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Sample records for anandamide transport inhibitor

  1. Overlap between the ligand recognition properties of the anandamide transporter and the VR1 vanilloid receptor: inhibitors of anandamide uptake with negligible capsaicin-like activity.

    PubMed

    De Petrocellis, L; Bisogno, T; Davis, J B; Pertwee, R G; Di Marzo, V

    2000-10-13

    Some synthetic agonists of the VR1 vanilloid (capsaicin) receptor also inhibit the facilitated transport into cells of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide (arachidonoylethanolamide, AEA). Here we tested several AEA derivatives containing various derivatized phenyl groups or different alkyl chains as either inhibitors of the AEA membrane transporter (AMT) in intact cells or functional agonists of the VR1 vanilloid receptor in HEK cells transfected with the human VR1. We found that four known AMT inhibitors, AM404, arvanil, olvanil and linvanil, activate VR1 receptors at concentrations 400-10000-fold lower than those necessary to inhibit the AMT. However, we also found three novel AEA derivatives, named VDM11, VDM12 and VDM13, which inhibit the AMT as potently as AM404 but exhibit little or no agonist activity at hVR1. These compounds are weak inhibitors of AEA enzymatic hydrolysis and poor CB(1)/CB(2) receptor ligands. We show for the first time that, despite the overlap between the chemical moieties of AMT inhibitors and VR1 agonists, selective inhibitors of AEA uptake that do not activate VR1 (e.g. VDM11) can be developed.

  2. Characterization of an anandamide degradation system in prostate epithelial PC-3 cells: synthesis of new transporter inhibitors as tools for this study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Llorente, Lidia; Ortega-Gutiérrez, Silvia; Viso, Alma; Sánchez, María G; Sánchez, Ana M; Fernández, Carlos; Ramos, José A; Hillard, Cecilia; Lasunción, Miguel A; López-Rodríguez, María L; Díaz-Laviada, Inés

    2004-01-01

    The response of anandamide is terminated by a carrier-mediated transport followed by degradation catalyzed by the cloned enzyme fatty acid amidohydrolase (FAAH). In this study, we provide biochemical data showing an anandamide uptake process and the expression of FAAH in human prostate. Anandamide was accumulated in PC-3 cells by a saturable and temperature-dependent process. Kinetic studies of anandamide uptake, determined in the presence of cannabinoid and vanilloid antagonists, revealed apparent parameters of KM=4.7±0.2 μM and Vmax=3.3±0.3 pmol min−1 (106 cells)−1. The accumulation of anandamide was moderately inhibited by previously characterized anandamide transporter inhibitors (AM404, UCM707 and VDM11) but was unaffected by inhibitors of other lipid transport systems (phloretin or verapamil) and moderately affected by the FAAH inhibitor methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate. The presence of FAAH in human prostate epithelial PC-3 cells was confirmed by analyzing its expression by Western blot and measuring FAAH activity. To further study the structural requirements of the putative carrier, we synthesized a series of structurally different compounds 1–8 and evaluated their capacity as uptake inhibitors. They showed different inhibitory capacity in PC-3 cells, with (9Z,12Z)-N-(fur-3-ylmethyl)octadeca-9,12-dienamide (4, UCM119) being the most efficacious, with maximal inhibition and IC50 values of 49% and 11.3±0.5 μM, respectively. In conclusion, PC-3 cells possess a complete inactivation system for anandamide formed by an uptake process and the enzyme FAAH. These results suggest a possible physiological function of anandamide in the prostate, reinforcing the role of endocannabinoid system as a neuroendocrine modulator. PMID:14718261

  3. Role of FAAH-like anandamide transporter in anandamide inactivation.

    PubMed

    Leung, Kwannok; Elmes, Matthew W; Glaser, Sherrye T; Deutsch, Dale G; Kaczocha, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system modulates numerous physiological processes including nociception and reproduction. Anandamide (AEA) is an endocannabinoid that is inactivated by cellular uptake followed by intracellular hydrolysis by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Recently, FAAH-like anandamide transporter (FLAT), a truncated and catalytically-inactive variant of FAAH, was proposed to function as an intracellular AEA carrier and mediate its delivery to FAAH for hydrolysis. Pharmacological inhibition of FLAT potentiated AEA signaling and produced antinociceptive effects. Given that endocannabinoids produce analgesia through central and peripheral mechanisms, the goal of the current work was to examine the expression of FLAT in the central and peripheral nervous systems. In contrast to the original report characterizing FLAT, expression of FLAT was not observed in any of the tissues examined. To investigate the role of FLAT as a putative AEA binding protein, FLAT was generated from FAAH using polymerase chain reaction and further analyzed. Despite its low cellular expression, FLAT displayed residual catalytic activity that was sensitive to FAAH inhibitors and abolished following mutation of its catalytic serine. Overexpression of FLAT potentiated AEA cellular uptake and this appeared to be dependent upon its catalytic activity. Immunofluorescence revealed that FLAT localizes primarily to intracellular membranes and does not contact the plasma membrane, suggesting that its capability to potentiate AEA uptake may stem from its enzymatic rather than transport activity. Collectively, our data demonstrate that FLAT does not serve as a global intracellular AEA carrier, although a role in mediating localized AEA inactivation in mammalian tissues cannot be ruled out.

  4. The selective anandamide transport inhibitor VDM11 attenuates reinstatement of nicotine seeking behaviour, but does not affect nicotine intake.

    PubMed

    Gamaleddin, Islam; Guranda, Mihail; Goldberg, Steven R; Le Foll, Bernard

    2011-11-01

    The endocannabinoid system appears to play a pivotal role in mediating the rewarding and reinforcing effects of nicotine. Recent studies have shown that the inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) attenuates reinstatement of nicotine-seeking induced by nicotine priming and nicotine-associated cues. FAAH hydrolyses the endogenous endocannabinoid anandamide, as well as other non-cannabinoid ligands such as oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA). As OEA and PEA can attenuate both nicotine-taking and nicotine-seeking behaviour, the specific role of anandamide remains unclear. In this study, we have tested the selective anadamide uptake inhibitor, VDM11, which elevates anandamide levels without affecting levels of OEA/PEA, on nicotine-taking and nicotine-seeking behaviour. We used a nicotine intravenous self-administration model in rats to assess the effect of VDM11, given i.p., on nicotine taking using fixed and progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement as well as on reinstatement of nicotine-seeking induced by nicotine priming and nicotine-associated cues. VDM11 did not affect levels of responding for nicotine under fixed-ratio and progressive-ratio schedules of reinforcement. In contrast, VDM11 dose-dependently attenuated reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behaviour induced by nicotine-associated cues and nicotine priming. These results indicate that ligands elevating anandamide levels could have therapeutic value for preventing relapse into nicotine-seeking behaviour and should be tested in humans trying to quit smoking. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. The 'specific' tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein inhibits the enzymic hydrolysis of anandamide: implications for anandamide uptake.

    PubMed

    Thors, L; Alajakku, K; Fowler, C J

    2007-04-01

    The cellular uptake of anandamide is reduced by inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and by agents disrupting endocytotic mechanisms. However, it is not clear if these events occur over the same time frame and if they occur to the same extent in different cells. We have therefore investigated the effects of such compounds in three cell lines of different origins using different assay incubation times and temperatures. FAAH activity and cellular uptake of anandamide was measured using anandamide, radio-labelled either in the ethanolamine or arachidonoyl part of the molecule. The FAAH inhibitor URB597 inhibited the uptake of anandamide into C6 glioma, RBL2H3 basophilic leukaemia cells and P19 embryonic carcinoma cells at incubation time 4 min. However, a time-dependent and temperature-sensitive residual uptake remained after URB597 treatment. The combination of progesterone and nystatin reduced the uptake, but also decreased the amount of anandamide retained by the wells. Genistein inhibited anandamide uptake in a manner that was not additive to that of URB597. However, genistein was a potent competitive inhibitor of FAAH (K(i) value 8 microM). The reduction of anandamide uptake by genistein can be explained by its ability to inhibit FAAH with a potency which overlaps that for inhibition of tyrosine kinase. The FAAH- resistant but time-dependent uptake of anandamide is seen in all three cell lines studied and is thus presumably a generally occurring process.

  6. Structural determinants for recognition and translocation by the anandamide transporter

    PubMed Central

    Piomelli, D.; Beltramo, M.; Glasnapp, S.; Lin, S. Y.; Goutopoulos, A.; Xie, Xiang-Qun; Makriyannis, A.

    1999-01-01

    The biological actions of anandamide (arachidonylethanolamide), an endogenous cannabinoid lipid, are terminated by a two-step inactivation process consisting of carrier-mediated uptake and intracellular hydrolysis. Anandamide uptake in neurons and astrocytes is mediated by a high-affinity, Na+-independent transporter that is selectively inhibited by N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-arachidonamide (AM404). In the present study, we examined the structural determinants governing recognition and translocation of substrates by the anandamide transporter constitutively expressed in a human astrocytoma cell line. Competition experiments with a select group of analogs suggest that substrate recognition by the transporter is favored by a polar nonionizable head group of defined stereochemical configuration containing a hydroxyl moiety at its distal end. The secondary carboxamide group interacts favorably with the transporter, but may be replaced with either a tertiary amide or an ester, suggesting that it may serve as hydrogen acceptor. Thus, 2-arachidonylglycerol, a putative endogenous cannabinoid ester, also may serve as a substrate for the transporter. Substrate recognition requires the presence of at least one cis double bond situated at the middle of the fatty acid carbon chain, indicating a preference for ligands whose hydrophobic tail can adopt a bent U-shaped conformation. On the other hand, uptake experiments with radioactively labeled substrates show that no fewer than four cis nonconjugated double bonds are required for optimal translocation across the cell membrane, suggesting that substrates are transported in a folded hairpin conformation. These results outline the general structural requisites for anandamide transport and may assist in the development of selective inhibitors with potential clinical applications. PMID:10318965

  7. The activity of anandamide at vanilloid VR1 receptors requires facilitated transport across the cell membrane and is limited by intracellular metabolism.

    PubMed

    De Petrocellis, L; Bisogno, T; Maccarrone, M; Davis, J B; Finazzi-Agro, A; Di Marzo, V

    2001-04-20

    The endogenous ligand of CB(1) cannabinoid receptors, anandamide, is also a full agonist at vanilloid VR1 receptors for capsaicin and resiniferatoxin, thereby causing an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in human VR1-overexpressing (hVR1-HEK) cells. Two selective inhibitors of anandamide facilitated transport into cells, VDM11 and VDM13, and two inhibitors of anandamide enzymatic hydrolysis, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and methylarachidonoyl fluorophosphonate, inhibited and enhanced, respectively, the VR1-mediated effect of anandamide, but not of resiniferatoxin or capsaicin. The nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside, known to stimulate anandamide transport, enhanced anandamide effect on the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. Accordingly, hVR1-HEK cells contain an anandamide membrane transporter inhibited by VDM11 and VDM13 and activated by sodium nitroprusside, and an anandamide hydrolase activity sensitive to phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and methylarachidonoyl fluorophosphonate, and a fatty acid amide hydrolase transcript. These findings suggest the following. (i) Anandamide activates VR1 receptors by acting at an intracellular site. (ii) Degradation by fatty acid amide hydrolase limits anandamide activity on VR1; and (iii) the anandamide membrane transporter inhibitors can be used to distinguish between CB(1) or VR1 receptor-mediated actions of anandamide. By contrast, the CB(1) receptor antagonist SR141716A inhibited also the VR1-mediated effect of anandamide and capsaicin on cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, although at concentrations higher than those required for CB(1) antagonism.

  8. The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide produces delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-like discriminative and neurochemical effects that are enhanced by inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase but not by inhibition of anandamide transport.

    PubMed

    Solinas, Marcello; Tanda, Gianluigi; Justinova, Zuzana; Wertheim, Carrie E; Yasar, Sevil; Piomelli, Daniele; Vadivel, Subramanian K; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Goldberg, Steven R

    2007-04-01

    Anandamide is an endogenous ligand for brain cannabinoid CB(1) receptors, but its behavioral effects are difficult to measure due to rapid inactivation. Here we used a drug-discrimination procedure to test the hypothesis that anandamide, given i.v. or i.p., would produce discriminative effects like those of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in rats when its metabolic inactivation was inhibited. We also used an in vivo microdialysis procedure to investigate the effects of anandamide, given i.v. or i.p., on dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens shell in rats. When injected i.v., methanandamide (AM-356), a metabolically stable anandamide analog, produced clear dose-related THC-like discriminative effects, but anandamide produced THC-like discriminative effects only at a high 10-mg/kg dose that almost eliminated lever-press responding. Cyclohexyl carbamic acid 3'-carbamoyl-biphenyl-3-yl ester (URB-597), an inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the main enzyme responsible for metabolic inactivation of anandamide, produced no THC-like discriminative effects alone but dramatically potentiated discriminative effects of anandamide, with 3 mg/kg anandamide completely substituting for the THC training dose. URB-597 also potentiated the ability of anandamide to increase dopamine levels in the accumbens shell. The THC-like discriminative-stimulus effects of anandamide after URB-597 and methanandamide were blocked by the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant, but not the vanilloid VR1 receptor antagonist capsazepine. Surprisingly, the anandamide transport inhibitors N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-eicosa-5,8,11,14-tetraenamide (AM-404) and N-(3-furylmethyl)eicosa-5,8,11,14-tetraenamide (UCM-707) did not potentiate THC-like discriminative effects of anandamide or its dopamine-elevating effects. Thus, anandamide has THC-like discriminative and neurochemical effects that are enhanced after treatment with a FAAH inhibitor but not after treatment with transport inhibitors, suggesting

  9. The Insertion and Transport of Anandamide in Synthetic Lipid Membranes Are Both Cholesterol-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Di Pasquale, Eric; Chahinian, Henri; Sanchez, Patrick; Fantini, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Background Anandamide is a lipid neurotransmitter which belongs to a class of molecules termed the endocannabinoids involved in multiple physiological functions. Anandamide is readily taken up into cells, but there is considerable controversy as to the nature of this transport process (passive diffusion through the lipid bilayer vs. involvement of putative proteic transporters). This issue is of major importance since anandamide transport through the plasma membrane is crucial for its biological activity and intracellular degradation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the involvement of cholesterol in membrane uptake and transport of anandamide. Methodology/Principal Findings Molecular modeling simulations suggested that anandamide can adopt a shape that is remarkably complementary to cholesterol. Physicochemical studies showed that in the nanomolar concentration range, anandamide strongly interacted with cholesterol monolayers at the air-water interface. The specificity of this interaction was assessed by: i) the lack of activity of structurally related unsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid and arachidonic acid at 50 nM) on cholesterol monolayers, and ii) the weak insertion of anandamide into phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin monolayers. In agreement with these data, the presence of cholesterol in reconstituted planar lipid bilayers triggered the stable insertion of anandamide detected as an increase in bilayer capacitance. Kinetics transport studies showed that pure phosphatidylcholine bilayers were weakly permeable to anandamide. The incorporation of cholesterol in phosphatidylcholine bilayers dose-dependently stimulated the translocation of anandamide. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that cholesterol stimulates both the insertion of anandamide into synthetic lipid monolayers and bilayers, and its transport across bilayer membranes. In this respect, we suggest that besides putative anandamide protein-transporters, cholesterol could

  10. Correlating FAAH and anandamide cellular uptake inhibition using N-alkylcarbamate inhibitors: from ultrapotent to hyperpotent.

    PubMed

    Nicolussi, Simon; Chicca, Andrea; Rau, Mark; Rihs, Sabine; Soeberdt, Michael; Abels, Christoph; Gertsch, Jürg

    2014-12-15

    Besides the suggested role of a putative endocannabinoid membrane transporter mediating the cellular uptake of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA), this process is intrinsically coupled to AEA degradation by the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Differential blockage of each mechanism is possible using specific small-molecule inhibitors. Starting from the natural product-derived 2E,4E-dodecadiene scaffold previously shown to interact with the endocannabinoid system (ECS), a series of diverse N-alkylcarbamates were prepared with the aim of generating novel ECS modulators. While being inactive at cannabinoid receptors and monoacylglycerol lipase, these N-alkylcarbamates showed potent to ultrapotent picomolar FAAH inhibition in U937 cells. Overall, a highly significant correlation (Spearman's rho=0.91) was found between the inhibition of FAAH and AEA cellular uptake among 54 compounds. Accordingly, in HMC-1 cells lacking FAAH expression the effect on AEA cellular uptake was dramatically reduced. Unexpectedly, 3-(4,5-dihydrothiazol-2-yl)phenyl carbamates and the 3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-4-yl)phenyl carbamates WOBE490, WOBE491 and WOBE492 showed a potentiation of cellular AEA uptake inhibition in U937 cells, resulting in unprecedented femtomolar (hyperpotent) IC50 values. Potential methodological issues and the role of cellular accumulation of selected probes were investigated. It is shown that albumin impacts the potency of specific N-alkylcarbamates and, more importantly, that accumulation of FAAH inhibitors can significantly increase their effect on cellular AEA uptake. Taken together, this series of N-alkylcarbamates shows a FAAH-dependent inhibition of cellular AEA uptake, which can be strongly potentiated using specific head group modifications. These findings provide a rational basis for the development of hyperpotent AEA uptake inhibitors mediated by ultrapotent FAAH inhibition.

  11. New potent and selective inhibitors of anandamide reuptake with antispastic activity in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ligresti, Alessia; Cascio, Maria Grazia; Pryce, Gareth; Kulasegram, Sanjitha; Beletskaya, Irina; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Saha, Bijali; Mahadevan, Anu; Visintin, Cristina; Wiley, Jenny L; Baker, David; Martin, Billy R; Razdan, Raj K; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that the compound O-2093 is a selective inhibitor of the reuptake of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA). We have now re-examined the activity of O-2093 in vivo and synthesized four structural analogs (O-2247, O-2248, O-3246, and O-3262), whose activity was assessed in: (a) binding assays carried out with membranes from cells overexpressing the human CB(1) and CB(2) receptors; (b) assays of transient receptor potential of the vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channel functional activity (measurement of [Ca(2+)](i)); (c) [(14)C]AEA cellular uptake and hydrolysis assays in rat basophilic leukaemia (RBL-2H3) cells; (d) the mouse 'tetrad' tests (analgesia on a hot plate, immobility on a 'ring', rectal hypothermia and hypolocomotion in an open field); and (e) the limb spasticity test in chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (CREAE) mice, a model of multiple sclerosis (MS). O-2093, either synthesized by us or commercially available, was inactive in the 'tetrad' up to a 20 mg kg(-1) dose (i.v.). Like O-2093, the other four compounds exhibited low affinity in CB(1) (K(i) from 1.3 to >10 microM) and CB(2) binding assays (1.310 microM), very low potency as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors (IC(50)>25 microM) and were inactive in the 'tetrad' up to a 30 mg kg(-1) dose (i.v.). While O-2247 and O-2248 were poor inhibitors of [(14)C]AEA cellular uptake (IC(50)>40 microM), O-3246 and O-3262 were quite potent in this assay. O-3246, which exhibits only a very subtle structural difference with O-2093, is the most potent inhibitor of AEA uptake reported in vitro under our experimental conditions (IC(50)=1.4 microM) and is 12-fold more potent than O-2093. When injected intravenously O-3246 and O-3262, again like O-2093 and unlike O-2247 and O-2248, significantly inhibited limb spasticity in mice with CREAE. These data confirm the potential utility of selective

  12. New potent and selective inhibitors of anandamide reuptake with antispastic activity in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ligresti, Alessia; Cascio, Maria Grazia; Pryce, Gareth; Kulasegram, Sanjitha; Beletskaya, Irina; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Saha, Bijali; Mahadevan, Anu; Visintin, Cristina; Wiley, Jenny L; Baker, David; Martin, Billy R; Razdan, Raj K; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported that the compound O-2093 is a selective inhibitor of the reuptake of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA). We have now re-examined the activity of O-2093 in vivo and synthesized four structural analogs (O-2247, O-2248, O-3246, and O-3262), whose activity was assessed in: (a) binding assays carried out with membranes from cells overexpressing the human CB1 and CB2 receptors; (b) assays of transient receptor potential of the vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channel functional activity (measurement of [Ca2+]i); (c) [14C]AEA cellular uptake and hydrolysis assays in rat basophilic leukaemia (RBL-2H3) cells; (d) the mouse ‘tetrad' tests (analgesia on a hot plate, immobility on a ‘ring', rectal hypothermia and hypolocomotion in an open field); and (e) the limb spasticity test in chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (CREAE) mice, a model of multiple sclerosis (MS). O-2093, either synthesized by us or commercially available, was inactive in the ‘tetrad' up to a 20 mg kg−1 dose (i.v.). Like O-2093, the other four compounds exhibited low affinity in CB1 (Ki from 1.3 to >10 μM) and CB2 binding assays (1.310 μM), very low potency as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors (IC50>25 μM) and were inactive in the ‘tetrad' up to a 30 mg kg−1 dose (i.v.). While O-2247 and O-2248 were poor inhibitors of [14C]AEA cellular uptake (IC50>40 μM), O-3246 and O-3262 were quite potent in this assay. O-3246, which exhibits only a very subtle structural difference with O-2093, is the most potent inhibitor of AEA uptake reported in vitro under our experimental conditions (IC50=1.4 μM) and is 12-fold more potent than O-2093. When injected intravenously O-3246 and O-3262, again like O-2093 and unlike O-2247 and O-2248, significantly inhibited limb spasticity in mice with CREAE. These data confirm the potential utility of selective AEA uptake

  13. Targeting Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP) Anandamide Transporters – A Novel Strategy for Development of Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Nociceptive Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Balius, Trent E.; Rizzo, Robert C.; Haj-Dahmane, Samir; Ojima, Iwao; Deutsch, Dale G.

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs), in particular FABP5 and FABP7, have recently been identified by us as intracellular transporters for the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA). Furthermore, animal studies by others have shown that elevated levels of endocannabinoids resulted in beneficial pharmacological effects on stress, pain and inflammation and also ameliorate the effects of drug withdrawal. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that FABP5 and FABP7 would provide excellent pharmacological targets. Thus, we performed a virtual screening of over one million compounds using DOCK and employed a novel footprint similarity scoring function to identify lead compounds with binding profiles similar to oleic acid, a natural FABP substrate. Forty-eight compounds were purchased based on their footprint similarity scores (FPS) and assayed for biological activity against purified human FABP5 employing a fluorescent displacement-binding assay. Four compounds were found to exhibit approximately 50% inhibition or greater at 10 µM, as good as or better inhibitors of FABP5 than BMS309403, a commercially available inhibitor. The most potent inhibitor, γ-truxillic acid 1-naphthyl ester (ChemDiv 8009-2334), was determined to have Ki value of 1.19±0.01 µM. Accordingly a novel α-truxillic acid 1-naphthyl mono-ester (SB-FI-26) was synthesized and assayed for its inhibitory activity against FABP5, wherein SB-FI-26 exhibited strong binding (Ki 0.93±0.08 µM). Additionally, we found SB-FI-26 to act as a potent anti-nociceptive agent with mild anti-inflammatory activity in mice, which strongly supports our hypothesis that the inhibition of FABPs and subsequent elevation of anandamide is a promising new approach to drug discovery. Truxillic acids and their derivatives were also shown by others to have anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects in mice and to be the active component of Chinese a herbal medicine (Incarvillea sinensis) used to treat rheumatism and pain in

  14. N-acyl-dopamines: novel synthetic CB(1) cannabinoid-receptor ligands and inhibitors of anandamide inactivation with cannabimimetic activity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Bisogno, T; Melck, D; Bobrov MYu; Gretskaya, N M; Bezuglov, V V; De Petrocellis, L; Di Marzo, V

    2000-01-01

    We reported previously that synthetic amides of polyunsaturated fatty acids with bioactive amines can result in substances that interact with proteins of the endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS). Here we synthesized a series of N-acyl-dopamines (NADAs) and studied their effects on the anandamide membrane transporter, the anandamide amidohydrolase (fatty acid amide hydrolase, FAAH) and the two cannabinoid receptor subtypes, CB(1) and CB(2). NADAs competitively inhibited FAAH from N18TG2 cells (IC(50)=19-100 microM), as well as the binding of the selective CB(1) receptor ligand, [(3)H]SR141716A, to rat brain membranes (K(i)=250-3900 nM). The arachidonoyl (20:4 omega 6), eicosapentaenoyl (20:5 omega 3), docosapentaenoyl (22:5 omega 3), alpha-linolenoyl (18:3 omega 3) and pinolenoyl (5c,9c,12c 18:3 omega 6) homologues were also found to inhibit the anandamide membrane transporter in RBL-2H3 basophilic leukaemia and C6 glioma cells (IC(50)=17.5-33 microM). NADAs did not inhibit the binding of the CB(1)/CB(2) receptor ligand, [(3)H]WIN55,212-2, to rat spleen membranes (K(i)>10 microM). N-arachidonyl-dopamine (AA-DA) exhibited 40-fold selectivity for CB(1) (K(i)=250 nM) over CB(2) receptors, and N-docosapentaenoyl-dopamine exhibited 4-fold selectivity for the anandamide transporter over FAAH. AA-DA (0.1-10 microM) did not displace D1 and D2 dopamine-receptor high-affinity ligands from rat brain membranes, thus suggesting that this compound has little affinity for these receptors. AA-DA was more potent and efficacious than anandamide as a CB(1) agonist, as assessed by measuring the stimulatory effect on intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization in undifferentiated N18TG2 neuroblastoma cells. This effect of AA-DA was counteracted by the CB(1) antagonist SR141716A. AA-DA behaved as a CB(1) agonist in vivo by inducing hypothermia, hypo-locomotion, catalepsy and analgesia in mice (1-10 mg/kg). Finally, AA-DA potently inhibited (IC(50)=0.25 microM) the proliferation of human breast MCF

  15. The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide inhibits alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated responses in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Oz, Murat; Ravindran, Arippa; Diaz-Ruiz, Oscar; Zhang, Li; Morales, Marisela

    2003-09-01

    The effect of the endogenous cannabinoid ligand anandamide on the function of the cloned alpha7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes was investigated by using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Anandamide reversibly inhibited nicotine (10 microM) induced-currents in a concentration-dependent manner (10 nM to 30 microM), with an IC50 value of 229.7 +/- 20.4 nM. The effect of anandamide was neither dependent on the membrane potential nor meditated by endogenous Ca2+ dependent Cl- channels since it was unaffected by intracellularly injected BAPTA and perfusion with Ca2+-free bathing solution containing 2 mM Ba2+. Anandamide decreased the maximal nicotine-induced responses without significantly affecting its potency, indicating that it acts as a noncompetitive antagonist on nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) alpha7 receptors. This effect was not mediated by CB1 or CB2 receptors, as neither the selective CB1 receptor antagonist N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboximide hydrochloride (SR 141716A) nor CB2 receptor antagonist N-((1S)-endo-1,3,3-trimethyl-bicyclo-heptan-2-yl]-5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (SR 144528) reduced the inhibition by anandamide. In addition, inhibition of nicotinic responses by anandamide was not sensitive to either pertussis toxin treatment or to the membrane permeable cAMP analog 8-Br-cAMP (0.2 mM). Inhibitors of enzymes involved in anandamide metabolism including phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, superoxide dismutase, and indomethacin, or the anandamide transport inhibitor AM404 did not prevent anandamide inhibition of nicotinic responses, suggesting that anandamide itself acted on nicotinic receptors. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide inhibits the function of nACh alpha7 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes in a cannabinoid receptor-independent and

  16. Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase and monoacylglycerol lipase by the anandamide uptake inhibitor VDM11: evidence that VDM11 acts as an FAAH substrate.

    PubMed

    Vandevoorde, Séverine; Fowler, Christopher J

    2005-08-01

    There is some dispute concerning the extent to which the uptake inhibitor VDM11 (N-(4-hydroxy-2-methylphenyl) arachidonoyl amide) is capable of inhibiting the metabolism of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). In view of a recent study demonstrating that the closely related compound AM404 (N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)arachidonylamide) is a substrate for FAAH, we re-examined the interaction of VDM11 with FAAH. In the presence of fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin (BSA, 0.125% w v(-1)), both AM404 and VDM11 inhibited the metabolism of AEA by rat brain FAAH with similar potencies (IC(50) values of 2.1 and 2.6 microM, respectively). The compounds were about 10-fold less potent as inhibitors of the metabolism of 2-oleoylglycerol (2-OG) by cytosolic monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). The potency of VDM11 towards FAAH was dependent upon the assay concentration of fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin (BSA). Thus, in the absence of fatty acid-free BSA, the IC(50) value for inhibition of FAAH was reduced by a factor of about two (from 2.9 to 1.6 microM). A similar reduction in the IC(50) value for the inhibition of membrane bound MAGL by both this compound (from 14 to 6 microM) and by arachidonoyl serinol (from 24 to 13 microM) was seen. An HPLC assay was set up to measure 4-amino-m-cresol, the hypothesised product of FAAH-catalysed VDM11 hydrolysis. 4-Amino-m-cresol was eluted with a retention time of approximately 2.4 min, but showed a time-dependent degradation to compounds eluting at peaks of approximately 5.6 and approximately 8 min. Peaks with the same retention times were also found following incubation of the membranes with VDM11, but were not seen when the membranes were preincubated with the FAAH inhibitors URB597 (3'-carbamoyl-biphenyl-3-yl-cyclohexylcarbamate) and CAY10401 (1-oxazolo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-yl-9-octadecyn-1-one) prior to addition of VDM11. The rate of metabolism of VDM11 was estimated to be roughly 15-20% of that for

  17. A Personal Retrospective: Elevating Anandamide (AEA) by Targeting Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) and the Fatty Acid Binding Proteins (FABPs)

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Dale G.

    2016-01-01

    This perspective was adapted from a Career Achievement Award talk given at the International Cannabinoid Research Society Symposium in Bukovina, Poland on June 27, 2016. As a biochemist working in the neurosciences, I was always fascinated with neurotransmitter inactivation. In 1993 we identified an enzyme activity that breaks down anandamide. We called the enzyme anandamide amidase, now called FAAH. We and other laboratories developed FAAH inhibitors that were useful reagents that also proved to have beneficial physiological effects and until recently, new generations of inhibitors were in clinical trials. Nearly all neurotransmitters are water soluble and as such, require a transmembrane protein transporter to pass through the lipid membrane for inactivation inside the cell. However, using model systems, we and others have shown that this is unnecessary for anandamide, an uncharged hydrophobic molecule that readily diffuses across the cellular membrane. Interestingly, its uptake is driven by the concentration gradient resulting from its breakdown mainly by FAAH localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. We identified the FABPs as intracellular carriers that “solubilize” anandamide, transporting anandamide to FAAH. Compounds that bind to FABPs block AEA breakdown, raising its level. The cannabinoids (THC and CBD) also were discovered to bind FABPs and this may be one of the mechanisms by which CBD works in childhood epilepsy, raising anandamide levels. Targeting FABPs may be advantageous since they have some tissue specificity and do not require reactive serine hydrolase inhibitors, as does FAAH, with potential for off-target reactions. At the International Cannabis Research Society Symposium in 1992, Raphe Mechoulam revealed that his laboratory isolated an endogenous lipid molecule that binds to the CB1 receptor (cannabinoid receptor type 1) and this became the milestone paper published in December of that year describing anandamide (AEA, Devane et al., 1992

  18. A Personal Retrospective: Elevating Anandamide (AEA) by Targeting Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) and the Fatty Acid Binding Proteins (FABPs).

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Dale G

    2016-01-01

    This perspective was adapted from a Career Achievement Award talk given at the International Cannabinoid Research Society Symposium in Bukovina, Poland on June 27, 2016. As a biochemist working in the neurosciences, I was always fascinated with neurotransmitter inactivation. In 1993 we identified an enzyme activity that breaks down anandamide. We called the enzyme anandamide amidase, now called FAAH. We and other laboratories developed FAAH inhibitors that were useful reagents that also proved to have beneficial physiological effects and until recently, new generations of inhibitors were in clinical trials. Nearly all neurotransmitters are water soluble and as such, require a transmembrane protein transporter to pass through the lipid membrane for inactivation inside the cell. However, using model systems, we and others have shown that this is unnecessary for anandamide, an uncharged hydrophobic molecule that readily diffuses across the cellular membrane. Interestingly, its uptake is driven by the concentration gradient resulting from its breakdown mainly by FAAH localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. We identified the FABPs as intracellular carriers that "solubilize" anandamide, transporting anandamide to FAAH. Compounds that bind to FABPs block AEA breakdown, raising its level. The cannabinoids (THC and CBD) also were discovered to bind FABPs and this may be one of the mechanisms by which CBD works in childhood epilepsy, raising anandamide levels. Targeting FABPs may be advantageous since they have some tissue specificity and do not require reactive serine hydrolase inhibitors, as does FAAH, with potential for off-target reactions. At the International Cannabis Research Society Symposium in 1992, Raphe Mechoulam revealed that his laboratory isolated an endogenous lipid molecule that binds to the CB1 receptor (cannabinoid receptor type 1) and this became the milestone paper published in December of that year describing anandamide (AEA, Devane et al., 1992). As to

  19. Inhibitors of plant hormone transport.

    PubMed

    Klíma, Petr; Laňková, Martina; Zažímalová, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Here we present an overview of what is known about endogenous plant compounds that act as inhibitors of hormonal transport processes in plants, about their identity and mechanism of action. We have also summarized commonly and less commonly used compounds of non-plant origin and synthetic drugs that show at least partial 'specificity' to transport or transporters of particular phytohormones. Our main attention is focused on the inhibitors of auxin transport. The urgent need to understand precisely the molecular mechanism of action of these inhibitors is highlighted.

  20. Glycine Transporters and Their Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilfillan, Robert; Kerr, Jennifer; Walker, Glenn; Wishart, Grant

    Glycine plays a ubiquitous role in many biological processes. In the central nervous system it serves as an important neurotransmitter acting as an agonist at strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors and as an essential co-agonist with glutamate at the NMDA receptor complex. Control of glycine concentrations in the vicinity of these receptors is mediated by the specific glycine transporters, GlyT1 and GlyT2. Inhibition of these transporters has been postulated to be of potential benefit in several therapeutic indications including schizophrenia and pain. In this review we discuss our current knowledge of glycine transporters and focus on recent advances in the medicinal chemistry of GlyT1 and GlyT2 inhibitors.

  1. A biosynthetic pathway for anandamide

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Lei; Harvey-White, Judith; Osei-Hyiaman, Douglas; Razdan, Raj; Gong, Qian; Chan, Andrew C.; Zhou, Zhifeng; Huang, Bill X.; Kim, Hee-Yong; Kunos, George

    2006-01-01

    The endocannabinoid arachidonoyl ethanolamine (anandamide) is a lipid transmitter synthesized and released “on demand” by neurons in the brain. Anandamide is also generated by macrophages where its endotoxin (LPS)-induced synthesis has been implicated in the hypotension of septic shock and advanced liver cirrhosis. Anandamide can be generated from its membrane precursor, N-arachidonoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) through cleavage by a phospholipase D (NAPE–PLD). Here we document a biosynthetic pathway for anandamide in mouse brain and RAW264.7 macrophages that involves the phospholipase C (PLC)-catalyzed cleavage of NAPE to generate a lipid, phosphoanandamide, which is subsequently dephosphorylated by phosphatases, including PTPN22, previously described as a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Bacterial endotoxin (LPS)-induced synthesis of anandamide in macrophages is mediated exclusively by the PLC/phosphatase pathway, which is up-regulated by LPS, whereas NAPE–PLD is down-regulated by LPS and functions as a salvage pathway of anandamide synthesis when the PLC/phosphatase pathway is compromised. Both PTPN22 and endocannabinoids have been implicated in autoimmune diseases, suggesting that the PLC/phosphatase pathway of anandamide synthesis may be a pharmacotherapeutic target. PMID:16938887

  2. Dual effects of anandamide on NMDA receptor-mediated responses and neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Hampson, A J; Bornheim, L M; Scanziani, M; Yost, C S; Gray, A T; Hansen, B M; Leonoudakis, D J; Bickler, P E

    1998-02-01

    Anandamide is an endogenous ligand of cannabinoid receptors that induces pharmacological responses in animals similar to those of cannabinoids such as delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Typical pharmacological effects of cannabinoids include disruption of pain, memory formation, and motor coordination, systems that all depend on NMDA receptor mediated neurotransmission. We investigated whether anandamide can influence NMDA receptor activity by examining NMDA-induced calcium flux (deltaCa2+NMDA) in rat brain slices. The presence of anandamide reduced deltaCa2+NMDA and the inhibition was disrupted by cannabinoid receptor antagonist, pertussis toxin treatment, and agatoxin (a calcium channel inhibitor). Whereas these treatments prevented anandamide inhibiting deltaCa2+NMDA, they also revealed another, underlying mechanism by which anandamide influences deltaCa2+NMDA. In the presence of cannabinoid receptor antagonist, anandamide potentiated deltaCa2+NMDA in cortical, cerebellar, and hippocampal slices. Anandamide (but not THC) also augmented NMDA-stimulated currents in Xenopus oocytes expressing cloned NMDA receptors, suggesting a capacity to directly modulate NMDA receptor activity. In a similar manner, anandamide enhanced neurotransmission across NMDA receptor-dependent synapses in hippocampus in a manner that was not mimicked by THC and was unaffected by cannabinoid receptor antagonist. These data demonstrate that anandamide can modulate NMDA receptor activity in addition to its role as a cannabinoid receptor ligand.

  3. Cannabinoid agonists but not inhibitors of endogenous cannabinoid transport or metabolism enhance the reinforcing efficacy of heroin in rats.

    PubMed

    Solinas, Marcello; Panlilio, Leigh V; Tanda, Gianluigi; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Matthews, Stephanie A; Goldberg, Steven R

    2005-11-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in the reinforcing effects of heroin. In rats intravenously self-administering heroin, we investigated effects of cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists and compounds that block transport or metabolism of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide. The natural cannnabinoid CB1 receptor agonist delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, 0.3-3 mg/kg i.p.) did not alter self-administration of heroin under a fixed-ratio one (FR1) schedule, except at a high 3 mg/kg dose which decreased heroin self-administration. Under a progressive-ratio schedule, however, THC dose-dependently increased the number of 50 mug/kg heroin injections self-administered per session and the maximal ratio completed (break-point), with peak increases at 1 mg/kg THC. In addition, 1 mg/kg THC increased break-points and injections self-administered over a wide range of heroin injection doses (25-100 microg/kg), indicating an increase in heroin's reinforcing efficacy and not its potency. The synthetic cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (0.3-3 mg/kg i.p.) had effects similar to THC under the progressive-ratio schedule. In contrast, AM-404 (1-10 mg/kg i.p.), an inhibitor of transport of anandamide, and URB-597 (0.01-0.3 mg/kg i.p.), an inhibitor of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) that degrades anandamide, or their combination, did not increase reinforcing efficacy of heroin at any dose tested. Thus, activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors facilitates the reinforcing efficacy of heroin and this appears to be mediated by interactions between cannabinoid CB1 receptors and mu-opioid receptors and their signaling pathways, rather than by an opioid-induced release of endogenous cannabinoids.

  4. Arachidonic acid release and prostaglandin F(2alpha) formation induced by anandamide and capsaicin in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Someya, Akiyoshi; Horie, Syunji; Murayama, Toshihiko

    2002-08-23

    Anandamide, an endogenous agonist of cannabinoid receptors, activates various signal transduction pathways. Anandamide also activates vanilloid VR(1) receptor, which was a nonselective cation channel with high Ca(2+) permeability and had sensitivity to capsaicin, a pungent principle in hot pepper. The effects of anandamide and capsaicin on arachidonic acid metabolism in neuronal cells have not been well established. We examined the effects of anandamide and capsaicin on arachidonic acid release in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Both agents stimulated [3H]arachidonic acid release in a concentration-dependent manner from the prelabeled PC12 cells even in the absence of extracellular CaCl(2). The effect of anandamide was neither mimicked by an agonist nor inhibited by an antagonist for cannabinoid receptors. The effects of anandamide and capsaicin were inhibited by phospholipase A(2) inhibitors, but not by an antagonist for vanilloid VR(1) receptor. In PC12 cells preincubated with anandamide or capsaicin, [3H]arachidonic acid release was marked and both agents were no more effective. Co-addition of anandamide or capsaicin synergistically enhanced [3H]arachidonic acid release by mastoparan in the absence of CaCl(2). Anandamide stimulated prostaglandin F(2alpha) formation. These findings suggest that anandamide and capsaicin stimulated arachidonic acid metabolism in cannabinoid receptors- and vanilloid VR(1) receptor-independent manner in PC12 cells. The possible mechanisms are also discussed.

  5. Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Urea Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Esteva-Font, Cristina; Cil, Onur; Anderson, Marc O.; Li, Fei; Li, Min; Lei, Tianluo; Ren, Huiwen; Yang, Baoxue

    2015-01-01

    Urea transporter (UT) proteins, which include isoforms of UT-A in kidney tubule epithelia and UT-B in vasa recta endothelia and erythrocytes, facilitate urinary concentrating function. Inhibitors of urea transporter function have potential clinical applications as sodium-sparing diuretics, or ‘urearetics,’ in edema from different etiologies, such as congestive heart failure and cirrhosis, as well as in syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). High-throughput screening of drug-like small molecules has identified UT-A and UT-B inhibitors with nanomolar potency. Inhibitors have been identified with different UT-A versus UT-B selectivity profiles and putative binding sites on UT proteins. Studies in rodent models support the utility of UT inhibitors in reducing urinary concentration, though testing in clinically relevant animal models of edema has not yet been done. PMID:25298345

  6. Anandamide acts as an intracellular messenger amplifying Ca2+ influx via TRPV1 channels

    PubMed Central

    van der Stelt, Mario; Trevisani, Marcello; Vellani, Vittorio; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Schiano Moriello, Aniello; Campi, Barbara; McNaughton, Peter; Geppetti, Piero; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    The endocannabinoid anandamide is able to interact with the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels at a molecular level. As yet, endogenously produced anandamide has not been shown to activate TRPV1, but this is of importance to understand the physiological function of this interaction. Here, we show that intracellular Ca2+ mobilization via the purinergic receptor agonist ATP, the muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol or the Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin leads to formation of anandamide, and subsequent TRPV1-dependent Ca2+ influx in transfected cells and sensory neurons of rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Anandamide metabolism and efflux from the cell tonically limit TRPV1-mediated Ca2+ entry. In DRG neurons, this mechanism was found to lead to TRPV1-mediated currents that were enhanced by selective blockade of anandamide cellular efflux. Thus, endogenous anandamide is formed on stimulation of metabotropic receptors coupled to the phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate pathway and then signals to TRPV1 channels. This novel intracellular function of anandamide may precede its action at cannabinoid receptors, and might be relevant to its control over neurotransmitter release. PMID:16107881

  7. Direct inhibition of T-type calcium channels by the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide

    PubMed Central

    Chemin, Jean; Monteil, Arnaud; Perez-Reyes, Edward; Nargeot, Joël; Lory, Philippe

    2001-01-01

    Low-voltage-activated or T-type Ca2+ channels (T-channels) are widely expressed, especially in the central nervous system where they contribute to pacemaker activities and are involved in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Proper elucidation of their cellular functions has been hampered by the lack of selective pharmacology as well as the absence of generic endogenous regulations. We report here that both cloned (α1G, α1H and α1I subunits) and native T-channels are blocked by the endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide. Anandamide, known to exert its physiological effects through cannabinoid receptors, inhibits T-currents independently from the activation of CB1/CB2 receptors, G-proteins, phospholipases and protein kinase pathways. Anandamide appears to be the first endogenous ligand acting directly on T-channels at submicromolar concentrations. Block of anandamide membrane transport by AM404 prevents T-current inhibition, suggesting that anandamide acts intracellularly. Anandamide preferentially binds and stabilizes T-channels in the inactivated state and is responsible for a significant decrease of T-currents associated with neuronal firing activities. Our data demonstrate that anandamide inhibition of T-channels can regulate neuronal excitability and account for CB receptor-independent effects of this signaling molecule. PMID:11742980

  8. Anandamide Induces Sperm Release from Oviductal Epithelia through Nitric Oxide Pathway in Bovines

    PubMed Central

    Osycka-Salut, Claudia; Gervasi, María Gracia; Pereyra, Elba; Cella, Maximiliano; Ribeiro, María Laura; Franchi, Ana María; Perez-Martinez, Silvina

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa are not able to fertilize an egg immediately upon ejaculation. They acquire this ability during their transit through the female genital tract in a process known as capacitation. The mammalian oviduct acts as a functional sperm reservoir providing a suitable environment that allows the maintenance of sperm fertilization competence until ovulation occurs. After ovulation, spermatozoa are gradually released from the oviductal reservoir in the caudal isthmus and ascend to the site of fertilization. Capacitating-related changes in sperm plasma membrane seem to be responsible for sperm release from oviductal epithelium. Anandamide is a lipid mediator that participates in the regulation of several female and male reproductive functions. Previously we have demonstrated that anandamide was capable to release spermatozoa from oviductal epithelia by induction of sperm capacitation in bovines. In the present work we studied whether anandamide might exert its effect by activating the nitric oxide (NO) pathway since this molecule has been described as a capacitating agent in spermatozoa from different species. First, we demonstrated that 1 µM NOC-18, a NO donor, and 10 mM L-Arginine, NO synthase substrate, induced the release of spermatozoa from the oviductal epithelia. Then, we observed that the anandamide effect on sperm oviduct interaction was reversed by the addition of 1 µM L-NAME, a NO synthase inhibitor, or 30 µg/ml Hemoglobin, a NO scavenger. We also demonstrated that the induction of bull sperm capacitation by nanomolar concentrations of R(+)-methanandamide or anandamide was inhibited by adding L-NAME or Hemoglobin. To study whether anandamide is able to produce NO, we measured this compound in both sperm and oviductal cells. We observed that anandamide increased the levels of NO in spermatozoa, but not in oviductal cells. These findings suggest that anandamide regulates the sperm release from oviductal epithelia probably by activating the NO

  9. Reduced Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation to Anandamide in Mesenteric Arteries from Young Obese Zucker Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lobato, Nubia S.; Filgueira, Fernando P.; Prakash, Roshini; Giachini, Fernanda R.; Ergul, Adviye; Carvalho, Maria Helena C.; Webb, R. Clinton; Tostes, Rita C.; Fortes, Zuleica B.

