Swimming Efficiently: An Analytical Study of Optimal Swimming in Fish
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiens, A. Josh; Hosoi, Anette
2014-11-01
The Strouhal Number (St) , is widely considered to be the defining parameter for efficient undulatory swimming. Biological studies have shown that fish species across a broad range of shapes and sizes adhere to a narrow St range (0 . 2 < St < 0 . 4). Despite its significance, St alone provides an incomplete description of the kinematics and geometry of a swimming fish. The dimensionless speed and amplitude of the body wave, along with the size and shape of the body can also play a significant role in swimming performance. We apply Lighthill's elongated body theory to construct a simple but powerful reduction of the steady-swimming problem. Through this reduction, the energetic efficiency of a swimming fish can be directly expressed as an analytical function of body geometry and kinematics. In this reduced form, the interplay between the parameters of the system, and their collective role in determining the performance of the swimmer can be readily observed and understood. In particular, the reduced model is applied to understand how wave amplitude, wave speed, and St must relate for optimal swimming efficiency. Following this, we then explore how these relationships are altered by geometric factors such as tail size and compliance.
Reliability-based structural optimization: A proposed analytical-experimental study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stroud, W. Jefferson; Nikolaidis, Efstratios
1993-01-01
An analytical and experimental study for assessing the potential of reliability-based structural optimization is proposed and described. In the study, competing designs obtained by deterministic and reliability-based optimization are compared. The experimental portion of the study is practical because the structure selected is a modular, actively and passively controlled truss that consists of many identical members, and because the competing designs are compared in terms of their dynamic performance and are not destroyed if failure occurs. The analytical portion of this study is illustrated on a 10-bar truss example. In the illustrative example, it is shown that reliability-based optimization can yield a design that is superior to an alternative design obtained by deterministic optimization. These analytical results provide motivation for the proposed study, which is underway.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Powers, B. G.
1978-01-01
An analytical study was conducted to evaluate the relative improvements in aircraft ride qualities that resulted from utilizing several control law configurations that were optimized for pilot handling qualities only. The airplane configuration used was an executive jet transport in the approach configuration. The control law configurations included the basic system, a rate feedback system, three command augmentation systems (rate command, attitude command, and rate command/attitude hold), and a control wheel steering system. Both the longitudinal and lateral directional axes were evaluated. A representative example of each control law configuration was optimized for pilot handling qualities on a fixed base simulator. The root mean square airplane responses to turbulence were calculated, and predictions of ride quality ratings were computed by using three models available in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Guanhao; Wang, Yancheng; Mei, Deqing; Xi, Kailun; Chen, Zichen
2016-04-01
This paper presents an analytical model to study the structural effects of a capacitive tactile sensor array on its capacitance changes and sensitivities. The tactile sensor array has 8 × 8 sensor units, and each unit utilizes the truncated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pyramid array structure as the dielectric layer to enhance the sensing performance. To predict the capacitance changes of the sensor unit, it is simplified into a two-layered structure: upper polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film and bottom truncated PDMS pyramid array. The upper PET is modeled by a displacement field function, while each of the truncated pyramids is analyzed to obtain its stress-strain relation. Using the Ritz method, the displacement field functions are solved. The deformation of the upper electrodes and the capacitance changes of the sensor unit can then be calculated. Using the developed model, the structural effects of the truncated PDMS pyramid array and the PDMS bump on the capacitance changes and sensitivities are studied. To achieve the largest capacitance changes, the dimensions have been optimized for the sensor unit. To verify the developed model, we have fabricated the sensor array, and the average sensitivities of the sensor unit to the x-, y-, and z-axes force are 0.49, 0.50, and 0.32% mN-1, respectively, while the model predicted values are 0.54, 0.54, and 0.35% mN-1. Results demonstrate that the developed model can accurately predict the sensing performance of the sensor array and could be utilized for structural optimization.
An analytic study of near terminal area optimal sequencing and flow control techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, S. K.; Straeter, T. A.; Hogge, J. E.
1973-01-01
Optimal flow control and sequencing of air traffic operations in the near terminal area are discussed. The near terminal area model is based on the assumptions that the aircraft enter the terminal area along precisely controlled approach paths and that the aircraft are segregated according to their near terminal area performance. Mathematical models are developed to support the optimal path generation, sequencing, and conflict resolution problems.
Analytical and Computational Aspects of Collaborative Optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alexandrov, Natalia M.; Lewis, Robert Michael
2000-01-01
Bilevel problem formulations have received considerable attention as an approach to multidisciplinary optimization in engineering. We examine the analytical and computational properties of one such approach, collaborative optimization. The resulting system-level optimization problems suffer from inherent computational difficulties due to the bilevel nature of the method. Most notably, it is impossible to characterize and hence identify solutions of the system-level problems because the standard first-order conditions for solutions of constrained optimization problems do not hold. The analytical features of the system-level problem make it difficult to apply conventional nonlinear programming algorithms. Simple examples illustrate the analysis and the algorithmic consequences for optimization methods. We conclude with additional observations on the practical implications of the analytical and computational properties of collaborative optimization.
O'Neill, M.J.; Waller, R.A.
1980-01-01
A transmittance-optimized linear Fresnel lens solar concentrator has been developed. The optical performance of the lens has been analytically predicted, using the method of cone optics, to define the radiant flux profile in the focal plane. Also, the optical performance of the lens has been experimentally determined, using a focal plane radiant flux scanner, under actual solar illumination. A brief description of the lens, its predicted performance, and its measured performance is presented.
Extended Analytic Device Optimization Employing Asymptotic Expansion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mackey, Jonathan; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynsys, Fred
2013-01-01
Analytic optimization of a thermoelectric junction often introduces several simplifying assumptionsincluding constant material properties, fixed known hot and cold shoe temperatures, and thermallyinsulated leg sides. In fact all of these simplifications will have an effect on device performance,ranging from negligible to significant depending on conditions. Numerical methods, such as FiniteElement Analysis or iterative techniques, are often used to perform more detailed analysis andaccount for these simplifications. While numerical methods may stand as a suitable solution scheme,they are weak in gaining physical understanding and only serve to optimize through iterativesearching techniques. Analytic and asymptotic expansion techniques can be used to solve thegoverning system of thermoelectric differential equations with fewer or less severe assumptionsthan the classic case. Analytic methods can provide meaningful closed form solutions and generatebetter physical understanding of the conditions for when simplifying assumptions may be valid.In obtaining the analytic solutions a set of dimensionless parameters, which characterize allthermoelectric couples, is formulated and provide the limiting cases for validating assumptions.Presentation includes optimization of both classic rectangular couples as well as practically andtheoretically interesting cylindrical couples using optimization parameters physically meaningful toa cylindrical couple. Solutions incorporate the physical behavior for i) thermal resistance of hot andcold shoes, ii) variable material properties with temperature, and iii) lateral heat transfer through legsides.
Parallel Aircraft Trajectory Optimization with Analytic Derivatives
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Falck, Robert D.; Gray, Justin S.; Naylor, Bret
2016-01-01
Trajectory optimization is an integral component for the design of aerospace vehicles, but emerging aircraft technologies have introduced new demands on trajectory analysis that current tools are not well suited to address. Designing aircraft with technologies such as hybrid electric propulsion and morphing wings requires consideration of the operational behavior as well as the physical design characteristics of the aircraft. The addition of operational variables can dramatically increase the number of design variables which motivates the use of gradient based optimization with analytic derivatives to solve the larger optimization problems. In this work we develop an aircraft trajectory analysis tool using a Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto based collocation scheme, providing analytic derivatives via the OpenMDAO multidisciplinary optimization framework. This collocation method uses an implicit time integration scheme that provides a high degree of sparsity and thus several potential options for parallelization. The performance of the new implementation was investigated via a series of single and multi-trajectory optimizations using a combination of parallel computing and constraint aggregation. The computational performance results show that in order to take full advantage of the sparsity in the problem it is vital to parallelize both the non-linear analysis evaluations and the derivative computations themselves. The constraint aggregation results showed a significant numerical challenge due to difficulty in achieving tight convergence tolerances. Overall, the results demonstrate the value of applying analytic derivatives to trajectory optimization problems and lay the foundation for future application of this collocation based method to the design of aircraft with where operational scheduling of technologies is key to achieving good performance.
Hensel, Charles; Vanzo, Rena; Martin, Megan; Dixon, Sean; Lambert, Christophe; Levy, Brynn; Nelson, Lesa; Peiffer, Andy; Ho, Karen S.; Rushton, Patricia; Serrano, Moises; South, Sarah; Ward, Kenneth; Wassman, Edward
2017-01-01
Introduction: Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) is recognized as the first-tier test in the genetic evaluation of children with developmental delays, intellectual disabilities, congenital anomalies and autism spectrum disorders of unknown etiology. Array Design: To optimize detection of clinically relevant copy number variants associated with these conditions, we designed a whole-genome microarray, FirstStepDx PLUS (FSDX). A set of 88,435 custom probes was added to the Affymetrix CytoScanHD platform targeting genomic regions strongly associated with these conditions. This combination of 2,784,985 total probes results in the highest probe coverage and clinical yield for these disorders. Results and Discussion: Clinical testing of this patient population is validated on DNA from either non-invasive buccal swabs or traditional blood samples. In this report we provide data demonstrating the analytic and clinical validity of FSDX and provide an overview of results from the first 7,570 consecutive patients tested clinically. We further demonstrate that buccal sampling is an effective method of obtaining DNA samples, which may provide improved results compared to traditional blood sampling for patients with neurodevelopmental disorders who exhibit somatic mosaicism. PMID:28357155
Optimism and Physical Health: A Meta-analytic Review
Rasmussen, Heather N.; Greenhouse, Joel B.
2010-01-01
Background Prior research links optimism to physical health, but the strength of the association has not been systematically evaluated. Purpose The purpose of this study is to conduct a meta-analytic review to determine the strength of the association between optimism and physical health. Methods The findings from 83 studies, with 108 effect sizes (ESs), were included in the analyses, using random-effects models. Results Overall, the mean ES characterizing the relationship between optimism and physical health outcomes was 0.17, p<.001. ESs were larger for studies using subjective (versus objective) measures of physical health. Subsidiary analyses were also conducted grouping studies into those that focused solely on mortality, survival, cardiovascular outcomes, physiological markers (including immune function), immune function only, cancer outcomes, outcomes related to pregnancy, physical symptoms, or pain. In each case, optimism was a significant predictor of health outcomes or markers, all p<.001. Conclusions Optimism is a significant predictor of positive physical health outcomes. PMID:19711142
Gradient Optimization for Analytic conTrols - GOAT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Assémat, Elie; Machnes, Shai; Tannor, David; Wilhelm-Mauch, Frank
Quantum optimal control becomes a necessary step in a number of studies in the quantum realm. Recent experimental advances showed that superconducting qubits can be controlled with an impressive accuracy. However, most of the standard optimal control algorithms are not designed to manage such high accuracy. To tackle this issue, a novel quantum optimal control algorithm have been introduced: the Gradient Optimization for Analytic conTrols (GOAT). It avoids the piecewise constant approximation of the control pulse used by standard algorithms. This allows an efficient implementation of very high accuracy optimization. It also includes a novel method to compute the gradient that provides many advantages, e.g. the absence of backpropagation or the natural route to optimize the robustness of the control pulses. This talk will present the GOAT algorithm and a few applications to transmons systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ooi, B. L.; Gilbert, J. M.; Aziz, A. Rashid A.
2016-08-01
Owing to the increasing demand for harvesting energy from environmental vibration for use in self-powered electronic applications, cantilever-based vibration energy harvesting has attracted considerable interest from various parties and has become one of the most common approaches to converting redundant mechanical energy into electrical energy. As the output voltage produced from a piezoelectric material depends largely on the geometric shape and the size of the beam, there is a need to model and compare the performance of cantilever beams of differing geometries. This paper presents the study of strain distribution in various shapes of cantilever beams, including a convex and concave edge profile elliptical beam that have not yet been discussed in any prior literature. Both analytical and finite-element models are derived and the resultant strain distributions in the beam are computed based on a MATLAB solver and ANSYS finite-element analysis tools. An optimum geometry for a vibration-based energy harvesting system is verified. Finally, experimental results comparing the power density for triangular and rectangular piezoelectric beams are also presented to validate the findings of the study, and the claim, as suggested in the literature, is verified.
Approximated analytical solution to an Ebola optimal control problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hincapié-Palacio, Doracelly; Ospina, Juan; Torres, Delfim F. M.
2016-11-01
An analytical expression for the optimal control of an Ebola problem is obtained. The analytical solution is found as a first-order approximation to the Pontryagin Maximum Principle via the Euler-Lagrange equation. An implementation of the method is given using the computer algebra system Maple. Our analytical solutions confirm the results recently reported in the literature using numerical methods.
Optimization of Turbine Engine Cycle Analysis with Analytic Derivatives
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hearn, Tristan; Hendricks, Eric; Chin, Jeffrey; Gray, Justin; Moore, Kenneth T.
2016-01-01
A new engine cycle analysis tool, called Pycycle, was built using the OpenMDAO framework. Pycycle provides analytic derivatives allowing for an efficient use of gradient-based optimization methods on engine cycle models, without requiring the use of finite difference derivative approximation methods. To demonstrate this, a gradient-based design optimization was performed on a turbofan engine model. Results demonstrate very favorable performance compared to an optimization of an identical model using finite-difference approximated derivatives.
Analytical and simulator study of advanced transport
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levison, W. H.; Rickard, W. W.
1982-01-01
An analytic methodology, based on the optimal-control pilot model, was demonstrated for assessing longitidunal-axis handling qualities of transport aircraft in final approach. Calibration of the methodology is largely in terms of closed-loop performance requirements, rather than specific vehicle response characteristics, and is based on a combination of published criteria, pilot preferences, physical limitations, and engineering judgment. Six longitudinal-axis approach configurations were studied covering a range of handling qualities problems, including the presence of flexible aircraft modes. The analytical procedure was used to obtain predictions of Cooper-Harper ratings, a solar quadratic performance index, and rms excursions of important system variables.
Optimizing an immersion ESL curriculum using analytic hierarchy process.
Tang, Hui-Wen Vivian
2011-11-01
The main purpose of this study is to fill a substantial knowledge gap regarding reaching a uniform group decision in English curriculum design and planning. A comprehensive content-based course criterion model extracted from existing literature and expert opinions was developed. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used to identify the relative importance of course criteria for the purpose of tailoring an optimal one-week immersion English as a second language (ESL) curriculum for elementary school students in a suburban county of Taiwan. The hierarchy model and AHP analysis utilized in the present study will be useful for resolving several important multi-criteria decision-making issues in planning and evaluating ESL programs. This study also offers valuable insights and provides a basis for further research in customizing ESL curriculum models for different student populations with distinct learning needs, goals, and socioeconomic backgrounds.
Optimal control design of pulse shapes as analytic functions.
Skinner, Thomas E; Gershenzon, Naum I
2010-06-01
Representing NMR pulse shapes by analytic functions is widely employed in procedures for optimizing performance. Insights concerning pulse dynamics can be applied to the choice of appropriate functions that target specific performance criteria, focusing the solution search and reducing the space of possible pulse shapes that must be considered to a manageable level. Optimal control theory can accommodate significantly larger parameter spaces and has been able to tackle problems of much larger scope than more traditional optimization methods. However, its numerically generated pulses, as currently constructed, do not readily incorporate the capabilities of particular functional forms, and the pulses are not guaranteed to vary smoothly in time, which can be a problem for faithful implementation on older hardware. An optimal control methodology is derived for generating pulse shapes as simple parameterized functions. It combines the benefits of analytic and numerical protocols in a single powerful algorithm that both complements and enhances existing optimization strategies.
Dispositional optimism and coping: a meta-analytic review.
Nes, Lise Solberg; Segerstrom, Suzanne C
2006-01-01
The relation between dispositional optimism and better adjustment to diverse stressors may be attributable to optimism's effects on coping strategies. A meta-analytic review (K = 50, N = 11,629) examined the impact of dispositional optimism on coping. Dispositional optimism was found to be positively associated with approach coping strategies aiming to eliminate, reduce, or manage stressors or emotions (r = .17), and negatively associated with avoidance coping strategies seeking to ignore, avoid, or withdraw from stressors or emotions (r = -.21). Effect sizes were larger for the distinction between approach and avoidance coping strategies than for that between problem and emotion-focused coping. Meta-analytic findings also indicate that optimists may adjust their coping strategies to meet the demands of the stressors at hand, and that the optimism-coping relationship is strongest in English-speaking samples.
Multidisciplinary optimization in aircraft design using analytic technology models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malone, Brett; Mason, W. H.
1991-01-01
An approach to multidisciplinary optimization is presented which combines the Global Sensitivity Equation method, parametric optimization, and analytic technology models. The result is a powerful yet simple procedure for identifying key design issues. It can be used both to investigate technology integration issues very early in the design cycle, and to establish the information flow framework between disciplines for use in multidisciplinary optimization projects using much more computational intense representations of each technology. To illustrate the approach, an examination of the optimization of a short takeoff heavy transport aircraft is presented for numerous combinations of performance and technology constraints.
Fast and efficient stochastic optimization for analytic continuation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bao, F.; Tang, Y.; Summers, M.; Zhang, G.; Webster, C.; Scarola, V.; Maier, T. A.
2016-09-01
The analytic continuation of imaginary-time quantum Monte Carlo data to extract real-frequency spectra remains a key problem in connecting theory with experiment. Here we present a fast and efficient stochastic optimization method (FESOM) as a more accessible variant of the stochastic optimization method introduced by Mishchenko et al. [Phys. Rev. B 62, 6317 (2000), 10.1103/PhysRevB.62.6317], and we benchmark the resulting spectra with those obtained by the standard maximum entropy method for three representative test cases, including data taken from studies of the two-dimensional Hubbard model. We generally find that our FESOM approach yields spectra similar to the maximum entropy results. In particular, while the maximum entropy method yields superior results when the quality of the data is strong, we find that FESOM is able to resolve fine structure with more detail when the quality of the data is poor. In addition, because of its stochastic nature, the method provides detailed information on the frequency-dependent uncertainty of the resulting spectra, while the maximum entropy method does so only for the spectral weight integrated over a finite frequency region. We therefore believe that this variant of the stochastic optimization approach provides a viable alternative to the routinely used maximum entropy method, especially for data of poor quality.
Fast and Efficient Stochastic Optimization for Analytic Continuation
Bao, Feng; Zhang, Guannan; Webster, Clayton G; Tang, Yanfei; Scarola, Vito; Summers, Michael Stuart; Maier, Thomas A
2016-09-28
In this analytic continuation of imaginary-time quantum Monte Carlo data to extract real-frequency spectra remains a key problem in connecting theory with experiment. Here we present a fast and efficient stochastic optimization method (FESOM) as a more accessible variant of the stochastic optimization method introduced by Mishchenko et al. [Phys. Rev. B 62, 6317 (2000)], and we benchmark the resulting spectra with those obtained by the standard maximum entropy method for three representative test cases, including data taken from studies of the two-dimensional Hubbard model. Genearally, we find that our FESOM approach yields spectra similar to the maximum entropy results. In particular, while the maximum entropy method yields superior results when the quality of the data is strong, we find that FESOM is able to resolve fine structure with more detail when the quality of the data is poor. In addition, because of its stochastic nature, the method provides detailed information on the frequency-dependent uncertainty of the resulting spectra, while the maximum entropy method does so only for the spectral weight integrated over a finite frequency region. Therefore, we believe that this variant of the stochastic optimization approach provides a viable alternative to the routinely used maximum entropy method, especially for data of poor quality.
Fast and Efficient Stochastic Optimization for Analytic Continuation
Bao, Feng; Zhang, Guannan; Webster, Clayton G; ...
2016-09-28
In this analytic continuation of imaginary-time quantum Monte Carlo data to extract real-frequency spectra remains a key problem in connecting theory with experiment. Here we present a fast and efficient stochastic optimization method (FESOM) as a more accessible variant of the stochastic optimization method introduced by Mishchenko et al. [Phys. Rev. B 62, 6317 (2000)], and we benchmark the resulting spectra with those obtained by the standard maximum entropy method for three representative test cases, including data taken from studies of the two-dimensional Hubbard model. Genearally, we find that our FESOM approach yields spectra similar to the maximum entropy results.more » In particular, while the maximum entropy method yields superior results when the quality of the data is strong, we find that FESOM is able to resolve fine structure with more detail when the quality of the data is poor. In addition, because of its stochastic nature, the method provides detailed information on the frequency-dependent uncertainty of the resulting spectra, while the maximum entropy method does so only for the spectral weight integrated over a finite frequency region. Therefore, we believe that this variant of the stochastic optimization approach provides a viable alternative to the routinely used maximum entropy method, especially for data of poor quality.« less
Analytically optimal parameters of dynamic vibration absorber with negative stiffness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Yongjun; Peng, Haibo; Li, Xianghong; Yang, Shaopu
2017-02-01
In this paper the optimal parameters of a dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) with negative stiffness is analytically studied. The analytical solution is obtained by Laplace transform method when the primary system is subjected to harmonic excitation. The research shows there are still two fixed points independent of the absorber damping in the amplitude-frequency curve of the primary system when the system contains negative stiffness. Then the optimum frequency ratio and optimum damping ratio are respectively obtained based on the fixed-point theory. A new strategy is proposed to obtain the optimum negative stiffness ratio and make the system remain stable at the same time. At last the control performance of the presented DVA is compared with those of three existing typical DVAs, which were presented by Den Hartog, Ren and Sims respectively. The comparison results in harmonic and random excitation show that the presented DVA in this paper could not only reduce the peak value of the amplitude-frequency curve of the primary system significantly, but also broaden the efficient frequency range of vibration mitigation.
Optimization of Turbine Engine Cycle Analysis with Analytic Derivatives
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hearn, Tristan; Hendricks, Eric; Chin, Jeffrey; Gray, Justin; Moore, Kenneth T.
2016-01-01
A new engine cycle analysis tool, called Pycycle, was recently built using the OpenMDAO framework. This tool uses equilibrium chemistry based thermodynamics, and provides analytic derivatives. This allows for stable and efficient use of gradient-based optimization and sensitivity analysis methods on engine cycle models, without requiring the use of finite difference derivative approximation methods. To demonstrate this, a gradient-based design optimization was performed on a multi-point turbofan engine model. Results demonstrate very favorable performance compared to an optimization of an identical model using finite-difference approximated derivatives.
Analytic Optimization of Near-Field Optical Chirality Enhancement
2017-01-01
We present an analytic derivation for the enhancement of local optical chirality in the near field of plasmonic nanostructures by tuning the far-field polarization of external light. We illustrate the results by means of simulations with an achiral and a chiral nanostructure assembly and demonstrate that local optical chirality is significantly enhanced with respect to circular polarization in free space. The optimal external far-field polarizations are different from both circular and linear. Symmetry properties of the nanostructure can be exploited to determine whether the optimal far-field polarization is circular. Furthermore, the optimal far-field polarization depends on the frequency, which results in complex-shaped laser pulses for broadband optimization. PMID:28239617
Optimization of the firefly luciferase reaction for analytical purposes.
Lundin, Arne
2014-01-01
The optimization of assays has two purposes: (1) to increase the sensitivity of the assay so that low levels of the analyte can be determined; and (2) to prevent small changes of the reaction conditions from having a large impact on the outcome of the assay. The two purposes are usually equally important, as has been recognized in well-established branches of analytical chemistry, such as clinical chemistry. The firefly luciferase reaction can be used for many types of assays. The way to optimize these assays is not trivial, as there are many parameters to consider. Furthermore, as there are now several types of recombinant luciferases available, one has to decide which is the most suitable for each individual assay. The optimization is influenced by the conditions and requirements under which the assay is performed. Special attention is given to ways to calibrate assays. Examples on optimization are mainly taken from the author's own work during 40 years using assays based on the firefly luciferase reaction.
Roll levelling semi-analytical model for process optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silvestre, E.; Garcia, D.; Galdos, L.; Saenz de Argandoña, E.; Mendiguren, J.
2016-08-01
Roll levelling is a primary manufacturing process used to remove residual stresses and imperfections of metal strips in order to make them suitable for subsequent forming operations. In the last years the importance of this process has been evidenced with the apparition of Ultra High Strength Steels with strength > 900 MPa. The optimal setting of the machine as well as a robust machine design has become critical for the correct processing of these materials. Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis is the widely used technique for both aspects. However, in this case, the FEM simulation times are above the admissible ones in both machine development and process optimization. In the present work, a semi-analytical model based on a discrete bending theory is presented. This model is able to calculate the critical levelling parameters i.e. force, plastification rate, residual stresses in a few seconds. First the semi-analytical model is presented. Next, some experimental industrial cases are analyzed by both the semi-analytical model and the conventional FEM model. Finally, results and computation times of both methods are compared.
Statistical and optimal learning with applications in business analytics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Bin
Statistical learning is widely used in business analytics to discover structure or exploit patterns from historical data, and build models that capture relationships between an outcome of interest and a set of variables. Optimal learning on the other hand, solves the operational side of the problem, by iterating between decision making and data acquisition/learning. All too often the two problems go hand-in-hand, which exhibit a feedback loop between statistics and optimization. We apply this statistical/optimal learning concept on a context of fundraising marketing campaign problem arising in many non-profit organizations. Many such organizations use direct-mail marketing to cultivate one-time donors and convert them into recurring contributors. Cultivated donors generate much more revenue than new donors, but also lapse with time, making it important to steadily draw in new cultivations. The direct-mail budget is limited, but better-designed mailings can improve success rates without increasing costs. We first apply statistical learning to analyze the effectiveness of several design approaches used in practice, based on a massive dataset covering 8.6 million direct-mail communications with donors to the American Red Cross during 2009-2011. We find evidence that mailed appeals are more effective when they emphasize disaster preparedness and training efforts over post-disaster cleanup. Including small cards that affirm donors' identity as Red Cross supporters is an effective strategy, while including gift items such as address labels is not. Finally, very recent acquisitions are more likely to respond to appeals that ask them to contribute an amount similar to their most recent donation, but this approach has an adverse effect on donors with a longer history. We show via simulation that a simple design strategy based on these insights has potential to improve success rates from 5.4% to 8.1%. Given these findings, when new scenario arises, however, new data need to
Optimizing multi-pinhole SPECT geometries using an analytical model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rentmeester, M. C. M.; van der Have, F.; Beekman, F. J.
2007-05-01
State-of-the-art multi-pinhole SPECT devices allow for sub-mm resolution imaging of radio-molecule distributions in small laboratory animals. The optimization of multi-pinhole and detector geometries using simulations based on ray-tracing or Monte Carlo algorithms is time-consuming, particularly because many system parameters need to be varied. As an efficient alternative we develop a continuous analytical model of a pinhole SPECT system with a stationary detector set-up, which we apply to focused imaging of a mouse. The model assumes that the multi-pinhole collimator and the detector both have the shape of a spherical layer, and uses analytical expressions for effective pinhole diameters, sensitivity and spatial resolution. For fixed fields-of-view, a pinhole-diameter adapting feedback loop allows for the comparison of the system resolution of different systems at equal system sensitivity, and vice versa. The model predicts that (i) for optimal resolution or sensitivity the collimator layer with pinholes should be placed as closely as possible around the animal given a fixed detector layer, (ii) with high-resolution detectors a resolution improvement up to 31% can be achieved compared to optimized systems, (iii) high-resolution detectors can be placed close to the collimator without significant resolution losses, (iv) interestingly, systems with a physical pinhole diameter of 0 mm can have an excellent resolution when high-resolution detectors are used.
Analytical solution and optimal design for galloping-based piezoelectric energy harvesters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, T.; Yan, Z.
2016-12-01
The performance of the galloping-based piezoelectric energy harvester is usually investigated numerically. Instead of performing case studies by numerical simulations, analytical solutions of the nonlinear distributed parameter model are derived to capture the intrinsic effects of the physical parameters on the performance of such energy harvesters. The analytical solutions are confirmed with the numerical solutions. Optimal performance of such energy harvesters is therefore revealed theoretically. The electric damping due to the electromechanical coupling is defined. The design at the optimal electrical damping with smaller onset speed to galloping, higher harvested power, and acceptable tip displacement is superior than the design at the maximal electrical damping, as long as the optimal electrical damping can be achieved. Otherwise, the design at the maximal electrical damping should be then adopted. As the wind speed and aerodynamic empirical coefficients increase, the tip displacement and harvested power increase. This study provides a theoretical design and optimization procedure for galloping-based piezoelectric energy harvesters.
Analytical investigations in aircraft and spacecraft trajectory optimization and optimal guidance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Markopoulos, Nikos; Calise, Anthony J.
1995-01-01
A collection of analytical studies is presented related to unconstrained and constrained aircraft (a/c) energy-state modeling and to spacecraft (s/c) motion under continuous thrust. With regard to a/c unconstrained energy-state modeling, the physical origin of the singular perturbation parameter that accounts for the observed 2-time-scale behavior of a/c during energy climbs is identified and explained. With regard to the constrained energy-state modeling, optimal control problems are studied involving active state-variable inequality constraints. Departing from the practical deficiencies of the control programs for such problems that result from the traditional formulations, a complete reformulation is proposed for these problems which, in contrast to the old formulation, will presumably lead to practically useful controllers that can track an inequality constraint boundary asymptotically, and even in the presence of 2-sided perturbations about it. Finally, with regard to s/c motion under continuous thrust, a thrust program is proposed for which the equations of 2-dimensional motion of a space vehicle in orbit, viewed as a point mass, afford an exact analytic solution. The thrust program arises under the assumption of tangential thrust from the costate system corresponding to minimum-fuel, power-limited, coplanar transfers between two arbitrary conics. The thrust program can be used not only with power-limited propulsion systems, but also with any propulsion system capable of generating continuous thrust of controllable magnitude, and, for propulsion types and classes of transfers for which it is sufficiently optimal the results of this report suggest a method of maneuvering during planetocentric or heliocentric orbital operations, requiring a minimum amount of computation; thus uniquely suitable for real-time feedback guidance implementations.
The analytical representation of viscoelastic material properties using optimization techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hill, S. A.
1993-01-01
This report presents a technique to model viscoelastic material properties with a function of the form of the Prony series. Generally, the method employed to determine the function constants requires assuming values for the exponential constants of the function and then resolving the remaining constants through linear least-squares techniques. The technique presented here allows all the constants to be analytically determined through optimization techniques. This technique is employed in a computer program named PRONY and makes use of commercially available optimization tool developed by VMA Engineering, Inc. The PRONY program was utilized to compare the technique against previously determined models for solid rocket motor TP-H1148 propellant and V747-75 Viton fluoroelastomer. In both cases, the optimization technique generated functions that modeled the test data with at least an order of magnitude better correlation. This technique has demonstrated the capability to use small or large data sets and to use data sets that have uniformly or nonuniformly spaced data pairs. The reduction of experimental data to accurate mathematical models is a vital part of most scientific and engineering research. This technique of regression through optimization can be applied to other mathematical models that are difficult to fit to experimental data through traditional regression techniques.
SU-E-T-422: Fast Analytical Beamlet Optimization for Volumetric Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy
Chan, Kenny S K; Lee, Louis K Y; Xing, L; Chan, Anthony T C
2015-06-15
Purpose: To implement a fast optimization algorithm on CPU/GPU heterogeneous computing platform and to obtain an optimal fluence for a given target dose distribution from the pre-calculated beamlets in an analytical approach. Methods: The 2D target dose distribution was modeled as an n-dimensional vector and estimated by a linear combination of independent basis vectors. The basis set was composed of the pre-calculated beamlet dose distributions at every 6 degrees of gantry angle and the cost function was set as the magnitude square of the vector difference between the target and the estimated dose distribution. The optimal weighting of the basis, which corresponds to the optimal fluence, was obtained analytically by the least square method. Those basis vectors with a positive weighting were selected for entering into the next level of optimization. Totally, 7 levels of optimization were implemented in the study.Ten head-and-neck and ten prostate carcinoma cases were selected for the study and mapped to a round water phantom with a diameter of 20cm. The Matlab computation was performed in a heterogeneous programming environment with Intel i7 CPU and NVIDIA Geforce 840M GPU. Results: In all selected cases, the estimated dose distribution was in a good agreement with the given target dose distribution and their correlation coefficients were found to be in the range of 0.9992 to 0.9997. Their root-mean-square error was monotonically decreasing and converging after 7 cycles of optimization. The computation took only about 10 seconds and the optimal fluence maps at each gantry angle throughout an arc were quickly obtained. Conclusion: An analytical approach is derived for finding the optimal fluence for a given target dose distribution and a fast optimization algorithm implemented on the CPU/GPU heterogeneous computing environment greatly reduces the optimization time.
Optimizing an Immersion ESL Curriculum Using Analytic Hierarchy Process
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tang, Hui-Wen Vivian
2011-01-01
The main purpose of this study is to fill a substantial knowledge gap regarding reaching a uniform group decision in English curriculum design and planning. A comprehensive content-based course criterion model extracted from existing literature and expert opinions was developed. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used to identify the relative…
Analytic study of orbiter landing profiles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, H. J.
1981-01-01
A broad survey of possible orbiter landing configurations was made with specific goals of defining boundaries for the landing task. The results suggest that the center of the corridors between marginal and routine represents a more or less optimal preflare condition for regular operations. Various constraints used to define the boundaries are based largely on qualitative judgements from earlier flight experience with the X-15 and lifting body research aircraft. The results should serve as useful background for expanding and validating landing simulation programs. The analytic approach offers a particular advantage in identifying trends due to the systematic variation of factors such as vehicle weight, load factor, approach speed, and aim point. Limitations such as a constant load factor during the flare and using a fixed gear deployment time interval, can be removed by increasing the flexibility of the computer program. This analytic definition of landing profiles of the orbiter may suggest additional studies, includin more configurations or more comparisons of landing profiles within and beyond the corridor boundaries.
Stochastic Optimization for an Analytical Model of Saltwater Intrusion in Coastal Aquifers
Stratis, Paris N.; Karatzas, George P.; Papadopoulou, Elena P.; Zakynthinaki, Maria S.; Saridakis, Yiannis G.
2016-01-01
The present study implements a stochastic optimization technique to optimally manage freshwater pumping from coastal aquifers. Our simulations utilize the well-known sharp interface model for saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers together with its known analytical solution. The objective is to maximize the total volume of freshwater pumped by the wells from the aquifer while, at the same time, protecting the aquifer from saltwater intrusion. In the direction of dealing with this problem in real time, the ALOPEX stochastic optimization method is used, to optimize the pumping rates of the wells, coupled with a penalty-based strategy that keeps the saltwater front at a safe distance from the wells. Several numerical optimization results, that simulate a known real aquifer case, are presented. The results explore the computational performance of the chosen stochastic optimization method as well as its abilities to manage freshwater pumping in real aquifer environments. PMID:27689362
Analytical insights into optimality and resonance in fish swimming.
Kohannim, Saba; Iwasaki, Tetsuya
2014-03-06
This paper provides analytical insights into the hypothesis that fish exploit resonance to reduce the mechanical cost of swimming. A simple body-fluid fish model, representing carangiform locomotion, is developed. Steady swimming at various speeds is analysed using optimal gait theory by minimizing bending moment over tail movements and stiffness, and the results are shown to match with data from observed swimming. Our analysis indicates the following: thrust-drag balance leads to the Strouhal number being predetermined based on the drag coefficient and the ratio of wetted body area to cross-sectional area of accelerated fluid. Muscle tension is reduced when undulation frequency matches resonance frequency, which maximizes the ratio of tail-tip velocity to bending moment. Finally, hydrodynamic resonance determines tail-beat frequency, whereas muscle stiffness is actively adjusted, so that overall body-fluid resonance is exploited.
Analytical Dimensional Reduction of a Fuel Optimal Powered Descent Subproblem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rea, Jeremy R.; Bishop, Robert H.
2010-01-01
Current renewed interest in exploration of the moon, Mars, and other planetary objects is driving technology development in many fields of space system design. In particular, there is a desire to land both robotic and human missions on the moon and elsewhere. The landing guidance system must be able to deliver the vehicle to a desired soft landing while meeting several constraints necessary for the safety of the vehicle. Due to performance limitations of current launch vehicles, it is desired to minimize the amount of fuel used. In addition, the landing site may change in real-time in order to avoid previously undetected hazards which become apparent during the landing maneuver. This complicated maneuver can be broken into simpler subproblems that bound the full problem. One such subproblem is to find a minimum-fuel landing solution that meets constraints on the initial state, final state, and bounded thrust acceleration magnitude. With the assumptions of constant gravity and negligible atmosphere, the form of the optimal steering law is known, and the equations of motion can be integrated analytically, resulting in a system of five equations in five unknowns. It is shown that this system of equations can be reduced analytically to two equations in two unknowns. With an additional assumption of constant thrust acceleration magnitude, this system can be reduced further to one equation in one unknown. It is shown that these unknowns can be bounded analytically. An algorithm is developed to quickly and reliably solve the resulting one-dimensional bounded search, and it is used as a real-time guidance applied to a lunar landing test case.
Analytical study of comet nucleus samples
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albee, A. L.
1989-01-01
Analytical procedures for studying and handling frozen (130 K) core samples of comet nuclei are discussed. These methods include neutron activation analysis, x ray fluorescent analysis and high resolution mass spectroscopy.
Optimized electrocaloric effect by field reversal: Analytical model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Yang-Bin; Novak, Nikola; Albe, Karsten; Xu, Bai-Xiang
2016-11-01
Applying a negative field on a positively poled ferroelectric sample can enhance the electrocaloric cooling and is a promising method to optimize the electrocaloric cycle. Experimental measurements show that the maximal cooling is not obtained, when the electric field is removed, but reversed to a value corresponding to the shoulder of the P-E loop. This phenomenon cannot be explained if a constant total entropy is assumed under adiabatic conditions. Thus, a direct analysis of entropy changes based on work loss is proposed in this work, which takes the entropy contribution of the irreversible process into account. The optimal reversed field determined by this approach agrees with the experimental observations. This study signifies the importance of considering irreversible process in the electrocaloric cycles.
Laser: a Tool for Optimization and Enhancement of Analytical Methods
Preisler, Jan
1997-01-01
In this work, we use lasers to enhance possibilities of laser desorption methods and to optimize coating procedure for capillary electrophoresis (CE). We use several different instrumental arrangements to characterize matrix-assisted laser desorption (MALD) at atmospheric pressure and in vacuum. In imaging mode, 488-nm argon-ion laser beam is deflected by two acousto-optic deflectors to scan plumes desorbed at atmospheric pressure via absorption. All absorbing species, including neutral molecules, are monitored. Interesting features, e.g. differences between the initial plume and subsequent plumes desorbed from the same spot, or the formation of two plumes from one laser shot are observed. Total plume absorbance can be correlated with the acoustic signal generated by the desorption event. A model equation for the plume velocity as a function of time is proposed. Alternatively, the use of a static laser beam for observation enables reliable determination of plume velocities even when they are very high. Static scattering detection reveals negative influence of particle spallation on MS signal. Ion formation during MALD was monitored using 193-nm light to photodissociate a portion of insulin ion plume. These results define the optimal conditions for desorbing analytes from matrices, as opposed to achieving a compromise between efficient desorption and efficient ionization as is practiced in mass spectrometry. In CE experiment, we examined changes in a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) coating by continuously monitoring the electroosmotic flow (EOF) in a fused-silica capillary during electrophoresis. An imaging CCD camera was used to follow the motion of a fluorescent neutral marker zone along the length of the capillary excited by 488-nm Ar-ion laser. The PEO coating was shown to reduce the velocity of EOF by more than an order of magnitude compared to a bare capillary at pH 7.0. The coating protocol was important, especially at an intermediate pH of 7.7. The increase of p
Conical quadreflex antenna analytical study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cramer, P. W., Jr.
1973-01-01
A method for evaluating the performance of a four-reflection or quadreflex antenna is reported. Geometrical optics was used initially to determine the ideal feed pattern required to produce uniform illumination on the aperture of the conical reflector and the reverse problem of quickly finding the aperture illumination given an arbitrary feed pattern. The knowledge of the aperture illumination makes it possible to compute the antenna efficiency, which is useful for comparing antenna performance during tradeoff studies. Scattering calculations, using physical optics techniques, were then used to more accurately determine the performance of a specific design.
Analytic theory of optimal plane change by low aerodynamic forces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Der-Ming; Wu, Chi-Hang; Vinh, Nguyen X.
The properites of the optimal and sub-optimal solutions to multiple-pass aeroassisted plane change were previously studied in terms of the trajectory variables. The solutions show the strong orbital nature. Then, it is proposed to obtain the variational equations of the orbital elements. We shall use these equations and the approximate control derived in Vinh and Ma (1990) to calculate the trajectories. In this respect, the approximate control law and the transversality condition are transformed in terms of the orbital elements. Following the above results, we can reduce the computational task by further simplification. Within omega and Omega being small and returning to the value of zero after each revolution, we neglect the equations for omega, and Omega. Also, since omega approximately equal to 0, that is alpha approximately equal to f, we can neglect the equation for the alpha and have only three state equations for the integration. Still the computation over several revolutions is long since it is performed using the eccentric anomaly along the osculating orbit as the independent variable. Here, we shall use the method of averaging as applied to the problem of orbit contraction to solve the problem of optimal plane change. This will lead to the integration of a reduced set of two nonlinear equations.
Kawase, Mitsuhiro
2009-11-22
The zipped file contains a directory of data and routines used in the NNMREC turbine depth optimization study (Kawase et al., 2011), and calculation results thereof. For further info, please contact Mitsuhiro Kawase at kawase@uw.edu. Reference: Mitsuhiro Kawase, Patricia Beba, and Brian Fabien (2011), Finding an Optimal Placement Depth for a Tidal In-Stream Conversion Device in an Energetic, Baroclinic Tidal Channel, NNMREC Technical Report.
Optimal starting conditions for the rendezvous maneuver: Analytical and computational approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciarcia, Marco
by the optimal trajectory. For the guidance trajectory, because of the replacement of the variable thrust direction of the powered subarc with a constant thrust direction, the optimal control problem degenerates into a mathematical programming problem with a relatively small number of degrees of freedom, more precisely: three for case (i) time-to-rendezvous free and two for case (ii) time-to-rendezvous given. In particular, we consider the rendezvous between the Space Shuttle (chaser) and the International Space Station (target). Once a given initial distance SS-to-ISS is preselected, the present work supplies not only the best initial conditions for the rendezvous trajectory, but simultaneously the corresponding final conditions for the ascent trajectory. In Part B, an analytical solution of the Clohessy-Wiltshire equations is presented (i) neglecting the change of the spacecraft mass due to the fuel consumption and (ii) and assuming that the thrust is finite, that is, the trajectory includes powered subarcs flown with max thrust and coasting subarc flown with zero thrust. Then, employing the found analytical solution, we study the rendezvous problem under the assumption that the initial separation coordinates and initial separation velocities are free except for the requirement that the initial chaser-to-target distance is given. The main contribution of Part B is the development of analytical solutions for the powered subarcs, an important extension of the analytical solutions already available for the coasting subarcs. One consequence is that the entire optimal trajectory can be described analytically. Another consequence is that the optimal control problems degenerate into mathematical programming problems. A further consequence is that, vis-a-vis the optimal control formulation, the mathematical programming formulation reduces the CPU time by a factor of order 1000. Key words. Space trajectories, rendezvous, optimization, guidance, optimal control, calculus of
Analytical studies of coherent electron cooling
Wang,G.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Litvinenko, V.N.
2009-05-04
Under certain assumptions and simplifications, we studied a few physics processes of Coherent Electron Cooling using analytical approach. In the modulation process, the effect due to merging the ion beam with the electron beam is studied under single kick approximation. In the free electron laser (FEL) amplifier, we studied the amplification of the electron density modulation using 1D analytical approach. Both the electron charge density and the phase space density are derived in the frequency domain. The solutions are then transformed into the space domain through Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT).
Alicia Hofler; Pavel Evtushenko
2007-07-03
Injector gun design is an iterative process where the designer optimizes a few nonlinearly interdependent beam parameters to achieve the required beam quality for a particle accelerator. Few tools exist to automate the optimization process and thoroughly explore the parameter space. The challenging beam requirements of new accelerator applications such as light sources and electron cooling devices drive the development of RF and SRF photo injectors. A genetic algorithm (GA) has been successfully used to optimize DC photo injector designs at Cornell University [1] and Jefferson Lab [2]. We propose to apply GA techniques to the design of RF and SRF gun injectors. In this paper, we report on the initial phase of the study where we model and optimize a system that has been benchmarked with beam measurements and simulation.
Optimal symmetric flight studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weston, A. R.; Menon, P. K. A.; Bilimoria, K. D.; Cliff, E. M.; Kelley, H. J.
1985-01-01
Several topics in optimal symmetric flight of airbreathing vehicles are examined. In one study, an approximation scheme designed for onboard real-time energy management of climb-dash is developed and calculations for a high-performance aircraft presented. In another, a vehicle model intermediate in complexity between energy and point-mass models is explored and some quirks in optimal flight characteristics peculiar to the model uncovered. In yet another study, energy-modelling procedures are re-examined with a view to stretching the range of validity of zeroth-order approximation by special choice of state variables. In a final study, time-fuel tradeoffs in cruise-dash are examined for the consequences of nonconvexities appearing in the classical steady cruise-dash model. Two appendices provide retrospective looks at two early publications on energy modelling and related optimal control theory.
Ponslet, E.R.; Eldred, M.S.
1996-05-17
An analytical and experimental study is conducted to investigate the effect of isolator locations on the effectiveness of vibration isolation systems. The study uses isolators with fixed properties and evaluates potential improvements to the isolation system that can be achieved by optimizing isolator locations. Because the available locations for the isolators are discrete in this application, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used as the optimization method. The system is modeled in MATLAB{trademark} and coupled with the GA available in the DAKOTA optimization toolkit under development at Sandia National Laboratories. Design constraints dictated by hardware and experimental limitations are implemented through penalty function techniques. A series of GA runs reveal difficulties in the search on this heavily constrained, multimodal, discrete problem. However, the GA runs provide a variety of optimized designs with predicted performance from 30 to 70 times better than a baseline configuration. An alternate approach is also tested on this problem: it uses continuous optimization, followed by rounding of the solution to neighboring discrete configurations. Results show that this approach leads to either infeasible or poor designs. Finally, a number of optimized designs obtained from the GA searches are tested in the laboratory and compared to the baseline design. These experimental results show a 7 to 46 times improvement in vibration isolation from the baseline configuration.
Recent Studies in Functional Analytic Psychotherapy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Garcia, Rafael Ferro
2008-01-01
Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP), based on the principles of radical behaviorism, emphasizes the impact of eventualities that occur during therapeutic sessions, the therapist-client interaction context, functional equivalence between environments, natural reinforcement and shaping by the therapist. This paper reviews recent studies of FAP…
Heliostat cost optimization study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von Reeken, Finn; Weinrebe, Gerhard; Keck, Thomas; Balz, Markus
2016-05-01
This paper presents a methodology for a heliostat cost optimization study. First different variants of small, medium sized and large heliostats are designed. Then the respective costs, tracking and optical quality are determined. For the calculation of optical quality a structural model of the heliostat is programmed and analyzed using finite element software. The costs are determined based on inquiries and from experience with similar structures. Eventually the levelised electricity costs for a reference power tower plant are calculated. Before each annual simulation run the heliostat field is optimized. Calculated LCOEs are then used to identify the most suitable option(s). Finally, the conclusions and findings of this extensive cost study are used to define the concept of a new cost-efficient heliostat called `Stellio'.
Query optimization for graph analytics on linked data using SPARQL
Hong, Seokyong; Lee, Sangkeun; Lim, Seung -Hwan; Sukumar, Sreenivas R.; Vatsavai, Ranga Raju
2015-07-01
Triplestores that support query languages such as SPARQL are emerging as the preferred and scalable solution to represent data and meta-data as massive heterogeneous graphs using Semantic Web standards. With increasing adoption, the desire to conduct graph-theoretic mining and exploratory analysis has also increased. Addressing that desire, this paper presents a solution that is the marriage of Graph Theory and the Semantic Web. We present software that can analyze Linked Data using graph operations such as counting triangles, finding eccentricity, testing connectedness, and computing PageRank directly on triple stores via the SPARQL interface. We describe the process of optimizing performance of the SPARQL-based implementation of such popular graph algorithms by reducing the space-overhead, simplifying iterative complexity and removing redundant computations by understanding query plans. Our optimized approach shows significant performance gains on triplestores hosted on stand-alone workstations as well as hardware-optimized scalable supercomputers such as the Cray XMT.
Truzzi, Cristina; Annibaldi, Anna; Illuminati, Silvia; Finale, Carolina; Scarponi, Giuseppe
2014-05-01
The study compares official spectrophotometric methods for the determination of proline content in honey - those of the International Honey Commission (IHC) and the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) - with the original Ough method. Results show that the extra time-consuming treatment stages added by the IHC method with respect to the Ough method are pointless. We demonstrate that the AOACs method proves to be the best in terms of accuracy and time saving. The optimized waiting time for the absorbance recording is set at 35min from the removal of reaction tubes from the boiling bath used in the sample treatment. The optimized method was validated in the matrix: linearity up to 1800mgL(-1), limit of detection 20mgL(-1), limit of quantification 61mgL(-1). The method was applied to 43 unifloral honey samples from the Marche region, Italy.
An analytical framework for optimizing variant discovery from personal genomes
Highnam, Gareth; Wang, Jason J.; Kusler, Dean; Zook, Justin; Vijayan, Vinaya; Leibovich, Nir; Mittelman, David
2015-01-01
The standardization and performance testing of analysis tools is a prerequisite to widespread adoption of genome-wide sequencing, particularly in the clinic. However, performance testing is currently complicated by the paucity of standards and comparison metrics, as well as by the heterogeneity in sequencing platforms, applications and protocols. Here we present the genome comparison and analytic testing (GCAT) platform to facilitate development of performance metrics and comparisons of analysis tools across these metrics. Performance is reported through interactive visualizations of benchmark and performance testing data, with support for data slicing and filtering. The platform is freely accessible at http://www.bioplanet.com/gcat. PMID:25711446
Analytical models integrated with satellite images for optimized pest management
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The global field protection (GFP) was developed to protect and optimize pest management resources integrating satellite images for precise field demarcation with physical models of controlled release devices of pesticides to protect large fields. The GFP was implemented using a graphical user interf...
Ahn, Yongjun; Yeo, Hwasoo
2015-01-01
The charging infrastructure location problem is becoming more significant due to the extensive adoption of electric vehicles. Efficient charging station planning can solve deeply rooted problems, such as driving-range anxiety and the stagnation of new electric vehicle consumers. In the initial stage of introducing electric vehicles, the allocation of charging stations is difficult to determine due to the uncertainty of candidate sites and unidentified charging demands, which are determined by diverse variables. This paper introduces the Estimating the Required Density of EV Charging (ERDEC) stations model, which is an analytical approach to estimating the optimal density of charging stations for certain urban areas, which are subsequently aggregated to city level planning. The optimal charging station's density is derived to minimize the total cost. A numerical study is conducted to obtain the correlations among the various parameters in the proposed model, such as regional parameters, technological parameters and coefficient factors. To investigate the effect of technological advances, the corresponding changes in the optimal density and total cost are also examined by various combinations of technological parameters. Daejeon city in South Korea is selected for the case study to examine the applicability of the model to real-world problems. With real taxi trajectory data, the optimal density map of charging stations is generated. These results can provide the optimal number of chargers for driving without driving-range anxiety. In the initial planning phase of installing charging infrastructure, the proposed model can be applied to a relatively extensive area to encourage the usage of electric vehicles, especially areas that lack information, such as exact candidate sites for charging stations and other data related with electric vehicles. The methods and results of this paper can serve as a planning guideline to facilitate the extensive adoption of electric
Ahn, Yongjun; Yeo, Hwasoo
2015-01-01
The charging infrastructure location problem is becoming more significant due to the extensive adoption of electric vehicles. Efficient charging station planning can solve deeply rooted problems, such as driving-range anxiety and the stagnation of new electric vehicle consumers. In the initial stage of introducing electric vehicles, the allocation of charging stations is difficult to determine due to the uncertainty of candidate sites and unidentified charging demands, which are determined by diverse variables. This paper introduces the Estimating the Required Density of EV Charging (ERDEC) stations model, which is an analytical approach to estimating the optimal density of charging stations for certain urban areas, which are subsequently aggregated to city level planning. The optimal charging station’s density is derived to minimize the total cost. A numerical study is conducted to obtain the correlations among the various parameters in the proposed model, such as regional parameters, technological parameters and coefficient factors. To investigate the effect of technological advances, the corresponding changes in the optimal density and total cost are also examined by various combinations of technological parameters. Daejeon city in South Korea is selected for the case study to examine the applicability of the model to real-world problems. With real taxi trajectory data, the optimal density map of charging stations is generated. These results can provide the optimal number of chargers for driving without driving-range anxiety. In the initial planning phase of installing charging infrastructure, the proposed model can be applied to a relatively extensive area to encourage the usage of electric vehicles, especially areas that lack information, such as exact candidate sites for charging stations and other data related with electric vehicles. The methods and results of this paper can serve as a planning guideline to facilitate the extensive adoption of electric
Conceptual design optimization study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hollowell, S. J.; Beeman, E. R., II; Hiyama, R. M.
1990-01-01
The feasibility of applying multilevel functional decomposition and optimization techniques to conceptual design of advanced fighter aircraft was investigated. Applying the functional decomposition techniques to the conceptual design phase appears to be feasible. The initial implementation of the modified design process will optimize wing design variables. A hybrid approach, combining functional decomposition techniques for generation of aerodynamic and mass properties linear sensitivity derivatives with existing techniques for sizing mission performance and optimization, is proposed.
Candioti, Luciana Vera; De Zan, María M; Cámara, María S; Goicoechea, Héctor C
2014-06-01
A review about the application of response surface methodology (RSM) when several responses have to be simultaneously optimized in the field of analytical methods development is presented. Several critical issues like response transformation, multiple response optimization and modeling with least squares and artificial neural networks are discussed. Most recent analytical applications are presented in the context of analytLaboratorio de Control de Calidad de Medicamentos (LCCM), Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, C.C. 242, S3000ZAA Santa Fe, ArgentinaLaboratorio de Control de Calidad de Medicamentos (LCCM), Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, C.C. 242, S3000ZAA Santa Fe, Argentinaical methods development, especially in multiple response optimization procedures using the desirability function.
Further analytical study of hybrid rocket combustion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, W. S. Y.; Chen, C. S.; Haviland, J. K.
1972-01-01
Analytical studies of the transient and steady-state combustion processes in a hybrid rocket system are discussed. The particular system chosen consists of a gaseous oxidizer flowing within a tube of solid fuel, resulting in a heterogeneous combustion. Finite rate chemical kinetics with appropriate reaction mechanisms were incorporated in the model. A temperature dependent Arrhenius type fuel surface regression rate equation was chosen for the current study. The governing mathematical equations employed for the reacting gas phase and for the solid phase are the general, two-dimensional, time-dependent conservation equations in a cylindrical coordinate system. Keeping the simplifying assumptions to a minimum, these basic equations were programmed for numerical computation, using two implicit finite-difference schemes, the Lax-Wendroff scheme for the gas phase, and, the Crank-Nicolson scheme for the solid phase.
Analytical and experimental performance of optimal controller designs for a supersonic inlet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeller, J. R.; Lehtinen, B.; Geyser, L. C.; Batterton, P. G.
1973-01-01
The techniques of modern optimal control theory were applied to the design of a control system for a supersonic inlet. The inlet control problem was approached as a linear stochastic optimal control problem using as the performance index the expected frequency of unstarts. The details of the formulation of the stochastic inlet control problem are presented. The computational procedures required to obtain optimal controller designs are discussed, and the analytically predicted performance of controllers designed for several different inlet conditions is tabulated. The experimental implementation of the optimal control laws is described, and the experimental results obtained in a supersonic wind tunnel are presented. The control laws were implemented with analog and digital computers. Comparisons are made between the experimental and analytically predicted performance results. Comparisons are also made between the results obtained with continuous analog computer controllers and discrete digital computer versions.
Asymptotic Linearity of Optimal Control Modification Adaptive Law with Analytical Stability Margins
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Nhan T.
2010-01-01
Optimal control modification has been developed to improve robustness to model-reference adaptive control. For systems with linear matched uncertainty, optimal control modification adaptive law can be shown by a singular perturbation argument to possess an outer solution that exhibits a linear asymptotic property. Analytical expressions of phase and time delay margins for the outer solution can be obtained. Using the gradient projection operator, a free design parameter of the adaptive law can be selected to satisfy stability margins.
Sweeping Jet Optimization Studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melton, LaTunia Pack; Koklu, Mehti; Andino, Marlyn; Lin, John C.; Edelman, Louis
2016-01-01
Progress on experimental efforts to optimize sweeping jet actuators for active flow control (AFC) applications with large adverse pressure gradients is reported. Three sweeping jet actuator configurations, with the same orifice size but di?erent internal geometries, were installed on the flap shoulder of an unswept, NACA 0015 semi-span wing to investigate how the output produced by a sweeping jet interacts with the separated flow and the mechanisms by which the flow separation is controlled. For this experiment, the flow separation was generated by deflecting the wing's 30% chord trailing edge flap to produce an adverse pressure gradient. Steady and unsteady pressure data, Particle Image Velocimetry data, and force and moment data were acquired to assess the performance of the three actuator configurations. The actuator with the largest jet deflection angle, at the pressure ratios investigated, was the most efficient at controlling flow separation on the flap of the model. Oil flow visualization studies revealed that the flow field controlled by the sweeping jets was more three-dimensional than expected. The results presented also show that the actuator spacing was appropriate for the pressure ratios examined.
Kanfoud, Jamil; Ali Hamdi, Mohamed; Becot, François-Xavier; Jaouen, Luc
2009-02-01
During lift-off, space launchers are submitted to high-level of acoustic loads, which may damage sensitive equipments. A special acoustic absorber has been previously integrated inside the fairing of space launchers to protect the payload. A new research project has been launched to develop a low cost fairing acoustic protection system using optimized layers of porous materials covered by a thin layer of fabric. An analytical model is used for the analysis of acoustic wave propagation within the multilayer porous media. Results have been validated by impedance tube measurements. A parametric study has been conducted to determine optimal mechanical and acoustical properties of the acoustic protection under dimensional thickness constraints. The effect of the mounting conditions has been studied. Results reveal the importance of the lateral constraints on the absorption coefficient particularly in the low frequency range. A transmission study has been carried out, where the fairing structure has been simulated by a limp mass layer. The transmission loss and noise reduction factors have been computed using Biot's theory and the local acoustic impedance approximation to represent the porous layer effect. Comparisons between the two models show the frequency domains for which the local impedance model is valid.
Hubert, C; Houari, S; Rozet, E; Lebrun, P; Hubert, Ph
2015-05-22
When using an analytical method, defining an analytical target profile (ATP) focused on quantitative performance represents a key input, and this will drive the method development process. In this context, two case studies were selected in order to demonstrate the potential of a quality-by-design (QbD) strategy when applied to two specific phases of the method lifecycle: the pre-validation study and the validation step. The first case study focused on the improvement of a liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) stability-indicating method by the means of the QbD concept. The design of experiments (DoE) conducted during the optimization step (i.e. determination of the qualitative design space (DS)) was performed a posteriori. Additional experiments were performed in order to simultaneously conduct the pre-validation study to assist in defining the DoE to be conducted during the formal validation step. This predicted protocol was compared to the one used during the formal validation. A second case study based on the LC/MS-MS determination of glucosamine and galactosamine in human plasma was considered in order to illustrate an innovative strategy allowing the QbD methodology to be incorporated during the validation phase. An operational space, defined by the qualitative DS, was considered during the validation process rather than a specific set of working conditions as conventionally performed. Results of all the validation parameters conventionally studied were compared to those obtained with this innovative approach for glucosamine and galactosamine. Using this strategy, qualitative and quantitative information were obtained. Consequently, an analyst using this approach would be able to select with great confidence several working conditions within the operational space rather than a given condition for the routine use of the method. This innovative strategy combines both a learning process and a thorough assessment of the risk involved.
