Science.gov

Sample records for analytic receiver analysis

  1. ADMX Receiver and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malagon, Ana; ADMX Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    ADMX looks for the excess radiation deposited into a cavity from the conversion of a dark matter axion into a microwave photon. The sensitivity of the experiment increases by reducing the background thermal noise and minimizing the electronic noise of the readout system. The axion masses that the experiment can detect are determined by the resonant frequency of the cavity mode of interest, which is tuned using a two rod configuration. One can also increase the search rate by measuring the output from two cavity modes at once, which requires two separate readout schemes. I will discuss the ADMX dual-channel receiver which has been upgraded to have near quantum-limited sensitivity on both channels, and describe how the correct modes are verified, using simulations, in the presence of dense electromagnetic structure. I conclude by describing upgrades to the ADMX analysis which allow for real-time exclusion limits. Supported by DOE Grants DE-FG02-97ER41029, DE-FG02-96ER40956, DE- AC52-07NA27344, DE-AC03-76SF00098, and the Livermore LDRD program.

  2. Multimedia Analysis plus Visual Analytics = Multimedia Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Chinchor, Nancy; Thomas, James J.; Wong, Pak C.; Christel, Michael; Ribarsky, Martin W.

    2010-10-01

    Multimedia analysis has focused on images, video, and to some extent audio and has made progress in single channels excluding text. Visual analytics has focused on the user interaction with data during the analytic process plus the fundamental mathematics and has continued to treat text as did its precursor, information visualization. The general problem we address in this tutorial is the combining of multimedia analysis and visual analytics to deal with multimedia information gathered from different sources, with different goals or objectives, and containing all media types and combinations in common usage.

  3. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Visual expertise covers a broad range of types of studies and methodologies. Many studies incorporate some measure(s) of observer performance or how well participants perform on a given task. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis is a method commonly used in signal detection tasks (i.e., those in which the observer must decide whether…

  4. Exploratory Analysis in Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David; de Freitas, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes the methods, observations, challenges and implications for exploratory analysis drawn from two learning analytics research projects. The cases include an analysis of a games-based virtual performance assessment and an analysis of data from 52,000 students over a 5-year period at a large Australian university. The complex…

  5. Exploratory Analysis in Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David; de Freitas, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes the methods, observations, challenges and implications for exploratory analysis drawn from two learning analytics research projects. The cases include an analysis of a games-based virtual performance assessment and an analysis of data from 52,000 students over a 5-year period at a large Australian university. The complex…

  6. Receiver System Analysis and Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    True Top-Down Design Methodology .................................. 5 Figure 4. Generic 16- QAM direct-conversion receiver...ADC 16- QAM decoder Figure 4. Generic 16- QAM direct-conversion receiver Complex digitally generated signals defy traditional spreadsheet...Intercept Point Three QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation SNR Signal-to-Noise Ratio USAF USR VCO United States Air Force Upsampling Ratio Voltage Controlled Oscillator

  7. Double-contained receiver tank 244-TX, grab samples, 244TX-97-3 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-08-13

    This document is the final report for the double-contained receiver tank (DCRT) 244-TX grab samples. Three grabs samples were collected from riser 8 on May 29, 1997. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in a table.

  8. Heat-Energy Analysis for Solar Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    Heat-energy analysis program (HEAP) solves general heat-transfer problems, with some specific features that are "custom made" for analyzing solar receivers. Can be utilized not only to predict receiver performance under varying solar flux, ambient temperature and local heat-transfer rates but also to detect locations of hotspots and metallurgical difficulties and to predict performance sensitivity of neighboring component parameters.

  9. Analytic model for ultrasound energy receivers and their optimal electric loads II: Experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorostiaga, M.; Wapler, M. C.; Wallrabe, U.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we verify the two optimal electric load concepts based on the zero reflection condition and on the power maximization approach for ultrasound energy receivers. We test a high loss 1–3 composite transducer, and find that the measurements agree very well with the predictions of the analytic model for plate transducers that we have developed previously. Additionally, we also confirm that the power maximization and zero reflection loads are very different when the losses in the receiver are high. Finally, we compare the optimal load predictions by the KLM and the analytic models with frequency dependent attenuation to evaluate the influence of the viscosity.

  10. Calculation of differential seismograms using analytic partial derivatives - I: teleseismic receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shaoqian; Zhu, Lupei

    2017-08-01

    Teleseismic receiver function inversion for crustal and upper-mantle velocity structure is intrinsically nonlinear and is often solved by iterative linearization methods. This requires calculation of partial derivatives of receiver functions with respect to model parameters which has been done by finite differences so far. Here we derived analytic partial derivatives of receiver functions with respect to different model parameters in multilayered velocity model using the Haskell propagation matrix formalism. We also implemented a speed-up algorithm to compute differential receiver functions by storing intermediate products of Haskell matrices so that the total computation time is linearly proportional to the number of layers in the model. Numerical tests show that our implementation is correct, numerically stable and efficient. Using more accurate analytic partial derivatives in receiver function inversions helps iterative inversion to converge more rapidly than using finite-differences partial derivatives. We also found that the optimal perturbation size in computing finite-differences partial derivatives of receiver functions is between 0.01 per cent and 0.1 per cent. Our results should be applicable to a range of geophysical inverse problems involving receiver functions.

  11. Analytical estimation of laser phase noise induced BER floor in coherent receiver with digital signal processing.

    PubMed

    Vanin, Evgeny; Jacobsen, Gunnar

    2010-03-01

    The Bit-Error-Ratio (BER) floor caused by the laser phase noise in the optical fiber communication system with differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) and coherent detection followed by digital signal processing (DSP) is analytically evaluated. An in-phase and quadrature (I&Q) receiver with a carrier phase recovery using DSP is considered. The carrier phase recovery is based on a phase estimation of a finite sum (block) of the signal samples raised to the power of four and the phase unwrapping at transitions between blocks. It is demonstrated that errors generated at block transitions cause the dominating contribution to the system BER floor when the impact of the additive noise is negligibly small in comparison with the effect of the laser phase noise. Even the BER floor in the case when the phase unwrapping is omitted is analytically derived and applied to emphasize the crucial importance of this signal processing operation. The analytical results are verified by full Monte Carlo simulations. The BER for another type of DQPSK receiver operation, which is based on differential phase detection, is also obtained in the analytical form using the principle of conditional probability. The principle of conditional probability is justified in the case of differential phase detection due to statistical independency of the laser phase noise induced signal phase error and the additive noise contributions. Based on the achieved analytical results the laser linewidth tolerance is calculated for different system cases.

  12. Analytic model for ultrasound energy receivers and their optimal electric loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorostiaga, M.; Wapler, M. C.; Wallrabe, U.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we present an analytic model for thickness resonating plate ultrasound energy receivers, which we have derived from the piezoelectric and the wave equations and, in which we have included dielectric, viscosity and acoustic attenuation losses. Afterwards, we explore the optimal electric load predictions by the zero reflection and power maximization approaches present in the literature with different acoustic boundary conditions, and discuss their limitations. To validate our model, we compared our expressions with the KLM model solved numerically with very good agreement. Finally, we discuss the differences between the zero reflection and power maximization optimal electric loads, which start to differ as losses in the receiver increase.

  13. Phenol Analysis -- Some Analytical Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starkey, R. J., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Contamination of potable water supplies with halogenated phenols in concentrations of 2-10 parts per billion (ppb) produces objectionable tastes and odors capable of influencing consumer acceptability. Routine analysis by the distillation/ 4-aminoantipyrine method is limited by lack of sensitivity and subject to interference by aryl amines. This has been overcome by developing a continuous liquid-liquid extraction system to selectively isolate phenols and eliminate major interfering substances. Stable reagents have been formulated to reduce blank color and extend sensitivity. Equipment suitable for analysis of phenols at the 1 ppb level or less in 20 minutes is described.

  14. Thermal analysis of honeycomb ceramic air receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qing; Wang, Zhifeng; Bai, Fengwu; Chu, Shunzhou; Yang, Bei

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the heat transfer between air flow and honeycomb ceramic air receiver. A one-dimensional model of the receiver was established considering the distribution of the solar radiation within the channel and the radiative heat transfer between the inner surfaces. The sensitivity studies had been done to explore the influences of the absorber geometric parameters, the incident solar radiation and the air flow rate on the receiver steady-state thermal efficiency and outlet air temperature. The minimal absorber length was analyzed to ensure high thermal efficiency, which is significant for the receiver design and optimization.

  15. BASE Flexible Array Preliminary Receiver Function Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeck, W. L.; Sheehan, A. F.; Schulte-Pelkum, V.; Yang, Z.; Anderson, M. L.; Erslev, E.

    2010-12-01

    We present high-density, high-resolution receiver function (RF) images of the Bighorn Mountains of north central Wyoming, to gain insight into the subsurface seismic structures of the range, as part of the Bighorn Arch Seismic Experiment (BASE). Our data set contains over 220 three component seismic stations in the Bighorns region, in some areas with spacing less than 5 km. BASE is a Flexible Array experiment integrated with Earthscope. In order to investigate the Bighorns, a large-scale deployment of seismic instrumentation was deployed in the summers of 2009 and 2010. This included 38 broadband and 172 short period seismic stations, as well as both passive and active source ‘Texan’ deployments. Stations were placed to both densify the already present Transportable Array network as well as to create 5 linear transects. Station spacing along these transects range from four to ten kilometers, crossing the Bighorn Basin, through the Bighorn Arch, and into the Powder River Basin. The main objective of the BASE project is to better understand the tectonic processes involved in the formation of basement-cored arches. The formation of these structures remains a key unsolved tectonic problem. The Bighorn Mountains are an archetype of basement-involved foreland arches and therefore act as an excellent setting for the investigation of these types of structures. Four main formation models have been proposed for the Bighorns, each with unique crustal structures. Through a complete structural analysis of the range, relying heavily on seismic subsurface imaging, it will be possible to determine which of these models best fit observations. Moho topography is a crucial component in supporting these hypotheses, and should be well resolved with RF imaging. In this study P-S wave RFs are used to image the structures beneath the Bighorn Mountains. We present ideas for modeling and filtering approaches to dampen low velocity sedimentary layer reverberations in the Powder River and

  16. Analysis of Optimum Heterodyne Receivers for Coherent Lidar Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2002-01-01

    A full analysis of the combined effects of all the noise sources of optical heterodyne receiver and the interaction between the competing control parameters of the receiver detector and pre-amplifier will be presented. This analysis provides the mean for true optimization of the coherent lidar receiver. The significance of the optimization of heterodyne receiver is shown for 2-micron coherent lidar.

  17. Analytic process and dreaming about analysis.

    PubMed

    Sirois, François

    2016-12-01

    Dreams about the analytic session feature a manifest content in which the analytic setting is subject to distortion while the analyst appears undisguised. Such dreams are a consistent yet infrequent occurrence in most analyses. Their specificity consists in never reproducing the material conditions of the analysis as such. This paper puts forward the following hypothesis: dreams about the session relate to some aspects of the analyst's activity. In this sense, such dreams are indicative of the transference neurosis, prefiguring transference resistances to the analytic elaboration of key conflicts. The parts taken by the patient and by the analyst are discussed in terms of their ability to signal a deepening of the analysis. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  18. ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR MOX COLEMANITE SAMPLES RECEIVED ON JULY 22, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.; Best, D.

    2013-08-13

    The Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) will use colemanite bearing concrete neutron absorber panels credited with attenuating neutron flux in the criticality design analyses and shielding operators from radiation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is tasked with measuring the boron oxide content of the colemanite raw aggregate material prior to it being mixed into the concrete. SRNL received ten samples of colemanite for analysis on July 22, 2013. The elemental boron content of each sample was measured according to ASTM C 1301. The boron oxide content was calculated using the oxide conversion factor for boron.

  19. ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR MOX COLEMANITE SAMPLES RECEIVED ON JULY 22, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.; Best, D.

    2014-05-19

    The Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) will use colemanite bearing concrete neutron absorber panels credited with attenuating neutron flux in the criticality design analyses and shielding operators from radiation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is tasked with measuring the boron oxide content of the colemanite raw aggregate material prior to it being mixed into the concrete. SRNL received ten samples of colemanite for analysis on July 22, 2013. The elemental boron content of each sample was measured according to ASTM C 1301. The boron oxide content was calculated using the oxide conversion factor for boron.

  20. Coherent receiving efficiency in satellite-ground coherent laser communication system based on analysis of polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Shiqi; Zhang, Dai; Zhao, Qingsong; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Qi

    2017-06-01

    Aimed at analyzing the coherent receiving efficiency of a satellite-ground coherent laser communication system, polarization state of the received light is analyzed. We choose the circularly polarized, partially coherent laser as transmitted light source. The analysis process includes 3 parts. Firstly, an theoretical model to analyze received light's polarization state is constructed based on Gaussian-Schell model (GSM) and cross spectral density function matrix. Then, analytic formulas to calculate coherent receiving efficiency are derived in which both initial ellipticity modification and deflection angle between polarization axes of the received light and the intrinsic light are considered. At last, numerical simulations are operated based on our study. The research findings investigate variations of polarization state and obtain analytic formulas to calculate the coherent receiving efficiency. Our study has theoretical guiding significances in construction and optimization of satellite-ground coherent laser communication system.

  1. Visual analytics for power grid contingency analysis.

    PubMed

    Pak Chung Wong; Zhenyu Huang; Yousu Chen; Mackey, Patrick; Shuangshuang Jin

    2014-01-01

    Contingency analysis employs different measures to model scenarios, analyze them, and then derive the best response to any threats. A proposed visual-analytics pipeline for power grid management can transform approximately 100 million contingency scenarios to a manageable size and form. Grid operators can examine individual scenarios and devise preventive or mitigation strategies in a timely manner. Power grid engineers have applied the pipeline to a Western Electricity Coordinating Council power grid model.

  2. Analytical Results For MOX Colemanite Concrete Samples Received On September 4, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, Marissa M.

    2013-09-24

    The Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) will use colemanite bearing concrete neutron absorber panels credited with attenuating neutron flux in the criticality design analyses and shielding operators from radiation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is tasked with measuring the total density, partial hydrogen density, and partial boron density of the colemanite concrete. SRNL received three samples of colemanite concrete for analysis on September 4, 2013. The average total density of each of the samples measured by the ASTM method C 642, the average partial hydrogen density was measured using method ASTM E 1131, and the average partial boron density of each sample was measured according to ASTM C 1301. The lower limits and measured values for the total density, hydrogen partial density, and boron partial density are presented. For all the samples tested, the total density and the boron partial density met or exceeded the specified limit. None of the samples met the lower limit for hydrogen partial density.

  3. ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR MOX COLEMANITE CONCRETE SAMPLES RECEIVED ON SEPTEMBER 4, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.

    2014-05-19

    The Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) will use colemanite bearing concrete neutron absorber panels credited with attenuating neutron flux in the criticality design analyses and shielding operators from radiation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is tasked with measuring the total density, partial hydrogen density, and partial boron density of the colemanite concrete. SRNL received three samples of colemanite concrete for analysis on September 4, 2013. The average total density of each of the samples measured by the ASTM method C 642, the average partial hydrogen density was measured using method ASTM E 1131, and the average partial boron density of each sample was measured according to ASTM C 1301. The lower limits and measured values for the total density, hydrogen partial density, and boron partial density are presented. For all the samples tested, the total density and the boron partial density met or exceeded the specified limit. None of the samples met the lower limit for hydrogen partial density.

  4. Analytical Results For MOX Colemanite Concrete Samples Received On November, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, Marissa M.

    2013-12-18

    The Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) will use colemanite bearing concrete neutron absorber panels credited with attenuating neutron flux in the criticality design analyses and shielding operators from radiation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is tasked with measuring the total density, partial hydrogen density, and partial boron density of the colemanite concrete. SRNL received two samples of colemanite concrete for analysis on November 21, 2013. The average total density of each of the samples measured by the ASTM method C 642, the average partial hydrogen density was measured using method ASTM E 1131, and the average partial boron density of each sample was measured according to ASTM C 1301. For all the samples tested, the total density and the boron partial density met or exceeded the specified limit. None of the samples met the lower limit for hydrogen partial density.

  5. ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR MOX COLEMANITE CONCRETE SAMPLES RECEIVED ON NOVEMBER 21, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.

    2014-05-19

    The Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) will use colemanite bearing concrete neutron absorber panels credited with attenuating neutron flux in the criticality design analyses and shielding operators from radiation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is tasked with measuring the total density, partial hydrogen density, and partial boron density of the colemanite concrete. SRNL received two samples of colemanite concrete for analysis on November 21, 2013. The average total density of each of the samples measured by the ASTM method C 642, the average partial hydrogen density was measured using method ASTM E 1131, and the average partial boron density of each sample was measured according to ASTM C 1301. The lower limits and measured values for the total density, hydrogen partial density, and boron partial density are presented. For all the samples tested, the total density and the boron partial density met or exceeded the specified limit. None of the samples met the lower limit for hydrogen partial density.

  6. Analytical techniques and instrumentation: A compilation. [analytical instrumentation, materials performance, and systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Technical information is presented covering the areas of: (1) analytical instrumentation useful in the analysis of physical phenomena; (2) analytical techniques used to determine the performance of materials; and (3) systems and component analyses for design and quality control.

  7. The Relation of Perceived and Received Social Support to Mental Health among First Responders: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prati, Gabriele; Pietrantoni, Luca

    2010-01-01

    There are plenty of theories that may support the protective role of social support in the aftermath of potentially traumatic events. This meta-analytic review examined the role of received and perceived social support in promoting mental health among first responders (e.g., firefighters, police officers, and paramedics or emergency medical…

  8. The Relation of Perceived and Received Social Support to Mental Health among First Responders: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prati, Gabriele; Pietrantoni, Luca

    2010-01-01

    There are plenty of theories that may support the protective role of social support in the aftermath of potentially traumatic events. This meta-analytic review examined the role of received and perceived social support in promoting mental health among first responders (e.g., firefighters, police officers, and paramedics or emergency medical…

  9. Analytic closed orbit analysis for RHIC insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y. . Dept. of Physics); Tepikian, S. )

    1991-01-01

    Analytic closed orbit analysis is performed to evaluate the tolerance of quadrupole misalignment and dipole errors (b{sub 0},a{sub 0}) in the RHIC insertion. Sensitivity coefficients of these errors are tabulated for different {beta}{sup 0} values. Using these sensitivity tables, we found that the power supplies ripple of 10{sup {minus}4} can cause closed orbit motion of 0.05 mm at the IP in comparison with the rms beam size of 0.3 mm. It is desirable to have the power supply ripple less than 10{sup {minus}5}. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Visual Analytics for Power Grid Contingency Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Mackey, Patrick S.; Jin, Shuangshuang

    2014-01-20

    Contingency analysis is the process of employing different measures to model scenarios, analyze them, and then derive the best response to remove the threats. This application paper focuses on a class of contingency analysis problems found in the power grid management system. A power grid is a geographically distributed interconnected transmission network that transmits and delivers electricity from generators to end users. The power grid contingency analysis problem is increasingly important because of both the growing size of the underlying raw data that need to be analyzed and the urgency to deliver working solutions in an aggressive timeframe. Failure to do so may bring significant financial, economic, and security impacts to all parties involved and the society at large. The paper presents a scalable visual analytics pipeline that transforms about 100 million contingency scenarios to a manageable size and form for grid operators to examine different scenarios and come up with preventive or mitigation strategies to address the problems in a predictive and timely manner. Great attention is given to the computational scalability, information scalability, visual scalability, and display scalability issues surrounding the data analytics pipeline. Most of the large-scale computation requirements of our work are conducted on a Cray XMT multi-threaded parallel computer. The paper demonstrates a number of examples using western North American power grid models and data.

  11. ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR MOX COLEMANITE CONCRETE SAMPLES RECEIVED ON JANUARY 15, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.

    2014-05-19

    The Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) will use colemanite bearing concrete neutron absorber panels credited with attenuating neutron flux in the criticality design analyses and shielding operators from radiation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is tasked with measuring the total density, partial hydrogen density, and partial boron density of the colemanite concrete. SRNL received twelve samples of colemanite concrete for analysis on January 15, 2013. The average total density of each of the samples measured by the ASTM method C 642, the average partial hydrogen density was measured using method ASTM E 1131, and the average partial boron density of each sample was measured according to ASTM C 1301. The lower limits and measured values for the total density, hydrogen partial density, and boron partial density are presented. For all the samples tested, the total density and the hydrogen partial density met or exceeded the specified limit. All of the samples met or exceeded the boron partial density lower bound with the exception of samples G3-M11-2000-H, G3-M11-3000-M, and G5-M1-3000-H which are below the limit of 1.65E-01 g/cm{sup 3}.

  12. ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR MOX COLEMANITE CONCRETE SAMPLES RECEIVED ON JANUARY 15, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.; Best, D.

    2013-02-13

    The Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) will use colemanite bearing concrete neutron absorber panels credited with attenuating neutron flux in the criticality design analyses and shielding operators from radiation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is tasked with measuring the total density, partial hydrogen density, and partial boron density of the colemanite concrete. SRNL received twelve samples of colemanite concrete for analysis on January 15, 2013. The average total density of each of the samples measured by the ASTM method C 642, the average partial hydrogen density was measured using method ASTM E 1311, and the average partial boron density of each sample was measured according to ASTM C 1301. The lower limits and measured values for the total density, hydrogen partial density, and boron partial density are presented. For all the samples tested, the total density and the hydrogen partial density met or exceeded the specified limit. All of the samples met or exceeded the boron partial density lower bound with the exception of samples G3-M11-2000-H, G3-M11-3000-M, and G5-M1-3000-H which are below the limit of 1.65E-01 g/cm3.

  13. Analytical signal analysis of strange nonchaotic dynamics.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Kopal; Prasad, Awadhesh; Singh, Harinder P; Ramaswamy, Ramakrishna

    2008-04-01

    We apply an analytical signal analysis to strange nonchaotic dynamics. Through this technique it is possible to obtain the spectrum of instantaneous intrinsic mode frequencies that are present in a given signal. We find that the second-mode frequency and its variance are good order parameters for dynamical transitions from quasiperiodic tori to strange nonchaotic attractors (SNAs) and from SNAs to chaotic attractors. Phase fluctuation analysis shows that SNAs and chaotic attractors behave identically within short time windows as a consequence of local instabilities in the dynamics. In longer time windows, however, the globally stable character of SNAs becomes apparent. This methodology can be of great utility in the analysis of experimental time series, and representative applications are made to signals obtained from Rössler and Duffing oscillators.

  14. Analytical and experimental performance evaluation of an integrated Si-photonic balanced coherent receiver in a colorless scenario.

    PubMed

    Morsy-Osman, Mohamed; Chagnon, Mathieu; Xu, Xian; Zhuge, Qunbi; Poulin, Michel; Painchaud, Yves; Pelletier, Martin; Paquet, Carl; Plant, David V

    2014-03-10

    We study analytically and experimentally the performance limits of a Si-photonic (SiP) balanced coherent receiver (CRx) co-packaged with transimpedance amplifiers (TIAs) in a colorless WDM scheme. Firstly, the CRx architecture is depicted and characterization results are presented. Secondly, an analytical expression for the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the CRx output is rigorously developed and various noise sources in the context of colorless reception are outlined. Thirdly, we study experimentally the system-level CRx performance in colorless reception of 16 × 112 Gbps PDM-QPSK WDM channels. Using a 15.5 dBm local oscillator (LO) power, error free transmissions over 4800 and 4160 km at received powers of -3 and -21 dBm per channel, respectively, were achieved in a fully colorless and preamplifierless reception. Next, a set of measurements on one of the center WDM channels is performed where the LO power, received signal power, distance, and number of channels presented to the CRx are swept to evaluate the performance limits of colorless reception. Results reveal that the LO beating with optical noise incoming with the signal is a dominant noise source regardless of received signal power. In the high received signal power regime (~0 dBm/channel), the self-beat noise from out-of-band (OOB) channels is an additional major noise source especially for small LO-to-signal power ratio, short reach and large number of OOB channels. For example, at a received signal power of 0 dBm/channel after 1600 km transmission, the SNR difference between the fully filtered and colorless scenarios, where 1 and 16 channels are passed to the CRx respectively, grows from 0.5 to 3.3 dB as the LO power changes from 12 to 0 dBm. For low received power (~-12 dBm/channel), the effect of OOB channels becomes minor while the receiver shot and thermal noises become more significant. We identify the common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) and sensitivity as the two important CRx specifications that

  15. Comparison of analytical eddy current models using principal components analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contant, S.; Luloff, M.; Morelli, J.; Krause, T. W.

    2017-02-01

    Monitoring the gap between the pressure tube (PT) and the calandria tube (CT) in CANDU® fuel channels is essential, as contact between the two tubes can lead to delayed hydride cracking of the pressure tube. Multifrequency transmit-receive eddy current non-destructive evaluation is used to determine this gap, as this method has different depths of penetration and variable sensitivity to noise, unlike single frequency eddy current non-destructive evaluation. An Analytical model based on the Dodd and Deeds solutions, and a second model that accounts for normal and lossy self-inductances, and a non-coaxial pickup coil, are examined for representing the response of an eddy current transmit-receive probe when considering factors that affect the gap response, such as pressure tube wall thickness and pressure tube resistivity. The multifrequency model data was analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA), a statistical method used to reduce the data set into a data set of fewer variables. The results of the PCA of the analytical models were then compared to PCA performed on a previously obtained experimental data set. The models gave similar results under variable PT wall thickness conditions, but the non-coaxial coil model, which accounts for self-inductive losses, performed significantly better than the Dodd and Deeds model under variable resistivity conditions.

  16. Guided Text Analysis Using Adaptive Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; Symons, Christopher T; DeNap, Frank A; Potok, Thomas E; Potok, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the promise of augmenting interactive visualizations with semi-supervised machine learning techniques to improve the discovery of significant associations and insight in the search and analysis of textual information. More specifically, we have developed a system called Gryffin that hosts a unique collection of techniques that facilitate individualized investigative search pertaining to an ever-changing set of analytical questions over an indexed collection of open-source publications related to national infrastructure. The Gryffin client hosts dynamic displays of the search results via focus+context record listings, temporal timelines, term- frequency views, and multiple coordinated views. Furthermore, as the analyst interacts with the display, the interactions are recorded and used to label the search records. These labeled records are then used to drive semi-supervised machine learning algorithms that re-rank the unlabeled search records such that potentially relevant records are moved to the top of the record listing. Gryffin is described in the context of the daily tasks encountered at the Department of Homeland Securitys Fusion Centers, with whom we are collaborating in its development. The resulting system is capable of addressing the analysts information overload that can be directly attributed to the deluge of information that must be addressed in search and investigative analysis of textual information.

  17. ALARA: Analytic and Laplacian adaptive radioactivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Paul Philip Hood

    While many codes have been written to compute the induced activation and changes in composition caused by neutron irradiation, most of those which are still being updated are only slowly adding functionality and not improving the accuracy, speed and usability of their existing methods. ALARA moves forward in all four of these areas, with primary importance being placed on the accuracy and speed of solution. By carefully analyzing the various ways to model the physical system, the methods to solve the mathematical problem and the interaction between these two issues, ALARA chooses an optimum combination to achieve high accuracy, fast computation, and enhanced versatility and ease of use. In addition to a set of base features, standard to any activation code, ALARA offers a number of extensions, including arbitrary hierarchical irradiation schedules and a form of reverse problem for calculating the detailed activation of specific isotopes. The physical system is modeled using advanced linear chains, which include the contributions from straightened loops in the reaction scheme, while the truncation philosophy minimizes the discrepancies between the model and the real problem. The mathematical method is then adaptively chosen based on the characteristics of each linear chain to use analytically exact methods when possible and an accurate expansion technique otherwise. ALARA has been successfully validated against established fusion activation codes using a standard activation benchmark problem. In addition to demonstrating ALARA 's accuracy, this validation excerise has demonstrated its speed. Furthermore, by extending the benchmark problem to validate its advanced features, ALARA 's flexibility has been proven. With its modern computational techniques and continuing development, it is hoped that ALARA will become a widely used code for the activation analysis of nuclear systems.

  18. Analytic standard errors for exploratory process factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangjian; Browne, Michael W; Ong, Anthony D; Chow, Sy Miin

    2014-07-01

    Exploratory process factor analysis (EPFA) is a data-driven latent variable model for multivariate time series. This article presents analytic standard errors for EPFA. Unlike standard errors for exploratory factor analysis with independent data, the analytic standard errors for EPFA take into account the time dependency in time series data. In addition, factor rotation is treated as the imposition of equality constraints on model parameters. Properties of the analytic standard errors are demonstrated using empirical and simulated data.

  19. Analytical Evaluation of Bit Error Rate Performance of a Free-Space Optical Communication System with Receive Diversity Impaired by Pointing Error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazrul Islam, A. K. M.; Majumder, S. P.

    2015-06-01

    Analysis is carried out to evaluate the conditional bit error rate conditioned on a given value of pointing error for a Free Space Optical (FSO) link with multiple receivers using Equal Gain Combining (EGC). The probability density function (pdf) of output signal to noise ratio (SNR) is also derived in presence of pointing error with EGC. The average BER of a SISO and SIMO FSO links are analytically evaluated by averaging the conditional BER over the pdf of the output SNR. The BER performance results are evaluated for several values of pointing jitter parameters and number of IM/DD receivers. The results show that, the FSO system suffers significant power penalty due to pointing error and can be reduced by increasing in the number of receivers at a given value of pointing error. The improvement of receiver sensitivity over SISO is about 4 dB and 9 dB when the number of photodetector is 2 and 4 at a BER of 10-10. It is also noticed that, system with receive diversity can tolerate higher value of pointing error at a given BER and transmit power.

  20. Finite Element Analysis of the LOLA Receiver Telescope Lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matzinger, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the finite element stress and distortion analysis completed on the Receiver Telescope lens of the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA). LOLA is one of six instruments on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), scheduled to launch in 2008. LOLA's main objective is to produce a high-resolution global lunar topographic model to aid in safe landings and enhance surface mobility in future exploration missions. The Receiver Telescope captures the laser pulses transmitted through a diffractive optical element (DOE) and reflected off the lunar surface. The largest lens of the Receiver Telescope, Lens 1, is a 150 mm diameter aspheric lens originally designed to be made of BK7 glass. The finite element model of the Receiver Telescope Lens 1 is comprised of solid elements and constrained in a manner consistent with the behavior of the mounting configuration of the Receiver Telescope tube. Twenty-one temperature load cases were mapped to the nodes based on thermal analysis completed by LOLA's lead thermal analyst, and loads were applied to simulate the preload applied from the ring flexure. The thermal environment of the baseline design (uncoated BK7 lens with no baffle) produces large radial and axial gradients in the lens. These large gradients create internal stresses that may lead to part failure, as well as significant bending that degrades optical performance. The high stresses and large distortions shown in the analysis precipitated a design change from BK7 glass to sapphire.

  1. Audience Analysis: A Programmed Approach to Receiver Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, James W.; Hanna, Michael S.

    This branching programmed instructional workbook focuses on how people behave when they hear messages. Included are materials on audience/receiver behavior and a self-instructional supplement to materials that are a part of other communication studies. Drawings and diagrams illustrate the discussions of self-analysis, selection of audiences and…

  2. Superconducting integrated terahertz receiver for spectral analysis of gas compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinev, N. V.; Filippenko, L. V.; Kalashnikov, K. V.; Kiselev, O. S.; Vaks, V. L.; Domracheva, E. G.; Koshelets, V. P.

    2016-08-01

    A new highly sensitive device for analysis of gas compounds in terahertz frequency range based on the superconducting integrated receiver is being developed. Such receiver for spectral research of Earth atmosphere from balloon-borne instrument was developed earlier in Kotel'nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics and successfully operated during several flight missions. In this work, the laboratory setup for gas spectroscopy in the range of 450-700 GHz with the noise temperature below 150 K and spectral resolution better than 0.5 MHz is presented. First results of measurements of NH3 and H2O absorption spectra are obtained.

  3. Workflow and cost analysis on MODULAR ANALYTICS.

    PubMed

    Stolz, Herbert; Dossler, Bettina; Keller, Franz; Steigerwald, Udo

    2003-01-01

    Four stand-alone analyzers in a centralized laboratory were replaced by two modular analytical systems processing 45 methods of the general chemistry and specific protein segment. This consolidation led to a reduction of the daily workflow and operational costs. The cost saving with 1.3 million reported results per year was 53,000 Euro, which can be assessed as an important contribution to cost reduction in the health care system.

  4. Mission Stream Analysis - Delta Analytic Model. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    demonstrating mission effectiveness. The second tool is the  ( Delta ) Analytic Model, which provides an approach for identifying disparate...requirements into a system’s technical performance and operator workload requirements; and help minimize the “ delta ” between domains across the system’s...mission and system capability requirements into a system’s technical performance and operator workload requirements; and help minimize the “ delta

  5. Economic Risk Analysis: Using Analytical and Monte Carlo Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Brendan R.; Hickner, Michael A.; Barna, Bruce A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development and instructional use of a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet template that facilitates analytical and Monte Carlo risk analysis of investment decisions. Discusses a variety of risk assessment methods followed by applications of the analytical and Monte Carlo methods. Uses a case study to illustrate use of the spreadsheet tool…

  6. Receiver function analysis applied to refraction survey data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subaru, T.; Kyosuke, O.; Hitoshi, M.

    2008-12-01

    For the estimation of the thickness of oceanic crust or petrophysical investigation of subsurface material, refraction or reflection seismic exploration is one of the methods frequently practiced. These explorations use four-component (x,y,z component of acceleration and pressure) seismometer, but only compressional wave or vertical component of seismometers tends to be used in the analyses. Hence, it is needed to use shear wave or lateral component of seismograms for more precise investigation to estimate the thickness of oceanic crust. Receiver function is a function at a place that can be used to estimate the depth of velocity interfaces by receiving waves from teleseismic signal including shear wave. Receiver function analysis uses both vertical and horizontal components of seismograms and deconvolves the horizontal with the vertical to estimate the spectral difference of P-S converted waves arriving after the direct P wave. Once the phase information of the receiver function is obtained, then one can estimate the depth of the velocity interface. This analysis has advantage in the estimation of the depth of velocity interface including Mohorovicic discontinuity using two components of seismograms when P-to-S converted waves are generated at the interface. Our study presents results of the preliminary study using synthetic seismograms. First, we use three types of geological models that are composed of a single sediment layer, a crust layer, and a sloped Moho, respectively, for underground sources. The receiver function can estimate the depth and shape of Moho interface precisely for the three models. Second, We applied this method to synthetic refraction survey data generated not by earthquakes but by artificial sources on the ground or sea surface. Compressional seismic waves propagate under the velocity interface and radiate converted shear waves as well as at the other deep underground layer interfaces. However, the receiver function analysis applied to the

  7. Analytical analysis of particle-core dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Batygin, Yuri K

    2010-01-01

    Particle-core interaction is a well-developed model of halo formation in high-intensity beams. In this paper, we present an analytical solution for averaged, single particle dynamics, around a uniformly charged beam. The problem is analyzed through a sequence of canonical transformations of the Hamiltonian, which describes nonlinear particle oscillations. A closed form expression for maximum particle deviation from the axis is obtained. The results of this study are in good agreement with numerical simulations and with previously obtained data.

  8. UV Lidar Receiver Analysis for Tropospheric Sensing of Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pliutau, Denis; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2013-01-01

    A simulation of a ground based Ultra-Violet Differential Absorption Lidar (UV-DIAL) receiver system was performed under realistic daytime conditions to understand how range and lidar performance can be improved for a given UV pulse laser energy. Calculations were also performed for an aerosol channel transmitting at 3 W. The lidar receiver simulation studies were optimized for the purpose of tropospheric ozone measurements. The transmitted lidar UV measurements were from 285 to 295 nm and the aerosol channel was 527-nm. The calculations are based on atmospheric transmission given by the HITRAN database and the Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) meteorological data. The aerosol attenuation is estimated using both the BACKSCAT 4.0 code as well as data collected during the CALIPSO mission. The lidar performance is estimated for both diffuseirradiance free cases corresponding to nighttime operation as well as the daytime diffuse scattered radiation component based on previously reported experimental data. This analysis presets calculations of the UV-DIAL receiver ozone and aerosol measurement range as a function of sky irradiance, filter bandwidth and laser transmitted UV and 527-nm energy

  9. Summative Mass Analysis of Algal Biomass - Integration of Analytical Procedures: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Laurens, Lieve M. L.

    2016-01-13

    This procedure guides the integration of laboratory analytical procedures to measure algal biomass constituents in an unambiguous manner and ultimately achieve mass balance closure for algal biomass samples. Many of these methods build on years of research in algal biomass analysis.

  10. Single Cell Analysis of a Bacterial Sender-Receiver System

    PubMed Central

    Mückl, Andrea; Kapsner, Korbinian; Gerland, Ulrich; Simmel, Friedrich C.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring gene expression dynamics on the single cell level provides important information on cellular heterogeneity and stochasticity, and potentially allows for more accurate quantitation of gene expression processes. We here study bacterial senders and receivers genetically engineered with components of the quorum sensing system derived from Aliivibrio fischeri on the single cell level using microfluidics-based bacterial chemostats and fluorescence video microscopy. We track large numbers of bacteria over extended periods of time, which allows us to determine bacterial lineages and filter out subpopulations within a heterogeneous population. We quantitatively determine the dynamic gene expression response of receiver bacteria to varying amounts of the quorum sensing inducer N-3-oxo-C6-homoserine lactone (AHL). From this we construct AHL response curves and characterize gene expression dynamics of whole bacterial populations by investigating the statistical distribution of gene expression activity over time. The bacteria are found to display heterogeneous induction behavior within the population. We therefore also characterize gene expression in a homogeneous bacterial subpopulation by focusing on single cell trajectories derived only from bacteria with similar induction behavior. The response at the single cell level is found to be more cooperative than that obtained for the heterogeneous total population. For the analysis of systems containing both AHL senders and receiver cells, we utilize the receiver cells as ‘bacterial sensors’ for AHL. Based on a simple gene expression model and the response curves obtained in receiver-only experiments, the effective AHL concentration established by the senders and their ‘sending power’ is determined. PMID:26808777

  11. Correlation analysis between ionospheric scintillation levels and receiver tracking performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreeja, V.; Aquino, M.; Elmas, Z. G.; Forte, B.

    2012-06-01

    Rapid fluctuations in the amplitude and phase of a transionospheric radio signal caused by small scale plasma density irregularities in the ionosphere are known as scintillation. Scintillation can seriously impair a GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) receiver tracking performance, thus affecting the required levels of availability, accuracy and integrity, and consequently the reliability of modern day GNSS based applications. This paper presents an analysis of correlation between scintillation levels and tracking performance of a GNSS receiver for GPS L1C/A, L2C and GLONASS L1, L2 signals. The analyses make use of data recorded over Presidente Prudente (22.1°S, 51.4°W, dip latitude ˜12.3°S) in Brazil, a location close to the Equatorial Ionisation Anomaly (EIA) crest in Latin America. The study presents for the first time this type of correlation analysis for GPS L2C and GLONASS L1, L2 signals. The scintillation levels are defined by the amplitude scintillation index, S4 and the receiver tracking performance is evaluated by the phase tracking jitter. Both S4 and the phase tracking jitter are estimated from the post correlation In-Phase (I) and Quadra-Phase (Q) components logged by the receiver at a high rate. Results reveal that the dependence of the phase tracking jitter on the scintillation levels can be represented by a quadratic fit for the signals. The results presented in this paper are of importance to GNSS users, especially in view of the forthcoming high phase of solar cycle 24 (predicted for 2013).

  12. Pre-analytical and analytical issues in the analysis of blood microparticles.

    PubMed

    Yuana, Yuana; Bertina, Rogier M; Osanto, Susanne

    2011-03-01

    Results of plasma microparticles (MPs) measurements reported in the literature vary widely. This is clearly not only related to the lack of well-standardised MP assays, but also to variations in pre-analytical conditions. In this review we will discuss the pre-analytical variables related to plasma and MP preparation which may affect MP analysis. Additionally we will address several analytical issues in commonly used MP assays and briefly discuss some novel approaches for the detection and characterisation of MPs. Ideally MP measurements should be performed in plasma, freshly prepared directly after blood withdrawal. As platelet contamination seems to be one of the major pre-analytical problems in processing plasma for MP measurement, the use of platelet-free plasma may be preferred. When frozen-thawed plasma is used, especially PMP and annexinV-positive MP counts should be interpreted with caution. When flow cytometry is chosen as a method for quantification of MPs, some analytical conditions should be standardised, e.g. settings of the flow cytometer, quality of the antibodies, and use of counting beads. Fluorescence-nanoparticle tracking analysis and atomic force microscopy can accurately count nanosized MPs, but unfortunately the operational procedures of both methods are still time consuming and they give no information on the functional properties of MPs. The MP-TF activity assay provides information on MPs carrying active TF, regardless of their parental origin. Ultimately, standardisation of pre-analytical procedures and the introduction of reliable and rapid methods for the measurement of MPs are urgently needed to facilitate their use as biomarker in the pathophysiology of diseases.

  13. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for characterizing synaptic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Chance, Frances S

    2007-02-01

    The role of background synaptic activity in cortical processing has recently received much attention. How do individual neurons extract information when embedded in a noisy background? When examining the impact of a synaptic input on postsynaptic firing, it is important to distinguish a change in overall firing probability from a true change in neuronal sensitivity to a particular input (synaptic efficacy) that corresponds to a change in detection performance. Here we study the impact of background synaptic input on neuronal sensitivity to individual synaptic inputs using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. We use the area under the ROC curve as a measure of synaptic efficacy, here defined as the ability of a postsynaptic action potential to identify a particular synaptic input event. An advantage of using ROC analysis to measure synaptic efficacy is that it provides a measure that is independent of postsynaptic firing rate. Furthermore, changes in mean excitation or inhibition, although affecting overall firing probability, do not modulate synaptic efficacy when measured in this way. Changes in overall conductance also affect firing probability but not this form of synaptic efficacy. Input noise, here defined as the variance of the input current, does modulate synaptic efficacy, however. This effect persists when the change in input variance is coupled with a change in conductance (as would result from changing background activity).

  14. Application and analysis of rake receiver to hybrid CPM modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, James A.; Nieto, John W.

    2011-06-01

    Constant Envelope, Spread Spectrum Modulation is highly desirable for low-power, battery-operated systems. It has been demonstrated that Hybrid CPM is a constant envelope modulation with similar frequency diversity properties to the standard spread-spectrum m-PSK DSSS and spread-MSK modulation schemes while retaining a superior emissions profile. This paper continues the analysis of the novel constant envelope spread spectrum modulation technique with an analysis of the commonly utilized rake receiver signal processing. Initially, a simple channel model is developed to illustrate and compare the convergence of the channel estimate over a fixed, non-time-varying channel. A more complex, wireless channel model is then developed and a new corresponding method for channel estimation created. A Monte- Carlo simulated bit error rate performance of Hybrid CPM is then generated to evaluate the overall performance of the Hybrid CPM modulation scheme.

  15. Advanced Durability Analysis. Volume 1. Analytical Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-31

    equivalent initial flaw size distribution. An equivalent initial flaw (EIFS) is an artificial crack size which results in an actual...analysis are as follows: (1) define the equivalent initial flaw size distribution (EIFSD) using fractographic data in the small crack size region (e.g...3 An Equivalent Initial Flaw Size Distribution Represents the Initial Fatigue Quality of Structural Details A-7 X LIST OF FIGURES (Cont’d) Figure

  16. Sensitivity analysis of heliostat aiming strategies and receiver size on annual thermal production of a molten salt external receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servert, Jorge; González, Ana; Gil, Javier; López, Diego; Funes, Jose Felix; Jurado, Alfonso

    2017-06-01

    Even though receiver size and aiming strategy are to be jointly analyzed to optimize the thermal energy that can be extracted from a solar tower receiver, customarily, they have been studied as separated problems. The main reason is the high-level of detail required to define aiming strategies, which are often simplified in annual simulation models. Aiming strategies are usually focused on obtaining a homogeneous heat flux on the central receiver, with the goal to minimize the maximum heat flux value that may lead to damaging it. Some recent studies have addressed the effect of different aiming strategies on different receiver types, but they have only focused on the optical efficiency. The receiver size is also an additional parameter that has to be considered: larger receiver sizes provide a larger aiming surface and a reduction on spillage losses, but require higher investment while penalizing the thermal performance of the receiver due to the greater external convection losses. The present paper presents a sensitivity analysis of both factors for a predefined solar field at a fixed location, using a central receiver and molten salts as HTF. The analysis includes the design point values and annual energy outputs comparing the effect on the optical performance (measured using a spillage factor) and thermal energy production.

  17. An overview on forensic analysis devoted to analytical chemists.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Peinado, L S; Luque de Castro, M D

    2017-05-15

    The present article has as main aim to show analytical chemists interested in forensic analysis the world they will face if decision in favor of being a forensic analytical chemist is adopted. With this purpose, the most outstanding aspects of forensic analysis in dealing with sampling (involving both bodily and no bodily samples), sample preparation, and analytical equipment used in detection, identification and quantitation of key sample components are critically discussed. The role of the great omics in forensic analysis, and the growing role of the youngest of the great omics -metabolomics- are also discussed. The foreseeable role of integrative omics is also outlined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Moho structure of the Anatolian Plate from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanacore, E. A.; Taymaz, T.; Saygin, E.

    2013-04-01

    Here we present first-order results detailing the Anatolian crustal from receiver function analysis of data from approximately 300 stations within Turkey. Seismic data from the Kandilli Observatory array (KOERI; KO), the National Seismic Network of Turkey (AFAD-DAD; TU) and available IRIS data from the Northern Anatolian Fault experiment (YL) for the period between 2005 and 2010 is analysed. We calculate receiver functions in the frequency domain using water-level deconvolution. The results are analysed using a combination of H-K stacking and depth stacking to determine robust Moho conversion depths and VP/Vs ratios across Anatolia. We detect a deep Moho in eastern Anatolia of up to ˜55 km, a generally normal Moho in Central Anatolia of ˜37-47 km and a thinned Moho in western Anatolia and Cyprus of ˜30 km. The VP/Vs ratio across the Anatolian Plate is generally slightly elevated; regions of extremely high VP/Vs ratio (>1.85) can be associated with recent volcanism in eastern and central Anatolia. High VP/Vs ratio measurements (>1.85) in western Anatolia may be indicative of partial melt in the lower crust associated with regional extension.

  19. Receive Mode Analysis and Design of Microstrip Reflectarrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rengarajan, Sembiam

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally microstrip or printed reflectarrays are designed using the transmit mode technique. In this method, the size of each printed element is chosen so as to provide the required value of the reflection phase such that a collimated beam results along a given direction. The reflection phase of each printed element is approximated using an infinite array model. The infinite array model is an excellent engineering approximation for a large microstrip array since the size or orientation of elements exhibits a slow spatial variation. In this model, the reflection phase from a given printed element is approximated by that of an infinite array of elements of the same size and orientation when illuminated by a local plane wave. Thus the reflection phase is a function of the size (or orientation) of the element, the elevation and azimuth angles of incidence of a local plane wave, and polarization. Typically, one computes the reflection phase of the infinite array as a function of several parameters such as size/orientation, elevation and azimuth angles of incidence, and in some cases for vertical and horizontal polarization. The design requires the selection of the size/orientation of the printed element to realize the required phase by interpolating or curve fitting all the computed data. This is a substantially complicated problem, especially in applications requiring a computationally intensive commercial code to determine the reflection phase. In dual polarization applications requiring rectangular patches, one needs to determine the reflection phase as a function of five parameters (dimensions of the rectangular patch, elevation and azimuth angles of incidence, and polarization). This is an extremely complex problem. The new method employs the reciprocity principle and reaction concept, two well-known concepts in electromagnetics to derive the receive mode analysis and design techniques. In the "receive mode design" technique, the reflection phase is computed

  20. FASP, an analytic resource appraisal program for petroleum play analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, R.A.; Balay, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    An analytic probabilistic methodology for resource appraisal of undiscovered oil and gas resources in play analysis is presented in a FORTRAN program termed FASP. This play-analysis methodology is a geostochastic system for petroleum resource appraisal in explored as well as frontier areas. An established geologic model considers both the uncertainty of the presence of the assessed hydrocarbon and its amount if present. The program FASP produces resource estimates of crude oil, nonassociated gas, dissolved gas, and gas for a geologic play in terms of probability distributions. The analytic method is based upon conditional probability theory and many laws of expectation and variance. ?? 1986.

  1. Teaching receiver operating characteristic analysis: an interactive laboratory exercise.

    PubMed

    Eng, John

    2012-12-01

    Despite its fundamental importance in the evaluation of diagnostic tests, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is not easily understood. The purpose of this project was to create a learning experience that resulted in an intuitive understanding of the basic principles of ROC analysis. An interactive laboratory exercise was developed for a class about radiology testing taught within a clinical epidemiology course between 2000 and 2009. The physician students in the course were clinical fellows from various medical specialties who were enrolled in a graduate degree program in clinical investigation. For the exercise, the class was divided into six groups. Each group interpreted radiographs from a set of 50 exams of the peripheral skeleton to determine the presence or absence of an acute fracture. Data from the class were pooled and given to each student. Students calculated the area under the ROC curve (AUC) corresponding to overall class performance. A binormal ROC curve was also fitted to the data from each class year. The laboratory exercise was conducted for 8 years with approximately 20-30 students per year. The mean AUC over the eight laboratory classes was 0.72 with a standard deviation of 0.08 (range, 0.60-0.85). With some simplifications in design, an observer study can be conducted in a laboratory classroom setting. Participatory data collection promotes the intuitive understanding of ROC analysis principles. Copyright © 2012 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Analytic Perturbation Analysis of Discrete Event Dynamic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Uryasev, S.

    1994-09-01

    This paper considers a new Analytic Perturbation Analysis (APA) approach for Discrete Event Dynamic Systems (DEDS) with discontinuous sample-path functions with respect to control parameters. The performance functions for DEDS usually are formulated as mathematical expectations, which can be calculated only numerically. APA is based on new analytic formulas for the gradients of expectations of indicator functions; therefore, it is called an analytic perturbation analysis. The gradient of performance function may not coincide with the expectation of a gradient of sample-path function (i.e., the interchange formula for the gradient and expectation sign may not be valid). Estimates of gradients can be obtained with one simulation run of the models.

  3. Parametric receiver operating characteristic curve analysis using mathematica.

    PubMed

    Heckerling, Paul S

    2002-07-01

    Several computer programs have been written to perform receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and are available in the public domain. Here, the author provides the theory and description for 'rocMath', a Mathematica program that performs parametric ROC curve analysis. The 'rocMath' program has some advantages over other ROC curve programs, including the ability to provide, through optional arguments: (a) user-specified pointwise confidence limits, as well as default 95% limits, on ROC curve area and on true-positive rates; (b) ROC curve plots with data points, a fitted curve, and user-specified pointwise confidence bands; and (c) ROC curve areas, tables, and plots based on a logistic distribution as well as on a standard normal distribution. In addition, the code of 'rocMath' can be modified to address additional ROC curve applications. The program uses Mathematica's ability to operate on purely symbolic as well as numeric data to achieve substantial coding efficiency. Limitations of the 'rocMath' program are also discussed.

  4. Reflections on the Nature of Analysis and Some Analytical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, D. F. M.

    2008-01-01

    Before a meaningful account can be given of scholarly communication an investigation of the nature of "analytical skills" is required--the aim of this article. It sets out to come to terms with the meaning of analysis by showing that it rests on two mutually cohering features, namely identifying and distinguishing. Since identification implies…

  5. Analytical and experimental analysis of tube coil heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smusz, R.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents the analytical and experimental analysis of heat transfer for the finned tube coil heat exchanger immersed in thermal storage tank. The tank is equipped with three helical-shaped heating coils and cylindrical- shaped stratification device. Two coils, upper and lower, use the water as a heating medium. The third, double wall heat exchanger coil, located at the bottom head on the tank is filled by the refrigerant (freon). Calculations of thermal power of water coil were made. Correlations of heat transfer coefficients in curved tubes were applied. In order to verify the analytical calculations the experimental studies of heat transfer characteristic for coil heat exchanger were performed.

  6. Analytical study of seismic effects of a solar receiver mounted on concrete towers with different fundamental periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Lin

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the seismic effects experienced by a solar receiver mounted on concrete towers with different fundamental periods. Ten concrete towers are modeled with the empty solar receiver structure and loaded solar receiver structure to examine the tower seismic effects on the solar receiver. The fundamental periods of the towers range from 0.22 seconds to 4.58 seconds, with heights ranging from 40.5 meters to 200 meters. Thirty earthquake ground motion records are used to investigate the responses of each of the combined receiver-on-tower models as well as the receiver-on-ground models by the STAAD Pro software using time history analyses. The earthquake ground motion records are chosen based on the ratio of the peak ground acceleration to the peak ground velocity, ranging from 0.29 g/m/s to 4.88 g/m/s. For each of the combined models, the base shear at the interface between the receiver and the concrete tower is compared with the base shear of the receiver-on-ground model, and the ratio of the two base shears represents the structure amplification factor. It is found that the peak mean plus one standard deviation value of the structure amplification factor matches well with equation 13.3-1 in ASCE 7-10 for the empty solar receiver structure. However, when the solar receiver structure is loaded with dead loads, the peak value is greatly suppressed, and using equation 13.3-1 in ASCE 7-10 will be overly conservative.

  7. An Analysis of Earth Science Data Analytics Use Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shie, Chung-Lin; Kempler, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The increase in the number and volume, and sources, of globally available Earth science data measurements and datasets have afforded Earth scientists and applications researchers unprecedented opportunities to study our Earth in ever more sophisticated ways. In fact, the NASA Earth Observing System Data Information System (EOSDIS) archives have doubled from 2007 to 2014, to 9.1 PB (Ramapriyan, 2009; and https:earthdata.nasa.govaboutsystem-- performance). In addition, other US agency, international programs, field experiments, ground stations, and citizen scientists provide a plethora of additional sources for studying Earth. Co--analyzing huge amounts of heterogeneous data to glean out unobvious information is a daunting task. Earth science data analytics (ESDA) is the process of examining large amounts of data of a variety of types to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations and other useful information. It can include Data Preparation, Data Reduction, and Data Analysis. Through work associated with the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation, a collection of Earth science data analytics use cases have been collected and analyzed for the purpose of extracting the types of Earth science data analytics employed, and requirements for data analytics tools and techniques yet to be implemented, based on use case needs. ESIP generated use case template, ESDA use cases, use case types, and preliminary use case analysis (this is a work in progress) will be presented.

  8. An Analysis of Earth Science Data Analytics Use Cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shie, C. L.; Kempler, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the number and volume, and sources, of globally available Earth science data measurements and datasets have afforded Earth scientists and applications researchers unprecedented opportunities to study our Earth in ever more sophisticated ways. In fact, the NASA Earth Observing System Data Information System (EOSDIS) archives have doubled from 2007 to 2014, to 9.1 PB (Ramapriyan, 2009; and https://earthdata.nasa.gov/about/system-performance). In addition, other US agency, international programs, field experiments, ground stations, and citizen scientists provide a plethora of additional sources for studying Earth. Co-analyzing huge amounts of heterogeneous data to glean out unobvious information is a daunting task. Earth science data analytics (ESDA) is the process of examining large amounts of data of a variety of types to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations and other useful information. It can include Data Preparation, Data Reduction, and Data Analysis. Through work associated with the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation, a collection of Earth science data analytics use cases have been collected and analyzed for the purpose of extracting the types of Earth science data analytics employed, and requirements for data analytics tools and techniques yet to be implemented, based on use case needs. ESIP generated use case template, ESDA use cases, use case types, and preliminary use case analysis (this is a work in progress) will be presented.

  9. Waste Analysis Plan for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    TRINER, G.C.

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for dangerous, mixed, and radioactive waste accepted for confirmation, nondestructive examination (NDE) and nondestructive assay (NDA), repackaging, certification, and/or storage at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP). Mixed and/or radioactive waste is treated at WRAP. WRAP is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

  10. Mapping Sedimentary Basins Across Canada Using Receiver Function Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, J. F.; Kao, H.; Kim, H.; Dehler, S.; Dosso, S.; Halliday, J.

    2008-12-01

    Receiver function studies are being applied within several sedimentary basins across Canada to map basin geometry and sediment thickness. Teleseismic receiver functions are ideal, in many ways, for this type of study. They provide site-specific information, constraints on the shear wave velocity, interface geometry, and they can be used to identify structures from the near-surface to mantle depths. Although the frequency content of teleseismic waveforms limits the resolution, high-frequency receiver functions can resolve layers as thin as 1-2 km. In the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (near Edmonton, Alberta), receiver functions were used to image the 2.5-km-thick sedimentary package at this site and a low-velocity zone in the upper crust. Currently, a deployment of 10 broadband seismic stations in Atlantic Canada is targeting the Paleozoic and Carboniferous sedimentary basins in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Significant variations in the arrival time of the continental Moho phase along a north-south transect indicate crustal thickness variations, with the earliest Moho arrivals being in the central part of the basin, indicating a thinner crust here. The direct arrivals in the receiver functions at stations in the southern part of the gulf are broad, indicating notable thicknesses of near-surface sediments. These observations are consistent with what is known about the regional geology and the centrally-located Maritimes Basin. These initial observations, and other geophysical data for the region, will feed into interpretations of crustal structure developed through numerical modelling.In the Nechako Basin of central BC, receiver functions from seven broadband seismograph stations are being used to map sediments in this basin that are overlain by volcanic basalts. These receiver function show clear evidence for shallow dipping low-velocity layers. Constrains on the basin geometry and sediment thickness will be used to improve assessments of oil and gas potential in

  11. Optimization of Turbine Engine Cycle Analysis with Analytic Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearn, Tristan; Hendricks, Eric; Chin, Jeffrey; Gray, Justin; Moore, Kenneth T.

    2016-01-01

    A new engine cycle analysis tool, called Pycycle, was built using the OpenMDAO framework. Pycycle provides analytic derivatives allowing for an efficient use of gradient-based optimization methods on engine cycle models, without requiring the use of finite difference derivative approximation methods. To demonstrate this, a gradient-based design optimization was performed on a turbofan engine model. Results demonstrate very favorable performance compared to an optimization of an identical model using finite-difference approximated derivatives.

  12. High speed cylindrical rolling element bearing analysis 'CYBEAN' - Analytic formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleckner, R. J.; Pirvics, J.; Castelli, V.

    1979-01-01

    This paper documents the analytic foundation and software architecture for the computerized mathematical simulation of high speed cylindrical rolling element bearing behavior. The software, CYBEAN (CYlindrical BEaring ANalysis), considers a flexible, variable geometry outer ring, EHD films, roller centrifugal and quasidynamic loads, roller tilt and skew, mounting fits, cage and flange interactions. The representation includes both steady state and time transient simulation of thermal interactions internal to and coupled with the surroundings of the bearing. A sample problem illustrating program use is presented.

  13. Analysis of Cultural Heritage by Accelerator Techniques and Analytical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide-Ektessabi, Ari; Toque, Jay Arre; Murayama, Yusuke

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we present the result of experimental investigation using two very important accelerator techniques: (1) synchrotron radiation XRF and XAFS; and (2) accelerator mass spectrometry and multispectral analytical imaging for the investigation of cultural heritage. We also want to introduce a complementary approach to the investigation of artworks which is noninvasive and nondestructive that can be applied in situ. Four major projects will be discussed to illustrate the potential applications of these accelerator and analytical imaging techniques: (1) investigation of Mongolian Textile (Genghis Khan and Kublai Khan Period) using XRF, AMS and electron microscopy; (2) XRF studies of pigments collected from Korean Buddhist paintings; (3) creating a database of elemental composition and spectral reflectance of more than 1000 Japanese pigments which have been used for traditional Japanese paintings; and (4) visible light-near infrared spectroscopy and multispectral imaging of degraded malachite and azurite. The XRF measurements of the Japanese and Korean pigments could be used to complement the results of pigment identification by analytical imaging through spectral reflectance reconstruction. On the other hand, analysis of the Mongolian textiles revealed that they were produced between 12th and 13th century. Elemental analysis of the samples showed that they contained traces of gold, copper, iron and titanium. Based on the age and trace elements in the samples, it was concluded that the textiles were produced during the height of power of the Mongol empire, which makes them a valuable cultural heritage. Finally, the analysis of the degraded and discolored malachite and azurite demonstrates how multispectral analytical imaging could be used to complement the results of high energy-based techniques.

  14. Paper-based analytical devices for environmental analysis.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Nathan A; Quinn, Casey; Cate, David M; Reilly, Thomas H; Volckens, John; Henry, Charles S

    2016-03-21

    The field of paper-based microfluidics has experienced rapid growth over the past decade. Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs), originally developed for point-of-care medical diagnostics in resource-limited settings, are now being applied in new areas, such as environmental analyses. Low-cost paper sensors show great promise for on-site environmental analysis; the theme of ongoing research complements existing instrumental techniques by providing high spatial and temporal resolution for environmental monitoring. This review highlights recent applications of μPADs for environmental analysis along with technical advances that may enable μPADs to be more widely implemented in field testing.

  15. Optimization of Turbine Engine Cycle Analysis with Analytic Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearn, Tristan; Hendricks, Eric; Chin, Jeffrey; Gray, Justin; Moore, Kenneth T.

    2016-01-01

    A new engine cycle analysis tool, called Pycycle, was recently built using the OpenMDAO framework. This tool uses equilibrium chemistry based thermodynamics, and provides analytic derivatives. This allows for stable and efficient use of gradient-based optimization and sensitivity analysis methods on engine cycle models, without requiring the use of finite difference derivative approximation methods. To demonstrate this, a gradient-based design optimization was performed on a multi-point turbofan engine model. Results demonstrate very favorable performance compared to an optimization of an identical model using finite-difference approximated derivatives.

  16. Big Data Visual Analytics for Exploratory Earth System Simulation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Shipman, Galen M.; Smith, Brian E.; Thornton, Peter E.; Wang, Dali; Shi, Xiaoying; Williams, Dean N.

    2013-12-01

    Rapid increases in high performance computing are feeding the development of larger and more complex data sets in climate research, which sets the stage for so-called big data analysis challenges. However, conventional climate analysis techniques are inadequate in dealing with the complexities of today s data. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate a visual analytics system, called the Exploratory Data analysis ENvironment (EDEN), with specific application to the analysis of complex earth system simulation data sets. EDEN represents the type of interactive visual analysis tools that are necessary to transform data into insight, thereby improving critical comprehension of earth system processes. In addition to providing an overview of EDEN, we describe real-world studies using both point ensembles and global Community Land Model Version 4 (CLM4) simulations.

  17. Risk analysis by FMEA as an element of analytical validation.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, J F; Nauta, M J; de Kaste, D; Odekerken-Rombouts, Y M C F; Oldenhof, M T; Vredenbregt, M J; Barends, D M

    2009-12-05

    We subjected a Near-Infrared (NIR) analytical procedure used for screening drugs on authenticity to a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), including technical risks as well as risks related to human failure. An FMEA team broke down the NIR analytical method into process steps and identified possible failure modes for each step. Each failure mode was ranked on estimated frequency of occurrence (O), probability that the failure would remain undetected later in the process (D) and severity (S), each on a scale of 1-10. Human errors turned out to be the most common cause of failure modes. Failure risks were calculated by Risk Priority Numbers (RPNs)=O x D x S. Failure modes with the highest RPN scores were subjected to corrective actions and the FMEA was repeated, showing reductions in RPN scores and resulting in improvement indices up to 5.0. We recommend risk analysis as an addition to the usual analytical validation, as the FMEA enabled us to detect previously unidentified risks.

  18. Risk analysis of analytical validations by probabilistic modification of FMEA.

    PubMed

    Barends, D M; Oldenhof, M T; Vredenbregt, M J; Nauta, M J

    2012-05-01

    Risk analysis is a valuable addition to validation of an analytical chemistry process, enabling not only detecting technical risks, but also risks related to human failures. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) can be applied, using a categorical risk scoring of the occurrence, detection and severity of failure modes, and calculating the Risk Priority Number (RPN) to select failure modes for correction. We propose a probabilistic modification of FMEA, replacing the categorical scoring of occurrence and detection by their estimated relative frequency and maintaining the categorical scoring of severity. In an example, the results of traditional FMEA of a Near Infrared (NIR) analytical procedure used for the screening of suspected counterfeited tablets are re-interpretated by this probabilistic modification of FMEA. Using this probabilistic modification of FMEA, the frequency of occurrence of undetected failure mode(s) can be estimated quantitatively, for each individual failure mode, for a set of failure modes, and the full analytical procedure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An analytic method for sensitivity analysis of complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yueying; Wang, Qiuping Alexandre; Li, Wei; Cai, Xu

    2017-03-01

    Sensitivity analysis is concerned with understanding how the model output depends on uncertainties (variances) in inputs and identifying which inputs are important in contributing to the prediction imprecision. Uncertainty determination in output is the most crucial step in sensitivity analysis. In the present paper, an analytic expression, which can exactly evaluate the uncertainty in output as a function of the output's derivatives and inputs' central moments, is firstly deduced for general multivariate models with given relationship between output and inputs in terms of Taylor series expansion. A γ-order relative uncertainty for output, denoted by Rvγ, is introduced to quantify the contributions of input uncertainty of different orders. On this basis, it is shown that the widely used approximation considering the first order contribution from the variance of input variable can satisfactorily express the output uncertainty only when the input variance is very small or the input-output function is almost linear. Two applications of the analytic formula are performed to the power grid and economic systems where the sensitivities of both actual power output and Economic Order Quantity models are analyzed. The importance of each input variable in response to the model output is quantified by the analytic formula.