    2013-01-01

    Impaired vascular function, manifested by an altered ability of the endothelium to release endothelium-derived relaxing factors and endothelium-derived contracting factors, is consistently reported in obesity. Considering that the endothelium plays a major role in the relaxant response to the cannabinoid agonist anandamide, the present study tested the hypothesis that vascular relaxation to anandamide is decreased in obese rats. Mechanisms contributing to decreased anandamide-induced vasodilation were determined. Resistance mesenteric arteries from young obese Zucker rats (OZRs) and their lean counterparts (LZRs) were used. Vascular reactivity was evaluated in a myograph for isometric tension recording. Protein expression and localization were analyzed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence, respectively. Vasorelaxation to anandamide, acetylcholine, and sodium nitroprusside, as well as to CB1, CB2, and TRPV1 agonists was decreased in endothelium-intact mesenteric arteries from OZRs. Incubation with an AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) activator or a fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor restored anandamide-induced vascular relaxation in OZRs. CB1 and CB2 receptors protein expression was decreased in arteries from OZRs. Incubation of mesenteric arteries with anandamide evoked endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), AMPK and acetyl CoA carboxylase phosphorylation in LZRs, whereas it decreased phosphorylation of these proteins in OZRs. In conclusion, obesity decreases anandamide-induced relaxation in resistance arteries. Decreased cannabinoid receptors expression, increased anandamide degradation, decreased AMPK/eNOS activity as well as impairment of the response mediated by TRPV1 activation seem to contribute to reduce responses to cannabinoid agonists in obesity. PMID:23667622

  10. Endocannabinoid anandamide mediates hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, Daniela; Matthey, Michaela; Bindila, Laura; Lerner, Raissa; Lutz, Beat; Zimmer, Andreas; Fleischmann, Bernd K.

    2013-01-01

    Endocannabinoids are important regulators of organ homeostasis. Although their role in systemic vasculature has been extensively studied, their impact on pulmonary vessels remains less clear. Herein, we show that the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) is a key mediator of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) via fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH)-dependent metabolites. This is underscored by the prominent vasoconstrictive effect of AEA on pulmonary arteries and strongly reduced HPV in FAAH−/− mice and wild-type mice upon pharmacological treatment with FAAH inhibitor URB597. In addition, mass spectrometry measurements revealed a clear increase of AEA and the FAAH-dependent metabolite arachidonic acid in hypoxic lungs of wild-type mice. We have identified pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells as the source responsible for hypoxia-induced AEA generation. Moreover, either FAAH−/− mice or wild-type mice treated with FAAH inhibitor URB597 are protected against hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and the concomitant vascular remodeling in the lung. Thus, the AEA/FAAH pathway is an important mediator of HPV and is involved in the generation of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24167249

  11. Auxin transport: a new synthetic inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Beyer, E M

    1972-09-01

    The new synthetic plant growth regulator DPX1840 (3,3a-dihydro-2-(p-methoxyphenyl)-8H-pyrazolo [5,1-a] isoindol-8-one) was examined for its effects on auxin transport. At a concentration of 0.5 mm in the receiver agar cylinders DPX1840 significantly inhibited the basipetal transport of naphthaleneacetic acid-1-(14)C in stem sections of Vigna sinensis Endl., Pisum sativum L., Phaseolus vulgaris L., Glycine max L., Helianthus annuus L., Gossypium hirsutum L., and Zea mays L. without significantly reducing total auxin uptake or recovery. The time sequence of the effect varied with the plant species. A similar inhibition of the basipetal movement of indoleacetic acid-1-(14)C was observed in intact seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris L. In contrast to basipetal auxin transport DPX1840 had no significant effect on the acropetal movement of indoleacetic acid-1-(14)C in stem sections of Gossypium hirsutum L. Qualitatively the effect of DPX1840 on basipetal auxin transport was similar to that of other known auxin transport inhibitors. Quantitative differences, however, suggested the following order of activity: Naptalam>morphactin[unk]DPX1840>2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid.DPX1840 also inhibited the lateral displacement of auxin. In horizontally placed stem sections of Helianthus annuus L. pretreated with DPX1840, the ratio of radioactivity from indoleacetic acid-1-(14)C in the upper versus the lower halves of the sections following basipetal indoleacetic acid-1-(14)C transport was approximately 50:50, whereas in the corresponding controls it was approximately 40:60.The data indicate that many of the characteristic effects of DPX1840 on plants, especially those which are known to involve auxin (e.g., epinasty, abscission, apical dominance, tropism), are due, at least in part, to its effects on auxin transport.

  12. Molecular modeling of auxin transport inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, G.; Black-Schaefer, C.; Bures, M.G. )

    1990-05-01

    Molecular modeling techniques have been used to study the chemical and steric properties of auxin transport inhibitors. These bind to a specific site on the plant plasma membrane characterized by its affinity for N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). A three-dimensional model was derived from critical features of ligands for the NPA receptor, and a suggested binding conformation is proposed. This model, along with three-dimensional structural searching techniques, was then used to search the Abbott corporate database of chemical structures. Of the 467 compounds that satisfied the search criteria, 77 representative molecules were evaluated for their ability to compete for ({sup 3}H)NPA binding to corn microsomal membranes. Nineteen showed activity that ranged from 16 to 85% of the maximum NPA binding. Four of the most active of these, from chemical classes not included in the original compound set, also inhibited polar auxin transport through corn coleoptile sections.

  13. Involvement of central beta2-adrenergic, NMDA and thromboxane A2 receptors in the pressor effect of anandamide in rats.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, B; Zakrzeska, A; Kurz, C M; Göthert, M; Kwolek, G; Wielgat, P; Braszko, J J; Schlicker, E

    2010-04-01

    Intravenous (i.v.) injection of the endocannabinoid anandamide induces triphasic cardiovascular responses, including a pressor effect mediated via unknown central and peripheral mechanism(s). The aim of the present study was to determine the central mechanism(s) responsible for the pressor response to anandamide. For this purpose, the influence of antagonists at thromboxane A(2) TP (sulotroban, daltroban, SQ 29548), NMDA (MK-801) and beta(2)-adrenergic receptors (ICI 118551) on the pressor effect induced by i.v. and intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered anandamide was examined in urethane-anaesthetized rats. Anandamide (1.5-3 micromol/kg, i.v.) or its stable analogue methanandamide (0.75 micromol/kg, i.v.) increased blood pressure by 25%. Anandamide (0.03 mumol per animal i.c.v.) caused a pure pressor effect (by 20%) but only in the presence of antagonists of CB(1) and TRPV1 receptors. The effects of cannabinoids (i.v. or i.c.v.) were diminished by i.v. daltroban, sulotroban (10 mumol/kg each), and/or SQ 29548 (1 mumol/kg). The effect of anandamide i.v. was reduced by SQ 29548 (0.02 mumol per animal i.c.v.) and by the thromboxane A(2) synthesis inhibitor furegrelate i.c.v. (1.8 micromol per animal). ICI 118551, MK-801 (1 micromol/kg i.v. each), and bilateral adrenalectomy diminished the effect of anandamide i.c.v. Sulotroban (i.v.) failed to affect the response to anandamide (i.v.) in pithed rats, and anandamide and methanandamide did not bind to TP receptors in rat platelets. The present study suggests that central beta(2)-adrenergic, NMDA and thromboxane A(2) receptors are involved in the anandamide-induced adrenal secretion of catecholamines and their pressor effect in urethane-anaesthetized rats.

  14. Characterization of the anandamide induced depolarization of guinea-pig isolated vagus nerve

    PubMed Central

    Kagaya, Manabu; Lamb, Jasmine; Robbins, Jon; Page, Clive P; Spina, Domenico

    2002-01-01

    There is considerable interest in elucidating potential endogenously derived agonists of the vanilloid receptor and the role of anandamide in this regard has received considerable attention. In the present study, we have used an electrophysiological technique to investigate the mechanism of activation of vanilloid receptors in an isolated vagal preparation. Both capsaicin and anandamide depolarized de-sheathed whole vagal nerve preparations that was antagonized by the VR1 antagonist, capsazepine (P<0.05) whilst this response was unaltered by the cannabinoid (CB1) selective antagonist SR141716A or the CB2 selective antagonist, SR144528, thereby ruling out a role for cannabinoid receptors in this response. The PKC activator, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) augmented depolarization to both anandamide and capsaicin and this response was significantly inhibited with the PKC inhibitor, bisindolylmaleimide (BIM) (P<0.05). The role of lipoxygenase products in the depolarization to anandamide was investigated in the presence of the lipoxygenase inhibitor, 5,8,11-Eicosatriynoic acid (ETI). Depolarization to anandamide and arachidonic acid was significantly inhibited in the presence of ET1 (P<0.05). However, in the absence of calcium depolarization to anandamide was not inhibited by ETI. Using confocal microscopy we have demonstrated the presence of vanilloid receptors on both neuropeptide containing nerves and nerves that did not stain for sensory neuropeptides. These results demonstrate that anandamide evokes depolarization of guinea-pig vagus nerve, following activation of vanilloid receptors, a component of which involves the generation of lipoxygenase products. Furthermore, these receptors are distributed in both neuropeptide and non-neuropeptide containing nerves. PMID:12183329

  15. Screening for Inhibitors of Essential Leishmania Glucose Transporters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Leishmania Glucose Transporters PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Scott M. Landfear, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Oregon Health & Science...3. DATES COVERED 1 JUL 2011 - 30 JUN 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Screening for Inhibitors of Essential Leishmania Glucose Transporters...function as selective inhibitors of the essential glucose transporters of the parasite Leishmania mexicana. To identify such compounds, a cell growth

  16. A possible role of lipoxygenase in the activation of vanilloid receptors by anandamide in the guinea-pig bronchus

    PubMed Central

    Craib, Susan J; Ellington, Heather C; Pertwee, Roger G; Ross, Ruth A

    2001-01-01

    In the absence of indomethacin, anandamide did not contract the guinea-pig bronchus at concentrations up to 100 μM. In the presence of indomethacin (10 μM), anandamide induced concentration-related contractions with a pEC50 value of 5.18±0.11. It was significantly less potent than capsaicin (pEC50 7.01±0.1). The anandamide uptake inhibitor AM404, produced only a 14.1±3.22% contraction at 100 μM. All experiments were conducted in the presence of PMSF (20 μM). The vanilloid receptor antagonist, capsazepine (10 μM), significantly attenuated the contractile effect of anandamide, the response to 100 μM anandamide being 40.53±7.04% in the presence of vehicle and 1.57±8.93% in the presence of 10 μM capsazepine. The contractile actions of anandamide and AM404 were markedly enhanced by the peptidase inhibitor thiorphan. The log concentration-response curve of anandamide was unaltered by the CB1 receptor antagonist, SR141716A. The pEC50 values for anandamide were 4.88±0.08 and 5.17±0.19 in the presence of vehicle and SR141716A (1 μM) respectively. The lipoxygenase inhibitors 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) and 5,8,11 eicosatriynoic acid (ETI) reduced the effect of 100 μM anandamide from 34.7±1.9% (vehicle) to 7.7±5% (ETYA, 10 μM) and from 41.85±4.25% (n=6) (vehicle) to 10.31±3.54 (n=6) (ETI, 20 μM). Neither inhibitor significantly affected contraction of the tissue by substance P. This study provides evidence that anandamide acts on vanilloid receptors in the guinea-pig isolated bronchus. These data raise the possibility that the contractile action of anandamide may be due, at least in part, to lipoxygenase metabolites of this fatty acid amide that are vanilloid receptor agonists. PMID:11522594

  17. Hydrogen-Bonded His93 As a Sensitive Probe for Identifying Inhibitors of the Endocannabinoid Transport Protein FABP7

    PubMed Central

    Tyukhtenko, Sergiy; Chan, Karrie; Jiang, Rubin; Zhou, Han; Mercier, Richard W.; Yang, De-Ping; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Guo, Jason J.

    2014-01-01

    The human brain FABP (FABP7) has been shown to be an intracellular carrier protein that can significantly potentiate the uptake of the endocannabinoid anandamide. For this reason, there is a great interest in the discovery and development of FABP7 inhibitors for treating stress, pain, inflammation, and drug abuse. We found that in the 1H-NMR spectrum of the protein, a well-separated downfield resonance arising from the hydrogen-bonded His93 side chain is very sensitive to ligand binding. Using this characteristic spectral marker together with another well-resolved upfield resonance from the side chain of Val84, we have identified that an adipocyte FABP (FABP4) inhibitor BMS309403 also binds tightly to FABP7. Our data demonstrated that this unique His93 downfield resonance can be used as a sensitive probe for rapidly and unambiguously identifying novel high-affinity FABP7 ligands. The findings should help accelerate the discovery of potential drug leads for the modulation of endocannabinoid transport. PMID:25255720

  18. Truffles contain endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes and anandamide.

    PubMed

    Pacioni, Giovanni; Rapino, Cinzia; Zarivi, Osvaldo; Falconi, Anastasia; Leonardi, Marco; Battista, Natalia; Colafarina, Sabrina; Sergi, Manuel; Bonfigli, Antonella; Miranda, Michele; Barsacchi, Daniela; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2015-02-01

    Truffles are the fruiting body of fungi, members of the Ascomycota phylum endowed with major gastronomic and commercial value. The development and maturation of their reproductive structure are dependent on melanin synthesis. Since anandamide, a prominent member of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), is responsible for melanin synthesis in normal human epidermal melanocytes, we thought that ECS might be present also in truffles. Here, we show the expression, at the transcriptional and translational levels, of most ECS components in the black truffle Tuber melanosporum Vittad. at maturation stage VI. Indeed, by means of molecular biology and immunochemical techniques, we found that truffles contain the major metabolic enzymes of the ECS, while they do not express the most relevant endocannabinoid-binding receptors. In addition, we measured anandamide content in truffles, at different maturation stages (from III to VI), through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis, whereas the other relevant endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol was below the detection limit. Overall, our unprecedented results suggest that anandamide and ECS metabolic enzymes have evolved earlier than endocannabinoid-binding receptors, and that anandamide might be an ancient attractant to truffle eaters, that are well-equipped with endocannabinoid-binding receptors.

  19. Excitation of cutaneous C nociceptors by intraplantar administration of anandamide

    PubMed Central

    Potenzieri, Carl; Brink, Thaddeus S.; Simone, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    Anandamide has been characterized as both an endocannabinoid and endovanilloid. Consistent with its actions as an endovanilloid, previous studies have demonstrated that anandamide can excite primary sensory neurons in vitro via transient receptor potential vanilloid type one (TRPV1) receptors. In the present study, we sought to determine if anandamide excited cutaneous C nociceptors in vivo and if this excitation correlated with nocifensive behaviors. Using teased-fiber electrophysiological methods in the rat, C nociceptors isolated from the tibial nerve with receptive fields (RFs) on the plantar surface of the hindpaw were studied. Injection of anandamide into the RF dose-dependently excited nociceptors at doses of 10 and 100 μg. The TRPV1 receptor antagonists, capsazepine or SB 366791, were applied to the RF to determine if excitation by anandamide was mediated through TRPV1 receptors. Intraplantar injection of either capsazepine (10 μg) or SB 366791 (3 μg) attenuated the excitation produced by 100 μg anandamide. We also determined whether excitation of C nociceptors by anandamide was associated with nocifensive behaviors. Intraplantar injection of 100 μg anandamide produced nocifensive behaviors that were attenuated by pre-treatment with either capsazepine or SB 366791. Furthermore, we determined if intraplantar injection of anandamide altered withdrawal responses to radiant heat. Neither intraplantar injection of anandamide or vehicle produced antinociception or hyperalgesia to radiant heat. Our results indicate that anandamide excited cutaneous C nociceptors and produced nocifensive behaviors via activation of TRPV1 receptors. PMID:19285051

  20. Cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous agonist, anandamide.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, J; Felder, C C

    1998-05-01

    Cannabinoids are a class of compound found in marijuana which have been known for their therapeutic and psychoactive properties for at least 4000 years. Isolation of the active principle in marijuana, delta9-THC, provided the lead structure in the development of highly potent congeners which were used to probe for the mechanism of marijuana action. Cannabinoids were shown to bind to selective binding sites in brain tissue thereby regulating second messenger formation. Such studies led to the cloning of three cannabinoid receptor subtypes, CB1, CB2, and CB1A all of which belong to the superfamily of G protein-coupled plasma membrane receptors. Analogous to the discovery of endogenous opiates, isolation of cannabinoid receptors provided the appropriate tool to isolate an endogenous cannabimimetic eicosanoid, anandamide, from porcine brain. Recent studies indicate that anandamide is a member of a family of fatty acid ethanolamides that may represent a novel class of lipid neurotransmitters. This review discusses recent progress in cannabinoid research with a focus on the receptors for delta9-THC, their coupling to second messenger responses, and the endogenous lipid cannabimimetic, anandamide.

  1. Comparisons of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Anandamide on a Battery of Cognition-Related Behavior in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Michael Z.; Shukla, Vidyanand G.; Alapafuja, Shakiru O.; Nikas, Spyros P.; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Bergman, Jack

    2016-01-01

    The primary psychoactive ingredient of marijuana, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), has medicinal value but also produces unwanted deleterious effects on cognitive function, promoting the search for improved cannabinergic therapeutics. The present studies used a battery of touchscreen procedures in squirrel monkeys to compare the effects of different types of cannabinergic drugs on several measures of performance including learning (repeated acquisition), cognitive flexibility (discrimination reversal), short-term memory (delayed matching-to-sample), attention (psychomotor vigilance), and motivation (progressive ratio). Drugs studied included the cannabinoid agonist Δ9-THC, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3-carbamoylbiphenyl-3-yl ester (URB597), and endocannabinoid anandamide and its stable synthetic analog methanandamide [(R)-(+)-arachidonyl-1′-hydroxy-2′-propylamide]. The effects of Δ9-THC and anandamide after treatment with the cannabinoid receptor type 1 inverse agonist/antagonist rimonabant [5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichloro-phenyl)-4-methyl-N-(piperidin-1-yl)-1Hpyrazole-3-carboxamide] and the FAAH inhibitor URB597, respectively, also were examined. The results showed the following: 1) Δ9-THC produced dose-related impairments of discrimination-based cognitive behavior with potency that varied across tasks (discriminative capability < learning < flexibility < short-term memory); 2) anandamide alone and URB597 alone were without effect on all endpoints; 3) anandamide following URB597 pretreatment and methanandamide had negligible effects on discriminative capability, learning, and reversal, but following large doses affected delayed matching-to-sample performance in some subjects; 4) all drugs, except anandamide and URB597, disrupted attention; and 5) progressive ratio breakpoints were generally unaffected by all drugs tested, suggesting little to no effect on motivation. Taken together, these data indicate that

  2. Developing Hypothetical Inhibition Mechanism of Novel Urea Transporter B Inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Tou, Weng Ieong; Zhou, Hong; Li, Fei; Ren, Huiwen; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian; Yang, Baoxue

    2014-07-01

    Urea transporter B (UT-B) is a membrane channel protein that specifically transports urea. UT-B null mouse exhibited urea selective urine concentrating ability deficiency, which suggests the potential clinical applications of the UT-B inhibitors as novel diuretics. Primary high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS) of 50000 small-molecular drug-like compounds identified 2319 hit compounds. These 2319 compounds were screened by high-throughput screening using an erythrocyte osmotic lysis assay. Based on the pharmacological data, putative UT-B binding sites were identified by structure-based drug design and validated by ligand-based and QSAR model. Additionally, UT-B structural and functional characteristics under inhibitors treated and untreated conditions were simulated by molecular dynamics (MD). As the result, we identified four classes of compounds with UT-B inhibitory activity and predicted a human UT-B model, based on which computative binding sites were identified and validated. A novel potential mechanism of UT-B inhibitory activity was discovered by comparing UT-B from different species. Results suggest residue PHE198 in rat and mouse UT-B might block the inhibitor migration pathway. Inhibitory mechanisms of UT-B inhibitors and the functions of key residues in UT-B were proposed. The binding site analysis provides a structural basis for lead identification and optimization of UT-B inhibitors.

  3. Developing Hypothetical Inhibition Mechanism of Novel Urea Transporter B Inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Tou, Weng Ieong; Zhou, Hong; Li, Fei; Ren, Huiwen; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian; Yang, Baoxue

    2014-07-01

    Urea transporter B (UT-B) is a membrane channel protein that specifically transports urea. UT-B null mouse exhibited urea selective urine concentrating ability deficiency, which suggests the potential clinical applications of the UT-B inhibitors as novel diuretics. Primary high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS) of 50000 small-molecular drug-like compounds identified 2319 hit compounds. These 2319 compounds were screened by high-throughput screening using an erythrocyte osmotic lysis assay. Based on the pharmacological data, putative UT-B binding sites were identified by structure-based drug design and validated by ligand-based and QSAR model. Additionally, UT-B structural and functional characteristics under inhibitors treated and untreated conditions were simulated by molecular dynamics (MD). As the result, we identified four classes of compounds with UT-B inhibitory activity and predicted a human UT-B model, based on which computative binding sites were identified and validated. A novel potential mechanism of UT-B inhibitory activity was discovered by comparing UT-B from different species. Results suggest residue PHE198 in rat and mouse UT-B might block the inhibitor migration pathway. Inhibitory mechanisms of UT-B inhibitors and the functions of key residues in UT-B were proposed. The binding site analysis provides a structural basis for lead identification and optimization of UT-B inhibitors.

  4. Developing Hypothetical Inhibition Mechanism of Novel Urea Transporter B Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Tou, Weng Ieong; Zhou, Hong; Li, Fei; Ren, Huiwen; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian; Yang, Baoxue

    2014-01-01

    Urea transporter B (UT-B) is a membrane channel protein that specifically transports urea. UT-B null mouse exhibited urea selective urine concentrating ability deficiency, which suggests the potential clinical applications of the UT-B inhibitors as novel diuretics. Primary high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS) of 50000 small-molecular drug-like compounds identified 2319 hit compounds. These 2319 compounds were screened by high-throughput screening using an erythrocyte osmotic lysis assay. Based on the pharmacological data, putative UT-B binding sites were identified by structure-based drug design and validated by ligand-based and QSAR model. Additionally, UT-B structural and functional characteristics under inhibitors treated and untreated conditions were simulated by molecular dynamics (MD). As the result, we identified four classes of compounds with UT-B inhibitory activity and predicted a human UT-B model, based on which computative binding sites were identified and validated. A novel potential mechanism of UT-B inhibitory activity was discovered by comparing UT-B from different species. Results suggest residue PHE198 in rat and mouse UT-B might block the inhibitor migration pathway. Inhibitory mechanisms of UT-B inhibitors and the functions of key residues in UT-B were proposed. The binding site analysis provides a structural basis for lead identification and optimization of UT-B inhibitors. PMID:25047372

  5. Regulation of renal peripheral benzodiazepine receptors by anion transport inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, A.S.; Lueddens, W.M.; Skolnick, P.

    1988-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo regulation of (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4864 binding to peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) by ion transport/exchange inhibitors was studied in the kidney. The potencies of 9-anthroic acid, furosemide, bumetanide, hydrochlorothiazide and SITS as inhibitors of (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4864 binding to renal membranes were consistent with their actions as anion transport inhibitors (Ki approx. = 30 - 130 ..mu..M). In contrast, spironolactone, amiloride, acetazolamide, and ouabain were less potent (Ki=100-1000 ..mu..M). Administration of furosemide to rats for five days resulted in a profound diuresis accompanied by a significant increase in PBR density (43%) that was apparent by the fifth day of treatment. Administration of hydrochlorothiazide or Ro 5-4864 for five days also caused diuresis and increased renal PBR density. Both the diuresis and increased density of PBR produced by Ro 5-4864 were blocked by coadministration of PK 11195, which alone had no effect on either PBR density or urine volume. The equilibrium binding constants of (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4864 to cardiac membranes were unaffected by administration of any of these drugs. These findings suggest that renal PBR may be selectively modulated in vivo and in vitro by administration of ion transport/exchange inhibitors. 36 references, 4 tables.

  6. Monocarboxylate Transporter 1 Inhibitors as Potential Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Potent monocarboxylate transporter 1 inhibitors (MCT1) have been developed based on α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid template. Structure–activity relationship studies demonstrate that the introduction of p-N, N-dialkyl/diaryl, and o-methoxy groups into cyanocinnamic acid has maximal MCT1 inhibitory activity. Systemic toxicity studies in healthy ICR mice with few potent MCT1 inhibitors indicate normal body weight gains in treated animals. In vivo tumor growth inhibition studies in colorectal adenocarcinoma (WiDr cell line) in nude mice xenograft models establish that compound 27 exhibits single agent activity in inhibiting the tumor growth. PMID:26005533

  7. Monocarboxylate transporter 1 inhibitors as potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Gurrapu, Shirisha; Jonnalagadda, Sravan K; Alam, Mohammad A; Nelson, Grady L; Sneve, Mary G; Drewes, Lester R; Mereddy, Venkatram R

    2015-05-14

    Potent monocarboxylate transporter 1 inhibitors (MCT1) have been developed based on α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid template. Structure-activity relationship studies demonstrate that the introduction of p-N, N-dialkyl/diaryl, and o-methoxy groups into cyanocinnamic acid has maximal MCT1 inhibitory activity. Systemic toxicity studies in healthy ICR mice with few potent MCT1 inhibitors indicate normal body weight gains in treated animals. In vivo tumor growth inhibition studies in colorectal adenocarcinoma (WiDr cell line) in nude mice xenograft models establish that compound 27 exhibits single agent activity in inhibiting the tumor growth.

  8. Monoamine transporter inhibitors and substrates as treatments for stimulant abuse.

    PubMed

    Howell, Leonard L; Negus, S Stevens

    2014-01-01

    The acute and chronic effects of abused psychostimulants on monoamine transporters and associated neurobiology have encouraged development of candidate medications that target these transporters. Monoamine transporters, in general, and dopamine transporters, in particular, are critical molecular targets that mediate abuse-related effects of psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. Moreover, chronic administration of psychostimulants can cause enduring changes in neurobiology reflected in dysregulation of monoamine neurochemistry and behavior. The current review will evaluate evidence for the efficacy of monoamine transporter inhibitors and substrates to reduce abuse-related effects of stimulants in preclinical assays of stimulant self-administration, drug discrimination, and reinstatement. In considering deployment of monoamine transport inhibitors and substrates as agonist-type medications to treat stimulant abuse, the safety and abuse liability of the medications are an obvious concern, and this will also be addressed. Future directions in drug discovery should identify novel medications that retain efficacy to decrease stimulant use but possess lower abuse liability and evaluate the degree to which efficacious medications can attenuate or reverse neurobiological effects of chronic stimulant use.

  9. Monoamine Transporter Inhibitors and Substrates as Treatments for Stimulant Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Leonard L.; Negus, S. Stevens

    2015-01-01

    The acute and chronic effects of abused psychostimulants on monoamine transporters and associated neurobiology have encouraged development of candidate medications that target these transporters. Monoamine transporters in general, and dopamine transporters in particular, are critical molecular targets that mediate abuse-related effects of psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. Moreover, chronic administration of psychostimulants can cause enduring changes in neurobiology reflected in dysregulation of monoamine neurochemistry and behavior. The current review will evaluate evidence for the efficacy of monoamine transporter inhibitors and substrates to reduce abuse-related effects of stimulants in preclinical assays of stimulant self-administration, drug discrimination and reinstatement. In considering deployment of monoamine transport inhibitors and substrates as agonist-type medications to treat stimulant abuse, the safety and abuse liability of the medications are an obvious concern, and this will also be addressed. Future directions in drug discovery should identify novel medications that retain efficacy to decrease stimulant use but possess lower abuse liability, and evaluate the degree to which efficacious medications can attenuate or reverse neurobiological effects of chronic stimulant use. PMID:24484977

  10. Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Leweke, F M; Piomelli, D; Pahlisch, F; Muhl, D; Gerth, C W; Hoyer, C; Klosterkötter, J; Hellmich, M; Koethe, D

    2012-03-20

    Cannabidiol is a component of marijuana that does not activate cannabinoid receptors, but moderately inhibits the degradation of the endocannabinoid anandamide. We previously reported that an elevation of anandamide levels in cerebrospinal fluid inversely correlated to psychotic symptoms. Furthermore, enhanced anandamide signaling let to a lower transition rate from initial prodromal states into frank psychosis as well as postponed transition. In our translational approach, we performed a double-blind, randomized clinical trial of cannabidiol vs amisulpride, a potent antipsychotic, in acute schizophrenia to evaluate the clinical relevance of our initial findings. Either treatment was safe and led to significant clinical improvement, but cannabidiol displayed a markedly superior side-effect profile. Moreover, cannabidiol treatment was accompanied by a significant increase in serum anandamide levels, which was significantly associated with clinical improvement. The results suggest that inhibition of anandamide deactivation may contribute to the antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol potentially representing a completely new mechanism in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  11. Interaction of ABC multidrug transporters with anticancer protein kinase inhibitors: substrates and/or inhibitors?

    PubMed

    Hegedus, Csilla; Ozvegy-Laczka, Csilla; Szakács, Gergely; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2009-05-01

    Protein kinase inhibitors (PKI) are becoming key agents in modern cancer chemotherapy, and combination of PKIs with classical chemotherapeutic drugs may help to overcome currently untreatable metastatic cancers. Since chemotherapy resistance is a recurrent problem, mechanisms of resistance should be clarified in order to help further drug development. Here we suggest that in addition to PKI resistance based on altered target structures, the active removal of these therapeutic agents by the MDR-ABC transporters should also be considered as a major cause of clinical resistance. We discuss the occurring systemic and cellular mechanisms, which may hamper PKI efficiency, and document the role of selected MDR-ABC transporters in these phenomena through their interactions with these anticancer agents. Moreover, we suggest that PKI interactions with ABC transporters may modulate overall drug metabolism, including the fate of diverse, chemically or target-wise unrelated drugs. These effects are based on multiple forms of MDR-ABC transporter interaction with PKIs, as these compounds may be both substrates and/or inhibitors of an ABC transporter. We propose that these interactions should be carefully considered in clinical application, and a combined MDR-ABC transporter and PKI effect may bring a major advantage in future drug development.

  12. The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide inhibits human breast cancer cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    De Petrocellis, Luciano; Melck, Dominique; Palmisano, Antonella; Bisogno, Tiziana; Laezza, Chiara; Bifulco, Maurizio; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    1998-01-01

    Anandamide was the first brain metabolite shown to act as a ligand of “central” CB1 cannabinoid receptors. Here we report that the endogenous cannabinoid potently and selectively inhibits the proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro. Anandamide dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 and EFM-19 cells with IC50 values between 0.5 and 1.5 μM and 83–92% maximal inhibition at 5–10 μM. The proliferation of several other nonmammary tumoral cell lines was not affected by 10 μM anandamide. The anti-proliferative effect of anandamide was not due to toxicity or to apoptosis of cells but was accompanied by a reduction of cells in the S phase of the cell cycle. A stable analogue of anandamide (R)-methanandamide, another endogenous cannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and the synthetic cannabinoid HU-210 also inhibited EFM-19 cell proliferation, whereas arachidonic acid was much less effective. These cannabimimetic substances displaced the binding of the selective cannabinoid agonist [3H]CP 55,940 to EFM-19 membranes with an order of potency identical to that observed for the inhibition of EFM-19 cell proliferation. Moreover, anandamide cytostatic effect was inhibited by the selective CB1 receptor antagonist SR 141716A. Cell proliferation was arrested by a prolactin mAb and enhanced by exogenous human prolactin, whose mitogenic action was reverted by very low (0.1–0.5 μM) doses of anandamide. Anandamide suppressed the levels of the long form of the prolactin receptor in both EFM-19 and MCF-7 cells, as well as a typical prolactin-induced response, i.e., the expression of the breast cancer cell susceptibility gene brca1. These data suggest that anandamide blocks human breast cancer cell proliferation through CB1-like receptor-mediated inhibition of endogenous prolactin action at the level of prolactin receptor. PMID:9653194

  13. Steroid hormones are novel nucleoside transport inhibitors by competition with nucleosides for their transporters.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Masahiro; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Kamei, Hiroyasu; Yamanaka, Daisuke; Chida, Kazuhiro; Minami, Shiro; Coe, Imogen R; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro

    2014-01-10

    Nucleoside transport is important for nucleic acid synthesis in cells that cannot synthesize nucleosides de novo, and for entry of many cytotoxic nucleoside analog drugs used in chemotherapy. This study demonstrates that various steroid hormones induce inhibition of nucleoside transport in mammalian cells. We analyzed the inhibitory effects of estradiol (E2) on nucleoside transport using SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. We observed inhibitory effects after acute treatment with E2, which lasted in the presence of E2. However, when E2 was removed, the effect immediately disappeared, suggesting that E2 effects are not mediated through the canonical regulatory pathway of steroid hormones, such as transcriptional regulation. We also discovered that E2 could competitively inhibit thymidine uptake and binding of the labeled nucleoside transporter inhibitor, S-[4-nitrobenzyl]-6-thioinosine (NBTI), indicating that E2 binds to endogenous nucleoside transporters, leading to inhibition of nucleoside transport. We then tested the effects of various steroids on nucleoside uptake in NBTI-sensitive cells, SH-SY5Y and NBTI-insensitive cells H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts. We found E2 and progesterone clearly inhibited both NBTI-sensitive and insensitive uptake at micromolar concentrations. Taken together, we concluded that steroid hormones function as novel nucleoside transport inhibitors by competition with nucleosides for their transporters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Glycine transport inhibitors for the treatment of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kenji

    2010-05-27

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that hypofunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors might be implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, suggesting that increasing NMDA receptor function via pharmacological manipulation could provide a new strategy for the management of schizophrenia. Currently, the glycine modulatory sites on NMDA receptors present the most attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of schizophrenia. One means of enhancing NMDA receptor neurotransmission is to increase the availability of the obligatory co-agonist glycine at modulatory sites on the NMDA receptors through the inhibition of glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1) on glial cells. Clinical studies have demonstrated that the GlyT-1 inhibitor sarcosine (N-methyl glycine) shows antipsychotic activity in patients with schizophrenia. Accordingly, a number of pharmaceutical companies have developed novel and selective GlyT-1 inhibitors for the treatment of schizophrenia. This paper provides an overview of the various GlyT-1 inhibitors and their therapeutic potential.

  15. Glycine Transport Inhibitors for the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that hypofunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors might be implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, suggesting that increasing NMDA receptor function via pharmacological manipulation could provide a new strategy for the management of schizophrenia. Currently, the glycine modulatory sites on NMDA receptors present the most attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of schizophrenia. One means of enhancing NMDA receptor neurotransmission is to increase the availability of the obligatory co-agonist glycine at modulatory sites on the NMDA receptors through the inhibition of glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1) on glial cells. Clinical studies have demonstrated that the GlyT-1 inhibitor sarcosine (N-methyl glycine) shows antipsychotic activity in patients with schizophrenia. Accordingly, a number of pharmaceutical companies have developed novel and selective GlyT-1 inhibitors for the treatment of schizophrenia. This paper provides an overview of the various GlyT-1 inhibitors and their therapeutic potential. PMID:21253021

  16. Convergent translational evidence of a role for anandamide in amygdala-mediated fear extinction, threat processing and stress-reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Gunduz-Cinar, O; MacPherson, KP; Cinar, R; Gamble-George, J; Sugden, K; Williams, B; Godlewski, G; Ramikie, TS; Gorka, AX; Alapafuja, SO; Nikas, SP; Makriyannis, A; Poulton, R; Patel, S; Hariri, AR; Caspi, A; Moffitt, TE; Kunos, G; Holmes, A

    2012-01-01

    Endocannabinoids are released ‘on-demand’ on the basis of physiological need, and can be pharmacologically augmented by inhibiting their catabolic degradation. The endocannabinoid anandamide is degraded by the catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Anandamide is implicated in the mediation of fear behaviors, including fear extinction, suggesting that selectively elevating brain anandamide could modulate plastic changes in fear. Here we first tested this hypothesis with preclinical experiments employing a novel, potent and selective FAAH inhibitor, AM3506 (5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)pentanesulfonyl fluoride). Systemic AM3506 administration before extinction decreased fear during a retrieval test in a mouse model of impaired extinction. AM3506 had no effects on fear in the absence of extinction training, or on various non-fear-related measures. Anandamide levels in the basolateral amygdala were increased by extinction training and augmented by systemic AM3506, whereas application of AM3506 to amygdala slices promoted long-term depression of inhibitory transmission, a form of synaptic plasticity linked to extinction. Further supporting the amygdala as effect-locus, the fear-reducing effects of systemic AM3506 were blocked by intra-amygdala infusion of a CB1 receptor antagonist and were fully recapitulated by intra-amygdala infusion of AM3506. On the basis of these preclinical findings, we hypothesized that variation in the human FAAH gene would predict individual differences in amygdala threat-processing and stress-coping traits. Consistent with this, carriers of a low-expressing FAAH variant (385A allele; rs324420) exhibited quicker habituation of amygdala reactivity to threat, and had lower scores on the personality trait of stress-reactivity. Our findings show that augmenting amygdala anandamide enables extinction-driven reductions in fear in mouse and may promote stress-coping in humans. PMID:22688188

  17. Glycine transporter inhibitors as therapeutic agents for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest that a dysfunction in the glutamatergic neurotransmission via the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors contributes to the pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases including schizophrenia. The potentiation of NMDA receptor function may be a useful approach for the treatment of diseases associated with NMDA receptor hypofunction. One possible strategy is to increase synaptic levels of glycine by blocking the glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1) in glia cells, since glycine acts as a co-agonist site on the NMDA receptor. In this article, the author reviews the recent important patents on GlyT-1 inhibitors for treatment of schizophrenia and other psychiatric diseases associated with the NMDA receptor hypofunction.

  18. Deficient adolescent social behavior following early-life inflammation is ameliorated by augmentation of anandamide signaling.

    PubMed

    Doenni, V M; Gray, J M; Song, C M; Patel, S; Hill, M N; Pittman, Q J

    2016-11-01

    Early-life inflammation has been shown to exert profound effects on brain development and behavior, including altered emotional behavior, stress responsivity and neurochemical/neuropeptide receptor expression and function. The current study extends this research by examining the impact of inflammation, triggered with the bacterial compound lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on postnatal day (P) 14, on social behavior during adolescence. We investigated the role that the endocannabinoid (eCB) system plays in sociability after early-life LPS. To test this, multiple cohorts of Sprague Dawley rats were injected with LPS on P14. In adolescence, rats were subjected to behavioral testing in a reciprocal social interaction paradigm as well as the open field. We quantified eCB levels in the amygdala of P14 and adolescent animals (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) as well as adolescent amygdaloid cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) binding site density and the hydrolytic activity of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which metabolizes the eCB anandamide. Additionally, we examined the impact of FAAH inhibition on alterations in social behavior. Our results indicate that P14 LPS decreases adolescent social behavior (play and social non-play) in males and females at P40. This behavioral alteration is accompanied by decreased CB1 binding, increased anandamide levels and increased FAAH activity. Oral administration of the FAAH inhibitor PF-04457845 (1mg/kg) prior to the social interaction task normalizes LPS-induced alterations in social behavior, while not affecting social behavior in the control group. Infusion of 10ng PF-04457845 into the basolateral amygdala normalized social behavior in LPS injected females. These data suggest that alterations in eCB signaling following postnatal inflammation contribute to impairments in social behavior during adolescence and that inhibition of FAAH could be a novel target for disorders involving social deficits such as social anxiety

  19. Potent nonimmunosuppressive cyclophilin inhibitors with improved pharmaceutical properties and decreased transporter inhibition.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiping; Tjandra, Meiliana; Becker, Christopher; Bednarczyk, Dallas; Capparelli, Michael; Elling, Robert; Hanna, Imad; Fujimoto, Roger; Furegati, Markus; Karur, Subramanian; Kasprzyk, Theresa; Knapp, Mark; Leung, Kwan; Li, Xiaolin; Lu, Peichao; Mergo, Wosenu; Miault, Charlotte; Ng, Simon; Parker, David; Peng, Yunshan; Roggo, Silvio; Rivkin, Alexey; Simmons, Robert L; Wang, Michael; Wiedmann, Brigitte; Weiss, Andrew H; Xiao, Linda; Xie, Lili; Xu, Wenjian; Yifru, Aregahegn; Yang, Shengtian; Zhou, Bo; Sweeney, Zachary K

    2014-10-23

    Nonimmunosuppressive cyclophilin inhibitors have demonstrated efficacy for the treatment of hepatitis C infection (HCV). However, alisporivir, cyclosporin A, and most other cyclosporins are potent inhibitors of OATP1B1, MRP2, MDR1, and other important drug transporters. Reduction of the side chain hydrophobicity of the P4 residue preserves cyclophilin binding and antiviral potency while decreasing transporter inhibition. Representative inhibitor 33 (NIM258) is a less potent transporter inhibitor relative to previously described cyclosporins, retains anti-HCV activity in cell culture, and has an acceptable pharmacokinetic profile in rats and dogs. An X-ray structure of 33 bound to rat cyclophilin D is reported.

  20. Production and physiological actions of anandamide in the vasculature of the rat kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, D G; Goligorsky, M S; Schmid, P C; Krebsbach, R J; Schmid, H H; Das, S K; Dey, S K; Arreaza, G; Thorup, C; Stefano, G; Moore, L C

    1997-01-01

    The endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonist anandamide is present in central and peripheral tissues. As the kidney contains both the amidase that degrades anandamide and transcripts for anandamide receptors, we characterized the molecular components of the anandamide signaling system and the vascular effects of exogenous anandamide in the kidney. We show that anandamide is present in kidney homogenates, cultured renal endothelial cells (EC), and mesangial cells; these cells also contain anandamide amidase. Reverse-transcriptase PCR shows that EC contain transcripts for cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors, while mesangial cells have mRNA for both CB1 and CB2 receptors. EC exhibit specific, high-affinity binding of anandamide (Kd = 27.4 nM). Anandamide (1 microM) vasodilates juxtamedullary afferent arterioles perfused in vitro; the vasodilation can be blocked by nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibition with L-NAME (0.1 mM) or CB1 receptor antagonism with SR 141716A (1 microM), but not by indomethacin (10 microM). Anandamide (10 nM) stimulates CB1-receptor-mediated NO release from perfused renal arterial segments; a similar effect was seen in EC. Finally, anandamide (1 microM) produces a NO-mediated inhibition of KCl-stimulated [3H]norepinephrine release from sympathetic nerves on isolated renal arterial segments. Hence, an anandamide signaling system is present in the kidney, where it exerts significant vasorelaxant and neuromodulatory effects. PMID:9294122

  1. Effect of cholesterol transport inhibitors on steroidogenesis and plasma membrane cholesterol transport in cultured MA-10 Leydig tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Nagy, L; Freeman, D A

    1990-05-01

    These studies were directed toward understanding the cellular actions of inhibitor drugs that affect steroidogenesis and cholesterol transport. We investigated the microfilament inhibitor cytochalasin-D, the microtubule inhibitor colchicine, the calmodulin antagonist trifluoperazine, and the inhibitor of acidic vesicle function nigericin. We found that all of these compounds caused dose-dependent inhibition of progesterone synthesis in the MA-10 cells. Each compound also inhibited (Bu)2cAMP-stimulated pregnenolone synthesis, indicating that each inhibited a fundamental process required for steroidogenesis. Each compound was next evaluated for inhibitory actions on cholesterol transport to and from the plasma membrane. On the basis of inhibitor sensitivity, two different categories of cholesterol transport were defined. Transport of newly synthesized or low density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol from the cell interior to the plasma membrane was inhibitor insensitive. Plasma membrane cholesterol internalization, however, was sensitive to all of the inhibitors and did not result because of any drug effect on the acyl-coenzyme-A-cholesterol acyl transferase. Cycling of cholesteryl ester-derived cholesterol through the plasma membrane appeared to occur before its use for steroidogenesis. Thus, inhibition of plasma membrane internalization would prevent utilization of both plasma membrane cholesterol and cholesteryl ester-derived cholesterol, the two major substrate sources for steroid hormone synthesis. Consistent with this interpretation was the finding that inhibition of plasma membrane cholesterol internalization by each inhibitor paralleled the inhibitor's effect on steroidogenesis.