Analytical strategies for studying stem cell metabolism
Arnold, James M.; Choi, William T.; Sreekumar, Arun
2015-01-01
Owing to their capacity for self-renewal and pluripotency, stem cells possess untold potential for revolutionizing the field of regenerative medicine through the development of novel therapeutic strategies for treating cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Central to developing these strategies is improving our understanding of biological mechanisms responsible for governing stem cell fate and self-renewal. Increasing attention is being given to the significance of metabolism, through the production of energy and generation of small molecules, as a critical regulator of stem cell functioning. Rapid advances in the field of metabolomics now allow for in-depth profiling of stem cells both in vitro and in vivo, providing a systems perspective on key metabolic and molecular pathways which influence stem cell biology. Understanding the analytical platforms and techniques that are currently used to study stem cell metabolomics, as well as how new insights can be derived from this knowledge, will accelerate new research in the field and improve future efforts to expand our understanding of the interplay between metabolism and stem cell biology. PMID:26213533
Analytical strategies for studying stem cell metabolism.
Arnold, James M; Choi, William T; Sreekumar, Arun; Maletić-Savatić, Mirjana
2015-04-01
Owing to their capacity for self-renewal and pluripotency, stem cells possess untold potential for revolutionizing the field of regenerative medicine through the development of novel therapeutic strategies for treating cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Central to developing these strategies is improving our understanding of biological mechanisms responsible for governing stem cell fate and self-renewal. Increasing attention is being given to the significance of metabolism, through the production of energy and generation of small molecules, as a critical regulator of stem cell functioning. Rapid advances in the field of metabolomics now allow for in-depth profiling of stem cells both in vitro and in vivo, providing a systems perspective on key metabolic and molecular pathways which influence stem cell biology. Understanding the analytical platforms and techniques that are currently used to study stem cell metabolomics, as well as how new insights can be derived from this knowledge, will accelerate new research in the field and improve future efforts to expand our understanding of the interplay between metabolism and stem cell biology.
Analytical study of twin-jet shielding
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gerhold, C. H.
1982-01-01
Progress in the refinement and evaluation of an analytical jet shielding model are summarized. The model consists of a point noise source impinging on a cylinder of heated flow in which the temperature and velocity are uniform across the cross section of the jet. The shielding jet is infinite in extent along the jet axis and the radius of the jet is constant. The analytical model was compared to experimental data for a point noise source impinging on an ambient temperature, subsonic jet and on a subsonic simulated hot jet using helium as the flow medium. Results of these comparisons are discussed.
Spatiotemporal and geometric optimization of sensor arrays for detecting analytes in fluids
Lewis, Nathan S.; Freund, Michael S.; Briglin, Shawn S.; Tokumaru, Phillip; Martin, Charles R.; Mitchell, David
2009-09-29
Sensor arrays and sensor array systems for detecting analytes in fluids. Sensors configured to generate a response upon introduction of a fluid containing one or more analytes can be located on one or more surfaces relative to one or more fluid channels in an array. Fluid channels can take the form of pores or holes in a substrate material. Fluid channels can be formed between one or more substrate plates. Sensor can be fabricated with substantially optimized sensor volumes to generate a response having a substantially maximized signal to noise ratio upon introduction of a fluid containing one or more target analytes. Methods of fabricating and using such sensor arrays and systems are also disclosed.
Spatiotemporal and geometric optimization of sensor arrays for detecting analytes fluids
Lewis, Nathan S.; Freund, Michael S.; Briglin, Shawn M.; Tokumaru, Phil; Martin, Charles R.; Mitchell, David T.
2006-10-17
Sensor arrays and sensor array systems for detecting analytes in fluids. Sensors configured to generate a response upon introduction of a fluid containing one or more analytes can be located on one or more surfaces relative to one or more fluid channels in an array. Fluid channels can take the form of pores or holes in a substrate material. Fluid channels can be formed between one or more substrate plates. Sensor can be fabricated with substantially optimized sensor volumes to generate a response having a substantially maximized signal to noise ratio upon introduction of a fluid containing one or more target analytes. Methods of fabricating and using such sensor arrays and systems are also disclosed.
Dynamic optimization case studies in DYNOPT tool
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozana, Stepan; Pies, Martin; Docekal, Tomas
2016-06-01
Dynamic programming is typically applied to optimization problems. As the analytical solutions are generally very difficult, chosen software tools are used widely. These software packages are often third-party products bound for standard simulation software tools on the market. As typical examples of such tools, TOMLAB and DYNOPT could be effectively applied for solution of problems of dynamic programming. DYNOPT will be presented in this paper due to its licensing policy (free product under GPL) and simplicity of use. DYNOPT is a set of MATLAB functions for determination of optimal control trajectory by given description of the process, the cost to be minimized, subject to equality and inequality constraints, using orthogonal collocation on finite elements method. The actual optimal control problem is solved by complete parameterization both the control and the state profile vector. It is assumed, that the optimized dynamic model may be described by a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) or differential-algebraic equations (DAEs). This collection of functions extends the capability of the MATLAB Optimization Tool-box. The paper will introduce use of DYNOPT in the field of dynamic optimization problems by means of case studies regarding chosen laboratory physical educational models.
Zeng, Zheng; Mendis, Madu N.; Waldeck, David H.; Wei, Jianjun
2016-01-01
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of nanostructured thin metal films (so-called nanoplasmonics) has attracted intense attention due to its versatility for optical sensing and chip-based device integration. Understanding the underlying physics and developing applications of nanoplasmonic devices with desirable optical properties, e.g. intensity of light scattering and high refractive index (RI) sensitivity at the perforated metal film, is crucial for practical uses in physics, biomedical detection, and environmental monitoring. This work presents a semi-analytical model that enables decomposition and quantitative analysis of surface plasmon generation at a new complex nanoledge aperture structure under plane-wave illumination, thus providing insight on how to optimize plasmonic devices for optimal plasmonic generation efficiencies and RI sensitivity. A factor analysis of parameters (geometric, dielectric-RI, and incident wavelength) relevant to surface plasmon generation is quantitatively investigated to predict the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) generation efficiency. In concert with the analytical treatment, a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation is used to model the optical transmission spectra and RI sensitivity as a function of the nanoledge device’s geometric parameters, and it shows good agreement with the analytical model. Further validation of the analytical approach is provided by fabricating subwavelength nanoledge devices and testing their optical transmission and RI sensitivity. PMID:26977289
Variable-Field Analytical Ultracentrifugation: I. Time-Optimized Sedimentation Equilibrium
Ma, Jia; Metrick, Michael; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Zhao, Huaying; Schuck, Peter
2015-01-01
Sedimentation equilibrium (SE) analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is a gold standard for the rigorous determination of macromolecular buoyant molar masses and the thermodynamic study of reversible interactions in solution. A significant experimental drawback is the long time required to attain SE, which is usually on the order of days. We have developed a method for time-optimized SE (toSE) with defined time-varying centrifugal fields that allow SE to be attained in a significantly (up to 10-fold) shorter time than is usually required. To achieve this, numerical Lamm equation solutions for sedimentation in time-varying fields are computed based on initial estimates of macromolecular transport properties. A parameterized rotor-speed schedule is optimized with the goal of achieving a minimal time to equilibrium while limiting transient sample preconcentration at the base of the solution column. The resulting rotor-speed schedule may include multiple over- and underspeeding phases, balancing the formation of gradients from strong sedimentation fluxes with periods of high diffusional transport. The computation is carried out in a new software program called TOSE, which also facilitates convenient experimental implementation. Further, we extend AUC data analysis to sedimentation processes in such time-varying centrifugal fields. Due to the initially high centrifugal fields in toSE and the resulting strong migration, it is possible to extract sedimentation coefficient distributions from the early data. This can provide better estimates of the size of macromolecular complexes and report on sample homogeneity early on, which may be used to further refine the prediction of the rotor-speed schedule. In this manner, the toSE experiment can be adapted in real time to the system under study, maximizing both the information content and the time efficiency of SE experiments. PMID:26287634
Analytical study of shimmy of airplane wheels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bourcier De Carbon, Christian
1952-01-01
The problem of shimmy of a castering wheel, such as the nose wheel of a tricycle gear airplane, is treated analytically. The flexibility of the tire is considered to be the primary cause of shimmy. The rather simple theory developed agrees rather well with previous experimental results. The author suggests that shimmy may be eliminated through a suitable choice of landing gear dimensions in lieu of a damper.
Experimental and analytical study of rotating cavitation
Kamijo, Kenjiro; Shimura, Takashi; Tsujimoto, Yoshinobu
1994-12-31
This paper describes experimental and analytical results of rotating cavitation. There are four major sections in this paper. The first section presents the main characteristics of rotating cavitation which was found in the inducer test using a water tunnel. The second section describes the rotating cavitation which occurred in the development test of an LE-7 liquid oxygen pump for the H-II rocket. Also described in this section is how the rotating cavitation was suppressed. The rotating cavitation was the cause of both super synchronous shaft vibration and an unstable head coefficient curve. The third section presents how the theory of rotating cavitation was developed. The final section shows the measured cavitation compliance and mass flow gain factor of the LE-7 pump inducer for comparison of the experimental and analytical results of the rotating cavitation of the LE-7 pump inducer. Almost all the information presented in this paper has already been reported by Kamijo et al. (1977, 1980, 1993, 1993) and by Shimura (1993). In the present paper, the authors attempt to combine and give a clear overview of the experimental and analytical results described in the previous papers to systematically show their experience and findings on rotating cavitation.
Converse, Sarah J.; Shelley, Kevin J.; Morey, Steve; Chan, Jeffrey; LaTier, Andrea; Scafidi, Carolyn; Crouse, Deborah T.; Runge, Michael C.
2011-01-01
The resources available to support conservation work, whether time or money, are limited. Decision makers need methods to help them identify the optimal allocation of limited resources to meet conservation goals, and decision analysis is uniquely suited to assist with the development of such methods. In recent years, a number of case studies have been described that examine optimal conservation decisions under fiscal constraints; here we develop methods to look at other types of constraints, including limited staff and regulatory deadlines. In the US, Section Seven consultation, an important component of protection under the federal Endangered Species Act, requires that federal agencies overseeing projects consult with federal biologists to avoid jeopardizing species. A benefit of consultation is negotiation of project modifications that lessen impacts on species, so staff time allocated to consultation supports conservation. However, some offices have experienced declining staff, potentially reducing the efficacy of consultation. This is true of the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Washington Fish and Wildlife Office (WFWO) and its consultation work on federally-threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). To improve effectiveness, WFWO managers needed a tool to help allocate this work to maximize conservation benefits. We used a decision-analytic approach to score projects based on the value of staff time investment, and then identified an optimal decision rule for how scored projects would be allocated across bins, where projects in different bins received different time investments. We found that, given current staff, the optimal decision rule placed 80% of informal consultations (those where expected effects are beneficial, insignificant, or discountable) in a short bin where they would be completed without negotiating changes. The remaining 20% would be placed in a long bin, warranting an investment of seven days, including time for negotiation. For formal
Ho, Chao Chung
2011-07-15
Ever since Taiwan's National Health Insurance implemented the diagnosis-related groups payment system in January 2010, hospital income has declined. Therefore, to meet their medical waste disposal needs, hospitals seek suppliers that provide high-quality services at a low cost. The enactment of the Waste Disposal Act in 1974 had facilitated some improvement in the management of waste disposal. However, since the implementation of the National Health Insurance program, the amount of medical waste from disposable medical products has been increasing. Further, of all the hazardous waste types, the amount of infectious medical waste has increased at the fastest rate. This is because of the increase in the number of items considered as infectious waste by the Environmental Protection Administration. The present study used two important findings from previous studies to determine the critical evaluation criteria for selecting infectious medical waste disposal firms. It employed the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to set the objective weights of the evaluation criteria and select the optimal infectious medical waste disposal firm through calculation and sorting. The aim was to propose a method of evaluation with which medical and health care institutions could objectively and systematically choose appropriate infectious medical waste disposal firms.
Many-objective optimization and visual analytics reveal key trade-offs for London's water supply
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matrosov, Evgenii S.; Huskova, Ivana; Kasprzyk, Joseph R.; Harou, Julien J.; Lambert, Chris; Reed, Patrick M.
2015-12-01
In this study, we link a water resource management simulator to multi-objective search to reveal the key trade-offs inherent in planning a real-world water resource system. We consider new supplies and demand management (conservation) options while seeking to elucidate the trade-offs between the best portfolios of schemes to satisfy projected water demands. Alternative system designs are evaluated using performance measures that minimize capital and operating costs and energy use while maximizing resilience, engineering and environmental metrics, subject to supply reliability constraints. Our analysis shows many-objective evolutionary optimization coupled with state-of-the art visual analytics can help planners discover more diverse water supply system designs and better understand their inherent trade-offs. The approach is used to explore future water supply options for the Thames water resource system (including London's water supply). New supply options include a new reservoir, water transfers, artificial recharge, wastewater reuse and brackish groundwater desalination. Demand management options include leakage reduction, compulsory metering and seasonal tariffs. The Thames system's Pareto approximate portfolios cluster into distinct groups of water supply options; for example implementing a pipe refurbishment program leads to higher capital costs but greater reliability. This study highlights that traditional least-cost reliability constrained design of water supply systems masks asset combinations whose benefits only become apparent when more planning objectives are considered.
Ho, Chao Chung
2011-07-01
Ever since Taiwan's National Health Insurance implemented the diagnosis-related groups payment system in January 2010, hospital income has declined. Therefore, to meet their medical waste disposal needs, hospitals seek suppliers that provide high-quality services at a low cost. The enactment of the Waste Disposal Act in 1974 had facilitated some improvement in the management of waste disposal. However, since the implementation of the National Health Insurance program, the amount of medical waste from disposable medical products has been increasing. Further, of all the hazardous waste types, the amount of infectious medical waste has increased at the fastest rate. This is because of the increase in the number of items considered as infectious waste by the Environmental Protection Administration. The present study used two important findings from previous studies to determine the critical evaluation criteria for selecting infectious medical waste disposal firms. It employed the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to set the objective weights of the evaluation criteria and select the optimal infectious medical waste disposal firm through calculation and sorting. The aim was to propose a method of evaluation with which medical and health care institutions could objectively and systematically choose appropriate infectious medical waste disposal firms.
CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY
BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.
2012-09-19
THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.
Analytical optimization of demand management strategies across all urban water use sectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedman, Kenneth; Heaney, James P.; Morales, Miguel; Palenchar, John
2014-07-01
An effective urban water demand management program can greatly influence both peak and average demand and therefore long-term water supply and infrastructure planning. Although a theoretical framework for evaluating residential indoor demand management has been well established, little has been done to evaluate other water use sectors such as residential irrigation in a compatible manner for integrating these results into an overall solution. This paper presents a systematic procedure to evaluate the optimal blend of single family residential irrigation demand management strategies to achieve a specified goal based on performance functions derived from parcel level tax assessor's data linked to customer level monthly water billing data. This framework is then generalized to apply to any urban water sector, as exponential functions can be fit to all resulting cumulative water savings functions. Two alternative formulations are presented: maximize net benefits, or minimize total costs subject to satisfying a target water savings. Explicit analytical solutions are presented for both formulations based on appropriate exponential best fits of performance functions. A direct result of this solution is the dual variable which represents the marginal cost of water saved at a specified target water savings goal. A case study of 16,303 single family irrigators in Gainesville Regional Utilities utilizing high quality tax assessor and monthly billing data along with parcel level GIS data provide an illustrative example of these techniques. Spatial clustering of targeted homes can be easily performed in GIS to identify priority demand management areas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, Greg; Witham, Brandon; Valore, Jason; Holland, Ben; Dalton, Jason
2012-06-01
Military, police, and industrial surveillance operations could benefit from having sensors deployed in configurations that maximize collection capability. We describe a surveillance planning approach that optimizes sensor placements to collect information about targets of interest by using information from predictive geospatial analytics, the physical environment, and surveillance constraints. We designed a tool that accounts for multiple sensor aspects-collection footprints, groupings, and characteristics; multiple optimization objectives-surveillance requirements and predicted threats; and multiple constraints-sensing, physical environment (including terrain), and geographic surveillance constraints. The tool uses a discrete grid model to keep track of geographic sensing objectives and constraints, and from these, estimate probabilities for collection containment and detection. We devised an evolutionary algorithm and polynomial time approximation schemes (PTAS) to optimize the tool variables above to generate the positions and aspect for a network of sensors. We also designed algorithms to coordinate a mixture of sensors with different competing objectives, competing constraints, couplings, and proximity constraints.
Analytical and experimental studies of the helical magnetohydrodynamic thruster design
Gilbert, J.B. II; Lin, T.F.
1994-12-31
This paper describes the results of analytical and experimental studies of a helical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) seawater thruster using a 8-Tesla (T) solenoid magnet. The application of this work is in marine vehicle propulsion. Analytical models are developed to predict the performance of the helical MHD thruster in a closed-loop condition. The analytical results are compared with experimental data and good agreement is obtained.
Limit velocities of lamb waves: Analytic and numerical studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avershieva, A. V.; Goldstein, R. V.; Kuznetsov, S. V.
2016-09-01
The Lamb wave propagation in elastic isotropic and orthotropic layers is studied by numerical and analytic methods. An analytic solution is obtained by using the Cauchy formalism for the entire frequency range. Numerical solutions are obtained in a neighborhood of the second limit velocity corresponding to very small frequencies. The influence of variations in the layer geometry on the dispersion curves is studied.
Analytical study of magnetohydrodynamic propulsion stability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdollahzadeh Jamalabadi, M. Y.
2014-09-01
In this paper an analytical solution for the stability of the fully developed flow drive in a magneto-hydro-dynamic pump with pulsating transverse Eletro-magnetic fields is presented. To do this, a theoretical model of the flow is developed and the analytical results are obtained for both the cylindrical and Cartesian configurations that are proper to use in the propulsion of marine vessels. The governing parabolic momentum PDEs are transformed into an ordinary differential equation using approximate velocity distribution. The numerical results are obtained and asymptotic analyses are built to discover the mathematical behavior of the solutions. The maximum velocity in a magneto-hydro-dynamic pump versus time for various values of the Stuart number, electro-magnetic interaction number, Reynolds number, aspect ratio, as well as the magnetic and electrical angular frequency and the shift of the phase angle is presented. Results show that for a high Stuart number there is a frequency limit for stability of the fluid flow in a certain direction of the flow. This stability frequency is dependent on the geometric parameters of a channel.
Joshi, Varsha S; Kumar, Vijesh; Rathore, Anurag S
2017-03-31
Thorough product understanding is one of the basic tenets for successful implementation of Quality by Design (QbD). Complexity encountered in analytical characterization of biotech therapeutics such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) requires novel, simpler, and generic approaches towards product characterization. This paper presents a methodology for implementation of QbD for analytical method development. Optimization of an analytical cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (CEX-HPLC) method utilizing a sigmoidal gradient has been performed using a hybrid mechanistic model that is based on Design of experiment (DOE) based studies. Since sigmodal gradients are much more complex than the traditional linear gradients and have a large number of input parameters (five) for optimization, the number of DOE experiments required for a full factorial design to estimate all the main effects as well as the interactions would be too large (243). To address this problem, a mechanistic model was used to simulate the analytical separation for the DOE and then the results were used to build an empirical model. The mechanistic model used in this work is a more versatile general rate model in combination of modified Langmuir binding kinetics. The modified Langmuir model is capable of modelling the impact of nonlinear changes in the concentration of the salt modifier. Further, to get the input and output profiles of mAb and salts/buffers, the HPLC system, consisting of the mixer, detectors, and tubing was modelled as a sequence of dispersed plug flow reactors and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR). The experimental work was limited to calibration of the HPLC system and finding the model parameters through three linear gradients. To simplify the optimization process, only three peaks in the centre of the profile (main product and the adjacent acidic and basic variants) were chosen to determine the final operating condition. The regression model made from the DoE data
Analytical study of twin-jet shielding
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gerhold, C. H.
1980-01-01
An analytical model a three-dimensional model, of twin-jet shielding, consisting of a point noise source impinging on a cylinder of heated flow in which the temperature and flow velocity are uniform across the cross-section is discussed. Wave equations are given for the regions outside the flow and within the flow cylinder and solutions are matched at the jet boundary under the conditions of continuity of pressure and continuity of the vortex sheet. The model was analyzed to identify mechanisms of transmission and diffraction which control sheilding in the shadow of the shielding jet. It was found that in the zone of the shadow region dominates, shielding is relatively insensitive to variations of such parameters as Mach Number and spacing ratio, but in the zone in which diffraction dominates; shielding is more sensitive to variations in Mach Number, jet temperature and spacing ratio.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Lee, MeYeon; Kim, Haeyoung; Bae, Hoonsik; Park, SoAh; Hwang, Taejin; Kim, KyoungJu; Han, Taejin
2013-05-01
In this study, we present the concurrent effects of the number of segments (NS) and the least segment area (LSA) for step-and-shoot head-and-neck intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning using the direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO), on which basis we suggest the optimal NS and LSA ranges. We selected three head-and-neck patients who had received IMRT via the simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique and classified them as easy, intermediate, and difficult cases. We formulated a benchmark plan and made 11 additional plans by re-optimizing the benchmark by varying the NS and the LSA for each case. Clinical and physical plan-quality evaluation parameters were considered separately: the conformality index (CI), the homogeneity index (HI) and the maximum or mean doses for the organs-at-risk were the clinical factors, and these were summarized as plan-quality parameter, Q. The modulation index (MI), the total monitor units (MUs), and the final composite cost function F were employed as parameters in the evaluation of the physical aspects. A 2-way analysis of variance (2-way ANOVA) was used to determine the effects of the NS and the LSA concurrently. Pearson's correlations among the total MU, MI, F, and Q were examined as well. Overall plan-efficiency factor ɛ was defined to estimate the optimal NS and LSA by considering the plan's quality and the beam delivery efficiency together. Plans with simple targets or a small number of beams (NB) were affected by the LSA whereas plans with complex targets or large NB were affected by the NS. Moreover, smaller NS and smaller LSA were advantageous for simple plans whereas larger NS and smaller LSA were beneficial for complex plans. When we consider the plan's quality and the beam delivery efficiency, {NS = 60-80, LSA = 8-12 cm2} are the proper ranges for head-and-neck IMRT planning with DMPO; however, the combination may differ based on the complexity of a given plan.
Analytic Sensitivities for Shape Optimization in Equivalent Plate Structural Wing Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Livne, Eli
1994-01-01
Equivalent plate modeling techniques based on Ritz analysis with simple polynomials prove to be efficient tools for structural modeling of wings in the preliminary design stage. Accuracy problems are encountered, however, when these models are used to obtain finite difference behavior sensitivities with respect to planform shape. The accuracy problems are associated with the poor numerical conditioning of static and eigenvalue equations. As higher-order polynomials are being used to Improve the analysis itself, the more sensitive is the finite difference derivative to the step size used. This article describes a formulation of wing equivalent plate modeling in which it is simple to obtain analytic, explicit expressions for stiffness and mass matrix elements without the need to perform numerical integration. This formulation leads naturally to analytic expressions for the derivatives of displacements, stresses, and natural frequencies with respect to shape design variables. This article examines the accuracy of finite difference derivatives compared with the analytic derivatives, and shows that In some cases it is impossible to obtain any information of value by finite differences. Analytic sensitivities, in this case, are still sufficiently accurate for design optimization.
Li, Xin; Yu, Siyuan; Ma, Jing; Tan, Liying
2011-01-31
In intersatellite optical communications it is important to obtain the most efficient performance of acquisition system with respect to acquisition time for a given probability. In this paper a novel approach to the analytical optimization of spatial acquisition is presented as an alternative of the conventional Monte Carlo simulation. First, an analytical expression of estimating mean acquisition time (MAT) is derived as a function of the desired acquisition probability, taking into account the distribution function of satellite position, field of uncertainty (FOU), beam divergence angle and dwell time. Accordingly, the analytical expression of multi-scan, which is always adopted by practical optical terminals to ensure the acquisition success, is also presented. Then, by minimizing the MAT of multi-scan, the optimum ratio of the FOU θU to the pointing error deviation σis obtained, which is θU/σ=1.3. An example for a practical intersatellite acquisition between a Low Earth Orbit Satellite and a Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite is given. And the theoretical result calculated by the proposed analytical expression is approximately equal to the result by Monte Carlo simulation. The results can be used in designing acquisition system for the intersatellite optical communications.
Holistic versus Analytic Evaluation of EFL Writing: A Case Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ghalib, Thikra K.; Al-Hattami, Abdulghani A.
2015-01-01
This paper investigates the performance of holistic and analytic scoring rubrics in the context of EFL writing. Specifically, the paper compares EFL students' scores on a writing task using holistic and analytic scoring rubrics. The data for the study was collected from 30 participants attending an English undergraduate program in a Yemeni…
Improved analytical method to study the cup anemometer performance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pindado, Santiago; Ramos-Cenzano, Alvaro; Cubas, Javier
2015-10-01
The cup anemometer rotor aerodynamics is analytically studied based on the aerodynamics of a single cup. The effect of the rotation on the aerodynamic force is included in the analytical model, together with the displacement of the aerodynamic center during one turn of the cup. The model can be fitted to the testing results, indicating the presence of both the aforementioned effects.
Optimal diffusion MRI acquisition for fiber orientation density estimation: an analytic approach.
White, Nathan S; Dale, Anders M
2009-11-01
An important challenge in the design of diffusion MRI experiments is how to optimize statistical efficiency, i.e., the accuracy with which parameters can be estimated from the diffusion data in a given amount of imaging time. In model-based spherical deconvolution analysis, the quantity of interest is the fiber orientation density (FOD). Here, we demonstrate how the spherical harmonics (SH) can be used to form an explicit analytic expression for the efficiency of the minimum variance (maximally efficient) linear unbiased estimator of the FOD. Using this expression, we calculate optimal b-values for maximum FOD estimation efficiency with SH expansion orders of L = 2, 4, 6, and 8 to be approximately b = 1,500, 3,000, 4,600, and 6,200 s/mm(2), respectively. However, the arrangement of diffusion directions and scanner-specific hardware limitations also play a role in determining the realizable efficiency of the FOD estimator that can be achieved in practice. We show how some commonly used methods for selecting diffusion directions are sometimes inefficient, and propose a new method for selecting diffusion directions in MRI based on maximizing the statistical efficiency. We further demonstrate how scanner-specific hardware limitations generally lead to optimal b-values that are slightly lower than the ideal b-values. In summary, the analytic expression for the statistical efficiency of the unbiased FOD estimator provides important insight into the fundamental tradeoff between angular resolution, b-value, and FOD estimation accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohammed, Ziad; Saghafifar, Hossein
2014-02-01
An analytical model based on the rate equations of strongly pumped Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser (DCFLs) is presented. The output power and the distributed laser along the whole fiber have been found. In this paper, most parameters affecting the laser performance have been considered. The influences of scattering losses, pump reflection, output reflectivity, doping concentration and fiber length have been studied. It is shown that for wide ranges of the previous parameters and large variations of the input powers for all types of pumping (forward, backward and two-end), the maximum relative error of the output power would be less than 2.72% when the results are compared with the numerical model. Depending on our analytical model, a simple optimization method has been illustrated for high-power laser oscillators.
Ke, Quan; Luo, Weijie; Yan, Guozheng; Yang, Kai
2016-04-01
A wireless power transfer system based on the weakly inductive coupling makes it possible to provide the endoscope microrobot (EMR) with infinite power. To facilitate the patients' inspection with the EMR system, the diameter of the transmitting coil is enlarged to 69 cm. Due to the large transmitting range, a high quality factor of the Litz-wire transmitting coil is a necessity to ensure the intensity of magnetic field generated efficiently. Thus, this paper builds an analytical model of the transmitting coil, and then, optimizes the parameters of the coil by enlarging the quality factor. The lumped model of the transmitting coil includes three parameters: ac resistance, self-inductance, and stray capacitance. Based on the exact two-dimension solution, the accurate analytical expression of ac resistance is derived. Several transmitting coils of different specifications are utilized to verify this analytical expression, being in good agreements with the measured results except the coils with a large number of strands. Then, the quality factor of transmitting coils can be well predicted with the available analytical expressions of self- inductance and stray capacitance. Owing to the exact estimation of quality factor, the appropriate coil turns of the transmitting coil is set to 18-40 within the restrictions of transmitting circuit and human tissue issues. To supply enough energy for the next generation of the EMR equipped with a Ø9.5×10.1 mm receiving coil, the coil turns of the transmitting coil is optimally set to 28, which can transfer a maximum power of 750 mW with the remarkable delivering efficiency of 3.55%.
Verifiable Adaptive Control with Analytical Stability Margins by Optimal Control Modification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Nhan T.
2010-01-01
This paper presents a verifiable model-reference adaptive control method based on an optimal control formulation for linear uncertain systems. A predictor model is formulated to enable a parameter estimation of the system parametric uncertainty. The adaptation is based on both the tracking error and predictor error. Using a singular perturbation argument, it can be shown that the closed-loop system tends to a linear time invariant model asymptotically under an assumption of fast adaptation. A stability margin analysis is given to estimate a lower bound of the time delay margin using a matrix measure method. Using this analytical method, the free design parameter n of the optimal control modification adaptive law can be determined to meet a specification of stability margin for verification purposes.
Analytical studies of hypersonic viscous dissociated flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Inger, George R.
1995-01-01
causes problems in CFD predictions. A preliminary theory for prediction that says the heating at the corner is X percent of the heating N boundary-layer thicknesses inboard was developed. This will prove useful to analytically evaluate the possible benefits of rounding the edges of these configurations and defining how much rounding is sufficient.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guerrero, R. D.; Arango, C. A.; Reyes, A.
2016-07-01
We recently proposed a Quantum Optimal Control (QOC) method constrained to build pulses from analytical pulse shapes [R. D. Guerrero et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143(12), 124108 (2015)]. This approach was applied to control the dissociation channel yields of the diatomic molecule KH, considering three potential energy curves and one degree of freedom. In this work, we utilized this methodology to study the strong field control of the cis-trans photoisomerization of 11-cis retinal. This more complex system was modeled with a Hamiltonian comprising two potential energy surfaces and two degrees of freedom. The resulting optimal pulse, made of 6 linearly chirped pulses, was capable of controlling the population of the trans isomer on the ground electronic surface for nearly 200 fs. The simplicity of the pulse generated with our QOC approach offers two clear advantages: a direct analysis of the sequence of events occurring during the driven dynamics, and its reproducibility in the laboratory with current laser technologies.
CALIBRATION OF SEMI-ANALYTIC MODELS OF GALAXY FORMATION USING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION
Ruiz, Andrés N.; Domínguez, Mariano J.; Yaryura, Yamila; Lambas, Diego García; Cora, Sofía A.; Martínez, Cristian A. Vega-; Gargiulo, Ignacio D.; Padilla, Nelson D.; Tecce, Tomás E.; Orsi, Álvaro; Arancibia, Alejandra M. Muñoz
2015-03-10
We present a fast and accurate method to select an optimal set of parameters in semi-analytic models of galaxy formation and evolution (SAMs). Our approach compares the results of a model against a set of observables applying a stochastic technique called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), a self-learning algorithm for localizing regions of maximum likelihood in multidimensional spaces that outperforms traditional sampling methods in terms of computational cost. We apply the PSO technique to the SAG semi-analytic model combined with merger trees extracted from a standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter N-body simulation. The calibration is performed using a combination of observed galaxy properties as constraints, including the local stellar mass function and the black hole to bulge mass relation. We test the ability of the PSO algorithm to find the best set of free parameters of the model by comparing the results with those obtained using a MCMC exploration. Both methods find the same maximum likelihood region, however, the PSO method requires one order of magnitude fewer evaluations. This new approach allows a fast estimation of the best-fitting parameter set in multidimensional spaces, providing a practical tool to test the consequences of including other astrophysical processes in SAMs.
Analytical studies: a framework for quality improvement design and analysis.
Provost, Lloyd P
2011-04-01
Conducting studies for learning is fundamental to improvement. Deming emphasised that the reason for conducting a study is to provide a basis for action on the system of interest. He classified studies into two types depending on the intended target for action. An enumerative study is one in which action will be taken on the universe that was studied. An analytical study is one in which action will be taken on a cause system to improve the future performance of the system of interest. The aim of an enumerative study is estimation, while an analytical study focuses on prediction. Because of the temporal nature of improvement, the theory and methods for analytical studies are a critical component of the science of improvement.
Design optimization of thin-film/wafer-based tandem junction solar cells using analytical modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davidson, Lauren; Toor, Fatima
2016-03-01
Several research groups are developing solar cells of varying designs and materials that are high efficiency as well as cost competitive with the single junction silicon (Si) solar cells commercially produced today. One of these solar cell designs is a tandem junction solar cell comprised of perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) and silicon (Si). Loper et al.1 was able to create a 13.4% efficient tandem cell using a perovskite top cell and a Si bottom cell, and researchers are confident that the perovskite/Si tandem cell can be optimized in order to reach higher efficiencies without introducing expensive manufacturing processes. However, there are currently no commercially available software capable of modeling a tandem cell that is based on a thin-film based bottom cell and a wafer-based top cell. While PC1D2 and SCAPS3 are able to model tandem cells comprised solely of thin-film absorbers or solely of wafer-based absorbers, they result in convergence errors if a thin-film/wafer-based tandem cell, such as the perovskite/ Si cell, is modeled. The Matlab-based analytical model presented in this work is capable of modeling a thin-film/wafer-based tandem solar cell. The model allows a user to adjust the top and bottom cell parameters, such as reflectivity, material bandgaps, donor and acceptor densities, and material thicknesses, in order to optimize the short circuit current, open circuit voltage, and quantum efficiency of the tandem solar cell. Using the Matlab-based analytical model, we were able optimize a perovskite/Si tandem cell with an efficiency greater than 30%.
Analytical Study of Physics Education Websites' Content
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Elayyan, Shaher R.
2016-01-01
The current study is compatible with the scientific mobility in dealing with the Internet as a source of knowledge. It aims to introduce the Physics Education Websites (PEWs) and guide their followers toward the most credibility of them by analyzing their content. The sample consisted of (36) websites which were selected according to specific…
Interplanetary Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (IPOST). Volume 2: Analytic manual
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hong, P. E.; Kent, P. D.; Olson, D. W.; Vallado, C. A.
1992-01-01
The Interplanetary Program to Optimize Space Trajectories (IPOST) is intended to support many analysis phases, from early interplanetary feasibility studies through spacecraft development and operations. The IPOST output provides information for sizing and understanding mission impacts related to propulsion, guidance, communications, sensor/actuators, payload, and other dynamic and geometric environments. IPOST models three degree of freedom trajectory events, such as launch/ascent, orbital coast, propulsive maneuvering (impulsive and finite burn), gravity assist, and atmospheric entry. Trajectory propagation is performed using a choice of Cowell, Encke, Multiconic, Onestep, or Conic methods. The user identifies a desired sequence of trajectory events, and selects which parameters are independent (controls) and dependent (targets), as well as other constraints and the cost function. Targeting and optimization is performed using the Stanford NPSOL algorithm. IPOST structure allows subproblems within a master optimization problem to aid in the general constrained parameter optimization solution. An alternate optimization method uses implicit simulation and collocation techniques.
Analytical performance study of explosively formed projectiles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussain, G.; Hameed, A.; Hetherington, J. G.; Malik, A. Q.; Sanaullah, K.
2013-01-01
Hydrocode simulations are carried out using Ansys Autodyn (version 11.0) to study the effects of the liner material (mild steel, copper, armco iron, tantalum, and aluminum) on the shape, velocity, traveled distance, pressure, internal energy, temperature, divergence or stability, density, compression, and length-to-diameter ratio of explosively formed projectiles. These parameters are determined at the instants of the maximum as well as stable velocity during the flight towards the target. The results of these parameters present the potential capability of each liner material used to fabricate explosively formed projectiles. An experimental analysis is performed to study the velocity status and the length-to-diameter ratio of explosively formed projectiles.
Semi Active Control of Civil Structures, Analytical and Numerical Studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerboua, M.; Benguediab, M.; Megnounif, A.; Benrahou, K. H.; Kaoulala, F.
numerical example of the parallel R-L piezoelectric vibration shunt control simulated with MATLAB® is presented. An analytical study of the resistor-inductor (R-L) passive piezoelectric vibration shunt control of a cantilever beam was undertaken. The modal and strain analyses were performed by varying the material properties and geometric configurations of the piezoelectric transducer in relation to the structure in order to maximize the mechanical strain produced in the piezoelectric transducer.
Analytical optimal controls for the state constrained addition and removal of cryoprotective agents
Chicone, Carmen C.; Critser, John K.
2014-01-01
Cryobiology is a field with enormous scientific, financial and even cultural impact. Successful cryopreservation of cells and tissues depends on the equilibration of these materials with high concentrations of permeating chemicals (CPAs) such as glycerol or 1,2 propylene glycol. Because cells and tissues are exposed to highly anisosmotic conditions, the resulting gradients cause large volume fluctuations that have been shown to damage cells and tissues. On the other hand, there is evidence that toxicity to these high levels of chemicals is time dependent, and therefore it is ideal to minimize exposure time as well. Because solute and solvent flux is governed by a system of ordinary differential equations, CPA addition and removal from cells is an ideal context for the application of optimal control theory. Recently, we presented a mathematical synthesis of the optimal controls for the ODE system commonly used in cryobiology in the absence of state constraints and showed that controls defined by this synthesis were optimal. Here we define the appropriate model, analytically extend the previous theory to one encompassing state constraints, and as an example apply this to the critical and clinically important cell type of human oocytes, where current methodologies are either difficult to implement or have very limited success rates. We show that an enormous increase in equilibration efficiency can be achieved under the new protocols when compared to classic protocols, potentially allowing a greatly increased survival rate for human oocytes, and pointing to a direction for the cryopreservation of many other cell types. PMID:22527943
Analytical electron microscope study of eight ataxites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novotny, P. M.; Goldstein, J. I.; Williams, D. B.
1982-12-01
Optical and electron optical (SEM, TEM, AEM) techniques were employed to investigate the fine structure of eight ataxite-iron meteorites. Structural studies indicated that the ataxites can be divided into two groups: a Widmanstaetten decomposition group and a martensite decomposition group. The Widmanstaetten decomposition group has a Type I plessite microstructure and the central taenite regions contain highly dislocated lath martensite. The steep M shaped Ni gradients in the taenite are consistent with the fast cooling rates, of not less than 500 C/my, observed for this group. The martensite decomposition group has a Type III plessite microstructure and contains all the chemical group IVB ataxites. The maximum taenite Ni contents vary from 47.5 to 52.7 wt % and are consistent with slow cooling to low temperatures of not greater than 350 C at cooling rates of not greater than 25 C/my.
Studying Human Dynamics Through Web Analytics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramasco, Jose; Goncalves, Bruno
2008-03-01
When Tim Berners Lee, a physicist at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) first conceived the World Wide Web (WWW) in 1990 as a way to facilitate the sharing of scientific information and results among the centers different researchers and groups, even the most ingenious of science fiction writers could not have imagined the role it would come to play in the following decades. The increasing ubiquitousness of Internet access and the frequency with which people interact with it raise the possibility of using it to better observe, understand, and even monitor several aspects of human social behavior. Websites with large numbers of frequently returning users, such as search engines, company or university websites, are ideal for this task. The properly anonymized logs detailing the access history to Emory University's website is studied. We find that a small number of users is responsible for a finite fraction of the total activity. A saturation phenomenon is observed where, certain connections age, becoming less attractive to new activity over time. Finally, by measuring the average activity as a function of the day of the week, we find that productivity seems to be higher on Tuesdays and Wednesdays, with Sundays being the least active day.
Analytical screening studies on irradiated food packaging.
Driffield, M; Bradley, E L; Leon, I; Lister, L; Speck, D R; Castle, L; Potter, E L J
2014-01-01
Foods may be irradiated in their final packaging and this process may affect the composition of the packaging and in turn affect the migration of substances into food. Headspace and liquid injection GC-MS and HPLC with time-of-flight MS have been used to identify and estimate levels of radiolytic products in irradiated finished plastic packaging materials. Fifteen retail packaging materials were studied. Investigations were carried out into the effect of different irradiation types (gamma and electron beam), irradiation doses (1, 3, 7 and 10 kGy) and dose rates (5 kGy s(-1) for electron beam and 0.4 and 1.85 kGy h(-1) for gamma) on the radiolytic products. Any differences seen in comparing the two ionising radiation types were attributed largely to the very different dose rates; for electron beam a 10 kGy dose was delivered in just 2 s whereas using gamma it took 5.4 h. Differences were also seen when comparing the same samples irradiated at different doses. Some substances were not affected by irradiation, others decreased in concentration and others were formed upon increasing doses of irradiation. These results confirm that irradiation-induced changes do occur in substances with the potential to migrate and that the safety of the finished packaging material following irradiation should be assessed.
Analytical and phenomenological studies of rotating turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mahalov, Alex; Zhou, YE
1995-01-01
A framework, which combines mathematical analysis, closure theory, and phenomenological treatment, is developed to study the spectral transfer process and reduction of dimensionality in turbulent flows that are subject to rotation. First, we outline a mathematical procedure that is particularly appropriate for problems with two disparate time scales. The approach which is based on the Green's method leads to the Poincare velocity variables and the Poincare transformation when applied to rotating turbulence. The effects of the rotation are now reflected in the modifications to the convolution of a nonlinear term. The Poincare transformed equations are used to obtain a time-dependent analog of the Taylor-Proudman theorem valid in the asymptotic limit when the non-dimensional parameter mu is identical to Omega(t) approaches infinity (Omega is the rotation rate and t is the time). The 'split' of the energy transfer in both direct and inverse directions is established. Secondly, we apply the Eddy-Damped-Quasinormal-Markovian (EDQNM) closure to the Poincare transformed Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. This closure leads to expressions for the spectral energy transfer. In particular, an unique triple velocity decorrelation time is derived with an explicit dependence on the rotation rate. This provides an important input for applying the phenomenological treatment of Zhou. In order to characterize the relative strength of rotation, another non-dimensional number, a spectral Rossby number, which is defined as the ratio of rotation and turbulence time scales, is introduced. Finally, the energy spectrum and the spectral eddy viscosity are deduced.
Analytical lessons learned from selected therapeutic protein drug comparability studies.
Federici, Marcia; Lubiniecki, Anthony; Manikwar, Prakash; Volkin, David B
2013-05-01
The successful implementation of process and product changes for a therapeutic protein drug, both during clinical development and after commercialization, requires a detailed evaluation of their impact on the protein's structure and biological functionality. This analysis is called a comparability exercise and includes a data driven assessment of biochemical equivalence and biological characterization using a cadre of analytical methodologies. This review focuses on describing analytical results and lessons learned from selected published therapeutic protein comparability case studies both for bulk drug substance and final drug product. An overview of the currently available analytical methodologies typically used is presented as well as a discussion of new emerging analytical techniques. The potential utility of several novel analytical approaches to comparability studies is discussed including distribution and stability of protein drugs in vivo, and enhanced evaluation of higher-order protein structure in actual formulations using hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance fingerprinting or empirical phase diagrams. In addition, new methods for detecting and characterizing protein aggregates and particles are presented as these degradants are of current industry-wide concern. The critical role that analytical methodologies play in elucidating the structure-function relationships for therapeutic protein products during the overall assessment of comparability is discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dobrinskaya, Tatiana
2015-01-01
This paper suggests a new method for optimizing yaw maneuvers on the International Space Station (ISS). Yaw rotations are the most common large maneuvers on the ISS often used for docking and undocking operations, as well as for other activities. When maneuver optimization is used, large maneuvers, which were performed on thrusters, could be performed either using control moment gyroscopes (CMG), or with significantly reduced thruster firings. Maneuver optimization helps to save expensive propellant and reduce structural loads - an important factor for the ISS service life. In addition, optimized maneuvers reduce contamination of the critical elements of the vehicle structure, such as solar arrays. This paper presents an analytical solution for optimizing yaw attitude maneuvers. Equations describing pitch and roll motion needed to counteract the major torques during a yaw maneuver are obtained. A yaw rate profile is proposed. Also the paper describes the physical basis of the suggested optimization approach. In the obtained optimized case, the torques are significantly reduced. This torque reduction was compared to the existing optimization method which utilizes the computational solution. It was shown that the attitude profiles and the torque reduction have a good match for these two methods of optimization. The simulations using the ISS flight software showed similar propellant consumption for both methods. The analytical solution proposed in this paper has major benefits with respect to computational approach. In contrast to the current computational solution, which only can be calculated on the ground, the analytical solution does not require extensive computational resources, and can be implemented in the onboard software, thus, making the maneuver execution automatic. The automatic maneuver significantly simplifies the operations and, if necessary, allows to perform a maneuver without communication with the ground. It also reduces the probability of command
Analytical Prediction and Optimization of Far-Field Pyroshock Test Procedures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lacher, Alexander; Jungel, Nikolas; von Wagner, Utz; Bager, Annette
2012-07-01
The simulation of far-field pyroshocks is mainly performed by the use of mechanical or mechatronic devices such as hammer pendulums, shakers and piezoactors. Latter show limitations concerning frequency and acceleration ranges which does not hold for hammer pendulums or bolt guns. Their controllability, however, is rather unsatisfactory and there still exists a general lack of computational prediction tools for usually time consuming and costly far-field pyroshock tests. Mechanical minimal models of existing hammer test devices are presented and investigated by the use of the finite element and analytical methods. The tedious mechanical impact problem is reduced by introducing a nonlinear compressive spring connecting striking partners. Computational test results are verified by experiments and optimized by an evolution strategy allowing for determination of optimum test parameters. The algorithms developed are the basis for fast and efficient predictions of pyroshock tests.
Analytic Shielding Optimization to Reduce Crew Exposure to Ionizing Radiation Inside Space Vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gaza, Razvan; Cooper, Tim P.; Hanzo, Arthur; Hussein, Hesham; Jarvis, Kandy S.; Kimble, Ryan; Lee, Kerry T.; Patel, Chirag; Reddell, Brandon D.; Stoffle, Nicholas; Zapp, E. Neal; Shelfer, Tad D.
2009-01-01
A sustainable lunar architecture provides capabilities for leveraging out-of-service components for alternate uses. Discarded architecture elements may be used to provide ionizing radiation shielding to the crew habitat in case of a Solar Particle Event. The specific location relative to the vehicle where the additional shielding mass is placed, as corroborated with particularities of the vehicle design, has a large influence on protection gain. This effect is caused by the exponential- like decrease of radiation exposure with shielding mass thickness, which in turn determines that the most benefit from a given amount of shielding mass is obtained by placing it so that it preferentially augments protection in under-shielded areas of the vehicle exposed to the radiation environment. A novel analytic technique to derive an optimal shielding configuration was developed by Lockheed Martin during Design Analysis Cycle 3 (DAC-3) of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). [1] Based on a detailed Computer Aided Design (CAD) model of the vehicle including a specific crew positioning scenario, a set of under-shielded vehicle regions can be identified as candidates for placement of additional shielding. Analytic tools are available to allow capturing an idealized supplemental shielding distribution in the CAD environment, which in turn is used as a reference for deriving a realistic shielding configuration from available vehicle components. While the analysis referenced in this communication applies particularly to the Orion vehicle, the general method can be applied to a large range of space exploration vehicles, including but not limited to lunar and Mars architecture components. In addition, the method can be immediately applied for optimization of radiation shielding provided to sensitive electronic components.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teoh, Lay Eng; Khoo, Hooi Ling
2013-09-01
This study deals with two major aspects of airlines, i.e. supply and demand management. The aspect of supply focuses on the mathematical formulation of an optimal fleet management model to maximize operational profit of the airlines while the aspect of demand focuses on the incorporation of mode choice modeling as parts of the developed model. The proposed methodology is outlined in two-stage, i.e. Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process is first adopted to capture mode choice modeling in order to quantify the probability of probable phenomena (for aircraft acquisition/leasing decision). Then, an optimization model is developed as a probabilistic dynamic programming model to determine the optimal number and types of aircraft to be acquired and/or leased in order to meet stochastic demand during the planning horizon. The findings of an illustrative case study show that the proposed methodology is viable. The results demonstrate that the incorporation of mode choice modeling could affect the operational profit and fleet management decision of the airlines at varying degrees.
Applying an analytical method to study neutron behavior for dosimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shirazi, S. A. Mousavi
2016-12-01
In this investigation, a new dosimetry process is studied by applying an analytical method. This novel process is associated with a human liver tissue. The human liver tissue has compositions including water, glycogen and etc. In this study, organic compound materials of liver are decomposed into their constituent elements based upon mass percentage and density of every element. The absorbed doses are computed by analytical method in all constituent elements of liver tissue. This analytical method is introduced applying mathematical equations based on neutron behavior and neutron collision rules. The results show that the absorbed doses are converged for neutron energy below 15MeV. This method can be applied to study the interaction of neutrons in other tissues and estimating the absorbed dose for a wide range of neutron energy.
Coote, Paul; Bermel, Wolfgang; Wagner, Gerhard; Arthanari, Haribabu
2016-01-01
Active bandwidth and global quality factor are the two main metrics used to quantitatively compare the performance of TOCSY mixing sequences. Active bandwidth refers to the spectral region over which at least 50% of the magnetization is transferred via a coupling. Global quality factor scores mixing sequences according to the worst-case transfer over a range of possible mixing times and chemical shifts. Both metrics reward high transfer efficiency away from the main diagonal of a two-dimensional spectrum. They can therefore be used to design mixing sequences that will function favorably in experiments. Here, we develop optimization methods tailored to these two metrics, including precise control of off-diagonal cross peak buildup rates. These methods produce square shaped transfer efficiency profiles, directly matching the desirable properties that the metrics are intended to measure. The optimization methods are analytical, rather than numerical. The two resultant shaped pulses have significantly higher active bandwidth and quality factor, respectively, than all other known sequences. They are therefore highly suitable for use in NMR spectroscopy. We include experimental verification of these improved waveforms on small molecule and protein samples. PMID:27515670
Behavior Analytic Contributions to the Study of Creativity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kubina, Richard M., Jr.; Morrison, Rebecca S.; Lee, David L.
2006-01-01
As researchers continue to study creativity, a behavior analytic perspective may provide new vistas by offering an additional perspective. Contemporary behavior analysis began with B. F. Skinner and offers a selectionist approach to the scientific investigation of creativity. Behavior analysis contributes to the study of creativity by…
Aeroelastic Optimization Study Based on the X-56A Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Wesley W.; Pak, Chan-Gi
2014-01-01
One way to increase the aircraft fuel efficiency is to reduce structural weight while maintaining adequate structural airworthiness, both statically and aeroelastically. A design process which incorporates the object-oriented multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization (MDAO) tool and the aeroelastic effects of high fidelity finite element models to characterize the design space was successfully developed and established. This paper presents two multidisciplinary design optimization studies using an object-oriented MDAO tool developed at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center. The first study demonstrates the use of aeroelastic tailoring concepts to minimize the structural weight while meeting the design requirements including strength, buckling, and flutter. Such an approach exploits the anisotropic capabilities of the fiber composite materials chosen for this analytical exercise with ply stacking sequence. A hybrid and discretization optimization approach improves accuracy and computational efficiency of a global optimization algorithm. The second study presents a flutter mass balancing optimization study for the fabricated flexible wing of the X-56A model since a desired flutter speed band is required for the active flutter suppression demonstration during flight testing. The results of the second study provide guidance to modify the wing design and move the design flutter speeds back into the flight envelope so that the original objective of X-56A flight test can be accomplished successfully. The second case also demonstrates that the object-oriented MDAO tool can handle multiple analytical configurations in a single optimization run.
Navas, María José; Asuero, Agustín García; Jiménez, Ana María
2016-01-01
Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) as an analytical technique in studies of ancient coins is summarized and reviewed. Specific EDXRF applications in historical studies, in studies of the corrosion of coins, and in studies of the optimal working conditions of some laser-based treatment for the cleaning of coins are described.
An Analytical Study of Wave Propagation Through Foliage
1980-01-01
suggested a feasibility study to resolve these issues. We feel very strongly LS Pbout the need for a measure•Me.ts program because of the analytical...known fact that one cannot usl the asymptotic cross secticn of a small dielectric sphere to obtain the scattering cross section of a small perfectly
Dimensions of Early Speech Sound Disorders: A Factor Analytic Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lewis, Barbara A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Hansen, Amy J.; Stein, Catherine M.; Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Taylor, H. Gerry
2006-01-01
The goal of this study was to classify children with speech sound disorders (SSD) empirically, using factor analytic techniques. Participants were 3-7-year olds enrolled in speech/language therapy (N=185). Factor analysis of an extensive battery of speech and language measures provided support for two distinct factors, representing the skill…
A Field Study Program in Analytical Chemistry for College Seniors.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Langhus, D. L.; Flinchbaugh, D. A.
1986-01-01
Describes an elective field study program at Moravian College (Pennsylvania) in which seniors in analytical chemistry obtain first-hand experience at Bethlehem Steel Corporation. Discusses the program's planning phase, some method development projects done by students, experiences received in laboratory operations, and the evaluation of student…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buratti, A.; Ferrucci, M.; Ben Achour, S.; Dewulf, W.; Schmitt, R. H.
2016-10-01
Industrial Computed Tomography (CT) has recently gained a prominent role in the field of dimensional metrology as a powerful 3D coordinate measurement technique. Its main advantage is the ability of measuring both inner and outer features of geometrically complex workpieces without altering or damaging them. The settings with which CT data are acquired can contribute to the uncertainty of measurements; these settings are chosen by the users in an intuitive way, resulting in high variability of the measurement outcome. There is currently no available holistic model that can (1) describe the relationship between CT setup parameters and measurement uncertainty, or (2) determine the optimal parameters for a given measurement task. In this study, we propose an analytical method to optimize imaging parameters for multimaterial measurements. The proposed method takes as input information about the nominal workpiece geometry and material composition. For a given workpiece position and orientation, the optimal photon energy is calculated to maximize edge detectability and minimize image noise. Subsequently, tube voltage and prefilter are chosen to ensure that the generated X-ray spectrum is quasi-monochromatic around the optimal photon energy. Focal spot size is chosen to minimize resolution, while also avoiding blurring. Then, the corresponding tube power is evaluated as well as the tube current. Finally, integration time is minimized so that the gray values of air are still in the linear range of the detector. The presented method was implemented into a software application and validated through simulation of CT scans of multimaterial workpieces. Measurements with predicted parameters were found to be more accurate than those performed with parameters chosen by expert users.
Algorithms for optimized maximum entropy and diagnostic tools for analytic continuation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergeron, Dominic; Tremblay, A.-M. S.
2016-08-01
Analytic continuation of numerical data obtained in imaginary time or frequency has become an essential part of many branches of quantum computational physics. It is, however, an ill-conditioned procedure and thus a hard numerical problem. The maximum-entropy approach, based on Bayesian inference, is the most widely used method to tackle that problem. Although the approach is well established and among the most reliable and efficient ones, useful developments of the method and of its implementation are still possible. In addition, while a few free software implementations are available, a well-documented, optimized, general purpose, and user-friendly software dedicated to that specific task is still lacking. Here we analyze all aspects of the implementation that are critical for accuracy and speed and present a highly optimized approach to maximum entropy. Original algorithmic and conceptual contributions include (1) numerical approximations that yield a computational complexity that is almost independent of temperature and spectrum shape (including sharp Drude peaks in broad background, for example) while ensuring quantitative accuracy of the result whenever precision of the data is sufficient, (2) a robust method of choosing the entropy weight α that follows from a simple consistency condition of the approach and the observation that information- and noise-fitting regimes can be identified clearly from the behavior of χ2 with respect to α , and (3) several diagnostics to assess the reliability of the result. Benchmarks with test spectral functions of different complexity and an example with an actual physical simulation are presented. Our implementation, which covers most typical cases for fermions, bosons, and response functions, is available as an open source, user-friendly software.
Vilim, R.B.; Wegerich, S.W.
1995-12-31
A neural network originally proposed by Szu for performing pattern recognition has been modified for use in a noisy manufacturing environment. Signals from the factory floor are frequently affine transformed and, as a consequence, a signal may not be properly aligned with respect to the input node that corresponds to the signal leading edge or with respect to the number of nodes representing the time varying part. Rater than translate and scale the presented signal, an operation which because of noise can be prone to numerical error since the signal is not smoothly varying, the network in this paper has the capability to analytically translate and scale its internal representation of the signal so that it overlays the presented signal. A response surface in the neighborhood of the stored reference signal is built during, training, and covers the range of translate and scale parameter values expected. A genetic algorithm is used to search over this hilly terrain to find the optimal values of these parameters so that the reference signal overlays the presented signal. The procedure is repeated over all hypothesized pattern classes with the best fit identifying the class.
Optimal search strategies for retrieving systematic reviews from Medline: analytical survey
Montori, Victor M; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Morgan, Douglas; Haynes, R Brian
2005-01-01
Objective: To develop optimal search strategies in Medline for retrieving systematic reviews. Design: Analytical survey. Data sources: 161 journals published in 2000 indexed in Medline. Main outcome measures: The sensitivity, specificity, and precision of retrieval of systematic reviews of 4862 unique terms in 782 485 combinations of one to five terms were determined by comparison with a hand search of all articles (the criterion standard) in 161 journals published during 2000 (49 028 articles). Results: Only 753 (1.5%) of the 49 028 articles were systematic reviews. The most sensitive strategy included five terms and had a sensitivity of 99.9% (95% confidence interval 99.6% to 100%) and a specificity of 52% (51.6% to 52.5%). The strategy that best minimised the difference between sensitivity and specificity had a sensitivity of 98% (97% to 99%) and specificity of 90.8% (90.5% to 91.1%). Highest precision for multiterm strategies, 57% (54% to 60%), was achieved at a sensitivity of 71% (68% to 74%). The term “cochrane database of systematic reviews.jn.” was the most precise single term search strategy (sensitivity of 56% (52% to 60%) and precision of 96% (94% to 98%)). These strategies are available through the “limit” screen of Ovid's search interface for Medline. Conclusions: Systematic reviews can be retrieved from Medline with close to perfect sensitivity or specificity, or with high precision, by using empirical search strategies. PMID:15619601
Schedule optimization study implementation plan
Not Available
1993-11-01
This Implementation Plan is intended to provide a basis for improvements in the conduct of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Hanford. The Plan is based on the findings of the Schedule Optimization Study (SOS) team which was convened for two weeks in September 1992 at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL). The need for the study arose out of a schedule dispute regarding the submission of the 1100-EM-1 Operable Unit (OU) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work Plan. The SOS team was comprised of independent professionals from other federal agencies and the private sector experienced in environmental restoration within the federal system. The objective of the team was to examine reasons for the lengthy RI/FS process and recommend ways to expedite it. The SOS team issued their Final Report in December 1992. The report found the most serious impediments to cleanup relate to a series of management and policy issues which are within the control of the three parties managing and monitoring Hanford -- the DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology). The SOS Report identified the following eight cross-cutting issues as the root of major impediments to the Hanford Site cleanup. Each of these eight issues is quoted from the SOS Report followed by a brief, general description of the proposed approach being developed.