  20. Search Analytics: Automated Learning, Analysis, and Search with Open Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundman, K.; Mattmann, C. A.; Hyon, J.; Ramirez, P.

    2016-12-01

    The sheer volume of unstructured scientific data makes comprehensive human analysis impossible, resulting in missed opportunities to identify relationships, trends, gaps, and outliers. As the open source community continues to grow, tools like Apache Tika, Apache Solr, Stanford's DeepDive, and Data-Driven Documents (D3) can help address this challenge. With a focus on journal publications and conference abstracts often in the form of PDF and Microsoft Office documents, we've initiated an exploratory NASA Advanced Concepts project aiming to use the aforementioned open source text analytics tools to build a data-driven justification for the HyspIRI Decadal Survey mission. We call this capability Search Analytics, and it fuses and augments these open source tools to enable the automatic discovery and extraction of salient information. In the case of HyspIRI, a hyperspectral infrared imager mission, key findings resulted from the extractions and visualizations of relationships from thousands of unstructured scientific documents. The relationships include links between satellites (e.g. Landsat 8), domain-specific measurements (e.g. spectral coverage) and subjects (e.g. invasive species). Using the above open source tools, Search Analytics mined and characterized a corpus of information that would be infeasible for a human to process. More broadly, Search Analytics offers insights into various scientific and commercial applications enabled through missions and instrumentation with specific technical capabilities. For example, the following phrases were extracted in close proximity within a publication: "In this study, hyperspectral images…with high spatial resolution (1 m) were analyzed to detect cutleaf teasel in two areas. …Classification of cutleaf teasel reached a users accuracy of 82 to 84%." Without reading a single paper we can use Search Analytics to automatically identify that a 1 m spatial resolution provides a cutleaf teasel detection users accuracy of 82

  1. Macro elemental analysis of food samples by nuclear analytical technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syahfitri, W. Y. N.; Kurniawati, S.; Adventini, N.; Damastuti, E.; Lestiani, D. D.

    2017-06-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry is a non-destructive, rapid, multi elemental, accurate, and environment friendly analysis compared with other detection methods. Thus, EDXRF spectrometry is applicable for food inspection. The macro elements calcium and potassium constitute important nutrients required by the human body for optimal physiological functions. Therefore, the determination of Ca and K content in various foods needs to be done. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the applicability of EDXRF for food analysis. The analytical performance of non-destructive EDXRF was compared with other analytical techniques; neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Comparison of methods performed as cross checking results of the analysis and to overcome the limitations of the three methods. Analysis results showed that Ca found in food using EDXRF and AAS were not significantly different with p-value 0.9687, whereas p-value of K between EDXRF and NAA is 0.6575. The correlation between those results was also examined. The Pearson correlations for Ca and K were 0.9871 and 0.9558, respectively. Method validation using SRM NIST 1548a Typical Diet was also applied. The results showed good agreement between methods; therefore EDXRF method can be used as an alternative method for the determination of Ca and K in food samples.

  2. Design and Analysis of a Hyperspectral Microwave Receiver Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, W.; Galbraith, C.; Hancock, T.; Leslie, R.; Osaretin, I.; Shields, M.; Racette, P.; Hillard, L.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperspectral microwave (HM) sounding has been proposed to achieve unprecedented performance. HM operation is achieved using multiple banks of RF spectrometers with large aggregate bandwidth. A principal challenge is Size/Weight/Power scaling. Objectives of this work: 1) Demonstrate ultra-compact (100 cm3) 52-channel IF processor (enabler); 2) Demonstrate a hyperspectral microwave receiver subsystem; and 3) Deliver a flight-ready system to validate HM sounding.

  3. Composable Analytic Systems for next-generation intelligence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiBona, Phil; Llinas, James; Barry, Kevin

    2015-05-01

    Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (LM ATL) is collaborating with Professor James Llinas, Ph.D., of the Center for Multisource Information Fusion at the University at Buffalo (State of NY), researching concepts for a mixed-initiative associate system for intelligence analysts to facilitate reduced analysis and decision times while proactively discovering and presenting relevant information based on the analyst's needs, current tasks and cognitive state. Today's exploitation and analysis systems have largely been designed for a specific sensor, data type, and operational context, leading to difficulty in directly supporting the analyst's evolving tasking and work product development preferences across complex Operational Environments. Our interactions with analysts illuminate the need to impact the information fusion, exploitation, and analysis capabilities in a variety of ways, including understanding data options, algorithm composition, hypothesis validation, and work product development. Composable Analytic Systems, an analyst-driven system that increases flexibility and capability to effectively utilize Multi-INT fusion and analytics tailored to the analyst's mission needs, holds promise to addresses the current and future intelligence analysis needs, as US forces engage threats in contested and denied environments.

  4. The analysis of some selective-repeat ARQ schemes with finite receiver buffer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. J.; Lin, S.

    1981-09-01

    A class of mixed-mode ARQ protocol models which incorporate a selective-repeat mode with finite receiver buffer is examined. The protocol models are shown to be amenable to exact throughput analysis, but do not assume that the round trip delay is constant and known, the blocks are of constant length, or the ACK/NAK signals are returned error free. Results of the analytical model highlight those aspects of ARQ protocols which affect throughput performance as sound trip delays increase: it is shown that for best throughput performance in practical systems, at least the first retransmission of a block following an error should be in the selective-repeat mode to obtain superior performance over Go-Back N schemes. Consideration is also given to alternative secondary retransmission modes which ensure that reliable transmission can be achieved without receiver buffer overflow, even if the selective-repeat mode retransmissions fail. The choice of secondary mode does not have a significant effect on throughput efficiency, but does have a bearing on complexity.

  5. Analysis of Services Received Under Medicare by Specialty of Physician

    PubMed Central

    Pine, Penelope L.; Gornick, Marian; Lubitz, James; Newton, Marilyn

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines use of physicians' services by Medicare beneficiaries according to the specialty of the physician providing care. The major objectives of this study were to determine which types of physicians are most frequently used, the average charge per service by specialty, the mix of physicians (by specialty) that patients saw during the year, and the amount Medicare reimburses in relation to total physician income. Data were studied for the total Medicare population and by age, sex, race, and geographic area. Claims data for 1975 and 1977 were used from the Part B Bill Summary System. This system collects information from bills for a 5 percent sample of Medicare enrollees. Major findings from this study indicate: (1) Physicians in general practice and internal medicine provided about the same number of services and each far outranked all other types of physicians in numbers of Medicare beneficiaries with reimbursed services. (2) There were marked differences by census region in the use of certain specialists, particularly pathologists, podiatrists, dermatologists, and the specialty group otology, laryngology, rhinology. (3) Average charges per service varied considerably by specialty. Internists' charges averaged 35 percent higher per service than charges by general practitioners. Charges submitted by the surgical specialties far outranked all others and showed the greatest increase during the period under study. (4) Of the total persons with reimbursed physicians' services in 1977, 85 percent saw a primary care physician during the year, while the remaining 15 percent received services from specialists only. (5) Of the total reimbursements made by Medicare, internists received 20 percent, general practitioners received 14 percent, and general surgeons 12 percent. Medicare's payments were estimated to be 21 percent of total gross income for internists, 20 percent for anesthesiologists, and 18 percent for surgical specialties. PMID:10309476

  6. Receiver Function Analysis of the Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graw, J. H.; Powell, C. A.; Langston, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    We present receiver/transfer functions determined for a seismic network associated with an active, intraplate seismic zone. Basement studies within eastern Tennessee are sparse despite the fact that these rocks host the eastern Tennessee seismic zone (ETSZ) and are associated with an extensive aeromagnetic lineament called the New York-Alabama (NY-AL) lineament. The NY-AL lineament is prominent in eastern Tennessee, with a SW-NE trend, and is characterized by a lateral change in magnetic and gravity anomalies in a NW to SE direction; high magnetic and low gravity anomalies lie west of the lineament, while low magnetic and high gravity anomalies are located east of the lineament. The NY-AL lineament is thought to be an ancient strike-slip fault that is reactivating in the present day stress field. A better understanding of the basement structure within the ETSZ will aid in the assessment of its seismic hazard potential. A network maintained by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at the University of Memphis is located within the study area and consists of 23 short-period and three broadband seismometers. An additional station (TZTN) is maintained by IRIS and is included in our dataset. Receiver functions are computed using teleseismic earthquakes within a 30°-90° epicentral distance, at hypocentral depths greater than 30 km, and with magnitudes greater than Mw 6.0. A vertical component stack is used to obtain the best source function. A spectral waterlevel deconvolution is then used to calculate the receiver functions. Results indicate a thickening of the crust west of the NY-AL lineament and show vertical variation within the crust and upper mantle with abrupt polarity changes and strong positive and negative amplitude values. Crustal structure west of the NY-AL lineament appears to be much more complex than that east of the NY-AL lineament.

  7. Analysis of services received under Medicare by specialty of physician.

    PubMed

    Pine, P L; Gornick, M; Lubitz, J; Newton, M

    1981-09-01

    This paper examines use of physicians' services by Medicare beneficiaries according to the specialty of the physician providing care. The major objectives of this study were to determine which types of physicians are most frequently used, the average charge per service by specialty, the mix of physicians (by specialty) that patients saw during the year, and the amount Medicare reimburses in relation to total physician income. Data were studied for the total Medicare population and by age, sex, race, and geographic area. Claims data for 1975 and 1977 were used from the Part B Bill Summary System. This system collects information from bills from a 5 percent sample of Medicare enrollees. Major findings from this study indicate: (1) Physicians in general practice and internal medicine provided about the same number of services and each far outranked all other types of physicians in numbers of Medicare beneficiaries with reimbursed services. (2) There were marked differences by census region in the use of certain specialists, particularly pathologists, podiatrists, dermatologists, and the specialty group otology, laryngology, rhinology. (3) Average charges per service varied considerably by specialty. Internists' charges averaged 35 percent higher per service than charges by general practitioners. Charges submitted by the surgical specialties far outranked all others and showed the greatest increase during the period under study. (4) Of the total persons with reimbursement physicians' services in 1977, 85 percent saw a primary care physician during the year, while the remaining 15 percent received services from specialists only. (5) Of the total reimbursements made by Medicare, internists received 20 percent, general practitioners received 14 percent, and general surgeons 12 percent. Medicare's payments were estimated to be 21 percent of total gross income for internists, 20 percent for anesthesiologists, and 18 percent for surgical specialties.

  8. The performance analysis of linux networking - packet receiving

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wenji; Crawford, Matt; Bowden, Mark; /Fermilab

    2006-11-01

    The computing models for High-Energy Physics experiments are becoming ever more globally distributed and grid-based, both for technical reasons (e.g., to place computational and data resources near each other and the demand) and for strategic reasons (e.g., to leverage equipment investments). To support such computing models, the network and end systems, computing and storage, face unprecedented challenges. One of the biggest challenges is to transfer scientific data sets--now in the multi-petabyte (10{sup 15} bytes) range and expected to grow to exabytes within a decade--reliably and efficiently among facilities and computation centers scattered around the world. Both the network and end systems should be able to provide the capabilities to support high bandwidth, sustained, end-to-end data transmission. Recent trends in technology are showing that although the raw transmission speeds used in networks are increasing rapidly, the rate of advancement of microprocessor technology has slowed down. Therefore, network protocol-processing overheads have risen sharply in comparison with the time spent in packet transmission, resulting in degraded throughput for networked applications. More and more, it is the network end system, instead of the network, that is responsible for degraded performance of network applications. In this paper, the Linux system's packet receive process is studied from NIC to application. We develop a mathematical model to characterize the Linux packet receiving process. Key factors that affect Linux systems network performance are analyzed.

  9. Facilitating the analysis of immunological data with visual analytic techniques.

    PubMed

    Shih, David C; Ho, Kevin C; Melnick, Kyle M; Rensink, Ronald A; Kollmann, Tobias R; Fortuno, Edgardo S

    2011-01-02

    Visual analytics (VA) has emerged as a new way to analyze large dataset through interactive visual display. We demonstrated the utility and the flexibility of a VA approach in the analysis of biological datasets. Examples of these datasets in immunology include flow cytometry, Luminex data, and genotyping (e.g., single nucleotide polymorphism) data. Contrary to the traditional information visualization approach, VA restores the analysis power in the hands of analyst by allowing the analyst to engage in real-time data exploration process. We selected the VA software called Tableau after evaluating several VA tools. Two types of analysis tasks analysis within and between datasets were demonstrated in the video presentation using an approach called paired analysis. Paired analysis, as defined in VA, is an analysis approach in which a VA tool expert works side-by-side with a domain expert during the analysis. The domain expert is the one who understands the significance of the data, and asks the questions that the collected data might address. The tool expert then creates visualizations to help find patterns in the data that might answer these questions. The short lag-time between the hypothesis generation and the rapid visual display of the data is the main advantage of a VA approach.

  10. Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis for Detecting Explosives-related Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Oxley, Mark E; Venzin, Alexander M

    2012-11-14

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) are interested in developing a standardized testing procedure for determining the performance of candidate detection systems. This document outlines a potential method for judging detection system performance as well as determining if combining the information from a legacy system with a new system can signicantly improve performance. In this document, performance corresponds to the Neyman-Pearson criterion applied to the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves of the detection systems in question. A simulation was developed to investigate how the amount of data provided by the vendor in the form of the ROC curve eects the performance of the combined detection system. Furthermore, the simulation also takes into account the potential eects of correlation and how this information can also impact the performance of the combined system.

  11. Central Andean crustal structure from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Jamie; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George; Wagner, Lara; Minaya, Estela; Tavera, Hernado

    2016-07-01

    The Central Andean Plateau (15°-27°S) is a high plateau in excess of 3 km elevation, associated with thickened crust along the western edge of the South America plate, in the convergent margin between the subducting Nazca plate and the Brazilian craton. We have calculated receiver functions using seismic data from a recent portable deployment of broadband seismometers in the Bolivian orocline (12°-21°S) region and combined them with waveforms from 38 other stations in the region to investigate crustal thickness and crust and mantle structures. Results from the receiver functions provide a more detailed map of crustal thickness than previously existed, and highlight mid-crustal features that match well with prior studies. The active volcanic arc and Altiplano have thick crust with Moho depths increasing from the central Altiplano (65 km) to the northern Altiplano (75 km). The Eastern Cordillera shows large along strike variations in crustal thickness. Along a densely sampled SW-NE profile through the Bolivian orocline there is a small region of thin crust beneath the high peaks of the Cordillera Real where the average elevations are near 4 km, and the Moho depth varies from 55 to 60 km, implying the crust is undercompensated by 5 km. In comparison, a broader region of high elevations in the Eastern Cordillera to the southeast near 20°S has a deeper Moho at 65-70 km and appears close to isostatic equilibrium at the Moho. Assuming the modern-day pattern of high precipitation on the flanks of the Andean plateau has existed since the late Miocene, we suggest that climate induced exhumation can explain some of the variations in present day crustal structure across the Bolivian orocline. We also suggest that south of the orocline at 20°S, the thicker and isostatically compensated crust is due to the absence of erosional exhumation and the occurrence of lithospheric delamination.

  12. An Analytical Approach for Performance Enhancement of FSO Communication System Using Array of Receivers in Adverse Weather Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagpal, Shaina; Gupta, Amit

    2017-08-01

    Free Space Optics (FSO) link exploits the tremendous network capacity and is capable of offering wireless communications similar to communications through optical fibres. However, FSO link is extremely weather dependent and the major effect on FSO links is due to adverse weather conditions like fog and snow. In this paper, an FSO link is designed using an array of receivers. The disparity of the link for very high attenuation conditions due to fog and snow is analysed using aperture averaging technique. Further effect of aperture averaging technique is investigated by comparing the systems using aperture averaging technique with systems not using aperture averaging technique. The performance of proposed model of FSO link has been evaluated in terms of Q factor, bit error rate (BER) and eye diagram.

  13. Receiver operating characteristic analysis under tree orderings of disease classes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Attwood, Kristopher; Tian, Lili

    2016-05-20

    Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and its summary statistics (e.g., the area under curve (AUC)) are commonly used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy for disease processes with binary classification. The ROC curve has been extended to ROC surface for scenarios with three ordinal classes or to hyper-surface for scenarios with more than three classes. For classifier under tree or umbrella ordering in which the marker measurement for one class is lower or higher than those for the other classes, the commonly adopted diagnostic measures are the naive AUC (NAUC) based on a pooled class of all the unordered classes and the umbrella volume (UV) based on the concept of volume under surface. However, both NAUC and UV have some limitations. For example, NAUC depends on the sampling weights for all the classes in population, and UV has only been introduced for three-class settings. In this article, we initiate the idea of a new ROC framework for tree or umbrella ordering (denoted as TROC) and propose the area under TROC curve (denoted as TAUC) as an appropriate diagnostic measure. The proposed TROC and TAUC share many nice features with the traditional ROC and AUC. Both parametric and nonparametric approaches are explored to construct the confidence interval estimation of TAUC. The performances of these methods are compared in simulation studies under a variety settings. At the end, the proposed methods are applied to a published microarray data set. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Clinical analysis of cholangiocarcinoma patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nantajit, Danupon; Trirussapanich, Pornwaree; Rojwatkarnjana, Sunanta; Soonklang, Kamonwan; Pattaranutraporn, Poompis; Laebua, Kanyanee; Chamchod, Sasikarn

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) or bile duct cancer is a rare cancer type in developed countries, while its prevalence is increased in southeast Asia, affecting ~33.4 men and ~12.3 women per 100,000 individuals. CCA is one of the most lethal types of cancer. Neo-adjuvant and adjuvant therapies have been shown to have limited efficacy in improving the overall prognosis of patients. Radiotherapy has been reported to prolong the survival times of patients with certain characteristics. The present study retrospectively evaluated the medical records and follow-up data from 27 CCA patients who received radiotherapy at Chulabhorn Hospital (Bangkok, Thailand) between 2008 and 2014. A total of 14 patients underwent surgery followed by adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Of the 27 CCA patients, 14 had intrahepatic CCA, 2 had extrahepatic CCA and 11 had hilar CCA. The 2-year survival rate was 40.7%. Tumor resectability, clinical symptoms and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score were found to be indicative of patient prognosis. In addition, the planning target volume and biologically effective radiotherapy dose were of prognostic value; however, initial treatment response was ambiguous in predicting survival time. The findings of the present study suggested that the currently used radiotherapy protocols for CCA may require modification to improve their efficacy. PMID:28105359

  15. Learning Geospatial Analysis Skills with Consumer-Grade GPS Receivers and Low Cost Spatial Analysis Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Peter E.

    2006-01-01

    Spatial analysis technologies are increasingly important tools for all aspects of forest resource management. Field work previously accomplished with map, compass, and engineers' scale is now being augmented, or superseded, by the use of GPS and GIS. Professional-grade GPS receivers and commercial GIS software are preferred for their accuracy and…

  16. Learning Geospatial Analysis Skills with Consumer-Grade GPS Receivers and Low Cost Spatial Analysis Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Peter E.

    2006-01-01

    Spatial analysis technologies are increasingly important tools for all aspects of forest resource management. Field work previously accomplished with map, compass, and engineers' scale is now being augmented, or superseded, by the use of GPS and GIS. Professional-grade GPS receivers and commercial GIS software are preferred for their accuracy and…

  17. Predictive factors in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma receiving sorafenib therapy using time-dependent receiver operating characteristic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Hiroki; Nishijima, Norihiro; Enomoto, Hirayuki; Sakamoto, Azusa; Nasu, Akihiro; Komekado, Hideyuki; Nishimura, Takashi; Kita, Ryuichi; Kimura, Toru; Iijima, Hiroko; Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Osaki, Yukio

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To investigate variables before sorafenib therapy on the clinical outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients receiving sorafenib and to further assess and compare the predictive performance of continuous parameters using time-dependent receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Patients and methods: A total of 225 HCC patients were analyzed. We retrospectively examined factors related to overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) using univariate and multivariate analyses. Subsequently, we performed time-dependent ROC analysis of continuous parameters which were significant in the multivariate analysis in terms of OS and PFS. Total sum of area under the ROC in all time points (defined as TAAT score) in each case was calculated. Results: Our cohort included 175 male and 50 female patients (median age, 72 years) and included 158 Child-Pugh A and 67 Child-Pugh B patients. The median OS time was 0.68 years, while the median PFS time was 0.24 years. On multivariate analysis, gender, body mass index (BMI), Child-Pugh classification, extrahepatic metastases, tumor burden, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were identified as significant predictors of OS and ECOG-performance status, Child-Pugh classification and extrahepatic metastases were identified as significant predictors of PFS. Among three continuous variables (i.e., BMI, AST and AFP), AFP had the highest TAAT score for the entire cohort. In subgroup analyses, AFP had the highest TAAT score except for Child-Pugh B and female among three continuous variables. Conclusion: In continuous variables, AFP could have higher predictive accuracy for survival in HCC patients undergoing sorafenib therapy. PMID:28261338

  18. ANALYTICAL GALAXY PROFILES FOR PHOTOMETRIC AND LENSING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Spergel, David N.

    2010-11-15

    This article introduces a family of analytical functions of the form x {sup {nu}} K {sub {nu}}(x), where K {sub {nu}} is the incomplete Bessel function of the third kind. This family of functions can describe the density profile, projected and integrated light profiles, and the gravitational potentials of galaxies. For the proper choice of parameters, these functions accurately approximate Sersic functions over a range of indices and are good fits to galaxy light profiles. With an additional parameter corresponding to a galaxy core radius, these functions can fit galaxy like M87 over a factor of 10{sup 5} in radius. Unlike Sersic profiles, these functions have simple analytical two-dimensional and three-dimensional Fourier transforms, so they are easily convolved with spatially varying point-spread function (PSF) and are well suited for photometric and lensing analysis. We use these functions to estimate the effects of seeing on lensing measurements and show that high S/N measurements, even when the PSF is larger than the galaxy effective radius, should be able to recover accurate estimates of lensing distortions by weighting light in the outer isophotes that are less affected by seeing.

  19. Physical and Chemical Analytical Analysis: A key component of Bioforensics

    SciTech Connect

    Velsko, S P

    2005-02-15

    The anthrax letters event of 2001 has raised our awareness of the potential importance of non-biological measurements on samples of biological agents used in a terrorism incident. Such measurements include a variety of mass spectral, spectroscopic, and other instrumental techniques that are part of the current armamentarium of the modern materials analysis or analytical chemistry laboratory. They can provide morphological, trace element, isotopic, and other molecular ''fingerprints'' of the agent that may be key pieces of evidence, supplementing that obtained from genetic analysis or other biological properties. The generation and interpretation of such data represents a new domain of forensic science, closely aligned with other areas of ''microbial forensics''. This paper describes some major elements of the R&D agenda that will define this sub-field in the immediate future and provide the foundations for a coherent national capability. Data from chemical and physical analysis of BW materials can be useful to an investigation of a bio-terror event in two ways. First, it can be used to compare evidence samples collected at different locations where such incidents have occurred (e.g. between the powders in the New York and Washington letters in the Amerithrax investigation) or between the attack samples and those seized during the investigation of sites where it is suspected the material was manufactured (if such samples exist). Matching of sample properties can help establish the relatedness of disparate incidents, and mis-matches might exclude certain scenarios, or signify a more complex etiology of the events under investigation. Chemical and morphological analysis for sample matching has a long history in forensics, and is likely to be acceptable in principle in court, assuming that match criteria are well defined and derived from known limits of precision of the measurement techniques in question. Thus, apart from certain operational issues (such as how to

  20. Focused analyte spray emission apparatus and process for mass spectrometric analysis

    DOEpatents

    Roach, Patrick J [Kennewick, WA; Laskin, Julia [Richland, WA; Laskin, Alexander [Richland, WA

    2012-01-17

    An apparatus and process are disclosed that deliver an analyte deposited on a substrate to a mass spectrometer that provides for trace analysis of complex organic analytes. Analytes are probed using a small droplet of solvent that is formed at the junction between two capillaries. A supply capillary maintains the droplet of solvent on the substrate; a collection capillary collects analyte desorbed from the surface and emits analyte ions as a focused spray to the inlet of a mass spectrometer for analysis. The invention enables efficient separation of desorption and ionization events, providing enhanced control over transport and ionization of the analyte.

  1. A Visual Analytics Approach for Correlation, Classification, and Regression Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; SwanII, J. Edward; Fitzpatrick, Patrick J.; Jankun-Kelly, T.J.

    2012-02-01

    New approaches that combine the strengths of humans and machines are necessary to equip analysts with the proper tools for exploring today's increasing complex, multivariate data sets. In this paper, a novel visual data mining framework, called the Multidimensional Data eXplorer (MDX), is described that addresses the challenges of today's data by combining automated statistical analytics with a highly interactive parallel coordinates based canvas. In addition to several intuitive interaction capabilities, this framework offers a rich set of graphical statistical indicators, interactive regression analysis, visual correlation mining, automated axis arrangements and filtering, and data classification techniques. The current work provides a detailed description of the system as well as a discussion of key design aspects and critical feedback from domain experts.

  2. Visual analytics for model selection in time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Bögl, Markus; Aigner, Wolfgang; Filzmoser, Peter; Lammarsch, Tim; Miksch, Silvia; Rind, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Model selection in time series analysis is a challenging task for domain experts in many application areas such as epidemiology, economy, or environmental sciences. The methodology used for this task demands a close combination of human judgement and automated computation. However, statistical software tools do not adequately support this combination through interactive visual interfaces. We propose a Visual Analytics process to guide domain experts in this task. For this purpose, we developed the TiMoVA prototype that implements this process based on user stories and iterative expert feedback on user experience. The prototype was evaluated by usage scenarios with an example dataset from epidemiology and interviews with two external domain experts in statistics. The insights from the experts' feedback and the usage scenarios show that TiMoVA is able to support domain experts in model selection tasks through interactive visual interfaces with short feedback cycles.

  3. A Double Scattering Analytical Model For Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barradas, N. P.; Lorenz, K.; Alves, E.; Darakchieva, V.

    2011-06-01

    We present an analytical model for calculation of double scattering in elastic recoil detection measurements. Only events involving the beam particle and the recoil are considered, i.e. 1) an ion scatters off a target element and then produces a recoil, and 2) an ion produces a recoil which then scatters off a target element. Events involving intermediate recoils are not considered, i.e. when the primary ion produces a recoil which then produces a second recoil. If the recoil element is also present in the stopping foil, recoil events in the stopping foil are also calculated. We included the model in the standard code for IBA data analysis NDF, and applied it to the measurement of hydrogen in Si.

  4. A Visual Analytics Approach for Correlation, Classification, and Regression Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; SwanII, J. Edward; Fitzpatrick, Patrick J.; Jankun-Kelly, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    New approaches that combine the strengths of humans and machines are necessary to equip analysts with the proper tools for exploring today s increasing complex, multivariate data sets. In this paper, a visual data mining framework, called the Multidimensional Data eXplorer (MDX), is described that addresses the challenges of today s data by combining automated statistical analytics with a highly interactive parallel coordinates based canvas. In addition to several intuitive interaction capabilities, this framework offers a rich set of graphical statistical indicators, interactive regression analysis, visual correlation mining, automated axis arrangements and filtering, and data classification techniques. This chapter provides a detailed description of the system as well as a discussion of key design aspects and critical feedback from domain experts.

  5. Automating the analytical laboratory via the Chemical Analysis Automation paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Hollen, R.; Rzeszutko, C.

    1997-10-01

    To address the need for standardization within the analytical chemistry laboratories of the nation, the Chemical Analysis Automation (CAA) program within the US Department of Energy, Office of Science and Technology`s Robotic Technology Development Program is developing laboratory sample analysis systems that will automate the environmental chemical laboratories. The current laboratory automation paradigm consists of islands-of-automation that do not integrate into a system architecture. Thus, today the chemist must perform most aspects of environmental analysis manually using instrumentation that generally cannot communicate with other devices in the laboratory. CAA is working towards a standardized and modular approach to laboratory automation based upon the Standard Analysis Method (SAM) architecture. Each SAM system automates a complete chemical method. The building block of a SAM is known as the Standard Laboratory Module (SLM). The SLM, either hardware or software, automates a subprotocol of an analysis method and can operate as a standalone or as a unit within a SAM. The CAA concept allows the chemist to easily assemble an automated analysis system, from sample extraction through data interpretation, using standardized SLMs without the worry of hardware or software incompatibility or the necessity of generating complicated control programs. A Task Sequence Controller (TSC) software program schedules and monitors the individual tasks to be performed by each SLM configured within a SAM. The chemist interfaces with the operation of the TSC through the Human Computer Interface (HCI), a logical, icon-driven graphical user interface. The CAA paradigm has successfully been applied in automating EPA SW-846 Methods 3541/3620/8081 for the analysis of PCBs in a soil matrix utilizing commercially available equipment in tandem with SLMs constructed by CAA.

  6. A New Analytic Framework for Moderation Analysis --- Moving Beyond Analytic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wan; Yu, Qin; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Tu, Xin M.

    2009-01-01

    Conceptually, a moderator is a variable that modifies the effect of a predictor on a response. Analytically, a common approach as used in most moderation analyses is to add analytic interactions involving the predictor and moderator in the form of cross-variable products and test the significance of such terms. The narrow scope of such a procedure is inconsistent with the broader conceptual definition of moderation, leading to confusion in interpretation of study findings. In this paper, we develop a new approach to the analytic procedure that is consistent with the concept of moderation. The proposed framework defines moderation as a process that modifies an existing relationship between the predictor and the outcome, rather than simply a test of a predictor by moderator interaction. The approach is illustrated with data from a real study. PMID:20161453

  7. Analytical framework for recurrence network analysis of time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donges, Jonathan F.; Heitzig, Jobst; Donner, Reik V.; Kurths, Jürgen

    2012-04-01

    Recurrence networks are a powerful nonlinear tool for time series analysis of complex dynamical systems. While there are already many successful applications ranging from medicine to paleoclimatology, a solid theoretical foundation of the method has still been missing so far. Here, we interpret an ɛ-recurrence network as a discrete subnetwork of a “continuous” graph with uncountably many vertices and edges corresponding to the system's attractor. This step allows us to show that various statistical measures commonly used in complex network analysis can be seen as discrete estimators of newly defined continuous measures of certain complex geometric properties of the attractor on the scale given by ɛ. In particular, we introduce local measures such as the ɛ-clustering coefficient, mesoscopic measures such as ɛ-motif density, path-based measures such as ɛ-betweennesses, and global measures such as ɛ-efficiency. This new analytical basis for the so far heuristically motivated network measures also provides an objective criterion for the choice of ɛ via a percolation threshold, and it shows that estimation can be improved by so-called node splitting invariant versions of the measures. We finally illustrate the framework for a number of archetypical chaotic attractors such as those of the Bernoulli and logistic maps, periodic and two-dimensional quasiperiodic motions, and for hyperballs and hypercubes by deriving analytical expressions for the novel measures and comparing them with data from numerical experiments. More generally, the theoretical framework put forward in this work describes random geometric graphs and other networks with spatial constraints, which appear frequently in disciplines ranging from biology to climate science.

  8. Analytical framework for recurrence network analysis of time series.

    PubMed

    Donges, Jonathan F; Heitzig, Jobst; Donner, Reik V; Kurths, Jürgen

    2012-04-01

    Recurrence networks are a powerful nonlinear tool for time series analysis of complex dynamical systems. While there are already many successful applications ranging from medicine to paleoclimatology, a solid theoretical foundation of the method has still been missing so far. Here, we interpret an ɛ-recurrence network as a discrete subnetwork of a "continuous" graph with uncountably many vertices and edges corresponding to the system's attractor. This step allows us to show that various statistical measures commonly used in complex network analysis can be seen as discrete estimators of newly defined continuous measures of certain complex geometric properties of the attractor on the scale given by ɛ. In particular, we introduce local measures such as the ɛ-clustering coefficient, mesoscopic measures such as ɛ-motif density, path-based measures such as ɛ-betweennesses, and global measures such as ɛ-efficiency. This new analytical basis for the so far heuristically motivated network measures also provides an objective criterion for the choice of ɛ via a percolation threshold, and it shows that estimation can be improved by so-called node splitting invariant versions of the measures. We finally illustrate the framework for a number of archetypical chaotic attractors such as those of the Bernoulli and logistic maps, periodic and two-dimensional quasiperiodic motions, and for hyperballs and hypercubes by deriving analytical expressions for the novel measures and comparing them with data from numerical experiments. More generally, the theoretical framework put forward in this work describes random geometric graphs and other networks with spatial constraints, which appear frequently in disciplines ranging from biology to climate science.

  9. Fully non-parametric receiver operating characteristic curve estimation for random-effects meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Camblor, Pablo

    2017-02-01

    Meta-analyses, broadly defined as the quantitative review and synthesis of the results of related but independent comparable studies, allow to know the state of the art of one considered topic. Since the amount of available bibliography has enhanced in almost all fields and, specifically, in biomedical research, its popularity has drastically increased during the last decades. In particular, different methodologies have been developed in order to perform meta-analytic studies of diagnostic tests for both fixed- and random-effects models. From a parametric point of view, these techniques often compute a bivariate estimation for the sensitivity and the specificity by using only one threshold per included study. Frequently, an overall receiver operating characteristic curve based on a bivariate normal distribution is also provided. In this work, the author deals with the problem of estimating an overall receiver operating characteristic curve from a fully non-parametric approach when the data come from a meta-analysis study i.e. only certain information about the diagnostic capacity is available. Both fixed- and random-effects models are considered. In addition, the proposed methodology lets to use the information of all cut-off points available (not only one of them) in the selected original studies. The performance of the method is explored through Monte Carlo simulations. The observed results suggest that the proposed estimator is better than the reference one when the reported information is related to a threshold based on the Youden index and when information for two or more points are provided. Real data illustrations are included.

  10. Measuring diagnostic and predictive accuracy in disease management: an introduction to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.

    PubMed

    Linden, Ariel

    2006-04-01

    Diagnostic or predictive accuracy concerns are common in all phases of a disease management (DM) programme, and ultimately play an influential role in the assessment of programme effectiveness. Areas, such as the identification of diseased patients, predictive modelling of future health status and costs and risk stratification, are just a few of the domains in which assessment of accuracy is beneficial, if not critical. The most commonly used analytical model for this purpose is the standard 2 x 2 table method in which sensitivity and specificity are calculated. However, there are several limitations to this approach, including the reliance on a single defined criterion or cut-off for determining a true-positive result, use of non-standardized measurement instruments and sensitivity to outcome prevalence. This paper introduces the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis as a more appropriate and useful technique for assessing diagnostic and predictive accuracy in DM. Its advantages include; testing accuracy across the entire range of scores and thereby not requiring a predetermined cut-off point, easily examined visual and statistical comparisons across tests or scores, and independence from outcome prevalence. Therefore the implementation of ROC as an evaluation tool should be strongly considered in the various phases of a DM programme.

  11. Gravity field error analysis - Applications of Global Positioning System receivers and gradiometers on low orbiting platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrama, Ernst J. O.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as a tracking facility and a gradiometer as a separate instrument on a low-orbiting platform offers a unique tool to map the earth's gravitational field with unprecedented accuracies. The former technique allows determination of the spacecraft's ephemeris at any epoch to within 3-10 cm, the latter permits the measurement of the tensor of second order derivatives of the gravity field to within 0.01 to 0.0001 Eotvos units depending on the type of gradiometer. First, a variety of error sources in gradiometry where emphasis is placed on the rotational problem pursuing as well a static as a dynamic approach is described. Next, an analytical technique is described and applied for an error analysis of gravity field parameters from gradiometer and GPS observation types. Results are discussed for various configurations proposed on Topex/Poseidon, Gravity Probe-B, and Aristoteles, indicating that GPS only solutions may be computed up to degree and order 35, 55, and 85, respectively, whereas a combined GPS/gradiometer experiment on Aristoteles may result in an acceptable solution up to degree and order 240.

  12. Gravity field error analysis - Applications of Global Positioning System receivers and gradiometers on low orbiting platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrama, Ernst J. O.

    1991-11-01

    The concept of a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as a tracking facility and a gradiometer as a separate instrument on a low-orbiting platform offers a unique tool to map the earth's gravitational field with unprecedented accuracies. The former technique allows determination of the spacecraft's ephemeris at any epoch to within 3-10 cm, the latter permits the measurement of the tensor of second order derivatives of the gravity field to within 0.01 to 0.0001 Eotvos units depending on the type of gradiometer. First, a variety of error sources in gradiometry where emphasis is placed on the rotational problem pursuing as well a static as a dynamic approach is described. Next, an analytical technique is described and applied for an error analysis of gravity field parameters from gradiometer and GPS observation types. Results are discussed for various configurations proposed on Topex/Poseidon, Gravity Probe-B, and Aristoteles, indicating that GPS only solutions may be computed up to degree and order 35, 55, and 85, respectively, whereas a combined GPS/gradiometer experiment on Aristoteles may result in an acceptable solution up to degree and order 240.

  13. Gravity field error analysis - Applications of Global Positioning System receivers and gradiometers on low orbiting platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrama, Ernst J. O.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as a tracking facility and a gradiometer as a separate instrument on a low-orbiting platform offers a unique tool to map the earth's gravitational field with unprecedented accuracies. The former technique allows determination of the spacecraft's ephemeris at any epoch to within 3-10 cm, the latter permits the measurement of the tensor of second order derivatives of the gravity field to within 0.01 to 0.0001 Eotvos units depending on the type of gradiometer. First, a variety of error sources in gradiometry where emphasis is placed on the rotational problem pursuing as well a static as a dynamic approach is described. Next, an analytical technique is described and applied for an error analysis of gravity field parameters from gradiometer and GPS observation types. Results are discussed for various configurations proposed on Topex/Poseidon, Gravity Probe-B, and Aristoteles, indicating that GPS only solutions may be computed up to degree and order 35, 55, and 85, respectively, whereas a combined GPS/gradiometer experiment on Aristoteles may result in an acceptable solution up to degree and order 240.

  14. Gravity field error analysis: Applications of GPS receivers and gradiometers on low orbiting platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrama, E.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as a tracking facility and a gradiometer as a separate instrument on a low orbiting platform offers a unique tool to map the Earth's gravitational field with unprecedented accuracies. The former technique allows determination of the spacecraft's ephemeris at any epoch to within 3 to 10 cm, the latter permits the measurement of the tensor of second order derivatives of the gravity field to within 0.01 to 0.0001 Eotvos units depending on the type of gradiometer. First, a variety of error sources in gradiometry where emphasis is placed on the rotational problem pursuing as well a static as a dynamic approach is described. Next, an analytical technique is described and applied for an error analysis of gravity field parameters from gradiometer and GPS observation types. Results are discussed for various configurations proposed on Topex/Poseidon, Gravity Probe-B, and Aristoteles, indicating that GPS only solutions may be computed up to degree and order 35, 55, and 85 respectively, whereas a combined GPS/gradiometer experiment on Aristoteles may result in an acceptable solution up to degree and order 240.

  15. Analytical methods in DNA and protein adduct analysis.

    PubMed

    Koivisto, Pertti; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2010-11-01

    DNA or protein adducts are reaction products of endogenous or exogenous chemicals and cellular macromolecules. Adducts are useful in toxicological studies and/or human biomonitoring exercises. In particular, DNA damage provides invaluable information for risk analysis. Second, metabolites or conjugates can be regarded as markers of phase II reactions though they may not give accurate information about the levels of reactive and damage-provoking reactive compounds or intermediates. Electrophiles are often short-lived molecules and therefore difficult to monitor. In contrast, adducts are often chemically stable, though their levels in biological samples are low, which makes their detection challenging. The assay of adducts is similar to the analysis of any other trace organic molecule, i.e. problems with the matrix and small amounts of analytes in samples. The (32)P-postlabelling assay is a specific method for DNA adducts but immunochemical and fluorescence-based methods have been developed which can detect adducts linked to both DNA and protein. Tandem mass spectrometry, particularly if combined with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography, is currently the recommended detection technique; however investigators are striving to develop novel ways to achieve greater sensitivity. Standards are a prerequisite in adduct analysis, but unfortunately they are seldom commercially available.

  16. Analysis of 70-tube pilot-plant solar-receiver-panel test data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmetyk, L. N.; Byers, R. K.

    1981-08-01

    An analytic model for a solar receiver boiler panel was developed, using the RELAP4 nuclear plant systems thermal hydraulic computer code. Results are compared to other computer calculations and experimental data. The test panels were prototypes of panels to be used in the Barstow 10 MWe solar electric pilot power plant central receiver. Steady state operating conditions for a given incident heat flux were calculated from a zero power cold water startup. The effects of incident flux axial profile shape and of lateral flux gradients were studied, as was the dynamic response of the model to flux and flow transients. The nodalization detail required for accurate simulation was also determined.

  17. Hybrid analytical technique for the nonlinear analysis of curved beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K.; Andersen, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    The application of a two-step hybrid technique to the geometrically nonlinear analysis of curved beams is used to demonstrate the potential of hybrid analytical techniques in nonlinear structural mechanics. The hybrid technique is based on successive use of the perturbation method and a classical direct variational procedure. The functions associated with the various-order terms in the perturbation expansion of the fundamental unknowns, and their sensitivity derivatives with respect to material and geometric parameters of the beam, are first obtained by using the perturbation method. These functions are selected as coordinate functions (or modes) and the classical direct variational technique is then used to compute their amplitudes. The potential of the proposed hybrid technique for nonlinear analysis of structures is discussed. The effectiveness of the hybrid technique is demonstrated by means of numerical examples. The symbolic computation system Mathematica is used in the present study. The tasks performed on Mathematica include: (1) generation of algebraic expressions for the perturbation functions of the different response quantities and their sensitivity derivatives: and (2) determination of the radius of convergence of the perturbation series.

  18. An analytical paradigm for the analysis of national inmigration patterns.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Y; Eaglstein, A S

    1988-09-01

    This study proposes and demonstrates an analytic paradigm based upon a substantive categorization of a set of inmigration correlates. It exemplifies the notion of categorizing, analyzing according to the categorization, and subsequently discussing the phenomenon in more depth. The paradigm has 2 steps: 1) the variables are categorized according to the cells resulting from the intersection of a preferably small number of nominal dimensions and 2) the data are analyzed, directly anchored in the prior categorization. The data used is Israel's 1983 census macro-data gathered from the Central Bureau of Statistics for the Israeli towns with populations of at least 5000. The authors defined 6 variables as push variables and 4 as pull variables. Results of the regression employing push variables show that 4 variables accounting for 72% of inmigration were found to significantly predict inmigration: 1) unemployment, 2) percentage of Asians-Africans, 3) town size, and 4) religiosity. Within the pull classification, the regression analysis reveals that 2 of the 4 variables explain 31% of the inmigration variance: 1) educational level (26%) and 2) income (5%). The 1st regression analysis on the 2nd dimension shows that the percentage of Asian-African origin and town population size account for 32% of the immigration variance. In the 2nd regression analysis, unemployment explains 48% of the inmigration variance and educational level explains 8%. In the 3rd regression, only home crowding explains a significant amount of the immigration variance (19%). Results of a multiple regression analysis show that unemployment level, percentage of Asian-Africans, population size, and level of religiosity account for 72% of the inmigration variance. Thus, the characteristics of a town inmigrating (push variables) are demographic, economic, and social. However, the attractive features of a town are only economic. Among all economic factors, unemployment is primary. In addition, not only are

  19. Analysis and design methodology for the development of optimized, direct-detection CO{sub 2} DIAL receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, B.J.; Laubscher, B.E.; Cafferty, M.

    1996-12-31

    The analysis methodology and corresponding analytical tools for the design of optimized, low-noise, hard target return CO{sub 2} Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) receiver systems implementing both single element detectors and multi-pixel imaging arrays for passive/active, remote-sensing applications are presented. System parameters and components composing the receiver include: aperture, focal length, field of view, cold shield requirements, image plane dimensions, pixel dimensions, pixel pitch and fill factor, detection quantum efficiency, optical filter requirements, amplifier and temporal sampling parameters. The performance analysis is accomplished by calculating the system`s CO{sub 2} laser range response, total noise, optical geometric form factor and optical resolution. The noise components include speckle, photon noise due to signal, scene and atmospheric background, cold shield, and electronic noise. System resolution is simulated through cascaded optical transfer functions and includes effects due to atmosphere, optics, image sampling, and system motion. Experimental results of a developmental single-element detector receiver designed to detect 100 ns wide laser pulses (10 - 100 kHz pulse repetition rates) backscattered from hard-targets at nominal ranges of 10 km are presented. The receiver sensitivity is near-background noise limited, given an 8.5-11.5 {mu}m radiant optical bandwidth, with the total noise floor spectrally white for maximum pulse averaging efficiency.

  20. Dairy Analytics and Nutrient Analysis (DANA) Prototype System User Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sam Alessi; Dennis Keiser

    2012-10-01

    This document is a user manual for the Dairy Analytics and Nutrient Analysis (DANA) model. DANA provides an analysis of dairy anaerobic digestion technology and allows users to calculate biogas production, co-product valuation, capital costs, expenses, revenue and financial metrics, for user customizable scenarios, dairy and digester types. The model provides results for three anaerobic digester types; Covered Lagoons, Modified Plug Flow, and Complete Mix, and three main energy production technologies; electricity generation, renewable natural gas generation, and compressed natural gas generation. Additional options include different dairy types, bedding types, backend treatment type as well as numerous production, and economic parameters. DANA’s goal is to extend the National Market Value of Anaerobic Digester Products analysis (informa economics, 2012; Innovation Center, 2011) to include a greater and more flexible set of regional digester scenarios and to provide a modular framework for creation of a tool to support farmer and investor needs. Users can set up scenarios from combinations of existing parameters or add new parameters, run the model and view a variety of reports, charts and tables that are automatically produced and delivered over the web interface. DANA is based in the INL’s analysis architecture entitled Generalized Environment for Modeling Systems (GEMS) , which offers extensive collaboration, analysis, and integration opportunities and greatly speeds the ability construct highly scalable web delivered user-oriented decision tools. DANA’s approach uses server-based data processing and web-based user interfaces, rather a client-based spreadsheet approach. This offers a number of benefits over the client-based approach. Server processing and storage can scale up to handle a very large number of scenarios, so that analysis of county, even field level, across the whole U.S., can be performed. Server based databases allow dairy and digester

  1. Transitional Probability Analysis of Two Child Behavior Analytic Therapy Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xavier, Rodrigo Nunes; Kanter, Jonathan William; Meyer, Sonia Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to highlight the process of therapist direct contingent responding to shape client behavior in two Child Behavior Analytic Therapy (CBAT) cases using transitional probabilities. The Functional Analytic Psychotherapy Rating Scale (FAPRS) was used to code client behaviors and the Multidimensional System for Coding Behaviors in…

  2. Image analysis driven single-cell analytics for systems microbiology.

    PubMed

    Balomenos, Athanasios D; Tsakanikas, Panagiotis; Aspridou, Zafiro; Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P; Manolakos, Elias S

    2017-04-04

    Time-lapse microscopy is an essential tool for capturing and correlating bacterial morphology and gene expression dynamics at single-cell resolution. However state-of-the-art computational methods are limited in terms of the complexity of cell movies that they can analyze and lack of automation. The proposed Bacterial image analysis driven Single Cell Analytics (BaSCA) computational pipeline addresses these limitations thus enabling high throughput systems microbiology. BaSCA can segment and track multiple bacterial colonies and single-cells, as they grow and divide over time (cell segmentation and lineage tree construction) to give rise to dense communities with thousands of interacting cells in the field of view. It combines advanced image processing and machine learning methods to deliver very accurate bacterial cell segmentation and tracking (F-measure over 95%) even when processing images of imperfect quality with several overcrowded colonies in the field of view. In addition, BaSCA extracts on the fly a plethora of single-cell properties, which get organized into a database summarizing the analysis of the cell movie. We present alternative ways to analyze and visually explore the spatiotemporal evolution of single-cell properties in order to understand trends and epigenetic effects across cell generations. The robustness of BaSCA is demonstrated across different imaging modalities and microscopy types. BaSCA can be used to analyze accurately and efficiently cell movies both at a high resolution (single-cell level) and at a large scale (communities with many dense colonies) as needed to shed light on e.g. how bacterial community effects and epigenetic information transfer play a role on important phenomena for human health, such as biofilm formation, persisters' emergence etc. Moreover, it enables studying the role of single-cell stochasticity without losing sight of community effects that may drive it.

  3. Design and analysis of a novel concentrated photovoltaic-thermal receiver concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hangweirer, Manfred; Höller, Robert; Schneider, Hartmut

    2015-08-01

    Solar concentrators, which focus the sunlight on a small surface of solar cells, are a promising way of reducing expensive semiconductor area and thus also the energy generation costs of photovoltaics. This paper presents the design and the analysis of a concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) receiver for a linear Fresnel concentrator mirror module. The receiver is designed as hybrid concentrated photovoltaic-thermal (CPV-T) receiver, which enables simultaneous generation of power and heat in one compact receiver. Spectral splitting with selective absorptive media and thermal decoupling of heat carrier and solar cells improves the electrical efficiency. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of various receiver-setups result in an electrical efficiency of the receiver up to 6.2% and a thermal efficiency of up to 61.2% at a specific selected operating design point. 62% of the wavelengths of the incoming solar spectrum between 500 to 1100 nm hit the solar cells.

  4. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis: basic principles and applications in radiology.

    PubMed

    van Erkel, A R; Pattynama, P M

    1998-05-01

    Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is a widely accepted method for analyzing and comparing the diagnostic accuracy of radiological tests. In this paper we will explain the basic principles underlying ROC analysis and provide practical information on the use and interpretation of ROC curves. The major applications of ROC analysis will be discussed and their limitations will be addressed.

  5. An Analysis of Machine- and Human-Analytics in Classification.

    PubMed

    Tam, Gary K L; Kothari, Vivek; Chen, Min

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present a study that traces the technical and cognitive processes in two visual analytics applications to a common theoretic model of soft knowledge that may be added into a visual analytics process for constructing a decision-tree model. Both case studies involved the development of classification models based on the "bag of features" approach. Both compared a visual analytics approach using parallel coordinates with a machine-learning approach using information theory. Both found that the visual analytics approach had some advantages over the machine learning approach, especially when sparse datasets were used as the ground truth. We examine various possible factors that may have contributed to such advantages, and collect empirical evidence for supporting the observation and reasoning of these factors. We propose an information-theoretic model as a common theoretic basis to explain the phenomena exhibited in these two case studies. Together we provide interconnected empirical and theoretical evidence to support the usefulness of visual analytics.

  6. Thermal stress analysis of eccentric tube receiver using concentrated solar radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Fuqiang; Shuai, Yong; Yuan, Yuan; Yang, Guo; Tan, Heping

    2010-10-15

    In the parabolic trough concentrator with tube receiver system, the heat transfer fluid flowing through the tube receiver can induce high thermal stress and deflection. In this study, the eccentric tube receiver is introduced with the aim to reduce the thermal stresses of tube receiver. The ray-thermal-structural sequential coupled numerical analyses are adopted to obtain the concentrated heat flux distributions, temperature distributions and thermal stress fields of both the eccentric and concentric tube receivers. During the sequential coupled numerical analyses, the concentrated heat flux distribution on the bottom half periphery of tube receiver is obtained by Monte-Carlo ray tracing method, and the fitting function method is introduced for the calculated heat flux distribution transformation from the Monte-Carlo ray tracing model to the CFD analysis model. The temperature distributions and thermal stress fields are obtained by the CFD and FEA analyses, respectively. The effects of eccentricity and oriented angle variation on the thermal stresses of eccentric tube receiver are also investigated. It is recommended to adopt the eccentric tube receiver with optimum eccentricity and 90 oriented angle as tube receiver for the parabolic trough concentrator system to reduce the thermal stresses. (author)

  7. Analytical studies: a framework for quality improvement design and analysis.

    PubMed

    Provost, Lloyd P

    2011-04-01

    Conducting studies for learning is fundamental to improvement. Deming emphasised that the reason for conducting a study is to provide a basis for action on the system of interest. He classified studies into two types depending on the intended target for action. An enumerative study is one in which action will be taken on the universe that was studied. An analytical study is one in which action will be taken on a cause system to improve the future performance of the system of interest. The aim of an enumerative study is estimation, while an analytical study focuses on prediction. Because of the temporal nature of improvement, the theory and methods for analytical studies are a critical component of the science of improvement.

  8. Analytical studies: a framework for quality improvement design and analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Conducting studies for learning is fundamental to improvement. Deming emphasised that the reason for conducting a study is to provide a basis for action on the system of interest. He classified studies into two types depending on the intended target for action. An enumerative study is one in which action will be taken on the universe that was studied. An analytical study is one in which action will be taken on a cause system to improve the future performance of the system of interest. The aim of an enumerative study is estimation, while an analytical study focuses on prediction. Because of the temporal nature of improvement, the theory and methods for analytical studies are a critical component of the science of improvement. PMID:21450782

  9. Applications of nuclear analytical methods to materials analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.; Hanson, A.L.; Kraner, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear analytical methods have now become important in the characterization of many types of materials and have been shown to be an extremely important extension of many more common methods. To illustrate the breadth of their use, some recent Brookhaven experiments are described that deal with the depth distribution of hydrogen in Nb-H alloys, the diffusion of Mo in graphite at high temperatures, and the measurement of Al and Si concentrations in zeolite catalysts. It is hoped that the presentation of these illustrative examples will serve as a stimulus and encouragement for the further application of nuclear analytical methods.

  10. Performance analysis and receiver architectures of DCF77 radio-controlled clocks.

    PubMed

    Engeler, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    DCF77 is a longwave radio transmitter located in Germany. Atomic clocks generate a 77.5-kHz carrier which is amplitude- and phase-modulated to broadcast the official time. The signal is used by industrial and consumer radio-controlled clocks. DCF77 faces competition from the Global Positioning System (GPS) which provides higher accuracy time. Still, DCF77 and other longwave time services worldwide remain popular because they allow indoor reception at lower cost, lower power, and sufficient accuracy. Indoor longwave reception is challenged by signal attenuation and electromagnetic interference from an increasing number of devices, particularly switched-mode power supplies. This paper introduces new receiver architectures and compares them with existing detectors and time decoders. Simulations and analytical calculations characterize the performance in terms of bit error rate and decoding probability, depending on input noise and narrowband interference. The most promising detector with maximum-likelihood time decoder displays the time in less than 60 s after powerup and at a noise level of E(b)/N(0) = 2.7 dB, an improvement of 20 dB over previous receivers. A field-programmable gate array-based demonstration receiver built for the purposes of this paper confirms the capabilities of these new algorithms. The findings of this paper enable future high-performance DCF77 receivers and further study of indoor longwave reception.

  11. The Atchafalaya River Delta. Report 7. Analytical Analysis of the Development of the Atchafalaya River Delta.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    guide. Statistical Analysis System SAS Institute Inc., Cary, N. C. Scheid, F. 1968. Numerical analysis . Schaum’s Outline Series, Schaum Publishing Co...rD-i64 931 THE ATCHAFALAYA RIVER DELTA REPORT 7 ANALYTICAL 113 ANALYSIS OF THE DEVELOPHE..(U) LOUISIANA S ATE UNIV U UtjBATON ROUGE COASTAL...Field data per- taining to our analytical analysis of delta development were gathered from various sources and are outlined in the following sections

  12. CFD analysis of supercritical CO2 used as HTF in a solar tower receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldán, M. I.; Fernández-Reche, J.

    2016-05-01

    The relative cost of a solar receiver can be minimized by the selection of an appropriate heat transfer fluid capable of achieving high receiver efficiencies. In a conventional central receiver system, the concentrated solar energy is transferred from the receiver tube walls to the heat transfer fluid (HTF), which passes through a heat exchanger to generate steam for a Rankine cycle. Thus, higher working fluid temperature is associated with greater efficiency in receiver and power cycle. Emerging receiver designs that can enable higher efficiencies using advanced power cycles, such as supercritical CO2 (s-CO2) closed-loop Brayton cycles, include direct heating of s-CO2 in tubular receiver designs capable of withstanding high internal fluid pressures (around 20 MPa) and temperatures (900 K). Due to the high pressures required and the presence of moving components installed in pipelines (ball-joints and/or flexible connections), the use of s-CO2 presents many technical challenges due to the compatibility of seal materials and fluid leakages of the moving connections. These problems are solved in solar tower systems because the receiver is fixed. In this regard, a preliminary analysis of a tubular receiver with s-CO2 as HTF has been developed using the design of a molten-salt receiver which was previously tested at Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA). Therefore, a simplified CFD model has been carried out in this study in order to analyze the feasibility of s-CO2 as HTF in solar towers. Simulation results showed that the heat gained by s-CO2 was around 75% greater than the one captured by molten salts (fluid inlet temperature of 715 K), but at a pressure range of 7.5-9.7 MPa. Thus, the use of s-CO2 as HTF in solar tower receivers appears to be a promising alternative, taking into account both the operating conditions required and their maintenance cost.

  13. Cross-correlation analysis and interpretation of spaced-receiver measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Emanoel; Fougere, Paul F.; Basu, Santimay

    1988-04-01

    The results of two algorithms which provide a statistical treatment of the estimation parameters in the cross-correlation analysis of spaced-receiver data are compared. The observations are found to be consistent with a previous morphological model for anisotropy of high latitude nighttime F region irregularities. It is suggested that a possible dependence of the results of the spaced-receiver measurements on the receiver baselines may be responsible for the relatively small values of the anisotropy of the diffraction pattern noted in Hilat satellite measurements. A procedure for estimating the anisotropy of the in situ irregularities from the anisotropy of the diffraction pattten is proposed.

  14. Spatial frequency response of an optical heterodyne receiver. [transfer function analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fales, C. L.; Robinson, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    The principles of transfer function analysis are applied to a passive optical heterodyne receiver to obtain the modulation transfer function (MTF). MTF calculations are performed based on an optical platform which is imaging vertically varying profiles at worst case shuttle orbit altitudes. An analysis of the derogatory effects of sampling (aliasing) and central obscurations on both resolution and heterodyne efficiency is given. It is found that the cascading property of MTF analysis must be carefully applied since the coherent transfer function of the optical receiver and that due to the local oscillator-detector combination are not separable but are related by the convolution of their products. Application of these results to the specific case of a space-lab type optical heterodyne receiver shows that resolutions of the order of 1.5-2.0 Km are possible for worst-case type orbital scenarios. Further, comparison of obscured-type receivers (e.g., Cassegrains) with unobscured receivers shows that both resolution and efficiency are severely degraded in an obscured-type receiver and consequently should not be used for a passive heterodyne detection scheme.

  15. Chemometrics in analytical chemistry-part I: history, experimental design and data analysis tools.

    PubMed

    Brereton, Richard G; Jansen, Jeroen; Lopes, João; Marini, Federico; Pomerantsev, Alexey; Rodionova, Oxana; Roger, Jean Michel; Walczak, Beata; Tauler, Romà

    2017-08-03

    Chemometrics has achieved major recognition and progress in the analytical chemistry field. In the first part of this tutorial, major achievements and contributions of chemometrics to some of the more important stages of the analytical process, like experimental design, sampling, and data analysis (including data pretreatment and fusion), are summarised. The tutorial is intended to give a general updated overview of the chemometrics field to further contribute to its dissemination and promotion in analytical chemistry.

  16. Advanced Durability Analysis. Volume 2. Analytical Predictions, Test Results and Analytical Correlations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-27

    used for the back-extrapolation. Recommendations for durability analysis are as follows: (1) define the equivalent initial flaw size distribution ...WAFXHR4 Data Set) for Cumulative Distribution of Service Time to Reach Crack Size x1 -0.59" Based on DCGA- DCGA. xiv List of Figures (Continued) Fiaur. ag ...be used to make predictions for the probability bf crack exceedance at any service time, 7’ , and the cumulative distribution of service time to

  17. Application of Multidimensional Spectrum Analysis for Analytical Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Hayakawa, Takehito; Toh, Yosuke; Shinohara, Nobuo; Oshima, Masumi

    1999-12-31

    Feasibility of application of the multidimensional {gamma} ray spectroscopy for analytical chemistry was examined. Two reference igneous rock (JP-1, JB-1a) samples issued by the Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ) were irradiated at a research reactor with thermal neutrons, and {gamma} rays from the radioisotopes produced by neutron capture reactions were measured using a {gamma}-ray detector array. Simultaneously 27 elements were observed with no chemical separation.

  18. Path integral analysis of Jarzynski's equality: analytical results.

    PubMed

    Minh, David D L; Adib, Artur B

    2009-02-01

    We apply path integrals to study nonequilibrium work theorems in the context of Brownian dynamics, deriving in particular the equations of motion governing the most typical and most dominant trajectories. For the analytically soluble cases of a moving harmonic potential and a harmonic oscillator with a time-dependent natural frequency, we find such trajectories, evaluate the work-weighted propagators, and validate Jarzynski's equality.

  19. Application of multidimensional spectrum analysis for analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Hayakawa, Takehito; Toh, Yosuke; Shinohara, Nobuo; Oshima, Masumi

    1999-11-16

    Feasibility of application of the multidimensional {gamma} ray spectroscopy for analytical chemistry was examined. Two reference igneous rock (JP-1, JB-1a) samples issued by the Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ) were irradiated at a research reactor with thermal neutrons, and {gamma} rays from the radioisotopes produced by neutron capture reactions were measured using a {gamma}-ray detector array. Simultaneously 27 elements were observed with no chemical separation.

  20. Application of Nomographs for Analysis and Prediction of Receiver Spurious Response EMI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-23

    nathematic ’formulia; howiever, the applicAtion of the formula to predict, test frequencies produces, more data than can be evaluated. An analysis ...simple mathematic formula; however, the application of the formula to predict test frequencies produces more data than can be evaluated., An analysis ... data than can superheterodyne stage consists of a desired receive be evaluated. An analysis te.hnique has been developed frequency range which is

  1. Performance enhancement of rake-receiver using continuous and discrete wavelet transforms analysis through NLOS propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayadh, Rashid A.; Malek, F.; Fadhil, Hilal A.; Dawood, Sameer A.; Abdullah, Farah Salwani

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, three levels of analysis and synthesis filter banks were used to create coefficients for a continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT). The main property of these wavelet transform schemes is their ability to construct the transmitted signal across a log-normal fading channel over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). Wireless rake-receiver structure was chosen as a major application to reduce the inter-symbol interference (ISI) and to minimize the noise. In this work, a new scheme of rake receiver is proposed to receive indoor, multi-path components (MPCs) for ultra-wideband (UWB) wireless communication systems. Rake receivers consist of a continuous wavelet rake (CW-rake) and a discrete wavelet rake (DW-rake), and they use huge bandwidth (7.5 GHz), as reported by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). The indoor channel models chose for analysis in this research were the non line-of-sight (LOS) channel model (CM4 from 4 to 10 meters) to show the behavior of bit error rate (BER) with respect to signal-to noise ratio (SNR). Two types of rake receiver were used in the simulation, i.e., partial-rake and selective-rake receivers with the maximal ratio combining (MRC) technique to capture the energy of the signal from the output of the rake's fingers.