  2. Suppression of mammalian bone growth by membrane transport inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Loqman, Mohamad Y; Bush, Peter G; Farquharson, Colin; Hall, Andrew C

    2013-03-01

    Bone lengthening during skeletal growth is driven primarily by the controlled enlargement of growth plate (GP) chondrocytes. The cellular mechanisms are unclear but membrane transporters are probably involved. We investigated the role of the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter (NHE1) and anion exchanger (AE2) in bone lengthening and GP chondrocyte hypertrophy in Sprague-Dawley 7-day-old rat (P7) bone rudiments using the inhibitors EIPA (5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride) and DIDS (4,4-diidothiocyano-2,2-stilbenedisulphonate), respectively. We have also determined cell-associated levels of these transporters along the GP using fluorescent immunohistochemistry (FIHC). Culture of bones with EIPA or DIDS inhibited rudiment growth (50% at approx. 250 and 25 µM, respectively). Both decreased the size of the hypertrophic zone (P < 0.05) but had no effect on overall length or cell density of the GP. In situ chondrocyte volume in proliferative and hypertrophic zones was decreased (P < 0.01) with EIPA but not DIDS. FIHC labeling of NHE1 was relatively high and constant along the GP but declined steeply in the late hypertrophic zone. In contrast, AE2 labeling was relatively low in proliferative zone cells but increased (P < 0.05) reaching a maximum in the early hypertrophic zone, before falling rapidly in the late hypertrophic zone suggesting AE2 might regulate the transition phase of chondrocytes between proliferative and hypertrophic zones. The inhibition of bone growth by EIPA may be due to a reduction to chondrocyte volume set-point. However the effect of DIDS was unclear but could result from inhibition of AE2 and blocking of the transition phase. These results demonstrate that NHE1 and AE2 are important regulators of bone growth. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Adipocyte glucose transport regulation by eicosanoid precursors and inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.C.C.

    1987-01-01

    Glucose uptake and free fatty acid release by adipocytes are increased by catecholamines. The mechanism of the stimulatory action of catecholamines on glucose uptake may be via eicosanoid production from release fatty acids. Rats were fed iso-nutrient diets with high or low safflower oil. After one month, 5 rats per diet group were fed diets with aspirin or without aspirin for 2 days. Isolated adipocytes from epididymal fat pads were incubated at 37/sup 0/C, gassed with 95% O/sub 2/-5% CO/sub 2/ in KRB buffer with 3% bovine serum albumin and with or without eicosanoid modifiers; a stimulator (10/sup -5/ M norepinephrine, N), or inhibitors (167 ..mu..l of antiserum to prostaglandin E (AntiE) per 1600 ..mu..l or 23mM Asp), or combinations of these. At 2-, 5-, and 10-min incubation, samples of incubation mixtures were taken to measure 2-deoxy glucose transport using /sup 3/H-2-deoxy glucose, /sup 14/C-inulin, and liquid scintillation counter.

  4. Anandamide and analogous endocannabinoids: a lipid self-assembly study

    SciTech Connect

    Sagnella, Sharon M.; Conn, Charlotte E.; Krodkiewska, Irena; Mulet, Xavier; Drummond, Calum J.

    2014-09-24

    Anandamide, the endogenous agonist of the cannabinoid receptors, has been widely studied for its interesting biological and medicinal properties and is recognized as a highly significant lipid signaling molecule within the nervous system. Few studies have, however, examined the effect of the physical conformation of anandamide on its function. The study presented herein has focused on characterizing the self-assembly behaviour of anandamide and four other endocannabinoid analogues of anandamide, viz., 2-arachidonyl glycerol, arachidonyl dopamine, 2-arachidonyl glycerol ether (noladin ether), and o-arachidonyl ethanolamide (virodhamine). Molecular modeling of the five endocannabinoid lipids indicates that the highly unsaturated arachidonyl chain has a preference for a U or J shaped conformation. Thermal phase studies of the neat amphiphiles showed that a glass transition was observed for all of the endocannabinoids at {approx} -110 C with the exception of anandamide, with a second glass transition occurring for 2-arachidonyl glycerol, 2-arachidonyl glycerol ether, and virodhamine (-86 C, -95 C, -46 C respectively). Both anandamide and arachidonyl dopamine displayed a crystal-isotropic melting point (-4.8 and -20.4 C respectively), while a liquid crystal-isotropic melting transition was seen for 2-arachidonyl glycerol (-40.7 C) and 2-arachidonyl glycerol ether (-71.2 C). No additional transitions were observed for virodhamine. Small angle X-ray scattering and cross polarized optical microscopy studies as a function of temperature indicated that in the presence of excess water, both 2-arachidonyl glycerol and anandamide form co-existing Q{sub II}{sup G} (gyroid) and Q{sub II}{sup D} (diamond) bicontinuous cubic phases from 0 C to 20 C, which are kinetically stable over a period of weeks but may not represent true thermodynamic equilibrium. Similarly, 2-arachidonyl glycerol ether acquired an inverse hexagonal (HII) phase in excess water from 0 C to 40 C, while

  5. A novel strategy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus - sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Asfandyar Khan; Niazi, Saad Hameed

    2010-12-01

    Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases, affecting almost 3 million in Canada alone and is characterized by increased blood glucose levels. Treatment varies from lifestyle changes to oral anti-diabetics and/or insulin. Sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors may offer promising treatment for patients suffering from diabetes. The inhibitors act by increasing the loss of glucose in urine by decreasing the reabsorption of glucose from the proximal tubules of nephrons. The aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors in the treatment of diabetes as well as any adverse effects. Databases such as MEDLINE, COCHRANE and EMBASE were systematically searched for literature on the efficacy of sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors in improving the glycemic control of patients with diabetes. Research showed that sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors significantly decreased blood glucose levels by increasing glucosuria. Due to the diuretic effects of these inhibitors, diabetic patients who were suffering from hypertension showed a decrease in blood pressure. The caloric loss associated with these inhibitors resulted in weight loss as well. The most common adverse effect seen in patients on these medications was mycotic infection of the urinary or genital tract. Sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors may be an effective line of treatment for diabetes. Although short-term research has shown these drugs to be safe and well-tolerated, studies should be conducted to assess the long-term effects of these drugs.

  6. Flavonoids are inhibitors of human organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1)-mediated transport.

    PubMed

    An, Guohua; Wang, Xiaodong; Morris, Marilyn E

    2014-09-01

    Organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) has been reported to be involved in the nephrotoxicity of many anionic xenobiotics. As current clinically used OAT1 inhibitors are often associated with safety issues, identifying potent OAT1 inhibitors with little toxicity is of great value in reducing OAT1-mediated drug nephrotoxicity. Flavonoids are a class of polyphenolic compounds with exceptional safety records. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of 18 naturally occurring flavonoids, and some of their glycosides, on the uptake of para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) in both OAT1-expressing and OAT1-negative LLC-PK1 cells. Most flavonoid aglycones produced substantial decreases in PAH uptake in OAT1-expressing cells. Among the flavonoids screened, fisetin, luteolin, morin, and quercetin exhibited the strongest effect and produced complete inhibition of OAT1-mediated PAH uptake at a concentration of 50 μM. Further concentration-dependent studies revealed that both morin and luteolin are potent OAT1 inhibitors, with IC50 values of <0.3 and 0.47 μM, respectively. In contrast to the tested flavonoid aglycones, all flavonoid glycosides had negligible or small effects on OAT1. In addition, the role of OAT1 in the uptake of fisetin, luteolin, morin, and quercetin was investigated and fisetin was found to be a substrate of OAT1. Taken together, our results indicate that flavonoids are a novel class of OAT1 modulators. Considering the high consumption of flavonoids in the diet and in herbal products, OAT1-mediated flavonoid-drug interactions may be clinically relevant. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate the nephroprotective role of flavonoids in relation to drug-induced nephrotoxicity mediated by the OAT1 pathway.

  7. Flavonoids Are Inhibitors of Human Organic Anion Transporter 1 (OAT1)–Mediated Transport

    PubMed Central

    An, Guohua; Wang, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) has been reported to be involved in the nephrotoxicity of many anionic xenobiotics. As current clinically used OAT1 inhibitors are often associated with safety issues, identifying potent OAT1 inhibitors with little toxicity is of great value in reducing OAT1-mediated drug nephrotoxicity. Flavonoids are a class of polyphenolic compounds with exceptional safety records. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of 18 naturally occurring flavonoids, and some of their glycosides, on the uptake of para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) in both OAT1-expressing and OAT1-negative LLC-PK1 cells. Most flavonoid aglycones produced substantial decreases in PAH uptake in OAT1-expressing cells. Among the flavonoids screened, fisetin, luteolin, morin, and quercetin exhibited the strongest effect and produced complete inhibition of OAT1-mediated PAH uptake at a concentration of 50 μM. Further concentration-dependent studies revealed that both morin and luteolin are potent OAT1 inhibitors, with IC50 values of <0.3 and 0.47 μM, respectively. In contrast to the tested flavonoid aglycones, all flavonoid glycosides had negligible or small effects on OAT1. In addition, the role of OAT1 in the uptake of fisetin, luteolin, morin, and quercetin was investigated and fisetin was found to be a substrate of OAT1. Taken together, our results indicate that flavonoids are a novel class of OAT1 modulators. Considering the high consumption of flavonoids in the diet and in herbal products, OAT1-mediated flavonoid-drug interactions may be clinically relevant. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate the nephroprotective role of flavonoids in relation to drug-induced nephrotoxicity mediated by the OAT1 pathway. PMID:25002746

  8. Effect of inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism on alpha-aminoisobutyric acid transport in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Udey, M C; Parker, C W

    1982-02-01

    The role of arachidonic acid metabolism (or metabolites) in the modulation of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid transport in resting and concanavalin A-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes was evaluated using previously characterized inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism. Nordihydroguairetic acid (a nonselective antioxidant), 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (an inhibitor of lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase activities), indomethacin and acetylsalicylic acid (selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors), and 1-benzylimidazole, Ro-22-3581 and Ro-22-3582 (thromboxane synthetase inhibitors) proved to be potent inhibitors of amino acid transport activity in normal resting and lectin-activated lymphocytes at concentrations known to decrease thromboxane A2 production. The rank order of effectiveness of these various inhibitors compared favorably with their relative potencies as inhibitors of thromboxane B2 synthesis under the same conditions, as determined by radioimmunoassay. Inhibitory effects noted were not due to overt cytotoxicity and seemed to involve changes primarily in the Vmax and not the Km of the transport process. Drug-induced alterations in the magnitude of concanavalin A binding were not observed. These results suggest that the activity of amino acid transport systems can be influenced by certain arachidonic acid metabolites, probably thromboxanes, in both stimulated and unstimulated lymphocytes. In addition, these findings may provide a partial explanation for the observation that inhibitors of thromboxane formation prevent lymphocyte mitogenesis.

  9. Differential effects of glutamate transporter inhibitors on the global electrophysiological response of astrocytes to neuronal stimulation.

    PubMed

    Bernardinelli, Yann; Chatton, Jean-Yves

    2008-11-13

    Astrocytes are responsible for regulating extracellular levels of glutamate and potassium during neuronal activity. Glutamate clearance is handled by glutamate transporter subtypes glutamate transporter 1 and glutamate-aspartate transporter in astrocytes. DL-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartate (TBOA) and dihydrokainate (DHK) are extensively used as inhibitors of glial glutamate transport activity. Using whole-cell recordings, we characterized the effects of both transporter inhibitors on afferent-evoked astrocyte currents in acute cortical slices of 3-week-old rats. When neuronal afferents were stimulated, passive astrocytes responded by a rapid inward current followed by a persistent tail current. The first current corresponded to a glutamate transporter current. This current was inhibited by both inhibitors and by tetrodotoxin. The tail current is an inward potassium current as it was blocked by barium. Besides inhibiting transporter currents, TBOA strongly enhanced the tail current. This effect was barium-sensitive and might be due to a rise in extracellular potassium level and increased glial potassium uptake. Unlike TBOA, DHK did not enhance the tail current but rather inhibited it. This result suggests that, in addition to inhibiting glutamate transport, DHK prevents astrocyte potassium uptake, possibly by blockade of inward-rectifier channels. This study revealed that, in brain slices, glutamate transporter inhibitors exert complex effects that cannot be attributed solely to glutamate transport inhibition.

  10. Is there a temperature-dependent uptake of anandamide into cells?

    PubMed Central

    Thors, L; Fowler, C J

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: The temperature dependency of anandamide uptake into cells implies an active mechanism but this is still a matter of considerable debate. We have therefore re-examined the temperature-sensitive uptake of anandamide in ND7/23 mouse neuroblastoma × rat dorsal root ganglion neurone hybrid cells and RBL2H3 rat basophilic leukaemia cells. Experimental approach: Cellular uptake of [3H] anandamide was measured in the presence of bovine serum albumin at different incubation temperatures and times. Rates of uptake were also measured in wells alone. Free anandamide concentrations were calculated by published methods. Key results: Anandamide showed a time-dependent saturable uptake into ND7/23 cells. The uptake was greater at 37°C than at 4°C for a given added anandamide concentration following a 5 min incubation. However, this temperature-dependency reflected temperature-dependent effects on the concentration of anandamide available for uptake, rather than the uptake process itself. A similar conclusion could be drawn for the rapid (∼1 min) uptake of anandamide into RBL2H3 cells. In contrast, re-analysis of published data for P19 cells indicated a clear temperature-dependency of the uptake at long (15 min) incubation times. The level of anandamide retained by wells alone provided a better measure of free anandamide concentrations than calculated values. Conclusions and implications: ND7/23 cells may be a useful model system for the study of anandamide uptake. The temperature-dependent uptake of anandamide may reflect effects on free anandamide concentrations rather than on the uptake process itself. PMID:16865094

  11. Interactions between glycine transporter type 1 (GlyT-1) and some inhibitor molecules - glycine transporter type 1 and its inhibitors (review).

    PubMed

    Harsing, Laszlo G; Zsilla, G; Matyus, P; Nagy, K M; Marko, B; Gyarmati, Zs; Timar, J

    2012-03-01

    Glycine is a mandatory positive allosteric modulator of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type ionotropic glutamate receptors in the central nervous system. Elevation of glycine concentrations by inhibition of its reuptake in the vicinity of NMDA receptors may positively influence receptor functions as glycine B binding site on NR1 receptor subunit is not saturated in physiological conditions. Synaptic and extrasynaptic concentrations of glycine are regulated by its type-1 glycine transporter, which is primarily expressed in astroglial and glutamatergic cell membranes. Alteration of synaptic glycine levels may have importance in the treatment of various forms of endogenous psychosis characterized by hypofunctional NMDA receptors. Several lines of evidence indicate that impaired NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in development of the negative (and partly the positive) symptoms and the cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. Inhibitors of glycine transporter type-1 may represent a newly developed therapeutic intervention in treatment of this mental illness. We have synthesized a novel series of N-substituted sarcosines, analogues of the glycine transporter-1 inhibitor NFPS (N-[3-(4'-fluorophenyl)-3-(4'-phenylphenoxy)-propyl]sarcosine). Of the pyridazinone-containing compounds, SzV-1997 was found to be a potent glycine transporter-1 inhibitor in rat brain synaptosomes and it markedly increased extracellular glycine concentrations in conscious rat striatum. SzV-1997 did not exhibit toxic symptoms such as hyperlocomotion, restless movements, respiratory depression, and lethality, characteristic for NFPS. Besides pyridazinone-based, sarcosine-containing glycine transporter-1 inhibitors, a series of substrate-type amino acid inhibitors was investigated in order to obtain better insight into the ligand-binding characteristics of the substrate binding cavity of the transporter.

  12. Evaluation of Proposed In Vivo Probe Substrates and Inhibitors for Phenotyping Transporter Activity in Humans.

    PubMed

    Momper, Jeremiah D; Tsunoda, Shirley M; Ma, Joseph D

    2016-07-01

    Drug transporters are present in various tissues and have a significant role in drug absorption, distribution, and elimination. The International Transporter Consortium has identified 7 transporters of increasing importance from evidence of clinically significant transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions. The transporters are P-glycoprotein, breast cancer resistance protein, organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1, OATP1B3, organic cation transporter 2, organic anion transporters (OAT) 1, and OAT3. Decision trees were created based on in vitro experiments to determine whether an in vivo transporter-mediated drug-drug interaction study is needed. Phenotyping is a methodology that evaluates real-time in vivo transporter activity, whereby changes in a probe substrate or probe inhibitor reflect alternations in the activity of the specified transporter. In vivo probe substrates and/or probe inhibitors have been proposed for each aforementioned transporter. In vitro findings and animal models provide the strongest evidence regarding probe specificity. However, such findings have not conclusively correlated with human phenotyping studies. Furthermore, the extent of contribution from multiple transporters in probe disposition complicates the ability to discern if study findings are the result of a specific transporter and thus provide a recommendation for a preferred probe for a drug transporter. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  13. Solute transport and oxygen consumption along the nephrons: effects of Na+ transport inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Layton, Anita T; Laghmani, Kamel; Vallon, Volker; Edwards, Aurélie

    2016-12-01

    Sodium and its associated anions are the major determinant of extracellular fluid volume, and the reabsorption of Na(+) by the kidney plays a crucial role in long-term blood pressure control. The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which inhibitors of transepithelial Na(+) transport (TNa) along the nephron alter urinary solute excretion and TNa efficiency and how those effects may vary along different nephron segments. To accomplish that goal, we used the multinephron model developed in the companion study (28). That model represents detailed transcellular and paracellular transport processes along the nephrons of a rat kidney. We simulated the inhibition of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE3), the bumetanide-sensitive Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) transporter (NKCC2), the Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC), and the amiloride-sensitive Na(+) channel (ENaC). Under baseline conditions, NHE3, NKCC2, NCC, and ENaC reabsorb 36, 22, 4, and 7%, respectively, of filtered Na(+) The model predicted that inhibition of NHE3 substantially reduced proximal tubule TNa and oxygen consumption (QO2 ). Whole-kidney TNa efficiency, as reflected by the number of moles of Na(+) reabsorbed per moles of O2 consumed (denoted by the ratio TNa/QO2 ), decreased by ∼20% with 80% inhibition of NHE3. NKCC2 inhibition simulations predicted a substantial reduction in thick ascending limb TNa and QO2 ; however, the effect on whole-kidney TNa/QO2 was minor. Tubular K(+) transport was also substantially impaired, resulting in elevated urinary K(+) excretion. The most notable effect of NCC inhibition was to increase the excretion of Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-); its impact on whole-kidney TNa and its efficiency was minor. Inhibition of ENaC was predicted to have opposite effects on the excretion of Na(+) (increased) and K(+) (decreased) and to have only a minor impact on whole-kidney TNa and TNa/QO2 Overall, model predictions agree well with measured changes in Na(+) and K(+) excretion in response to

  14. Anandamide, but not 2-arachidonoylglycerol, accumulates during in vivo neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Hansen, H H; Schmid, P C; Bittigau, P; Lastres-Becker, I; Berrendero, F; Manzanares, J; Ikonomidou, C; Schmid, H H; Fernández-Ruiz, J J; Hansen, H S

    2001-09-01

    Endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligands (endocannabinoids) may rescue neurons from glutamate excitotoxicity. As these substances also accumulate in cultured immature neurons following neuronal damage, elevated endocannabinoid concentrations may be interpreted as a putative neuroprotective response. However, it is not known how glutamatergic insults affect in vivo endocannabinoid homeostasis, i.e. N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), as well as other constituents of their lipid families, N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) and 2-monoacylglycerols (2-MAGs), respectively. Here we employed three in vivo neonatal rat models characterized by widespread neurodegeneration as a consequence of altered glutamatergic neurotransmission and assessed changes in endocannabinoid homeostasis. A 46-fold increase of cortical NAE concentrations (anandamide, 13-fold) was noted 24 h after intracerebral NMDA injection, while less severe insults triggered by mild concussive head trauma or NMDA receptor blockade produced a less pronounced NAE accumulation. By contrast, levels of 2-AG and other 2-MAGs were virtually unaffected by the insults employed, rendering it likely that key enzymes in biosynthetic pathways of the two different endocannabinoid structures are not equally associated to intracellular events that cause neuronal damage in vivo. Analysis of cannabinoid CB(1) receptor mRNA expression and binding capacity revealed that cortical subfields exhibited an up-regulation of these parameters following mild concussive head trauma and exposure to NMDA receptor blockade. This may suggest that mild to moderate brain injury may trigger elevated endocannabinoid activity via concomitant increase of anandamide levels, but not 2-AG, and CB(1) receptor density.

  15. Anandamide attenuates haloperidol-induced vacuous chewing movements in rats.

    PubMed

    Röpke, Jivago; Busanello, Alcindo; Leal, Caroline Queiroz; de Moraes Reis, Elizete; de Freitas, Catiuscia Molz; Villarinho, Jardel Gomes; Figueira, Fernanda Hernandes; Mello, Carlos Fernando; Ferreira, Juliano; Fachinetto, Roselei

    2014-10-03

    Antipsychotics may cause tardive dyskinesia in humans and orofacial dyskinesia in rodents. Although the dopaminergic system has been implicated in these movement disorders, which involve the basal ganglia, their underlying pathomechanisms remain unclear. CB1 cannabinoid receptors are highly expressed in the basal ganglia, and a potential role for endocannabinoids in the control of basal ganglia-related movement disorders has been proposed. Therefore, this study investigated whether CB1 receptors are involved in haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia in rats. Adult male rats were treated for four weeks with haloperidol decanoate (38mg/kg, intramuscularly - i.m.). The effect of anandamide (6nmol, intracerebroventricularly - i.c.v.) and/or the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A (30μg, i.c.v.) on haloperidol-induced vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) was assessed 28days after the start of the haloperidol treatment. Anandamide reversed haloperidol-induced VCMs; SR141716A (30μg, i.c.v.) did not alter haloperidol-induced VCM per se but prevented the effect of anandamide on VCM in rats. These results suggest that CB1 receptors may prevent haloperidol-induced VCMs in rats, implicating CB1 receptor-mediated cannabinoid signaling in orofacial dyskinesia. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Alkoxy-auxins Are Selective Inhibitors of Auxin Transport Mediated by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 Transporters*

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Etsuko; Yang, Haibing; Nishimura, Takeshi; Uehara, Yukiko; Sakai, Tatsuya; Furutani, Masahiko; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Hirose, Masakazu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Murphy, Angus S.; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Polar auxin movement is a primary regulator of programmed and plastic plant development. Auxin transport is highly regulated at the cellular level and is mediated by coordinated transport activity of plasma membrane-localized PIN, ABCB, and AUX1/LAX transporters. The activity of these transporters has been extensively analyzed using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and knock-out mutants in Arabidopsis. However, efforts to analyze auxin-dependent growth in other species that are less tractable to genetic manipulation require more selective inhibitors than are currently available. In this report, we characterize the inhibitory activity of 5-alkoxy derivatives of indole 3-acetic acid and 7-alkoxy derivatives of naphthalene 1-acetic acid, finding that the hexyloxy and benzyloxy derivatives act as potent inhibitors of auxin action in plants. These alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit polar auxin transport and tropic responses associated with asymmetric auxin distribution in Arabidopsis and maize. The alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit auxin transport mediated by AUX1, PIN, and ABCB proteins expressed in yeast. However, these analogs did not inhibit or activate SCFTIR1 auxin signaling and had no effect on the subcellular trafficking of PIN proteins. Together these results indicate that alkoxy-auxins are inactive auxin analogs for auxin signaling, but are recognized by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 auxin transport proteins. Alkoxy-auxins are powerful new tools for analyses of auxin-dependent development. PMID:21084292

  17. Alkoxy-auxins are selective inhibitors of auxin transport mediated by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 transporters.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Etsuko; Yang, Haibing; Nishimura, Takeshi; Uehara, Yukiko; Sakai, Tatsuya; Furutani, Masahiko; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Hirose, Masakazu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Murphy, Angus S; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-21

    Polar auxin movement is a primary regulator of programmed and plastic plant development. Auxin transport is highly regulated at the cellular level and is mediated by coordinated transport activity of plasma membrane-localized PIN, ABCB, and AUX1/LAX transporters. The activity of these transporters has been extensively analyzed using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and knock-out mutants in Arabidopsis. However, efforts to analyze auxin-dependent growth in other species that are less tractable to genetic manipulation require more selective inhibitors than are currently available. In this report, we characterize the inhibitory activity of 5-alkoxy derivatives of indole 3-acetic acid and 7-alkoxy derivatives of naphthalene 1-acetic acid, finding that the hexyloxy and benzyloxy derivatives act as potent inhibitors of auxin action in plants. These alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit polar auxin transport and tropic responses associated with asymmetric auxin distribution in Arabidopsis and maize. The alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit auxin transport mediated by AUX1, PIN, and ABCB proteins expressed in yeast. However, these analogs did not inhibit or activate SCF(TIR1) auxin signaling and had no effect on the subcellular trafficking of PIN proteins. Together these results indicate that alkoxy-auxins are inactive auxin analogs for auxin signaling, but are recognized by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 auxin transport proteins. Alkoxy-auxins are powerful new tools for analyses of auxin-dependent development.

  18. Anandamide-ceramide interactions in a membrane environment: Molecular dynamic simulations data.

    PubMed

    Di Scala, Coralie; Mazzarino, Morgane; Yahi, Nouara; Varini, Karine; Garmy, Nicolas; Fantini, Jacques; Chahinian, Henri

    2017-10-01

    Anandamide is a lipid neurotransmitter that interacts with various plasma membrane lipids. The data here consists of molecular dynamics simulations of anandamide, C18-ceramide and cholesterol performed in vacuo and within a hydrated palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC)/cholesterol membrane. Several models of anandamide/cholesterol and anandamide/ceramide complexes are presented. The energy of interaction and the nature of the intermolecular forces involved in each of these complexes are detailed. The impact of water molecules hydrating the POPC/cholesterol membrane for the stability of the anandamide/cholesterol and anandamide/ceramide complexes is also analyzed. From a total number of 1920 water molecules stochatiscally merged with the lipid matrix, 48 were eventually redistributed around the polar head groups of the anandamide/ceramide complex, whereas only 15 reached with the anandamide/cholesterol complex. The interpretation of this dataset is presented in the accompanying article "Ceramide binding to anandamide increases its half-life and potentiates its cytotoxicity in human neuroblastoma cells" [1].

  19. A novel strategy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus - sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Niazi, Asfandyar Khan; Niazi, Saad Hameed

    2010-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases, affecting almost 3 million in Canada alone and is characterized by increased blood glucose levels. Treatment varies from lifestyle changes to oral anti-diabetics and/or insulin. Sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors may offer promising treatment for patients suffering from diabetes. The inhibitors act by increasing the loss of glucose in urine by decreasing the reabsorption of glucose from the proximal tubules of nephrons. Aims: The aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors in the treatment of diabetes as well as any adverse effects. Materials and Methods: Databases such as MEDLINE, COCHRANE and EMBASE were systematically searched for literature on the efficacy of sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors in improving the glycemic control of patients with diabetes. Results: Research showed that sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors significantly decreased blood glucose levels by increasing glucosuria. Due to the diuretic effects of these inhibitors, diabetic patients who were suffering from hypertension showed a decrease in blood pressure. The caloric loss associated with these inhibitors resulted in weight loss as well. The most common adverse effect seen in patients on these medications was mycotic infection of the urinary or genital tract. Conclusion: Sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors may be an effective line of treatment for diabetes. Although short-term research has shown these drugs to be safe and well-tolerated, studies should be conducted to assess the long-term effects of these drugs. PMID:22558567

  20. Binding site residues control inhibitor selectivity in the human norepinephrine transporter but not in the human dopamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jacob; Ringsted, Kristoffer B; Bang-Andersen, Benny; Strømgaard, Kristian; Kristensen, Anders S

    2015-10-27

    The transporters for norepinephrine and dopamine (NET and DAT, respectively) constitute the molecular targets for recreational drugs and therapeutics used in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Despite a strikingly similar amino acid sequence and predicted topology between these transporters, some inhibitors display a high degree of selectivity between NET and DAT. Here, a systematic mutational analysis of non-conserved residues within the extracellular entry pathway and the high affinity binding site in NET and DAT was performed to examine their role for selective inhibitor recognition. Changing the six diverging residues in the central binding site of NET to the complementary residues in DAT transferred a DAT-like pharmacology to NET, showing that non-conserved binding site residues in NET are critical determinants for inhibitor selectivity. In contrast, changing the equivalent residues in the central site of DAT to the corresponding residues in NET had modest effects on the same inhibitors, suggesting that non-conserved binding site residues in DAT play a minor role for selective inhibitor recognition. Our data points towards distinct structural determinants governing inhibitor selectivity in NET and DAT, and provide important new insight into the molecular basis for NET/DAT selectivity of therapeutic and recreational drugs.

  1. Binding site residues control inhibitor selectivity in the human norepinephrine transporter but not in the human dopamine transporter

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Jacob; Ringsted, Kristoffer B.; Bang-Andersen, Benny; Strømgaard, Kristian; Kristensen, Anders S.

    2015-01-01

    The transporters for norepinephrine and dopamine (NET and DAT, respectively) constitute the molecular targets for recreational drugs and therapeutics used in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Despite a strikingly similar amino acid sequence and predicted topology between these transporters, some inhibitors display a high degree of selectivity between NET and DAT. Here, a systematic mutational analysis of non-conserved residues within the extracellular entry pathway and the high affinity binding site in NET and DAT was performed to examine their role for selective inhibitor recognition. Changing the six diverging residues in the central binding site of NET to the complementary residues in DAT transferred a DAT-like pharmacology to NET, showing that non-conserved binding site residues in NET are critical determinants for inhibitor selectivity. In contrast, changing the equivalent residues in the central site of DAT to the corresponding residues in NET had modest effects on the same inhibitors, suggesting that non-conserved binding site residues in DAT play a minor role for selective inhibitor recognition. Our data points towards distinct structural determinants governing inhibitor selectivity in NET and DAT, and provide important new insight into the molecular basis for NET/DAT selectivity of therapeutic and recreational drugs. PMID:26503701

  2. High-Fat Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance Does Not Increase Plasma Anandamide Levels or Potentiate Anandamide Insulinotropic Effect in Isolated Canine Islets

    PubMed Central

    Woolcott, Orison O.; Richey, Joyce M.; Kabir, Morvarid; Chow, Robert H.; Iyer, Malini S.; Kirkman, Erlinda L.; Stefanovski, Darko; Lottati, Maya; Kim, Stella P.; Harrison, L. Nicole; Ionut, Viorica; Zheng, Dan; Hsu, Isabel R.; Catalano, Karyn J.; Chiu, Jenny D.; Bradshaw, Heather; Wu, Qiang; Bergman, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity has been associated with elevated plasma anandamide levels. In addition, anandamide has been shown to stimulate insulin secretion in vitro, suggesting that anandamide might be linked to hyperinsulinemia. Objective To determine whether high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance increases anandamide levels and potentiates the insulinotropic effect of anandamide in isolated pancreatic islets. Design and Methods Dogs were fed a high-fat diet (n = 9) for 22 weeks. Abdominal fat depot was quantified by MRI. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Fasting plasma endocannabinoid levels were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All metabolic assessments were performed before and after fat diet regimen. At the end of the study, pancreatic islets were isolated prior to euthanasia to test the in vitro effect of anandamide on islet hormones. mRNA expression of cannabinoid receptors was determined in intact islets. The findings in vitro were compared with those from animals fed a control diet (n = 7). Results Prolonged fat feeding increased abdominal fat content by 81.3±21.6% (mean±S.E.M, P<0.01). In vivo insulin sensitivity decreased by 31.3±12.1% (P<0.05), concomitant with a decrease in plasma 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (from 39.1±5.2 to 15.7±2.0 nmol/L) but not anandamide, oleoyl ethanolamide, linoleoyl ethanolamide, or palmitoyl ethanolamide. In control-diet animals (body weight: 28.8±1.0 kg), islets incubated with anandamide had a higher basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as compared with no treatment. Islets from fat-fed animals (34.5±1.3 kg; P<0.05 versus control) did not exhibit further potentiation of anandamide-induced insulin secretion as compared with control-diet animals. Glucagon but not somatostatin secretion in vitro was also increased in response to anandamide, but there was no difference between groups (P = 0.705). No differences in gene expression of CB1R or CB2R between groups

  3. High-fat diet-induced insulin resistance does not increase plasma anandamide levels or potentiate anandamide insulinotropic effect in isolated canine islets.

    PubMed

    Woolcott, Orison O; Richey, Joyce M; Kabir, Morvarid; Chow, Robert H; Iyer, Malini S; Kirkman, Erlinda L; Stefanovski, Darko; Lottati, Maya; Kim, Stella P; Harrison, L Nicole; Ionut, Viorica; Zheng, Dan; Hsu, Isabel R; Catalano, Karyn J; Chiu, Jenny D; Bradshaw, Heather; Wu, Qiang; Kolka, Cathryn M; Bergman, Richard N

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with elevated plasma anandamide levels. In addition, anandamide has been shown to stimulate insulin secretion in vitro, suggesting that anandamide might be linked to hyperinsulinemia. To determine whether high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance increases anandamide levels and potentiates the insulinotropic effect of anandamide in isolated pancreatic islets. Dogs were fed a high-fat diet (n = 9) for 22 weeks. Abdominal fat depot was quantified by MRI. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Fasting plasma endocannabinoid levels were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All metabolic assessments were performed before and after fat diet regimen. At the end of the study, pancreatic islets were isolated prior to euthanasia to test the in vitro effect of anandamide on islet hormones. mRNA expression of cannabinoid receptors was determined in intact islets. The findings in vitro were compared with those from animals fed a control diet (n = 7). Prolonged fat feeding increased abdominal fat content by 81.3±21.6% (mean±S.E.M, P<0.01). In vivo insulin sensitivity decreased by 31.3±12.1% (P<0.05), concomitant with a decrease in plasma 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (from 39.1±5.2 to 15.7±2.0 nmol/L) but not anandamide, oleoyl ethanolamide, linoleoyl ethanolamide, or palmitoyl ethanolamide. In control-diet animals (body weight: 28.8±1.0 kg), islets incubated with anandamide had a higher basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as compared with no treatment. Islets from fat-fed animals (34.5±1.3 kg; P<0.05 versus control) did not exhibit further potentiation of anandamide-induced insulin secretion as compared with control-diet animals. Glucagon but not somatostatin secretion in vitro was also increased in response to anandamide, but there was no difference between groups (P = 0.705). No differences in gene expression of CB1R or CB2R between groups were found. In canines, high-fat diet

  4. Potent and Selective Inhibition of Plasma Membrane Monoamine Transporter by HIV Protease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Haichuan; Hu, Tao; Foti, Robert S.; Pan, Yongmei; Swaan, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) is a major uptake-2 monoamine transporter that shares extensive substrate and inhibitor overlap with organic cation transporters 1–3 (OCT1–3). Currently, there are no PMAT-specific inhibitors available that can be used in in vitro and in vivo studies to differentiate between PMAT and OCT activities. In this study, we showed that IDT307 (4-(4-(dimethylamino)phenyl)-1-methylpyridinium iodide), a fluorescent analog of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), is a transportable substrate for PMAT and that IDT307-based fluorescence assay can be used to rapidly identify and characterize PMAT inhibitors. Using the fluorescent substrate-based assays, we analyzed the interactions of eight human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors (PIs) with human PMAT and OCT1–3 in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells stably transfected with individual transporters. Our data revealed that PMAT and OCTs exhibit distinct sensitivity and inhibition patterns toward HIV PIs. PMAT is most sensitive to PI inhibition whereas OCT2 and OCT3 are resistant. OCT1 showed an intermediate sensitivity and a distinct inhibition profile from PMAT. Importantly, lopinavir is a potent PMAT inhibitor and exhibited >120 fold selectivity toward PMAT (IC50 = 1.4 ± 0.2 µM) over OCT1 (IC50 = 174 ± 40 µM). Lopinavir has no inhibitory effect on OCT2 or OCT3 at maximal tested concentrations. Lopinavir also exhibited no or much weaker interactions with uptake-1 monoamine transporters. Together, our results reveal that PMAT and OCTs have distinct specificity exemplified by their differential interaction with HIV PIs. Further, we demonstrate that lopinavir can be used as a selective PMAT inhibitor to differentiate PMAT-mediated monoamine and organic cation transport from those mediated by OCT1–3. PMID:26285765

  5. Inhibition of anandamide hydrolysis attenuates nociceptor sensitization in a murine model of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Uhelski, Megan L.; Khasabova, Iryna A.

    2014-01-01

    Painful neuropathy frequently develops as a consequence of commonly used chemotherapy agents for cancer treatment and is often a dose-limiting side effect. Currently available analgesic treatments are often ineffective on pain induced by neurotoxicity. Although peripheral administration of cannabinoids, endocannabinoids, and inhibitors of endocannabinoid hydrolysis has been effective in reducing hyperalgesia in models of peripheral neuropathy, including chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), few studies have examined cannabinoid effects on responses of nociceptors in vivo. In this study we determined whether inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which slows the breakdown of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA), reduced sensitization of nociceptors produced by chemotherapy. Over the course of a week of daily treatments, mice treated with the platinum-based chemotherapy agent cisplatin developed robust mechanical allodynia that coincided with sensitization of cutaneous C-fiber nociceptors as indicated by the development of spontaneous activity and increased responses to mechanical stimulation. Administration of the FAAH inhibitor URB597 into the receptive field of sensitized C-fiber nociceptors decreased spontaneous activity, increased mechanical response thresholds, and decreased evoked responses to mechanical stimuli. Cotreatment with CB1 (AM281) or CB2 (AM630) receptor antagonists showed that the effect of URB597 was mediated primarily by CB1 receptors. These changes following URB597 were associated with an increase in the endocannabinoid anandamide in the skin. Our results suggest that enhanced signaling in the peripheral endocannabinoid system could be utilized to reduce nociceptor sensitization and pain associated with CIPN. PMID:25505113

  6. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance in cancer: role of ABC multidrug transporters.

    PubMed

    Ozvegy-Laczka, Csilla; Cserepes, Judit; Elkind, N Barry; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2005-01-01

    Recent antitumor drug research has seen the development of a large variety of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) with increasing specificity and selectivity. These are highly promising agents for specific inhibition of malignant cell growth and metastasis. However, their therapeutic potential also depends on access to their intracellular targets, which may be significantly affected by certain ABC membrane transporters. It has been recently shown that several human multidrug transporter ABC proteins interact with specific TKIs, and the ABCG2 transporter has an especially high affinity for some of these kinase inhibitors. These results indicate that multidrug resistance protein modulation by TKIs may be an important factor in the treatment of cancer patients; moreover, the extrusion of TKIs by multidrug transporters may result in tumor cell TKI resistance. Interaction with multidrug resistance ABC transporters may also significantly modify the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of TKIs in patients.

  7. Substituted quinolines as inhibitors of L-glutamate transport into synaptic vesicles.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, R D; Esslinger, C S; Thompson, C M; Bridges, R J

    1998-07-01

    This study investigated the structure-activity relationships and kinetic properties of a library of kynurenate analogues as inhibitors of 3H-L-glutamate transport into rat forebrain synaptic vesicles. The lack of inhibitory activity observed with the majority of the monocyclic pyridine derivatives suggested that the second aromatic ring of the quinoline-based compounds played a significant role in binding to the transporter. A total of two kynurenate derivatives, xanthurenate and 7-chloro-kynurenate, differing only in the carbocyclic ring substituents, were identified as potent competitive inhibitors, exhibiting Ki values of 0.19 and 0.59 mM, respectively. The Km value for L-glutamate was found to be 2.46 mM. Parallel experiments demonstrated that while none of the kynurenate analogues tested effectively inhibited the synaptosomal transport of 3H-D-aspartate, some cross-reactivity was observed with the EAA ionotropic receptors. Molecular modeling studies were carried out with the identified inhibitors and glutamate in an attempt to preliminarily define the pharmacophore of the vesicular transporter. It is hypothesized that the ability of the kynurenate analogues to bind to the transporter may be tied to the capacity of the quinoline carbocyclic ring to mimic the negative charge of the gamma-carboxylate of glutamate. A total of two low energy solution conformers of glutamate were identified that exhibited marked functional group overlap with the most potent inhibitor, xanthurenate. These results help to further refine the pharmacological specificity of the glutamate binding site on the vesicular transporter and identify a series of inhibitors with which to investigate transporter function.

  8. Endogenous adenosine is an autacoid feedback inhibitor of chloride transport in the shark rectal gland.

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, G G; Aassar, O S; Forrest, J N

    1991-01-01

    The present studies define the physiologic role of endogenous adenosine in the perfused shark rectal gland, a model epithelia for hormone-stimulated chloride transport. Chloride ion secretion, and venous adenosine and inosine concentrations increased in parallel in response to hormone stimulation. From a basal rate of 157 +/- 26 mu eq/h per g, chloride secretion increased to 836 +/- 96 and 2170 +/- 358 with 1 and 10 microM forskolin, venous adenosine increased from 5.0 +/- 1 to 126 +/- 29 and 896 +/- 181 nM, and inosine increased from 30 +/- 9 to 349 +/- 77 and 1719 +/- 454 nM (all P less than 0.01). Nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI), a nucleoside transport inhibitor, completely blocked the release of adenosine and inosine. Inhibition of chloride transport with bumetanide, an inhibitor of the Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter, or ouabain, an inhibitor of Na+/K+ ATPase activity, reduced venous adenosine and inosine to basal values. When the interaction of endogenous adenosine with extracellular receptors was prevented by adenosine deaminase, NBTI, or 8-phenyltheophylline, the chloride transport response to secretagogues increased by 1.7-2.3-fold. These studies demonstrate that endogenous adenosine is released in response to hormone-stimulated cellular work and acts at A1 adenosine receptors as a feedback inhibitor of chloride transport. Images PMID:1752953

  9. Screening for Inhibitors of Essential Leishmania Glucose Transporters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    complemented with either LmGT2 or GLUT1, suspended in DME -L medium (5) at an initial cell density of 5.6 x 106 cells/ml, and 25 µl of each compound, as a...solution of (1 mM Phleo) (1.4 µM Phleo) (0 Phleo) Fig. 3. The ∆lmgt null mutant expressing the LmGT2 transporter was grown for 72 hr in DME -L medium...bloodstream form; DME -L, Dulbecco’s modified Eagle edium adapted for Leishmania; iFBS, heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum; ORF, pen reading frame; RFU

  10. Screening For Inhibitors Of Essential Leishmania Glucose Transporters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    samples were also arrayed within each plate. Each well contained 20 µl of ∆lmgt parasites, complemented with either LmGT2 or GLUT1, suspended in DME -L...3. The ∆lmgt null mutant expressing the LmGT2 transporter was grown for 72 hr in DME -L medium containing 5 mM glucose in the presence of compounds...5,6], T. brucei [7–10] and P. falciparum [11]. Abbreviations: BF, bloodstream form; DME -L, Dulbecco’s modified Eagle edium adapted for Leishmania

  11. Enzyme- and transporter-mediated drug interactions with small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jie; Markowitz, John S; Bei, Di; An, Guohua

    2014-12-01

    Among the novel and target-specific classes of anticancer drugs, small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) represent an extremely promising and rapidly expanding group. TKIs attack cancer-specific targets and therefore have a favorable safety profile. However, as TKIs are taken orally along with other medications on a daily basis, there is an elevated risk of potentially significant drug-drug interactions. Most TKIs are metabolized primarily through CYP3A4. In addition, many TKIs are also CYP3A4 inhibitors at the same time. In addition to drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), another determinant of TKI disposition are drug transporters. There is accumulating evidence showing that the majority of currently marketed TKIs interact with ATP-binding cassette transporters, particularly P-glycoprotein as well as Breast Cancer Resistance Protein and serve as both substrates and inhibitors. Considering the dual roles of TKIs on both DMEs and drug transporters, and the importance of these enzyme and transporters in drug disposition, the potential for enzyme- and transporter-mediated TKI-drug interactions in patients with cancer is an important consideration. This review provides a comprehensive overview of drug interactions with small molecule TKIs mediated by DMEs and drug transporters. The TKI-drug interactions with TKIs being victims and/or perpetrators are summarized.