An analytical study of double bend achromat lattice
Fakhri, Ali Akbar Kant, Pradeep; Singh, Gurnam; Ghodke, A. D.
2015-03-15
In a double bend achromat, Chasman-Green (CG) lattice represents the basic structure for low emittance synchrotron radiation sources. In the basic structure of CG lattice single focussing quadrupole (QF) magnet is used to form an achromat. In this paper, this CG lattice is discussed and an analytical relation is presented, showing the limitation of basic CG lattice to provide the theoretical minimum beam emittance in achromatic condition. To satisfy theoretical minimum beam emittance parameters, achromat having two, three, and four quadrupole structures is presented. In this structure, different arrangements of QF and defocusing quadruple (QD) are used. An analytical approach assuming quadrupoles as thin lenses has been followed for studying these structures. A study of Indus-2 lattice in which QF-QD-QF configuration in the achromat part has been adopted is also presented.
Analytic study of a rolling sphere on a rough surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Florea, Olivia A.; Rosca, Ileana C.
2016-11-01
In this paper it is realized an analytic study of the rolling's sphere on a rough horizontal plane under the action of its own gravity. The necessities of integration of the system of dynamical equations of motion lead us to find a reference system where the motion equations should be transformed into simpler expressions and which, in the presence of some significant hypothesis to permit the application of some original methods of analytical integration. In technical applications, the bodies may have a free rolling motion or a motion constrained by geometrical relations in assemblies of parts and machine parts. This study involves a lot of investigations in the field of tribology and of applied dynamics accompanied by experiments. Multiple recordings of several trajectories of the sphere, as well as their treatment of images, also followed by statistical processing experimental data allowed highlighting a very good agreement between the theoretical findings and experimental results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trombetti, Tomaso
This thesis presents an Experimental/Analytical approach to modeling and calibrating shaking tables for structural dynamic applications. This approach was successfully applied to the shaking table recently built in the structural laboratory of the Civil Engineering Department at Rice University. This shaking table is capable of reproducing model earthquake ground motions with a peak acceleration of 6 g's, a peak velocity of 40 inches per second, and a peak displacement of 3 inches, for a maximum payload of 1500 pounds. It has a frequency bandwidth of approximately 70 Hz and is designed to test structural specimens up to 1/5 scale. The rail/table system is mounted on a reaction mass of about 70,000 pounds consisting of three 12 ft x 12 ft x 1 ft reinforced concrete slabs, post-tensioned together and connected to the strong laboratory floor. The slip table is driven by a hydraulic actuator governed by a 407 MTS controller which employs a proportional-integral-derivative-feedforward-differential pressure algorithm to control the actuator displacement. Feedback signals are provided by two LVDT's (monitoring the slip table relative displacement and the servovalve main stage spool position) and by one differential pressure transducer (monitoring the actuator force). The dynamic actuator-foundation-specimen system is modeled and analyzed by combining linear control theory and linear structural dynamics. The analytical model developed accounts for the effects of actuator oil compressibility, oil leakage in the actuator, time delay in the response of the servovalve spool to a given electrical signal, foundation flexibility, and dynamic characteristics of multi-degree-of-freedom specimens. In order to study the actual dynamic behavior of the shaking table, the transfer function between target and actual table accelerations were identified using experimental results and spectral estimation techniques. The power spectral density of the system input and the cross power spectral
Matsuzaki, Rei; Yabushita, Satoshi
2017-05-05
The complex basis function (CBF) method applied to various atomic and molecular photoionization problems can be interpreted as an L2 method to solve the driven-type (inhomogeneous) Schrödinger equation, whose driven term being dipole operator times the initial state wave function. However, efficient basis functions for representing the solution have not fully been studied. Moreover, the relation between their solution and that of the ordinary Schrödinger equation has been unclear. For these reasons, most previous applications have been limited to total cross sections. To examine the applicability of the CBF method to differential cross sections and asymmetry parameters, we show that the complex valued solution to the driven-type Schrödinger equation can be variationally obtained by optimizing the complex trial functions for the frequency dependent polarizability. In the test calculations made for the hydrogen photoionization problem with five or six complex Slater-type orbitals (cSTOs), their complex valued expansion coefficients and the orbital exponents have been optimized with the analytic derivative method. Both the real and imaginary parts of the solution have been obtained accurately in a wide region covering typical molecular regions. Their phase shifts and asymmetry parameters are successfully obtained by extrapolating the CBF solution from the inner matching region to the asymptotic region using WKB method. The distribution of the optimized orbital exponents in the complex plane is explained based on the close connection between the CBF method and the driven-type equation method. The obtained information is essential to constructing the appropriate basis sets in future molecular applications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hofman, Radek; Seibert, Petra; Kovalets, Ivan; Andronopoulos, Spyros
2015-04-01
We are concerned with source term retrieval in the case of an accident in a nuclear power with off-site consequences. The goal is to optimize atmospheric dispersion model inputs using inverse modeling of gamma dose rate measurements (instantaneous or time-integrated). These are the most abundant type of measurements provided by various radiation monitoring networks across Europe and available continuously in near-real time. Usually, a source term of an accidental release comprises of a mixture of nuclides. Unfortunately, gamma dose rate measurements do not provide a direct information on the source term composition; however, physical properties of respective nuclides (deposition properties, decay half-life) can yield some insight. In the method presented, we assume that nuclide ratios are known at least approximately, e.g. from nuclide specific observations or reactor inventory and assumptions on the accident type. The source term can be in multiple phases, each being characterized by constant nuclide ratios. The method is an extension of a well-established source term inversion approach based on the optimization of an objective function (minimization of a cost function). This function has two quadratic terms: mismatch between model and measurements weighted by an observation error covariance matrix and the deviation of the solution from a first guess weighted by the first-guess error covariance matrix. For simplicity, both error covariance matrices are approximated as diagonal. Analytical minimization of the cost function leads to a liner system of equations. Possible negative parts of the solution are iteratively removed by the means of first guess error variance reduction. Nuclide ratios enter the problem in the form of additional linear equations, where the deviations from prescribed ratios are weighted by factors; the corresponding error variance allows us to control how strongly we want to impose the prescribed ratios. This introduces some freedom into the
Educational Optimism among Parents: A Pilot Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Räty, Hannu; Kasanen, Kati
2016-01-01
This study explored parents' (N = 351) educational optimism in terms of their trust in the possibilities of school to develop children's intelligence. It was found that educational optimism could be depicted as a bipolar factor with optimism and pessimism on the opposing ends of the same dimension. Optimistic parents indicated more satisfaction…
Perturbative study on the analytic continuation for generalized gravitational entropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prudenziati, Andrea
2015-05-01
We study the analytic continuation used by Lewkowycz and Maldacena to prove the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for entanglement entropy, which is the holographic dual of the trace of the β -power of the Euclidean time evolution operator when β ∈R . This will be done perturbatively using a weakly time dependent Hamiltonian, corresponding to a small shift of the dual static background. The perturbation will be set to either satisfy the Lewkowycz-Maldacena proposal or a different analytic continuation, depending on its periodicity conditions. The two choices will be tested by computing the associated entropies and compared to the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. To our surprise we discover that, at first order, they both correctly reproduce the associated entanglement entropy. Furthermore in both cases we find unexpected divergent contributions that we have to discard in order to fit the minimal area computation, and an additional requirement on the β dependence on the metric.
Analytical studies on the instabilities of heterogeneous intelligent traffic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ngoduy, D.
2013-10-01
It has been widely reported in literature that a small perturbation in traffic flow such as a sudden deceleration of a vehicle could lead to the formation of traffic jams without a clear bottleneck. These traffic jams are usually related to instabilities in traffic flow. The applications of intelligent traffic systems are a potential solution to reduce the amplitude or to eliminate the formation of such traffic instabilities. A lot of research has been conducted to theoretically study the effect of intelligent vehicles, for example adaptive cruise control vehicles, using either computer simulation or analytical method. However, most current analytical research has only applied to single class traffic flow. To this end, the main topic of this paper is to perform a linear stability analysis to find the stability threshold of heterogeneous traffic flow using microscopic models, particularly the effect of intelligent vehicles on heterogeneous (or multi-class) traffic flow instabilities. The analytical results will show how intelligent vehicle percentages affect the stability of multi-class traffic flow.
Analytical Study of Stress State in HTS Solenoids
Barzi, E.; Terzini, E.; /Fermilab
2009-01-01
A main challenge for high field solenoids made of in High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) is the large stress developed in the conductor. This is especially constraining for BSCCO, a brittle and strain sensitive ceramic material. To find parametric correlations useful in magnet design, analytical models can be used. A simple model is herein proposed to obtain the radial, azimuthal and axial stresses in a solenoid as a function of size, i.e. self-field, and of the engineering current density for a number of different constraint hypotheses. The analytical model was verified against finite element modeling (FEM) using the same hypotheses of infinite rigidity of the constraints and room temperature properties. FEM was used to separately evaluate the effect of thermal contractions at 4.2 K for BSCCO and YBCO coils. Even though the analytical model allows for a finite stiffness of the constraints, it was run using infinite stiffness. For this reason, FEM was again used to determine how much stresses change when considering an outer stainless steel skin with finite rigidity for both BSCCO and YBCO coils. For a better understanding of the actual loads that high field solenoids made of HTS will be subject to, we have started some analytical studies of stress state in solenoids for a number of constraint hypotheses. This will hopefully show what can be achieved with the present conductor in terms of self-field. The magnetic field (B) exerts a force F = B x J per unit volume. In superconducting magnets, where the field and current density (J) are both high, this force can be very large, and it is therefore important to calculate the stresses in the coil.
Study of monopropellants for electrothermal thrusters: Analytical task summary report
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuenzly, J. D.; Grabbi, R.
1973-01-01
The feasibility of operating small thrust level electrothermal thrusters is determined with monopropellants other than MIL-grade hydrazine. The work scope includes analytical study, design and fabrication of demonstration thrusters, and an evaluation test program where monopropellants with freezing points lower than MIL-grade hydrazine are evaluated and characterized to determine their applicability to electrothermal thrusters for spacecraft attitude control. Results of propellant chemistry studies and performance analyses indicated that the most promising candidate monopropellants to be investigated are monomethylhydrazine, Aerozine-50, 77% hydrazine-23% hydrazine azide blend, and TRW formulated mixed hydrazine monopropellant (MHM) consisting of 35% hydrazine-50% monomethylhydrazine-15% ammonia.
Bollinger, James G; Stergachis, Andrew B; Johnson, Richard S; Egertson, Jarrett D; MacCoss, Michael J
2016-01-01
In targeted proteomics, the development of robust methodologies is dependent upon the selection of a set of optimal peptides for each protein-of-interest. Unfortunately, predicting which peptides and respective product ion transitions provide the greatest signal-to-noise ratio in a particular assay matrix is complicated. Using in vitro synthesized proteins as analytical standards, we report here an empirically driven method for the selection of said peptides in a human plasma assay matrix.
Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 2: Analytical approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gerlaugh, H. E.; Hall, E. W.; Brown, D. H.; Priestley, R. R.; Knightly, W. F.
1980-01-01
The use of various advanced energy conversion systems were compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. The ground rules established by NASA and assumptions made by the General Electric Company in performing this cogeneration technology alternatives study are presented. The analytical methodology employed is described in detail and is illustrated with numerical examples together with a description of the computer program used in calculating over 7000 energy conversion system-industrial process applications. For Vol. 1, see 80N24797.
Noble gas encapsulation into carbon nanotubes: Predictions from analytical model and DFT studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balasubramani, Sree Ganesh; Singh, Devendra; Swathi, R. S.
2014-11-01
The energetics for the interaction of the noble gas atoms with the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are investigated using an analytical model and density functional theory calculations. Encapsulation of the noble gas atoms, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe into CNTs of various chiralities is studied in detail using an analytical model, developed earlier by Hill and co-workers. The constrained motion of the noble gas atoms along the axes of the CNTs as well as the off-axis motion are discussed. Analyses of the forces, interaction energies, acceptance and suction energies for the encapsulation enable us to predict the optimal CNTs that can encapsulate each of the noble gas atoms. We find that CNTs of radii 2.98 - 4.20 Å (chiral indices, (5,4), (6,4), (9,1), (6,6), and (9,3)) can efficiently encapsulate the He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe atoms, respectively. Endohedral adsorption of all the noble gas atoms is preferred over exohedral adsorption on various CNTs. The results obtained using the analytical model are subsequently compared with the calculations performed with the dispersion-including density functional theory at the M06 - 2X level using a triple-zeta basis set and good qualitative agreement is found. The analytical model is however found to be computationally cheap as the equations can be numerically programmed and the results obtained in comparatively very less time.
Noble gas encapsulation into carbon nanotubes: Predictions from analytical model and DFT studies
Balasubramani, Sree Ganesh; Singh, Devendra; Swathi, R. S.
2014-11-14
The energetics for the interaction of the noble gas atoms with the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are investigated using an analytical model and density functional theory calculations. Encapsulation of the noble gas atoms, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe into CNTs of various chiralities is studied in detail using an analytical model, developed earlier by Hill and co-workers. The constrained motion of the noble gas atoms along the axes of the CNTs as well as the off-axis motion are discussed. Analyses of the forces, interaction energies, acceptance and suction energies for the encapsulation enable us to predict the optimal CNTs that can encapsulate each of the noble gas atoms. We find that CNTs of radii 2.98 − 4.20 Å (chiral indices, (5,4), (6,4), (9,1), (6,6), and (9,3)) can efficiently encapsulate the He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe atoms, respectively. Endohedral adsorption of all the noble gas atoms is preferred over exohedral adsorption on various CNTs. The results obtained using the analytical model are subsequently compared with the calculations performed with the dispersion-including density functional theory at the M06 − 2X level using a triple-zeta basis set and good qualitative agreement is found. The analytical model is however found to be computationally cheap as the equations can be numerically programmed and the results obtained in comparatively very less time.
Analytical study of the critical behavior of the nonlinear pendulum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lima, F. M. S.
2010-11-01
The dynamics of a simple pendulum consisting of a small bob and a massless rigid rod has three possible regimes depending on its total energy E: Oscillatory (when E is not enough for the pendulum to reach the top position), "perpetual ascent" when E is exactly the energy needed to reach the top, and nonoscillatory for greater energies. In the latter regime, the pendulum rotates periodically without velocity inversions. In contrast to the oscillatory regime, for which an exact analytic solution is known, the other two regimes are usually studied by solving the equation of motion numerically. By applying conservation of energy, I derive exact analytical solutions to both the perpetual ascent and nonoscillatory regimes and an exact expression for the pendulum period in the nonoscillatory regime. Based on Cromer's approximation for the large-angle pendulum period, I find a simple approximate expression for the decrease of the period with the initial velocity in the nonoscillatory regime, valid near the critical velocity. This expression is used to study the critical slowing down, which is observed near the transition between the oscillatory and nonoscillatory regimes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaetano, A.; Roncolato, J.; Montorfano, D.; Barbato, M. C.; Ambrosetti, G.; Pedretti, A.
2016-05-01
The employment of new gaseous heat transfer fluids as air or CO2, which are cheaper and environmentally friendly, is drawing more and more attention within the field of Concentrated Solar Power applications. However, despite the advantages, their use requires receivers with a larger heat transfer area and flow cross section with a consequent greater volume of thermal insulation. Solid thermal insulations currently used present high thermal inertia which is energetically penalizing during the daily transient phases faced by the main plant components (e.g. receivers). With the aim of overcoming this drawback a thermal insulation based on radiative shields is presented in this study. Starting from an initial layout comprising a solid thermal insulation layer, the geometry was optimized avoiding the use of the solid insulation keeping performance and fulfilling the geometrical constraints. An analytical Matlab model was implemented to assess the system thermal behavior in terms of heat loss taking into account conductive, convective and radiative contributions. Accurate 2D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were run to validate the Matlab model which was then used to select the most promising among three new different designs.
Methodological issues of confounding in analytical epidemiologic studies.
Hajian Tilaki, Karimollah
2012-01-01
Confounding can be thought of as mixing the effect of exposure on the risk of disease with a third factor which distorts the measure of association such as risk ratio or odds ratio. This bias arises because of complex functional relationship of confounder with both exposure and disease (outcome). In this article, we provided a conceptual framework review of confounding issues in epidemiologic studies, in particular in observational studies and nonrandomized experimental studies. We have shown in 2 by 2 tables with analytical examples how the index of association will be distorted when confounding is present. The criteria, source of confounding and several points in confounding issues have been addressed. The advantages and disadvantages of several strategies for control of confounding have been discussed.
Analytical optimal pulse shapes obtained with the aid of genetic algorithms
Guerrero, Rubén D.; Arango, Carlos A.; Reyes, Andrés
2015-09-28
We propose a methodology to design optimal pulses for achieving quantum optimal control on molecular systems. Our approach constrains pulse shapes to linear combinations of a fixed number of experimentally relevant pulse functions. Quantum optimal control is obtained by maximizing a multi-target fitness function using genetic algorithms. As a first application of the methodology, we generated an optimal pulse that successfully maximized the yield on a selected dissociation channel of a diatomic molecule. Our pulse is obtained as a linear combination of linearly chirped pulse functions. Data recorded along the evolution of the genetic algorithm contained important information regarding the interplay between radiative and diabatic processes. We performed a principal component analysis on these data to retrieve the most relevant processes along the optimal path. Our proposed methodology could be useful for performing quantum optimal control on more complex systems by employing a wider variety of pulse shape functions.
Analytical optimal pulse shapes obtained with the aid of genetic algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guerrero, Rubén D.; Arango, Carlos A.; Reyes, Andrés
2015-09-01
We propose a methodology to design optimal pulses for achieving quantum optimal control on molecular systems. Our approach constrains pulse shapes to linear combinations of a fixed number of experimentally relevant pulse functions. Quantum optimal control is obtained by maximizing a multi-target fitness function using genetic algorithms. As a first application of the methodology, we generated an optimal pulse that successfully maximized the yield on a selected dissociation channel of a diatomic molecule. Our pulse is obtained as a linear combination of linearly chirped pulse functions. Data recorded along the evolution of the genetic algorithm contained important information regarding the interplay between radiative and diabatic processes. We performed a principal component analysis on these data to retrieve the most relevant processes along the optimal path. Our proposed methodology could be useful for performing quantum optimal control on more complex systems by employing a wider variety of pulse shape functions.
Analytical evaluation of laboratories wishing to perform environmental characterization studies
Lauenstein, G.G.; Cantillo, A.Y.
1997-07-01
Laboratories competing to analyze bivalve mollusks under contract to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration`s Mussel Watch Project were required to undergo analytical tests of their ability to quantify environmental contaminants as part of the contract evaluation process. During the 1989 selection process laboratories that appeared to qualify on the basis of their written proposals were provided a gravimetrically prepared solution with unknown quantities of an undefined number of organic contaminants that are regularly quantified for the Mussel Watch Project. In 1994, competing laboratories were once again tested but this time using matrix materials for the quantification of both trace elements and organic contaminants. Three laboratory groups participated in the exercises. For the 1989 gravimetrically prepared solutions, all participating laboratories were able to identify the contaminants present and in all but two cases were able to report values to within {+-}25% of the known values. In 1994, all laboratories were within the acceptance criteria for the quantification of trace elements in the homogenate sample. Analytical laboratory testing is an important first step to ensure that environmental characterization studies are successful.
Analytical study of acoustically perturbed Brillouin active magnetized semiconductor plasma
Shukla, Arun; Jat, K. L.
2015-07-31
An analytical study of acoustically perturbed Brillouin active magnetized semiconductor plasma has been reported. In the present analytical investigation, the lattice displacement, acousto-optical polarization, susceptibility, acousto-optical gain constant arising due to the induced nonlinear current density and acousto-optical process are deduced in an acoustically perturbed Brillouin active magnetized semiconductor plasma using the hydrodynamical model of plasma and coupled mode scheme. The influence of wave number and magnetic field has been explored. The analysis has been applied to centrosymmetric crystal. Numerical estimates are made for n-type InSb crystal duly irradiated by a frequency doubled 10.6 µm CO{sub 2} laser. It is found that lattice displacement, susceptibility and acousto-optical gain increase linearly with incident wave number and applied dc magnetic field, while decrease with scattering angle. The gain also increases with electric amplitude of incident laser beam. Results are found to be well in agreement with available literature.
A fundamental study on analyte adsorption onto metallophthalocyanines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tran, Ngoc L.
A Web of Science search shows that the number of articles found in the literature pertaining to Phthalocyanines has doubled in the last eight years alone in comparison to all previous years. Based on the types of articles found, it is clear that the potential applications for Metal Phthalocyanines (MPcs) are multifaceted. Initially, MPcs were used as blue and green dye products. Subsequent interest in MPcs increased due to its similarities to the biologically relevant porphyrin. More recently, MPcs have been integrated into information storage systems, liquid crystal color displays and as the active material in semiconductor devices. Their diverse electronic properties, chemical and thermal robustness and ease of deposition (spin coating and organic molecular beam epitaxy) make them an attractive and economical candidate for use in chemical sensors. Although the literature contains many studies pertaining to MPcs, most are focused on the applications aspect of the material or on the fundamental understanding of the electronic properties of the Pcs in the absence of an analyte. This dissertation attempts to obtain an atomic level understanding of the fundamental mechanisms in which analytes interact with MPcs.
Meta-analytic study of implant survival following sinus augmentation
Barona-Dorado, Cristina; Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Fernández-Cáliz, Fernando; Martínez-González, José-María
2012-01-01
Objectives: To evaluate graft types used for maxillary sinus augmentation and review success rates of dental implants inserted in these areas, analyzing the graft materials used, implant surface types and the moment of implant placement. Study Design: A meta-analytic study reviewing articles on sinus augmentation published during the last ten years. Results: 3,975 implants placed in sinus augmentations (with bony windows) were registered, of which 3,749 implants survived, a survival rate of 94.3%. Conclusions: When performing sinus augmentation, bone substitute materials are just as effective as autologous bone, whether used alone or in combination with autologous bone. Implant surface treatments can have an important effect on implant survival and it would appear that roughened surfaces are the best option. When implants are inserted simultaneously to grafting, a higher failure rate can be expected. Key words: Sinus augmentation, bone implant, bone regeneration, dental implant. PMID:22157658
DeBaun, M.R.; Sox, H.C. Jr. )
1991-07-01
Erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) was introduced in the 1970s as an inexpensive screening test for lead poisoning. As greater knowledge of lead poisoning has accumulated, the recommended EP level at which further evaluation for lead poisoning should be initiated has been lowered from greater than or equal to 50 micrograms/dL to greater than or equal to 35 micrograms/dL. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of this EP threshold. A receiver operator characteristic curve was constructed to assess the relationship between the true-positive rate and false-positive rate of EP at various decision thresholds. The receiver operator characteristic curve was constructed with data from the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1976 to 1980, which included 2673 children 6 years of age or younger who had both blood lead and EP level determinations. Decision analysis was then used to determine the optimal EP decision threshold for detecting a blood lead level greater than or equal to 25 micrograms/dL. The receiver operator characteristic curve demonstrated that EP is a poor predictor of a blood lead level greater than or equal to 25 micrograms/dL. At the currently recommended EP decision threshold of 35 micrograms/dL, the true-positive rates and false-positive rates of EP are 0.23 and 0.04, respectively. As a result of the inadequate performance of EP screening for lead poisoning, when the prevalence of lead poisoning is greater than 8%, there is no EP decision threshold that optimizes the relationship between the cost of screening normal children and the benefit of detecting lead-poisoned children. Erythrocyte protoporphyrin measurement is not sufficiently sensitive to be recommended uniformly as a screening test for lead poisoning.
Aerodynamic optimization studies on advanced architecture computers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chawla, Kalpana
1995-01-01
The approach to carrying out multi-discipline aerospace design studies in the future, especially in massively parallel computing environments, comprises of choosing (1) suitable solvers to compute solutions to equations characterizing a discipline, and (2) efficient optimization methods. In addition, for aerodynamic optimization problems, (3) smart methodologies must be selected to modify the surface shape. In this research effort, a 'direct' optimization method is implemented on the Cray C-90 to improve aerodynamic design. It is coupled with an existing implicit Navier-Stokes solver, OVERFLOW, to compute flow solutions. The optimization method is chosen such that it can accomodate multi-discipline optimization in future computations. In the work , however, only single discipline aerodynamic optimization will be included.
Zhao, Zhenhua; Xia, Liling; Wang, Fang; Jiang, Xin; Gao, Yanzheng
2012-08-01
In this study, we screened for an economic, rapid, and efficient hypotoxic pretreatment method for organochlorine pesticides in soil samples for gas chromatography (GC) analysis. The analytical extraction efficiencies of 11 different extractants, nine types of solid-phase purification (SPP) cartridge packings, and three types of eluents for 13 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in spiked and natural Chinese red soil (Hydragric Acrisols) were evaluated using an ultrasonic extraction and solid-phase purification method. High percent recoveries (85-106%) were obtained for the 13 organochlorine pesticides in soil when petroleum ether/acetone/water (10:5:2, v/v) was used an extractant. They were purified using celite SPP cartridge packing and eluted with 9 mL of dichloromethane/petroleum ether (1:9, v/v). The OCPs purification pretreatment of Hydragric Acrisols, using the above method, meets the GC analysis requirements. Compared with other traditional pretreatment methods for OCPs in soil samples, this method has several advantages, such as a short extraction time, reducing the amount of solvent, having no emulsion phenomenon, and hypotoxicity to the laboratory technicians. The concentrations of 1,1,1,-trichloro-2(p-chlorophenyl)-2-(o-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDTs; 3.42-8.08 ng g(-1)) in field soils were higher than the hexachlorocyclohexane concentration (2.94-6.12 ng g(-1)). The 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (p,p'-DDE) + 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethane (p,p'-DDD)/p,p'-DDT ratio in this field soil was approximately 2.7, suggesting that no new DDT pollution source was introduced into the sampling site.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Murphy, P. Karen; Firetto, Carla M.; Wei, Liwei; Li, Mengyi; Croninger, Rachel M. V.
2016-01-01
Many American students struggle to perform even basic comprehension of text, such as locating information, determining the main idea, or supporting details of a story. Even more students are inadequately prepared to complete more complex tasks, such as critically or analytically interpreting information in text or making reasoned decisions from…
An analytical study of electric vehicle handling dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greene, J. E.; Segal, D. J.
1979-01-01
Hypothetical electric vehicle configurations were studied by applying available analytical methods. Elementary linearized models were used in addition to a highly sophisticated vehicle dynamics computer simulation technique. Physical properties of specific EV's were defined for various battery and powertrain packaging approaches applied to a range of weight distribution and inertial properties which characterize a generic class of EV's. Computer simulations of structured maneuvers were performed for predicting handling qualities in the normal driving range and during various extreme conditions related to accident avoidance. Results indicate that an EV with forward weight bias will possess handling qualities superior to a comparable EV that is rear-heavy or equally balanced. The importance of properly matching tires, suspension systems, and brake system front/rear torque proportioning to a given EV configuration during the design stage is demonstrated.
ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR KINETIC STUDIES OF BIOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS: A REVIEW
Zheng, Xiwei; Bi, Cong; Li, Zhao; Podariu, Maria; Hage, David S.
2015-01-01
The rates at which biological interactions occur can provide important information concerning the mechanism and behavior of these processes in living systems. This review discusses several analytical methods that can be used to examine the kinetics of biological interactions. These techniques include common or traditional methods such as stopped-flow analysis and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, as well as alternative methods based on affinity chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. The general principles and theory behind these approaches are examined, and it is shown how each technique can be utilized to provide information on the kinetics of biological interactions. Examples of applications are also given for each method. In addition, a discussion is provided on the relative advantages or potential limitations of each technique regarding its use in kinetic studies. PMID:25700721
Analytical studies of spectrum broadcast structures in quantum Brownian motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tuziemski, J.; Korbicz, J. K.
2016-11-01
Spectrum broadcast structures are a new and fresh concept in the quantum-to-classical transition, introduced recently in the context of decoherence and the appearance of objective features in quantum mechanics. These are specific quantum state structures, responsible for the objectivization of the decohered state of a system. Recently, they have been demonstrated by means of the well-known quantum Brownian motion model of the recoilless limit (infinitely massive central system), as the principal interest lies in information transfer from the system to the environment. However, a final analysis relied on numerics. Here, after a presentation of the main concepts, we perform analytical studies of the model, showing the timescales and the efficiency of the spectrum broadcast structure formation. We consider a somewhat simplified environment, being random with a uniform distribution of frequencies.
Analytic study of a coupled Kerr-SBS system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conte, Robert; Gandarias, Maria Luz
2017-01-01
In order to describe the coupling between the Kerr nonlinearity and the stimulated Brillouin scattering, Mauger et al. recently proposed a system of partial differential equations in three complex amplitudes. We perform here its analytic study by two methods. The first method is to investigate the structure of singularities, in order to possibly find closed form single-valued solutions obeying this structure. The second method is to look at the infinitesimal symmetries of the system in order to build reductions to a lesser number of independent variables. Our overall conclusion is that the structure of singularities is too intricate to obtain closed form solutions by the usual methods. One of our results is the proof of the nonexistence of traveling waves.
Analytical study of vortex flaps on highly swept delta wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frink, N. T.
1982-01-01
This paper highlights some current results from ongoing analytical studies of vortex flaps on highly swept delta wings. A brief discussion of the vortex flow analysis tools is given along with comparisons of the theories to vortex flap force and pressure data. Theoretical trends in surface pressure distribution for both angle-of-attack variation and flap deflection are correctly predicted by Free Vortex Sheet theory. Also shown are some interesting calculations for attached-flow and vortex-flow flap hinge moments that indicate flaps utilizing vortex flow may generate less hinge moment than attached flow flaps. Finally, trailing-edge flap effects on leading-edge flap thrust potential are investigated and theory-experiment comparisons made.
Analytical study of seashell using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ying, LI; Yanhong, GU; Ying, Zhang; Yuandong, LI; Yuan, LU
2017-02-01
Seashell has been applied as an indicator for ocean research and element analysis of the seashell is used to track biological or environmental evolution. In this work, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied for elementary analysis of an ezo scallop-shell, and a graphite enrichment method was used as the assistance. It was found that LIBS signal intensity of Ca fluctuated less than 5%, in spite of the sampling positions, and Sr/Ca was related to the shell growth. A similar variation was also found when using a direct LIBS analysis on the shell surface, and it might be more practicable to track shell growth by investigating Sr/Ca ratio with Sr ionic line at 421.6 nm. The obtained results prove that calcium (Ca) is qualified as an internal reference for shell analysis, and LIBS is a potential analytical method for seashell study.
Vehicle systems design optimization study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gilmour, J. L.
1980-01-01
The optimum vehicle configuration and component locations are determined for an electric drive vehicle based on using the basic structure of a current production subcompact vehicle. The optimization of an electric vehicle layout requires a weight distribution in the range of 53/47 to 62/38 in order to assure dynamic handling characteristics comparable to current internal combustion engine vehicles. Necessary modification of the base vehicle can be accomplished without major modification of the structure or running gear. As long as batteries are as heavy and require as much space as they currently do, they must be divided into two packages, one at front under the hood and a second at the rear under the cargo area, in order to achieve the desired weight distribution. The weight distribution criteria requires the placement of batteries at the front of the vehicle even when the central tunnel is used for the location of some batteries. The optimum layout has a front motor and front wheel drive. This configuration provides the optimum vehicle dynamic handling characteristics and the maximum passenger and cargo space for a given size vehicle.
Lubbad, Said H
2016-04-22
Poly(methyl styrene-co-bis(p-vinylbenzyl)dimethylsilane)-based monolithic capillary columns were optimized for separation of low, medium, and high molecular-weight analytes. The morphology and consequently the chromatographic performance of these monoliths were tuned by changes in the volume-ratio of monomer to macroporogen, establishing good monolithic flow-through and retention pores. Two monoliths were prepared and analyzed by reversed-phase chromatographic separation of low molecular-weight analytes such as alkyl benzenes and β-blockers, as well as medium and high molecular-weight analytes such as peptides and proteins, respectively. The microstructure was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and by inverse-size exclusion chromatography (ISEC). Monolith 1 demonstrated a high retention of alkyl benzenes, which coeluted from the column at the washing step of absolute acetonitrile; yet this monolith established a baseline separation of 9-peptide and 8-protein mixtures. Monolith 2 demonstrated efficient separation of the three analyte groups of different molecular weights. Six alkyl benzenes and five β-blockers were base-line separated in less than 5 and 2min, respectively, with good resolution and very small values of peak width at half height. Moreover, a comparable performance of efficient separation of the 9-peptide mixture and a fast separation of 5- and 8-protein mixtures were achieved. Both monoliths were characterized by high mechanical strength, high permeability, and excellent reproducibility.
Environmental exposure and mitochondrial epigenetics: study design and analytical challenges
Byun, Hyang-Min; Baccarelli, Andrea A.
2015-01-01
The environment can influence human health and disease in many harmful ways. Many epidemiological studies have been conducted with the aim of elucidating the association between environmental exposure and human disease at the molecular and pathological levels, and such associations can often be through induced epigenetic changes. One such mechanism for this is through environmental factors increasing oxidative stress in the cell, and this stress can subsequently lead to alterations in DNA molecules. The two cellular organelles that contain DNA are the nucleus and mitochondria, and the latter are particularly sensitive to oxidative stress, with mitochondrial functions often disrupted by increased stress. There has been a substantial increase over the past decade in the number of epigenetic studies investigating the impact of environmental exposures upon genomic DNA, but to date there has been insufficient attention paid to the impact upon mitochondrial epigenetics in studying human disease with exposure to environment. Here, in this review, we will discuss mitochondrial epigenetics with regards to epidemiological studies, with particular consideration given to study design and analytical challenges. Furthermore, we suggest future directions and perspectives in the field of mitochondrial epigenetic epidemiological studies. PMID:24402053
Analytical and numerical studies of dark matter halos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Austin, Crystal Gayle
This dissertation focuses on the evolution and structure of dark matter halos of galaxies, groups and clusters of galaxies. I explore the dependence of the final halo's properties on the initial conditions and the physical processes that guide the halo to equilibrium, with special focus on the power-law nature of the r/s 3 profile, where r is the density profile and s is the velocity dispersion profile. As the astronomy community does not yet fully understand these processes, this research expands our understanding of collisionless, gravitationally-interacting systems. In the initial chapters, I study the collisionless semi-analytic halo simulations and show that the final properties are sensitive to the initial conditions, such as the power-spectra filtering scale, the secondary velocities' magnitudes and directions, and the accretion rate. The general conclusions are that semi-analytic halos are in hydrostatic equilibrium and have a power-law r/s 3 profile. If there were discontinuities in the initial conditions, the power-law feature in r/s 3 breaks. Because of this, hydrostatic equilibrium is a less restrictive condition than the r/s 3 profile. These halos can recover from moderate discontinuities by either correcting a single profile by sacrificing other quantities or by sufficient post-accretion. Finally, I compare collisionless semi-analytic and N-body simulations directly. This novel comparison is useful because these techniques use different physics to collapse the proto-halo. The physical differences between these two methods are used to determine causes of the final halo profiles. Specifically, I find the NFW density profile and power-law r/s 3 are due to the slow rate of evolution, which is determined from the initial conditions and cosmology. The density slope-velocity anisotropy relationship is dependent, rather, on the physical processes (notably the radial orbit instability) and three-dimensional evolution used to collapse the proto-halos. We also
STRengthening analytical thinking for observational studies: the STRATOS initiative.
Sauerbrei, Willi; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Altman, Douglas G; le Cessie, Saskia; Carpenter, James
2014-12-30
The validity and practical utility of observational medical research depends critically on good study design, excellent data quality, appropriate statistical methods and accurate interpretation of results. Statistical methodology has seen substantial development in recent times. Unfortunately, many of these methodological developments are ignored in practice. Consequently, design and analysis of observational studies often exhibit serious weaknesses. The lack of guidance on vital practical issues discourages many applied researchers from using more sophisticated and possibly more appropriate methods when analyzing observational studies. Furthermore, many analyses are conducted by researchers with a relatively weak statistical background and limited experience in using statistical methodology and software. Consequently, even 'standard' analyses reported in the medical literature are often flawed, casting doubt on their results and conclusions. An efficient way to help researchers to keep up with recent methodological developments is to develop guidance documents that are spread to the research community at large. These observations led to the initiation of the strengthening analytical thinking for observational studies (STRATOS) initiative, a large collaboration of experts in many different areas of biostatistical research. The objective of STRATOS is to provide accessible and accurate guidance in the design and analysis of observational studies. The guidance is intended for applied statisticians and other data analysts with varying levels of statistical education, experience and interests. In this article, we introduce the STRATOS initiative and its main aims, present the need for guidance documents and outline the planned approach and progress so far. We encourage other biostatisticians to become involved.
STRengthening Analytical Thinking for Observational Studies: the STRATOS initiative
Sauerbrei, Willi; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Altman, Douglas G; le Cessie, Saskia; Carpenter, James
2014-01-01
The validity and practical utility of observational medical research depends critically on good study design, excellent data quality, appropriate statistical methods and accurate interpretation of results. Statistical methodology has seen substantial development in recent times. Unfortunately, many of these methodological developments are ignored in practice. Consequently, design and analysis of observational studies often exhibit serious weaknesses. The lack of guidance on vital practical issues discourages many applied researchers from using more sophisticated and possibly more appropriate methods when analyzing observational studies. Furthermore, many analyses are conducted by researchers with a relatively weak statistical background and limited experience in using statistical methodology and software. Consequently, even ‘standard’ analyses reported in the medical literature are often flawed, casting doubt on their results and conclusions. An efficient way to help researchers to keep up with recent methodological developments is to develop guidance documents that are spread to the research community at large. These observations led to the initiation of the strengthening analytical thinking for observational studies (STRATOS) initiative, a large collaboration of experts in many different areas of biostatistical research. The objective of STRATOS is to provide accessible and accurate guidance in the design and analysis of observational studies. The guidance is intended for applied statisticians and other data analysts with varying levels of statistical education, experience and interests. In this article, we introduce the STRATOS initiative and its main aims, present the need for guidance documents and outline the planned approach and progress so far. We encourage other biostatisticians to become involved. PMID:25074480
Insight and Action Analytics: Three Case Studies to Consider
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Milliron, Mark David; Malcolm, Laura; Kil, David
2014-01-01
Civitas Learning was conceived as a community of practice, bringing together forward-thinking leaders from diverse higher education institutions to leverage insight and action analytics in their ongoing efforts to help students learn well and finish strong. We define insight and action analytics as drawing, federating, and analyzing data from…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy Choudhury, Raja; Roy Choudhury, Arundhati; Kanti Ghose, Mrinal
2013-01-01
A semi-analytical model with three optimizing parameters and a novel non-Gaussian function as the fundamental modal field solution has been proposed to arrive at an accurate solution to predict various propagation parameters of graded-index fibers with less computational burden than numerical methods. In our semi analytical formulation the optimization of core parameter U which is usually uncertain, noisy or even discontinuous, is being calculated by Nelder-Mead method of nonlinear unconstrained minimizations as it is an efficient and compact direct search method and does not need any derivative information. Three optimizing parameters are included in the formulation of fundamental modal field of an optical fiber to make it more flexible and accurate than other available approximations. Employing variational technique, Petermann I and II spot sizes have been evaluated for triangular and trapezoidal-index fibers with the proposed fundamental modal field. It has been demonstrated that, the results of the proposed solution identically match with the numerical results over a wide range of normalized frequencies. This approximation can also be used in the study of doped and nonlinear fiber amplifier.
Analytical study of ultrasound influence on the molten metals atomization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antonnikova, A.; Arkhipov, V.; Boiko, V.; Basalaev, S.; Konovalenko, A.; Zolotorev, N.
2016-04-01
This paper focuses on the study of influence of ultrasound on liquid atomization using ejection nozzles. Two principles of influence of ultrasound on the atomization process such as a change of conditions on gas-liquid boundary during the generation of ultrasound oscillation in the gas and liquid jet (film) disintegration under the action of capillary forces in cases of generation of ultrasound oscillation in the liquid are considered. The optimal values of the ultrasound oscillation frequencies are calculated. Two constructions of the nozzles patented are proposed.
Design optimization studies using COSMIC NASTRAN
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pitrof, Stephen M.; Bharatram, G.; Venkayya, Vipperla B.
1993-01-01
The purpose of this study is to create, test and document a procedure to integrate mathematical optimization algorithms with COSMIC NASTRAN. This procedure is very important to structural design engineers who wish to capitalize on optimization methods to ensure that their design is optimized for its intended application. The OPTNAST computer program was created to link NASTRAN and design optimization codes into one package. This implementation was tested using two truss structure models and optimizing their designs for minimum weight, subject to multiple loading conditions and displacement and stress constraints. However, the process is generalized so that an engineer could design other types of elements by adding to or modifying some parts of the code.
Optimization of a coaxial electron cyclotron resonance plasma thruster with an analytical model
Cannat, F. E-mail: felix.cannat@gmail.com; Lafleur, T.; Jarrige, J.; Elias, P.-Q.; Packan, D.; Chabert, P.
2015-05-15
A new cathodeless plasma thruster currently under development at Onera is presented and characterized experimentally and analytically. The coaxial thruster consists of a microwave antenna immersed in a magnetic field, which allows electron heating via cyclotron resonance. The magnetic field diverges at the thruster exit and forms a nozzle that accelerates the quasi-neutral plasma to generate a thrust. Different thruster configurations are tested, and in particular, the influence of the source diameter on the thruster performance is investigated. At microwave powers of about 30 W and a xenon flow rate of 0.1 mg/s (1 SCCM), a mass utilization of 60% and a thrust of 1 mN are estimated based on angular electrostatic probe measurements performed downstream of the thruster in the exhaust plume. Results are found to be in fair agreement with a recent analytical helicon thruster model that has been adapted for the coaxial geometry used here.
Chen, Xinhua; Zhou, Jiankang; Shen, Weimin
2016-09-05
Wavefront coding system can realize defocus invariance of PSF/OTF with a phase mask inserting in the pupil plane. Ideally, the derivative of the PSF/OTF with respect to defocus error should be close to zero as much as possible over the extended depth of field/focus for the wavefront coding system. In this paper, we propose an analytical expression for the computation of the derivative of PSF. With this expression, the derivative of PSF based merit function can be used in the optimization of the wavefront coding system with any type of phase mask and aberrations. Computation of the derivative of PSF using the proposed expression and FFT respectively are compared and discussed. We also demonstrate the optimization of a generic polynomial phase mask in wavefront coding system as an example.
Terekhov, Alexander V; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M
2011-02-01
One of the key problems of motor control is the redundancy problem, in particular how the central nervous system (CNS) chooses an action out of infinitely many possible. A promising way to address this question is to assume that the choice is made based on optimization of a certain cost function. A number of cost functions have been proposed in the literature to explain performance in different motor tasks: from force sharing in grasping to path planning in walking. However, the problem of uniqueness of the cost function(s) was not addressed until recently. In this article, we analyze two methods of finding additive cost functions in inverse optimization problems with linear constraints, so-called linear-additive inverse optimization problems. These methods are based on the Uniqueness Theorem for inverse optimization problems that we proved recently (Terekhov et al., J Math Biol 61(3):423-453, 2010). Using synthetic data, we show that both methods allow for determining the cost function. We analyze the influence of noise on the both methods. Finally, we show how a violation of the conditions of the Uniqueness Theorem may lead to incorrect solutions of the inverse optimization problem.
Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.
2011-01-01
One of the key problems of motor control is the redundancy problem, in particular how the central nervous system (CNS) chooses an action out of infinitely many possible. A promising way to address this question is to assume that the choice is made based on optimization of a certain cost function. A number of cost functions have been proposed in the literature to explain performance in different motor tasks: from force sharing in grasping to path planning in walking. However, the problem of uniqueness of the cost function(s) was not addressed until recently. In this article, we analyze two methods of finding additive cost functions in inverse optimization problems with linear constraints, so-called linear-additive inverse optimization problems. These methods are based on the Uniqueness Theorem for inverse optimization problems that we proved recently (Terekhov et al., J Math Biol 61(3):423–453, 2010). Using synthetic data, we show that both methods allow for determining the cost function. We analyze the influence of noise on the both methods. Finally, we show how a violation of the conditions of the Uniqueness Theorem may lead to incorrect solutions of the inverse optimization problem. PMID:21311907
Analytical study for deformability of laminated sheet metal
Serror, Mohammed H.
2012-01-01
While a freestanding high-strength sheet metal subject to tension will rupture at a small strain, it is anticipated that lamination with a ductile sheet metal will retard this instability to an extent that depends on the relative thickness, the relative stiffness, and the hardening exponent of the ductile sheet. This paper presents an analytical study for the deformability of such laminate within the context of necking instability. Laminates of high-strength sheet metal and ductile low-strength sheet metal are studied assuming: (1) sheets are fully bonded; and (2) metals obey the power law material model. The effect of hardening exponent, volume fraction and relative stiffness of the ductile component has been studied. In addition, stability of both uniform and nonuniform deformations has been investigated under plane strain condition. The results have shown the retardation of the high-strength layer instability by lamination with the ductile layer. This has been achieved through controlling the aforementioned key parameters of the ductile component, while the laminate exhibits marked enhancement in strength–ductility combination that is essential for metal forming applications. PMID:25685405
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia, D. Vincent Romero
The control of the acoustical properties of the sonic crystals (SC) needs the study of both the distribution of the scatterers in the structure and the intrinsic acoustical properties of the scatterers. In this work an exhaustive analysis of the distribution of the scatterers as well as the improvement of the acoustical properties of the SC made of scatterers with absorbent and/or resonant properties is presented. Both procedures, working together or independently, provide real possibilities to control the propagation of acoustic waves through SC. From the theoretical point of view, the wave propagation through periodic and quasiperiodic structures has been analysed by means of the multiple scattering theory, the plane wave expansion and the finite elements method. A novel extension of the plane wave expansion allowing the complex relation dispersion for SC is presented in this work. This technique complements the provided information using the classical methods and it allows us to analyse the evanescent behaviour of the modes inside of the band gaps as well as the evanescent behaviour of localized modes around the point defects in SC. The necessity of accurate measurements of the acoustical properties of the SC has motivated the development of a novel three-dimensional acquisition system that synchronises the motion of the receiver and acquisition of the temporal signals. A good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data is shown in this work. The joint work between the optimized structures of scatterers and the intrinsic properties of the scatterers themselves is applied to generate devices that present wide ranges of attenuated frequencies. These systems are presented as an alternative to the classic acoustic barrier where the propagation of waves through SC can be controlled. The results help to correctly understand the behaviour of SC for the localization of sound and for the design of both wave guides and acoustic filters.
Performance Optimization of Self-Piercing Rivets through Analytical Rivet Strength Estimation
Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.
2005-08-01
This paper presents the authors' work on strength optimization and failure mode prediction of self-piercing rivets (SPR) for automotive applications. The limit load-based strength estimator is used to estimate the static strength of an SPR under cross tension loading configuration. Failure modes associated with the estimated failure strength are also predicted. Experimental strength and failure mode observations are used to validate the model. It is shown that the strength of an SPR joint depends on the material and gage combinations, rivet design, die design and riveting direction. The rivet strength estimator is then used to optimize the rivet strength by comparing the measured rivet strength and failure mode with the predicted ones. Two illustrative examples are used in which rivet strength is optimized by changing rivet design and riveting direction from the original manufacturing parameters.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dobrinskaya, Tatiana
2015-01-01
This paper presents a new method for optimizing yaw maneuvers, which are the most common large maneuvers on the International Space Station (ISS). The goal of the maneuver optimization is to find a maneuver trajectory with minimal torques acting on the vehicle during the maneuver. Therefore, the thruster firings necessary to perform the maneuver are minimized. Reduction of thruster firings saves propellant and decreases structural loads and contamination of the vehicle critical elements, thus saving the service life of the thrusters and the vehicle itself. Equations describing the pitch and roll motion needed to counteract the major torques during a yaw maneuver are obtained. Also, a yaw rate profile is suggested. In the obtained optimized case, the torques are significantly reduced. The proposed approximate analytical solution does not require extensive computer resources and, therefore, can be implemented using software onboard the ISS. As a result, the maneuver execution will be automatic. This is one of the major benefits of the simplified solution presented in this paper with respect to existing computational approaches. The suggested maneuver optimization method can be used not only for the ISS, but for other space vehicles as well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bascetin, A.
2007-04-01
The selection of an optimal reclamation method is one of the most important factors in open-pit design and production planning. It also affects economic considerations in open-pit design as a function of plan location and depth. Furthermore, the selection is a complex multi-person, multi-criteria decision problem. The group decision-making process can be improved by applying a systematic and logical approach to assess the priorities based on the inputs of several specialists from different functional areas within the mine company. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) can be very useful in involving several decision makers with different conflicting objectives to arrive at a consensus decision. In this paper, the selection of an optimal reclamation method using an AHP-based model was evaluated for coal production in an open-pit coal mine located at Seyitomer region in Turkey. The use of the proposed model indicates that it can be applied to improve the group decision making in selecting a reclamation method that satisfies optimal specifications. Also, it is found that the decision process is systematic and using the proposed model can reduce the time taken to select a optimal method.
Analytical study of Saint Gregory Nazianzen Icon, Old Cairo, Egypt
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Issa, Yousry M.; Abdel-Maksoud, Gomaa; Magdy, Mina
2015-11-01
The study aims to evaluate the state of icon through characterization of the icon layers (ground, paint and varnish layers) and to provide tools for assessment the impact of aging and environmental conditions in order to produce some solutions for conservation of the icon. Analytical techniques used in this study were attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X ray spectroscopy (FESEM-EDX) and amino acid analyzer (AAA). The results obtained revealed that gypsum and lead white were used for ground layer. The identified pigments were lamp carbon black, brown ochre, Prussian blue, yellow ochre and gold leaf. Egg yolk was the binder used with most of pigments and animal glue was used with gold color. The varnish used was shellac resin. It was concluded that stable pigments gave permanent colors and environmental conditions had an influence on promotion of oxidation process. Auto-oxidation of binder and varnish materials occurred by the action of pigment components and light result in cracking of the paint film and fading of the varnish glaze.
An analytical study of various telecomminication networks using markov models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramakrishnan, M.; Jayamani, E.; Ezhumalai, P.
2015-04-01
The main aim of this paper is to examine issues relating to the performance of various Telecommunication networks, and applied queuing theory for better design and improved efficiency. Firstly, giving an analytical study of queues deals with quantifying the phenomenon of waiting lines using representative measures of performances, such as average queue length (on average number of customers in the queue), average waiting time in queue (on average time to wait) and average facility utilization (proportion of time the service facility is in use). In the second, using Matlab simulator, summarizes the finding of the investigations, from which and where we obtain results and describing methodology for a) compare the waiting time and average number of messages in the queue in M/M/1 and M/M/2 queues b) Compare the performance of M/M/1 and M/D/1 queues and study the effect of increasing the number of servers on the blocking probability M/M/k/k queue model.
a Multidisciplinary Analytical Framework for Studying Active Mobility Patterns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orellana, D.; Hermida, C.; Osorio, P.
2016-06-01
Intermediate cities are urged to change and adapt their mobility systems from a high energy-demanding motorized model to a sustainable low-motorized model. In order to accomplish such a model, city administrations need to better understand active mobility patterns and their links to socio-demographic and cultural aspects of the population. During the last decade, researchers have demonstrated the potential of geo-location technologies and mobile devices to gather massive amounts of data for mobility studies. However, the analysis and interpretation of this data has been carried out by specialized research groups with relatively narrow approaches from different disciplines. Consequently, broader questions remain less explored, mainly those relating to spatial behaviour of individuals and populations with their geographic environment and the motivations and perceptions shaping such behaviour. Understanding sustainable mobility and exploring new research paths require an interdisciplinary approach given the complex nature of mobility systems and their social, economic and environmental impacts. Here, we introduce the elements for a multidisciplinary analytical framework for studying active mobility patterns comprised of three components: a) Methodological, b) Behavioural, and c) Perceptual. We demonstrate the applicability of the framework by analysing mobility patterns of cyclists and pedestrians in an intermediate city integrating a range of techniques, including: GPS tracking, spatial analysis, auto-ethnography, and perceptual mapping. The results demonstrated the existence of non-evident spatial behaviours and how perceptual features affect mobility. This knowledge is useful for developing policies and practices for sustainable mobility planning.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Da Silva Fernandes, Sandro; Das Chagas Carvalho, Francisco; Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho
The purpose of this work is to present a complete first order analytical solution, which includes short periodic terms, for the problem of optimal low-thrust limited power trajectories with large amplitude transfers (no rendezvous) between coplanar orbits with small eccentricities in Newtonian central gravity field. The study of these transfers is particularly interesting because the orbits found in practice often have a small eccentricity and the problem of transferring a vehicle from a low earth orbit to a high earth orbit is frequently found. Besides, the analysis has been motivated by the renewed interest in the use of low-thrust propulsion systems in space missions verified in the last two decades. Several researchers have obtained numerical and sometimes analytical solutions for a number of specific initial orbits and specific thrust profiles. Averaging methods are also used in such researches. Firstly, the optimization problem associated to the space transfer problem is formulated as a Mayer problem of optimal control with Cartesian elements - position and velocity vectors - as state variables. After applying the Pontryagin Maximum Principle, successive Mathieu transformations are performed and suitable sets of orbital elements are introduced. The short periodic terms are eliminated from the maximum Hamiltonian function through an infinitesimal canonical transformation built through Hori method - a perturbation canonical method based on Lie series. The new Hamiltonian function, which results from the infinitesimal canonical transformation, describes the extremal trajectories for long duration maneuvers. Closed-form analytical solutions are obtained for the new canonical system by solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equation through the separation of variables technique. By applying the transformation equations of the algorithm of Hori method, a first order analytical solution for the problem is obtained in non-singular orbital elements. For long duration maneuvers
Modeling of dispersed-drug delivery from planar polymeric systems: optimizing analytical solutions.
Helbling, Ignacio M; Ibarra, Juan C D; Luna, Julio A; Cabrera, María I; Grau, Ricardo J A
2010-11-15
Analytical solutions for the case of controlled dispersed-drug release from planar non-erodible polymeric matrices, based on Refined Integral Method, are presented. A new adjusting equation is used for the dissolved drug concentration profile in the depletion zone. The set of equations match the available exact solution. In order to illustrate the usefulness of this model, comparisons with experimental profiles reported in the literature are presented. The obtained results show that the model can be employed in a broad range of applicability.
2016-01-29
Aid Delivery System: Phase 2 January 29, 2016 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Lauryn E. DEGrEEff SuSan L. roSE-PEhrSSon Navy...Characterization, and Optimization of a Canine Training Aid Delivery System: Phase 2 Lauryn E. DeGreeff, Susan L. Rose-Pehrsson, Michael Malito,* and...Evaluation of homemade explosives (HMEs)........................................ 6 Evaluation of ammonium nitrate and aluminum (AN-Al) training aids
Censor, Yair; Unkelbach, Jan
2012-04-01
In this paper we look at the development of radiation therapy treatment planning from a mathematical point of view. Historically, planning for Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) has been considered as an inverse problem. We discuss first the two fundamental approaches that have been investigated to solve this inverse problem: Continuous analytic inversion techniques on one hand, and fully-discretized algebraic methods on the other hand. In the second part of the paper, we review another fundamental question which has been subject to debate from the beginning of IMRT until the present day: The rotation therapy approach versus fixed angle IMRT. This builds a bridge from historic work on IMRT planning to contemporary research in the context of Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy (IMAT).
Systematic analytical characterization of new psychoactive substances: A case study.
Lobo Vicente, Joana; Chassaigne, Hubert; Holland, Margaret V; Reniero, Fabiano; Kolář, Kamil; Tirendi, Salvatore; Vandecasteele, Ine; Vinckier, Inge; Guillou, Claude
2016-08-01
New psychoactive substances (NPS) are synthesized compounds that are not usually covered by European and/or international laws. With a slight alteration in the chemical structure of existing illegal substances registered in the European Union (EU), these NPS circumvent existing controls and are thus referred to as "legal highs". They are becoming increasingly available and can easily be purchased through both the internet and other means (smart shops). Thus, it is essential that the identification of NPS keeps up with this rapidly evolving market. In this case study, the Belgian Customs authorities apprehended a parcel, originating from China, containing two samples, declared as being "white pigments". For routine identification, the Belgian Customs Laboratory first analysed both samples by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry and Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The information obtained by these techniques is essential and can give an indication of the chemical structure of an unknown substance but not the complete identification of its structure. To bridge this gap, scientific and technical support is ensured by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) to the European Commission Directorate General for Taxation and Customs Unions (DG TAXUD) and the Customs Laboratory European Network (CLEN) through an Administrative Arrangement for fast recognition of NPS and identification of unknown chemicals. The samples were sent to the JRC for a complete characterization using advanced techniques and chemoinformatic tools. The aim of this study was also to encourage the development of a science-based policy driven approach on NPS. These samples were fully characterized and identified as 5F-AMB and PX-3 using (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high-resolution tandem mass-spectrometry (HR-MS/MS) and Raman spectroscopy. A chemoinformatic platform was used to manage, unify analytical data from multiple techniques and instruments, and combine it with chemical and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cody, B. M.; Gonzalez-Nicolas, A.; Bau, D. A.
2011-12-01
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been proposed as a method of reducing global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Although CCS has the potential to greatly retard greenhouse gas loading to the atmosphere while cleaner, more sustainable energy solutions are developed, there is a possibility that sequestered CO2 may leak and intrude into and adversely affect groundwater resources. It has been reported [1] that, while CO2 intrusion typically does not directly threaten underground drinking water resources, it may cause secondary effects, such as the mobilization of hazardous inorganic constituents present in aquifer minerals and changes in pH values. These risks must be fully understood and minimized before CCS project implementation. Combined management of project resources and leakage risk is crucial for the implementation of CCS. In this work, we present a method of: (a) minimizing the total CCS cost, the summation of major project costs with the cost associated with CO2 leakage; and (b) maximizing the mass of injected CO2, for a given proposed sequestration site. Optimization decision variables include the number of CO2 injection wells, injection rates, and injection well locations. The capital and operational costs of injection wells are directly related to injection well depth, location, injection flow rate, and injection duration. The cost of leakage is directly related to the mass of CO2 leaked through weak areas, such as abandoned oil wells, in the cap rock layers overlying the injected formation. Additional constraints on fluid overpressure caused by CO2 injection are imposed to maintain predefined effective stress levels that prevent cap rock fracturing. Here, both mass leakage and fluid overpressure are estimated using two semi-analytical models based upon work by [2,3]. A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm coupled with these semi-analytical leakage flow models is used to determine Pareto-optimal trade-off sets giving minimum total cost vs. maximum mass
Beamforming and holography image formation methods: an analytic study.
Solimene, Raffaele; Cuccaro, Antonio; Ruvio, Giuseppe; Tapia, Daniel Flores; O'Halloran, Martin
2016-04-18
Beamforming and holographic imaging procedures are widely used in many applications such as radar sensing, sonar, and in the area of microwave medical imaging. Nevertheless, an analytical comparison of the methods has not been done. In this paper, the Point Spread Functions pertaining to the two methods are analytically determined. This allows a formal comparison of the two techniques, and to easily highlight how the performance depends on the conﬁguration parameters, including frequency range, number of scatterers, and data discretization. It is demonstrated that the beamforming and holography basically achieve the same resolution but beamforming requires a cheaper (less sensors) conﬁguration..