  2. Experimental Analysis of Functional Variation within Protein Families: Receiver Domain Autodephosphorylation Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Page, Stephani C; Immormino, Robert M; Miller, Thane H; Bourret, Robert B

    2016-09-15

    Plants and microorganisms use two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) to mediate responses to environmental stimuli. TCSs mediate responses through phosphotransfer from a conserved histidine on a sensor kinase to a conserved aspartate on the receiver domain of a response regulator. Typically, signal termination occurs through dephosphorylation of the receiver domain, which can catalyze its own dephosphorylation. Despite strong structural conservation between receiver domains, reported autodephosphorylation rate constants (kdephos) span a millionfold range. Variable receiver domain active-site residues D + 2 and T + 2 (two amino acids C terminal to conserved phosphorylation site and Thr/Ser, respectively) influence kdephos values, but the extent and mechanism of influence are unclear. We used sequence analysis of a large database of naturally occurring receiver domains to design mutant receiver domains for experimental analysis of autodephosphorylation kinetics. When combined with previous analyses, kdephos values were obtained for CheY variants that contained D + 2/T + 2 pairs found in 54% of receiver domain sequences. Tested pairs of amino acids at D + 2/T + 2 generally had similar effects on kdephos in CheY, PhoBN, or Spo0F. Acid or amide residues at D + 2/T + 2 enhanced kdephos CheY variants altered at D + 2/T + 2 exhibited rate constants for autophosphorylation with phosphoramidates and autodephosphorylation that were inversely correlated, suggesting that D + 2/T + 2 residues interact with aspects of the ground or transition states that differ between the two reactions. kdephos of CheY variants altered at D + 2/T + 2 correlated significantly with kdephos of wild-type receiver domains containing the same D + 2/T + 2 pair. Additionally, particular D + 2/T + 2 pairs were enriched in different response regulator subfamilies, suggesting functional significance. One protein family, defined by a conserved domain, can include hundreds of thousands of known

  3. Design and Analysis of Optics in Terahertz Receivers for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Alvaro

    2014-03-01

    for radio astronomy at THz frequencies. It couples the energy collected by the usually large telescope antenna into the tiny ultra-sensitive detectors required by radio astronomy. At THz frequencies, optics also provides an efficient solution for local oscillator (LO) injection in heterodyne receivers. Quasi-optics provide an elegant and simple theory for the analysis of this kind of optics. In radio astronomy applications, optics is usually located completely or partly within the confined space of a cryostat, since detectors are usually cooled down at temperatures near 0 K in order to improve sensitivity. This thesis describes the design, analysis, and optimization of optics for several receivers to be used for radio astronomy research in the ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array) and ASTE (Atacama Sub-millimeter Telescope Experiment) telescopes. The focus of this thesis is the analysis of some recently discovered receiver performance degradations due to fabrication and alignment tolerances of optical components, which are comparable to their small size, and due to the effect of the operating environment. The understanding of these degradations becomes critical to improve performance as detector performance is currently approaching physical limits. The receiver cross-polarization performance, basic for observations of magnetic fields in space, is also studied in detail. LO injection optics aims at providing a stable LO signal to the mixing device. The more stable the signal, the more stable the operation of the receiver is. This translates into more repeatable astronomical measurements and the possibility to extend single-observation times. In this thesis, a horn-to-horn power transmission system has been proposed and useful design equations have been derived. The concept has been proven by careful measurements and used for the ALMA band 10 receiver (787-950 GHz). A similar system has been successfully used in the measurement of the beam patterns of a

  4. Thermodynamic Analysis of Beam down Solar Gas Turbine Power Plant equipped with Concentrating Receiver System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azharuddin; Santarelli, Massimo

    2016-09-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of a closed cycle, solar powered Brayton gas turbine power plant with Concentrating Receiver system has been studied. A Brayton cycle is simpler than a Rankine cycle and has an advantage where the water is scarce. With the normal Brayton cycle a Concentrating Receiver System has been analysed which has a dependence on field density and optical system. This study presents a method of optimization of design parameter, such as the receiver working temperature and the heliostats density. This method aims at maximizing the overall efficiency of the three major subsystem that constitute the entire plant, namely, the heliostat field and the tower, the receiver and the power block. The results of the optimization process are shown and analysed.

  5. Analytical method for thermal stress analysis of plasma facing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, J. H.; Bolt, H.

    2001-10-01

    The thermo-mechanical response of plasma facing materials (PFMs) to heat loads from the fusion plasma is one of the crucial issues in fusion technology. In this work, a fully analytical description of the thermal stress distribution in armour tiles of plasma facing components is presented which is expected to occur under typical high heat flux (HHF) loads. The method of stress superposition is applied considering the temperature gradient and thermal expansion mismatch. Several combinations of PFMs and heat sink metals are analysed and compared. In the framework of the present theoretical model, plastic flow and the effect of residual stress can be quantitatively assessed. Possible failure features are discussed.

  6. Marketing Mix Formulation for Higher Education: An Integrated Analysis Employing Analytic Hierarchy Process, Cluster Analysis and Correspondence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hsuan-Fu; Hung, Chia-Chi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how a graduate institute at National Chiayi University (NCYU), by using a model that integrates analytic hierarchy process, cluster analysis and correspondence analysis, can develop effective marketing strategies. Design/methodology/approach: This is primarily a quantitative study aimed at…

  7. Marketing Mix Formulation for Higher Education: An Integrated Analysis Employing Analytic Hierarchy Process, Cluster Analysis and Correspondence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hsuan-Fu; Hung, Chia-Chi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how a graduate institute at National Chiayi University (NCYU), by using a model that integrates analytic hierarchy process, cluster analysis and correspondence analysis, can develop effective marketing strategies. Design/methodology/approach: This is primarily a quantitative study aimed at…

  8. Organic analysis and analytical methods development: FY 1995 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, S.A.; Hoopes, V.; Rau, J.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the status of organic analyses and developing analytical methods to account for the organic components in Hanford waste tanks, with particular emphasis on tanks assigned to the Flammable Gas Watch List. The methods that have been developed are illustrated by their application to samples obtained from Tank 241-SY-103 (Tank 103-SY). The analytical data are to serve as an example of the status of methods development and application. Samples of the convective and nonconvective layers from Tank 103-SY were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC). The TOC value obtained for the nonconvective layer using the hot persulfate method was 10,500 {mu}g C/g. The TOC value obtained from samples of Tank 101-SY was 11,000 {mu}g C/g. The average value for the TOC of the convective layer was 6400 {mu}g C/g. Chelator and chelator fragments in Tank 103-SY samples were identified using derivatization. gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Organic components were quantified using GC/flame ionization detection. Major components in both the convective and nonconvective-layer samples include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), succinic acid, nitrosoiminodiacetic acid (NIDA), citric acid, and ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (ED3A). Preliminary results also indicate the presence of C16 and C18 carboxylic acids in the nonconvective-layer sample. Oxalic acid was one of the major components in the nonconvective layer as determined by derivatization GC/flame ionization detection.

  9. Analysis and analytical characterization of bioheat transfer during radiofrequency ablation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Keyong; Tavakkoli, Fatemeh; Wang, Shujuan; Vafai, Kambiz

    2015-04-13

    Understanding thermal transport and temperature distribution within biological organs is important for therapeutic aspects related to hyperthermia treatments such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Unlike surface heating, the RFA treatment volumetrically heats up the biological media using a heating probe which provides the input energy. In this situation, the shape of the affected region is annular, which is described by an axisymmetric geometry. To better understand the temperature responses of the living tissues subject to RFA, comprehensive characteristics of bioheat transport through the annular biological medium is presented under local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) condition. Following the operational features of the RFA treatment, based on the porous media theory, analytical solutions have been derived for the blood and tissue temperature distributions as well as an overall heat exchange correlation in cylindrical coordinates. Our analytical results have been validated against three limiting cases which exist in the literature. The effects of various physiological parameters, such as metabolic heat generation, volume fraction of the vascular space, ratio of the effective blood to tissue conductivities, different biological media and the rate of heat exchange between the lumen and the tissue are investigated. Solutions developed in this study are valuable for thermal therapy planning of RFA. A criterion is also established to link deep heating protocol to surface heating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Power and Efficiency Analysis of a Solar Central Receiver Combined Cycle Plant with a Small Particle Heat Exchanger Receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgen, Matthew Miguel

    Two significant goals in solar plant operation are lower cost and higher efficiencies. To achieve those goals, a combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) system, which uses the hot gas turbine exhaust to produce superheated steam for a bottoming Rankine cycle by way of a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), is investigated in this work. Building off of a previous gas turbine model created at the Combustion and Solar Energy Laboratory at SDSU, here are added the HRSG and steam turbine model, which had to handle significant change in the mass flow and temperature of air exiting the gas turbine due to varying solar input. A wide range of cases were run to explore options for maximizing both power and efficiency from the proposed CSP CCGT plant. Variable guide vanes (VGVs) were found in the earlier model to be an effective tool in providing operational flexibility to address the variable nature of solar input. Combined cycle efficiencies in the range of 50% were found to result from this plant configuration. However, a combustor inlet temperature (CIT) limit leads to two distinct Modes of operation, with a sharp drop in both plant efficiency and power occurring when the air flow through the receiver exceeded the CIT limit. This drawback can be partially addressed through strategic use of the VGVs. Since system response is fully established for the relevant range of solar input and variable guide vane angles, the System Advisor Model (SAM) from NREL can be used to find what the actual expected solar input would be over the course of the day, and plan accordingly. While the SAM software is not yet equipped to model a Brayton cycle cavity receiver, appropriate approximations were made in order to produce a suitable heliostat field to fit this system. Since the SPHER uses carbon nano-particles as the solar absorbers, questions of particle longevity and how the particles might affect the flame behavior in the combustor were addressed using the chemical kinetics software Chemkin

  11. An experimental analysis of a doped lithium fluoride direct absorption solar receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesseli, James; Pollak, Tom; Lacy, Dovie

    1988-01-01

    An experimental analysis of two key elements of a direct absorption solar receiver for use with Brayton solar dynamic systems was conducted. Experimental data are presented on LiF crystals doped with dysprosium, samarium, and cobalt fluorides. In addition, a simulation of the cavity/window environment was performed and a posttest inspection was conducted to evaluate chemical reactivity, transmissivity, and condensation rate.

  12. Applying Bayesian Modeling and Receiver Operating Characteristic Methodologies for Test Utility Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qiu; Diemer, Matthew A.; Maier, Kimberly S.

    2013-01-01

    This study integrated Bayesian hierarchical modeling and receiver operating characteristic analysis (BROCA) to evaluate how interest strength (IS) and interest differentiation (ID) predicted low–socioeconomic status (SES) youth's interest-major congruence (IMC). Using large-scale Kuder Career Search online-assessment data, this study fit three…

  13. An experimental analysis of a doped lithium fluoride direct absorption solar receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesseli, James; Pollak, Tom; Lacy, Dovie

    1988-01-01

    An experimental analysis of two key elements of a direct absorption solar receiver for use with Brayton solar dynamic systems was conducted. Experimental data are presented on LiF crystals doped with dysprosium, samarium, and cobalt fluorides. In addition, a simulation of the cavity/window environment was performed and a posttest inspection was conducted to evaluate chemical reactivity, transmissivity, and condensation rate.

  14. Two-stage solar power tower cavity-receiver design and thermal performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Liping; Wang, Ting; Li, Ruihua; Yang, Yongping

    2017-06-01

    New type of two-stage solar power tower cavity-receiver is designed and a calculating procedure of radiation, convection and flow under the Gaussian heat flux is established so as to determine the piping layout and geometries in the receiver I and II and the heat flux distribution in different positions is obtained. Then the main thermal performance on water/steam temperature, steam quality, wall temperature along the typical tubes and pressure drop are specified according to the heat transfer and flow characteristics of two-phase flow. Meanwhile, a series of systematic design process is promoted and analysis on thermal performance of the two receivers is conducted. Results show that this type of two-stage cavity-receivers can minimize the size and reduce the mean temperature of receiver I while raise the average heat flux, thus increase the thermal efficiency of the two receivers; besides, the multiple serpentine tubes from header can make a more uniform distribution of the outlet parameters, preventing wall overheated.

  15. An Analysis of the Effects of RFID Tags on Narrowband Navigation and Communication Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBerge, E. F. Charles

    2007-01-01

    The simulated effects of the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tag emissions on ILS Localizer and ILS Glide Slope functions match the analytical models developed in support of DO-294B provided that the measured peak power levels are adjusted for 1) peak-to-average power ratio, 2) effective duty cycle, and 3) spectrum analyzer measurement bandwidth. When these adjustments are made, simulated and theoretical results are in extraordinarily good agreement. The relationships hold over a large range of potential interference-to-desired signal power ratios, provided that the adjusted interference power is significantly higher than the sum of the receiver noise floor and the noise-like contributions of all other interference sources. When the duty-factor adjusted power spectral densities are applied in the evaluation process described in Section 6 of DO-294B, most narrowband guidance and communications radios performance parameters are unaffected by moderate levels of RFID interference. Specific conclusions and recommendations are provided.

  16. Meta-analysis as Statistical and Analytical Method of Journal's Content Scientific Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin

    2015-02-01

    A meta-analysis is a statistical and analytical method which combines and synthesizes different independent studies and integrates their results into one common result. Analysis of the journals "Medical Archives", "Materia Socio Medica" and "Acta Informatica Medica", which are located in the most eminent indexed databases of the biomedical milieu. The study has retrospective and descriptive character, and included the period of the calendar year 2014. Study included six editions of all three journals (total of 18 journals). In this period was published a total of 291 articles (in the "Medical Archives" 110, "Materia Socio Medica" 97, and in "Acta Informatica Medica" 84). The largest number of articles was original articles. Small numbers have been published as professional, review articles and case reports. Clinical events were most common in the first two journals, while in the journal "Acta Informatica Medica" belonged to the field of medical informatics, as part of pre-clinical medical disciplines. Articles are usually required period of fifty to fifty nine days for review. Articles were received from four continents, mostly from Europe. The authors are most often from the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, then Iran, Kosovo and Macedonia. The number of articles published each year is increasing, with greater participation of authors from different continents and abroad. Clinical medical disciplines are the most common, with the broader spectrum of topics and with a growing number of original articles. Greater support of the wider scientific community is needed for further development of all three of the aforementioned journals.

  17. Analytical Round Robin for Elastic-Plastic Analysis of Surface Cracked Plates, Phase II Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, P. A.; Wells, D. N.

    2017-01-01

    The second phase of an analytical round robin for the elastic-plastic analysis of surface cracks in flat plates was conducted under the auspices of ASTM Interlaboratory Study 732. The interlaboratory study (ILS) had 10 participants with a broad range of expertise and experience, and experimental results from a surface crack tension test in 4142 steel plate loaded well into the elastic-plastic regime provided the basis for the study. The participants were asked to evaluate a surface crack tension test according to the version of the surface crack initiation toughness testing standard published at the time of the ILS, E2899-13. Data were provided to each participant that represent the fundamental information that would be provided by a mechanical test laboratory prior to evaluating the test result. Overall, the participant’s test analysis results were in good agreement and constructive feedback was received that has resulted in an improved published version of the standard E2899-15.

  18. ICRPG WORKING GROUP ON ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY ROUND ROBIN NO. 22 -- EUDIOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF POWDERED ALUMINUM,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Analytical Chemistry voted to conduct a round robin to estimate the interlaboratory reproducibility. The round robin was designed to facilitate statistical analysis of the data. Three samples representing different purity levels as

  19. Advances in paper-analytical methods for pharmaceutical analysis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Niraj; Barstis, Toni; Giri, Basant

    2017-09-22

    Paper devices have many advantages over other microfluidic devices. The paper substrate, from cellulose to glass fiber, is an inexpensive substrate that can be readily modified to suit a variety of applications. Milli- to micro-scale patterns can be designed to create a fast, cost-effective device that uses small amounts of reagents and samples. Finally, well-established chemical and biological methods can be adapted to paper to yield a portable device that can be used in resource-limited areas (e.g., field work). Altogether, the paper devices have grown into reliable analytical devices for screening low quality pharmaceuticals. This review article presents fabrication processes, detection techniques, and applications of paper microfluidic devices toward pharmaceutical screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification and analysis of factors affecting thermal shock resistance of ceramic materials in solar receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasselman, D. P. H.; Singh, J. P.; Satyamurthy, K.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis was conducted of the possible modes of thermal stress failure of brittle ceramics for potential use in point-focussing solar receivers. The pertinent materials properties which control thermal stress resistance were identified for conditions of steady-state and transient heat flow, convective and radiative heat transfer, thermal buckling and thermal fatigue as well as catastrophic crack propagation. Selection rules for materials with optimum thermal stress resistance for a particular thermal environment were identified. Recommendations for materials for particular components were made. The general requirements for a thermal shock testing program quantitatively meaningful for point-focussing solar receivers were outlined. Recommendations for follow-on theoretical analyses were made.

  1. Nonlinear thermal and structural analysis of a brazed solar-central-receiver panel

    SciTech Connect

    Napolitano, L.M. Jr.; Kanouff, M.P.

    1981-07-01

    One part of the evaluation program for a molten sodium central receiver was to be a test of a reduced-scale panel at Sandia's Central Receiver Test Facility in Albuquerque. The panel incorporates a new way of joining tubes - brazing to intermediate filler strips - which can affect the panel's lifetime. To calculate the stresses and strains for the worst-case section of the experimental panel, we have done a nonlinear elastic-plastic analysis with the MARC finite element computer code, which takes the temperature dependence of the material properties into account. From the results, tube design lifetimes are predicted. The analysis shows that concerns for cracking and reduction in lifetime are warranted, but a more detailed fracture analysis is necessary to determine whether there is a stable-crack-growth problem.

  2. Solar power generation by use of Stirling engine and heat loss analysis of its cavity receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Tassawar

    position (AP=H/D) were used to characterize the different configurations of Cavity Receiver and it was found that the Cavity Receiver with AR=0.5 and AP=0.53 has the maximum capability to utilize the solar heat to attain the maximum temperature of the heat pipe receiver. Experimental heat loss analysis at low temperature for different configurations of the cavity receiver was performed and air film temperature profiles along the wall height (H) of the cavity receiver were determined. Since sodium heat pipes operate at high temperature (973K), there are huge possibilities of radiation and convection heat losses for direct solar heating of the heater head. Therefore mathematical modeling of heat loss analysis and its numerical solution at high temperature was also included in the research objectives. 2-D axisymmetric model with weakly compressible Navier Stokes equation and general heat conduction and convection equations were simultaneously solved using the finite element method approach. Computational fluid dynamics package COMSOL 3.5a was used as a numerical tool. The temperature, and flow field pattern inside the cavity receiver were also visualized by means of surface contours. Heat loss analysis were performed for different configurations of Cavity Receiver and the numerical solution of different configuration showed that the aperture ratio (AR) plays a significant role for convection and radiation heat losses whereas the aperture position (AP) effects are negligible.

  3. Dynamic test/analysis correlation using reduced analytical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgowan, Paul E.; Angelucci, A. F.; Javeed, Mehzad

    1992-01-01

    Test/analysis correlation is an important aspect of the verification of analysis models which are used to predict on-orbit response characteristics of large space structures. This paper presents results of a study using reduced analysis models for performing dynamic test/analysis correlation. The reduced test-analysis model (TAM) has the same number and orientation of DOF as the test measurements. Two reduction methods, static (Guyan) reduction and the Improved Reduced System reduction, are applied to the test/analysis correlation of a laboratory truss structure. Simulated test results and modal test data are used to examine the performance of each method. It is shown that selection of DOF to be retained in the TAM is critical when large structural masses are involved. In addition, the use of modal test results may provide difficulties in TAM accuracy even if a large number of DOF are retained in the TAM.

  4. Dynamic test/analysis correlation using reduced analytical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgowan, Paul E.; Angelucci, A. Filippo; Javeed, Mehzad

    1992-01-01

    Test/analysis correlation is an important aspect of the verification of analysis models which are used to predict on-orbit response characteristics of large space structures. This paper presents results of a study using reduced analysis models for performing dynamic test/analysis correlation. The reduced test-analysis model (TAM) has the same number and orientation of DOF as the test measurements. Two reduction methods, static (Guyan) reduction and the Improved Reduced System (IRS) reduction, are applied to the test/analysis correlation of a laboratory truss structure. Simulated test results and modal test data are used to examine the performance of each method. It is shown that selection of DOF to be retained in the TAM is critical when large structural masses are involved. In addition, the use of modal test results may provide difficulties in TAM accuracy even if a large number of DOF are retained in the TAM.

  5. Analytical and Experimental Vibration Analysis of a Faulty Gear System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choy, F. K.; Braun, M. J.; Polyshchuk, V.; Zakrajsek, J. J.; Townsend, D. P.; Handschuh, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical procedure was developed for predicting faults in gear transmission systems under normal operating conditions. A gear tooth fault model is developed to simulate the effects of pitting and wear on the vibration signal under normal operating conditions. The model uses changes in the gear mesh stiffness to simulate the effects of gear tooth faults. The overall dynamics of the gear transmission system is evaluated by coupling the dynamics of each individual gear-rotor system through gear mesh forces generated between each gear-rotor system and the bearing forces generated between the rotor and the gearbox structure. The predicted results were compared with experimental results obtained from a spiral bevel gear fatigue test rig at NASA Lewis Research Center. The Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) was used to give a comprehensive comparison of the predicted and experimental results. The WVD method applied to the experimental results were also compared to other fault detection techniques to verify the WVD's ability to detect the pitting damage, and to determine its relative performance. Overall results show good correlation between the experimental vibration data of the damaged test gear and the predicted vibration from the model with simulated gear tooth pitting damage. Results also verified that the WVD method can successfully detect and locate gear tooth wear and pitting damage.

  6. Imaging the Crustal and Subducted Slab Structure Beneath Puerto Rico Using Receiver Function Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanacore, E. A.; Lopez, A. M.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    The determination of earthquake locations are dependent on the velocity model selected. Consequently, the refinement and updating of the velocity models used at the local and regional network level is a critical component for network efficiency through location accuracy. With the expansion of broadband instruments within the Puerto Rico -Virgin Islands region, updating the velocity model is a current long term goal of the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN). As a first step to this long term goal, receiver functions of ~20 broadband stations with data between 2010 and 2015 were calculated using iterative time domain deconvolution. The receiver function analysis not only provides insight into the crustal velocity structure but also leads to a better understanding of the region's larger tectonic structure. Preliminary results of the receiver function analysis exhibit evidence of a "slab signal"; the receiver function backazimuth sweeps for some stations particularly on the northern side of the island contain a strong P to S conversion at approximately 7 seconds which likely corresponds to the top of the slab beneath Puerto Rico. This strong slab signal implies that simple 1-D analyses of the data (e.g. H-K stacking) may lead to misleading results. To further understand the crustal structure of PRVI, we employ a 3D common-conversion-point analysis. This analysis yields a Moho beneath the island between 32-42km and a possible southward dipping slab structure between 60-80km depth. Further analysis is needed to determine the 2D or 3D velocity structure of Puerto Rico and the surrounding environs such as waveform modeling. Given the current geometry of the available array, detailed imaging of the slab and mantle wedge beneath Puerto Rico is limited. PRSN is currently seeking to install denser temporary networks to improve local imaging that will help understand the nature of the crust, mantle wedge and slab structure beneath the island as well as the structure's influence

  7. Parametric analysis and optimized torque characteristics of a coaxial magnetic gear based on the subdomain analytical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Kyung-Hun; Park, Hyung-Il; Cho, Han-Wook; Choi, Jang-Young

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the torque calculation and parametric analysis of a coaxial magnetic gear (CMG). We obtained analytical magnetic field solutions produced by permanent magnets based on a magnetic vector potential. Then, the analytical solutions for magnetic torque were obtained. All analytical results were extensively validated with nonlinear two-dimensional finite element analysis. Finally, using the derived analytical magnetic torque solutions, we carried out parametric analysis to determine the influence of the design parameters on the CMG's behavior.

  8. Preliminary Analysis of the CASES GPS Receiver Performance during Simulated Seismic Displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De la Rosa-Perkins, A.; Reynolds, A.; Crowley, G.; Azeem, I.

    2014-12-01

    We explore the ability of a new GPS software receiver, called CASES (Connected Autonomous Space Environment Sensor), to measure seismic displacements in realtime. Improvements in GPS technology over the last 20 years allow for precise measurement of ground motion during seismic events. For example, GPS data has been used to calculate displacement histories at an earthquake's epicenter and fault slip estimations with great accuracy. This is supported by the ability to measure displacements directly using GPS, bypassing the double integration that accelerometers require, and by higher clipping limits than seismometers. The CASES receiver developed by ASTRA in collaboration with Cornell University and the University of Texas, Austin represents a new geodetic-quality software-based GPS receiver that measures ionospheric space weather in addition to the usual navigation solution. To demonstrate, in a controlled environment, the ability of the CASES receiver to measure seismic displacements, we simulated ground motions similar to those generated during earthquakes, using a shake box instrumented with an accelerometer and a GPS antenna. The accelerometer measured the box's actual displacement. The box moved on a manually controlled axis that underwent varied one-dimensional motions (from mm to cm) at different frequencies and amplitudes. The CASES receiver was configured to optimize the accuracy of the position solution. We quantified the CASES GPS receiver performance by comparing the GPS solutions against the accelerometer data using various statistical analysis methods. The results of these tests will be presented. The CASES receiver is designed with multiple methods of accessing the data in realtime, ranging from internet connection, blue-tooth, cell-phone modem and Iridium modem. Because the CASES receiver measures ionospheric space weather in addition to the usual navigation solution, CASES provides not only the seimic signal, but also the ionospheric space weather

  9. Risk analysis of 222Rn gas received from East Anatolian Fault Zone in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Mucahit; Kulahci, Fatih

    2016-06-01

    In this study, risk analysis and probability distribution methodologies are applied for 222Rn gas data received from Sürgü (Malatya) station located on East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ). 222Rn data are recorded between 21.02.2007 and 06.06.2010 dates. For study are used total 1151 222Rn data. Changes in concentration of 222Rn are modeled as statistically.

  10. SplitRFLab: A MATLAB GUI toolbox for receiver function analysis based on SplitLab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mijian; Huang, Hui; Huang, Zhouchuan; Wang, Liangshu

    2016-02-01

    We add new modules for receiver function (RF) analysis in SplitLab toolbox, which includes the manual RF analysis module, automatic RF analysis and related quality control modules, and H- k stacking module. The updated toolbox (named SplitRFLab toolbox), especially its automatic RF analysis module, could calculate the RFs quickly and efficiently, which is very useful in RF analysis with huge amount of seismic data. China is now conducting the ChinArray project that plans to deploy thousands of portable stations across Chinese mainland. Our SplitRFLab toolbox may obtain reliable RF results quickly at the first time, which provide essentially new constraint to the crustal and mantle structures.

  11. Two-port network analysis and modeling of a balanced armature receiver.

    PubMed

    Kim, Noori; Allen, Jont B

    2013-07-01

    Models for acoustic transducers, such as loudspeakers, mastoid bone-drivers, hearing-aid receivers, etc., are critical elements in many acoustic applications. Acoustic transducers employ two-port models to convert between acoustic and electromagnetic signals. This study analyzes a widely-used commercial hearing-aid receiver ED series, manufactured by Knowles Electronics, Inc. Electromagnetic transducer modeling must consider two key elements: a semi-inductor and a gyrator. The semi-inductor accounts for electromagnetic eddy-currents, the 'skin effect' of a conductor (Vanderkooy, 1989), while the gyrator (McMillan, 1946; Tellegen, 1948) accounts for the anti-reciprocity characteristic [Lenz's law (Hunt, 1954, p. 113)]. Aside from Hunt (1954), no publications we know of have included the gyrator element in their electromagnetic transducer models. The most prevalent method of transducer modeling evokes the mobility method, an ideal transformer instead of a gyrator followed by the dual of the mechanical circuit (Beranek, 1954). The mobility approach greatly complicates the analysis. The present study proposes a novel, simplified and rigorous receiver model. Hunt's two-port parameters, the electrical impedance Ze(s), acoustic impedance Za(s) and electro-acoustic transduction coefficient Ta(s), are calculated using ABCD and impedance matrix methods (Van Valkenburg, 1964). The results from electrical input impedance measurements Zin(s), which vary with given acoustical loads, are used in the calculation (Weece and Allen, 2010). The hearing-aid receiver transducer model is designed based on energy transformation flow [electric→ mechanic→ acoustic]. The model has been verified with electrical input impedance, diaphragm velocity in vacuo, and output pressure measurements. This receiver model is suitable for designing most electromagnetic transducers and it can ultimately improve the design of hearing-aid devices by providing a simplified yet accurate, physically

  12. Estimating crustal seismic anisotropy with a joint analysis of radial and transverse receiver function data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huafeng; Niu, Fenglin

    2012-01-01

    We developed an integrated technique for estimating crustal anisotropy with a horizontal axis using radial (R) and transverse (T) receiver functions. The technique includes computing three individual and one joint objective function (JOF) and a reliability analysis of the estimated anisotropy. The individual objective functions (IOFs) are designed to: (1) maximize the peak energy of the stacked R receiver function after a cosine moveout correction in the Ps arrival time; (2) to maximize the correlation of the radial receiver functions after a full correction of anisotropy or (3) to minimize the total energy of transverse receiver functions stacked after a removal of crustal anisotropy. The JOF was computed by a weighted average of the three IOFs, and the reliability analysis uses the principle that stacking coherent signals can lead to an increase of signal-to-noise ratio. We applied the technique to synthetic receiver functions generated with 30-60 per cent white noise from a variety of anisotropic and heterogeneous models. The synthetic tests indicate that the proposed technique has good capability to recover the input models. Despite the presence of random and other coherent noises, such as those caused by inhomogeneous structures, in the data, the technique can always provide accurate estimates of crustal anisotropy. We applied the technique to two permanent seismic stations in western China and found significant crustal anisotropy beneath one station located at the northern edge of the Tibetan plateau. The observed fast polarization direction at this station follows the direction of the maximum horizontal tensile stress, suggesting that the observed seismic anisotropy is likely caused by mineral alignment in the lower crust. The station situated in the Sichuan basin, on the other hand, shows little to no seismic anisotropy, which may suggest that the crust beneath the basin is nearly rigid with very little deformation. The developed technique can be applied to

  13. Parametric three-way receiver operating characteristic surface analysis using mathematica.

    PubMed

    Heckerling, P S

    2001-01-01

    Three-way receiver operating characteristic (ROC) surface analysis involves the calculation of a volume under an ROC surface (VUS), which is a measure of discriminatory accuracy of 2 diagnostic tests for 3 diseases. Nonparametric methods for calculating VUS and its standard error have been developed. The author presents the code for roc3D, a Mathematica computer program for performing parametric ROC surface analysis. roc3D calculates VUS assuming a multinormal distribution of test results in the 3 diseased populations, provides user-specified pointwise confidence limits for VUS, and displays a 3-dimensional plot of the ROC surface. Limitations of the roc3D program are discussed.

  14. Comparing medical cost of care for patients with metastatic breast cancer receiving taxane therapy: claims analysis.

    PubMed

    Force, Rex W; Pugmire, Brooke A; Culbertson, Vaughn L

    2010-07-01

    It has been estimated that more than $8 billion is spent annually on the management of breast cancer in the United States. The taxane chemotherapeutic agents are cornerstones in the treatment of breast cancer, yet no study has assessed whether the choice of a taxane affects the economic outcomes of metastatic breast cancer treatment. To determine if differences exist in the medical cost of care in patients receiving taxane-based chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer, and to compare the use of ancillary medications (for neutropenia, anemia, and nausea and vomiting) and their associated costs among taxanes. We identified women with metastatic breast cancer based on diagnosis codes and the women's previous adjuvant chemotherapeutic regimens. Paid medical insurance claims were captured for the 24-month study period, from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2007. The groups were determined according to the specific taxane administered. Total medical costs were captured from the date of first taxane administration to the end of data availability. Outpatient pharmacy costs were not available. A multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the total medical costs in each group. Median total medical costs per patient per month during the study period were adjusted using a multiple regression analysis. Utilization and cost of medications administered in the office or hospital for chemotherapy-induced adverse effects were captured and adjusted with Tobit models. Of the 2245 study participants, 1035 received docetaxel, 997 received generic paclitaxel, and 213 received nab-paclitaxel. On average, patients in the nab-paclitaxel group received more doses (9.6) than those in the generic paclitaxel (6.0) or docetaxel (4.8) groups. The multivariate analysis was robust, explaining 72% of the variability in total medical costs across the 3 taxane groups. Median per-patient per-month total medical costs for study participants were within approximately $800 of each other among the

  15. Receiver design, performance analysis, and evaluation for space-borne laser altimeters and space-to-space laser ranging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Frederic M.; Sun, Xiaoli; Field, Christopher T.

    1994-01-01

    Accomplishments in the following areas of research are presented: receiver performance study of spaceborne laser altimeters and cloud and aerosol lidars; receiver performance analysis for space-to-space laser ranging systems; and receiver performance study for the Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR).

  16. [Analysis and experimental verification of sensitivity and SNR of laser warning receiver].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Long; Wang, Ming; Tian, Er-Ming; Li, Xiao; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Yue

    2009-01-01

    In order to countermeasure increasingly serious threat from hostile laser in modern war, it is urgent to do research on laser warning technology and system, and the sensitivity and signal to noise ratio (SNR) are two important performance parameters in laser warning system. In the present paper, based on the signal statistical detection theory, a method for calculation of the sensitivity and SNR in coherent detection laser warning receiver (LWR) has been proposed. Firstly, the probabilities of the laser signal and receiver noise were analyzed. Secondly, based on the threshold detection theory and Neyman-Pearson criteria, the signal current equation was established by introducing detection probability factor and false alarm rate factor, then, the mathematical expressions of sensitivity and SNR were deduced. Finally, by using method, the sensitivity and SNR of the sinusoidal grating laser warning receiver developed by our group were analyzed, and the theoretic calculation and experimental results indicate that the SNR analysis method is feasible, and can be used in performance analysis of LWR.

  17. Using Configural Frequency Analysis as a Person-Centered Analytic Approach with Categorical Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemmler, Mark; Heine, Jörg-Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Configural frequency analysis and log-linear modeling are presented as person-centered analytic approaches for the analysis of categorical or categorized data in multi-way contingency tables. Person-centered developmental psychology, based on the holistic interactionistic perspective of the Stockholm working group around David Magnusson and Lars…

  18. Global sensitivity analysis of analytical vibroacoustic transmission models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christen, Jean-Loup; Ichchou, Mohamed; Troclet, Bernard; Bareille, Olivier; Ouisse, Morvan

    2016-04-01

    Noise reduction issues arise in many engineering problems. One typical vibroacoustic problem is the transmission loss (TL) optimisation and control. The TL depends mainly on the mechanical parameters of the considered media. At early stages of the design, such parameters are not well known. Decision making tools are therefore needed to tackle this issue. In this paper, we consider the use of the Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) for the analysis of the impact of mechanical parameters on features of interest. FAST is implemented with several structural configurations. FAST method is used to estimate the relative influence of the model parameters while assuming some uncertainty or variability on their values. The method offers a way to synthesize the results of a multiparametric analysis with large variability. Results are presented for transmission loss of isotropic, orthotropic and sandwich plates excited by a diffuse field on one side. Qualitative trends found to agree with the physical expectation. Design rules can then be set up for vibroacoustic indicators. The case of a sandwich plate is taken as an example of the use of this method inside an optimisation process and for uncertainty quantification.

  19. Fatigue-creep lifetime analysis of four advanced central receiver concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J.

    1981-01-01

    Four advanced central receiver concepts were analyzed for their fatigue-creep design lifetimes. Using the flux profiles provided by the designers, the thermal hydraulic performance of an individual tube in a receiver panel was ascertained by computer analysis. A linear model of the tube crown strain for the tube on given thermal and structural finite element analyses were performed. The computed stresses and strains were used in evaluation of the creep and fatigue design lifetimes by N-47 and compared to the desired lifetime of 30 years. Three of the four designs met or exceeded the desired lifetime and the fourth met the desired lifetime when the factor of safety incorporated in N-47 was reduced. All four designs were judged adequate for the current level of design effort.

  20. A Qualitative Analysis of the Perception of Stigma Among Latinos Receiving Antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Interian, Alejandro; Martinez, Igda E.; Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Vega, William A.; Escobar, Javier I.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study sought to describe the role of stigma in antidepressant adherence among Latinos. Methods The study utilized data generated from six focus groups of Latino outpatients receiving antidepressants (N=30). By using a grounded theory approach, qualitative analysis focused specifically on the role of stigma in antidepressant treatment, as well as salient Latino values. Results Perceptions of stigma were related to both the diagnosis of depression and use of antidepressant medication. Qualitative analyses showed that antidepressant use was seen as implying more severe illness, weakness or failure to cope with problems, and being under the effects of a drug. Reports of stigma were also related to social consequences. Also, the perceived negative attributes of antidepressant use were at odds with self-perceived cultural values. Conclusions Stigma was a prominent concern among Latinos receiving antidepressants, and stigma often affected adherence. Furthermore, culture is likely to play an important role in the communication of stigma and its associated complications. PMID:18048562

  1. The RIP and block-RIP analysis of Nyquist folding receiver for recovering signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Kaili; Chen, Sujuan; Tang, Bin

    2016-12-01

    Modern radar and communication systems require the detection and parameter estimation of signal under a broadband radio frequency (RF) environment. The Nyquist folding receiver (NYFR) is an efficient analog-to-information (A2I) architecture. It can use the compressive sensing (CS) techniques to break the limitations of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC). This paper demonstrates the restricted isometry property (RIP) of the NYFR deterministically by applying the Gershgorin circle theory. And, the NYFR suffers a poor RIP for the broadband signal, which will lead the conventional CS algorithms to be invalid. So, we derive the Fourier spectrum of the broadband signal, which covered multiple Nyquist zones and received by the NYFR. Then, the broadband signal can be regarded as the block-sparse signal. And, the block CS algorithms are applied for recovering the signal based on the analysis of the block-RIP. Finally, the simulation experiments demonstrate the validity of the findings.

  2. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)

    SciTech Connect

    TOMASZEWSKI, T.A.

    2000-04-25

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP), 2336W Building, on the Hanford Site is designed to receive, confirm, repackage, certify, treat, store, and ship contact-handled transuranic and low-level radioactive waste from past and present U.S. Department of Energy activities. The WRAP facility is comprised of three buildings: 2336W, the main processing facility (also referred to generically as WRAP); 2740W, an administrative support building; and 2620W, a maintenance support building. The support buildings are subject to the normal hazards associated with industrial buildings (no radiological materials are handled) and are not part of this analysis except as they are impacted by operations in the processing building, 2336W. WRAP is designed to provide safer, more efficient methods of handling the waste than currently exist on the Hanford Site and contributes to the achievement of as low as reasonably achievable goals for Hanford Site waste management.

  3. Evidence for underthrusting beneath the Queen Charlotte Margin, British Columbia, from teleseismic receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustin, A. M. M.; Hyndman, R. D.; Kao, H.; Cassidy, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    The Queen Charlotte Fault zone is the transpressive boundary between the North America and Pacific Plates along the northwestern margin of British Columbia. Two models have been suggested for the accommodation of the ~20 mm yr-1 of convergence along the fault boundary: (1) underthrusting; (2) internal crustal deformation. Strong evidence supporting an underthrusting model is provided by a detailed teleseismic receiver function analysis that defines the underthrusting slab. Forward and inverse modelling techniques were applied to receiver function data calculated at two permanent and four temporary seismic stations within the Queen Charlotte Islands. The modelling reveals a ~10 km thick low-velocity zone dipping eastward at 28° interpreted to be underthrusting oceanic crust. The oceanic crust is located beneath a thin (28 km) eastward thickening (10°) continental crust.

  4. Meta-analysis as Statistical and Analytical Method of Journal’s Content Scientific Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: A meta-analysis is a statistical and analytical method which combines and synthesizes different independent studies and integrates their results into one common result. Goal: Analysis of the journals “Medical Archives”, “Materia Socio Medica” and “Acta Informatica Medica”, which are located in the most eminent indexed databases of the biomedical milieu. Material and methods: The study has retrospective and descriptive character, and included the period of the calendar year 2014. Study included six editions of all three journals (total of 18 journals). Results: In this period was published a total of 291 articles (in the “Medical Archives” 110, “Materia Socio Medica” 97, and in “Acta Informatica Medica” 84). The largest number of articles was original articles. Small numbers have been published as professional, review articles and case reports. Clinical events were most common in the first two journals, while in the journal “Acta Informatica Medica” belonged to the field of medical informatics, as part of pre-clinical medical disciplines. Articles are usually required period of fifty to fifty nine days for review. Articles were received from four continents, mostly from Europe. The authors are most often from the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, then Iran, Kosovo and Macedonia. Conclusion: The number of articles published each year is increasing, with greater participation of authors from different continents and abroad. Clinical medical disciplines are the most common, with the broader spectrum of topics and with a growing number of original articles. Greater support of the wider scientific community is needed for further development of all three of the aforementioned journals. PMID:25870484

  5. Visual Analytics approach for Lightning data analysis and cell nowcasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Stefan; Meng, Liqiu; Betz, Hans-Dieter

    2013-04-01

    Thunderstorms and their ground effects, such as flash floods, hail, lightning, strong wind and tornadoes, are responsible for most weather damages (Bonelli & Marcacci 2008). Thus to understand, identify, track and predict lightning cells is essential. An important aspect for decision makers is an appropriate visualization of weather analysis results including the representation of dynamic lightning cells. This work focuses on the visual analysis of lightning data and lightning cell nowcasting which aim to detect and understanding spatial-temporal patterns of moving thunderstorms. Lightnings are described by 3D coordinates and the exact occurrence time of lightnings. The three-dimensionally resolved total lightning data used in our experiment are provided by the European lightning detection network LINET (Betz et al. 2009). In all previous works, lightning point data, detected lightning cells and derived cell tracks are visualized in 2D. Lightning cells are either displayed as 2D convex hulls with or without the underlying lightning point data. Due to recent improvements of lightning data detection and accuracy, there is a growing demand on multidimensional and interactive visualization in particular for decision makers. In a first step lightning cells are identified and tracked. Then an interactive graphic user interface (GUI) is developed to investigate the dynamics of the lightning cells: e.g. changes of cell density, location, extension as well as merging and splitting behavior in 3D over time. In particular a space time cube approach is highlighted along with statistical analysis. Furthermore a lightning cell nowcasting is conducted and visualized. The idea thereby is to predict the following cell features for the next 10-60 minutes including location, centre, extension, density, area, volume, lifetime and cell feature probabilities. The main focus will be set to a suitable interactive visualization of the predicted featured within the GUI. The developed visual

  6. Crustal structure beneath the eastern Nepal Himalayas and southern Tibet from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, Arjun Sharma

    The Himalayas are the results of continental collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate and serve as a natural site to study the physical causes and process of mountain building. The crustal structure beneath the Himalayas has been subject to numerous geophysical studies and the variation in the velocity structure across the Himalayan region suggests significant differences in the crustal structure between the southern and northern portion in that region. In this research, a P receiver function analysis has been conducted on data collected for 14 years (2000-2014) from 211 different stations in Eastern Nepal and Southern Tibet, to better understand the seismic velocity structure in the region. The stations cover a large area encompassing the south eastern plains of Nepal, Lesser and Greater Himalayas and the Southern Tibetan Plateau and provide an excellent geometry for seismic structure research. Following the rotation of the two horizontal components to the radial and transverse components and the time iterative deconvolution to obtain the receiver functions the H-K stacking method of Zhu and Kanamori(Zhu and Kanamori, 2000) has been used to convert the time domain receiver functions into H-K domain and obtain the values of crustal thickness and the ratio of the P and S wave velocities. The main trend in the receiver function analysis across the Himalaya from our study reflects the deepening of the moho from about 40 km beneath southern Nepal in the foothills of the Himalaya to about 80 km in southern Tibet. A locally steeper moho deep is obtained in the high range of Himalayas.

  7. Automation of electron diffraction analysis in an analytical electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, M.J.

    1981-07-01

    This paper outlines the concept of gathering and analyzing electron diffraction patterns in an AEM by using a computer to digitally control the operation of a set of post-projector lens scan coils. By digitally controlling the deflection of a static selected area diffraction pattern either to a fixed reference point or in a reduced raster over the apertured STEM detector, a set of electronic signals may be generated which contain information of the form I = f(x,y). Not only can this signal be rapidly processed to provide real-time analyses of diffracted distances and angles of spots in the pattern, but also the operator maintains control over the scanning coils (via joystick) allowing only selected spots to be gathered and analyzed, thus facilitating the analysis of imperfect of multiple patterns. A description of the hardware and software is given, as well as preliminary results and current limitations.

  8. Multivariate standard addition method solved by net analyte signal calculation and rank annihilation factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Yousefinejad, Saeed

    2009-08-01

    This article describes the use of the net analyte signal (NAS) concept and rank annihilation factor analysis (RAFA) for building two different multivariate standard addition models called "SANAS" and "SARAF." In the former, by the definition of a new subspace, the NAS vector of the analyte of interest in an unknown sample as well as the NAS vectors of samples spiked with various amounts of the standard solutions are calculated and then their Euclidean norms are plotted against the concentration of added standard. In this way, a simple linear standard addition graph similar to that in univariate calibration is obtained, from which the concentration of the analyte in the unknown sample and the analytical figures of merit are readily calculated. In the SARAF method, the concentration of the analyte in the unknown sample is varied iteratively until the contribution of the analyte in the response data matrix is completely annihilated. The proposed methods were evaluated by analyzing simulated absorbance data as well as by the analysis of two indicators in synthetic matrices as experimental data. The resultant predicted concentrations of unknown samples showed that the SANAS and SARAF methods both produced accurate results with relative errors of prediction lower than 5% in most cases.

  9. Receiver design, performance analysis, and evaluation for space-borne laser altimeters and space-to-space laser ranging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Frederic M.; Field, Christopher T.; Sun, Xiaoli

    1996-01-01

    We report here the design and the performance measurements of the breadboard receiver of the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). The measured ranging accuracy was better than 2 cm and 10 cm for 5 ns and 30 ns wide received laser pulses under the expected received signal level, which agreed well with the theoretical analysis. The measured receiver sensitivity or the link margin was also consistent with the theory. The effects of the waveform digitizer sample rate and resolution were also measured.

  10. A conflict of analysis: analytical chemistry and milk adulteration in Victorian Britain.

    PubMed

    Steere-Williams, Jacob

    2014-08-01

    This article centres on a particularly intense debate within British analytical chemistry in the late nineteenth century, between local public analysts and the government chemists of the Inland Revenue Service. The two groups differed in both practical methodologies and in the interpretation of analytical findings. The most striking debates in this period were related to milk analysis, highlighted especially in Victorian courtrooms. It was in protracted court cases, such as the well known Manchester Milk Case in 1883, that analytical chemistry was performed between local public analysts and the government chemists, who were often both used as expert witnesses. Victorian courtrooms were thus important sites in the context of the uneven professionalisation of chemistry. I use this tension to highlight what Christopher Hamlin has called the defining feature of Victorian public health, namely conflicts of professional jurisdiction, which adds nuance to histories of the struggle of professionalisation and public credibility in analytical chemistry.

  11. Analytical approaches to expanding the use of capillary electrophoresis in routine food analysis.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Gregorio; Rodríguez-Flores, Juana; Ríos, Angel

    2005-06-01

    Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) is becoming an ever more powerful analytical technique for the separation, identification, and quantification of a wide variety of compounds of interest in many application fields. Particularly in food analysis this technique can offer interesting advantages over chromatographic techniques because of its greater simplicity and efficiency. Nevertheless, CE needs to advance with regard to compatibility with sample matrices, sensitivity, and robustness of the methodologies in order to gain even wider acceptance in food analysis laboratories, specially for routine work. This article presents various approaches to expanding the analytical usefulness of CE in food analysis, discussing their advantages over conventional CE. These approaches focus on sample screening, automated sample preparation with on-line CE arrangements, and the automatic integration of calibration in routine analytical work with CE.

  12. The Crustal Structure Of The Marmara Region Using Receiver Function Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büyükakpınar, Pınar; Gürbüz, Cemil; Zor, Ekrem

    2016-04-01

    The Marmara region is a rapidly deforming area with high seismic activity in the northwestern Turkey. In order to further understand the crustal structure in the region, we present results from receiver function analysis using the permanent stations in the region by applying H-κ stacking algorithm which gives crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio beneath a station. 40 land stations between January of 2008 and April of 2012, and 5 cabled Sea Bottom Observatories which were deployed at the end of 2010 by KOERI located between 40.2°- 41.2° N and 26.5°- 30.5° E were included in the analysis. Approximately 250 teleseismic events from a wide range of epicentral distances with magnitudes greater than Mw 5.5 are used to obtain receiver functions. Furthermore, in order to calculate the receiver functions in time domain using iterative deconvolution technique suggested by Ligorria and Ammon (1999). Consequently, the crustal structure of the region has been reasonably defined and compared with the other studies. As a consequence of the receiver function analysis, the Moho depth variation map and Vp/Vs ratio map were plotted. The Moho depth on average is 31 km. There are no sharp changes in the crustal thickness of the Marmara Region except North Marmara Trough because basin structure of the Marmara Sea where crustal thickness reaches up to 26 km in the same region was not observed. Furthermore, we found overall average Vp/Vs ratio of 1.74, for the region but we obtained low Vp/Vs ratios in the stations located near Çınarcık Basin which varies between 1.64 - 1.74 indicating the effect of basin structure in the area and North Marmara where Vp/Vs ratios vary between 1.60 and 1.70 which is related to the sediment structure of the area. We also acquired higher Vp/Vs ratios which are between 1.86 and 1.96 in the Western Marmara Region. This can be due to increasing mafic content in this area. Additionally, an attempt has been made to invert the radial receiver function of the

  13. Sensitivity to imputation models and assumptions in receiver operating characteristic analysis with incomplete data.

    PubMed

    Karakaya, Jale; Karabulut, Erdem; Yucel, Recai M

    Modern statistical methods using incomplete data have been increasingly applied in a wide variety of substantive problems. Similarly, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, a method used in evaluating diagnostic tests or biomarkers in medical research, has also been increasingly popular problem in both its development and application. While missing-data methods have been applied in ROC analysis, the impact of model mis-specification and/or assumptions (e.g. missing at random) underlying the missing data has not been thoroughly studied. In this work, we study the performance of multiple imputation (MI) inference in ROC analysis. Particularly, we investigate parametric and non-parametric techniques for MI inference under common missingness mechanisms. Depending on the coherency of the imputation model with the underlying data generation mechanism, our results show that MI generally leads to well-calibrated inferences under ignorable missingness mechanisms.

  14. Joint multifractal analysis based on the partition function approach: analytical analysis, numerical simulation and empirical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wen-Jie; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Gu, Gao-Feng; Xiong, Xiong; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2015-10-01

    Many complex systems generate multifractal time series which are long-range cross-correlated. Numerous methods have been proposed to characterize the multifractal nature of these long-range cross correlations. However, several important issues about these methods are not well understood and most methods consider only one moment order. We study the joint multifractal analysis based on partition function with two moment orders, which was initially invented to investigate fluid fields, and derive analytically several important properties. We apply the method numerically to binomial measures with multifractal cross correlations and bivariate fractional Brownian motions without multifractal cross correlations. For binomial multifractal measures, the explicit expressions of mass function, singularity strength and multifractal spectrum of the cross correlations are derived, which agree excellently with the numerical results. We also apply the method to stock market indexes and unveil intriguing multifractality in the cross correlations of index volatilities.

  15. Analysis of Multi-Antenna GNSS Receiver Performance under Jamming Attacks.

    PubMed

    Vagle, Niranjana; Broumandan, Ali; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2016-11-17

    Although antenna array-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers can be used to mitigate both narrowband and wideband electronic interference sources, measurement distortions induced by array processing methods are not suitable for high precision applications. The measurement distortions have an adverse effect on the carrier phase ambiguity resolution, affecting the navigation solution. Depending on the array attitude information availability and calibration parameters, different spatial processing methods can be implemented although they distort carrier phase measurements in some cases. This paper provides a detailed investigation of the effect of different array processing techniques on array-based GNSS receiver measurements and navigation performance. The main novelty of the paper is to provide a thorough analysis of array-based GNSS receivers employing different beamforming techniques from tracking to navigation solution. Two beamforming techniques, namely Power Minimization (PM) and Minimum Power Distortionless Response (MPDR), are being investigated. In the tracking domain, the carrier Doppler, Phase Lock Indicator (PLI), and Carrier-to-Noise Ratio (C/N₀) are analyzed. Pseudorange and carrier phase measurement distortions and carrier phase position performance are also evaluated. Performance analyses results from simulated GNSS signals and field tests are provided.

  16. Performance analysis of pupil-matching optical differential receivers in space-to-ground laser communication.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoping; Sun, Jianfeng; Zhi, Ya'nan; Zhou, Yu; Lu, Wei; Hou, Peipei; Xu, Qian; Liu, Liren

    2014-05-10

    In the paper, the principle and structure of a pupil-matching optical differential receiver consisting of double 4f confocal lens groups is introduced to overcome atmosphere turbulences in space-to-ground laser communication. Using the scalar diffraction theory, a systematic analysis of 4f lens groups is formulated mathematically. Based on Seidel aberration, lens aberrations produced by the inherent unideal lens and mutual alignment errors of double 4f lens groups primarily caused by relative axial displacement of the foci and vertical position change of the optical axes are studied mathematically and detailed. Under the effects of varying aberrations on the double 4f lens groups, we evaluate the performance of this receiving system by the model of power penalty for a given 10(-9) bit error ratio. Simulated results of the relationship between power penalty and the different root-mean-square errors are concluded in order to put forward the requirement of machining precision of individual components. That will be helpful in optimizing the design of these groups in the optical receiver.

  17. Analysis of Multi-Antenna GNSS Receiver Performance under Jamming Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Vagle, Niranjana; Broumandan, Ali; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2016-01-01

    Although antenna array-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers can be used to mitigate both narrowband and wideband electronic interference sources, measurement distortions induced by array processing methods are not suitable for high precision applications. The measurement distortions have an adverse effect on the carrier phase ambiguity resolution, affecting the navigation solution. Depending on the array attitude information availability and calibration parameters, different spatial processing methods can be implemented although they distort carrier phase measurements in some cases. This paper provides a detailed investigation of the effect of different array processing techniques on array-based GNSS receiver measurements and navigation performance. The main novelty of the paper is to provide a thorough analysis of array-based GNSS receivers employing different beamforming techniques from tracking to navigation solution. Two beamforming techniques, namely Power Minimization (PM) and Minimum Power Distortionless Response (MPDR), are being investigated. In the tracking domain, the carrier Doppler, Phase Lock Indicator (PLI), and Carrier-to-Noise Ratio (C/N0) are analyzed. Pseudorange and carrier phase measurement distortions and carrier phase position performance are also evaluated. Performance analyses results from simulated GNSS signals and field tests are provided. PMID:27869672

  18. Perioperative and ICU Healthcare Analytics within a Veterans Integrated System Network: a Qualitative Gap Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mudumbai, Seshadri; Ayer, Ferenc; Stefanko, Jerry

    2017-08-01

    Health care facilities are implementing analytics platforms as a way to document quality of care. However, few gap analyses exist on platforms specifically designed for patients treated in the Operating Room, Post-Anesthesia Care Unit, and Intensive Care Unit (ICU). As part of a quality improvement effort, we undertook a gap analysis of an existing analytics platform within the Veterans Healthcare Administration. The objectives were to identify themes associated with 1) current clinical use cases and stakeholder needs; 2) information flow and pain points; and 3) recommendations for future analytics development. Methods consisted of semi-structured interviews in 2 phases with a diverse set (n = 9) of support personnel and end users from five facilities across a Veterans Integrated Service Network. Phase 1 identified underlying needs and previous experiences with the analytics platform across various roles and operational responsibilities. Phase 2 validated preliminary feedback, lessons learned, and recommendations for improvement. Emerging themes suggested that the existing system met a small pool of national reporting requirements. However, pain points were identified with accessing data in several information system silos and performing multiple manual validation steps of data content. Notable recommendations included enhancing systems integration to create "one-stop shopping" for data, and developing a capability to perform trends analysis. Our gap analysis suggests that analytics platforms designed for surgical and ICU patients should employ approaches similar to those being used for primary care patients.

  19. Error analysis for semi-analytic displacement derivatives with respect to shape and sizing variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenyes, Peter A.; Lust, Robert V.

    1989-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis is fundamental to the solution of structural optimization problems. Consequently, much research has focused on the efficient computation of static displacement derivatives. As originally developed, these methods relied on analytical representations for the derivatives of the structural stiffness matrix (K) with respect to the design variables (b sub i). To extend these methods for use with complex finite element formulations and facilitate their implementation into structural optimization programs using the general finite element method analysis codes, the semi-analytic method was developed. In this method the matrix the derivative of K/the derivative b sub i is approximated by finite difference. Although it is well known that the accuracy of the semi-analytic method is dependent on the finite difference parameter, recent work has suggested that more fundamental inaccuracies exist in the method when used for shape optimization. Another study has argued qualitatively that these errors are related to nonuniform errors in the stiffness matrix derivatives. The accuracy of the semi-analytic method is investigated. A general framework was developed for the error analysis and then it is shown analytically that the errors in the method are entirely accounted for by errors in delta K/delta b sub i. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that acceptable accuracy in the derivatives can be obtained through careful selection of the finite difference parameter.

  20. Design and Analysis of the Aperture Shield Assembly for a Space Solar Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strumpf, Hal J.; Trinh, Tuan; Westelaken, William; Krystkowiak, Christopher; Avanessian, Vahe; Kerslake, Thomas W.

    1997-01-01

    A joint U.S./Russia program has been conducted to design, develop, fabricate, launch, and operate the world's first space solar dynamic power system on the Russian Space Station Mir. The goal of the program was to demonstrate and confirm that solar dynamic power systems are viable for future space applications such as the International Space Station (ISS). The major components of the system include a solar receiver, a closed Brayton cycle power conversion unit, a power conditioning and control unit, a solar concentrator, a radiator, a thermal control system, and a Space Shuttle carrier. Unfortunately, the mission was demanifested from the ISS Phase 1 Space Shuttle Program in 1996. However, NASA Lewis is proposing to use the fabricated flight hardware as part of an all-American flight demonstration on the ISS in 2002. The present paper concerns the design and analysis of the solar receiver aperture shield assembly. The aperture shield assembly comprises the front face of the cylindrical receiver and is located at the focal plane of the solar concentrator. The aperture shield assembly is a critical component that protects the solar receiver structure from highly concentrated solar fluxes during concentrator off-pointing events. A full-size aperture shield assembly was fabricated. This unit was essentially identical to the flight configuration, with the exception of materials substitution. In addition, a thermal shock test aperture shield assembly was fabricated. This test article utilized the flight materials and was used for high-flux testing in the solar simulator test rig at NASA Lewis. This testing is described in a companion paper.

  1. P and S receiver function analysis of seafloor borehole broadband seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Kawakatsu, H.; Shinohara, M.; Kanazawa, T.; Araki, E.; Suyehiro, K.

    2011-12-01

    The crustal and lithospheric structure of the normal oceanic plates is investigated using converted wave techniques (P and S receiver functions (RFs) and novel stacking analysis techniques without deconvolution) applied to the data from two seafloor borehole broadband seismic stations located in the central Philippine Sea and in the northwest Pacific ocean. We observe sufficient energy from at least two discontinuities within the error bounds, one from the crust-mantle (Moho) boundary and the other from the seismic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). Synthetic seismograms for seafloor stations show that the water reverberations interfere with the vertical component of seismograms but to a lesser extent with the radial part of P receiver functions. On the other hand, S receiver functions are devoid of such effects since all the multiples and converted waves are separated in time by the primary S wave in time. Waveform modeling of RFs shows that the crustal thicknesses of the western Philippine Sea plate and northwest Pacific plate are ˜7-8 km, and that depths of LAB are 76 ± 1.8 km and 82 ± 4.4 km, respectively, with an abrupt Vs drop at LAB of ˜7%-8%, as reported by Kawakatsu et al. (2009). The LAB depth for the eastern Philippine plate is found to be ˜55 km. To confirm the robustness of this observation, we further analyze vertical and radial components of the data without deconvolution for P wave backscattered reflection phases and P-to-S converted phases. The result indicates that the reflected/converted phases from Moho and LAB are observed at timings consistent with the receiver function results. The effect of seismic anisotropy for observed RFs is also investigated.

  2. Perturbation and nonlinear dynamic analysis of acoustic phonatory signal in Parkinsonian patients receiving deep brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Victoria S.; Zhou, Xiao Ping; Rahn, Douglas A.; Wang, Emily Q.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Nineteen PD patients who received deep brain stimulation (DBS), 10 non-surgical (control) PD patients, and 11 non-pathologic age- and gender-matched subjects performed sustained vowel phonations. The following acoustic measures were obtained on the sustained vowel phonations: correlation dimension (D2), percent jitter, percent shimmer, SNR, F0, vF0, and vAm. The results indicated the following: The mean D2 of control PD patients was significantly higher than the mean D2 of non-pathologic subjects and patients who received deep brain stimulation. These results suggest an improvement in PD voice in treated patients. Many PD vocal samples in this study have type 2 signals containing subharmonics that may not be suitable for perturbation analysis but are suitable for nonlinear dynamic analysis, making the D2 results more reliable. These findings show that DBS may provide measurable improvement in patients with severe vocal impairment. Learning outcomes Readers will be able to: (1) identify the advantages of nonlinear dynamic analysis as a clinical tool to evaluate the aperiodic voice commonly found in patients with Parkinson’s disease, (2) describe in general the method of obtaining a correlation dimension measure from a voice sample and the significance of this measure in terms of specific voice signal properties, (3) consider the preliminary implications from nonlinear dynamic analysis of a positive DBS effect on Parkinsonian voice and the potential for further investigations using nonlinear dynamic analysis on the influence of gender, severity of disease, and combined treatments on Parkinsonian voice improvement. PMID:18433765

  3. Comparative analysis of methods for real-time analytical control of chemotherapies preparations.

    PubMed

    Bazin, Christophe; Cassard, Bruno; Caudron, Eric; Prognon, Patrice; Havard, Laurent

    2015-10-15

    Control of chemotherapies preparations are now an obligation in France, though analytical control is compulsory. Several methods are available and none of them is presumed as ideal. We wanted to compare them so as to determine which one could be the best choice. We compared non analytical (visual and video-assisted, gravimetric) and analytical (HPLC/FIA, UV/FT-IR, UV/Raman, Raman) methods thanks to our experience and a SWOT analysis. The results of the analysis show great differences between the techniques, but as expected none us them is without defects. However they can probably be used in synergy. Overall for the pharmacist willing to get involved, the implementation of the control for chemotherapies preparations must be widely anticipated, with the listing of every parameter, and remains according to us an analyst's job. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An Improved Time-Frequency Analysis Method in Interference Detection for GNSS Receivers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kewen; Jin, Tian; Yang, Dongkai

    2015-04-21

    In this paper, an improved joint time-frequency (TF) analysis method based on a reassigned smoothed pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution (RSPWVD) has been proposed in interference detection for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In the RSPWVD, the two-dimensional low-pass filtering smoothing function is introduced to eliminate the cross-terms present in the quadratic TF distribution, and at the same time, the reassignment method is adopted to improve the TF concentration properties of the auto-terms of the signal components. This proposed interference detection method is evaluated by experiments on GPS L1 signals in the disturbing scenarios compared to the state-of-the-art interference detection approaches. The analysis results show that the proposed interference detection technique effectively overcomes the cross-terms problem and also preserves good TF localization properties, which has been proven to be effective and valid to enhance the interference detection performance of the GNSS receivers, particularly in the jamming environments.

  5. An Improved Time-Frequency Analysis Method in Interference Detection for GNSS Receivers

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kewen; Jin, Tian; Yang, Dongkai

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an improved joint time-frequency (TF) analysis method based on a reassigned smoothed pseudo Wigner–Ville distribution (RSPWVD) has been proposed in interference detection for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In the RSPWVD, the two-dimensional low-pass filtering smoothing function is introduced to eliminate the cross-terms present in the quadratic TF distribution, and at the same time, the reassignment method is adopted to improve the TF concentration properties of the auto-terms of the signal components. This proposed interference detection method is evaluated by experiments on GPS L1 signals in the disturbing scenarios compared to the state-of-the-art interference detection approaches. The analysis results show that the proposed interference detection technique effectively overcomes the cross-terms problem and also preserves good TF localization properties, which has been proven to be effective and valid to enhance the interference detection performance of the GNSS receivers, particularly in the jamming environments. PMID:25905704

  6. A Visual Analytics Approach to Structured Data Analysis to Enhance Nonproliferation and Arms Control Verification Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, David S.

    2014-08-07

    Analysis activities for Nonproliferation and Arms Control verification require the use of many types of data. Tabular structured data, such as Excel spreadsheets and relational databases, have traditionally been used for data mining activities, where specific queries are issued against data to look for matching results. The application of visual analytics tools to structured data enables further exploration of datasets to promote discovery of previously unknown results. This paper discusses the application of a specific visual analytics tool to datasets related to the field of Arms Control and Nonproliferation to promote the use of visual analytics more broadly in this domain. Visual analytics focuses on analytical reasoning facilitated by interactive visual interfaces (Wong and Thomas 2004). It promotes exploratory analysis of data, and complements data mining technologies where known patterns can be mined for. Also with a human in the loop, they can bring in domain knowledge and subject matter expertise. Visual analytics has not widely been applied to this domain. In this paper, we will focus on one type of data: structured data, and show the results of applying a specific visual analytics tool to answer questions in the Arms Control and Nonproliferation domain. We chose to use the T.Rex tool, a visual analytics tool developed at PNNL, which uses a variety of visual exploration patterns to discover relationships in structured datasets, including a facet view, graph view, matrix view, and timeline view. The facet view enables discovery of relationships between categorical information, such as countries and locations. The graph tool visualizes node-link relationship patterns, such as the flow of materials being shipped between parties. The matrix visualization shows highly correlated categories of information. The timeline view shows temporal patterns in data. In this paper, we will use T.Rex with two different datasets to demonstrate how interactive exploration of

  7. Stability analysis of magnetized neutron stars - a semi-analytic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbrik, Marlene; Kokkotas, Kostas D.

