-SR) and USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The inventory provided information for the Department of Energy - Savannah River (DOE-SR) to justify the need for developing an erosion and sediment control program with appropriate funding, personnel, and equipment. Federally managed since the early 1950’s, the SRS is located on 198,344 acres (80,301 hectares) in the South Carolina counties of Aiken, Barnwell, and Allendale. Located along the eastern border of the Savannah River, the SRS is located within the Upper and Lower Coastal Plains of South Carolina.

  20. Savannah River Site environmental data for 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Arnett, M.W.

    1995-12-31

    This document presents data from Savannah River Site routine environmental monitoring and surveillance programs. An attempt also has been made to include all available data from environmental research programs.

  1. Advanced separations at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.; McCabe, D.

    1996-10-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has many waste streams that are contaminated with radionuclides and/or hazardous materials that must be treated to remove the radioactivity (cesium, strontium, tritium, actinides) and hazardous components (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), cyanide, metal ions).

  2. Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Arnett, M.W.; Mamatey, A.R.

    1998-08-01

    The mission at the Savannah River Site has changed from the production of nuclear weapons materials for national defense to the management of waste, restoration of the environment, and the development of industry in and around the site.

  3. Socioeconomic deprivation and cancer survival in Germany: an ecological analysis in 200 districts in Germany.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Lina; Eberle, Andrea; Emrich, Katharina; Gondos, Adam; Holleczek, Bernd; Kajüter, Hiltraud; Maier, Werner; Nennecke, Alice; Pritzkuleit, Ron; Brenner, Hermann

    2014-06-15

    Although socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival have been demonstrated both within and between countries, evidence on the variation of the inequalities over time past diagnosis is sparse. Furthermore, no comprehensive analysis of socioeconomic differences in cancer survival in Germany has been conducted. Therefore, we analyzed variations in cancer survival for patients diagnosed with one of the 25 most common cancer sites in 1997-2006 in ten population-based cancer registries in Germany (covering 32 million inhabitants). Patients were assigned a socioeconomic status according to the district of residence at diagnosis. Period analysis was used to derive 3-month, 5-year and conditional 1-year and 5-year age-standardized relative survival for 2002-2006 for each deprivation quintile in Germany. Relative survival of patients living in the most deprived district was compared to survival of patients living in all other districts by model-based period analysis. For 21 of 25 cancer sites, 5-year relative survival was lower in the most deprived districts than in all other districts combined. The median relative excess risk of death over the 25 cancer sites decreased from 1.24 in the first 3 months to 1.16 in the following 9 months to 1.08 in the following 4 years. Inequalities persisted after adjustment for stage. These major regional socioeconomic inequalities indicate a potential for improving cancer care and survival in Germany. Studies on individual-level patient data with access to treatment information should be conducted to examine the reasons for these socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival in more detail.

  4. Experimental investigation and CFD analysis on cross flow in the core of PMR200

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jeong -Hun; Yoon, Su -Jong; Cho, Hyoung -Kyu; Jae, Moosung; Park, Goon -Cherl

    2015-04-16

    The Prismatic Modular Reactor (PMR) is one of the major Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) concepts, which consists of hexagonal prismatic fuel blocks and reflector blocks made of nuclear gradegraphite. However, the shape of the graphite blocks could be easily changed by neutron damage duringthe reactor operation and the shape change can create gaps between the blocks inducing the bypass flow.In the VHTR core, two types of gaps, a vertical gap and a horizontal gap which are called bypass gap and cross gap, respectively, can be formed. The cross gap complicates the flow field in the reactor core by connecting the coolant channel to the bypass gap and it could lead to a loss of effective coolant flow in the fuel blocks. Thus, a cross flow experimental facility was constructed to investigate the cross flow phenomena in the core of the VHTR and a series of experiments were carried out under varying flow rates and gap sizes. The results of the experiments were compared with CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis results in order to verify its prediction capability for the cross flow phenomena. Fairly good agreement was seen between experimental results and CFD predictions and the local characteristics of the cross flow was discussed in detail. Based on the calculation results, pressure loss coefficient across the cross gap was evaluated, which is necessary for the thermo-fluid analysis of the VHTR core using a lumped parameter code.

  5. Experimental investigation and CFD analysis on cross flow in the core of PMR200

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Jeong -Hun; Yoon, Su -Jong; Cho, Hyoung -Kyu; ...

    2015-04-16

    The Prismatic Modular Reactor (PMR) is one of the major Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) concepts, which consists of hexagonal prismatic fuel blocks and reflector blocks made of nuclear gradegraphite. However, the shape of the graphite blocks could be easily changed by neutron damage duringthe reactor operation and the shape change can create gaps between the blocks inducing the bypass flow.In the VHTR core, two types of gaps, a vertical gap and a horizontal gap which are called bypass gap and cross gap, respectively, can be formed. The cross gap complicates the flow field in the reactor core by connectingmore » the coolant channel to the bypass gap and it could lead to a loss of effective coolant flow in the fuel blocks. Thus, a cross flow experimental facility was constructed to investigate the cross flow phenomena in the core of the VHTR and a series of experiments were carried out under varying flow rates and gap sizes. The results of the experiments were compared with CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis results in order to verify its prediction capability for the cross flow phenomena. Fairly good agreement was seen between experimental results and CFD predictions and the local characteristics of the cross flow was discussed in detail. Based on the calculation results, pressure loss coefficient across the cross gap was evaluated, which is necessary for the thermo-fluid analysis of the VHTR core using a lumped parameter code.« less

  6. Intensive archaeological survey of the proposed Savannah River Ecology Laboratory Conference Center and Educational Facility, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, K.; Crass, D.C.; Sassaman, K.E.

    1993-02-01

    Documented in this report are the methods and results of an intensive archaeological survey for the proposed University of Georgia Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) Conference Center and Educational Facility on the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS). Archaeological investigations conducted by the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) on the 70-acre project area and associated rights-of-way consisted of subsurface testing at two previously recorded sites and the discovery of one previously unrecorded site. The results show that 2 sites contain archaeological remains that may yield significant information about human occupations in the Aiken Plateau and are therefore considered eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. Adverse impacts to these sites can be mitigated through avoidance.

  7. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    Efforts in the area of nuclear reactors and scientific computations are reported, including: robotics; reactor irradiation of nonend-bonded target slugs; computer link with Los Alamos National Laboratory; L-reactor thermal mitigation; aging of carbon in SRP reactor airborne activity confinement systems; and reactor risk assessment for earthquakes. Activities in chemical processes and environmental technology are reported, including: solids formation in a plutonium product stream; revised safety analysis reporting for F and H-Canyon operations; organic carbon analysis of DWPF samples; applications of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry; water chemistry analyzer for SRP reactors; and study of a biological community in Par Pond. Defense waste and laboratory operations activities include: Pu-238 waste incinerator startup; experimental canister frit blaster; saltstone disposal area design; powder metallurgy core diameter measurement; and a new maintenance shop facility. Nuclear materials planning encompasses decontamination and decommissioning of SRP facilities and a comprehensive compilation of environmental and nuclear safety issues. (LEW)

  8. The intergalactic magnetic field constrained by Fermi/Large Area Telescope observations of the TeV blazar 1ES0229+200

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavecchio, F.; Ghisellini, G.; Foschini, L.; Bonnoli, G.; Ghirlanda, G.; Coppi, P.

    2010-07-01

    TeV photons from blazars at relatively large distances, interacting with the optical-infrared cosmic background, are efficiently converted into electron-positron pairs. The produced pairs are extremely relativistic (Lorentz factors of the order of 106- 107) and promptly lose their energy through inverse Compton scatterings with the photons of the microwave cosmic background, producing emission in the GeV band. The spectrum and the flux level of this reprocessed emission are critically dependent on the intensity of the intergalactic magnetic field, B, that can deflect the pairs diluting the intrinsic emission over a large solid angle. We derive a simple relation for the reprocessed spectrum expected from a steady source. We apply this treatment to the blazar 1ES0229+200, whose intrinsic, very hard TeV spectrum is expected to be approximately steady. Comparing the predicted reprocessed emission with the upper limits measured by the Fermi/Large Area Telescope, we constrain the value of the intergalactic magnetic field to be larger than B ~= 5 × 10-15 G, depending on the model of extragalactic background light.

  9. Analysis of soil and water at the Four Mile Creek seepline near the F- and H-Areas of SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Haselow, J.S.

    2000-05-24

    Several soil and water samples were collected along the Four Mile Creek (FMC) seepline at the F and H Areas of the Savannah River Site. The samples were analyzed for concentrations of metals, radionuclides, and inorganic constituents. The results of the analyses are summarized for the soil and water samples.

  10. Analysis of soil and water at the Four Mile Creek seepline near the F H areas of SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Haselow, J.S.; Harris, M.; Looney, B.B.; Halverson, N.V.; Gladden, J.B.

    1990-06-20

    Several soil and water samples were collected along the Four Mile Creek (FMC) seepline at the F H Areas of the Savannah River Site. The samples were analyzed for concentrations of metals, radionuclides, and inorganic constituents. The results of the analyses are summarized below for the soil and water samples.

  11. Analysis of soil and water at the Four Mile Creek seepline near the F&H areas of SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Haselow, J.S.; Harris, M.; Looney, B.B.; Halverson, N.V.; Gladden, J.B.

    1990-06-20

    Several soil and water samples were collected along the Four Mile Creek (FMC) seepline at the F & H Areas of the Savannah River Site. The samples were analyzed for concentrations of metals, radionuclides, and inorganic constituents. The results of the analyses are summarized below for the soil and water samples.

  12. Ethnic differences in risk from mercury among Savannah River fishermen.

    PubMed

    Burger, J; Gaines, K F; Gochfeld, M

    2001-06-01

    Fishing plays an important role in people's lives and contaminant levels in fish are a public health concern. Many states have issued consumption advisories; South Carolina and Georgia have issued them for the Savannah River based on mercury and radionuclide levels. This study examined ethnic differences in risk from mercury exposure among people consuming fish from the Savannah River, based on site-specific consumption patterns and analysis of mercury in fish. Among fish, there were significant interspecies differences in mercury levels, and there were ethnic differences in consumption patterns. Two methods of examining risk are presented: (1) Hazard Index (HI), and (2) estimates of how much and how often people of different body mass can consume different species of fish. Blacks consumed more fish and had higher HIs than Whites. Even at the median consumption, the HI for Blacks exceeded 1.0 for bass and bowfin, and, at the 75th percentile of consumption, the HI exceeded 1.0 for almost all species. At the White male median consumption, noHI exceeded 1, but for the 95th percentile consumer, the HI exceeded 1.0 almost regardless of which species were eaten. Although females consumed about two thirds the quantity of males, HIs exceeded 1 for most Black females and for White females at or above the 75th percentile of consumption. Thus, close to half of the Black fishermen were eating enough Savannah River fish to exceed HI = 1. Caution must be used in evaluating an HI because the RfDs were developed to protect the most vulnerable individuals. The percentage of each fish species tested that exceeded the maximum permitted limits of mercury in fish was also examined. Over 80% of bowfin, 38% of bass, and 21% of pickerel sampled exceeded 0.5 ppm. The risk methodology is applicable anywhere that comparable data can be obtained. The risk estimates are representative for fishermen along the Savannah River, and are not necessarily for the general populations.

  13. Simulation and particle-tracking analysis of ground-water flow near the Savannah River site, Georgia and South Carolina, 2002, and for selected ground-water management scenarios, 2002 and 2020

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cherry, Gregory S.