Analytical study of electronic structure in armchair graphene nanoribbons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Huaixiu; Wang, Z. F.; Luo, Tao; Shi, Q. W.; Chen, Jie
2007-04-01
We present the analytical solution of the wave function and energy dispersion of armchair graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) based on the tight-binding approximation. By imposing the hard-wall boundary condition, we find that the wave vector in the confined direction is discretized. This discrete wave vector serves as the index of different subbands. Our analytical solutions of wave function and associated energy dispersion reproduce the results of numerical tight-binding and the solutions based on the k•p approximation. In addition, we also find that all armchair GNRs with edge deformation have energy gaps, which agrees with recently reported first-principles calculations.
Analytical and experimental study of vibrations in a gear transmission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choy, F. K.; Ruan, Y. F.; Zakrajsek, J. J.; Oswald, F. B.; Coy, J. J.
1991-01-01
An analytical simulation of the dynamics of a gear transmission system is presented and compared to experimental results from a gear noise test rig at NASA Lewis. The analytical procedure developed couples the dynamic behaviors of the rotor-bearing-gear system with the response of the gearbox structure. Transient and steady-state vibrations of the gearbox system are presented in the time and frequency domains. The vibration characteristics of a simple single-mesh-gear noise test rig are modeled. The numerical simulations are compared to experimental data measured under typical operating conditions. The system natural frequencies, peak vibration amplitudes, and gear mesh frequencies are generally in good agreement.
Abou Mrad, Ninette; Duvernay, Fabrice; Theulé, Patrice; Chiavassa, Thierry; Danger, Grégoire
2014-08-19
This contribution presents an original analytical system for studying volatile organic compounds (VOC) coming from the heating and/or irradiation of interstellar/cometary ice analogues (VAHIIA system) through laboratory experiments. The VAHIIA system brings solutions to three analytical constraints regarding chromatography analysis: the low desorption kinetics of VOC (many hours) in the vacuum chamber during laboratory experiments, the low pressure under which they sublime (10(-9) mbar), and the presence of water in ice analogues. The VAHIIA system which we developed, calibrated, and optimized is composed of two units. The first is a preconcentration unit providing the VOC recovery. This unit is based on a cryogenic trapping which allows VOC preconcentration and provides an adequate pressure allowing their subsequent transfer to an injection unit. The latter is a gaseous injection unit allowing the direct injection into the GC-MS of the VOC previously transferred from the preconcentration unit. The feasibility of the online transfer through this interface is demonstrated. Nanomoles of VOC can be detected with the VAHIIA system, and the variability in replicate measurements is lower than 13%. The advantages of the GC-MS in comparison to infrared spectroscopy are pointed out, the GC-MS allowing an unambiguous identification of compounds coming from complex mixtures. Beyond the application to astrophysical subjects, these analytical developments can be used for all systems requiring vacuum/cryogenic environments.
Analytical solution of the optimal three dimensional reentry problem using Chapman's exact equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vinh, N. X.; Busemann, A.; Culp, R. D.
1974-01-01
This paper presents the general solution for the optimal three dimensional aerodynamic control of a lifting vehicle entering a planetary atmosphere. A set of dimensionless variables is introduced, and the resulting exact equations of motion have the distinctive advantage that they are completely free of the physical characteristics of the vehicle. Furthermore, a general lift-drag polar is used to define the aerodynamic control. Hence, the results obtained apply to any type of vehicle of arbitrary weight, dimensions and shape, having an arbitrary polar and entering any planetary atmosphere.
Expanding Students' Analytical Frameworks through the Study of Graphic Novels
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Connors, Sean P.
2015-01-01
When teachers work with students to construct a metalanguage that they can draw on to describe and analyze graphic novels, and then invite students to apply that metalanguage in the service of composing multimodal texts of their own, teachers broaden students' analytical frameworks. In the process of doing so, teachers empower students. In this…
A Study on Predictive Analytics Application to Ship Machinery Maintenance
2013-09-01
whole ship stop running. 19 Controllable pitch propeller ship with shaft generator or offshore drilling unit circumstances It is quite normal...Data Warehouse Institute. Last modified May 27, 2013. http://tdwi.org/articles/2007/05/10/predictive-analytics.aspx?sc_lang=en. Fair Isaac Corporation
A Cluster Analytic Study of Osteoprotective Behavior in Undergraduates
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sharp, Katherine; Thombs, Dennis L.
2003-01-01
Objective: To derive an empirical taxonomy of osteoprotective stages using the Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM) and to identify the predisposing factors associated with each stage. Methods: An anonymous survey was completed by 504 undergraduates at a Midwestern public university. Results: Cluster analytic findings indicate that only 2…
Numerical and Analytic Studies of Random-Walk Models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Bin
We begin by recapitulating the universality approach to problems associated with critical systems, and discussing the role that random-walk models play in the study of phase transitions and critical phenomena. As our first numerical simulation project, we perform high-precision Monte Carlo calculations for the exponents of the intersection probability of pairs and triplets of ordinary random walks in 2 dimensions, in order to test the conformal-invariance theory predictions. Our numerical results strongly support the theory. Our second numerical project aims to test the hyperscaling relation dnu = 2 Delta_4-gamma for self-avoiding walks in 2 and 3 dimensions. We apply the pivot method to generate pairs of self-avoiding walks, and then for each pair, using the Karp-Luby algorithm, perform an inner -loop Monte Carlo calculation of the number of different translates of one walk that makes at least one intersection with the other. Applying a least-squares fit to estimate the exponents, we have obtained strong numerical evidence that the hyperscaling relation is true in 3 dimensions. Our great amount of data for walks of unprecedented length(up to 80000 steps), yield a updated value for the end-to-end distance and radius of gyration exponent nu = 0.588 +/- 0.001 (95% confidence limit), which comes out in good agreement with the renormalization -group prediction. In an analytic study of random-walk models, we introduce multi-colored random-walk models and generalize the Symanzik and B.F.S. random-walk representations to the multi-colored case. We prove that the zero-component lambdavarphi^2psi^2 theory can be represented by a two-color mutually -repelling random-walk model, and it becomes the mutually -avoiding walk model in the limit lambda to infty. However, our main concern and major break-through lies in the study of the two-point correlation function for the lambda varphi^2psi^2 theory with N > 0 components. By representing it as a two-color random-walk expansion
Bending energy of a vesicle to which a small spherical particle adhere: An analytical study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Si-Qin; Wei, Guang-Hong; Chen, Jeff Z. Y.
2015-09-01
On the basis of Helfrich’s bending energy model, we show that the adsorption process of a small spherical particle to a closed vesicle can be analytically studied by retaining the leading terms in an expansion of the shape equation. Our general derivation predicts the optimal binding sites on a vesicle, where the local membrane shape of the binding site could be non-axisymmetric before the continuous adhesion transition takes place. Our derivation avoids directly solving the shape equation and depends on an integration of the contact-line condition. The results are verified by several examples of independent numerical solutions. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11074047 and 11274075), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. RFDP-20100071110006), and the Natural Science and Science Engineering Council of Canada.
Pergande, Melissa; Pithadia, Ravi; Borgia, Jeffrey A.; Fhied, Cristina
2014-01-01
INTRODUCTION: The Luminex immunobead platform offers the benefits of ELISA-based assays, but also permits higher throughput, increased flexibility, reduced sample volume, and lower cost when evaluation of multiple analytes is necessary. The FlexMap 3D system is a compact, high bead throughput instrument which can read up to 500 different bead regions from a single sample in a 96 or 384-well plate format. Commercially-available kits for the measurement of protein analytes are currently only available in the 96-well plate format. The objective of this study was to adapt and validate the commonly used 96-well plate protocols to the 384-well plate format with equivalent or improved test performance characteristics. METHODS: A laboratory-developed 96-well plate assay protocol for Vimentin autoantibody quantitation was translated and optimized for a 384-well plate format. Assay sensitivity was evaluated by comparing the results from two commercially available kits (Human IGF Binding Proteins 1-7 and Human IGF I/II), first employing the traditional 96-well plate format and subsequently using the newly optimized 384-well plate format. RESULTS: Conversion from the 96 to 384-well plate format for our Vimentin autoantibody assay revealed comparable sensitivity, while consuming only about a quarter of the reagents and specimen. Results from the IGF-I assay revealed approximately equivalent sensitivity (±2.4%), whereas IGF-II showed a significant increase in sensitivity (17.7%), both when the 96 and 384-well plate formats were ran concomitantly. No significant alterations in assay range, recovery or precision were otherwise noted. CONCLUSION: In this study, we have demonstrated that the conversion of a 96 to 384-well plate format was developed and validated successfully. When employing our optimized 384-well plate format, we found that nearly 4 times as many samples can be ran additionally with one commercially available kit, saving in not only cost but also sample size.
Widdowson, M.A.; Chapelle, F.H.; Brauner, J.S.; ,
2003-01-01
A method is developed for optimizing monitored natural attenuation (MNA) and the reduction in the aqueous source zone concentration (??C) required to meet a site-specific regulatory target concentration. The mathematical model consists of two one-dimensional equations of mass balance for the aqueous phase contaminant, to coincide with up to two distinct zones of transformation, and appropriate boundary and intermediate conditions. The solution is written in terms of zone-dependent Peclet and Damko??hler numbers. The model is illustrated at a chlorinated solvent site where MNA was implemented following source treatment using in-situ chemical oxidation. The results demonstrate that by not taking into account a variable natural attenuation capacity (NAC), a lower target ??C is predicted, resulting in unnecessary source concentration reduction and cost with little benefit to achieving site-specific remediation goals.
Analytical and Numerical Studies of Several Fluid Mechanical Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, D. L.
2014-03-01
In this thesis, three parts, each with several chapters, are respectively devoted to hydrostatic, viscous, and inertial fluids theories and applications. Involved topics include planetary, biological fluid systems, and high performance computing technology. In the hydrostatics part, the classical Maclaurin spheroids theory is generalized, for the first time, to a more realistic multi-layer model, establishing geometries of both the outer surface and the interfaces. For one of its astrophysical applications, the theory explicitly predicts physical shapes of surface and core-mantle-boundary for layered terrestrial planets, which enables the studies of some gravity problems, and the direct numerical simulations of dynamo flows in rotating planetary cores. As another application of the figure theory, the zonal flow in the deep atmosphere of Jupiter is investigated for a better understanding of the Jovian gravity field. An upper bound of gravity field distortions, especially in higher-order zonal gravitational coefficients, induced by deep zonal winds is estimated firstly. The oblate spheroidal shape of an undistorted Jupiter resulting from its fast solid body rotation is fully taken into account, which marks the most significant improvement from previous approximation based Jovian wind theories. High viscosity flows, for example Stokes flows, occur in a lot of processes involving low-speed motions in fluids. Microorganism swimming is such a typical case. A fully three dimensional analytic solution of incompressible Stokes equation is derived in the exterior domain of an arbitrarily translating and rotating prolate spheroid, which models a large family of microorganisms such as cocci bacteria. The solution is then applied to the magnetotactic bacteria swimming problem, and good consistency has been found between theoretical predictions and laboratory observations of the moving patterns of such bacteria under magnetic fields. In the analysis of dynamics of planetary
Review of Factor Analytic Studies Examining Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shuster, Jill; Perry, Adrienne; Bebko, James; Toplak, Maggie E.
2014-01-01
Factor analytic studies have been conducted to examine the inter-relationships and degree of overlap among symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This paper reviewed 36 factor analytic studies that have examined ASD symptoms, using 13 different instruments. Studies were grouped into three categories: Studies with all DSM-IV symptoms, studies…
Lee, Eungkyu; Zhang, Teng; Hu, Ming; Luo, Tengfei
2016-06-22
Interfacial thermal resistance presents great challenges to the thermal management of modern electronics. In this work, we perform an analytical study to enhance the thermal boundary conductance (TBC) of nanostructured interfaces with square-shape pillar arrays, extendable to the characteristic lengths that can be fabricated in practice. As a representative system, we investigate a SiC substrate with the square-shape pillar array combined with epitaxial GaN as the nanostructured interface. By applying a first-order ray tracing method and molecular dynamics simulations to analyze phonon incidence and transmission at the nanostructured interface, we systematically study the impact of the characteristic dimensions of the pillar array on the TBC. Based on the multi-scale analysis we provide a general guideline to optimize the nanostructured interfaces to achieve higher TBC, demonstrating that the optimized TBC value of the nanostructured SiC/GaN interfaces can be 42% higher than that of the planar SiC/GaN interfaces without nanostructures. The model used and results obtained in this study will guide the further experimental realization of nanostructured interfaces for better thermal management in microelectronics.
Ahire, V J; Sawant, K K
2006-08-01
Rocket Electrophoresis (RE) technique relies on the difference in charges of the antigen and antibodies at the selected pH. The present study involves optimization of RE run conditions for Tetanus Toxoid (TT). Agarose gel (1% w/v, 20 ml, pH 8.6), anti-TT IgG - 1 IU/ml, temperature 4-8 degrees C and run duration of 18 h was found to be optimum. Height of the rocket-shaped precipitate was proportional to TT concentration. The RE method was found to be linear in the concentration range of 2.5 to 30 Lf/mL. The method was validated and found to be accurate, precise, and reproducible when analyzed statistically using student's t-test. RE was used as an analytical method for analyzing TT content in plain and marketed formulations as well as for the preformulation study of vaccine formulation where formulation additives were tested for compatibility with TT. The optimized RE method has several advantages: it uses safe materials, is inexpensive, and easy to perform. RE results are less prone to operator's bias as compared to flocculation test and can be documented by taking photographs and scanned by densitometer; RE can be easily standardized for the required antigen concentration by changing antitoxin concentration. It can be used as a very effective tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis and in preformulation studies of antigens.
Monte Carlo studies of ARA detector optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stockham, Jessica
2013-04-01
The Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) is a neutrino detector deployed in the Antarctic ice sheet near the South Pole. The array is designed to detect ultra high energy neutrinos in the range of 0.1-10 EeV. Detector optimization is studied using Monte Carlo simulations.
Analytical and experimental study on complex compressed air pipe network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gai, Yushou; Cai, Maolin; Shi, Yan
2015-09-01
To analyze the working characteristics of complex compressed air networks, numerical methods are widely used which are based on finite element technology or intelligent algorithms. However, the effectiveness of the numerical methods is limited. In this paper, to provide a new method to optimize the design and the air supply strategy of the complex compressed air pipe network, firstly, a novel method to analyze the topology structure of the compressed air flow in the pipe network is initially proposed. A matrix is used to describe the topology structure of the compressed air flow. Moreover, based on the analysis of the pressure loss of the pipe network, the relationship between the pressure and the flow of the compressed air is derived, and a prediction method of pressure fluctuation and air flow in a segment in a complex pipe network is proposed. Finally, to inspect the effectiveness of the method, an experiment with a complex network is designed. The pressure and the flow of airflow in the network are measured and studied. The results of the study show that, the predicted results with the proposed method have a good consistency with the experimental results, and that verifies the air flow prediction method of the complex pipe network. This research proposes a new method to analyze the compressed air network and a prediction method of pressure fluctuation and air flow in a segment, which can predicate the fluctuation of the pressure according to the flow of compressed air, and predicate the fluctuation of the flow according to the pressure in a segment of a complex pipe network.
Analytical Studies of Boundary Layer Generated Aircraft Interior Noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howe, M. S.; Shah, P. L.
1997-01-01
An analysis is made of the "interior noise" produced by high, subsonic turbulent flow over a thin elastic plate partitioned into "panels" by straight edges transverse to the mean flow direction. This configuration models a section of an aircraft fuselage that may be regarded as locally flat. The analytical problem can be solved in closed form to represent the acoustic radiation in terms of prescribed turbulent boundary layer pressure fluctuations. Two cases are considered: (i) the production of sound at an isolated panel edge (i.e., in the approximation in which the correlation between sound and vibrations generated at neighboring edges is neglected), and (ii) the sound generated by a periodic arrangement of identical panels. The latter problem is amenable to exact analytical treatment provided the panel edge conditions are the same for all panels. Detailed predictions of the interior noise depend on a knowledge of the turbulent boundary layer wall pressure spectrum, and are given here in terms of an empirical spectrum proposed by Laganelli and Wolfe. It is expected that these analytical representations of the sound generated by simplified models of fluid-structure interactions can used to validate more general numerical schemes.
Seshadrinath, Jeevanand; Singh, Bhim; Panigrahi, Bijaya Ketan
2014-05-01
Interturn fault diagnosis of induction machines has been discussed using various neural network-based techniques. The main challenge in such methods is the computational complexity due to the huge size of the network, and in pruning a large number of parameters. In this paper, a nearly shift insensitive complex wavelet-based probabilistic neural network (PNN) model, which has only a single parameter to be optimized, is proposed for interturn fault detection. The algorithm constitutes two parts and runs in an iterative way. In the first part, the PNN structure determination has been discussed, which finds out the optimum size of the network using an orthogonal least squares regression algorithm, thereby reducing its size. In the second part, a Bayesian classifier fusion has been recommended as an effective solution for deciding the machine condition. The testing accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity values are highest for the product rule-based fusion scheme, which is obtained under load, supply, and frequency variations. The point of overfitting of PNN is determined, which reduces the size, without compromising the performance. Moreover, a comparative evaluation with traditional discrete wavelet transform-based method is demonstrated for performance evaluation and to appreciate the obtained results.
[Optimization of analytical methods for assay of ochratoxin A in the foodstuffs].
Aksenov, I V; Eller, K I; Tutel'ian, V A
2006-01-01
Ochratoxin A is a mycotoxin produced by widespread mold fungi of the genera Aspergillius and Penicillium. It is a common contaminant of cereals, coffee, wine, dried fruits, and spicery. There is evidence that ochratoxin A has nephrotoxic, immunosuppressive, embryotoxic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic effects on many species of mammals. Its maximum allowable concentration established by the Alimentarius Code and the European Union is 5 microg/kg for cereals and 3 microg/kg for ready-made cereals. Two optimized techniques (silica gel column chromatography (CC) or immunoaffinity CC for extract purification and high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection) are proposed for the detection, identification, and assay of ochratoxin A in food commodities. The detection limit was 0.05 and 0.5 microg/kg, respectively. The developed techniques were used to assay the content of ochratoxin A in 46 samples of the grain gathered in different regions of Russia. Nine samples were contaminated by ochratoxin A at concentrations of 0.05 to 5 microg/kg.
Bozkaya, Uğur; Sherrill, C. David
2014-11-28
Orbital-optimized MP2.5 [or simply “optimized MP2.5,” OMP2.5, for short] and its analytic energy gradients are presented. The cost of the presented method is as much as that of coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) [O(N{sup 6}) scaling] for energy computations. However, for analytic gradient computations the OMP2.5 method is only half as expensive as CCSD because there is no need to solve λ{sub 2}-amplitude equations for OMP2.5. The performance of the OMP2.5 method is compared with that of the standard second-order Møller–Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), MP2.5, CCSD, and coupled-cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) methods for equilibrium geometries, hydrogen transfer reactions between radicals, and noncovalent interactions. For bond lengths of both closed and open-shell molecules, the OMP2.5 method improves upon MP2.5 and CCSD by 38%–43% and 31%–28%, respectively, with Dunning's cc-pCVQZ basis set. For complete basis set (CBS) predictions of hydrogen transfer reaction energies, the OMP2.5 method exhibits a substantially better performance than MP2.5, providing a mean absolute error of 1.1 kcal mol{sup −1}, which is more than 10 times lower than that of MP2.5 (11.8 kcal mol{sup −1}), and comparing to MP2 (14.6 kcal mol{sup −1}) there is a more than 12-fold reduction in errors. For noncovalent interaction energies (at CBS limits), the OMP2.5 method maintains the very good performance of MP2.5 for closed-shell systems, and for open-shell systems it significantly outperforms MP2.5 and CCSD, and approaches CCSD(T) quality. The MP2.5 errors decrease by a factor of 5 when the optimized orbitals are used for open-shell noncovalent interactions, and comparing to CCSD there is a more than 3-fold reduction in errors. Overall, the present application results indicate that the OMP2.5 method is very promising for open-shell noncovalent interactions and other chemical systems with difficult electronic structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bani-Hani, M. A.; Karami, M. A.
2015-09-01
This paper presents vibration analysis and structural optimization of a swimming-morphing structure. The swimming of the structure is achieved by utilization of piezoelectric patches to generate traveling waves. The third mode shape of the structure in the longitudinal direction resembles the body waveform of a swimming eel. After swimming to its destination, the morphing structure changes shape from an open box to a cube using shape memory alloys (SMAs). The SMAs used for the configuration change of the box robot cannot be used for swimming since they fail to operate at high frequencies. Piezoelectric patches are actuated at the third natural frequency of the structure. We optimize the thickness of the panels and the stiffness of the springs at the joints to generate swimming waveforms that most closely resemble the body waveform of an eel. The traveling wave is generated using two piezoelectric sets of patches bonded to the first and last segments of the beams in the longitudinal direction. Excitation of the piezoelectric results in coupled system dynamics equations that can be translated into the generation of waves. Theoretical analysis based on the distributed parameter model is conducted in this paper. A scalar measure of the traveling to standing wave ratio is introduced using a 2-dimensional Fourier transform (2D-FFT) of the body deformation waveform. An optimization algorithm based on tuning the flexural transverse wave is established to obtain a higher traveling to standing wave ratio. The results are then compared to common methods in the literature for assessment of standing to traveling wave ratios. The analytical models are verified by the close agreement between the traveling waves predicted by the model and those measured in the experiments.
Analytical study of spatiotemporal chaos control by applying local injections
Gang; Jinghua; Jihua; Xiangming; Yugui; Hu
2000-09-01
Spatiotemporal chaos control by applying local feedback injections is investigated analytically. The influence of gradient force on the controllability is investigated. It is shown that as the gradient force of the system is larger than a critical value, local control can reach very high efficiency to drive the turbulent system of infinite size to a regular target state by using a single control signal. The complex Ginzburg-Landau equation is used as a model to confirm the above analysis, and a four-wave-mixing mode is revealed to determine the dynamical behavior of the controlled system at the onset of instability.
Analytical study of the twin-jet shielding
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gerhold, C. H.
1983-01-01
The development of the analytical model of twin-jet shielding is summarized. The models consist of a point noise source impinging on a cylinder of heated flow in which the temperature and flow velocity are uniform cross the cross section. In the formulation of the model, the wave equations are written for the regions outside the flow and within the flow cylinder. The solutions to the wave equations are matched at the jet boundary under the conditions of continuity of pressure and continuity of the vortex sheet. The solution reduces to an indefinite integral involving Bessel functions. The integral is solved approximately using a saddle point method.
Parameterizing Phrase Based Statistical Machine Translation Models: An Analytic Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cer, Daniel
2011-01-01
The goal of this dissertation is to determine the best way to train a statistical machine translation system. I first develop a state-of-the-art machine translation system called Phrasal and then use it to examine a wide variety of potential learning algorithms and optimization criteria and arrive at two very surprising results. First, despite the…
Categorical Colormap Optimization with Visualization Case Studies.
Fang, H; Walton, S; Delahaye, E; Harris, J; Storchak, D A; Chen, M
2017-01-01
Mapping a set of categorical values to different colors is an elementary technique in data visualization. Users of visualization software routinely rely on the default colormaps provided by a system, or colormaps suggested by software such as ColorBrewer. In practice, users often have to select a set of colors in a semantically meaningful way (e.g., based on conventions, color metaphors, and logological associations), and consequently would like to ensure their perceptual differentiation is optimized. In this paper, we present an algorithmic approach for maximizing the perceptual distances among a set of given colors. We address two technical problems in optimization, i.e., (i) the phenomena of local maxima that halt the optimization too soon, and (ii) the arbitrary reassignment of colors that leads to the loss of the original semantic association. We paid particular attention to different types of constraints that users may wish to impose during the optimization process. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this work, we tested this technique in two case studies. To reach out to a wider range of users, we also developed a web application called Colourmap Hospital.
Analytical study of quantum-feedback-enhanced Rabi oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kabuss, Julia; Krimer, Dmitry O.; Rotter, Stefan; Stannigel, Kai; Knorr, Andreas; Carmele, Alexander
2015-11-01
We present an analytical solution of the single-photon quantum feedback in a cavity quantum electrodynamics system based on a half-cavity setup coupled to a structured continuum. Our exact analytical expression constitutes an important benchmark for quantum-feedback models and allows us to unravel the necessary conditions for the previously reported numerical result that a single-emitter-cavity system, which is initially in the weak-coupling regime, can be driven into the strong-coupling regime via the proposed quantum-feedback mechanism [A. Carmele et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 013601 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.013601]. We specify the phase relations between the cavity mode and the delay time and state explicitly the theoretical limit for a feedback effect in the single-photon regime. Via the photon-path representation, we prove that the stabilization phenomenon relies on a destructive interference effect and we discuss the stabilization time in the weak- and strong-coupling limits.
Analytical and experimental study of vibrations in a gear transmission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choy, F. K.; Ruan, Y. F.; Zakrajsek, J. J.; Oswald, Fred B.; Coy, J. J.
1991-01-01
An analytical simulation of the dynamics of a gear transmission system is presented and compared to experimental results from a gear noise test rig at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The analytical procedure developed couples the dynamic behaviors of the rotor-bearing-gear system with the response of the gearbox structure. The modal synthesis method is used in solving the overall dynamics of the system. Locally each rotor-gear stage is modeled as an individual rotor-bearing system using the matrix transfer technique. The dynamics of each individual rotor are coupled with other rotor stages through the nonlinear gear mesh forces and with the gearbox structure through bearing support systems. The modal characteristics of the gearbox structure are evaluated using the finite element procedure. A variable time steping integration routine is used to calculate the overall time transient behavior of the system in modal coordinates. The global dynamic behavior of the system is expressed in a generalized coordinate system. Transient and steady state vibrations of the gearbox system are presented in the time and frequency domains. The vibration characteristics of a simple single mesh gear noise test rig is modeled. The numerical simulations are compared to experimental data measured under typical operating conditions. The comparison of system natural frequencies, peak vibration amplitudes, and gear mesh frequencies are generally in good agreement.
1989-06-23
Displayed by PLA IET .................... 199 7.9 Aitoff Projection of OTHB Radar Scanning Range .................. 201 7.10 Mercator Projection of OTHB...9.12 Graphics Boards and Printers Supported by SUATEK. 267 xiv 1. EPHEMERIS Various requirements for spacecraft and astronomical ephemerides continued...operational and accuracy improvement, and greater use of graphics output - in particular using laser printers . Some special studies and new software
Multivariate optimization of an analytical method for the analysis of dog and cat foods by ICP OES.
da Costa, Silvânio Silvério Lopes; Pereira, Ana Cristina Lima; Passos, Elisangela Andrade; Alves, José do Patrocínio Hora; Garcia, Carlos Alexandre Borges; Araujo, Rennan Geovanny Oliveira
2013-04-15
Experimental design methodology was used to optimize an analytical method for determination of the mineral element composition (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ba, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, S, Sr and Zn) of dog and cat foods. Two-level full factorial design was applied to define the optimal proportions of the reagents used for microwave-assisted sample digestion (2.0 mol L(-1) HNO3 and 6% m/v H2O2). A three-level factorial design for two variables was used to optimize the operational conditions of the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer, employed for analysis of the extracts. A radiofrequency power of 1.2 kW and a nebulizer argon flow of 1.0 L min(-1) were selected. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were between 0.03 μg g(-1) (Cr, 267.716 nm) and 87 μg g(-1) (Ca, 373.690 nm). The trueness of the optimized method was evaluated by analysis of five certified reference materials (CRMs): wheat flour (NIST 1567a), bovine liver (NIST 1577), peach leaves (NIST 1547), oyster tissue (NIST 1566b), and fish protein (DORM-3). The recovery values obtained for the CRMs were between 80 ± 4% (Cr) and 117 ± 5% (Cd), with relative standard deviations (RSDs) better than 5%, demonstrating that the proposed method offered good trueness and precision. Ten samples of pet food (five each of cat and dog food) were acquired at supermarkets in Aracaju city (Sergipe State, Brazil). Concentrations in the dog food ranged between 7.1 mg kg(-1) (Ba) and 2.7 g kg(-1) (Ca), while for cat food the values were between 3.7 mg kg(-1) (Ba) and 3.0 g kg(-1) (Ca). The concentrations of Ca, K, Mg, P, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the food were compared with the guidelines of the United States' Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) and the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Food Supply (Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento-MAPA).
Analytical study of coherence in seeded modulation instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonetti, J.; Hernandez, S. M.; Fierens, P. I.; Grosz, D. F.
2016-09-01
We derive analytical expressions for the coherence in the onset of modulation instability, in excellent agreement with thorough numerical simulations. As usual, we start by a linear perturbation analysis, where broadband noise is added to a cw pump; then, we investigate the effect of adding a deterministic seed to the cw pump, a case of singular interest as it is commonly encountered in parametric amplification schemes. Results for the dependence of coherence on parameters such as fiber type, pump power, propagated distance, and seed signal-to-noise ratio are presented. Finally, we show the importance of including higher-order linear and nonlinear dispersion when looking at longer-wavelength regions (mid IR).
Analytical study of diffraction effects in extremely large segmented telescopes.
Yaitskova, Natalia; Dohlen, Kjetil; Dierickx, Philippe
2003-08-01
We present an analysis of the diffraction effects from a segmented aperture with a very large number of segments-prototype of the next generation of extremely large telescopes. This analysis is based on the point-spread-function analytical calculation for Keck-type hexagonal segmentation geometry. We concentrate on the effects that lead to the appearance of speckles and/or a regular pattern of diffraction peaks. These effects are related to random piston and tip-tilt errors on each segment, gaps between segments, and segment edge distortion. We deliver formulas and the typical numerical values for the Strehl ratio, the relative intensity of higher-order diffraction peaks, and the averaged intensity of speckles associated with each particular case of segmentation error.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taneja, Jayant Kumar
Electricity is an indispensable commodity to modern society, yet it is delivered via a grid architecture that remains largely unchanged over the past century. A host of factors are conspiring to topple this dated yet venerated design: developments in renewable electricity generation technology, policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and advances in information technology for managing energy systems. Modern electric grids are emerging as complex distributed systems in which a portfolio of power generation resources, often incorporating fluctuating renewable resources such as wind and solar, must be managed dynamically to meet uncontrolled, time-varying demand. Uncertainty in both supply and demand makes control of modern electric grids fundamentally more challenging, and growing portfolios of renewables exacerbate the challenge. We study three electricity grids: the state of California, the province of Ontario, and the country of Germany. To understand the effects of increasing renewables, we develop a methodology to scale renewables penetration. Analyzing these grids yields key insights about rigid limits to renewables penetration and their implications in meeting long-term emissions targets. We argue that to achieve deep penetration of renewables, the operational model of the grid must be inverted, changing the paradigm from load-following supplies to supply-following loads. To alleviate the challenge of supply-demand matching on deeply renewable grids, we first examine well-known techniques, including altering management of existing supply resources, employing utility-scale energy storage, targeting energy efficiency improvements, and exercising basic demand-side management. Then, we create several instantiations of supply-following loads -- including refrigerators, heating and cooling systems, and laptop computers -- by employing a combination of sensor networks, advanced control techniques, and enhanced energy storage. We examine the capacity of each load
da Rocha, Leticia; Sloane, Elliot; M Bassani, Jose
2005-01-01
This study describes a framework to support the choice of the maintenance service (in-house or third party contract) for each category of medical equipment based on: a) the real medical equipment maintenance management system currently used by the biomedical engineering group of the public health system of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas located in Brazil to control the medical equipment maintenance service, b) the Activity Based Costing (ABC) method, and c) the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Results show the cost and performance related to each type of maintenance service. Decision-makers can use these results to evaluate possible strategies for the categories of equipment.
Optimal redesign study of the harm wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcintosh, S. C., Jr.; Weynand, M. E.
1984-01-01
The purpose of this project was to investigate the use of optimization techniques to improve the flutter margins of the HARM AGM-88A wing. The missile has four cruciform wings, located near mid-fuselage, that are actuated in pairs symmetrically and antisymmetrically to provide pitch, yaw, and roll control. The wings have a solid stainless steel forward section and a stainless steel crushed-honeycomb aft section. The wing restraint stiffness is dependent upon wing pitch amplitude and varies from a low value near neutral pitch attitude to a much higher value at off-neutral pitch attitudes, where aerodynamic loads lock out any free play in the control system. The most critical condition for flutter is the low-stiffness condition in which the wings are moved symmetrically. Although a tendency toward limit-cycle flutter is controlled in the current design by controller logic, wing redesign to improve this situation is attractive because it can be accomplished as a retrofit. In view of the exploratory nature of the study, it was decided to apply the optimization to a wing-only model, validated by comparison with results obtained by Texas Instruments (TI). Any wing designs that looked promising were to be evaluated at TI with more complicated models, including body modes. The optimization work was performed by McIntosh Structural Dynamics, Inc. (MSD) under a contract from TI.
Zhang, Yichuan; Wang, Jiangping
2015-07-01
Rivers serve as a highly valued component in ecosystem and urban infrastructures. River planning should follow basic principles of maintaining or reconstructing the natural landscape and ecological functions of rivers. Optimization of planning scheme is a prerequisite for successful construction of urban rivers. Therefore, relevant studies on optimization of scheme for natural ecology planning of rivers is crucial. In the present study, four planning schemes for Zhaodingpal River in Xinxiang City, Henan Province were included as the objects for optimization. Fourteen factors that influenced the natural ecology planning of urban rivers were selected from five aspects so as to establish the ANP model. The data processing was done using Super Decisions software. The results showed that important degree of scheme 3 was highest. A scientific, reasonable and accurate evaluation of schemes could be made by ANP method on natural ecology planning of urban rivers. This method could be used to provide references for sustainable development and construction of urban rivers. ANP method is also suitable for optimization of schemes for urban green space planning and design.
Analytical study of optical bistability in silicon-waveguide resonators.
Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Premaratne, Malin; Agrawal, Govind P
2009-11-23
We present a theoretical model that describes accurately the nonlinear phenomenon of optical bistability in silicon-waveguide resonators but remains amenable to analytical results. Using this model, we derive a transcendental equation governing the intensity of a continuous wave transmitted through a Fabry-Perot resonator formed using a silicon-on-insulator waveguide. This equation reveals a dual role of free carriers in the formation of optical bistability in silicon. First, it shows that free-carrier absorption results in a saturation of the transmitted intensity. Second, the free-carrier dispersion and the thermo-optic effect may introduce phase shifts far exceeding those resulting from the Kerr effect alone, thus enabling one to achieve optical bistability in ultrashort resonators that are only a few micrometers long. Bistability can occur even when waveguide facets are not coated because natural reflectivity of the silicon- r interface can provide sufficient feedback. We find that it is possible to control the input-output characteristics of silicon-based resonators by changing the free-carrier lifetime using a reverse-biased p-n junction. We show theoretically that such a technique is suitable for realization of electronically assisted optical switching at a fixed input power and it may lead to silicon-based, nanometer-size, optical memories.
Applications of nuclear analytical techniques to environmental studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freitas, M. C.; Pacheco, A. M. G.; Marques, A. P.; Barros, L. I. C.; Reis, M. A.
2001-07-01
A few examples of application of nuclear-analytical techniques to biological monitors—natives and transplants—are given herein. Parmelia sulcata Taylor transplants were set up in a heavily industrialized area of Portugal—the Setúbal peninsula, about 50 km south of Lisbon—where indigenous lichens are rare. The whole area was 10×15 km around an oil-fired power station, and a 2.5×2.5 km grid was used. In north-western Portugal, native thalli of the same epiphytes (Parmelia spp., mostly Parmelia sulcata Taylor) and bark from olive trees (Olea europaea) were sampled across an area of 50×50 km, using a 10×10 km grid. This area is densely populated and features a blend of rural, urban-industrial and coastal environments, together with the country's second-largest metro area (Porto). All biomonitors have been analyzed by INAA and PIXE. Results were put through nonparametric tests and factor analysis for trend significance and emission sources, respectively.
Experimental and analytical studies of advanced air cushion landing systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, E. G. S.; Boghani, A. B.; Captain, K. M.; Rutishauser, H. J.; Farley, H. L.; Fish, R. B.; Jeffcoat, R. L.
1981-01-01
Several concepts are developed for air cushion landing systems (ACLS) which have the potential for improving performance characteristics (roll stiffness, heave damping, and trunk flutter), and reducing fabrication cost and complexity. After an initial screening, the following five concepts were evaluated in detail: damped trunk, filled trunk, compartmented trunk, segmented trunk, and roll feedback control. The evaluation was based on tests performed on scale models. An ACLS dynamic simulation developed earlier is updated so that it can be used to predict the performance of full-scale ACLS incorporating these refinements. The simulation was validated through scale-model tests. A full-scale ACLS based on the segmented trunk concept was fabricated and installed on the NASA ACLS test vehicle, where it is used to support advanced system development. A geometrically-scaled model (one third full scale) of the NASA test vehicle was fabricated and tested. This model, evaluated by means of a series of static and dynamic tests, is used to investigate scaling relationships between reduced and full-scale models. The analytical model developed earlier is applied to simulate both the one third scale and the full scale response.
Helicopter mission optimization study. [portable computer technology for flight optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olson, J. R.
1978-01-01
The feasibility of using low-cost, portable computer technology to help a helicopter pilot optimize flight parameters to minimize fuel consumption and takeoff and landing noise was demonstrated. Eight separate computer programs were developed for use in the helicopter cockpit using a hand-held computer. The programs provide the helicopter pilot with the ability to calculate power required, minimum fuel consumption for both range and endurance, maximum speed and a minimum noise profile for both takeoff and landing. Each program is defined by a maximum of two magnetic cards. The helicopter pilot is required to key in the proper input parameter such as gross weight, outside air temperature or pressure altitude.
Advanced Cogeneration Technology Economic Optimization Study (ACTEOS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nanda, P.; Ansu, Y.; Manuel, E. H., Jr.; Price, W. G., Jr.
1980-01-01
The advanced cogeneration technology economic optimization study (ACTEOS) was undertaken to extend the results of the cogeneration technology alternatives study (CTAS). Cost comparisons were made between designs involving advanced cogeneration technologies and designs involving either conventional cogeneration technologies or not involving cogeneration. For the specific equipment cost and fuel price assumptions made, it was found that: (1) coal based cogeneration systems offered appreciable cost savings over the no cogeneration case, while systems using coal derived liquids offered no costs savings; and (2) the advanced cogeneration systems provided somewhat larger cost savings than the conventional systems. Among the issues considered in the study included: (1) temporal variations in steam and electric demands; (2) requirements for reliability/standby capacity; (3) availability of discrete equipment sizes; (4) regional variations in fuel and electricity prices; (5) off design system performance; and (6) separate demand and energy charges for purchased electricity.
A Spectrophotometric Study of the Permanganate-Oxalate Reaction: An Analytical Laboratory Experiment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kalbus, Gene E.; Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Lee H.
2004-01-01
The spectrophotometric method assists in the study of potassium permanganate-oxalate reaction. Basic analytical techniques and rules are implemented in the experiment, which can also include the examination of other compounds oxidized by permanganate.
Analytical Study on Thermal and Mechanical Design of Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger
Su-Jong Yoon; Piyush Sabharwall; Eung-Soo Kim
2013-09-01
The analytical methodologies for the thermal design, mechanical design and cost estimation of printed circuit heat exchanger are presented in this study. In this study, three flow arrangements of parallel flow, countercurrent flow and crossflow are taken into account. For each flow arrangement, the analytical solution of temperature profile of heat exchanger is introduced. The size and cost of printed circuit heat exchangers for advanced small modular reactors, which employ various coolants such as sodium, molten salts, helium, and water, are also presented.
Analytical study of spacecraft deposition contamination by internal reflection spectroscopy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mookherji, T.
1972-01-01
Infrared absorption spectra of ten individual contaminant materials and four binary mixtures of these have been studied using the internal reflection spectroscopy technique. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on these contaminants has also been studied. It has been observed that all siloxanes, silanes, and esters are drastically affected by ultraviolet irradiation. In most cases polymerization and tar formation results.
Analytical Strategies for Studying Transitions into Developmental Stages
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kandel, Denise B.; And Others
1978-01-01
Uses data from a longitudinal study of drug abuse in adolescence to discuss strategies in the study of transitions into various developmental stages. Compares advantages and disadvantages of strategies based on a decomposed sample with strategies based on a pooled sample. (Author/AV)
A Factor Analytic Study of the Teaching Events Stress Inventory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alexander, Livingston; And Others
The purpose of this study was to determine if definitive factors emerge from the responses of teachers to the Teaching Events Stress Inventory (TESI). In a series of three studies during the years 1980 to 1982, data were collected to assess the levels and sources of stress experienced by 660 teachers in central and western Kentucky. The subjects…
A Factor Analytic Study of the Internet Usage Scale
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Monetti, David M.; Whatley, Mark A.; Hinkle, Kerry T.; Cunningham, Kerry T.; Breneiser, Jennifer E.; Kisling, Rhea
2011-01-01
This study developed an Internet Usage Scale (IUS) for use with adolescent populations. The IUS is a 26-item scale that measures participants' beliefs about how their Internet usage impacts their behavior. The sample for this study consisted of 947 middle school students. An exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation was conducted on the…
An analytic modeling and system identification study of rotor/fuselage dynamics at hover
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hong, Steven W.; Curtiss, H. C., Jr.
1993-01-01
A combination of analytic modeling and system identification methods have been used to develop an improved dynamic model describing the response of articulated rotor helicopters to control inputs. A high-order linearized model of coupled rotor/body dynamics including flap and lag degrees of freedom and inflow dynamics with literal coefficients is compared to flight test data from single rotor helicopters in the near hover trim condition. The identification problem was formulated using the maximum likelihood function in the time domain. The dynamic model with literal coefficients was used to generate the model states, and the model was parametrized in terms of physical constants of the aircraft rather than the stability derivatives resulting in a significant reduction in the number of quantities to be identified. The likelihood function was optimized using the genetic algorithm approach. This method proved highly effective in producing an estimated model from flight test data which included coupled fuselage/rotor dynamics. Using this approach it has been shown that blade flexibility is a significant contributing factor to the discrepancies between theory and experiment shown in previous studies. Addition of flexible modes, properly incorporating the constraint due to the lag dampers, results in excellent agreement between flight test and theory, especially in the high frequency range.
An analytic modeling and system identification study of rotor/fuselage dynamics at hover
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hong, Steven W.; Curtiss, H. C., Jr.
1993-01-01
A combination of analytic modeling and system identification methods have been used to develop an improved dynamic model describing the response of articulated rotor helicopters to control inputs. A high-order linearized model of coupled rotor/body dynamics including flap and lag degrees of freedom and inflow dynamics with literal coefficients is compared to flight test data from single rotor helicopters in the near hover trim condition. The identification problem was formulated using the maximum likelihood function in the time domain. The dynamic model with literal coefficients was used to generate the model states, and the model was parametrized in terms of physical constants of the aircraft rather than the stability derivatives, resulting in a significant reduction in the number of quantities to be identified. The likelihood function was optimized using the genetic algorithm approach. This method proved highly effective in producing an estimated model from flight test data which included coupled fuselage/rotor dynamics. Using this approach it has been shown that blade flexibility is a significant contributing factor to the discrepancies between theory and experiment shown in previous studies. Addition of flexible modes, properly incorporating the constraint due to the lag dampers, results in excellent agreement between flight test and theory, especially in the high frequency range.
Sky coverage for layer-oriented MCAO: a detailed analytical and numerical study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Farinato, Jacopo; Vernet-Viard, Elise
2004-10-01
One of the key-point for the future developments of the multiconjugate adaptive optics for the astronomy is the availability of the correction for a large fraction of the sky. The sky coverage represents one of the limits of the existing single reference adaptive optics system. Multiconjugate adaptive optics allows to overcome the limitations due to the small corrected field of view and the Layer Oriented approach, in particular by its Multiple Field of View version, increases the number of possible references using also very faint stars to guide the adaptive systems. In this paper we study the sky coverage problem in the Layer Oriented case, using both numerical and analytical approaches. Taking into account a star catalogue and a star luminosity distribution function we run a lot of numerical simulation sequences using the Layer Oriented Simulation Tool (LOST). Moreover we perform for several cases a detailed optimization procedure and a relative full simulation in order to achieve better performance for the considered system in those particular conditions. In this way we can retrieve a distribution of numerically simulated cases that allows computing the sky coverage with respect to a performance parameter as the Strehl Ratio and to the scientific field size.
Experimental and Analytical Studies of Solar System Chemistry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burnett, Donald S.
2003-01-01
The cosmochemistry research funded by this grant resulted in the publications given in the attached Publication List. The research focused in three areas: (1) Experimental studies of trace element partitioning. (2) Studies of the minor element chemistry and O isotopic compositions of MgAlO4 spinels from Ca-Al-Rich Inclusions in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, and (3) The abundances and chemical fractionations of Th and U in chondritic meteorites.
Asynchronous telehealth: a scoping review of analytic studies
Deshpande, Amol; Khoja, Shariq; Lorca, Julio; McKibbon, Ann; Rizo, Carlos; Husereau, Donald; Jadad, Alejandro R
2009-01-01
Background Asynchronous telehealth captures clinically important digital samples (e.g., still images, video, audio, text files) and relevant data in one location and subsequently transmits these files for interpretation at a remote site by health professionals without requiring the simultaneous presence of the patient involved and his or her health care provider. Its utility in the health care system, however, still remains poorly defined. We conducted this scoping review to determine the impact of asynchronous telehealth on health outcomes, process of care, access to health services, and health resources. Methods A search was performed up to December 2006 of MEDLINE, CINAHL, HealthSTAR, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, and The Cochrane Library. Studies were included if they contained original data on the use of asynchronous telehealth and were published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. Two independent reviewers screened all articles and extracted data, reaching consensus on the articles and data identified. Data were extracted on general study characteristics, clinical domain, technology, setting, category of outcome, and results. Study quality (internal validity) was assessed using the Jadad scale for randomized controlled trials and the Downs and Black index for non-randomized studies. Summary data were categorized by medical specialty and presented qualitatively. Results The scoping review included 52 original studies from 238 citations identified; of these 52, almost half focused on the use of telehealth in dermatology. Included studies were characterized by diverse designs, interventions, and outcomes. Only 16 studies were judged to be of high quality. Most studies showed beneficial effects in terms of diagnostic accuracy, wait times, referral management, and satisfaction with services. Evidence on the impact of asynchronous telehealth on resource use in dermatology suggests a reduction in the number of, or avoidance of, in
A clinical research analytics toolkit for cohort study.
Yu, Yiqin; Zhu, Yu; Sun, Xingzhi; Tao, Ying; Zhang, Shuo; Xu, Linhao; Pan, Yue
2012-01-01
This paper presents a clinical informatics toolkit that can assist physicians to conduct cohort studies effectively and efficiently. The toolkit has three key features: 1) support of procedures defined in epidemiology, 2) recommendation of statistical methods in data analysis, and 3) automatic generation of research reports. On one hand, our system can help physicians control research quality by leveraging the integrated knowledge of epidemiology and medical statistics; on the other hand, it can improve productivity by reducing the complexities for physicians during their cohort studies.
Mechanics of hybrid polymer composites: analytical and computational study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tavares, Rodrigo P.; Melro, António R.; Bessa, Miguel A.; Turon, Albert; Liu, Wing K.; Camanho, Pedro P.
2016-03-01
Three different models with increased complexity to study the effects of hybridization on the tensile failure of hybrid composites are proposed. The first model is a model for dry bundles of fibres based on the statistics of fibre strength. The second is a model for composite materials based on the multiple fragmentation phenomenon. Lastly, a micromechanical numerical model is developed that considers a random distribution of fibres and takes into account the stochastic nature of fibre strength. This study aims to understand the controlling factors that lead to pseudo-ductility, as well as establish the sequence of failure mechanisms in hybrid composites under tensile loadings.
Error sources in deferred heterodyne moire deflectometry - An analytical study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stricker, Josef
1989-01-01
The effects of the aperture size and shape of the photodetector and of the structure of the grating lines on the performance of deferred electronic heterodyne moire deflectometry are studied. It is shown that scanning of a moire fringe pattern parallel to an unshifted fringe yields periodical variations in the heterodyne phase and amplitude, which cause severe errors in the measurements.
University of Alaska 1983 Salary Equity Study: The Analytical Process.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gaylord, Thomas A.
Results of a study of the equity of salaries of University of Alaska full-time, nonbargaining-unit employees are presented. The following questions were investigated: (1) whether salary differences exist between sexes and races, and (2) which individuals should be considered for salary equity committee review. After introducing salary equity…
Analytical studies of new airfoils for wind turbines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wentz, W. H., Jr.; Calhoun, J. T.
1981-01-01
Computer studies were conducted to analyze the potential gains associated with utilizing new airfoils for large wind turbine rotor blades. Attempts to include 3-dimensional stalling effects were inconclusive. It is recommended that blade pressure measurements be made to clarify the nature of blade stalling. It is also recommended that new laminar flow airfoils be used as rotor blade sections.
Fears of a Heterogeneous, Nonpsychiatric Sample: A Factor Analytic Study.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kirkpatrick, Dwight R.; Berg, Alan J.
Previous studies on common fears have been vague and have not met requirements for using factor analysis. To avoid some of these problems, a broader age range and a separate analysis of males and females were designed for a sample of 545 individuals, ages 15-89, who responded to 133 fear-scale items. "Death of a loved one" was the greatest fear…
Assessing Vocal Performances Using Analytical Assessment: A Case Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gynnild, Vidar
2016-01-01
This study investigated ways to improve the appraisal of vocal performances within a national academy of music. Since a criterion-based assessment framework had already been adopted, the conceptual foundation of an assessment rubric was used as a guide in an action research project. The group of teachers involved wanted to explore thinking…
Analytical Study of Instructional Personnel Policies in NAIS Member Schools.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dahlberg, Henry, Jr.
This 1971 study by the National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS) is a survey of employment practices, and policies in member schools. Questionnaires were sent to 721 schools yielding a response rate of 84 percent. Data were broken down into five categories for analysis: boarding schools, day schools, enrollment, salary ranges, and…
A Study of Online Exams Procrastination Using Data Analytics Techniques
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levy, Yair; Ramim, Michelle M.
2012-01-01
Procrastination appears to be an inevitable part of daily life, especially for activities that are bounded by deadlines. It has implications for performance and is known to be linked to poor personal time management. Although research related to procrastination as a general behavior has been well established, studies assessing procrastination in…
An analytical study on the synchronization of strange non-chaotic attractors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sivaganesh, G.; Arulgnanam, A.
2016-12-01
In this paper, we present an analytical study on the synchronization dynamics observed in unidirectionally-coupled quasiperiodically-forced systems that exhibit strange non-chaotic attractors (SNA) in their dynamics. The SNA dynamics observed in the uncoupled system is studied analytically through phase portraits and Poincare maps. A difference system is obtained by coupling the state equations of similar piecewise linear regions of the drive and the response systems. The mechanism of synchronization of the coupled system is realized through the bifurcation of the eigenvalues in one of the piecewise linear regions of the difference system. The analytical solutions obtained for the normalized state equations in each piecewise linear region of the difference system have been used to explain the synchronization dynamics through phase portraits and time-series analysis. The stability of the synchronized state is confirmed through the master stability function. An explicit analytical solution explaining the synchronization of SNAs is reported in the literature for the first time.
Analytical Techniques for the Study of Polyphenol-protein Interactions.
Ulrih, Nataša Poklar
2015-11-13
This mini review focuses on advances in biophysical techniques to study polyphenol interactions with proteins. Polyphenols have many beneficial pharmacological properties, as a result of which they have been the subject of intensive studies. The most conventional techniques described here can be divided into three groups: (i) methods used for screening (in-situ methods); (ii) methods used to gain insight into the mechanisms of polyphenol-protein interactions; and (iii) methods used to study protein aggregation and precipitation. All of these methods used to study polyphenol-protein interactions are based on modifications to the physicochemical properties of the polyphenols or proteins after binding/ complex formation in solution. To date, numerous review articles have been published in the field of polyphenols. This review will give a brif insight in computational metods and biosensors and cell-based methods, spectroscopic methods including fluorescence emission, UV-vis adsorption, circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared and mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction, and light scattering techniqes including small-angle X-ray scattering and small-angle neutron scattering), and calorimetric techniques (isothermal titration calorimetry and differentiall scanning calorimetry), microscopy, the techniques which have been successfully used for polyphenol-protein interactions. At the end the new methods based on single molecule detection with high potential to study polyphenol-protein interactions will be presented. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique will be discussed as well as the thermodynamic, kinetic or structural parameters, which can be obtained. The other relevant biophysical experimental techniques that have proven to be valuable, such electrochemical methods, hydrodynamic techniques and chromatographic techniques will not be described here.
Analytical, Experimental, and Modelling Studies of Lunar and Terrestrial Rocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haskin, Larry A.
1997-01-01
The goal of our research has been to understand the paths and the processes of planetary evolution that produced planetary surface materials as we find them. Most of our work has been on lunar materials and processes. We have done studies that obtain geological knowledge from detailed examination of regolith materials and we have reported implications for future sample-collecting and on-surface robotic sensing missions. Our approach has been to study a suite of materials that we have chosen in order to answer specific geologic questions. We continue this work under NAG5-4172. The foundation of our work has been the study of materials with precise chemical and petrographic analyses, emphasizing analysis for trace chemical elements. We have used quantitative models as tests to account for the chemical compositions and mineralogical properties of the materials in terms of regolith processes and igneous processes. We have done experiments as needed to provide values for geochemical parameters used in the models. Our models take explicitly into account the physical as well as the chemical processes that produced or modified the materials. Our approach to planetary geoscience owes much to our experience in terrestrial geoscience, where samples can be collected in field context and sampling sites revisited if necessary. Through studies of terrestrial analog materials, we have tested our ideas about the origins of lunar materials. We have been mainly concerned with the materials of the lunar highland regolith, their properties, their modes of origin, their provenance, and how to extrapolate from their characteristics to learn about the origin and evolution of the Moon's early igneous crust. From this work a modified model for the Moon's structure and evolution is emerging, one of globally asymmetric differentiation of the crust and mantle to produce a crust consisting mainly of ferroan and magnesian igneous rocks containing on average 70-80% plagioclase, with a large
Analytical Study of Tunable Bilayered-Graphene Dipole Antenna
2011-03-03
can be opened up in a bilayer graphene ( BLG ) using an external bias [3]. Recently, theoretical models and experiments have shown that bilayer graphene...of a MOSFET transistor, this high impedance layer and ground plane will provide a vertical electric field to create a bandgap in the BLG layer...This study will use bandgap tuning in the BLG to provide theoretical data on tuning a dipole antenna in different sequences along the antenna length
Analytical study of solitons in the fiber waveguide with power law nonlinearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirzazadeh, Mohammad; Ekici, Mehmet; Zhou, Qin; Sonmezoglu, Abdullah
2017-01-01
This work deals with the existence of exact soliton solutions in fiber waveguide with power law nonlinearity. The propagation equation that is the resonant dispersive nonlinear Schrödinger's equation with power law nonlinearity is studied by three analytical methods. The integration tools are the extended trial equation method, exp(-Φ(ξ)) -expansion method and extended G‧ / G - expansion method. The presented results show that analytical optical solitons can exist in this setting.
Experimental and Analytical Studies for a Computational Materials Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knauss, W. G.
1999-01-01
The studies supported by Grant NAG1-1780 were directed at providing physical data on polymer behavior that would form the basis for computationally modeling these types of materials. Because of ongoing work in polymer characterization this grant supported part of a larger picture in this regard. Efforts went into two combined areas of their time dependent mechanical response characteristics: Creep properties on the one hand, subject to different volumetric changes (nonlinearly viscoelastic behavior) and time or frequency dependence of dilatational material behavior. The details of these endeavors are outlined sufficiently in the two appended publications, so that no further description of the effort is necessary.
Noise characteristics of upper surface blown configurations: Analytical Studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, N. N.; Tibbetts, J. G.; Pennock, A. P.; Tam, C. K. W.
1978-01-01
Noise and flow results of upper surface blown configurations were analyzed. The dominant noise source mechanisms were identified from experimental data. From far-field noise data for various geometric and operational parameters, an empirical noise prediction program was developed and evaluated by comparing predicted results with experimental data from other tests. USB aircraft compatibility studies were conducted using the described noise prediction and a cruise performance data base. A final design aircraft was selected and theory was developed for the noise from the trailing edge wake assuming it as a highly sheared layer.
An analytical and experimental study of zoning in plagioclase
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, R. K.; Lofgren, G. E.
1983-01-01
A detailed electron microprobe study has been conducted on natural and experimentally grown zoned plagioclase feldspars. Discontinuous, sector, and oscillatory chemical zoning are observed superimposed on continuous normal or reverse zoning trends. The relative accuracy of 3 element (Na, Ca, K) microprobe traverses was found statistically to be 2 mole percent. Comparison of microprobe data on natural zoned plagioclase with zoned plagioclase grown in controlled experiments has shown that it may be possible to distinguish zonal development resulting from physio-chemical changes to the bulk magma from zoning related to local kinetic control on the growth of individual crystals.
An analytical study for the design of advanced rotor airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kemp, L. D.
1973-01-01
A theoretical study has been conducted to design and evaluate two airfoils for helicopter rotors. The best basic shape, designed with a transonic hodograph design method, was modified to meet subsonic criteria. One airfoil had an additional constraint for low pitching-moment at the transonic design point. Airfoil characteristics were predicted. Results of a comparative analysis of helicopter performance indicate that the new airfoils will produce reduced rotor power requirements compared to the NACA 0012. The hodograph design method, written in CDC Algol, is listed and described.
Discourse analytic study of counseling sessions in stroke physiotherapy.
Talvitie, Ulla; Pyöriä, Outi
2006-01-01
Studies on the interaction between physiotherapists and patients during treatment sessions have found low levels of communicative participation by patients and lack of direct influence by patients on the content of their treatment. This article reports the results of 7 counseling sessions in which physiotherapists and patients with stroke and their caregivers discussed the patients' postural control and balance, which had been tested and videotaped at different stages of the rehabilitation process. The physiotherapists' discourses relating to the videotaped test performances were either brief comments on the patient's performance or critical appraisals with references to difficulties encountered during performance. Performances of the easier tasks were treated by the physiotherapists with rhetorical questions. The second type of discourse consisted of the physiotherapists directing the patients' attention to their problems, and of the patients' and caregivers' initiatives leading to conversation about the patients' problems. The patients understood the significance of the test performance for their life at home in varying ways. The results of this study showed that successful counseling calls for physiotherapists to develop dialogic communication skills to help patients in coconstructing their home exercise together with their social network.
Lay theories of anorexia nervosa: a discourse analytic study.
Benveniste, J; Lecouteur, A; Hepworth, J
1999-01-01
Previous studies on lay theories of anorexia nervosa have examined the 'accuracy' of lay knowledge, and the identification of factors by family and friends that would encourage early interventions (Huon, Brown, & Morris, 1988, 7, 239-252; Murray, Touyz, & Beumont, 1990, 9, 87-93). In contrast to these approaches, we examine lay theories of anorexia nervosa using a critical psychology perspective. We argue that the use of a discourse analysis methodology enables the examination of the construction of lay theories through dominant concepts and ideas. Ten semi-structured interviews with five women and five men aged between 15 and 25 years were carried out. Participants were asked questions about three main aspects of anorexia nervosa: aetiology, treatment and relationship to gender. Each interview was analysed in terms of the structure, function and variability of discourse. Three discourses: sociocultural, individual and femininity, are discussed in relation to the interview questions. We conclude that, in this study, lay theories of anorexia nervosa were structured through key discourses that maintained a separation between sociocultural aspects of anorexia nervosa and individual psychology. This separation exists in dominant psychomedical conceptualizations of anorexia nervosa, reinforcing the concept that it is a form of psychopathology.
2MASS analytical study of four open cluster candidates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bisht, D.; Yadav, R. K. S.; Durgapal, A. K.