    2017-04-01

    We implement a semi-analytic approach for stability analysis, addressing the ongoing uncertainty about stability and structure of neutron star magnetic fields. Applying the energy variational principle, a model system is displaced from its equilibrium state. The related energy density variation is set up analytically, whereas its volume integration is carried out numerically. This facilitates the consideration of more realistic neutron star characteristics within the model compared to analytical treatments. At the same time, our method retains the possibility to yield general information about neutron star magnetic field and composition structures that are likely to be stable. In contrast to numerical studies, classes of parametrized systems can be studied at once, finally constraining realistic configurations for interior neutron star magnetic fields. We apply the stability analysis scheme on polytropic and non-barotropic neutron stars with toroidal, poloidal and mixed fields testing their stability in a Newtonian framework. Furthermore, we provide the analytical scheme for dropping the Cowling approximation in an axisymmetric system and investigate its impact. Our results confirm the instability of simple magnetized neutron star models as well as a stabilization tendency in the case of mixed fields and stratification. These findings agree with analytical studies whose spectrum of model systems we extend by lifting former simplifications.

  8. [Analysis on willingness to receive human papillomavirus vaccination among risk males and related factors].

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiaojun; Jia, Tianjian; Zhang, Xuan; Zhu, Chen; Chen, Xin; Zou, Huachun

    2015-10-01

    To understand the willingness to receive human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of men who have sex with men (MSM) and the male clients of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and related factors in China. MSM were enrolled from the community through snowball sampling and male clients of STD clinics were enrolled from a sexual health clinic through convenience sampling in Wuxi, China. A questionnaire survey on the subjects' socio-demographic characteristics and the awareness of HPV was conducted. A total of 186 MSM and 182 STD clients were recruited. The awareness rates of HPV were 18.4% and 23.1%, respectively and the awareness rates of HPV vaccination were 10.2% and 15.4%, respectively. STD clinic clients (70.9%) were more likely to receive HPV vaccination than MSM (34.9%) (χ² = 47.651, P<0.01). Only 26.2% of MSM and 20.2% of STD clinic clients were willing to receive free HPV vaccination before the age of 20 years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that MSM who had passive anal sex (OR=2.831, 95% CI: 1.703-13.526) , MSM who never used condom in anal sex in the past 6 months (OR=3.435, 95% CI: 1.416-20.108) , MSM who had been diagnosed with STDs (OR=1.968, 95% CI: 1.201-8.312) and STD clinic clients who had commercial sex with females in the past 3 months (OR=1.748, 95% CI: 1.207-8.539) , STD clinic clients who never used condom in commercial sex in the past 3 months (OR=1.926, 95% CI: 1.343-5.819) and STD clinic clients who had been diagnosed with STDs in past 12 months (OR=2.017, 95% CI: 1.671-7.264) were more likely to receive free HPV vaccination. Sexually active MSM and male clients in STD clinics in China had lower awareness of the HPV related knowledge. Their willing to receive HPV vaccination were influenced by their behavior related factors. It is necessary to strengthen the health education about HPV and improve people's awareness of HPV vaccination.

  9. What are families most grateful for after receiving palliative care? Content analysis of written documents received: a chance to improve the quality of care.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, María; Centeno, Carlos; Carrasco, José Miguel; Barbosa, Antonio; Arantzamendi, María

    2017-09-06

    Family members are involved in the care of palliative patients at home and therefore, should be viewed as important sources of information to help clinicians better understand the quality palliative care service patients receive. The objective of the study was to analyse what is valued most by family carers undergoing bereavement of a palliative care home service in order to identify factors of quality of care. Qualitative exploratory study based on documentary analysis. Content analysis of 77 gratitude documents received over 8 years by a palliative home service in Odivelas, near Lisbon (Portugal) was undertaken, through an inductive approach and using investigator triangulation. Frequency of distinct categories was quantitatively defined. Three different content categories emerged from the analysis: a) Recognition of the care received and the value of particular aspects of care within recognised difficult situations included aspects such as kindness, listening, attention to the family, empathy, closeness, affection and the therapeutic relationships established (63/77 documents); b) Family recognition of the achievements of the palliative care team (29/77) indicated as relief from suffering for the patient and family, opportunity of dying at home, help in facing difficult situations, improvement in quality of life and wellbeing, and feeling of serenity during bereavement; c) Messages of support (45/77) related to the need of resources provided. The relational component emerges as an underlying key aspect of family carers' experience with palliative care home service. Family carers show spontaneous gratitude for the professionalism and humanity found in palliative care. The relational component of care emerges as key to achieve a high quality care experience of palliative care homes service, and could be one indicator of quality of palliative care.

  10. Patient perspectives on care received at community acupuncture clinics: a qualitative thematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Community acupuncture is a recent innovation in acupuncture service delivery in the U.S. that aims to improve access to care through low-cost treatments in group-based settings. Patients at community acupuncture clinics represent a broader socioeconomic spectrum and receive more frequent treatments compared to acupuncture users nationwide. As a relatively new model of acupuncture in the U.S., little is known about the experiences of patients at community acupuncture clinics and whether quality of care is compromised through this high-volume model. The aim of this study was to assess patients’ perspectives on the care received through community acupuncture clinics. Methods The investigators conducted qualitative, thematic analysis of written comments from an observational, cross-sectional survey of clients of the Working Class Acupuncture clinics in Portland, Oregon. The survey included an open-ended question for respondents to share comments about their experiences with community acupuncture. Comments were received from 265 community acupuncture patients. Results Qualitative analysis of written comments identified two primary themes that elucidate patients’ perspectives on quality of care: 1) aspects of health care delivery unique to community acupuncture, and 2) patient engagement in health care. Patients identified unique aspects of community acupuncture, including structures that facilitate access, processes that make treatments more comfortable and effective and holistic outcomes including physical improvements, enhanced quality of life, and empowerment. The group setting, community-based locations, and low cost were highlighted as aspects of this model that allow patients to access acupuncture. Conclusions Patients’ perspectives on the values and experiences unique to community acupuncture offer insights on the quality of care received in these settings. The group setting, community-based locations, and low cost of this model potentially

  11. Social Cognitive Career Theory, Conscientiousness, and Work Performance: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Steven D.; Lent, Robert W.; Telander, Kyle; Tramayne, Selena

    2011-01-01

    We performed a meta-analytic path analysis of an abbreviated version of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) model of work performance (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). The model we tested included the central cognitive predictors of performance (ability, self-efficacy, performance goals), with the exception of outcome expectations. Results…

  12. Social Cognitive Career Theory, Conscientiousness, and Work Performance: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Steven D.; Lent, Robert W.; Telander, Kyle; Tramayne, Selena

    2011-01-01

    We performed a meta-analytic path analysis of an abbreviated version of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) model of work performance (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). The model we tested included the central cognitive predictors of performance (ability, self-efficacy, performance goals), with the exception of outcome expectations. Results…

  13. THE IMPORTANCE OF PROPER INTENSITY CALIBRATION FOR RAMAN ANALYSIS OF LOW-LEVEL ANALYTES IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern dispersive Raman spectroscopy offers unique advantages for the analysis of low-concentration analytes in aqueous solution. However, we have found that proper intensity calibration is critical for obtaining these benefits. This is true not only for producing spectra with ...

  14. THE IMPORTANCE OF PROPER INTENSITY CALIBRATION FOR RAMAN ANALYSIS OF LOW-LEVEL ANALYTES IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern dispersive Raman spectroscopy offers unique advantages for the analysis of low-concentration analytes in aqueous solution. However, we have found that proper intensity calibration is critical for obtaining these benefits. This is true not only for producing spectra with ...

  15. Social Cognitive Predictors of College Students' Academic Performance and Persistence: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Steven D.; Tramayne, Selena; Hoxha, Denada; Telander, Kyle; Fan, Xiaoyan; Lent, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested Social Cognitive Career Theory's (SCCT) academic performance model using a two-stage approach that combined meta-analytic and structural equation modeling methodologies. Unbiased correlations obtained from a previously published meta-analysis [Robbins, S. B., Lauver, K., Le, H., Davis, D., & Langley, R. (2004). Do psychosocial…

  16. Social Cognitive Predictors of College Students' Academic Performance and Persistence: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Steven D.; Tramayne, Selena; Hoxha, Denada; Telander, Kyle; Fan, Xiaoyan; Lent, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested Social Cognitive Career Theory's (SCCT) academic performance model using a two-stage approach that combined meta-analytic and structural equation modeling methodologies. Unbiased correlations obtained from a previously published meta-analysis [Robbins, S. B., Lauver, K., Le, H., Davis, D., & Langley, R. (2004). Do psychosocial…

  17. A rational design change methodology based on experimental and analytical modal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Weinacht, D.J.; Bennett, J.G.

    1993-08-01

    A design methodology that integrates analytical modeling and experimental characterization is presented. This methodology represents a powerful tool for making rational design decisions and changes. An example of its implementation in the design, analysis, and testing of a precisions machine tool support structure is given.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY OF ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Within the scope of a number of emerging contaminant issues in environmental analysis, one area that has received a great deal of public interest has been the assessment of the role of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as stressors and agents of change in ecosystems as well as their role in unplanned human exposure. The relationship between personal actions and the occurrence of PPCPs in the environment is clear-cut and comprehensible to the public. In this overview, we attempt to examine the separations aspect of the analytical approach to the vast array of potential analytes among this class of compounds. We also highlight the relationship between these compounds and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and between PPCPs and EDCs and the more traditional environmental analytes such as the persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Although the spectrum of chemical behavior extends from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, the current focus has shifted to moderately and highly polar analytes. Thus, emphasis on HPLC and LC/MS has grown and MS/MS has become a detection technique of choice with either electrospray ionization or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. This contrasts markedly with the bench mark approach of capillary GC, GC/MS and electron ionization in traditional environmental analysis. The expansion of the analyte list has fostered new vigor in the development of environmental analytical chemistry, modernized the range of tools appli

  19. Analysis of Analog Photonic Links Employing Multiple-Channel (Arrayed) Receivers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-07

    with an optical amplifier to boost the received optical signal level. While analog links utilizing single-channel and balanced receivers have been...utilizing single-channel and balanced receivers have been thoroughly analyzed, arrayed receiver architec- tures have received far less attention. In...output optical modulators and balanced -detection [8, 9] are frequently employed. This technique has been utilized alone to achieve the first multi

  20. Multicriteria decision analysis in ranking of analytical procedures for aldrin determination in water.

    PubMed

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Orłowski, Aleksander

    2015-03-27

    The study presents the possibility of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) application when choosing analytical procedures with low environmental impact. A type of MCDA, Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE), was chosen as versatile tool that meets all the analytical chemists--decision makers requirements. Twenty five analytical procedures for aldrin determination in water samples (as an example) were selected as input alternatives to MCDA analysis. Nine different criteria describing the alternatives were chosen from different groups--metrological, economical and the most importantly--environmental impact. The weights for each criterion were obtained from questionnaires that were sent to experts, giving three different scenarios for MCDA results. The results of analysis show that PROMETHEE is very promising tool to choose the analytical procedure with respect to its greenness. The rankings for all three scenarios placed solid phase microextraction and liquid phase microextraction--based procedures high, while liquid-liquid extraction, solid phase extraction and stir bar sorptive extraction--based procedures were placed low in the ranking. The results show that although some of the experts do not intentionally choose green analytical chemistry procedures, their MCDA choice is in accordance with green chemistry principles. The PROMETHEE ranking results were compared with more widely accepted green analytical chemistry tools--NEMI and Eco-Scale. As PROMETHEE involved more different factors than NEMI, the assessment results were only weakly correlated. Oppositely, the results of Eco-Scale assessment were well-correlated as both methodologies involved similar criteria of assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Crustal structure of the Dead Sea Basin (DSB) from a receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohsen, A.; Asch, G.; Mechie, J.; Kind, R.; Hofstetter, R.; Weber, M.; Stiller, M.; Abu-Ayyash, K.

    2011-01-01

    The Dead Sea Transform (DST) is a major left-lateral strike-slip fault that accommodates the relative motion between the African and Arabian plates, connecting a region of extension in the Red Sea to the Taurus collision zone in Turkey over a length of about 1100 km. The Dead Sea Basin (DSB) is one of the largest basins along the DST. The DSB is a morphotectonic depression along the DST, divided into a northern and a southern sub-basin, separated by the Lisan salt diapir. We report on a receiver function study of the crust within the multidisciplinary geophysical project, DEad Sea Integrated REsearch (DESIRE), to study the crustal structure of the DSB. A temporary seismic network was operated on both sides of the DSB between 2006 October and 2008 April. The aperture of the network is approximately 60 km in the E-W direction crossing the DSB on the Lisan peninsula and about 100 km in the N-S direction. Analysis of receiver functions from the DESIRE temporary network indicates that Moho depths vary between 30 and 38 km beneath the area. These Moho depth estimates are consistent with results of near-vertical incidence and wide-angle controlled-source techniques. Receiver functions reveal an additional discontinuity in the lower crust, but only in the DSB and west of it. This leads to the conclusion that the internal crustal structure east and west of the DSB is different at the present-day. However, if the 107 km left-lateral movement along the DST is taken into account, then the region beneath the DESIRE array where no lower crustal discontinuity is observed would have lain about 18 Ma ago immediately adjacent to the region under the previous DESERT array west of the DST where no lower crustal discontinuity is recognized.

  2. Crustal structure of the Dead Sea Basin (DSB) from a receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohsen, A.; Asch, G.; Mechie, J.; Hofstetter, R.; Kind, R.; Weber, M. H.; Stiller, M.; Abu-Ayyash, K.

    2010-12-01

    The Dead Sea Transform (DST) is a major left-lateral strike-slip fault that accommodates the relative motion between the African and Arabian plates, connecting a region of extension in the Red Sea to the Taurus collision zone in Turkey over a length of about 1100 km. The Dead Sea Basin (DSB) is one of the largest basins along the DST. The DSB is a morphotectonic depression along the DST, divided into a northern and a southern sub-basin, separated by the Lisan salt diapir. We report on a receiver function study of the crust within the multidisciplinary geophysical project, DEad Sea Integrated REsearch (DESIRE), to study the crustal structure of the DSB. A temporary seismic network was operated on both sides of the DSB between October 2006 and April 2008. The aperture of the network is approximately 60 km in the E-W direction crossing the DSB on the Lisan peninsula and about 100 km in the N-S direction. Analysis of receiver functions from the DESIRE temporary network indicates that Moho depths vary between 30-38 km beneath the area. These Moho depth estimates are consistent with results of near-vertical incidence and wide-angle controlled-source techniques. Receiver functions reveal an additional discontinuity in the lower crust, but only in the DSB and west of it. This leads to the conclusion that the internal crustal structure east and west of the DSB is different at the present-day. However, if the 107 km left-lateral movement along the DST is taken into account, then the region beneath the DESIRE array where no lower crustal discontinuity is observed would have lain about 18 Ma ago immediately adjacent to the region under the previous DESERT array west of the DST where no lower crustal discontinuity is recognized.

  3. [Receiver operating characteristic analysis and the cost--benefit analysis in determination of the optimal cut-off point].

    PubMed

    Vránová, J; Horák, J; Krátká, K; Hendrichová, M; Kovaírková, K

    2009-01-01

    An overview of the use of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis within medicine is provided. A survey of the theory behind the analysis is offered together with a presentation on how to create a ROC curve and how to use Cost--Benefit analysis to determine the optimal cut-off point or threshold. The use of ROC analysis is exemplified in the "Cost--Benefit analysis" section of the paper. In these examples, it can be seen that the determination of the optimal cut-off point is mainly influenced by the prevalence and the severity of the disease, by the risks and adverse events of treatment or the diagnostic testing, by the overall costs of treating true and false positives (TP and FP), and by the risk of deficient or non-treatment of false negative (FN) cases.

  4. Mantle upwelling beneath Madagascar: evidence from receiver function analysis and shear wave splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Jonathan D.; Eakin, Caroline M.

    2017-07-01

    Crustal receiver functions have been calculated from 128 events for two three-component broadband seismomenters located on the south coast (FOMA) and in the central High Plateaux (ABPO) of Madagascar. For each station, crustal thickness and V p / V s ratio were estimated from H- κ plots. Self-consistent receiver functions from a smaller back-azimuthal range were then selected, stacked and inverted to determine shear wave velocity structure as a function of depth. These results were corroborated by guided forward modeling and by Monte Carlo error analysis. The crust is found to be thinner (39 ± 0.7 km) beneath the highland center of Madagascar compared to the coast (44 ± 1.6 km), which is the opposite of what would be expected for crustal isostasy, suggesting that present-day long wavelength topography is maintained, at least in part, dynamically. This inference of dynamic support is corroborated by shear wave splitting analyses at the same stations, which produce an overwhelming majority of null results (>96 %), as expected for vertical mantle flow or asthenospheric upwelling beneath the island. These findings suggest a sub-plate origin for dynamic support.

  5. Mantle upwelling beneath Madagascar: evidence from receiver function analysis and shear wave splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Jonathan D.; Eakin, Caroline M.

    2017-01-01

    Crustal receiver functions have been calculated from 128 events for two three-component broadband seismomenters located on the south coast (FOMA) and in the central High Plateaux (ABPO) of Madagascar. For each station, crustal thickness and V p /V s ratio were estimated from H- κ plots. Self-consistent receiver functions from a smaller back-azimuthal range were then selected, stacked and inverted to determine shear wave velocity structure as a function of depth. These results were corroborated by guided forward modeling and by Monte Carlo error analysis. The crust is found to be thinner (39 ± 0.7 km) beneath the highland center of Madagascar compared to the coast (44 ± 1.6 km), which is the opposite of what would be expected for crustal isostasy, suggesting that present-day long wavelength topography is maintained, at least in part, dynamically. This inference of dynamic support is corroborated by shear wave splitting analyses at the same stations, which produce an overwhelming majority of null results (>96 %), as expected for vertical mantle flow or asthenospheric upwelling beneath the island. These findings suggest a sub-plate origin for dynamic support.

  6. Analytical solutions and moment analysis of chromatographic models for rectangular pulse injections.

    PubMed

    Qamar, Shamsul; Abbasi, Javeria N; Javeed, Shumaila; Shah, Munawar; Khan, Farman U; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas

    2013-11-08

    This work focuses on the analysis of two standard liquid chromatographic models, namely the lumped kinetic model and the equilibrium dispersive model. Analytical solutions, obtained by means of Laplace transformation, are derived for rectangular single solute concentration pulses of finite length and breakthrough curves injected under linear conditions. In order to analyze the solute transport behavior by means of the two models, the temporal moments up to fourth order are calculated from the Laplace-transformed solutions. The limiting cases of continuous injection and negligible mass transfer limitations are evaluated. For validation, the analytical solutions are compared with the numerical solutions of models using the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. Results of different case studies are discussed for linear and nonlinear adsorption isotherms. The discontinuous Galerkin method is employed to obtain moments for both linear and nonlinear models numerically. Analytically and numerically determined concentration profiles and moments were found to be in good agreement.

  7. Analytical theory and stability analysis of an elongated nanoscale object under external torque.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arijit; Mandal, Pranay; Karmakar, Suman; Ghosh, Ambarish

    2013-07-14

    We consider the rotational motion of an elongated nanoscale object in a fluid under an external torque. The experimentally observed dynamics could be understood from analytical solutions of the Stokes equation, with explicit formulae derived for the dynamical states as a function of the object dimensions and the parameters defining the external torque. Under certain conditions, multiple analytical solutions to the Stokes equations exist, which have been investigated through numerical analysis of their stability against small perturbations and their sensitivity towards initial conditions. These experimental results and analytical formulae are general enough to be applicable to the rotational motion of any isolated elongated object at low Reynolds numbers, and could be useful in the design of non-spherical nanostructures for diverse applications pertaining to microfluidics and nanoscale propulsion technologies.

  8. How Can Visual Analytics Assist Investigative Analysis? Design Implications from an Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Youn-Ah Kang; Görg, Carsten; Stasko, John

    2011-05-01

    Despite the growing number of systems providing visual analytic support for investigative analysis, few empirical studies of the potential benefits of such systems have been conducted, particularly controlled, comparative evaluations. Determining how such systems foster insight and sensemaking is important for their continued growth and study, however. Furthermore, studies that identify how people use such systems and why they benefit (or not) can help inform the design of new systems in this area. We conducted an evaluation of the visual analytics system Jigsaw employed in a small investigative sensemaking exercise, and compared its use to three other more traditional methods of analysis. Sixteen participants performed a simulated intelligence analysis task under one of the four conditions. Experimental results suggest that Jigsaw assisted participants to analyze the data and identify an embedded threat. We describe different analysis strategies used by study participants and how computational support (or the lack thereof) influenced the strategies. We then illustrate several characteristics of the sensemaking process identified in the study and provide design implications for investigative analysis tools based thereon. We conclude with recommendations on metrics and techniques for evaluating visual analytics systems for investigative analysis.

  9. Analytical performances of food microbiology laboratories - critical analysis of 7 years of proficiency testing results.

    PubMed

    Abdel Massih, M; Planchon, V; Polet, M; Dierick, K; Mahillon, J

    2016-02-01

    Based on the results of 19 food microbiology proficiency testing (PT) schemes, this study aimed to assess the laboratory performances, to highlight the main sources of unsatisfactory analytical results and to suggest areas of improvement. The 2009-2015 results of REQUASUD and IPH PT, involving a total of 48 laboratories, were analysed. On average, the laboratories failed to detect or enumerate foodborne pathogens in 3·0% of the tests. Thanks to a close collaboration with the PT participants, the causes of outliers could be identified in 74% of the cases. The main causes of erroneous PT results were either pre-analytical (handling of the samples, timing of analysis), analytical (unsuitable methods, confusion of samples, errors in colony counting or confirmation) or postanalytical mistakes (calculation and encoding of results). PT schemes are a privileged observation post to highlight analytical problems, which would otherwise remain unnoticed. In this perspective, this comprehensive study of PT results provides insight into the sources of systematic errors encountered during the analyses. This study draws the attention of the laboratories to the main causes of analytical errors and suggests practical solutions to avoid them, in an educational purpose. The observations support the hypothesis that regular participation to PT, when followed by feed-back and appropriate corrective actions, can play a key role in quality improvement and provide more confidence in the laboratory testing results. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels and the Resin Regeneration Facility Safety Analysis Report, Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Safety Analysis Report documents the safety authorization basis for the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF) and the Resin Regeneration Facility (RRF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The present mission of the RBOF and RRF is to continue in providing a facility for the safe receipt, storage, handling, and shipping of spent nuclear fuel assemblies from power and research reactors in the United States, fuel from SRS and other Department of Energy (DOE) reactors, and foreign research reactors fuel, in support of the nonproliferation policy. The RBOF and RRF provide the capability to handle, separate, and transfer wastes generated from nuclear fuel element storage. The DOE and Westinghouse Savannah River Company, the prime operating contractor, are committed to managing these activities in such a manner that the health and safety of the offsite general public, the site worker, the facility worker, and the environment are protected.

  11. Receiver Function Analysis of Crustal and Upper Mantle Layering Across the Western Superior Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olaleye, Morounkeji

    2011-12-01

    The Superior Province is the Earth's largest Archean craton. Its western portion in Canada represents the nucleus of the North American continent, and has a lineated structure with well-preserved supracrustal rock sequences, mineral resources, and greenstone-granite terranes. Its strong east-west tectonic fabric is most commonly attributed to the formation and widespread accretion of island arcs and accretionary prisms ˜ 2.6 Ga ago (Lucas et al., 1998). The Superior Province is underlain by lithospheric mantle that exhibits strong regional variations in anisotropy and velocity structure (Darbyshire et al., 2007). The stratigraphy, velocity structure and thickness of the crust and upper-mantle beneath the western Superior Province, were examined through the analysis of seismic discontinuities on the radial and transverse components of P-wave receiver functions. Global earthquakes that occurred between 2003 and 2008 and recorded by 13 broadly spaced FedNor/POLARIS and CNSN three-component broadband seismic stations across western Ontario were used to create receiver functions. Receiver functions were calculated using a panel deconvolution approach (using inter-trace regularization constraints) to improve signal-to-noise ratio. Inversion for lithospheric parameters was carried out through a directed Monte-Carlo search method that uses the neighbourhood algorithm of Sambridge (1999). The receiver function data show indications of crustal and mantle layering. Generally, it was observed that in the western Superior Province, seismic stations in the southern portion of the study area (south of ˜ 51° N): LDIO, EPLO, PNPO, TIMO and NANO reveal a uniform crust, but a complicated and layered mantle; whereas stations in the northern portion of the study area (north of ˜ 51° N): KASO, RLKO, SILO, VIMO and PKLO reveal a more uniform mantle layer, but a stratified crust. The only exception is ATKO, which displays dominant crustal layering, but is located south of ˜ 51° N

  12. Crustal structure beneath the Japanese Islands inferred from receiver function analysis using similar earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Toshihiro

    2016-04-01

    The stress concentration and strain accumulation process due to inter-plate coupling of the subducting plate should have a large effect on inland shallow earthquakes that occur in the overriding plate. Information on the crustal structure and the crustal thickness is important to understanding their process. In this study, I applied receiver function analysis using similar earthquakes to estimate the crustal velocity structures beneath the Japanese Islands. Because similar earthquakes are caused repeatedly at almost the same place, they are useful for extracting information on spatial distribution and temporal changes of seismic velocity structures beneath the seismic stations. I used telemetric seismographic network data covered the Japanese Islands and moderate-sized similar earthquakes which occurred in the southern Hemisphere with epicentral distances between 30 and 90 degrees for about 26 years from October 1989. Data analysis was performed separately before and after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. To identify the spatial distribution of crustal structure, I searched for the best-correlated model between an observed receiver function at each station and synthetic ones by using a grid search method. As results, I clarified the spatial distribution of the crustal velocity structures. The spatial patterns of velocities from the ground surface to 5 km deep are corresponding with basement depth models although the velocities are slower than those of tomography models. They indicate thick sediment layers in several plain and basin areas. The crustal velocity perturbations are consistent with existing tomography models. The active volcanoes correspond low-velocity zones from the upper crust to the crust-mantle transition. A comparison of the crustal structure before and after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake suggests that the northeastern Japan arc changed to lower velocities in some areas. This kind of velocity changes might be due to other effects such as changes of

  13. Receiver Functions Analysis and Regional Tomography at StromboliVolcano (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musumeci, C.; Barberi, G.; Martinez-Arevalo, C.; Castellano, M.; Patane, D.

    2006-12-01

    This study focuses on constraining the crust and upper mantle discontinuities at Stromboli volcano by considering both receiver function (RF) analysis on teleseismic body waveforms and regional tomography. The RF technique utilizes the waveforms of Ps conversions from velocity discontinuities to model variations in Vs beneath a seismic station (e.g. Ammon et al., 1990). The method is sensitive to velocity discontinuities, but it can only detect the velocity-depth product, and not the absolute velocity. Therefore, we use the regional tomographic results as an independent constraint on absolute velocity. In order to improve the velocity model beneath the volcano we reviewed the most recent classical local earthquake tomographies available for the thyrrenian region. Here we show a new lithospheric seismic tomography performed in the northeastern Sicily and southern Calabria, including the Aeolian Archipelago and Stromboli volcano area. The dataset, consisting of P and S arrival times from a thousand of earthquakes located in the studied area between 1994-2003, was inverted by using the standard tomography SimulPS and the double-difference algorithm of TomoDD (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) for simultaneous computation of hypocenter parameters and Vp and Vs three dimensional distributions. For RF analysis the seismograms from about 100 teleseismic earthquakes (M greater than 6.0), recorded between 2004 and 2006 at 13 broad-band seismic stations deployed by the INGV, have been considered to compute the receiver function by the Multi-Taper Spectral Correlation (MTSC) technique (Park and Levin, 2000). One key advantage of this method is its resistance to noise, which recommends its use in environments such as ocean sea islands with high noise levels in the seismic bands.

  14. Structural analysis: Flexible receiver yoke brace for the 241SY101 mixer pump

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.M.

    1994-09-09

    This report documents the structural analysis of the flexible-receiver yoke brace that will be used to maintain the mixer pump lifting yoke in a vertical position during the removal of the mixer pump from waste tank 241SY101. During the removal process, the crane is connected to a lifting yoke which is attached to the lifting on the mounting flange of the mixer pump. The pump then can be lifted from the tank. At one point in the removal procedure, the crane will be disconnected from the lifting yoke. At this time, it is possible for the lifting yoke to rotate around the pinned connection between it and the pump if it is subjected to a horizontal load. To prevent the rotation of the lifting yoke, the yoke brace was designed to maintain the yoke in a vertical position while it is disconnected from the crane. This analysis addressed the adequacy of the yoke brace to provide support for the lifting yoke during high winds and a seismic event. The results of this analysis show that, when subjected to a combined design wind and seismic load, the yoke brace design is acceptable to maintain the lifting yoke in a vertical position when the yoke is disconnected from the crane.

  15. A semi-analytical decomposition analysis of surface plasmon generation and the optimal nanoledge plasmonic device

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zheng; Mendis, Madu N.; Waldeck, David H.; Wei, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of nanostructured thin metal films (so-called nanoplasmonics) has attracted intense attention due to its versatility for optical sensing and chip-based device integration. Understanding the underlying physics and developing applications of nanoplasmonic devices with desirable optical properties, e.g. intensity of light scattering and high refractive index (RI) sensitivity at the perforated metal film, is crucial for practical uses in physics, biomedical detection, and environmental monitoring. This work presents a semi-analytical model that enables decomposition and quantitative analysis of surface plasmon generation at a new complex nanoledge aperture structure under plane-wave illumination, thus providing insight on how to optimize plasmonic devices for optimal plasmonic generation efficiencies and RI sensitivity. A factor analysis of parameters (geometric, dielectric-RI, and incident wavelength) relevant to surface plasmon generation is quantitatively investigated to predict the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) generation efficiency. In concert with the analytical treatment, a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation is used to model the optical transmission spectra and RI sensitivity as a function of the nanoledge device’s geometric parameters, and it shows good agreement with the analytical model. Further validation of the analytical approach is provided by fabricating subwavelength nanoledge devices and testing their optical transmission and RI sensitivity. PMID:26977289

  16. Analytical tools for the analysis of β-carotene and its degradation products.

    PubMed

    Stutz, H; Bresgen, N; Eckl, P M

    2015-05-01

    β-Carotene, the precursor of vitamin A, possesses pronounced radical scavenging properties. This has centered the attention on β-carotene dietary supplementation in healthcare as well as in the therapy of degenerative disorders and several cancer types. However, two intervention trials with β-carotene have revealed adverse effects on two proband groups, that is, cigarette smokers and asbestos-exposed workers. Beside other causative reasons, the detrimental effects observed have been related to the oxidation products of β-carotene. Their generation originates in the polyene structure of β-carotene that is beneficial for radical scavenging, but is also prone to oxidation. Depending on the dominant degradation mechanism, bond cleavage might occur either randomly or at defined positions of the conjugated electron system, resulting in a diversity of cleavage products (CPs). Due to their instability and hydrophobicity, the handling of standards and real samples containing β-carotene and related CPs requires preventive measures during specimen preparation, analyte extraction, and final analysis, to avoid artificial degradation and to preserve the initial analyte portfolio. This review critically discusses different preparation strategies of standards and treatment solutions, and also addresses their protection from oxidation. Additionally, in vitro oxidation strategies for the generation of oxidative model compounds are surveyed. Extraction methods are discussed for volatile and non-volatile CPs individually. Gas chromatography (GC), (ultra)high performance liquid chromatography (U)HPLC, and capillary electrochromatography (CEC) are reviewed as analytical tools for final analyte analysis. For identity confirmation of analytes, mass spectrometry (MS) is indispensable, and the appropriate ionization principles are comprehensively discussed. The final sections cover analysis of real samples and aspects of quality assurance, namely matrix effects and method validation.

  17. Analytical tools for the analysis of β-carotene and its degradation products

    PubMed Central

    Stutz, H.; Bresgen, N.; Eckl, P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract β-Carotene, the precursor of vitamin A, possesses pronounced radical scavenging properties. This has centered the attention on β-carotene dietary supplementation in healthcare as well as in the therapy of degenerative disorders and several cancer types. However, two intervention trials with β-carotene have revealed adverse effects on two proband groups, that is, cigarette smokers and asbestos-exposed workers. Beside other causative reasons, the detrimental effects observed have been related to the oxidation products of β-carotene. Their generation originates in the polyene structure of β-carotene that is beneficial for radical scavenging, but is also prone to oxidation. Depending on the dominant degradation mechanism, bond cleavage might occur either randomly or at defined positions of the conjugated electron system, resulting in a diversity of cleavage products (CPs). Due to their instability and hydrophobicity, the handling of standards and real samples containing β-carotene and related CPs requires preventive measures during specimen preparation, analyte extraction, and final analysis, to avoid artificial degradation and to preserve the initial analyte portfolio. This review critically discusses different preparation strategies of standards and treatment solutions, and also addresses their protection from oxidation. Additionally, in vitro oxidation strategies for the generation of oxidative model compounds are surveyed. Extraction methods are discussed for volatile and non-volatile CPs individually. Gas chromatography (GC), (ultra)high performance liquid chromatography (U)HPLC, and capillary electrochromatography (CEC) are reviewed as analytical tools for final analyte analysis. For identity confirmation of analytes, mass spectrometry (MS) is indispensable, and the appropriate ionization principles are comprehensively discussed. The final sections cover analysis of real samples and aspects of quality assurance, namely matrix effects and method

  18. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected children receiving care at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC), Northern Tanzania: A cross- sectional analytical study.

    PubMed

    Nsheha, Amos Haki; Dow, Dorothy Elizabeth; Kapanda, Gabriel Erick; Hamel, Bernardus Carolus; Msuya, Levina January

    2014-01-01

    Paediatric adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is a dynamic process involving many factors. Adherence for the majority on therapy matters to prevent failure of 1(st) and 2(st) line therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of adherence to antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected children. We conducted a cross-sectional hospital based analytical study, from October 2011 to April 2012. HIV-infected children aged 2 to 17 years who had been on treatment for at least six months were enrolled. Data were collected by a standard questionnaire. Two-day self-report, one month self-recall report, and pill count were used to assess adherence. One hundred and eighty three respondents participated in this research. There were 92 (51%) males and 91 (49%) females. Only 45 (24.6%) had good adherence to their drug regimen when subjected to all three methods of assessment. Males were more adherent to ART than females (OR= 2.26, CI 1.05-4.87, p = 0.04). Adherence was worse among children who developed ART side effects (OR= 0.19, CI 0.07- 0.56;p = 0.01), could not attend clinic on regular basis (OR= 3.4, CI 1.60- 7.36, p = 0.01) and missed drug doses in the six months period prior to interview (OR= 0.40, CI 0.18-0.82, p= 0.01). Only 24.6% of paediatric patients had good adherence to ART when subjected to all three measures. Drug side-effects, missing drug doses in the six months period prior to study start, monthly income and affording transportation to the clinic were strong predictors of adherence.

  19. Receiver design, performance analysis, and evaluation for space-borne laser altimeters and space-to-space laser ranging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Frederic M.; Sun, Xiaoli

    1993-01-01

    This interim report consists of four separate reports from our research on the receivers of NASA's Gravity And Magnetic Experiment Satellite (GAMES). The first report is entitled 'Analysis of phase estimation bias of GAMES receiver due to Doppler shift.' The second report is 'Background radiation on GAMES fine ranging detector from the moon, the planets, and the stars.' The third report is 'Background radiation on GAMES receivers from the ocean sun glitter and the direct sun.' The fourth report is 'GAMES receiver performance versus background radiation power on the detectors.'

  20. Application of receiver-operator analysis to diagnostic tests of iron deficiency in man.

    PubMed

    Kim, I; Pollitt, E; Leibel, R L; Viteri, F E; Alvarez, E

    1984-09-01

    The objective of the present report is to demonstrate the use of receiver-operator characteristics (ROC) analysis in the selection of diagnostic tests for iron deficiency in a specific population. Conventional ROC curves were prepared with true positive fraction (TPF) and false positive fraction (FPF) determined by the application of different cut-off points for four indicators of iron status. ROC plots were then transformed into normal deviate scales. The advantages of Gaussian transformation of TPF and FPF when underlying decision functions are normally distributed are: the ROC curve is a straight line; and the separation between the two distributions and shape of these distributions can be simply quantitated as intercepts and slopes. In the present study, pretreatment hemoglobin concentration was the most robust diagnostic indicator of iron deficiency as operationally defined by a response of hemoglobin to iron treatment. Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin was a more sensitive and specific predictor than either serum ferritin or transferin saturation when a stringent operational definition of iron deficiency was used. These findings illustrate the utility of ROC analysis in discriminating between diagnostic indicators having different degrees of accuracy.

  1. Economic analysis of a pine plantation receiving repeated applications of biosolids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hailong; Kimberley, Mark O; Wilks, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Treated biosolids have been applied to 750-ha of a Pinus radiata forest plantation on Rabbit Island near Nelson City in New Zealand since 1996. A long-term research trial was established in 1997 to investigate the effects of the biosolids applications on the receiving environment and tree growth. An analysis of the likely economic impact of biosolids application shows that biosolids application has been beneficial. Stem volume of the high treatment (biosolids applied at 600 kg N ha(-1) every three years) was 36% greater than the control treatment (no biosolids applied), and stem volume of the standard treatment (300 kg N ha(-1)) was 27% greater than the control treatment at age 18 years of age. Biosolids treatments have effectively transformed a low productivity forest site to a medium productivity site. Although this increased productivity has been accompanied by some negative influences on wood quality attributes with reduced wood stiffness, wood density, and larger branches, an economic analysis shows that the increased stem volume and greater average log diameter in the biosolids treatments outweighs these negative effects. The high and standard biosolids treatments are predicted to increase the net stumpage value of logs by 24% and 14% respectively at harvesting, providing a large positive impact on the forest owner's economic return.

  2. Lithospheric structure of the eastern flank of the Rio Grande Rift via receiver function velocity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, M.; Pulliam, J.; Sen, M. K.; Grand, S.

    2015-12-01

    To better delineate a seismic anomaly beneath the eastern flank of the Rio Grande Rift identified by seismic tomography, we depth-migrated Ps and Sp receiver functions using data from the SIEDCAR (Seismic Investigation of Edge Driven Convection Association with Rio Grande Rift) and USArray Transportable Array (TA) deployments. We performed Common Conversion Point (CCP) stacking to improve the S/N ratio of receiver functions. Using an incorrect velocity model for depth migration of a stacked CCP image may generate an inaccurate picture of the subsurface. To find sufficiently accurate P- and S-velocity models for migration, we optimize the average correlation value of common receiver gathers for target features - in this case the Moho and the LAB - while perturbing the shear wave velocities in a process driven by simulated annealing. The technique simultaneously finds depths to major discontinuities (in this case the Moho and LAB) and S and P velocity profiles beneath each seismic station in a manner that is similar to velocity analysis in reflection seismology. An application to data acquired in southeastern New Mexico and west Texas, at an average station spacing of 35 km, reveals an abrupt increase in lithospheric thickness from west to east, from the Rio Grande Rift to the Great Plains craton. Previous studies found an elongated high velocity anomaly that extends to depths approaching 500 km in southeastern New Mexico and west Texas that is distinct from the thick Great Plains lithosphere. Our stacked 3-D image confirms the anomaly's existence and shows that it is more laterally extensive than was previously indicated. Recent numerical modeling suggests that an abrupt change in lithospheric thickness, which creates a step change in densities, may produce a gravitational instability that leads to thicker mantle lithosphere dripping off into the lower density asthenosphere. As the mantle deforms it alternately thickens and thins the crust, producing topographic

  3. Myopathy in older people receiving statin therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Iwere, Roli B; Hewitt, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the risk of myopathy in older people receiving statin therapy. Eligible studies were identified searching Ovid Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, CINAHL, Cochrane and PSYCHINFO databases (1987 to July 2014). The selection criteria comprised randomized controlled studies that compared the effects of statin monotherapy and placebo on muscle adverse events in the older adult (65+ years). Data were extracted and assessed for validity by the authors. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to calculate binary outcomes. Evidence from included studies were pooled in a meta-analysis using Revman 5.3. The trials assessed in the systematic review showed little or no evidence of a difference in risks between treatment and placebo groups, with myalgia [odds ratio (OR) 1.03, 95% CI 0.90, 1.17; I(2) = 0%; P = 0.66] and combined muscle adverse events (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.91, 1.18; I(2) = 0%; P = 0.61) (myopathy). No evidence was found for an increased risk of rhabdomyolysis (OR 2.93, 95% CI 0.30, 28.18; I(2) = 0%; P = 0.35) in the seven trials that reported this. No trials reported mortality due to a muscle-related event. Discontinuations due to an adverse effect were reduced in the treatment group compared with placebo (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.50, 1.09; I(2) = 0%; P = 0.13). The results obtained from the present review suggest that statins are relatively safe, even in older people. There was no evidence to suggest an increased risk of myopathy in older adults receiving statin therapy. There is slightly increased seen with rhabdomyolysis when compared with the general population, although the event is relatively rare. Statins should be prescribed to elderly people who need it, and not withheld, as its myopathy safety profile is tolerable. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Mantle wedge anisotropy in Southern Tyrrhenian Subduction Zone (Italy), from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piana Agostinetti, Nicola; Park, Jeffrey; Lucente, Francesco Pio

    2008-12-01

    We constrain mantle wedge seismic structure in the Southern Tyrrhenian Subduction Zone (Italy) using teleseismic receiver functions (RF) recorded at station CUC of the Mednet seismographic network. Station CUC lies above the northern portion of the Calabrian slab segment, which is recognized from deep seismicity and tomographic imaging as a narrow, laterally high-arched slab fragment, extending from the surface below Calabria down to the transition zone. To better define the descending slab interface and possible shear-coupled flow in the mantle wedge above the slab, we computed receiver functions from the P-coda of 147 teleseismic events to analyze the back-azimuth dependence of Ps converted phases from interfaces beneath CUC. We stack the RF data-set with back azimuth to compute its harmonic expansion, which relates to the effects of interface dip and anisotropy at layer boundaries. The seismic structure constrained through the RF analysis is characterized in its upper part by a sub-horizontal Moho at about 25 km depth, overlying a thin isotropic layer at top of mantle. For the deeper part, back-azimuth variation suggests two alternative models, each with an anisotropic layer between two dipping interfaces near 70- and 90-km depth, with fast- and slow-symmetry axes, respectively, above the Apennines slab. Although independent evidence suggests a north-south strike for the slab beneath CUC, the trend of the inferred anisotropy is 45° clockwise from north, inconsistent with a simple downdip shear-coupled flow model in the supra-slab mantle wedge. However complexities of flow and induced rock fabric in the Tyrrhenian back arc may arise due to several concurring factors such as the arcuate shape of the Apennines slab, its retreating kinematics, or slab edge effects.

  5. Analytical Protocols for Analysis of Organic Molecules in Mars Analog Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Brinkerhoff, W.; Buch, A.; Demick, J.; Glavin, D. P.

    2004-01-01

    A range of analytical techniques and protocols that might be applied b in situ investigations of martian fines, ices, and rock samples are evaluated by analysis of organic molecules m Mars analogues. These simulants 6om terrestrial (i.e. tephra from Hawaii) or extraterrestrial (meteoritic) samples are examined by pyrolysis gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GCMS), organic extraction followed by chemical derivatization GCMS, and laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS). The combination of techniques imparts analysis breadth since each technique provides a unique analysis capability for Certain classes of organic molecules.

  6. SAMURAI: Sensitivity analysis of a meta-analysis with unpublished but registered analytical investigations (software).

    PubMed

    Kim, Noory Y; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Thaler, Kylie; Gartlehner, Gerald

    2014-03-18

    The non-availability of clinical trial results contributes to publication bias, diminishing the validity of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Although clinical trial registries have been established to reduce non-publication, the results from over half of all trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov remain unpublished even 30 months after completion. Our goals were i) to utilize information available in registries (specifically, the number and sample sizes of registered unpublished studies) to gauge the sensitivity of a meta-analysis estimate of the effect size and its confidence interval to the non-publication of studies and ii) to develop user-friendly open-source software to perform this quantitative sensitivity analysis. The open-source software, the R package SAMURAI, was developed using R functions available in the R package metafor. The utility of SAMURAI is illustrated with two worked examples. Our open-source software SAMURAI, can handle meta-analytic datasets of clinical trials with two independent treatment arms. Both binary and continuous outcomes are supported. For each unpublished study, the dataset requires only the sample sizes of each treatment arm and the user predicted 'outlook' for the studies. The user can specify five outlooks ranging from 'very positive' (i.e., very favorable towards intervention) to 'very negative' (i.e., very favorable towards control).SAMURAI assumes that control arms of unpublished studies have effects similar to the effect across control arms of published studies. For each experimental arm of an unpublished study, utilizing the user-provided outlook, SAMURAI randomly generates an effect estimate using a probability distribution, which may be based on a summary effect across published trials. SAMURAI then calculates the estimated summary treatment effect with a random effects model (DerSimonian & Laird method), and outputs the result as a forest plot. To our knowledge, SAMURAI is currently the only tool that allows

  7. SAMURAI: Sensitivity analysis of a meta-analysis with unpublished but registered analytical investigations (software)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The non-availability of clinical trial results contributes to publication bias, diminishing the validity of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Although clinical trial registries have been established to reduce non-publication, the results from over half of all trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov remain unpublished even 30 months after completion. Our goals were i) to utilize information available in registries (specifically, the number and sample sizes of registered unpublished studies) to gauge the sensitivity of a meta-analysis estimate of the effect size and its confidence interval to the non-publication of studies and ii) to develop user-friendly open-source software to perform this quantitative sensitivity analysis. Methods The open-source software, the R package SAMURAI, was developed using R functions available in the R package metafor. The utility of SAMURAI is illustrated with two worked examples. Results Our open-source software SAMURAI, can handle meta-analytic datasets of clinical trials with two independent treatment arms. Both binary and continuous outcomes are supported. For each unpublished study, the dataset requires only the sample sizes of each treatment arm and the user predicted ‘outlook’ for the studies. The user can specify five outlooks ranging from ‘very positive’ (i.e., very favorable towards intervention) to ‘very negative’ (i.e., very favorable towards control). SAMURAI assumes that control arms of unpublished studies have effects similar to the effect across control arms of published studies. For each experimental arm of an unpublished study, utilizing the user-provided outlook, SAMURAI randomly generates an effect estimate using a probability distribution, which may be based on a summary effect across published trials. SAMURAI then calculates the estimated summary treatment effect with a random effects model (DerSimonian & Laird method), and outputs the result as a forest plot. Conclusions To our

  8. Analysis of Volatile Compounds by Advanced Analytical Techniques and Multivariate Chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Lubes, Giuseppe; Goodarzi, Mohammad

    2017-05-10

    Smelling is one of the five senses, which plays an important role in our everyday lives. Volatile compounds are, for example, characteristics of food where some of them can be perceivable by humans because of their aroma. They have a great influence on the decision making of consumers when they choose to use a product or not. In the case where a product has an offensive and strong aroma, many consumers might not appreciate it. On the contrary, soft and fresh natural aromas definitely increase the acceptance of a given product. These properties can drastically influence the economy; thus, it has been of great importance to manufacturers that the aroma of their food product is characterized by analytical means to provide a basis for further optimization processes. A lot of research has been devoted to this domain in order to link the quality of, e.g., a food to its aroma. By knowing the aromatic profile of a food, one can understand the nature of a given product leading to developing new products, which are more acceptable by consumers. There are two ways to analyze volatiles: one is to use human senses and/or sensory instruments, and the other is based on advanced analytical techniques. This work focuses on the latter. Although requirements are simple, low-cost technology is an attractive research target in this domain; most of the data are generated with very high-resolution analytical instruments. Such data gathered based on different analytical instruments normally have broad, overlapping sensitivity profiles and require substantial data analysis. In this review, we have addressed not only the question of the application of chemometrics for aroma analysis but also of the use of different analytical instruments in this field, highlighting the research needed for future focus.

  9. Effect of Opioids and Benzodiazepines on Clinical Outcomes in Patients Receiving Palliative Care: An Exploratory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Boland, Jason W; Allgar, Victoria; Boland, Elaine G; Oviasu, Osaretin; Agar, Meera; Currow, David C; Johnson, Miriam J

    2017-06-01

    Medications for symptom management in palliative care have associated, but poorly understood, harms. Drug-related harms have important clinical implications, may impact on patients' compliance and contribute to symptoms. To explore the longitudinal relationship between oral morphine equivalent daily dose (MEDD) and oral diazepam equivalent daily dose (DEDD) with functional, cognitive, and symptom outcomes in patients receiving palliative care. Secondary longitudinal analysis of cancer decedents (n = 235) was carried out from a palliative care randomized controlled trial with multiple outcome measures. At each time point, MEDD and DEDD were calculated. Multilevel modeling was used to investigate independent associations between MEDD and DEDD, and cognitive and gastrointestinal symptoms, quality of life (QoL), performance status, and survival. Participants were recruited from a specialist palliative care program in southern Adelaide, were expected to live ≥48 hours, had pain in the previous 3 months, and a baseline Folstein Mini-Mental Status Examination score ≥25. Cognitive and gastrointestinal symptoms, performance status, and QoL worsened over time. In the adjusted multilevel analysis, statistically significant relationships remained between MEDD/DEDD and worsening performance status (p = 0.001), DEDD and gastrointestinal effects (p < 0.001), MEDD and QoL (p < 0.022). Commonly used palliative medications were associated with deteriorating performance status. The lack of association between MEDD with gastrointestinal or cognitive symptoms underlines that these associations are not inevitable with close attention. This analysis highlights the importance of including other medications as confounders when exploring medication-related harms. An understanding of the risk-benefit balance of medications is needed to maximize net benefits for patients.

  10. Text Stream Trend Analysis using Multiscale Visual Analytics with Applications to Social Media Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; Beaver, Justin M; BogenII, Paul L.; Drouhard, Margaret MEG G; Pyle, Joshua M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new visual analytics system, called Matisse, that allows exploration of global trends in textual information streams with specific application to social media platforms. Despite the potential for real-time situational awareness using these services, interactive analysis of such semi-structured textual information is a challenge due to the high-throughput and high-velocity properties. Matisse addresses these challenges through the following contributions: (1) robust stream data management, (2) automated sen- timent/emotion analytics, (3) inferential temporal, geospatial, and term-frequency visualizations, and (4) a flexible drill-down interaction scheme that progresses from macroscale to microscale views. In addition to describing these contributions, our work-in-progress paper concludes with a practical case study focused on the analysis of Twitter 1% sample stream information captured during the week of the Boston Marathon bombings.

  11. Photoacoustic spectrum analysis for microstructure characterization in biological tissue: Analytical model

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guan; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Tao, Chao; Liu, Xiaojun; Wang, Xueding

    2015-01-01

    Photoacoustic spectrum analysis (PASA) has demonstrated the capability of identifying the microstructures in phantoms and biological tissues. PASA adopts the procedures in ultrasound (US) spectrum analysis although the signal generation mechanisms related to ultrasound backscatter and photoacoustic wave generation differ. The purpose of this study is to theoretically validate the method of PASA. The analytical solution to the power spectrum of PA signals generated by identical microspheres following discrete uniform random distribution in space was derived. The simulation and experiment validation of analytical solution include: 1) the power spectrum profile of a single microsphere with a diameter of 300 μm; and 2) the PASA parameters of the PA signals generated by randomly distributed microspheres of diameters of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 μm, and at concentrations of 30, 60, 120, 240, 480 per 1.53cm3 in the observation range of [0.5, 13MHz]. PMID:25748521

  12. Laser ablation absorption spectroscopy for isotopic analysis of plutonium: Spectroscopic properties and analytical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyabe, M.; Oba, M.; Jung, K.; Iimura, H.; Akaoka, K.; Kato, M.; Otobe, H.; Khumaeni, A.; Wakaida, I.

    2017-08-01

    Spectroscopic properties of atomic species of plutonium were investigated by combining laser ablation and resonance absorption techniques for the analysis of a plutonium oxide sample. For 17 transitions of Pu atoms and ions, the absorbance, isotope shift, and hyperfine splitting were determined via Voigt profile fitting of the recorded absorption spectra. Three transitions were selected as candidates for analytical use. Using these transitions, we investigated the analytical performance that was attainable and determined a correlation coefficient R2 between the absorbance and plutonium concentration of 0.9999, a limit of detection of 30-130 ppm, and a relative standard deviation of approximately 6% for an abundance of 240Pu of 2.4%. These results demonstrate that laser ablation absorption spectroscopy is applicable to the remote isotopic analysis of highly radioactive nuclear fuels and waste materials containing multiple actinide elements.

  13. Coffee-ring effect-based simultaneous SERS substrate fabrication and analyte enrichment for trace analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weidong; Yin, Yongguang; Tan, Zhiqiang; Liu, Jingfu

    2014-07-01

    Based on the ``coffee-ring effect'', we developed a highly efficient SERS platform which integrates the fabrication of SERS-active substrates and the preconcentration of analytes into one step. The high sensitivity, robustness, reproducibility and simplicity make this platform ideal for on-site analysis of small volume samples at low concentrations in complex matrices.Based on the ``coffee-ring effect'', we developed a highly efficient SERS platform which integrates the fabrication of SERS-active substrates and the preconcentration of analytes into one step. The high sensitivity, robustness, reproducibility and simplicity make this platform ideal for on-site analysis of small volume samples at low concentrations in complex matrices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03198a

  14. Dynamic analysis of a flexible spacecraft with rotating components. Volume 1: Analytical developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodley, C. S.; Devers, A. D.; Park, A. C.

    1975-01-01

    Analytical procedures and digital computer code are presented for the dynamic analysis of a flexible spacecraft with rotating components. Topics, considered include: (1) nonlinear response in the time domain, and (2) linear response in the frequency domain. The spacecraft is assumed to consist of an assembly of connected rigid or flexible subassemblies. The total system is not restricted to a topological connection arrangement and may be acting under the influence of passive or active control systems and external environments. The analytics and associated digital code provide the user with the capability to establish spacecraft system nonlinear total response for specified initial conditions, linear perturbation response about a calculated or specified nominal motion, general frequency response and graphical display, and spacecraft system stability analysis.

  15. Complications in Receiver Function Analysis on the Ocean Floor: Water and Sediment Reverberations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, N.; Forsyth, D. W.; Webb, S. C.

    2005-12-01

    Receiver function analysis of ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) data provides a unique opportunity for high resolution imaging of subsurface seismic discontinuities. However, because the OBS is located at the fluid solid boundary of the seafloor, reverberations from both the water column above and the oceanic crust below complicate the deconvolved signal. In addition, ultra slow sediment layers ( < 400 m/s) of varying thickness, which create extremely high amplitude (S/P > .5) converted phases from the crust-sediment boundary, reverberate in the sediment column. Using the 11 month OBS deployment of the Gravity Lineations Intraplate Melting Petrology and Seismologic Expedition (GLIMPSE) we observe both the water column reverberations on the pressure record of the instruments as well as the sediment layer reverberations on the radial component from teleseismic events. We use this data to parameterize both types of reverberations to enhance the interpretation of receiver functions. Synthetic seismograms indicate that the amplitudes of water reverberations dominate the pressure record with a more subtle effect on the vertical record. Using reflection coefficient and the two way travel times determined from the observed pressure records we deconvolved the reverberation signal from the pressure and vertical component of our data, reducing the amplitudes of the water column reverberations in both records for up to 25 s before the effects of focusing and defocusing of the reverberation signal by heterogeneities render the assumption of simple reflections on a flat plane invalid. Similar analysis of synthetic seismograms indicates that sediment reverberations dominate the high frequency spectra of the radial component. We determined the S-P amplitude and delay time for the P-S conversion from the crust-sediment boundary from a suite of events at different slownesses. As expected the delay times are constant and on the order of a few tenths of a second because of the near

  16. Design of experiment and data analysis by JMP (SAS institute) in analytical method validation.

    PubMed

    Ye, C; Liu, J; Ren, F; Okafo, N

    2000-08-15

    Validation of an analytical method through a series of experiments demonstrates that the method is suitable for its intended purpose. Due to multi-parameters to be examined and a large number of experiments involved in validation, it is important to design the experiments scientifically so that appropriate validation parameters can be examined simultaneously to provide a sound, overall knowledge of the capabilities of the analytical method. A statistical method through design of experiment (DOE) was applied to the validation of a HPLC analytical method for the quantitation of a small molecule in drug product in terms of intermediate precision and robustness study. The data were analyzed in JMP (SAS institute) software using analyses of variance method. Confidence intervals for outcomes and control limits for individual parameters were determined. It was demonstrated that the experimental design and statistical analysis used in this study provided an efficient and systematic approach to evaluating intermediate precision and robustness for a HPLC analytical method for small molecule quantitation.

  17. Irreversible and reversible reactive chromatography: analytical solutions and moment analysis for rectangular pulse injections.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Sameena; Qamar, Shamsul; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas

    2015-03-13

    This work is concerned with the analysis of models for linear reactive chromatography describing irreversible A→B and reversible A↔B reactions. In contrast to previously published results rectangular reactant pulses are injected into initially empty or pre-equilibrated columns assuming both Dirichlet and Danckwerts boundary conditions. The models consist of two partial differential equations, accounting for convection, longitudinal dispersion and first order chemical reactions. Due to the effect of involved mechanisms on solute transport, analytical and numerical solutions of the models could be helpful to understand, design and optimize chromatographic reactors. The Laplace transformation is applied to solve the model equations analytically for linear adsorption isotherms. Statistical temporal moments are derived from solutions in the Laplace domain. Analytical results are compared with numerical predictions generated using a high-resolution finite volume scheme for two sets of boundary conditions. Several case studies are carried out to analyze reactive liquid chromatographic processes for a wide range of mass transfer and reaction kinetics. Good agreements in the results validate the correctness of the analytical solutions and accuracy of the proposed numerical algorithm.

  18. SOMFlow: Guided Exploratory Cluster Analysis with Self-Organizing Maps and Analytic Provenance.

    PubMed

    Sacha, Dominik; Kraus, Matthias; Bernard, Jurgen; Behrisch, Michael; Schreck, Tobias; Asano, Yuki; Keim, Daniel A

    2017-08-29

    Clustering is a core building block for data analysis, aiming to extract otherwise hidden structures and relations from raw datasets, such as particular groups that can be effectively related, compared, and interpreted. A plethora of visual-interactive cluster analysis techniques has been proposed to date, however, arriving at useful clusterings often requires several rounds of user interactions to fine-tune the data preprocessing and algorithms. We present a multi-stage Visual Analytics (VA) approach for iterative cluster refinement together with an implementation (SOMFlow) that uses Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) to analyze time series data. It supports exploration by offering the analyst a visual platform to analyze intermediate results, adapt the underlying computations, iteratively partition the data, and to reflect previous analytical activities. The history of previous decisions is explicitly visualized within a flow graph, allowing to compare earlier cluster refinements and to explore relations. We further leverage quality and interestingness measures to guide the analyst in the discovery of useful patterns, relations, and data partitions. We conducted two pair analytics experiments together with a subject matter expert in speech intonation research to demonstrate that the approach is effective for interactive data analysis, supporting enhanced understanding of clustering results as well as the interactive process itself.

  19. The Seismogenic Zone in Southern Chile: Insights from high resolution receiver function analysis and seismic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietbrock, A.; Haberland, C.; Lange, D.; Bataille, K.

    2004-12-01

    Subduction zones, the expression of convergent plate boundaries, generate the world's largest and most destructive earthquakes. The Southern Chilean subduction zone is an ideal natural laboratory to study the processes involved in generating these devastat- ing earthquakes and is one of the main aims of the international and interdisciplinary research initiative TIPTEQ (from The Incoming Plate to megaThrust EarthQuake pro- cesses). High resolution images, using different techniques as well as different physi- cal parameters, form the base for identifying the processes involved. Here we present new data from teleseismic receiver function analysis and 3D seismic tomography to study in detail the down-dip end of the seismogenic zone in the nucleation area of the 1960 magnitude Mw=9.5 Valdivia, Chile, earthquake. Within the project TIPTEQ two dense amphibious passive seismic networks have been installed between Nov. 2004 and Oct. 2005, both covering the entire forearc from the trench to the active volcanic front. The Northern array was located between 37° and 39° South including the epicentre of the 1960 Chile earthquake. It consisted out of 120 continuously recording, three component stations on land and 10 continuously recording Ocean Bottom Seismometers/Hydrophones (OBS/H) at sea. The Southern array was located between 41.5° and 43.5° South roughly in the middle of the rupture zone of the Valdivia earthquake. It consisted out of 20 continuously recording three component stations on land and 20 continuously recording Ocean Bottom Seismometers/Hydrophones (OBS/H) at sea. Several hundreds of micro earthquakes could be located using manual picked P- and S-wave arrivals. Joint 2D/3D inversions for earthquake location, P-wave velocity and vp/vs-ratio were carried out and give a detailed image of the structure as well as a snapshot of the seismicity distribution in both study regions. The subducting Nazca plate can be clearly identified in both regions dipping at a

  20. The Seismogenic Zone in Southern Chile: Insights from high resolution receiver function analysis and seismic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietbrock, A.; Haberland, C.; Lange, D.; Bataille, K.

    2007-12-01

    Subduction zones, the expression of convergent plate boundaries, generate the world's largest and most destructive earthquakes. The Southern Chilean subduction zone is an ideal natural laboratory to study the processes involved in generating these devastat- ing earthquakes and is one of the main aims of the international and interdisciplinary research initiative TIPTEQ (from The Incoming Plate to megaThrust EarthQuake pro- cesses). High resolution images, using different techniques as well as different physi- cal parameters, form the base for identifying the processes involved. Here we present new data from teleseismic receiver function analysis and 3D seismic tomography to study in detail the down-dip end of the seismogenic zone in the nucleation area of the 1960 magnitude Mw=9.5 Valdivia, Chile, earthquake. Within the project TIPTEQ two dense amphibious passive seismic networks have been installed between Nov. 2004 and Oct. 2005, both covering the entire forearc from the trench to the active volcanic front. The Northern array was located between 37° and 39° South including the epicentre of the 1960 Chile earthquake. It consisted out of 120 continuously recording, three component stations on land and 10 continuously recording Ocean Bottom Seismometers/Hydrophones (OBS/H) at sea. The Southern array was located between 41.5° and 43.5° South roughly in the middle of the rupture zone of the Valdivia earthquake. It consisted out of 20 continuously recording three component stations on land and 20 continuously recording Ocean Bottom Seismometers/Hydrophones (OBS/H) at sea. Several hundreds of micro earthquakes could be located using manual picked P- and S-wave arrivals. Joint 2D/3D inversions for earthquake location, P-wave velocity and vp/vs-ratio were carried out and give a detailed image of the structure as well as a snapshot of the seismicity distribution in both study regions. The subducting Nazca plate can be clearly identified in both regions dipping at a

  1. Evaluating risk assessments using receiver operating characteristic analysis: rationale, advantages, insights, and limitations.

    PubMed

    Mossman, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed major changes in the way that mental health professionals assess, describe, and think about persons' risk for future violence. Psychiatrists and psychologists have gone from believing that they could not predict violence to feeling certain they can assess violence risk with well-above-chance accuracy. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis has played a central role in changing this view. This article reviews the key concepts underlying ROC methods, the meaning of the area under the ROC curve (AUC), the relationship between AUC and effect size d, and what these two indices tell us about evaluations of violence risk. The area under the ROC curve and d provide succinct but incomplete descriptions of discrimination capacity. These indices do not provide details about sensitivity-specificity trade-offs; they do not tell us how to balance false-positive and false-negative errors; and they do not determine whether a diagnostic system is accurate enough to make practically useful distinctions between violent and non-violent subject groups. Justifying choices or clinical practices requires a contextual investigation of outcomes, a process that takes us beyond simply knowing global indices of accuracy. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Receiver Function Analysis of Strong-motion Stations in Kaohsiung-Pingtung area, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Che-Min; Wen, Kuo-Liang; Kuo, Chun-Hsiang; Huang, Jyun-Yan

    2016-04-01

    The Kaohsiung City and Pingtung County are located in southern Taiwan and bounded on the west side by several active faults. The shallow velocity structure of thick alluvium basin in this area should be delineated to understand the seismic site effect of strong ground motion. Receiver Function (RF) is a conventional technique for studying the structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath the seismometer. But, the RF analysis of high-frequency acceleration seismograms is also proved to be feasible for estimating shallow structures recently. This study applied the RF technique on the Strong-motion records of almost one-hundred TSMIP stations in Kaohsiung-Pingtung area to estimate the shallow shear-wave velocity structures. The averaged RFs of all stations exhibit the obvious variation because of the different geologies and site conditions. After the forward modeling of RFs based on the Genetic Algorithms (GA) searching, the shallow shear-wave velocity structures beneath all the strong-motion stations in the Kaohsiung-Pingtung area were estimated to delineate the iso-depth contour maps of the main formation interfaces and a preliminary shallow 3D velocity model.

  3. Identifying indicators of harmful and problem gambling in a Canadian sample through receiver operating characteristic analysis.