    2006-01-01

    Ground-water flow under 2002 hydrologic conditions was evaluated in an eight-county area in Georgia and South Carolina near the Savannah River Site (SRS), by updating boundary conditions and pumping rates in an existing U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) ground-water model. The original ground-water model, developed to simulate hydrologic conditions during 1987-92, used the quasi-three-dimensional approach by dividing the Floridan, Dublin, and Midville aquifer systems into seven aquifers. The hydrogeologic system was modeled using six active layers (A2-A7) that were separated by confining units with an overlying source-sink layer to simulate the unconfined Upper Three Runs aquifer (layer A1). Potentiometric- surface maps depicting September 2002 for major aquifers were used to update, evaluate, and modify boundary conditions used by the earlier ground-water flow model. The model was updated using the USGS finite-difference code MODFLOW-2000 for mean-annual conditions during 1987-92 and 2002. The specified heads in the source-sink layer A1 were lowered to reflect observed water-level declines during the 1998-2002 drought. These declines resulted in a decrease of 12.1 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) in simulated recharge or vertical inflow to the uppermost confined aquifer (Gordon, layer A2). Although ground-water pumpage in the study area has increased by 32 Mgal/d since 1995, most of this increase (17.5 Mgal/d) was from the unconfined Upper Three Runs aquifer (source-sink layer A1) with the remaining 14.5 Mgal/d assigned to the active layers within the model (A2-A7). The simulated water budget for 2002 shows a decrease from the 1987-92 model from 1,040 Mgal/d to 1,035 Mgal/d. The decreased ground-water inflows and increased ground-water withdrawal rates reduced the simulated ground-water outflow to river cells in the active layers of the model by 43 Mgal/d. The calibration statistics for all layers of the 2002 simulation resulted in a decrease in the root mean square

  14. Final Review of Safety Assessment Issues at Savannah River Site, August 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Bixler, Nathan E.

    2011-12-15

    At the request of Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS) management, a review team composed of experts in atmospheric transport modeling for environmental radiation dose assessment convened at the Savannah River Site (SRS) on August 29-30, 2011. Though the meeting was prompted initially by suspected issues related to the treatment of surface roughness inherent in the SRS meteorological dataset and its treatment in the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System Version 2 (MACCS2), various topical areas were discussed that are relevant to performing safety assessments at SRS; this final report addresses these topical areas.

  15. Preliminary site selection report for the new sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has proposed a new sanitary landfill (NSL) for solid waste. A site selection team, comprised of representatives from Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) evaluated potential landfill sites. The site selection team conducted an initial screening of SRS to eliminate unsuitable areas. The screening was based on criteria that were principally environmental factors; however, the criteria also included avoiding areas with unacceptable features for construction or operation of the facility. This initial screening identified seven candidate sites for further evaluation.

  16. Analysis of Radionuclide Migration Through a 200-m Vadose Zone Following a 16-Year Infiltration Event

    SciTech Connect

    Tompson, A F B; Smith, D K; Hudson, G B

    2002-01-31

    transit to the water table. Overall, the long term nature of the experiment, the variety of chemical measurements and isotopic interpretations, and their incorporation into a unified modeling analysis, have contributed to a unique perspective for interpreting radionuclide migration in the unsaturated zone.

  17. Analysis of Radionuclide Migration through a 200-m Vadose Zone Following a 16-year Infiltration Event

    SciTech Connect

    Tompson, A B; Hudson, G B; Smith, D K; Hunt, J R

    2004-09-21

    the experiment, the variety of chemical measurements and isotopic interpretations, and their incorporation into a unified modeling analysis, have contributed to a unique perspective for interpreting radionuclide migration in a deep unsaturated system.

  18. Savannah River Site Annual Meteorology Report 2003

    SciTech Connect

    HUNTER, CHARLESH.

    2004-04-30

    Summaries of meteorological observations collected at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 2003 reveal a year that was unusually cool and wet. The annual rainfall of 61.2 inches was the third highest of all the years in a period of record that began in 1952. Higher amounts were recorded only in 1964 (73.5 in) and 1971 (68.2 in). Rainfall of 0.01 inch or more occurred on 119 days during the year. Furthermore, the annual average temperature of 62.2 degrees Fahrenheit was the coldest of any year in an available record that dates to 1964. Cool and wet conditions were most pronounced in the spring and summer months. Unusually cold weather also occurred in January and December. The coldest temperature for the year was 12.5 degrees Fahrenheit (Jan 24) and the warmest temperature was 92.4 degrees Fahrenheit (Aug 27). There were no significant occurrences of severe weather (ice/snow, tornado, sustained high wind) during the year. The heavy rain that occurred on April 7 (3.5 inches) was due to an active stationary front over the area and strong southwesterly wind aloft. The remnants of Tropical Storm Bill produced 2.36 inches of rain on July 1. Hurricane Isabelle, which struck the North Carolina coast mid September, did not have a significant affect on the SRS. A thunderstorm on May 3 produced a surface (4-meter) wind gust of 41.7 miles per hour.

  19. 33 CFR 165.751 - Security Zone: LNG mooring slip, Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone: LNG mooring slip... § 165.751 Security Zone: LNG mooring slip, Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia. (a) Security zone. The... security zone; or (4) Actively engaged in escort, maneuvering, or support duties for an LNG tankship....

  20. Savannah River Site computing architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-29

    A computing architecture is a framework for making decisions about the implementation of computer technology and the supporting infrastructure. Because of the size, diversity, and amount of resources dedicated to computing at the Savannah River Site (SRS), there must be an overall strategic plan that can be followed by the thousands of site personnel who make decisions daily that directly affect the SRS computing environment and impact the site's production and business systems. This plan must address the following requirements: There must be SRS-wide standards for procurement or development of computing systems (hardware and software). The site computing organizations must develop systems that end users find easy to use. Systems must be put in place to support the primary function of site information workers. The developers of computer systems must be given tools that automate and speed up the development of information systems and applications based on computer technology. This document describes a proposal for a site-wide computing architecture that addresses the above requirements. In summary, this architecture is standards-based data-driven, and workstation-oriented with larger systems being utilized for the delivery of needed information to users in a client-server relationship.

  1. Savannah River Site computing architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-29

    A computing architecture is a framework for making decisions about the implementation of computer technology and the supporting infrastructure. Because of the size, diversity, and amount of resources dedicated to computing at the Savannah River Site (SRS), there must be an overall strategic plan that can be followed by the thousands of site personnel who make decisions daily that directly affect the SRS computing environment and impact the site`s production and business systems. This plan must address the following requirements: There must be SRS-wide standards for procurement or development of computing systems (hardware and software). The site computing organizations must develop systems that end users find easy to use. Systems must be put in place to support the primary function of site information workers. The developers of computer systems must be given tools that automate and speed up the development of information systems and applications based on computer technology. This document describes a proposal for a site-wide computing architecture that addresses the above requirements. In summary, this architecture is standards-based data-driven, and workstation-oriented with larger systems being utilized for the delivery of needed information to users in a client-server relationship.

  2. Stabilization of Savannah River National Laboartory (SRNL) Aqueous Waste by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C

    2004-11-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a multidisciplinary laboratory operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) in Aiken, South Carolina. Research and development programs have been conducted at SRNL for {approx}50 years generating non-radioactive (hazardous and non-hazardous) and radioactive aqueous wastes. Typically the aqueous effluents from the R&D activities are disposed of from each laboratory module via the High Activity Drains (HAD) or the Low Activity Drains (LAD) depending on whether they are radioactive or not. The aqueous effluents are collected in holding tanks, analyzed and shipped to either H-Area (HAD waste) or the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) (LAD waste) for volume reduction. Because collection, analysis, and transport of LAD and HAD waste is cumbersome and since future treatment of this waste may be curtailed as the F/H-Area evaporators and waste tanks are decommissioned, SRNL laboratory operations requested several proof of principle demonstrations of alternate technologies that would define an alternative disposal path for the aqueous wastes. Proof of principle for the disposal of SRNL HAD waste using a technology known as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is the focus of the current study. The FBSR technology can be performed either as a batch process, e.g. in each laboratory module in small furnaces with an 8'' by 8'' footprint, or in a semi-continuous Bench Scale Reformer (BSR). The proof of principle experiments described in this study cover the use of the FBSR technology at any scale (pilot or full scale). The proof of principle experiments described in this study used a non-radioactive HAD simulant.

  3. Results of 1999 Spectral Gamma-Ray and Neutron Moisture Monitoring of Boreholes at Specific Retention Facilities in the 200 East Area, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    DG Horton; RR Randall

    2000-01-18

    Twenty-eight wells and boreholes in the 200 East Are% Hanford Site, Washington were monitored in 1999. The monitored facilities were past-practice liquid waste disposal facilities and consisted of six cribs and nineteen ''specific retention'' cribs and trenches. Monitoring consisted of spectral gamma-ray and neutron moisture logging. All data are included in Appendix B. The isotopes {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 154}Eu were identified on spectral gamma logs from boreholes monitoring the PUREX specific retention facilities; the isotopes {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 125}Sb, and {sup 154}Eu were identified on the logs from boreholes at the BC Controlled Area cribs and trenches; and {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 125}Sb were, identified on the logs from boreholes at the BX specific retention trenches. Three boreholes in the BC Controlled Area and one at the BX trenches had previous spectral gamma logs available for comparison with 1999 logs. Two of those logs showed that changes in the subsurface distribution of {sup 137}CS and/or {sup 60}Co had occurred since 1992. Although the changes are not great, they do point to continued movement of contaminants in the vadose zone. The logs obtained in 1999 create a larger baseline for comparison with future logs. Numerous historical gross gamma logs exist from most of the boreholes logged. Qualitative comparison of those logs with the 1999 logs show many substantial changes, most of which reflect the decay of deeper short-lived isotopes, such as {sup 106}Ru and {sup 125}Sb, and the much slower decay of shallower and longer-lived isotopes such as {sup 137}Cs. The radionuclides {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co have moved in two boreholes since 1992. Given the amount of movement and the half-lives of the isotopes, it is expected that they will decay to insignificant amounts before reaching groundwater. However, gamma ray logging cannot detect many of the contaminants of interest such as {sup 99}Tc, NO

  4. Savannah River Technology Center. Monthly report, May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report covers the progress and accomplishments made at the Savannah River Technology Center for the month of May 1993. Progress is reported for projects in the following areas: reactors, tritium, separations, environmental, waste management, and general. General projects are: an eight week tutorial of the Los Alamos National Laboratory developed Monte Carlo Neutron Photon (MCNP) code; development of materials and fabrication technologies for the spallation and tritium targets for the accelerator production of tritium; and a program to develop welding methods to repair stainless steel containing helium.

  5. Airborne lidar experiments at the Savannah River Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, William B.; Swift, Robert N.

    1985-01-01

    The results of remote sensing experiments at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Nuclear Facility utilizing the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) are presented. The flights were conducted in support of the numerous environmental monitoring requirements associated with the operation of the facility and for the purpose of furthering research and development of airborne lidar technology. Areas of application include airborne laser topographic mapping, hydrologic studies using fluorescent tracer dye, timber volume estimation, baseline characterization of wetlands, and aquatic chlorophyll and photopigment measurements. Conclusions relative to the usability of airborne lidar technology for the DOE for each of these remote sensing applications are discussed.

  6. SAVANNAH RIVER TECHNOLOGY CENTER MONTHLY REPORT AUGUST 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, J.M.

    1999-06-21

    'This monthly report summarizes Programs and Accomplishments of the Savannah River Technology Center in support of activities at the Savannah River Site. The following categories are addressed: Reactor, Tritium, Separations, Environmental, Waste Management, General, and Items of Interest.'

  7. Evaluation of the Naturally Acquired Antibody Immune Response to the Pv200L N-terminal Fragment of Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein-1 in Four Areas of the Amazon Region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Storti-Melo, Luciane M.; Souza-Neiras, Wanessa C.; Cassiano, Gustavo C.; Taveira, Leonardo C.; Cordeiro, Antônio J.; Couto, Vanja S. C. A.; Póvoa, Marinete M.; Cunha, Maristela G.; Echeverry, Diana M.; Rossit, Andréa R. B.; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates; Machado, Ricardo L. D.