2017-04-01
The astrophysical parameters of four poorly studied open star clusters namely Teutsch 126, Teutsch 54, Teutsch 61 and Czernik 3, have been estimated using the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) database. The stellar density distributions and color-magnitude diagrams are used to determine their structural parameters (cluster center, cluster radius, core radius, tidal radius, Galactocenteric coordinates and the distance from the Galactic plane). We have also derived age, color excesses, total mass, relaxation time, luminosity and mass function for each clusters. The mass function slopes for these clusters are derived as 1.59 ± 0.62, 1.31 ± 0.60, 1.22 ± 0.75 and 1.62 ± 0.56 for Teutsch 126, Teutsch 54, Teutsch 61 and Czernik 3 respectively. These values are very close with the Salpeter value (x = 1.35) within the errors. The effect of mass-segregation are observed in the clusters Teutsch 126 and Teutsch 61. Estimated values of dynamical relaxation time are less than age of the clusters under study. This concludes that these objects are dynamically relaxed. The possible reason for relaxation may be due to the dynamical evolution or imprint of star formation or both.
Comparative study of the vapor analytes of trinitrotoluene (TNT)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edge, Cindy C.; Gibb, Julie; Dugan, Regina E.
1998-12-01
Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a high explosive used in most antipersonnel and antitank landmines. The Institute for Biological Detection Systems (IBDS) has developed a quantitative vapor delivery system, termed olfactometer, for conducting canine olfactory research. The research is conducted utilizing dynamic conditions, therefore, it is imperative to evaluate the headspace of TNT to ensure consistency with the dynamic generation of vapor. This study quantified the vapor headspace of military- grade TNT utilizing two different vapor generated methodologies, static and dynamic, reflecting differences between field and laboratory environments. Static vapor collection, which closely mimics conditions found during field detection, is defined as vapor collected in an open-air environment at ambient temperature. Dynamic vapor collection incorporates trapping of gases from a high flow vapor generation cell used during olfactometer operation. Analysis of samples collected by the two methodologies was performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the results provided information with regard to the constituents detected. However, constituent concentration did vary between the sampling methods. This study provides essential information regarding the vapor constituents associated with the TNT sampled using different sampling methods. These differences may be important in determining the detection signature dogs use to recognize TNT.
Analytic studies of colloid transport in fractured porous media
Hwang, Y.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.; Pigford, T.H.
1989-11-01
We analyze the interactive migration of radioactive colloids and solute in fractured rock. Two possible interactions between radionuclides as colloids and as solute are considered: solute sorption on nonradioactive colloids to form pseudocolloids, and dissolution of radioactive colloids. Previous studies have discussed the formation and transport of colloids in porous media, including removal of colloids by filtration and sedimentation. Colloids can migrate faster than solute because of weaker sorption on stationary solids and because of hydrochromatography of colloid particles in flow channels. However, the migration of colloids and pseudocolloids can be retarded by the interaction of colloids with solute, and the migration of solute in local equilibrium with colloids can be more rapid than if colloids were not present. Here we present a new quantative analysis to predict the interactive migration of colloids and solute in porous and fractured media. 4 figs.
Multi-analytical study of historical semiconductor pigments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capogrosso, V.
2015-03-01
This work is focused on the study of semiconductor-based pigments, which substituted traditional pigments in the second half of the 19th century. Synthetic semiconductor pigments may be chemically unstable due to the presence of many impurities unintentionally introduced during manufacturing. The aim of this work is to provide an insight on the application of X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) for the analysis of these painting materials, including both Cd- and Zn-based pigments. Three different approaches have been followed: the semi-quantitative analysis of samples with similar elemental composition, the complementary use of XRF and Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of elemental and molecular composition and the synchrotron-based XRF and XANES for the detection of impurities. The synergetic combination of different techniques provides information useful for the definition of specific markers for future analysis of paint-samples with implications for the conservation and treatment of late 19th and early 20th century paintings.
Analytical study of nozzle performance for nuclear thermal rockets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davidian, Kenneth O.; Kacynski, Kenneth J.
1991-01-01
Nuclear propulsion has been identified as one of the key technologies needed for human exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) uses a nuclear reactor to heat hydrogen to a high temperature followed by expansion through a conventional convergent-divergent nozzle. A parametric study of NTR nozzles was performed using the Rocket Engine Design Expert System (REDES) at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The REDES used the JANNAF standard rigorous methodology to determine nozzle performance over a range of chamber temperatures, chamber pressures, thrust levels, and different nozzle configurations. A design condition was set by fixing the propulsion system exit radius at five meters and throat radius was varied to achieve a target thrust level. An adiabatic wall was assumed for the nozzle, and its length was assumed to be 80 percent of a 15 degree cone. The results conclude that although the performance of the NTR, based on infinite reaction rates, looks promising at low chamber pressures, finite rate chemical reactions will cause the actual performance to be considerably lower. Parameters which have a major influence on the delivered specific impulse value include the chamber temperature and the chamber pressures in the high thrust domain. Other parameters, such as 2-D and boundary layer effects, kinetic rates, and number of nozzles, affect the deliverable performance of an NTR nozzle to a lesser degree. For a single nozzle, maximum performance of 930 seconds and 1030 seconds occur at chamber temperatures of 2700 and 3100 K, respectively.
Experimental and analytical studies of a true airspeed sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goglia, G. L.; Shen, J. Y.
1983-01-01
A true airspeed sensor based on the precession of a vortex whistle for sensing airspeeds up to 321.9 km/hr (200 mph). In an attempt to model the complicated fluid mechanics of the vortex precession, three dimensional, inviscid, unsteady, incompressible fluid flow was studied by using the hydrodynamical linearized stability theory. The temporal stability approach was used to derive the relationship between the true airspeed and frequency response. The results show that the frequency response is linearly proportional to the airspeed. A computer program was developed to obtain the numerical solution. Computational results for various parameters were obtained. The designed sensor basically consisted of a vortex tube, a swirler, and a transducer system. A microphone converted the audible tone to an electronic frequency signal. Measurements for both the closed conduit tests and wind tunnel tests were recorded. For a specific flow rate or airspeed, larger exit swirler angles produced higher frequencies. For a smaller cross sectional area in the precessional flow region, the frequency was higher. It was observed that as the airspeed was increased the Strouhal number remained constant.
An analytical study of reduced-gravity flow dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bradshaw, R. D.; Kramer, J. L.; Zich, J. L.
1976-01-01
Addition of surface tension forces to a marker-and-cell code and the performance of four incompressible fluid simulations in reduced gravity, were studied. This marker-and-cell code has a variable grid capability with arbitrary curved boundaries and time dependent acceleration fields. The surface tension logic includes a spline fit of surface marker particles as well as contact angle logic for straight and curved wall boundaries. Three types of flow motion were simulated with the improved code: impulsive settling in a model Centaur LH2 tank, continuous settling in a model and full scale Centaur LO2 tank and mixing in a Centaur LH2 tank. The impulsive settling case confirmed a drop tower analysis which indicated more orderly fluid collection flow patterns with this method providing a potential savings in settling propellants. In the LO2 tank, fluid collection and flow simulation into the thrust barrel were achieved. The mixing simulation produced good results indicating both the development of the flow field and fluid interface behavior.
Analytical study of residential building with reflecting roofs
Zarr, R.R.
1998-10-01
This report presents an analysis of the effect of roof solar reflectance on the annual heating (cooling) loads, peak heating (cooling) loads, and roof temperatures of the residential buildings. The annual heating (cooling) loads, peak heating (cooling) loads, and exterior roof temperatures for a small compact ranch house are computed using the Thermal Analysis Research Program (TARP). The residential models, with minor modifications in the thermal envelope for different locations, are subjected to hourly weather data for one year compiled in the Weather Year for Energy Calculation (WYEC) for in the following locations: Birmingham, Alabama; Bismarck, North Dakota; Miami, Florida; Phoenix, Arizona; Portland, Maine; and, Washington, D.C. Building loads have been determined for a full factorial experimental design that varies the following parameters of the residential model: solar reflectance of the roof, ceiling thermal resistance, attic ventilation, and attic mass framing area. The computed results for annual heating (cooling) loads and peak heating (cooling) loads are illustrated graphically, both globally for all cities and locally for each geographic location. The effect of peak parameter is ranked (highest to lowest) for effect on annual heating and cooling loads, and peak heating and cooling loads. A parametric study plots the building loads as a function of roof solar reflectance for different levels of ceiling thermal resistances and for each geographic location.
An Analytical Study of Mammalian Bite Wounds Requiring Inpatient Management
Lee, Young-Geun; Kim, Woo-Kyung
2013-01-01
Background Mammalian bite injuries create a public health problem because of their frequency, potential severity, and increasing number. Some researchers have performed fragmentary analyses of bite wounds caused by certain mammalian species. However, little practical information is available concerning serious mammalian bite wounds that require hospitalization and intensive wound management. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to perform a general review of serious mammalian bite wounds. Methods We performed a retrospective review of the medical charts of 68 patients who were referred to our plastic surgery department for the treatment of bite wounds between January 2003 and October 2012. The cases were analyzed according to the species, patient demographics, environmental factors, injury characteristics, and clinical course. Results Among the 68 cases of mammalian bite injury, 58 (85%) were caused by dogs, 8 by humans, and 2 by cats. Most of those bitten by a human and both of those bitten by cats were male. Only one-third of all the patients were children or adolescents. The most frequent site of injury was the face, with 40 cases, followed by the hand, with 16 cases. Of the 68 patients, 7 were treated with secondary intention healing. Sixty-one patients underwent delayed procedures, including delayed direct closure, skin graft, composite graft, and local flap. Conclusions Based on overall findings from our review of the 68 cases of mammalian bites, we suggest practical guidelines for the management of mammalian bite injuries, which could be useful in the treatment of serious mammalian bite wounds. PMID:24286042
[Analytical study and physiological consequences of a model of respiration].
Guillez, A
1979-01-01
The author, starting from the pattern established by Brocas and Cherruault (1973), develops new equations by considering the dynamics of breathing. He distinguishes space without exhanges, called 'blower' and space with exchanges, called 'exchanger'. The equations are studied and explicit solutions are found by an original method. The necessity for a neutral gas is proved. The author develops periodic functions for ventilation, for gas pressures in the air and in the blood and control functions such as differences of pressure between aerial- and blood-dissolved gas at the bottom of the alveola, consumption of O2 and excretion of CO2 and remaining CO2 in blood. The control functions oscillate around zero for the differences and around constants for the others. Examining the effects of frequency of breathing, blood flow, variations of transerval diffusivities, atmospheric pressure, variation of the dimensions connected with fever, infections, altitude and depth, sclerosis and even emotions, he again determines the pathologies, their auscultation symptoms and other aspects.
On analytical study of holographic superconductors with Born-Infeld electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Chuyu; Pan, Qiyuan; Jing, Jiliang; Wang, Yongjiu
2015-10-01
Based on the Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem, Banerjee et al. proposed a perturbative approach to analytically investigate the properties of the (2 + 1)-dimensional superconductor with Born-Infeld electrodynamics (Banerjee et al., 2013) [29]. By introducing an iterative procedure, we will further improve the analytical results and the consistency with the numerical findings, and can easily extend the analytical study to the higher-dimensional superconductor with Born-Infeld electrodynamics. We observe that the higher Born-Infeld corrections make it harder for the condensation to form but do not affect the critical phenomena of the system. Our analytical results can be used to back up the numerical computations for the holographic superconductors with various condensates in Born-Infeld electrodynamics.
Are empty methadone bottles empty? An analytic study
2014-01-01
Background Methadone maintenance treatment is the most widely prescribed treatment for opiate dependence with proven benefits for patients. In naïve users or in case of recreational misuse, methadone can be a source of potentially lethal intoxications, resulting in fatal overdoses. A few cases of infantile intoxications have been described in the literature, some of which resulted in death. Nowadays, more than 50,000 bottles are used every day in France, most of which are thrown away in the bin. Relatives at home, especially children, can have access to these empty bottles. This study aims to determine whether the residual quantity of methadone in the bottles is associated with a risk of intoxication for someone who has a low tolerance to opiates, such as a child. Methods The methadone dosage left in a sample of 175 bottles recapped after use by the patients taking their maintenance treatment in an addiction treatment program centre was analysed during a 2-week period in March 2013. Results The mean residual quantity of methadone left in each bottle after use is 1.9 ± 1.8 mg and 3.3 ± 2.4 mg in the sample of 60 mg bottles. Conclusions There is a potential danger of accidental overdose with empty bottles of methadone syrup, especially for children. To take into account this hazard, several harm reduction strategies can be proposed, such as favouring the taking of the treatment within the delivery centres rather than the ‘take home’ doses, asking methadone users to bring back their used bottles, and raising patients’ awareness of the intoxication risks and the necessary everyday precautions. For stable patients with take home methadone, the use of capsules could be considered. PMID:24990630
Salvo, Andrea; La Torre, Giovanna Loredana; Di Stefano, Vita; Capocchiano, Valentina; Mangano, Valentina; Saija, Emanuele; Pellizzeri, Vito; Casale, Katia Erminia; Dugo, Giacomo
2017-04-15
A fast reversed-phase UPLC method was developed for squalene determination in Sicilian pistachio samples that entry in the European register of the products with P.D.O. In the present study the SPE procedure was optimized for the squalene extraction prior to the UPLC/PDA analysis. The precision of the full analytical procedure was satisfactory and the mean recoveries were 92.8±0.3% and 96.6±0.1% for 25 and 50mgL(-1) level of addition, respectively. Selected chromatographic conditions allowed a very fast squalene determination; in fact it was well separated in ∼0.54min with good resolution. Squalene was detected in all the pistachio samples analyzed and the levels ranged from 55.45-226.34mgkg(-1). Comparing our results with those of other studies it emerges that squalene contents in P.D.O. Sicilian pistachio samples, generally, were higher than those measured for other samples of different geographic origins.
Ikeda, Yukihiro; Ishihara, Yoko; Moriwaki, Toshiya; Kato, Eiji; Terada, Katsuhide
2010-01-01
A novel analytical method for the determination of pharmaceutical polymorphs was developed using terahertz spectroscopy. It was found out that each polymorph of a substance showed a specific terahertz absorption spectrum. In particular, analysis of the second derivative spectrum was enormously beneficial in the discrimination of closely related polymorphs that were difficult to discern by powder X-ray diffractometry. Crystal forms that were obtained by crystallization from various solvents and stored under various conditions were specifically characterized by the second derivative of each terahertz spectrum. Fractional polymorphic transformation for substances stored under stressed conditions was also identified by terahertz spectroscopy during solid-state stability test, but could not be detected by powder X-ray diffractometry. Since polymorphs could be characterized clearly by terahertz spectroscopy, further physicochemical studies could be conducted in a timely manner. The development form of compound examined was determined by the results of comprehensive physicochemical studies that included thermodynamic relationships, as well as chemical and physicochemical stability. In conclusion, terahertz spectroscopy, which has unique power in the elucidation of molecular interaction within a crystal lattice, can play more important role in physicochemical research. Terahertz spectroscopy has a great potential as a tool for polymorphic determination, particularly since the second derivative of the terahertz spectrum possesses high sensitivity for pharmaceutical polymorphs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raji, M. A.; Schug, K. A.
2009-01-01
Full factorial experimental design technique was used to study the main effects and the interaction effects between instrumental parameters in two mass spectrometers equipped with conventional electrospray ion sources (Thermo LCQ Deca XP and Shimadzu LCMS 2010). Four major parameters (spray voltage, ion transfer capillary temperature, ion transfer capillary voltage, and tube lens voltage) were investigated in both instruments for their contribution to analyte response, leading to a total of 16 experiments performed for each instrument. Significant parameters were identified by plotting the cumulative probability of each treatment against the estimated effects in normal plots. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to evaluate the statistical significance of the effects of the parameters on ESI-MS analyte response. The results reveal a number of important interactions in addition to the main effects for each instrument. In all the experiments performed, the tube lens voltage (or Q-array dc voltage in LCMS 2010) was found to have significant effects on analyte response in both instruments. The tube lens voltage was also found to interact with the capillary temperature in the case of the LCQ Deca XP and with the spray voltage in the case of the LCMS 2010. The results of these experiments provide important considerations in the instrumental optimization of ionization response for ESI-MS analysis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rybak, S. C.
1976-01-01
The performance capabilities and limitations of the instrument pointing system (IPS) are described. Suggestions of design modifications that result in overall improved IPS performance are included. Since the design and configuration of the IPS was modified a portion of the study was performed with the inside-out Gimbal configuration which was updated to the present coincident Gimbal system configuration. Due to the similarity of the two systems, the results obtained for the inside-out Gimbal also apply to the coincident Gimbal system.
Publication Bias in Studies of an Applied Behavior-Analytic Intervention: An Initial Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sham, Elyssa; Smith, Tristram
2014-01-01
Publication bias arises when studies with favorable results are more likely to be reported than are studies with null findings. If this bias occurs in studies with single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) on applied behavior-analytic (ABA) interventions, it could lead to exaggerated estimates of intervention effects. Therefore, we conducted an…
Interactive computer program for optimal designs of longitudinal cohort studies.
Tekle, Fetene B; Tan, Frans E S; Berger, Martijn P F
2009-05-01
Many large scale longitudinal cohort studies have been carried out or are ongoing in different fields of science. Such studies need a careful planning to obtain the desired quality of results with the available resources. In the past, a number of researches have been performed on optimal designs for longitudinal studies. However, there was no computer program yet available to help researchers to plan their longitudinal cohort design in an optimal way. A new interactive computer program for the optimization of designs of longitudinal cohort studies is therefore presented. The computer program helps users to identify the optimal cohort design with an optimal number of repeated measurements per subject and an optimal allocations of time points within a given study period. Further, users can compute the loss in relative efficiencies of any other alternative design compared to the optimal one. The computer program is described and illustrated using a practical example.
Basic Studies in Combinatorial and Nondifferentiable Optimization.
1978-03-01
control problems with linear dynamics, convex cost, and convex inequality state and control constraints is analyzed...points. S.K. MITTER, Lagrange Duality Theory for Convex Control Problems , (with W.W. Hager), Journal of Control and Optimization , 14, August 1976, pp...Lagrange Duality Theory for Convex Control Problems ,” Journal of Control and Optimization , 14, August 1976, pp. 843—856. T.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wen-Shuo; He, Da-Wei; Wang, Ji-Hong; Duan, Jia-Hua; Peng, Hong-Shang; Wu, Hong-Peng; Fu, Ming; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Xi-Qing
2014-04-01
The chemiluminescence (CL) performance of luminol is improved using reduced graphene oxide/gold nanoparticle (rGO-AuNP) nano-composites as catalyst. To prepare this catalyst, we propose a linker free, one-step method to in-situ synthesize rGO-AuNP nano-composites. Various measurements are utilized to characterize the resulting rGO-AuNP samples, and it is revealed that rGO could improve the stability and conductivity. Furthermore, we investigate the CL signals of luminal catalyzed by rGO-AuNP. Afterwards, the size effect of particle and the assisted enhancement effect of rGO are studied and discussed in detail. Based on the discussion, an optimal, sensitive and stable rGO-AuNP-luminon-H2O2 CL system is proposed. Finally, we utilize the system as a sensor to detect hydrogen peroxide and organic compounds containing amino, hydroxyl, or thiol groups. The CL system might provide a more attractive platform for various analytical devices with CL detection in the field of biosensors, bioassays, and immunosensors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parvizi, Reza; Khaki, Jalil Vahdati; Moayed, Mohammad Hadi; Ardani, Mohammad Rezaei
2012-12-01
In this study, the Taguchi design method was employed to determine the optimum experimental parameters in extraction of vanadium by NaOH leaching of oil-fired fly. Prior to designed experiments, the raw precipitates were mechanicallly milled using a high-energy planetary ball mill. Experimental parameters were investigated as follows: mechanical milling (MM) times (2 and 5 hours), NaOH (1 and 2 molar concentration) as reaction solution (RS), powder to solution ( P/ S) ratios (100/400 and 100/600 mg/mL), temperature ( T) of reaction system (303 K and 333 K [30 °C and 60 °C]), stirring times (ST) of reaction media (4 and 12 hours), stirring speed (SS) being adjusted to 400 and 600 rpm, and rinsing times (RT) of remained filtrates (1 and 3 hours). Statistical analysis of signal-to-noise ratio followed by analysis of variance was performed in order to estimate the optimum levels and their relative contributions. Data analysis is carried out using L8 orthogonal array consisting of seven parameters each with two levels. The optimum conditions were MM1 (3 hours), RS2 (2 molar NaOH), P/ S2 (100/600 mg/mL), T2 (333 K [60 °C]), ST2 (12 hours), SS1 (400 rpm), and RT1 (1 hour). Finally, from environmental and economical points of view, the process is faster and better organized by employing this analytical design method.
Ramos, Lorena Rodrigues; Santos, Jânio Sousa; Daguer, Heitor; Valese, Andressa Camargo; Cruz, Adriano Gomes; Granato, Daniel
2017-04-15
The aims of the present study were to optimize and characterize the phenolic composition of a herbal extract composed of green mate (Ilex paraguariensis), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) and to propose the addition of this polyphenol-rich extract to fermented milks (FM) with/without sweet potato pulp (Ipomoea batatas). Proximate composition, pH, acidity, instrumental texture profile, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity (AA) of all formulations were measured, and sensory attributes were also investigated. The addition of a lyophilized extract (1g 100g(-1)) containing 87.5% clove and 12.5% green mate increased the AA and TPC, while FM with added sweet potato pulp had the best sensory acceptance. The TPC and total reducing capacity had a slight change during 21days of storage. The data showed that herbal extracts and sweet potato pulp may be used to develop new dairy foods with potential functional properties.
An analytical and experimental study of crack extension in center-notched composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beuth, Jack L., Jr.; Herakovich, Carl T.
1987-01-01
The normal stress ratio theory for crack extension in anisotropic materials is studied analytically and experimentally. The theory is applied within a microscopic-level analysis of a single center notch of arbitrary orientation in a unidirectional composite material. The bulk of the analytical work of this study applies an elasticity solution for an infinite plate with a center line to obtain critical stress and crack growth direction predictions. An elasticity solution for an infinite plate with a center elliptical flaw is also used to obtain qualitative predictions of the location of crack initiation on the border of a rounded notch tip. The analytical portion of the study includes the formulation of a new crack growth theory that includes local shear stress. Normal stress ratio theory predictions are obtained for notched unidirectional tensile coupons and unidirectional Iosipescu shear specimens. These predictions are subsequently compared to experimental results.
Alvarez-Lueje, A; Zapata-Urzúa, C; Brain-Isasi, S; Pérez-Ortiz, M; Barros, L; Pessoa-Mahana, H; Kogan, M J
2009-08-15
The present study addresses the electrochemical behavior and the analytical applications of six 2-nitrophenylbenzimidazole derivatives with activity against Trypanosoma cruzi. When studied in a wide range of pH, by differential pulse polarography, tast polarography and cyclic voltammetry, these compounds exhibited two irreversible cathodic responses. With analytical purposes, the differential pulse polarography mode was selected, which exhibited adequate analytical parameters of repeatability, reproducibility and selectivity. The percentage of recovery was in all cases over 99%, and the detection and quantitation limits were at the level of 1 x 10(-7)mol L(-1) and 1 x 10(-6)mol L(-1), respectively. In addition, the differential pulse polarography method was successfully applied to study the hydrolytic degradation kinetic of one of the tested compounds. Activation energy, kinetic rate constants at different temperatures and half-life values of such application are reported.
Analytical Study of High Concentration PCB Paint at the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor
Lowry, N.J.
1998-10-21
This report provides results of an analytical study of high concentration PCB paint in a shutdown nuclear test reactor located at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). The study was designed to obtain data relevant for an evaluation of potential hazards associated with the use of and exposure to such paints.
A Monte-Carlo Study of Confirmatory Factor Analytic Tests of Measurement Equivalence/Invariance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meade, Adam W.; Lautenschlager, Gary J.
2004-01-01
In recent years, confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) techniques have become the most common method of testing for measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I). However, no study has simulated data with known differences to determine how well these CFA techniques perform. This study utilizes data with a variety of known simulated differences in factor…
Optimal design in pediatric pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic clinical studies.
Roberts, Jessica K; Stockmann, Chris; Balch, Alfred; Yu, Tian; Ward, Robert M; Spigarelli, Michael G; Sherwin, Catherine M T
2015-03-01
It is not trivial to conduct clinical trials with pediatric participants. Ethical, logistical, and financial considerations add to the complexity of pediatric studies. Optimal design theory allows investigators the opportunity to apply mathematical optimization algorithms to define how to structure their data collection to answer focused research questions. These techniques can be used to determine an optimal sample size, optimal sample times, and the number of samples required for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies. The aim of this review is to demonstrate how to determine optimal sample size, optimal sample times, and the number of samples required from each patient by presenting specific examples using optimal design tools. Additionally, this review aims to discuss the relative usefulness of sparse vs rich data. This review is intended to educate the clinician, as well as the basic research scientist, whom plan on conducting a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic clinical trial in pediatric patients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Changjiang; Zheng, Zhoulian; Yang, Xiaoyan
2016-12-01
Orthotropic membrane components and structures are widely used in building structures, instruments and meters, electronic engineering, space and aeronautics, etc., because of their light weights. However, the same lightweight combined with low stiffness make membranes prone to vibration under dynamic loads, and in some cases the vibration may lead to structural failure. Herein, the undamped nonlinear vibration response of pretension rectangular orthotropic membrane structures subjected to impact loading is studied by analytical and numerical methods. The analytical solution is obtained by solving the governing equations by the Bubnov-Galerkin method and the Lindstedt-Poincaré perturbation method. Numerical analysis has also been carried out based on the same theoretical model. The analytical and numerical results have been compared and analyzed, and the influence of various model parameters on membrane vibration discussed. The results obtained herein provide some theoretical basis for the vibration control and dynamic design of orthotropic membrane components and structures.
Evaluation of higher order PMD effects using Jones matrix analytical models: a comparative study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira, M. F.
2006-04-01
A comparative study among the Jones matrix analytical models with high-order PMD is presented. The models that make use of an exponential expansion arrested up to second order or consider the dispersion vector as a Taylor series expansion do not give good results in the approximation of high-order PMD effects, because of the nonlimited behavior with respect to frequency of the modulus of their dispersion vectors. On the other hand, the analytical model which describes the dispersion vector as rotating on a circumference in the Stokes space is found to be the most accurate. Moreover, it can be used to obtain an analytical expression of the pulse broadening, which is often chosen as a quality-system parameter.
Truzzi, C; Illuminati, S; Annibaldi, A; Antonucci, M; Scarponi, G
2017-04-01
This work presents data on the quantification of fatty acids (FAs, in terms of mass unit per tissue weight) in the muscle of Trematomus bernacchii, a key species in Antarctica, often used as bioindicator for contamination studies. Modifications in fatty acids content should be considered a useful biomarker to study how contaminants affect Antarctic biota. Until now, very few studies quantified fatty acids of muscle of T. bernacchii, and only as percentage of a single fatty acid on total lipids. To perform the quantification of fatty acids, we used an analytical method based on a fast microwave-assisted extraction of lipids from a lyophilized sample, a base-catalyzed trans-esterification of lipid extract to obtain Fatty Acids Methyl Esters (FAMEs), and a separation and identification of FAMEs by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. With the optimized and validated method, a fast and accurate separation of Fatty Acids Methyl Esters was performed in 43 min. The linearity was checked up to about 320 μg mL(-1); limit of detection and limit of quantification are in the range 4-22 μg mL(-1) and 13-66 μg mL(-1), respectively. The optimized method showed a good accuracy and precision. Major fatty acids were 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n7, 18:1n9, 18:1n7, 20:1n9, 20:5n3 and 22:6n3. Quantified FAs compute for about 47 mg g(-1) tissue dry weight (dw), with 9.1 ± 0.1 mg g(-1) dw of saturated FAs, 25.5 ± 0.1 mg g(-1) dw of mono-unsaturated FAs, and 12.2 ± 0.1 mg g(-1) dw of poly-unsaturated FAs.
Bozkaya, Uğur
2014-10-14
An efficient implementation of analytic energy gradients and spin multiplicities for the density-fitted orbital-optimized second-order perturbation theory (DF-OMP2) [Bozkaya, U. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2014, 10, 2371-2378] is presented. The DF-OMP2 method is applied to a set of alkanes, conjugated dienes, and noncovalent interaction complexes to compare the cost of single point analytic gradient computations with the orbital-optimized MP2 with the resolution of the identity approach (OO-RI-MP2) [Neese, F.; Schwabe, T.; Kossmann, S.; Schirmer, B.; Grimme, S. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2009, 5, 3060-3073]. Our results demonstrate that the DF-OMP2 method provides substantially lower computational costs for analytic gradients than OO-RI-MP2. On average, the cost of DF-OMP2 analytic gradients is 9-11 times lower than that of OO-RI-MP2 for systems considered. We also consider aromatic bond dissociation energies, for which MP2 provides poor reaction energies. The DF-OMP2 method exhibits a substantially better performance than MP2, providing a mean absolute error of 2.5 kcal mol(-1), which is more than 9 times lower than that of MP2 (22.6 kcal mol(-1)). Overall, the DF-OMP2 method appears very helpful for electronically challenging chemical systems such as free radicals or other cases where standard MP2 proves unreliable. For such problematic systems, we recommend using DF-OMP2 instead of the canonical MP2 as a more robust method with the same computational scaling.
A semi-analytical study on helical springs made of shape memory polymer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baghani, M.; Naghdabadi, R.; Arghavani, J.
2012-04-01
In this paper, the responses of shape memory polymer (SMP) helical springs under axial force are studied both analytically and numerically. In the analytical solution, we first derive the response of a cylindrical tube under torsional loadings. This solution can be used for helical springs in which both the curvature and pitch effects are negligible. This is the case for helical springs with large ratios of the mean coil radius to the cross sectional radius (spring index) and also small pitch angles. Making use of this solution simplifies the analysis of the helical springs to that of the torsion of a straight bar with circular cross section. The 3D phenomenological constitutive model recently proposed for SMPs is also reduced to the 1D shear case. Thus, an analytical solution for the torsional response of SMP tubes in a full cycle of stress-free strain recovery is derived. In addition, the curvature effect is added to the formulation and the SMP helical spring is analyzed using the exact solution presented for torsion of curved SMP tubes. In this modified solution, the effect of the direct shear force is also considered. In the numerical analysis, the 3D constitutive equations are implemented in a finite element program and a full cycle of stress-free strain recovery of an SMP (extension or compression) helical spring is simulated. Analytical and numerical results are compared and it is shown that the analytical solution gives accurate stress distributions in the cross section of the helical SMP spring besides the global load-deflection response. Some case studies are presented to show the validity of the presented analytical method.
Setting analytical performance specifications based on outcome studies - is it possible?
Horvath, Andrea Rita; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Sandberg, Sverre; John, Andrew St; Monaghan, Phillip J; Verhagen-Kamerbeek, Wilma D J; Lennartz, Lieselotte; Cobbaert, Christa M; Ebert, Christoph; Lord, Sarah J
2015-05-01
The 1st Strategic Conference of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine proposed a simplified hierarchy for setting analytical performance specifications (APS). The top two levels of the 1999 Stockholm hierarchy, i.e., evaluation of the effect of analytical performance on clinical outcomes and clinical decisions have been proposed to be replaced by one outcome-based model. This model can be supported by: (1a) direct outcome studies; and (1b) indirect outcome studies investigating the impact of analytical performance of the test on clinical classifications or decisions and thereby on the probability of patient relevant clinical outcomes. This paper reviews the need for outcome-based specifications, the most relevant types of outcomes to be considered, and the challenges and limitations faced when setting outcome-based APS. The methods of Model 1a and b are discussed and examples are provided for how outcome data can be translated to APS using the linked evidence and simulation or decision analytic techniques. Outcome-based APS should primarily reflect the clinical needs of patients; should be tailored to the purpose, role and significance of the test in a well defined clinical pathway; and should be defined at a level that achieves net health benefit for patients at reasonable costs. Whilst it is acknowledged that direct evaluations are difficult and may not be possible for all measurands, all other forms of setting APS should be weighed against that standard, and regarded as approximations. Better definition of the relationship between the analytical performance of tests and health outcomes can be used to set analytical performance criteria that aim to improve the clinical and cost-effectiveness of laboratory tests.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burdick, Hal; Swartz, Carl W.; Stenner, A. Jackson; Fitzgerald, Jill; Burdick, Don; Hanlon, Sean T.
2013-01-01
The purpose of the study was to explore the validity of a novel computer-analytic developmental scale, the Writing Ability Developmental Scale. On the whole, collective results supported the validity of the scale. It was sensitive to writing ability differences across grades and sensitive to within-grade variability as compared to human-rated…
21 CFR 320.29 - Analytical methods for an in vivo bioavailability or bioequivalence study.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Analytical methods for an in vivo bioavailability or bioequivalence study. 320.29 Section 320.29 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE BIOAVAILABILITY AND...
21 CFR 320.29 - Analytical methods for an in vivo bioavailability or bioequivalence study.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Analytical methods for an in vivo bioavailability or bioequivalence study. 320.29 Section 320.29 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE BIOAVAILABILITY AND...
21 CFR 320.29 - Analytical methods for an in vivo bioavailability or bioequivalence study.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Analytical methods for an in vivo bioavailability or bioequivalence study. 320.29 Section 320.29 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE BIOAVAILABILITY AND...
21 CFR 320.29 - Analytical methods for an in vivo bioavailability or bioequivalence study.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Analytical methods for an in vivo bioavailability or bioequivalence study. 320.29 Section 320.29 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE BIOAVAILABILITY AND...
21 CFR 320.29 - Analytical methods for an in vivo bioavailability or bioequivalence study.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Analytical methods for an in vivo bioavailability or bioequivalence study. 320.29 Section 320.29 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE BIOAVAILABILITY AND...
Peer-Assisted Learning Interventions with Elementary School Studies: A Meta-Analytic Review.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rohrbeck, Cynthia A.; Ginsburg-Block, Marika D.; Fantuzzo, John W.; Miller, Traci R.
2003-01-01
A meta-analytic review of group comparison design studies evaluating peer-assisted learning (PAL) interventions with elementary school students produced positive effect sizes (ESs) indicating increases in achievement. PAL interventions were most effective with younger, urban, low-income, and minority students. Interventions that used…
Do Premarital Education Programs Really Work? A Meta-Analytic Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fawcett, Elizabeth B.; Hawkins, Alan J.; Blanchard, Victoria L.; Carroll, Jason S.
2010-01-01
Previous studies (J. S. Carroll & W. J. Doherty, 2003) have asserted that premarital education programs have a positive effect on program participants. Using meta-analytic methods of current best practices to look across the entire body of published and unpublished evaluation research on premarital education, we found a more complex pattern of…
Negotiating Story Entry: A Micro-Analytic Study of Storytelling Projection in English and Japanese
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yasui, Eiko
2011-01-01
This dissertation offers a micro-analytic study of the use of language and body during storytelling in American English and Japanese conversations. Specifically, I focus on its beginning and explore how a story is "projected." A beginning of an action or activity is where an incipient speaker negotiates the floor with co-participants; they…
Conceptual Issues and Analytic Strategies in Mixed-Method Studies of Preschool Inclusion.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Li, Shouming; Marquart, Jules M.; Zercher, Craig
2000-01-01
This paper addresses the conceptual issues of combining qualitative and quantitative methods in early intervention research by illustrating how two analytic approaches were used for different mixed-method purposes in the study of preschool inclusion. It describes practical strategies for conducting mixed-method data analysis in terms of data…
The Effects of Incentives on Workplace Performance: A Meta-Analytic Review of Research Studies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Condly, Steven J.; Clark, Richard E.; Stolovitch, Harold D.
2003-01-01
A meta-analytic review of all adequately designed field and laboratory research on the use of incentives to motivate performance is reported. Of approximately 600 studies, 45 qualified. The overall average effect of all incentive programs in all work settings and on all work tasks was a 22% gain in performance. Team-directed incentives had a…
Pre-analytical errors management in the clinical laboratory: a five-year study
Giménez-Marín, Angeles; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Pérez-Hidalgo, Maria del Mar; Molina-Mendoza, Pedro
2014-01-01
Introduction: This study describes quality indicators for the pre-analytical process, grouping errors according to patient risk as critical or major, and assesses their evaluation over a five-year period. Materials and methods: A descriptive study was made of the temporal evolution of quality indicators, with a study population of 751,441 analytical requests made during the period 2007–2011. The Runs Test for randomness was calculated to assess changes in the trend of the series, and the degree of control over the process was estimated by the Six Sigma scale. Results: The overall rate of critical pre-analytical errors was 0.047%, with a Six Sigma value of 4.9. The total rate of sampling errors in the study period was 13.54% (P = 0.003). The highest rates were found for the indicators “haemolysed sample” (8.76%), “urine sample not submitted” (1.66%) and “clotted sample” (1.41%), with Six Sigma values of 3.7, 3.7 and 2.9, respectively. Conclusions: The magnitude of pre-analytical errors was accurately valued. While processes that triggered critical errors are well controlled, the results obtained for those regarding specimen collection are borderline unacceptable; this is particularly so for the indicator “haemolysed sample”. PMID:24969918
Adequacy of surface analytical tools for studying the tribology of ceramics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sliney, H. E.
1986-01-01
Surface analytical tools are very beneficial in tribological studies of ceramics. Traditional methods of optical microscopy, XRD, XRF, and SEM should be combined with newer surface sensitive techniques especially AES and XPS. ISS and SIMS can also be useful in providing additional compositon details. Tunneling microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy are less known techniques that may also prove useful.
Experimental and analytical studies for the NASA carbon fiber risk assessment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1980-01-01
Various experimental and analytical studies performed for the NASA carbon fiber risk assessment program are described with emphasis on carbon fiber characteristics, sensitivity of electrical equipment and components to shorting or arcing by carbon fibers, attenuation effect of carbon fibers on aircraft landing aids, impact of carbon fibers on industrial facilities. A simple method of estimating damage from airborne carbon fibers is presented.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Calvert, Carol Elaine
2014-01-01
This case study relates to distance learning students on open access courses. It demonstrates the use of predictive analytics to generate a model of the probabilities of success and retention at different points, or milestones, in a student journey. A core set of explanatory variables has been established and their varying relative importance at…
Analytical stability and simulation response study for a coupled two-body system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tao, K. M.; Roberts, J. R.
1975-01-01
An analytical stability study and a digital simulation response study of two connected rigid bodies are documented. Relative rotation of the bodies at the connection is allowed, thereby providing a model suitable for studying system stability and response during a soft-dock regime. Provisions are made of a docking port axes alignment torque and a despin torque capability for encountering spinning payloads. Although the stability analysis is based on linearized equations, the digital simulation is based on nonlinear models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baskonus, Haci Mehmet; Bulut, Hasan
2015-10-01
In this study, we have studied to obtain some new analytical solutions to the (1 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear Dispersive Modified Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation by using modified exp-function method. We have submitted the general structure of modified exp-function method. We have founded some new analytical solutions such as hyperbolic and rational function solutions. Afterward, we have plotted 2D and 3D surfaces of analytical solutions obtained in this study by using computer programming wolfram Mathematica 9.
Laser scribe optimization study. Final report
Wannamaker, A.L.
1996-09-01
The laser scribe characterization/optimization project was initiated to better understand what factors influence response variables of the laser marking process. The laser marking system is utilized to indelibly identify weapon system components. Many components have limited field life, and traceability to production origin is critical. In many cases, the reliability of the weapon system and the safety of the users can be attributed to individual and subassembly component fabrication processes. Laser beam penetration of the substrate material may affect product function. The design agency for the DOE had requested that Federal Manufacturing and Technologies characterize the laser marking process and implement controls on critical process parameters.
A KBE-enabled design framework for cost/weight optimization study of aircraft composite structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, H.; La Rocca, G.; van Tooren, M. J. L.
2014-10-01
Traditionally, minimum weight is the objective when optimizing airframe structures. This optimization, however, does not consider the manufacturing cost which actually determines the profit of the airframe manufacturer. To this purpose, a design framework has been developed able to perform cost/weight multi-objective optimization of an aircraft component, including large topology variations of the structural configuration. The key element of the proposed framework is a dedicated knowledge based engineering (KBE) application, called multi-model generator, which enables modelling very different product configurations and variants and extract all data required to feed the weight and cost estimation modules, in a fully automated fashion. The weight estimation method developed in this research work uses Finite Element Analysis to calculate the internal stresses of the structural elements and an analytical composite plate sizing method to determine their minimum required thicknesses. The manufacturing cost estimation module was developed on the basis of a cost model available in literature. The capability of the framework was successfully demonstrated by designing and optimizing the composite structure of a business jet rudder. The study case indicates the design framework is able to find the Pareto optimal set for minimum structural weight and manufacturing costin a very quick way. Based on the Pareto set, the rudder manufacturer is in conditions to conduct both internal trade-off studies between minimum weight and minimum cost solutions, as well as to offer the OEM a full set of optimized options to choose, rather than one feasible design.
Collisional evolution - an analytical study for the non steady-state mass distribution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vieira Martins, R.
1999-05-01
To study the collisional evolution of asteroidal groups one can use an analytical solution for the self-similar collision cascades. This solution is suitable to study the steady-state mass distribution of the collisional fragmentation. However, out of the steady-state conditions, this solution is not satisfactory for some values of the collisional parameters. In fact, for some values for the exponent of the mass distribution power law of an asteroidal group and its relation to the exponent of the function which describes "how rocks break" the author arrives at singular points for the equation which describes the collisional evolution. These singularities appear since some approximations are usually made in the laborious evaluation of many integrals that appear in the analytical calculations. They concern the cutoff for the smallest and the largest bodies. These singularities set some restrictions to the study of the analytical solution for the collisional equation. To overcome these singularities the author performed an algebraic computation considering the smallest and the largest bodies and he obtained the analytical expressions for the integrals that describe the collisional evolution without restriction on the parameters. However, the new distribution is more sensitive to the values of the collisional parameters. In particular the steady-state solution for the differential mass distribution has exponents slightly different from 11/6 for the usual parameters in the asteroid belt. The sensitivity of this distribution with respect to the parameters is analyzed for the usual values in the asteroidal groups. With an expression for the mass distribution without singularities, one can evaluate also its time evolution. The author arrives at an analytical expression given by a power series of terms constituted by a small parameter multiplied by the mass to an exponent, which depends on the initial power law distribution. This expression is a formal solution for the
Aeroelastic Optimization Study Based on X-56A Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Wesley; Pak, Chan-Gi
2014-01-01
A design process which incorporates the object-oriented multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization (MDAO) tool and the aeroelastic effects of high fidelity finite element models to characterize the design space was successfully developed and established. Two multidisciplinary design optimization studies using an object-oriented MDAO tool developed at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center were presented. The first study demonstrates the use of aeroelastic tailoring concepts to minimize the structural weight while meeting the design requirements including strength, buckling, and flutter. A hybrid and discretization optimization approach was implemented to improve accuracy and computational efficiency of a global optimization algorithm. The second study presents a flutter mass balancing optimization study. The results provide guidance to modify the fabricated flexible wing design and move the design flutter speeds back into the flight envelope so that the original objective of X-56A flight test can be accomplished.
Ammar, Hafedh Belhadj; Brahim, Mabrouk Ben; Abdelhédi, Ridha; Samet, Youssef
2016-02-01
The performance of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode for the detection of metronidazole (MTZ) as the most important drug of the group of 5-nitroimidazole was proven using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) techniques. A comparison study between BDD, glassy carbon and silver electrodes on the electrochemical response was carried out. The process is pH-dependent. In neutral and alkaline media, one irreversible reduction peak related to the hydroxylamine derivative formation was registered, involving a total of four electrons. In acidic medium, a prepeak appears probably related to the adsorption affinity of hydroxylamine at the electrode surface. The BDD electrode showed higher sensitivity and reproducibility analytical response, compared with the other electrodes. The higher reduction peak current was registered at pH11. Under optimal conditions, a linear analytical curve was obtained for the MTZ concentration in the range of 0.2-4.2μmolL(-1), with a detection limit of 0.065μmolL(-1).
Gui, Lin; Ren, Carolyn L
2008-03-18
Joule heating is an inevitable phenomenon for microfluidic chips involving electrokinetic pumping, and it becomes a more important issue when chips are made of polymeric materials because of their low thermal conductivities. Therefore, it is very important to develop methods for evaluating Joule heating effects in microfluidic chips in a relatively easy manner. To this end, two analytical models have been established and solved using the Green's function for evaluating Joule heating effects on the temperature distribution in a microfluidic-based PCR chip. The first simplified model focuses on the understanding of Joule heating effects by ignoring the influences of the boundary conditions. The second model aims to consider practical experimental conditions. The analytical solutions to the two models are particularly useful in providing guidance for microfluidic chip design and operation prior to expensive chip fabrication and characterization. To validate the analytical solutions, a 3-D numerical model has also been developed and the simultaneous solution to this model allows the temperature distribution in a microfluidic PCR chip to be obtained, which is used to compare with the analytical results. The developed numerical model has been applied for parametric studies of Joule heating effects on the temperature control of microfluidic chips.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riveiro, Maria; Falkman, Göran; Ziemke, Tom; Kronhamn, Thomas
2009-05-01
The goal of visual analytical tools is to support the analytical reasoning process, maximizing human perceptual, understanding and reasoning capabilities in complex and dynamic situations. Visual analytics software must be built upon an understanding of the reasoning process, since it must provide appropriate interactions that allow a true discourse with the information. In order to deepen our understanding of the human analytical process and guide developers in the creation of more efficient anomaly detection systems, this paper investigates how is the human analytical process of detecting and identifying anomalous behavior in maritime traffic data. The main focus of this work is to capture the entire analysis process that an analyst goes through, from the raw data to the detection and identification of anomalous behavior. Three different sources are used in this study: a literature survey of the science of analytical reasoning, requirements specified by experts from organizations with interest in port security and user field studies conducted in different marine surveillance control centers. Furthermore, this study elaborates on how to support the human analytical process using data mining, visualization and interaction methods. The contribution of this paper is twofold: (1) within visual analytics, contribute to the science of analytical reasoning with practical understanding of users tasks in order to develop a taxonomy of interactions that support the analytical reasoning process and (2) within anomaly detection, facilitate the design of future anomaly detector systems when fully automatic approaches are not viable and human participation is needed.
Experimental and analytical studies of high heat flux components for fusion experimental reactor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Araki, Masanori
1993-03-01
In this report, the experimental and analytical results concerning the development of plasma facing components of ITER are described. With respect to developing high heat removal structures for the divertor plates, an externally-finned swirl tube was developed based on the results of critical heat flux (CHF) experiments on various tube structures. As the result, the burnout heat flux, which also indicates incident CHF, of 41 (+/-) 1 MW/sq m was achieved in the externally-finned swirl tube. The applicability of existing CHF correlations based on uniform heating conditions was evaluated by comparing the CHF experimental data with the smooth and the externally-finned tubes under one-sided heating condition. As the results, experimentally determined CHF data for straight tube show good agreement, for the externally-finned tube, no existing correlations are available for prediction of the CHF. With respect to the evaluation of the bonds between carbon-based material and heat sink metal, results of brazing tests were compared with the analytical results by three dimensional model with temperature-dependent thermal and mechanical properties. Analytical results showed that residual stresses from brazing can be estimated by the analytical three directional stress values instead of the equivalent stress value applied. In the analytical study on the separatrix sweeping for effectively reducing surface heat fluxes on the divertor plate, thermal response of the divertor plate was analyzed under ITER relevant heat flux conditions and has been tested. As the result, it has been demonstrated that application of the sweeping technique is very effective for improvement in the power handling capability of the divertor plate and that the divertor mock-up has withstood a large number of additional cyclic heat loads.
Experimental and analytical study of high velocity impact on Kevlar/Epoxy composite plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sikarwar, Rahul; Velmurugan, Raman; Madhu, Velmuri
2012-12-01
In the present study, impact behavior of Kevlar/Epoxy composite plates has been carried out experimentally by considering different thicknesses and lay-up sequences and compared with analytical results. The effect of thickness, lay-up sequence on energy absorbing capacity has been studied for high velocity impact. Four lay-up sequences and four thickness values have been considered. Initial velocities and residual velocities are measured experimentally to calculate the energy absorbing capacity of laminates. Residual velocity of projectile and energy absorbed by laminates are calculated analytically. The results obtained from analytical study are found to be in good agreement with experimental results. It is observed from the study that 0/90 lay-up sequence is most effective for impact resistance. Delamination area is maximum on the back side of the plate for all thickness values and lay-up sequences. The delamination area on the back is maximum for 0/90/45/-45 laminates compared to other lay-up sequences.
Vandermause, Roxanne; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Fritz, Roschelle
2014-12-01
This multimethod, qualitative study provides results for educators of nursing doctoral students to consider. Combining the expertise of an empirical analytical researcher (who uses statistical methods) and an interpretive phenomenological researcher (who uses hermeneutic methods), a course was designed that would place doctoral students in the midst of multiparadigmatic discussions while learning fundamental research methods. Field notes and iterative analytical discussions led to patterns and themes that highlight the value of this innovative pedagogical application. Using content analysis and interpretive phenomenological approaches, together with one of the students, data were analyzed from field notes recorded in real time over the period the course was offered. This article describes the course and the study analysis, and offers the pedagogical experience as transformative. A link to a sample syllabus is included in the article. The results encourage nurse educators of doctoral nursing students to focus educational practice on multiple methodological perspectives.
Game analytics for game user research, part 1: a workshop review and case study.
El-Nasr, Magy Seif; Desurvire, Heather; Aghabeigi, Bardia; Drachen, Anders
2013-01-01
The emerging field of game user research (GUR) investigates interaction between players and games and the surrounding context of play. Game user researchers have explored methods from, for example, human-computer interaction, psychology, interaction design, media studies, and the social sciences. They've extended and modified these methods for different types of digital games, such as social games, casual games, and serious games. This article focuses on quantitative analytics of in-game behavioral user data and its emergent use by the GUR community. The article outlines open problems emerging from several GUR workshops. In addition, a case study of a current collaboration between researchers and a game company demonstrates game analytics' use and benefits.
Hein, A; Tsolakidou, A; Iliopoulos, I; Mommsen, H; Buxeda i Garrigós, J; Montana, G; Kilikoglou, V
2002-04-01
Chemical analysis is a well-established procedure for the provenancing of archaeological ceramics. Various analytical techniques are routinely used and large amounts of data have been accumulated so far in data banks. However, in order to exchange results obtained by different laboratories, the respective analytical procedures need to be tested in terms of their inter-comparability. In this study, the schemes of analysis used in four laboratories that are involved in archaeological pottery studies on a routine basis were compared. The techniques investigated were neutron activation analysis (NAA), X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For this comparison series of measurements on different geological standard reference materials (SRM) were carried out and the results were statistically evaluated. An attempt was also made towards the establishment of calibration factors between pairs of analytical setups in order to smooth the systematic differences among the results.
An analytical model for studying two-mode fibers: Splice loss prediction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thyagarajan, K.; Gupta, Amita; Pal, B. P.; Ghatak, A. K.
1982-06-01
In this paper we present a simple analytical model for the modal fields of an arbitrary graded index core two mode fiber and use it to study loss and mode conversion at a splice. The model is simple enough to obtain the modal field distributions and predict splice loss across jointed two-mode fiber links within a few percent accuracy on a pocket programable calculator.
Terekhov, Alexander V; Pesin, Yakov B; Niu, Xun; Latash, Mark L; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M
2010-09-01
We consider the problem of what is being optimized in human actions with respect to various aspects of human movements and different motor tasks. From the mathematical point of view this problem consists of finding an unknown objective function given the values at which it reaches its minimum. This problem is called the inverse optimization problem. Until now the main approach to this problems has been the cut-and-try method, which consists of introducing an objective function and checking how it reflects the experimental data. Using this approach, different objective functions have been proposed for the same motor action. In the current paper we focus on inverse optimization problems with additive objective functions and linear constraints. Such problems are typical in human movement science. The problem of muscle (or finger) force sharing is an example. For such problems we obtain sufficient conditions for uniqueness and propose a method for determining the objective functions. To illustrate our method we analyze the problem of force sharing among the fingers in a grasping task. We estimate the objective function from the experimental data and show that it can predict the force-sharing pattern for a vast range of external forces and torques applied to the grasped object. The resulting objective function is quadratic with essentially non-zero linear terms.
Pesin, Yakov B.; Niu, Xun; Latash, Mark L.
2010-01-01
We consider the problem of what is being optimized in human actions with respect to various aspects of human movements and different motor tasks. From the mathematical point of view this problem consists of finding an unknown objective function given the values at which it reaches its minimum. This problem is called the inverse optimization problem. Until now the main approach to this problems has been the cut-and-try method, which consists of introducing an objective function and checking how it reflects the experimental data. Using this approach, different objective functions have been proposed for the same motor action. In the current paper we focus on inverse optimization problems with additive objective functions and linear constraints. Such problems are typical in human movement science. The problem of muscle (or finger) force sharing is an example. For such problems we obtain sufficient conditions for uniqueness and propose a method for determining the objective functions. To illustrate our method we analyze the problem of force sharing among the fingers in a grasping task. We estimate the objective function from the experimental data and show that it can predict the force-sharing pattern for a vast range of external forces and torques applied to the grasped object. The resulting objective function is quadratic with essentially non-zero linear terms. PMID:19902213
An analytical study on the carrier-phase linear combinations for triple-frequency GNSS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jinlong; Yang, Yuanxi; He, Haibo; Guo, Hairong
2017-02-01
The linear combinations of multi-frequency carrier-phase measurements for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) are greatly beneficial to improving the performance of ambiguity resolution (AR), cycle slip correction as well as precise positioning. In this contribution, the existing definitions of the carrier-phase linear combination are reviewed and the integer property of the resulting ambiguity of the phase linear combinations is examined. The general analytical method for solving the optimal integer linear combinations for all triple-frequency GNSS is presented. Three refined triple-frequency integer combinations solely determined by the frequency values are introduced, which are the ionosphere-free (IF) combination that the Sum of its integer coefficients equal to 0 (IFS0), the geometry-free (GF) combination that the Sum of its integer coefficients equal to 0 (GFS0) and the geometry-free and ionosphere-free (GFIF) combination. Besides, the optimal GF, IF, extra-wide lane and ionosphere-reduced integer combinations for GPS and BDS are solved exhaustively by the presented method. Their potential applications in cycle slip detection, AR as well as precise positioning are discussed. At last, a more straightforward GF and IF AR scheme than the existing method is presented based on the GFIF integer combination.
Analytical bunch compression studies for a linac-based electron accelerator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schreck, M.; Wesolowski, P.
2015-10-01
The current paper deals with analytical bunch compression studies for FLUTE whose results are compared to simulations. FLUTE is a linac-based electron accelerator with a design energy of approximately 40 MeV currently being constructed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. One of the goals of FLUTE is to generate electron bunches with their length lying in the femtosecond regime. In the first phase this will be accomplished using a magnetic bunch compressor. This compressor forms the subject of the studies presented. The paper is divided into two parts. The first part deals with pure geometric investigations of the bunch compressor where space charge effects and the backreaction of bunches with coherent synchrotron radiation are neglected. The second part is dedicated to the treatment of space charge effects. The upshot is that the analytical results in the two parts agree quite well with what is obtained from simulations. This paper shall form the basis for future analytical studies of the FLUTE bunch compressor and of bunch compression, in general.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Starbuck, J. Michael; Guerdal, Zafer; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Poe, Clarence C.
1990-01-01
Damage states in laminated composites were studied by considering the model problem of a laminated beam subjected to three-point bending. A combination of experimental and theoretical research techniques was used to correlate the experimental results with the analytical stress distributions. The analytical solution procedure was based on the stress formulation approach of the mathematical theory of elasticity. The solution procedure is capable of calculating the ply-level stresses and beam displacements for any laminated beam of finite length using the generalized plane deformation or plane stress state assumption. Prior to conducting the experimental phase, the results from preliminary analyses were examined. Significant effects in the ply-level stress distributions were seen depending on the fiber orientation, aspect ratio, and whether or not a grouped or interspersed stacking sequence was used. The experimental investigation was conducted to determine the different damage modes in laminated three-point bend specimens. The test matrix consisted of three-point bend specimens of 0 deg unidirectional, cross-ply, and quasi-isotropic stacking sequences. The dependence of the damage initiation loads and ultimate failure loads were studied, and their relation to damage susceptibility and damage tolerance of the mean configuration was discussed. Damage modes were identified by visual inspection of the damaged specimens using an optical microscope. The four fundamental damage mechanisms identified were delaminations, matrix cracking, fiber breakage, and crushing. The correlation study between the experimental results and the analytical results were performed for the midspan deflection, indentation, damage modes, and damage susceptibility.
Aguiar, Pablo; Lois, Cristina
2012-01-01
Positron emission mammography (PEM) cameras are novel-dedicated PET systems optimized to image the breast. For these cameras it is essential to achieve an optimum trade-off between sensitivity and spatial resolution and therefore the main challenge for the novel cameras is to improve the sensitivity without degrading the spatial resolution. We carry out an analytical study of the effect of the different detector geometries on the photon sensitivity and the angle of incidence of the detected photons which is related to the DOI effect and therefore to the intrinsic spatial resolution. To this end, dual head detectors were compared to box and different polygon-detector configurations. Our results showed that higher sensitivity and uniformity were found for box and polygon-detector configurations compared to dual-head cameras. Thus, the optimal configuration in terms of sensitivity is a PEM scanner based on a polygon of twelve (dodecagon) or more detectors. We have shown that this configuration is clearly superior to dual-head detectors and slightly higher than box, octagon, and hexagon detectors. Nevertheless, DOI effects are increased for this configuration compared to dual head and box scanners and therefore an accurate compensation for this effect is required. PMID:23049553
Analytical study of the liquid phase transient behavior of a high temperature heat pipe. M.S. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roche, Gregory Lawrence
1988-01-01
The transient operation of the liquid phase of a high temperature heat pipe is studied. The study was conducted in support of advanced heat pipe applications that require reliable transport of high temperature drops and significant distances under a broad spectrum of operating conditions. The heat pipe configuration studied consists of a sealed cylindrical enclosure containing a capillary wick structure and sodium working fluid. The wick is an annular flow channel configuration formed between the enclosure interior wall and a concentric cylindrical tube of fine pore screen. The study approach is analytical through the solution of the governing equations. The energy equation is solved over the pipe wall and liquid region using the finite difference Peaceman-Rachford alternating direction implicit numerical method. The continuity and momentum equations are solved over the liquid region by the integral method. The energy equation and liquid dynamics equation are tightly coupled due to the phase change process at the liquid-vapor interface. A kinetic theory model is used to define the phase change process in terms of the temperature jump between the liquid-vapor surface and the bulk vapor. Extensive auxiliary relations, including sodium properties as functions of temperature, are used to close the analytical system. The solution procedure is implemented in a FORTRAN algorithm with some optimization features to take advantage of the IBM System/370 Model 3090 vectorization facility. The code was intended for coupling to a vapor phase algorithm so that the entire heat pipe problem could be solved. As a test of code capabilities, the vapor phase was approximated in a simple manner.
Integrative Spatial Data Analytics for Public Health Studies of New York State
Chen, Xin; Wang, Fusheng
2016-01-01
Increased accessibility of health data made available by the government provides unique opportunity for spatial analytics with much higher resolution to discover patterns of diseases, and their correlation with spatial impact indicators. This paper demonstrated our vision of integrative spatial analytics for public health by linking the New York Cancer Mapping Dataset with datasets containing potential spatial impact indicators. We performed spatial based discovery of disease patterns and variations across New York State, and identify potential correlations between diseases and demographic, socio-economic and environmental indicators. Our methods were validated by three correlation studies: the correlation between stomach cancer and Asian race, the correlation between breast cancer and high education population, and the correlation between lung cancer and air toxics. Our work will allow public health researchers, government officials or other practitioners to adequately identify, analyze, and monitor health problems at the community or neighborhood level for New York State. PMID:28269834
Light propagation in media with a highly nonlinear response: An analytical study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tatarinova, Larisa L.; Garcia, Martin E.