    PubMed

    Quilty, Lena C; Avila Murati, Daniela; Bagby, R Michael

    2014-03-01

    Many gamblers would prefer to reduce gambling on their own rather than to adopt an abstinence approach within the context of a gambling treatment program. Yet responsible gambling guidelines lack quantifiable markers to guide gamblers in wagering safely. To address these issues, the current investigation implemented receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to identify behavioral indicators of harmful and problem gambling. Gambling involvement was assessed in 503 participants (275 psychiatric outpatients and 228 community gamblers) with the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. Overall gambling frequency, duration, and expenditure were able to distinguish harmful and problematic gambling at a moderate level. Indicators of harmful gambling were generated for engagement in specific gambling activities: frequency of tickets and casino; duration of bingo, casino, and investments; and expenditures on bingo, casino, sports betting, games of skill, and investments. Indicators of problem gambling were similarly produced for frequency of tickets and casino, and expenditures on bingo, casino, games of skill, and investments. Logistic regression analyses revealed that overall gambling frequency uniquely predicted the presence of harmful and problem gambling. Furthermore, frequency indicators for tickets and casino uniquely predicted the presence of both harmful and problem gambling. Together, these findings contribute to the development of an empirically based method enabling the minimization of harmful or problem gambling through self-control rather than abstinence.

  4. Transmitter and receiver antenna gain analysis for laser radar and communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, B. J.; Degnan, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive and fairly self-contained study of centrally obscured optical transmitting and receiving antennas is presented and is intended for use by the laser radar and communication systems designer. The material is presented in a format which allows the rapid and accurate evaluation of antenna gain. The Fresnel approximation to scalar wave theory is reviewed and the antenna analysis proceeds in terms of the power gain. Conventional range equations may then be used to calculate the power budget. The transmitter calculations, resulting in near and far field antenna gain patterns, assumes the antenna is illuminated by a laser operating in the fundamental cavity mode. A simple equation is derived for matching the incident source distribution to a general antenna configuration for maximum on-axis gain. An interpretation of the resultant gain curves allows a number of auxiliary design curves to be drawn which display the losses in antenna gain due to pointing errors and the cone angle of the outgoing beam as a function of antenna size and central obscuration. The use of telescope defocusing as an approach to spreading the beam for target acquisition is compared to some alternate methods.

  5. Numerical analysis of radiation propagation in innovative volumetric receivers based on selective laser melting techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Fabrizio; Santiago, Sergio; Roccabruna, Mattia; Luque, Salvador; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Jose; Crema, Luigi; Romero, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Volumetric absorbers constitute one of the key elements in order to achieve high thermal conversion efficiencies in concentrating solar power plants. Regardless of the working fluid or thermodynamic cycle employed, design trends towards higher absorber output temperatures are widespread, which lead to the general need of components of high solar absorptance, high conduction within the receiver material, high internal convection, low radiative and convective heat losses and high mechanical durability. In this context, the use of advanced manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting, has allowed for the fabrication of intricate geometries that are capable of fulfilling the previous requirements. This paper presents a parametric design and analysis of the optical performance of volumetric absorbers of variable porosity conducted by means of detailed numerical ray tracing simulations. Sections of variable macroscopic porosity along the absorber depth were constructed by the fractal growth of single-cell structures. Measures of performance analyzed include optical reflection losses from the absorber front and rear faces, penetration of radiation inside the absorber volume, and radiation absorption as a function of absorber depth. The effects of engineering design parameters such as absorber length and wall thickness, material reflectance and porosity distribution on the optical performance of absorbers are discussed, and general design guidelines are given.

  6. Polyomavirus JCV excretion and genotype analysis in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lednicky, John A.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; White, Zoe S.; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Butel, Janet S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of shedding of polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) genotypes in urine of HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: Single samples of urine and blood were collected prospectively from 70 adult HIV-infected patients and 68 uninfected volunteers. Inclusion criteria for HIV-infected patients included an HIV RNA viral load < 1000 copies, CD4 cell count of 200-700 x 106 cells/l, and stable HAART regimen. PCR assays and sequence analysis were carried out using JCV-specific primers against different regions of the virus genome. RESULTS: JCV excretion in urine was more common in HIV-positive patients but not significantly different from that of the HIV-negative group [22/70 (31%) versus 13/68 (19%); P = 0.09]. HIV-positive patients lost the age-related pattern of JCV shedding (P = 0.13) displayed by uninfected subjects (P = 0.01). Among HIV-infected patients significant differences in JCV shedding were related to CD4 cell counts (P = 0.03). Sequence analysis of the JCV regulatory region from both HIV-infected patients and uninfected volunteers revealed all to be JCV archetypal strains. JCV genotypes 1 (36%) and 4 (36%) were the most common among HIV-infected patients, whereas type 2 (77%) was the most frequently detected among HIV-uninfected volunteers. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that JCV shedding is enhanced by modest depressions in immune function during HIV infection. JCV shedding occurred in younger HIV-positive persons than in the healthy controls. As the common types of JCV excreted varied among ethnic groups, JCV genotypes associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy may reflect demographics of those infected patient populations.

  7. Receiver Function Analysis using Ocean-bottom Seismometer Records around the Kii Peninsula, Southwestern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akuhara, T.; Mochizuki, K.

    2014-12-01

    Recent progress on receiver function (RF) analysis has provided us with new insight about the subsurface structure. The method is now gradually being more applied to records of ocean-bottom seismometers (OBSs). In the present study, we conducted RF analysis using OBS records at 32 observation sites around the Kii Peninsula, southwestern Japan, from 2003 to 2007 (Mochizuki et al., 2010, GRL). We addressed problems concerning water reverberations. We first checked the effects of water reverberations on the OBS vertical component records by calculating vertical P-wave RFs (Langston and Hammer, 2001, BSSA), where the OBS vertical component records were deconvolved by stacked traces of on-land records as source functions. The resultant RFs showed strong peaks corresponding to the water reverberations. Referring to these RFs, we constructed inverse filters to remove the effects of water reverberations from the vertical component records, which were assumed to be represented by two parameters, a two-way travel time within the water layer, and a reflection coefficient at the seafloor. We then calculated radial RFs using the filtered, reverberation-free, vertical component records of OBS data as source functions. The resultant RFs showed that some phases at later times became clearer than those obtained by an ordinary method. From the comparison with a previous tomography model (Akuhara et al., 2013, GRL), we identified phases originating from the oceanic Moho, which delineates the relationship between the depth of earthquakes and the oceanic Moho: seaward intraslab seismicity is high within the oceanic crust while the landward seismicity is high within the oceanic mantle. This character may be relevant to the dehydration process.

  8. Polyomavirus JCV excretion and genotype analysis in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lednicky, John A.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; White, Zoe S.; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Butel, Janet S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of shedding of polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) genotypes in urine of HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: Single samples of urine and blood were collected prospectively from 70 adult HIV-infected patients and 68 uninfected volunteers. Inclusion criteria for HIV-infected patients included an HIV RNA viral load < 1000 copies, CD4 cell count of 200-700 x 106 cells/l, and stable HAART regimen. PCR assays and sequence analysis were carried out using JCV-specific primers against different regions of the virus genome. RESULTS: JCV excretion in urine was more common in HIV-positive patients but not significantly different from that of the HIV-negative group [22/70 (31%) versus 13/68 (19%); P = 0.09]. HIV-positive patients lost the age-related pattern of JCV shedding (P = 0.13) displayed by uninfected subjects (P = 0.01). Among HIV-infected patients significant differences in JCV shedding were related to CD4 cell counts (P = 0.03). Sequence analysis of the JCV regulatory region from both HIV-infected patients and uninfected volunteers revealed all to be JCV archetypal strains. JCV genotypes 1 (36%) and 4 (36%) were the most common among HIV-infected patients, whereas type 2 (77%) was the most frequently detected among HIV-uninfected volunteers. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that JCV shedding is enhanced by modest depressions in immune function during HIV infection. JCV shedding occurred in younger HIV-positive persons than in the healthy controls. As the common types of JCV excreted varied among ethnic groups, JCV genotypes associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy may reflect demographics of those infected patient populations.

  9. Analytical Round Robin for Elastic-Plastic Analysis of Surface Cracked Plates: Phase I Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, D. N.; Allen, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    An analytical round robin for the elastic-plastic analysis of surface cracks in flat plates was conducted with 15 participants. Experimental results from a surface crack tension test in 2219-T8 aluminum plate provided the basis for the inter-laboratory study (ILS). The study proceeded in a blind fashion given that the analysis methodology was not specified to the participants, and key experimental results were withheld. This approach allowed the ILS to serve as a current measure of the state of the art for elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis. The analytical results and the associated methodologies were collected for comparison, and sources of variability were studied and isolated. The results of the study revealed that the J-integral analysis methodology using the domain integral method is robust, providing reliable J-integral values without being overly sensitive to modeling details. General modeling choices such as analysis code, model size (mesh density), crack tip meshing, or boundary conditions, were not found to be sources of significant variability. For analyses controlled only by far-field boundary conditions, the greatest source of variability in the J-integral assessment is introduced through the constitutive model. This variability can be substantially reduced by using crack mouth opening displacements to anchor the assessment. Conclusions provide recommendations for analysis standardization.

  10. Optical receiver sensitivity analysis for electronic code division multiple access over passive optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yamei; Liang, Siyuan; Wang, Liqian; Chen, Xue

    2010-12-01

    Optical receiver sensitivity for electronic code division multiple access over a passive optical network (ECDMA-PON) is analyzed theoretically. Compared with TDM system, ECDMA-PON offers better receiver sensitivity due to coding gain. Fundamental simulation results are provided to show its validity.

  11. Analytical Model and Analysis of Solute Transport by Unsteady Unsaturated Gravitational Infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indelman, P.; Lessoff, S. C.

    2002-12-01

    Penetration of reactive solute into a soil during a cycle of water infiltration and redistribution is investigated by deriving analytical closed form solutions for fluid flux, moisture content and contaminant concentration. The solution is developed for gravitational flow and advective transport and is applied to two scenarios of solute applications encountered in the applications: a finite pulse of solute dissolved in irrigation water and an instantaneous pulse broadcasted onto the soil surface. Through comparison to simulations of Richards' flow, capillary suction is shown to have contrasting effects on the upper and lower boundaries of the fluid pulse, speeding penetration of the wetting front and reducing the rate of drying. This leads to agreement between the analytical and numerical solutions for typical field and experimental conditions. The analytical solution is further incorporated into a stochastic column model of flow and transport to compute mean solute concentration in a heterogeneous field. An unusual phenomenon of plume contraction is observed at long times of solute propagation during the drying stage. The mean concentration profiles match those of the Monte-Carlo simulations for capillary length scales typical of sandy soils. The efficient column model is ideal for testing multiple scenarios. Its use is illustrated in determining transport parameters by the data from an experiment in a heterogeneous field. Parameter sensitivity is analyzed and confidence intervals are estimated for effective field reactive parameters (partition coefficient Kd and effective first order degradation rate λ ) of some common herbicides (Atrazine, Bromacil, and Terbuthylazine) The results are compared to literature reported values. The field data for this work was presented in the Fall 2000 AGU meeting, the stochastic analysis is reported in [S. C. Lessoff, P. Indelman and G. Dagan, Heat and Mass Transfer in the Natural Environment Raats, P., D. Smiles and A. Warrick

  12. Analytical quality of environmental analysis: Recent results and future trends of the IAEA-ILMR's Analytical Quality Control Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ballestra, S.; Vas, D.; Holm, E.; Lopez, J.J.; Parsi, P. )

    1988-01-01

    The Analytical Quality Control Services Program of the IAEA-ILMR covers a wide variety of intercalibration and reference materials. The purpose of the program is to ensure the comparability of the results obtained by the different participants and to enable laboratories engaged in low-level analyses of marine environmental materials to control their analytical performance. Within the past five years, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity in Monaco has organized eight intercomparison exercises, on a world-wide basis, on natural materials of marine origin comprising sea water, sediment, seaweed and fish flesh. Results on artificial (fission and activation products, transuranium elements) and natural radionuclides were compiled and evaluated. Reference concentration values were established for a number of the intercalibration samples allowing them to become certified as reference materials available for general distribution. The results of the fish flesh sample and those of the deep-sea sediment are reviewed. The present status of three on-going intercomparison exercises on post-Chernobyl samples IAEA-306 (Baltic Sea sediment), IAEA-307 (Mediterranean sea-plant Posidonia oceanica) and IAEA-308 (Mediterranean mixed seaweed) is also described. 1 refs., 4 tabs.

  13. Analytical testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flannelly, W. G.; Fabunmi, J. A.; Nagy, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical methods for combining flight acceleration and strain data with shake test mobility data to predict the effects of structural changes on flight vibrations and strains are presented. This integration of structural dynamic analysis with flight performance is referred to as analytical testing. The objective of this methodology is to analytically estimate the results of flight testing contemplated structural changes with minimum flying and change trials. The category of changes to the aircraft includes mass, stiffness, absorbers, isolators, and active suppressors. Examples of applying the analytical testing methodology using flight test and shake test data measured on an AH-1G helicopter are included. The techniques and procedures for vibration testing and modal analysis are also described.

  14. Phase-recovery improvement using analytic wavelet transform analysis of a noisy interferogram cepstrum.

    PubMed

    Etchepareborda, Pablo; Vadnjal, Ana Laura; Federico, Alejandro; Kaufmann, Guillermo H

    2012-09-15

    We evaluate the extension of the exact nonlinear reconstruction technique developed for digital holography to the phase-recovery problems presented by other optical interferometric methods, which use carrier modulation. It is shown that the introduction of an analytic wavelet analysis in the ridge of the cepstrum transformation corresponding to the analyzed interferogram can be closely related to the well-known wavelet analysis of the interferometric intensity. Subsequently, the phase-recovery process is improved. The advantages and limitations of this framework are analyzed and discussed using numerical simulations in singular scalar light fields and in temporal speckle pattern interferometry.

  15. PICASSSO Ps Receiver Function Analysis of the Lithospheric Structure Beneath the Western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurner, S.; Palomeras, I.; Levander, A.

    2011-12-01

    Rif and Betic Mountains we observe complex crustal structures, possibly resulting from the associated thrust systems in each region. Along a profile across Morocco, we observe thick crust in the north beneath the Rif Mountains and to the south beneath the northern edge of the West African craton. Near the center of this transect, directly beneath the Atlas, we observe a much thinner crust at ~30-35 km. These receiver functions also reveal a clear LAB at variable depths throughout the study area, with up to a ~100% change in LAB depth from the southern region to the northern region. From south to north, we see an abrupt change in LAB depth from the High Atlas (~85-95 km) to the Middle Atlas (~65-70 km). The LAB remains relatively shallow beneath the Rif (~75 km) and thickens to the north beneath the Betic Mountains (~85-95 km) and the Iberian Massif (~100-125 km). These LAB depth estimates agree well with those from the surface wave analysis presented by Palomeras et al. (this session), and both data sets can be used to better constrain the LAB depth.

  16. Crustal thickness variation beneath the Romanian seismic network from Rayleigh wave dispersion and receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tataru, Dragos; Grecu, Bogdan; Zaharia, Bogdan

    2014-05-01

    Variations in crustal thickness in Romania where determined by joint inversion of P wave receiver functions (RFs) and Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion. We present new models of shear wave velocity structure of the crust beneath Romanian broad band stations. The data set consist in more than 500 teleseismic earthquake with epicentral distance between 30° and 95°, magnitude greater than 6 and a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 3 for the P-wave pulse. Most epicenters are situated along the northern Pacific Rim and arrive with backazimuths (BAZs) between 0° and 135° at the Romanian seismic network. We combine receiver functions with fundamental-mode of the Rayleigh wave group velocities to further constrain the shear-wave velocity structure.To extract the group velocities we applied the Multiple Filter Technique analysis to the vertical components of the earthquakes recordings. This technique allowed us to identify the Rayleigh wave fundamental mode and to compute the dispersion curves of the group velocities at periods between 10 and 150 s allowing us to resolve shear wave velocities to a depth of 100 km. The time-domain iterative deconvolution procedure of Ligorrıa and Ammon (1999) was employed to deconvolve the vertical component of the teleseismic P waveforms from the corresponding horizontal components and obtain radial and transverse receiver functions at each broadband station. The data are inverted using a joint, linearized inversion scheme (Hermann, 2002) which accounts for the relative influence of each set of observations, and allows a trade-off between fitting the observations, constructing a smooth model, and matching a priori constraints. The results show a thin crust for stations located inside the Pannonian basin (28-30 km) and a thicker crust for those in the East European Platform (36-40 km). The stations within the Southern and Central Carpathian Orogen are characterized by crustal depths of ~35 km. For stations located in the Northern

  17. Social cognition and the cerebellum: A meta-analytic connectivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Van Overwalle, Frank; D'aes, Tine; Mariën, Peter

    2015-12-01

    This meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) study explores the functional connectivity of the cerebellum with the cerebrum in social cognitive processes. In a recent meta-analysis, Van Overwalle, Baetens, Mariën, and Vandekerckhove (2014) documented that the cerebellum is implicated in social processes of "body" reading (mirroring; e.g., understanding other persons' intentions from observing their movements) and "mind" reading (mentalizing, e.g., inferring other persons' beliefs, intentions or personality traits, reconstructing persons' past, future, or hypothetical events). In a recent functional connectivity study, Buckner et al. (2011) offered a novel parcellation of cerebellar topography that substantially overlaps with the cerebellar meta-analytic findings of Van Overwalle et al. (2014). This overlap suggests that the involvement of the cerebellum in social reasoning depends on its functional connectivity with the cerebrum. To test this hypothesis, we explored the meta-analytic co-activations as indices of functional connectivity between the cerebellum and the cerebrum during social cognition. The MACM results confirm substantial and distinct connectivity with respect to the functions of (a) action understanding ("body" reading) and (b) mentalizing ("mind" reading). The consistent and strong connectivity findings of this analysis suggest that cerebellar activity during social judgments reflects distinct mirroring and mentalizing functionality, and that these cerebellar functions are connected with corresponding functional networks in the cerebrum.

  18. Analytical analysis for impact of polarization aberration of projection lens on lithographic imaging quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Lina; Li, Sikun; Wang, Xiangzhao; Yan, Guanyong

    2015-03-01

    In high-NA and hyper-NA lithography systems, the polarization aberration of projection lens leads to imaging degradations. Typically, numerical simulations are used to explore the relationship. In this paper, analytical analysis for the impact of polarization aberration of projection lens on the aerial image of alternating phase-shift mask (Alt-PSM) is realized. The analytical expressions of image placement error (IPE) and best focus shift (BFS) caused by polarization aberration are derived from the intensity of aerial image. The derived expressions match simulation results extremely well, and can be used to understand more fully the detrimental impact of polarization aberration on lithographic imaging quality. The linear relationships between IPE and odd items of Pauli-Zernike polarization aberrations, as well as that between BFS and even items of Pauli-Zernike polarization aberrations are established, using linear polarization illumination. The accuracy of the linear relationships is assessed by the least square method.

  19. Redundancy in neutron activation analysis: A valuable tool in assuring analytical quality

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, R.R.

    1996-12-31

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has become widely used and is extremely valuable for the certification of standard reference materials (SRMs) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This is due to a number of reasons. First, NAA has essentially no significant sources of error in common with the other analytical techniques used at NIST to measure inorganic concentrations. This is important because most certified elemental concentrations are derived from the data determined by two (and occasionally more) independent analytical techniques. Two or more techniques are used for SRM certification because, although each technique has previously been evaluated and shown to be accurate, unexpected problems can arise, especially when analyzing new matrices. Another reason for the use of NAA for SRM certification is the potential of this technique for accuracy. The SRM measurements with estimated accuracies of 1 to 2% (at essentially 95% confidence intervals) are routinely made at NIST using NAA.

  20. Comparative analysis of analytical solutions for F2P(x ,t ) in the DGLAP approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, D. K.; Borah, Neelakshi N. K.

    2017-01-01

    Coupled Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi equations involving singlet quark and gluon distributions are explored by a Taylor expansion at small x as two first-order partial differential equations in two variables: Bjorken x and t (t =l n Q/2Λ2). The system of equations are then solved by Lagrange's method and the method of characteristics. We obtain the proton structure function F2P(x ,t ) by combining the corresponding nonsinglet and singlet structure functions with both methods. Analytical solutions for F2P(x ,t ) thus obtained are compared with the recent data published by the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations as well as with NNPDF3.0 parametrization, and their compatibility is checked. Comparative analysis favors the analytical solution by Lagrange's method; the plausible reasons behind that are also discussed.

  1. Analytic diffraction analysis of a 32-m telescope with hexagonal segments for high-contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Sabatke, Erin; Burge, James; Sabatke, Derek

    2005-03-10

    Large segmented telescopes cannot be modeled accurately with fast-Fourier-transform techniques since small features such as gaps between the segments will be inadequately sampled. An analytic Fourier-transform method can be used to model any pupil configuration with straight edges, including tolerance analysis and some types of apodization. We analytically investigated a 32-m segmented primary with 18 hexagonal segments for high-contrast imaging. There are significant regions in the image in which extrasolar planets could be detected. However, the hexagonal profile of the pupil was not as useful as expected. The gaps between the segments, the secondary obscuration, and the secondary spiders must be as small as possible and their edges must be apodized. Apodizing the edges of the individual segments reduced the useful regions in the image since the gaps appeared to be wider.

  2. Online Flowing Colloidosomes for Sequential Multi-Analyte High-Throughput SERS Analysis.

    PubMed

    Phan-Quang, Gia Chuong; Wee, Elizabeth Hui Zi; Yang, Fengling; Lee, Hiang Kwee; Phang, In Yee; Feng, Xiaotong; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramón A; Ling, Xing Yi

    2017-04-11

    3D plasmonic colloidosomes are superior SERS sensors owing to their high sensitivity and excellent tolerance to laser misalignment. Herein, we incorporate plasmonic colloidosomes in a microfluidic channel for online SERS detection. Our method resolves the poor signal reproducibility and inter-sample contamination in the existing online SERS platforms. Our flow system offers rapid and continuous online detection of 20 samples in less than 5 min with excellent signal reproducibility. The isolated colloidosomes prevent cross-sample and channel contamination, allowing accurate quantification of samples over a concentration range of five orders of magnitude. Our system demonstrates high-resolution multiplex detection with fully preserved signal and Raman features of individual analytes in a mixture. High-throughput multi-assay analysis is performed, which highlights that our system is capable of rapid identification and quantification of a sequence of samples containing various analytes and concentrations.

  3. Analysis of compressive receivers for the optimal interception of frequency-hopped waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snelling, William E.; Geraniotis, Evaggelos

    1994-01-01

    This paper establishes that the compressive receiver is a practical interceptor of high performance. Given a signal of a particular duration, a compressive receiver can estimate simultaneously all frequency components within a set wide band. This processing is similar to a parallel bank of narrowband filters, which is the optimal detector of frequency-hopped signals. Furthermore, hop frequency is estimated to yield performance equal to the parallel filter configuration. We assume interference to be stationary, colored Gaussian noise, and present a model of the compressive receiver that contains all its salient features. Low energy coherence detection is achieved by taking the compressive receiver output as an observation and applying likelihood ratio theory at small signal-to-noise ratios. For small signals, this approach guarantees the largest probability of correct detection for a given probability of false alarm, and thus provides a reference, to which simplified or ad hoc schemes can be compared. Since the low energy coherence detector has an unwieldy structure, a simplified suboptimal detector structure is developed that consists of a simple filter, followed by a sampler and a square-envelope detector. Several candidates for the filter's response are presented. The performance of the low energy coherence detector based on compressive receiver observations is compared to the optimal filter-bank detector based on direct observations, thus showing the exact loss incurred when a compressive receiver is used. The performance of various simplified schemes, based on compressive receiver observations, is analyzed and compared with that of the low energy coherence detector.

  4. Analytical methods of the U.S. Geological Survey's New York District Water-Analysis Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Lincoln, Tricia A.; Horan-Ross, Debra A.; Olson, Mark L.; Waldron, Laura A.

    1995-01-01

    The New York District of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Troy, N.Y., operates a water-analysis laboratory for USGS watershed-research projects in the Northeast that require analyses of precipitation and of dilute surface water and soil water for major ions; it also provides analyses of certain chemical constituents in soils and soil gas samples.This report presents the methods for chemical analyses of water samples, soil-water samples, and soil-gas samples collected in wateshed-research projects. The introduction describes the general materials and technicques for each method and explains the USGS quality-assurance program and data-management procedures; it also explains the use of cross reference to the three most commonly used methods manuals for analysis of dilute waters. The body of the report describes the analytical procedures for (1) solution analysis, (2) soil analysis, and (3) soil-gas analysis. The methods are presented in alphabetical order by constituent. The method for each constituent is preceded by (1) reference codes for pertinent sections of the three manuals mentioned above, (2) a list of the method's applications, and (3) a summary of the procedure. The methods section for each constitutent contains the following categories: instrumentation and equipment, sample preservation and storage, reagents and standards, analytical procedures, quality control, maintenance, interferences, safety considerations, and references. Sufficient information is presented for each method to allow the resulting data to be appropriately used in environmental investigations.

  5. Analytical methods of the U.S. Geological Survey's New York District Water-Analysis Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Lincoln, Tricia A.; Horan-Ross, Debra A.; Olson, Mark L.; Waldron, Laura A.

    1995-01-01

    The New York District of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Troy, N.Y., operates a water-analysis laboratory for USGS watershed-research projects in the Northeast that require analyses of precipitation and of dilute surface water and soil water for major ions; it also provides analyses of certain chemical constituents in soils and soil gas samples. This report presents the methods for chemical analyses of water samples, soil-water samples, and soil-gas samples collected in wateshed-research projects. The introduction describes the general materials and technicques for eachmethod and explains the USGS quality-assurance program and data-management procedures; it also explains the use of cross reference to the three most commonly used methods manuals for analysis of dilute waters. The body of the report describes the analytical procedures for (1) solution analysis, (2) soil analysis, and (3) soil-gas analysis. The methods are presented in alphabetical order by constituent. The method for each constituent is preceded by (1) reference codes for pertinent sections of the three manuals mentioned above, (2) a list of the method's applications, and (3) a summary of the procedure. The methods section for each constitutent contains the following categories: instrumentation and equipment, sample preservation and storage, reagents and standards, analytical procedures, quality control, maintenance, interferences, safety considerations, and references. Sufficient information is presented for each method to allow the resulting data to be appropriately used in environmental samples.

  6. Analysis of solar receiver flux distributions for US/Russian solar dynamic system demonstration on the MIR Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Fincannon, James

    1995-01-01

    The United States and Russia have agreed to jointly develop a solar dynamic (SD) system for flight demonstration on the Russian MIR space station starting in late 1997. Two important components of this SD system are the solar concentrator and heat receiver provided by Russia and the U.S., respectively. This paper describes optical analysis of the concentrator and solar flux predictions on target receiver surfaces. The optical analysis is performed using the code CIRCE2. These analyses account for finite sun size with limb darkening, concentrator surface slope and position errors, concentrator petal thermal deformation, gaps between petals, and the shading effect of the receiver support struts. The receiver spatial flux distributions are then combined with concentrator shadowing predictions. Geometric shadowing patterns are traced from the concentrator to the target receiver surfaces. These patterns vary with time depending on the chosen MIR flight attitude and orbital mechanics of the MIR spacecraft. The resulting predictions provide spatial and temporal receiver flux distributions for any specified mission profile. The impact these flux distributions have on receiver design and control of the Brayton engine are discussed.

  7. Analysis of solar receiver flux distributions for US/Russian solar dynamic system demonstration on the MIR Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Fincannon, James

    1995-06-01

    The United States and Russia have agreed to jointly develop a solar dynamic (SD) system for flight demonstration on the Russian MIR space station starting in late 1997. Two important components of this SD system are the solar concentrator and heat receiver provided by Russia and the U.S., respectively. This paper describes optical analysis of the concentrator and solar flux predictions on target receiver surfaces. The optical analysis is performed using the code CIRCE2. These analyses account for finite sun size with limb darkening, concentrator surface slope and position errors, concentrator petal thermal deformation, gaps between petals, and the shading effect of the receiver support struts. The receiver spatial flux distributions are then combined with concentrator shadowing predictions. Geometric shadowing patterns are traced from the concentrator to the target receiver surfaces. These patterns vary with time depending on the chosen MIR flight attitude and orbital mechanics of the MIR spacecraft. The resulting predictions provide spatial and temporal receiver flux distributions for any specified mission profile. The impact these flux distributions have on receiver design and control of the Brayton engine are discussed.

  8. HEAP: Heat Energy Analysis Program, a computer model simulating solar receivers. [solving the heat transfer problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program which can distinguish between different receiver designs, and predict transient performance under variable solar flux, or ambient temperatures, etc. has a basic structure that fits a general heat transfer problem, but with specific features that are custom-made for solar receivers. The code is written in MBASIC computer language. The methodology followed in solving the heat transfer problem is explained. A program flow chart, an explanation of input and output tables, and an example of the simulation of a cavity-type solar receiver are included.

  9. Comparative analysis of high-frequency dynamic measurement experiment for vibration sensor and GPS receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Keliang; Song, Zichao; Zhou, Mingduan; Liu, Miao

    2015-12-01

    Sensor technology applied in dynamic measurement in recent years become the mainly focus subject of attention. In this paper, the high-frequency data collected by two kinds of sensors from vibration sensor and GPS receiver are comparatively analyzed. The integrated scheme of dynamic measurement is proposed based on the high-frequency data for vibration sensor and GPS receiver. The result of experiment is shown that the above sensors with the some same characteristics based on the advantages of the sensors applied in the scheme. Finally, the feasibility and effectiveness of the integrated scheme for the vibration sensor and GPS receiver is verified in the dynamic measurement experiment.

  10. Receiver subsystem analysis report (RADL Item 4-1). 10-MWe Solar Thermal Central-Receiver Pilot Plant: solar-facilities design integration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The results are presented of those thermal hydraulic, structural, and stress analyses required to demonstrate that the Receiver design for the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant will satisfy the general design and performance requirements during the plant's design life. Recommendations resulting from those analyses and supporting test programs are presented regarding operation of the receiver. The analyses are limited to receiver subsystem major structural parts (primary tower, receiver unit core support structure), pressure parts (absorber panels, feedwater, condensate and steam piping/components, flash tank, and steam mainfold) and shielding. (LEW)

  11. Transient analysis of a molten salt central receiver (MSCR) in a solar power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, A.; Wang, C.; Akinjiola, O.; Lou, X.; Neuschaefer, C.; Quinn, J.

    2016-05-01

    Alstom is developing solar power tower plants utilizing molten salt as the working fluid. In solar power tower, the molten salt central receiver (MSCR) atop of the tower is constructed of banks of tubes arranged in panels creating a heat transfer surface exposed to the solar irradiation from the heliostat field. The molten salt heat transfer fluid (HTF), in this case 60/40%wt NaNO3-KNO3, flows in serpentine flow through the surface collecting sensible heat thus raising the HTF temperature from 290°C to 565°C. The hot molten salt is stored and dispatched to produce superheated steam in a steam generator, which in turn produces electricity in the steam turbine generator. The MSCR based power plant with a thermal energy storage system (TESS) is a fully dispatchable renewable power plant with a number of opportunities for operational and economic optimization. This paper presents operation and controls challenges to the MSCR and the overall power plant, and the use of dynamic model computer simulation based transient analyses applied to molten salt based solar thermal power plant. This study presents the evaluation of the current MSCR design, using a dynamic model, with emphasis on severe events affecting critical process response, such as MS temperature deviations, and recommend MSCR control design improvements based on the results. Cloud events are the scope of the transient analysis presented in this paper. The paper presents results from a comparative study to examine impacts or effects on key process variables related to controls and operation of the MSCR plant.

  12. Application of Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis to Refine the Prediction of Potential Digoxin Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ellens, Harma; Deng, Shibing; Coleman, JoAnn; Bentz, Joe; Taub, Mitchell E.; Ragueneau-Majlessi, Isabelle; Chung, Sophie P.; Herédi-Szabó, Krisztina; Neuhoff, Sibylle; Palm, Johan; Balimane, Praveen; Zhang, Lei; Jamei, Masoud; Hanna, Imad; O’Connor, Michael; Bednarczyk, Dallas; Forsgard, Malin; Chu, Xiaoyan; Funk, Christoph; Guo, Ailan; Hillgren, Kathleen M.; Li, LiBin; Pak, Anne Y.; Perloff, Elke S.; Rajaraman, Ganesh; Salphati, Laurent; Taur, Jan-Shiang; Weitz, Dietmar; Wortelboer, Heleen M.; Xia, Cindy Q.; Xiao, Guangqing; Yamagata, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    In the 2012 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft guidance on drug-drug interactions (DDIs), a new molecular entity that inhibits P-glycoprotein (P-gp) may need a clinical DDI study with a P-gp substrate such as digoxin when the maximum concentration of inhibitor at steady state divided by IC50 ([I1]/IC50) is ≥0.1 or concentration of inhibitor based on highest approved dose dissolved in 250 ml divide by IC50 ([I2]/IC50) is ≥10. In this article, refined criteria are presented, determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis, using IC50 values generated by 23 laboratories. P-gp probe substrates were digoxin for polarized cell-lines and N-methyl quinidine or vinblastine for P-gp overexpressed vesicles. Inhibition of probe substrate transport was evaluated using 15 known P-gp inhibitors. Importantly, the criteria derived in this article take into account variability in IC50 values. Moreover, they are statistically derived based on the highest degree of accuracy in predicting true positive and true negative digoxin DDI results. The refined criteria of [I1]/IC50 ≥ 0.03 and [I2]/IC50 ≥ 45 and FDA criteria were applied to a test set of 101 in vitro-in vivo digoxin DDI pairs collated from the literature. The number of false negatives (none predicted but DDI observed) were similar, 10 and 12%, whereas the number of false positives (DDI predicted but not observed) substantially decreased from 51 to 40%, relative to the FDA criteria. On the basis of estimated overall variability in IC50 values, a theoretical 95% confidence interval calculation was developed for single laboratory IC50 values, translating into a range of [I1]/IC50 and [I2]/IC50 values. The extent by which this range falls above the criteria is a measure of risk associated with the decision, attributable to variability in IC50 values. PMID:23620486

  13. The intracrustal structure beneath the Owyhee Plateau, Oregon, from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, T.; Chen, C.; James, D. E.; Fouch, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Owyhee Plateau straddles southeastern Oregon, southwestern Idaho, and northern Nevada, and is an isolated block of older, and less modified, continental lithosphere relative to bordering geologic terranes. Previous seismic studies have characterized the Owyhee Plateau as having thickened crust with low Poisson's ratio and high intracrustal S-wave velocities, and distinct, albeit thin, mantle lithosphere. Significant tectonomagmatic activity, including extension in the northern Great Basin, and intraplate volcanism is present on the margins of the Plateau, but very little volcanism takes place within the Plateau itself. The volcanism is expressed as two prominent age-progressive volcanic tracks, the Snake River Plains-Yellowstone and the High Lava Plains, both of which appear to have originated from near the Owyhee Plateau at approximately 12 Ma. Recent ambient noise tomography and scattered-wave imaging reveal the presence of irregular high velocity layering in the Owyhee mid-crust, but the extent and properties of this feature, and its role in the tectonic evolution of the Owyhee Plateau, remain elusive. In this study, we perform detailed single station Ps receiver function analysis to better constrain the discontinuity structures within the Owyhee crust. We use teleseismic waveform data recorded at 28 High Lava Plains seismic array and 12 USArray Transportable Array broadband stations from 2006 to 2009. Preliminary results show coherent signals of converted phase at ~20 km depth, indicating the presence of a positive velocity discontinuity, which may mark the upper bound of the high velocity layer imaged in previous studies. We consider and examine possible effects of seismic anisotropy on our results and are also conducting synthetic experiments to further constrain the properties of this feature.

  14. Receiver operating characteristic analysis for the detection of simulated microcalcifications on mammograms using hardcopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chao-Jen; Shaw, Chris C.; Whitman, Gary J.; Yang, Wei T.; Dempsey, Peter J.; Nguyen, Victoria; Ice, Mary F.

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare mammography systems based on three different detectors—a conventional screen-film (SF) combination, an a-Si/CsI flat-panel (FP)-based detector, and a charge-coupled device (CCD)-based x-ray phosphor-based detector—for their performance in detecting simulated microcalcifications (MCs). 112-150 µm calcium carbonate grains were used to simulate MCs and were overlapped with a slab phantom of simulated 50% adipose/50% glandular breast tissue-equivalent material referred to as the uniform background. For the tissue structure background, 200-250 µm calcium carbonate grains were used and overlapped with an anthropomorphic breast phantom. All MC phantom images were acquired with and without magnification (1.8X). The hardcopy images were reviewed by five mammographers. A five-point confidence level rating was used to score each detection task. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed, and the areas under the ROC curves (Azs) were used to compare the performances of the three mammography systems under various conditions. The results showed that, with a uniform background and contact images, the FP-based system performed significantly better than the SF and the CCD-based systems. For magnified images with a uniform background, the SF and the FP-based systems performed equally well and significantly better than the CCD-based system. With tissue structure background and contact images, the SF system performed significantly better than the FP and the CCD-based systems. With magnified images and a tissue structure background, the SF and the CCD-based systems performed equally well and significantly better than the FP-based system. In the detection of MCs in the fibroglandular and the heterogeneously dense regions, no significant differences were found except that the SF system performed significantly better than the CCD-based system in the fibroglandular regions for the contact images.

  15. Shallow dipping structure associated to the Cimandiri Fault: evidence from single station teleseismic receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syuhada; Anggono, T.

    2017-04-01

    The Cimandiri fault zone is located in the eastern part of the boundary between the oblique subduction of the Indo-Australian plate along Sumatera and the frontal subduction along Java. Even though some geological and geophysical investigations have been conducted and focused on this area, the geometry of the fault zone remains poorly resolved. To provide better constraints on the geometry of the Cimandiri fault zone, we analyze teleseismic receiver functions from single permanent seismic station located in the fault zone. We observe that the computed receiver functions show back azimuthal variation in the amplitude converted waves at the first 2 second of receiver functions providing clear evidence for the presence of complicated shallow structure. We implement forward modelling technique using synthetic seismograms with the same parameters as the observed receiver functions. The modelling reveals at least 2 km thick low velocity zone dipping N-E at 30°, which might be correlated to the Cimandiri fault.

  16. Performance analysis of MRC spatial diversity receiver system for satellite-to-ground downlink optical transmissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kangning; Ma, Jing; Tan, Liying; Yu, Siyuan; Cao, Yubin

    2016-10-01

    The performances of satellite-to-ground downlink optical communications over Gamma-Gamma distributed turbulence are studied for multiple apertures receiver system. Maximum ratio combining (MRC) technique is considered as a combining scheme to mitigate the atmospheric turbulence under thermal noise limited conditions. Bit-error rate (BER) performances for on-off keying (OOK) modulated direct detection optical communications are analyzed for MRC diversity receptions through an approximation method. To show the net diversity gain of multiple apertures receiver system, BER performances of MRC receiver system are compared with a single monolithic aperture receiver system with the same total aperture area (same average total incident optical power) for satellite-to-ground downlink optical communications. All the numerical results are also verified by Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations.

  17. The shallow seismic structure of the Larderello geothermal field (Italy) as seen from Receiver Function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piana Agostinetti, Nicola; Licciardi, Andrea; Piccinini, Davide; Mazzarini, Francesco; Musumeci, Giovanni; Saccorotti, Gilberto

    2017-04-01

    The Larderello field (Tuscany, Italy) is the oldest example in the world of geothermal energy exploitation for industrial purposes. Despite its century long history of exploration and exploitation, the deep structure (4-8km depth) of the Larderello field is still poorly known, due to (a) the lack of resolution of the applied exploration techniques and (b) the lack of interest in the investigation of deep geothermal reservoirs, given the abundant amount of energy extracted from the shallow reservoirs. Recently, the increasing demand of green-energy promoted a renewed interest in the geothermal industrial sector, which translated into new exploration efforts, especially to obtain a detailed characterization of deep geothermal sources. We investigate the seismic structure of the Larderello geothermal field using Receiver Function (RF) analysis. Crustal seismic structures are routinely investigated using the RF methodology, where teleseismic P-wave are analysed to extract P-to-S converted phases that can be related to the propagation of the P-wave across a seismic discontinuity. We compute RF from 26 seismic stations, belonging to both temporary and permanent networks: the GAPSS and RETREAT experiments and the Italian Seismic Network. The RF data-set is migrated at depth and decomposed into azimuthal harmonics. Computing the first, k=0, and the second, k=1, harmonics allows to separate the "isotropic" contribution, due to the change of the isotropic properties of the sampled materials (recorded on the k=0 harmonics), from the "anisotropic" contribution, where the energy is related to the propagation of the P-wave through anisotropic materials (recorded on the k=1 harmonics). Preliminary results allow us: (1) to infer the position of the main S-wave velocity discontinuities in the study area, mainly a shallow Tyrrhenian Moho and a very-low S-wave velocity body in the center of the Larderello dome, at about 5-15km depth; and (2) to map the presence of anisotropic

  18. Cancer risk in patients receiving renal replacement therapy: A meta-analysis of cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Weifeng; Huang, Liu; Li, Li; Li, Xiaojuan; Zeng, Rui; Ge, Shuwang; Xu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that patients receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT), including dialysis and kidney transplantation, tend to have an increased risk of cancer; however, studies on the degree of this risk have remained inconclusive. The present meta-analysis was therefore performed to quantify the cancer risk in patients with RRT. Cohort studies assessing overall cancer risk in RRT patients published before May 29, 2015 were included following systematic searches with of PubMed, EMBASE and the reference lists of the studies retrieved. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to pool standardized incidence rates (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity tests, sensitivity analyses and publication bias assessment were performed. A total of 18 studies including 22 cohort studies were eventually identified, which comprised a total of 1,528,719 patients. In comparison with the general population, the pooled SIR for patients with dialysis including non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), dialysis excluding NMSC, transplantation including NMSC, transplantation excluding NMSC and RRT were 1.40 (95% CI, 1.36–1.45), 1.35 (95% CI, 1.23–1.50), 3.26 (95% CI, 2.29–4.63), 2.08 (95% CI, 1.73–2.50) and 2.01 (95% CI, 1.70–2.38), respectively. The cancer risk was particularly high in subgroups of large sample size trials, female patients, younger patients (age at first dialysis, 0–34 years; age at transplantation, 0–20 years), the first year of RRT and non-Asian transplant patients. A significant association was also found between RRT and the majority of organ-specific cancers. However, neither dialysis nor transplantation was associated with breast, body of uterus, colorectal or prostate cancer. Significant heterogeneity was found regarding the association between RRT and overall cancer as well as the majority of site-specific cancer types. However, this heterogeneity had no substantial influence on the pooled SIR for overall cancer in RRT according to the

  19. Analysis of first and second trimester maternal serum analytes for the prediction of morbidly adherent placenta requiring hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Oztas, Efser; Ozler, Sibel; Caglar, Ali Turhan; Yucel, Aykan

    2016-11-01

    Morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) is a growing concern currently and is still a diagnostic challenge for obstetricians. As emergency hysterectomy due to unscheduled delivery in MAP carries significant risks, we aimed to evaluate whether first and second trimester serum analytes may be used in the prediction of MAP requiring hysterectomy. A retrospective chart review of all identified cases of placenta previa totalis with and without MAP was performed. A total of 316 pregnant women diagnosed as placenta previa totalis were identified and included in the analysis. Cases were examined in three groups (Group 1: 204 nonadherent placenta previa patients; Group 2: 61 MAP patients managed with endouterine hemostatic square sutures and/or Bakri balloon tamponade; and Group 3: 51 patients with MAP requiring hysterectomy). Among all first and second trimester screening analytes only maternal serum alphafetoprotein (MS-AFP) levels were significantly higher in patients with MAP requiring hysterectomy (p < 0.001). According to the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis performed for the predictive value of MS-AFP levels, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.742 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.505-0.979]. The best MS-AFP cut-off value was 1.25 multiple of the median (MoM) with 85.94% sensitivity and 71.43% specificity (p = 0.036). The best predictors which affect the increased risk of hysterectomy, was further evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analyses. Only elevated maternal serum alphafetoprotein (MS-AFP) was found to be an independent predictor of MAP requiring hysterectomy [odds ratio (OR) = 25.329, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.487-43.143, p = 0.025]. In conclusion, increased second trimester MS-AFP levels independently predict morbidly adherent placenta requiring hysterectomy among women with placenta previa totalis. Copyright © 2016 Kaohsiung Medical University. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.. All rights reserved.

  20. Space Trajectories Error Analysis (STEAP) Programs. Volume 1: Analytic manual, update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Manual revisions are presented for the modified and expanded STEAP series. The STEAP 2 is composed of three independent but related programs: NOMAL for the generation of n-body nominal trajectories performing a number of deterministic guidance events; ERRAN for the linear error analysis and generalized covariance analysis along specific targeted trajectories; and SIMUL for testing the mathematical models used in the navigation and guidance process. The analytic manual provides general problem description, formulation, and solution and the detailed analysis of subroutines. The programmers' manual gives descriptions of the overall structure of the programs as well as the computational flow and analysis of the individual subroutines. The user's manual provides information on the input and output quantities of the programs. These are updates to N69-36472 and N69-36473.

  1. Analytical tools for the analysis of fire debris. A review: 2008-2015.

    PubMed

    Martín-Alberca, Carlos; Ortega-Ojeda, Fernando Ernesto; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-07-20

    The analysis of fire debris evidence might offer crucial information to a forensic investigation, when for instance, there is suspicion of the intentional use of ignitable liquids to initiate a fire. Although the evidence analysis in the laboratory is mainly conducted by a handful of well-established methodologies, during the last eight years several authors proposed noteworthy improvements on these methodologies, suggesting new interesting approaches. This review critically outlines the most up-to-date and suitable tools for the analysis and interpretation of fire debris evidence. The survey about analytical tools covers works published in the 2008-2015 period. It includes sources of consensus-classified reference samples, current standard procedures, new proposals for sample extraction and analysis, and the most novel statistical tools. In addition, this review provides relevant knowledge on the distortion effects of the ignitable liquid chemical fingerprints, which have to be considered during interpretation of results.

  2. Parametric Analysis of Cyclic Phase Change and Energy Storage in Solar Heat Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Carsie A., III; Glakpe, Emmanuel K.; Cannon, Joseph N.; Kerslake, Thomas W.

    1997-01-01

    A parametric study on cyclic melting and freezing of an encapsulated phase change material (PCM), integrated into a solar heat receiver, has been performed. The cyclic nature of the present melt/freeze problem is relevant to latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems used to power solar Brayton engines in microgravity environments. Specifically, a physical and numerical model of the solar heat receiver component of NASA Lewis Research Center's Ground Test Demonstration (GTD) project was developed. Multi-conjugate effects such as the convective fluid flow of a low-Prandtl-number fluid, coupled with thermal conduction in the phase change material, containment tube and working fluid conduit were accounted for in the model. A single-band thermal radiation model was also included to quantify reradiative energy exchange inside the receiver and losses through the aperture. The eutectic LiF-CaF2 was used as the phase change material (PCM) and a mixture of He/Xe was used as the working fluid coolant. A modified version of the computer code HOTTube was used to generate results in the two-phase regime. Results indicate that parametric changes in receiver gas inlet temperature and receiver heat input effects higher sensitivity to changes in receiver gas exit temperatures.

  3. A Performance Analysis of Low-Cost GPS Receivers in Kinematic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkan, R. M.; Saka, M. H.

    Low-cost OEM GPS receivers with the capability of tracking the carrier phase are now used for many applications in the navigation and tracking arena. These receivers provide flexibility in applying carrier smoothing algorithms to improve the pseudorange positioning accuracy and even perform carrier-phase differential positioning. In this study, the performance of a low-cost single-frequency OEM GPS receiver for high-accuracy kinematic positioning in marine applications is investigated. As a first step, a set of zero baseline tests were carried out to evaluate the performance of the GPS receivers. In the second stage, a kinematic test was conducted at the Halic (Golden Horn), Istanbul. The results show that kinematic positioning with centimetre level accuracy can be achieved by the low-cost OEM GPS receiver in differential mode, suggesting its use in a variety of kinematic applications. The use of such a system could considerably reduce the cost of the GPS receiver and the total project costs of many applications.

  4. Effects of joint controller on analytical modal analysis of rotational flexible manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Ming; Zhang, Yanheng; Chen, Gang; Sun, Hanxu

    2015-04-01

    Modal analysis is a fundamental and important task for modeling and control of the flexible manipulator. However, almost all of the traditional modal analysis methods view the flexible manipulator as a pure mechanical structure and neglect feedback action of joint controller. In order to study the effects of joint controller on the modal analysis of rotational flexible manipulator, a closed-loop analytical modal analysis method is proposed. Firstly, two exact boundary constraints, namely servo feedback constraint and bending moment constraint, are derived to solve the vibration partial differential equation. It is found that the stiffness and damping gains of joint controller are both included in the boundary conditions, which lead to an unconventional secular term. Secondly, analytical algorithm based on Ritz approach is developed by using Laplace transform and complex modal approach to obtain the natural frequencies and mode shapes. And then, the numerical simulations are performed and the computational results show that joint controller has pronounced influence on the modal parameters: joint controller stiffness reduces the natural frequency, while joint controller damping makes the shape phase non-zero. Furthermore, the validity of the presented conclusion is confirmed through experimental studies. These findings are expected to improve the performance of dynamics simulation systems and model-based controllers.

  5. Improvement of analytical capabilities of neutron activation analysis laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Parrado, G. Cañón, Y.; Peña, M. Sierra, O. Porras, A.; Alonso, D.; Herrera, D. C. Orozco, J.

    2016-07-07

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey has developed a technique for multi-elemental analysis of soil and plant matrices, based on Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using the comparator method. In order to evaluate the analytical capabilities of the technique, the laboratory has been participating in inter-comparison tests organized by Wepal (Wageningen Evaluating Programs for Analytical Laboratories). In this work, the experimental procedure and results for the multi-elemental analysis of four soil and four plant samples during participation in the first round on 2015 of Wepal proficiency test are presented. Only elements with radioactive isotopes with medium and long half-lives have been evaluated, 15 elements for soils (As, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Th, U and Zn) and 7 elements for plants (Br, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Na and Zn). The performance assessment by Wepal based on Z-score distributions showed that most results obtained |Z-scores| ≤ 3.

  6. Improvement of analytical capabilities of neutron activation analysis laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrado, G.; Cañón, Y.; Peña, M.; Sierra, O.; Porras, A.; Alonso, D.; Herrera, D. C.; Orozco, J.

    2016-07-01

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey has developed a technique for multi-elemental analysis of soil and plant matrices, based on Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using the comparator method. In order to evaluate the analytical capabilities of the technique, the laboratory has been participating in inter-comparison tests organized by Wepal (Wageningen Evaluating Programs for Analytical Laboratories). In this work, the experimental procedure and results for the multi-elemental analysis of four soil and four plant samples during participation in the first round on 2015 of Wepal proficiency test are presented. Only elements with radioactive isotopes with medium and long half-lives have been evaluated, 15 elements for soils (As, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Th, U and Zn) and 7 elements for plants (Br, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Na and Zn). The performance assessment by Wepal based on Z-score distributions showed that most results obtained |Z-scores| ≤ 3.

  7. CALUTRON RECEIVER

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, S.W.

    1959-06-16

    An improved receiver and receiver mount for calutrons are described. The receiver can be manipulated from outside the tank by a single control to position it with respect to the beam. A door can be operated exteriorly also to prevent undesired portions of the beam from entering the receiver. The receiver has an improved pocket which is more selective in the ions collected. (T.R.H.)

  8. Metabolomics of medicinal plants: the importance of multivariate analysis of analytical chemistry data.

    PubMed

    Okada, Taketo; Afendi, Farit Mochamad; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Takahashi, Hiroki; Nakamura, Kensuke; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2010-09-01

    Metabolomics, the comprehensive and global analysis of diverse metabolites produced in cells and organisms, has greatly expanded metabolite fingerprinting and profiling as well as the selection and identification of marker metabolites. The methodology typically employs multivariate analysis to statistically process the massive amount of analytical chemistry data resulting from high-throughput and simultaneous metabolite analysis. Although the technology of plant metabolomics has mainly developed with other post-genomics in systems biology and functional genomics, it is independently applied to the evaluation of the qualities of medicinal plants, based on the diversity of metabolite fingerprints resulting from multivariate analysis of non-targeted or widely targeted metabolite analysis. One advantage of applying metabolomics is that medicinal plants are evaluated based not only on the limited number of metabolites that are pharmacologically important chemicals, but also on the fingerprints of minor metabolites and bioactive chemicals. In particular, score plot and loading plot analyses e.g. principal component analysis (PCA), partial-least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and discrimination map analysis such as batch-learning self-organizing map (BL-SOM) analysis, are often employed for the reduction of a metabolite fingerprint and the classification of analyzed samples. Based on recent studies, we now understand that metabolomics can be an effective approach for comprehensive evaluation of the qualities of medicinal plants. In this review, we describe practical cases in which metabolomic study was performed on medicinal plants, and discuss the utility of metabolomics for this research field, with focus on multivariate analysis.

  9. Analytical analysis of borehole experiments for the estimation of subsurface thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscoso Lembcke, Luis G.; Roubinet, Delphine; Gidel, Floriane; Irving, James; Pehme, Peeter; Parker, Beth L.

    2016-05-01

    Estimating subsurface thermal properties is required in many research fields and applications. To this end, borehole experiments such as the thermal response test (TRT) and active-line-source (ALS) method are of significant interest because they allow us to determine thermal property estimates in situ. With these methods, the subsurface thermal conductivity and diffusivity are typically estimated using asymptotic analytical expressions, whose simplifying assumptions have an impact on the accuracy of the values obtained. In this paper, we develop new analytical tools for interpreting borehole thermal experiments, and we use these tools to assess the impact of such assumptions on thermal property estimates. Quite importantly, our results show that the simplifying assumptions of currently used analytical models can result in errors in the estimated thermal conductivity and diffusivity of up to 60% and 40%, respectively. We also show that these errors are more important for short-term analysis and can be reduced with an appropriate choice of experimental duration. Our results demonstrate the need for cautious interpretation of the data collected during TRT and ALS experiments as well as for improvement of the existing in-situ experimental methods.

  10. Analytical methods in sphingolipidomics: Quantitative and profiling approaches in food analysis.

    PubMed

    Canela, Núria; Herrero, Pol; Mariné, Sílvia; Nadal, Pedro; Ras, Maria Rosa; Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Arola, Lluís

    2016-01-08

    In recent years, sphingolipidomics has emerged as an interesting omic science that encompasses the study of the full sphingolipidome characterization, content, structure and activity in cells, tissues or organisms. Like other omics, it has the potential to impact biomarker discovery, drug development and systems biology knowledge. Concretely, dietary food sphingolipids have gained considerable importance due to their extensively reported bioactivity. Because of the complexity of this lipid family and their diversity among foods, powerful analytical methodologies are needed for their study. The analytical tools developed in the past have been improved with the enormous advances made in recent years in mass spectrometry (MS) and chromatography, which allow the convenient and sensitive identification and quantitation of sphingolipid classes and form the basis of current sphingolipidomics methodologies. In addition, novel hyphenated nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) strategies, new ionization strategies, and MS imaging are outlined as promising technologies to shape the future of sphingolipid analyses. This review traces the analytical methods of sphingolipidomics in food analysis concerning sample extraction, chromatographic separation, the identification and quantification of sphingolipids by MS and their structural elucidation by NMR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Transverse plane wave analysis of short elliptical chamber mufflers: An analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimani, A.; Munjal, M. L.

    2011-03-01

    Short elliptical chamber mufflers are used often in the modern day automotive exhaust systems. The acoustic analysis of such short chamber mufflers is facilitated by considering a transverse plane wave propagation model along the major axis up to the low frequency limit. The one dimensional differential equation governing the transverse plane wave propagation in such short chambers is solved using the segmentation approaches which are inherently numerical schemes, wherein the transfer matrix relating the upstream state variables to the downstream variables is obtained. Analytical solution of the transverse plane wave model used to analyze such short chambers has not been reported in the literature so far. This present work is thus an attempt to fill up this lacuna, whereby Frobenius solution of the differential equation governing the transverse plane wave propagation is obtained. By taking a sufficient number of terms of the infinite series, an approximate analytical solution so obtained shows good convergence up to about 1300 Hz and also covers most of the range of muffler dimensions used in practice. The transmission loss (TL) performance of the muffler configurations computed by this analytical approach agrees excellently with that computed by the Matrizant approach used earlier by the authors, thereby offering a faster and more elegant alternate method to analyze short elliptical muffler configurations.

  12. Long-time analytic approximation of large stochastic oscillators: Simulation, analysis and inference

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In order to analyse large complex stochastic dynamical models such as those studied in systems biology there is currently a great need for both analytical tools and also algorithms for accurate and fast simulation and estimation. We present a new stochastic approximation of biological oscillators that addresses these needs. Our method, called phase-corrected LNA (pcLNA) overcomes the main limitations of the standard Linear Noise Approximation (LNA) to remain uniformly accurate for long times, still maintaining the speed and analytically tractability of the LNA. As part of this, we develop analytical expressions for key probability distributions and associated quantities, such as the Fisher Information Matrix and Kullback-Leibler divergence and we introduce a new approach to system-global sensitivity analysis. We also present algorithms for statistical inference and for long-term simulation of oscillating systems that are shown to be as accurate but much faster than leaping algorithms and algorithms for integration of diffusion equations. Stochastic versions of published models of the circadian clock and NF-κB system are used to illustrate our results. PMID:28742083

  13. Long-time analytic approximation of large stochastic oscillators: Simulation, analysis and inference.

    PubMed

    Minas, Giorgos; Rand, David A

    2017-07-01

    In order to analyse large complex stochastic dynamical models such as those studied in systems biology there is currently a great need for both analytical tools and also algorithms for accurate and fast simulation and estimation. We present a new stochastic approximation of biological oscillators that addresses these needs. Our method, called phase-corrected LNA (pcLNA) overcomes the main limitations of the standard Linear Noise Approximation (LNA) to remain uniformly accurate for long times, still maintaining the speed and analytically tractability of the LNA. As part of this, we develop analytical expressions for key probability distributions and associated quantities, such as the Fisher Information Matrix and Kullback-Leibler divergence and we introduce a new approach to system-global sensitivity analysis. We also present algorithms for statistical inference and for long-term simulation of oscillating systems that are shown to be as accurate but much faster than leaping algorithms and algorithms for integration of diffusion equations. Stochastic versions of published models of the circadian clock and NF-κB system are used to illustrate our results.

  14. Determination of Class II and Class III skeletal patterns: receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis on various cephalometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Han, U K; Kim, Y H

    1998-05-01

    Receiver operating characteristic analysis is an excellent method for evaluating and comparing the performance of diagnostic tests. The purpose of this study was to use the receiver operating characteristic analysis to evaluate the diagnostic ability of several cephalometric measurements in determining the presence of Class II and Class III skeletal patterns. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed on 976 cases. Fifteen cephalometric measurements were evaluated. A computer software program ROC ANALYZER was used to tabulate the areas under the curves and to perform the statistical comparison between the curves. The results of this study indicated that the Anteroposterior Dysplasia Indicator had the best diagnostic ability in identifying cases with Class II and Class III skeletal patterns. WITS Appraisal and Overjet were highly effective in diagnosing cases with Class II skeletal pattern. WITS Appraisal, Convexity, AB Plane Angle and Overjet also performed well in diagnosing cases with Class III skeletal pattern.

  15. Techno-economic analysis of receiver replacement scenarios in a parabolic trough field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röger, Marc; Lüpfert, Eckhard; Caron, Simon; Dieckmann, Simon

    2016-05-01

    The heat loss of an evacuated parabolic trough receiver of solar thermal power plants ranges typically between values below 150 and 200 W/m at 350°C. Defects, such as glass breakage by wind events and coating degradation, anti-reflection coating degradation or hydrogen accumulation in the annulus, decrease the annual electricity production. This study examines the effect of different receiver performance loss scenarios on the energetic and economic output of a modern 150-MWel-parabolic trough plant with 7.5-hours molten-salt storage, located in Ma'an, Jordan over the whole lifetime by modeling it in an extended version of the software greenius. Compared to the reference scenario, a wind event in year 5 (10, 15) causing glass envelope breakage and consequential degradation of the selective coating of 5.6% of the receivers reduces the electricity output by 5.1% (3.8%, 2.5%), the net present value is reduced by 36.5% (23.1%, 13.1%). The payback time of receiver replacement is only 0.7 years and hence this measure is recommended. The highest negative impact on performance and net present value of a project has the hydrogen accumulation scenario (50% of field affected) in event year 5 (10,15) reducing net electric output by 10.7% (8.1%, 5.4%) and the net present value by 77.0% (48.7%, 27.6%). Replacement of the receivers or even better an inexpensive repair solution is an energetically and economically sensible solution. The option of investing in premium receivers with Xe-capsule during the construction phase is a viable option if the surplus cost for premium receivers is lower than 10 to 20 percent.

  16. A functional-analytic model of analogy: a relational frame analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ian; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Roche, Bryan; Smeets, Paul M

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore a behavior-analytic model of analogical reasoning, defined as the discrimination of formal similarity via equivalence-equivalence responding. In Experiment 1, adult humans were trained and tested for the formation of four three-member equivalence relations: A1-B1-C1, A2-B2-C2, A3-B3-C3, and A4-B4-C4. The B and C stimuli were three-letter nonsense syllables, and the A stimulus was a colored shape. Subjects were then successfully tested for equivalence-equivalence responding (e.g., matching B1/C1 to B2/C2 rather than B3/C4). These tasks were designed such that equivalence-equivalence responding might allow subjects to discriminate a physical similarity between the relations involved. Some participants (color subjects) received only equivalence-equivalence tasks in which they might discriminate a color relation, whereas others (shape subjects) were given tasks in which they might discriminate a shape relation. A control group received both types of task. In a subsequent test for the discrimination of formal similarity, color subjects matched according to color, shape subjects matched according to shape, and the control group showed no consistent matching pattern. In Experiment 2, adult humans showed a transformation of the functions of a block-sorting task via this basic model of analogy. Empirical and conceptual issues related to these results are discussed. PMID:12507010

  17. A functional-analytic model of analogy: a relational frame analysis.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ian; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Roche, Bryan; Smeets, Paul M

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore a behavior-analytic model of analogical reasoning, defined as the discrimination of formal similarity via equivalence-equivalence responding. In Experiment 1, adult humans were trained and tested for the formation of four three-member equivalence relations: A1-B1-C1, A2-B2-C2, A3-B3-C3, and A4-B4-C4. The B and C stimuli were three-letter nonsense syllables, and the A stimulus was a colored shape. Subjects were then successfully tested for equivalence-equivalence responding (e.g., matching B1/C1 to B2/C2 rather than B3/C4). These tasks were designed such that equivalence-equivalence responding might allow subjects to discriminate a physical similarity between the relations involved. Some participants (color subjects) received only equivalence-equivalence tasks in which they might discriminate a color relation, whereas others (shape subjects) were given tasks in which they might discriminate a shape relation. A control group received both types of task. In a subsequent test for the discrimination of formal similarity, color subjects matched according to color, shape subjects matched according to shape, and the control group showed no consistent matching pattern. In Experiment 2, adult humans showed a transformation of the functions of a block-sorting task via this basic model of analogy. Empirical and conceptual issues related to these results are discussed.

  18. Analysis of two kinds of tree as physical barriers against erythemal UVB radiation received.

    PubMed

    Ysasi, Gonzalo G; Ribera, Luis J C

    2013-01-01

    Differences between global radiation UVER (erythemal ultraviolet solar radiation) received under full sun and diffuse radiation received under the shadow of two types of tree are analyzed to check the importance of these components on human exposure to UV radiation. Blue Line spores dosimeters of VioSpor were used for measurement of erythemal dose of UV radiation (able to produce erythema in human skin.) The response profile of these devices is extremely similar to human skin, thus they are suitable to determine and predict the interactions between UV erythema and human skin. Measurements were obtained in relatively clear days from February to December 2009 between 9:30 and 15:30 h. Three dosimeters were placed on a horizontal surface: one in full sun and the other two under the shadow of each tree. Values of UVER in both cases, in full sun and under the shadow of pine and Sauce, were obtained. In addition, the comparison was made between values of dose received in each case and the exposure limits recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Finally, average daily irradiance received under the shadow of each tree in comparison with those received in full sun, was also analyzed using two PMA2100 radiometers situated on a horizontal surface.

  19. Estimation and analysis of GPS receiver differential code biases using KGN in Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, B. K.; Cho, J. H.; Lee, S. J.

    2011-05-01

    The total electron content (TEC) estimation by the Global Positioning System (GPS) can be seriously affected by the differential code biases (DCB), referred to as inter-frequency biases (IFB), of the satellite and receiver so that an accuracy of GPS-TEC value is dependent on the error of DCBs estimation. In this paper, we proposed the singular value decomposition (SVD) method to estimate the DCB of GPS satellites and receivers using the Korean GPS network (KGN) in South Korea. The receiver DCBs of about 49 GPS reference stations in KGN were determined for the accurate estimation of the regional ionospheric TEC. They obtained from the daily solution have large biases ranging from +5 to +27 ns for geomagnetic quiet days. The receiver DCB of SUWN reference station was compared with the estimates of IGS and JPL global ionosphere map (GIM). The results have shown comparatively good agreement at the level within 0.2 ns. After correction of receiver DCBs and knowing the satellite DCBs, the comparison between the behavior of the estimated TEC and that of GIMs was performed for consecutive three days. We showed that there is a good agreement between KASI model and GIMs.