    2011-01-01

    Frequency and levels of IgG antibodies to an N-terminal fragment of the Plasmodium vivax MSP-1 (Pv200L) protein, in individuals naturally exposed to malaria in four endemic areas of Brazil, were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma samples of 261 P. vivax-infected individuals from communities of Macapá, Novo Repartimento, Porto Velho, and Plácido de Castro in the Amazonian region with different malaria transmission intensities. A high mean number of studied individuals (89.3%) presented with antibodies to the Pv200L that correlated with the number of previous malaria infections; there were significant differences in the frequency of the responders (71.9–98.7) and in the antibody levels (1:200–1:51,200) among the four study areas. Results of this study provide evidence that Pv200L is a naturally immunogenic fragment of the PvMSP-1 and is associated with the degree of exposure to parasites. The fine specificity of antibodies to Pv200L is currently being assessed. PMID:21292879

  8. Pollution history of the Savannah Estuary. National status and trends program for marine environmental quality

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.; Ertel, J.; Lee, R.; Loganathan, B.; Martin, J.

    1997-09-01

    Dated cores collected from different sites in the Savannah Estuary were analyzed for 16 metals, 22 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners, 16 pesticides and 3 butylins. Time stratigraphy of the cores were determined by measurements of Pb-210 and Cs-137 activities down the cores. Those chemicals which showed significant temporal changes down dated cores in the Savannah Estuary included mercury, lead, chromium, PAHs, DDT isomers and metabolites, PCBs and dieldrin. The present study used cores from the Savannah Estuary, where the population is relatively low (approximately 150,000) and industrial growth has occurred over the past 30 years. Thus, the concentrations of most anthropogenic chemical found in the cores of the Savannah Estuary were comparatively low. An interesting aspect of the study, which has been noted by many pollution history studies, was the decrease in the concentration of anthropogenic chemicals during the past two decades suggesting that many pollution control laws have been effective, even while industrial and population growth continues in an area. In summation, the authors` studies present evidence of relatively large inputs of anthropogenic chemicals, including mercury, chromium, lead, polycycloic aromatic hydrocarbons, dieldrin, DDT isomers, and polychlorinated biphenyls, during the 1950s and 1960 into the Savannah Estuary followed by a gradual decrease of these chemicals during the past 20 to 30 years.

  9. Limited field investigation for the 200-UP-1 operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit is located in the southern portion of the 200 West Area on the Hanford Site in Washington State. The operable unit is located adjacent to the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit and underlies a significant part of seven source operable units: 200-RO-1, 200-RO-2, 200-RO-3, 200-RO-4, 200-SS-2, 200-UP-2, and 200-UP-3. Remedial efforts in the 100-ZP-1 Operable Unit focus on addressing volatile organic contamination in the aquifer. The focus of the 200-UP-1 limited field investigation (LFI) is on contaminated aquifer soils and groundwater within its boundary, with the exception of uranium and technetium-99 plumes, which are addressed by an existing 200-UP-1 interim remedial measure (IRM). The LFI approach is driven by general and specific data needs required to refine the site conceptual model and conduct a risk assessment. Activities supporting the LFI include drilling, well construction, sampling and analysis, data validation, geologic and geophysical logging, aquifer testing, measuring depth to water, and evaluating geodetic survey and existing analytical data.

  10. Distinct roles of autophagy-dependent and -independent functions of FIP200 revealed by generation and analysis of a mutant knock-in mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Song; Wang, Chenran; Yeo, Syn; Liang, Chun-Chi; Okamoto, Takako; Sun, Shaogang; Wen, Jian; Guan, Jun-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular process controlled through a set of essential autophagy genes (Atgs). However, there is increasing evidence that most, if not all, Atgs also possess functions independent of their requirement in canonical autophagy, making it difficult to distinguish the contributions of autophagy-dependent or -independent functions of a particular Atg to various biological processes. To distinguish these functions for FIP200 (FAK family-interacting protein of 200 kDa), an Atg in autophagy induction, we examined FIP200 interaction with its autophagy partner, Atg13. We found that residues 582–585 (LQFL) in FIP200 are required for interaction with Atg13, and mutation of these residues to AAAA (designated the FIP200-4A mutant) abolished its canonical autophagy function in vitro. Furthermore, we created a FIP200-4A mutant knock-in mouse model and found that specifically blocking FIP200 interaction with Atg13 abolishes autophagy in vivo, providing direct support for the essential role of the ULK1/Atg13/FIP200/Atg101 complex in the process beyond previous studies relying on the complete knockout of individual components. Analysis of the new mouse model showed that nonautophagic functions of FIP200 are sufficient to fully support embryogenesis by maintaining a protective role in TNFα-induced apoptosis. However, FIP200-mediated canonical autophagy is required to support neonatal survival and tumor cell growth. These studies provide the first genetic evidence linking an Atg's autophagy and nonautophagic functions to different biological processes in vivo. PMID:27013233

  11. INSTALLATION OF BUBBLERS IN THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITED DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Iverson, D.

    2010-12-08

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC assumed the liquid waste contract at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the summer of 2009. The main contractual agreement was to close 22 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks in eight years. To achieve this aggressive commitment, faster waste processing throughout the SRS liquid waste facilities will be required. Part of the approach to achieve faster waste processing is to increase the canister production rate of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) from approximately 200 canisters filled with radioactive waste glass per year to 400 canisters per year. To reach this rate for melter throughput, four bubblers were installed in the DWPF Melter in the late summer of 2010. This effort required collaboration between SRR, SRR critical subcontractor EnergySolutions, and Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, including the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The tasks included design and fabrication of the bubblers and related equipment, testing of the bubblers for various technical issues, the actual installation of the bubblers and related equipment, and the initial successful operation of the bubblers in the DWPF Melter.

  12. 231. Photocopy of Photograph from Artwork of Savannah and August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    231. Photocopy of Photograph from Artwork of Savannah and August Georgia (Chicago: Gravure Illustration Co., 1902) Photographer unknown 1902 'SCENE ON BOLTON STREET, E.' - Savannah Victorian Historic District, Bounded by Gwinnett, East Broad, West Broad Street & Anderson Lane, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  13. 243. Photocopy of photograph from Artwork of Savannah, Ga. (Chicago: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    243. Photocopy of photograph from Artwork of Savannah, Ga. (Chicago: W.H. Parish Publishing Co., 1893) Photographer unknown, 1893 'RESIDENCE OF J.A.G. CARSON' - Savannah Victorian Historic District, Bounded by Gwinnett, East Broad, West Broad Street & Anderson Lane, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  14. Radioiodine in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kantelo, M.V.; Bauer, L.R.; Marter, W.L.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Zeigler, C.C.

    1993-01-15

    Radioiodine, which is the collective term for all radioactive isotopes of the element iodine, is formed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) principally as a by-product of nuclear reactor operations. Part of the radioiodine is released to the environment during reactor and reprocessing operations at the site. The purpose of this report is to provide an introduction to radioiodine production and disposition, its status in the environment, and the radiation dose and health risks as a consequence of its release to the environment around the Savannah River Plant. A rigorous dose reconstruction study is to be completed by thee Center for Disease Control during the 1990s.

  15. Initial historic overview of the Savannah River Plant, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    This historic overview begins with the initial European contacts in the southeastern United States. Specific information about the Savannah River Plant site is not available until circa 1750 when the first settlement of the area began. The overview becomes more specific as it advances chronologically toward the present. (ACR)

  16. Natural Remediation at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C. M.; Van Pelt, R.

    2002-02-25

    Natural remediation is a general term that includes any technology or strategy that takes advantage of natural processes to remediate a contaminated media to a condition that is protective of human health and the environment. Natural remediation techniques are often passive and minimally disruptive to the environment. They are generally implemented in conjunction with traditional remedial solutions for source control (i.e., capping, stabilization, removal, soil vapor extraction, etc.). Natural remediation techniques being employed at Savannah River Site (SRS) include enhanced bio-remediation, monitored natural attenuation, and phytoremediation. Enhanced bio-remediation involves making nutrients available and conditions favorable for microbial growth. With proper precautions and feeding, the naturally existing microbes flourish and consume the contaminants. Case studies of enhanced bio-remediation include surface soils contaminated with PCBs and pesticides, and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) contamination in both the vadose zone and groundwater. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) has been selected as the preferred alternative for groundwater clean up at several SRS waste units. Successful implementation of MNA has been based on demonstration that sources have been controlled, groundwater modeling that indicates that plumes will not expand or reach surface water discharge points at levels that exceed regulatory limits, and continued monitoring. Phytoremediation is being successfully utilized at several SRS waste units. Phytoremediation involves using plants and vegetation to uptake, break down, or manage contaminants in groundwater or soils. Case studies at SRS include managing groundwater plumes of tritium and VOCs with pine trees that are native to the area. Significant decreases in tritium discharge to a site stream have been realized in one phytoremediation project. Studies of other vegetation types, methods of application, and other target contaminants are

  17. Status of EXO-200

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, Nicole; /SLAC

    2011-12-06

    EXO-200 is the first phase of the Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) experiment, which searches for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 136}Xe to measure the mass and probe the Majorana nature of the neutrino. EXO-200 consists of 200 kg of liquid Xe enriched to 80% in {sup 136}Xe in an ultra-low background TPC. Energy resolution is enhanced through the simultaneous collection of scintillation light using Large Area Avalanche Photodiodes (LAAPD's) and ionization charge. It is being installed at the WIPP site in New Mexico, which provides a 2000 meter water-equivalent overburden. EXO-200 will begin taking data in 2009, with the expected two-year sensitivity to the half-life for neutrinoless double beta decay of 6.4 x 10{sup 25} years. According to the most recent nuclear matrix element calculations, this corresponds to an effective Majorana neutrino mass of 0.13 to 0.19 eV. It will also measure the two neutrino mode for the first time in {sup 136}Xe.

  18. Mechanical Design and Analysis of a 200 MHz, Bolt-together RFQ forthe Accelerator Driven Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Virostek, Steve; Hoff, Matt; Li, Derun; Staples, John; Wells,Russell

    2007-06-20

    A high-yield neutron source to screen sea-land cargocontainers for shielded Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) has been designedat LBNL [1,2]. The Accelerator-Driven Neutron Source (ADNS) uses theD(d,n)3He reaction to create a forward directed neutron beam. Keycomponents are a high-current radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ)accelerator and a high-power target capable of producing a neutron fluxof>107 n/(cm2 cdot s) at a distance of 2.5 m. The mechanical designand analysis of the four-module, bolt-together RFQ will be presentedhere. Operating at 200 MHz, the 5.1 m long RFQ will accelerate a 40 mAdeuteron beam to 6 MeV. At a 5 percent duty factor, the time-average d+beam current on target is 1.5 mA. Each of the 1.27 m long RFQ moduleswill consist of four solid OFHC copper vanes. A specially designed 3-DO-ring will provide vacuum sealing between both the vanes and themodules. RF connections are made with canted coil spring contacts. Aseries of 60 water-cooled pi-mode rods provides quadrupole modestabilization. A set of 80 evenly spaced fixed slug tuners is used forfinal frequency adjustment and local field perturbationcorrection.

  19. A Bernsteinian Analysis of Content Area Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin, Ross

    2014-01-01

    This article examines two approaches to teaching content area literacy: a strategies approach focused on general practices of reading and writing and a disciplinary approach attuned to the particular discourses of particular domains. Basil Bernstein's theory of the pedagogic device is used to critique both approaches' assumptions about…

  20. Savannah River Region: Transition between the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Zullo, V.A.; Harris, W.B.; Price, V.