2011-04-01
The problem of light propagation in highly nonlinear media is studied with the help of a recently introduced systematic approach to the analytical solution of equations of nonlinear optics [L.L. Tatarinova, M.E. Garcia, Exact solutions of the eikonal equations describing self-focusing in highly nonlinear geometrical optics, Phys. Rev. A 78 (2008) 021806(R)(1-4)]. Numerous particular cases of media exhibiting high-order nonlinear refractive indices are considered. We obtain analytical expressions for determining the self-focusing position and a new exact expression for calculating the filament intensity. The constructed solutions allowed us to revise a so-called self-focusing scaling law, i.e., the functional dependence of the self-focusing position on the initial light peak intensity. It was demonstrated that this dependence is governed by the form of the nonlinear refractive index and not by the laser beam shape at the boundary.
Mohd Sultan, Norfazila; Johan, Mohd Rafie
2014-01-01
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) had been synthesized with various molarities and weights of reducing agent, monosodium glutamate (MSG), and stabilizer chitosan, respectively. The significance of chitosan as stabilizer was distinguished through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and UV-Vis absorption spectra in which the interparticles distance increases whilst retaining the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) characteristics peak. The most stable AuNPs occurred for composition with the lowest (1 g) weight of chitosan. AuNPs capped with chitosan size stayed small after 1 month aging compared to bare AuNPs. The ability of chitosan capped AuNPs to uptake analyte was studied by employing amorphous carbon nanotubes (α-CNT), copper oxide (Cu2O), and zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) as the target material. The absorption spectra showed dramatic intensity increased and red shifted once the analyte was added to the chitosan capped AuNPs.
Analytical study of subthreshold behaviour of double gate bilayer graphene field effect transistors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saeidmanesh, M.; Khaledian, M.; Ghadiry, M.; Ismail, Razali
2014-11-01
In this paper, several analytical models have been developed for 2-D potential distribution, subthreshold current, drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL), and subthreshold-slope (SS) to study the subthreshold behaviour of bilayer graphene filed effect transistors (BLG-FETs). The models are grounded on the basis of the exact solution of the two-dimensional Poisson’s equation while the quantum capacitance effect has been considered throughout the models. The accuracy of the potential distribution model is verified by its analytical results that agree well with those of the FlexPDE Poisson's equation solver program. In addition, the effects of the channel length, the oxide thickness, quantum capacitance, and gate biases on subthreshold parameters of BLG-FETs have been explored and the results are compared with those of the silicon FETs.
Analytic study of three-dimensional single cell migration with and without proteolytic enzymes
Chisholm, Rebecca H.; Hughes, Barry D.; Landman, Kerry A.; Zaman, Muhammad H.
2012-01-01
Cell motility is a fundamental physiological process that regulates cellular fate in healthy and diseased systems. Cells cultured in 3D environments often exhibit biphasic dependence of migration speed with cell adhesion. Much is not understood about this very common behavior. A phenomenological model for 3D single-cell migration that exhibits biphasic behavior and highlights the important role of steric hindrance is developed and studied analytically. Changes in the biphasic behavior in the presence of proteolytic enzymes are investigated. Our methods produce a framework to determine analytic formulae for the mean cell speed, allowing general statements in terms of parameters to be explored, which will be useful when interpreting future experimental results. Our formula for mean cell speed as a function of ligand concentration generalizes and extends previous computational models that have shown good agreement with in vitro experiments. PMID:24348878
Molecular motion in cell membranes: Analytic study of fence-hindered random walks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kenkre, V. M.; Giuggioli, L.; Kalay, Z.
2008-05-01
A theoretical calculation is presented to describe the confined motion of transmembrane molecules in cell membranes. The study is analytic, based on Master equations for the probability of the molecules moving as random walkers, and leads to explicit usable solutions including expressions for the molecular mean square displacement and effective diffusion constants. One outcome is a detailed understanding of the dependence of the time variation of the mean square displacement on the initial placement of the molecule within the confined region. How to use the calculations is illustrated by extracting (confinement) compartment sizes from experimentally reported published observations from single particle tracking experiments on the diffusion of gold-tagged G -protein coupled μ -opioid receptors in the normal rat kidney cell membrane, and by further comparing the analytical results to observations on the diffusion of phospholipids, also in normal rat kidney cells.
Integrative Spatial Data Analytics for Public Health Studies of New York State.
Chen, Xin; Wang, Fusheng
2016-01-01
Increased accessibility of health data made available by the government provides unique opportunity for spatial analytics with much higher resolution to discover patterns of diseases, and their correlation with spatial impact indicators. This paper demonstrated our vision of integrative spatial analytics for public health by linking the New York Cancer Mapping Dataset with datasets containing potential spatial impact indicators. We performed spatial based discovery of disease patterns and variations across New York State, and identify potential correlations between diseases and demographic, socio-economic and environmental indicators. Our methods were validated by three correlation studies: the correlation between stomach cancer and Asian race, the correlation between breast cancer and high education population, and the correlation between lung cancer and air toxics. Our work will allow public health researchers, government officials or other practitioners to adequately identify, analyze, and monitor health problems at the community or neighborhood level for New York State.
Mohd Sultan, Norfazila
2014-01-01
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) had been synthesized with various molarities and weights of reducing agent, monosodium glutamate (MSG), and stabilizer chitosan, respectively. The significance of chitosan as stabilizer was distinguished through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and UV-Vis absorption spectra in which the interparticles distance increases whilst retaining the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) characteristics peak. The most stable AuNPs occurred for composition with the lowest (1 g) weight of chitosan. AuNPs capped with chitosan size stayed small after 1 month aging compared to bare AuNPs. The ability of chitosan capped AuNPs to uptake analyte was studied by employing amorphous carbon nanotubes (α-CNT), copper oxide (Cu2O), and zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) as the target material. The absorption spectra showed dramatic intensity increased and red shifted once the analyte was added to the chitosan capped AuNPs. PMID:25215315
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, L. X.; Li, K.
2015-08-01
Existing droplet evaporation/combustion models in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of spray combustion are based on simplified 1-D models. Both these models and recently developed 3-D models of single-droplet combustion do not give the conditions for the different existing droplet combustion modes. In this paper, droplet evaporation and combustion are studied both analytically and numerically. In the analytical solution, a 2-D axisymmetric flow surrounding an evaporating and combusting droplet was considered. The governing equations were solved using an integral method, similar to the Karman-Pohlhausen method for solving boundary-layer flows with pressure gradient. The results give a local evaporation rate and flame radius in agreement with experimental results. In numerical simulation, 3-D combusting gas flows surrounding an ethanol droplet were studied. The prediction results show three modes of droplet combustion under different relative velocities, explaining the change in the evaporation constant with an increase in relative velocity observed in experiments. This implies that different droplet combustion models should be developed in simulating spray combustion. The predicted local evaporation rate and flame radius by numerical simulation are in agreement with the analytical solution in the range of azimuthal angles . The numerical results indicate that the drag force of an evaporating and combusting droplet is much smaller than that of a cold solid particle, and thus the currently used drag models should be modified.
A semi-analytical study of positive corona discharge in wire-plane electrode configuration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yanallah, K.; Pontiga, F.; Chen, J. H.
2013-08-01
Wire-to-plane positive corona discharge in air has been studied using an analytical model of two species (electrons and positive ions). The spatial distributions of electric field and charged species are obtained by integrating Gauss's law and the continuity equations of species along the Laplacian field lines. The experimental values of corona current intensity and applied voltage, together with Warburg's law, have been used to formulate the boundary condition for the electron density on the corona wire. To test the accuracy of the model, the approximate electric field distribution has been compared with the exact numerical solution obtained from a finite element analysis. A parametrical study of wire-to-plane corona discharge has then been undertaken using the approximate semi-analytical solutions. Thus, the spatial distributions of electric field and charged particles have been computed for different values of the gas pressure, wire radius and electrode separation. Also, the two dimensional distribution of ozone density has been obtained using a simplified plasma chemistry model. The approximate semi-analytical solutions can be evaluated in a negligible computational time, yet provide precise estimates of corona discharge variables.
Optimal Trend Tests for Genetic Association Studies of Heterogeneous Diseases
Lee, Wen-Chung
2016-01-01
The Cochran-Armitage trend test is a standard procedure in genetic association studies. It is a directed test with high power to detect genetic effects that follow the gene-dosage model. In this paper, the author proposes optimal trend tests for genetic association studies of heterogeneous diseases. Monte-Carlo simulations show that the power gain of the optimal trend tests over the conventional Cochran-Armitage trend test is striking when the genetic effects are heterogeneous. The easy-to-use R 3.1.2 software (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) code is provided. The optimal trend tests are recommended for routine use. PMID:27278756
Facile and innovative method for bioglass surface modification: Optimization studies.
Lopes, João Henrique; Fonseca, Emanuella Maria Barreto; Mazali, Italo O; Magalhães, Alviclér; Landers, Richard; Bertran, Celso Aparecido
2017-03-01
In this work it is presented a facile and novel method for modification of bioglass surface based on (Camolten salt bath(2+)|Naglass(+)) ion exchange by immersion in molten salt bath. This method allows changing selectively the chemical composition of a surface layer of glass, creating a new and more reactive bioglass in a shell that surrounds the unchanged bulk of the original BG45S5 bioglass (core-shell type system). The modified bioglass conserves the non-crystalline structure of BG45S5 bioglass and presents a significant increase of surface reactivity in comparison with BG45S5. Melt-derived bioactive glasses BG45S5 with the nominal composition of 46.1mol% SiO2, 24.4mol% Na2O, 26.9mol% CaO, and 2.6mol% P2O5 have been subjected to ion exchange at 480°C in molten mixture of Ca(NO3)2 and NaNO3 with molar ratio of 70:30 for different time periods ranging from 0 to 60min. The optimization studies by using XRF and XRD showed that ion exchange time of 30min is enough to achieve higher changes on the glass surface without alters its non-crystalline structure. The chemical composition, morphology and structure of BG45S5 and bioglass with modified surface were studied by using several analytical techniques. FTIR and O1s XPS results showed that the modification of glass surface favors the formation of Si-ONBO groups at the expense of SiOBOSi bonds. (29)Si MAS-NMR studies showed that the connectivity of SiQ(n) species decreases from cross-linked SiQ(3) units to chain-like SiQ(2) units and finally to depolymerized SiQ(1) and SiQ(0) units after ion exchange. This result is consistent with the chemical model based on the enrichment with calcium ions of the bioglass surface such that the excess of positive charges is balanced by depolymerization of silicate network. The pH changes in the early steps of reaction of bioactive glasses BG45S5 and BG45Ca30, in deionized water or solutions buffered with HEPES were investigated. BG45Ca30 bioactive glass exhibited a significant
Publication bias in studies of an applied behavior-analytic intervention: an initial analysis.
Sham, Elyssa; Smith, Tristram
2014-01-01
Publication bias arises when studies with favorable results are more likely to be reported than are studies with null findings. If this bias occurs in studies with single-subject experimental designs(SSEDs) on applied behavior-analytic (ABA) interventions, it could lead to exaggerated estimates of intervention effects. Therefore, we conducted an initial test of bias by comparing effect sizes, measured by percentage of nonoverlapping data (PND), in published SSED studies (n=21) and unpublished dissertations (n=10) on 1 well-established intervention for children with autism, pivotal response treatment (PRT). Although published and unpublished studies had similar methodologies, the mean PND in published studies was 22% higher than in unpublished studies, 95% confidence interval (4%, 38%). Even when unpublished studies are included, PRT appeared to be effective (PNDM=62%). Nevertheless, the disparity between published and unpublished studies suggests a need for further assessment of publication bias in the ABA literature.
Do dental students use optimal study strategies?
McAndrew, Maureen; Kamboj, Rajit S; Pierre, Gaëlle C
2015-01-01
Research on human learning has shown that repeated retrieval practice or self-testing maximizes learning. However, recent studies have found undergraduate students to be largely unaware of the benefits of self-testing. The aim of this study was to examine dental students' study strategies and utilization of retrieval techniques for learning. All second-year dental students at New York University College of Dentistry were invited to participate. Of the total 360 students, 66 completed the two-question survey, for a response rate of 18.3%. The first question asked students to choose from a list of twelve study strategies the ones they used and to rank their top five in order of personal preference. Repeated reading was the most frequently used strategy with 83.3% of students reporting that they used it and 43.9% naming it as their top strategy. Of these students, 45.5% indicated that they self-tested while studying, but none indicated it was their number one strategy. The second question asked students how they would study after reading a textbook chapter for the first time. They were asked to choose one option from three possibilities: going back and restudying, self-testing (with the possibility of restudying afterward), or some other strategy. On this question, 25.8% chose restudying, 45.5% chose self-testing, and 28.8% indicated they would use another study strategy. Thus, 54.6% of the students reported they would not test themselves after reading a textbook chapter. Of those who chose self-testing, only seven students indicated they would do so to improve learning. The results of this study suggest that the students lacked sufficient awareness of the superiority of self-testing for learning.
Optimizing Crystal Volume for Neutron Diffraction Studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Snell, E. H.
2003-01-01
For structural studies with neutron diffraction more intense neutron sources, improved sensitivity detector and larger volume crystals are all means by which the science is being advanced to enable studies on a wider range of samples. We have chosen a simplistic approach using a well understood crystallization method, with minimal amounts of sample and using design of experiment techniques to maximize the crystal volume all for minimum effort. Examples of the application are given.
A study of commuter airplane design optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roskam, J.; Wyatt, R. D.; Griswold, D. A.; Hammer, J. L.
1977-01-01
Problems of commuter airplane configuration design were studied to affect a minimization of direct operating costs. Factors considered were the minimization of fuselage drag, methods of wing design, and the estimated drag of an airplane submerged in a propellor slipstream; all design criteria were studied under a set of fixed performance, mission, and stability constraints. Configuration design data were assembled for application by a computerized design methodology program similar to the NASA-Ames General Aviation Synthesis Program.
Seamless Digital Environment – Plan for Data Analytics Use Case Study
Oxstrand, Johanna; Bly, Aaron
2016-09-01
The U.S Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program initiated research in to what is needed in order to provide a roadmap or model for Nuclear Power Plants to reference when building an architecture that can support the growing data supply and demand flowing through their networks. The Digital Architecture project published report Digital Architecture Planning Model (Oxstrand et. al, 2016) discusses things to consider when building an architecture to support the increasing needs and demands of data throughout the plant. Once the plant is able to support the data demands it still needs to be able to provide the data in an easy, quick and reliable method. A common method is to create a “one stop shop” application that a user can go to get all the data they need. The creation of this leads to the need of creating a Seamless Digital Environment (SDE) to integrate all the “siloed” data. An SDE is the desired perception that should be presented to users by gathering the data from any data source (e.g., legacy applications and work management systems) without effort by the user. The goal for FY16 was to complete a feasibility study for data mining and analytics for employing information from computer-based procedures enabled technologies for use in developing improved business analytics. The research team collaborated with multiple organizations to identify use cases or scenarios, which could be beneficial to investigate in a feasibility study. Many interesting potential use cases were identified throughout the FY16 activity. Unfortunately, due to factors out of the research team’s control, none of the studies were initiated this year. However, the insights gained and the relationships built with both PVNGS and NextAxiom will be valuable when moving forward with future research. During the 2016 annual Nuclear Information Technology Strategic Leadership (NITSL) group meeting it was identified would be very beneficial to the industry to
Optimal design strategies for sibling studies with binary exposures.
Li, Zhigang; McKeague, Ian W; Lumey, Lambert H
2014-01-01
Sibling studies have become increasingly popular because they provide better control over confounding by unmeasured family-level risk factors than can be obtained in standard cohort studies. However, little attention has been devoted to the development of efficient design strategies for sibling studies in terms of optimizing power. We here address this issue in commonly encountered types of sibling studies, allowing for continuous and binary outcomes and varying numbers of exposed and unexposed siblings. For continuous outcomes, we show that in families with sibling pairs, optimal study power is obtained by recruiting discordant (exposed-control) pairs of siblings. More generally, balancing the exposure status within each family as evenly as possible is shown to be optimal. For binary outcomes, we elucidate how the optimal strategy depends on the variation of the binary response; as the within-family correlation increases, the optimal strategy tends toward only recruiting discordant sibling pairs (as in the case of continuous outcomes). R code for obtaining the optimal strategies is included.
Analytical study of stresses recorded in the DH 2011 rotor blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kretz, M.; Aubrun, J. N.; Larche, M.
1973-01-01
An analytical study of stresses in the blades recorded during the tests of the DH 2011 jet flap rotor was performed. The main objective of the study was to compare the experimental results with analyticaly determined stresses. The comparison extended over 15 specific flight cases has been only partially successful. In fact computed 3P and 4P stress components showed only a poor correlation with the test data obtained. It is believed that the simplified model of aeroelastic effects used is mainly responsible for this lack of agreement with test results.
Not Available
2006-06-01
In the Analytical Microscopy group, within the National Center for Photovoltaic's Measurements and Characterization Division, we combine two complementary areas of analytical microscopy--electron microscopy and proximal-probe techniques--and use a variety of state-of-the-art imaging and analytical tools. We also design and build custom instrumentation and develop novel techniques that provide unique capabilities for studying materials and devices. In our work, we collaborate with you to solve materials- and device-related R&D problems. This sheet summarizes the uses and features of four major tools: transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, the dual-beam focused-ion-beam workstation, and scanning probe microscopy.
Barati, Ali; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Arkan, Elham; Hosseinzadeh, Leila; Abdollahi, Hamid
2015-02-01
Herein, a facile hydrothermal treatment of lime juice to prepare biocompatible nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CQDs) in the presence of ammonium bicarbonate as a nitrogen source has been presented. The resulting N-CQDs exhibited excitation and pH independent emission behavior; with the quantum yield (QY) up to 40%, which was several times greater than the corresponding value for CQDs with no added nitrogen source. The N-CQDs were applied as a fluorescent probe for the sensitive and selective detection of Hg(2+) ions with a detection limit of 14 nM. Moreover, the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of N-CQDs at different concentration ranges from 0.0 to 0.8 mg/ml were investigated by using PC12 cells as a model system. Response surface methodology was used for optimization and systematic investigation of the main variables that influence the QY, including reaction time, reaction temperature, and ammonium bicarbonate weight.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rais-Rohani, Masoud
1991-01-01
In this paper an effort is made to improve the analytical open-loop flutter predictions for the Active Flexible Wing wind-tunnel model using a sensitivity based optimization approach. The sensitivity derivatives of the flutter frequency and dynamic pressure of the model with respect to the lag terms appearing in the Roger's unsteady aerodynamics approximations are evaluated both analytical and by finite differences. Then, the Levenberg-Marquardt method is used to find the optimum values for these lag-terms. The results obtained here agree much better with the experimental (wind tunnel) results than those found in the previous studies.
Power supply standardization and optimization study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ware, C. L.; Ragusa, E. V.
1972-01-01
A comprehensive design study of a power supply for use in the space shuttle and other space flight applications is presented. The design specifications are established for a power supply capable of supplying over 90 percent of the anticipated voltage requirements for future spacecraft avionics systems. Analyses and tradeoff studies were performed on several alternative design approaches to assure that the selected design would provide near optimum performance of the planned applications. The selected design uses a dc-to-dc converter incorporating regenerative current feedback with a time-ratio controlled duty cycle to achieve high efficiency over a wide variation in input voltage and output loads. The packaging concept uses an expandable mainframe capable of accommodating up to six inverter/regulator modules with one common input filter module.
The major analytical components of the Second Prospective Study are shown on this page. For other major components of the study, supporting technical reports are available which provide additional technical information.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yttri, K. E.; Schnelle-Kreiss, J.; Maenhaut, W.; Alves, C.; Bossi, R.; Bjerke, A.; Claeys, M.; Dye, C.; Evtyugina, M.; García-Gacio, D.; Gülcin, A.; Hillamo, R.; Hoffer, A.; Hyder, M.; Iinuma, Y.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Kiss, G.; López-Mahia, P. L.; Pio, C.; Piot, C.; Ramirez-Santa-Cruz, C.; Sciare, J.; Teinilä, K.; Vermeylen, R.; Vicente, A.; Zimmermann, R.
2014-07-01
The monosaccharide anhydrides (MAs) levoglucosan, galactosan and mannosan are products of incomplete combustion and pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses, and are found to be major constituents of biomass burning aerosol particles. Hence, ambient aerosol particle concentrations of levoglucosan are commonly used to study the influence of residential wood burning, agricultural waste burning and wild fire emissions on ambient air quality. A European-wide intercomparison on the analysis of the three monosaccharide anhydrides was conducted based on ambient aerosol quartz fiber filter samples collected at a Norwegian urban background site during winter. Thus, the samples' content of MAs is representative for biomass burning particles originating from residential wood burning. The purpose of the intercomparison was to examine the comparability of the great diversity of analytical methods used for analysis of levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan in ambient aerosol filter samples. Thirteen laboratories participated, of which three applied High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography (HPAEC), four used High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) or Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC), and six resorted to Gas Chromatography (GC). The analytical methods used were of such diversity that they should be considered as thirteen different analytical methods. All of the thirteen laboratories reported levels of levoglucosan, whereas nine reported data for mannosan and/or galactosan. Eight of the thirteen laboratories reported levels for all three isomers. The accuracy for levoglucosan, presented as the mean percentage error (PE) for each participating laboratory, varied from -63 to 23%; however, for 62% of the laboratories the mean PE was within ±10%, and for 85% the mean PE was within ±20%. For mannosan, the corresponding range was -60 to 69%, but as for levoglucosan, the range was substantially smaller for a subselection of the laboratories; i.e., for 33% of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yttri, K. E.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.; Maenhaut, W.; Abbaszade, G.; Alves, C.; Bjerke, A.; Bonnier, N.; Bossi, R.; Claeys, M.; Dye, C.; Evtyugina, M.; García-Gacio, D.; Hillamo, R.; Hoffer, A.; Hyder, M.; Iinuma, Y.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Kiss, G.; López-Mahia, P. L.; Pio, C.; Piot, C.; Ramirez-Santa-Cruz, C.; Sciare, J.; Teinilä, K.; Vermeylen, R.; Vicente, A.; Zimmermann, R.
2015-01-01
The monosaccharide anhydrides (MAs) levoglucosan, galactosan and mannosan are products of incomplete combustion and pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses, and are found to be major constituents of biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles. Hence, ambient aerosol particle concentrations of levoglucosan are commonly used to study the influence of residential wood burning, agricultural waste burning and wildfire emissions on ambient air quality. A European-wide intercomparison on the analysis of the three monosaccharide anhydrides was conducted based on ambient aerosol quartz fiber filter samples collected at a Norwegian urban background site during winter. Thus, the samples' content of MAs is representative for BB particles originating from residential wood burning. The purpose of the intercomparison was to examine the comparability of the great diversity of analytical methods used for analysis of levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan in ambient aerosol filter samples. Thirteen laboratories participated, of which three applied high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC), four used high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and six resorted to gas chromatography (GC). The analytical methods used were of such diversity that they should be considered as thirteen different analytical methods. All of the thirteen laboratories reported levels of levoglucosan, whereas nine reported data for mannosan and/or galactosan. Eight of the thirteen laboratories reported levels for all three isomers. The accuracy for levoglucosan, presented as the mean percentage error (PE) for each participating laboratory, varied from -63 to 20%; however, for 62% of the laboratories the mean PE was within ±10%, and for 85% the mean PE was within ±20%. For mannosan, the corresponding range was -60 to 69%, but as for levoglucosan, the range was substantially smaller for a subselection of the laboratories; i.e. for 33% of the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prasthofer, W. P.
1974-01-01
The key to optimization of design where there are a large number of variables, all of which may not be known precisely, lies in the mathematical tool of dynamic programming developed by Bellman. This methodology can lead to optimized solutions to the design of critical systems in a minimum amount of time, even when there are a great number of acceptable configurations to be considered. To demonstrate the usefulness of dynamic programming, an analytical method is developed for evaluating the relationship among existing numerous connector designs to find the optimum configuration. The data utilized in the study were generated from 900 flanges designed for six subsystems of the S-1B stage of the Saturn 1B space carrier vehicle.
HTGR-GT systems optimization studies
Kammerzell, L.L.; Read, J.W.
1980-06-01
The compatibility of the inherent features of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and the closed-cycle gas turbine combined into a power conversion system results in a plant with characteristics consistent with projected utility needs and national energy goals. These characteristics are: (1) plant siting flexibility; (2) high resource utilization; (3) low safety risks; (4) proliferation resistance; and (5) low occupational exposure for operating and maintenance personnel. System design and evaluation studies on dry-cooled intercooled and nonintercooled commercial plants in the 800-MW(e) to 1200-MW(e) size range are described, with emphasis on the sensitivity of plant design objectives to variation of component and plant design parameters. The impact of these parameters on fuel cycle, fission product release, total plant economics, sensitivity to escalation rates, and plant capacity factors is examined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gergely, Felicián; Osán, János; Szabó, B. Katalin; Török, Szabina
2016-02-01
Laboratory-scale microscopic X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) plays an increasingly important role in various fields where multielemental investigations of samples are indispensable. In case of geological samples, the reasonable detection limits (LOD) and spatial resolutions are necessary to identify the trace element content in microcrystalline level. The present study focuses on the analytical performance of a versatile laboratory-scale micro-XRF system with various options of X-ray sources and detectors to find the optimal experimental configuration in terms of sensitivities and LOD for selected elements in loaded petrographic thin sections. The method was tested for sorption studies involving thin sections prepared from cores of Boda Claystone Formation, which is a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. Loaded ions in the sorption measurements were Cs(I) and Ni(II) chemically representing fission and corrosion products. Based on the collected elemental maps, the correlation between the elements representative of main rock components and the selected loaded ion was studied. For the elements of interest, Cs(I) and Ni(II) low-power iMOXS source with polycapillary and silicon drift detector was found to be the best configuration to reach the optimal LOD values. Laboratory micro-XRF was excellent to identify the responsible key minerals for the uptake of Cs(I). In case of nickel, careful corrections were needed because of the relatively high Ca content of the rock samples. The results were compared to synchrotron radiation micro-XRF.
Levy, Jonathan I; Fabian, M Patricia; Peters, Junenette L
2015-06-01
For many policy analyses, including but not limited to cumulative risk assessments, it is important to characterize the individual and joint health effects of multiple stressors. With an increasing focus on psychosocial and other nonchemical stressors, this often includes epidemiological meta-analysis. Meta-analysis has limitations if epidemiological studies do not include all of the stressors of interest or do not provide multivariable outputs in a format necessary for risk assessment. Given these limitations, novel analytical methods are often needed to synthesize the published literature or to build upon available evidence. In this article, we discuss three recent case studies that highlight the strengths and limitations of meta-analytic approaches and other research synthesis techniques for human health risk assessment applications. First, a literature-based meta-analysis within a risk assessment context informed the design of a new epidemiological investigation of the differential toxicity of fine particulate matter constituents. Second, a literature synthesis for an effects-based cumulative risk assessment of hypertension risk factors led to a decision to develop new epidemiological associations using structural equation modeling. Third, discrete event simulation modeling was used to simulate the impact of changes in the built environment on environmental exposures and associated asthma outcomes, linking literature meta-analyses for key associations with a simulation model to synthesize all of the model components. These case studies emphasize the importance of conducting epidemiology with a risk assessment application in mind, the need for interdisciplinary collaboration, and the value of advanced analytical methods to synthesize epidemiological and other evidence for risk assessment applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmad, N.; Ali, Q.; Ashraf, M.; Alam, B.; Naeem, A.
2012-11-01
Half-Dressed rubble stone (DS) masonry structures as found in the Himalayan region are investigated using experimental and analytical studies. The experimental study included a shake table test on a one-third scaled structural model, a representative of DS masonry structure employed for public critical facilities, e.g. school buildings, offices, health care units, etc. The aim of the experimental study was to understand the damage mechanism of the model, develop damage scale towards deformation-based assessment and retrieve the lateral force-deformation response of the model besides its elastic dynamic properties, i.e. fundamental vibration period and elastic damping. The analytical study included fragility analysis of building prototypes using a fully probabilistic nonlinear dynamic method. The prototypes are designed as SDOF systems assigned with lateral, force-deformation constitutive law (obtained experimentally). Uncertainties in the constitutive law, i.e. lateral stiffness, strength and deformation limits, are considered through random Monte Carlo simulation. Fifty prototype buildings are analyzed using a suite of ten natural accelerograms and an incremental dynamic analysis technique. Fragility and vulnerability functions are derived for the damageability assessment of structures, economic loss and casualty estimation during an earthquake given the ground shaking intensity, essential within the context of risk assessment of existing stock aiming towards risk mitigation and disaster risk reduction.
Mahulikar, Shripad P; Potnuru, Santosh K; Kolhe, Pankaj S
2007-08-01
The solid angle (Omega) subtended by the hot power-plant surfaces of a typical fighter aircraft, on the detector of an infrared (IR) guided missile, is analytically obtained. The use of the parallel rays projection method simplifies the incorporation of the effect of the optical blocking by engine surfaces, on Omega-subtended. This methodology enables the evaluation of the relative contribution of the IR signature from well-resolved distributed sources, and is important for imaging infrared detection studies. The complex 3D surface of a rear fuselage is projected onto an equivalent planar area normal to the viewing aspect, which would give the same Omega-subtended.
Analytical studies of advanced high-field designs: 20-tesla large-bore superconducting magnets
Hoard, R.W.; Cornish, D.N.; Scanlan, R.M.; Zbasnik, J.P.; Leber, R.L.; Hickman, R.B.; Lee, J.D.
1983-09-30
Several emerging technologies have been combined in a conceptual design study demonstrating the feasibility of producing ultrahigh magnetic fields from large-bore superconducting solenoid magnets. Several designs have been produced that approach peak fields of 20-T in 2.0-m diameter inner bores. The analytical expressions comprising the main features of CONDUCTOR and ADVMAGNET, the two computer programs used in the design of these advanced magnets, are also discussed. These magnets and design techniques will make a paramount contribution to the national mirror-fusion endeavor and to the newly emerging field of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) whole-body scanners.
Analytical study of the horizontal ducting of sound by an oceanic front over a slope.
Lin, Ying-Tsong; Lynch, James F
2012-01-01
The horizontal ducting of sound by an oceanic temperature front over a sloping bottom is studied with an idealized wedge model consisting of a lateral interface across the slope. The water outside the frontal interface has higher temperature, hence faster sound speed, and it will produce inshore reflection/refraction of the sound. Combining the offshore refraction caused by the sloping bottom, propagating sound can be ducted along the front. An analytical solution to the sound pressure field in the idealized model is derived, and an example is presented to demonstrate and discuss the ducting effect.
Analytic study of the classical equilibrium of highly rotating spheroidal polytropes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, J. P.; Yadava, R. B.
1992-11-01
The theory of polytropes is fundamental in investigations of stellar structure, star formation, galactic dynamics etc., but also in the rough estimation of some processes in real stars. Some aspects of the structural features of the classical (Newtonian) equilibrium of a highly rotating spheroidal polytrope n = 1 are considered. Approximate analytical solutions to the equilibrium equations suitable for use in very short computer programs or on calculators are given. Under certain transformations, the equilibrium equation was written into first order differential equations. Transformations connecting solutions in these planes were derived. It was found that the present approach is also more suitable for the study of both slowly and highly rotating configurations.
Non-degenerate two-photon absorption in silicon waveguides. Analytical and experimental study
Zhang, Yanbing; Husko, Chad; Lefrancois, Simon; ...
2015-06-22
We theoretically and experimentally investigate the nonlinear evolution of two optical pulses in a silicon waveguide. We provide an analytic solution for the weak probe wave undergoing non-degenerate two-photon absorption (TPA) from the strong pump. At larger pump intensities, we employ a numerical solution to study the interplay between TPA and photo-generated free carriers. We develop a simple and powerful approach to extract and separate out the distinct loss contributions of TPA and free-carrier absorption from readily available experimental data. Our analysis accounts accurately for experimental results in silicon photonic crystal waveguides.
[Advance of studies on metabolic fingerprinting analytical techniques and data processing methods].
Gao, Jian; Yang, Geng-liang; Yang, Hong-jun; Xu, Hai-yu; Li, Shao-jing
2012-09-01
Metabolomics is an emerging discipline subsequent to genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics, aiming for systematically studying the regularity of changes in metabolite to revealing organism's nature of movement and metabolism. It is especially important in modern pharmacological studies. Metabolic fingerprinting analysis is a method for metabolic analysis on high throughput of all metabolites, studying changes in drugs, organisms and endogenic metabolites caused by drugs and finding out related biomarkers to reflect dynamic changes inside organisms more directly and explain the mechanism of drugs and their effects on diseases. This essay summarizes some new metabolic fingerprint analytical methods and data processing methods used for metabolic fingerprint, elaborates their advantages and disadvantages and looks ahead to their combination with studies on traditional Chinese medicines, providing room for the development of new methods and new approaches for studies on complexity theory system of traditional Chinese medicines.
Cesiated surface H- ion source: optimization studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ueno, Akira
2017-01-01
The H- ion beam intensity required for high-energy and high-intensity proton accelerators is continuously increasing. The required 95%-beam transverse normalized root mean square emittance (ɛ 95%rnmsx/y ) of the beam is around 0.25 πmm mrad for all accelerators. The Japan Proton Accelerator Complex (J-PARC) 400 MeV linear accelerator (LINAC) succeeded in accelerating the world’s highest-class H- ion beam of 50 mA with a cesiated RF-driven H- ion source. This was achieved by increasing the beam brightness through the following measures: (1) 45°-tapered plasma electrode (PE) with a 16 mm thickness to increase beam intensity by 56%, (2) continuous-wave igniter plasma driven by 50 W 30 MHz RF to reduce hydrogen pressure in the plasma chamber (PCH) by 50% and beam loss in low-energy beam transport by 12%, compared with that by the commonly used 300 W 13.56 MHz RF, (3) axial magnetic-field correction around the PE beam aperture to increase beam intensity by a maximum of 15%, (4) operation at a low PE temperature (T PE) of about 70 °C to reduce ɛ 95%nrmsx/y by 27%, (5) suitable beam apertures of the plasma and the extraction electrodes to increase beam intensity by a maximum of 7% and to reduce ɛ 95%nrmsx/y by more than 4%, (6) argon/nitrogen elimination and 39% filter-field reduction to reduce ɛ 95%nrmsx/y by 9% and the required 2 MHz RF power by around 30%, (7) eight-hours conditioning with a 50 kW 2 MHz RF and a 5% (1 ms × 50 Hz) duty factor to reduce ɛ 95%nrmsx/y by 15%, and (8) slight water molecules (H2Os) feeding in hydrogen to avoid ɛ 95%nrmsx/y increase by 72% and divergence angle expansion by 50%. In the studies, we investigated principally the 66 mA H- ion beams extracted from the source in order to achieve a 50 mA beam at the J-PARC LINAC exit regardless of the beam’s brightness. Consequently, the source can produce the required beam for a 60 mA J-PARC LINAC operation, since the world’s brightest-class beam with the ɛ 95%nrmsx/y of 0.23
Faassen, Elisabeth J; Gillissen, Frits; Lürling, Miquel
2012-01-01
The cyanobacterial neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been considered a serious health threat because of its putative role in multiple neurodegenerative diseases. First reports on BMAA concentrations in cyanobacteria were alarming: nearly all cyanobacteria were assumed to contain high BMAA concentrations, implying ubiquitous exposure. Recent studies however question this presence of high BMAA concentrations in cyanobacteria. To assess the real risk of BMAA to human health, this discrepancy must be resolved. We therefore tested whether the differences found could be caused by the analytical methods used in different studies. Eight cyanobacterial samples and two control samples were analyzed by three commonly used methods: HPLC-FLD analysis and LC-MS/MS analysis of both derivatized and underivatized samples. In line with published results, HPLC-FLD detected relatively high BMAA concentrations in some cyanobacterial samples, while both LC-MS/MS methods only detected BMAA in the positive control (cycad seed sarcotesta). Because we could eliminate the use of different samples and treatments as causal factors, we demonstrate that the observed differences were caused by the analytical methods. We conclude that HPLC-FLD overestimated BMAA concentrations in some cyanobacterial samples due to its low selectivity and propose that BMAA might be present in (some) cyanobacteria, but in the low µg/g or ng/g range instead of the high µg/g range as sometimes reported before. We therefore recommend to use only selective and sensitive analytical methods like LC-MS/MS for BMAA analysis. Although possibly present in low concentrations in cyanobacteria, BMAA can still form a health risk. Recent evidence on BMAA accumulation in aquatic food chains suggests human exposure through consumption of fish and shellfish which expectedly exceeds exposure through cyanobacteria.
Faassen, Elisabeth J.; Gillissen, Frits; Lürling, Miquel
2012-01-01
The cyanobacterial neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been considered a serious health threat because of its putative role in multiple neurodegenerative diseases. First reports on BMAA concentrations in cyanobacteria were alarming: nearly all cyanobacteria were assumed to contain high BMAA concentrations, implying ubiquitous exposure. Recent studies however question this presence of high BMAA concentrations in cyanobacteria. To assess the real risk of BMAA to human health, this discrepancy must be resolved. We therefore tested whether the differences found could be caused by the analytical methods used in different studies. Eight cyanobacterial samples and two control samples were analyzed by three commonly used methods: HPLC-FLD analysis and LC-MS/MS analysis of both derivatized and underivatized samples. In line with published results, HPLC-FLD detected relatively high BMAA concentrations in some cyanobacterial samples, while both LC-MS/MS methods only detected BMAA in the positive control (cycad seed sarcotesta). Because we could eliminate the use of different samples and treatments as causal factors, we demonstrate that the observed differences were caused by the analytical methods. We conclude that HPLC-FLD overestimated BMAA concentrations in some cyanobacterial samples due to its low selectivity and propose that BMAA might be present in (some) cyanobacteria, but in the low µg/g or ng/g range instead of the high µg/g range as sometimes reported before. We therefore recommend to use only selective and sensitive analytical methods like LC-MS/MS for BMAA analysis. Although possibly present in low concentrations in cyanobacteria, BMAA can still form a health risk. Recent evidence on BMAA accumulation in aquatic food chains suggests human exposure through consumption of fish and shellfish which expectedly exceeds exposure through cyanobacteria. PMID:22570736
Collisional evolution - an analytical study for the nonsteady-state mass distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martins, R. Vieira
1999-05-01
To study the collisional evolution of asteroidal groups we can use an analytical solutionfor the self-similar collision cascades. This solution is suitable to study the steady-state massdistribution of the collisional fragmentation. However, out of the steady-state conditions, thissolution is not satisfactory for some values of the collisional parameters. In fact, for some valuesfor the exponent of the mass distribution power law of an asteroidal group and its relation to theexponent of the function which describes how rocks break we arrive at singular points for theequation which describes the collisional evolution. These singularities appear since someapproximations are usually made in the laborious evaluation of many integrals that appear in theanalytical calculations. They concern the cutoff for the smallest and the largest bodies. Thesesingularities set some restrictions to the study of the analytical solution for the collisionalequation. To overcome these singularities we performed an algebraic computationconsidering the smallest and the largest bodies and we obtained the analytical expressions for theintegrals that describe the collisional evolution without restriction on the parameters. However,the new distribution is more sensitive to the values of the collisional parameters. In particular thesteady-state solution for the differential mass distribution has exponents slightly different from11⧸6 for the usual parameters in the Asteroid Belt. The sensitivity of this distribution with respectto the parameters is analyzed for the usual values in the asteroidal groups. With anexpression for the mass distribution without singularities, we can evaluate also its time evolution.We arrive at an analytical expression given by a power series of terms constituted by a smallparameter multiplied by the mass to an exponent, which depends on the initial power lawdistribution. This expression is a formal solution for the equation which describes the collisionalevolution
Network scaling effects in graph analytic studies of human resting-state FMRI data.
Fornito, Alex; Zalesky, Andrew; Bullmore, Edward T
2010-01-01
Graph analysis has become an increasingly popular tool for characterizing topological properties of brain connectivity networks. Within this approach, the brain is modeled as a graph comprising N nodes connected by M edges. In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, the nodes typically represent brain regions and the edges some measure of interaction between them. These nodes are commonly defined using a variety of regional parcellation templates, which can vary both in the volume sampled by each region, and the number of regions parcellated. Here, we sought to investigate how such variations in parcellation templates affect key graph analytic measures of functional brain organization using resting-state fMRI in 30 healthy volunteers. Seven different parcellation resolutions (84, 91, 230, 438, 890, 1314, and 4320 regions) were investigated. We found that gross inferences regarding network topology, such as whether the brain is small-world or scale-free, were robust to the template used, but that both absolute values of, and individual differences in, specific parameters such as path length, clustering, small-worldness, and degree distribution descriptors varied considerably across the resolutions studied. These findings underscore the need to consider the effect that a specific parcellation approach has on graph analytic findings in human fMRI studies, and indicate that results obtained using different templates may not be directly comparable.
Analytical Study of Periodic Solutions on Perturbed Equatorial Two-Body Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abouelmagd, Elbaz I.; Mortari, Daniele; Selim, Hadia H.
2015-12-01
This paper presents analytical derivations to study periodic solutions for the two-body problem perturbed by the first zonal harmonic parameter. In particular, three different semianalytical approaches to solve this problem have been studied: (1) the classic perturbation theory, (2) the Lindstedt-Poincaré technique, and (3) the Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky method. In addition, the numerical integration by Runge-Kutta algorithm is established. However, the numerical comparison tests show that by increasing the value of angular momentum the solutions provided by Lindstedt-Poincaré and Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky methods become similar, and they provide almost identical results using a smaller value for the perturbed parameter which quantify the dynamical flattening of the main body, the Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky provides more accurate results to design elliptical periodic solutions than Lindstedt-Poincaré technique when the perturbed parameter has a relatively large value, regardless of the value of angular momentum. This study can be applied to equatorial orbits to obtain closed-form analytical solutions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Djeffal, F.; Lakhdar, N.; Meguellati, M.; Benhaya, A.
2009-09-01
The analytical modeling of electron mobility in wurtzite Gallium Nitride (GaN) requires several simplifying assumptions, generally necessary to lead to compact expressions of electron transport characteristics for GaN-based devices. Further progress in the development, design and optimization of GaN-based devices necessarily requires new theory and modeling tools in order to improve the accuracy and the computational time of devices simulators. Recently, the evolutionary techniques, genetic algorithms ( GA) and particle swarm optimization ( PSO), have attracted considerable attention among various heuristic optimization techniques. In this paper, a particle swarm optimizer is implemented and compared to a genetic algorithm for modeling and optimization of new closed electron mobility model for GaN-based devices design. The performance of both optimization techniques in term of computational time and convergence rate is also compared. Further, our obtained results for both techniques ( PSO and GA) are tested and compared with numerical data (Monte Carlo simulations) where a good agreement has been found for wide range of temperature, doping and applied electric field. The developed analytical models can also be incorporated into the circuits simulators to study GaN-based devices without impact on the computational time and data storage.
Carver, Charles S.; Scheier, Michael F.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.
2010-01-01
Optimism is an individual difference variable that reflects the extent to which people hold generalized favorable expectancies for their future. Higher levels of optimism have been related prospectively to better subjective well-being in times of adversity or difficulty (i.e., controlling for previous well-being). Consistent with such findings, optimism has been linked to higher levels of engagement coping and lower levels of avoidance, or disengagement, coping. There is evidence that optimism is associated with taking proactive steps to protect one's health, whereas pessimism is associated with health-damaging behaviors. Consistent with such findings, optimism is also related to indicators of better physical health. The energetic, task-focused approach that optimists take to goals also relates to benefits in the socioeconomic world. Some evidence suggests that optimism relates to more persistence in educational efforts and to higher later income. Optimists also appear to fare better than pessimists in relationships. Although there are instances in which optimism fails to convey an advantage, and instances in which it may convey a disadvantage, those instances are relatively rare. In sum, the behavioral patterns of optimists appear to provide models of living for others to learn from. PMID:20170998
Conceptual framework for outcomes research studies of hepatitis C: an analytical review.
Sbarigia, Urbano; Denee, Tom R; Turner, Norris G; Wan, George J; Morrison, Alan; Kaufman, Anna S; Rice, Gary; Dusheiko, Geoffrey M
2016-01-01
Hepatitis C virus infection is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Until recently, the standard antiviral regimen for hepatitis C was a combination of an interferon derivative and ribavirin, but a plethora of new antiviral drugs is becoming available. While these new drugs have shown great efficacy in clinical trials, observational studies are needed to determine their effectiveness in clinical practice. Previous observational studies have shown that multiple factors, besides the drug regimen, affect patient outcomes in clinical practice. Here, we provide an analytical review of published outcomes studies of the management of hepatitis C virus infection. A conceptual framework defines the relationships between four categories of variables: health care system structure, patient characteristics, process-of-care, and patient outcomes. This framework can provide a starting point for outcomes studies addressing the use and effectiveness of new antiviral drug treatments.
Conceptual framework for outcomes research studies of hepatitis C: an analytical review
Sbarigia, Urbano; Denee, Tom R; Turner, Norris G; Wan, George J; Morrison, Alan; Kaufman, Anna S; Rice, Gary; Dusheiko, Geoffrey M
2016-01-01
Hepatitis C virus infection is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Until recently, the standard antiviral regimen for hepatitis C was a combination of an interferon derivative and ribavirin, but a plethora of new antiviral drugs is becoming available. While these new drugs have shown great efficacy in clinical trials, observational studies are needed to determine their effectiveness in clinical practice. Previous observational studies have shown that multiple factors, besides the drug regimen, affect patient outcomes in clinical practice. Here, we provide an analytical review of published outcomes studies of the management of hepatitis C virus infection. A conceptual framework defines the relationships between four categories of variables: health care system structure, patient characteristics, process-of-care, and patient outcomes. This framework can provide a starting point for outcomes studies addressing the use and effectiveness of new antiviral drug treatments. PMID:27313473
Delcey, Mickaël G.; Freitag, Leon; González, Leticia; Pedersen, Thomas Bondo; Aquilante, Francesco; Lindh, Roland
2014-05-07
We present a formulation of analytical energy gradients at the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) level of theory employing density fitting (DF) techniques to enable efficient geometry optimizations of large systems. As an example, the ground and lowest triplet state geometries of a ruthenium nitrosyl complex are computed at the DF-CASSCF level of theory and compared with structures obtained from density functional theory (DFT) using the B3LYP, BP86, and M06L functionals. The average deviation of all bond lengths compared to the crystal structure is 0.042 Å at the DF-CASSCF level of theory, which is slightly larger but still comparable with the deviations obtained by the tested DFT functionals, e.g., 0.032 Å with M06L. Specifically, the root-mean-square deviation between the DF-CASSCF and best DFT coordinates, delivered by BP86, is only 0.08 Å for S{sub 0} and 0.11 Å for T{sub 1}, indicating that the geometries are very similar. While keeping the mean energy gradient errors below 0.25%, the DF technique results in a 13-fold speedup compared to the conventional CASSCF geometry optimization algorithm. Additionally, we assess the singlet-triplet energy vertical and adiabatic differences with multiconfigurational second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2) using the DF-CASSCF and DFT optimized geometries. It is found that the vertical CASPT2 energies are relatively similar regardless of the geometry employed whereas the adiabatic singlet-triplet gaps are more sensitive to the chosen triplet geometry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blecha, L.; Zindel, D.; Cottard, H.; Beck, T.; Cessa, V.; Broeg, C.; Ratti, F.; Rando, N.
2016-07-01
The CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite), which is an ESA mission developed in cooperation with Switzerland and a number of other member-states, is the first one dedicated to search for transits by means of ultrahigh precision photometry on bright stars already known to host planets. The optical design is based on a Ritchey-Chretien style telescope to provide a de-focussed image of the target stars. The telescope's mirrors M1, M2 as well as the focal plane detector are supported by a thermally controlled CFRP structure suspended on isostatic mounts. The dimensional stability of the structural system supporting the optics is a key requirement as it directly impacts the instrument's accuracy. The M1 and M2 mirrors are supported by a tubular CFRP telescope design which has been optimized by analyses down to carbon fibre layer level with the support of extensive sample test results for model correlation and accurate dimensional stability predictions. This sample characterization test campaign has been conducted on samples with different carbon fibre layups (orientation and stack sequence) to measure accurately the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) over a wide temperature range extending from -80°C to +80°C. Using the correlated Finite Element Model, the fibre orientation layup that minimized the relative displacement between the M1 and M2 mirrors, including the consideration of the thermo-elastic contributions of the isostatic mounts on the overall stability of this optical system, has been identified and selected for the baseline design of the CHEOPS Structure. A dedicated Structural and Thermal Model (STM2), which was then refurbished to a PFM, was manufactured and tested with an ad hoc setup to verify the overall structural stability of the optical train assembly [2]. The relative distance between M1 and M2 was measured under thermal vacuum conditions using laser interferometer techniques. Thermal cycling tests were initially conducted to eliminate and
Chahine, G.L.; Genoux, P.F.; Johnson, V.E. Jr.; Frederick, G.S.
1984-09-01
Waterjet nozzles (STRATOJETS) have been developed which achieve passive structuring of cavitating submerged jets into discrete ring vortices, and which possess cavitation incipient numbers six times higher than obtained with conventional cavitating jet nozzles. In this study we developed analytical and numerical techniques and conducted experimental work to gain an understanding of the basic phenomena involved. The achievements are: (1) a thorough analysis of the acoustic dynamics of the feed pipe to the nozzle; (2) a theory for bubble ring growth and collapse; (3) a numerical model for jet simulation; (4) an experimental observation and analysis of candidate second-generation low-sigma STRATOJETS. From this study we can conclude that intensification of bubble ring collapse and design of highly resonant feed tubes can lead to improved drilling rates. The models here described are excellent tools to analyze the various parameters needed for STRATOJET optimizations. Further analysis is needed to introduce such important factors as viscosity, nozzle-jet interaction, and ring-target interaction, and to develop the jet simulation model to describe the important fine details of the flow field at the nozzle exit.
López Molina, Juan A; Rivera, María J; Trujillo, Macarena; Berjano, Enrique J
2009-04-01
The objectives of this study were to model the temperature progress of a pulsed radiofrequency (RF) power during RF heating of biological tissue, and to employ the hyperbolic heat transfer equation (HHTE), which takes the thermal wave behavior into account, and compare the results to those obtained using the heat transfer equation based on Fourier theory (FHTE). A theoretical model was built based on an active spherical electrode completely embedded in the biological tissue, after which HHTE and FHTE were analytically solved. We found three typical waveforms for the temperature progress depending on the relations between the dimensionless duration of the RF pulse delta(a) and the expression square root of lambda(rho-1), with lambda as the dimensionless thermal relaxation time of the tissue and rho as the dimensionless position. In the case of a unique RF pulse, the temperature at any location was the result of the overlapping of two different heat sources delayed for a duration delta(a) (each heat source being produced by a RF pulse of limitless duration). The most remarkable feature in the HHTE analytical solution was the presence of temperature peaks traveling through the medium at a finite speed. These peaks not only occurred during the RF power switch-on period but also during switch off. Finally, a physical explanation for these temperature peaks is proposed based on the interaction of forward and reverse thermal waves. All-purpose analytical solutions for FHTE and HHTE were obtained during pulsed RF heating of biological tissues, which could be used for any value of pulsing frequency and duty cycle.
Diémé, Binta; Mavel, Sylvie; Blasco, Hélène; Tripi, Gabriele; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Malvy, Joëlle; Bocca, Cinzia; Andres, Christian R; Nadal-Desbarats, Lydie; Emond, Patrick
2015-12-04
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with no clinical biomarker. The aims of this study were to characterize a metabolic signature of ASD and to evaluate multiplatform analytical methodologies in order to develop predictive tools for diagnosis and disease follow-up. Urine samples were analyzed using (1)H and (1)H-(13)C NMR-based approaches and LC-HRMS-based approaches (ESI+ and ESI- on HILIC and C18 chromatography columns). Data tables obtained from the six analytical modalities on a training set of 46 urine samples (22 autistic children and 24 controls) were processed by multivariate analysis (orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis, OPLS-DA). The predictions from each of these OPLS-DA models were then evaluated using a prediction set of 16 samples (8 autistic children and 8 controls) and receiver operating characteristic curves. Thereafter, a data fusion block-scaling OPLS-DA model was generated from the 6 best models obtained for each modality. This fused OPLS-DA model showed an enhanced performance (R(2)Y(cum) = 0.88, Q(2)(cum) = 0.75) compared to each analytical modality model, as well as a better predictive capacity (AUC = 0.91, p-value = 0.006). Metabolites that are most significantly different between autistic and control children (p < 0.05) are indoxyl sulfate, N-α-acetyl-l-arginine, methyl guanidine, and phenylacetylglutamine. This multimodality approach has the potential to contribute to find robust biomarkers and characterize a metabolic phenotype of the ASD population.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Zhiliang; Wang, Shuxin; Zhang, Lianhong; Hu, S. Jack
This paper presents an analytical model of the electrical contact resistance between the carbon paper gas diffusion layers (GDLs) and the graphite bipolar plates (BPPs) in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The model is developed based on the classical statistical contact theory for a PEM fuel cell, using the same probability distributions of the GDL structure and BPP surface profile as previously described in Wu et al. [Z. Wu, Y. Zhou, G. Lin, S. Wang, S.J. Hu, J. Power Sources 182 (2008) 265-269] and Zhou et al. [Y. Zhou, G. Lin, A.J. Shih, S.J. Hu, J. Power Sources 163 (2007) 777-783]. Results show that estimates of the contact resistance compare favorably with experimental data by Zhou et al. [Y. Zhou, G. Lin, A.J. Shih, S.J. Hu, J. Power Sources 163 (2007) 777-783]. Factors affecting the contact behavior are systematically studied using the analytical model, including the material properties of the two contact bodies and factors arising from the manufacturing processes. The transverse Young's modulus of chopped carbon fibers in the GDL and the surface profile of the BPP are found to be significant to the contact resistance. The factor study also sheds light on the manufacturing requirements of carbon fiber GDLs for a better contact performance in PEM fuel cells.
Trouvé, Hélène; Couturier, Yves; Etheridge, Francis; Saint-Jean, Olivier; Somme, Dominique
2010-01-01
Background The literature on integration indicates the need for an enhanced theorization of institutional integration. This article proposes path dependence as an analytical framework to study the systems in which integration takes place. Purpose PRISMA proposes a model for integrating health and social care services for older adults. This model was initially tested in Quebec. The PRISMA France study gave us an opportunity to analyze institutional integration in France. Methods A qualitative approach was used. Analyses were based on semi-structured interviews with actors of all levels of decision-making, observations of advisory board meetings, and administrative documents. Results Our analyses revealed the complexity and fragmentation of institutional integration. The path dependency theory, which analyzes the change capacity of institutions by taking into account their historic structures, allows analysis of this situation. The path dependency to the Bismarckian system and the incomplete reforms of gerontological policies generate the coexistence and juxtaposition of institutional systems. In such a context, no institution has sufficient ability to determine gerontology policy and build institutional integration by itself. Conclusion Using path dependence as an analytical framework helps to understand the reasons why institutional integration is critical to organizational and clinical integration, and the complex construction of institutional integration in France. PMID:20689740
Hen, Itay; Rigol, Marcos
2010-10-15
We study the ground-state properties of trapped inhomogeneous systems of hardcore bosons in two- and three-dimensional lattices. We obtain results both numerically, using quantum Monte Carlo techniques, and via several analytical approximation schemes, such as the Gutzwiller mean-field approach, a cluster mean-field method, and a spin-wave analysis which takes quantum fluctuations into account. We first study the homogeneous case, for which simple analytical expressions are obtained for all observables of interest, and compare the results with the numerical ones. We obtain the equation of state of the system along with other thermodynamic properties such as the free energy, kinetic energy, superfluid density, condensate density, and compressibility. In the presence of a trap, there is in general a spatial coexistence of superfluid and insulating domains. We show that the spin-wave-based method reproduces the quantum Monte Carlo results for global as well as for local quantities with a high degree of accuracy. We also discuss the validity of the local density approximation. Our analysis can be used to describe bosons in optical lattices where the onsite interaction U is much larger than the hopping amplitude t.
Optimal adaptive sequential designs for crossover bioequivalence studies.
Xu, Jialin; Audet, Charles; DiLiberti, Charles E; Hauck, Walter W; Montague, Timothy H; Parr, Alan F; Potvin, Diane; Schuirmann, Donald J
2016-01-01
In prior works, this group demonstrated the feasibility of valid adaptive sequential designs for crossover bioequivalence studies. In this paper, we extend the prior work to optimize adaptive sequential designs over a range of geometric mean test/reference ratios (GMRs) of 70-143% within each of two ranges of intra-subject coefficient of variation (10-30% and 30-55%). These designs also introduce a futility decision for stopping the study after the first stage if there is sufficiently low likelihood of meeting bioequivalence criteria if the second stage were completed, as well as an upper limit on total study size. The optimized designs exhibited substantially improved performance characteristics over our previous adaptive sequential designs. Even though the optimized designs avoided undue inflation of type I error and maintained power at ≥ 80%, their average sample sizes were similar to or less than those of conventional single stage designs.
Martian Aerocapture Terminal Point Guidance: A Reference Path Optimization Study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ro, Theodore U.; Queen, Eric M.; Striepe, Scott A.
1999-01-01
An effective method of terminal point guidance is to employ influence coefficients, which are solved from a set of differential equations adjoint to the linearized perturbations of the equations of motion about a reference trajectory. Hence, to optimize this type of guidance, one must first optimize the reference trajectory that the guidance is based upon. This study concentrates on various methods to optimize a reference trajectory for a Martian aerocapture maneuver, including a parametric analysis and first order gradient method. Resulting reference trajectories were tested in separate 2000 6-DOF Monte Carlo runs, using the Atmospheric Guidance Algorithm Testbed for the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 (MSP '01) Orbiter. These results were compared to an August 1998 study using the same terminal point control guidance algorithm and simulation testbed. Satisfactory improvements over the 1998 study are amply demonstrated.
Maternal and infant activity: Analytic approaches for the study of circadian rhythm.