  12. Anandamide inhibits adhesion and migration of breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Grimaldi, Claudia; Pisanti, Simona; Laezza, Chiara; Malfitano, Anna Maria; Santoro, Antonietta; Vitale, Mario; Caruso, Maria Gabriella; Notarnicola, Maria; Iacuzzo, Irma; Portella, Giuseppe; Di Marzo, Vincenzo . E-mail: vdimarzo@icmib.na.cnr.it; Bifulco, Maurizio . E-mail: maubiful@unina.it

    2006-02-15

    The endocannabinoid system regulates cell proliferation in human breast cancer cells. We reasoned that stimulation of cannabinoid CB{sub 1} receptors could induce a non-invasive phenotype in breast mtastatic cells. In a model of metastatic spreading in vivo, the metabolically stable anandamide analogue, 2-methyl-2'-F-anandamide (Met-F-AEA), significantly reduced the number and dimension of metastatic nodes, this effect being antagonized by the selective CB{sub 1} antagonist SR141716A. In MDA-MB-231 cells, a highly invasive human breast cancer cell line, and in TSA-E1 cells, a murine breast cancer cell line, Met-F-AEA inhibited adhesion and migration on type IV collagen in vitro without modifying integrin expression: both these effects were antagonized by SR141716A. In order to understand the molecular mechanism involved in these processes, we analyzed the phosphorylation of FAK and Src, two tyrosine kinases involved in migration and adhesion. In Met-F-AEA-treated cells, we observed a decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of both FAK and Src, this effect being attenuated by SR141716A. We propose that CB{sub 1} receptor agonists inhibit tumor cell invasion and metastasis by modulating FAK phosphorylation, and that CB{sub 1} receptor activation might represent a novel therapeutic strategy to slow down the growth of breast carcinoma and to inhibit its metastatic diffusion in vivo.

  13. Does the Neuroprotective Role of Anandamide Display Diurnal Variations?

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Vargas, Marina; Morales-Gomez, Julio; Gonzalez-Rivera, Ruben; Hernandez-Enriquez, Carla; Perez-Arredondo, Adan; Estrada-Rojo, Francisco; Navarro, Luz

    2013-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system is a component of the neuroprotective mechanisms that an organism displays after traumatic brain injury (TBI). A diurnal variation in several components of this system has been reported. This variation may influence the recovery and survival rate after TBI. We have previously reported that the recovery and survival rate of rats is higher if TBI occurs at 1:00 than at 13:00. This could be explained by a diurnal variation of the endocannabinoid system. Here, we describe the effects of anandamide administration in rats prior to the induction of TBI at two different times of the day: 1:00 and 13:00. We found that anandamide reduced the neurological damage at both times. Nevertheless, its effects on bleeding, survival, food intake, and body weight were dependent on the time of TBI. In addition, we analyzed the diurnal variation of the expression of the cannabinoid receptors CB1R and CB2R in the cerebral cortex of both control rats and rats subjected to TBI. We found that CB1R protein was expressed more during the day, whereas its mRNA level was higher during the night. We did not find a diurnal variation for the CB2R. In addition, we also found that TBI increased CB1R and CB2R in the contralateral hemisphere and disrupted the CB1R diurnal cycle. PMID:24287910

  14. Structure activity relationships of benzylproline-derived inhibitors of the glutamine transporter ASCT2.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kurnvir; Tanui, Rose; Gameiro, Armanda; Eisenberg, Gilad; Colas, Claire; Schlessinger, Avner; Grewer, Christof

    2017-02-01

    The glutamine transporter ASCT2 has been identified as a promising target to inhibit rapid growth of cancer cells. However, ASCT2 pharmacology is not well established. In this report, we performed a systematic structure activity analysis of a series of substituted benzylproline derivatives. Substitutions on the phenyl ring resulted in compounds with characteristics of ASCT2 inhibitors. Apparent binding affinity increased with increasing hydrophobicity of the side chain. In contrast, interaction of the ASCT2 binding site with specific positions on the phenyl ring was not observed. The most potent compound inhibits the ASCT2 anion conductance with a Ki of 3μM, which is in the same range as that of more bulky and higher molecular weight inhibitors recently reported by others. The experimental results are consistent with computational analysis based on docking of the inhibitors against an ASCT2 homology model. The benzylproline scaffold provides a valuable tool for further improving binding potency of future ASCT2 inhibitors.

  15. The organic anion transport inhibitor probenecid increases brain concentrations of the NKCC1 inhibitor bumetanide.

    PubMed

    Töllner, Kathrin; Brandt, Claudia; Römermann, Kerstin; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2015-01-05

    Bumetanide is increasingly being used for experimental treatment of brain disorders, including neonatal seizures, epilepsy, and autism, because the neuronal Na-K-Cl cotransporter NKCC1, which is inhibited by bumetanide, is implicated in the pathophysiology of such disorders. However, use of bumetanide for treatment of brain disorders is associated with problems, including poor brain penetration and systemic adverse effects such as diuresis, hypokalemic alkalosis, and hearing loss. The poor brain penetration is thought to be related to its high ionization rate and plasma protein binding, which restrict brain entry by passive diffusion, but more recently brain efflux transporters have been involved, too. Multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4), organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3) and organic anion transporting polypeptide 2 (OATP2) were suggested to mediate bumetanide brain efflux, but direct proof is lacking. Because MRP4, OAT3, and OATP2 can be inhibited by probenecid, we studied whether this drug alters brain levels of bumetanide in mice. Probenecid (50 mg/kg) significantly increased brain levels of bumetanide up to 3-fold; however, it also increased its plasma levels, so that the brain:plasma ratio (~0.015-0.02) was not altered. Probenecid markedly increased the plasma half-life of bumetanide, indicating reduced elimination of bumetanide most likely by inhibition of OAT-mediated transport of bumetanide in the kidney. However, the diuretic activity of bumetanide was not reduced by probenecid. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the clinically available drug probenecid can be used to increase brain levels of bumetanide and decrease its elimination, which could have therapeutic potential in the treatment of brain disorders.

  16. Antitubercular Agent Delamanid and Metabolites as Substrates and Inhibitors of ABC and Solute Carrier Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Shimokawa, Yoshihiko; Shibata, Masakazu; Hashizume, Kenta; Hamasako, Yusuke; Ohzone, Yoshihiro; Kashiyama, Eiji; Umehara, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Delamanid (Deltyba, OPC-67683) is the first approved drug in a novel class of nitro-dihydro-imidazooxazoles developed for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Patients with tuberculosis require treatment with multiple drugs, several of which have known drug-drug interactions. Transporters regulate drug absorption, distribution, and excretion; therefore, the inhibition of transport by one agent may alter the pharmacokinetics of another, leading to unexpected adverse events. Therefore, it is important to understand how delamanid affects transport activity. In the present study, the potencies of delamanid and its main metabolites as the substrates and inhibitors of various transporters were evaluated in vitro. Delamanid was not transported by the efflux ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp; MDR1/ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), solute carrier (SLC) transporters, organic anion-transporting polypeptides, or organic cation transporter 1. Similarly, metabolite 1 (M1) was not a substrate for any of these transporters except P-gp. Delamanid showed no inhibitory effect on ABC transporters MDR1, BCRP, and bile salt export pump (BSEP; ABCB11), SLC transporters, or organic anion transporters. M1 and M2 inhibited P-gp- and BCRP-mediated transport but did so only at the 50% inhibitory concentrations (M1, 4.65 and 5.71 μmol/liter, respectively; M2, 7.80 and 6.02 μmol/liter, respectively), well above the corresponding maximum concentration in plasma values observed following the administration of multiple doses in clinical trials. M3 and M4 did not affect the activities of any of the transporters tested. These in vitro data suggest that delamanid is unlikely to have clinically relevant interactions with drugs for which absorption and disposition are mediated by this group of transporters. PMID:27021329

  17. Uptake inhibitors but not substrates induce protease resistance in extracellular loop two of the dopamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Gaffaney, Jon D; Vaughan, Roxanne A

    2004-03-01

    Changes in protease sensitivity of extracellular loop two (EL2) of the dopamine transporter (DAT) during inhibitor and substrate binding were examined using trypsin proteolysis and epitope-specific immunoblotting. In control rat striatal membranes, proteolysis of DAT in a restricted region of EL2 was produced by 0.001 to 10 microg/ml trypsin. However, in the presence of the dopamine uptake blockers [2-(diphenylmethoxyl) ethyl]-4-(3phenylpropyl) piperazine (GBR 12909), mazindol, 2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-flourophenyl)tropane (beta-CFT), nomifensine, benztropine, or (-)-cocaine, 100- to 1000-fold higher concentrations of trypsin were required to produce comparable levels of proteolysis. Protease resistance induced by ligands was correlated with their affinity for DAT binding, was not observed with Zn2+, (+)-cocaine, or inhibitors of norepinephrine or serotonin transporters, and was not caused by altered catalytic activity of trypsin. Together, these results support the hypothesis that the interaction of uptake inhibitors with DAT induces a protease-resistant conformation in EL2. In contrast, binding of substrates did not induce protease resistance in EL2, suggesting that substrates and inhibitors interact with DAT differently during binding. To assess the effects of EL2 proteolysis on DAT function, the binding and transport properties of trypsin-digested DAT were assayed with [3H]CFT and [3H]dopamine. Digestion decreased the Bmax for binding and the Vmax for uptake in amounts that were proportional to the extent of proteolysis, indicating that the structural integrity of EL2 is required for maintenance of both DAT binding and transport functions. Together this data provides novel information about inhibitor and substrate interactions at EL2, possibly relating the protease resistant DAT conformation to a mechanism of transport inhibition.

  18. Generation and Characterization of Anti-VGLUT Nanobodies Acting as Inhibitors of Transport.

    PubMed

    Schenck, Stephan; Kunz, Laura; Sahlender, Daniela; Pardon, Els; Geertsma, Eric R; Savtchouk, Iaroslav; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Neldner, Yvonne; Štefanić, Saša; Steyaert, Jan; Volterra, Andrea; Dutzler, Raimund

    2017-08-01

    The uptake of glutamate by synaptic vesicles is mediated by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs). The central role of these transporters in excitatory neurotransmission underpins their importance as pharmacological targets. Although several compounds inhibit VGLUTs, highly specific inhibitors were so far unavailable, thus limiting applications to in vitro experiments. Besides their potential in pharmacology, specific inhibitors would also be beneficial for the elucidation of transport mechanisms. To overcome this shortage, we generated nanobodies (Nbs) by immunization of a llama with purified rat VGLUT1 and subsequent selection of binders from a phage display library. All identified Nbs recognize cytosolic epitopes, and two of the binders greatly reduced the rate of uptake of glutamate by reconstituted liposomes and subcellular fractions enriched with synaptic vesicles. These Nbs can be expressed as functional green fluorescent protein fusion proteins in the cytosol of HEK cells for intracellular applications as immunocytochemical and biochemical agents. The selected binders thus provide valuable tools for cell biology and neuroscience.

  19. Proton Pump Inhibitors Inhibit Metformin Uptake by Organic Cation Transporters (OCTs)

    PubMed Central

    Nies, Anne T.; Hofmann, Ute; Resch, Claudia; Schaeffeler, Elke; Rius, Maria; Schwab, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Metformin, an oral insulin-sensitizing drug, is actively transported into cells by organic cation transporters (OCT) 1, 2, and 3 (encoded by SLC22A1, SLC22A2, or SLC22A3), which are tissue specifically expressed at significant levels in various organs such as liver, muscle, and kidney. Because metformin does not undergo hepatic metabolism, drug-drug interaction by inhibition of OCT transporters may be important. So far, comprehensive data on the interaction of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) with OCTs are missing although PPIs are frequently used in metformin-treated patients. Using in silico modeling and computational analyses, we derived pharmacophore models indicating that PPIs (i.e. omeprazole, pantoprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole, and tenatoprazole) are potent OCT inhibitors. We then established stably transfected cell lines expressing the human uptake transporters OCT1, OCT2, or OCT3 and tested whether these PPIs inhibit OCT-mediated metformin uptake in vitro. All tested PPIs significantly inhibited metformin uptake by OCT1, OCT2, and OCT3 in a concentration-dependent manner. Half-maximal inhibitory concentration values (IC50) were in the low micromolar range (3–36 µM) and thereby in the range of IC50 values of other potent OCT drug inhibitors. Finally, we tested whether the PPIs are also transported by OCTs, but did not identify PPIs as OCT substrates. In conclusion, PPIs are potent inhibitors of the OCT-mediated metformin transport in vitro. Further studies are needed to elucidate the clinical relevance of this drug-drug interaction with potential consequences on metformin disposition and/or efficacy. PMID:21779389

  20. Vascular effects of anandamide and N-acylvanillylamines in the human forearm and skin microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Movahed, Pouya; Evilevitch, Vladimir; Andersson, Tomas L G; Jönsson, Bo A G; Wollmer, Per; Zygmunt, Peter M; Högestätt, Edward D

    2005-09-01

    The endocannabinoid anandamide is an emerging potential signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system. Anandamide causes vasodilatation, bradycardia and hypotension in animals and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of endotoxic, haemorrhagic and cardiogenic shock, but its vascular effects have not been studied in man. Human forearm blood flow and skin microcirculatory flow were recorded using venous occlusion plethysmography and laser-Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI), respectively. Each test drug was infused into the brachial artery or applied topically on the skin followed by a standardized pin-prick to disrupt the epidermal barrier. Anandamide failed to affect forearm blood flow when administered intra-arterially at infusion rates of 0.3-300 nmol min(-1). The highest infusion rate led to an anandamide concentration of approximately 1 microM in venous blood as measured by mass spectrometry. Dermal application of anandamide significantly increased skin microcirculatory flow and coapplication of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonist capsazepine inhibited this effect. The TRPV1 agonists capsaicin, olvanil and arvanil all induced concentration-dependent increases in skin blood flow and burning pain when administered dermally. Coapplication of capsazepine inhibited blood flow and pain responses to all three TRPV1 agonists. This study shows that locally applied anandamide is a vasodilator in the human skin microcirculation. The results are consistent with this lipid being an activator of TRPV1 on primary sensory nerves, but do not support a role for anandamide as a circulating vasoactive hormone in the human forearm vascular bed.

  1. Mechanisms for Recycling and Biosynthesis of Endogenous Cannabinoids Anandamide and 2-Arachidonylglycerol

    PubMed Central

    Placzek, Ekaterina A.; Okamoto, Yasuo; Ueda, Natsuo; Barker, Eric L.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms of endogenous cannabinoid biosynthesis are not completely understood. We hypothesized that anandamide could be recycled by the cell to form new endocannabinoid molecules and released into the extracellular space. We determined that new endocannabinoids derived from exogenous anandamide or arachidonic acid were synthesized and released from RBL-2H3 cells in response to ionomycin. Treatment of RBL-2H3 cells with nystatin and progesterone, agents that disrupt organization of lipid raft/caveolae, resulted in the attenuation of anandamide and 2-arachidonyl glycerol synthesis and/or release in response to stimulation with ionomycin suggesting a role for these membrane microdomains in endocannabinoid biosynthesis. Furthermore, anandamide synthesis may be independent of N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D as expression of the enzyme was not detected in RBL-2H3 cells. We also established that extracellular calcium is necessary for endocannabinoid biosynthesis because release of intracellular calcium stores alone does not promote endocannabinoid biosynthesis. Next, we examined the role of calcium as a “switch” to activate the synthesis of anandamide and simultaneously reduce uptake. Indeed, [3H] anandamide uptake was reduced in the presence of calcium. Our findings suggest a mechanism indicative of calcium-modulated activation of anandamide synthesis and simultaneous termination of uptake. PMID:18778304

  2. Natriuretic Hormones, Endogenous Ouabain, and Related Sodium Transport Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hamlyn, John M.

    2014-01-01

    The work of deWardener and colleagues stimulated longstanding interest in natriuretic hormones (NHs). In addition to the atrial peptides (APs), the circulation contains unidentified physiologically relevant NHs. One NH is controlled by the central nervous system (CNS) and likely secreted by the pituitary. Its circulating activity is modulated by salt intake and the prevailing sodium concentration of the blood and intracerebroventricular fluid, and contributes to postprandial and dehydration natriuresis. The other NH, mobilized by atrial stretch, promotes natriuresis by increasing the production of intrarenal dopamine and/or nitric oxide (NO). Both NHs have short (<35 min) circulating half lives, depress renotubular sodium transport, and neither requires the renal nerves. The search for NHs led to endogenous cardiotonic steroids (CTS) including ouabain-, digoxin-, and bufadienolide-like materials. These CTS, given acutely in high nanomole to micromole amounts into the general or renal circulations, inhibit sodium pumps and are natriuretic. Among these CTS, only bufalin is cleared sufficiently rapidly to qualify for an NH-like role. Ouabain-like CTS are cleared slowly, and when given chronically in low daily nanomole amounts, promote sodium retention, augment arterial myogenic tone, reduce renal blood flow and glomerular filtration, suppress NO in the renal vasa recta, and increase sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure. Moreover, lowering total body sodium raises circulating endogenous ouabain. Thus, ouabain-like CTS have physiological actions that, like aldosterone, support renal sodium retention and blood pressure. In conclusion, the mammalian circulation contains two non-AP NHs. Identification of the CNS NH should be a priority. PMID:25520702

  3. Down-regulation of the rat serotonin transporter upon exposure to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Horschitz, S; Hummerich, R; Schloss, P

    2001-07-20

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) terminates serotonergic neurotransmission by rapid reuptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) into the nerve terminal or axonal varicosities. SERT represents the target of various antidepressants which inhibit 5-HT transport and are widely used for the pharmacotherapy of depression. Here, we have analyzed the function of SERT stably expressed in HEK 293 cells upon exposure to citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), with respect to 5-HT transport activity and protein expression as estimated by ligand binding experiments. Our results show that long-term exposure to an SSRI causes a down-regulation of transport activity as revealed by a reduction of the maximal transport rate, without affecting substrate affinity, accompanied by a decrease in ligand binding sites.

  4. Novel auxin transport inhibitors phenocopy the auxin influx carrier mutation aux1.

    PubMed

    Parry, G; Delbarre, A; Marchant, A; Swarup, R; Napier, R; Perrot-Rechenmann, C; Bennett, M J

    2001-02-01

    The hormone auxin is transported in plants through the combined actions of diffusion and specific auxin influx and efflux carriers. In contrast to auxin efflux, for which there are well documented inhibitors, understanding the developmental roles of carrier-mediated auxin influx has been hampered by the absence of specific competitive inhibitors. However, several molecules that inhibit auxin influx in cultured cells have been described recently. The physiological effects of two of these novel influx carrier inhibitors, 1-naphthoxyacetic acid (1-NOA) and 3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (CHPAA), have been investigated in intact seedlings and tissue segments using classical and new auxin transport bioassays. Both molecules do disrupt root gravitropism, which is a developmental process requiring rapid auxin redistribution. Furthermore, the auxin-insensitive and agravitropic root-growth characteristics of aux1 plants were phenocopied by 1-NOA and CHPAA. Similarly, the agravitropic phenotype of inhibitor-treated seedlings was rescued by the auxin 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, but not by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, again resembling the relative abilities of these two auxins to rescue the phenotype of aux1. Further investigations have shown that none of these compounds block polar auxin transport, and that CHPAA exhibits some auxin-like activity at high concentrations. Whilst results indicate that 1-NOA and CHPAA represent useful tools for physiological studies addressing the role of auxin influx in planta, 1-NOA is likely to prove the more useful of the two compounds.

  5. Purine nucleobase transport in human erythrocytes. Reinvestigation with a novel "inhibitor-stop" assay.

    PubMed

    Domin, B A; Mahony, W B; Zimmerman, T P

    1988-07-05

    A novel "inhibitor-stop" method for the determination of initial rates of purine nucleobase transport in human erythrocytes has been developed, based on the addition of seven assay volumes of cold 19 mM papaverine to terminate influx. In view of our finding that the initial velocities of adenine, guanine, and hypoxanthine influx into human erythrocytes were linear for only 4-6 s at 37 degrees C, the present method has been used to reexamine the kinetics of purine nucleobase transport in these cells. Initial influx rates of all three purine nucleobases were shown to be the result of concurrent facilitated and nonfacilitated diffusion. The nonfacilitated influx rates could be estimated either from the linear concentration dependence of nucleobase influx at high concentrations of permeant or from residual influx rates which were not inhibited by the presence of co-permeants. Appropriate corrections for nonfacilitated diffusion were made to the influx rates observed at low nucleobase concentrations. Kinetic analyses indicated that adenine (Km = 13 +/- 1 microM, n = 7), guanine (Km = 37 +/- 2 microM, n = 5), and hypoxanthine (Km = 180 +/- 12 microM, n = 6) were mutually competitive substrates for transport. The Ki values obtained with each nucleobase as an inhibitor of the influx of the other nucleobases were similar to their respective Km values for influx. Furthermore, the transport of the purine nucleobases was not inhibited by nucleosides (uridine, inosine) or by inhibitors of nucleoside transport (6-[(4-nitrobenzyl)thio]-9-beta-D-ribofuranosylpurine, dilazep, dipyridamole). It is concluded that all three purine nucleobases share a common facilitated transport system in human erythrocytes which is functionally distinct from the nucleoside transporter.

  6. A specific pharmacophore model of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chunlei; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Huang, Dandan; Zan, Xin; Yang, Baowei; Li, Ying; Du, Xiaoyong; Qian, Hai; Huang, Wenlong

    2012-06-01

    Sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) plays a pivotal role in maintaining glucose equilibrium in the human body, emerging as one of the most promising targets for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. Pharmacophore models of SGLT2 inhibitors have been generated with a training set of 25 SGLT2 inhibitors using Discovery Studio V2.1. The best hypothesis (Hypo1(SGLT2)) contains one hydrogen bond donor, five excluded volumes, one ring aromatic and three hydrophobic features, and has a correlation coefficient of 0.955, cost difference of 68.76, RMSD of 0.85. This model was validated by test set, Fischer randomization test and decoy set methods. The specificity of Hypo1(SGLT2) was evaluated. The pharmacophore features of Hypo1(SGLT2) were different from the best pharmacophore model (Hypo1(SGLT1)) of SGLT1 inhibitors we developed. Moreover, Hypo1(SGLT2) could effectively distinguish selective inhibitors of SGLT2 from those of SGLT1. These results indicate that a highly predictive and specific pharmacophore model of SGLT2 inhibitors has been successfully obtained. Then Hypo1(SGLT2) was used as a 3D query to screen databases including NCI and Maybridge for identifying new inhibitors of SGLT2. The hit compounds were subsequently subjected to filtering by Lipinski's rule of five. And several compounds selected from the top ranked hits have been suggested for further experimental assay studies.

  7. Identification and Characterization of ML352: A Novel, Noncompetitive Inhibitor of the Presynaptic Choline Transporter

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) is the rate-limiting determinant of acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis, yet the transporter remains a largely undeveloped target for the detection and manipulation of synaptic cholinergic signaling. To expand CHT pharmacology, we pursued a high-throughput screen for novel CHT-targeted small molecules based on the electrogenic properties of transporter-mediated choline transport. In this effort, we identified five novel, structural classes of CHT-specific inhibitors. Chemical diversification and functional analysis of one of these classes identified ML352 as a high-affinity (Ki = 92 nM) and selective CHT inhibitor. At concentrations that fully antagonized CHT in transfected cells and nerve terminal preparations, ML352 exhibited no inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) or cholineacetyltransferase (ChAT) and also lacked activity at dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters, as well as many receptors and ion channels. ML352 exhibited noncompetitive choline uptake inhibition in intact cells and synaptosomes and reduced the apparent density of hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) binding sites in membrane assays, suggesting allosteric transporter interactions. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed limited in vitro metabolism and significant CNS penetration, with features predicting rapid clearance. ML352 represents a novel, potent, and specific tool for the manipulation of CHT, providing a possible platform for the development of cholinergic imaging and therapeutic agents. PMID:25560927

  8. Activity of anandamide (AEA) metabolic enzymes in rat placental bed.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, B M; Battista, N; Correia-da-Silva, G; Rapino, C; Maccarrone, M; Teixeira, N A

    2014-11-01

    Endocannabinoids are endogenous lipid mediators, with anandamide (AEA) being the first member identified. It is now widely accepted that AEA influences early pregnancy events and its levels, which primarily depend on its synthesis by an N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) and degradation by a fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), must be tightly regulated. Previous studies demonstrated that AEA levels require in situ regulation of these respective metabolic enzymes, and thus, any disturbance in AEA levels may impact maternal remodeling processes occurring during placental development. In this study, the activities of the AEA-metabolic enzymes that result in the establishment of proper local AEA levels during rat gestation were examined. Here, we demonstrate that during placentation NAPE-PLD and FAAH activities change in a temporal manner. Our findings suggest that NAPE-PLD and FAAH create the appropriate AEA levels required for tissue remodeling in the placental bed, a process essential to pregnancy maintenance.

  9. Anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol: pharmacological properties, functional features, and emerging specificities of the two major endocannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Luchicchi, Antonio; Pistis, Marco

    2012-10-01

    Since the discovery of endocannabinoids and their receptors, two major members of the endocannabinoid family, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), have been regarded almost as twin brothers. Pharmacological properties were initially considered to be similar, as these molecules were believed mutually exchangeable and almost indistinguishable in the regulation of synaptic functions, such as long- and short-term synaptic plasticity, and in behavioral aspects, such as learning and memory, reward and addiction, antinociception, and anxiety. In recent years, however, endocannabinoid signaling specificity began to emerge, in particular, due to the production of genetically engineered mice lacking key enzymes in endocannabinoid synthesis or degradation, together with the development of selective inhibitors of AEA or 2-AG catabolic enzymes. Evidence now suggests that AEA and 2-AG possess specific pharmacological properties, are engaged in different forms of synaptic plasticity, and take part in different behavioral functions. In this review, we provide an overview on similarities and specificities of the two endocannabinoids in the CNS and on the unresolved questions concerning their role in synaptic signaling.

  10. Nonclassical pharmacology of the dopamine transporter: atypical inhibitors, allosteric modulators, and partial substrates.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Kyle C; Rothman, Richard B; Reith, Maarten E A

    2013-07-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a sodium-coupled symporter protein responsible for modulating the concentration of extraneuronal dopamine in the brain. The DAT is a principle target of various psychostimulant, nootropic, and antidepressant drugs, as well as certain drugs used recreationally, including the notoriously addictive stimulant cocaine. DAT ligands have traditionally been divided into two categories: cocaine-like inhibitors and amphetamine-like substrates. Whereas inhibitors block monoamine uptake by the DAT but are not translocated across the membrane, substrates are actively translocated and trigger DAT-mediated release of dopamine by reversal of the translocation cycle. Because both inhibitors and substrates increase extraneuronal dopamine levels, it is often assumed that all DAT ligands possess an addictive liability equivalent to that of cocaine. However, certain recently developed ligands, such as atypical benztropine-like DAT inhibitors with reduced or even a complete lack of cocaine-like rewarding effects, suggest that addictiveness is not a constant property of DAT-affecting compounds. These atypical ligands do not conform to the classic preconception that all DAT inhibitors (or substrates) are functionally and mechanistically alike. Instead, they suggest the possibility that the DAT exhibits some of the ligand-specific pleiotropic functional qualities inherent to G-protein-coupled receptors. That is, ligands with different chemical structures induce specific conformational changes in the transporter protein that can be differentially transduced by the cell, ultimately eliciting unique behavioral and psychological effects. The present overview discusses compounds with conformation-specific activity, useful not only as tools for studying the mechanics of dopamine transport, but also as leads for medication development in addictive disorders.

  11. Nonclassical Pharmacology of the Dopamine Transporter: Atypical Inhibitors, Allosteric Modulators, and Partial Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Richard B.; Reith, Maarten E. A.

    2013-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a sodium-coupled symporter protein responsible for modulating the concentration of extraneuronal dopamine in the brain. The DAT is a principle target of various psychostimulant, nootropic, and antidepressant drugs, as well as certain drugs used recreationally, including the notoriously addictive stimulant cocaine. DAT ligands have traditionally been divided into two categories: cocaine-like inhibitors and amphetamine-like substrates. Whereas inhibitors block monoamine uptake by the DAT but are not translocated across the membrane, substrates are actively translocated and trigger DAT-mediated release of dopamine by reversal of the translocation cycle. Because both inhibitors and substrates increase extraneuronal dopamine levels, it is often assumed that all DAT ligands possess an addictive liability equivalent to that of cocaine. However, certain recently developed ligands, such as atypical benztropine-like DAT inhibitors with reduced or even a complete lack of cocaine-like rewarding effects, suggest that addictiveness is not a constant property of DAT-affecting compounds. These atypical ligands do not conform to the classic preconception that all DAT inhibitors (or substrates) are functionally and mechanistically alike. Instead, they suggest the possibility that the DAT exhibits some of the ligand-specific pleiotropic functional qualities inherent to G-protein–coupled receptors. That is, ligands with different chemical structures induce specific conformational changes in the transporter protein that can be differentially transduced by the cell, ultimately eliciting unique behavioral and psychological effects. The present overview discusses compounds with conformation-specific activity, useful not only as tools for studying the mechanics of dopamine transport, but also as leads for medication development in addictive disorders. PMID:23568856

  12. Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine Are Novel Inhibitors of Human Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1A2.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenghao; Zhu, Ling; Chan, Ting; Lu, Xiaoxi; Shen, Weiyong; Madigan, Michele C; Gillies, Mark C; Zhou, Fanfan

    2016-02-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are widely used to treat malaria and inflammatory diseases, long-term usage of which often causes severe side effects, especially retinopathy. Solute carrier transporters (SLCs) are important proteins responsible for the cellular uptake of endogenous and exogenous substances. Inhibitors competing with transporter substrates for SLCs often results in unfavorable toxicities and unsatisfactory therapeutic outcomes. We investigated the inhibitory effect of CQ and HCQ on substrate uptake mediated through a range of important SLC transporters in overexpressing human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. Our data revealed that both CQ and HCQ potently inhibit the uptake activity of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2). We recently reported OATP1A2 to be expressed in human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), where it mediates cellular uptake of all-trans-retinol (atROL), a key step in the classical visual cycle. In this study, we demonstrate that CQ and HCQ could markedly impair atROL uptake in OATP1A2-expressing HEK293 cells and more importantly, in primary human RPE cells. Our study shows that CQ and HCQ are novel inhibitors of OATP1A2 and significantly impair OATP1A2-mediated substrate uptake, particularly transport of atROL into the RPE. This effect may compromise the function of the classic visual cycle leading to vision impairment and contribute to the retinopathy observed clinically in patients using CQ or HCQ.

  13. Identification of 1S,2R-milnacipran analogs as potent norepinephrine and serotonin transporter inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tamiya, Junko; Dyck, Brian; Zhang, Mingzhu; Phan, Kasey; Fleck, Beth A; Aparicio, Anna; Jovic, Florence; Tran, Joe A; Vickers, Troy; Grey, Jonathan; Foster, Alan C; Chen, Chen

    2008-06-01

    A series of milnacipran analogs were synthesized and studied as monoamine transporter inhibitors, and several potent compounds with moderate lipophilicity were identified from the 1S,2R-isomers. Thus, 15l exhibited IC(50) values of 1.7nM at NET and 25nM at SERT, which were, respectively, 20- and 13-fold more potent than 1S,2R-milnacipran 1-II.

  14. High-Throughput Screening Assay for Inhibitors of TonB-Dependent Iron Transport.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Mathew; Jordan, Lorne D; Shipelskiy, Yan; Newton, Salete M; Klebba, Phillip E

    2016-03-01

    The TonB-dependent Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane protein FepA actively transports the siderophore ferric enterobactin (FeEnt) into the periplasm. We developed a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay that observes FeEnt uptake through FepA in living Escherichia coli, by monitoring fluorescence quenching that occurs upon binding of FeEnt, and then unquenching as the bacteria deplete it from solution by transport. We optimized the labeling and spectroscopic methods to screen for inhibitors of TonB-dependent iron uptake through the outer membrane. The assay works like a molecular switch that is on in the presence of TonB activity and off in its absence. It functions in 96-well microtiter plates, in a variety of conditions, with Z factors of 0.8-1.0. TonB-dependent iron transport is energy dependent, and the inhibitory effects of the metabolic inhibitors carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, 2,4-dinitrophenol, azide, cyanide, and arsenate on FeEnt uptake were readily detected by the assay. Because iron acquisition is a determinant of bacterial pathogenesis, HTS with this method may identify inhibitors that block TonB function and constitute novel therapeutics against infectious disease caused by Gram-negative bacteria. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  15. Small molecule peptidomimetic inhibitors of importin α/β mediated nuclear transport

    PubMed Central

    Ambrus, Géza; Whitby, Landon R.; Singer, Eric L.; Trott, Oleg; Choi, Euna; Olson, Arthur J.; Boger, Dale L.; Gerace, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic transport of macromolecules is a fundamental process of eukaryotic cells. Translocation of proteins and many RNAs between the nucleus and cytoplasm is carried out by shuttling receptors of the β-karyopherin family, also called importins and exportins. Leptomycin B, a small molecule inhibitor of the exportin CRM1, has proved to be an invaluable tool for cell biologists, but up to now no small molecule inhibitors of nuclear import have been described. We devised a microtiter plate based permeabilized cell screen for small molecule inhibitors of the importin α/β pathway. By analyzing peptidomimetic libraries, we identified β-turn and α-helix peptidomimetic compounds that selectively inhibit nuclear import by importin α/β but not by transportin. Structure-activity relationship analysis showed that large aromatic residues and/or a histidine side chain are required for effective import inhibition by these compounds. Our validated inhibitors can be useful for in vitro studies of nuclear import, and can also provide a framework for synthesis of higher potency nuclear import inhibitors. PMID:20869252

  16. Hypoosmotic volume regulation and osmolyte transport in astrocytes is blocked by an anion transport inhibitor, L-644,711.

    PubMed

    Olson, J E; Kimelberg, H K

    1995-06-05

    Cell volume, potassium content, and potassium influx were measured in rat cerebral astrocytes grown in primary culture following exposure to hypoosmotic medium containing either 3.2 mM or 50 mM potassium. Some solutions also contained 1 mM L-644,711, an anion transport inhibitor. L-644,711 inhibited volume regulation and taurine efflux induced by hypoosmotic exposure in medium containing either potassium concentration. L-644,711 also inhibited potassium uptake associated and not associated with the sodium/potassium pump. The correlation of reduced taurine efflux and volume decrease produced by L-644,711 exposure indicates the important role for this amino acid in hypoosmotic astrocyte volume regulation. However, the effects of L-644,711 on potassium transport indicate that multiple actions of this drug may be important factors in its effect on astrocyte volume regulatory mechanisms.

  17. Combinatorial pharmacophore modeling of organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) inhibitors: insights into multiple inhibitory mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan; Liu, Xian; Li, Shanshan; Zhou, Nannan; Gong, Likun; Luo, Cheng; Luo, Xiaomin; Zheng, Mingyue; Jiang, Hualiang; Chen, Kaixian

    2013-12-02

    Organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) is responsible for the entry step of many drugs in renal elimination, of which the changing activity may cause unwanted drug-drug interactions (DDIs). To develop drugs with favorable safety profile and provide instruction for rational clinical drug administration, it is of great interest to investigate the multiple mechanisms of OCT2 inhibition. In this study, we designed a combinatorial scheme to screen the optimum combination of pharmacophores from a pool of hypotheses established based on 162 OCT2 inhibitors. Among them, one single pharmacophore hypothesis represents a potential binding mode that may account for one unique inhibitory mechanism, and the obtained pharmacophore combination describes the multimechanisms of OCT2 inhibition. The final model consists of four individual pharmacophores, i.e., DHPR18, APR2, PRR5 and HHR4. Given a query ligand, it is considered as an inhibitor if it matches at least one of the hypotheses, or a noninhibitor if it fails to match any of four hypotheses. Our combinatorial pharmacophore model performs reasonably well to discriminate inhibitors and noninhibitors, yielding an overall accuracy around 0.70 for a test set containing 81 OCT2 inhibitors and 218 noninhibitors. Intriguingly, we found that the number of matched hypotheses was positively correlated with inhibition rate, which coincides with the pharmacophore modeling result of P-gp substrate binding. Further analysis suggested that the hypothesis PRR5 was responsible for competitive inhibition of OCT2, and other hypotheses were important for interaction between the inhibitor and OCT2. In light of the results, a hypothetical model for inhibiting transporting mediated by OCT2 was proposed.

  18. Novel in vitro transport method for screening the reversibility of P-glycoprotein inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Netsomboon, Kesinee; Laffleur, Flavia; Suchaoin, Wongsakorn; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a novel in vitro method for screening reversibility of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors. Caco-2 cells with 21days of cultivation were used as an in vitro model. Transport of rhodamine 123 in the presence of various inhibitors and after removing of inhibitors was determined. Transport of rhodamine 123 at 4°C and in the secretory direction assured that Caco-2 cells exhibited P-gp function at all time of experiment. The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of rhodamine 123 in the presence of verapamil, cyclosporin A, ritonavir, quinidine, N-ethylmaleimide, Cremophor® EL, Tween 80 and poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine-2-mercaptonicotinic acid (PAA-cys-2MNA) was 2.3-, 3.8-, 2.3-, 3.1, 7.5-, 2.1-, 2.9- and 2.5-fold higher than Papp of rhodamine 123 alone. After removing of the inhibitors, Papp decreased to the same range of control except in the case of N-ethylmaleimide which was 2.4-fold higher than the control. These results revealed a reversible inhibition of verapamil, cyclosporin A, ritonavir, quinidine, Cremophor® EL, Tween 80 and PAA-cys-2MNA and an irreversible inhibition of N-ethylmaleimide for P-gp. Thus, this novel established that in vitro method might be an effective tool for screening the reversibility of inhibition of P-gp inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Palmitoylethanolamide and other anandamide congeners. Proposed role in the diseased brain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Harald S

    2010-07-01

    Acylethanolamides are formed in the brain "on demand" from membrane phospholipids called N-acylated phosphatidylethanolamines. The acylethanolamides are signaling molecules of lipid nature, and this lipofilicity suggests an autocrine function. The acylethanolamides include palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), oleoylethanolamide (OEA), stearoylethanolamide (SEA), and several other quantitative minor species including anandamide (= arachidonoylethanolamide). PEA and OEA can activate several different receptors and inhibit some ion channels, e.g., PPARalpha, vanilloid receptor, K(+) channels (Kv4.3, Kv1.5), and OEA can activate GPR119 and inhibit ceramidases. Targets for SEA are less clear, but it has some cannabimimetic actions in rats in vivo. All acylethanolamides accumulate during neuronal injury, and injected OEA has neuroprotective effects, and PEA has anti-inflammatory effects as studied in the peripheral system. Several of the pharmacological effects seem to be mediated via activation of PPARalpha. Recently, injected OEA has been found to consolidate memories in rats. Inhibitors of the acylethanolamide-degrading enzyme FAAH can increase levels of all acylethanolamides including annandamide, and some of the pharmacological effects caused by these inhibitors may be explained by increased cerebral levels of OEA and PEA, e.g., suppression of nicotine-induced activation of dopamine neurons. Furthermore, through activation of PPARalpha, OEA and PEA may stimulate neurosteroid synthesis, thereby modulating several biological functions mediated by GABA(A) receptors. The existence of acylethanolamides in the mammalian brain has been known for decades, but it is first within the last few years that the putative biological functions of the three most abundant acylethanolamides species are starting to emerge. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Spinal anandamide produces analgesia in neuropathic rats: possible CB(1)- and TRPV1-mediated mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Starowicz, K; Makuch, W; Osikowicz, M; Piscitelli, F; Petrosino, S; Di Marzo, V; Przewlocka, B

    2012-03-01

    The endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) activates also transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channels. However, no data exist on the potential role of spinal TRPV1 activation by AEA in neuropathic pain. We tested the effect of: 1) AEA (5-100 μg), alone or in the presence of an inhibitor of its hydrolysis, and 2) elevated levels of endogenous AEA (following inhibition of AEA hydrolysis), in CCI rats, and the involvement of TRPV1 or cannabinoid CB(1) receptors in the observed effects. Levels of AEA in the spinal cord of CCI rats were measured following all treatments. AEA (50 μg) displayed anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic effects which were abolished by previous antagonism of TRPV1, but not CB(1), receptors. Depending on the administered dose, the selective inhibitor of AEA enzymatic hydrolysis, URB597 (10-100 μg), reduced thermal and tactile nociception via CB(1) or CB(1)/TRPV1 receptors. The anti-nociceptive effects of co-administered per se ineffective doses of AEA (5 μg) and URB597 (5 μg) was abolished by antagonism of CB(1), but not TRPV1, receptors. Spinal AEA levels were increased after CCI, slightly increased further by URB597, 10 μg i.t., and strongly elevated by URB597, 100 μg. Injection of AEA (50 μg) into the lumbar spinal cord led to its dramatic elevation in this tissue, whereas, when a lower dose was used (5 μg) AEA endogenous levels were elevated only in the presence of URB597 (5 μg). We suggest that spinal AEA reduces neuropathic pain via CB(1) or TRPV1, depending on its local concentration.

  1. The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide and its synthetic analog R(+)-methanandamide are intravenously self-administered by squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Justinova, Zuzana; Solinas, Marcello; Tanda, Gianluigi; Redhi, Godfrey H; Goldberg, Steven R

    2005-06-08

    Anandamide, an endogenous ligand for brain cannabinoid CB(1) receptors, produces many behavioral effects similar to those of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive ingredient in marijuana. Reinforcing effects of THC have been demonstrated in experimental animals, but there is only indirect evidence that endogenous cannabinoids such as anandamide participate in brain reward processes. We now show that anandamide serves as an effective reinforcer of drug-taking behavior when self-administered intravenously by squirrel monkeys. We also show that methanandamide, a synthetic long-lasting anandamide analog, similarly serves as a reinforcer of drug-taking behavior. Finally, we show that the reinforcing effects of both anandamide and methanandamide are blocked by pretreatment with the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR141716). These findings strongly suggest that release of endogenous cannabinoids is involved in brain reward processes and that activation of cannabinoid CB(1) receptors by anandamide could be part of the signaling of natural rewarding events.