  20. Preliminary results from receiver function analysis in a seismological network across the Pamir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Felix M.; Yuan, Xiaohui; Sippl, Christan; Schurr, Bernd; Mechie, James; Minaev, Vlad; Oimahmadov, Ilhomjon; Gadoev, Mustafo; Abdybachaev, Ulan A.

    2010-05-01

    The multi-disciplinary TIen Shan-PAmir GEodynamic (TIPAGE) program aims to investigate the dynamics of the orogeny of the Tien Shan and Pamir mountains, which are situated in south Kyrgyzstan and east Tajikistan in Central Asia. Deformation and uplift accompanied by crustal thickening is mainly induced by the collision between the Indian and Eurasian continental plates. As a local feature this collision provides the world's largest active intra-continental subduction zone. Within the framework of the TIPAGE program we operate a temporary seismic array consisting of 32 broadband and 8 short period seismic stations for a period of two years (from 2008 to 2010) covering an area of 300 x 300 km over the main part of the central Pamir plateau and the Alai-range of the southern Tien Shan. In the first year 24 broadband stations were set up in a 350-km long north-south profile geometry from Osh in southern Kyrgyzstan to Zorkul in south-eastern Tajikistan with approximately 15 km station spacing. We perform a receiver function (RF) analysis of converted P and S waves from teleseismic earthquakes at epicentral distances of 35-95 degrees with a minimum magnitude of 5.5. Therefore we decompose their wavefields by rotating the coordinate systems of the recorded seismograms from a N,E,Z into a SH,SV,P system. RFs are isolated by deconvolution of the P-component from the SH- and SV-component. They provide a robust tool to locate discontinuities in wave velocity like the Moho and thus represent the method of choice to determine crustal thickness. First results show a crustal thickness of 70-80km. Xenolith findings from depths of 100km reported by Hacker et al. (2005) give indication for even higher values. The N-S profile geometry will produce a high resolution RF image to map the gross crustal and lithospheric structure. In addition a 2D network with additional 16 stations will enable an investigation of lateral structure variation. We give an introduction to the project and

  1. Receiver operating characteristic analysis for the detection of simulated microcalcifications on mammograms using hardcopy images

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chao-Jen; Shaw, Chris C; Whitman, Gary J; Yang, Wei T; Dempsey, Peter J; Nguyen, Victoria; Ice, Mary F

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare mammography systems based on three different detectors—a conventional screen—film (SF) combination, an a-Si/CsI flat-panel (FP)-based detector, and a charge-coupled device (CCD)-based x-ray phosphor-based detector—for their performance in detecting simulated microcalcifications (MCs). 112–150 μm calcium carbonate grains were used to simulate MCs and were overlapped with a slab phantom of simulated 50% adipose/50% glandular breast tissue-equivalent material referred to as the uniform background. For the tissue structure background, 200–250 μm calcium carbonate grains were used and overlapped with an anthropomorphic breast phantom. All MC phantom images were acquired with and without magnification (1.8X). The hardcopy images were reviewed by five mammographers. A five-point confidence level rating was used to score each detection task. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed, and the areas under the ROC curves (Azs) were used to compare the performances of the three mammography systems under various conditions. The results showed that, with a uniform background and contact images, the FP-based system performed significantly better than the SF and the CCD-based systems. For magnified images with a uniform background, the SF and the FP-based systems performed equally well and significantly better than the CCD-based system. With tissue structure background and contact images, the SF system performed significantly better than the FP and the CCD-based systems. With magnified images and a tissue structure background, the SF and the CCD-based systems performed equally well and significantly better than the FP-based system. In the detection of MCs in the fibroglandular and the heterogeneously dense regions, no significant differences were found except that the SF system performed significantly better than the CCD-based system in the fibroglandular regions for the contact images. (Some figures in this

  2. Analytical modeling of the input admittance of an electric drive for stability analysis purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girinon, S.; Baumann, C.; Piquet, H.; Roux, N.

    2009-07-01

    Embedded electric HVDC distribution network are facing difficult issues on quality and stability concerns. In order to help to resolve those problems, this paper proposes to develop an analytical model of an electric drive. This self-contained model includes an inverter, its regulation loops and the PMSM. After comparing the model with its equivalent (abc) full model, the study focuses on frequency analysis. The association with an input filter helps in expressing stability of the whole assembly by means of Routh-Hurtwitz criterion.

  3. An analytical approach to grid sensitivity analysis. [of NACA wing sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadrehaghighi, Ideen; Smith, Robert E.; Tiwari, Surendra N.

    1992-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis in Computational Fluid Dynamics with emphasis on grids and surface parameterization is described. An interactive algebraic grid-generation technique is employed to generate C-type grids around NACA four-digit wing sections. An analytical procedure is developed for calculating grid sensitivity with respect to design parameters of a wing section. A comparison of the sensitivity with that obtained using a finite-difference approach is made. Grid sensitivity with respect to grid parameters, such as grid-stretching coefficients, are also investigated. Using the resultant grid sensitivity, aerodynamic sensitivity is obtained using the compressible two-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations.

  4. An analytical approach to grid sensitivity analysis for NACA four-digit wing sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadrehaghighi, I.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1992-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis in computational fluid dynamics with emphasis on grids and surface parameterization is described. An interactive algebraic grid-generation technique is employed to generate C-type grids around NACA four-digit wing sections. An analytical procedure is developed for calculating grid sensitivity with respect to design parameters of a wing section. A comparison of the sensitivity with that obtained using a finite difference approach is made. Grid sensitivity with respect to grid parameters, such as grid-stretching coefficients, are also investigated. Using the resultant grid sensitivity, aerodynamic sensitivity is obtained using the compressible two-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations.

  5. Algal Biomass Analysis by Laser-Based Analytical Techniques—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pořízka, Pavel; Prochazková, Petra; Prochazka, David; Sládková, Lucia; Novotný, Jan; Petrilak, Michal; Brada, Michal; Samek, Ota; Pilát, Zdeněk; Zemánek, Pavel; Adam, Vojtěch; Kizek, René; Novotný, Karel; Kaiser, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    Algal biomass that is represented mainly by commercially grown algal strains has recently found many potential applications in various fields of interest. Its utilization has been found advantageous in the fields of bioremediation, biofuel production and the food industry. This paper reviews recent developments in the analysis of algal biomass with the main focus on the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and partly Laser-Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma techniques. The advantages of the selected laser-based analytical techniques are revealed and their fields of use are discussed in detail. PMID:25251409

  6. A Numerical and Analytic Analysis of Nonlinear Implicit Differential Equations Arising in Control and Circuit Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-15

    This research project was to develop methods for the numerical and analytic analysis of implicit systems of differential equations, (DAE)- F(x’, z ,t...0 (1) which are not equivalent to an explicit ordinary differential equation (ODE), (ODE) z ’ = G( z , t) (2) That is, the Jacobian Fe of (1) is...structure theorems and a general numerical procedure for the linear time varying DAE E(t)w’(t) + F(t) z (t) = f(t) (3) This numerical algorithm was the

  7. Selection of analytical methods for mixed waste analysis at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Morant, P.M.

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the process that the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) and contractor laboratories use to select appropriate or develop new or modified analytical methods. These methods are needed to provide reliable mixed waste characterization data that meet project-specific quality assurance (QA) requirements while also meeting health and safety standards for handling radioactive materials. This process will provide the technical basis for DOE`s analysis of mixed waste and support requests for regulatory approval of these new methods when they are used to satisfy the regulatory requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1992).

  8. A Symbolic Formulation for Analytical Compliance Analysis and Synthesis of Flexure Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Su, Hai-Jun; Shi, Hongliang; Yu, Jingjun

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents a symbolic formulation for analytical compliance analysis and synthesis of flexure mechanisms with serial, parallel, or hybrid topologies. Our approach is based on the screw theory that characterizes flexure deformations with motion twists and loadings with force wrenches. In this work, we first derive a symbolic formulation of the compliance and stiffness matrices for commonly used flexure elements, flexure joints, and simple chains. Elements of these matrices are all explicit functions of flexure parameters. To analyze a general flexure mechanism, we subdivide it into multiple structural modules, which we identify as serial, parallel, or hybrid chains. We then analyze each module with the known flexure structures in the library. At last, we use a bottom-up approach to obtain the compliance/stiffness matrix for the overall mechanism. This is done by taking appropriate coordinate transformation of twists and wrenches in space. Four practical examples are provided to demonstrate the approach. A numerical example is employed to compare analytical compliance models against a finite element model. The results show that the errors are sufficiently small (2%, compared with finite element (FE) model), if the range of motion is limited to linear deformations. This work provides a systematical approach for compliance analysis and synthesis of general flexure mechanisms. The symbolic formulation enables subsequent design tasks, such as compliance synthesis or sensitivity analysis.

  9. An analytic solution of projectile motion with the quadratic resistance law using the homotopy analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabushita, Kazuki; Yamashita, Mariko; Tsuboi, Kazuhiro

    2007-07-01

    We consider the problem of two-dimensional projectile motion in which the resistance acting on an object moving in air is proportional to the square of the velocity of the object (quadratic resistance law). It is well known that the quadratic resistance law is valid in the range of the Reynolds number: 1 × 103 ~ 2 × 105 (for instance, a sphere) for practical situations, such as throwing a ball. It has been considered that the equations of motion of this case are unsolvable for a general projectile angle, although some solutions have been obtained for a small projectile angle using perturbation techniques. To obtain a general analytic solution, we apply Liao's homotopy analysis method to this problem. The homotopy analysis method, which is different from a perturbation technique, can be applied to a problem which does not include small parameters. We apply the homotopy analysis method for not only governing differential equations, but also an algebraic equation of a velocity vector to extend the radius of convergence. Ultimately, we obtain the analytic solution to this problem and investigate the validation of the solution.

  10. Experiments and analysis on the molten-salt direct-contact absorption receiver concept

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, M S; Wang, K Y

    1986-11-01

    This paper presents results of recent experiments on the Direct Absorption Receiver (DAR) concept using molten salt as the working fluid. The DAR concept may result in a solar central receiver that costs 50% less than the current tube receiver and has significantly lower operational and maintenance costs. These experiments were aimed at determining whether the DAR concept is technically feasible and were carried out at the Advanced Components Test Facility, Atlanta, GA. Results are based on several days of operating with solar flux ranging up to 50 W/cm/sup 2/ and also on a numerical model that is capable of predicting the thermal performance of the DAR salt film. Issues relating to thermal efficiency, absorber-to-salt heat transfer, and salt film stability are addressed.

  11. Utility of the summation chromatographic peak integration function to avoid manual reintegrations in the analysis of targeted analytes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As sample preparation and analytical techniques have improved, data handling has become the main limitation in automated high-throughput analysis of targeted chemicals in many applications. Conventional chromatographic peak integration functions rely on complex software and settings, but untrustwor...

  12. Analysis of 10B by PIGE with factor analytical gamma-ray peak identification.

    PubMed

    Savolainen, S; Räisänen, J; Eteläniemi, V; Abo Ramadan, U A; Kallio, M

    1995-09-01

    Studying the biodistribution of boronated compounds for B neutron capture therapy (BNCT) requires the accurate detection of low levels of boron (10B) in biological samples. Proton induced gamma-ray emission analysis (PIGE) of 10B was found to be viable in a study of low density lipoprotein (LDL), in tissue and blood samples. However, the method is sensitive to Na present in the samples and can therefore not be used for accurate measurements of 10B concentrations below 5 ppm in samples containing Na. PIGE can be considered to be an appropriate reference method for chemical B analysis. The factor analytical method presented here is the most objective way to separate Na and B peaks from each other, and the factorizing method can be applied in different forms of spectral analysis.

  13. Receiver Performance Analysis of a Multi-wavelength Sampling Integrated Path Differential Absorption CO2 Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X.; Abshire, J. B.; Ramanathan, A. K.; Mao, J.; Kawa, S. R.

    2016-12-01

    A multi-wavelength sampling integrated path differential (IPDA) CO2 lidar is analyzed and modeled. The instrument transmits laser pulses at a series of wavelengths across the 1572.33 nm CO2 absorption line. The receiver measures the received laser pulse energy and time of flight at each wavelength. The measurements are then fit to a CO2 absorption line shape to determine the total column CO2 mixing ratio. The receiver model includes effects of solar background, photon detection shot noise, detector dark current, preamplifier noise and laser speckle noise. The least-square curve fit is a linear fit in the optical depth domain and the logarithm of the raw measurements. The column CO2 mixing ratio is proportional to the scaling factor resulted from the curve fit. There are several advantages to performing the curve fit in the optical depth domain: (a) the result is directly proportional to the CO2molecule number density of the column; (b) it is a standard linear least square error fit where the theory is well established; (c) there is no need to separately estimate the off-line optical transmission. The receiver model further gives insight about the effects of various instrument parameters and the difference between the atmosphere model used in the curve fit and the actual atmosphere. For example, we can use the model to estimate the biases in the retrieved CO2 mixing ratio from small errors in the meteorological data used to generate the line shape used in the curve fit. We have shown that the estimated instrument performance using this receiver model agrees with the results from our recent airborne measurements. The receiver model is also used in the simulation of the impact of the lidar measurements of the global greenhouse gas distribution and their projected impact on quantification of surface sources and sinks.

  14. Beam-formed Receiver Function Analysis From the Southern Sierra Nevada, CA: A Moho Hole??

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levandowski, W.

    2007-05-01

    Single station receiver functions in the southern Sierra Nevada, California, USA show considerable variation in Moho conversion intensity. Specifically, in the range's western foothills, a region termed "the Moho Hole" (e.g. Zandt et al, 2004), the Moho appears to be completely absent on single station receiver functions. I explore the possibility that signal-generated reverberations have sufficiently obscured the seismograms to disguise a Moho P-S conversion. Using data from the 1997 Sierra Paradox Experiment, seismograms from 3 stations spaced ~20 km apart are slant-stacked to make the radial, transverse, and vertical components used in deconvolution. By stacking before deconvolution, signals from the Moho and intra-crustal discontinuities become more pronounced while reflections off of structure near individual receivers destructively interfere with one another. Receiver functions for these 3 station beams compare favorably with post-deconvolution stacking of the receiver functions calculation of their constituent stations. Of paramount interest is the use of this technique in the region interpreted as the "Moho Hole". Here, beam formed receiver functions better constrain the extent and geometry of the small amplitude Moho conversion than previous studies. In fact it seems that this region is part of a larger- scale (~100 km) west-northwestward trend of weakening P-S signal. This dimming is spatially correlated with a thickening crust, seen in increasing P to P-S lag times. I propose that the features are cogenetic: products of long-wavelength crutal down-flexure as the result of viscous coupling to downwelling delaminated lower lithosphere. Investigating this response is important to understanding the mechanism and kinematics of Sierran uplift and the response of upper crustal material to delamination events.

  15. Analytical Services Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Church, Shane; Nigbor, Mike; Hillman, Daniel

    2005-03-30

    Analytical Services Management System (ASMS) provides sample management services. Sample management includes sample planning for analytical requests, sample tracking for shipping and receiving by the laboratory, receipt of the analytical data deliverable, processing the deliverable and payment of the laboratory conducting the analyses. ASMS is a web based application that provides the ability to manage these activities at multiple locations for different customers. ASMS provides for the assignment of single to multiple samples for standard chemical and radiochemical analyses. ASMS is a flexible system which allows the users to request analyses by line item code. Line item codes are selected based on the Basic Ordering Agreement (BOA) format for contracting with participating laboratories. ASMS also allows contracting with non-BOA laboratories using a similar line item code contracting format for their services. ASMS allows sample and analysis tracking from sample planning and collection in the field through sample shipment, laboratory sample receipt, laboratory analysis and submittal of the requested analyses, electronic data transfer, and payment of the laboratories for the completed analyses. The software when in operation contains business sensitive material that is used as a principal portion of the Kaiser Analytical Management Services business model. The software version provided is the most recent version, however the copy of the application does not contain business sensitive data from the associated Oracle tables such as contract information or price per line item code.

  16. CALUTRON RECEIVER

    DOEpatents

    Brunk, W.O.

    1959-09-29

    A description is given for an improved calutron receiver having a face plate lying at an angle to the direction of the entering ion beams but having an opening, the plane of which is substantially perpendicular to that of the entering ion beams. By so positioning the opening in the receiver, the effective area through which the desired material may enter the receiver is increased, and at the same time the effective area through which containattng material may enter the receiver is reduced.

  17. Perturbation and Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Acoustic Phonatory Signal in Parkinsonian Patients Receiving Deep Brain Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Victoria S.; Zhou, Xiao Ping; Rahn, Douglas A., III; Wang, Emily Q.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2008-01-01

    Nineteen PD patients who received deep brain stimulation (DBS), 10 non-surgical (control) PD patients, and 11 non-pathologic age- and gender-matched subjects performed sustained vowel phonations. The following acoustic measures were obtained on the sustained vowel phonations: correlation dimension (D[subscript 2]), percent jitter, percent shimmer,…

  18. Exact analysis of a balanced receiver for differential phase-shift keying signals.

    PubMed

    Ho, Keang-Po

    2007-03-01

    The performance of differential phase-shift keying signals with a balanced receiver is exactly analyzed by using a closed-form expression without approximation. The numerical results are well matched with previous results based on the saddle-point approximation. The error probability is calculated exactly using the well-known Marcum Q function.

  19. Performance Analysis of Optical CDMA Systems Utilizing Optical Encoding in Presence of Interference and Receiver Noises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbagh, Abbasali Ghorban; Kakhki, Mohammad Molavi

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, performance of incoherent and asynchronous optical CDMA (OCDMA) systems employing “optical encoding” is investigated and the results are compared with the results obtained when the encoding is performed in electrical domain. These investigations are performed for receiver structures that employ a single hard limiter (SHL), a double optical hard limiter (DHL) and also for the structures without a hard limiter (WHL). In addition, “electrical encoding” OCDMA systems using DHL in their receiver structures are investigated. In this work, conventional optical orthogonal codes are used and Gaussian approximation is assumed for the output of APD. Besides interference, other destructive effects such as APD and thermal noises are also taken into account. It is shown that when the number of users N is equal to or greater than pulsed laser's modulation extinction ratio Me , for all receiver structures (SHL, DHL and WHL) “optical encoding” systems are superior to their “electrical encoding” counterparts and this superiority becomes much more apparent in SHL and DHL receivers. We will also show that when N < Me , “optical encoding” WHL systems outperform their “electrical encoding” counterparts. Our results also indicate that the performance of “optical encoding” SHL systems approaches the performance of DHL systems as the transmitted power increases.

  20. Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis of Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Scores in Epilepsy Surgery Candidates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, William B.

    1997-01-01

    Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) scores were analyzed for 82 epilepsy surgery candidates and used in combination with receiver operating characteristic curves to classify patients with left (LTL) and right (RTL) temporal lobe seizure onset. Results indicate that WMS-R scores used alone or in combination provide relatively poor discrimination…

  1. Perturbation and Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Acoustic Phonatory Signal in Parkinsonian Patients Receiving Deep Brain Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Victoria S.; Zhou, Xiao Ping; Rahn, Douglas A., III; Wang, Emily Q.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2008-01-01

    Nineteen PD patients who received deep brain stimulation (DBS), 10 non-surgical (control) PD patients, and 11 non-pathologic age- and gender-matched subjects performed sustained vowel phonations. The following acoustic measures were obtained on the sustained vowel phonations: correlation dimension (D[subscript 2]), percent jitter, percent shimmer,…

  2. Two-condition within-participant statistical mediation analysis: A path-analytic framework.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Amanda K; Hayes, Andrew F

    2017-03-01

    Researchers interested in testing mediation often use designs where participants are measured on a dependent variable Y and a mediator M in both of 2 different circumstances. The dominant approach to assessing mediation in such a design, proposed by Judd, Kenny, and McClelland (2001), relies on a series of hypothesis tests about components of the mediation model and is not based on an estimate of or formal inference about the indirect effect. In this article we recast Judd et al.'s approach in the path-analytic framework that is now commonly used in between-participant mediation analysis. By so doing, it is apparent how to estimate the indirect effect of a within-participant manipulation on some outcome through a mediator as the product of paths of influence. This path-analytic approach eliminates the need for discrete hypothesis tests about components of the model to support a claim of mediation, as Judd et al.'s method requires, because it relies only on an inference about the product of paths-the indirect effect. We generalize methods of inference for the indirect effect widely used in between-participant designs to this within-participant version of mediation analysis, including bootstrap confidence intervals and Monte Carlo confidence intervals. Using this path-analytic approach, we extend the method to models with multiple mediators operating in parallel and serially and discuss the comparison of indirect effects in these more complex models. We offer macros and code for SPSS, SAS, and Mplus that conduct these analyses. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Low-Cost GNSS Receivers for Local Monitoring: Experimental Simulation, and Analysis of Displacements.

    PubMed

    Biagi, Ludovico; Grec, Florin Cătălin; Negretti, Marco

    2016-12-15

    The geodetic monitoring of local displacements and deformations is often needed for civil engineering structures and natural phenomena like, for example, landslides. A local permanent GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) network can be installed: receiver positions in the interest area are estimated and monitored with respect to reference stations. Usually, GNSS geodetic receivers are adopted and provide results with accuracies at the millimeter level: however, they are very expensive and the initial cost and the risk of damage and loss can discourage this approach. In this paper the accuracy and the reliability of low-cost u-blox GNSS receivers are experimentally investigated for local monitoring. Two experiments are analyzed. In the first, a baseline (65 m long) between one geodetic reference receiver and one u-blox is continuously observed for one week: the data are processed by hourly sessions and the results provide comparisons between two processing packages and a preliminary accuracy assessment. Then, a network composed of one geodetic and two u-blox receivers is set up. One u-blox is installed on a device (slide) that allows to apply controlled displacements. The geodetic and the other u-blox (at about 130 m) act as references. The experiment lasts about two weeks. The data are again processed by hourly sessions. The estimated displacements of the u-blox on the slide are analyzed and compared with the imposed displacements. All of the results are encouraging: in the first experiment the standard deviations of the residuals are smaller than 5 mm both in the horizontal and vertical; in the second, they are slightly worse but still satisfactory (5 mm in the horizontal and 13 mm in vertical) and the imposed displacements are almost correctly identified.

  4. Low-Cost GNSS Receivers for Local Monitoring: Experimental Simulation, and Analysis of Displacements

    PubMed Central

    Biagi, Ludovico; Grec, Florin Cătălin; Negretti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The geodetic monitoring of local displacements and deformations is often needed for civil engineering structures and natural phenomena like, for example, landslides. A local permanent GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) network can be installed: receiver positions in the interest area are estimated and monitored with respect to reference stations. Usually, GNSS geodetic receivers are adopted and provide results with accuracies at the millimeter level: however, they are very expensive and the initial cost and the risk of damage and loss can discourage this approach. In this paper the accuracy and the reliability of low-cost u-blox GNSS receivers are experimentally investigated for local monitoring. Two experiments are analyzed. In the first, a baseline (65 m long) between one geodetic reference receiver and one u-blox is continuously observed for one week: the data are processed by hourly sessions and the results provide comparisons between two processing packages and a preliminary accuracy assessment. Then, a network composed of one geodetic and two u-blox receivers is set up. One u-blox is installed on a device (slide) that allows to apply controlled displacements. The geodetic and the other u-blox (at about 130 m) act as references. The experiment lasts about two weeks. The data are again processed by hourly sessions. The estimated displacements of the u-blox on the slide are analyzed and compared with the imposed displacements. All of the results are encouraging: in the first experiment the standard deviations of the residuals are smaller than 5 mm both in the horizontal and vertical; in the second, they are slightly worse but still satisfactory (5 mm in the horizontal and 13 mm in vertical) and the imposed displacements are almost correctly identified. PMID:27983707

  5. Visual analytics for multimodal social network analysis: a design study with social scientists.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Sohaib; Kwon, Bum Chul; Lee, Seungyoon; Yi, Ji Soo; Elmqvist, Niklas

    2013-12-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) is becoming increasingly concerned not only with actors and their relations, but also with distinguishing between different types of such entities. For example, social scientists may want to investigate asymmetric relations in organizations with strict chains of command, or incorporate non-actors such as conferences and projects when analyzing coauthorship patterns. Multimodal social networks are those where actors and relations belong to different types, or modes, and multimodal social network analysis (mSNA) is accordingly SNA for such networks. In this paper, we present a design study that we conducted with several social scientist collaborators on how to support mSNA using visual analytics tools. Based on an openended, formative design process, we devised a visual representation called parallel node-link bands (PNLBs) that splits modes into separate bands and renders connections between adjacent ones, similar to the list view in Jigsaw. We then used the tool in a qualitative evaluation involving five social scientists whose feedback informed a second design phase that incorporated additional network metrics. Finally, we conducted a second qualitative evaluation with our social scientist collaborators that provided further insights on the utility of the PNLBs representation and the potential of visual analytics for mSNA.

  6. Photoacoustic spectrum analysis for microstructure characterization in biological tissue: analytical model.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guan; Fowlkes, J Brian; Tao, Chao; Liu, Xiaojun; Wang, Xueding

    2015-05-01

    Photoacoustic spectrum (PA) analysis (PASA) has been found to have the ability to identify the microstructures in phantoms and biological tissues. PASA adopts the procedures in ultrasound spectrum analysis, although the signal generation mechanisms related to ultrasound backscatter and PA wave generation differ. The purpose of this study was to theoretically validate PASA. The analytical solution to the power spectrum of PA signals generated by identical microspheres following discrete uniform random distribution in space was derived. The simulation and experiment validation of the analytical solution include: (i) the power spectrum profile of a single microsphere with a diameter of 300 μm, and (ii) the PASA parameters of the PA signals generated by randomly distributed microspheres 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 μm in diameter, at concentrations of 30, 60, 120, 240, 480 per 1.5(3) cm(3) in the observation range 0.5-13 MHz. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Analytical quality assurance in veterinary drug residue analysis methods: matrix effects determination and monitoring for sulfonamides analysis.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Rodrigo Barcellos; Rübensam, Gabriel; Jank, Louise; Barreto, Fabiano; Peralba, Maria do Carmo Ruaro; Pizzolato, Tânia Mara; Silvia Díaz-Cruz, M; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-01

    In residue analysis of veterinary drugs in foodstuff, matrix effects are one of the most critical points. This work present a discuss considering approaches used to estimate, minimize and monitoring matrix effects in bioanalytical methods. Qualitative and quantitative methods for estimation of matrix effects such as post-column infusion, slopes ratios analysis, calibration curves (mathematical and statistical analysis) and control chart monitoring are discussed using real data. Matrix effects varying in a wide range depending of the analyte and the sample preparation method: pressurized liquid extraction for liver samples show matrix effects from 15.5 to 59.2% while a ultrasound-assisted extraction provide values from 21.7 to 64.3%. The matrix influence was also evaluated: for sulfamethazine analysis, losses of signal were varying from -37 to -96% for fish and eggs, respectively. Advantages and drawbacks are also discussed considering a workflow for matrix effects assessment proposed and applied to real data from sulfonamides residues analysis.

  8. CALUTRON RECEIVER

    DOEpatents

    York, H.F.

    1959-07-01

    A receiver construction is presented for calutrons having two or more ion sources and an individual receiver unit for each source. Design requirements dictate that the face plate defining the receiver entrance slots be placed at an angle to the approaching beam, which means that ions striking the face plate are likely to be scattcred into the entrance slots of other receivers. According to the present invention, the face plate has a surface provided with parallel ridges so disposed that one side only of each ridge's exposed directly to the ion beam. The scattered ions are directed away from adjacent receivers by the ridges on the lace plate.

  9. A national analytical quality assurance program: Developing guidelines and analytical tools for the forest inventory and analysis program

    Treesearch

    Phyllis C. Adams; Glenn A. Christensen

    2012-01-01

    A rigorous quality assurance (QA) process assures that the data and information provided by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program meet the highest possible standards of precision, completeness, representativeness, comparability, and accuracy. FIA relies on its analysts to check the final data quality prior to release of a State’s data to the national FIA...

  10. Setting Cut Scores on an EFL Placement Test Using the Prototype Group Method: A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckes, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to standard setting that combines the prototype group method (PGM; Eckes, 2012) with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The combined PGM-ROC approach is applied to setting cut scores on a placement test of English as a foreign language (EFL). To implement the PGM, experts first named learners whom…

  11. Assessing the Classification Accuracy of Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measures Using Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laracy, Seth D.; Hojnoski, Robin L.; Dever, Bridget V.

    2016-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to investigate the ability of early numeracy curriculum-based measures (EN-CBM) administered in preschool to predict performance below the 25th and 40th percentiles on a quantity discrimination measure in kindergarten. Areas under the curve derived from a sample of 279 students ranged…

  12. Prediction Accuracy of the Washington and Illinois Risk Assessment Instruments: An Application of Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camasso, Michael J.; Jagannathan, Radha

    1995-01-01

    Compares the predictive performances of the Illinois CANTS 17B and the Washington State Risk Matrix on a sample of New Jersey child protective services cases using logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Both instruments predict case recidivism, closings, and substantiation with probabilities greater than chance.…

  13. Assessing the Classification Accuracy of Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measures Using Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laracy, Seth D.; Hojnoski, Robin L.; Dever, Bridget V.

    2016-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to investigate the ability of early numeracy curriculum-based measures (EN-CBM) administered in preschool to predict performance below the 25th and 40th percentiles on a quantity discrimination measure in kindergarten. Areas under the curve derived from a sample of 279 students ranged…

  14. Screening for Depressive Disorders Using the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire Anhedonic Depression Scale: A Receiver-Operating Characteristic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredemeier, Keith; Spielberg, Jeffery M.; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Berenbaum, Howard; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the utility of the anhedonic depression scale from the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-AD scale) as a way to screen for depressive disorders. Using receiver-operating characteristic analysis, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of the full 22-item MASQ-AD scale, as well as the 8- and 14-item…

  15. Analytical thresholds and sensitivity: establishing RFU thresholds for forensic DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Bregu, Joli; Conklin, Danielle; Coronado, Elisse; Terrill, Margaret; Cotton, Robin W; Grgicak, Catherine M

    2013-01-01

    Determining appropriate analytical thresholds (ATs) for forensic DNA analysis is critical to maximize allele detection. In this study, six methods to determine ATs for forensic DNA purposes were examined and compared. Four of the methods rely on analysis of the baseline noise of a number of negatives, while two utilize the relationship between relative fluorescence unit signal and DNA input in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) derived from a dilution series ranging from 1 to 0.06 ng. Results showed that when a substantial mass of DNA (i.e., >1 ng) was amplified, the baseline noise increased, suggesting the application of an AT derived from negatives should only be applied to samples with low levels of DNA. Further, the number and intensity of these noise peaks increased with increasing injection times, indicating that to maximize the ability to detect alleles, ATs should be validated for each post-PCR procedure employed.

  16. DDN: a caBIG® analytical tool for differential network analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bai; Tian, Ye; Jin, Lu; Li, Huai; Shih, Ie-Ming; Madhavan, Subha; Clarke, Robert; Hoffman, Eric P; Xuan, Jianhua; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena; Wang, Yue

    2011-04-01

    Differential dependency network (DDN) is a caBIG® (cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid) analytical tool for detecting and visualizing statistically significant topological changes in transcriptional networks representing two biological conditions. Developed under caBIG®'s In Silico Research Centers of Excellence (ISRCE) Program, DDN enables differential network analysis and provides an alternative way for defining network biomarkers predictive of phenotypes. DDN also serves as a useful systems biology tool for users across biomedical research communities to infer how genetic, epigenetic or environment variables may affect biological networks and clinical phenotypes. Besides the standalone Java application, we have also developed a Cytoscape plug-in, CytoDDN, to integrate network analysis and visualization seamlessly. The Java and MATLAB source code can be downloaded at the authors' web site http://www.cbil.ece.vt.edu/software.htm.

  17. Analysis of heterogeneity in molecular weight and shape by analytical ultracentrifugation using parallel distributed computing.

    PubMed

    Demeler, Borries; Brookes, Emre; Nagel-Steger, Luitgard

    2009-01-01

    A computational approach for fitting sedimentation velocity experiments from an analytical ultracentrifuge in a model-independent fashion is presented. This chapter offers a recipe for obtaining high-resolution information for both the shape and the molecular weight distributions of complex mixtures that are heterogeneous in shape and molecular weight and provides suggestions for experimental design to optimize information content. A combination of three methods is used to find the solution most parsimonious in parameters and to verify the statistical confidence intervals of the determined parameters. A supercomputer implementation with a MySQL database back end is integrated into the UltraScan analysis software. The UltraScan LIMS Web portal is used to perform the calculations through a Web interface. The performance and limitations of the method when employed for the analysis of complex mixtures are demonstrated using both simulated data and experimental data characterizing amyloid aggregation.

  18. Lithospheric thickness estimation beneath Northwestern South America from an S-wave receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, J. Faustino; Vargas, Carlos A.; Monsalve, Gaspar

    2017-04-01

    We make use of the S-to-P receiver function technique beneath Colombia and neighboring regions to make a first-order approximation of the depth of the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary (LAB) and, therefore, of lithospheric thickness. A deconvolution technique was used to calculate the receiver functions, and after a moveout correction and a time-depth conversion, LAB depths for different tectonic regions of northwestern South America were obtained. Results are typically between 65 and 110 km, consistent with previous estimates around the world and other regions in South America. Lithospheric thickness beneath an oceanic island in the Caribbean is ˜80 km, whereas for the Ecuador-Colombia Trench it is ˜65 km, and around 100 km for the Panama Arc. The transition to the continent is associated with an increase in LAB depth, where it can reach ˜110 km, with no significant differences among terranes and/or tectonic blocks.

  19. GNSS software receiver sampling noise and clock jitter performance and impact analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian Yun; Feng, XuZhe; Li, XianBin; Wu, GuangYao

    2015-02-01

    In the design of a multi-frequency multi-constellation GNSS software defined radio receivers is becoming more and more popular due to its simple architecture, flexible configuration and good coherence in multi-frequency signal processing. It plays an important role in navigation signal processing and signal quality monitoring. In particular, GNSS software defined radio receivers driving the sampling clock of analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) by FPGA implies that a more flexible radio transceiver design is possible. According to the concept of software defined radio (SDR), the ideal is to digitize as close to the antenna as possible. Whereas the carrier frequency of GNSS signal is of the frequency of GHz, converting at this frequency is expensive and consumes more power. Band sampling method is a cheaper, more effective alternative. When using band sampling method, it is possible to sample a RF signal at twice the bandwidth of the signal. Unfortunately, as the other side of the coin, the introduction of SDR concept and band sampling method induce negative influence on the performance of the GNSS receivers. ADC's suffer larger sampling clock jitter generated by FPGA; and low sampling frequency introduces more noise to the receiver. Then the influence of sampling noise cannot be neglected. The paper analyzes the sampling noise, presents its influence on the carrier noise ratio, and derives the ranging error by calculating the synchronization error of the delay locked loop. Simulations aiming at each impact factors of sampling-noise-induced ranging error are performed. Simulation and experiment results show that if the target ranging accuracy is at the level of centimeter, the quantization length should be no less than 8 and the sampling clock jitter should not exceed 30ps.

  20. Solar power satellite rectenna design study: Directional receiving elements and parallel-series combining analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutmann, R. J.; Borrego, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Rectenna conversion efficiencies (RF to dc) approximating 85 percent were demonstrated on a small scale, clearly indicating the feasibility and potential of efficiency of microwave power to dc. The overall cost estimates of the solar power satellite indicate that the baseline rectenna subsystem will be between 25 to 40 percent of the system cost. The directional receiving elements and element extensions were studied, along with power combining evaluation and evaluation extensions.

  1. Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks with Receiver Multipacket Reception: Performance Analysis and Signal Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    estimation and symbol detection algorithms are developed for long code wide-band CDMA systems , including systems with multirate and multicode...CDMA systems . If the spreading codes have good cross- and auto-correlation properties, the matched filter front- end suppresses multiaccess...selective fading, however, code orthogonality can not be guaranteed, and the conventional RAKE receiver that uses a bank of matched filters may perform

  2. Analysis of the Mantle Transition Zone beneath West Antarctica using P-wave receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emry, E.; Nyblade, A.; Julia, J.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Aster, R. C.; Wiens, D. A.; Huerta, A. D.; Wilson, T. J.

    2013-12-01

    Several exposed, sub-glacial, and submarine volcanoes exist throughout West Antarctica in the vicinity of the West Antarctic Rift System; prior work has suggested that a mantle plume beneath the region influences the observed rifting and volcanism. However the existence of a mantle plume has not been verified, because models from recent seismic tomography results are not well resolved at mantle transition zone depths. We use P-wave receiver functions (PRFs) from all Antarctic seismic stations installed at sites above less than 1 km of ice, including recent 2007-2012 Antarctic POLENET, permanent GSN, and the 2000-2003 TAMSEIS seismographs to explore the depth to and the thickness of the mantle transition zone beneath West Antarctica. We calculate PRFs for all earthquakes occurring at 30-90° with Mb>5.5 using a time-domain iterative deconvolution method filtered using a Gaussian-width factor of 0.5, corresponding to frequencies less than ~0.24 Hz. Using this method, we check stability of the deconvolution by convolving the vertical component with the final radial receiver function, rejecting all receiver functions that did not recover at least 80% of the original trace. Maps showing Ps pierce-points cover most of West Antarctica and the Transantarctic Mountains, with particularly good coverage beneath Marie Byrd Land and the region around Ross Island. Preliminary results for P receiver functions stacked by station and migrated to depth using the ak135 1-d velocity model indicate a depressed 410' discontinuity beneath West Antarctica; beneath the Transantarctic and East Antarctic sites, the 410' is not depressed. However, no clear depth patterns are observed for the 660' discontinuity throughout West Antarctica; at several West Antarctic sites, the 660' may even be depressed slightly. Additional work using common conversion point (CCP) stacking will enable us to more clearly map the depth of the 410' and 660' and to identify spatial variations in mantle transition

  3. Analysis and Simulation of Disadvantaged Receivers for Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Communications Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    47 Figure 23. Simulated BER performance of a 2x2 MIMO-OFDM system with Alamouti space-time coding and 16 QAM modulation ...Spectral Density xiv PDF Probability Density Function QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation QPSK Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying RF Radio...of possible received symbols in a given modulation scheme (i.e., M- QAM ). It is clear that this will significantly reduce computational time

  4. Designing Progressive and Interactive Analytics Processes for High-Dimensional Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Turkay, Cagatay; Kaya, Erdem; Balcisoy, Selim; Hauser, Helwig

    2017-01-01

    In interactive data analysis processes, the dialogue between the human and the computer is the enabling mechanism that can lead to actionable observations about the phenomena being investigated. It is of paramount importance that this dialogue is not interrupted by slow computational mechanisms that do not consider any known temporal human-computer interaction characteristics that prioritize the perceptual and cognitive capabilities of the users. In cases where the analysis involves an integrated computational method, for instance to reduce the dimensionality of the data or to perform clustering, such non-optimal processes are often likely. To remedy this, progressive computations, where results are iteratively improved, are getting increasing interest in visual analytics. In this paper, we present techniques and design considerations to incorporate progressive methods within interactive analysis processes that involve high-dimensional data. We define methodologies to facilitate processes that adhere to the perceptual characteristics of users and describe how online algorithms can be incorporated within these. A set of design recommendations and according methods to support analysts in accomplishing high-dimensional data analysis tasks are then presented. Our arguments and decisions here are informed by observations gathered over a series of analysis sessions with analysts from finance. We document observations and recommendations from this study and present evidence on how our approach contribute to the efficiency and productivity of interactive visual analysis sessions involving high-dimensional data.

  5. Second law analysis and optimization of a parabolic trough receiver tube for direct steam generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolte, H. C.; Bello-Ochende, T.; Meyer, J. P.

    2015-06-01

    Entropy generation in the receiver tube of a parabolic trough solar collector can mainly be attributed to the fluid friction and finite temperature differences. The contribution of each of these components is investigated under different circumstances. Mass flow rates, tube diameters and operating pressures are investigated to obtain good guidelines for receiver tube and plant design. Operating pressures between 3 MPa (saturation temperature of 233.9 °C) and 9 MPa (saturation temperature of 303.3 °C) were investigated. Results show that small diameters can result in excessive fluid friction, especially when the mass flow rates are high. For most cases, tube diameters beyond 20 mm will exclusively be subject to entropy generation due to finite temperature differences, and entropy generation due to fluid friction will be small to negligible. Increasing the concentration ratio will decrease entropy generation, due to a higher heat flux per unit meter. This will ultimately result in shorter receiver tube lengths. From a simulated annealing optimization it was seen that if the diameter is increased, the entropy generation can be lowered, provided that the concentration ratio is kept constant. However, beyond a certain point gains in minimizing the entropy generation become negligible. The optimal operating pressure will generally increase if the mass flow rate is increased. Finally it was seen that higher operating pressures are more advantageous when the entropy generation minimization is considered in conjunction with the work output.

  6. Analytical modeling and thermodynamic analysis of robust superhydrophobic surfaces with inverse-trapezoidal microstructures.

    PubMed

    Im, Maesoon; Im, Hwon; Lee, Joo-Hyung; Yoon, Jun-Bo; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2010-11-16

    A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer surface with perfectly ordered microstructures having an inverse-trapezoidal cross-sectional profile (simply PDMS trapezoids) showed superhydrophobic and transparent characteristics under visible light as reported in our previous work. The addition of a fluoropolymer (Teflon) coating enhances both features and provides oleophobicity. This paper focuses on the analytical modeling of the fabricated PDMS trapezoids structure and thermodynamic analysis based on the Gibbs free energy analysis. Additionally, the wetting characteristics of the fabricated PDMS trapezoids surface before and after the application of the Teflon coating are analytically explained. The Gibbs free energy analysis reveals that, due to the Teflon coating, the Cassie-Baxter state becomes energetically more favorable than the Wenzel state and the contact angle difference between the Cassie-Baxter state and the Wenzel state decreases. These two findings support the robustness of the superhydrophobicity of the fabricated Teflon-coated PDMS trapezoids. This is then verified via the impinging test of a water droplet at a high speed. The dependencies of the design parameters in the PDMS trapezoids on the hydrophobicity are also comprehensively studied through a thermodynamic analysis. Geometrical dependency on the hydrophobicity shows that overhang microstructures do not have a significant influence on the hydrophobicity. In contrast, the intrinsic contact angle of the structural material is most important in determining the apparent contact angle. On the other hand, the experimental results showed that the side angles of the overhangs are critical not for the hydrophobic but for the oleophobic property with liquids of a low surface tension. Understanding of design parameters in the PDMS trapezoids surface gives more information for implementation of superhydrophobic surfaces.

  7. Analytics for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeill, Sheila; Campbell, Lorna M.; Hawksey, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the development and use of analytics in the context of education. Using Buckingham Shum's three levels of analytics, the authors present a critical analysis of current developments in the domain of learning analytics, and contrast the potential value of analytics research and development with real world…

  8. Preliminary Analysis of Fluctuations in the Received Uplink-Beacon-Power Data Obtained From the GOLD Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeganathan, M.; Wilson, K. E.; Lesh, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    Uplink data from recent free-space optical communication experiments carried out between the Table Mountain Facility and the Japanese Engineering Test Satellite are used to study fluctuations caused by beam propagation through the atmosphere. The influence of atmospheric scintillation, beam wander and jitter, and multiple uplink beams on the statistics of power received by the satellite is analyzed and compared to experimental data. Preliminary analysis indicates the received signal obeys an approximate lognormal distribution, as predicted by the weak-turbulence model, but further characterization of other sources of fluctuations is necessary for accurate link predictions.

  9. Preliminary analysis of fluctuations in the received uplink-beacon-power data obtained from the GOLD experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeganathan, M.; Wilson, K. E.; Lesh, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    Uplink data from recent free-space optical communication experiments carried out between the Table Mountain Facility and the Japanese Engineering Test Satellite are used to study fluctuations caused by beam propagation through the atmosphere. The influence of atmospheric scintillation, beam wander and jitter, and multiple uplink beams on the statistics of power received by the satellite is analyzed and compared to experimental data. Preliminary analysis indicates the received signal obeys an approximate lognormal distribution, as predicted by the weak-turbulence model, but further characterization of other sources of fluctuations is necessary for accurate link predictions.

  10. Preliminary Analysis of Fluctuations in the Received Uplink-Beacon-Power Data Obtained From the GOLD Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeganathan, M.; Wilson, K. E.; Lesh, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    Uplink data from recent free-space optical communication experiments carried out between the Table Mountain Facility and the Japanese Engineering Test Satellite are used to study fluctuations caused by beam propagation through the atmosphere. The influence of atmospheric scintillation, beam wander and jitter, and multiple uplink beams on the statistics of power received by the satellite is analyzed and compared to experimental data. Preliminary analysis indicates the received signal obeys an approximate lognormal distribution, as predicted by the weak-turbulence model, but further characterization of other sources of fluctuations is necessary for accurate link predictions.

  11. Spatio-temporal analysis of industrial composition with IVIID: an interactive visual analytics interface for industrial diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Elizabeth A.; Zhang, Yifan; Rey, Sergio; Maciejewski, Ross

    2014-04-01

    The industrial composition of places has received considerable attention because of the widespread belief that industrial diversity buffers regional economies from economic shocks. Subsequently, a variety of toolkits and indices have been developed with the goal of better capturing the compositional dynamics of regions. Although useful, a key drawback of these indices is their static nature, which limits the utility of these indices in a space-time context. This paper provides an overview of and applications of an interface called interactive visualization tool for indices of industrial diversity, which is a visual analytics tool developed specifically for the analysis and visualization of local measures of industrial composition for areal data. This overview will include a discussion of its key features, as well as a demonstration of the utility of the interface in exploring questions surrounding diversity and the dynamic nature of composition through space and time. A focus of this demonstration is to highlight how the interactivity and query functionality of this interface overcome several of the obstacles to understanding composition through space and time that prior toolkits and comparative static approaches have been unable to address.

  12. Topological data analysis: A promising big data exploration tool in biology, analytical chemistry and physical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Offroy, Marc; Duponchel, Ludovic

    2016-03-03

    An important feature of experimental science is that data of various kinds is being produced at an unprecedented rate. This is mainly due to the development of new instrumental concepts and experimental methodologies. It is also clear that the nature of acquired data is significantly different. Indeed in every areas of science, data take the form of always bigger tables, where all but a few of the columns (i.e. variables) turn out to be irrelevant to the questions of interest, and further that we do not necessary know which coordinates are the interesting ones. Big data in our lab of biology, analytical chemistry or physical chemistry is a future that might be closer than any of us suppose. It is in this sense that new tools have to be developed in order to explore and valorize such data sets. Topological data analysis (TDA) is one of these. It was developed recently by topologists who discovered that topological concept could be useful for data analysis. The main objective of this paper is to answer the question why topology is well suited for the analysis of big data set in many areas and even more efficient than conventional data analysis methods. Raman analysis of single bacteria should be providing a good opportunity to demonstrate the potential of TDA for the exploration of various spectroscopic data sets considering different experimental conditions (with high noise level, with/without spectral preprocessing, with wavelength shift, with different spectral resolution, with missing data).

  13. Analysis of acylcarnitine levels by tandem mass spectrometry in epileptic children receiving valproate and oxcarbazepine.

    PubMed

    Cansu, Ali; Serdaroglu, Ayse; Biberoglu, Gursel; Tumer, Leyla; Hirfanoglu, Tugba Luleci; Ezgu, Fatih Suheyl; Hasanoglu, Alev

    2011-12-01

    This prospective study was designed to investigate whether or not monotherapy with sodium valproate (VPA) or oxcarbazepine (OXC) affects plasma levels of fatty acylcarnitine esters in children with epilepsy. A total of 56 children with idiopathic partial or generalised epilepsy were included in the study. Patients were assigned to receive either VPA or OXC monotherapy. Free carnitine (C0) and acylcarnitine profiles of the patients were investigated using tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and at six and 18 months after commencement of therapy. For patients receiving VPA or OXC monotherapy, there were no significant differences in plasma levels of C0, compared with baseline, at six and 18 months (p>0.05). Treatment with VPA for six and 18 months correlated with a significant increase in 3-hydroxy-isovalerylcarnitine (C5-OH) (six months: +23%; 18 months: +73%), and significant decreases in the following acylcarnitines: C6-acylcarnitine (six months: -60%; 18 months: -66%), C14-acylcarnitine (six months: -25%; 18 months: -38%), C16-acylcarnitine (six months: -73%; 18 months: -73%), and C18:1-OH-acylcarnitine (six months: -60%; 18 months: -70%), compared with baseline (p<0.05). In patients receiving OXC monotherapy, on the other hand, plasma concentrations (μmol/L) of acylcarnitines (from C2 to C18:1-OH) fell within the normal reference range. The results of this study indicate that there are significant biochemical changes in acylcarnitines in ambulatory children on VPA monotherapy but these are not clinically significant. OXC monotherapy had no effect on acylcarnitine metabolism in ambulatory children.

  14. Receiver function analysis and preliminary body wave tomography of the MACOMO network in Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, M. J.; Wysession, M. E.; Wiens, D. A.; Nyblade, A.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Shore, P.; Rambolamana, G.; Sy Tanjona Andriampenomanana ny Ony, F.; Rakotondraibe, T.

    2013-12-01

    We present results from a set of seismological studies of the continental island of Madagascar using new seismic data from the NSF-funded MACOMO (MAdagascar, COmores, and MOzambique) IRIS PASSCAL broadband seismometer array. MACOMO involved the deployment during 2011-2013 of 26 broadband seismometers in Madagascar and 6 seismometers in Mozambique, providing the first seismic imaging across the world's 4th-largest island. We present preliminary crustal structure variations from receiver function analyses and body wave tomography results. We calculate radial receiver functions for all Madagascar stations and use the weighted linear regression methodology of Herrmann and Ammon [2002] to invert for shear velocity. Upper mantle and crustal structures from the receiver function analyses are used to help determine starting models for the teleseismic travel-time tomography. The tectonic structure of Madagascar is generally divided into four crustal blocks. Initial seismic imaging shows that the Archean Antongil block that runs along the east of the island has the thickest crust (>40 km) and three Proterozoic terranes that make up the central highlands and are bounded by fault and shear zones are closer to the average crustal thickness (35 km). There has been late Cenozoic intraplate volcanism in northern and central Madagascar (as recently as 1 million years ago), and different hypotheses for its origin will be evaluated by the preliminary results from the three different seismic studies. Complete analyses will be done incorporating seismic data from simultaneous and complementary array of both land- and ocean-based seismometers from French and German deployments.

  15. P- and S-Receiver Function Analysis of Borehole Broadband Ocean Bottom Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Kawakatsu, H.; Shinohara, M.; Kanazawa, T.; Araki, E.; Suyehiro, K.

    2008-12-01

    We use P- (Prf) and S-receiver functions (Srf) techniques to decipher the lithospheric thickness of oceanic plates using the borehole broadband seismological data set. These stations are deployed under Japanese Ocean Hemisphere network Project (OHP): WP1 and WP2 in the Philippine sea and the northwestern Pacific ocean, respectively. Both the stations are located in a borehole of depth ~500m with water column of thickness ~5km that produces P-waves water reverberations. These water reverberations travel almost vertically downward and contaminate the vertical component of seismograms. To minimize the water multiples in case of Prf, we prefer the Radial receiver functions and in case of Srf, we used P-Sv-Sh components. Reflectivity synthetics show that the effect of water reverberations have no effect on Sp phases, as multiples arrive latter than the primary S-phase while the radial components are least affected in case of Prf. We found a consistent negative phase interpreted as Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary (LAB) apart from a positive phase corresponding to Moho in both the receiver functions. For WP1 the LAB is at 71±1.8 km (for 49Ma lithospheric age, Western Philippine Sea plate) and 50±1.4 km (for 20Ma, Eastern Philippine Sea plate); for WP2 in the Pacific ocean the lithospheric thickness is 76±4.2 km (for 129Ma). For the observed Prf, the synthetic studies show that the observed amplitude of negative phases are not sufficient enough to match only with water demanding for the presence of a lvl. The thicknesses of the oceanic plates estimated above is consistent with the thermally controlled origin for the oceanic LAB and since it is a sharp boundary (~3s), indicates chemical or fabric origin (Kawakatsu et al., 2008, this meeting).

  16. Crustal Thickness Variations Across Eastern Canada and Maine From Receiver Function Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, T.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2010-12-01

    In 2007 and 2009, seven new broadband seismograph stations were installed in central and southern Québec, filling an important gap in network coverage across the region. The majority of the stations are situated within the Archean Superior craton, with a further two located in the Proterozoic Grenville Province. In this study, we examine receiver functions calculated from large teleseismic earthquakes recorded at the station array, together with three older stations - one affiliated to the permanent Canadian National Seismograph Network, one to the temporary Canadian POLARIS array, and a final station belonging to the USArray backbone network. This latter station is located in Maine and provides the opportunity to compare and contrast crustal structure between a region of Paleozoic tectonics (the Appalachian belt) and the Canadian Shield. Data availability was very variable between the stations, primarily due to recording period, since data quality was universally high. Receiver functions were calculated using a multi-taper method implemented by Helffrich (2006), and Moho depths were then estimated using the H-K stacking method of Zhu & Kanamori (2000). Crustal thicknesses across the region lie predominantly in the range 33-42 km, with most Vp/Vs ratios between 1.72 and 1.84, suggesting that the bulk crust is largely felsic in nature, but with some more mafic components in certain regions. In some cases the crustal thickness estimate from H-K stacking was significantly different to values expected from other studies in the region and in the Canadian Shield as a whole. In these cases, detailed inspection of the receiver functions revealed significant back-azimuthal variation in the waveforms and significant energy on the tangential components. These characteristics suggest the presence of dipping and/or anisotropic structure beneath the stations, and more detailed modelling will be necessary to characterise the crust in these regions.

  17. CALUTRON RECEIVERS

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, F.H.; Stone, K.F.

    1958-09-01

    S>This patent relates to improvements in calutron devices and, more specifically, describes a receiver fer collecting the ion curreot after it is formed into a beam of non-homogeneous isotropic cross-section. The invention embodies a calutron receiver having an ion receiving pocket for separately collecting and retaining ions traveling in a selected portion of the ion beam and anelectrode for intercepting ions traveling in another selected pontion of the ion beam. The electrode is disposed so as to fix the limit of one side of the pontion of the ion beam admitted iato the ion receiving pocket.

  18. An analysis of beam parameters on proton-acoustic waves through an analytic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aytac Kipergil, Esra; Erkol, Hakan; Kaya, Serhat; Gulsen, Gultekin; Burcin Unlu, Mehmet

    2017-06-01

    It has been reported that acoustic waves are generated when a high-energy pulsed proton beam is deposited in a small volume within tissue. One possible application of proton-induced acoustics is to get real-time feedback for intra-treatment adjustments by monitoring such acoustic waves. A high spatial resolution in ultrasound imaging may reduce proton range uncertainty. Thus, it is crucial to understand the dependence of the acoustic waves on the proton beam characteristics. In this manuscript, firstly, an analytic solution for the proton-induced acoustic wave is presented to reveal the dependence of the signal on the beam parameters; then it is combined with an analytic approximation of the Bragg curve. The influence of the beam energy, pulse duration and beam diameter variation on the acoustic waveform are investigated. Further analysis is performed regarding the Fourier decomposition of the proton-acoustic signals. Our results show that the smaller spill time of the proton beam upsurges the amplitude of the acoustic wave for a constant number of protons, which is hence beneficial for dose monitoring. The increase in the energy of each individual proton in the beam leads to the spatial broadening of the Bragg curve, which also yields acoustic waves of greater amplitude. The pulse duration and the beam width of the proton beam do not affect the central frequency of the acoustic wave, but they change the amplitude of the spectral components.

  19. Hybrid Analytical Technique for Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of Thin-Walled Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Hadian, Jafar M.; Andersen, Carl M.

    1993-01-01

    A two-step hybrid analytical technique is presented for the nonlinear vibration analysis of thin-walled beams. The first step involves the generation of various-order perturbation functions using the Linstedt-Poincare perturbation technique. The second step consists of using the perturbation functions as coordinate (or approximation) functions and then computing both the amplitudes of these functions and the nonlinear frequency of vibration via a direct variational procedure. The analytical formulation is based on a form of the geometrically nonlinear beam theory with the effects of in-plane inertia, rotatory inertia, and transverse shear deformation included. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is demonstrated by means of a numerical example of thin-walled beam with a doubly symmetric I-section. The solutions obtained using a single-spatial mode were compared with those obtained using multiple-spatial modes. The standard of comparison was taken to be the frequencies obtained by the direct integration/fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique. The nonlinear frequencies obtained by the hybrid technique were shown to converge to the corresponding ones obtained by the direct integration/fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique well beyond the range of applicability of the perturbation technique. The frequencies and total strain energy of the beam were overestimated by using a single-spatial mode.

  20. Modeling of closed-loop recycling liquid-liquid chromatography: Analytical solutions and model analysis.

    PubMed

    Kostanyan, Artak E

    2015-08-07

    In closed-loop recycling (CLR) chromatography, the effluent from the outlet of a column is directly returned into the column through the sample feed line and continuously recycled until the required separation is reached. To select optimal operating conditions for the separation of a given feed mixture, an appropriate mathematical description of the process is required. This work is concerned with the analysis of models for the CLR separations. Due to the effect of counteracting mechanisms on separation of solutes, analytical solutions of the models could be helpful to understand and optimize chromatographic processes. The objective of this work was to develop analytical expressions to describe the CLR counter-current (liquid-liquid) chromatography (CCC). The equilibrium dispersion and cell models were used to describe the transport and separation of solutes inside a CLR CCC column. The Laplace transformation is applied to solve the model equations. Several possible CLR chromatography methods for the binary and complex mixture separations are simulated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An analysis of beam parameters on proton-acoustic waves through an analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Aytac Kipergil, Esra; Erkol, Hakan; Kaya, Serhat; Gulsen, Gultekin; Unlu, Mehmet

    2017-03-02

    It has been reported that acoustic waves are generated when a high energy pulsed proton beam is deposited in a small volume within tissue. One possible application of the proton induced acoustics is to get a real-time feedback for intratreatment adjustments by monitoring such acoustic waves. High spatial resolution in ultrasound imaging may reduce proton range uncertainty. Thus, it is crucial to understand the dependence of the acoustic waves on the proton beam characteristics. In this manuscript, firstly, an analytic solution to the proton induced acoustic wave is presented to reveal the dependence of signal on beam parameters, and then combined with an analytic approximation of the Bragg curve. The influence of the beam energy, pulse duration, and beam diameter variation on the acoustic waveform are investigated. Further analysis is performed regarding the Fourier decomposition of proton-acoustic signals. Our results show that smaller spill time of proton beam upsurges the amplitude of acoustic wave for constant number of protons, and hence beneficial for dose monitoring. The increase in the energy of each individual proton in the beam leads to spatial broadening of the Bragg curve, which also yields acoustic waves of greater amplitude. The pulse duration and the beam width of the proton beam do not affect the central frequency of the acoustic wave, but they change the amplitude of the spectral components.

  2. The Challenge of Understanding Process in Clinical Behavior Analysis: The Case of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Follette, William C; Bonow, Jordan T

    2009-01-01

    Whether explicitly acknowledged or not, behavior-analytic principles are at the heart of most, if not all, empirically supported therapies. However, the change process in psychotherapy is only now being rigorously studied. Functional analytic psychotherapy (FAP; Kohlenberg & Tsai, 1991; Tsai et al., 2009) explicitly identifies behavioral-change principles used to bring about therapeutic improvements in adult outpatients whose clinical problems stem from ineffective interpersonal repertoires. These principles include contingent responding to behavioral excesses and deficits by a therapist who has established him- or herself as a salient source of social reinforcement. Empirical support for FAP is emerging, but a variety of pragmatic and theoretical questions warrant investigation. Among the issues described in this paper are the training and dissemination of procedures for how to conduct a functional analysis, how to train therapists to identify functional stimulus classes, how to best address decreasing problem behavior without creating an aversive environment, how to enhance generalization, and how to account for the principle of equifinality when trying to specify therapeutic procedures. These and other issues stem largely from trying to disseminate a behavioral principle-based intervention rather than a topographically specified intervention. These issues present challenges and research opportunities for applied clinical behavior analysts if they wish to extend their science to address clinical issues important to the treatment of adult outpatients with normal intellectual functioning. PMID:22478517

  3. Numerical analysis of 50 Gbaud homodyne coherent receivers relying on line-coding and injection locking in lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xydas, Yannis; Ressopoulos, Constantinos; Bogris, Adonis

    2015-12-01

    We present a numerical analysis of 50 Gbaud coherent detection enabled by injection locked lasers and line coding. The coherent receiver was tested with respect to an ideal receiver for two higher order modulation formats (16-QAM, QPSK) and under diverse operating regimes relating to the slave laser linewidth properties, the injection level and the frequency detuning between the incoming signal and the slave laser. The impact of the slave laser properties and line coding techniques on the receiver performance is highlighted showing that the technique could be used as a practical solution in order to enable low-cost and short reach n × 100 Gb/s Ethernet communication systems with the potential of flexibility in terms of the data rate.

  4. Analysis of structural dynamic data from Skylab. Volume 2: Skylab analytical and test model data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demchak, L.; Harcrow, H.

    1976-01-01

    The orbital configuration test modal data, analytical test correlation modal data, and analytical flight configuration modal data are presented. Tables showing the generalized mass contributions (GMCs) for each of the thirty tests modes are given along with the two dimensional mode shape plots and tables of GMCs for the test correlated analytical modes. The two dimensional mode shape plots for the analytical modes and uncoupled and coupled modes of the orbital flight configuration at three development phases of the model are included.

  5. Analysis and comparison of experimental and simulated results for an omnidirectional free space optical receiver architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murshid, Syed H.; Lovell, Gregory L.; Finch, Michael F.

    2014-09-01

    Lasercomm or Free Space Optical (FSO) communication has the potential to provide fiber optic data rates without the need for wired physical connectivity. This paper investigates the feasibility of an Omnidirectional FSO (O-FSO) communications link that utilizes fiber bundles for improved omni-directionality and compares experimental data with modeled results. Current state of the art O-FSO link ranges are limited to 100 meters or so, with data rates of only a few100 kbits/sec. The proposed architecture is formed from commercially available fiber bundle that collects omnidirectional light due to the hemispheric nature of the fiber bundle by exploiting the acceptance cones of the individual fiber exposed to the optical radiation. The experimental transmitter is composed of an LED source that is driven by an On-Off-Keying signal. This paper presents the received optical power while varying the range between the transmitter and receiver. The omni-directionality of this architecture is also verified. The measured results are then compared to the model predictions for omni-directionality and range.

  6. Crustal Structure Along the Central Alpine Fault from Receiver Function Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourguignon, S.; Boese, C. M.; Savage, M. K.; Townend, J.; Bannister, S. C.; Stern, T. A.

    2016-12-01

    In the South Island of New Zealand, the depth distribution of seismicity varies perpendicular and along-strike of the Southern Alps and the central Alpine Fault. This seismicity appears to be anti-correlated in depth with LFEs (low-frequency earthquakes) and tremor (Chamberlain et al., 2014). Specifically, the seismic-aseismic transition spatially varies between 7 and 15 km depth (Boese et al., 2012; Bourguignon et al., 2015), whereas the tremor and LFEs are 20-30 km deep. We investigate how the crustal structure relates to these different seismic phenomena to improve our understanding of the physical controls on deformation. Using the multi-taper spectral correlation approach of Park and Levin (2000), we computed P receiver functions for a number of temporary seismograph stations (SAMBA, ALFA, WIZARD) deployed for varied length of times between 2008 and 2015 and for permanent stations FOZ and FOZ of the GeoNet network. The data spans a 130 km long region along the Southern Alps. The receiver functions show a steeply southeast dipping Moho and increasingly strong crustal seismic anisotropy towards the Alpine Fault. We derive 1D Vp and Vp/Vs models below each selected station using a nonlinear approach (Sambridge, 1999) to account for the highly 3D crustal structure, and use these 1D models to map the seismic anisotropy and Moho below the Southern Alps.