Thomas, Karen A; Burr, Robert L; Spieker, Susan
2015-11-01
The study of infant and mother circadian rhythm entails choice of instruments appropriate for use in the home environment as well as selection of analytic approach that characterizes circadian rhythm. While actigraphy monitoring suits the needs of home study, limited studies have examined mother and infant rhythm derived from actigraphy. Among this existing research a variety of analyses have been employed to characterize 24-h rhythm, reducing ability to evaluate and synthesize findings. Few studies have examined the correspondence of mother and infant circadian parameters for the most frequently cited approaches: cosinor, non-parametric circadian rhythm analysis (NPCRA), and autocorrelation function (ACF). The purpose of this research was to examine analytic approaches in the study of mother and infant circadian activity rhythm. Forty-three healthy mother and infant pairs were studied in the home environment over a 72h period at infant age 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Activity was recorded continuously using actigraphy monitors and mothers completed a diary. Parameters of circadian rhythm were generated from cosinor analysis, NPCRA, and ACF. The correlation among measures of rhythm center (cosinor mesor, NPCRA mid level), strength or fit of 24-h period (cosinor magnitude and R(2), NPCRA amplitude and relative amplitude (RA)), phase (cosinor acrophase, NPCRA M10 and L5 midpoint), and rhythm stability and variability (NPCRA interdaily stability (IS) and intradaily variability (IV), ACF) was assessed, and additionally the effect size (eta(2)) for change over time evaluated. Results suggest that cosinor analysis, NPCRA, and autocorrelation provide several comparable parameters of infant and maternal circadian rhythm center, fit, and phase. IS and IV were strongly correlated with the 24-h cycle fit. The circadian parameters analyzed offer separate insight into rhythm and differing effect size for the detection of change over time. Findings inform selection of analysis and
Lin, Xiang-Yun; Wu, Ling-Ling; Pan, Zhong-Qin; Shi, Chuan-Guo; Bao, Ning; Gu, Hai-Ying
2015-04-01
Herein we utilized the filter paper to physically trap red blood cells (RBC) to observe the breathing process of red blood cells based on the permeability of the filter paper. By integrating double-sided conductive carbon tape as the working electrodes, the device could be applied to monitor electrochemical responses of RBC for up to hundreds of minutes. The differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) peak currents increased under oxygen while decreased under nitrogen, indicating that RBC could take in and release oxygen. Further studies demonstrated that the RBC suspension could more effectively take in oxygen than the solution of hemoglobin and the supernatant of RBC, suggesting the natural advantage of RBC on oxygen transportation. This study implied that simple paper-based analytical devices might be effectively applied in the study of gas-participating reactions and biochemical detections.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, J. G.; Mikulus, M. M., Jr.
1976-01-01
Structural efficiency studies were made to determine the weight saving potential of graphite/epoxy composite structures for compression panel applications. Minimum weight hat-stiffened and open corrugation configurations were synthesized using a nonlinear mathematical programming technique. Selected configurations were built and tested to study local and Euler buckling characteristics. Test results for 23 panels critical in local buckling and six panels critical in Euler buckling are compared with analytical results obtained using the BUCLASP-2 branched plate buckling program. A weight efficiency comparison is made between composite and aluminum compression panels using metal test data generated by the NACA. Theoretical studies indicate that potential weight savings of up to 50% are possible for composite hat-stiffened panels when compared with similar aluminum designs. Weight savings of 32% to 42% were experimentally achieved. Experience suggests that most of the theoretical weight saving potential is available if design deficiencies are eliminated and strict fabrication control is exercised.
FAS and CFL forms of verbal fluency differ in difficulty: a meta-analytic study.
Barry, Danielle; Bates, Marsha E; Labouvie, Erich
2008-01-01
The Controlled Oral Word Association (COWA) Test is a brief and sensitive measure of executive cognitive dysfunction. There are two commonly used forms of the test, one using the letters F, A, and S, and the other using C, F, and L. This study examines the relative difficulty of the two forms using a meta-analytic approach that includes multiple samples of normal individuals. The effects of age, education, gender composition, exclusion criteria, and age of study are also examined. Results indicate that the CFL form of the test is more difficult and that age, education, and the use of strict exclusion criteria influence performance. Performance is more variable for the FAS form, and age and age of study influence performance variability.
Genetic studies of plasma analytes identify novel potential biomarkers for several complex traits
Deming, Yuetiva; Xia, Jian; Cai, Yefei; Lord, Jenny; Del-Aguila, Jorge L.; Fernandez, Maria Victoria; Carrell, David; Black, Kathleen; Budde, John; Ma, ShengMei; Saef, Benjamin; Howells, Bill; Bertelsen, Sarah; Bailey, Matthew; Ridge, Perry G.; Hefti, Franz; Fillit, Howard; Zimmerman, Earl A.; Celmins, Dzintra; Brown, Alice D.; Carrillo, Maria; Fleisher, Adam; Reeder, Stephanie; Trncic, Nadira; Burke, Anna; Tariot, Pierre; Reiman, Eric M.; Chen, Kewei; Sabbagh, Marwan N.; Beiden, Christine M.; Jacobson, Sandra A.; Sirrel, Sherye A.; Doody, Rachelle S.; Villanueva-Meyer, Javier; Chowdhury, Munir; Rountree, Susan; Dang, Mimi; Kowall, Neil; Killiany, Ronald; Budson, Andrew E.; Norbash, Alexander; Johnson, Patricia Lynn; Green, Robert C.; Marshall, Gad; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Snyder, Peter; Salloway, Stephen; Malloy, Paul; Correia, Stephen; Bernick, Charles; Munic, Donna; Stern, Yaakov; Honig, Lawrence S.; Bell, Karen L.; Relkin, Norman; Chaing, Gloria; Ravdin, Lisa; Paul, Steven; Flashman, Laura A.; Seltzer, Marc; Hynes, Mary L.; Santulli, Robert B.; Bates, Vernice; Capote, Horacio; Rainka, Michelle; Friedl, Karl; Murali Doraiswamy, P.; Petrella, Jeffrey R.; Borges-Neto, Salvador; James, Olga; Wong, Terence; Coleman, Edward; Schwartz, Adam; Cellar, Janet S.; Levey, Allan L.; Lah, James J.; Behan, Kelly; Scott Turner, Raymond; Johnson, Kathleen; Reynolds, Brigid; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Blank, Karen; Anderson, Karen; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Wolday, Saba; Allard, Joanne; Lerner, Alan; Ogrocki, Paula; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Fatica, Parianne; Farlow, Martin R.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Shen, Li; Faber, Kelly; Kim, Sungeun; Nho, Kwangsik; Marie Hake, Ann; Matthews, Brandy R.; Brosch, Jared R.; Herring, Scott; Hunt, Cynthia; Albert, Marilyn; Onyike, Chiadi; D’Agostino, Daniel; Kielb, Stephanie; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Parfitt, Francine; Kendall, Tracy; Johnson, Heather; Petersen, Ronald; Jack, Clifford R.; Bernstein, Matthew; Borowski, Bret; Gunter, Jeff; Senjem, Matt; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Jones, David; Kantarci, Kejal; Ward, Chad; Mason, Sara S.; Albers, Colleen S.; Knopman, David; Johnson, Kris; Chertkow, Howard; Hosein, Chris; Mintzer, Jacob; Spicer, Kenneth; Bachman, David; Grossman, Hillel; Mitsis, Effie; Pomara, Nunzio; Hernando, Raymundo; Sarrael, Antero; Potter, William; Buckholtz, Neil; Hsiao, John; Kittur, Smita; Galvin, James E.; Cerbone, Brittany; Michel, Christina A.; Pogorelec, Dana M.; Rusinek, Henry; de Leon, Mony J; Glodzik, Lidia; De Santi, Susan; Johnson, Nancy; Chuang-Kuo; Kerwin, Diana; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Weintraub, Sandra; Grafman, Jordan; Lipowski, Kristine; Mesulam, Marek-Marsel; Scharre, Douglas W.; Kataki, Maria; Adeli, Anahita; Kaye, Jeffrey; Quinn, Joseph; Silbert, Lisa; Lind, Betty; Carter, Raina; Dolen, Sara; Borrie, Michael; Lee, T-Y; Bartha, Rob; Martinez, Walter; Villena, Teresa; Sadowsky, Carl; Khachaturian, Zaven; Ott, Brian R.; Querfurth, Henry; Tremont, Geoffrey; Frank, Richard; Fleischman, Debra; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Shah, Raj C.; deToledo-Morrell, Leyla; Sorensen, Greg; Finger, Elizabeth; Pasternack, Stephen; Rachinsky, Irina; Drost, Dick; Rogers, John; Kertesz, Andrew; Furst, Ansgar J.; Chad, Stevan; Yesavage, Jerome; Taylor, Joy L.; Lane, Barton; Rosen, Allyson; Tinklenberg, Jared; Black, Sandra; Stefanovic, Bojana; Caldwell, Curtis; Robin Hsiung, Ging-Yuek; Mudge, Benita; Assaly, Michele; Fox, Nick; Schultz, Susan K.; Boles Ponto, Laura L.; Shim, Hyungsub; Ekstam Smith, Karen; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Swerdlow, Russell H.; Brooks, William M.; Marson, Daniel; Griffith, Randall; Clark, David; Geldmacher, David; Brockington, John; Roberson, Erik; Natelson Love, Marissa; DeCarli, Charles; Carmichael, Owen; Olichney, John; Maillard, Pauline; Fletcher, Evan; Nguyen, Dana; Preda, Andrian; Potkin, Steven; Mulnard, Ruth A.; Thai, Gaby; McAdams-Ortiz, Catherine; Landau, Susan; Jagust, William; Apostolova, Liana; Tingus, Kathleen; Woo, Ellen; Silverman, Daniel H.S.; Lu, Po H.; Bartzokis, George; Thompson, Paul; Donohue, Michael; Thomas, Ronald G.; Walter, Sarah; Gessert, Devon; Brewer, James; Vanderswag, Helen; Sather, Tamie; Jiminez, Gus; Balasubramanian, Archana B.; Mason, Jennifer; Sim, Iris; Aisen, Paul; Davis, Melissa; Morrison, Rosemary; Harvey, Danielle; Thal, Lean; Beckett, Laurel; Neylan, Thomas; Finley, Shannon; Weiner, Michael W.; Hayes, Jacqueline; Rosen, Howard J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Perry, David; Massoglia, Dino; Brawman-Mentzer, Olga; Schuff, Norbert; Smith, Charles D.; Hardy, Peter; Sinha, Partha; Oates, Elizabeth; Conrad, Gary; Koeppe, Robert A.; Lord, Joanne L.; Heidebrink, Judith L.; Arnold, Steven E.; Karlawish, Jason H.; Wolk, David; Clark, Christopher M.; Trojanowki, John Q.; Shaw, Leslie M.; Lee, Virginia; Korecka, Magdalena; Figurski, Michal; Toga, Arthur W.; Crawford, Karen; Neu, Scott; Schneider, Lon S.; Pawluczyk, Sonia; Beccera, Mauricio; Teodoro, Liberty; Spann, Bryan M.; Womack, Kyle; Mathews, Dana; Quiceno, Mary; Foster, Norm; Montine, Tom; Fruehling, J. Jay; Harding, Sandra; Johnson, Sterling; Asthana, Sanjay; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Petrie, Eric C.; Peskind, Elaine; Li, Gail; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Goldstein, Bonnie S.; Martin, Kim; Makino, Kelly M.; Ismail, M. Saleem; Brand, Connie; Smith, Amanda; Ashok Raj, Balebail; Fargher, Kristin; Kuller, Lew; Mathis, Chet; Ann Oakley, Mary; Lopez, Oscar L.; Simpson, Donna M.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Gordineer, Leslie; Williamson, Jeff D.; Garg, Pradeep; Watkins, Franklin; Cairns, Nigel J.; Raichle, Marc; Morris, John C.; Householder, Erin; Taylor-Reinwald, Lisa; Holtzman, David; Ances, Beau; Carroll, Maria; Creech, Mary L.; Franklin, Erin; Mintun, Mark A.; Schneider, Stacy; Oliver, Angela; Duara, Ranjan; Varon, Daniel; Greig, Maria T.; Roberts, Peggy; Varma, Pradeep; MacAvoy, Martha G.; Carson, Richard E.; van Dyck, Christopher H.; Davies, Peter; Holtzman, David; Morris, John C.; Bales, Kelly; Pickering, Eve H.; Lee, Jin-Moo; Heitsch, Laura; Kauwe, John; Goate, Alison; Piccio, Laura; Cruchaga, Carlos
2016-01-01
Genome-wide association studies of 146 plasma protein levels in 818 individuals revealed 56 genome-wide significant associations (28 novel) with 47 analytes. Loci associated with plasma levels of 39 proteins tested have been previously associated with various complex traits such as heart disease, inflammatory bowel disease, Type 2 diabetes, and multiple sclerosis. These data suggest that these plasma protein levels may constitute informative endophenotypes for these complex traits. We found three potential pleiotropic genes: ABO for plasma SELE and ACE levels, FUT2 for CA19-9 and CEA plasma levels, and APOE for ApoE and CRP levels. We also found multiple independent signals in loci associated with plasma levels of ApoH, CA19-9, FetuinA, IL6r, and LPa. Our study highlights the power of biological traits for genetic studies to identify genetic variants influencing clinically relevant traits, potential pleiotropic effects, and complex disease associations in the same locus.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adelina, W.; Kusumastuti, R. D.
2017-01-01
This study is about business strategy selection for green supply chain management (GSCM) for PT XYZ by using Analytic Network Process (ANP). GSCM is initiated as a response to reduce environmental impacts from industrial activities. The purposes of this study are identifying criteria and sub criteria in selecting GSCM Strategy, and analysing a suitable GSCM strategy for PT XYZ. This study proposes ANP network with 6 criteria and 29 sub criteria, which are obtained from the literature and experts’ judgements. One of the six criteria contains GSCM strategy options, namely risk-based strategy, efficiency-based strategy, innovation-based strategy, and closed loop strategy. ANP solves complex GSCM strategy-selection by using a more structured process and considering green perspectives from experts. The result indicates that innovation-based strategy is the most suitable green supply chain management strategy for PT XYZ.
Analytical study of the energy rate balance equation for the magnetospheric storm-ring current
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clúa de Gonzalez, A. L.; Gonzalez, W. D.
1998-11-01
We present some results of the analytical integration of the energy rate balance equation, assuming that the input energy rate is proportional to the azimuthal interplanetary electric field, Ey, and can be described by simple rectangular or triangular functions, as approximations to the frequently observed shapes of Ey, especially during the passage of magnetic clouds. The input function is also parametrized by a reconnection-transfer efficiency factor
Xiao, Zhu; Liu, Hongjing; Havyarimana, Vincent; Li, Tong; Wang, Dong
2016-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the coverage performance and energy efficiency of multi-tier heterogeneous cellular networks (HetNets) which are composed of macrocells and different types of small cells, i.e., picocells and femtocells. By virtue of stochastic geometry tools, we model the multi-tier HetNets based on a Poisson point process (PPP) and analyze the Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR) via studying the cumulative interference from pico-tier and femto-tier. We then derive the analytical expressions of coverage probabilities in order to evaluate coverage performance in different tiers and investigate how it varies with the small cells’ deployment density. By taking the fairness and user experience into consideration, we propose a disjoint channel allocation scheme and derive the system channel throughput for various tiers. Further, we formulate the energy efficiency optimization problem for multi-tier HetNets in terms of throughput performance and resource allocation fairness. To solve this problem, we devise a linear programming based approach to obtain the available area of the feasible solutions. System-level simulations demonstrate that the small cells’ deployment density has a significant effect on the coverage performance and energy efficiency. Simulation results also reveal that there exits an optimal small cell base station (SBS) density ratio between pico-tier and femto-tier which can be applied to maximize the energy efficiency and at the same time enhance the system performance. Our findings provide guidance for the design of multi-tier HetNets for improving the coverage performance as well as the energy efficiency. PMID:27827917
Xiao, Zhu; Liu, Hongjing; Havyarimana, Vincent; Li, Tong; Wang, Dong
2016-11-04
In this paper, we investigate the coverage performance and energy efficiency of multi-tier heterogeneous cellular networks (HetNets) which are composed of macrocells and different types of small cells, i.e., picocells and femtocells. By virtue of stochastic geometry tools, we model the multi-tier HetNets based on a Poisson point process (PPP) and analyze the Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR) via studying the cumulative interference from pico-tier and femto-tier. We then derive the analytical expressions of coverage probabilities in order to evaluate coverage performance in different tiers and investigate how it varies with the small cells' deployment density. By taking the fairness and user experience into consideration, we propose a disjoint channel allocation scheme and derive the system channel throughput for various tiers. Further, we formulate the energy efficiency optimization problem for multi-tier HetNets in terms of throughput performance and resource allocation fairness. To solve this problem, we devise a linear programming based approach to obtain the available area of the feasible solutions. System-level simulations demonstrate that the small cells' deployment density has a significant effect on the coverage performance and energy efficiency. Simulation results also reveal that there exits an optimal small cell base station (SBS) density ratio between pico-tier and femto-tier which can be applied to maximize the energy efficiency and at the same time enhance the system performance. Our findings provide guidance for the design of multi-tier HetNets for improving the coverage performance as well as the energy efficiency.
An analytical and experimental study to investigate flutter suppression via piezoelectric actuation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heeg, Jennifer
The objective was to analytically and experimentally study the capabilities of adaptive material plate actuators for suppressing flutter. The validity of analytical modeling techniques for piezoelectric materials was also investigated. Piezoelectrics are materials which are characterized by their ability to produce voltage when subjected to a mechanical strain. The converse piezoelectric effect can be utilized to actuate a structure by applying a voltage. For this investigation, a two degree of freedom wind tunnel model was designed, analyzed, and tested. The model consisted of a rigid airfoil and a flexible mount system which permitted a translational and a rotational degree of freedom. It was designed such that flutter was encounted within the testing envelope of the wind tunnel. Actuators, made of piezoelectric material were affixed to leaf springs of the mount system. Each degree of freedom was controlled by a separate leaf spring. Command signals, applied to the piezoelectric actuators, exerted control over the damping and stiffness properties. A mathematical aeroservoelastic model was constructed using finite element methods, laminated plate theory, and aeroelastic analysis tools. Plant characteristics were determined from this model and verified by open loop experimental tests. A flutter suppression control law was designed and implemented on a digital control computer. Closed loop flutter testing was conducted. The experimental results represent the first time that adaptive materials have been used to actively suppress flutter. It demonstrates that small, carefully placed actuating plates can be used effectively to control aeroelastic response.
Visual analytics for multimodal social network analysis: a design study with social scientists.
Ghani, Sohaib; Kwon, Bum Chul; Lee, Seungyoon; Yi, Ji Soo; Elmqvist, Niklas
2013-12-01
Social network analysis (SNA) is becoming increasingly concerned not only with actors and their relations, but also with distinguishing between different types of such entities. For example, social scientists may want to investigate asymmetric relations in organizations with strict chains of command, or incorporate non-actors such as conferences and projects when analyzing coauthorship patterns. Multimodal social networks are those where actors and relations belong to different types, or modes, and multimodal social network analysis (mSNA) is accordingly SNA for such networks. In this paper, we present a design study that we conducted with several social scientist collaborators on how to support mSNA using visual analytics tools. Based on an openended, formative design process, we devised a visual representation called parallel node-link bands (PNLBs) that splits modes into separate bands and renders connections between adjacent ones, similar to the list view in Jigsaw. We then used the tool in a qualitative evaluation involving five social scientists whose feedback informed a second design phase that incorporated additional network metrics. Finally, we conducted a second qualitative evaluation with our social scientist collaborators that provided further insights on the utility of the PNLBs representation and the potential of visual analytics for mSNA.
Analytical studies of a backscatter x-ray imaging landmine detection system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keshavmurthy, Shyam P.; Dugan, Edward T.; Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Jacobs, Alan M.
1996-05-01
The Compton Backscatter Imaging (CBI) technique has been applied successfully to detect buried plastic anti-tank landmines. The images acquired by a CBI system are often cluttered by surface features. Additionally, some buried objects give the same response as the plastic landmines. The landmine detection can be successful only when the detection system is capable of distinguishing between surface features and the mine-like objects. This can be accomplished by designing detectors that differentiate between the surface features and the buried objects. An understanding of the physical phenomena underlining the CB image formation helps us to design these detectors. To study the physics of the Compton backscattering, the photon transport in a CBI system is simulated using Monte-Carlo calculations with the generalized particle transport program MCNP. The photon tracks are graphically displayed using a visualization program SABRINA. On the basis of the results from these Monte-Carlo analyses, a four-detector system has been designed. This detector design utilizes the unique nature of various collision components of the scattered photons to generate separate images of buried objects and surface features. The success of this detector design is demonstrated through a series of analytically generated images. The results of the experimental measurements that validate these analytical predictions are brought out in a separate paper to be presented in this conference.
Optimization of the Pressurized Logistics Module - A Space Station Freedom analytical study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scallan, J. M.
1991-01-01
The analysis for determining the optimum cylindrical length of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Pressurized Logistics Module, whose task is to transport the SSF pressurized cargo via the NSTS Shuttle Orbiter, is described. The major factors considered include the NSTS net launch lift capability, the pressurized cargo requirements, and the mass properties of the module structures, mechanisms, and subsystems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afzali-Far, Behrouz; Andersson, Anette; Nilsson, Kristina; Lidström, Per
2015-09-01
Consideration of strut inertia can have significant influence on the modal behavior of a Gough-Stewart Platform (GSP). However, in the literature, the strut inertia has not yet been taken into account in its vibration study with a parametric approach. In this paper, we present a fully parametric approach to formulate the damped vibrations of GSPs taking into account the strut masses and moments of inertia for symmetric configurations. For the first time, a combined 6×6 equivalent inertia matrix (mass matrix), including both the inertia properties of the platform and the struts, is formulated parametrically. Subsequently, the eigenvectors and the damped eigenfrequencies are also parametrically developed in the Cartesian space. Furthermore, the conditions for the decoupled vibrations and the effect of strut inertia on these conditions are analytically investigated. With the aid of a reference GSP, the influence of the strut inertia on its modal behavior is systematically investigated. Accordingly, it is concluded that the parametric equations established in this paper can be directly employed in the analysis, optimization and control of GSPs in any application.
Serrano-Gallardo, Pilar; Martínez-Marcos, Mercedes; Espejo-Matorrales, Flora; Arakawa, Tiemi; Magnabosco, Gabriela Tavares; Pinto, Ione Carvalho
2016-01-01
ABSTRACT Objective: to identify the students' perception about the quality of clinical placements and asses the influence of the different tutoring processes in clinical learning. Methods: analytical cross-sectional study on second and third year nursing students (n=122) about clinical learning in primary health care. The Clinical Placement Evaluation Tool and a synthetic index of attitudes and skills were computed to give scores to the clinical learning (scale 0-10). Univariate, bivariate and multivariate (multiple linear regression) analyses were performed. Results: the response rate was 91.8%. The most commonly identified tutoring process was "preceptor-professor" (45.2%). The clinical placement was assessed as "optimal" by 55.1%, relationship with team-preceptor was considered good by 80.4% of the cases and the average grade for clinical learning was 7.89. The multiple linear regression model with more explanatory capacity included the variables "Academic year" (beta coefficient = 1.042 for third-year students), "Primary Health Care Area (PHC)" (beta coefficient = 0.308 for Area B) and "Clinical placement perception" (beta coefficient = - 0.204 for a suboptimal perception). Conclusions: timeframe within the academic program, location and clinical placement perception were associated with students' clinical learning. Students' perceptions of setting quality were positive and a good team-preceptor relationship is a matter of relevance. PMID:27627124
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.
1996-01-01
The angular momentum independent statistical decay model is often applied using a Monte-Carlo simulation to describe the decay of prefragment nuclei in heavy ion reactions. This paper presents an analytical approach to the decay problem of nuclei with mass number less than 60, which is important for galactic cosmic ray (GCR) studies. This decay problem of nuclei with mass number less than 60 incorporates well-known levels of the lightest nuclei (A less than 11) to improve convergence and accuracy. A sensitivity study of the model level density function is used to determine the impact on mass and charge distributions in nuclear fragmentation. This angular momentum independent statistical decay model also describes the momentum and energy distribution of emitted particles (n, p, d, t, h, and a) from a prefragment nucleus.
Use of stable isotopes of selenium in human metabolic studies: development of analytical methodology
Janghorbani, M.; Ting, B.T.; Young, V.R.
1981-12-01
Use of stable isotopes of selenium in relation to enrichment of diets for studies of selenium absorption and metabolism in human subjects is discussed. A method based on radiochemical neutron activation analysis is described which allows accurate measurement of stable isotopes 74Se, 76Se, and 80Se in matrices (feces, plasma, red blood cells, and urine) of interest in metabolic studies. We show that these isotopes can routinely be measured with analytical precision and accuracy of 10% in samples of available size. This precision and accuracy is satisfactory for conduct of many nutritional experiments concerned with gastrointestinal absorption, plasma and red cell selenium turnover, and urinary excretion of the element, using an oral dose of 74Se. Original, experimental data are presented to illustrate the degree of enrichment of 74Se in feces, plasma, and urine after a single oral ingestion of 50 micrograms of the isotope with a breakfast meal in healthy young men.
Rivero, Anisleidy; Niell, Silvina; Cesio, Verónica; Cerdeiras, M Pía; Heinzen, Horacio
2012-10-15
A general procedure to study the biodegradation of endosulfan under laboratory conditions by white rot fungi isolated from native sources growing in YNB (yeast nitrogen base) media with 1% of glucose is presented. The evaluation of endosulfan biodegradation as well as endosulfan sulfate, endosulfan ether and endosulfan alcohol production throughout the whole bioremedation process was performed using an original and straightforward validated analytical procedure with recoveries between 78 and 112% at all concentration levels studied except for endosulfan sulfate at 50 mg L(-1) that yielded 128% and RSDs<20%. Under the developed conditions, the basidiomycete Bjerkandera adusta was able to degrade 83% of (alpha+beta) endosulfan after 27 days, 6 mg kg(-1) of endosulfan diol were determined; endosulfan ether and endosulfan sulfate were produced below 1 mg kg(-1) (LOQ, limit of quantitation).
Analytical and numerical studies of photo-injected charge transport in molecularly-doped polymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy Chowdhury, Amrita
The mobility of photo-injected charge carriers in molecularly-doped polymers (MDPs) exhibits a commonly observed, and nearly universal Poole-Frenkel field dependence, mu exp√(beta0E), that has been shown to arise from the correlated Gaussian energy distribution of transport sites encountered by charges undergoing hopping transport through the material. Analytical and numerical studies of photo-injected charge transport in these materials are presented here with an attempt to understand how specific features of the various models developed to describe these systems depend on the microscopic parameters that define them. Specifically, previously published time-of-flight mobility data for the molecularly doped polymer 30% DEH:PC (polycarbonate doped with 30 wt.% aromatic hydrazone DEH) is compared with direct analytical and numerical predictions of five disorder-based models, the Gaussian disorder model (GDM) of Bassler, and four correlated disorder models introduced by Novikov, et al., and by Parris, et al. In these numerical studies, disorder parameters describing each model were varied from reasonable starting conditions, in order to give the best overall fit. The uncorrelated GDM describes the Poole-Frenkel field dependence of the mobility only at very high fields, but fails for fields lower than about 64 V/mum. The correlated disorder models with small amounts of geometrical disorder do a good over-all job of reproducing a robust Poole-Frenkel field dependence, with correlated disorder theories that employ polaron transition rates showing qualitatively better agreement with experiment than those that employ Miller-Abrahams rates. In a separate study, the heuristic treatment of spatial or geometric disorder incorporated in existing theories is critiqued, and a randomly-diluted lattice gas model is developed to describe the spatial disorder of the transport sites in a more realistic way.
Optimization in generalized linear models: A case study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, Eliana Costa e.; Correia, Aldina; Lopes, Isabel Cristina
2016-06-01
The maximum likelihood method is usually chosen to estimate the regression parameters of Generalized Linear Models (GLM) and also for hypothesis testing and goodness of fit tests. The classical method for estimating GLM parameters is the Fisher scores. In this work we propose to compute the estimates of the parameters with two alternative methods: a derivative-based optimization method, namely the BFGS method which is one of the most popular of the quasi-Newton algorithms, and the PSwarm derivative-free optimization method that combines features of a pattern search optimization method with a global Particle Swarm scheme. As a case study we use a dataset of biological parameters (phytoplankton) and chemical and environmental parameters of the water column of a Portuguese reservoir. The results show that, for this dataset, BFGS and PSwarm methods provided a better fit, than Fisher scores method, and can be good alternatives for finding the estimates for the parameters of a GLM.
Study of genetic direct search algorithms for function optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeigler, B. P.
1974-01-01
The results are presented of a study to determine the performance of genetic direct search algorithms in solving function optimization problems arising in the optimal and adaptive control areas. The findings indicate that: (1) genetic algorithms can outperform standard algorithms in multimodal and/or noisy optimization situations, but suffer from lack of gradient exploitation facilities when gradient information can be utilized to guide the search. (2) For large populations, or low dimensional function spaces, mutation is a sufficient operator. However for small populations or high dimensional functions, crossover applied in about equal frequency with mutation is an optimum combination. (3) Complexity, in terms of storage space and running time, is significantly increased when population size is increased or the inversion operator, or the second level adaptation routine is added to the basic structure.
What if Learning Analytics Were Based on Learning Science?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marzouk, Zahia; Rakovic, Mladen; Liaqat, Amna; Vytasek, Jovita; Samadi, Donya; Stewart-Alonso, Jason; Ram, Ilana; Woloshen, Sonya; Winne, Philip H.; Nesbit, John C.
2016-01-01
Learning analytics are often formatted as visualisations developed from traced data collected as students study in online learning environments. Optimal analytics inform and motivate students' decisions about adaptations that improve their learning. We observe that designs for learning often neglect theories and empirical findings in learning…
Ground Based Studies of Thermocapillary Flows in Levitated Drops: Analytical Part
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sadhal, S. S.; Trinh, Eugene H.
1997-01-01
The main objectives of the analytical part of this investigation are to study the fluid flow phenomena together with the thermal effects on drops levitated in an acoustic field. To a large extent, experimentation on ground requires a strong acoustic field that has a significant interference with other thermal-fluid effects. While most of the work has been directed towards particles in strong acoustic fields to overcome gravity, some results for microgravity have been obtained. One of the objectives was to obtain the thermocapillary flow in a spot-heated drop, and set up a model for the prediction of thermophysical properties. In addition, for acoustically levitated particles, a clear understanding of the underlying fluid mechanics was required. Also, the interaction of acoustics with steady and pulsating thermal stimuli was required to be analyzed. The experimental part of the work was funded through JPL, and has been reported separately.
Analytic and laser vibrometry study of squeeze film damping of MEMS cantilevers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vignola, Joseph F.; Judge, John A.; Lawrence, Eric; Jarzynski, Jacek; Houston, Brian
2006-06-01
This study compares theoretical predictions to experimental measurements of squeeze film damping of MEMS cantilevers in a fluid environment. A series of MEMS cantilevers were fabricated on a silicon wafer. Each of the silicon beams was 2 μm thick and 18 μm wide. The lengths range from 100 to 800 μm and the air-filled gap between the cantilever and the substrate was 6 μm. An analytic model for squeeze film damping was used to predict the corresponding quality factor Q squeeze film (the ratio of the mechanical energy stored in the oscillator to the energy dissipated per cycle) for these cantilevers. The results from the modeling are compared to experimental results obtained using a Polytec MSA-400 Micro System Analyzer.
An analytical electron microscope study of airborne industrial particles in Sosnowiec, Poland
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.; Janeczek, Janusz
The types and the relative amounts of airborne particles in the city of Sosnowiec (Poland) during 21-22 June, 1994 were identified by analytical electron microscope analyses. They are mostly aspherical angular Al-bearing silica particles (0.1-5.15 μm) and clusters thereof. Carbonaceous particles form sheets of soluble volatile-rich materials (0.3-33.9 μm) and rare soot. Numerous nanometer-sized Al-bearing silica grains and salt minerals are associated with the larger particles. They resulted from inefficient combustion of low-grade coals by the local industries whereby the silica particles are coal impurities that survived combustion. The total particle emission was constant during a 24 h period but silica shards dominated the nighttime emission while carbonaceous particles abounded during the daytime. This study showed that tropospheric particles in regions dominated by inefficient coal combustion are fundamentally different from typical coal fly ash spheres.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhatti, M. M.; Zeeshan, A.
2016-06-01
In this paper, effects of variable viscosity with heat transfer on solid particle motion of dusty Jeffrey fluid model through a planar channel has been examined. The governing flow problem for fluid phase and dusty phase is formulated with the help of momentum and energy equation. The resulting coupled ordinary differential equations have been solved analytically and closed form solutions are presented. The influence of all the physical parameters are sketched for velocity profile, pressure rise and temperature profile. Numerical computation is used to evaluate the expression for pressure rise. The present analysis is also presented for Newtonian fluid by taking λ1 → 0 as a special case of our study. It is found that due to the influence of variable viscosity, the fluid velocity changes in the center of the channel and shows opposite behavior near the walls. It is also found that temperature profile increases for larger values of Prandtl number (Pr) and Eckert number (Ec).
Extended analytical study of the free-wing/free-trimmer concept
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Porter, R. F.; Hall, D. W.; Vergara, R. D.
1979-01-01
The free wing/free trimmer concept was analytically studied in order to: (1) compare the fore and aft trimmer configurations on the basis of equal lift capability, rather than equal area; (2) assess the influence of tip mounted aft trimmers, both free and fixed, on the lateral directional modes and turbulence responses; (3) examine the feasibility of using differential tip mounted trimmer deflection for lateral control; (4) determine the effects of independent fuselage attitude on the lateral directional behavior; and (5) estimate the influence of wing sweep on dynamic behavior and structural weight. Results indicate that the forward trimmer concept is feasible with the reduced size examined, but it remains inferior to the aft trimmer in every respect except structural weight. Differential motion of the aft trimmer is found to provide powerful lateral control; while the effect of fuselage deck angle is a reduction of the dutch roll damping ratio for nose-down attitudes.
Le Brech, Yann; Ghislain, Thierry; Leclerc, Sébastien; Bouroukba, Mohammed; Delmotte, Luc; Brosse, Nicolas; Snape, Colin; Chaimbault, Patrick; Dufour, Anthony
2016-04-21
Complementary analytical methods have been used to study the effect of potassium on the pyrolysis mechanisms of cellulose and lignocellulosic biomasses. Thermogravimetry, calorimetry, high-temperature (1) H NMR spectroscopy (in situ and real-time analysis of the fluid phase formed during pyrolysis), and water extraction of quenched char followed by size-exclusion chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry have been combined. Potassium impregnated in cellulose suppresses the formation of anhydrosugars, reduces the formation of mobile protons, and gives rise to a mainly exothermic signal. The evolution of mobile protons formed from K-impregnated cellulose has a very similar pattern to the evolution of the mass loss rate. This methodology has been also applied to analyze miscanthus, demineralized miscanthus, miscanthus re-impregnated with potassium after demineralization, raw oak, and Douglas fir. Hydrogen mobility and transfer are of high importance in the mechanisms of biomass pyrolysis.
Focused Experimental and Analytical Studies of the RBCC Rocket-Ejector
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lehman, M.; Pal, S.; Schwes, D.; Chen, J. D.; Santoro, R. J.
1999-01-01
The rocket-ejector mode of a Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engine (RBCC) was studied through a joint experimental/analytical approach. A two-dimensional variable geometry rocket-ejector system with enhanced optical access was designed and fabricated for experimentation. The rocket-ejector system utilizes a single two-dimensional gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen rocket as the ejector. To gain a systematic understanding of the rocket ejector's internal fluid mechanic/combustion phenomena, experiments were conducted with both direct-connect and sea-level static configurations for a range of rocket operating conditions Overall system performance was obtained through Global measurements of wall static pressure profiles, heat flux profiles and engine thrust, whereas detailed mixing and combustion information was obtained through Raman spectroscopy measurements of major species (gaseous oxygen, hydrogen. nitrogen and water vapor). These experimental efforts were complemented by Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) flowfield analyses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, P.; White, R. G.
1994-09-01
With the majority of industrial machinery installations it is one-dimensional or beam-like structures - for example, pipework and other mechanical linkages - which form one of the main vibration paths which bypass isolator systems. It is of interest to consider the effects that the addition of certain discontinuities to this type of structure would have on the overall vibration transmission properties of the complete system. Previous work has considered the vibration neutralizer as one such discontinuity in terms of impinging axial and flexural wave motion. In this work, the analytical study is further extended to include the third major type of structural wave motion observed in one-dimensional structures: torsional motion.
Frequency-independent radiation modes of interior sound radiation: An analytical study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hesse, C.; Vivar Perez, J. M.; Sinapius, M.
2017-03-01
Global active control methods of sound radiation into acoustic cavities necessitate the formulation of the interior sound field in terms of the surrounding structural velocity. This paper proposes an efficient approach to do this by presenting an analytical method to describe the radiation modes of interior sound radiation. The method requires no knowledge of the structural modal properties, which are often difficult to obtain in control applications. The procedure is exemplified for two generic systems of fluid-structure interaction, namely a rectangular plate coupled to a cuboid cavity and a hollow cylinder with the fluid in its enclosed cavity. The radiation modes are described as a subset of the acoustic eigenvectors on the structural-acoustic interface. For the two studied systems, they are therefore independent of frequency.
Analytical study on the SGS force around an elliptic Burgers vortex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, Hiromichi
2016-11-01
The subgrid-scale (SGS) force around an elliptic Burgers vortex is analytically examined. In turbulence, there are a lot of vortex-tubes whose cross sections are known to be approximated as the ellipse. In this study, the biaxial elliptic Burgers vortex is produced by adding the compressive and extensional background straining flow to the conventional Burgers vortex. By using a filtering operation, we revealed that the energy transfer by the Reynolds stress term applying the Bardina model exhibits negative correlation to that by the true SGS stress term. However, it has been recently reported that a combination of the Bardina Reynolds term and the eddy viscosity model gives good performance even for the coarse LES of turbulent channel flows. In order to understand that, we discuss some SGS forces: by the true SGS stress tensor, by the eddy viscosity model, by the modified Leonard term and by the Bardina Reynolds term. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26420122.
An Analytical and Experimental Study of Super-Seeding in BitTorrent-Like P2P Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhijia; Lin, Chuang; Chen, Yang; Nivargi, Vaibhav; Cao, Pei
With the popularity of BitTorrent-like P2P applications, improving its performance has been an active research area. Super-seeding, a special upload policy for the initial seeder, improves the efficiency in producing multiple seeds and reduces the uploading bytes of content initiators, thus being highly expected as a promising solution for improving downloading performance while decreasing uploading cost. However, the overall impacts of super seeding upon BitTorrent performance remain a question and have not been analyzed so far in literature. In this paper, we present an analytical and experimental study over the performance of super-seeding scheme. We attempt to answer the following questions: whether and how much super-seeding saves uploading cost, whether the overall downloading time is decreased by super-seeding, and in which circumstances super-seeding performs worse. Based on the seeding process, our analytical study gives formulas on the new piece distribution time, average downloading time and minimum distribution time for heterogeneous P2P file distribution system with super-seeding. Robust evidence supporting the use (or not) of super-seeding is given based on our worldwide Internet experiments over wide distribution of 250 PlanetLab nodes. With a well-designed experimental scenario, we study the overall download time and upload cost of super seeding scheme under varying seed bandwidth and peer behavior. Results show that super-seeding can save an upload ratio of 20% and does help speeding up swarms in certain modes. Tentative conclusions about the effectiveness of super-seeding and its optimal working circumstances are given with inside mechanism analyzed and negative factor identified. Our work not only provides reference for the potential adoption of super-seeding in BitTorrent and other P2P applications, but also much insights for the tussle of enhancing of Quality of Experience (QoE) and saving cost for a large-scale BitTorrent-like P2P commercial
Analytical techniques for sesquiterpene emission rate studies in vegetation enclosure experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helmig, Detlev; Bocquet, Florence; Pollmann, Jan; Revermann, Tobias
Sesquiterpene (SQT) compounds (C 15H 24) and their oxygenated alcohol and ketone derivatives are biogenic volatile organic compounds that have been identified in emissions from vegetation. SQT emission rates and landscape flux estimates are highly uncertain. Reliable ambient flux measurements have not been possible because of low-ambient concentrations, rapid atmospheric reactions (prohibiting ambient tower flux measurements), and analytical challenges and uncertainties that stem from the low volatility of SQT. Standards from an in situ capillary diffusion system with 18 SQT compounds and four other organic compounds (geranylacetone, 1,3,5-tri-isopropylbenzene, diphenylmethane, nonylbenzene) were used to thoroughly investigate experimental procedures for SQT emission rate studies by vegetation enclosure techniques. Recovery rates in tubing materials, sampling bags, leaf cuvettes, on six solid adsorbent materials (Tenax TA, Tenax GR, Carbotrap, Carbotrap C, Unibeads, Glass Beads) for gas chromatography analysis, and gas chromatography retention indices and mass spectral fragmentation patterns were determined. SQT compounds were found to exhibit a high degree of stickiness to all materials tested. However, the non-oxygenated SQT can be recovered in enclosure experiments for quantitative emission rate determination after careful consideration of the analytical conditions. It is utmost important to allow sufficient purging and equilibration times for all materials in contact with the sample air. In contrast oxygenated SQT were irreversibly lost in enclosure experiments which made their quantitative measurement prohibitive. Results for the other organic compounds were similar and indicate that these data mostly stem from the volatility of these compounds. Consequently, the findings of this study provide guidelines for the analysis of a wide range of volatile organic compounds in the ˜C13-C17 volatility range.
Analytical study on two-phase MHD flow of electrically conducting magnetic fluid
Okubo, Masaaki; Ishimoto, Jun; Nishiyama, Hideya; Kamiyama, Shinichi
1994-01-01
An energy conversion system using magnetic fluids proposed by Resler and Rosensweig was based on the principle that the magnetization of magnetic fluids changes with temperature. However, significant results have not been obtained up to the present. To overcome this limit and to increase the acceleration of fluid flow the authors have contributed a new energy conversion system using two-phase flow produced by heat addition. This idea came from the two-phase liquid-metal MHD power generation system proposed by Petrick and Branover. If temperature sensitive magnetic fluids are used, such a system can produce a larger force than conventional systems because the properties of apparent magnetization change not only by temperature rise but also by gas inclusion. In the present paper, an analytical study is extended to the case of electrically conducting magnetic fluid as a basic study for demonstrating the possibility of application of electrically conducting magnetic fluid to working fluid in a liquid-metal MHD power generation system. Electrically conducting magnetic fluid is usually prepared by dispersing fine iron particles into a liquid metal such as mercury. To prevent a solidification of particles and keep a homogeneous dispersion, a thin film of tin is attached to the particle`s surface. Thus the electrically conducting liquid behaves as fluid itself having magnetization. The equations governing a one-dimensional boiling two-phase duct flow of such an electrically conducting magnetic fluid in a traverse magnetic field are numerically solved. The analytical results of the two-phase flow characteristics of the magnetic fluid are compared with ones of an electrically conducting nonmagnetic fluid.
Tang, Chuan-Ho; Wang, Wei-Hsien
2007-01-09
To determine butyl- and phenyl-tins in fish muscle, a method including base digestion pretreatment, followed by a simultaneous ethylation-extraction procedure and gas chromatograph-flame photometric detector (GC-FPD) analysis is outlined. Key parameters that influence analyte recovery were investigated and optimized. A solution of 3% (w/v) potassium hydroxide (KOH) and 1 h digestion time at 60 degrees C were chosen in the base digestion step, to ensure complete solubilization of fish muscle and the decomposition of organotins was found to be insignificant. We found that the ratio of fish muscle/reaction solution should not exceed 0.2 g (dry weight) per 100 mL in order to avoid the matrix effect caused by the binding of hydrolyzed fish tissue with organotin ions. Ethylation of organotins were conducted at pH 6-7 with a 1% (w/v) sodium tetraethylborate (NaBEt(4)) solution for 1 h. This simple and timesaving procedure should be able to be applied to the routine analysis of organotins in other bio-tissues.
Little, Keith W; Koralegedara, Nadeesha H; Northeim, Coleen M; Al-Abed, Souhail R
2017-03-08
Non-hazardous solid materials from industrial processes, once regarded as waste and disposed in landfills, offer numerous environmental and economic advantages when put to beneficial uses (BUs). Proper management of these industrial non-hazardous secondary materials (INSM) requires estimates of their probable environmental impacts among disposal as well as BU options. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently approved new analytical methods (EPA Methods 1313-1316) to assess leachability of constituents of potential concern in these materials. These new methods are more realistic for many disposal and BU options than historical methods, such as the toxicity characteristic leaching protocol. Experimental data from these new methods are used to parameterize a chemical fate and transport (F&T) model to simulate long-term environmental releases from flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) when disposed of in an industrial landfill or beneficially used as an agricultural soil amendment. The F&T model is also coupled with optimization algorithms, the Beneficial Use Decision Support System (BUDSS), under development by EPA to enhance INSM management.
Moretto Galazzi, Rodrigo; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi
2013-12-15
The present work describes a metallic tube as hydride atomizer for atomic absorption spectrometry. Its performance is evaluated through tin determination, and the accuracy of the method assessed through the analysis of sediment and water samples. Some chemical parameters (referring to the generation of the hydride) such as acid, NaOH and THB concentrations, as well as physical parameters (referring to the transport of the hydride) such as carrier, acetylene, air flow-rates, flame composition, coil length, tube hole area, among others, are evaluated for optimization of the method. Scanning electron microscopy is used for evaluating morphological parameters in both new and used (after 150 h) tube atomizers. The method presents linear Sn concentration from 50 to 1000 µg L(-1) (r>0.9995; n=3) and the analytical frequency of ca. 40 h(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) is 7.1 µg L(-1) and the precision, expressed as RSD is less than 4% (200 µg L(-1); n=10). The accuracy is evaluated through reference materials, and the results are similar at 95% confidence level according to the t-test.
Analytic optimizations in crisis stability
Canavan, G.H.
1991-03-01
Second strikes are dominated by submarine launched missiles in the absence of defenses, but shift to aircraft at modest levels of defense. Defenses protect some retaliatory missiles, but not enough to retaliate strongly. With defenses, missiles should be vestigial and could be eliminated without penalty. Then aircraft could also be significantly reduced without impacting stability. The combination of parameters that maximizes cost effectiveness also maximizes midcourse effectiveness and crisis stability. 15 refs., 20 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serra, Catarina; Simões, Nuno; Tadeu, António
2015-05-01
This paper compares experimental and heat transfer modeling results for thermography applications in building elements. Over the years most building envelope inspections using infrared thermography (IRT) have been focused on qualitative analysis using mostly passive thermography techniques. However, increased need for the monitorization and assessment of the energy performance and thermal behavior of buildings, along with ongoing structural safety concerns, has raised interest in quantitative studies and active IRT applications in buildings. Numerous other fields have benefited from developments in defect detection studies and from countless non-destructive testing applications. Pulse phase thermography, in which phase images are studied (instead of temperature images) using a long heating pulse have been proposed to be the most effective for Civil Engineering applications. However, the particular characteristics of building elements and materials, along with the complex nature of heat transfer phenomena, demand specific experimental procedures and processing techniques. In this paper, analytical solutions to simulate heat transfer in the frequency domain in multi-layered media are used to compute thermal wave phase results. These are compared to experimental IRT phase analysis results of experiments performed on test specimens simulating building elements with embedded defects. Crucial test parameters such as test duration and defect characteristics are changed and their influence is studied. In this way, this paper contributes to the understanding of building envelope thermal patterns using active IRT in defect detection studies and to the definition of test parameters.
Action Video Game Training for Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analytic Study.
Wang, Ping; Liu, Han-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Ting; Meng, Tian; Li, Hui-Jie; Zuo, Xi-Nian
2016-01-01
Action video game (AVG) has attracted increasing attention from both the public and from researchers. More and more studies found video game training improved a variety of cognitive functions. However, it remains controversial whether healthy adults can benefit from AVG training, and whether young and older adults benefit similarly from AVG training. In the present study, we aimed to quantitatively assess the AVG training effect on the cognitive ability of adults and to compare the training effects on young and older adults by conducting a meta-analysis on previous findings. We systematically searched video game training studies published between January 1986 and July 2015. Twenty studies were included in the present meta-analysis, for a total of 313 participants included in the training group and 323 participants in the control group. The results demonstrate that healthy adults achieve moderate benefit from AVG training in overall cognitive ability and moderate to small benefit in specific cognitive domains. In contrast, young adults gain more benefits from AVG training than older adults in both overall cognition and specific cognitive domains. Age, education, and some methodological factors, such as the session duration, session number, total training duration, and control group type, modulated the training effects. These meta-analytic findings provide evidence that AVG training may serve as an efficient way to improve the cognitive performance of healthy adults. We also discussed several directions for future AVG training studies.
Action Video Game Training for Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analytic Study
Wang, Ping; Liu, Han-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Ting; Meng, Tian; Li, Hui-Jie; Zuo, Xi-Nian
2016-01-01
Action video game (AVG) has attracted increasing attention from both the public and from researchers. More and more studies found video game training improved a variety of cognitive functions. However, it remains controversial whether healthy adults can benefit from AVG training, and whether young and older adults benefit similarly from AVG training. In the present study, we aimed to quantitatively assess the AVG training effect on the cognitive ability of adults and to compare the training effects on young and older adults by conducting a meta-analysis on previous findings. We systematically searched video game training studies published between January 1986 and July 2015. Twenty studies were included in the present meta-analysis, for a total of 313 participants included in the training group and 323 participants in the control group. The results demonstrate that healthy adults achieve moderate benefit from AVG training in overall cognitive ability and moderate to small benefit in specific cognitive domains. In contrast, young adults gain more benefits from AVG training than older adults in both overall cognition and specific cognitive domains. Age, education, and some methodological factors, such as the session duration, session number, total training duration, and control group type, modulated the training effects. These meta-analytic findings provide evidence that AVG training may serve as an efficient way to improve the cognitive performance of healthy adults. We also discussed several directions for future AVG training studies. PMID:27378996
Sherwin, Catherine M T; Ngamprasertwong, Pornswan; Sadhasivam, Senthilkumar; Vinks, Alexander A
2014-02-01
Multiple blood samples are generally required for measurement of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. D-optimal design is a popular and frequently used approach for determination of sampling time points in order to minimize the number of samples, while optimizing the estimation of PK parameters. Optimal design utilizing ADAPT (v5, BSR, University of Southern California, Los Angeles) developed a sparse sampling strategy to determine measurement of propofol in pregnant sheep. Propofal was administered as supplemental anesthetic agent to inhalation anesthesia to mimic anesthesia for open fetal surgery. In our preliminary study, propofol 3 mg/kg was given as a bolus to the ewe, followed by propofol infusion at rate 450 mcg/kg/min for 60 minutes, then decreased to 75 mcg/kg/min for 90 more minutes and then ceased. A three compartment model described the PK parameters with the fetus assumed as the third compartment. Initially, sampling times were chosen from thirteen time points as previously stated in the literature. Using priori propofol PK estimates, the final 9 sample time points were proposed in an optimal design with a change in infusion rate occurring between 65 and 75 minutes and sampling proposed at 5, 15, 25, 65, 75, 100, 110, 150, and 180 minutes. D-optimal design optimized the number and timing of samplings, which led to a reduction of cost and man power in the study protocol while preserving the ability to estimate propofol PK parameters in the maternal and fetal sheep model. Initial evaluation of samples collected from three sheep using the optimal design strategy confirmed the performance of the design in obtaining effective PK parameter estimates.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ifenthaler, Dirk; Widanapathirana, Chathuranga
2014-01-01
Interest in collecting and mining large sets of educational data on student background and performance to conduct research on learning and instruction has developed as an area generally referred to as learning analytics. Higher education leaders are recognizing the value of learning analytics for improving not only learning and teaching but also…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Budsankom, Prayoonsri; Sawangboon, Tatsirin; Damrongpanit, Suntorapot; Chuensirimongkol, Jariya
2015-01-01
The purpose of the research is to develop and identify the validity of factors affecting higher order thinking skills (HOTS) of students. The thinking skills can be divided into three types: analytical, critical, and creative thinking. This analysis is done by applying the meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) based on a database of…
Factors Influencing Beliefs for Adoption of a Learning Analytics Tool: An Empirical Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ali, Liaqat; Asadi, Mohsen; Gasevic, Dragan; Jovanovic, Jelena; Hatala, Marek
2013-01-01
Present research and development offer various learning analytics tools providing insights into different aspects of learning processes. Adoption of a specific tool for practice is based on how its learning analytics are perceived by educators to support their pedagogical and organizational goals. In this paper, we propose and empirically validate…
Analytical and numerical study of the ground-track resonances of Dawn orbiting Vesta
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delsate, N.
2011-10-01
The aim of Dawn mission is the acquisition of data from orbits around two bodies (4) Vesta and (1) Ceres, the two most massive asteroids. Due to the low thrust propulsion, Dawn will slowly cross and transit through ground-track resonances, where the perturbations on Dawn orbit may be significant. In this context, to safety go the Dawn mission from the approach orbit to the lowest science orbit, it is essential to know the properties of the crossed resonances. This paper analytically investigates the properties of the major ground-track resonances (1:1, 1:2, 2:3 and 3:2) appearing for Vesta orbiters: location of the equilibria, aperture of the resonances and period at the stable equilibria. We develop a general method using an averaged Hamiltonian formulation with a spherical harmonic approximation of the gravity field. If the values of the gravity field coefficient change, our method stays correct and applicable. We also discuss the effect of one uncertainty on the C20 and C22 coefficients on the properties of the 1:1 resonance. These results are checked by numerical tests. We determine that the increase of the eccentricity appearing in the 2:3 resonance is due to the C22 and S22 coefficients. Our method can be easily adapted to missions similar to Dawn because, contrarily to the numerical results, the analytical formalism stays the same and is valid for a wide range of physical parameters of the asteroid (namely the shape and the mass) as well as for different spacecraft orbits. Finally we numerically study the probability of the capture in resonance 1:1. Our paper reproduces, explains and supplements the results of Tricarico and Sykes (2010).
Analytical strategies for discovery and replication of genetic effects in pharmacogenomic studies
Kohler, Jared R; Guennel, Tobias; Marshall, Scott L
2014-01-01
In the past decade, the pharmaceutical industry and biomedical research sector have devoted considerable resources to pharmacogenomics (PGx) with the hope that understanding genetic variation in patients would deliver on the promise of personalized medicine. With the advent of new technologies and the improved collection of DNA samples, the roadblock to advancements in PGx discovery is no longer the lack of high-density genetic information captured on patient populations, but rather the development, adaptation, and tailoring of analytical strategies to effectively harness this wealth of information. The current analytical paradigm in PGx considers the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) as the genomic feature of interest and performs single SNP association tests to discover PGx effects – ie, genetic effects impacting drug response. While it can be straightforward to process single SNP results and to consider how this information may be extended for use in downstream patient stratification, the rate of replication for single SNP associations has been low and the desired success of producing clinically and commercially viable biomarkers has not been realized. This may be due to the fact that single SNP association testing is suboptimal given the complexities of PGx discovery in the clinical trial setting, including: 1) relatively small sample sizes; 2) diverse clinical cohorts within and across trials due to genetic ancestry (potentially impacting the ability to replicate findings); and 3) the potential polygenic nature of a drug response. Subsequently, a shift in the current paradigm is proposed: to consider the gene as the genomic feature of interest in PGx discovery. The proof-of-concept study presented in this manuscript demonstrates that genomic region-based association testing has the potential to improve the power of detecting single SNP or complex PGx effects in the discovery stage (by leveraging the underlying genetic architecture and reducing the
Glyphosate and AMPA in the estuaries of the Baltic Sea method optimization and field study.
Skeff, Wael; Neumann, Christine; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E
2015-11-15
Water samples from ten German Baltic estuaries were collected in 2012 in order to study the presence of the herbicide glyphosate, its primary metabolite AMPA and their potential transport to the marine environment. For the analyses an LC-MS/MS based analytical method after derivatization with FMOC-Cl was optimized and validated for marine water samples. All investigated estuarine stations were contaminated with AMPA and nine of them also with glyphosate. Concentration ranges observed were 28 to 1690ng/L and 45 to 4156ng/L for glyphosate and AMPA, respectively with strong spatial and temporal fluctuations. Both contaminants were found at inbound sampling sites in the stream Muehlenfliess and concentrations decreased along the salinity gradient to the estuaries of the Baltic Sea. The data obtained in this study clearly depict the transport of glyphosate and AMPA to the Baltic Sea. Hence, detailed fate and risk assessment for both contaminants in marine environments are required.
Optimization of PET instrumentation for brain activation studies
Dahlbom, M.; Cherry, S.R.; Hoffman, E.J. . Dept. of Radiological Science); Eriksson, L. . Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology); Wienhard, K. )
1993-08-01
By performing cerebral blood flow studies with positron emission tomography (PET), and comparing blood flow images of different states of activation, functional mapping of the brain is possible. The ability of current commercial instruments to perform such studies is investigated in this work, based on a comparison of noise equivalent count (NEC) rates. Differences in the NEC performance of the different scanners in conjunction with scanner design parameters, provide insights into the importance of block design (size, dead time, crystal thickness) and overall scanner design (sensitivity and scatter fraction) for optimizing data from activation studies. The newer scanners with removable septa, operating with 3-D acquisition, have much higher sensitivity, but require new methodology for optimized operation. Only by administering multiple low doses (fractionation) of the flow tracer can the high sensitivity be utilized.
An Analytical Study on Periodically Changing Flow Cells in Groundwater Basins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, X.; Zhao, K. Y.; Wang, J. Z.; Wan, L.; Wang, H.
2014-12-01
Current understanding on basin-scale groundwater flow is mainly based on Tóth's (1962, 1963) pioneering study, which assumed that water table is a subdued replica of topography and the annual mean water table controls the pattern of groundwater flow. In fact, water table is driven by dynamic forcing and changes with time. This study modifies the conceptual model of basin-scale groundwater flow by taking the fluctuating water-table into account. For both unit basin and complex basin, water table fluctuates throughout the basin cross-section except for at basin valleys. By the method of separation of variables, we derive the analytical solution of hydraulics head and stream function in the unit basin and the complex basin, and discuss the characteristics of the time-dependent flow cells. For the unit basin, the change in amplitude of hydraulic head fluctuation with depth is studied. For the complex basin, the time-dependent distribution of internal stagnation points is discussed. In addition, the relationship between flowing artesian zone and the fluctuating water-table is discussed. The results of the current study enhance our understanding on the transient nature of basin-scale groundwater flow.
Garamszegi, László Z; Møller, Anders P
2010-11-01
Comparative analyses aim to explain interspecific variation in phenotype among taxa. In this context, phylogenetic approaches are generally applied to control for similarity due to common descent, because such phylogenetic relationships can produce spurious similarity in phenotypes (known as phylogenetic inertia or bias). On the other hand, these analyses largely ignore potential biases due to within-species variation. Phylogenetic comparative studies inherently assume that species-specific means from intraspecific samples of modest sample size are biologically meaningful. However, within-species variation is often significant, because measurement errors, within- and between-individual variation, seasonal fluctuations, and differences among populations can all reduce the repeatability of a trait. Although simulations revealed that low repeatability can increase the type I error in a phylogenetic study, researchers only exercise great care in accounting for similarity in phenotype due to common phylogenetic descent, while problems posed by intraspecific variation are usually neglected. A meta-analysis of 194 comparative analyses all adjusting for similarity due to common phylogenetic descent revealed that only a few studies reported intraspecific repeatabilities, and hardly any considered or partially dealt with errors arising from intraspecific variation. This is intriguing, because the meta-analytic data suggest that the effect of heterogeneous sampling can be as important as phylogenetic bias, and thus they should be equally controlled in comparative studies. We provide recommendations about how to handle such effects of heterogeneous sampling.
Optimal study design for pioglitazone in septic pediatric patients.