    1990-12-31

    The focus of the this conference of Coastal Plains geologists was on the Savannah River region of Georgia and South Carolina, and particularly on the geology of the US Department of Energy`s 300 square mile Savannah River Site (SRS) in western South Carolina. Current geological studies indicate that the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section in the Savannah River region is transitional between that of the Gulf Coastal Plain to the southwest and that of the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the northeast. With the transitional aspect of the region as its theme, the first session was devoted to overviews of Cretaceous and Paleogene geology in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Succeeding presentations and resulting discussions dealt with more specific problems in structural, lithostratigraphic, hydrological, biostratigraphic, and cyclostratigraphic analysis, and of correlation to standard stratigraphic frameworks. For these conference proceedings, individual papers have been processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  1. Breeding Season Demography and Movements of Eastern Towhees at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Krementz, D.G.; Powell, L.A.

    1999-09-22

    We studied eastern towhees at the Savannah River Site, a species of concern and in decline. Breeding season survival rates, nest success rates, breeding densities and daily movements were compared between mature longleaf savanna areas and recently harvested and regenerated areas. Survival rates did not vary by sex or stand type. Predation levels were very high. Abundances were lower in mature longleaf than recently regenerated areas.

  2. Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Schalles, J.F. ); Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W.; Leversee, G.J.; Knox, J.N. )

    1989-01-01

    Much of the research to date on the Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant and elsewhere has focused on certain species or on environmental features. Different levels of detail exist for different groups of organisms and reflect the diverse interests of previous investigators. This report summarizes aspects of research to date and presents data from numerous studies. 70 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Phacoemulsification in an adult Savannah monitor lizard.

    PubMed

    Colitz, Carmen M H; Lewbart, Greg; Davidson, Michael G

    2002-09-01

    An adult male Savannah monitor lizard (Varanus exanthematicus) was presented for bilateral lens opacities that had progressed rapidly over the previous 2 months. A diagnosis of bilateral mature cataracts was made and phacoemulsification cataract extraction was performed. Surgery restored vision and normal activity to the patient.

  4. Savannah River Technology Center monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This document contains information about the research programs being conducted at the Savannah River Plant. Topics of discussion include: Acorn Cleaning Study, tritium, separation processes, bioremediation programs, environmental remediation, environmental sampling, waste management, statistical design, phase I array experiments, and, Monte Carlo Neutron Photon input files.

  5. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, February 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, J.M.; Ice, L.W.

    1992-02-01

    This report is a progress report for the Savannah River Laboratory for the month of February 1992. The progress and activities in six categories were described in the report. The categories are reactor, tritium, separations, environmental, waste management, and general. Each category described numerous and varied activities. Some examples of these activities described are such things as radiation monitoring, maintenance, modifications, and remedial action.

  6. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-03

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted during the first quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  7. The Savannah River Site's groundwater monitoring program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by EPD/EMS in the first quarter of 1991. In includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  8. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    Brief summaries are given in the areas of defense waste and laboratory operations, nuclear reactors and scientific computation, and chemical processes and environmental technology. The performance of waste glass samples has been tested. A prototype Pu-238 waste incinerator is being tested. A monitor system is being developed to allow unattended computer system operation. A program to review and update the Reactor Technical Standards and Specifications is in progress. Analysis of a medium LOCA in a reactor D/sub 2/O coolant system is reported. Preliminary results are given for alternative degreasers. Modernization of a JOSHUA computer system is reported. The safety of a fuel tube fabrication building is discussed. The program to evaluate reactor materials is summarized. A design has been developed for a silver-mordenite packed bed reactor to remove radioactive iodine from uranium fuel dissolver off-gas. Automated online analyzers were developed. Ground-penetrating radar has been evaluated. The safety of two space probes powered by plutonium dioxide thermal generators was evaluated. (LEW)

  9. 300 Area process trench sediment analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, M.G.; Kossik, C.D.

    1987-12-01

    This report describes the results of a sampling program for the sediments underlying the Process Trenches serving the 300 Area on the Hanford reservation. These Process Trenches were the subject of a Closure Plan submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology and to the US Environmental Protection Agency in lieu of a Part B permit application on November 8, 1985. The closure plan described a proposed sampling plan for the underlying sediments and potential remedial actions to be determined by the sample analyses results. The results and proposed remedial action plan are presented and discussed in this report. 50 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. REMOTE AREA RADIATION MONITORING (RARM) ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON RL

    2008-07-18

    The Remote Area Radiation Monitoring (RARM) system will be used to provide real-time radiation monitoring information to the operations personnel during tank retrieval and transfer operations. The primary focus of the system is to detect potential anomalous (waste leaks) or transient radiological conditions. This system will provide mobile, real-time radiological monitoring, data logging, and status at pre-selected strategic points along the waste transfer route during tank retrieval operations. The system will provide early detection and response capabilities for the Retrieval and Closure Operations organization and Radiological Control personnel.

  11. RADBALL TECHNOLOGY TESTING IN THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HEALTH PHYSICS INSTRUMENT CALIBRATION LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.

    2010-07-08

    The United Kingdom's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) has developed a radiation-mapping device that can locate and quantify radioactive hazards within contaminated areas of the nuclear industry. The device, known as RadBall{trademark}, consists of a colander-like outer collimator that houses a radiation-sensitive polymer sphere. The collimator has over two hundred small holes; thus, specific areas of the polymer sphere are exposed to radiation becoming increasingly more opaque in proportion to the absorbed dose. The polymer sphere is imaged in an optical-CT scanner that produces a high resolution 3D map of optical attenuation coefficients. Subsequent analysis of the optical attenuation data provides information on the spatial distribution of sources in a given area forming a 3D characterization of the area of interest. The RadBallTM technology has been deployed in a number of technology trials in nuclear waste reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the United Kingdom and facilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This paper summarizes the tests completed at SRNL Health Physics Instrument Calibration Laboratory (HPICL).

  12. Reconciling agriculture, carbon and biodiversity in a savannah transformation frontier.

    PubMed

    Estes, L D; Searchinger, T; Spiegel, M; Tian, D; Sichinga, S; Mwale, M; Kehoe, L; Kuemmerle, T; Berven, A; Chaney, N; Sheffield, J; Wood, E F; Caylor, K K

    2016-09-19

    Rapidly rising populations and likely increases in incomes in sub-Saharan Africa make tens of millions of hectares of cropland expansion nearly inevitable, even with large increases in crop yields. Much of that expansion is likely to occur in higher rainfall savannas, with substantial costs to biodiversity and carbon storage. Zambia presents an acute example of this challenge, with an expected tripling of population by 2050, good potential to expand maize and soya bean production, and large areas of relatively undisturbed miombo woodland and associated habitat types of high biodiversity value. Here, we present a new model designed to explore the potential for targeting agricultural expansion in ways that achieve quantitatively optimal trade-offs between competing economic and environmental objectives: total converted land area (the reciprocal of potential yield); carbon loss, biodiversity loss and transportation costs. To allow different interests to find potential compromises, users can apply varying weights to examine the effects of their subjective preferences on the spatial allocation of new cropland and its costs. We find that small compromises from the objective to convert the highest yielding areas permit large savings in transportation costs, and the carbon and biodiversity impacts resulting from savannah conversion. For example, transferring just 30% of weight from a yield-maximizing objective equally between carbon and biodiversity protection objectives would increase total cropland area by just 2.7%, but result in avoided costs of 27-47% for carbon, biodiversity and transportation. Compromise solutions tend to focus agricultural expansion along existing transportation corridors and in already disturbed areas. Used appropriately, this type of model could help countries find agricultural expansion alternatives and related infrastructure and land use policies that help achieve production targets while helping to conserve Africa's rapidly transforming

  13. CONTROL TESTING OF THE UK NATIONAL NUCLEAR LABORATORY'S RADBALL TECHNOLOGY AT SAVANNAH RIVER NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.

    2009-11-23

    The UK National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) has developed a remote, non-electrical, radiation-mapping device known as RadBall (patent pending), which offers a means to locate and quantify radiation hazards and sources within contaminated areas of the nuclear industry. To date, the RadBall has been deployed in a number of technology trials in nuclear waste reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the UK. The trials have demonstrated the successful ability of the RadBall technology to be deployed and retrieved from active areas. The positive results from these initial deployment trials and the anticipated future potential of RadBall have led to the NNL partnering with the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to further underpin and strengthen the technical performance of the technology. RadBall consists of a colander-like outer shell that houses a radiation-sensitive polymer sphere. It has no power requirements and can be positioned in tight or hard-to reach places. The outer shell works to collimate radiation sources and those areas of the polymer sphere that are exposed react, becoming increasingly less transparent, in proportion to the absorbed dose. The polymer sphere is imaged in an optical-CT scanner which produces a high resolution 3D map of optical attenuation coefficients. Subsequent analysis of the optical attenuation maps provides information on the spatial distribution and strength of the sources in a given area forming a 3D characterization of the area of interest. This study completed at SRNL addresses key aspects of the testing of the RadBall technology. The first set of tests was performed at Savannah River Nuclear Solutions Health Physics Instrument Calibration Laboratory (HPICL) using various gamma-ray sources and an x-ray machine with known radiological characteristics. The objective of these preliminary tests was to identify the optimal dose and collimator thickness. The second set of tests involved a highly contaminated hot cell. The objective of

  14. Commercial integration and partnering at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, J.R.; Babione, R.A.; Shikashio, L.A.; Wacaster, A.J.; Paterson, A.D.

    1994-06-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS), particularly the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) with the experience from the first successful Integrated Technology Demonstration, can provide an excellent foundation for meeting DOE-EM`s objectives with the new DOE-EM five focus area approach. With this in mind, SRTC established an activity to pursue full commercialization of environmental technologies. This report is an assessment of the status of commercialization at SRS and provides recommendations for enhancement as well as some tools critical to implementation. A review was made of the current situation at SRS with regards to taking technology development to commercial fruition. This was done from the perspective of comparing it to known commercialization models and processes. It was found that SRTC already works through many of the steps in these processes. With integration and action-oriented efforts of the inclusion of business and market factors, SRTC could become an aggressive, successful developer of commercialized technologies. Commercial success criteria tools were developed with regards to integrating them with SRTC selection criteria to ensure that all critical factors are covered in technology commercialization project evaluations. Private investors are very clear that their interest lies in funding commercial enterprises, not merely technologies. Mobilizing private capital is critical to real job growth and long-term economic development. Also, potential industry partners were identified that are willing to be involved with SRS` technology applications and regional development efforts. As another important component to success, regional support organizations were reviewed and evaluated.

  15. Construction of the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory Conference Center. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) reviews the environmental consequences associated with the proposed action of granting a site use permit to construct and operate a conference center on an approximately 70-acre tract of land on the Savannah River Site (SRS). While the proposed action requires an administrative decision by DOE, this EA reviews the linked action of physically constructing and operating a conference center. The SRS is a DOE-owned nuclear production facility encompassing approximately 200,000 acres in southwestern South Carolina. The proposed conference center would have an area of approximately 4,000 square feet, and would infrequently accommodate as many as 150 people, with the average being about 20 people per day. In addition to the No-Action alternative, under which the Research Foundation would not require the 70-acre tract of SRS land for a conference center, this EA considers site preservation. Under Site Preservation only minimal activities necessary to the SRS mission would occur, thereby establishing the lower limits of environmental consequences. A review conducted under the SRS permitting process identified no other forms of possible site development. Similarly, SRS areas identified in the Nuclear Complex Reconfiguration Site Proposal (DOE, 199la) do not include the conference center site area in proposed weapons complex reconfiguration activities. As a consequence, this EA does not consider other forms of possible site development as alternatives. The potential environmental consequences associated with the action of constructing and operating a conference center include impacts to cultural resources and impacts from construction activities, primarily related to land clearing (5 to 10 acres) and providing access to the site.