  2. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors as modulators of ABC transporter-mediated drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Suneet; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

    2012-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases (TKs) are involved in key signaling events/pathways that regulate cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis and metastasis. Deregulated activity of TKs has been implicated in several types of cancers. In recent years, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been developed to inhibit specific kinases whose constitutive activity results in specific cancer types. These TKIs have been found to demonstrate effective anticancer activity and some of them have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for clinical use or are in clinical trials. However, these targeted therapeutic agents are also transported by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, resulting in altered pharmacokinetics or development of resistance to these drugs in cancer patients. This review covers the recent findings on the interactions of clinically important TKIs with ABC drug transporters. Future research efforts in the development of novel TKIs with specific targets, seeking improved activity, should consider these underlying causes of resistance to TKIs in cancer cells. PMID:22325423

  3. Auxin transport inhibitors impair vesicle motility and actin cytoskeleton dynamics in diverse eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Dhonukshe, Pankaj; Grigoriev, Ilya; Fischer, Rainer; Tominaga, Motoki; Robinson, David G.; Hašek, Jiří; Paciorek, Tomasz; Petrášek, Jan; Seifertová, Daniela; Tejos, Ricardo; Meisel, Lee A.; Zažímalová, Eva; Gadella, Theodorus W. J.; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Ueda, Takashi; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Akhmanova, Anna; Brock, Roland; Spang, Anne; Friml, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Many aspects of plant development, including patterning and tropisms, are largely dependent on the asymmetric distribution of the plant signaling molecule auxin. Auxin transport inhibitors (ATIs), which interfere with directional auxin transport, have been essential tools in formulating this concept. However, despite the use of ATIs in plant research for many decades, the mechanism of ATI action has remained largely elusive. Using real-time live-cell microscopy, we show here that prominent ATIs such as 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and 2-(1-pyrenoyl) benzoic acid (PBA) inhibit vesicle trafficking in plant, yeast, and mammalian cells. Effects on micropinocytosis, rab5-labeled endosomal motility at the periphery of HeLa cells and on fibroblast mobility indicate that ATIs influence actin cytoskeleton. Visualization of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in plants, yeast, and mammalian cells show that ATIs stabilize actin. Conversely, stabilizing actin by chemical or genetic means interferes with endocytosis, vesicle motility, auxin transport, and plant development, including auxin transport-dependent processes. Our results show that a class of ATIs act as actin stabilizers and advocate that actin-dependent trafficking of auxin transport components participates in the mechanism of auxin transport. These studies also provide an example of how the common eukaryotic process of actin-based vesicle motility can fulfill a plant-specific physiological role. PMID:18337510

  4. TWISTED DWARF1 Mediates the Action of Auxin Transport Inhibitors on Actin Cytoskeleton Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Bailly, Aurelien; Zwiewka, Marta; Sovero, Valpuri; Ge, Pei; Aryal, Bibek; Hao, Pengchao; Linnert, Miriam; Burgardt, Noelia Inés; Lücke, Christian; Weiwad, Matthias; Michel, Max; Weiergräber, Oliver H.; Pollmann, Stephan; Azzarello, Elisa; Fukao, Yoichiro; Hoffmann, Céline; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth and architecture is regulated by the polar distribution of the hormone auxin. Polarity and flexibility of this process is provided by constant cycling of auxin transporter vesicles along actin filaments, coordinated by a positive auxin-actin feedback loop. Both polar auxin transport and vesicle cycling are inhibited by synthetic auxin transport inhibitors, such as 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), counteracting the effect of auxin; however, underlying targets and mechanisms are unclear. Using NMR, we map the NPA binding surface on the Arabidopsis thaliana ABCB chaperone TWISTED DWARF1 (TWD1). We identify ACTIN7 as a relevant, although likely indirect, TWD1 interactor, and show TWD1-dependent regulation of actin filament organization and dynamics and that TWD1 is required for NPA-mediated actin cytoskeleton remodeling. The TWD1-ACTIN7 axis controls plasma membrane presence of efflux transporters, and as a consequence act7 and twd1 share developmental and physiological phenotypes indicative of defects in auxin transport. These can be phenocopied by NPA treatment or by chemical actin (de)stabilization. We provide evidence that TWD1 determines downstream locations of auxin efflux transporters by adjusting actin filament debundling and dynamizing processes and mediating NPA action on the latter. This function appears to be evolutionary conserved since TWD1 expression in budding yeast alters actin polarization and cell polarity and provides NPA sensitivity. PMID:27053424

  5. The cholesterol transport inhibitor U18666A inhibits type I feline coronavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Takano, Tomomi; Endoh, Misaki; Fukatsu, Hiroaki; Sakurada, Haruko; Doki, Tomoyoshi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2017-09-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a feline coronavirus (FCoV)-induced fatal disease in wild and domestic cats. FCoV exists in two serotypes. Type I FCoV is the dominant serotype worldwide. Therefore, it is necessary to develop antiviral drugs against type I FCoV infection. We previously reported that type I FCoV is closely associated with cholesterol throughout the viral life cycle. In this study, we investigated whether U18666A, the cholesterol synthesis and transport inhibitor, shows antiviral effects against type I FCoV. U18666A induced cholesterol accumulation in cells and inhibited type I FCoV replication. Surprisingly, the antiviral activity of U18666A was suppressed by the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), Vorinostat. HDACi has been reported to revert U18666A-induced dysfunction of Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1). In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that NPC1 plays an important role in type I FCoV infection. U18666A or other cholesterol transport inhibitor may be considered as the antiviral drug for the treatment of cats with FIP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Structure activity relationships of benzylproline-derived inhibitors of the glutamine transporter ASCT2

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kurnvir; Tanui, Rose; Gameiro, Armanda; Eisenberg, Gilad; Colas, Claire; Schlessinger, Avner; Grewer, Christof

    2017-01-01

    The glutamine transporter ASCT2 has been identified as a promising target to inhibit rapid growth of cancer cells. However, ASCT2 pharmacology is not well established. In this report, we performed a systematic structure activity analysis of a series of substituted benzylproline derivatives. Substitutions on the phenyl ring resulted in compounds with characteristics of ASCT2 inhibitors. Apparent binding affinity increased with increasing hydrophobicity of the side chain. In contrast, interaction of the ASCT2 binding site with specific positions on the phenyl ring was not observed. The most potent compound inhibits the ASCT2 anion conductance with a Ki of 3 μM, which is in the same range as that of more bulky and higher molecular weight inhibitors recently reported by others. The experimental results are consistent with computational analysis based on docking of the inhibitors against an ASCT2 homology model. The benzylproline scaffold provides a valuable tool for further improving binding potency of future ASCT2 inhibitors. PMID:28057420

  7. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors: a growing class of antidiabetic agents.

    PubMed

    Vivian, Eva M

    2014-01-01

    Although several treatment options are available to reduce hyperglycemia, only about half of individuals with diagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM) achieve recommended glycemic targets. New agents that reduce blood glucose concentrations by novel mechanisms and have acceptable safety profiles are needed to improve glycemic control and reduce the complications associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The renal sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) is responsible for reabsorption of most of the glucose filtered by the kidney. Inhibitors of SGLT2 lower blood glucose independent of the secretion and action of insulin by inhibiting renal reabsorption of glucose, thereby promoting the increased urinary excretion of excess glucose. Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin are SGLT2 inhibitors approved as treatments for T2DM in the United States, Europe, and other countries. Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin increase renal excretion of glucose and improve glycemic parameters in patients with T2DM when used as monotherapy or in combination with other antihyperglycemic agents. Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors is associated with weight reduction, lowered blood pressure, and a low intrinsic propensity to cause hypoglycemia. Overall, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin are well tolerated. Cases of genital infections and, in some studies, urinary tract infections have been more frequent in canagliflozin-, dapagliflozin-, and empagliflozin-treated patients compared with those receiving placebo. Evidence from clinical trials suggests that SGLT2 inhibitors are a promising new treatment option for T2DM.

  8. Sodium glucose CoTransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors: Current status and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Madaan, Tushar; Akhtar, Mohd; Najmi, Abul Kalam

    2016-10-10

    Diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects millions of people worldwide and its prevalence is estimated to rise in the future. Billions of dollars are spent each year around the world in health expenditure related to diabetes. There are several anti-diabetic drugs in the market for the treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. In this article, we will be talking about a relatively new class of anti-diabetic drugs called sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. This class of drugs has a unique mechanism of action focusing on inhibition of glucose reabsorption that separates it from other classes. This article covers the mechanism of glucose reabsorption in the kidneys, the mechanism of action of SGLT2 inhibitors, several SGLT2 inhibitors currently available in the market as well as those in various phases of development, their individual pharmacokinetics as well as the discussion about the future role of SGLT2 inhibitors, not only for the treatment of diabetes, but also for various other diseases like obesity, hepatic steatosis, and cardiovascular disorders.

  9. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors: a growing class of antidiabetic agents

    PubMed Central

    Vivian, Eva M

    2014-01-01

    Although several treatment options are available to reduce hyperglycemia, only about half of individuals with diagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM) achieve recommended glycemic targets. New agents that reduce blood glucose concentrations by novel mechanisms and have acceptable safety profiles are needed to improve glycemic control and reduce the complications associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The renal sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) is responsible for reabsorption of most of the glucose filtered by the kidney. Inhibitors of SGLT2 lower blood glucose independent of the secretion and action of insulin by inhibiting renal reabsorption of glucose, thereby promoting the increased urinary excretion of excess glucose. Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin are SGLT2 inhibitors approved as treatments for T2DM in the United States, Europe, and other countries. Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin increase renal excretion of glucose and improve glycemic parameters in patients with T2DM when used as monotherapy or in combination with other antihyperglycemic agents. Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors is associated with weight reduction, lowered blood pressure, and a low intrinsic propensity to cause hypoglycemia. Overall, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin are well tolerated. Cases of genital infections and, in some studies, urinary tract infections have been more frequent in canagliflozin-, dapagliflozin-, and empagliflozin-treated patients compared with those receiving placebo. Evidence from clinical trials suggests that SGLT2 inhibitors are a promising new treatment option for T2DM. PMID:25598831

  10. Effect of light and auxin transport inhibitors on endoreduplication in hypocotyl and cotyledon.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Riko; Amijima, Makoto; Iwata, Yuji; Koizumi, Nozomu; Mishiba, Kei-Ichiro

    2016-12-01

    Enhancement of endoreduplication in dark-grown hypocotyl is a common feature in dicotyledonous polysomatic plants, and TIBA-mediated inhibition of the endoreduplication is partially due to abnormal actin organization. Many higher plant species use endoreduplication during cell differentiation. However, the mechanisms underlying this process have remained elusive. In this study, we examined endoreduplication in hypocotyls and cotyledons in response to light in some dicotyledonous plant species. Enhancement of endoreduplication was found in the dark-grown hypocotyls of all the polysomatic species analyzed across five different families, indicating that this process is a common feature in dicotyledonous plants having polysomatic tissues. Conversely, endoreduplication was enhanced in the light-grown cotyledons in four of the five species analyzed. We also analyzed the effect of a polar auxin transport inhibitor, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) on endoreduplication in hypocotyl and cotyledon tissues of radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. longipinnatus Bailey). TIBA was found to inhibit and promote endoreduplication in hypocotyls and cotyledons, respectively, suggesting that the endoreduplication mechanism differs in these organs. To gain insight into the effect of TIBA, radish and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) seedlings were treated with a vesicle-trafficking inhibitor, brefeldin A, and an actin polymerization inhibitor, cytochalasin D. Both of the inhibitors partially inhibited endoreduplication of the dark-grown hypocotyl tissues, suggesting that the prominent inhibition of endoreduplication by TIBA might be attributed to its multifaceted role.

  11. Both P-gp and MRP2 mediate transport of Lopinavir, a protease inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sheetal; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2011-01-01

    Polarized epithelial non-human (canine) cell lines stably transfected with human or murine complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding for various efflux transporters (P-gp/MDR1, MRP1, MRP2, and Bcrp1) were used to study transepithelial transport of Lopinavir (LVR) and compare results with the MDCKII-Wild type cells. These transmembrane proteins cause multidrug resistance by decreasing the total intracellular accumulation of drugs. Lopinavir efflux was directional and was completely inhibited by MK-571, a selective MRP family inhibitor in the MDCKII-MRP2 cell line. Similarly, LVR efflux was also inhibited by P-gp inhibitors P-gp 4008 and GF120918 in the MDCKII-MDR1 cell line. The efflux ratios (Efflux rate/ Influx rate) of LVR in the absence of any efflux inhibitors in the MDCK-Wild type, MDCKII-MDR1, MDCKII-MRP1 and MDCKII-MRP2 cell monolayers were 1.32, 4.91, 1.26 and 2.89 respectively. The MDCKII-MDR1 and MDCKII-MRP2 cells have significantly increased LVR efflux ratio relative to the parental cells due to the apically directed transport by MDR1 and MRP2 respectively. The efflux ratios in MRP2 and MDR1 transfected cell lines were close to unity in the presence of MK-571 and P-gp 4008 respectively; indicating that LVR efflux by MRP2 and P-gp was completely inhibited by their selective inhibitors. MDCKII-MRP1 cells did not exhibit a significant reduction in the LVR efflux relative to the parental cells, indicating that LVR is not a good substrate for MRP1. Transport studies across MDCKII-Bcrp1 cells indicated that LVR is not transported by Bcrp1 and is not a substrate for this efflux protein. In conclusion, this study presents direct evidence that LVR is effluxed by both P-gp and MRP2 which may contribute to its poor oral bioavailability and limited penetration into the CNS. PMID:17451894

  12. Protein kinase C activation potentiates gating of the vanilloid receptor VR1 by capsaicin, protons, heat and anandamide

    PubMed Central

    Vellani, Vittorio; Mapplebeck, Sarah; Moriondo, Andrea; Davis, John B; McNaughton, Peter A

    2001-01-01

    The effects of activation of protein kinase C (PKC) on membrane currents gated by capsaicin, protons, heat and anandamide were investigated in primary sensory neurones from neonatal rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and in HEK293 cells (human embryonic kidney cell line) transiently or stably expressing the human vanilloid receptor hVR1. Maximal activation of PKC by a brief application of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) increased the mean membrane current activated by a low concentration of capsaicin by 1.65-fold in DRG neurones and 2.18-fold in stably transfected HEK293 cells. Bradykinin, which activates PKC, also enhanced the response to capsaicin in DRG neurones. The specific PKC inhibitor RO31-8220 prevented the enhancement caused by PMA. Activation of PKC did not enhance the membrane current at high concentrations of capsaicin, showing that PKC activation increases the probability of channel opening rather than unmasking channels. Application of PMA alone activated an inward current in HEK293 cells transiently transfected with VR1. The current was suppressed by the VR1 antagonist capsazepine. PMA did not, however, activate a current in the large majority of DRG neurones nor in HEK293 cells stably transfected with VR1. Removing external Ca2+ enhanced the response to a low concentration of capsaicin 2.40-fold in DRG neurones and 3.42-fold in HEK293 cells. Activation of PKC in zero Ca2+ produced no further enhancement of the response to capsaicin in either DRG neurones or HEK293 cells stably transfected with VR1. The effects of PKC activation on the membrane current gated by heat, anandamide and low pH were qualitatively similar to those on the capsaicin-gated current. The absence of a current activated by PMA in most DRG neurones or in stably transfected HEK293 cells suggests that activation of PKC does not directly open VR1 channels, but instead increases the probability that they will be activated by capsaicin, heat, low pH or anandamide. Removal of calcium

  13. Preclinical Characterization of the FAAH Inhibitor JNJ-42165279

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The pre-clinical characterization of the aryl piperazinyl urea inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) JNJ-42165279 is described. JNJ-42165279 covalently inactivates the FAAH enzyme, but is highly selective with regard to other enzymes, ion channels, transporters, and receptors. JNJ-42165279 exhibited excellent ADME and pharmacodynamic properties as evidenced by its ability to block FAAH in the brain and periphery of rats and thereby cause an elevation of the concentrations of anandamide (AEA), oleoyl ethanolamide (OEA), and palmitoyl ethanolamide (PEA). The compound was also efficacious in the spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model of neuropathic pain. The combination of good physical, ADME, and PD properties of JNJ-42165279 supported it entering the clinical portfolio. PMID:26713105

  14. Preclinical Characterization of the FAAH Inhibitor JNJ-42165279.

    PubMed

    Keith, John M; Jones, William M; Tichenor, Mark; Liu, Jing; Seierstad, Mark; Palmer, James A; Webb, Michael; Karbarz, Mark; Scott, Brian P; Wilson, Sandy J; Luo, Lin; Wennerholm, Michelle L; Chang, Leon; Rizzolio, Michele; Rynberg, Raymond; Chaplan, Sandra R; Breitenbucher, J Guy

    2015-12-10

    The pre-clinical characterization of the aryl piperazinyl urea inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) JNJ-42165279 is described. JNJ-42165279 covalently inactivates the FAAH enzyme, but is highly selective with regard to other enzymes, ion channels, transporters, and receptors. JNJ-42165279 exhibited excellent ADME and pharmacodynamic properties as evidenced by its ability to block FAAH in the brain and periphery of rats and thereby cause an elevation of the concentrations of anandamide (AEA), oleoyl ethanolamide (OEA), and palmitoyl ethanolamide (PEA). The compound was also efficacious in the spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model of neuropathic pain. The combination of good physical, ADME, and PD properties of JNJ-42165279 supported it entering the clinical portfolio.

  15. Amygdala FAAH and anandamide: mediating protection and recovery from stress.

    PubMed

    Gunduz-Cinar, Ozge; Hill, Matthew N; McEwen, Bruce S; Holmes, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    A long-standing literature linking endocannabinoids (ECBs) to stress, fear, and anxiety has led to growing interest in developing novel anxiolytics targeting the ECB system. Following rapid on-demand biosynthesis and degradation upon neuronal activation, the ECB N-arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA) is actively degraded by the serine hydrolase enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Exposure to stress rapidly mobilizes FAAH to deplete the signaling pool of AEA and increase neuronal excitability in a key anxiety-mediating region--the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Gene deletion or pharmacological inhibition of FAAH prevents stress-induced reductions in AEA and associated increases in BLA dendritic hypertrophy and anxiety-like behavior. Additionally, inhibition of FAAH facilitates long-term fear extinction and rescues deficient fear extinction in rodent models by enhancing AEA-CB1 (cannabinoid type 1) receptor signaling and synaptic plasticity in the BLA. These preclinical findings propose restoring deficient BLA AEA levels by pharmacologically inhibiting FAAH as a mechanism to therapeutically mitigate the effects of traumatic stress.

  16. Biaryls as potent, tunable dual neurokinin 1 receptor antagonists and serotonin transporter inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Degnan, Andrew P; Tora, George O; Han, Ying; Rajamani, Ramkumar; Bertekap, Robert; Krause, Rudolph; Davis, Carl D; Hu, Joanna; Morgan, Daniel; Taylor, Sarah J; Krause, Kelly; Li, Yu-Wen; Mattson, Gail; Cunningham, Melissa A; Taber, Matthew T; Lodge, Nicholas J; Bronson, Joanne J; Gillman, Kevin W; Macor, John E

    2015-08-01

    Depression is a serious illness that affects millions of patients. Current treatments are associated with a number of undesirable side effects. Neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) antagonists have recently been shown to potentiate the antidepressant effects of serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in a number of animal models. Herein we describe the optimization of a biaryl chemotype to provide a series of potent dual NK1R antagonists/serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitors. Through the choice of appropriate substituents, the SERT/NK1R ratio could be tuned to afford a range of target selectivity profiles. This effort culminated in the identification of an analog that demonstrated oral bioavailability, favorable brain uptake, and efficacy in the gerbil foot tap model. Ex vivo occupancy studies with compound 58 demonstrated the ability to maintain NK1 receptor saturation (>88% occupancy) while titrating the desired level of SERT occupancy (11-84%) via dose selection.

  17. Clinical CYP3A inhibitor alternatives to ketoconazole, clarithromycin and itraconazole, are not transported into the liver by hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptides and organic cation transporter 1.

    PubMed

    Higgins, J William; Ke, Alice B; Zamek-Gliszczynski, Maciej J

    2014-11-01

    Ketoconazole is no longer available for clinical determination of worst-case victim drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential for cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A)-substrate drugs; clarithromycin and itraconazole are the proposed replacements. Ketoconazole DDIs are described by unbound systemic exposures due to absence of carrier-facilitated hepatic uptake, but this aspect of clarithromycin and itraconazole disposition has not been investigated. At present, transport of clarithromycin, itraconazole, and hydroxyitraconazole by hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) and organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) was examined in vitro and in vivo. As for ketoconazole, uptake of clarithromycin, itraconazole, and hydroxyitraconazole into OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1, and OCT1 expressing human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells was not greater than in vector controls. Uptake into these HEK293 cells and human hepatocytes was not impaired by the prototypical OATP, OCT, and sodium/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide inhibitors bromosulfophthalein, imipramine, and taurocholate, respectively. In contrast, uptake of the positive controls, atorvastatin for OATPs and metformin for OCT1, was significantly enhanced by relevant transporter expression, and uptake into both these HEK293 cells and human hepatocytes was significantly impaired by prototypical inhibitors. In Oatp1a/1b gene cluster knockout mice, which lack the major hepatic Oatps, and in Oct1/2 knockout mice, ketoconazole, clarithromycin, itraconazole, and hydroxyitraconazole oral exposure was not increased, and the liver-to-blood partition coefficient (Kp) was not decreased. By contrast relative to wild-type mice, in Oatp1a/1b- and Oct1/2-knockout mice, atorvastatin and metformin oral exposure was significantly increased, and liver Kp was significantly decreased. The present studies provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that, like ketoconazole, clarithromycin, itraconazole, and hydroxyitraconazole are not transported

  18. Discovery of a specific inhibitor of human GLUT5 by virtual screening and in vitro transport evaluation.

    PubMed

    George Thompson, Alayna M; Ursu, Oleg; Babkin, Petr; Iancu, Cristina V; Whang, Alex; Oprea, Tudor I; Choe, Jun-yong

    2016-04-14

    GLUT5, a fructose-transporting member of the facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT, SLC2) family, is a therapeutic target for diabetes and cancer but has no potent inhibitors. We virtually screened a library of 6 million chemicals onto a GLUT5 model and identified N-[4-(methylsulfonyl)-2-nitrophenyl]-1,3-benzodioxol-5-amine (MSNBA) as an inhibitor of GLUT5 fructose transport in proteoliposomes. MSNBA inhibition was specific to GLUT5; this inhibitor did not affect the fructose transport of human GLUT2 or the glucose transport of human GLUT1-4 or bacterial GlcPSe. In MCF7 cells, a human breast cancer cell line, MSNBA competitively inhibited GLUT5 fructose uptake with a KI of 3.2 ± 0.4 μM. Ligand docking, mutagenesis and functional studies indicate that MSNBA binds near the active site and inhibitor discrimination involves H387 of GLUT5. Thus, MSNBA is a selective and potent inhibitor of fructose transport via GLUT5, and the first chemical probe for this transporter. Our data indicate that active site differences in GLUT members could be exploited to further enhance ligand specificity.

  19. Effects of glial glutamate transporter inhibitors on intracellular Na+ in mouse astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Chatton, J Y; Shimamoto, K; Magistretti, P J

    2001-03-02

    The effects of inhibitors of the glial Na+/glutamate co-transporter on the intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+](i)) were investigated in mouse cortical astrocytes. [Na+](i) was monitored by fluorescence microscopy on single astrocytes using the Na+-sensitive probe sodium-binding benzofuran isophtalate. Application of the competitive inhibitors threo-beta-hydroxyaspartate (THA) and trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (t-PDC) resulted in robust and reversible increases in [Na+](i) that were comparable in shape to the response to glutamate but about twice lower in amplitude. As previously observed with glutamate, the amplitude of the [Na+](i) response to these compounds was concentration-dependent with EC(50) values of 11.1 microM (THA) and 7.6 microM (t-PDC), as was the initial rate of [Na+](i) rise (EC(50) values of 14.8 microM for THA and 11.5 microM for t-PDC). Both compounds diminished the response to subsequent glutamate applications, possibly because of an inhibitory effect of the intracellularly-accumulated compounds. In comparison, the newly-developed compound threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartate (TBOA) alone did not cause any significant alteration of [Na+](i) up to a concentration of 500 microM . TBOA inhibited the [Na+](i) response evoked by 200 microM glutamate in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 114 and 63 microM, as measured on the amplitude and the initial rate, respectively. The maximum inhibition of glutamate-evoked [Na+](i) increase by TBOA was approximately 70%. The residual response persisted in the presence of a non-NMDA receptor antagonist or the inhibitor of the GLT-1 glutamate transporters, dihydrokainate (DHK). In view of the complete reversibility of its effects, TBOA represents a very useful pharmacological tool for studies of glutamate transporters.

  20. High-affinity interaction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors with the ABCG2 multidrug transporter.

    PubMed

    Ozvegy-Laczka, Csilla; Hegedus, Tamás; Várady, György; Ujhelly, Olga; Schuetz, John D; Váradi, András; Kéri, György; Orfi, László; Német, Katalin; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2004-06-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are promising new agents for specific inhibition of malignant cell growth and metastasis formation. Because most of the TKIs have to reach an intracellular target, specific membrane transporters may significantly modulate their effectiveness. In addition, the hydrophobic TKIs may interact with so-called multidrug transporters and thus alter the cellular distribution of unrelated pharmacological agents. In the present work, we show that certain TKIs, already in the clinical phase of drug development, directly interact with the ABCG2 multidrug transporter protein with a high affinity. We found that in several in vitro assay systems, STI-571 (Gleevec; imatinib mesylate), ZD1839 (Iressa; gefitinib), and N-[4-[(3-bromophenyl)amino]-6-quinazolinyl]-2-butynamide (EKI-785) interacted with ABCG2 at submicromolar concentrations, whereas other multidrug transporters, human multidrug resistance protein (P-glycoprotein, ABCB1) and human multidrug resistance protein 1 (ABCC1), showed much lower reactivity toward these agents. Low concentrations of the TKIs examined selectively modulated ABCG2-ATPase activity, inhibited ABCG2-dependent active drug extrusion, and significantly affected drug resistance patterns in cells expressing ABCG2. Our results indicate that multidrug resistance protein modulation by TKIs may be an important factor in the clinical treatment of cancer patients. These data also raise the possibility that an extrusion of TKIs by multidrug transporters, e.g., ABCG2, may be involved in tumor cell TKI resistance.

  1. The monocarboxylate transporter inhibitor α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid disrupts rat lung branching.

    PubMed

    Granja, Sara; Morais-Santos, Filipa; Miranda-Gonçalves, Vera; Viana-Ferreira, Manuel; Nogueira, Rosete; Nogueira-Silva, Cristina; Correia-Pinto, Jorge; Baltazar, Fátima

    2013-01-01

    The human embryo develops in a hypoxic environment. In this way, cells have to rely on the glycolytic pathway for energy supply, leading to an intracellular accumulation of monocarboxylates such as lactate and pyruvate. These acids have an important role in cell metabolism and their rapid transport across the plasma membrane is crucial for the maintenance of intracellular pH homeostasis. This transport is mediated by a family of transporters, designated by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), namely isoforms 1 and 4. MCT1/4 expression is regulated by the ancillary protein CD147.The general aim of this study was to characterize the expression pattern of MCT1/4, CD147 and the glucose transporter GLUT1 during human fetal lung development and elucidate the role of MCTs in lung development. The expression pattern of MCT1/4 and GLUT1 was characterized by immunohistochemistry and fetal lung viability and branching were evaluated by exposing rat fetal lung explants to CHC, an inhibitor of MCT activity. Our findings show that all the biomarkers are differently expressed during fetal lung development and that CHC appears to have an inhibitory effect on lung branching and viability, in a dose dependent way. We provide evidence for the role of MCTs in embryo lung development, however to prove the dependence of MCT activity further studies are waranted. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Caffeine intake enhances the benefits of sodium glucose transporter 2 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Muhei; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Nakano, Koji; Ushigome, Emi; Okada, Hiroshi; Oda, Yohei; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    2016-10-01

    The effect of sodium glucose transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors is dependent on the glomerular filtration rate. It has been reported that caffeine intake increases glomerular filtration rate. However, the effect of caffeine intake on urinary glucose excretion in patients who take SGLT-2 inhibitors is unclear. Six patients with type 2 diabetes took part in a randomized, open-label, crossover pilot study. The patients took SGLT-2 inhibitors (ipragliflozin) for 9 days. On day 3, 6 and 9, the patients were assigned to one of three studies: Water 500, patients drank 500 mL of water in 3 h; Water 1500, patients drank 1500 mL of water in 3 h; and Caffeine 500, patients drank 500 mL of water with 400 mg of caffeine in 3 h. In all of the studies, the patients' urine was collected over a 6-h period. In addition, we enrolled 60 patients with type 2 diabetes who newly took SGLT-2 inhibitors in a 3-month follow-up cohort study to investigate the effect of caffeine intake on glucose control. Caffeine intake was evaluated using questionnaires. The 6-h median (interquartile range) urinary glucose excretion was 9.5 (8.5-9.7) g in Water 500, 12.2 (10.3-27.2) g in Water 1500 and 15.7 (11.4-21.4) g in Caffeine 500 (p = 0.005 vs Water 500). In the cohort study, multiple regression analysis demonstrated that log (caffeine intake) was associated with a change in HbA1c (β = -0.299, p = 0.043) after adjusting for covariates. Caffeine intake enhanced the effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Diphenyleneiodonium, an inhibitor of NOXes and DUOXes, is also an iodide-specific transporter.

    PubMed

    Massart, C; Giusti, N; Beauwens, R; Dumont, J E; Miot, F; Sande, J Van

    2013-01-01

    NADPH oxidases (NOXes) and dual oxidases (DUOXes) generate O2 (.-) and H2O2. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) inhibits the activity of these enzymes and is often used as a specific inhibitor. It is shown here that DPI, at concentrations similar to those which inhibit the generation of O2 derivatives, activated the efflux of radioiodide but not of its analog (99m)TcO4 (-) nor of the K(+) cation mimic (86)Rb(+) in thyroid cells, in the PCCl3 rat thyroid cell line and in COS cell lines expressing the iodide transporter NIS. Effects obtained with DPI, especially in thyroid cells, should therefore be interpreted with caution.

  4. Crystallographic study of FABP5 as an intracellular endocannabinoid transporter

    PubMed Central

    Sanson, Benoît; Wang, Tao; Sun, Jing; Wang, Liqun; Kaczocha, Martin; Ojima, Iwao; Deutsch, Dale; Li, Huilin

    2014-01-01

    In addition to binding intracellular fatty acids, fatty-acid-binding proteins (FABPs) have recently been reported to also transport the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-­arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), arachidonic acid derivatives that function as neurotransmitters and mediate a diverse set of physiological and psychological processes. To understand how the endocannabinoids bind to FABPs, the crystal structures of FABP5 in complex with AEA, 2-AG and the inhibitor BMS-309403 were determined. These ligands are shown to interact primarily with the substrate-binding pocket via hydrophobic interactions as well as a common hydrogen bond to the Tyr131 residue. This work advances our understanding of FABP5–endocannabinoid interactions and may be useful for future efforts in the development of small-molecule inhibitors to raise endocannabinoid levels. PMID:24531463

  5. Effects of anandamide administration on components of reward processing during free choice.

    PubMed

    Zona, Luke C; Fry, Benjamin R; LaLonde, Jacob A; Cromwell, Howard C

    2017-07-01

    Previous research has implicated the positive modulation of anandamide, an endocannabinoid neurotransmitter, on feeding behavior. Anandamide is particularly noteworthy as it acts as an endogenous ligand of the CB1 receptor, the same receptor that is activated by tetrahydrocannabinol, the primary psychoactive component in Cannabis sativa. Cannabis legalization in North America has presented with a need to study endocannabinoid agonists and their effects on behavior. Much has yet to be determined in terms of the role of the endocannabinoid system in decision-making scenarios. The research presented here tested the hypothesis that anandamide would augment motivation and reward processing via appetitive and consummatory measures during an operant, foraging task. A three-box design was used in order to provide the animals with a free choice, exploratory foraging environment. Discrimination, preference, and incentive contrast were analyzed as discrete measures of decision-making in the three-box paradigm. Anandamide administration (1mg/kg) was found to significantly increase motivation for the optimal foraging outcome and alter basic processing of reward information involved in discrimination and relative valuation. The positive effects of anandamide on eating behavior and motivation have implications toward possible treatment modalities for patient populations presenting with disorders of motivation. These findings suggest the need for continued investigation of the endocannabinoid system as a central component of motivated behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Drives Anandamide Hydrolysis in the Amygdala to Promote Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Gray, J. Megan; Vecchiarelli, Haley A.; Morena, Maria; Lee, Tiffany T.Y.; Hermanson, Daniel J.; Kim, Alexander B.; McLaughlin, Ryan J.; Hassan, Kowther I.; Kühne, Claudia; Wotjak, Carsten T.; Deussing, Jan M.; Patel, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a central integrator in the brain of endocrine and behavioral stress responses, whereas activation of the endocannabinoid CB1 receptor suppresses these responses. Although these systems regulate overlapping functions, few studies have investigated whether these systems interact. Here we demonstrate a novel mechanism of CRH-induced anxiety that relies on modulation of endocannabinoids. Specifically, we found that CRH, through activation of the CRH receptor type 1 (CRHR1), evokes a rapid induction of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which causes a reduction in the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA), within the amygdala. Similarly, the ability of acute stress to modulate amygdala FAAH and AEA in both rats and mice is also mediated through CRHR1 activation. This interaction occurs specifically in amygdala pyramidal neurons and represents a novel mechanism of endocannabinoid–CRH interactions in regulating amygdala output. Functionally, we found that CRH signaling in the amygdala promotes an anxious phenotype that is prevented by FAAH inhibition. Together, this work suggests that rapid reductions in amygdala AEA signaling following stress may prime the amygdala and facilitate the generation of downstream stress-linked behaviors. Given that endocannabinoid signaling is thought to exert “tonic” regulation on stress and anxiety responses, these data suggest that CRH signaling coordinates a disruption of tonic AEA activity to promote a state of anxiety, which in turn may represent an endogenous mechanism by which stress enhances anxiety. These data suggest that FAAH inhibitors may represent a novel class of anxiolytics that specifically target stress-induced anxiety. PMID:25740517

  7. Production and Actions of the Anandamide Metabolite Prostamide E2 in the Renal Medulla

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cao; Xia, Min; Poklis, Justin L.; Lichtman, Aron H.; Abdullah, Rehab A.; Dewey, William L.; Li, Pin-Lan

    2012-01-01

    Medullipin has been proposed to be an antihypertensive lipid hormone released from the renal medulla in response to increased arterial pressure and renal medullary blood flow. Because anandamide (AEA) possesses characteristics of this purported hormone, the present study tested the hypothesis that AEA or one of its metabolites represents medullipin. AEA was demonstrated to be enriched in the kidney medulla compared with cortex. Western blotting and enzymatic analyses of renal cortical and medullary microsomes revealed opposite patterns of enrichment of two AEA-metabolizing enzymes, with fatty acid amide hydrolase higher in the renal cortex and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) higher in the renal medulla. In COX-2 reactions with renal medullary microsomes, prostamide E2, the ethanolamide of prostaglandin E2, was the major product detected. Intramedullarily infused AEA dose-dependently increased urine volume and sodium and potassium excretion (15–60 nmol/kg/min) but had little effect on mean arterial pressure (MAP). The renal excretory effects of AEA were blocked by intravenous infusion of celecoxib (0.1 μg/kg/min), a selective COX-2 inhibitor, suggesting the involvement of a prostamide intermediate. Plasma kinetic analysis revealed longer elimination half-lives for AEA and prostamide E2 compared with prostaglandin E2. Intravenous prostamide E2 reduced MAP and increased renal blood flow (RBF), actions opposite to those of angiotensin II. Coinfusion of prostamide E2 inhibited angiotensin II effects on MAP and RBF. These results suggest that AEA and/or its prostamide metabolites in the renal medulla may represent medullipin and function as a regulator of body fluid and MAP. PMID:22685343

  8. Anandamide inhibits nuclear factor-kappaB activation through a cannabinoid receptor-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Sancho, Rocío; Calzado, Marco A; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Appendino, Giovanni; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2003-02-01

    Anandamide (arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA), an endogenous agonist for both the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor and the vanilloid VR1 receptor, elicits neurobehavioral, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and proapoptotic effects. Because of the central role of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in the inflammatory process and the immune response, we postulated that AEA might owe some of its effects to the suppression of NF-kappaB. This study shows that AEA inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha)-induced NF-kappaB activation by direct inhibition of the IkappaB kinase (IKK)beta and, to a lesser extent, the IKKalpha subunits of kappaB inhibitor (IkappaB) kinase complex, and that IKKs inhibition by AEA correlates with inhibition of IkappaBalpha degradation, NF-kappaB binding to DNA, and NF-kappaB-dependent transcription in TNFalpha-stimulated cells. AEA also prevents NF-kappaB-dependent reporter gene expression induced by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase and NF-kappaB-inducing kinase. The NF-kappaB inhibitory activity of AEA was independent of CB(1) and CB(2) activation in TNFalpha-stimulated 5.1 and A549 cell lines, which do not express vanilloid receptor 1, and was not mediated by hydrolytic products formed through the activity of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase. Chemical modification markedly affected AEA inhibitory activity on NF-kappaB, suggesting rather narrow structure-activity relationships and the specific interaction with a molecular target. Substitution of the alkyl moiety with less saturated fatty acids generally reduced or abolished activity. However, replacement of the ethanolamine "head" with a vanillyl group led to potent inhibition of TNFalpha-induced NF-kappaB-dependent transcription. These findings provide new mechanistic insights into the anti-inflammatory and proapoptotic activities of AEA, and should foster the synthesis of improved analogs amenable to pharmaceutical development as anti-inflammatory agents.

  9. The polar auxin transport inhibitor TIBA inhibits endoreduplication in dark grown spinach hypocotyls.

    PubMed

    Amijima, Makoto; Iwata, Yuji; Koizumi, Nozomu; Mishiba, Kei-Ichiro

    2014-08-01

    We addressed the question of whether an additional round of endoreduplication in dark-grown hypocotyls is a common feature in dicotyledonous plants having endopolyploid tissues. Ploidy distributions of hypocotyl tissues derived from in vitro-grown spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Atlas) seedlings grown under different light conditions were analyzed by flow cytometry. An additional round of endoreduplication (represented by 32C cells) was found in the dark-grown hypocotyl tissues. This response was inhibited by light, the intensity of which is a crucial factor for the inhibition of endoreduplication. The higher ploidy cells in cortical tissues of the dark-grown hypocotyls had larger cell sizes, suggesting that the additional round of endoreduplication contributes to hypocotyl elongation. More importantly, a polar auxin transport inhibitor, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), strongly inhibits endoreduplication, not only in spinach but also in Arabidopsis. Because other polar auxin transport inhibitors or an auxin antagonist show no or mild effects, TIBA may have a specific feature that inhibits endoreduplication.

  10. Further structure-activity relationship studies of piperidine-based monoamine transporter inhibitors: effects of piperidine ring stereochemistry on potency. Identification of norepinephrine transporter selective ligands and broad-spectrum transporter inhibitors.

    PubMed

    He, Rong; Kurome, Toru; Giberson, Kelly M; Johnson, Kenneth M; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2005-12-15

    4-(4-Chlorophenyl)piperidine analogues each bearing a thioacetamide side chain appendage similar to that found in the wake-promoting drug modafinil have been synthesized. The transporter inhibitory activity of both the cis and trans isomers of these 3,4-disubstituted piperidines in both their (+)- and (-)-enantiomeric forms was determined. These studies reveal that the (-)-cis analogues exhibit dopamine transporter/norepinephrine transporter (DAT/NET) selectivity as was previously reported for the (+)-trans analogues. On the other hand, the (-)-trans and the (+)-cis isomers show serotonin transporter (SERT) or SERT/NET selectivity. Among them, (+)-cis-5b shows a low nanomolar Ki for the NET with 39-fold and 321-fold lower potency at the DAT and SERT, respectively, thus making it a useful pharmacological research tool for exploring NET-associated behavioral signatures. On the other hand, several of the compounds described herein, such as (+)-trans-5c, show comparable activity at all three transporters. Because broad-spectrum transporter inhibitors have been hypothesized to exhibit a more rapid onset of action and/or a greater efficacy as antidepressant agents than those selective for SERT or SERT + NET, some of the present compounds will be valuable to study in animal models of depression.

  11. Synthesis and Structure-activity Relationship Studies of O-Biphenyl-3-yl Carbamates as Peripherally Restricted Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Sanz, Guillermo; Duranti, Andrea; Melzig, Laurin; Fiorelli, Claudio; Ruda, Gian Filippo; Colombano, Giampiero; Mestichelli, Paola; Sanchini, Silvano; Tontini, Andrea; Mor, Marco; Bandiera, Tiziano; Scarpelli, Rita; Tarzia, Giorgio; Piomelli, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The peripherally restricted fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB937 (3, cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3’-carbamoyl-6-hydroxybiphenyl-3-yl ester) is extruded from the brain and spinal cord by the Abcg2 efflux transporter. Despite its inability to enter the central nervous system (CNS), 3 exerts profound antinociceptive effects in mice and rats, which result from the inhibition of FAAH in peripheral tissues and the consequent enhancement of anandamide signaling at CB1 cannabinoid receptors localized on sensory nerve endings. In the present study, we examined the structure-activity relationships (SAR) for the biphenyl region of compound 3, focusing on the carbamoyl and hydroxyl groups in the distal and proximal phenyl rings. Our SAR studies generated a new series of peripherally restricted FAAH inhibitors and identified compound 35 (cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3’-carbamoyl-5-hydroxybiphenyl-3-yl ester) as the most potent brain-impermeant FAAH inhibitor disclosed to date. PMID:23822179

  12. Sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors reduce evening home blood pressure in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Tsuneo; Kishimoto, Miyako; Ohta, Mari; Tomonaga, Osamu; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2017-05-01

    The effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors on home blood pressure were examined in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy. The patients with diabetic nephropathy were screened from medical records in our hospitals. Among them, 52 patients who measured home blood pressure and started to take sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors were selected. Clinical parameters including estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria and home blood pressure for 6 months were analysed. Sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors (luseogliflozin 5 mg/day or canagliflozin 100 mg/day) reduced body weight, HbA1c, albuminuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate and office blood pressure. Although sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors did not alter morning blood pressure, it reduced evening systolic blood pressure. Regression analyses revealed that decreases in evening blood pressure predicted decrements in albuminuria. The present data suggest that sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors suppress sodium overload during daytime to reduce evening blood pressure and albuminuria.

  13. Glycine transporters type 1 inhibitor promotes brain preconditioning against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Mauro Cunha Xavier; Lima, Isabel Vieira de Assis; da Costa, Flávia Lage Pessoa; Rosa, Daniela Valadão; Mendes-Goulart, Vânia Aparecida; Resende, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurélio; de Oliveira, Antônio Carlos Pinheiro; Gomez, Marcus Vinícius; Gomez, Renato Santiago

    2015-02-01

    Brain preconditioning is a protective mechanism, which can be activated by sub-lethal stimulation of the NMDA receptors (NMDAR) and be used to achieve neuroprotection against stroke and neurodegenerative diseases models. Inhibitors of glycine transporters type 1 modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission through NMDAR, suggesting an alternative therapeutic strategy of brain preconditioning. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of brain preconditioning induced by NFPS, a GlyT1 inhibitor, against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity in mice hippocampus, as well as to study its neurochemical mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice (male, 10-weeks-old) were preconditioned by intraperitoneal injection of NFPS at doses of 1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg, 24 h before intrahippocampal injection of NMDA. Neuronal death was evaluated by fluoro jade C staining and neurochemical parameters were evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, scintillation spectrometry and western blot. We observed that NFPS preconditioning reduced neuronal death in CA1 region of hippocampus submitted to NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. The amino acids (glycine and glutamate) uptake and content were increased in hippocampus of animals treated with NFPS 5.0 mg/kg, which were associated to an increased expression of type-2 glycine transporter (GlyT2) and glutamate transporters (EAAT1, EAAT2 and EAAT3). The expression of GlyT1 was reduced in animals treated with NFPS. Interestingly, the preconditioning reduced expression of GluN2B subunits of NMDAR, whereas did not change the expression of GluN1 or GluN2A in all tested doses. Our study suggests that NFPS preconditioning induces resistance against excitotoxicity, which is associated with neurochemical changes and reduction of GluN2B-containing NMDAR expression.

  14. Evaluation of Ketoconazole and Its Alternative Clinical CYP3A4/5 Inhibitors as Inhibitors of Drug Transporters: The In Vitro Effects of Ketoconazole, Ritonavir, Clarithromycin, and Itraconazole on 13 Clinically-Relevant Drug Transporters.