  7. Prognostic Analysis for Cardiogenic Shock in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction Receiving Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mao-Jen; Chen, Chun-Yu; Lin, Hau-De

    2017-01-01

    Cardiogenic shock (CS) is uncommon in patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Long-term outcome and adverse predictors for outcomes in AMI patients with CS receiving percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) are unclear. A total of 482 AMI patients who received PCI were collected, including 53 CS and 429 non-CS. Predictors for AMI patients with CS including recurrent MI, cardiovascular (CV) mortality, all-cause mortality, and repeated-PCI were analyzed. The CS group had a lower central systolic pressure and central diastolic pressure (both P < 0.001). AMI patients with hypertension history were less prone to develop CS (P < 0.001). Calcium channel blockers and statins were less frequently used by the CS group than the non-CS group (both P < 0.05) after discharge. Synergy between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score, CV mortality, and all-cause mortality were higher in the CS group than the non-CS group (all P < 0.005). For patients with CS, stroke history was a predictor of recurrent MI (P = 0.036). CS, age, SYNTAX score, and diabetes were predictors of CV mortality (all P < 0.05). CS, age, SYNTAX score, and stroke history were predictors for all-cause mortality (all P < 0.05). CS, age, and current smoking were predictors for repeated-PCI (all P < 0.05). PMID:28251160

  8. Plume or no plume: Emeishan Large Igneous Province in Southwest China revisited from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chuansong; Santosh, M.; Wu, Jianping; Chen, Xuanhua

    2014-07-01

    The Late Permian Emeishan Large Igneous Province at the western margin of the Yangtze craton and eastern Tibet is popularly regarded as the signature of mantle plume impingement onto the lithosphere. In this study, we investigate the crustal structure and upper mantle discontinuities of this region by employing H-k stacking of receiver function and depth domain receiver function. Our results image the mantle transition zone. However, no vestiges of any mantle plume upwelling in this area are recorded in our results, and the region is characterized by a largely cold domain. In contrast, our data reveal a region of lower crustal delamination that coincides with the cold mantle transition zone. We therefore suggest that the delaminated lower crustal material was recycled into the upper mantle or the mantle transition zone, turning the latter into a cold domain. The delamination of the lower crust might have also led to asthenospheric upwelling and plume-like upwelling from the mantle transition zone that generated the basalts in the Emeishan Large Igneous Province.

  9. Analysis, design, and experimental results for lightweight space heat receiver canisters, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Michael G.; Brege, Mark A.; Heidenreich, Gary R.

    1991-01-01

    Critical technology experiments have been performed on thermal energy storage modules in support of the Brayton Advanced Heat Receiver program. The modules are wedge-shaped canisters designed to minimize the mechanical stresses that occur during the phase change of the lithium fluoride phase change material. Nickel foam inserts were used in some of the canisters to provide thermal conductivity enhancement and to distribute the void volume. Two canisters, one with a nickel foam insert, and one without, were thermally cycled in various orientations in a fluidized bed furnace. The only measurable impact of the nickel foam was seen when the back and short sides of the canister were insulated to simulate operation in the advanced receiver design. In tests with insulation, the furnace to back side delta T was larger in the canister with the nickel foam insert, probably due to the radiant absorptivity of the nickel. However, the differences in the temperature profiles of the two canisters were small, and in many cases the profiles matched fairly well. Computed Tomography (CT) was successfully used to nondestructively demarcate void locations in the canisters. Finally, canister dimensional stability, which was measured throughout the thermal cycling test program with an inspection fixture was satisfactory with a maximum change of 0.635 mm (0.025 in.).

  10. Crustal structure in the southern part of West Java based on analysis of teleseismic receiver function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syuhada, Anggono, Titi

    2016-02-01

    We analyzed teleseismic receiver functions from five broadband stations to determine the crustal thickness and Vp/vs ratios in the southern part of west Java. We observed that the study area is characterized by crustal thickness around 31-37 km with Vp/Vs varying between 1.66 and 1.87. We suggest that lower values of Vp/Vs obtained in some stations indicate more felsic crustal composition. The mid-crust low velocity zone is observed beneath a seismic station located near the volcanic zones with high values of Vp/Vs ratio suggesting the presence of partial melt due to geothermal activities in the upper mantle. Furthermore, a seismic station located near the active fault zone also has high Vp/Vs ratio, which may indicate the presence of fluid filled fracture zone. However, this station exhibits complicated receiver functions, thus it needs further research involving a larger dataset with good backazimuth coverage of the teleseismic data to resolve this issue.

  11. Shallow Sedimentary Structure of the Brahmaputra Valley Constraint from Receiver Functions Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, Sowrav; Chopra, Sumer; Baruah, Santanu; Singh, Upendra K.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, receiver functions from ten Broadband seismograph stations on Cenozoic sediment formations of Brahmaputra valley and its neighboring region in northeastern part of India are determined. Receiver function traces from this region show delay in peak by 1-2.5 s and associated minor peaks with the direct P-phase peak. Based on such observation, we try to image sedimentary structure of the Brahmaputra valley plain, adjacent Shillong plateau and Himalayan foredeep region. An adapted hybrid global waveform inversion technique has been applied to extract sedimentary basin structure beneath each site. The sedimentary cover of the basin is about 0.5-6.5 km thick across the valley, 0.5-1.0 km on Shillong plateau and 2.0-5.0 km in nearby foredeep region. We have found that sedimentary thickness increases from SW to NE along the Brahmaputra valley and towards the Eastern Himalayan syntaxes. The estimated sediment thickness and S wave velocity structure agree well with the results of previous active source, gravity, and deep borehole studies carried out in this region. The thick crustal low velocity sediment cover in Brahmaputra valley is expected to amplify ground motions during earthquakes and therefore important for seismic hazard assessment of the region.

  12. Multivariable and Multigroup Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve Analyses for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    presents the original experimental data collected by Fisher and includes the lengths and widths of the sepals and petals of the three iris flower ...more than two experimental groups in a systematic fashion. The classic Fisher iris flower data set is treated as one variable and two cases at a time...enhanced computer efficiency and information-rich analysis. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Multivariate analysis Sepal Univariate analysis Petal Frequency

  13. GazeDx: Interactive Visual Analytics Framework for Comparative Gaze Analysis with Volumetric Medical Images.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyunjoo; Lee, Jeongjin; Kim, Tae Jung; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Bohyoung; Seo, Jinwook

    2017-01-01

    We present an interactive visual analytics framework, GazeDx (abbr. of GazeDiagnosis), for the comparative analysis of gaze data from multiple readers examining volumetric images while integrating important contextual information with the gaze data. Gaze pattern comparison is essential to understanding how radiologists examine medical images, and to identifying factors influencing the examination. Most prior work depended upon comparisons with manually juxtaposed static images of gaze tracking results. Comparative gaze analysis with volumetric images is more challenging due to the additional cognitive load on 3D perception. A recent study proposed a visualization design based on direct volume rendering (DVR) for visualizing gaze patterns in volumetric images; however, effective and comprehensive gaze pattern comparison is still challenging due to a lack of interactive visualization tools for comparative gaze analysis. We take the challenge with GazeDx while integrating crucial contextual information such as pupil size and windowing into the analysis process for more in-depth and ecologically valid findings. Among the interactive visualization components in GazeDx, a context-embedded interactive scatterplot is especially designed to help users examine abstract gaze data in diverse contexts by embedding medical imaging representations well known to radiologists in it. We present the results from two case studies with two experienced radiologists, where they compared the gaze patterns of 14 radiologists reading two patients' volumetric CT images.

  14. Quantitative multivariate analytical strategy for paleoenvironmental analysis of mixed benthic foraminiferal assemblages

    SciTech Connect

    Lagoe, M.B. )

    1991-03-01

    Fossil assemblages of benthic foraminifera commonly contain taxa that were not associated together during life. A variety of processes act to modify living assemblages during the transition to fossil assemblages-transport of tests by traction and gravity currents, taphonomic filtering, and rapid shifting of environments in response to sea level fluctuations, to name a few. Unraveling the nature of faunal mixing can provide insights into depositional processes and paleoenvironmental history of particular lithofacies. A quantitative multivariate analytical strategy is presented to address these problems, using the late Cenozoic Yakataga Formation, Gulf of Alaska as a specific example. A variety of lithofacies are present within the Yakataga Formation including normal marine mudstones, sandstones, coquinas and conglomerates and glaciomarine diamictites. Comparison of fossil assemblages with modern foraminiferal distributions indicates significant faunal mixing in most lithofacies, particularly the diamictites. Quantitative analysis includes cluster analysis to define broad patterns in faunal similarity, R-mode factor analysis to define species interrelationships, and Q-mode polytopic vector analysis to 'unmix' the assemblages into their component biofacies. Two broad patterns of faunal mixing are identified: (1) comprehensive mixing of all possible biofacies within a particular bathymetric range and (2) mixing of very shallow (innermost neritic) with deeper (upper bathyal) assemblages, bypassing environments from outer neritic areas. Diamictites are shown to form in a variety of water depths from inner neritic to upper bathyal.

  15. Remote access methods for exploratory data analysis and statistical modelling: Privacy-Preserving Analytics.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Ross; Carter, Chris; Donnelly, John B; O'Keefe, Christine M; Duncan, Jodie; Keighley, Tim; McAullay, Damien

    2008-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the challenge of enabling the use of confidential or private data for research and policy analysis, while protecting confidentiality and privacy by reducing the risk of disclosure of sensitive information. Traditional solutions to the problem of reducing disclosure risk include releasing de-identified data and modifying data before release. In this paper we discuss the alternative approach of using a remote analysis server which does not enable any data release, but instead is designed to deliver useful results of user-specified statistical analyses with a low risk of disclosure. The techniques described in this paper enable a user to conduct a wide range of methods in exploratory data analysis, regression and survival analysis, while at the same time reducing the risk that the user can read or infer any individual record attribute value. We illustrate our methods with examples from biostatistics using publicly available data. We have implemented our techniques into a software demonstrator called Privacy-Preserving Analytics (PPA), via a web-based interface to the R software. We believe that PPA may provide an effective balance between the competing goals of providing useful information and reducing disclosure risk in some situations.

  16. Precambrian Crustal Evolution of the Hudson Bay Region: Insights from Receiver Function Analysis (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. A.; Bastow, I. D.; Helffrich, G. R.; Kendall, J. M.; Wookey, J.; Snyder, D. B.; Eaton, D. W.

    2009-12-01

    The processes that formed, thickened and thinned the early Earth's crust remain poorly known. The onset of modern plate tectonics, for example, could be as far back as the Hadean or as late as the Neoproterozoic. In many cratons, vertical processes are believed to have been dominant (dome-and-keel tectonics, e.g. Pilbara craton), while others are hypothesised to have formed by the progressive accretion of different terranes (e.g. Superior craton). The Hudson Bay region represents one of the largest areas of Precambrian geology on the planet, with ages spanning 2 billion years (3.9-1.8 Ga). The western Churchill province contains the predominantly Paleo- to Mesoarchean Rae domain and the Neoarchean Hearne domain, and is welded to the Superior craton by the Paleoproterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogen, a Himalayan scale feature which extends for more than 4500 km along strike. The Churchill has received comparatively little scientific investigation due to its remote location and harsh climate. In order to test hypotheses on crustal formation and evolution during the Precambrian, teleseismic receiver functions have been analysed for more than 30 stations located on the key geological features in the vicinity of Hudson Bay. Across the entire Rae domain, a dominantly felsic crust with a sharp Moho is observed. Little evidence exists to interpret the vast extent of the felsic crust in terms of subduction related processes. Within the granite-greenstone terranes of the Hearne domain, a more intermediate bulk composition and complex Moho signature may be representative of an oceanic affinity for the crust, suggesting accretionary processes acted there. In the Quebec-Baffin Island region, bulk crustal Vp/Vs ratios are dominated by effects associated with the Trans-Hudson Orogen, and appear to map out the first-order shape of the indenting lower-plate. Correlation between terrane age and receiver function-derived crustal structure suggests that the crust in northern Canada was

  17. Spine Radiosurgery: A Dosimetric Analysis in 124 Patients Who Received 18 Gy

    SciTech Connect

    Schipani, Stefano; Wen, Winston; Jin, Jain-Yue; Kim, Jin Koo; Ryu, Samuel

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To define the safely tolerated doses to organs at risk (OARs) adjacent to the target volume (TV) of spine radiosurgery (SRS) with 18-Gy in a single fraction. Methods and Materials: A total of 124 patient cases with 165 spine metastases were reviewed. An 18-Gy single-fraction regimen was prescribed to the 90% isodose line encompassing the TV. A constraint of 10 Gy to 10% of the spinal cord outlined 6 mm above and below the TV was used. Dosimetric data to OARs were analyzed. Results: A total of 124 patients (100%) were followed-up, and median follow-up time was 7 months (1-50 months). Symptoms and local control were achieved in 114 patients (92%). Acute Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade 1 oral mucositis occurred in 11 of 11 (100%) patients at risk for oropharyngeal toxicity after cervical spine treatment. There were no RTOG grade 2-4 acute or late complications. Median TV was 43.2 cc (5.3-175.4 cc) and 90% of the TV received median dose of 19 Gy (17-19.8 Gy). Median (range) of spinal cord maximum dose (Dmax), dose to spinal cord 0.35 cc (Dsc0.35), and cord volume receiving 10 Gy (Vsc10) were 13.8 Gy (5.4-21 Gy), 8.9 Gy (2.6-11.4 Gy) and 0.33 cc (0-1.6 cc), respectively. Other OARs were evaluated when in proximity to the TV. Esophagus (n=58), trachea (n=28), oropharynx (n=11), and kidneys (n=34) received median (range) V10 and V15 of 3.1 cc (0-5.8 cc) and 1.2 cc (0-2.9 cc), 2.8 cc (0-4.9 cc), and 0.8 cc (0-2.1 cc), 3.4 cc (0-6.2 cc) and 1.6 cc (0-3.2 cc), 0.3 cc (0-0.8 cc) and 0.08 cc (0-0.1 cc), respectively. Conclusions: Cord Dmax of 14 Gy and D0.35 of 10 Gy are safe dose constraints for 18-Gy single-fraction SRS. Esophagus V10 of 3 cc and V15 of 1 cc, trachea V10 of 3 cc, and V15 of 1 cc, oropharynx V10 of 3.5 cc and V15 of 1.5 cc, kidney V10 of 0.3 cc, and V15 of 0.1 cc are planning guidelines when these OARs are in proximity to the TV.

  18. Preliminary performance analysis of a transverse flow spectrally selective two-slab packed bed volumetric receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roos, Thomas H.; Harms, Thomas M.

    2016-05-01

    A new volumetric receiver concept has been investigated, based on an adaptation of the spectrally selective, two-slab packed bed volumetric receiver concept of Flamant et al. Both slabs comprise spheres of identical size - borosilicate for the transparent slab 1 and SiC for the opaque slab 2 - which are ordered in a hexagonally close-packed bed. The flow direction has been changed from parallel to the incident radiation and perpendicular to the window, to parallel to the window and perpendicular to the incident radiation (transverse flow). The gap between the window and slab 1 has been removed, so the bed is held in place by the sidewalls, the floor and the window, allowing arbitrary orientation and dispensing with the need for beam-down operation. The receiver has been subjected to constant solar radiative load of approximately 70 suns, and the effect of variations in flowrate, the degree of air preheating as well as the thickness of slab 2 on the outlet air temperature distributions have been measured. The effect of reducing the flowrate for both slab 2 thicknesses is to increase temperature everywhere relative to the maximum temperature, having the effect of "flattening" the pattern factor and tending towards more uniform temperature distribution. The effect of preheating for both slab 2 thicknesses is to move the location of maximum temperature deeper into the bed (away from the window). No significant effect is observed on pattern factor in the transparent region of the bed (slab 1), but temperatures in the opaque region increase relative to the maximum temperature. The results are consistent with the increasing contribution of radiative heat transfer relative to convective and conductive heat transfer as the bed temperature rises. In all cases, the air temperature closest to the window is lower than the maximum temperature, demonstrating the volumetric heating effect. Increasing the outlet air temperature (either due to preheating or due to decreasing

  19. A guide to genome-wide association analysis and post-analytic interrogation.

    PubMed

    Reed, Eric; Nunez, Sara; Kulp, David; Qian, Jing; Reilly, Muredach P; Foulkes, Andrea S

    2015-12-10

    This tutorial is a learning resource that outlines the basic process and provides specific software tools for implementing a complete genome-wide association analysis. Approaches to post-analytic visualization and interrogation of potentially novel findings are also presented. Applications are illustrated using the free and open-source R statistical computing and graphics software environment, Bioconductor software for bioinformatics and the UCSC Genome Browser. Complete genome-wide association data on 1401 individuals across 861,473 typed single nucleotide polymorphisms from the PennCATH study of coronary artery disease are used for illustration. All data and code, as well as additional instructional resources, are publicly available through the Open Resources in Statistical Genomics project: http://www.stat-gen.org.

  20. Analytical Study of Performance of Linear Discriminant Analysis in Stochastic Settings

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Jianping; Dougherty, Edward R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides exact analytical expressions for the first and second moments of the true error for linear discriminant analysis (LDA) when the data are univariate and taken from two stochastic Gaussian processes. The key point is that we assume a general setting in which the sample data from each class do not need to be identically distributed or independent within or between classes. We compare the true errors of designed classifiers under the typical i.i.d. model and when the data are correlated, providing exact expressions and demonstrating that, depending on the covariance structure, correlated data can result in classifiers with either greater error or less error than when training with uncorrelated data. The general theory is applied to autoregressive and moving-average models of the first order, and it is demonstrated using real genomic data. PMID:24039299

  1. An Analytic Approximation to Very High Specific Impulse and Specific Power Interplanetary Space Mission Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Craig Hamilton

    1995-01-01

    A simple, analytic approximation is derived to calculate trip time and performance for propulsion systems of very high specific impulse (50,000 to 200,000 seconds) and very high specific power (10 to 1000 kW/kg) for human interplanetary space missions. The approach assumed field-free space, constant thrust/constant specific power, and near straight line (radial) trajectories between the planets. Closed form, one dimensional equations of motion for two-burn rendezvous and four-burn round trip missions are derived as a function of specific impulse, specific power, and propellant mass ratio. The equations are coupled to an optimizing parameter that maximizes performance and minimizes trip time. Data generated for hypothetical one-way and round trip human missions to Jupiter were found to be within 1% and 6% accuracy of integrated solutions respectively, verifying that for these systems, credible analysis does not require computationally intensive numerical techniques.

  2. The analytic solution of the structural analysis problem and its use in structural synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, M. B.

    An overview is presented of the analytic expressions for the inverse of the stiffness matrix, the nodal displacements, and the internal forces in linear elastic redundant structures. The inverse of the stiffness matrix and the nodal displacements are obtained using Binet and Cauchy's theorem on the product of compound matrices. The formula for the internal forces is derived from the principles of structural mechanics. This approach is shown to apply to all framed structures via the unimodal stiffnesses of its elements. Approximate models are constructed which are exact at preselected points along a line in the analysis space. An argument is also made for the use of multilinear polynomials as an alternative to Taylor expansion-based approximations.

  3. Stable semi-analytical method for analysis of plasmonic propagation on periodically patterned metal plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasrebi, Navid; Khorasani, Sina; Karami-Taheri, Hossein; Rashidian, Bizhan; Hosseini, Amir

    2010-02-01

    The need for antennas with improved characteristics for communication and radar applications has resulted in an ever-increasing demand for research in the field of high impedance surfaces, which can work as an artificial magnetic conductor. One method in fabrication of these surfaces is formation of a metamaterial by patterning a metallic surface in the shape of space filling curves (e.g. Hilbert or Peanu Curves). In this paper, we present a novel semi-analytical solution to the problem of plasmonic propagation on these surfaces. The method is based on a previously presented Green's function formalism, which has been reported in an earlier paper of ours. We have modified and improved the method for analysis of periodic structures with a large number of spatial harmonics, and used different methods to get the necessary stabilization. Here propagating modes of different structures and their corresponding frequencies are calculated, and the possibility of frequency gap formation and stability of the method are investigated.

  4. Regime Transition in Electromechanical Fluid Atomization and Implications to Analyte Ionization for Mass Spectrometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Thomas P.; Degertekin, F. Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2015-01-01

    The physical processes governing the transition from purely mechanical ejection to electromechanical ejection to electrospraying are investigated through complementary scaling analysis and optical visualization. Experimental characterization and visualization are performed with the ultrasonically-driven array of micromachined ultrasonic electrospray (AMUSE) ion source to decouple the electrical and mechanical fields. A new dimensionless parameter, the Fenn number, is introduced to define a transition between the spray regimes, in terms of its dependence on the characteristic Strouhal number for the ejection process. A fundamental relationship between the Fenn and Strouhal numbers is theoretically derived and confirmed experimentally in spraying liquid electrolytes of different ionic strength subjected to a varying magnitude electric field. This relationship and the basic understanding of the charged droplet generation physics have direct implications on the optimal ionization efficiency and mass spectrometric response for different types of analytes. PMID:20729096

  5. Dynamic Graph Analytic Framework (DYGRAF): greater situation awareness through layered multi-modal network analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margitus, Michael R.; Tagliaferri, William A., Jr.; Sudit, Moises; LaMonica, Peter M.

    2012-06-01

    Understanding the structure and dynamics of networks are of vital importance to winning the global war on terror. To fully comprehend the network environment, analysts must be able to investigate interconnected relationships of many diverse network types simultaneously as they evolve both spatially and temporally. To remove the burden from the analyst of making mental correlations of observations and conclusions from multiple domains, we introduce the Dynamic Graph Analytic Framework (DYGRAF). DYGRAF provides the infrastructure which facilitates a layered multi-modal network analysis (LMMNA) approach that enables analysts to assemble previously disconnected, yet related, networks in a common battle space picture. In doing so, DYGRAF provides the analyst with timely situation awareness, understanding and anticipation of threats, and support for effective decision-making in diverse environments.

  6. Regime transition in electromechanical fluid atomization and implications to analyte ionization for mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Thomas P; Degertekin, F Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G

    2010-11-01

    The physical processes governing the transition from purely mechanical ejection to electromechanical ejection to electrospraying are investigated through complementary scaling analysis and optical visualization. Experimental characterization and visualization are performed with the ultrasonically-driven array of micromachined ultrasonic electrospray (AMUSE) ion source to decouple the electrical and mechanical fields. A new dimensionless parameter, the Fenn number, is introduced to define a transition between the spray regimes, in terms of its dependence on the characteristic Strouhal number for the ejection process. A fundamental relationship between the Fenn and Strouhal numbers is theoretically derived and confirmed experimentally in spraying liquid electrolytes of different ionic strength subjected to a varying magnitude electric field. This relationship and the basic understanding of the charged droplet generation physics have direct implications on the optimal ionization efficiency and mass spectrometric response for different types of analytes. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Non invasive analysis of miniature paintings: Proposal for an analytical protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceto, Maurizio; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Gulmini, Monica; Bianco, Valentina; Pellizzi, Eleonora

    2012-06-01

    The characterisation of palettes used in manuscript illumination is a hard analytical task, due to value and fragility of the analysed items. Analysis on miniatures must be necessarily non-invasive and fast and requires the use of several techniques since no single technique is able to provide all information needed. In this work a four-step analytical protocol is proposed for non-invasive in situ characterisation of miniature paintings. The protocol allows the identification of coloured materials through the use in sequence of complementary techniques, so as to fully exploit the information given by each instrument. Preliminarily to the instrumental investigations on ancient books and miniatures is the compilation of spectroscopic databases obtained from "standard" samples prepared on parchment, according to recipes described in medieval artistic treatises. The protocol starts with an extensive investigation with UV-visible spectrophotometry in reflectance mode, collecting spectra from all the most significant painted areas in the manuscript; chemometric classification is then performed on the spectra to highlight areas possibly containing the same materials. The second step involves in-depth inspection of miniatures under optical microscopy that guides the interpretation of reflectance spectra. XRF spectrometry is then performed to characterise pigments and metal layers, to verify the presence of overlapping layers, to identify mordants in lakes and to recognise minor components that may yield information concerning provenance; in addition, chemometric classification can be performed on element concentrations to highlight similar areas. Finally, Raman spectroscopy is used to shed light on the uncertain cases, if still present. Such a procedure offers a wealth of information without causing stress to the manuscripts under analysis.

  8. Cephalometrics of anterior open bite: a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.

    PubMed

    Wardlaw, D W; Smith, R J; Hertweck, D W; Hildebolt, C F

    1992-03-01

    A new approach is presented for the evaluation of cephalometric measurements in which a measurement is considered to be a diagnostic test for the presence or the absence of some component of malocclusion. This approach allows cephalometric measurements to be judged by the criteria that are generally used for clinical diagnostic tests, including determination of sensitivities, specificities, positive and negative predictive values, and, most important, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. In this study, ROC curves are generated for the relationship between several skeletal cephalometric measurements and anterior dental open bite in a sample of 1541 orthodontic patients. The overbite depth indicator is found to be a better diagnostic criterion for the presence of dental open bite than any other commonly used skeletal cephalometric measurement or ratio. ROC curves are of substantial value for evaluating the diagnostic information of cephalometric measurements.

  9. Characterization of impulse noise and analysis of its effect upon correlation receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, R. C.; Moore, J. D.

    1971-01-01

    A noise model is formulated to describe the impulse noise in many digital systems. A simplified model, which assumes that each noise burst contains a randomly weighted version of the same basic waveform, is used to derive the performance equations for a correlation receiver. The expected number of bit errors per noise burst is expressed as a function of the average signal energy, signal-set correlation coefficient, bit time, noise-weighting-factor variance and probability density function, and a time range function which depends on the crosscorrelation of the signal-set basis functions and the noise waveform. A procedure is established for extending the results for the simplified noise model to the general model. Unlike the performance results for Gaussian noise, it is shown that for impulse noise the error performance is affected by the choice of signal-set basis functions and that Orthogonal signaling is not equivalent to On-Off signaling with the same average energy.

  10. Crustal structure of north Peru from analysis of teleseismic receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condori, Cristobal; França, George S.; Tavera, Hernando J.; Albuquerque, Diogo F.; Bishop, Brandon T.; Beck, Susan L.

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we present results from teleseismic receiver functions, in order to investigate the crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio beneath northern Peru. A total number of 981 receiver functions were analyzed, from data recorded by 28 broadband seismic stations from the Peruvian permanent seismic network, the regional temporary SisNort network and one CTBTO station. The Moho depth and average crustal Vp/Vs ratio were determined at each station using the H-k stacking technique to identify the arrival times of primary P to S conversion and crustal reverberations (PpPms, PpSs + PsPms). The results show that the Moho depth correlates well with the surface topography and varies significantly from west to east, showing a shallow depth of around 25 km near the coast, a maximum depth of 55-60 km beneath the Andean Cordillera, and a depth of 35-40 km further to the east in the Amazonian Basin. The bulk crustal Vp/Vs ratio ranges between 1.60 and 1.88 with the mean of 1.75. Higher values between 1.75 and 1.88 are found beneath the Eastern and Western Cordilleras, consistent with a mafic composition in the lower crust. In contrast values vary from 1.60 to 1.75 in the extreme flanks of the Eastern and Western Cordillera indicating a felsic composition. We find a positive relationship between crustal thickness, Vp/Vs ratio, the Bouguer anomaly, and topography. These results are consistent with previous studies in other parts of Peru (central and southern regions) and provide the first crustal thickness estimates for the high cordillera in northern Peru.

  11. Use of Oritavancin in Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections Patients Receiving Intravenous Antibiotics: A US Hospital Budget Impact Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Ivar S; Lodise, Thomas P; Fan, Weihong; Wu, Chining; Cyr, Philip L; Nicolau, David P; DuFour, Scott; Sulham, Katherine A

    2016-02-01

    Nearly 10% of all US hospital admissions are attributed to acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs). While most antibacterials used to treat these infections require multi-day and multi-dose regimens, a single-dose treatment is now available. The objective of this analysis is to estimate the annual budget impact of using single-dose oritavancin in patients with moderate to severe ABSSSIs receiving intravenous methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-active antibacterials from a US hospital perspective. A decision-analytic model based on current clinical practice was developed to estimate the economic impact of oritavancin. Utilization of antibacterials and rates of hospital admission were derived from the Premier Research Database. Demographic and clinical data were informed by the published literature and 2014 wholesale drug acquisition costs were used. Other costs were based on the published literature and Medicare National Limitation amounts. All costs were inflated to 2014 US dollars. Two base-case scenarios were considered: one for hospitals with ambulatory services and one for hospitals without ambulatory services. For a US hospital with ambulatory services with 1000 ABSSSI patients receiving intravenous MRSA antibiotics annually, use of oritavancin in 26% of patients is estimated to reduce the total annual budget by 12.9% (US$1.23 million), or approximately US$1234.67 per patient. Total inpatient costs will be reduced by 22.3% (US$1.40 million) and outpatient costs will increase slightly by 1.7% (US$55,310). Pharmaceutical cost increases are offset by savings in the inpatient setting from fewer hospital admissions. Hospitals without ambulatory services are estimated to receive overall cost savings of 9.3% (US$0.63 million). Use of single-dose oritavancin in select ABSSSI patients with suspected or confirmed MRSA involvement is estimated to save US hospitals approximately 9.3-12.9% per year by reducing hospital admissions and

  12. Laser-induced Breakdown spectroscopy quantitative analysis method via adaptive analytical line selection and relevance vector machine regression model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianhong; Yi, Cancan; Xu, Jinwu; Ma, Xianghong

    2015-05-01

    A new LIBS quantitative analysis method based on analytical line adaptive selection and Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) regression model is proposed. First, a scheme of adaptively selecting analytical line is put forward in order to overcome the drawback of high dependency on a priori knowledge. The candidate analytical lines are automatically selected based on the built-in characteristics of spectral lines, such as spectral intensity, wavelength and width at half height. The analytical lines which will be used as input variables of regression model are determined adaptively according to the samples for both training and testing. Second, an LIBS quantitative analysis method based on RVM is presented. The intensities of analytical lines and the elemental concentrations of certified standard samples are used to train the RVM regression model. The predicted elemental concentration analysis results will be given with a form of confidence interval of probabilistic distribution, which is helpful for evaluating the uncertainness contained in the measured spectra. Chromium concentration analysis experiments of 23 certified standard high-alloy steel samples have been carried out. The multiple correlation coefficient of the prediction was up to 98.85%, and the average relative error of the prediction was 4.01%. The experiment results showed that the proposed LIBS quantitative analysis method achieved better prediction accuracy and better modeling robustness compared with the methods based on partial least squares regression, artificial neural network and standard support vector machine.

  13. Familiarity Vs Trust: A Comparative Study of Domain Scientists' Trust in Visual Analytics and Conventional Analysis Methods.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Aritra; Lee, Joon-Yong; Wilson, Ryan; Lafrance, Robert A; Cramer, Nick; Cook, Kristin; Payne, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Combining interactive visualization with automated analytical methods like statistics and data mining facilitates data-driven discovery. These visual analytic methods are beginning to be instantiated within mixed-initiative systems, where humans and machines collaboratively influence evidence-gathering and decision-making. But an open research question is that, when domain experts analyze their data, can they completely trust the outputs and operations on the machine-side? Visualization potentially leads to a transparent analysis process, but do domain experts always trust what they see? To address these questions, we present results from the design and evaluation of a mixed-initiative, visual analytics system for biologists, focusing on analyzing the relationships between familiarity of an analysis medium and domain experts' trust. We propose a trust-augmented design of the visual analytics system, that explicitly takes into account domain-specific tasks, conventions, and preferences. For evaluating the system, we present the results of a controlled user study with 34 biologists where we compare the variation of the level of trust across conventional and visual analytic mediums and explore the influence of familiarity and task complexity on trust. We find that despite being unfamiliar with a visual analytic medium, scientists seem to have an average level of trust that is comparable with the same in conventional analysis medium. In fact, for complex sense-making tasks, we find that the visual analytic system is able to inspire greater trust than other mediums. We summarize the implications of our findings with directions for future research on trustworthiness of visual analytic systems.

  14. Patients Receiving Prebiotics and Probiotics Before Liver Transplantation Develop Fewer Infections Than Controls: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sawas, Tarek; Al Halabi, Shadi; Hernaez, Ruben; Carey, William D; Cho, Won Kyoo

    2015-09-01

    Among patients who have received liver transplants, infections increase morbidity and mortality and prolong hospital stays. Administration of antibiotics and surgical trauma create intestinal barrier dysfunction and microbial imbalances that allow enteric bacteria to translocate to the blood. Probiotics are believed to prevent bacterial translocation by stabilizing the intestinal barrier and stimulating proliferation of the intestinal epithelium, mucus secretion, and motility. We performed a meta-analysis to determine the effects of probiotics on infections in patients receiving liver transplants. We searched PubMed and EMBASE for controlled trials that evaluated the effects of prebiotics and probiotics on infections in patients who underwent liver transplantation. Heterogeneity was analyzed by the Cochran Q statistic. Pooled Mantel-Haenszel relative risks were calculated with a fixed-effects model. We identified 4 controlled studies, comprising 246 participants (123 received probiotics, 123 served as controls), for inclusion in the meta-analysis. In these studies, the intervention groups received enteric nutrition and fiber (prebiotics) with probiotics, and the control groups received only enteric nutrition and fiber without probiotics. The infection rate was 7% in groups that received probiotics vs 35% in control groups (relative risk [RR], 0.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.41; P = .001). The number needed to treat to prevent 1 infection was 3.6. In subgroup analyses, only 2% of subjects in the probiotic groups developed urinary tract infections, compared with 16% of controls (RR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.04-0.47; P < .001); only 2% of subjects in the probiotic groups developed intra-abdominal infections, compared with 11% of controls (RR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.09-0.78; P = .02). Subjects receiving probiotics also had shorter stays in the hospital than controls (mean difference, 1.41 d; P < .001), as well as in the intensive care unit (mean difference, 1.41 d; P

  15. The Analytic Onion: Examining Training Issues from Different Levels of Analysis. Interim Technical Paper for Period July 1989-June 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Theodore A.; Chin, Keric B. O.

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework based on different levels of analysis using the metaphor of the layers of an onion to help organize and structure thinking on research issues concerning training. It discusses the core of the "analytic onion," the biological level, and seven levels of analysis that surround that core: the individual, the…

  16. Development of a geovisual analytics environment using parallel coordinates with applications to tropical cyclone trend analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steed, Chad Allen

    A global transformation is being fueled by unprecedented growth in the quality, quantity, and number of different parameters in environmental data through the convergence of several technological advances in data collection and modeling. Although these data hold great potential for helping us understand many complex and, in some cases, life-threatening environmental processes, our ability to generate such data is far outpacing our ability to analyze it. In particular, conventional environmental data analysis tools are inadequate for coping with the size and complexity of these data. As a result, users are forced to reduce the problem in order to adapt to the capabilities of the tools. To overcome these limitations, we must complement the power of computational methods with human knowledge, flexible thinking, imagination, and our capacity for insight by developing visual analysis tools that distill information into the actionable criteria needed for enhanced decision support. In light of said challenges, we have integrated automated statistical analysis capabilities with a highly interactive, multivariate visualization interface to produce a promising approach for visual environmental data analysis. By combining advanced interaction techniques such as dynamic axis scaling, conjunctive parallel coordinates, statistical indicators, and aerial perspective shading, we provide an enhanced variant of the classical parallel coordinates plot. Furthermore, the system facilitates statistical processes such as stepwise linear regression and correlation analysis to assist in the identification and quantification of the most significant predictors for a particular dependent variable. These capabilities are combined into a unique geovisual analytics system that is demonstrated via a pedagogical case study and three North Atlantic tropical cyclone climate studies using a systematic workflow. In addition to revealing several significant associations between environmental

  17. Efficiency of Analytical Methodologies in Uncertainty Analysis of Seismic Core Damage Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Kenji; Uchiyama, Tomoaki; Muramatsu, Ken

    Fault Tree and Event Tree analysis is almost exclusively relied upon in the assessments of seismic Core Damage Frequency (CDF). In this approach, Direct Quantification of Fault tree using Monte Carlo simulation (DQFM) method, or simply called Monte Carlo (MC) method, and Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) method were introduced as alternatives for a traditional approximation method, namely Minimal Cut Set (MCS) method. However, there is still no agreement as to which method should be used in a risk assessment of seismic CDF, especially for uncertainty analysis. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficiencies of the three methods in uncertainty analysis as well as in point estimation so that the decision of selecting a proper method can be made effectively. The results show that the most efficient method would be BDD method in terms of accuracy and computational time. However, it will be discussed that BDD method is not always applicable to PSA models while MC method is so in theory. In turn, MC method was confirmed to agree with the exact solution obtained by BDD method, but it took a large amount of time, in particular for uncertainty analysis. On the other hand, it was shown that the approximation error of MCS method may not be as bad in uncertainty analysis as it is in point estimation. Based on these results and previous works, this paper will propose a scheme to select an appropriate analytical method for a seismic PSA study. Throughout this study, SECOM2-DQFM code was expanded to be able to utilize BDD method and to conduct uncertainty analysis with both MC and BDD method.

  18. Improved gas chromatography-flame ionization detector analytical method for the analysis of epoxy fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Mubiru, Edward; Shrestha, Kshitij; Papastergiadis, Antonios; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2013-11-29

    In this study an improved method for analysis of epoxy fatty acids is reported. Data obtained from analysis of polar fatty acids has previously been presented, but due to the high number of compounds that co-elute in the polar fraction, the resultant chromatograms are complex which may lead to compromising the accuracy of the data. A three steps separation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) by solid-phase extraction (SPE) on a silica gel column to remove hydroxy fatty acid interferences was proposed. This approach is opposed to a two step separation procedure that has been often used to prevent analytical interferences caused by non-altered fatty acids. A gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) equipped with a polar CP-Sil 88™ column was used. Quantification was based on the use of methyl nonadecanoate (C19:0), as an internal standard. Individual mono epoxy fatty acids were well separated without co-eluting compounds. The optimized method was finally applied to screen epoxy fatty acids in 37 fresh oil samples. Results obtained for the total epoxy fatty acids were in the range 0.03-2mgg(-1) of oil with repeatability coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 2.8 to 9.9% for duplicate analysis showing that the results obtained are repeatable.

  19. Comparison of three prospective analytical methods for benzene analysis in jet-fuel environments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, M.A.

    1990-08-01

    Accurate analysis of benzene in jet fuel has been a concern over the past several years. The method we have been using to analyze benzene in jet fuel is the NIOSH 1501 method, a method specifically designed for aromatic hydrocarbons including benzene. However, the method is not designed for analysis of benzene in jet fuel environments. At the present time there is no approved (either by NIOSH or OSHA) method for analysis of benzene in fuel environments. At the request of HQ AAC/SGPB, we recently conducted a study to compare three prospective analytical methods (NIOSH method 1501 (GC/FID wtih packed column) modified NIOSH 1501 method (GC/FID with capillary column), and High Pressure Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet Detection (HPLC/UV)). In this study spiked charcoal tube samples as well as air samples of known concentrations of benzene in JP-4 and Stoddard Solvents were analyzed by all three methods. The test results showed that modified NIOSH 1501 and HPLC methods had good correlation between spiked and measured amount of benzene in JP-4 and Stoddard Solvent mixtures. The NIOSH 1501 method utilizing packed column over estimated the test benzene concentration indicating positive interference from other hydrocarbons present in JP 4 and Stoddard Solvents.

  20. Crustal thickness estimation in the Maule Region (Chile) from P-wave receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannowski, A.; Grevemeyer, I.; Thorwart, M. M.; Rabbel, W.; Flueh, E. R.

    2010-12-01

    A temporary passive seismic network of 31 broad-band stations was deployed in the region around Talca and Constitución between 35°S to 36°S latitude and 71°W to 72.5°W longitude. The network was operated between March and October 2008. Thus, we recorded data prior the magnitude Mw=8.8 earthquake of 27 February 2010 at a latitude of the major slip and surface uplift. The experiment was conducted to address fundamental questions on deformation processes, crustal and mantle structures, and fluid flow. We present first results of a teleseismic P receiver function study that covers the coastal region and reaches to the Andes. The aim is to determine the structure and thickness of the continental crust and constrain the state of hydration of the mantle wedge. The P-wave receiver function technique requires large teleseismic earthquakes from different distances and backazimuths. A few percent of the incident P-wave energy from a teleseismic event will be converted into S-wave (Ps) at significant and relatively sharp discontinuities beneath the station. A small converted S phase is produced that arrives at the station within the P wave coda directly after the direct P-wave. The converted Ps phase and their crustal multiples contain information about crustal properties, such as Moho depth and the crustal vp/vs ratio. We use teleseismic events with magnitudes mb > 5.5 at epicentral distances between 30° and 95° to examine P-to-S converted seismic phases. Our preliminary results provide new information about the thickness of the continental crust beneath the coastal region in Central Chile. At most of the stations we observed significant energy from P to S converted waves between 4 and 5 s after the direct P-wave within a positive phase interpreted as the Moho, occurring at 35 to 40 km. Thus, the great Maule earthquake of 27 February 2010 nucleated up-dip of the continental Moho and hence ruptured along a plate contact between subducted sediments and continental crust

  1. Do people with mental illness receive adequate smoking cessation advice? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Alex J; Vancampfort, Davy; De Hert, Marc; Stubbs, Brendon

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence rates of smoking in people with mental illness are high, and premature mortality attributed to tobacco related physical comorbidity is a major concern. We conducted a meta-analysis comparing rates of receipt of smoking cessation advice among people with and without mental illness. Major electronic databases were searched from inception till August 2014 for studies comparing rates of receipt of smoking cessation advice of people with and without a mental illness. Two independent authors completed methodological appraisal and extracted data. A random-effects meta-analysis was utilized. Seven studies of satisfactory methodological quality (n mental illness=68,811, n control=652,847) were included. Overall there was no significant difference in smoking cessation advice rates between those with and without a mental illness [relative risk (RR)=1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.94-1.11, n=721,658, Q=1421, P<.001]. Subgroup analyses demonstrated people with severe mental illness (SMI) received comparable rates of smoking cessation advice to those without SMI (RR=1.09, 95% CI=0.98-1.2, n=559,122). This remained true for people with schizophrenia (RR=1.09, 95% CI=0.68-1.70) and bipolar disorder (RR=1.14, 95% CI=0.85-1.5). People with non-SMIs were slightly more likely to receive smoking cessation advice (RR=1.16, 95% CI=1.04-1.30, Q=1364, P<.001, n=580,206). People with SMI receive similar smoking cessation advice rates to people without mental illness, while those with non-SMI are slightly more likely to receive smoking cessation advice. While progress has been made, offering smoking cessation advice should receive a higher priority in everyday clinical practice for patients with a mental health diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A simulation analysis of phase processing circuitry in the Ohio University Omega receiver prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palkovic, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A FORTRAN IV simulation study of the all-digital phase-processing circuitry is described. A digital phase-lock loop (DPLL) forms the heart of the Omega navigation receiver prototype, and through the DPLL, the phase of the 10.2 KHz Omega signal was estimated when the true signal phase is contaminated with noise. The DPLL uses a frequency synthesizer as the reference oscillator. The synthesizer is composed of synchronous rate multipliers (SRM's) driven by a temperature-compensated crystal oscillator, and the use of the SRM's in this application introduces phase jitter which degrades system performance. Simulation of the frequency synthesizer discussed was to analyze the circuits on a bit-by-bit level in order to evaluate the overall design, to see easily the effects of proposed design changes prior to actual breadboarding, to determine the optimum integration time for the DPLL in an environment typical of general aviation conditions, and to quantify the phase error introduced by the SRM synthesizer and examine its effect on the system.

  3. Structure of the Los Angeles Basin from Ambient Noise and Receiver Function Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, R. W.; Ma, Y.; Cochran, E. S.

    2015-12-01

    We show the results from the LASSIE seismic experiment, which consists of a dense (1-km spacing) linear array of broadband stations deployed across the LA basin for approximately two months. Two common methods - ambient noise and receiver function (RF) - are applied to determine the velocity and structure of the basin. The basin RFs are complicated, however, the dense array enhances the lateral coherence of the signals and allows the structure to be imaged. The basement shape is clearly shown in the migrated image of the PpPs phase. The Ps conversion at the basement is the largest signal (including the direct wave) in the first 3 s. However, the Ps phase does not form as clear an image compared with the PpPs phase, possibly due to a requirement of more accurate velocity model. The surface wave signals from the ambient noise cross-correlations between LASSIE and surrounding SCSN stations are used for velocity inversion. A linear Dix-type inversion (Haney and Tsai, 2015, Geophysics) is applied to the extracted dispersion curves. The 1-10 s period Rayleigh wave and the 1-8 s period Love wave dispersion curves provide excellent constraints on top 5 km SV and top 3 km SH velocity structures respectively. Strong anisotropy (SV > SH) is observed for the top 1 km, and we plan to use this result to infer the fracture orientation and density of the shallow sedimentary rocks.

  4. Outcomes for adult scoliosis patients receiving chiropractic rehabilitation: a 24-month retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morningstar, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to retrospectively report the results of patients who completed an exercise-based chiropractic program and its potential to alter the natural progression of adult scoliosis at 24 months after the clinic portion of treatment was concluded. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted at 2 spine clinics in Michigan, USA. Each clinic uses the same chiropractic rehabilitation program to treat patients with adult scoliosis. Multidimensional patient outcomes included radiographic, respiratory, disability, and pain parameters. Outcomes were measured at baseline, at end of active treatment, and at long-term follow-up. Results A total of 28 patients fit the inclusion criteria for the study. The average beginning primary Cobb angle was 44° ± 6°. Patients received the same chiropractic rehabilitation program for approximately 6 months. At the end of active treatment, improvements were recorded in Cobb angle, pain scores, spirometry, and disability rating. All radiographic findings were maintained at 24-month follow-up. Conclusion This report is among the first to demonstrate sustained radiographic, self-rated, and physiologic benefits after treatment ceased. After completion of a multimodal chiropractic rehabilitation treatment, a retrospective cohort of 28 adult scoliosis patients reported improvements in pain, Cobb angle, and disability immediately following the conclusion of treatment and 24 months later. PMID:22014907

  5. Crustal Structure in Southern Korea From Joint Analysis of Teleseismic Receiver Functions and Surface Wave Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S.; Baag, C.

    2004-12-01

    We estimated crustal structures at eighteen broadband stations in southern Korea by combining receiver functions and surface wave dispersion with the genetic algorithm (GA). The trend of the Moho depths estimated from the GA inversion generally coincides with the topography of the surface, ranging from 26 km to 36 km in inland. However, the Moho depth distribution does not agree with the topography in the region around the Chugaryeong Fault located approximately in NNE-SSW direction in the central area of the Korean peninsula. The shallow Moho depth under this region may be related to magmatic rift and consequential crustal thinning processes along the fault caused by an extensional tectonic movement. Another discrepancy is found in the Gyeongsang Basin, which was formed by the sedimentary deposits accumulated during Cretaceous extension caused by retroarc environment. The thick crust may be caused by both the maturity of basin and underplating of magma materials after the closure of the basin. The average crustal velocity is variable from 6.02 km/sec to 6.51 km/sec over southern Korea. This indicates that crustal structures in southern Korea involve diverse velocity profiles, changing rapidly with distance. It is also a remarkable phenomenon that an obvious discontinuity of the velocity is observed at 8-10 km depths under several stations.

  6. Preoperative risk analysis in patients receiving Jarvik-7 artificial heart as a bridge to transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, A T; Cabrol, C; Gandjbackhch, I; Pavie, A; Bors, V; Muneretto, C

    1991-01-01

    To distinguish high-risk patients prior to implantation of a Jarvik-7 artificial heart as a bridge to transplantation, our 37 attempts were reviewed retrospectively. Arbitrary scores of 1 to 4 were given for nine preoperative factors on the basis of results obtained by uni- and multivariate analyses between successful cases and failed attempts; transplant rejection (scored 4: S4) or postoperative heart failure (S3) as the indication, recipient height less than 175 cm (S3), body surface area less than 1.8 m2 (S3), hyperbilirubinemia greater than 24 microM/l (S2), preoperative renal failure requiring dialysis (S2), weight less than 60 kg (S2), and age greater than 40 years (S1). All except one of the 16 patients with successful bridge had a total score of less than 4, with an average score of 1.3 in contrast to 6.6 in the 21 failed cases (p less than 0.001). Among the 17 patients who scored less than 4, 15 received transplants (specificity 90%), while only one qualified for transplantation among 20 patients who scored 4 or more (sensitivity 94%). The two unpredicted failures resulted from mediastinitis and pulmonary infarction, both attributable to postoperative management. Multiple preoperative factors in combination could have successfully predicted the outcome of mechanical support in our experience. These results underscore the importance of patient selection to achieve successful and effective use of the Jarvik-7 as a bridge to heart transplantation.

  7. Analytical Aspects of EPMA for Trace Element Analysis in Complex Accessory Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jercinovic, M. J.; Williams, M. L.; Lane, E.

    2007-12-01

    High-resolution microanalysis of complex REE-bearing accessory phases is becoming increasingly necessary for insight into the chronology of phase growth and tectonic histories, and in understanding the mechanisms and manifestations of growth and dissolution reactions. The in-situ analysis of very small grains, inclusions, and sub-domains is revolutionizing our understanding of the evolution of complexly deformed, multiply metamorphosed, rocks. Great progress has been made in refining analytical protocols, and improvements in instrumentation have yielded unprecedented analytical precision and spatial resolution. As signal/noise improves, complexity is revealed, illustrating the level of care that must go into obtaining meaningful results, and in adopting an appropriate approach to minimize error. Background measurement is most critical for low concentration elements. Errors on net intensity values resulting from improper background measurement alone can exceed 50% relative. Regression and modeling of the background spectrum is essential, and must be carried out independently for each spectrometer, regardless of instrument. In complex materials such as REE- bearing phosphates, high concentrations of REEs and actinides create difficult analytical challenges as numerous emission lines and absorption edges cause great spectral complexity. In addition, trace concentrations of "unexpected" emission lines such as those from sulfur, or fluoresced from nearby phases (Ti, K), cause interferences on both measured peaks and background regions which can result in very large errors on target elements (U, Pb, etc.), on the order of 10s to 100s of ppm. Characteristic X-ray emission involving electron transitions from the valence shell are subject to measureable peak shifts, in some cases significantly affecting the accuracy of results if not accounted for. Geochronology by EPMA involves careful measurement of all constituent elements, with the calculated date dependant on the

  8. Latent Class Analysis of Conduct Problems of Elementary Students Receiving Special Education Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toupin, Jean; Déry, Michèle; Verlaan, Pierrette; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Lecocq, Aurélie; Jagiellowicz, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    Students with conduct problems (CPs) may present heterogeneity in terms of behavioral manifestations and service needs. Previous studies using Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to capture this heterogeneity have been conducted mostly with community samples and have often applied a narrow definition of CP. Considering this context, this study…

  9. Latent Class Analysis of Conduct Problems of Elementary Students Receiving Special Education Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toupin, Jean; Déry, Michèle; Verlaan, Pierrette; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Lecocq, Aurélie; Jagiellowicz, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    Students with conduct problems (CPs) may present heterogeneity in terms of behavioral manifestations and service needs. Previous studies using Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to capture this heterogeneity have been conducted mostly with community samples and have often applied a narrow definition of CP. Considering this context, this study…

  10. Automated Tools for Test and Analysis of Radar Warning Receiver Software.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    software requirements for the Data Extraction and Analysis system. The requirements were derived from the user, environmental , and other requirements...transform[rwr] := RWR ’ transform~ quiti : ’QUIT repeat helplevel =min; good..input :-false; (loop until valid command) while not good-..input do begin write

  11. Analysis and design of a 1.8-2.7 GHz tunable 8-band TDD LTE receiver front-end

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Wang; Yuji, Wang; Weiwei, Wang; Xuegui, Chang; Na, Yan; Xi, Tan; Hao, Min

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes the analysis and design of a 0.13 μm CMOS tunable receiver front-end that supports 8 TDD LTE bands, covering the 1.8-2.7 GHz frequency band and supporting the 5/10/15/20 MHz bandwidth and QPSK/16QAM/64QAM modulation schemes. The novel zero-IF receiver core consists of a tunable narrowband variable gain low-noise amplifier (LNA), a current commutating passive down-conversion mixer with a 2nd order low pass trans-impedance amplifier, an LO divider, a rough gain step variable gain pre-amplifier, a tunable 4th order Chebyshev channel select active-RC low pass filter with cutoff frequency calibration circuit and a fine gain step variable gain amplifier. The LNA can be tuned by reconfiguring the output parallel LC tank to the responding frequency band, eliminating the fixed center frequency multiple LNA array for a multi-mode receiver. The large various gain range and bandwidth of the analog baseband can also be tuned by digital configuration to satisfy the specification requirement of various bandwidth and modulation schemes. The test chip is implemented in an SMIC 0.13 μm 1P8M CMOS process. The full receiver achieves 4.6 dB NF, -14.5 dBm out of band IIP3, 30-94 dB gain range and consumes 54 mA with a 1.2 V power supply.

  12. Analysis of structural dynamic data from Skylab. Volume 2: Skylab analytical and test modal data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demchak, L.; Harcrow, H.

    1976-01-01

    A compendium is presented of orbital configuration test modal data, analytical test modal data, analytical test correlation modal data and analytical flight configuration 1.2 modal data. Section A presents tables showing the generalized mass contributions for each of the thirty test modes. Section B presents the two dimensional mode shape plots for the thirty test modes. Tables of GMC's for the test correlated analytical modes are presented in Section C. These analytical modes were generated from a model that was adjusted to match test results by use of the methodology discussed in Sections 2.3 and 5.4 of Volume I of this report. Section D presents the two dimensional mode shape plots for the analytical modes. Sections E and F contain the uncoupled and coupled modes of the orbital flight configuration 1.2 at three development phases of the model.

  13. Retrospective case-control analysis of patients with staphylococcal infections receiving daptomycin or glycopeptide therapy.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Marco; Russo, Alessandro; Pompeo, Maria Elena; Vena, Antonio; Marruncheddu, Laura; Ciccaglioni, Antonio; Grossi, Paolo; Mancini, Carlo; Novelli, Andrea; Stefani, Stefania; Venditti, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Glycopeptides have been considered the antimicrobials of choice for serious meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and meticillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS) infections for several years. Daptomycin is a new option for the treatment of these infections, including those exhibiting reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides. The aim of this study was to compare glycopeptides and daptomycin for the treatment of infections caused by MRSA or MR-CoNS. Data for 106 patients with bloodstream infections (bacteraemia or infective endocarditis) or skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) were retrospectively reviewed, of which 43 were treated with daptomycin (DAP group) and 63 were treated with vancomycin or teicoplanin (GLYCO group). Patients included in the two comparison groups were homogeneous in terms of age, risk factors and clinical severity. Aetiology was mainly represented by MRSA in both groups, followed by various species of MR-CoNS. Daptomycin was used more frequently in patients with central venous catheter-associated bacteraemia or pacemaker-associated infection. Patients with SSTIs included in the GLYCO group had a longer mean duration of antibiotic therapy (18.2 days vs. 14.6 days; P=0.009) and a longer mean length of hospital stay (28.2 days vs. 19.6 days; P=0.01) compared with those included in the DAP group. A longer mean duration of antibiotic therapy was also observed in patients with bloodstream infections receiving glycopeptide therapy (25.6 days vs. 18 days; P=0.004). In conclusion, the good clinical efficacy of daptomycin is associated with a more rapid resolution of the clinical syndrome and a reduced length of hospitalisation. This latter aspect may have important pharmacoeconomic implications, promoting the use of daptomycin in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk factors influencing BRONJ staging in patients receiving intravenous bisphosphonates: a multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Nisi, M; La Ferla, F; Karapetsa, D; Gennai, S; Miccoli, M; Baggiani, A; Graziani, F; Gabriele, M

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine, retrospectively, the influence of various risk factors on the staging of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) in a population attending a department of dentistry and oral surgery in Italy. Data were collected from the electronic and paper medical records of 90 patients receiving intravenous bisphosphonates. Two experienced and calibrated examiners used the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons updated 2009 classification to record the stage of BRONJ lesions. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression was performed to determine individual risk factors negatively affecting BRONJ staging. The factors associated with a worse BRONJ staging were high bisphosphonate cumulative dose (odds ratio (OR) 1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-2.82; P=0.04), smoking (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.03-2.80; P=0.04), steroid intake (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.00-2.87; P=0.05), and a maxillary location of the lesion (OR 3.50, 95% CI 1.81-6.77; P<0.01). Tooth extraction was the event that most negatively influenced BRONJ staging (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.00-2.81; P=0.05), in comparison to other events such as prosthetic trauma, implant treatment, oro-dental infection, and periodontal disease. Certain clinical and medical risk factors may determine a more severe staging of BRONJ lesions. Future studies are necessary to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermal analysis of void cavity for heat pipe receiver under microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Xiaohong; Song, Xiange; Nie, Baisheng

    2017-04-01

    Based on theoretical analysis of PCM (Phase Change Material) solidification process, the model of improved void cavity distribution tending to high temperature region is established. Numerical results are compared with NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) results. Analysis results show that the outer wall temperature, the melting ratio of PCM and the temperature gradient of PCM canister, have great difference in different void cavity distribution. The form of void distribution has a great effect on the process of phase change. Based on simulation results under the model of improved void cavity distribution, phase change heat transfer process in thermal storage container is analyzed. The main goal of the improved designing for PCM canister is to take measures in reducing the concentration distribution of void cavity by adding some foam metal into phase change material.

  16. A Bayesian Hierarchical Non-Linear Regression Model in Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis of Clustered Continuous Diagnostic Data

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Kelly H.; O’Malley, A. James

    2005-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is a useful evaluative method of diagnostic accuracy. A Bayesian hierarchical nonlinear regression model for ROC analysis was developed. A validation analysis of diagnostic accuracy was conducted using prospective multi-center clinical trial prostate cancer biopsy data collected from three participating centers. The gold standard was based on radical prostatectomy to determine local and advanced disease. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of PSA level at fixed levels of Gleason score, a normality transformation was applied to the outcome data. A hierarchical regression analysis incorporating the effects of cluster (clinical center) and cancer risk (low, intermediate, and high) was performed, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was estimated. PMID:16161801

  17. An Analysis of Coherent and Differentially Coherent Digital Receivers in the Presence of Colored Noise Interference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying ( OQPSK ) and Minimum Shift Keying (MSK). The analysis presented here ser\\as only to highlight 11 iJ-’J^’iM...SHIFT KEYING Quadrature Phase Shift Keyed (QPSK) modulation is a special case of MPSK modulation where M = 4. Offset QPSK ( OQPSK ) is a special case...furthermore a special case of OQPSK in which sinusoidal pulse weighting prior to carrier modulation produces a more compact signal spectrum making

  18. Elastoplastic buckling analysis of cylindrical shells using a semi-analytical formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deerenberg, E.

    1994-10-01

    In this thesis, a semi-analytical formulation for the buckling analysis of circular cylindrical shells is described that takes into account the combined effects of initial geometric imperfections, elastoplastic material behavior and boundary conditions. The model is based on small strains-moderate rotations shell theory. The governing equations are formulated as a coupled set of first-order ordinary differential and algebraic equations. The basic variables in these equations are the variables that can be prescribed at the shell edges. The model described in this thesis is valid for cylinders with a multi-layer wall construction that may be loaded by axial compression, external pressure and/or torsion. The governing differential/algebraic equations are solved using Newton-type iteration methods. Separate equations are formulated for the bifurcation analysis of axisymmetric prebuckling states and an efficient solution method for the eigenvalue problem is described. The correctness of the formulation is checked by analyzing a number of elastic and elastoplastic buckling problems of perfect and imperfect shells.

  19. Selection of infectious medical waste disposal firms by using the analytic hierarchy process and sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, P.-F. Wu, C.-R. Li, Y.-T.

    2008-07-01

    While Taiwanese hospitals dispose of large amounts of medical waste to ensure sanitation and personal hygiene, doing so inefficiently creates potential environmental hazards and increases operational expenses. However, hospitals lack objective criteria to select the most appropriate waste disposal firm and evaluate its performance, instead relying on their own subjective judgment and previous experiences. Therefore, this work presents an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method to objectively select medical waste disposal firms based on the results of interviews with experts in the field, thus reducing overhead costs and enhancing medical waste management. An appropriate weight criterion based on AHP is derived to assess the effectiveness of medical waste disposal firms. The proposed AHP-based method offers a more efficient and precise means of selecting medical waste firms than subjective assessment methods do, thus reducing the potential risks for hospitals. Analysis results indicate that the medical sector selects the most appropriate infectious medical waste disposal firm based on the following rank: matching degree, contractor's qualifications, contractor's service capability, contractor's equipment and economic factors. By providing hospitals with an effective means of evaluating medical waste disposal firms, the proposed AHP method can reduce overhead costs and enable medical waste management to understand the market demand in the health sector. Moreover, performed through use of Expert Choice software, sensitivity analysis can survey the criterion weight of the degree of influence with an alternative hierarchy.

  20. Analytical determination of flavonoids aimed to analysis of natural samples and active packaging applications.

    PubMed

    Castro-López, María del Mar; López-Vilariño, José Manuel; González-Rodríguez, María Victoria

    2014-05-01

    Several HPLC and UHPLC developed methods were compared to analyse the natural antioxidants catechins and quercetin used in active packaging and functional foods. Photodiode array detector coupled with a fluorescence detector and compared with LTQ-Orbitrap-MS was used. UHPLC was investigated as quick alternative without compromising the separation, analysis time shortened up to 6-fold. The feasibility of the four developed methods was compared. Linearity up to 0.9995, low detection limits (between 0.02 and 0.7 for HPLC-PDA, 2 to 7-fold lower for HPLC- LTQ-Orbitrap-MS and from 0.2 to 2mgL(-)(1) for UHPLC-PDA) and good precision parameters (RSD lower than 0.06%) were obtained. All methods were successfully applied to natural samples. LTQ-Orbitrap-MS allowed to identify other analytes of interest too. Good feasibility of the methods was also concluded from the analysis of catechin and quercetin release from new active packaging materials based on polypropylene added with catechins and green tea.

  1. Analytical Kinematics and Coupled Vibrations Analysis of Mechanical System Operated by Solar Array Drive Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattar, M.; Wei, C.; Jalali, A.; Sattar, R.

    2017-07-01

    To address the impact of solar array (SA) anomalies and vibrations on performance of precision space-based operations, it is important to complete its accurate jitter analysis. This work provides mathematical modelling scheme to approximate kinematics and coupled micro disturbance dynamics of rigid load supported and operated by solar array drive assembly (SADA). SADA employed in analysis provides a step wave excitation torque to activate the system. Analytical investigations into kinematics is accomplished by using generalized linear and Euler angle coordinates, applying multi-body dynamics concepts and transformations principles. Theoretical model is extended, to develop equations of motion (EoM), through energy method (Lagrange equation). The main emphasis is to research coupled frequency response by determining energies dissipated and observing dynamic behaviour of internal vibratory systems of SADA. The disturbance model captures discrete active harmonics of SADA, natural modes and vibration amplifications caused by interactions between active harmonics and structural modes of mechanical assembly. The proposed methodology can help to predict true micro disturbance nature of SADA operating rigid load. Moreover, performance outputs may be compared against actual mission requirements to assess precise spacecraft controller design to meet next space generation stringent accuracy goals.

  2. Measuring the Grafting Density of Nanoparticles in Solution by Analytical Ultracentrifugation and Total Organic Carbon Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Denise N.; Zhu, Huiguang; Lilierose, Michael H.; Verm, Raymond A.; Ali, Naushaba; Morrison, Adam N.; Fortner, John D.; Avendano, Carolina; Colvin, Vicki L.

    2012-01-01

    Many of the solution phase properties of nanoparticles, such as their colloidal stability and hydrodynamic diameter, are governed by the number of stabilizing groups bound to the particle surface (i.e., grafting density). Here we show how two techniques, analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) and total organic carbon analysis (TOC), can be applied separately to the measurement of this parameter. AUC directly measures the density of nanoparticle–polymer conjugates while TOC provides the total carbon content of its aqueous dispersions. When these techniques are applied to model gold nanoparticles capped with thiolated poly(ethylene glycol), the measured grafting densities across a range of polymer chain lengths, polymer concentrations, and nanoparticle diameters agree to within 20%. Moreover, the measured grafting densities correlate well with the polymer content determined by thermogravimetric analysis of solid conjugate samples. Using these tools, we examine the particle core diameter, polymer chain length, and polymer solution concentration dependence of nanoparticle grafting densities in a gold nanoparticle–poly(ethylene glycol) conjugate system. PMID:22967239

  3. Incorporating nuclear vibrational energies into the "atom in molecules" analysis: An analytical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharabaghi, Masumeh; Shahbazian, Shant

    2017-04-01

    The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) is based on the clamped nucleus paradigm and solely working with the electronic wavefunctions, so does not include nuclear vibrations in the AIM analysis. On the other hand, the recently extended version of the QTAIM, called the multi-component QTAIM (MC-QTAIM), incorporates both electrons and quantum nuclei, i.e., those nuclei treated as quantum waves instead of clamped point charges, into the AIM analysis using non-adiabatic wavefunctions. Thus, the MC-QTAIM is the natural framework to incorporate the role of nuclear vibrations into the AIM analysis. In this study, within the context of the MC-QTAIM, the formalism of including nuclear vibrational energy in the atomic basin energy is developed in detail and its contribution is derived analytically using the recently proposed non-adiabatic Hartree product nuclear wavefunction. It is demonstrated that within the context of this wavefunction, the quantum nuclei may be conceived pseudo-adiabatically as quantum oscillators and both isotropic harmonic and anisotropic anharmonic oscillator models are used to compute the zero-point nuclear vibrational energy contribution to the basin energies explicitly. Inspired by the results gained within the context of the MC-QTAIM analysis, a heuristic approach is proposed within the context of the QTAIM to include nuclear vibrational energy in the basin energy from the vibrational wavefunction derived adiabatically. The explicit calculation of the basin contribution of the zero-point vibrational energy using the uncoupled harmonic oscillator model leads to results consistent with those derived from the MC-QTAIM.