  16. M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring and corrective-action report. Second quarter 1995, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This report describes the corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) at the Savannah River Site during second quarter 1995. Topics include: changes in sampling, analysis, and reporting; water levels; remedial action of groundwater; and hydrology of the affected aquifer zones.

  17. Scholarly Publishing on the Web: Link Analysis of the Top 200 Highly Cited Computer Science Articles on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jodi; Goodrum, Abby

    2001-01-01

    Reports results of a study analyzing link density of 200 highly cited documents appearing in ResearchIndex, an autonomous citation index of literature published on the Web. Analysis focuses on the relationship between citations and hypertext links at the publicly available document level. No significant relationship between Web-based citation…

  18. Quantitative analysis of afferents expressing substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, isolectin B4, neurofilament 200, and Peripherin in the sensory root of the rat trigeminal ganglion.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jin Young; Kim, Jae Hyun; Cho, Yi Sul; Mah, Won; Bae, Yong Chul

    2015-01-01

    Substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and isolectin B4 (IB4) are widely used as markers for peripheral neurons with unmyelinated fibers, whereas neurofilament 200 (NF200), and Peripherin are used as markers for neurons with myelinated fibers, and with unmyelinated or small-caliber fibers, respectively. To study the selectivity of these markers for specific neuronal types, we analyzed their expression in neurons in the rat trigeminal ganglion by light- and electron-microscopic immunocytochemistry. Most SP-immunopositive (+), CGRP+, and IB4+ fibers were unmyelinated, but a small fraction (∼5%) were small myelinated fibers (<20 µm(2) in cross-sectional area, equivalent to <5 µm in diameter, Aδ fiber). Similarly, whereas the majority of NF200+ fibers were myelinated, a large fraction (23.9%) were unmyelinated, and whereas the majority of Peripherin+ fibers were unmyelinated and small myelinated, a significant fraction (15.5%) were large myelinated (>20 µm(2) in cross-sectional area, equivalent to >5 µm in diameter, Aβ fiber). Our findings confirm that SP, CGRP, and IB4 can be used as reliable markers for neurons with unmyelinated fibers, and question the suitability of NF200 as a marker for neurons with myelinated fibers, and of Peripherin as a marker for neurons with unmyelinated, or fine-caliber fibers.

  19. Radiological impact of 1992 operations at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hamby, D.M.

    1993-12-01

    The offsite individual residing at the SRS boundary location of maximum exposure (maximum individual) received a dose from SRS atmospheric releases in 1992 of 0.10 mrem. Tritium oxide releases were responsible for more than 90% of the atmospheric dose. Ninety-nine percent of the atmospheric dose is accounted for with the inclusion of I-129, U-235, Pu-238 and Pu-239. The 50-mile population received a collective dose of 6.4 person-rem from 1992 releases. Atmospheric radiation dose is dominated by the inhalation and vegetation consumption pathways. The maximum dose received by an offsite individual as a result of SRS liquid releases in 1992 was 0.13 mrem. This dose is dominated by Cs-137 that is accumulated in Savannah River fish and tritium in drinking water. More than 99% of the maximum individual dose from liquid releases results from Cs-137, tritium, Sr-90, and Pu-239. The population dose from liquid releases in 1992 was 2.5 person-rem. The major exposure pathway to the population is drinking water. Radiation dose to the general public from operations at the Savannah River Site continues to be a very small fraction of the natural background dose. A resident of the CSRA receives about 300 mrem per year from background radiation. The population within 50-miles of the SRS (620,000) and at the downstream water treatment facilities (65,000), therefore, receives a natural background population dose of approximately 200,000 person-rem.

  20. Body Area Networks performance analysis using UWB.

    PubMed

    Fatehy, Mohammed; Kohno, Ryuji

    2013-01-01

    The successful realization of a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) using Ultra Wideband (UWB) technology supports different medical and consumer electronics (CE) applications but stand in a need for an innovative solution to meet the different requirements of these applications. Previously, we proposed to use adaptive processing gain (PG) to fulfill the different QoS requirements of these WBAN applications. In this paper, interference occurred between two different BANs in a UWB-based system has been analyzed in terms of acceptable ratio of overlapping between these BANs' PG providing the required QoS for each BAN. The first BAN employed for a healthcare device (e.g. EEG, ECG, etc.) with a relatively longer spreading sequence is used and the second customized for entertainment application (e.g. wireless headset, wireless game pad, etc.) where a shorter spreading code is assigned. Considering bandwidth utilization and difference in the employed spreading sequence, the acceptable ratio of overlapping between these BANs should fall between 0.05 and 0.5 in order to optimize the used spreading sequence and in the meantime satisfying the required QoS for these applications.

  1. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN SITU DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.; Serrato, M.

    2009-12-03

    The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate in tact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate if from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,424 cubic meters or 31,945 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were design and tested for the reactor ISD project and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and work flow considerations, the recommended maximum lift height is 5 feet with 24 hours between lifts. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R-Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs

  2. Recommended Distribution Coefficients, Kd Values, for Special Analysis Risk Calculations Related to Waste Disposal and Tank Closure on the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D

    2005-08-31

    The purpose of this document is to provide a technically defensible list of distribution coefficients, or Kd values, for use in performance assessment (PA) and special analysis (SA) calculations on the SRS. Only Kd values for radionuclides that have new information related to them or that have recently been recognized as being important are discussed in this report. Some 150 Kd values are provided in this report for various waste-disposal or tank-closure environments: soil, corrosion in grout, oxidizing grout waste, gravel, clay, and reducing concrete environments. Documentation and justification for the selection of each Kd value is provided.

  3. POTENTIAL USE OF ACTIVATED CARBON TO RECOVER TC-99 FROM 200 WEST AREA GROUNDWATER AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO MORE EXPENSIVE RESINS HANFORD SITE RICHLAND WASNINGTON

    SciTech Connect

    BYRNES ME; ROSSI AJ; TORTOSO AC

    2009-12-03

    Recent treatability testing performed on groundwater at the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, has shown that Purolite{reg_sign} A530E resin very effectively removes Tc-99 from groundwater. However, this resin is expensive and cannot be regenerated. In an effort to find a less expensive method for removing Tc-99 from the groundwater, a literature search was performed. The results indicated that activated carbon may be used to recover technetium (as pertechnetate, TCO{sub 4}{sup -}) from groundwater. Oak Ridge National Laboratory used activated carbon in both batch adsorption and column leaching studies. The adsorption study concluded that activated carbon absorbs TCO{sub 4}{sup -} selectively and effectively over a wide range of pH values and from various dilute electrolyte solutions (< 0.01 molarity). The column leaching studies confirmed a high adsorption capacity and selectivity of activated carbon for TCO{sub 4}{sup -}. Since activated carbon is much less expensive than Purolite A530E resin, it has been determined that a more extensive literature search is warranted to determine if recent studies have reached similar conclusions, and, if so, pilot testing of 200-ZP-1 groundwater wi11 likely be implemented. It is possible that less expensive, activated carbon canisters could be used as pre-filters to remove Tc-99, followed by the use of the more expensive Purolite A530E resin as a polishing step.

  4. Budgets of fixed nitrogen in the Orinoco Savannah Region: Role of pyrodenitrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanhueza, Eugenio; Crutzen, Paul J.

    1998-12-01

    Human activities have strongly altered the amount of fixed nitrogen that cycles in many regions of the industrialized world, with serious environmental consequences. Past studies conducted at the Orinoco savannahs of Venezuela offer a unique possibility for reviewing the cycling of nitrogen species in a tropical environment. The available information for the Orinoco savannahs is critically reviewed, and, despite many uncertainties, we present a budget analysis of both the fixed N in the soil-vegetation system and atmospheric NOy. Analysis of the data indicates that nitrogen fixation, especially by legumes, and ammonia emission from vegetation and animal wastes needs considerable attention in future research efforts. In contrast with many regions of the world, in the studied region, nonindustrial sources, foremost biomass burning, dominate the soil-vegetation and atmospheric budgets of fixed N. In general, N cycling is mainly driven by biomass burning. The resulting pyrodenitrification in the soil-vegetation system is the largest single process that, during the following wet season, may promote biological fixation to compensate for the N losses from fires during the burning season. However, a gradual impoverishment of the N status of the savannah ecosystems cannot be excluded. During the dry season, biomass burning is also the main source of atmospheric NOy, which is largely exported, mainly in the direction of the Amazon forest. Together with other nutrients, a "fertilization" of the Amazon forest due to biomass burning in the savannah may be the result. These issues require further scientific analysis.

  5. 33 CFR 334.200 - Chesapeake Bay, Point Lookout to Cedar Point; aerial and surface firing range and target area, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (b) Target areas—(1) Prohibited area. A circular area with a radius of 1,000 yards having its center... with a radius of 1000 yards having its center at latitude 38 degrees 02 minutes 18 seconds longitude 76... Station, Patuxent River, Maryland, danger zones. (a) Aerial firing range—(1) The danger zone. The...

  6. The dimensional stability analysis of seventeen stepped specimens of 18Ni 200 grade, PH13-8Mo and A-286

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wigley, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    This report documents the results of a dimensional stability analysis of seventeen stepped specimens that were used in the evaluation of factors influencing warpage in metallic alloys being used for cryogenic wind tunnel models. Specimens used in the analysis were manufactured from 18Ni 200 Grade Maaraging steel, PH13-8Mo, and A-286 stainless steel. Quantitative data are provided on the behavior of the specimens due to the effects of both machining and cryogenic cycling effects.

  7. Radiological/toxicological sabotage assessments at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, H.D.; Pascal, M.D.; Richardson, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes the methods being employed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) to perform graded assessments of radiological and toxicological sabotage vulnerability at Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities. These assessments are conducted to ensure that effective measures are in place to prevent, mitigate, and respond to a potential sabotage event which may cause an airborne release of radiological/toxicological material, causing an adverse effect on the health and safety of employees, the public, and the environment. Department of Energy (DOE) Notice 5630.3A, {open_quotes}Protection of Departmental Facilities Against Radiological and Toxicological Sabotage,{close_quotes} and the associated April 1993 DOE-Headquarters guidance provide the requirements and outline an eight-step process for hazardous material evaluation. The process requires the integration of information from a variety of disciplines, including safety, safeguards and security, and emergency preparedness. This paper summarizes WSRC`s approach towards implementation of the DOE requirements, and explains the inter-relationships between the Radiological and Toxicological Assessments developed using this process, and facility Hazard Assessment Reports (HAs), Safety Analysis Reports (SARs), and Facility Vulnerability Assessments (VAs).

  8. Characterization of Savannah River Plant waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Plodinec, M J

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the glass characterization programs at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is to ensure that glass containing Savannah River Plant high-level waste can be permanently stored in a federal repository, in an environmentally acceptable manner. To accomplish this objective, SRL is carrying out several experimental programs, including: fundamental studies of the reactions between waste glass and water, particularly repository groundwater; experiments in which candidate repository environments are simulated as accurately as possible; burial tests of simulated waste glass in candidate repository geologies; large-scale tests of glass durability; and determination of the effects of process conditions on glass quality. In this paper, the strategy and current status of each of these programs is discussed. The results indicate that waste packages containing SRP waste glass will satisfy emerging regulatory criteria.