    PubMed

    Vermeer, Lydia M M; Isringhausen, Caleb D; Ogilvie, Brian W; Buckley, David B

    2016-03-01

    Ketoconazole is a potent CYP3A4/5 inhibitor and, until recently, recommended by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency as a strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitor in clinical drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies. Ketoconazole sporadically causes liver injury or adrenal insufficiency. Because of this, the FDA and European Medicines Agency recommended suspension of ketoconazole use in DDI studies in 2013. The FDA specifically recommended use of clarithromycin or itraconazole as alternative strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitors in clinical DDI studies, but many investigators have also used ritonavir as an alternative. Although the effects of these clinical CYP3A4/5 inhibitors on other CYPs are largely established, reports on the effects on the broad range of drug transporter activities are sparse. In this study, the inhibitory effects of ketoconazole, clarithromycin, ritonavir, and itraconazole (and its CYP3A4-inhibitory metabolites, hydroxy-, keto-, and N-desalkyl itraconazole) toward 13 drug transporters (OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OAT1, OAT3, OCT1, OCT2, MATE1, MATE2-K, P-gp, BCRP, MRP2, MRP3, and BSEP) were systematically assessed in transporter-expressing HEK-293 cell lines or membrane vesicles. In vitro findings were translated into clinical context with the basic static model approaches outlined by the FDA in its 2012 draft guidance on DDIs. The results indicate that, like ketoconazole, the alternative clinical CYP3A4/5 inhibitors ritonavir, clarithromycin, and itraconazole each have unique transporter inhibition profiles. None of the alternatives to ketoconazole provided a clean inhibition profile toward the 13 drug transporters evaluated. The results provide guidance for the selection of clinical CYP3A4/5 inhibitors when transporters are potentially involved in a victim drug's pharmacokinetics.

  15. Susceptibilities of Candida albicans multidrug transporter mutants to various antifungal agents and other metabolic inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Sanglard, D; Ischer, F; Monod, M; Bille, J

    1996-01-01

    Some Candida albicans isolates from AIDS patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis are becoming resistant to the azole antifungal agent fluconazole after prolonged treatment with this compound. Most of the C. albicans isolates resistant to fluconazole fail to accumulate this antifungal agent, and this has been considered a cause of resistance. This phenomenon was shown to be linked to an increase in the amounts of mRNA of a C. albicans ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter gene called CDR1 and of a gene conferring benomyl resistance (BENr), the product of which belongs to the class of major facilitator multidrug efflux transporters (D. Sanglard, K. Kuchler, F. Ischer, J. L. Pagani, M. Monod, and J. Bille, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:2378-2386, 1995). To analyze the roles of these multidrug transporters in the efflux of azole antifungal agents, we constructed C. albicans mutants with single and double deletion mutations of the corresponding genes. The mutants were tested for their susceptibilities to these antifungal agents. Our results indicated that the delta cdr1 C. albicans mutant was hypersusceptible to the azole derivatives fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole, thus showing that the ABC transporter Cdr1 can use these compounds as substrates. The delta cdr1 mutant was also hypersusceptible to other antifungal agents (terbinafine and amorolfine) and to different metabolic inhibitors (cycloheximide, brefeldin A, and fluphenazine). The same mutant was slightly more susceptible than the wild type to nocodazole, cerulenin, and crystal violet but not to amphotericin B, nikkomycin Z, flucytosine, or pradimicin. In contrast, the delta ben mutant was rendered more susceptible only to the mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide. However, this mutation increased the susceptibilities of the cells to cycloheximide and cerulenin when the mutation was constructed in a delta cdr1 background. The assay used in the present study could be implemented with new antifungal

  16. Human intestine luminal ACE2 and amino acid transporter expression increased by ACE-inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vuille-dit-Bille, Raphael N; Camargo, Simone M; Emmenegger, Luca; Sasse, Tom; Kummer, Eva; Jando, Julia; Hamie, Qeumars M; Meier, Chantal F; Hunziker, Schirin; Forras-Kaufmann, Zsofia; Kuyumcu, Sena; Fox, Mark; Schwizer, Werner; Fried, Michael; Lindenmeyer, Maja; Götze, Oliver; Verrey, François

    2015-04-01

    Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) and imino acid (proline) transporter SIT1 (SLC6A20) are expressed at the luminal membrane of small intestine enterocytes and proximal tubule kidney cells where they exert key functions for amino acid (re)absorption as documented by their role in Hartnup disorder and iminoglycinuria, respectively. Expression of B(0)AT1 was shown in rodent intestine to depend on the presence of the carboxypeptidase angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). This enzyme belongs to the renin-angiotensin system and its expression is induced by treatment with ACE-inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs) in many rodent tissues. We show here in the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system that human ACE2 also functionally interacts with SIT1. To investigate in human intestine the potential effect of ACEIs or ARBs on ACE2, we analysed intestinal biopsies taken during routine gastroduodenoscopy and ileocolonoscopy from 46 patients of which 9 were under ACEI and 13 ARB treatment. Analysis of transcript expression by real-time PCR and of proteins by immunofluorescence showed a co-localization of SIT1 and B(0)AT1 with ACE2 in the brush-border membrane of human small intestine enterocytes and a distinct axial expression pattern of the tested gene products along the intestine. Patients treated with ACEIs displayed in comparison with untreated controls increased intestinal mRNA levels of ACE2, peptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) and AA transporters B(0)AT1 and PAT1 (SLC36A1). This study unravels in human intestine the localization and distribution of intestinal transporters involved in amino acid absorption and suggests that ACEIs impact on their expression.

  17. Hypouricemic effects of novel concentrative nucleoside transporter 2 inhibitors through suppressing intestinal absorption of purine nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Hiratochi, Masahiro; Tatani, Kazuya; Shimizu, Kazuo; Kuramochi, Yu; Kikuchi, Norihiko; Kamada, Noboru; Itoh, Fumiaki; Isaji, Masayuki

    2012-09-05

    We have developed concentrative nucleoside transporter 2 (CNT2) inhibitors as a novel pharmacological approach for improving hyperuricemia by inhibiting intestinal absorption of purines. Dietary purine nucleosides are absorbed in the small intestines by CNTs expressed in the apical membrane. In humans, the absorbed purine nucleosides are rapidly degraded to their final end product, uric acid, by xanthine oxidase. Based on the expression profile of human CNTs in digestive tract tissues, we established a working hypothesis that mainly CNT2 contributes to the intestinal absorption of purine nucleosides. In order to confirm this possibility, we developed CNT2 inhibitors and found that (2R,3R,4S,5R)-2-(6-amino-8-{[3'-(3-aminopropoxy)-biphenyl-4-ylmethyl]-amino}-9H-purin-9-yl)-5-hydroxymethyl-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diol (KGO-2142) and 1-[3-(5-{[1-((2R,3R,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)-1H-benzimidazol-2-ylamino]-methyl}-2-ethoxyphenoxy)-propyl]-piperidine-4-carboxylic acid amide (KGO-2173) were inhibitory. These CNT2 inhibitors had potent inhibitory activity against inosine uptake via human CNT2, but they did not potently interfere with nucleoside uptake via human CNT1, CNT3 or equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) in vitro. After oral administration of KGO-2173 along with [(14)C]-inosine, KGO-2173 significantly decreased the urinary excretion of radioactivity at 6 and 24h in rats. Since dietary purine nucleosides are not utilized in the body and are excreted into the urine rapidly, this decrease in radioactivity in the urine represented the inhibitory activity of KGO-2173 toward the absorption of [(14)C]-inosine in the small intestines. KGO-2142 almost completely inhibited dietary RNA-induced hyperuricemia and the increase in urinary excretion of uric acid in cebus monkeys. These novel CNT2 inhibitors, KGO-2142 and KGO-2173, could be useful therapeutic options for the treatment of hyperuricemia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  18. 'Entourage' effects of N-palmitoylethanolamide and N-oleoylethanolamide on vasorelaxation to anandamide occur through TRPV1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Ho, W-S V; Barrett, D A; Randall, M D

    2008-11-01

    The endocannabinoid N-arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide) is co-synthesized with other N-acylethanolamides, namely N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and N-oleoylethanolamide (OEA), which have been shown to potentiate anandamide responses (so-called 'entourage effects') in non-vascular tissues. It remains unclear whether such interactions occur in the circulation. In rat isolated small mesenteric arteries, the effects of PEA and OEA on relaxation to anandamide and tissue contents of the N-acylethanolamides were examined under myographic conditions. Anandamide-induced relaxation was potentiated by pretreatment with PEA (10 microM) or OEA (1 microM), or in combination. The potentiation by PEA and OEA was endothelium-independent and abolished by treatment with capsaicin (10 microM), which desensitizes the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor system, or by the TRPV1 receptor antagonist, N-(3-methoxyphenyl)-4-chlorocinnamide (SB366791) (2 microM). It was also observed at molar ratios of anandamide and PEA (or OEA) similar to those found in mesenteric arteries. PEA and inhibition of anandamide hydrolysis by 3'-carbamoyl-biphenyl-3-yl-cyclohexylcarbamate (URB597) (1 microM) additively potentiated anandamide responses. On the other hand, PEA and OEA also induced vasorelaxation per se (rank order of potency: anandamide>OEA>PEA), but relaxation to the three N-acylethanolamides displayed different sensitivity to treatment with capsaicin, SB366791 and URB597. For example, relaxations to anandamide and OEA, but not PEA, were attenuated by both capsaicin and SB366791. This study shows that PEA and OEA potentiate relaxant responses to anandamide through TRPV1 receptors in rat small mesenteric arteries. The congeners also induce vasorelaxation per se, suggesting a function for the N-acylethanolamides in vascular control.

  19. Activity of the monocarboxylate transporter 1 inhibitor AZD3965 in small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Polański, Radosław; Hodgkinson, Cassandra L; Fusi, Alberto; Nonaka, Daisuke; Priest, Lynsey; Kelly, Paul; Trapani, Francesca; Bishop, Paul W; White, Anne; Critchlow, Susan E; Smith, Paul D; Blackhall, Fiona; Dive, Caroline; Morrow, Christopher J

    2014-02-15

    The monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) inhibitor, AZD3965, is undergoing phase I evaluation in the United Kingdom. AZD3965 is proposed, via lactate transport modulation, to kill tumor cells reliant on glycolysis. We investigated the therapeutic potential of AZD3965 in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) seeking rationale for clinical testing in this disease and putative predictive biomarkers for trial use. AZD3965 sensitivity was determined for seven SCLC cell lines, in normoxia and hypoxia, and for a tumor xenograft model. Proof of mechanism was sought via changes in intracellular/tumor lactate. Expression of MCT1 and related transporter MCT4 was assessed by Western blot analysis. Drug resistance was investigated via MCT4 siRNAi and overexpression. The expression and clinical significance of MCT1 and MCT4 were explored in a tissue microarray (TMA) from 78 patients with SCLC. AZD3965 sensitivity varied in vitro and was highest in hypoxia. Resistance in hypoxia was associated with increased MCT4 expression. In vivo, AZD3965 reduced tumor growth and increased intratumor lactate. In the TMA, high MCT1 expression was associated with worse prognosis (P = 0.014). MCT1 and hypoxia marker CA IX expression in the absence of MCT4 was observed in 21% of SCLC tumors. This study provides a rationale to test AZD3965 in patients with SCLC. Our results suggest that patients with tumors expressing MCT1 and lacking in MCT4 are most likely to respond. ©2013 AACR

  20. Activity of the Monocarboxylate Transporter 1 inhibitor AZD3965 in Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Polański, Radosław; Hodgkinson, Cassandra L.; Fusi, Alberto; Nonaka, Daisuke; Priest, Lynsey; Kelly, Paul; Trapani, Francesca; Bishop, Paul W.; White, Anne; Critchlow, Susan E.; Smith, Paul D.; Blackhall, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) inhibitor AZD3965 is undergoing Phase I evaluation in the UK. AZD3965 is proposed, via lactate transport modulation, to kill tumor cells reliant on glycolysis. We investigated the therapeutic potential of AZD3965 in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) seeking rationale for clinical testing in this disease and putative predictive biomarkers for trial use. Experimental Design AZD3965 sensitivity was determined for 7 SCLC cell lines, in normoxia and hypoxia, and for a tumor xenograft model. Proof of mechanism was sought via changes in intracellular/tumor lactate. Expression of MCT1 and related transporter MCT4 were assessed by western blot. Drug resistance was investigated via MCT4 siRNAi and overexpression. The expression and clinical significance of MCT1 and MCT4 were explored in a tissue microarray from 78 SCLC patients. Results AZD3965 sensitivity varied in vitro and was highest in hypoxia. Resistance in hypoxia was associated with increased MCT4 expression. In vivo, AZD3965 reduced tumor growth and increased intra-tumor lactate. In the tissue microarray, high MCT1 expression was associated with worse prognosis (p=0.014). MCT1 and hypoxia marker CA IX expression in the absence of MCT4 was observed in 21% of SCLC tumors. Conclusions This study provides a rationale to test AZD3965 in SCLC patients. Our results suggest that patients with tumors expressing MCT1 and lacking in MCT4 are most likely to respond. PMID:24277449

  1. Inhibitors of Glycine Transporter-1: Potential Therapeutics for the Treatment of CNS Disorders.

    PubMed

    Cioffi, Christopher L; Guzzo, Peter R

    2016-01-01

    Glycine acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter at glycine receptor (GlyR)-enriched synapses and as an obligatory co-agonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, where it facilitates neuronal excitation. Two high-affinity and substrate selective transporters, glycine transporter-1 and glycine transporter-2 (GlyT-1 and GlyT-2), regulate extracellular glycine concentrations within the CNS and as such, play critical roles in maintaining a balance between inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission. GlyT-1 inhibition has been extensively examined as a potential means by which to treat several CNS disorders that include schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and addiction. More recently, preclinical studies have emerged that indicate the approach may also promote neuroprotection, provide a pharmacotherapeutic strategy for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and treat symptomology associated with pain, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. This review examines the pharmacological aspects of GlyT-1 inhibition and describes drug discovery and development efforts toward the identification of novel inhibitors.

  2. PI3-kinase and mTOR inhibitors differently modulate the function of the ABCG2 multidrug transporter.

    PubMed

    Hegedüs, Csilla; Truta-Feles, Krisztina; Antalffy, Géza; Brózik, Anna; Kasza, Ildikó; Német, Katalin; Orbán, Tamás I; Özvegy-Laczka, Csilla; Váradi, András; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2012-04-20

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCG2 plays an important role in tissue detoxification and confers multidrug resistance to cancer cells. Identification of expressional and functional cellular regulators of this multidrug transporter is therefore intensively pursued. The PI3-kinase/Akt signaling axis has been implicated as a key element in regulating various cellular functions, including the expression and plasma membrane localization of ABCG2. Here we demonstrate that besides inhibiting their respective target kinases, the pharmacological PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 and the downstream mTOR kinase inhibitor rapamycin also directly inhibit ABCG2 function. In contrast, wortmannin, another commonly used pharmacological inhibitor of PI3-kinase does not interact with the transporter. We suggest that direct functional modulation of ABCG2 should be taken into consideration when pharmacological agents are applied to dissect the specific role of PI3-kinase/Akt/mTOR signaling in cellular functions.

  3. Combinatorial Pharmacophore Modeling of Multidrug and Toxin Extrusion Transporter 1 Inhibitors: a Theoretical Perspective for Understanding Multiple Inhibitory Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuan; Liu, Xian; Wang, Yulan; Zhou, Nannan; Peng, Jianlong; Gong, Likun; Ren, Jing; Luo, Cheng; Luo, Xiaomin; Jiang, Hualiang; Chen, Kaixian; Zheng, Mingyue

    2015-01-01

    A combinatorial pharmacophore (CP) model for Multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 (MATE1/SLC47A1) inhibitors was developed based on a data set including 881 compounds. The CP model comprises four individual pharmacophore hypotheses, HHR1, DRR, HHR2 and AAAP, which can successfully identify the MATE1 inhibitors with an overall accuracy around 75%. The model emphasizes the importance of aromatic ring and hydrophobicity as two important structural determinants for MATE1 inhibition. Compared with the pharmacophore model of Organic Cation Transporter 2 (OCT2/ SLC22A2), a functional related transporter of MATE1, the hypotheses of AAAP and PRR5 are suggested to be responsible for their ligand selectivity, while HHR a common recognition pattern for their dual inhibition. A series of analysis including molecular sizes of inhibitors matching different hypotheses, matching of representative MATE1 inhibitors and molecular docking indicated that the small inhibitors matching HHR1 and DRR involve in competitive inhibition, while the relatively large inhibitors matching AAAP are responsible for the noncompetitive inhibition by locking the conformation changing of MATE1. In light of the results, a hypothetical model for inhibiting transporting mediated by MATE1 was proposed. PMID:26330298

  4. The vanilloid receptor (VR1)-mediated effects of anandamide are potently enhanced by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed

    De Petrocellis, L; Harrison, S; Bisogno, T; Tognetto, M; Brandi, I; Smith, G D; Creminon, C; Davis, J B; Geppetti, P; Di Marzo, V

    2001-06-01

    The endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand, anandamide (AEA), is a full agonist of the vanilloid receptor type 1 (VR1) for capsaicin. Here, we demonstrate that the potency and efficacy of AEA at VR1 receptors can be significantly increased by the concomitant activation of protein kinase A (PKA). In human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells over-expressing human VR1, AEA induces a rise in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration that is mediated by this receptor. The EC(50) for this effect was decreased five-fold in the presence of forskolin (FRSK, 1-5 microM) or the cAMP analogue, 8-Br-cAMP (10-100 microM). The effects of 8-Br-cAMP and FRSK were blocked by a selective PKA inhibitor. The FRSK (10 nM) also potently enhanced the sensory neurone- and VR1-mediated constriction by AEA of isolated guinea-pig bronchi, and this effect was abolished by a PKA inhibitor. In rat dorsal root ganglia slices, AEA-induced release of substance P, an effect mediated by VR1 activation, was enhanced three-fold by FRSK (10 nM). Thus, the ability of AEA to stimulate sensory VR1, with subsequent neuropeptide release, appears to be regulated by the state of activation of PKA. This observation supports the hypothesis that endogenous AEA might stimulate VR1 under certain pathophysiological conditions.

  5. Quantitative evaluation of the combination between cytotoxic drug and efflux transporter inhibitors based on a tumour growth inhibition model.

    PubMed

    Sostelly, Alexandre; Payen, Léa; Guitton, Jérôme; Di Pietro, Attilio; Falson, Pierre; Honorat, Mylène; Boumendjel, Ahcène; Gèze, Annabelle; Freyer, Gilles; Tod, Michel

    2014-04-01

    ATP-Binding Cassette transporters such as ABCG2 confer resistance to various anticancer drugs including irinotecan and its active metabolite, SN38. Early quantitative evaluation of efflux transporter inhibitors-cytotoxic combination requires quantitative drug-disease models. A proof-of-concept study has been carried out for studying the effect of a new ABCG2 transporter inhibitor, MBLI87 combined to irinotecan in mice xenografted with cells overexpressing ABCG2. Mice were treated with irinotecan alone or combined to MBLI87, and tumour size was periodically measured. To model those data, a tumour growth inhibition model was developed. Unperturbed tumour growth was modelled using Simeoni's model. Drug effect kinetics was accounted for by a Kinetic-Pharmacodynamic approach. Effect of inhibitor was described with a pharmacodynamic interaction model where inhibitor enhances activity of cytotoxic. This model correctly predicted tumour growth dynamics from our study. MBLI87 increased irinotecan potency by 20% per μmol of MBLI87. This model retains enough complexity to simultaneously describe tumour growth and effect of this type of drug combination. It can thus be used as a template to early evaluate efflux transporter inhibitors in-vivo.

  6. Cobicistat Boosts the Intestinal Absorption of Transport Substrates, Including HIV Protease Inhibitors and GS-7340, In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lepist, Eve-Irene; Phan, Truc K.; Roy, Anupma; Tong, Leah; MacLennan, Kelly; Murray, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The experimental pharmacoenhancer cobicistat (COBI), a potent mechanism-based inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A enzymes, was found to inhibit the intestinal efflux transporters P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein. Consistent with its transporter inhibition, COBI significantly increased the absorptive flux of potential candidates for clinical coadministration, including the HIV protease inhibitors atazanavir and darunavir and the lymphoid cell- and tissue-targeted prodrug of the nucleotide analog tenofovir, GS-7340, through monolayers of Caco-2 cells in vitro. PMID:22850510

  7. Atypical Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors that Provide Clues About Cocaine's Mechanism at the Dopamine Transporter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck Newman, Amy; Katz, Jonathan L.

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) has been a primary target for cocaine abuse/addiction medication discovery. However predicted addiction liability and limited clinical evaluation has provided a formidable challenge for development of these agents for human use. The unique and atypical pharmacological profile of the benztropine (BZT) class of dopamine uptake inhibitors, in preclinical models of cocaine effects and abuse, has encouraged further development of these agents. Moreover, in vivo studies have challenged the original DAT hypothesis and demonstrated that DAT occupancy and subsequent increases in dopamine produced by BZT analogues are significantly delayed and long lasting, as compared to cocaine. These important and distinctive elements are critical to the lack of abuse liability among BZT analogues, and improve their potential for development as treatments for cocaine abuse and possibly other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  8. Inhibition of polar calcium movement and gravitropism in roots treated with auxin-transport inhibitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. S.; Mulkey, T. J.; Evans, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) exhibit strong positive gravitropism. In both species, gravistimulation induces polar movement of calcium across the root tip from the upper side to the lower side. Roots of onion (Allium cepa L.) are not responsive to gravity and gravistimulation induces little or no polar movement of calcium across the root tip. Treatment of maize or pea roots with inhibitors of auxin transport (morphactin, naphthylphthalamic acid, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid) prevents both gravitropism and gravity-induced polar movement of calcium across the root tip. The results indicate that calcium movement and auxin movement are closely linked in roots and that gravity-induced redistribution of calcium across the root cap may play an important role in the development of gravitropic curvature.

  9. The significance of inhibitor-resistant alkaline phosphatase in the cytochemical demonstration of transport adenosine triphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Firth, J A; Marland, B Y

    1975-08-01

    The hydrolysis of disodium p-nitrophenyl phosphate at pH 9.0 by slices of formaldehydee-fixed rat renal cortex was investigated by colorimetric estimation of the nitrophenol liberated. It was found that three types of activity could be identified on the basis of their responses to inhibitors and cations: (a) alkaline phosphatase sensitive to inhibition by L-tetramisole; (b) potassium-dependent phosphatase, probably identifiable with the phosphatase component of sodium-potassium-dependent transport adenosine triphosphatase (?Na-K-ATPase); and (c) alkaline phosphatase insensitive to L-tetramisole. It was found that in the presence of strontium ions, as used in Na-K-ATPase cytochemistry, the activities of the second and third types of enzyme were approximately equal. The implications of these findings for the cytochemical demonstration of Na-K-ATPase are discussed.

  10. Inhibition of polar calcium movement and gravitropism in roots treated with auxin-transport inhibitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. S.; Mulkey, T. J.; Evans, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) exhibit strong positive gravitropism. In both species, gravistimulation induces polar movement of calcium across the root tip from the upper side to the lower side. Roots of onion (Allium cepa L.) are not responsive to gravity and gravistimulation induces little or no polar movement of calcium across the root tip. Treatment of maize or pea roots with inhibitors of auxin transport (morphactin, naphthylphthalamic acid, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid) prevents both gravitropism and gravity-induced polar movement of calcium across the root tip. The results indicate that calcium movement and auxin movement are closely linked in roots and that gravity-induced redistribution of calcium across the root cap may play an important role in the development of gravitropic curvature.

  11. HIV protease inhibitors disrupt astrocytic glutamate transporter function and neurobehavioral performance.

    PubMed

    Vivithanaporn, Pornpun; Asahchop, Eugene L; Acharjee, Shaona; Baker, Glen B; Power, Christopher

    2016-02-20

    The neurotoxic actions of the HIV protease inhibitors, amprenavir (APV) and lopinavir (LPV) were investigated. With combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-infected persons exhibit neurocognitive impairments, raising the possibility that cART might exert adverse central nervous system (CNS) effects. We examined the effects of LPV and APV using in-vitro and in-vivo assays of CNS function. Gene expression, cell viability and amino-acid levels were measured in human astrocytes, following exposure to APV or LPV. Neurobehavioral performance, amino-acid levels and neuropathology were examined in HIV-1 Vpr transgenic mice after treatment with APV or LPV. Excitatory amino-acid transporter-2 (EAAT2) expression was reduced in astrocytes treated with LPV or APV, especially LPV (P < 0.05), which was accompanied by reduced intracellular L-glutamate levels in LPV-treated cells (P < 0.05). Treatment of astrocytes with APV or LPV reduced the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 (P < 0.05) although cell survival was unaffected. Exposure of LPV to astrocytes augmented glutamate-evoked transient rises in [Cai] (P < 0.05). Vpr mice treated with LPV showed lower concentrations of L-glutamate, L-aspartate and L-serine in cortex compared with vehicle-treated mice (P < 0.05). Total errors in T-maze assessment were increased in LPV and APV-treated animals (P < 0.05). EAAT2 expression was reduced in the brains of protease inhibitor-treated animals, which was associated with gliosis (P < 0.05). These results indicated that contemporary protease inhibitors disrupt astrocyte functions at therapeutic concentrations with enhanced sensitivity to glutamate, which can lead to neurobehavioral impairments. ART neurotoxicity should be considered in future therapeutic regimens for HIV/AIDS.

  12. Differential effects of dopamine transporter inhibitors in the rodent Iowa Gambling Task: Relevance to mania

    PubMed Central

    van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Geyer, Mark A.; Young, Jared W.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) can be used to quantify impulsive and risky choice behaviors in psychiatric patients, e.g. Bipolar Disorder (BD) sufferers. Although developing treatments for these behaviors is important, few predictive animal models exist. Inhibition of the dopamine transporter (DAT) can model profiles of altered motor activity and exploration seen in patients with BD. The effect of DAT inhibition on impulsive choices related to BD has received limited study however. We used a rodent IGT to elucidate the effects of similarly acting drugs on risky choice behavior. Objectives We hypothesized that 1) C57BL/6 mice could adopt the ‘safe’ choice options in the IGT and 2) DAT inhibition would alter risk preference. Methods Mice were trained in the IGT to a stable risk-preference and then administered the norepinephrine/DAT inhibitor amphetamine, or the more selective DAT inhibitors modafinil or GBR12909. Results Mice developed a preference for the ‘safe’ option, which was potentiated by amphetamine administration. GBR12909 or modafinil administration increased motor impulsivity, motivation significantly, and risk preference subtly. Conclusions The rodent IGT can measure different impulse-related behaviors and differentiate similarly acting BD-related drugs. The contrasting effects of amphetamine and modafinil in mice are similar to effects in rats and humans in corresponding IGT tasks, supporting the translational validity of the task. GBR12909 and modafinil elicited similar behaviors in the IGT, likely through a shared mechanism. Future studies using a within-session IGT are warranted to confirm the suitability of DAT inhibitors to model risk-preference in BD. PMID:22945515

  13. Glycine Transporter Inhibitor Attenuates the Psychotomimetic Effects of Ketamine in Healthy Males: Preliminary Evidence

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Deepak Cyril; Singh, Nagendra; Elander, Jacqueline; Carbuto, Michelle; Pittman, Brian; de Haes, Joanna Udo; Sjogren, Magnus; Peeters, Pierre; Ranganathan, Mohini; Schipper, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Enhancing glutamate function by stimulating the glycine site of the NMDA receptor with glycine, -serine, or with drugs that inhibit glycine reuptake may have therapeutic potential in schizophrenia. The effects of a single oral dose of cis-N-methyl-N-(6-methoxy-1-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-ylmethyl) amino-methylcarboxylic acid hydrochloride (Org 25935), a glycine transporter-1 (GlyT1) inhibitor, and placebo pretreatment on ketamine-induced schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms, perceptual alterations, and subjective effects were evaluated in 12 healthy male subjects in a randomized, counter-balanced, within-subjects, crossover design. At 2.5 h after administration of the Org 25935 or placebo, subjects received a ketamine bolus and constant infusion lasting 100 min. Psychotic symptoms, perceptual, and a number of subjective effects were assessed repeatedly before, several times during, and after completion of ketamine administration. A cognitive battery was administered once per test day. Ketamine produced behavioral, subjective, and cognitive effects consistent with its known effects. Org 25935 reduced the ketamine-induced increases in measures of psychosis (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)) and perceptual alterations (Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale (CADSS)). The magnitude of the effect of Org 25935 on ketamine-induced increases in Total PANSS and CADSS Clinician-rated scores was 0.71 and 0.98 (SD units), respectively. None of the behavioral effects of ketamine were increased by Org 25935 pretreatment. Org 25935 worsened some aspects of learning and delayed recall, and trended to improve choice reaction time. This study demonstrates for the first time in humans that a GlyT1 inhibitor reduces the effects induced by NMDA receptor antagonism. These findings provide preliminary support for further study of the antipsychotic potential of GlyT1 inhibitors. PMID:22113087

  14. Simultaneous modulation of transport and metabolism of acyclovir prodrugs across rabbit cornea: An approach involving enzyme inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Katragadda, Suresh; Talluri, Ravi S; Mitra, Ashim K

    2006-08-31

    The aim of this study is to identify the class of enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of amino acid and dipeptide prodrugs of acyclovir (ACV) and to modulate transport and metabolism of amino acid and dipeptide prodrugs of acyclovir by enzyme inhibitors across rabbit cornea. l-Valine ester of acyclovir, valacyclovir (VACV) and l-glycine-valine ester of acyclovir, gly-val-acyclovir (GVACV) were used as model compounds. Hydrolysis studies of VACV and GVACV in corneal homogenate were conducted in presence of various enzyme inhibitors. IC(50) values were determined for the enzyme inhibitors. Transport studies were conducted with isolated rabbit corneas at 34 degrees C. Complete inhibition of VACV hydrolysis was observed in the presence of Pefabloc SC (4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl-fluoride) and PCMB (p-chloromercuribenzoic acid). Similar trend was also observed with GVACV in the presence of bestatin. IC(50) values of PCMB and bestatin for VACV and GVACV were found to be 3.81+/-0.94 and 0.34+/-0.08muM respectively. Eserine, tetraethyl pyrophosphate (TEPP) and diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) also produced significant inhibition of VACV hydrolysis. Transport of VACV and GVACV across cornea showed decreased metabolic rate and modulation of transport in presence of PCMB and bestain respectively. The principle enzyme classes responsible for the hydrolysis of VACV and GVACV were carboxylesterases and aminopeptidases respectively. Enzyme inhibitors modulated the transport and metabolism of prodrugs simultaneously even though their affinity towards prodrugs was distinct. In conclusion, utility of enzyme inhibitors to modulate transport and metabolism of prodrugs appears to be promising strategy for enhancing drug transport across cornea.

  15. Molecular Docking Analysis of Steroid-based Copper Transporter 1 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kadioglu, Onat; Serly, Julianna; Seo, Ean-Jeong; Vincze, Irén; Somlai, Csaba; Saeed, Mohamed E M; Molnár, József; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Copper transporter 1 (CTR1) represents an important determinant of cisplatin resistance. A series of 35 semi-substituted steroids were recently investigated on cisplatin-resistant CTR1-expressing A2780cis ovarian carcinoma cells as well as their parental sensitive counterparts regarding their cytotoxic and resistance-reversing features. In the present investigation, three compounds ( 4: , 5: , 25: ) were selected for molecular docking analysis on the homology-modelled human CTR1 transmembrane domain. Steroids 4: , 5: and 25: interacted with CTR1 at a similar docking pose and with even higher binding affinities than the known CTR1 inhibitor, cimetidine. Applying the defined docking mode, the binding energies were found to be -7.15±<0.001 kcal/mol (compound 4: ), -8.71±0.06 kcal/mol (compound 5: ), -7.63±0.01 kcal/mol (compound 25: ), and -5.05±0.02 kcal/mol (for cimetidine). These steroids have the potential for further development as CTR1 inhibitors overcoming cisplatin resistance.

  16. Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors and euglycemic ketoacidosis: Wisdom of hindsight

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) are newly approved class of oral anti-diabetic drugs, in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, which reduces blood glucose through glucouresis via the kidney, independent, and irrespective of available pancreatic beta-cells. Studies conducted across their clinical development program found, a modest reduction in glycated hemoglobin ranging from −0.5 to −0.8%, without any significant hypoglycemia. Moreover, head-to-head studies versus active comparators yielded comparable efficacy. Interestingly, weight and blood pressure reduction were additionally observed, which was not only consistent but significantly superior to active comparators, including metformin, sulfonylureas, and dipeptydylpeptide-4 inhibitors. Indeed, these additional properties makes this class a promising oral anti-diabetic drug. Surprisingly, a potentially fatal unwanted side effect of diabetic ketoacidosis has been noted with its widespread use, albeit rarely. Nevertheless, this has created a passé among the clinicians. This review is an attempt to pool those ketosis data emerging with SGLT-2i, and put a perspective on its implicated mechanism. PMID:26693421

  17. The Glycine Transport Inhibitor Sarcosine Is an Inhibitory Glycine Receptor Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai Xia; Lyons-Warren, Ariel; Thio, Liu Lin

    2009-01-01

    Summary Sarcosine is an endogenous amino acid that is a competitive inhibitor of the type I glycine transporter (GlyT1), an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) co-agonist, and an important intermediate in one-carbon metabolism. Its therapeutic potential for schizophrenia further underscores its clinical importance. The structural similarity between sarcosine and glycine and sarcosine's ability to serve as an NMDAR co-agonist led us to examine whether sarcosine is also an agonist at the inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR). We examined this possibility using whole-cell recordings from cultured embryonic mouse hippocampal neurons and found that sarcosine evoked a dose-dependent, strychnine sensitive, Cl- current that cross-inhibited glycine currents. Sarcosine evoked this current with Li+ in the extracellular solution to block GlyT1, in neurons treated with the essentially irreversible GlyT1 inhibitor N[3-(4′-fluorophenyl)-3-(4′-phenylphenoxy)propyl]sarcosine (NFPS), and in neurons plated in the absence of glia. These results indicate that the sarcosine currents did not result from GlyT1 inhibition or heteroexchange. We conclude that sarcosine is a GlyR agonist. PMID:19619564

  18. Anandamide, Acting via CB2 Receptors, Alleviates LPS-Induced Neuroinflammation in Rat Primary Microglial Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Natalia; Popiolek-Barczyk, Katarzyna; Mika, Joanna; Przewlocka, Barbara; Starowicz, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Microglial activation is a polarized process divided into potentially neuroprotective phenotype M2 and neurotoxic phenotype M1, predominant during chronic neuroinflammation. Endocannabinoid system provides an attractive target to control the balance between microglial phenotypes. Anandamide as an immune modulator in the central nervous system acts via not only cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) but also other targets (e.g., GPR18/GPR55). We studied the effect of anandamide on lipopolysaccharide-induced changes in rat primary microglial cultures. Microglial activation was assessed based on nitric oxide (NO) production. Analysis of mRNA was conducted for M1 and M2 phenotype markers possibly affected by the treatment. Our results showed that lipopolysaccharide-induced NO release in microglia was significantly attenuated, with concomitant downregulation of M1 phenotypic markers, after pretreatment with anandamide. This effect was not sensitive to CB1 or GPR18/GPR55 antagonism. Administration of CB2 antagonist partially abolished the effects of anandamide on microglia. Interestingly, administration of a GPR18/GPR55 antagonist by itself suppressed NO release. In summary, we showed that the endocannabinoid system plays a crucial role in the management of neuroinflammation by dampening the activation of an M1 phenotype. This effect was primarily controlled by the CB2 receptor, although functional cross talk with GPR18/GPR55 may occur. PMID:26090232

  19. Anandamide, an endogenous cannabinoid, inhibits Shaker-related voltage-gated K+ channels.

    PubMed

    Poling, J S; Rogawski, M A; Salem, N; Vicini, S

    1996-01-01

    Anandamide has been identified in porcine brain as an endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand and is believed to be a counterpart to the psychoactive component of marijuana, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC). Here we report that anandamide directly inhibits (IC50, 2.7 muM) Shaker-related Kv1.2 K+ channels that are found ubiquitously in the mammalian brain. Delta 9-THC also inhibited Kv1.2 channels with comparable potency (IC50, 2.4 muM), as did several N-acyl-ethanolamides with cannabinoid receptor binding activity. Potassium current inhibition occurred through a pertussis toxin-insensitive mechanism and was not prevented by the cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR141716A. Utilizing excised patches of Kv1.2 channel-rich membrane as a rapid and sensitive bioassay, we found that phospholipase D stimulated the release of an endogenous anandamide-like K+ channel blocker from rat brain slices. Structure-activity studies were consistent with the possibility that the released blocker was either anandamide or another N-acyl-ethanolamide.

  20. Interactions between anandamide-induced anterograde amnesia and post-training memory modulatory systems.

    PubMed

    Barros, Daniela Martí; Carlis, Vania; Maidana, Michelle; Silva, Eli Sinnott; Baisch, Ana Luiza Muccillo; Ramirez, Maria Rosana; Izquierdo, Iván

    2004-07-30

    Rats were bilaterally implanted with indwelling cannulae in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus. After recovery from surgery, they were trained in a one-trial, step-down inhibitory avoidance task using a 0.5 mA foot shock. The animals received intrahippocampal infusions of either vehicle or anandamide (100 microM, 0.5 microl/side) 30 min before training. Then, either immediately post-training or 3 h later, they received infusions of saline, noradrenaline (0.5 microg/side), SKF 38393 (1.5 microg/side), oxotremorine (0.6 microg/side) or Sp-cAMPs (0.5 microg/side) also in the hippocampus. All animals were tested for retention 24-h post-training. Anandamide produced anterograde amnesia. Immediate, but not delayed, post-training treatment with Sp-cAMPs and noradrenaline reversed this effect. SKF 38393 and oxotremorine had no influence on the amnesia caused by anandamide either when given immediately or 3 h after training. The results suggest that the amnesic effect of anandamide is related to the known noradrenergic regulation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity previously described in the hippocampus immediately after avoidance training, which is crucial to long-term memory (LTM) formation.

  1. Effects of the endogeneous cannabinoid, anandamide, on neuronal activity in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Ameri, A; Wilhelm, A; Simmet, T

    1999-04-01

    1. The arachidonic acid derivative arachidonylethanolamide (anandamide) is an endogeneous ligand of cannabinoid receptors that induces pharmacological actions similar to those of cannabinoids such as delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). We examined whether anandamide can influence excessive neuronal activity by investigating stimulation-induced population spikes and epileptiform activity in rat hippocampal slices. For this purpose, the effects of anandamide were compared with those of the synthetic cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 and its inactive S(-)-enantiomer WIN 55,212-3. 2. Both anandamide (1 and 10 microM) and WIN 55,212-2 (0.1 and 1 microM) decreased the amplitude of the postsynaptic population spike and the slope of the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (field e.p.s.p.) without affecting the presynaptic fibre spike of the afferents. At a concentration of 1 microM, WIN 55,212-2 completely suppressed the postsynaptic spike, whereas the S(-)-enantiomer WIN 55,212-3 produced only a slight depression. The CB1 receptor antagonist SR 141716 blocked the inhibition evoked by the cannabinoids. SR 141716 had a slight facilitatory effect on neuronal excitability by itself. 3. Anandamide shifted the input-output curve of the postsynaptic spike and the field e.p.s.p. to the right and increased the magnitude of paired-pulse facilitation indicating a presynaptic mechanism of action. 4. Anandamide and WIN 55,212-2, but not WIN 55,212-3, attenuated both stimulus-triggered epileptiform activity in CA1 elicited by omission of Mg2+ and spontaneously occurring epileptiform activity in CA3 elicited by omission of Mg2+ and elevation of K+ to 8 mM. The antiepileptiform effect of these cannabinoids was blocked by SR 141716. 5. In conclusion, cannabinoid receptors of the CB1 type as well as their endogeneous ligand, anandamide, are involved in the control of neuronal excitability, thus reducing excitatory neurotransmission at a presynaptic site, a mechanism which might be

  2. Anandamide (arachidonylethanolamide), a brain cannabinoid receptor agonist, reduces sperm fertilizing capacity in sea urchins by inhibiting the acrosome reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Schuel, H; Goldstein, E; Mechoulam, R; Zimmerman, A M; Zimmerman, S

    1994-01-01

    Anandamide (arachidonylethanolamide) is an endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonist in mammalian brain. Sea urchin sperm contain a high-affinity cannabinoid receptor similar to the cannabinoid receptor in mammalian brain. (-)-delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive cannabinoid in marihuana, reduces the fertilizing capacity of sea urchin sperm by blocking the acrosome reaction that normally is stimulated by a specific ligand in the egg's jelly coat. We now report that anandamide produces effects similar to those previously obtained with THC in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus in reducing sperm fertilizing capacity and inhibiting the egg jelly-stimulated acrosome reaction. Arachidonic acid does not inhibit the acrosome reaction under similar conditions. The adverse effects of anandamide on sperm fertilizing capacity and the acrosome reaction are reversible. The receptivity of unfertilized eggs to sperm and sperm motility are not impaired by anandamide. Under conditions where anandamide completely blocks the egg jelly-stimulated acrosome reaction, it does not inhibit the acrosome reaction artificially initiated by ionomycin, which promotes Ca2+ influx, and nigericin, which activates K+ channels in sperm. These findings provide additional evidence that the cannabinoid receptor in sperm plays a role in blocking the acrosome reaction, indicate that anandamide or a related molecule may be the natural ligand for the cannabinoid receptor in sea urchin sperm, and suggest that binding of anandamide to the cannabinoid receptor modulates stimulus-secretion-coupling in sperm by affecting an event prior to ion channel opening. PMID:8052642

  3. Discovery of Novel SPAK Inhibitors That Block WNK Kinase Signaling to Cation Chloride Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Eriko; Mori, Takayasu; Zeniya, Moko; Isobe, Kiyoshi; Ishigami-Yuasa, Mari; Fujii, Shinya; Kagechika, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Tomoaki; Mizushima, Tohru; Sasaki, Sei; Sohara, Eisei; Rai, Tatemitsu

    2015-01-01

    Upon activation by with-no-lysine kinases, STE20/SPS1-related proline–alanine-rich protein kinase (SPAK) phosphorylates and activates SLC12A transporters such as the Na+-Cl− cotransporter (NCC) and Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter type 1 (NKCC1) and type 2 (NKCC2); these transporters have important roles in regulating BP through NaCl reabsorption and vasoconstriction. SPAK knockout mice are viable and display hypotension with decreased activity (phosphorylation) of NCC and NKCC1 in the kidneys and aorta, respectively. Therefore, agents that inhibit SPAK activity could be a new class of antihypertensive drugs with dual actions (i.e., NaCl diuresis and vasodilation). In this study, we developed a new ELISA-based screening system to find novel SPAK inhibitors and screened >20,000 small-molecule compounds. Furthermore, we used a drug repositioning strategy to identify existing drugs that inhibit SPAK activity. As a result, we discovered one small-molecule compound (Stock 1S-14279) and an antiparasitic agent (Closantel) that inhibited SPAK-regulated phosphorylation and activation of NCC and NKCC1 in vitro and in mice. Notably, these compounds had structural similarity and inhibited SPAK in an ATP-insensitive manner. We propose that the two compounds found in this study may have great potential as novel antihypertensive drugs. PMID:25377078

  4. Discovery of Novel SPAK Inhibitors That Block WNK Kinase Signaling to Cation Chloride Transporters.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Eriko; Mori, Takayasu; Zeniya, Moko; Isobe, Kiyoshi; Ishigami-Yuasa, Mari; Fujii, Shinya; Kagechika, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Tomoaki; Mizushima, Tohru; Sasaki, Sei; Sohara, Eisei; Rai, Tatemitsu; Uchida, Shinichi

    2015-07-01

    Upon activation by with-no-lysine kinases, STE20/SPS1-related proline-alanine-rich protein kinase (SPAK) phosphorylates and activates SLC12A transporters such as the Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) and Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter type 1 (NKCC1) and type 2 (NKCC2); these transporters have important roles in regulating BP through NaCl reabsorption and vasoconstriction. SPAK knockout mice are viable and display hypotension with decreased activity (phosphorylation) of NCC and NKCC1 in the kidneys and aorta, respectively. Therefore, agents that inhibit SPAK activity could be a new class of antihypertensive drugs with dual actions (i.e., NaCl diuresis and vasodilation). In this study, we developed a new ELISA-based screening system to find novel SPAK inhibitors and screened >20,000 small-molecule compounds. Furthermore, we used a drug repositioning strategy to identify existing drugs that inhibit SPAK activity. As a result, we discovered one small-molecule compound (Stock 1S-14279) and an antiparasitic agent (Closantel) that inhibited SPAK-regulated phosphorylation and activation of NCC and NKCC1 in vitro and in mice. Notably, these compounds had structural similarity and inhibited SPAK in an ATP-insensitive manner. We propose that the two compounds found in this study may have great potential as novel antihypertensive drugs. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  5. Potent inhibitors of human organic anion transporters 1 and 3 from clinical drug libraries: discovery and molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Duan, Peng; Li, Shanshan; Ai, Ni; Hu, Longqin; Welsh, William J; You, Guofeng

    2012-11-05

    Transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions in the kidney dramatically influence the pharmacokinetics and other clinical effects of drugs. Human organic anion transporters 1 (hOAT1) and 3 (hOAT3) are the major transporters in the basolateral membrane of kidney proximal tubules, mediating the rate-limiting step in the elimination of a broad spectrum of drugs. In the present study, we screened two clinical drug libraries against hOAT1 and hOAT3. Of the 727 compounds screened, 92 compounds inhibited hOAT1 and 262 compounds inhibited hOAT3. When prioritized based on the peak unbound plasma concentrations of these compounds, three inhibitors for hOAT1 and seven inhibitors for hOAT3 were subsequently identified with high inhibitory potency (>95%). Computational analyses revealed that inhibitors and noninhibitors can be differentiated from each other on the basis of several physicochemical features, including number of hydrogen-bond donors, number of rotatable bonds, and topological polar surface area (TPSA) for hOAT1; and molecular weight, number of hydrogen-bond donors and acceptors, TPSA, partition coefficient (log P(7.4)), and polarizability for hOAT3. Pharmacophore modeling identified two common structural features associated with inhibitors for hOAT1 and hOAT3, viz., an anionic hydrogen-bond acceptor atom, and an aromatic center separated by ∼5.7 Å. Such model provides mechanistic insights for predicting new OAT inhibitors.