Sherwin, Catherine M T; Ding, Lili; Kaplan, Jennifer; Spigarelli, Michael G; Vinks, Alexander A
2011-08-01
The objective was to demonstrate the methodology and process of optimal sparse sampling pharmacokinetics (PK). This utilized a single daily dose of pioglitazone for pediatric patients with severe sepsis and septic shock based upon adult and minimal adolescent data. Pioglitazone pharmacokinetics were modeled using non-compartment analysis WinNonlin Pro (version 5.1) and population kinetics using NONMEM (version 7.1) with first order conditional estimation method (FOCE) with interaction. The initial model was generated from single- and multiple-dose pioglitazone PK data (15 mg, 30 mg, and 45 mg) in 36 adolescents with diabetes. PK models were simulated and overlaid upon original data to provide a comparison best described by a single compartment, first order model. The optimal design was based on the simulated oral administration of pioglitazone to three groups of pediatric patients, age 3.8 (2-6 years), weight 14.4 (7-28 kg); age 9.6 (6.1-11.9 years), weight 36.5 (28.1-48 kg) and age 15.5 (12-17 years,) weight 61.6 (48.1-80 kg). PFIM (version 3.2) was used to evaluate sample study size. Datasets were compiled using simulation for each dose (15, 30 and 45 mg) for the potential age/weight groups. A target dose of 15 mg daily in the youngest and middle groups was considered appropriate with area under the curve exposure levels (AUC) comparable to studies in adolescents. The final optimal design suggested time points of 0.5, 2, 6 and 21 h for 24 h dosing. This methodology provides a robust method of utilizing adult and limited adolescent data to simulate allometrically scaled, pediatric data sets that allow the optimal design of a pediatric trial. The pharmacokinetics of pioglitazone were described adequately and simulated data estimates were comparable to literature values. The optimal design provided clinically attainable sample times and windows.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Golden, Mark
This report briefly describes the procedures for assessing children's psychological development and the data analytic framework used in the New York City Infant Day Care Study. This study is a 5-year, longitudinal investigation in which infants in group and family day care programs and infants reared at home are compared. Children in the study are…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, J. G.; Mikulas, M. M., Jr.
1975-01-01
Structural efficiency studies were made to determine the weight-saving potential of graphite/epoxy composite structures for compression panel applications. Minimum-weight hat-stiffened and open-corrugation configurations were synthesized using a nonlinear mathematical programing technique. Selected configurations were built and tested to study local and Euler buckling characteristics. Test results for 23 panels critical in local buckling and six panels critical in Euler buckling are compared with analytical results obtained using the BUCLASP-2 branched plate buckling program. A weight efficiency comparison is made between composite and aluminum compression panels using metal test data generated by the NACA. Theoretical studies indicate that potential weight savings of up to 50% are possible for composite hat-stiffened panels when compared with similar aluminum designs. Weight savings of 32% to 42% were experimentally achieved. Experience to date suggests that most of the theoretical weight-saving potential is available if design deficiencies are eliminated and strict fabrication control is exercised.
Sutton, Patrick T; Ginn, Timothy R
2014-12-15
A sustainable in-well vapor stripping system is designed as a cost-effective alternative for remediation of shallow chlorinated solvent groundwater plumes. A solar-powered air compressor is used to inject air bubbles into a monitoring well to strip volatile organic compounds from a liquid to vapor phase while simultaneously inducing groundwater circulation around the well screen. An analytical model of the remediation process is developed to estimate contaminant mass flow and removal rates. The model was calibrated based on a one-day pilot study conducted in an existing monitoring well at a former dry cleaning site. According to the model, induced groundwater circulation at the study site increased the contaminant mass flow rate into the well by approximately two orders of magnitude relative to ambient conditions. Modeled estimates for 5h of pulsed air injection per day at the pilot study site indicated that the average effluent concentrations of dissolved tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene can be reduced by over 90% relative to the ambient concentrations. The results indicate that the system could be used cost-effectively as either a single- or multi-well point technology to substantially reduce the mass of dissolved chlorinated solvents in groundwater.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sutton, Patrick T.; Ginn, Timothy R.
2014-12-01
A sustainable in-well vapor stripping system is designed as a cost-effective alternative for remediation of shallow chlorinated solvent groundwater plumes. A solar-powered air compressor is used to inject air bubbles into a monitoring well to strip volatile organic compounds from a liquid to vapor phase while simultaneously inducing groundwater circulation around the well screen. An analytical model of the remediation process is developed to estimate contaminant mass flow and removal rates. The model was calibrated based on a one-day pilot study conducted in an existing monitoring well at a former dry cleaning site. According to the model, induced groundwater circulation at the study site increased the contaminant mass flow rate into the well by approximately two orders of magnitude relative to ambient conditions. Modeled estimates for 5 h of pulsed air injection per day at the pilot study site indicated that the average effluent concentrations of dissolved tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene can be reduced by over 90% relative to the ambient concentrations. The results indicate that the system could be used cost-effectively as either a single- or multi-well point technology to substantially reduce the mass of dissolved chlorinated solvents in groundwater.
A Systematic Evaluation of Blood Serum and Plasma Pre-Analytics for Metabolomics Cohort Studies
Jobard, Elodie; Trédan, Olivier; Postoly, Déborah; André, Fabrice; Martin, Anne-Laure; Elena-Herrmann, Bénédicte; Boyault, Sandrine
2016-01-01
The recent thriving development of biobanks and associated high-throughput phenotyping studies requires the elaboration of large-scale approaches for monitoring biological sample quality and compliance with standard protocols. We present a metabolomic investigation of human blood samples that delineates pitfalls and guidelines for the collection, storage and handling procedures for serum and plasma. A series of eight pre-processing technical parameters is systematically investigated along variable ranges commonly encountered across clinical studies. While metabolic fingerprints, as assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance, are not significantly affected by altered centrifugation parameters or delays between sample pre-processing (blood centrifugation) and storage, our metabolomic investigation highlights that both the delay and storage temperature between blood draw and centrifugation are the primary parameters impacting serum and plasma metabolic profiles. Storing the blood drawn at 4 °C is shown to be a reliable routine to confine variability associated with idle time prior to sample pre-processing. Based on their fine sensitivity to pre-analytical parameters and protocol variations, metabolic fingerprints could be exploited as valuable ways to determine compliance with standard procedures and quality assessment of blood samples within large multi-omic clinical and translational cohort studies. PMID:27929400
Optimization Shield Materials Trade Study for Lunar/Gateway Mission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Anderson, B. M.; Simonsen, L. C.
2002-01-01
The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in many deep space missions. For this enabling technology, we are developing tools for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of various space missions. The total shield mass over all pieces of equipment and habitats is optimized subject to career dose and dose rate constraints. Preliminary studies of deep space missions indicate that for long duration space missions, improved shield materials will be required. The details of this new method and its impact on space missions and other technologies will be discussed. This study will provide a vital tool for evaluating Gateway designs in their usage context. Providing protection against the hazards of space radiation is one of the challenges to the Gateway infrastructure designs. We will use the mission optimization software to scope the impact of Gateway operations on human exposures and the effectiveness of alternate shielding materials on Gateway infrastructure designs. It is being proposed to use Moon and the Lagrange points as the hub for deep space missions. This study will provide a guide to the effectiveness of multifunctional materials in preparation to more detailed geometry studies in progress.
Dasgupta, Aritra; Lee, Joon-Yong; Wilson, Ryan; Lafrance, Robert A; Cramer, Nick; Cook, Kristin; Payne, Samuel
2017-01-01
Combining interactive visualization with automated analytical methods like statistics and data mining facilitates data-driven discovery. These visual analytic methods are beginning to be instantiated within mixed-initiative systems, where humans and machines collaboratively influence evidence-gathering and decision-making. But an open research question is that, when domain experts analyze their data, can they completely trust the outputs and operations on the machine-side? Visualization potentially leads to a transparent analysis process, but do domain experts always trust what they see? To address these questions, we present results from the design and evaluation of a mixed-initiative, visual analytics system for biologists, focusing on analyzing the relationships between familiarity of an analysis medium and domain experts' trust. We propose a trust-augmented design of the visual analytics system, that explicitly takes into account domain-specific tasks, conventions, and preferences. For evaluating the system, we present the results of a controlled user study with 34 biologists where we compare the variation of the level of trust across conventional and visual analytic mediums and explore the influence of familiarity and task complexity on trust. We find that despite being unfamiliar with a visual analytic medium, scientists seem to have an average level of trust that is comparable with the same in conventional analysis medium. In fact, for complex sense-making tasks, we find that the visual analytic system is able to inspire greater trust than other mediums. We summarize the implications of our findings with directions for future research on trustworthiness of visual analytic systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barberini, V.; Maspero, F.; Galimberti, L.; Fusi, N.
2009-04-01
The aim of this work was the characterization, using several analytical techniques, of a sample of ancient pottery found during archaeological excavations in the 14th century's Sforza Castle in Milano. The use of a multi-analytical approach is well established in the study of archaeological materials (e.g. Tite et al. 1984, Ribechini et al. 2008). The chemical composition of the sample was determined with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The chemical composition is: SiO2 61.3(±3)%, Al2O3 22.5(±2)%, Fe2O3 7.19(±6)%, K2O 3.85(±1)%, MgO 1.6(±1)%, Na2O 1.6(±4)% (probably overestimated), TiO2 1.02(±2)%, CaO 0.93(±1)%, MnO 0.15(±1)% and P2O5 0.06(±2)%. The K2O content, important when dealing with TL dating, was determined also with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The K2O content determined with atomic absorption is 3.86(±3)%, in agreement with X-ray fluorescence analysis. The mineralogical composition of the sample was determined with X-ray powder diffraction: quartz 59.6(±1) wt%, mica 37.8(±3) wt% and feldspar (plagioclase) 2.6(±2) wt%. The sample homogeneity was assessed with X-ray computerised tomography (CT), which is a very powerful non-destructive analysis tool for 3D characterization (Sèguin, 1991). CT images show differences in materials with different X-ray absorption (mainly depending on different densities) and 3D reconstruction has many interesting archaeological applications (e.g. study of sealed jars). CT images of the studied sample showed the presence of angular fragments (probably quartz) few millimetres wide immersed in a fine grained matrix. Moreover, before and after the CT analysis, some ceramic powder was sampled to perform thermoluminescence analysis (TL, the powder used for this analysis can not be recovered). It was thus possible to evaluate the dose absorbed by the material due the X-ray irradiation. The dose absorbed after 3 hours of irradiation, the time needed for a complete scan of a 7 x 5 x 1 cm, is about 100 Gy, which
Dasgupta, Aritra; Poco, Jorge; Bertini, Enrico; Silva, Claudio T.
2016-01-01
The gap between large-scale data production rate and the rate of generation of data-driven scientific insights has led to an analytical bottleneck in scientific domains like climate, biology, etc. This is primarily due to the lack of innovative analytical tools that can help scientists efficiently analyze and explore alternative hypotheses about the data, and communicate their findings effectively to a broad audience. In this paper, by reflecting on a set of successful collaborative research efforts between with a group of climate scientists and visualization researchers, we introspect how interactive visualization can help reduce the analytical bottleneck for domain scientists.
Analytical and Experimental Study of Near-Threshold Interactions Between Crack Closure Mechanisms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, John A.; Riddell, William T.; Piascik, Robert S.
2003-01-01
The results of an analytical closure model that considers contributions and interactions between plasticity-, roughness-, and oxide-induced crack closure mechanisms are presented and compared with experimental data. The analytical model is shown to provide a good description of the combined influences of crack roughness, oxide debris, and plasticity in the near-threshold regime. Furthermore, analytical results indicate that closure mechanisms interact in a non-linear manner such that the total amount of closure is not the sum of closure contributions for each mechanism.
Cloud-Enabled Climate Analytics-as-a-Service using Reanalysis data: A case study.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nadeau, D.; Duffy, D.; Schnase, J. L.; McInerney, M.; Tamkin, G.; Potter, G. L.; Thompson, J. H.
2014-12-01
The NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) maintains advanced data capabilities and facilities that allow researchers to access the enormous volume of data generated by weather and climate models. The NASA Climate Model Data Service (CDS) and the NCCS are merging their efforts to provide Climate Analytics-as-a-Service for the comparative study of the major reanalysis projects: ECMWF ERA-Interim, NASA/GMAO MERRA, NOAA/NCEP CFSR, NOAA/ESRL 20CR, JMA JRA25, and JRA55. These reanalyses have been repackaged to netCDF4 file format following the CMIP5 Climate and Forecast (CF) metadata convention prior to be sequenced into the Hadoop Distributed File System ( HDFS ). A small set of operations that represent a common starting point in many analysis workflows was then created: min, max, sum, count, variance and average. In this example, Reanalysis data exploration was performed with the use of Hadoop MapReduce and accessibility was achieved using the Climate Data Service(CDS) application programming interface (API) created at NCCS. This API provides a uniform treatment of large amount of data. In this case study, we have limited our exploration to 2 variables, temperature and precipitation, using 3 operations, min, max and avg and using 30-year of Reanalysis data for 3 regions of the world: global, polar, subtropical.
2014-01-01
Background Nursing students may exhibit the characteristics of resistance to stress, such as hardiness, which can reduce the risk of burnout. However, we found only one published study about these phenomena among nursing students. Thus, we investigated the association between hardiness and burnout in such students. Methods An analytic, cross-sectional study was conducted among 570 nursing students from three Brazilian universities. Data were collected relating to sociodemographic characteristics, hardiness, and burnout, which we analyzed using inferential statistics. Results We observed that 64.04% of nursing students in the sample had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 35.79% had a high level of cynicism, and 87.72% had a low level of professional efficacy: these are dimensions of burnout. We also found that 48.77% had a high level of control, 61.40% a high level of commitment, and 35.44% a high level of challenge: these are dimensions of hardiness. Only 24.74% of the students experienced burnout, and 21.93% met the criteria for a hardy personality. There was a statistically significant difference between the frequency of hardiness and burnout (p = 0.033), with 68.00% of hardy students not exhibiting burnout. Conclusions Although nursing students live with educational stressors, burnout was not preponderant in our sample students; this may be linked to hardiness. Thus, given its benefits to student life and health, we recommend the development of strategies to promote hardiness among nursing students. PMID:24678676
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barati Moqadam Niyat, M.; Khorashadizadeh, S. M.; Niknam, A. R.
2017-03-01
The effects of the positron concentration and ion temperature anisotropy on the electrostatic ion cyclotron instability are studied analytically, in a magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma with temperature anisotropy, using the linear kinetic theory. Positrons and electrons are supposed to drift either in the same direction or in opposite directions relative to singly ionized stationary ions and parallel to the magnetic field. The dispersion relation of the electrostatic ion cyclotron waves is derived, and then the conditions for exciting the instability of the waves are investigated. Moreover, the condition for the marginally stable state is also studied. It is found that as the positron concentration and perpendicular ion temperature increase, the growth rate of the electrostatic ion cyclotron instability decreases, whereas the critical drift velocity increases. It is also found that for the chosen set of parameters, with electrons and positrons drifting in the same direction, the instability in the plasma is stronger than when the electrons and positrons drift in opposite directions. In addition, a comparison is made to the normal electron-ion plasma.
Team consultancy using cognitive analytic therapy: a controlled study in assertive outreach.
Kellett, S; Wilbram, M; Davis, C; Hardy, Gillian
2014-10-01
The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical and organizational efficacy of formulation-based consultancy to clinical teams using a randomized control trial methodology. Patients in an Assertive Outreach Team (AOT) were randomized into cognitive analytic consultancy (CAC; n = 10) or treatment as usual (TAU; n = 10). CAC consisted of three consultancy sessions with individual team members to formulate and map the dysfunctional roles and procedures adopted by both patient and team. Subsequent changes to practice were then supported via team supervision. Measures of patient and team functioning were taken across four discrete study phases; (1) baseline team training, (2) case consultation, (3) team supervision and (4) 3-month follow-up. Team members were additionally interviewed before and following the trial. No differences were evident between CAC and TAU in terms of patient outcomes. However, the climate of the AOT significantly improved longitudinally over the course of the trial, with CAC facilitating enhanced clinical and team practices. The results are discussed in terms of methodological limitations, the advantages/disadvantages of team consultation and the potential for the further development of the CAC model.
Analytical study of a gas-fired adsorptive air-conditioning system
Poyelle, F.; Guilleminot, J.J.; Meunier, F.
1996-11-01
Adsorptive air conditioning represents a potential alternative to chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) systems. But to compete with other systems, adsorption systems must exhibit sufficient figures of merit and energetic densities. An analytical study to predict the overall heat transfer coefficient in an adsorber has been conducted and is presented here. This study, based on a method-of-moment analysis, shows the influence of three parameters limiting the heat transfer in adsorbent beds. Heat transfer in adsorbent beds has been intensified. Using new consolidated materials, the machine utilizes two uniform temperature adsorbent beds in a cycle that incorporates both heat and mass recovery. It uses a zeolite-water pair. It is designed to produce 3 kW of cooling. Expected cooling performances are 300 W/kg of adsorbent with a coefficient of performance (COP) close to 0.8 and a cycle time of 20 minutes. The thermal conditions used to test the cycle are: the heater, 220 C; the cooler, 40 C; and the evaporation temperature, 3 C.
Naik, R.V.A.
1986-01-01
A combined analytical and experimental study is conducted to determine the effects of clearance and bearing-bypass loading for mechanically fastened joints in composites. A simple method of analysis is developed to account for the nonlinear effects of bolt-hole clearance. The nonlinear load-contact variations for clearance-fit fasteners are also measured using specially instrumented fastener. For a quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy laminate, results show that the contact arc as well as the peak stresses around the hole and their locations are strongly influenced by the clearance. After a slight initial nonlinearity, the peak stresses vary linearly with applied load. The typical clearance levels are shown to have only a minor influence on the overall joint stiffness. Quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy laminates (T300/5208) were tested under combined bearing and bypass loading to study failure modes and strengths. Radiographs were made after damage onset and after ultimate load to examine the failure criteria to analyze the test data. The near the bolt-hole are calculated for each test condition, and then used with appropriate failure criteria to analyze the test data. The tension data show a linear interaction for combined bearing and bypass loading with damage developing the net-tension mode and growing to failure in the same mode. Failure modes are more complex in compression.
Empirical and Analytic Studies Human/Automation Dynamics in Airspace Management for Free Flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Corker, Kevin M.; Planich, G.; Bunzo, M.; Labacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
NASA and the FAA have initiated programs of research and development to provide flight crew, airline operations and air traffic managers with automation aids to increase capacity in en route and terminal area to support the goals of free flight for safe, flexible, predictable, and efficient operations. To support the development of those aiding systems human performance in automated aiding has been examined in empirical and computationally analytic studies. This paper presents a set of those studies in full mission simulation and the development of a predictive computational model of human performance. We have found that the combination of methodologies provide a powerful design-aiding process. We will describe three research programs in support of Free Flight Operations from the perspective of human performance requirements. We have examined procedures and communications in the use of voice and data-link operation at the transition between unconstrained (enroute) and constrained (terminal) airspace operations. We have examined the timing and form of Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS) advisories in descent. We have investigated the shape and dimensions of an 'alert zone' for air-based separation in unconstrained operations. Finally, we have examined the interaction of a ground-based conflict detection/resolution aiding system, as it interacts with a cockpit-based conflict alerting mechanism. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
Basunia, Sandip Roy; Ghosh, Sarmila; Bhattacharya, Susmita; Saha, Indranil; Biswas, Atanu; Prasad, Anu
2013-01-01
Context: There is an impelling need for accurate tests to predict difficult intubation, as failure to achieve endotracheal intubation causes significant morbidity and mortality in anesthetic practice. Aim: To calculate the validity of the different tests along with their combination and agreement when compared with endotracheal intubation in predicting difficult intubation. Settings and Design: Operation theaters, analytical study. Materials and Methods: Three hundred patients aged between 16 and 60 years of American society of anesthesiologist (ASA) physical status I and II, scheduled for elective surgical procedures requiring endotracheal intubation were studied during January-July 2012. Mallampati grade (MP), sternomental distance (SMD), thyromental distance (TMD), and Delilkan and Calder test were recorded for every patient. Endotracheal intubation was performed by an experienced anesthesiologist blinded to the measurements and recorded grading of intubation. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), likelihood ratio (LR), odds ratio (OR), and kappa coefficient of tests individually and in combination were calculated. Statistical Analysis Used: IBM SPSS software (version 16.0) and Epi-info software (version 3.2). Results: Difficult and failed intubation was 13.3% and 0.6%, respectively. Difficult intubation increased with age. TMD and Calder test showed highest sensitivity individually and Dellilkan's test showed least sensitivity. Among the combination of tests, MP with SMD and MP with Calder test had the highest sensitivity. Conclusion: Among individual test TMD and Calder are better predictive tests in terms of sensitivity. Combination of tests increases the chance of prediction of difficult intubation. PMID:25885730
Impact of analytical bias in metabonomic studies of human blood serum and plasma.
Teahan, Orla; Gamble, Simon; Holmes, Elaine; Waxman, Jonathan; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Bevan, Charlotte; Keun, Hector C
2006-07-01
Concurrent with the explosion in the number of publications reporting biomarker discovery by profiling technologies, such as proteomics and pattern recognition, has been the increase in evidence highlighting the susceptibility of these approaches to analytical and experimental bias. The work presented here addresses these timely issues by delivering a detailed characterization of the effect of common sources of bias in clinical studies on serum and plasma profiles generated by a key technology in metabonomics, NMR spectroscopy. Specifically, differences in composition when blood samples were collected onto and in the absence of ice, over a series of serum-clot contact times, the stability of NMR-prepared samples over time and the effect on the metabolic profile of freeze-thawing were examined. While differences between individuals were far greater than variation from any other experimental factor, each of the conditions examined did cause slight alterations to the NMR profile that could produce a systematic bias. Variation due to clotting time caused changes in energy metabolites, which were delayed by ice with no other spectral effects. Room-temperature stability and hence NMR spectral repeatability were high (<1% intrasample variation). Higher molecular weight species such as lipoproteins were more susceptible to the variations present in the examined factors. These observations have implications for profiling study design, and hence, our results form a new and valuable resource for those attempting clinical metabolic profiling, for regulatory agencies involved in the licensing of clinical tests and in the generation of international reporting standards for metabonomics.
An analytical study on artesian flow conditions in unconfined-aquifer drainage basins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jun-Zhi; Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Wan, Li; Wörman, Anders; Wang, Heng; Wang, Xu-Sheng; Li, Hailong
2015-10-01
Although it has been reported that flowing artesian wells could be topographically controlled, there is no quantitative research on artesian flow conditions in unconfined aquifers. In this study, the water table, which has a lower amplitude than the land surface, is damped from the topography and used as the boundary condition to obtain the analytical solution of hydraulic head of a unit basin with a single flow system. The term artesian head is defined to characterize the condition of flowing artesian wells. The zone with positive artesian head is called artesian zone while with negative artesian head is nonartesian zone. The maximum artesian head and the size of artesian zones are found to increase with the damping factor and the anisotropy ratio, and decrease with the ratio of basin width to depth and the depth-decay exponent of hydraulic conductivity. Moreover, the artesian head increases with depth nearby the valley and decreases with depth near by the divide, and the variation rates are influenced by the decay exponent and the anisotropy ratio. Finally, the distribution of flowing artesian wells and the artesian head measurements in different depths of a borehole in a small catchment in the Ordos Plateau, Northwestern China is used to illustrate the theoretical findings. The change in artesian head with depth was used to estimate the anisotropy ratio and the decay exponent. This study opens up a new door to analyze basin-scale groundwater flow.
Analytical and experimental study of a standing torus with normal loads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mack, M. J., Jr.; Hill, D. E.; Baumgarten, J. R.
1983-01-01
Finite element analysis is applied to study the large deflection and stress of a thin-walled pressurized torus loaded by normal contact with a plane. Experimentally determined stresses are compared to those resulting from finite element analysis at various meridional and circumferential coordinates of the torus, including the footprint area. Circumferential strains compare favorably while meridional strains are higher in the finite element analysis, probably due to slippage of the boundary at the rim. The STAGS finite element computer program was used. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the various program options for structural loading, for material modeling, for stress analysis, and for grid refinement. The experimental model, a thin-walled rubber tube mounted on a steel cylindrical rim, provided measured results to compare with various analytical trade-offs. It was found that there was almost no difference in predicted deflections or stress distributions between linear and nonlinear material description. However, the difference between linear analysis and that of geometric nonlinearities utilizing incremental loading was marked.
Analytical study of ancient pottery from the archaeological site of Aiani, northern Greece
Iordanidis, A. Garcia-Guinea, J.
2009-04-15
The present study is a multi-analytical approach on the characterization of several potsherd samples, dated from prehistoric to hellenistic times, from Aiani, ancient Upper Macedonia, northern Greece. In particular, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy, coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray system (ESEM-EDX) were used for the determination of the morphological, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the potsherds. The preliminary results indicated a rather local provenance of the analyzed ancient pottery samples and a finer texture and thus better ceramic manufacture as getting to hellenistic era. The use of a silicious or calcerous raw material is probably related to the specific utilization of each ceramic vessel in ancient times. The presence of gehlenite or pyroxene minerals in the ceramic matrix indicated higher firing temperatures, while lower temperatures were deduced when finding phylosilicate minerals. The preliminary results of this study do not necessarily imply that all the pottery of this area, belonging to the same chronological type, have similar physicochemical characteristics.
Analytical and Numerical Studies of Active and Passive Microwave Ocean Remote Sensing
2001-09-30
of both analytical and efficient numerical methods for electromagnetics and hydrodynamics. New insights regarding these phenomena can then be applied to improve microwave active and passive remote sensing of the ocean surface.
2016-01-01
We introduce a new class of methods, denoted as Truncated Conjugate Gradient(TCG), to solve the many-body polarization energy and its associated forces in molecular simulations (i.e. molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo). The method consists in a fixed number of Conjugate Gradient (CG) iterations. TCG approaches provide a scalable solution to the polarization problem at a user-chosen cost and a corresponding optimal accuracy. The optimality of the CG-method guarantees that the number of the required matrix-vector products are reduced to a minimum compared to other iterative methods. This family of methods is non-empirical, fully adaptive, and provides analytical gradients, avoiding therefore any energy drift in MD as compared to popular iterative solvers. Besides speed, one great advantage of this class of approximate methods is that their accuracy is systematically improvable. Indeed, as the CG-method is a Krylov subspace method, the associated error is monotonically reduced at each iteration. On top of that, two improvements can be proposed at virtually no cost: (i) the use of preconditioners can be employed, which leads to the Truncated Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (TPCG); (ii) since the residual of the final step of the CG-method is available, one additional Picard fixed point iteration (“peek”), equivalent to one step of Jacobi Over Relaxation (JOR) with relaxation parameter ω, can be made at almost no cost. This method is denoted by TCG-n(ω). Black-box adaptive methods to find good choices of ω are provided and discussed. Results show that TPCG-3(ω) is converged to high accuracy (a few kcal/mol) for various types of systems including proteins and highly charged systems at the fixed cost of four matrix-vector products: three CG iterations plus the initial CG descent direction. Alternatively, T(P)CG-2(ω) provides robust results at a reduced cost (three matrix-vector products) and offers new perspectives for long polarizable MD as a production
Lin, Pao-Yen; Wu, Yi-Shan
2016-01-01
Background Studies have examined the association between heroin dependence and serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms but yielded inconsistent results. The purpose of current study is to determine the overall effect of these polymorphisms on the risk for heroin dependence through a meta-analytic method. Methods A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the association of heroin dependence with two common polymorphisms of serotonin transporter gene, in the promoter (5-hydroxytryptamine transporter-linked promotor region [5-httlpr]) and intron 2 (a various number tandem repeat in serotonin transporter intron 2 [STin2]). Data from studies with 5-httlpr (6 studies) and STin2 (8 studies) were synthesized by random effects model. Results In the analysis, heroin dependence was found to be significantly associated with the S allele of 5-httlpr (odds ratio [OR] =1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.08–1.41, P=0.002). The association between the S allele of 5-httlpr and heroin dependence was significant in Caucasian subjects (OR =1.37, 95% CI =1.12–1.68, P=0.003), but not in non-Caucasian subjects. On the other hand, no association with STin2 polymorphism was found (OR =1.14, 95% CI =0.91–1.42, P=0.242). Conclusion The results suggest an ethnic-specific effect of the 5-httlpr polymorphism on the risk for heroin dependence, but the influence of the genetic variance in the patients with comorbidities or intermediate phenotypes of heroin dependence needs to be further examined. PMID:27942217
An analytical study on bistability of Fabry-Perot semiconductor optical amplifiers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Gang; Chen, Shuqiang; Yang, Huajun
2016-09-01
Optical bistabilities have been considered to be useful for sensor applications. As a typical nonlinear device, Fabry-Perot semiconductor optical amplifiers (FPSOAs) exhibit bistability under certain conditions. In this paper, the bistable characteristics in FPSOAs are investigated theoretically. Based on Adams's relationship between the incident optical intensity I in and the z-independent average intracavity intensity I av, an analytical expression of the bistable loop width in SOAs is derived. Numerical simulations confirm the accuracy of the analytical result.
Analyte Kinetics in a Nanocluster-Based Chemiresistor: A Case Study
2013-01-01
groups. When deposited on an insulating surface, a film of such nanoclusters can be electrically conducting as a result of elec- trons tunneling...between the gold cores of neighboring clusters. Chemical-to- electrical transduction occurs when analyte enters the spaces between the cores, modulates the...inhibiting condensation of analyte on its walls. Au-coated tungsten probe tips were used to make electrical contact to the sensor, and ac conductivity was
Analytic study of solutions for the Born-Infeld equation in nonlinear electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Hui; Xu, Tianzhou; Fan, Tianyou; Wang, Gangwei
2017-03-01
The Born-Infeld equation is an important nonlinear partial differential equation in theoretical and mathematical physics. The Lie group method is used for simplifying the nonlinear partial differential equation, which is partly solved, in which there are some difficulties; to overcome the difficulties, we develop a power series method, and find the solutions in analytic form. In the mean time, a wave propagation (traveling wave) method is developed for solving the equation, and analytic solutions are also constructed.
Wahl, Claudia; Hirtz, Dennis; Elling, Lothar
2016-10-01
Nucleotide sugars are considered as bottleneck and expensive substrates for enzymatic glycan synthesis using Leloir-glycosyltransferases. Synthesis from cheap substrates such as monosaccharides is accomplished by multi-enzyme cascade reactions. Optimization of product yields in such enzyme modules is dependent on the interplay of multiple parameters of the individual enzymes and governed by a considerable time effort when convential analytic methods like capillary electrophoresis (CE) or HPLC are applied. We here demonstrate for the first time multiplexed CE (MP-CE) as fast analytical tool for the optimization of nucleotide sugar synthesis with multi-enzyme cascade reactions. We introduce a universal separation method for nucleotides and nucleotide sugars enabling us to analyze the composition of six different enzyme modules in a high-throughput format. Optimization of parameters (T, pH, inhibitors, kinetics, cofactors and enzyme amount) employing MP-CE analysis is demonstrated for enzyme modules for the synthesis of UDP-α-D-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcA) and UDP-α-D-galactose (UDP-Gal). In this way we achieve high space-time-yields: 1.8 g/L⋆h for UDP-GlcA and 17 g/L⋆h for UDP-Gal. The presented MP-CE methodology has the impact to be used as general analytical tool for fast optimization of multi-enzyme cascade reactions.
Fuel alcohol biosynthesis by Zymomonas anaerobia: optimization studies
Kosaric, N.; Ong, S.L.; Davnjak, Z.
1982-03-01
The optimum operating conditions for growth and ethanol production of Zymomonas anaerobia ATCC 29501 were established. The optimum pH range and temperature were found to be 5.0-6.0 and 35/sup 0/C, respectively. Based on the results obtained from the temperature optimization study, an Arrhenius-type temperature relationship for the specific growth rate was developed. The growth and ethanol production of this microbe also have been optimized in terms of concentrations of glucose, essential nutrients, and minerals. With optimum medium and operating conditions, an ethanol concentration of 96 g/L was obtained in 23h. Both growth and ethanol yield coefficients in dependence on initial glucose concentrations were determined.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kalaian, Sema A.; Kasim, Rafa M.
2014-01-01
This meta-analytic study focused on the quantitative integration and synthesis of the accumulated pedagogical research in undergraduate statistics education literature. These accumulated research studies compared the academic achievement of students who had been instructed using one of the various forms of small-group learning methods to those who…
The Effects of Task Involvement Load on L2 Incidental Vocabulary Learning: A Meta-Analytic Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huang, Shufen; Willson, Victor; Eslami, Zohreh
2012-01-01
This meta-analytic study provides a systematic statistical synthesis of the effects of output tasks on second or foreign incidental vocabulary learning. A total of 12 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Five mediator variables were examined: design quality, types of output task, time on task, genres of text, and text-target word ratios.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goggins, S. P.; Galyen, K. D.; Petakovic, E.; Laffey, J. M.
2016-01-01
This exploratory study focuses on the design and evaluation of teaching analytics that relate social learning structure with performance measures in a massive open online course (MOOC) prototype environment. Using reflexive analysis of online learning trace data and qualitative performance measures we present an exploratory empirical study that:…
A Meta-Analytic Study Concerning the Effect of Computer-Based Teaching on Academic Success in Turkey
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Batdi, Veli
2015-01-01
This research aims to investigate the effect of computer-based teaching (CBT) on students' academic success. The research used a meta-analytic method to reach a general conclusion by statistically calculating the results of a number of independent studies. In total, 78 studies (62 master's theses, 4 PhD theses, and 12 articles) concerning this…
Kang, Shujiang; Kline, Keith L; Nair, S. Surendran; Nichols, Dr Jeff A; Post, Wilfred M; Brandt, Craig C; Wullschleger, Stan D; Wei, Yaxing; Singh, Nagendra
2013-01-01
A global energy crop productivity model that provides geospatially explicit quantitative details on biomass potential and factors affecting sustainability would be useful, but does not exist now. This study describes a modeling platform capable of meeting many challenges associated with global-scale agro-ecosystem modeling. We designed an analytical framework for bioenergy crops consisting of six major components: (i) standardized natural resources datasets, (ii) global field-trial data and crop management practices, (iii) simulation units and management scenarios, (iv) model calibration and validation, (v) high-performance computing (HPC) simulation, and (vi) simulation output processing and analysis. The HPC-Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (HPC-EPIC) model simulated a perennial bioenergy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), estimating feedstock production potentials and effects across the globe. This modeling platform can assess soil C sequestration, net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, nonpoint source pollution (e.g., nutrient and pesticide loss), and energy exchange with the atmosphere. It can be expanded to include additional bioenergy crops (e.g., miscanthus, energy cane, and agave) and food crops under different management scenarios. The platform and switchgrass field-trial dataset are available to support global analysis of biomass feedstock production potential and corresponding metrics of sustainability.
Analytical studies on a traveling wave direct energy converter for D-{sup 3}He fusion
Syu, L.Y.; Tomita, Yukihiro; Momota, Hiromu; Miley, G.H.
1995-04-01
Analytical studies on a traveling wave direct energy converter (TWDEC) for D-{sup 3}He fueled fusion are carried out. The energy of 15 MeV carried by fusion protons is too high to handle with an electrostatic device. The TWDEC controls these high energy particles on the base of the principle of a Linac. This traveling wave method is discussed and the details of proton dynamics and excitation mechanism of electric power are clarified. The TWEDC consists of a modulator and decelerator. The applied traveling wave potential to the modulator modulates the velocity of fusion proton beams. This modulation makes a form of bunched protons at a down stream of the modulator. The decelerator has a set of meshed grids, each of which is connected to a transmission circuit. The phase velocity of excited wave on the transmission circuit is controlled the same way as that of decelerated protons. The kinetic energy 15 MeV of proton beams changes into an oscillating electromagnetic energy on the transmission circuit. This highly efficient direct energy converter of fusion protons brings a fusion reactor with a high plant efficiency. 4 refs., 4 figs.
Inverse patchy colloids with two and three patches. Analytical and numerical study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalyuzhnyi, Y. V.; Vasilyev, O. A.; Cummings, P. T.
2015-07-01
We propose an analytical solution of the multi-density Ornstein-Zernike equation supplemented by the associative Percus-Yevick closure relations specifically designed to describe the equilibrium properties of the novel class of patchy colloidal particles represented by the inverse patchy colloids with arbitrary number of patches. Using Baxter's factorization method, we reduce solution of the problem to the solution of one nonlinear algebraic equation for the fraction of the particles with one non-bonded patch. We present closed-form expressions for the structure (structure factor) and thermodynamic (internal energy) properties of the system in terms of this fraction (and parameters of the model). We perform computer simulation studies and compare theoretical and computer simulation predictions for the pair distribution function, internal energy, and number of single and double bonds formed in the system, for two versions of the model, each with two and three patches. We consider the models with formation of the double bonds blocked by the patch-patch repulsion and the models without patch-patch repulsion. In general very good agreement between theoretical and computer simulation results is observed.
Tan, Xijuan; Song, Zhenghua; Chen, Donghua; Wang, Zhuming
2011-06-01
In this paper, the luminescence behavior of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and luminol was first studied by flow injection chemiluminescence (CL). It was found that the hyperchromic effect of luminol in the presence of BSA led to the acceleration of the electrons transferring rate of excited 3-aminophthalate, which greatly enhanced the CL intensity of luminol/dissolved oxygen reaction. The increments of CL intensity were proportional to the concentrations of BSA with a linear range from 0.01 to 7 nmol L(-1). It was also found that azithromycin could inhibit the CL intensity of luminol/BSA reaction. The decrements of CL intensity were logarithm over the concentrations of azithromycin ranging from 0.1 to 700 ng mL(-1). At a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1), a complete analytical process, which included sampling and washing, could be performed within 30s with relative standard deviations of less than 3.1%. This proposed method was successfully applied in assaying azithromycin in pharmaceutical and human serum samples with recoveries from 91.0 to 104.3%. The possible luminescence mechanism of luminol/BSA/azithromycin reaction was discussed in detail by CL, UV and fluorescence methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Xijuan; Song, Zhenghua; Chen, Donghua; Wang, Zhuming
2011-06-01
In this paper, the luminescence behavior of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and luminol was first studied by flow injection chemiluminescence (CL). It was found that the hyperchromic effect of luminol in the presence of BSA led to the acceleration of the electrons transferring rate of excited 3-aminophthalate, which greatly enhanced the CL intensity of luminol/dissolved oxygen reaction. The increments of CL intensity were proportional to the concentrations of BSA with a linear range from 0.01 to 7 nmol L -1. It was also found that azithromycin could inhibit the CL intensity of luminol/BSA reaction. The decrements of CL intensity were logarithm over the concentrations of azithromycin ranging from 0.1 to 700 ng mL -1. At a flow rate of 2.0 mL min -1, a complete analytical process, which included sampling and washing, could be performed within 30 s with relative standard deviations of less than 3.1%. This proposed method was successfully applied in assaying azithromycin in pharmaceutical and human serum samples with recoveries from 91.0 to 104.3%. The possible luminescence mechanism of luminol/BSA/azithromycin reaction was discussed in detail by CL, UV and fluorescence methods.
Xuan, Xiangchun; Li, Dongqing
2005-02-04
Electric fields are often used to transport fluids (by electroosmosis) and separate charged samples (by electrophoresis) in microfluidic devices. However, there exists inevitable Joule heating when electric currents are passing through electrolyte solutions. Joule heating not only increases the fluid temperature, but also produces temperature gradients in cross-stream and axial directions. These temperature effects make fluid properties non-uniform, and hence alter the applied electric potential field and the flow field. The mass species transport is also influenced. In this paper we develop an analytical model to study Joule heating effects on the transport of heat, electricity, momentum and mass species in capillary-based electrophoresis. Close-form formulae are derived for the temperature, applied electrical potential, velocity, and pressure fields at steady state, and the transient concentration field as well. Also available are the compact formulae for the electric current and the volume flow rate through the capillary. It is shown that, due to the thermal end effect, sharp temperature drops appear close to capillary ends, where sharp rises of electric field are required to meet the current continuity. In order to satisfy the mass continuity, pressure gradients have to be induced along the capillary. The resultant curved fluid velocity profile and the increase of molecular diffusion both contribute to the dispersion of samples. However, Joule heating effects enhance the sample transport velocity, reducing the analysis time in capillary electrophoretic separations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, G.; Olson, G. B.; Campbell, C. E.
1999-03-01
To support quantitative design of ultra-high-strength (UHS) secondary-hardening steels, the precipitation of cementite prior to the precipitation of the M2C phase is investigated using a model alloy. The microstructure of cementite is investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Consistent with earlier studies on tempering of Fe-C martensite, lattice imaging of cementite suggests microsyntactic intergrowth of M5C2 (Hägg carbide). The concentration of substitutional alloying elements in cementite are quantified by high-resolution analytical electron microscopy (AEM) using extraction replica specimens. Quantification of the substitutional elements in cementite confirms its paraequilibrium (PE) state with ferrite at the very early stage of tempering. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of the thermodynamic driving force for nucleation of the primary-strengthening, coherent M2C carbide phase. The ferrite-cementite PE condition reduces the carbon concentration in the ferrite matrix with a significant reduction of M2C driving force. The kinetics of dissolution of PE cementite and its transition to other intermediate states will also influence the kinetics of secondary hardening behavior in UHS steels.
Kosek, Margaret; Guerrant, Richard L.; Kang, Gagandeep; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Gratz, Jean; Gottlieb, Michael; Lang, Dennis; Lee, Gwenyth; Haque, Rashidul; Mason, Carl J.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lima, Aldo; Petri, William A.; Houpt, Eric; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Seidman, Jessica C.; Mduma, Estomih; Samie, Amidou; Babji, Sudhir
2014-01-01
Individuals in the developing world live in conditions of intense exposure to enteric pathogens due to suboptimal water and sanitation. These environmental conditions lead to alterations in intestinal structure, function, and local and systemic immune activation that are collectively referred to as environmental enteropathy (EE). This condition, although poorly defined, is likely to be exacerbated by undernutrition as well as being responsible for permanent growth deficits acquired in early childhood, vaccine failure, and loss of human potential. This article addresses the underlying theoretical and analytical frameworks informing the methodology proposed by the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study to define and quantify the burden of disease caused by EE within a multisite cohort. Additionally, we will discuss efforts to improve, standardize, and harmonize laboratory practices within the MAL-ED Network. These efforts will address current limitations in the understanding of EE and its burden on children in the developing world. PMID:25305293
Analytical and experimental studies of heat pipe radiation cooling of hypersonic propulsion systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, R. A.; Merrigan, M. A.; Elder, M. G.; Sena, J. T.; Keddy, E. S.; Silverstein, C. C.
1992-01-01
Analytical and experimental studies were completed to assess the feasibility of using high-temperature heat pipes to cool hypersonic engine components. This new approach involves using heat pipes to transport heat away from the combustor, nozzle, or inlet regions, and to reject it to the environment by thermal radiation from an external heat pipe nacelle. For propulsion systems using heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC), it is possible to continue to use hydrocarbon fuels into the Mach 4 to Mach 6 speed range, thereby enhancing the economic attractiveness of commercial or military hypersonic flight. In the second-phase feasibility program recently completed, it is found that heat loads produced by considering both convection and radiation heat transfer from the combustion gas can be handled with HPRC design modifications. The application of thermal insulation to ramburner and nozzle walls was also found to reduce the heat load by about one-half and to reduce peak HPRC system temperatures to below 2700 F. In addition, the operation of HPRC at cruise conditions of around Mach 4.5 and at an altitude of 90,000 ft lowers the peak hot-section temperatures to around 2800 F. An HPRC heat pipe was successfully fabricated and tested at Mach 5 conditions of heat flux, heat load, and temperature.
Analytical and experimental studies of heat pipe radiation cooling of hypersonic propulsion systems
Martin, R.A.; Merrigan, M.A.; Elder, M.G.; Sena, J.T.; Keddy, E.S.; Silverstein, C.C.
1992-06-01
Preliminary, research-oriented, analytical and experimental studies were completed to assess the feasibility of using high-temperature heat pipes to cool hypersonic engine components. This new approach involves using heat pipes to transport heat away from the combustor, nozzle, or inlet regions, and to reject it to the environment by thermal radiation from an external heat pipe nacelle. For propulsion systems using heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC), it is possible to continue to use hydrocarbon fuels into the Mach 4 to Mach 6 speed range, thereby enhancing the economic attractiveness of commercial or military hypersonic flight. In the second-phase feasibility program recently completed, we found that heat loads produced by considering both convection and radiation heat transfer from the combustion gas can be handled with HPRC design modifications. The application of thermal insulation to ramburner and nozzle walls was also found to reduce the heat load by about one-half and to reduce peak HPRC system temperatures to below 2700{degrees}F. In addition, the operation of HPRC at cruise conditions of around Mach 4.5 and at an altitude of 90, 000 ft lowers peak hot section temperatures to around 2800{degrees}F. An HPRC heat pipe was successfully fabricated and tested at Mach 5 conditions of heat flux, heat load, and temperature. 24 refs.
Analytical and experimental studies of heat pipe radiation cooling of hypersonic propulsion systems
Martin, R.A.; Merrigan, M.A.; Elder, M.G.; Sena, J.T.; Keddy, E.S. ); Silverstein, C.C. )
1992-01-01
Preliminary, research-oriented, analytical and experimental studies were completed to assess the feasibility of using high-temperature heat pipes to cool hypersonic engine components. This new approach involves using heat pipes to transport heat away from the combustor, nozzle, or inlet regions, and to reject it to the environment by thermal radiation from an external heat pipe nacelle. For propulsion systems using heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC), it is possible to continue to use hydrocarbon fuels into the Mach 4 to Mach 6 speed range, thereby enhancing the economic attractiveness of commercial or military hypersonic flight. In the second-phase feasibility program recently completed, we found that heat loads produced by considering both convection and radiation heat transfer from the combustion gas can be handled with HPRC design modifications. The application of thermal insulation to ramburner and nozzle walls was also found to reduce the heat load by about one-half and to reduce peak HPRC system temperatures to below 2700{degrees}F. In addition, the operation of HPRC at cruise conditions of around Mach 4.5 and at an altitude of 90, 000 ft lowers peak hot section temperatures to around 2800{degrees}F. An HPRC heat pipe was successfully fabricated and tested at Mach 5 conditions of heat flux, heat load, and temperature. 24 refs.
Interaction of airborne and structureborne noise radiated by plates. Volume 1: Analytical study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcgary, M. C.
1986-01-01
The interaction of airborne and structureborne noise radiated by aircraft materials was examined. The theory and results of several computer simulations of the noise radiated by thin, isotropic, rectangular aluminum plates due to fully coherent combined acoustic and vibrational inputs is presented. The most significant finding was the extremely large influence that the relative phase between inputs has on the combined noise radiation of the plates. Phase dependent effects manifest themselves as cross terms in both the dynamic and acoustic portions of the analysis. Computer simulations show that these cross terms can radically alter the combined sound power radiated by plates constructed of aircraft-type materials. The results suggest that airborne-structureborne interactive effects could be responsible for a significant portion of the overall noise radiated by aircraft-type structures in the low frequency regime. This implies that previous analytical and experimental studies may have neglected an important physical phenomenon in the analayses of the interior noise of propeller dirven aircraft.
Malekmotiei, Leila; Farahmand, Farzam; Shodja, Hossein M; Samadi-Dooki, Aref
2013-04-01
An analytical approach which is popular in micromechanical studies has been extended to the solution for the interference fit problem of the femoral stem in cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA). The multiple inhomogeneity problem of THA in transverse plane, including an elliptical stem, a cortical wall, and a cancellous layer interface, was formulated using the equivalent inclusion method (EIM) to obtain the induced interference elastic fields. Results indicated a maximum interference fit of about 210 μm before bone fracture, predicted based on the Drucker-Prager criterion for a partially reamed section. The cancellous layer had a significant effect on reducing the hoop stresses in the cortical wall; the maximum press fit increased to as high as 480 μm for a 2 mm thick cancellous. The increase of the thickness and the mechanical quality, i.e., stiffness and strength, of the cortical wall also increased the maximum interference fit before fracture significantly. No considerable effect was found for the implant material on the maximum allowable interference fit. It was concluded that while larger interference fits could be adapted for younger patients, care must be taken when dealing with the elderly and those suffering from osteoporosis. A conservative reaming procedure is beneficial for such patients; however, in order to ensure sufficient primary stability without risking bone fracture, a preoperative analysis might be necessary.
Inverse patchy colloids with two and three patches. Analytical and numerical study
Kalyuzhnyi, Y. V.; Vasilyev, O. A.; Cummings, P. T.
2015-07-28
We propose an analytical solution of the multi-density Ornstein-Zernike equation supplemented by the associative Percus-Yevick closure relations specifically designed to describe the equilibrium properties of the novel class of patchy colloidal particles represented by the inverse patchy colloids with arbitrary number of patches. Using Baxter’s factorization method, we reduce solution of the problem to the solution of one nonlinear algebraic equation for the fraction of the particles with one non-bonded patch. We present closed-form expressions for the structure (structure factor) and thermodynamic (internal energy) properties of the system in terms of this fraction (and parameters of the model). We perform computer simulation studies and compare theoretical and computer simulation predictions for the pair distribution function, internal energy, and number of single and double bonds formed in the system, for two versions of the model, each with two and three patches. We consider the models with formation of the double bonds blocked by the patch-patch repulsion and the models without patch-patch repulsion. In general very good agreement between theoretical and computer simulation results is observed.
Vibration Based Crack Detection in a Rotating Disk. Part 1; An Analytical Study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.; Baaklini, George Y.
2003-01-01
This paper describes the analytical results concerning the detection of a crack in a rotating disk. The concept of the approach is based on the fact that the development of a disk crack results in a distorted strain field within the component. As a result, a minute deformation in the disk's geometry as well as a change in the system s center of mass occurs. Finite element analyses were conducted concerning a notched disk in order to define the sensitivity of the method. The notch was used to simulate an actual crack and will be the method utilized for upcoming experiments. Various notch sizes were studied. The geometric deformations and shifts of center of mass were documented as a function of rotational speed. In addition, a rotordynamic analysis of a 2-bearing, disk and shaft system was conducted. The overall response of the system was required in order to design the experimental system for operation beyond the first critical. The results of the FE analyses of the disk indicated that the overall changes in the disk s geometry and center of mass were rather small. The difference between the maximum centrifugal radial displacements between the undamaged and damaged disks at 8000 RPM was 0.00014 in. for a 0.963 in. notch length. The shift in center of mass was also of this magnitude. The next step involves running experiments to verify the analysis.
Nair, S. Surendran; Nichols, Jeff A. {Cyber Sciences}; Post, Wilfred M; Wang, Dali; Wullschleger, Stan D; Kline, Keith L; Wei, Yaxing; Singh, Nagendra; Kang, Shujiang
2014-01-01
Contemporary global assessments of the deployment potential and sustainability aspects of biofuel crops lack quantitative details. This paper describes an analytical framework capable of meeting the challenges associated with global scale agro-ecosystem modeling. We designed a modeling platform for bioenergy crops, consisting of five major components: (i) standardized global natural resources and management data sets, (ii) global simulation unit and management scenarios, (iii) model calibration and validation, (iv) high-performance computing (HPC) modeling, and (v) simulation output processing and analysis. A case study with the HPC- Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model (HPC-EPIC) to simulate a perennial bioenergy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and global biomass feedstock analysis on grassland demonstrates the application of this platform. The results illustrate biomass feedstock variability of switchgrass and provide insights on how the modeling platform can be expanded to better assess sustainable production criteria and other biomass crops. Feedstock potentials on global grasslands and within different countries are also shown. Future efforts involve developing databases of productivity, implementing global simulations for other bioenergy crops (e.g. miscanthus, energycane and agave), and assessing environmental impacts under various management regimes. We anticipated this platform will provide an exemplary tool and assessment data for international communities to conduct global analysis of biofuel biomass feedstocks and sustainability.
Kosek, Margaret; Guerrant, Richard L; Kang, Gagandeep; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Gratz, Jean; Gottlieb, Michael; Lang, Dennis; Lee, Gwenyth; Haque, Rashidul; Mason, Carl J; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lima, Aldo; Petri, William A; Houpt, Eric; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Seidman, Jessica C; Mduma, Estomih; Samie, Amidou; Babji, Sudhir
2014-11-01
Individuals in the developing world live in conditions of intense exposure to enteric pathogens due to suboptimal water and sanitation. These environmental conditions lead to alterations in intestinal structure, function, and local and systemic immune activation that are collectively referred to as environmental enteropathy (EE). This condition, although poorly defined, is likely to be exacerbated by undernutrition as well as being responsible for permanent growth deficits acquired in early childhood, vaccine failure, and loss of human potential. This article addresses the underlying theoretical and analytical frameworks informing the methodology proposed by the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study to define and quantify the burden of disease caused by EE within a multisite cohort. Additionally, we will discuss efforts to improve, standardize, and harmonize laboratory practices within the MAL-ED Network. These efforts will address current limitations in the understanding of EE and its burden on children in the developing world.
Tang, Liang; Kang, Kyung A
2005-01-01
Protein C (PC), protein S (PS), antithrombin III, and plasminogen are four important anticoagulants in blood plasma. Deficiency of any of these biomolecules may lead to thrombo-embolic complications including lung embolism, heart attack, and stroke. A multi-factor sensing system is beneficial for identifying the cause of abnormal blood clotting more effectively, rapidly, and cost-effectively. As an initial effort toward simultaneous multi-anticoagulant detection, a PC and PS dual-sensing system has been under development in our research group. A fiberoptic PC biosensor utilizing fluorophore-mediated sandwich immunoassay was already developed for rapid (-5 minutes) PC deficiency diagnosis. After a single PS sensor was developed for the PS deficiency diagnosis, the two sensors were connected in series to form a dual-sensing system. The cross-reactivity between the analytes and the sensors was found to be minimal. For easier sensing operation, a mixture of fluorophore-linked anti-PC and anti-PS was applied. The results showed that the mixture can be used with a slight signal reduction. When PC and PS was mixed in a sample, the signal intensity was decreased by approximately 5% for both sensors. A study is currently being performed to overcome the signal reduction by increasing the flow velocity and incubation time.
Carvalhais, Carlos; Santos, Joana; Vieira da Silva, Manuela
2016-01-01
Hospital facilities are normally very complex, which combined with patient requirements promote conditions for potential development of uncomfortable working conditions. Thermal discomfort is one such example. This study aimed to determine levels of thermal comfort, sensations, and preferences, from a field investigation conducted in two sterilization services (SS) of two hospitals from Porto and Aveiro, Portugal. The analytical determination and interpretation of thermal comfort was based upon assumptions of ISO 7726:1998 and ISO 7730:2005. The predicted mean vote (PMV) and predicted percentage of dissatisfaction (PPD) indices were obtained by measurement and estimation of environmental and personal variables, respectively, and calculated according to ISO 7730 equations. The subjective variables were obtained from thermal sensation (subjective PMV) and affective assessment (subjective PPD), reported by a questionnaire based upon ISO 10551:1995. Both approaches confirmed thermal discomfort in both SS (codified as SS1 and SS2). For all areas, PMV and PPD exceeded in all periods of the day the recommended range of -0.5 to +0.5 and <10%, respectively. No significant differences were found between day periods. The questionnaire results showed that SS2 workers reported a higher level of thermal discomfort. There were no significant differences between PMV and thermal sensations, as well as between PPD and affective assessment. The PMV/PPD model was found suitable to predict thermal sensations of occupants in hospital SS located in areas with a mild climate in Portugal.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Krause, David
2006-03-01
A new in-house test capability has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to conduct highly critical tests in support of major and significant components of the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG). It is to aid the development of analytical life prediction methodology and to experimentally assist in verifying the flight-design component's life. Components within the SRG such as the heater head pressure vessel endure a very high temperature environment for a long period of time. Such conditions impose life-limiting failure by means of material creep, a slow gradual increase in strain which leads to an eventual failure of the pressure vessel. To properly evaluate the performance and assist in the design of this component, testing under multiaxial loading setting is essential, since the heater head is subjected to a biaxial state of stress. Thus, the current work undertakes conducting analytical studies under equibiaxial and non-equi-biaxial loadings situations at various temperatures emulating creep environment. These analytical activities will utilize the finite element method to analyze cruciform type specimens both, under linear elastic and creep conditions. And further to calibrate the in-plane biaxial-test system. The specimen finite element model is generated with MSC/Patran [1] and analytical calculations are conducted with MARC and ANSYS finite element codes [2-3]. Complementing these calculations will undertake conducting experimental tests. However, only results pertaining to the analytical studies are reported and their impact on estimating the life of the component is evaluated.
Bisetty, Krisnha; Gumede, Njabulo Joyfull; Escuder-Gilabert, Laura; Sagrado, Salvador
2009-01-01
At present, there is no single viewpoint that defines QA strategies in analytical chemistry. On the other hand, there are no unique protocols defining a set of analytical tasks and decision criteria to be performed during the method development phase (e.g., by a single research laboratory) in order to facilitate the transference to the testing laboratories intending to adapt, validate, and routinely use this method. This study proposes general criteria, a priori valid for any developed method, recommended as a provisional quality guide containing the minimum internal tasks necessary to publish new analytical method results. As an application, the selection of some basic internal quality tasks and the corresponding accepted criteria are adapted to a concrete case study: indirect differential pulse polarographic determination of nitrate in water samples according to European Commission requisites. Extra tasks to be performed by testing laboratories are also outlined.
Bonaduce, Ilaria; Carlyle, Leslie; Colombini, Maria Perla; Duce, Celia; Ferrari, Carlo; Ribechini, Erika; Selleri, Paola; Tiné, Maria Rosaria
2012-01-01
This paper presents an analytical investigation of paint reconstructions prepared with linseed oil that have undergone typical 19th century treatments in preparation for painting. The oil was mechanically extracted from the same seed lot, which was then processed by various methods: water washing, heat treatments, and the addition of driers, with and without heat. A modern process lead white (Dutch source, Schoonhoven) and a commercially available vine black were used as pigments. The reconstructions were prepared in 1999, and naturally aged from then onwards. We compared thermogravimetric analysis (TG), which yields macromolecular information, with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and direct exposure mass spectrometry (DEMS), which both provide molecular information. The study enabled us to quantitatively demonstrate, for the first time, that the parameters used to identify drying oils are deeply influenced by the history of the paint. In particular, here we show that the ratio between the relative amounts of palmitic and stearic acid (P/S), which is used as an index for differentiating between drying oils, is extremely dependent on the pigments present and the age of the paint. Moreover the study revealed that neither the P/S parameter nor the ratios between the relative amounts of the various dicarboxylic acids (azelaic over suberic and azelaic over sebacic) can be used to trace the sorts of pre-treatment undergone by the oil investigated in this study. The final results represent an important milestone for the scientific community working in the field, highlighting that further research is still necessary to solve the identification of drying oils in works of art. PMID:23166642
Bonaduce, Ilaria; Carlyle, Leslie; Colombini, Maria Perla; Duce, Celia; Ferrari, Carlo; Ribechini, Erika; Selleri, Paola; Tiné, Maria Rosaria
2012-01-01
This paper presents an analytical investigation of paint reconstructions prepared with linseed oil that have undergone typical 19th century treatments in preparation for painting. The oil was mechanically extracted from the same seed lot, which was then processed by various methods: water washing, heat treatments, and the addition of driers, with and without heat. A modern process lead white (Dutch source, Schoonhoven) and a commercially available vine black were used as pigments. The reconstructions were prepared in 1999, and naturally aged from then onwards. We compared thermogravimetric analysis (TG), which yields macromolecular information, with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and direct exposure mass spectrometry (DEMS), which both provide molecular information. The study enabled us to quantitatively demonstrate, for the first time, that the parameters used to identify drying oils are deeply influenced by the history of the paint. In particular, here we show that the ratio between the relative amounts of palmitic and stearic acid (P/S), which is used as an index for differentiating between drying oils, is extremely dependent on the pigments present and the age of the paint. Moreover the study revealed that neither the P/S parameter nor the ratios between the relative amounts of the various dicarboxylic acids (azelaic over suberic and azelaic over sebacic) can be used to trace the sorts of pre-treatment undergone by the oil investigated in this study. The final results represent an important milestone for the scientific community working in the field, highlighting that further research is still necessary to solve the identification of drying oils in works of art.