  9. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1989 (October--December), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. An explanation of flagging criteria for the fourth quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from fourth quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  10. Installation Restoration Program. Preliminary Assessment: 165th Tactical Airlift Group and the Savannah Permanent Field Training Site, Savannah International Airport, Savannah, Georgia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    CONTENTS Page EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. .. .. ... ........ ........... ES-i 1. INTRODUCTION............ . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .....- A. Background...VT-i AvnIi[at111ty Codes L) eoa I CONTENTS (Continued) 3 Page 3 GLOSSARY OF TERMS ........ .............................. GL-l U BIBLIOGRAPHY...waters of the canal do support aquatic life and the canal is fished. The city of Savannah obtains some municiple water from the Savannah River. From

  11. Cesium in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Bauer, L.R.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    Cesium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fourth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The earlier documents describe the environmental consequences of tritium, iodine, and uranium. Documents on plutonium, strontium, carbon, and technetium will be published in the future. These are dynamic documents and current plans call for revising and updating each one on a two-year schedule.Radiocesium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Radiocesium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors. Several hundred curies of {sup 137}Cs was released into streams in the late 50s and 60s from leaking fuel elements. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 1400 Ci of {sup 137}Cs was released to seepage basins where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A much smaller quantity, about four Ci. was released to the atmosphere. Radiocesium concentration and mechanisms for atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 033 mrem (atmospheric) and 60 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Isotope {sup 137}Cs releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports.

  12. Cesium in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Bauer, L.R.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    Cesium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fourth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The earlier documents describe the environmental consequences of tritium, iodine, and uranium. Documents on plutonium, strontium, carbon, and technetium will be published in the future. These are dynamic documents and current plans call for revising and updating each one on a two-year schedule.Radiocesium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Radiocesium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors. Several hundred curies of [sup 137]Cs was released into streams in the late 50s and 60s from leaking fuel elements. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 1400 Ci of [sup 137]Cs was released to seepage basins where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A much smaller quantity, about four Ci. was released to the atmosphere. Radiocesium concentration and mechanisms for atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 033 mrem (atmospheric) and 60 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Isotope [sup 137]Cs releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports.

  13. Tritium protection at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Reinig, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant produces tritium for the nation's defense. In addition to the planned production, unwanted tritium results from neutron irradiation of the heavy water moderator in the plant's reactors. During the past 30 years, continual improvements have been made in methods to protect the large workforce at the reactors and at the tritium facility from the potential hazards of tritium. This paper describes the current protection program.

  14. Waste management units: Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Molen, G.

    1991-09-01

    This report indexes every waste management unit of the Savannah River Site. They are indexed by building number and name. The waste units are also tabulated by solid waste units receiving hazardous materials with a known release or no known release to the environment. It also contains information on the sites which has received no hazardous waste, and units which have received source, nuclear, or byproduct material only. (MB)

  15. Watershed modeling at the Savannah River Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Vache, Kellie

    2015-04-29

    The overall goal of the work was the development of a watershed scale model of hydrological function for application to the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The primary outcomes is a grid based hydrological modeling system that captures near surface runoff as well as groundwater recharge and contributions of groundwater to streams. The model includes a physically-based algorithm to capture both evaporation and transpiration from forestland.

  16. 33 CFR 334.200 - Chesapeake Bay, Point Lookout to Cedar Point; aerial and surface firing range and target area, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... damage caused by projectiles, bombs, missiles, or Naval or Coast Guard vessels to fishing structures or... and bombs will be dropped at frequent intervals in the target areas. Hooper and Hannibal target...

  17. 33 CFR 334.200 - Chesapeake Bay, Point Lookout to Cedar Point; aerial and surface firing range and target area, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... damage caused by projectiles, bombs, missiles, or Naval or Coast Guard vessels to fishing structures or... and bombs will be dropped at frequent intervals in the target areas. Hooper and Hannibal target...

  18. 33 CFR 334.200 - Chesapeake Bay, Point Lookout to Cedar Point; aerial and surface firing range and target area, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... damage caused by projectiles, bombs, missiles, or Naval or Coast Guard vessels to fishing structures or... and bombs will be dropped at frequent intervals in the target areas. Hooper and Hannibal target...

  19. Critical Protection Item classification for a waste processing facility at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ades, M.J.; Garrett, R.J.

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes the methodology for Critical Protection Item (CPI) classification and its application to the Structures, Systems and Components (SSC) of a waste processing facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The WSRC methodology for CPI classification includes the evaluation of the radiological and non-radiological consequences resulting from postulated accidents at the waste processing facility and comparison of these consequences with allowable limits. The types of accidents considered include explosions and fire in the facility and postulated accidents due to natural phenomena, including earthquakes, tornadoes, and high velocity straight winds. The radiological analysis results indicate that CPIs are not required at the waste processing facility to mitigate the consequences of radiological release. The non-radiological analysis, however, shows that the Waste Storage Tank (WST) and the dike spill containment structures around the formic acid tanks in the cold chemical feed area and waste treatment area of the facility should be identified as CPIs. Accident mitigation options are provided and discussed.

  20. Genetic diversity of Forest and Savannah chicken populations of Ghana as estimated by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Osei-Amponsah, Richard; Kayang, Boniface B; Naazie, Augustine; Osei, Yaa D; Youssao, Issaka A K; Yapi-Gnaore, Valentine C; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Rognon, Xavier

    2010-06-01

    The characterization of indigenous animal genetic resources is a requisite step in providing needed information for the conservation of useful genotypes against future needs. Thus, in this study, 22 microsatellite markers were used to genotype 114 local chickens from the Forest (n = 59) and Savannah (n = 55) eco-zones of Ghana and the results compared to those of the ancestral red junglefowl (n = 15) and two European commercial chicken populations--a broiler (n = 25) and white leghorn (n = 25). A total of 171 alleles were observed, with an average of 7.8 alleles per locus. The local Ghanaian chickens showed higher diversity in terms of the observed number of alleles per locus (6.6) and observed heterozygosity (0.568) compared with the combined control populations (6.0 and 0.458, respectively). However, Wright's F-statistics revealed negligible genetic differentiation (F(ST)) in local Ghanaian chicken populations. In addition, 65% of the Savannah chickens were inferred to be more likely from the Forest, suggesting a south-north dispersal of chickens from their probable original location in the Forest zone to the Savannah areas. It is concluded that the Forest and Savannah chickens of Ghana are a single, randomly mating unselected population, characterized by high genetic diversity and constitute a valuable resource for conservation and improvement.

  1. Facility siting as a decision process at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wike, L.D.

    1995-12-31

    Site selection for new facilities at Savannah River Site (SRS) historically has been a process dependent only upon specific requirements of the facility. While this approach is normally well suited to engineering and operational concerns, it can have serious deficiencies in the modern era of regulatory oversight and compliance requirements. There are many issues related to the site selection for a facility that are not directly related to engineering or operational requirements; such environmental concerns can cause large schedule delays and budget impact,s thereby slowing or stopping the progress of a project. Some of the many concerns in locating a facility include: waste site avoidance, National Environmental Policy Act requirements, Clean Water Act, Clean Air Act, wetlands conservation, US Army Corps of Engineers considerations, US Fish and Wildlife Service statutes including threatened and endangered species issues, and State of South Carolina regulations, especially those of the Department of Health and Environmental Control. In addition, there are SRS restrictions on research areas set aside for National Environmental Research Park (NERP), Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Savannah River Forest Station, University of South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, Southeastern Forest Experimental Station, and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) programs. As with facility operational needs, all of these siting considerations do not have equal importance. The purpose of this document is to review recent site selection exercises conducted for a variety of proposed facilities, develop the logic and basis for the methods employed, and standardize the process and terminology for future site selection efforts.

  2. PERFORMANCE OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE COULOMETER FOR NEPTUNIUM PROCESSACCOUNTABILITY AND NEPTUNIUM OXIDE PRODUCT CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, M; Patterson Nuessle, P; Sheldon Nichols, S; Joe Cordaro, J; George Reeves, G

    2008-06-04

    The Savannah River Site's (SRS) H-Area B-Line (HB-Line) nuclear facility is processing neptunium solutions for stabilization as an oxide. The oxide will eventually be reprocessed and fabricated into target material and the 237Np irradiated to produce {sup 238}Pu in support of National Aeronautics and Space Administration space program missions. As part of nuclear materials accountability, solution concentrations were measured using a high-precision controlled-potential coulometer developed and manufactured at the SRS for plutonium accountability measurements. The Savannah River Site Coulometer system and measurement methodology for plutonium meets performance standards in ISO 12183-2005, 'Controlled-Potential Coulometric Assay of Plutonium'. The Department of Energy (DOE) does not produce or supply a neptunium metal certified reference material, which makes qualifying a measurement method and determining accuracy and precision difficult. Testing and performance of the Savannah River Site Coulometer indicates that it can be used to measure neptunium process solutions and dissolved neptunium oxide without purification for material control and accountability purposes. Savannah River Site's Material Control and Accountability organization has accepted the method uncertainty for accountability and product characterization measurements.

  3. Savannah River Remediation Cost Savings Initiative - 12339

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Neil R.

    2012-07-01

    Savannah River enjoyed two years of increased funding as a result of the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act and Department of Energy (DOE) directed scope additions. Moving into FY2012, a much lower funding level is anticipated. In the past, the first response to a reduced funding scenario was to defer scope and slow down the program. This time, Savannah River decided that a better process was needed to try to maximize value to the government. This approach was named the Cost Savings Initiative (CSI). The CSI process is similar to a zero-based budget concept. Every element of work scope was screened to eliminate everything that was not directly related to safety and regulatory compliance. Then the schedules for the regulatory-driven scope were deferred such that the regulatory milestones were achieved just in time with no acceleration. This resulted in a strategy that met regulatory requirements in FY2012-13 with some remaining funding but not in FY2014-15. The remaining funding was then invested in cost savings initiatives in FY2012-13 to reduce the future cost of doing business in the FY2014-15 timeframe and beyond. This resulted in a Strategy that: - Meets all regulatory commitments; - Meets some regulatory commitments early; and - Preserves most of the life cycle savings that were built in to the baseline plan The CSI process used at Savannah River may be considered for application elsewhere in the DOE Complex. (authors)

  4. Analysis of Spark-Ignition Engine Knock as Seen in Photographs Taken at 200,000 Frames Per Second

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Cearcy D.; Olsen, H. Lowell; Logan, Walter O., Jr.; Osterstrom, Gordon E

    1946-01-01

    A motion picture of the development of knock in a spark-ignition engine, is presented, which consists of 20 photographs taken at intervals of 5 microseconds, or at a rate of 200,000 photographs a second, with an equivalent wide-open exposure time of 6.4 microseconds for each photograph. A motion picture of a complete combustion process, including the development of knock, taken at the rate of 40,000 photographs a second is also presented to assist the reader in orienting the photographs of the knock development taken at 200,000 frames per second. The photographs taken at 200,000 frames per second are analyzed and the conclusion is made that the type of knock in the spark-ignition engine involving violent gas vibration originates as self-propagating disturbance starting at a point in the.burn1ig or autoigniting gases and spreading out from that point through the incompletely burned gases at a rate as high as 6800 feet per second, or about twice the speed of sound in the burned gases. Apparent formation of free carbon particles in both the burning and the burned gas is observed within 10 microseconds after passage of the knock disturbance through the gases.

  5. 77 FR 30518 - Support of Deployment of Prototype Small Modular Reactors at the Savannah River Site

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ...DOE-Savannah River Operations Office (SR), in conjunction with the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), announces the availability of support for deployment of Small Modular Reactors (SMR) on the Savannah River Site...

  6. A desperate poor country: History and settlement patterning on the Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, R.D.; Crass, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this monograph is twofold: first, to example historical trends and settlement patterning through time within the boundaries of the present-day Savannah River Site (SRS), and second, to establish a framework for future investigations of historic period occupation in the study area. Settlement patterns are defined as the distribution of archaeological sites across a landscape. Settlement patterning is a response to widely held cultural needs; therefore, it offers a strategic starting point for the functional interpretation of archaeological cultures. The analysis of settlement patterns if useful because it is practical, it shows the spatial dimension of the man-environment interrelationship that is relative to the technological level of the settlement's inhabitants, and it can yield concrete clues regarding social organization.