  6. Expression and purification of orphan cytochrome P450 4X1 and oxidation of anandamide

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Katarina; Dostalek, Miroslav; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cytochrome P450 (P450) 4X1 is one of the so-called “orphan” P450s without assigned biological function. Codon-optimized P450 4X1 and a number of N-terminal modified sequences were expressed in Escherichia coli. Native P450 4X1 showed a characteristic P450 spectrum but low expression in E. coli DH5α cells (<100 nmol P450/L). The highest level of expression (300-450 nmol P450/L culture) was achieved with a bicistronic P450 4X1 construct (N-terminal MAKKTSSKGKL, change of E2A, amino acids 3-44 truncated). Anandamide (arachidonoyl ethanolamide) has emerged as an important signaling molecule in the neurovascular cascade. Recombinant P450 4X1 protein, co-expressed with human NADPH-P450 reductase in E. coli, was found to convert the natural endocannabinoid anandamide to a single monooxygenated product, 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic (EET) ethanolamide. A stable anandamide analog (CD-25) was also converted to a monooxygenated product. Arachidonic acid was oxidized more slowly to 14,15- and 8,9-EETs but only in the presence of cytochrome b5. Other fatty acids were investigated as putative substrates but showed only little or minor oxidation. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated extrahepatic mRNA expression, including several human brain structures (cerebellum, amygdala, and basal ganglia), in addition to expression in human heart, liver, prostate, and breast. The highest mRNA expression levels were detected in amygdala and skin. The ability of P450 4X1 to generate anandamide derivatives and the mRNA distribution pattern suggest a potential role for P450 4X1 in anandamide signaling in the brain. PMID:18549450

  7. Drug interactions with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins): the importance of CYP enzymes, transporters and pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    Neuvonen, Pertti J

    2010-03-01

    HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) can cause skeletal muscle toxicity; the risk of toxicity is elevated by drug interactions and pharmacogenetic factors that increase the concentration of statins in the plasma. Statins are substrates for several membrane transporters that may mediate drug interactions. Inhibitors of the organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 can decrease the hepatic uptake of many statins, as well as the therapeutic index of these agents. Potent inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A4 can significantly increase the plasma concentrations of the active forms of simvastatin, lovastatin and atorvastatin. Fluvastatin, which is metabolized by CYP2C9, is less prone to pharmacokinetic interactions, while pravastatin, rosuvastatin and pitavastatin are not susceptible to any CYP inhibition. An understanding of the mechanisms of statin interactions will help to minimize drug interactions and to develop statins that are less prone to adverse interactions.

  8. Suppression of asymmetric acid efflux and gravitropism in maize roots treated with auxin transport inhibitors of sodium orthovanadate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulkey, T. J.; Evans, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    In gravitropically stimulated roots of maize (Zea mays L., hybrid WF9 x 38MS), there is more acid efflux on the rapidly growing upper side than on the slowly growing lower side. In light of the Cholodny/Went hypothesis of gravitropism which states that gravitropic curvature results from lateral redistribution of auxin, the effects of auxin transport inhibitors on the development of acid efflux asymmetry and curvature in gravistimulated roots were examined. All the transport inhibitors tested prevented both gravitropism and the development of asymmetric acid efflux in gravistimulated roots. The results indicate that auxin redistribution may cause the asymmetry of acid efflux, a finding consistent with the Cholodny/Went hypothesis of gravitropism. As further evidence that auxin-induced acid efflux asymmetry may mediate gravitropic curvature, sodium orthovanadate, an inhibitor of auxin-induced H+ efflux was found to prevent both gravitropism and the development of asymmetric acid efflux in gravistimulated roots.

  9. Design and synthesis of dual inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase and serotonin transporter targeting potential agents for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kogen, Hiroshi; Toda, Narihiro; Tago, Keiko; Marumoto, Shinji; Takami, Kazuko; Ori, Mayuko; Yamada, Naho; Koyama, Kazuo; Naruto, Shunji; Abe, Kazumi; Yamazaki, Reina; Hara, Takao; Aoyagi, Atsushi; Abe, Yasuyuki; Kaneko, Tsugio

    2002-10-03

    Highly efficient acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and serotonin transporter (SERT) dual inhibitors, (S)-4 and (R)-13 were designed and synthesized on the basis of the hypothetical model of AChE active site. Both compounds showed potent inhibitory activities against AChE and SERT. [structure: see text

  10. Increasing oral absorption of polar neuraminidase inhibitors: a prodrug transporter approach applied to oseltamivir analogue.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepak; Varghese Gupta, Sheeba; Dahan, Arik; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Hilfinger, John; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L

    2013-02-04

    showed that the l-valyl prodrug (P(app) = 1.7 × 10(-6) cm/s) has the potential to be rapidly transported across the epithelial cell apical membrane. Significantly, only the parent drug (GOCarb) appeared in the basolateral compartment, indicating complete activation (hydrolysis) during transport. Intestinal rat jejunal permeability studies showed that l-valyl and l-isoleucyl prodrugs are highly permeable compared to the orally well absorbed metoprolol, while the parent drug had essentially zero permeability in the jejunum, consistent with its known poor low absorption. Prodrugs were rapidly converted to parent in cell homogenates, suggesting their ability to be activated endogenously in the epithelial cell, consistent with the transport studies. Additionally, l-valyl prodrug was found to be a substrate for valacyclovirase (K(m) = 2.37 mM), suggesting a potential cell activation mechanism. Finally we determined the oral bioavailability of our most promising candidate, GOC-l-Val, in mice to be 23% under fed conditions and 48% under fasted conditions. In conclusion, GOC-l-Val prodrug was found to be a very promising antiviral agent for oral delivery. These findings indicate that the carrier-mediated prodrug approach is an excellent strategy for improving oral absorption of polar neuraminidase inhibitors. These promising results demonstrate that the oral peptide transporter-mediated prodrug strategy has enormous promise for improving the oral mucosal cell membrane permeability of polar, poorly absorbed antiviral agents and treating influenza via the oral route of administration.

  11. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors: from apple tree to 'Sweet Pee'.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Timothy C; Rutherford, Peter; Dubrey, Simon W; Wierzbicki, Anthony S

    2010-01-01

    The sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2), located in the plasma membrane of cells lining the proximal tubule, facilitates the reabsorbtion of glucose in the kidney. Inhibition of SGLT2 has the potential to reduce blood glucose and represents an opportune target for managing blood glucose. By promoting the excretion of glucose, SGLT2 inhibitors are the first anti-diabetic treatment to target the removal rather than the metabolic redirection of glucose. Their mechanism of action is independent of that of endogenous insulin status and thus provides a means of managing plasma glucose irrespective of a patient's glycaemic status or treatments being used in combination. Several candidate SGLT2 inhibitors based on the core glucoside structure of phlorizin are currently being developed, of which, the metabolically more stable aromatic and heteroaromatic C-glucosides have demonstrated the most promising preclinical and clinical data. The inhibition of SGLT2 by messenger antisense technology is also being investigated. Current indications suggest that short-term benefits, in terms of HbA1(c) reductions, are modest and it remains to be seen whether encouraging exogenous glucose disposal will result in long term patient benefits in terms of returning metabolic balance or even weight loss. Indications are that clinical efficacy will be greater with molecules based on an O-glucoside structure. Concerns have been raised over the safety of these agents, particularly a possible predisposition to urinary tract infections, but these concerns have yet to be confirmed in clinical studies. Clinical development programs will need to establish those patients most likely to benefit from inhibition of SGLT2.

  12. A novel monocarboxylate transporter inhibitor as a potential treatment strategy for γ-hydroxybutyric acid overdose

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Nisha; Morse, Bridget L.; Morris, Marilyn E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) inhibition represents a potential treatment strategy for γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) overdose by blocking its renal reabsorption in the kidney. This study further evaluated the effects of a novel, highly potent MCT inhibitor, AR-C155858, on GHB toxicokinetics/toxicodynamics (TK/TD). Methods Rats were administered GHB (200, 600 or 1500 mg/kg i.v. or 1500 mg/kg po) with and without AR-C155858. Breathing frequency was continuously monitored using whole-body plethysmography. Plasma and urine samples were collected up to 8 hours. The effect of AR-C155858 on GHB brain/plasma partitioning was also assessed. Results AR-C155858 treatment significantly increased GHB renal and total clearance after intravenous GHB administration at all the GHB doses used in this study. GHB-induced respiratory depression was significantly improved by AR-C155858 as demonstrated by an improvement in the respiratory rate. AR-C155858 treatment also resulted in a significant reduction in brain/plasma partitioning of GHB (0.1 ± 0.03) when compared to GHB alone (0.25 ± 0.02). GHB CLR and CLoral (CL/F) following oral administration were also significantly increased following AR-C155858 treatment (from 1.82 ± 0.63 to 5.74 ± 0.86 and 6.52 ± 0.88 to 10.2 ± 0.75 ml/min/kg, respectively). Conclusion The novel and highly potent MCT inhibitor represents a potential treatment option for GHB overdose. PMID:25480120

  13. Differing effects of transport inhibitor on glutamate uptake by nerve terminals before and after exposure of rats to artificial gravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, T.; Krisanova, N.; Himmelreich, N.

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Subsequent to its release from glutamatergic neurons and activation of receptors, it is removed from extracellular space by high affinity Na^+-dependent glutamate transporters, which utilize the Na^+/K^+ electrochemical gradient as a driving force and located in nerve terminals and astrocytes. The glutamate transporters may modify the time course of synaptic events. Like glutamate itself, glutamate transporters are somehow involved in almost all aspects of normal and abnormal brain activity (e.g. cerebral ischemia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain injury, epilepsy and schizophrenia). The present study assessed transporter inhibitor for the ability to inhibit glutamate uptake by synaptosomes at the normal and hypergravity conditions (rats were rotated in a long-arm centrifuge at ten-G during one-hour period). DL-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartate (DL-TBOA) is a newly developed competitive inhibitor of the high-affinity, Na^+-dependent glutamate transporters. As a potent, non- transported inhibitor of glutamate transporters, DL-TBOA promises to be a valuable new compound for the study of glutamatergic mechanisms. We demonstrated that DL-TBOA inhibited glutamate uptake ( 100 μM glutamate, 30 sec incubation period) in dose-dependent manner as in control as in hypergravity. The effect of this transport inhibitor on glutamate uptake by control synaptosomes and synaptosomes prepared of animals exposed to hypergravity was different. IC50 values calculated on the basis of curves of non-linear regression kinetic analysis was 18±2 μM and 11±2 μM ((P≤0,05) before and after exposure to artificial gravity, respectively. Inhibition caused by 10 μM DL-TBOA was significantly increased from 38,0±3,8 % in control group to 51,0±4,1 % in animals, exposed to hypergravity (P≤0,05). Thus, DL-TBOA had complex effect on glutamate uptake process and perhaps, became more potent under

  14. Classification of Inhibitors of Hepatic Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides (OATPs): Influence of Protein Expression on Drug–Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) influence the pharmacokinetics of several drug classes and are involved in many clinical drug–drug interactions. Predicting potential interactions with OATPs is, therefore, of value. Here, we developed in vitro and in silico models for identification and prediction of specific and general inhibitors of OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1. The maximal transport activity (MTA) of each OATP in human liver was predicted from transport kinetics and protein quantification. We then used MTA to predict the effects of a subset of inhibitors on atorvastatin uptake in vivo. Using a data set of 225 drug-like compounds, 91 OATP inhibitors were identified. In silico models indicated that lipophilicity and polar surface area are key molecular features of OATP inhibition. MTA predictions identified OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 as major determinants of atorvastatin uptake in vivo. The relative contributions to overall hepatic uptake varied with isoform specificities of the inhibitors. PMID:22541068

  15. Classification of inhibitors of hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs): influence of protein expression on drug-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Karlgren, Maria; Vildhede, Anna; Norinder, Ulf; Wisniewski, Jacek R; Kimoto, Emi; Lai, Yurong; Haglund, Ulf; Artursson, Per

    2012-05-24

    The hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) influence the pharmacokinetics of several drug classes and are involved in many clinical drug-drug interactions. Predicting potential interactions with OATPs is, therefore, of value. Here, we developed in vitro and in silico models for identification and prediction of specific and general inhibitors of OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1. The maximal transport activity (MTA) of each OATP in human liver was predicted from transport kinetics and protein quantification. We then used MTA to predict the effects of a subset of inhibitors on atorvastatin uptake in vivo. Using a data set of 225 drug-like compounds, 91 OATP inhibitors were identified. In silico models indicated that lipophilicity and polar surface area are key molecular features of OATP inhibition. MTA predictions identified OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 as major determinants of atorvastatin uptake in vivo. The relative contributions to overall hepatic uptake varied with isoform specificities of the inhibitors.

  16. POTENT INHIBITORS OF HUMAN ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS 1 AND 3 FROM CLINICAL DRUG LIBRARIES: DISCOVERY AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Peng; Li, Shanshan; Ai, Ni; Hu, Longqin; Welsh, William J.; You, Guofeng

    2012-01-01

    Transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions in the kidney dramatically influence the pharmacokinetics and other clinical effects of drugs. Human organic anion transporters 1 (hOAT1) and 3 (hOAT3) are the major transporters in the basolateral membrane of kidney proximal tubules, mediating the rate-limiting step in the elimination of a broad spectrum of drugs. In the present study, we screened two clinical drug libraries against hOAT1 and hOAT3. Of the 727 compounds screened, 92 compounds inhibited hOAT1 and 262 compounds inhibited hOAT3. When prioritized based on the peak unbound plasma concentrations of these compounds, three inhibitors for hOAT1 and seven inhibitors for hOAT3 were subsequently identified with high inhibitory potency (>95%). Computational analyses revealed that inhibitors and non-inhibitors can be differentiated from each other on the basis of several physico-chemical features, including: number of hydrogen-bond donors, number of rotatable bonds, and topological polar surface area (TPSA) for hOAT1; and molecular weight, number of hydrogen-bond donors and acceptors, TPSA, partition coefficient (Log P7.4), and polarizability for hOAT3. Pharmacophore modeling identified two common structural features associated with inhibitors for hOAT1 and hOAT3, viz., an anionic hydrogen-bond acceptor atom, and an aromatic center separated by ~5.7 Å. Such model provides mechanistic insights for predicting new OAT inhibitors. PMID:22973893

  17. Role of sensory nerves in gastroprotective effect of anandamide in rats.

    PubMed

    Warzecha, Z; Dembinski, A; Ceranowicz, P; Dembinski, M; Cieszkowski, J; Kownacki, P; Konturek, P C

    2011-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that stimulation of cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor protects the gastric mucosa against stress-induced lesion. Aim of the present study was to examine the influence of anandamide on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in gastric mucosa and the role of sensory nerves in gastroprotective effects of cannabinoids. Studies were performed on rats with intact or ablated sensory nerves (by neurotoxic doses of capsaicin). Gastric lesions were induced by water immersion and restrain stress (WRS). Anandamide was administered at the dose of 0.3, 1.5 or 3.0 μmol/kg, 30 min before exposure to WRS. CB1 receptor antagonist, AM251 (4.0 μmol/kg) was administered 40 min before WRS. WRS induced gastric lesions associated with the decrease in gastric blood flow, mucosal DNA synthesis and mucosal activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Serum level of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and mucosal level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) were increased. Administration of anandamide reduced the ulcers area, generation of MDA+4-HNE and serum level of IL-1β, and this effect was associated with the reduction in the WRS-induced decrease in gastric mucosal blood flow, mucosal DNA synthesis and SOD activity. Ablation of sensory nerves increased the area of ulcers, serum level of IL-1β and mucosal content of MDA+4-HNE, whereas mucosal DNA synthesis, SOD activity and blood flow were additionally decreased. In rats with ablation of sensory nerves, administration of anandamide at the high doses (1.5 and 3.0 μmol/kg) partly reduced deleterious effect of WRS on gastric mucosa, but this effect was weaker than in animals with intact sensory nerves. Low dose of anandamide (0.3 μmol/kg) was ineffective in the protection of gastric mucosa against the WRS-induced lesions in rats with ablation of sensory nerves. In rats with intact sensory nerves and exposed to WRS, administration of AM251 exhibited deleterious effect. In rats with ablation of sensory

  18. Diuresis and reduced urinary osmolality in rats produced by small-molecule UT-A-selective urea transport inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Esteva-Font, Cristina; Cil, Onur; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Su, Tao; Lee, Sujin; Anderson, Marc O.; Verkman, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Urea transport (UT) proteins of the UT-A class are expressed in epithelial cells in kidney tubules, where they are required for the formation of a concentrated urine by countercurrent multiplication. Here, using a recently developed high-throughput assay to identify UT-A inhibitors, a screen of 50,000 synthetic small molecules identified UT-A inhibitors of aryl-thiazole, γ-sultambenzosulfonamide, aminocarbonitrile butene, and 4-isoxazolamide chemical classes. Structure-activity analysis identified compounds that inhibited UT-A selectively by a noncompetitive mechanism with IC50 down to ∼1 μM. Molecular modeling identified putative inhibitor binding sites on rat UT-A. To test compound efficacy in rats, formulations and administration procedures were established to give therapeutic inhibitor concentrations in blood and urine. We found that intravenous administration of an indole thiazole or a γ-sultambenzosulfonamide at 20 mg/kg increased urine output by 3–5-fold and reduced urine osmolality by ∼2-fold compared to vehicle control rats, even under conditions of maximum antidiuresis produced by 1-deamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP). The diuresis was reversible and showed urea > salt excretion. The results provide proof of concept for the diuretic action of UT-A-selective inhibitors. UT-A inhibitors are first in their class salt-sparing diuretics with potential clinical indications in volume-overload edemas and high-vasopressin-associated hyponatremias.—Esteva-Font, C., Cil, O., Phuan, P.-W., Su, T., Lee, S., Anderson, M. O., Verkman, A. S. Diuresis and reduced urinary osmolality in rats produced by small-molecule UT-A-selective urea transport inhibitors. PMID:24843071

  19. Relationship between brain serotonin transporter binding, plasma concentration and behavioural effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Kazufumi; Kimura, Ryohei; Sugimoto, Yumi; Yamada, Jun; Uchida, Shinya; Kato, Yasuhiro; Hashimoto, Hisakuni; Yamada, Shizuo

    2005-03-01

    1. The present study was undertaken to characterise the relationship between in vivo brain serotonin transporter (SERT) binding, plasma concentration and pharmacological effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in mice. Oral administration of fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline at pharmacologically relevant doses exerted dose- and time-dependent binding activity of brain SERT as revealed by significant increases in KD for specific [3H]paroxetine binding, and the in vivo SERT-binding potency was in the order of paroxetine>fluoxetine, sertraline>fluvoxamine. 2. The time courses of brain SERT binding by SSRIs in mice were mostly in parallel to those of their plasma concentrations. Also, norfluoxetine (active metabolite) has been suggested to contribute largely to the long-lasting binding activity of brain SERT after the fluoxetine administration. 3. Oral administration of each SSRI suppressed significantly the marble-burying behaviour with no change in locomotor activity in mice, and the extent and time course of suppression agreed well with those of brain SERT binding. Thus, the pharmacological potencies of SSRIs in the attenuation of marble-burying behaviour correlated significantly with their brain SERT binding activities. 4. In conclusion, the present study has provided the first in vivo evidences to support that fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline orally administered bind to the pharmacologically relevant brain SERT in mice and that their SERT-binding characteristics is closely associated with the pharmacokinetics and inhibition of marble-burying behaviour.

  20. Sleep improvement in dogs after oral administration of mioflazine, a nucleoside transport inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Wauquier, A; Van Belle, H; Van den Broeck, W A; Janssen, P A

    1987-01-01

    Mioflazine, a nucleoside transport inhibitor, was given PO to dogs at doses of 0.04-10 mg/kg. Sixteen hour polygraphic sleep recordings were made and analysis and sleep stage classification was done by computer. Mioflazine decreased wakefulness and increased slow wave sleep, but did not affect the latencies of either REM sleep or slow wave sleep. This increased sleep was due to an increase in the number of light and deep slow wave sleep epochs. The effect lasted for about 8 h. The decreased wakefulness and increased slow wave sleep could be antagonized by the adenosine antagonist caffeine (2.5 and 10 mg/kg, PO); however, there was not a pure antagonistic effect. It might be that the enhancement of slow wave sleep is due to an activation of brain adenosine receptors. This is the first report of a drug acting on adenosine that given orally improves sleep. Mioflazine might be the prototype of substances worth considering for the treatment of a variety of sleep disorders.

  1. Carbonyl Sulfide: An Inhibitor of Inorganic Carbon Transport in Cyanobacteria 1

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Teruo; Togasaki, Robert K.

    1988-01-01

    Cells of a high CO2-requiring mutant (E1) and wild type of Synechococcus PCC7942 were incubated with COS in the light, then suspended in COS-free medium and their CO2 exchange was measured using an open gas-analysis system under the conditions where photosynthetic CO2 fixation is inhibited. When the suspension of cells untreated with COS was illuminated, the rate of CO2 uptake was high and addition of carbonic anhydrase during illumination released a large amount of CO2 from the medium into the gas phase. The COS treatment in the light markedly reduced the rate of CO2 uptake by the cells and the amount of CO2 released by carbonic anhydrase. Incubation of cells with COS in the dark had no effect on the CO2-exchange profile. The COS concentration required for 50% inhibition of CO2 uptake was about 25 micromolar when the concentration of inorganic carbon (Ci) in the medium was 60 micromolar; higher Ci concentrations reduced the inhibitory effect of COS. Measurement of Ci uptake in E1 cells by a silicone oil centrifugation method also indicated marked reduction of the activities of 14CO2 and H14CO3− uptake in the cells treated with COS in the light. The results demonstrated that COS is a potent inhibitor of Ci transport. PMID:16666387

  2. The endocannabinoid transport inhibitor AM404 differentially modulates recognition memory in rats depending on environmental aversiveness

    PubMed Central

    Campolongo, Patrizia; Ratano, Patrizia; Manduca, Antonia; Scattoni, Maria L.; Palmery, Maura; Trezza, Viviana; Cuomo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Cannabinoid compounds may influence both emotional and cognitive processes depending on the level of environmental aversiveness at the time of drug administration. However, the mechanisms responsible for these responses remain to be elucidated. The present experiments investigated the effects induced by the endocannabinoid transport inhibitor AM404 (0.5–5 mg/kg, i.p.) on both emotional and cognitive performances of rats tested in a Spatial Open Field task and subjected to different experimental settings, named High Arousal (HA) and Low Arousal (LA) conditions. The two different experimental conditions influenced emotional reactivity independently of drug administration. Indeed, vehicle-treated rats exposed to the LA condition spent more time in the center of the arena than vehicle-treated rats exposed to the HA context. Conversely, the different arousal conditions did not affect the cognitive performances of vehicle-treated animals such as the capability to discriminate a spatial displacement of the objects or an object substitution. AM404 administration did not alter locomotor activity or emotional behavior of animals exposed to both environmental conditions. Interestingly, AM404 administration influenced the cognitive parameters depending on the level of emotional arousal: it impaired the capability of rats exposed to the HA condition to recognize a novel object while it did not induce any impairing effect in rats exposed to the LA condition. These findings suggest that drugs enhancing endocannabinoid signaling induce different effects on recognition memory performance depending on the level of emotional arousal induced by the environmental conditions. PMID:22454620

  3. Operational tolerance in nonvascularized transplant models induced by AR-C117977, a monocarboxylate transporter inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Påhlman, Clara; Malm, Helene; Qi, Zhongquan; Veress, Béla; Ferguson, Douglas; Bundick, Robert; Murray, Clare; Donald, David; Ekberg, Henrik

    2008-10-27

    AR-C117977, a monocarboxylate transporter inhibitor, reduces immune responses both in vitro and in vivo, maintains long-term graft survival, and induces operational tolerance. To evaluate the immunosuppressive limitations of AR-C117977, this study was performed in nonvascularized transplant models noted for their refractive response to standard immunosuppressive agents. Rat skin was transplanted from DA(RT1avl) into PVG(RT1c) and the reverse. Mouse islet allotransplantation was performed with BALB/c H2d donors and C57Bl/6J H2b recipients. In the skin graft model, AR-C117977 monotherapy was associated with long-term skin graft survival in one rat strain combination. AR-C117977 and cyclosporine A (CsA) in combination resulted in significant prolongation of graft survival in both rat strains. CsA monotherapy did not prevent acute rejection in either strain. Islet allograft survival was moderately prolonged with CsA or AR-C117977. AR-C117977 is an efficient immunosuppressive drug in stringent rodent transplant models and further studies are warranted.

  4. Diuresis and reduced urinary osmolality in rats produced by small-molecule UT-A-selective urea transport inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Esteva-Font, Cristina; Cil, Onur; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Su, Tao; Lee, Sujin; Anderson, Marc O; Verkman, A S

    2014-09-01

    Urea transport (UT) proteins of the UT-A class are expressed in epithelial cells in kidney tubules, where they are required for the formation of a concentrated urine by countercurrent multiplication. Here, using a recently developed high-throughput assay to identify UT-A inhibitors, a screen of 50,000 synthetic small molecules identified UT-A inhibitors of aryl-thiazole, γ-sultambenzosulfonamide, aminocarbonitrile butene, and 4-isoxazolamide chemical classes. Structure-activity analysis identified compounds that inhibited UT-A selectively by a noncompetitive mechanism with IC50 down to ∼1 μM. Molecular modeling identified putative inhibitor binding sites on rat UT-A. To test compound efficacy in rats, formulations and administration procedures were established to give therapeutic inhibitor concentrations in blood and urine. We found that intravenous administration of an indole thiazole or a γ-sultambenzosulfonamide at 20 mg/kg increased urine output by 3-5-fold and reduced urine osmolality by ∼2-fold compared to vehicle control rats, even under conditions of maximum antidiuresis produced by 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP). The diuresis was reversible and showed urea > salt excretion. The results provide proof of concept for the diuretic action of UT-A-selective inhibitors. UT-A inhibitors are first in their class salt-sparing diuretics with potential clinical indications in volume-overload edemas and high-vasopressin-associated hyponatremias.

  5. Determinants of Anti-Cancer Effect of Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Inhibitors: Bioenergetic Profile and Metabolic Flexibility of Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Urra, Félix A; Weiss-López, Boris; Araya-Maturana, Ramiro

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights that energy requirements of cancer cells vary greatly from normal cells and they exhibit different metabolic phenotypes with variable participation of both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Interestingly, mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) has been identified as an essential component in bioenergetics, biosynthesis and redox control during proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. This dependence converts ETC of cancer cells in a promising target to design small molecules with anti-cancer actions. Several small molecules have been described as ETC inhibitors with different consequences on mitochondrial bioenergetics, viability and proliferation of cancer cells, when the substrate availability is controlled to favor either the glycolytic or OXPHOS pathway. These ETC inhibitors can be grouped as 1) inhibitors of a respiratory complex (e.g. rotenoids, vanilloids, alkaloids, biguanides and polyphenols), 2) inhibitors of several respiratory complexes (e.g. capsaicin, ME-344 and epigallocatechin-3 gallate) and 3) inhibitors of ETC activity (e.g. elesclomol and VLX600). Although pharmacological ETC inhibition may produce cell death and a decrease of proliferation of cancer cells, factors such as degree of inhibition of ETC activity by small molecules, bioenergetic profile and metabolic flexibility of different cancer types or subpopulations of cells in a particular cancer type, can affect the impact of the anti-cancer actions. Particularly interesting are the adaptive mechanisms induced by ETC inhibition, such as induction of glutamine-dependent reductive carboxylation, which may offer a strategy to sensitize cancer cells to inhibitors of glutamine metabolism.

  6. Flavonoids and Auxin Transport Inhibitors Rescue Symbiotic Nodulation in the Medicago truncatula Cytokinin Perception Mutant cre1.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jason Liang Pin; Hassan, Samira; Truong, Thy T; Hocart, Charles H; Laffont, Carole; Frugier, Florian; Mathesius, Ulrike

    2015-08-01

    Initiation of symbiotic nodules in legumes requires cytokinin signaling, but its mechanism of action is largely unknown. Here, we tested whether the failure to initiate nodules in the Medicago truncatula cytokinin perception mutant cre1 (cytokinin response1) is due to its altered ability to regulate auxin transport, auxin accumulation, and induction of flavonoids. We found that in the cre1 mutant, symbiotic rhizobia cannot locally alter acro- and basipetal auxin transport during nodule initiation and that these mutants show reduced auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) accumulation and auxin responses compared with the wild type. Quantification of flavonoids, which can act as endogenous auxin transport inhibitors, showed a deficiency in the induction of free naringenin, isoliquiritigenin, quercetin, and hesperetin in cre1 roots compared with wild-type roots 24 h after inoculation with rhizobia. Coinoculation of roots with rhizobia and the flavonoids naringenin, isoliquiritigenin, and kaempferol, or with the synthetic auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5,-triiodobenzoic acid, rescued nodulation efficiency in cre1 mutants and allowed auxin transport control in response to rhizobia. Our results suggest that CRE1-dependent cytokinin signaling leads to nodule initiation through the regulation of flavonoid accumulation required for local alteration of polar auxin transport and subsequent auxin accumulation in cortical cells during the early stages of nodulation.

  7. Flavonoids and Auxin Transport Inhibitors Rescue Symbiotic Nodulation in the Medicago truncatula Cytokinin Perception Mutant cre1

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Jason Liang Pin; Hassan, Samira; Truong, Thy T.; Hocart, Charles H.; Laffont, Carole; Frugier, Florian; Mathesius, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Initiation of symbiotic nodules in legumes requires cytokinin signaling, but its mechanism of action is largely unknown. Here, we tested whether the failure to initiate nodules in the Medicago truncatula cytokinin perception mutant cre1 (cytokinin response1) is due to its altered ability to regulate auxin transport, auxin accumulation, and induction of flavonoids. We found that in the cre1 mutant, symbiotic rhizobia cannot locally alter acro- and basipetal auxin transport during nodule initiation and that these mutants show reduced auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) accumulation and auxin responses compared with the wild type. Quantification of flavonoids, which can act as endogenous auxin transport inhibitors, showed a deficiency in the induction of free naringenin, isoliquiritigenin, quercetin, and hesperetin in cre1 roots compared with wild-type roots 24 h after inoculation with rhizobia. Coinoculation of roots with rhizobia and the flavonoids naringenin, isoliquiritigenin, and kaempferol, or with the synthetic auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5,-triiodobenzoic acid, rescued nodulation efficiency in cre1 mutants and allowed auxin transport control in response to rhizobia. Our results suggest that CRE1-dependent cytokinin signaling leads to nodule initiation through the regulation of flavonoid accumulation required for local alteration of polar auxin transport and subsequent auxin accumulation in cortical cells during the early stages of nodulation. PMID:26253705

  8. Enhanced functional preservation of cold-stored rat heart by a nucleoside transport inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Zhu, Q; Claydon, M A; Hicks, G L; Wang, T

    1994-07-15

    This study investigates the hypothesis that inhibition of nucleoside transport during hypothermic storage elevates tissue adenosine (ADO) content and improves the function of the isolated rat heart. The hearts, flushed with a cardioplegic solution containing varying concentrations (0-100 nM) of a nucleoside transport inhibitor, S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBTI), were immersion-stored at 0 degrees C for 9 hr. Function was assessed after 30 min of working reperfusion. Function of unstored fresh hearts served as controls and poststorage recovery is reported as percentage of control function. Poststorage heart rate in all groups returned to control level after reperfusion. Recovery of other functional parameters in the no-NBTI group was as follows: aortic flow (AF), 56.2 +/- 4.6%; coronary flow (CF), 53.9 +/- 3.2%; cardiac output (CO), 55.5 +/- 4.0%; systolic pressure, 81.6 +/- 2.5%; work, 47.0 +/- 4.2%; and coronary vascular resistance (CVR), 157.1 +/- 7.8% of control. NBTI improved functional recovery in a dose-dependent fashion; the maximal improvement was seen at a dose of 5 nM, in which the recovery was: AF, 78.1 +/- 3.4%; CF, 73.5 +/- 4.4%; CO, 76.7 +/- 3.6%; work, 70.7 +/- 5.0%; and CVR, 127.5 +/- 4.5% of control (P < 0.05 vs. no-NBTI). The ADO A1-receptor antagonist, 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (0.1 microM) blocked the effects of 5 nM NBTI; the recovery of AF, CF, CO, work, and CVR decreased to 62.8 +/- 8.0%, 58.3 +/- 5.0%, 61.5 +/- 3.9%, 54.4 +/- 4.5%, and 163.8 +/- 12.7% of control, respectively (P < 0.05 vs. 5 nM NBTI). Tissue ADO content in 5 nM NBTI hearts at the end of storage was 0.075 +/- 0.025 mumol/g dry wt, which was significantly elevated from 0.016 +/- 0.004 mumol/g dry wt in no-NBTI hearts. Purine release during initial reperfusion was delayed in 5 nM NBTI hearts, indicating the inhibition of nucleoside transport by NBTI. But NBTI treatment did not improve end-storage or end-reperfusion myocardial ATP. In conclusion, the addition of

  9. FAAH inhibition enhances anandamide mediated anti-tumorigenic effects in non-small cell lung cancer by downregulating the EGF/EGFR pathway.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Janani; Sneh, Amita; Shilo, Konstantin; Nasser, Mohd W; Ganju, Ramesh K

    2014-05-15

    The endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA), a neurotransmitter was shown to have anti-cancer effects. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) metabolizes AEA and decreases its anti-tumorigenic activity. In this study, we have analyzed the role of FAAH inhibition in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We have shown that FAAH and CB1 receptor which is activated by AEA are expressed in lung adenocarcinoma patient samples and NSCLC cell lines A549 and H460. Since the synthetic analogue of anandamide (Met-F-AEA) did not possess significant anti-tumorigenic effects, we used Met-F-AEA in combination with FAAH inhibitor URB597 which significantly reduced EGF (epidermal growth factor)-induced proliferative and chemotactic activities in vitro when compared to anti-tumorigenic activity of Met-F-AEA alone. Further analysis of signaling mechanisms revealed that Met-F-AEA in combination with URB597 inhibits activation of EGFR and its downstream signaling ERK, AKT and NF-kB. In addition, it inhibited MMP2 secretion and stress fiber formation. We have also shown that the Met-F-AEA in combination with URB597 induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest by downregulating cyclin D1 and CDK4 expressions, ultimately leading to apoptosis via activation of caspase-9 and PARP. Furthermore, the combination treatment inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft nude mouse model system. Tumors derived from Met-F-AEA and URB597 combination treated mice showed reduced EGFR, AKT and ERK activation and MMP2/MMP9 expressions when compared to Met-F-AEA or URB597 alone. Taken together, these data suggest in EGFR overexpressing NSCLC that the combination of Met-F-AEA with FAAH inhibitor resulted in superior therapeutic response compared to individual compound activity alone.

  10. Crystallographic study of FABP5 as an intracellular endocannabinoid transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Sanson, Benoît; Wang, Tao; Sun, Jing; Wang, Liqun; Kaczocha, Martin; Ojima, Iwao; Deutsch, Dale; Li, Huilin

    2014-02-01

    FABP5 was recently found to intracellularly transport endocannabinoid signaling lipids. The structures of FABP5 complexed with two endocannabinoids and an inhibitor were solved. Human FABP5 was found to dimerize via a domain-swapping mechanism. This work will help in the development of inhibitors to raise endocannabinoid levels. In addition to binding intracellular fatty acids, fatty-acid-binding proteins (FABPs) have recently been reported to also transport the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), arachidonic acid derivatives that function as neurotransmitters and mediate a diverse set of physiological and psychological processes. To understand how the endocannabinoids bind to FABPs, the crystal structures of FABP5 in complex with AEA, 2-AG and the inhibitor BMS-309403 were determined. These ligands are shown to interact primarily with the substrate-binding pocket via hydrophobic interactions as well as a common hydrogen bond to the Tyr131 residue. This work advances our understanding of FABP5–endocannabinoid interactions and may be useful for future efforts in the development of small-molecule inhibitors to raise endocannabinoid levels.

  11. [The effect of membrane-transport inhibitors on the vacuolization of skeletal muscle fibers induced by glycerin removal from them].

    PubMed

    Krolenko, S A; Adamian, S Ia

    1996-01-01

    Effects of inhibitors of volume regulation on reversible vacuolation of skeletal muscle transverse sarcotubules have been studied. The drugs include inhibitors of sodium pump (ouabain), electrodiffusion Cl- and K+ channels (SITS, DIDS, niflumic acid, Ba2+), anion-cation cotransport and antiport (bumetanide, furosimide, amiloride), calcium channels (verapamil, nifedipine), stretch-activated ion channels (Gd3+) and water channels (Hg2+). The drugs were used at concentrations usually inhibiting the regulatory volume response in nonmuscle cells. The vacuolation-devacuolation cycles of frog muscle fibers were observed under the light microscope during efflux and entry of glycerol (90 mM). Neither of used inhibitors produced any noticeable effect on development and disappearance of vacuolation. A conclusion is made that development of vacuoles from the T-system during glycerol removal is not associated with activation of ion transport pathways that leads to regulatory volume decrease or increase in other cell types. The mechanisms of T-tubule vacuolation are discussed.

  12. Preclinical to Clinical Translation of CNS Transporter Occupancy of TD-9855, a Novel Norepinephrine and Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Patil, DL; Daniels, OT; Ding, Y-S; Gallezot, J-D; Henry, S; Kim, KHS; Kshirsagar, S; Martin, WJ; Obedencio, GP; Stangeland, E; Tsuruda, PR; Williams, W; Carson, RE; Patil, ST

    2015-01-01

    Background: Monoamine reuptake inhibitors exhibit unique clinical profiles that reflect distinct engagement of the central nervous system (CNS) transporters. Methods: We used a translational strategy, including rodent pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in humans, to establish the transporter profile of TD-9855, a novel norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Results: TD-9855 was a potent inhibitor of norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin 5-HT uptake in vitro with an inhibitory selectivity of 4- to 10-fold for NE at human and rat transporters. TD-9855 engaged norepinephrine transporters (NET) and serotonin transporters (SERT) in rat spinal cord, with a plasma EC50 of 11.7ng/mL and 50.8ng/mL, respectively, consistent with modest selectivity for NET in vivo. Accounting for species differences in protein binding, the projected human NET and SERT plasma EC50 values were 5.5ng/mL and 23.9ng/mL, respectively. A single-dose, open-label PET study (4–20mg TD-9855, oral) was conducted in eight healthy males using the radiotracers [11C]-3-amino-4- [2-[(di(methyl)amino)methyl]phenyl]sulfanylbenzonitrile for SERT and [11C]-(S,S)-methylreboxetine for NET. The long pharmacokinetic half-life (30–40h) of TD-9855 allowed for sequential assessment of SERT and NET occupancy in the same subject. The plasma EC50 for NET was estimated to be 1.21ng/mL, and at doses of greater than 4mg the projected steady-state NET occupancy is high (>75%). After a single oral dose of 20mg, SERT occupancy was 25 (±8)% at a plasma level of 6.35ng/mL. Conclusions: These data establish the CNS penetration and transporter profile of TD-9855 and inform the selection of potential doses for future clinical evaluation. PMID:25522383

  13. Differential effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors on cellular drug transporters and their implications for using epigenetic modifiers in combination chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Benigno C.; Li, Yang; Murray, David; Brammer, Jonathan E.; Liu, Yan; Hosing, Chitra; Nieto, Yago; Champlin, Richard E.; Andersson, Borje S.

    2016-01-01

    HDAC inhibitors, DNA alkylators and nucleoside analogs are effective components of combination chemotherapy. To determine a possible mechanism of their synergism, we analyzed the effects of HDAC inhibitors on the expression of drug transporters which export DNA alkylators. Exposure of PEER lymphoma T-cells to 15 nM romidepsin (Rom) resulted in 40%-50% reduction in mRNA for the drug transporter MRP1 and up to ~500-fold increase in the MDR1 mRNA within 32-48 hrs. MRP1 protein levels concomitantly decreased while MDR1 increased. Other HDAC inhibitors − panobinostat, belinostat and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) − had similar effects on these transporters. The protein level of MRP1 correlated with cellular resistance to busulfan and chlorambucil, and Rom exposure sensitized cells to these DNA alkylators. The decrease in MRP1 correlated with decreased cellular drug export activity, and increased level of MDR1 correlated with increased export of daunorubicin. A similar decrease in the level of MRP1 protein, and increase in MDR1, were observed when mononuclear cells derived from patients with T-cell malignancies were exposed to Rom. Decreased MRP1 and increased MDR1 expressions were also observed in blood mononuclear cells from lymphoma patients who received SAHA-containing chemotherapy in a clinical trial. This inhibitory effect of HDAC inhibitors on the expression of MRP1 suggests that their synergism with DNA alkylating agents is partly due to decreased efflux of these alkylators. Our results further imply the possibility of antagonistic effects when HDAC inhibitors are combined with anthracyclines and other MDR1 drug ligands in chemotherapy. PMID:27564097

  14. The novel endogenous cannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol is inactivated by neuronal- and basophil-like cells: connections with anandamide.

    PubMed Central

    Di Marzo, V; Bisogno, T; Sugiura, T; Melck, D; De Petrocellis, L

    1998-01-01

    The novel endogenous cannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) was rapidly inactivated by intact rat basophilic leukaemia (RBL-2H3) and mouse neuroblastoma (N18TG2) cells through diffusion/hydrolysis/reacylation processes. The hydrolysis of 2-AG was inhibited by typical esterase inhibitors and by more specific blockers of 'fatty acid amide hydrolase' (FAAH), the enzyme catalysing the hydrolysis of the other 'endocannabinoid', anandamide (AEA). No evidence for a facilitated-diffusion process was found. A 2-AG-hydrolysing activity was detected in homogenates from both cell lines, with the highest levels in membrane fractions. It exhibited an optimal pH at 10, and recognized both 2- and 1(3)- isomers of monoarachidonoylglycerol with similar efficiencies. The apparent Km and Vmax values for -3H-2-AG hydrolysis were 91 microM and 29 microM and 2.4 and 1.8 nmol.min-1.mg of protein-1 respectively in N18TG2 and RBL-2H3 cells. [3H]2-AG hydrolysis was inhibited by Cu2+, Zn2+ and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, and by 2- or 1(3)-monolinoleoyl- and -linolenoyl-glycerols, but not by the oleoyl, palmitoyl and myristoyl congeners. Purified fractions from solubilized membrane proteins catalysed, at pH 9.5, the hydrolysis of 2-AG as well as AEA. Accordingly, AEA as well as FAAH inhibitors, including arachidonoyltrifluoromethyl ketone (ATFMK), blocked [3H]2-AG hydrolysis by N18TG2 and RBL-2H3 membranes, whereas 2-AG inhibited [14C]AEA hydrolysis. FAAH blockade by ATFMK preserved from inactivation the 2-AG synthesized de novo by intact N18TG2 cells stimulated with ionomycin. These data suggest that FAAH may be one of the enzymes deputed to the physiological inactivation of 2-AG, and create intriguing possibilities for the cross-regulation of 2-AG and AEA levels. PMID:9512456

  15. Effect of inhibitors of auxin transport and of calmodulin on a gravisensing-dependent current in maize roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, T.; Leopold, A. C.