  4. Incorporating nuclear vibrational energies into the "atom in molecules" analysis: An analytical study.

    PubMed

    Gharabaghi, Masumeh; Shahbazian, Shant

    2017-04-21

    The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) is based on the clamped nucleus paradigm and solely working with the electronic wavefunctions, so does not include nuclear vibrations in the AIM analysis. On the other hand, the recently extended version of the QTAIM, called the multi-component QTAIM (MC-QTAIM), incorporates both electrons and quantum nuclei, i.e., those nuclei treated as quantum waves instead of clamped point charges, into the AIM analysis using non-adiabatic wavefunctions. Thus, the MC-QTAIM is the natural framework to incorporate the role of nuclear vibrations into the AIM analysis. In this study, within the context of the MC-QTAIM, the formalism of including nuclear vibrational energy in the atomic basin energy is developed in detail and its contribution is derived analytically using the recently proposed non-adiabatic Hartree product nuclear wavefunction. It is demonstrated that within the context of this wavefunction, the quantum nuclei may be conceived pseudo-adiabatically as quantum oscillators and both isotropic harmonic and anisotropic anharmonic oscillator models are used to compute the zero-point nuclear vibrational energy contribution to the basin energies explicitly. Inspired by the results gained within the context of the MC-QTAIM analysis, a heuristic approach is proposed within the context of the QTAIM to include nuclear vibrational energy in the basin energy from the vibrational wavefunction derived adiabatically. The explicit calculation of the basin contribution of the zero-point vibrational energy using the uncoupled harmonic oscillator model leads to results consistent with those derived from the MC-QTAIM.

  5. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Serum Proteins from Oral Cancer Patients: Comparison of Two Analytical Methods

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan; Huang, Junwei; Rabii, Bahareh; Rabii, Ramin; Hu, Shen

    2014-01-01

    Serum proteomic analysis can be a valuable approach for the discovery of protein biomarkers for early detection or monitoring of a disease. In this study, two analytical methods were compared for quantification of serum proteins in patients with oral cancer. In the first approach, we quantified serum proteins between oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and healthy control subjects by performing in-solution digestion of serum proteins, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling of the resulting peptides, strong cation exchange (SCX) fractionation of labeled peptides and finally capillary liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of the peptides. In the second approach, we first separated serum proteins with SDS-PAGE. The gel-separated proteins were then digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were labeled with iTRAQ and analyzed with LC-MS/MS for protein quantification. A total of 319 serum proteins were quantified with the first proteomic approach whereas a total of 281 proteins were quantified by the second proteomic approach. Most of the proteins were identified and quantified by both approaches, suggesting that these methods are similarly effective for serum proteome analysis. This study provides compelling evidence that quantitative serum proteomic analysis of OSCC is a valuable approach for identifying differentially expressed proteins in cancer patients’ circulation systems that may be used as potential biomarkers for disease detection. Further validation in large oral cancer patient populations may lead to a simple and low invasive clinical tool for OSCC diagnosis or monitoring. PMID:25196439

  6. Mantle wedge anisotropy beneath the Western Alps: insights from Receiver Function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piana Agostinetti, Nicola; Salimbeni, Simone; Pondrelli, Silvia; Malusa', Marco; Zhao, Liang; Eva, Elena; Solarino, Stefano; Paul, Anne; Guillot, Stéphane; Schwartz, Stéphane; Dumont, Thierry; Aubert, Coralie; Wang, Qingchen; Zhu, Rixiang

    2017-04-01

    Orogens and subductions zones are the locus where crustal materials are recycled into the upper mantle. Such rocks undergo to several metamorphic reactions during which their seismic properties vary due to the changes in P-T conditions. Metamorphic reactions can imply: (a) the formation of schist-like materials, and (b) a pronounced water flux from the subducted crust. Both these processes should generate highly anisotropic volumes at upper mantle depths. Thus, unveiling the presence of seismic anisotropy at such depth level can put constraints on the metamorphic reactions and the P-T conditions of the subducted materials. The Alpine orogen is composed of three main regions where different geodynamic processes shaped a highly heterogeneous mountain chain. Beneath the Alps, a high velocity body has been imaged sinking in the upper mantle, indicating the presence of a relict of subduction. Such subduction process has been probably terminated with the closure of the Piemont-Liguria Ocean, but evidence of continental subduction has been found beneath the Western Alps. Seismic anisotropy is likely to develop both in the subducted materials and in the mantle wedge, where serpentinized materials could be found due to the low T conditions. We analysed P receiver function (RF) from 46 seismic stations deployed along a linear array crossing the Western Alps, where previous studies revealed the presence of the subducted European lower crust to 80 km depth. RF is a widely used tool for reconstructing subsurface seismic structures, based on the recognition of P-to-S converted phases in teleseismic P-wave coda. The RF data-set is migrated at depth and decomposed into azimuthal harmonics. Computing the first, k=0, and the second, k=1, harmonics allows to separate the "isotropic" contribution, due to the change of the isotropic properties of the sampled materials (recorded on the k=0 harmonics), from the "anisotropic" contribution, where the energy is related to the propagation of

  7. Analytical/Operational Requirements for the In Situ Chemical Analysis of Cometary and Planetary Environments Using GC-IMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Stimac, Robert M.; Kaye, William J.; Takeuchi, Norishige; DeVincenizi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Exobiology flight experiments require highly sensitive instrumentation for the in situ analysis of the volatile chemical species that occur in the atmospheres and surfaces of various bodies within the solar system. The complex mixtures encountered place a heavy burden on the analytical instrumentation to detect and identify all species present. The minimal resources available onboard for such missions mandate that the instruments provide maximum analytical capabilities with minimal requirements of volume, weight and consumables. The miniCIDEX instrument was developed for the chemical analysis of a cemetery environment. It combined a Gas Chromatograph (GC) with a helium based Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) to fulfill the analytical requirements of a cemetery exobiology mission: universal response; ppb sensitivity; low mass, volume and consumable MiniCIDEX is now a candidate for the chemical analysis instrument of a Titan Aero-rover Mission. The complexity of the analyses will be similar to the comet application with a heavier emphasis on organic molecules. Because the Titan Aero-Rover will be a balloon powered rover, much more attention is placed on the total mass of the instrument package. The GC will likely be a Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) design, smaller than the initial miniCIDEX GC by a factor of ten (with a similar reduction in consumable use). Similar miniaturization of the helium-based IMS will be necessary while maintaining the analytical capabilities. The two mission applications, the analytical requirements, and the evolution of the IMS design to accommodate these requirements will be presented.

  8. Analytical/Operational Requirements for the In Situ Chemical Analysis of Cometary and Planetary Environments Using GC-IMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Stimac, Robert M.; Kaye, William J.; Takeuchi, Norishige; DeVincenizi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Exobiology flight experiments require highly sensitive instrumentation for the in situ analysis of the volatile chemical species that occur in the atmospheres and surfaces of various bodies within the solar system. The complex mixtures encountered place a heavy burden on the analytical instrumentation to detect and identify all species present. The minimal resources available onboard for such missions mandate that the instruments provide maximum analytical capabilities with minimal requirements of volume, weight and consumables. The miniCIDEX instrument was developed for the chemical analysis of a cemetery environment. It combined a Gas Chromatograph (GC) with a helium based Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) to fulfill the analytical requirements of a cemetery exobiology mission: universal response; ppb sensitivity; low mass, volume and consumable MiniCIDEX is now a candidate for the chemical analysis instrument of a Titan Aero-rover Mission. The complexity of the analyses will be similar to the comet application with a heavier emphasis on organic molecules. Because the Titan Aero-Rover will be a balloon powered rover, much more attention is placed on the total mass of the instrument package. The GC will likely be a Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) design, smaller than the initial miniCIDEX GC by a factor of ten (with a similar reduction in consumable use). Similar miniaturization of the helium-based IMS will be necessary while maintaining the analytical capabilities. The two mission applications, the analytical requirements, and the evolution of the IMS design to accommodate these requirements will be presented.

  9. NaK pool-boiler bench-scale receiver durability test: Test results and materials analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Andraka, C.E.; Goods, S.H.; Bradshaw, R.W.; Moreno, J.B.; Moss, T.A.; Jones, S.A.

    1994-06-01

    Pool-boiler reflux receivers have been considered as an alternative to heat pipes for the input of concentrated solar energy to Stirling-cycle engines in dish-Stirling electric generation systems. Pool boilers offer simplicity in design and fabrication. The operation of a full-scale pool-boiler receiver has been demonstrated for short periods of time. However, to generate cost-effective electricity, the receiver must operate Without significant maintenance for the entire system life, as much as 20 to 30 years. Long-term liquid-metal boiling stability and materials compatibility with refluxing NaK-78 is not known and must be determined for the pool boiler receiver. No boiling system has been demonstrated for a significant duration with the current porous boiling enhancement surface and materials. Therefore, it is necessary to simulate the full-scale pool boiler design as much as possible, including flux levels, materials, and operating cycles. On-sun testing is impractical because of the limited test time available. A test vessel was constructed with a porous boiling enhancement surface. The boiling surface consisted of a brazed stainless steel powder with about 50% porosity. The vessel was heated with a quartz lamp array providing about go W/CM2 peak incident thermal flux. The vessel was charged with NaK-78. This allows the elimination of costly electric preheating, both on this test and on fullscale receivers. The vessel was fabricated from Haynes 230 alloy. The vessel operated at 750{degrees}C around the clock, with a 1/2-hour shutdown cycle to ambient every 8 hours. The test completed 7500 hours of lamp-on operation time, and over 1000 startups from ambient. The test was terminated when a small leak in an Inconel 600 thermowell was detected. The test design and data are presented here. Metallurgical analysis of virgin and tested materials has begun, and initial results are also presented.

  10. Should patients receive secondary prevention medications for free after a myocardial infarction? An economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Choudhry, Niteesh K; Avorn, Jerry; Antman, Elliott M; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Shrank, William H

    2007-01-01

    Taken in combination, aspirin, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and statins (combination pharmacotherapy) greatly reduce cardiac events. These therapies are underused, even among patients with drug insurance. Out-of-pocket spending is a key barrier to adherence. We estimated the impact of providing combination pharmacotherapy without cost sharing ("full coverage") to insured patients after a myocardial infarction (MI). Under base-case assumptions, compared to standard coverage, three years of full coverage will reduce mortality and reinfarction rates and will save 5,974 per patient. Our analysis suggests that covering combination therapy for such patients will save both lives and money.

  11. An analysis of eco-environmental impacts of the south-to-north water transfer project on the receiving areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Gan, Hong; Xiao, Yuquan; You, Jinjun

    2010-05-01

    The receiving areas of the Phase I projects of the eastern and central routes of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project cover 41 administrative regions at and above the prefecture level in the provincial level administrative regions of Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong and Henan, and have a carrying capacity of water resources most unadaptive to the needs by the economic and social development. Those areas have densely distributed population, farmland and agricultural and industrial activities and are experiencing rapid urbanization, but suffer from high scarcity of water resources, with all the cities in the areas seeing water shortage to a varying extent. Most of the cities are relying on abstracting deep groundwater and occupying agricultural water for urban water supply. In December 2002, the State Council officially approved the General Plan on the South-to-North Water Transfer Project, which provides multiple measures to reduce groundwater over-abstraction and improve and gradually restore the eco-environment in the receiving areas by using transferred water to replace the agricultural water occupied by urban water supply and the eco-environmental water occupied by cities and agriculture. What changes have occurred to the eco-environment and urban water use in the receiving areas in recent years ? How much water can be returned from the cities to agriculture and ecology after the objectives of water supply are met? What can be achieved in the control of groundwater abstraction? What level of guarantee can the water transfer provide for agricultural water use in a dry year? All of those issues have been at the focus of public attention. In this paper, statistical analysis is made on the eco-environmental status and urban water use of 72 cities in the receiving areas of the Phase I projects since year 2000 and a conclusion is drawn that the renewal capacity of the eco-environment and groundwater in the receiving areas is deteriorating. Then the water

  12. Development of Soil Compaction Analysis Software (SCAN) Integrating a Low Cost GPS Receiver and Compactometer

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jinsang; Yun, Hongsik; Kim, Juhyong; Suh, Yongcheol; Hong, Sungnam; Lee, Dongha

    2012-01-01

    A software for soil compaction analysis (SCAN) has been developed for evaluating the compaction states using the data from the GPS as well as a compactometer attached on the roller. The SCAN is distinguished from other previous software for intelligent compaction (IC) in that it can use the results from various types of GPS positioning methods, and it also has an optimal structure for remotely managing the large amounts of data gathered from numerous rollers. For this, several methods were developed: (1) improving the accuracy of low cost GPS receiver’s positioning results; (2) modeling the trajectory of a moving roller using a GPS receiver’s results and linking it with the data from the compactometer; and (3) extracting the information regarding the compaction states of the ground from the modeled trajectory, using spatial analysis methods. The SCAN was verified throughout various field compaction tests, and it has been confirmed that it can be a very effective tool in evaluating field compaction states. PMID:22736955

  13. A Unifying Description of Modern Analytical Instrumentation within a Course on Instrumental Methods of Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayson, Gary D.

    2004-01-01

    A unifying modular approach to the description of modern instrumentation used in analytical measurements is described. Through the identification of five modules for analytical instrument, discussions pertaining to the different physical and chemical interactions can be better directed towards the similarities and differences in the actual methods.

  14. The Promise and Peril of Predictive Analytics in Higher Education: A Landscape Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekowo, Manuela; Palmer, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Predictive analytics in higher education is a hot-button topic among educators and administrators as institutions strive to better serve students by becoming more data-informed. In this paper, the authors describe how predictive analytics are used in higher education to identify students who need extra support, steer students in courses they will…

  15. The Challenge of Understanding Process in Clinical Behavior Analysis: The Case of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follette, William C.; Bonow, Jordan T.

    2009-01-01

    Whether explicitly acknowledged or not, behavior-analytic principles are at the heart of most, if not all, empirically supported therapies. However, the change process in psychotherapy is only now being rigorously studied. Functional analytic psychotherapy (FAP; Kohlenberg & Tsai, 1991; Tsai et al., 2009) explicitly identifies behavioral-change…

  16. Directivity analysis of meander-line-coil EMATs with a wholly analytical method.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuedong; Liu, Zenghua; Yin, Liyuan; Wu, Jiande; Deng, Peng; Yin, Wuliang

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the simulation and experimental study of the radiation pattern of a meander-line-coil EMAT. A wholly analytical method, which involves the coupling of two models: an analytical EM model and an analytical UT model, has been developed to build EMAT models and analyse the Rayleigh waves' beam directivity. For a specific sensor configuration, Lorentz forces are calculated using the EM analytical method, which is adapted from the classic Deeds and Dodd solution. The calculated Lorentz force density are imported to an analytical ultrasonic model as driven point sources, which produce the Rayleigh waves within a layered medium. The effect of the length of the meander-line-coil on the Rayleigh waves' beam directivity is analysed quantitatively and verified experimentally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Role of Teamwork in the Analysis of Big Data: A Study of Visual Analytics and Box Office Prediction.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Verica; Lu, Yafeng; McNeese, Nathan; Steptoe, Michael; Maciejewski, Ross; Cooke, Nancy

    2017-03-01

    Historically, domains such as business intelligence would require a single analyst to engage with data, develop a model, answer operational questions, and predict future behaviors. However, as the problems and domains become more complex, organizations are employing teams of analysts to explore and model data to generate knowledge. Furthermore, given the rapid increase in data collection, organizations are struggling to develop practices for intelligence analysis in the era of big data. Currently, a variety of machine learning and data mining techniques are available to model data and to generate insights and predictions, and developments in the field of visual analytics have focused on how to effectively link data mining algorithms with interactive visuals to enable analysts to explore, understand, and interact with data and data models. Although studies have explored the role of single analysts in the visual analytics pipeline, little work has explored the role of teamwork and visual analytics in the analysis of big data. In this article, we present an experiment integrating statistical models, visual analytics techniques, and user experiments to study the role of teamwork in predictive analytics. We frame our experiment around the analysis of social media data for box office prediction problems and compare the prediction performance of teams, groups, and individuals. Our results indicate that a team's performance is mediated by the team's characteristics such as openness of individual members to others' positions and the type of planning that goes into the team's analysis. These findings have important implications for how organizations should create teams in order to make effective use of information from their analytic models.

  18. Proteomics analysis of liver tissues from C57BL/6J mice receiving low-dose 137Cs radiation.

    PubMed

    Yi, Lan; Li, Linwei; Yin, Jie; Hu, Nan; Li, Guangyue; Ding, Dexin

    2016-02-01

    Differentially expressed proteins in liver tissues of C57BL/6J mice receiving low-dose (137)Cs radiation were examined by proteomics analysis. Compared with the control group, 80 proteins were differentially expressed in the irradiated group. Among the 40 randomly selected proteins used for peptide mass fingerprinting analysis and bioinformatics, 24 were meaningful. These proteins were related to antioxidant defense, amino acid metabolism, detoxification, anti-tumor development, amino acid transport, anti-peroxidation, and composition of respiratory chain. Western blot analysis showed that catalase (CAT), glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT), and glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) were up-regulated in the irradiated group; these results were in agreement with qPCR results. These results show that CAT, GNMT, and GSTP1 may be related to stress response induced by low-dose irradiation in mice liver. The underlying mechanism however requires further investigation.

  19. Fabricating Cotton Analytical Devices.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shang-Chi; Hsu, Min-Yen; Kuan, Chen-Meng; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-08-30

    A robust, low-cost analytical device should be user-friendly, rapid, and affordable. Such devices should also be able to operate with scarce samples and provide information for follow-up treatment. Here, we demonstrate the development of a cotton-based urinalysis (i.e., nitrite, total protein, and urobilinogen assays) analytical device that employs a lateral flow-based format, and is inexpensive, easily fabricated, rapid, and can be used to conduct multiple tests without cross-contamination worries. Cotton is composed of cellulose fibers with natural absorptive properties that can be leveraged for flow-based analysis. The simple but elegant fabrication process of our cotton-based analytical device is described in this study. The arrangement of the cotton structure and test pad takes advantage of the hydrophobicity and absorptive strength of each material. Because of these physical characteristics, colorimetric results can persistently adhere to the test pad. This device enables physicians to receive clinical information in a timely manner and shows great potential as a tool for early intervention.

  20. An Analytical Model for the Performance Analysis of Concurrent Transmission in IEEE 802.15.4

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Cengiz; Zanella, Alberto; Verdone, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Interference is a serious cause of performance degradation for IEEE802.15.4 devices. The effect of concurrent transmissions in IEEE 802.15.4 has been generally investigated by means of simulation or experimental activities. In this paper, a mathematical framework for the derivation of chip, symbol and packet error probability of a typical IEEE 802.15.4 receiver in the presence of interference is proposed. Both non-coherent and coherent demodulation schemes are considered by our model under the assumption of the absence of thermal noise. Simulation results are also added to assess the validity of the mathematical framework when the effect of thermal noise cannot be neglected. Numerical results show that the proposed analysis is in agreement with the measurement results on the literature under realistic working conditions. PMID:24658624

  1. An analytical model for the performance analysis of concurrent transmission in IEEE 802.15.4.

    PubMed

    Gezer, Cengiz; Zanella, Alberto; Verdone, Roberto

    2014-03-20

    Interference is a serious cause of performance degradation for IEEE802.15.4 devices. The effect of concurrent transmissions in IEEE 802.15.4 has been generally investigated by means of simulation or experimental activities. In this paper, a mathematical framework for the derivation of chip, symbol and packet error probability of a typical IEEE 802.15.4 receiver in the presence of interference is proposed. Both non-coherent and coherent demodulation schemes are considered by our model under the assumption of the absence of thermal noise. Simulation results are also added to assess the validity of the mathematical framework when the effect of thermal noise cannot be neglected. Numerical results show that the proposed analysis is in agreement with the measurement results on the literature under realistic working conditions.

  2. Analysis of Local Control in Patients Receiving IMRT for Resected Pancreatic Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Yovino, Susannah; Maidment, Bert W.; Herman, Joseph M.; Pandya, Naimish; Goloubeva, Olga; Wolfgang, Chris; Schulick, Richard; Laheru, Daniel; Hanna, Nader; Alexander, Richard; Regine, William F.

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is increasingly incorporated into therapy for pancreatic cancer. A concern regarding this technique is the potential for geographic miss and decreased local control. We analyzed patterns of first failure among patients treated with IMRT for resected pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: Seventy-one patients who underwent resection and adjuvant chemoradiation for pancreas cancer are included in this report. IMRT was used for all to a median dose of 50.4 Gy. Concurrent chemotherapy was 5-FU-based in 72% of patients and gemcitabine-based in 28%. Results: At median follow-up of 24 months, 49/71 patients (69%) had failed. The predominant failure pattern was distant metastases in 35/71 patients (49%). The most common site of metastases was the liver. Fourteen patients (19%) developed locoregional failure in the tumor bed alone in 5 patients, regional nodes in 4 patients, and concurrently with metastases in 5 patients. Median overall survival (OS) was 25 months. On univariate analysis, nodal status, margin status, postoperative CA 19-9 level, and weight loss during treatment were predictive for OS. On multivariate analysis, higher postoperative CA19-9 levels predicted for worse OS on a continuous basis (p < 0.01). A trend to worse OS was seen among patients with more weight loss during therapy (p = 0.06). Patients with positive nodes and positive margins also had significantly worse OS (HR for death 2.8, 95% CI 1.1-7.5; HR for death 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.2, respectively). Grade 3-4 nausea and vomiting was seen in 8% of patients. Late complication of small bowel obstruction occurred in 4 (6%) patients. Conclusions: This is the first comprehensive report of patterns of failure among patients treated with adjuvant IMRT for pancreas cancer. IMRT was not associated with an increase in local recurrences in our cohort. These data support the use of IMRT in the recently activated EORTC/US Intergroup/RTOG 0848 adjuvant pancreas

  3. Trace analysis of energetic materials via direct analyte-probed nanoextraction coupled to direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Clemons, Kristina; Dake, Jeffrey; Sisco, Edward; Verbeck, Guido F

    2013-09-10

    Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) has proven to be a useful forensic tool for the trace analysis of energetic materials. While other techniques for detecting trace amounts of explosives involve extraction, derivatization, solvent exchange, or sample clean-up, DART-MS requires none of these. Typical DART-MS analyses directly from a solid sample or from a swab have been quite successful; however, these methods may not always be an optimal sampling technique in a forensic setting. For example, if the sample were only located in an area which included a latent fingerprint of interest, direct DART-MS analysis or the use of a swab would almost certainly destroy the print. To avoid ruining such potentially invaluable evidence, another method has been developed which will leave the fingerprint virtually untouched. Direct analyte-probed nanoextraction coupled to nanospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DAPNe-NSI-MS) has demonstrated excellent sensitivity and repeatability in forensic analyses of trace amounts of illicit drugs from various types of surfaces. This technique employs a nanomanipulator in conjunction with bright-field microscopy to extract single particles from a surface of interest and has provided a limit of detection of 300 attograms for caffeine. Combining DAPNe with DART-MS provides another level of flexibility in forensic analysis, and has proven to be a sufficient detection method for trinitrotoluene (TNT), RDX, and 1-methylaminoanthraquinone (MAAQ).

  4. Analysis of the Uncertainty in the Computation of Receiver Functions and Improvement in the Estimation of Receiver, PP and SS functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.; Gurrola, H.

    2013-12-01

    There are many methods used to produce receiver functions (RFs) that are referred to as deconvolution but some are based on cross-correlation methods. We produced a set of realistic synthetics to test four commonly used methods to produce RFs. These are the frequency domain 'water level deconvolution (FWLD), the time domain iterative deconvolution (TID), the least square matrix inversion (MID) and the log-spectral method of deconvolution (LSD). We also test a hybrid of the FWLD and TID methods that we refer to as the frequency domain iterative deconvolution (FID). Synthetics were produced by windowing a P recordings from real seismograms and convolving them with synthetic seismograms, and then adding samples of pre-event noise. We made synthetics with nose levels of 2, 4, 8 and 16 percent [defined as stdev(noise)/max(signal)]. For the synthetics all methods of receiver function were accurate in estimating arrival times of the P, Ps, PPs and PSs phase to within one sample (at 40 sps). But there was a strong bias toward low values in the estimation of amplitudes of these phases (even when compared as ratios, i.e. Ps/P). The larger the noise levels the larger the bias. For 2% noise all methods preformed well. As noise increased there was a wide range in bias. The LSD and FID method produced the smallest standard deviation (stdev) of the group in bootstrap estimates from 92 different synthetic. If these RFs were from real data, where we did not know the right answers, LSD and FID would have been considered to work equally well. However, knowing the correct answer, the LSD methods had tremendous bias toward underestimating the amplitude especially for smaller phases. In tests using real data from Arti, Russia (ARU), we found that all these methods preformed equally well in estimating the arrival times for larger phases (such as Pms) but for smaller phases (such as P410s) the FID and TID had half as much error in estimating the arrival times as compared to the other

  5. Molecular analysis of patients with polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia receiving pegylated interferon α-2a

    PubMed Central

    Quintás-Cardama, Alfonso; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Manshouri, Taghi; Kilpivaara, Outi; Cortes, Jorge; Roupie, Anne-Laure; Zhang, Su-Jiang; Harris, David; Estrov, Zeev; Kantarjian, Hagop

    2013-01-01

    Pegylated interferon α-2a (PEG-IFN-α-2a) has previously been shown to induce hematologic and molecular responses in patients with polycythemia vera (PV) or essential thrombocythemia (ET). Here we present a follow-up of a phase 2 trial with PEG-IFN-α-2a treatment in 43 PV and 40 ET patients with detailed molecular analysis. After a median follow-up of 42 months, complete hematologic response was achieved in 76% of patients with PV and 77% of those with ET. This was accompanied by complete molecular response (CMR) (ie, undetectable JAK2V617F) in 18% and 17%, of PV and ET patients, respectively. Serial sequencing of TET2, ASXL1, EZH2, DNMT3A, and IDH1/2 revealed that patients failing to achieve CMR had a higher frequency of mutations outside the Janus kinase–signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway and were more likely to acquire new mutations during therapy. Patients with both JAK2V617F and TET2 mutations at therapy onset had a higher JAK2V617F mutant allele burden and a less significant reduction in JAK2V617F allele burden compared with JAK2 mutant/TET2 wild-type patients. These data demonstrate that PEG-IFN-α-2a induces sustained CMR in a subset of PV or ET patients, and that genotypic context may influence clinical and molecular response to PEG-IFN-α-2a. PMID:23782935

  6. Defining "the elderly" undergoing major gastrointestinal resections: receiver operating characteristic analysis of a large ACS-NSQIP cohort.

    PubMed

    Kurian, Ashwin A; Wang, Lian; Grunkemeier, Gary; Bhayani, Neil H; Swanström, Lee L

    2013-09-01

    "The elderly" is an often used but poorly defined descriptor of surgical patients. Investigators have used varying subjectively determined age cutoffs to report outcomes in the elderly. We set out to use objective outcomes data to determine the "at-risk" elderly population. 129,331 patients identified from the ACS-NSQIP database (2005-2010) undergoing major gastrointestinal resections. Mortality. Locally weighted regression was used to fit the trend line of mortality over age. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to identify the "predictive age" for mortality. Mortality steadily increases with age. On receiver operating characteristic analysis, there is a nonlinear transition zone (50-75 years of age) flanked by 2 linear zones on either end. The younger linear zone showed a low mortality increase (0.5% per decade). Larger mortality increase with age (5.3% per decade) was observed at the older age end. Similar patterns were observed for large-volume surgical subtypes, with clustering of a "critical age" beyond which mortality increases dramatically at 75 ± 2 years. Receiver operating characteristic analysis identified the "optimum age" for mortality being 68.5 years (area under the curve = 0.72, sensitivity = 66.6%, and specificity = 65.5%). Mortality risk for major gastrointestinal surgical resections starts increasing at 50 years of age, and at 75 years of age, it starts increasing very rapidly. The optimum age of 68.5 years predicts mortality with the best combination of sensitivity and specificity. These ages should be used to standardize outcome data and focus perioperative resources to improve outcomes.

  7. Retrospective analysis of relative dose intensity in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma receiving CHOP-based chemotherapy and pegfilgrastim.

    PubMed

    Balducci, Lodovico; Mo, May; Abella, Esteban; Saven, Alan

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate primary prophylaxis with pegfilgrastim, a recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, on maintaining relative dose intensity (RDI) in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) receiving cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) or CHOP-rituximab (CHOP-R). This retrospective analysis pooled data from pegfilgrastim NHL clinical trials. Patients received up to 6 cycles of CHOP/CHOP-R every 2 (Q2W) or 3 (Q3W) weeks. RDI and the patient incidence of dose delay, reduction, discontinuation, and adverse events leading to dose alteration/discontinuation were summarized overall and by age group (below 65, 65 to 75, and above 75 y) and treatment schedule. RDI during treatment exposure and RDI adjusted by the planned 6 cycles of treatment were calculated. The adjusted RDI was also evaluated with multiple regression analysis. Mean RDI during treatment exposure was 93% and 94% in overall patients in the Q2W and Q3W regimens, respectively. Mean adjusted RDI was 88% and 80%, respectively. The incidence of patients with RDI>85% was lower in older patients (65 y and above). In older patients, the incidence of dose reduction and discontinuation were higher regardless of treatment schedule, whereas dose delay was higher in the Q2W regimen. Multiple regression analysis identified age and cancer stage as potential factors associated with RDI. Adverse events leading to dose alteration/discontinuation were spread across hematological and nonhematological toxicities; older patients had a higher incidence of these adverse events. Pegfilgrastim primary prophylaxis maintained RDI in NHL patients receiving CHOP/CHOP-R during treatment. Adjusted RDI was lower in elderly patients because of early termination of chemotherapy.

  8. On the Multilevel Nature of Meta-Analysis: A Tutorial, Comparison of Software Programs, and Discussion of Analytic Choices.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Dena A; Lazowski, Rory A

    2017-09-27

    The term "multilevel meta-analysis" is encountered not only in applied research studies, but in multilevel resources comparing traditional meta-analysis to multilevel meta-analysis. In this tutorial, we argue that the term "multilevel meta-analysis" is redundant since all meta-analysis can be formulated as a special kind of multilevel model. To clarify the multilevel nature of meta-analysis the four standard meta-analytic models are presented using multilevel equations and fit to an example data set using four software programs: two specific to meta-analysis (metafor in R and SPSS macros) and two specific to multilevel modeling (PROC MIXED in SAS and HLM). The same parameter estimates are obtained across programs underscoring that all meta-analyses are multilevel in nature. Despite the equivalent results, not all software programs are alike and differences are noted in the output provided and estimators available. This tutorial also recasts distinctions made in the literature between traditional and multilevel meta-analysis as differences between meta-analytic choices, not between meta-analytic models, and provides guidance to inform choices in estimators, significance tests, moderator analyses, and modeling sequence. The extent to which the software programs allow flexibility with respect to these decisions is noted, with metafor emerging as the most favorable program reviewed.

  9. Morphological analysis of the primary center receiving spatial information transferred by the waggle dance of honeybees.

    PubMed

    Ai, Hiroyuki; Hagio, Hiromi

    2013-08-01

    The waggle dancers of honeybees encodes roughly the distance and direction to the food source as the duration of the waggle phase and the body angle during the waggle phase. It is believed that hive-mates detect airborne vibrations produced during the waggle phase to acquire distance information and simultaneously detect the body axis during the waggle phase to acquire direction information. It has been further proposed that the orientation of the body axis on the vertical comb is detected by neck hairs (NHs) on the prosternal organ. The afferents of the NHs project into the prothoracic and mesothoracic ganglia and the dorsal subesophageal ganglion (dSEG). This study demonstrates somatotopic organization within the dSEG of the central projections of the mechanosensory neurons of the NHs. The terminals of the NH afferents in dSEG are in close apposition to those of Johnston's organ (JO) afferents. The sensory axons of both terminate in a region posterior to the crossing of the ventral intermediate tract (VIT) and the maxillary dorsal commissures I and III (MxDCI, III) in the subesophageal ganglion. These features of the terminal areas of the NH and JO afferents are common to the worker, drone, and queen castes of honeybees. Analysis of the spatial relationship between the NH neurons and the morphologically and physiologically characterized vibration-sensitive interneurons DL-Int-1 and DL-Int-2 demonstrated that several branches of DL-Int-1 are in close proximity to the central projection of the mechanosensory neurons of the NHs in the dSEG.

  10. GeneAnalytics Pathway Analysis and Genetic Overlap among Autism Spectrum Disorder, Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Khanzada, Naveen S.; Butler, Merlin G.; Manzardo, Ann M.

    2017-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia (SCH) show similar neuropsychiatric behavioral disturbances, including impaired social interaction and communication, seen in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with multiple overlapping genetic and environmental influences implicated in risk and course of illness. GeneAnalytics software was used for pathway analysis and genetic profiling to characterize common susceptibility genes obtained from published lists for ASD (792 genes), BPD (290 genes) and SCH (560 genes). Rank scores were derived from the number and nature of overlapping genes, gene-disease association, tissue specificity and gene functions subdivided into categories (e.g., diseases, tissues or functional pathways). Twenty-three genes were common to all three disorders and mapped to nine biological Superpathways including Circadian entrainment (10 genes, score = 37.0), Amphetamine addiction (five genes, score = 24.2), and Sudden infant death syndrome (six genes, score = 24.1). Brain tissues included the medulla oblongata (11 genes, score = 2.1), thalamus (10 genes, score = 2.0) and hypothalamus (nine genes, score = 2.0) with six common genes (BDNF, DRD2, CHRNA7, HTR2A, SLC6A3, and TPH2). Overlapping genes impacted dopamine and serotonin homeostasis and signal transduction pathways, impacting mood, behavior and physical activity level. Converging effects on pathways governing circadian rhythms support a core etiological relationship between neuropsychiatric illnesses and sleep disruption with hypoxia and central brain stem dysfunction. PMID:28264500

  11. A semi-analytical formulation for the elastoplastic analysis of imperfect cylindrical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deerenberg, E.

    1991-12-01

    A semi-analytical formulation for the elastoplastic analysis of initially imperfect cylindrical shells under axial compression and lateral pressure was developed. The formulation is based on a small strain, moderate rotation shell theory and small strain incremental constitutive theory. The basic shell equations and the partially inverted constitutive relations in total form are reduced to a set of coupled nonlinear algebraic/ordinary differential equations by means of a Fourier decomposition of the state variables, imperfections and loads in circumferential direction of the shell, and application of Galerkin's method. The governing nonlinear equations are solved with an incremental iterative technique. The method of quasilinearization is used to generate the governing equations of the iterative procedure which consistently takes into account both geometrical and material nonlinearities. Plasticity effects are described using a layered approach. The classical flow theory based on the von Mises yield surface, associative flow rule, and the isotropic hardening law is used to describe the evolution of the plastic strains in the integration points. In every iteration a set of linear ordinary differential equations is solved numerically with a shooting method and a return mapping algorithm is used to integrate the constitutive equations locally. A number of elastic and elastoplastic buckling problems are solved for which results are known from literature. It is shown that the quadratic rate of convergence, characteristic for a Newton type iteration procedure, is retained even for large load steps. A comparison between the present results and the results from literature shows a good agreement.

  12. Network Traffic Analysis With Query Driven VisualizationSC 2005HPC Analytics Results

    SciTech Connect

    Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng; Campbell, Scott; Lau, Stephen; Fisk, Mike; Gavrilov, Eugene; Kent, Alex; Davis, Christopher E.; Olinger,Rick; Young, Rob; Prewett, Jim; Weber, Paul; Caudell, Thomas P.; Bethel,E. Wes; Smith, Steve

    2005-09-01

    Our analytics challenge is to identify, characterize, and visualize anomalous subsets of large collections of network connection data. We use a combination of HPC resources, advanced algorithms, and visualization techniques. To effectively and efficiently identify the salient portions of the data, we rely on a multi-stage workflow that includes data acquisition, summarization (feature extraction), novelty detection, and classification. Once these subsets of interest have been identified and automatically characterized, we use a state-of-the-art-high-dimensional query system to extract data subsets for interactive visualization. Our approach is equally useful for other large-data analysis problems where it is more practical to identify interesting subsets of the data for visualization than to render all data elements. By reducing the size of the rendering workload, we enable highly interactive and useful visualizations. As a result of this work we were able to analyze six months worth of data interactively with response times two orders of magnitude shorter than with conventional methods.

  13. Analytical model and stability analysis of the leading edge spar of a passively morphing ornithopter wing.

    PubMed

    Wissa, Aimy; Calogero, Joseph; Wereley, Norman; Hubbard, James E; Frecker, Mary

    2015-10-26

    This paper presents the stability analysis of the leading edge spar of a flapping wing unmanned air vehicle with a compliant spine inserted in it. The compliant spine is a mechanism that was designed to be flexible during the upstroke and stiff during the downstroke. Inserting a variable stiffness mechanism into the leading edge spar affects its structural stability. The model for the spar-spine system was formulated in terms of the well-known Mathieu's equation, in which the compliant spine was modeled as a torsional spring with a sinusoidal stiffness function. Experimental data was used to validate the model and results show agreement within 11%. The structural stability of the leading edge spar-spine system was determined analytically and graphically using a phase plane plot and Strutt diagrams. Lastly, a torsional viscous damper was added to the leading edge spar-spine model to investigate the effect of damping on stability. Results show that for the un-damped case, the leading edge spar-spine response was stable and bounded; however, there were areas of instability that appear for a range of spine upstroke and downstroke stiffnesses. Results also show that there exist a damping ratio between 0.2 and 0.5, for which the leading edge spar-spine system was stable for all values of spine upstroke and downstroke stiffnesses.

  14. Tools for the Quantitative Analysis of Sedimentation Boundaries Detected by Fluorescence Optical Analytical Ultracentrifugation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huaying; Casillas, Ernesto; Shroff, Hari; Patterson, George H.; Schuck, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence optical detection in sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation allows the study of macromolecules at nanomolar concentrations and below. This has significant promise, for example, for the study of systems of high-affinity protein interactions. Here we describe adaptations of the direct boundary modeling analysis approach implemented in the software SEDFIT that were developed to accommodate unique characteristics of the confocal fluorescence detection system. These include spatial gradients of signal intensity due to scanner movements out of the plane of rotation, temporal intensity drifts due to instability of the laser and fluorophores, and masking of the finite excitation and detection cone by the sample holder. In an extensive series of experiments with enhanced green fluorescent protein ranging from low nanomolar to low micromolar concentrations, we show that the experimental data provide sufficient information to determine the parameters required for first-order approximation of the impact of these effects on the recorded data. Systematic deviations of fluorescence optical sedimentation velocity data analyzed using conventional sedimentation models developed for absorbance and interference optics are largely removed after these adaptations, resulting in excellent fits that highlight the high precision of fluorescence sedimentation velocity data, thus allowing a more detailed quantitative interpretation of the signal boundaries that is otherwise not possible for this system. PMID:24204779

  15. Shape Analysis of DNA-Au Hybrid Particles by Analytical Ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Urban, Maximilan J; Holder, Isabelle T; Schmid, Marius; Fernandez Espin, Vanesa; Garcia de la Torre, Jose; Hartig, Jörg S; Cölfen, Helmut

    2016-08-23

    Current developments in nanotechnology have increased the demand for nanocrystal assemblies with well-defined shapes and tunable sizes. DNA is a particularly well-suited building block in nanoscale assemblies because of its scalable sizes, conformational variability, and convenient self-assembly capabilities via base pairing. In hybrid materials, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can be assembled into nanoparticle structures with programmable interparticle distances by applying appropriate DNA sequences. However, the development of stoichiometrically defined DNA/NP structures is still challenging since product mixtures are frequently obtained and their purification and characterization is the rate-limiting step in the development of DNA-NP hybrid assemblies. Improvements in nanostructure fractionation and characterization techniques offer great potential for nanotechnology applications in general. This study reports the application of analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) for the characterization of anisotropic DNA-linked metal-crystal assemblies. On the basis of transmission electron microscopy data and the DNA primary sequence, hydrodynamic bead models are set up for the interpretation of the measured frictional ratios and sedimentation coefficients. We demonstrate that the presence of single DNA strands on particle surfaces as well as the shape factors of multiparticle structures in mixtures can be quantitatively described by AUC. This study will significantly broaden the possibilities to analyze mixtures of shape-anisotropic nanoparticle assemblies. By establishing insights into the analysis of nanostructure mixtures based on fundamental principles of sedimentation, a wide range of potential applications in basic research and industry become accessible.

  16. Advanced organic analysis and analytical methods development: FY 1995 progress report. Waste Tank Organic Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.A.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the work performed during FY 1995 by Pacific Northwest Laboratory in developing and optimizing analysis techniques for identifying organics present in Hanford waste tanks. The main focus was to provide a means for rapidly obtaining the most useful information concerning the organics present in tank waste, with minimal sample handling and with minimal waste generation. One major focus has been to optimize analytical methods for organic speciation. Select methods, such as atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, were developed to increase the speciation capabilities, while minimizing sample handling. A capillary electrophoresis method was developed to improve separation capabilities while minimizing additional waste generation. In addition, considerable emphasis has been placed on developing a rapid screening tool, based on Raman and infrared spectroscopy, for determining organic functional group content when complete organic speciation is not required. This capability would allow for a cost-effective means to screen the waste tanks to identify tanks that require more specialized and complete organic speciation to determine tank safety.

  17. General analytical solutions for DC/AC circuit-network analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubido, Nicolás; Grebogi, Celso; Baptista, Murilo S.

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we present novel general analytical solutions for the currents that are developed in the edges of network-like circuits when some nodes of the network act as sources/sinks of DC or AC current. We assume that Ohm's law is valid at every edge and that charge at every node is conserved (with the exception of the source/sink nodes). The resistive, capacitive, and/or inductive properties of the lines in the circuit define a complex network structure with given impedances for each edge. Our solution for the currents at each edge is derived in terms of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix of the network defined from the impedances. This derivation also allows us to compute the equivalent impedance between any two nodes of the circuit and relate it to currents in a closed circuit which has a single voltage generator instead of many input/output source/sink nodes. This simplifies the treatment that could be done via Thévenin's theorem. Contrary to solving Kirchhoff's equations, our derivation allows to easily calculate the redistribution of currents that occurs when the location of sources and sinks changes within the network. Finally, we show that our solutions are identical to the ones found from Circuit Theory nodal analysis.

  18. A Big Data Analytics Pipeline for the Analysis of TESS Full Frame Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wampler-Doty, Matthew; Pierce Doty, John

    2015-12-01

    We present a novel method for producing a catalogue of extra-solar planets and transients using the full frame image data from TESS. Our method involves (1) creating a fast Monte Carlo simulation of the TESS science instruments, (2) using the simulation to create a labeled dataset consisting of exoplanets with various orbital durations as well as transients (such as tidal disruption events), (3) using supervised machine learning to find optimal matched filters, Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and statistical classifiers (i.e. naïve Bayes and Markov Random Fields) to detect astronomical objects of interest and (4) “Big Data” analysis to produce a catalogue based on the TESS data. We will apply the resulting methods to all stars in the full frame images. We hope that by providing libraries that conform to industry standards of Free Open Source Software we may invite researchers from the astronomical community as well as the wider data-analytics community to contribute to our effort.

  19. Characterization of plutonium-bearing wastes by chemical analysis and analytical electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, R.G.; Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Bates, J.K.; Van Deventer, E.; Chaiko, D.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterization studies of plutonium-bearing wastes produced at the US Department of Energy weapons production facilities. Several different solid wastes were characterized, including incinerator ash and ash heels from Rocky Flats Plant and Los Alamos National Laboratory; sand, stag, and crucible waste from Hanford; and LECO crucibles from the Savannah River Site. These materials were characterized by chemical analysis and analytical electron microscopy. The results showed the presence of discrete PuO{sub 2}PuO{sub 2{minus}x}, and Pu{sub 4}O{sub 7} phases, of about 1{mu}m or less in size, in all of the samples examined. In addition, a number of amorphous phases were present that contained plutonium. In all the ash and ash heel samples examined, plutonium phases were found that were completely surrounded by silicate matrices. Consequently, to achieve optimum plutonium recovery in any chemical extraction process, extraction would have to be coupled with ultrafine grinding to average particle sizes of less than 1 {mu}m to liberate the plutonium from the surrounding inert matrix.

  20. Solid waste facilities location using of analytical network process and data envelopment analysis approaches.

    PubMed

    Khadivi, M R; Fatemi Ghomi, S M T

    2012-06-01

    Selection of the appropriate site for solid waste facilities is a complex problem and requires an extensive evaluation process, because it is very difficult to develop a selection criterion that can precisely describe the preference of one location over another. Therefore selection of these sites can be viewed as a multiple criteria decision-making or multiple attributes decision-making problem. For this purpose, we propose a technique that can effectively take managerial preferences and subjective data into consideration, along with quantitative factors. The tool proposed here relies on the use of the analytical network process (ANP) and to help integrate managerial evaluations into a more quantitatively based decision tool, data envelopment analysis (DEA) is applied. In this paper, a location selection procedure is presented to construct an undesirable facility applying ANP and DEA approaches in two stages. In the first stage ANP approach is used, results of this stage are inputs for the second stage. In this stage, DEA is applied to select the best location. Finally, to illustrate the proposed framework, at "Results and discussion" section, a total of four undesirable facility locations are evaluated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Advanced qualification of pharmaceutical excipient suppliers by multiple analytics and multivariate analysis combined.

    PubMed

    Hertrampf, A; Müller, H; Menezes, J C; Herdling, T

    2015-11-10

    Pharmaceutical excipients have different functions within a drug formulation, consequently they can influence the manufacturability and/or performance of medicinal products. Therefore, critical to quality attributes should be kept constant. Sometimes it may be necessary to qualify a second supplier, but its product will not be completely equal to the first supplier product. To minimize risks of not detecting small non-similarities between suppliers and to detect lot-to-lot variability for each supplier, multivariate data analysis (MVA) can be used as a more powerful alternative to classical quality control that uses one-parameter-at-a-time monitoring. Such approach is capable of supporting the requirements of a new guideline by the European Parliament and Council (2015/C-95/02) demanding appropriate quality control strategies for excipients based on their criticality and supplier risks in ensuring quality, safety and function. This study compares calcium hydrogen phosphate from two suppliers. It can be assumed that both suppliers use different manufacturing processes. Therefore, possible chemical and physical differences were investigated by using Raman spectroscopy, laser diffraction and X-ray powder diffraction. Afterwards MVA was used to extract relevant information from each analytical technique. Both CaHPO4 could be discriminated by their supplier. The gained knowledge allowed to specify an enhanced strategy for second supplier qualification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. GeneAnalytics Pathway Analysis and Genetic Overlap among Autism Spectrum Disorder, Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Khanzada, Naveen S; Butler, Merlin G; Manzardo, Ann M

    2017-02-28

    Bipolar disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia (SCH) show similar neuropsychiatric behavioral disturbances, including impaired social interaction and communication, seen in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with multiple overlapping genetic and environmental influences implicated in risk and course of illness. GeneAnalytics software was used for pathway analysis and genetic profiling to characterize common susceptibility genes obtained from published lists for ASD (792 genes), BPD (290 genes) and SCH (560 genes). Rank scores were derived from the number and nature of overlapping genes, gene-disease association, tissue specificity and gene functions subdivided into categories (e.g., diseases, tissues or functional pathways). Twenty-three genes were common to all three disorders and mapped to nine biological Superpathways including Circadian entrainment (10 genes, score = 37.0), Amphetamine addiction (five genes, score = 24.2), and Sudden infant death syndrome (six genes, score = 24.1). Brain tissues included the medulla oblongata (11 genes, score = 2.1), thalamus (10 genes, score = 2.0) and hypothalamus (nine genes, score = 2.0) with six common genes (BDNF, DRD2, CHRNA7, HTR2A, SLC6A3, and TPH2). Overlapping genes impacted dopamine and serotonin homeostasis and signal transduction pathways, impacting mood, behavior and physical activity level. Converging effects on pathways governing circadian rhythms support a core etiological relationship between neuropsychiatric illnesses and sleep disruption with hypoxia and central brain stem dysfunction.

  3. Improved analytic extreme-mass-ratio inspiral model for scoping out eLISA data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, Alvin J. K.; Gair, Jonathan R.

    2015-12-01

    The space-based gravitational-wave detector eLISA has been selected as the ESA L3 mission, and the mission design will be finalized by the end of this decade. To prepare for mission formulation over the next few years, several outstanding and urgent questions in data analysis will be addressed using mock data challenges, informed by instrument measurements from the LISA Pathfinder satellite launching at the end of 2015. These data challenges will require accurate and computationally affordable waveform models for anticipated sources such as the extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) of stellar-mass compact objects into massive black holes. Previous data challenges have made use of the well-known analytic EMRI waveforms of Barack and Cutler, which are extremely quick to generate but dephase relative to more accurate waveforms within hours, due to their mismatched radial, polar and azimuthal frequencies. In this paper, we describe an augmented Barack-Cutler model that uses a frequency map to the correct Kerr frequencies, along with updated evolution equations and a simple fit to a more accurate model. The augmented waveforms stay in phase for months and may be generated with virtually no additional computational cost.

  4. Structural damage localization by outlier analysis of signal-processed mode shapes - Analytical and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulriksen, M. D.; Damkilde, L.

    2016-02-01

    Contrary to global modal parameters such as eigenfrequencies, mode shapes inherently provide structural information on a local level. Therefore, this particular modal parameter and its derivatives are utilized extensively for damage identification. Typically, more or less advanced mathematical methods are employed to identify damage-induced discontinuities in the spatial mode shape signals, hereby, potentially, facilitating damage detection and/or localization. However, by being based on distinguishing damage-induced discontinuities from other signal irregularities, an intrinsic deficiency in these methods is the high sensitivity towards measurement noise. In the present paper, a damage localization method which, compared to the conventional mode shape-based methods, has greatly enhanced robustness towards measurement noise is proposed. The method is based on signal processing of a spatial mode shape by means of continuous wavelet transformation (CWT) and subsequent application of a generalized discrete Teager-Kaiser energy operator (GDTKEO) to identify damage-induced mode shape discontinuities. In order to evaluate whether the identified discontinuities are in fact damage-induced, outlier analysis is conducted by applying the Mahalanobis metric to major principal scores of the sensor-located bands of the signal-processed mode shape. The method is tested analytically and benchmarked with other mode shape-based damage localization approaches on the basis of a free-vibrating beam and validated experimentally in the context of a residential-sized wind turbine blade subjected to an impulse load.

  5. Professional support for next of kin of patients receiving chronic haemodialysis treatment: a content analysis study of nursing documentation.

    PubMed

    Ziegert, Kristina; Fridlund, Bengt; Lidell, Evy

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the content of nursing documentation with a focus on professional support for next of kin (NoK) of patients receiving chronic haemodialysis treatment. Professional support in nursing focuses on promotion, maintenance and restoration of health and prevention of illness. The study had a descriptive design and qualitative content analysis was used to search for themes based on descriptions contained in the collected nursing documentation. The total number of nursing records of patients receiving chronic haemodialysis treatment (n = 50) for the 5-year period 1998-2002 was included. All nursing documentation was systematic in accordance with the VIPS-documentation model. The professional support could be described within the framework of three themes: to explore NoK's supportive resources, to enable NoK' readiness in caring for the patient and to co-operate with NoK in the care of the patient in the home, captured by the core theme which described the professional support as a continuous process. Next of kin are a supportive resource in the nursing care of patients receiving chronic haemodialysis treatment and professional support for NoK focuses on planning their participation in the care of patients in the home. Professional support for NoK should be documented in family focused nursing diagnoses, which would make it possible to search for different types of support. Future research might explore nurses' or NoK's views on carer support.

  6. Depth of the main crustal and mantle interfaces beneath the Gorely volcano (Kamchatka) based on the receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Arseny; Woelbern, Ingo; Nikulin, Alex; Koulakov, Ivan; Jakovlev, Andrey; Gordeev, Evgeny; Abkadyrov, Ilyas

    2016-04-01

    Gorely volcano is located in the southern part of the Kamchatka peninsula. It is two-tier structure with an old shield volcano at the base and a younger edifice on the top. The subducting Pacific oceanic Plate is located at the depth of 120 km beneath the volcano. The receiver function method was used to investigate the 1D structure beneath the volcano. From the continuous yearly seismograms recorded by a temporary network consisting of 16 seismic stations, we selected more than 600 records corresponding to teleseismic events which were used for the receiver function analysis. Based on the method by Zhu and Kanamory, we have determined the depth of the Moho interface at 38 km and that of the Conrad discontinuity at 26 km. These values correspond to the well exposed continental crust. The receiver functions also provide a rather prominent signal corresponding to a discontinuity at ~300 km depth; however, no clear signatures of deeper interfaces and slab interfaces are determined in this study. This study is the first attempt to determine the depth of the major interfaces beneath the Gorely volcano.

  7. moocRP: Enabling Open Learning Analytics with an Open Source Platform for Data Distribution, Analysis, and Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardos, Zachary A.; Whyte, Anthony; Kao, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we address issues of transparency, modularity, and privacy with the introduction of an open source, web-based data repository and analysis tool tailored to the Massive Open Online Course community. The tool integrates data request/authorization and distribution workflow features as well as provides a simple analytics module upload…

  8. An analytical solution of the Fokker-Planck equation in the phase-locked loop transient analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Weijian

    1987-01-01

    A probabilistic approach is used to obtain an analytical solution to the Fokker-Planck equation used in the transient analysis of the phase-locked loop phase error process of the first-order phase-locked loop. The solution procedure, which is based on the Girsanov transformation, is described.

  9. A Systematic Mapping on the Learning Analytics Field and Its Analysis in the Massive Open Online Courses Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moissa, Barbara; Gasparini, Isabela; Kemczinski, Avanilde

    2015-01-01

    Learning Analytics (LA) is a field that aims to optimize learning through the study of dynamical processes occurring in the students' context. It covers the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of data about students and their contexts. This study aims at surveying existing research on LA to identify approaches, topics, and needs for…

  10. moocRP: Enabling Open Learning Analytics with an Open Source Platform for Data Distribution, Analysis, and Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardos, Zachary A.; Whyte, Anthony; Kao, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we address issues of transparency, modularity, and privacy with the introduction of an open source, web-based data repository and analysis tool tailored to the Massive Open Online Course community. The tool integrates data request/authorization and distribution workflow features as well as provides a simple analytics module upload…

  11. Comprehensive two dimensional liquid chromatography as analytical strategy for pharmaceutical analysis.

    PubMed

    Iguiniz, Marion; Rouvière, Florent; Corbel, Estelle; Roques, Nicolas; Heinisch, Sabine

    2017-08-30

    Comprehensive on-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LCxLC) is expected to generate impressive peak capacities, which makes it a method of choice for the analysis of complex samples such as pharmaceuticals. A comparative study of different sets of chromatographic conditions including stationary phase, pH additive and organic modifier was carried out with two real pharmaceutical samples in order to find out the best analytical conditions for implementation of one or several generic on-line LCxLC separations. Our choice was based on the evaluation of both degree of orthogonality and practical sample peak capacity under linear gradient conditions. The potential of 190 combinations of chromatographic systems was compared. A set of 3 RPLCxRPLC configurations was found to be very attractive for both samples and in good agreement with the findings of a previous study carried out with 17 model compounds, thereby supporting the idea of using generic LCxLC conditions in the pharmaceutical area. The three selected 2D-systems were implemented for the on-line RPLCxRPLC-UV/MS analysis of two pharmaceutical samples. It was shown, for each sample, that these 2D-systems were able to generate an effective peak capacity close to 1000 in less than 50min. For each sample, baseline separation was obtained for every known compound and furthermore a large number of unknown impurities could also be separated and identified. Finally, in the proposed conditions, the total number of compounds detected was significantly improved from one RPLC separation to one RPLCxRPLC separation. Only a small additional gain was observed by performing a second RPLCxRPLC separation or even a third one. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mean-intercept anisotropy analysis of porous media. I. Analytic formulae for anisotropic Boolean models.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Michael A; Schröder-Turk, Gerd E; Mecke, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    Structure-property relations, which relate the shape of the microstructure to physical properties such as transport or mechanical properties, need sensitive measures of structure. What are suitable fabric tensors that quantify the shape of anisotropic heterogeneous materials? The mean intercept length is among the most commonly used characteristics of anisotropy in porous media, for example, of trabecular bone in medical physics. We analyze the orientation-biased Boolean model, a versatile stochastic model that represents microstructures as overlapping grains with an orientation bias towards a preferred direction. This model is an extension of the isotropic Boolean model, which has been shown to truthfully reproduce multi-functional properties of isotropic porous media. We explain the close relationship between the concept of intersections with test lines to the elaborate mathematical theory of queues, and how explicit results from the latter can be directly applied to characterize microstructures. In this series of two papers, we provide analytic formulas for the anisotropic Boolean model and demonstrate often overlooked conceptual shortcomings of this approach. Queuing theory is used to derive simple and illustrative formulas for the mean intercept length. It separates into an intensity-dependent and an orientation-dependent factor. The global average of the mean intercept length can be expressed by local characteristics of a single grain alone. We thus identify which shape information about the random process the mean intercept length contains. The connection between global and local quantities helps to interpret observations and provides insights into the possibilities and limitations of the analysis. In the second paper of this series, we discuss, based on the findings in this paper, short-comings of the mean intercept analysis for (bone-)microstructure characterization. We will suggest alternative and better defined sensitive anisotropy measures from integral

  13. Total cyanide analysis of tank core samples: Analytical results and supporting investigations. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.

    1994-03-01

    The potential for a ferrocyanide explosion in Hanford site single-shelled waste storage tanks (SSTS) poses a serious safety concern. This potential danger developed in the 1950s when {sup 137}Cs was scavenged during the reprocessing of uranium recovery process waste by co-precipitating it along with sodium in nickel ferrocyanide salt. Sodium or potassium ferrocyanide and nickel sulfate were added to the liquid waste stored in SSTs. The tank storage space resulting from the scavenging process was subsequently used to store other waste types. Ferrocyanide salts in combinations with oxidizing agents, such as nitrate and nitrite, are known to explode when key parameters (temperature, water content, oxidant concentration, and fuel [cyanide]) are in place. Therefore, reliable total cyanide analysis data for actual SST materials are required to address the safety issue. Accepted cyanide analysis procedures do not yield reliable results for samples containing nickel ferrocyanide materials because the compounds are insoluble in acidic media. Analytical chemists at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) have developed a modified microdistillation procedure (see below) for analyzing total cyanide in waste tank matrices containing nickel ferrocyanide materials. Pacific Northwest Laboratory analyzed samples from Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-112 cores 34, 35, and 36 for total cyanide content using technical procedure PNL-ALO-285 {open_quotes}Total Cyanide by Remote Microdistillation and Agrentometric Titration,{close_quotes} Rev. 0. This report summarizes the results of these analyses along with supporting quality control data, and, in addition, summarizes the results of the test to check the efficacy of sodium nickel ferrocyanide solubilization from an actual core sample by aqueous EDTA/en to verify that nickel ferrocyanide compounds were quantitatively solubilized before actual distillation.

  14. Web Analytics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s Web Analytics Program collects, analyzes, and provides reports on traffic, quality assurance, and customer satisfaction metrics for EPA’s website. The program uses a variety of analytics tools, including Google Analytics and CrazyEgg.

  15. CALUTRON RECEIVER

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, S.W.

    1959-08-25

    An improvement in a calutron receiver for collecting the isotopes ts described. The electromagnetic separation of the isotopes produces a mass spectrum of closely adjacent beams of ions at the foci regions, and a dividing wall between the two pockets is arranged at an angle. Substantially all of the tons of the less abundant isotope enter one of the pockets and strike one side of the wall directly, while substantially none of the tons entering the other pocket strikes the wall directly.

  16. Sensitivity analysis of laboratory based mine overburden analytical techniques for the prediction of acidic mine drainage. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bradham, W.S.; Caruccio, F.T.

    1995-09-01

    A three part sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate commonly used mine overburden analytical techniques. The primary objectives of the study were: identify and evaluate the effects of variability in mine overburden geochemistry, as measured by pyrite weight percent and neutralization potential (NP), on variability of contaminant production; determine which acid/base accounting interpretation technique best predicts both qualitative and quantitative leachate quality in laboratory analytical testing; and identify the predominant factors of weathering cells, soxhlet extraction, and column leaching tests, and evaluate variability of contaminant production due to variations in; storage conditions, leachant temperature, particle size, particle sorting efficiency, and leaching interval.

  17. Analytic Hierarchy and Economic Analysis of a Plasma Gasification System for Naval Air Station Oceana-Dam Neck

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-30

    different waste source with municipal solid waste, ash , coal. The plasma gasification system operates through various stages, with the primary stage...Hierarchy and Economic Analysis of a Plasma Gasification System for Naval Air Station Oceana-Dam Neck Matthew R. Yost Report...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Analytic Hierarchy and Economic Analysis of a Plasma Gasification System for Naval Air

  18. Automated Ground-Water Sampling and Analysis of Hexavalent Chromium using a “Universal” Sampling/Analytical System

    PubMed Central

    Burge, Scott R.; Hoffman, Dave A.; Hartman, Mary J.; Venedam, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    The capabilities of a “universal platform” for the deployment of analytical sensors in the field for long-term monitoring of environmental contaminants were expanded in this investigation. The platform was previously used to monitor trichloroethene in monitoring wells and at groundwater treatment systems (1,2). The platform was interfaced with chromium (VI) and conductivity analytical systems to monitor shallow wells installed adjacent to the Columbia River at the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site, Washington. A groundwater plume of hexavalent chromium is discharging into the Columbia River through the gravels beds used by spawning salmon. The sampling/analytical platform was deployed for the purpose of collecting data on subsurface hexavalent chromium concentrations at more frequent intervals than was possible with the previous sampling and analysis methods employed a the Site.

  19. Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices for potential use in quantitative and direct detection of disease biomarkers in clinical analysis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wei Yin; Goh, Boon Tong; Khor, Sook Mei

    2017-08-15

    Clinicians, working in the health-care diagnostic systems of developing countries, currently face the challenges of rising costs, increased number of patient visits, and limited resources. A significant trend is using low-cost substrates to develop microfluidic devices for diagnostic purposes. Various fabrication techniques, materials, and detection methods have been explored to develop these devices. Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) have gained attention for sensing multiplex analytes, confirming diagnostic test results, rapid sample analysis, and reducing the volume of samples and analytical reagents. μPADs, which can provide accurate and reliable direct measurement without sample pretreatment, can reduce patient medical burden and yield rapid test results, aiding physicians in choosing appropriate treatment. The objectives of this review are to provide an overview of the strategies used for developing paper-based sensors with enhanced analytical performances and to discuss the current challenges, limitations, advantages, disadvantages, and future prospects of paper-based microfluidic platforms in clinical diagnostics. μPADs, with validated and justified analytical performances, can potentially improve the quality of life by providing inexpensive, rapid, portable, biodegradable, and reliable diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of analytical and numerical analysis of the reference region model for DCE-MRI.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joonsang; Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Julio; Pagel, Mark D; Platt, Simon; Kent, Marc; Zhao, Qun

    2014-09-01

    This study compared three methods for analyzing DCE-MRI data with a reference region (RR) model: a linear least-square fitting with numerical analysis (LLSQ-N), a nonlinear least-square fitting with numerical analysis (NLSQ-N), and an analytical analysis (NLSQ-A). The accuracy and precision of estimating the pharmacokinetic parameter ratios KR and VR, where KR is defined as a ratio between the two volume transfer constants, K(trans,TOI) and K(trans,RR), and VR is the ratio between the two extracellular extravascular volumes, ve,TOI and ve,RR, were assessed using simulations under various signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and temporal resolutions (4, 6, 30, and 60s). When no noise was added, the simulations showed that the mean percent error (MPE) for the estimated KR and VR using the LLSQ-N and NLSQ-N methods ranged from 1.2% to 31.6% with various temporal resolutions while the NLSQ-A method maintained a very high accuracy (<1.0×10(-4) %) regardless of the temporal resolution. The simulation also indicated that the LLSQ-N and NLSQ-N methods appear to underestimate the parameter ratios more than the NLSQ-A method. In addition, seven in vivo DCE-MRI datasets from spontaneously occurring canine brain tumors were analyzed with each method. Results for the in vivo study showed that KR (ranging from 0.63 to 3.11) and VR (ranging from 2.82 to 19.16) for the NLSQ-A method were both higher than results for the other two methods (KR ranging from 0.01 to 1.29 and VR ranging from 1.48 to 19.59). A temporal downsampling experiment showed that the averaged percent error for the NLSQ-A method (8.45%) was lower than the other two methods (22.97% for LLSQ-N and 65.02% for NLSQ-N) for KR, and the averaged percent error for the NLSQ-A method (6.33%) was lower than the other two methods (6.57% for LLSQ-N and 13.66% for NLSQ-N) for VR. Using simulations, we showed that the NLSQ-A method can estimate the ratios of pharmacokinetic parameters more accurately and precisely than the NLSQ-N and