  7. Savannah River Site production reactor technical specifications. K Production Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    These technical specifications are explicit restrictions on the operation of the Savannah River Site K Production Reactor. They are designed to preserve the validity of the plant safety analysis by ensuring that the plant is operated within the required conditions bounded by the analysis, and with the operable equipment that is assumed to mitigate the consequences of an accident. Technical specifications preserve the primary success path relied upon to detect and respond to accidents. This report describes requirements on thermal-hydraulic limits; limiting conditions for operation and surveillance for the reactor, power distribution control, instrumentation, process water system, emergency cooling and emergency shutdown systems, confinement systems, plant systems, electrical systems, components handling, and special test exceptions; design features; and administrative controls.

  8. A cursory application of DRASTIC to the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Crider, S.S.

    1989-12-31

    Geohydrologists at the National Water Well Association (NWWA) created DRASTIC as a formalized decision-making procedure to assess the potential for groundwater pollution at existing and proposed industrial sites. It is a method to examine groundwater pollution potential anywhere in the country. DRASTIC is generalized because it is meant to be universal; therefore, NWWA stresses its qualitative nature. Its objective are: (1) to help direct resources and land use activities to appropriate areas; and, (2) to help prioritize groundwater protection, monitoring and cleanup efforts. Even though it is a general siting tool, usually applied where only scanty geohydrological information is available, it can be helpful -- perhaps in a modified form -- for locations like the Savannah River Site (SRS) that have relatively abundant data resources.

  9. A cursory application of DRASTIC to the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Crider, S.S. . Div. of Engineering Fundamentals)

    1989-01-01

    Geohydrologists at the National Water Well Association (NWWA) created DRASTIC as a formalized decision-making procedure to assess the potential for groundwater pollution at existing and proposed industrial sites. It is a method to examine groundwater pollution potential anywhere in the country. DRASTIC is generalized because it is meant to be universal; therefore, NWWA stresses its qualitative nature. Its objective are: (1) to help direct resources and land use activities to appropriate areas; and, (2) to help prioritize groundwater protection, monitoring and cleanup efforts. Even though it is a general siting tool, usually applied where only scanty geohydrological information is available, it can be helpful -- perhaps in a modified form -- for locations like the Savannah River Site (SRS) that have relatively abundant data resources.

  10. New instrument calibration facility for the DOE Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkie, W.H.; Polz, E.J.

    1993-12-31

    A new laboratory facility is being designed, constructed, and equipped at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a fiscal year 1992 line item project. This facility will provide space and equipment for test, evaluation, repair, maintenance, and calibration of radiation monitoring instrumentation. The project will replace an obsolete facility and will allow implementation of program upgrades necessary to meet ANSI N323 requirements and National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) criteria for accreditation of federally owned secondary calibration laboratories. An outline of the project is presented including description, scope, cost, management organization, chronology, and current status. Selected design criteria and their impacts on the project are discussed. The upgraded SRS calibration program is described, and important features of the new facility and equipment that will accommodate this program are listed. The floor plan for the facility is shown, and equipment summaries and functional descriptions for each area are provided.

  11. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS).

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A.; Steven J. Wagner.

    2005-06-29

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A., and Steven J. Wagner. 2005. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS). Final Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 48 pp. Abstract: During the 1970's and 1980's a dramatic decline occurred in the populations of Neotropical migratory birds, species that breed in North America and winter south of the border in Central and South America and in the Caribbean. In 1991 an international initiative was mounted by U. S. governmental land management agencies, nongovernmental conservation agencies, and the academic and lay ornithological communities to understand the decline of Neotropical migratory birds in the Americas. In cooperation with the USDA Forest Service - Savannah River (FS - SR) we began 1992 a project directed to monitoring population densities of breeding birds using the Breeding Bird Census (BBC) methodology in selected habitats within the Savannah River Site SRS. In addition we related point count data on the occurrence of breeding Neotropical migrants and other bird species to the habitat data gathered by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service and data on habitat treatments within forest stands.

  12. TESTING OF THE RADBALL TECHNOLOGY AT SAVANNAH RIVER NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Foley, T.

    2010-02-10

    The United Kingdom's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) has developed a remote, nonelectrical, radiation-mapping device known as RadBall (patent pending), which offers a means to locate and quantify radiation hazards and sources within contaminated areas of the nuclear industry. Positive results from initial deployment trials in nuclear waste reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the United Kingdom and the anticipated future potential use of RadBall throughout the U.S. Department of Energy Complex have led to the NNL partnering with the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to further test, underpin, and strengthen the technical performance of the technology. The study completed at SRNL addresses key aspects of the testing of the RadBall technology. The first set of tests was performed at Savannah River Nuclear Solutions Health Physics Instrument Calibration Laboratory (HPICL) using various gamma-ray sources and an x-ray machine with known radiological characteristics. The objective of these preliminary tests was to identify the optimal dose and collimator thickness. The second set of tests involved a highly contaminated hot cell. The objective of this testing was to characterize a hot cell with unknown radiation sources. The RadBall calibration experiments and hot cell deployment were successful in that for each trial radiation tracks were visible. The deployment of RadBall can be accomplished in different ways depending on the size and characteristics of the contaminated area (e.g., a hot cell that already has a crane/manipulator available or highly contaminated room that requires the use of a remote control device with sensor and video equipment to position RadBall). This report also presents SRNL-designed RadBall accessories for future RadBall deployment (a harness, PODS, and robot).

  13. Biological surveys on the Savannah River in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant (1951-1976)

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, R. A.

    1982-04-01

    In 1951, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia was contracted by the Savannah River Plant to initiate a long-term monitoring program in the Savannah River. The purpose of this program was to determine the effect of the Savannah River Plant on the Savannah River aquatic ecosystem. The data from this monitoring program have been computerized by the Savannah River Laboratory, and are summarized in this report. During the period from 1951-1976, 16 major surveys were conducted by the Academy in the Savannah River. Water chemistry analyses were made, and all major biological communities were sampled qualitatively during the spring and fall of each survey year. In addition, quantitative diatom data have been collected quarterly since 1953. Major changes in the Savannah River basin, in the Savannah River Plant's activities, and in the Academy sampling patterns are discussed to provide a historical overview of the biomonitoring program. Appendices include a complete taxonomic listing of species collected from the Savannah River, and summaries of the entire biological and physicochemical data base.

  14. Transect based analysis versus area based analysis to quantify shoreline displacement: spatial resolution issues.

    PubMed

    Anfuso, Giorgio; Bowman, Dan; Danese, Chiara; Pranzini, Enzo

    2016-10-01

    Field surveys, aerial photographs, and satellite images are the most commonly employed sources of data to analyze shoreline position, which are further compared by area based analysis (ABA) or transect based analysis (TBA) methods. The former is performed by computing the mean shoreline displacement for the identified coastal segments, i.e., dividing the beach area variation by the segment length; the latter is based on the measurement of the distance between each shoreline at set points along transects. The present study compares, by means of GIS tools, the ABA and TBA methods by computing shoreline displacements recorded on two stretches of the Tuscany coast (Italy): the beaches of Punta Ala, a linear coast without shore protection structures, and the one at Follonica, which is irregular due to the presence of groins and detached breakwaters. Surveys were carried out using a differential global positioning system (DGPS) in RTK mode. For each site, a 4800-m-long coastal segment was analyzed and divided into ninety-six 50-m-long sectors for which changes were computed using both the ABA and TBA methods. Sectors were progressively joined to have a length of 100, 200, 400, and 800 m to examine how this influenced results. ABA and TBA results are highly correlated for transect distance and sector length up to 100 m at both investigated locations. If longer transects are considered, the two methods still produce good correlated data on the smooth shoreline (i.e. at Punta Ala), but correlation became significantly lower on the irregular shoreline (i.e., at Follonica).

  15. The use and development of teleoperators for hostile environment applications at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Fogle, R.F.

    1991-12-31

    The Robotics Development Group (RDG) of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has used a variety of teleoperated vehicles, arms, and support equipment in hostile environment applications at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). WSRC primarily uses teleoperated hardware to eliminate or significantly reduce personnel exposure in radioactive activities or other hazardous tasks. Teleoperators at SRS handle radioactive material, decontaminate areas contaminated with radioactive isotopes, perform radiological surveys, and provide video surveillance in radiologically controlled areas (RCAs). Proposed future applications of teleoperators include decontamination, filter inspection, contaminated soil removal and dropped reactor target assembly retrieval. This paper discusses past, present, and future applications and current development work on several mobile teleoperators and remote-controlled devices at SRS. 11 refs.

  16. The use and development of teleoperators for hostile environment applications at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Fogle, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    The Robotics Development Group (RDG) of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has used a variety of teleoperated vehicles, arms, and support equipment in hostile environment applications at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). WSRC primarily uses teleoperated hardware to eliminate or significantly reduce personnel exposure in radioactive activities or other hazardous tasks. Teleoperators at SRS handle radioactive material, decontaminate areas contaminated with radioactive isotopes, perform radiological surveys, and provide video surveillance in radiologically controlled areas (RCAs). Proposed future applications of teleoperators include decontamination, filter inspection, contaminated soil removal and dropped reactor target assembly retrieval. This paper discusses past, present, and future applications and current development work on several mobile teleoperators and remote-controlled devices at SRS. 11 refs.

  17. Savannah River Plant seismograph network

    SciTech Connect

    Krapp, C W

    1980-01-01

    The network consists of three field seismometer sites (SRPN, SRPW, SRPD) and one central recording station. The seismic activity at each field site is detected by a seismometer, which is a movable coil that induces a series of electric impulses when vibrated. These electrical impulses are amplified and sent over telephone lines to a central recording site, where the signals are again amplified and then recorded by a heated stylus on heat-sensitive paper. The signals from sites SRPN and SRPW are fed directly to telephone lines, but the signal for SRPD is first transmitted by radio to the D-area powerhouse and then fed into a telephone line for transmission to the recording station. The signals from seismometer site SRPN are recorded at two different gains (high and medium) to permit different resolutions for earthquakes of different magnitudes. Performance of the system is described.

  18. 33 CFR 165.T0704 - Safety Zone: Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... terminated by the Captain of the Port, Savannah, GA. (c) Regulation. In accordance with the general... the Captain of the Port or a representative of the Captain of the Port. (2) The “representative of the Captain of the Port” is any Coast Guard commissioned, warrant or petty officer who has been designated...

  19. 33 CFR 165.T0704 - Safety Zone: Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... terminated by the Captain of the Port, Savannah, GA. (c) Regulation. In accordance with the general... the Captain of the Port or a representative of the Captain of the Port. (2) The “representative of the Captain of the Port” is any Coast Guard commissioned, warrant or petty officer who has been designated...

  20. Vegetation of the Savannah River Site: Major community types

    SciTech Connect

    Workman, S.W.; McLeod, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    The eight major plant community types of the Savannah River Site (SRS) are distributed along topographic and moisture gradients and strongly controlled by local management practices. Communities range from sandhill communities in the xeric uplands to bottomland or swamp forests in low-lying areas subject to periodic flooding. The variety of community types and extensive land area (78,000 ha) of the SRS provides habitat for a diversity of plant species. As a National Environmental Research Park, the SRS provides an area for study of man-altered systems in relation to natural systems. A site-wide Set-Aside Areas program designates specific parcels of land representing different community types on the SRS. These areas conserve habitat for plants and wildlife, including some endangered, threatened and rare species. This document provides descriptions, including community characteristics and species composition, for the eight major vegetation communities of the SRS (old field, sandhill, upland hardwood, pinelands, bottomland, swamp, Carolina bay and fresh water). Species lists of tree, shrub, vine, herbaceous, and lower plant species of the SRS, by community type, were compiled from existing literature, herbarium information, and solicited additions from researchers familiar with SRS vegetation; these are provided in appendices. 130 refs., 19 figs.

  1. Site-wide seismic risk model for Savannah River Site nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, S.A.; Shay, R.S.; Durant, W.S.

    1993-09-01

    The 200,000 acre Savannah River Site (SRS) has nearly 30 nuclear facilities spread throughout the site. The safety of each facility has been established in facility-specific safety analysis reports (SARs). Each SAR contains an analysis of risk from seismic events to both on-site workers and the off-site population. Both radiological and chemical releases are considered, and air and water pathways are modeled. Risks to the general public are generally characterized by evaluating exposure to the maximally exposed individual located at the SRS boundary and to the off-site population located within 50 miles. Although the SARs are appropriate methods for studying individual facility risks, there is a class of accident initiators that can simultaneously affect several of all of the facilities, Examples include seismic events, strong winds or tornados, floods, and loss of off-site electrical power. Overall risk to the off-site population from such initiators is not covered by the individual SARs. In such cases multiple facility radionuclide or chemical releases could occur, and off-site exposure would be greater than that indicated in a single facility SAR. As a step towards an overall site-wide risk model that adequately addresses multiple facility releases, a site-wide seismic model for determining off-site risk has been developed for nuclear facilities at the SRS. Risk from seismic events up to the design basis earthquake (DBE) of 0.2 g (frequency of 2.0E-4/yr) is covered by the model. Present plans include expanding the scope of the model to include other types of initiators that can simultaneously affect multiple facilities.

  2. Test and evaluation of the dual-range coincidence counter at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ensslin, N.; Gibbs, A.; Denard, C.; Deason, P.

    1981-04-01

    This report describes the test and evaluation of a Los Alamos National Laboratory-designed dual-range neutron coincidence counter at the Savannah River Plant Separations Area. A variety of incoming plutonium metal and oxide shipments were assayed with the counter. Assay accuracies were 2% l sigma for pure metal, about 10% l sigma for impure metal, and 3% l sigma for oxide that was analyzed on a batch-by-batch basis.

  3. Chronic toxicity evaluation of the Savannah River Site DETF discharges and three locations on Tims Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Chronic toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia were conducted June 6--August 1, 1990, on the Savannah River Site M-Area supernate discharge effluent (M-004), the A-014 effluent discharge with and without DETF process flow, and for stream samples collected in Tims Branch upstream and downstream from A-014. A secondary objective of the study was to determine what DETF flow rate would not cause instream impact to the aquatic community. 2 figs., 68 tabs.

  4. Epidemiologic surveillance. Annual report for Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Epidemiologic surveillance at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. In this annual report, the 1994 morbidity data for the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized. These analyses focus on absences of 5 or more consecutive workdays occurring among workers aged 16-75 years. They are arranged in five sets of tables that present: (1) the distribution of the labor force by occupational category and salary status; (2) the absences per person, diagnoses per absences, and diagnosis rates for the whole work force; (3) diagnosis rates by type of disease or injury; (4) diagnosis rates by occupational category; and (5) relative risks for specific types of disease or injury by occupational category.

  5. SALT CORE SAMPLING EVOLUTION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, T; Daniel Krementz, D; William Cheng, W

    2007-11-29

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility, has over 30 million gallons of legacy waste from its many years of processing nuclear materials. The majority of waste is stored in 49 buried tanks. Available underground piping is the primary and desired pathway to transfer waste from one tank to another until the waste is delivered to the glass plant, DWPF, or the grout plant, Saltstone. Prior to moving the material, the tank contents need to be evaluated to ensure the correct destination for the waste is chosen. Access ports are available in each tank top in a number of locations and sizes to be used to obtain samples of the waste for analysis. Material consistencies vary for each tank with the majority of waste to be processed being radioactive salts and sludge. The following paper describes the progression of equipment and techniques developed to obtain core samples of salt and solid sludge at SRS.

  6. Quantitative studies of Savannah River aquatic insects, 1959--1985

    SciTech Connect

    Soltis, R.; Hart, D.; Nagy, T.

    1986-10-30

    As part of a long-term study of water quality patterns, scientists from the Academy of Natural Sciences have collected aquatic insects from artificial substrates placed at several stations in Savannah River. This report presents the first detailed compilation and analysis of this substantial data base, and examines patterns of variations of insect distribution and abundance (both spatial and temporal) during the last quarter century. Data on the number of individuals of various taxa found in the insect traps were obtained from tables in the Academy's cursory reports. Computer data files created from these records were subjected to extensive statistical analyses in order to examine variation among stations, seasons and years in the abundances of major taxa and various aggregate properties of the insect assemblage. Although a total of 83 taxa were collected over the 27-year study, 10 taxa accounted for nearly 80% of the individuals collected from the traps, hence there 10 taxa were analyzed more intensively.

  7. Quantitative studies of Savannah River aquatic insects, 1959--1985

    SciTech Connect

    Soltis, R.; Hart, D.; Nagy, T.

    1986-10-30

    As part of a long-term study of water quality patterns, scientists from the Academy of Natural Sciences have collected aquatic insects from artificial substrates placed at several stations in Savannah River. This report presents the first detailed compilation and analysis of this substantial data base, and examines patterns of variations of insect distribution and abundance (both spatial and temporal) during the last quarter century. Data on the number of individuals of various taxa found in the insect traps were obtained from tables in the Academy`s cursory reports. Computer data files created from these records were subjected to extensive statistical analyses in order to examine variation among stations, seasons and years in the abundances of major taxa and various aggregate properties of the insect assemblage. Although a total of 83 taxa were collected over the 27-year study, 10 taxa accounted for nearly 80% of the individuals collected from the traps, hence there 10 taxa were analyzed more intensively.

  8. Sanitary landfill groundwater quality assessment plan Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1990-06-01

    This assessment monitoring plan has been prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the SCDHEC in a letter dated December 7, 1989 from Pearson to Wright and a letter dated October 9, 1989 from Keisler to Lindler. The letters are included a Appendix A, for informational purposes. Included in the plan are all of the monitoring data from the landfill monitoring wells for 1989, and a description of the present monitoring well network. The plan proposes thirty-two new wells and an extensive coring project that includes eleven soil borings. Locations of the proposed wells attempt to follow the SCDHEC guidelines and are downgradient, sidegradient and in the heart of suspected contaminant plumes. Also included in the plan is the current Savannah River Site Sampling and Analysis Plan and the well construction records for all of the existing monitoring wells around the sanitary landfill.

  9. Beneficially reusing LLRW the Savannah River Site Stainless Steel Program

    SciTech Connect

    Boettinger, W.L.

    1993-09-09

    With 68 radioactively contaminated excess Process Water Heat Exchangers the Savannah River Site launched its program to turn potential LLRW metal liabilities into assets. Each Heat Exchanger contains approximately 100 tons of 304 Stainless Steel and could be disposed as LLRW by land burial. Instead the 7000 tons of metal will be recycled into LLRW, HLW, and TRU waste containers thereby eliminating the need for near term land disposal and also eliminating the need to add more clean metal to the waste stream. Aspects of the partnership between DOE and Private Industry necessary to accomplish this new mission are described. A life cycle cost analysis associated with past practices of using carbon steel containers to indefinitely store material (contributing to the creation of today`s legacy waste problems) is presented. The avoided cost calculations needed to support the economics of the ``Indifference`` decision process in assessing the Beneficial Reuse option relative to the Burial option are described.

  10. Historic view entitled "FORT PULASKI (/) MOUTH OF SAVANNAH RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Historic view entitled "FORT PULASKI (/) MOUTH OF SAVANNAH RIVER AND TYBEE ISLAND, GA.," of 48th NY infantry on the south wall looking to the southeast corner (note: cockspur beacon in near background and Tybee Island in far background) - Fort Pulaski, Cockspur Island, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  11. 46 CFR 7.75 - Savannah River/Tybee Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Savannah River/Tybee Roads. 7.75 Section 7.75 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.75 Savannah River/Tybee Roads. A line drawn from the southwesternmost extremity of...

  12. 46 CFR 7.75 - Savannah River/Tybee Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Savannah River/Tybee Roads. 7.75 Section 7.75 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.75 Savannah River/Tybee Roads. A line drawn from the southwesternmost extremity of...

  13. 46 CFR 7.75 - Savannah River/Tybee Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Savannah River/Tybee Roads. 7.75 Section 7.75 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.75 Savannah River/Tybee Roads. A line drawn from the southwesternmost extremity of...

  14. 46 CFR 7.75 - Savannah River/Tybee Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Savannah River/Tybee Roads. 7.75 Section 7.75 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.75 Savannah River/Tybee Roads. A line drawn from the southwesternmost extremity of...

  15. 46 CFR 7.75 - Savannah River/Tybee Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Savannah River/Tybee Roads. 7.75 Section 7.75 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.75 Savannah River/Tybee Roads. A line drawn from the southwesternmost extremity of...

  16. Guide to Savannah River Laboratory Analytical Services Group

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    The mission of the Analytical Services Group (ASG) is to provide analytical support for Savannah River Laboratory Research and Development Programs using onsite and offsite analytical labs as resources. A second mission is to provide Savannah River Site (SRS) operations with analytical support for nonroutine material characterization or special chemical analyses. The ASG provides backup support for the SRS process control labs as necessary.

  17. Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Mamatey, Albert R.

    2005-06-07

    The Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 2004 (WSRC-TR-2005-00005) is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) according to requirements of DOE Order 231.1A, ''Environment, Safety and Health Reporting,'' and DOE Order 5400.5, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment''. The report's purpose is to present summary environmental data that characterize site environmental management performance; confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; highlight significant programs and efforts; and assess the impact of SRS operations on the public and the environment.

  18. Savannah River Site environmental report for 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Cummins, C.L.; Hetrick, C.S.; Stevenson, D.A.; Davis, H.A.; Martin, D.K.; Todd, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    This volume of Savannah River Site Environmental report for 1988 (WSRC-RP-89-59-1) contains the figures and tables referenced in Volume 1. The figures contain graphic illustrations of sample locations and/or data. The tables contain summaries of the following types of data: Federal and State standards and guides applicable to SRS operations; concentrations of radioactivity in environmental media; the quantity of radioactivity released to the environment from SRS operations; offsite radiation dose commitments from SRS operations; measurements of physical properties, chemicals, and metals concentrations in environmental media; and interlaboratory comparison of analytical results.

  19. Electronic Denitration Savannah River Site Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1995-04-11

    Electrochemical destruction of nitrate in radioactive Savannah River Site Waste has been demonstrated in a bench-scale flow cell reactor. Greater than 99% of the nitrate can be destroyed in either an undivided or a divided cell reactor. The rate of destruction and the overall power consumption is dependent on the cell configuration and electrode materials. The fastest rate was observed using an undivided cell equipped with a nickel cathode and nickel anode. The use of platinized titanium anode increased the energy requirement and costs compared to a nickel anode in both the undivided and divided cell configurations.

  20. Savannah River Site environmental report for 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Arnett, M.W.; Karapatakis, L.K.; Mamatey, A.R.; Todd, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes environmental activities conducted on and in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, S.C., from Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 1991, with an update on compliance activities through April 1, 1992. The report is a single volume with a separate summary pamphlet highlighting the major findings for 1991. The report is divided into an executive summary and 14 chapters containing information on environmental compliance issues, environmental monitoring methods and programs, and environmental research activities for 1991, as well as historical data from previous years. Analytical results, figures, charts, and data tables relevant to the environmental monitoring program for 1991 at SRS are included.