    1987-01-01

    Some characteristics of the gravity sensing mechanism in maize root caps were investigated using a bioelectric current as an indicator of gravity sensing. This technique involves the measurement of a change in the current density which arises at the columella region coincidently with the presentation time. Two inhibitors of auxin transport, triiodobenzoic acid and naphthylphthalamic acid, blocked gravitropic curvature but not the change in current density. Two inhibitors of calmodulin activity, compound 48/80 and calmidazolium, blocked both curvature and gravity-induced current. The results suggest that auxin transport is not a component of gravity sensing in the root cap. By contrast, the results suggest that calmodulin plays an intrinsic role in gravity sensing.

  16. Analgesic effect of intrathecally γ-aminobutyric acid transporter-1 inhibitor NO-711 administrating on neuropathic pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Li, Yicong; Gu, Peifei; Fu, Baojun; Liu, Fang; Li, Enyou

    2011-04-20

    To investigate the analgesic effect of intrathecally administered γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter-1 inhibitor NO-711 on the sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) rats. 5 days after intrathecal catheter placement, neuropathic pain model was established by CCI of sciatic nerve on rats. Withdrawal thresholds for mechanical allodynia and latency for thermal hyperalgesia were measured in all animals. All rats operated upon for CCI displayed decreased withdrawal thresholds for mechanical allodynia and latency for thermal hyperalgesia, which has significant difference compared with sham groups. After intrathecal NO-711 administration, withdrawal thresholds and latency were significantly increased on CCI rats compared with control group after 1 day. The results show that GABA transporter-1 inhibitor could effectively develop analgesic effect in sciatic nerve CCI rats' model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Inhibitors of Auxin Transport and of Calmodulin on a Gravisensing-Dependent Current in Maize Roots 1

    PubMed Central

    Björkman, Thomas; Leopold, A. Carl

    1987-01-01

    Some characteristics of the gravity sensing mechanism in maize root caps were investigated using a bioelectric current as an indicator of gravity sensing. This technique involves the measurement of a change in the current density which arises at the columella region coincidently with the presentation time. Two inhibitors of auxin transport, triiodobenzoic acid and naphthylphthalamic acid, blocked gravitropic curvature but not the change in current density. Two inhibitors of calmodulin activity, compound 48/80 and calmidazolium, blocked both curvature and gravity-induced current. The results suggest that auxin transport is not a component of gravity sensing in the root cap. By contrast, the results suggest that calmodulin plays an intrinsic role in gravity sensing. PMID:11539682

  18. Effect of inhibitors of auxin transport and of calmodulin on a gravisensing-dependent current in maize roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, T.; Leopold, A. C.

    1987-01-01

    Some characteristics of the gravity sensing mechanism in maize root caps were investigated using a bioelectric current as an indicator of gravity sensing. This technique involves the measurement of a change in the current density which arises at the columella region coincidently with the presentation time. Two inhibitors of auxin transport, triiodobenzoic acid and naphthylphthalamic acid, blocked gravitropic curvature but not the change in current density. Two inhibitors of calmodulin activity, compound 48/80 and calmidazolium, blocked both curvature and gravity-induced current. The results suggest that auxin transport is not a component of gravity sensing in the root cap. By contrast, the results suggest that calmodulin plays an intrinsic role in gravity sensing.

  19. Influence of an oil soluble inhibitor on microbiologically influenced corrosion in a diesel transporting pipeline.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, N; Maruthamuthu, S; Mohanan, S; Palaniswamy, N

    2007-01-01

    Microbial degradation of the oil soluble corrosion inhibitor (OSCI) Baker NC 351 contributed to a decrease in inhibitor efficiency. Corrosion inhibition efficiency was studied by the rotating cage and flow loop methods. The nature of the biodegradation of the corrosion inhibitor was also analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The influence of bacterial activity on the degradation of the corrosion inhibitor and its influence on corrosion of API 5LX were evaluated using a weight loss technique and impedance studies. Serratia marcescens ACE2 and Bacillus cereus ACE4 can degrade aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons present in the corrosion inhibitor. The present study also discusses the demerits of the oil soluble corrosion inhibitors used in petroleum product pipeline.

  20. Studies on a series of milnacipran analogs containing a heteroaromatic group as potent norepinephrine and serotonin transporter inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Troy; Dyck, Brian; Tamiya, Junko; Zhang, Mingzhu; Jovic, Florence; Grey, Jonathan; Fleck, Beth A; Aparicio, Anna; Johns, Michael; Jin, Liping; Tang, Hui; Foster, Alan C; Chen, Chen

    2008-06-01

    A series of milnacipran analogs containing a heteroaromatic group were synthesized and studied as monoamine transporter inhibitors. Many compounds exhibited higher potency than milnacipran at NET and NET/SERT with no significant change in lipophilicity. For example, compound R-26f was about 10-fold more potent than milnacipran with IC(50) values of 8.7 and 26nM at NET and SERT, respectively.

  1. Effects of cholesterol transport inhibitor U18666A on APP metabolism in rat primary astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongyan; Wang, Yanlin; Kar, Satyabrata

    2017-11-01

    Amyloid β (Aβ) peptides generated from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) play an important role in the degeneration of neurons and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Current evidence indicates that high levels of cholesterol-which increase the risk of developing AD-can influence Aβ production in neurons. However, it remains unclear how altered level/subcellular distribution of cholesterol in astrocytes can influence APP metabolism. In this study, we evaluated the effects of cholesterol transport inhibitor U18666A-a class II amphiphile that triggers redistribution of cholesterol within the endosomal-lysosomal (EL) system-on APP levels and metabolism in rat primary cultured astrocytes. Our results revealed that U18666A increased the levels of the APP holoprotein and its cleaved products (α-/β-/η-CTFs) in cultured astrocytes, without altering the total levels of cholesterol or cell viability. The cellular levels of Aβ1-40 were also found to be markedly increased, while secretory levels of Aβ1-40 were decreased in U18666A-treated astrocytes. We further report a corresponding increase in the activity of the enzymes regulating APP processing, such as α-secretase, β-secretase, and γ-secretase as a consequence of U18666A treatment. Additionally, APP-cleaved products are partly accumulated in the lysosomes following cholesterol sequestration within EL system possibly due to decreased clearance. Interestingly, serum delipidation attenuated enhanced levels of APP and its cleaved products following U18666A treatment. Collectively, these results suggest that cholesterol sequestration within the EL system in astrocytes can influence APP metabolism and the accumulation of APP-cleaved products including Aβ peptides, which can contribute to the development of AD pathology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Salicylic Acid Is an Uncoupler and Inhibitor of Mitochondrial Electron Transport1

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Christel; Howell, Katharine A.; Millar, A. Harvey; Whelan, James M.; Day, David A.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of salicylic acid (SA) on respiration and mitochondrial function was examined in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) suspension cell cultures in the range of 0.01 to 5 mm. Cells rapidly accumulated SA up to 10-fold of the externally applied concentrations. At the lower concentrations, SA accumulation was transitory. When applied at 0.1 mm or less, SA stimulated respiration of whole cells and isolated mitochondria in the absence of added ADP, indicating uncoupling of respiration. However, at higher concentrations, respiration was severely inhibited. Measurements of ubiquinone redox poise in isolated mitochondria suggested that SA blocked electron flow from the substrate dehydrogenases to the ubiquinone pool. This inhibition could be at least partially reversed by re-isolating the mitochondria. Two active analogs of SA, benzoic acid and acetyl-SA, had the same effect as SA on isolated tobacco mitochondria, whereas the inactive p-hydroxybenzoic acid was without effect at the same concentration. SA induced an increase in Aox protein levels in cell suspensions, and this was correlated with an increase in Aox1 transcript abundance. However, when applied at 0.1 mm, this induction was transient and disappeared as SA levels in the cells declined. SA at 0.1 mm also increased the expression of other SA-responsive genes, and this induction was dependent on active mitochondria. The results indicate that SA is both an uncoupler and an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport and suggest that this underlies the induction of some genes by SA. The possible implications of this for the interpretation of SA action in plants are discussed. PMID:14684840

  3. Effects of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors on Interregional Relation of Serotonin Transporter Availability in Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    James, Gregory M.; Baldinger-Melich, Pia; Philippe, Cecile; Kranz, Georg S.; Vanicek, Thomas; Hahn, Andreas; Gryglewski, Gregor; Hienert, Marius; Spies, Marie; Traub-Weidinger, Tatjana; Mitterhauser, Markus; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Hacker, Marcus; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2017-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) modulate serotonergic neurotransmission by blocking reuptake of serotonin from the extracellular space. Up to now, it remains unclear how SSRIs achieve their antidepressant effect. However, task-based and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, have demonstrated connectivity changes between brain regions. Here, we use positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify SSRI’s main target, the serotonin transporter (SERT), and assess treatment-induced molecular changes in the interregional relation of SERT binding potential (BPND). Nineteen out-patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 19 healthy controls (HC) were included in this study. Patients underwent three PET measurements with the radioligand [11C]DASB: (1) at baseline, (2) after a first SSRI dose; and (3) following at least 3 weeks of daily intake. Controls were measured once with PET. Correlation analyses were restricted to brain regions repeatedly implicated in MDD pathophysiology. After 3 weeks of daily SSRI administration a significant increase in SERT BPND correlations of anterior cingulate cortex and insula with the amygdala, midbrain, hippocampus, pallidum and putamen (p < 0.05; false discovery rate, FDR corrected) was revealed. No significant differences were found when comparing MDD patients and HC at baseline. These findings are in line with the clinical observation that treatment response to SSRIs is often achieved only after a latency of several weeks. The elevated associations in interregional SERT associations may be more closely connected to clinical outcomes than regional SERT occupancy measures and could reflect a change in the regional interaction of serotonergic neurotransmission during antidepressant treatment. PMID:28220069

  4. Serotonin transporter occupancy in rats exposed to serotonin reuptake inhibitors in utero or via breast milk.

    PubMed

    Capello, Catherine F; Bourke, Chase H; Ritchie, James C; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Nemeroff, Amanda; Owens, Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Rigorous data regarding fetal central nervous system (CNS) exposure after antidepressant exposure are sparse. The magnitude of serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) CNS exposure was measured in three groups of rats using ex vivo autoradiography of the serotonin transporter (SERT): 1) in utero, 2) postnatal clearance after birth, and 3) exposure through lactation. Rats were exposed to one of five SRI-type antidepressants (escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine) administered continuously via osmotic minipumps to pregnant or nursing dams. Dam dosing was adjusted to reflect the 50th and 85th percentiles of serum concentrations observed in pregnant women. Embryonic day 21 rat pups exposed in utero exhibited >80% SERT occupancy in brain tissue, which is equivalent to that of the pregnant dam and similar to that reported for human pharmacotherapy. Venlafaxine was the exception with occupancies ranging from 61 to 92% across different litters. The magnitude of SERT occupancy is essentially equivalent between dams and fetuses. By postnatal day 4, high SERT occupancy was observed only in fluoxetine-exposed pups (41-92% occupancy). Significantly less, but measurable, exposure occurred via breast milk exposure even in the absence of detectable drug concentrations in nursing pup sera. Pups exposed to SRIs via breast milk for 3 or 7 days exhibited varying SERT occupancies (0-57% depending on the individual medication and dam dose). These data highlight the need for animal modeling of fetal and nursing infant drug exposure using clinically meaningful dosing strategies and appropriate CNS measures to develop rational treatment guidelines that systematically minimize fetal and neonatal medication exposure in humans.

  5. Relative contributions of norepinephrine and serotonin transporters to antinociceptive synergy between monoamine reuptake inhibitors and morphine in the rat formalin model.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fei; Tsuruda, Pamela R; Smith, Jacqueline A M; Obedencio, Glenmar P; Martin, William J

    2013-01-01

    Multimodal analgesia is designed to optimize pain relief by coadministering drugs with distinct mechanisms of action or by combining multiple pharmacologies within a single molecule. In clinical settings, combinations of monoamine reuptake inhibitors and opioid receptor agonists have been explored and one currently available analgesic, tapentadol, functions as both a µ-opioid receptor agonist and a norepinephrine transporter inhibitor. However, it is unclear whether the combination of selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibition and µ-receptor agonism achieves an optimal antinociceptive synergy. In this study, we assessed the pharmacodynamic interactions between morphine and monoamine reuptake inhibitors that possess different affinities and selectivities for norepinephrine and serotonin transporters. Using the rat formalin model, in conjunction with measurements of ex vivo transporter occupancy, we show that neither the norepinephrine-selective inhibitor, esreboxetine, nor the serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, produce antinociceptive synergy with morphine. Atomoxetine, a monoamine reuptake inhibitor that achieves higher levels of norepinephrine than serotonin transporter occupancy, exhibited robust antinociceptive synergy with morphine. Similarly, a fixed-dose combination of esreboxetine and fluoxetine which achieves comparable levels of transporter occupancy potentiated the antinociceptive response to morphine. By contrast, duloxetine, a monoamine reuptake inhibitor that achieves higher serotonin than norepinephrine transporter occupancy, failed to potentiate the antinociceptive response to morphine. However, when duloxetine was coadministered with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron, potentiation of the antinociceptive response to morphine was revealed. These results support the notion that inhibition of both serotonin and norepinephrine transporters is required for monoamine reuptake inhibitor and opioid-mediated antinociceptive

  6. Identification of conformationally sensitive residues essential for inhibition of vesicular monoamine transport by the noncompetitive inhibitor tetrabenazine.

    PubMed

    Ugolev, Yelena; Segal, Tali; Yaffe, Dana; Gros, Yael; Schuldiner, Shimon

    2013-11-08

    Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) transports monoamines into storage vesicles in a process that involves exchange of the charged monoamine with two protons. VMAT2 is a member of the DHA12 family of multidrug transporters that belongs to the major facilitator superfamily of secondary transporters. Tetrabenazine (TBZ) is a non-competitive inhibitor of VMAT2 that is used in the treatment of hyperkinetic disorders associated with Huntington disease and Tourette syndrome. Previous biochemical studies suggested that the recognition site for TBZ and monoamines is different. However, the precise mechanism of TBZ interaction with VMAT2 remains unknown. Here we used a random mutagenesis approach and selected TBZ-resistant mutants. The mutations clustered around the lumenal opening of the transporter and mapped to either conserved proline or glycine, or to residues immediately adjacent to conserved proline and glycine. Directed mutagenesis provides further support for the essential role of the latter residues. Our data strongly suggest that the conserved α-helix breaking residues identified in this work play an important role in conformational rearrangements required for TBZ binding and substrate transport. Our results provide a novel insight into the mechanism of transport and TBZ binding by VMAT2.

  7. [Sodium Glucose Co-transporter Type 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors in CKD].

    PubMed

    Insalaco, Monica; Zanoli, Luca; Rastelli, Stefania; Lentini, Paolo; Rapisarda, Francesco; Fatuzzo, Pasquale; Castellino, Pietro; Granata, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Among the new drugs used for the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus type 2, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors represent a promising therapeutic option. Since their ability to lower glucose is proportional to GFR, their effect is reduced in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The antidiabetic mechanism of these drugs is insulin-independent and, therefore, complimentary to that of others antihyperglicaemic agents. Moreover, SGLT2 inhibitors are able to reduce glomerular hyperfiltration, systemic and intraglomerular pressure and uric acid levels, with consequent beneficial effects on the progression of kidney disease in non diabetic patients as well. Only few studies have been performed to evaluate the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with CKD. Therefore, safety and efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors should be better clarified in the setting of CKD. In this paper, we will review the use of SGLT2 inhibitors in diabetic patients, including those with CKD.

  8. Synergistic effects of ion transporter and MAP kinase pathway inhibitors in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Eskiocak, Ugur; Ramesh, Vijayashree; Gill, Jennifer G.; Zhao, Zhiyu; Yuan, Stacy W.; Wang, Meng; Vandergriff, Travis; Shackleton, Mark; Quintana, Elsa; Johnson, Timothy M.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Morrison, Sean J.

    2016-01-01

    New therapies are required for melanoma. Here, we report that multiple cardiac glycosides, including digitoxin and digoxin, are significantly more toxic to human melanoma cells than normal human cells. This reflects on-target inhibition of the ATP1A1 Na+/K+ pump, which is highly expressed by melanoma. MEK inhibitor and/or BRAF inhibitor additively or synergistically combined with digitoxin to induce cell death, inhibiting growth of patient-derived melanomas in NSG mice and synergistically extending survival. MEK inhibitor and digitoxin do not induce cell death in human melanocytes or haematopoietic cells in NSG mice. In melanoma, MEK inhibitor reduces ERK phosphorylation, while digitoxin disrupts ion gradients, altering plasma membrane and mitochondrial membrane potentials. MEK inhibitor and digitoxin together cause intracellular acidification, mitochondrial calcium dysregulation and ATP depletion in melanoma cells but not in normal cells. The disruption of ion homoeostasis in cancer cells can thus synergize with targeted agents to promote tumour regression in vivo. PMID:27545456

  9. The role of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 on the cellular transport of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitors 5-azacytidine and CP-4200 in human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Hummel-Eisenbeiss, Johanna; Hascher, Antje; Hals, Petter-Arnt; Sandvold, Marit Liland; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Lyko, Frank; Rius, Maria

    2013-09-01

    The nucleoside analog 5-azacytidine is an archetypical drug for epigenetic cancer therapy, and its clinical effectiveness has been demonstrated in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). However, therapy resistance in patients with MDS/AML remains a challenging issue. Membrane proteins that are involved in drug uptake are potential mediators of drug resistance. The responsible proteins for the transport of 5-azacytidine into MDS/AML cells are unknown. We have now systematically analyzed the expression and activity of various nucleoside transporters. We identified the human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) as the most abundant nucleoside transporter in leukemia cell lines and in AML patient samples. Transport assays using [¹⁴C]5-azacytidine demonstrated Na⁺-independent uptake of the drug into the cells, which was inhibited by S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBTI), a hENT1 inhibitor. The cellular toxicity of 5-azacytidine and its DNA demethylating activity were strongly reduced after hENT1 inhibition. In contrast, the cellular activity of the 5-azacytidine derivative 5-azacytidine-5'-elaidate (CP-4200), a nucleoside transporter-independent drug, persisted after hENT1 inhibition. A strong dependence of 5-azacytidine-induced DNA demethylation on hENT1 activity was also confirmed by array-based DNA methylation profiling, which uncovered hundreds of loci that became demethylated only when hENT1-mediated transport was active. Our data establish hENT1 as a key transporter for the cellular uptake of 5-azacytidine in leukemia cells and raise the possibility that hENT1 expression might be a useful biomarker to predict the efficiency of 5-azacytidine treatments. Furthermore, our data suggest that CP-4200 may represent a valuable compound for the modulation of transporter-related 5-azacytidine resistances.

  10. In vivo neuronal synthesis and axonal transport of Kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI)-containing forms of the amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Moya, K L; Confaloni, A M; Allinquant, B

    1994-11-01

    We have shown previously that the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is synthesized in retinal ganglion cells and is rapidly transported down the axons, and that different molecular weight forms of the precursor have different developmental time courses. Some APP isoforms contain a Kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI) domain, and APP that lacks the KPI domain is considered the predominant isoform in neurons. We now show that, among the various rapidly transported APPs, a 140-kDa isoform contains the KPI domain. This APP isoform is highly expressed in rapidly growing retinal axons, and it is also prominent in adult axon endings. This 140-kDa KPI-containing APP is highly sulfated compared with other axonally transported isoforms. These results show that APP with the KPI domain is a prominent isoform synthesized in neurons in vivo, and they suggest that the regulation of protease activity may be an important factor during the establishment of neuronal connections.

  11. ADP Is a Competitive Inhibitor of ATP-Dependent H+ Transport in Microsomal Membranes from Zea mays L. Coleoptiles

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, Thomas; Ziemann-Roth, Martina; Hilgenberg, Willy

    1985-01-01

    An anion-sensitive ATP-dependent H+ transport in microsomal membranes from Zea mays L. coleoptiles was partially characterized using the pH gradient-dependent decrease of unprotonated neutral red. The following criteria strongly suggest a tonoplast origin of the H+ transport observed: strict dependence on Cl−; inhibition by SO42− and NO3−; insensitivity against vanadate, molybdate, and azide; reversible inhibition by CaCl2 (H+/Ca2+ antiport); inhibition by diethylstilbestrol. The substrate kinetics revealed simple Michaelis Menten kinetics for ATP in the presence of 1 millimolar MgCl2 with a Km value of 0.56 millimolar (0.38 millimolar for MgATP). AMP and c-AMP did not influence H+ transport significantly. However, ADP was a potent competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 0.18 millimolar. The same inhibition type was found for membranes prepared from primary roots by the same procedure. PMID:16664155

  12. Repositioning of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors as Antagonists of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters in Anticancer Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Kathawala, Rishil J.; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of multidrug resistance (MDR) has attenuated the efficacy of anticancer drugs and the possibility of successful cancer chemotherapy. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play an essential role in mediating MDR in cancer cells by increasing efflux of drugs from cancer cells, hence reducing the intracellular accumulation of chemotherapeutic drugs. Interestingly, small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as AST1306, lapatinib, linsitinib, masitinib, motesanib, nilotinib, telatinib and WHI-P154, have been found to have the capability to overcome anticancer drug resistance by inhibiting ABC transporters in recent years. This review will focus on some of the latest and clinical developments with ABC transporters, TKIs and anticancer drug resistance. PMID:25268163

  13. In Silico Modeling-based Identification of Glucose Transporter 4 (GLUT4)-selective Inhibitors for Cancer Therapy*

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Rama K.; Wei, Changyong; Hresko, Richard C.; Bajpai, Richa; Heitmeier, Monique; Matulis, Shannon M.; Nooka, Ajay K.; Rosen, Steven T.; Hruz, Paul W.; Schiltz, Gary E.; Shanmugam, Mala

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells rely on elevated glucose consumption and metabolism for survival and proliferation. Glucose transporters mediating glucose entry are key proximal rate-limiting checkpoints. Unlike GLUT1 that is highly expressed in cancer and more ubiquitously expressed in normal tissues, GLUT4 exhibits more limited normal expression profiles. We have previously determined that insulin-responsive GLUT4 is constitutively localized on the plasma membrane of myeloma cells. Consequently, suppression of GLUT4 or inhibition of glucose transport with the HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir elicited growth arrest and/or apoptosis in multiple myeloma. GLUT4 inhibition also caused sensitization to metformin in multiple myeloma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia and a number of solid tumors suggesting the broader therapeutic utility of targeting GLUT4. This study sought to identify selective inhibitors of GLUT4 to develop a more potent cancer chemotherapeutic with fewer potential off-target effects. Recently, the crystal structure of GLUT1 in an inward open conformation was reported. Although this is an important achievement, a full understanding of the structural biology of facilitative glucose transport remains elusive. To date, there is no three-dimensional structure for GLUT4. We have generated a homology model for GLUT4 that we utilized to screen for drug-like compounds from a library of 18 million compounds. Despite 68% homology between GLUT1 and GLUT4, our virtual screen identified two potent compounds that were shown to target GLUT4 preferentially over GLUT1 and block glucose transport. Our results strongly bolster the utility of developing GLUT4-selective inhibitors as anti-cancer therapeutics. PMID:25847249

  14. In Silico Modeling-based Identification of Glucose Transporter 4 (GLUT4)-selective Inhibitors for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Rama K; Wei, Changyong; Hresko, Richard C; Bajpai, Richa; Heitmeier, Monique; Matulis, Shannon M; Nooka, Ajay K; Rosen, Steven T; Hruz, Paul W; Schiltz, Gary E; Shanmugam, Mala

    2015-06-05

    Tumor cells rely on elevated glucose consumption and metabolism for survival and proliferation. Glucose transporters mediating glucose entry are key proximal rate-limiting checkpoints. Unlike GLUT1 that is highly expressed in cancer and more ubiquitously expressed in normal tissues, GLUT4 exhibits more limited normal expression profiles. We have previously determined that insulin-responsive GLUT4 is constitutively localized on the plasma membrane of myeloma cells. Consequently, suppression of GLUT4 or inhibition of glucose transport with the HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir elicited growth arrest and/or apoptosis in multiple myeloma. GLUT4 inhibition also caused sensitization to metformin in multiple myeloma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia and a number of solid tumors suggesting the broader therapeutic utility of targeting GLUT4. This study sought to identify selective inhibitors of GLUT4 to develop a more potent cancer chemotherapeutic with fewer potential off-target effects. Recently, the crystal structure of GLUT1 in an inward open conformation was reported. Although this is an important achievement, a full understanding of the structural biology of facilitative glucose transport remains elusive. To date, there is no three-dimensional structure for GLUT4. We have generated a homology model for GLUT4 that we utilized to screen for drug-like compounds from a library of 18 million compounds. Despite 68% homology between GLUT1 and GLUT4, our virtual screen identified two potent compounds that were shown to target GLUT4 preferentially over GLUT1 and block glucose transport. Our results strongly bolster the utility of developing GLUT4-selective inhibitors as anti-cancer therapeutics.

  15. Presumed LRP1-targeting transport peptide delivers β-secretase inhibitor to neurons in vitro with limited efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Ah; Casalini, Tommaso; Brambilla, Davide; Leroux, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Interfering with the activity of β-secretase to reduce the production of Aβ peptides is a conceivable therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer’s disease. However, the development of efficient yet safe inhibitors is hampered by secondary effects, usually linked to the indiscriminate inhibition of other substrates’ processing by the targeted enzyme. Based on the spatial compartmentalization of the cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein by β-secretase, we hypothesized that by exploiting the endocytosis receptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein it would be possible to direct an otherwise cell-impermeable inhibitor to the endosomes of neurons, boosting the drug’s efficacy and importantly, sparing the off-target effects. We used the transport peptide Angiopep to build an endocytosis-competent conjugate and found that although the peptide facilitated the inhibitor’s internalization into neurons and delivered it to the endosomes, the delivery was not efficient enough to potently reduce β-secretase activity at the cellular level. This is likely connected to the finding that in the cell lines we used, Angiopep’s internalization was not mediated by its presumed receptor to a significant extent. Additionally, Angiopep exploited different internalization mechanisms when applied alone or when conjugated to the inhibitor, highlighting the impact that drug conjugation can have on transport peptides. PMID:27682851

  16. Repositioning of Verrucosidin, a Purported Inhibitor of Chaperone Protein GRP78, as an Inhibitor of Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Complex I

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Reyna; Pao, Peng-Wen; Hofman, Florence M.; Chen, Thomas C.; Louie, Stan G.; Pirrung, Michael C.; Schönthal, Axel H.

    2013-01-01

    Verrucosidin (VCD) belongs to a group of fungal metabolites that were identified in screening programs to detect molecules that preferentially kill cancer cells under glucose-deprived conditions. Its mode of action was proposed to involve inhibition of increased GRP78 (glucose regulated protein 78) expression during hypoglycemia. Because GRP78 plays an important role in tumorigenesis, inhibitors such as VCD might harbor cancer therapeutic potential. We therefore sought to characterize VCD’s anticancer activity in vitro. Triple-negative breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 were treated with VCD under different conditions known to trigger increased expression of GRP78, and a variety of cellular processes were analyzed. We show that VCD was highly cytotoxic only under hypoglycemic conditions, but not in the presence of normal glucose levels, and VCD blocked GRP78 expression only when glycolysis was impaired (due to hypoglycemia or the presence of the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose), but not when GRP78 was induced by other means (hypoxia, thapsigargin, tunicamycin). However, VCD’s strictly hypoglycemia-specific toxicity was not due to the inhibition of GRP78. Rather, VCD blocked mitochondrial energy production via inhibition of complex I of the electron transport chain. As a result, cellular ATP levels were quickly depleted under hypoglycemic conditions, and common cellular functions, including general protein synthesis, deteriorated and resulted in cell death. Altogether, our study identifies mitochondria as the primary target of VCD. The possibility that other purported GRP78 inhibitors (arctigenin, biguanides, deoxyverrucosidin, efrapeptin, JBIR, piericidin, prunustatin, pyrvinium, rottlerin, valinomycin, versipelostatin) might act in a similar GRP78-independent fashion will be discussed. PMID:23755268

  17. Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor luseogliflozin in the management of type 2 diabetes: a drug safety evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yabe, Daisuke; Hamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Seino, Yusuke; Kuwata, Hitoshi; Kurose, Takeshi; Seino, Yutaka

    2017-10-01

    Sodium glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been developed recently as a new class of anti-diabetic drug, and are becoming widely used in the management of type 2 diabetes (T2D). As these agents have a considerably different glucose-lowering mechanism from those of other anti-diabetic drugs, safe use of this drug class needs to be discussed based on data available from preapproval clinical trials as well as real-world studies. The SGLT2 inhibitor luseogliflozin was developed by Taisho Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. and was approved as an oral anti-diabetic drug for T2D in Japan Areas covered: The overall safety and efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitor luseogliflozin are summarized on the basis of a literature review, with a focus on reported adverse drug reactions in preapproval clinical trials and a post-marketing surveillance. Expert opinion: SGLT2 inhibitor luseogliflozin is well tolerated, significantly improves hyperglycemia in preapproval clinical trials, and has a favorable safety profile in both preapproval clinical trials and post-marketing surveillance in elderly patients. While long-term safety and efficacy remain to be seen, luseogliflozin can benefit T2D patients worldwide. However, healthcare professionals must perform appropriate patient education that includes temporary withdrawal of luseogliflozin during patient a 'sick day' and avoidance of strict carbohydrate restriction during luseogliflozin treatment.

  18. Place of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors for treatment of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mikhail, Nasser

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2), such as canagliflozin and dapagliflozin, are recently approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes. These agents lower blood glucose mainly by increasing urinary glucose excretion. Compared with placebo, SGLT2 inhibitors reduce hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels by an average of 0.5%-0.8% when used as monotherapy or add-on therapy. Advantages of this drug class include modest weight loss of approximately 2 kg, low risk of hypoglycemia, and decrease blood pressure of approximately 4 mmHg systolic and 2 mmHg diastolic. These characteristics make these agents potential add-on therapy in patients with HbA1c levels close to 7%-8.0%, particularly if these patients are obese, hypertensive, and/or prone for hypoglycemia. Meanwhile, these drugs are limited by high frequency of genital mycotic infections. Less common adverse effects include urinary tract infections, hypotension, dizziness, and worsening renal function. SGLT2 inhibitors should be used with caution in the elderly because of increased adverse effects, and should not be used in chronic kidney disease due to decreased or lack of efficacy and nephrotoxicity. Overall, SGLT2 inhibitors are useful addition for treatment of select groups of patients with type 2 diabetes, but their efficacy and safety need to be established in long-term clinical trials. PMID:25512787

  19. Identification of Adenine and Benzimidazole Nucleosides as Potent Human Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter 2 Inhibitors: Potential Treatment for Hyperuricemia and Gout.

    PubMed

    Tatani, Kazuya; Hiratochi, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Norihiko; Kuramochi, Yu; Watanabe, Shinjiro; Yamauchi, Yuji; Itoh, Fumiaki; Isaji, Masayuki; Shuto, Satoshi

    2016-04-28

    To test the hypothesis that inhibitors of human concentrative nucleoside transporter 2 (hCNT2) suppress increases in serum urate levels derived from dietary purines, we previously identified adenosine derivative 1 as a potent hCNT2 inhibitor (IC50 = 0.64 μM), but further study was hampered due to its poor solubility. Here we describe the results of subsequent research to identify more soluble and more potent hCNT2 inhibitors, leading to the discovery of the benzimidazole nucleoside 22, which is the most potent hCNT2 inhibitor (IC50 = 0.062 μM) reported to date. Compound 22 significantly suppressed the increase in plasma uric acid levels after oral administration of purine nucleosides in rats. Because compound 22 was poorly absorbed orally in rats (F = 0.51%), its pharmacologic action was mostly limited to the gastrointestinal tract. These findings suggest that inhibition of hCNT2 in the gastrointestinal tract can be a promising approach for the treatment of hyperuricemia.

  20. Modulation of high affinity ATP-dependent cyclic nucleotide transporters by specific and non-specific cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Aronsen, Lena; Orvoll, Elin; Lysaa, Roy; Ravna, Aina W; Sager, Georg

    2014-12-15

    Intracellular cyclic nucleotides are eliminated by phosphodiesterases (PDEs) and by ATP Binding cassette transporters such as ABCC4 and ABCC5. PDE5 and ABCC5 have similar affinity for cGMP whereas ABCC5 has much higher affinity for cGMP compared with cAMP. Since the substrate (cGMP) is identical for these two eliminatory processes it is conceivable that various PDE inhibitors also modulate ABCC5-transport. Cyclic GMP is also transported by ABBC4 but the affinity is much lower with a Km 50-100 times higher than for that of ABBCC5. The present study aimed to determine Ki-values for specific or relative specific PDE5 inhibitors (vardenafil, tadalafil, zaprinast and dipyridamole) and the non-specific PDE inhibitors (IBMX, caffeine and theophylline) for ABCC5 and ABCC4 transport. The transport of [(3)H]-cGMP (2 µM) was concentration-dependently inhibited with the following Ki-values: vardenafil (0.62 µM), tadalafil (14.1 µM), zaprinast (0.68 µM) and dipyridamole (1.2 µM), IBMX (10 µM), caffeine (48 µM) and theophylline (69 µM). The Ki-values for the inhibition of the [(3)H]-cAMP (2 µM) transport were: vardenafil (3.4 µM), tadalafil (194 µM), zaprinast (2.8 µM), dipyridamole (5.5 µM), IBMX (16 µM), caffeine (41 µM) and theophylline (85 µM). The specificity for ABCC5 we defined as ratio between Ki-values for inhibition of [(3)H]-cGMP and [(3)H]-cAMP transport. Tadalafil showed the highest specificity (Ki-ratio: 0.073) and caffeine the lowest (Ki-ratio: 1.2). Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sodium-Glucose Linked Transporter-2 Inhibitors in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zanoli, L.; Granata, A.; Lentini, P.; Rastelli, S.; Fatuzzo, P.; Rapisarda, F.; Castellino, P.

    2015-01-01

    SGLT2 inhibitors are new antihyperglycaemic agents whose ability to lower glucose is directly proportional to GFR. Therefore, in chronic kidney disease (CKD) the blood glucose lowering effect is reduced. Unlike many current therapies, the mechanism of action of SGLT2 inhibitors is independent of insulin action or beta-cell function. In addition, the mechanism of action of SGLT2 inhibitors is complementary and not alternative to other antidiabetic agents. SGLT2 inhibitors could be potentially effective in attenuating renal hyperfiltration and, consequently, the progression of CKD. Moreover, the reductions in intraglomerular pressure, systemic blood pressure, and uric acid levels induced by SGLT inhibition may potentially be of benefit in CKD subjects without diabetes. However, at present, only few clinical studies were designed to evaluate the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in CKD. Consequently, safety and potential efficacy beyond blood glucose lowering should be better clarified in CKD. In this paper we provide an updated review of the use of SGLT2 inhibitors in clinical practice, with particular attention on subjects with CKD. PMID:25785281

  2. Potent and Selective BACE-1 Peptide Inhibitors Lower Brain Aβ Levels Mediated by Brain Shuttle Transport.

    PubMed

    Ruderisch, Nadine; Schlatter, Daniel; Kuglstatter, Andreas; Guba, Wolfgang; Huber, Sylwia; Cusulin, Carlo; Benz, Jörg; Rufer, Arne Christian; Hoernschemeyer, Joerg; Schweitzer, Christophe; Bülau, Tina; Gärtner, Achim; Hoffmann, Eike; Niewoehner, Jens; Patsch, Christoph; Baumann, Karlheinz; Loetscher, Hansruedi; Kitas, Eric; Freskgård, Per-Ola

    2017-09-07

    Therapeutic approaches to fight Alzheimer's disease include anti-Amyloidβ (Aβ) antibodies and secretase inhibitors. However, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the brain exposure of biologics and the chemical space for small molecules to be BBB permeable. The Brain Shuttle (BS) technology is capable of shuttling large molecules into the brain. This allows for new types of therapeutic modalities engineered for optimal efficacy on the molecular target in the brain independent of brain penetrating properties. To this end, we designed BACE1 peptide inhibitors with varying lipid modifications with single-digit picomolar cellular potency. Secondly, we generated active-exosite peptides with structurally confirmed dual binding mode and improved potency. When fused to the BS via sortase coupling, these BACE1 inhibitors significantly reduced brain Aβ levels in mice after intravenous administration. In plasma, both BS and non-BS BACE1 inhibitor peptides induced a significant time- and dose-dependent decrease of Aβ. Our results demonstrate that the BS is essential for BACE1 peptide inhibitors to be efficacious in the brain and active-exosite design of BACE1 peptide inhibitors together with lipid modification may be of therapeutic relevance. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sodium-glucose linked transporter-2 inhibitors in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Zanoli, L; Granata, A; Lentini, P; Rastelli, S; Fatuzzo, P; Rapisarda, F; Castellino, P

    2015-01-01

    SGLT2 inhibitors are new antihyperglycaemic agents whose ability to lower glucose is directly proportional to GFR. Therefore, in chronic kidney disease (CKD) the blood glucose lowering effect is reduced. Unlike many current therapies, the mechanism of action of SGLT2 inhibitors is independent of insulin action or beta-cell function. In addition, the mechanism of action of SGLT2 inhibitors is complementary and not alternative to other antidiabetic agents. SGLT2 inhibitors could be potentially effective in attenuating renal hyperfiltration and, consequently, the progression of CKD. Moreover, the reductions in intraglomerular pressure, systemic blood pressure, and uric acid levels induced by SGLT inhibition may potentially be of benefit in CKD subjects without diabetes. However, at present, only few clinical studies were designed to evaluate the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in CKD. Consequently, safety and potential efficacy beyond blood glucose lowering should be better clarified in CKD. In this paper we provide an updated review of the use of SGLT2 inhibitors in clinical practice, with particular attention on subjects with CKD.

  4. The S-enantiomer of R,S-citalopram, increases inhibitor binding to the human serotonin transporter by an allosteric mechanism. Comparison with other serotonin transporter inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fenghua; Larsen, Mads Breum; Sánchez, Connie; Wiborg, Ove

    2005-03-01

    The interaction of the S- and R-enantiomers (escitalopram and R-citalopram) of citalopram, with high- and low-affinity binding sites in COS-1 cell membranes expressing human SERT (hSERT) were investigated. Escitalopram affinity for hSERT and its 5-HT uptake inhibitory potency was in the nanomolar range and approximately 40-fold more potent than R-citalopram. Escitalopram considerably stabilised the [3H]-escitalopram/SERT complex via an allosteric effect at a low-affinity binding site. The stereoselectivity between escitalopram and R-citalopram was approximately 3:1 for the [3H]-escitalopram/hSERT complex. The combined effect of escitalopram and R-citalopram was additive. Paroxetine and sertraline mainly stabilised the [3H]-paroxetine/hSERT complex. Fluoxetine, duloxetine and venlafaxine have only minor effects. 5-HT stabilised the [125I]-RTI-55, [3H]-MADAM, [3H]-paroxetine, [3H]-fluoxetine and [3H]-venlafaxine/SERT complex to some extent. Thus, escitalopram shows a unique interaction with the hSERT compared with other 5-HT reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and, in addition to its 5-HT reuptake inhibitory properties, displays a pronounced effect via an affinity-modulating allosteric site.

  5. Anandamide and NADA bi-directionally modulate presynaptic Ca2+ levels and transmitter release in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Köfalvi, A; Pereira, M F; Rebola, N; Rodrigues, R J; Oliveira, C R; Cunha, R A

    2007-06-01

    Inhibitory CB(1) cannabinoid receptors and excitatory TRPV(1) vanilloid receptors are abundant in the hippocampus. We tested if two known hybrid endocannabinoid/endovanilloid substances, N-arachidonoyl-dopamine (NADA) and anandamide (AEA), presynapticaly increased or decreased intracellular calcium level ([Ca(2+)](i)) and GABA and glutamate release in the hippocampus. Resting and K(+)-evoked levels of [Ca(2+)](i) and the release of [(3)H]GABA and [(3)H]glutamate were measured in rat hippocampal nerve terminals. NADA and AEA per se triggered a rise of [Ca(2+)](i) and the release of both transmitters in a concentration- and external Ca(2+)-dependent fashion, but independently of TRPV(1), CB(1), CB(2), or dopamine receptors, arachidonate-regulated Ca(2+)-currents, intracellular Ca(2+) stores, and fatty acid metabolism. AEA was recently reported to block TASK-3 potassium channels thereby depolarizing membranes. Common inhibitors of TASK-3, Zn(2+), Ruthenium Red, and low pH mimicked the excitatory effects of AEA and NADA, suggesting that their effects on [Ca(2+)](i) and transmitter levels may be attributable to membrane depolarization upon TASK-3 blockade. The K(+)-evoked Ca(2+) entry and Ca(2+)-dependent transmitter release were inhibited by nanomolar concentrations of the CB(1) receptor agonist WIN55212-2; this action was sensitive to the selective CB(1) receptor antagonist AM251. However, in the low micromolar range, WIN55212-2, NADA and AEA inhibited the K(+)-evoked Ca(2+) entry and transmitter release independently of CB(1) receptors, possibly through direct Ca(2+) channel blockade. We report here for hybrid endocannabinoid/endovanilloid ligands novel dual functions which were qualitatively similar to activation of CB(1) or TRPV(1) receptors, but were mediated through interactions with different targets.

  6. Anandamide and NADA bi-directionally modulate presynaptic Ca2+ levels and transmitter release in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Köfalvi, A; Pereira, M F; Rebola, N; Rodrigues, R J; Oliveira, C R; Cunha, R A

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Inhibitory CB1 cannabinoid receptors and excitatory TRPV1 vanilloid receptors are abundant in the hippocampus. We tested if two known hybrid endocannabinoid/endovanilloid substances, N-arachidonoyl-dopamine (NADA) and anandamide (AEA), presynapticaly increased or decreased intracellular calcium level ([Ca2+]i) and GABA and glutamate release in the hippocampus. Experimental approach: Resting and K+-evoked levels of [Ca2+]i and the release of [3H]GABA and [3H]glutamate were measured in rat hippocampal nerve terminals. Key results: NADA and AEA per se triggered a rise of [Ca2+]i and the release of both transmitters in a concentration- and external Ca2+-dependent fashion, but independently of TRPV1, CB1, CB2, or dopamine receptors, arachidonate-regulated Ca2+-currents, intracellular Ca2+ stores, and fatty acid metabolism. AEA was recently reported to block TASK-3 potassium channels thereby depolarizing membranes. Common inhibitors of TASK-3, Zn2+, Ruthenium Red, and low pH mimicked the excitatory effects of AEA and NADA, suggesting that their effects on [Ca2+]i and transmitter levels may be attributable to membrane depolarization upon TASK-3 blockade. The K+-evoked Ca2+ entry and Ca2+-dependent transmitter release were inhibited by nanomolar concentrations of the CB1 receptor agonist WIN55212-2; this action was sensitive to the selective CB1 receptor antagonist AM251. However, in the low micromolar range, WIN55212-2, NADA and AEA inhibited the K+-evoked Ca2+ entry and transmitter release independently of CB1 receptors, possibly through direct Ca2+ channel blockade. Conclusions and implications: We report here for hybrid endocannabinoid/endovanilloid ligands novel dual functions which were qualitatively similar to activation of CB1 or TRPV1 receptors, but were mediated through interactions with different targets. PMID:17435795

  7. Inhibition of anandamide hydrolysis dampens the neuroendocrine response to stress in neonatal rats subjected to suboptimal rearing conditions.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Ryan Joseph; Verlezza, Silvanna; Gray, Jennifer Megan; Hill, Matthew Nicholas; Walker, Claire-Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress during early development can exert profound effects on the maturation of the neuroendocrine stress axis. The endocannabinoid (ECB) system has recently surfaced as a fundamental component of the neuroendocrine stress response; however, the effect of early-life stress on neonatal ECB signaling and the capacity to which ECB enhancement may modulate neonatal stress responses is relatively unknown. The present study assessed whether exposure to early-life stress in the form of limited access to nesting/bedding material (LB) from postnatal (PND) day 2 to 9 alters neuroendocrine activity and hypothalamic ECB content in neonatal rats challenged with a novel immobilization stressor. Furthermore, we examined whether inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme responsible for the degradation of anandamide (AEA) affects neuroendocrine responses in PND10 pups as a function of rearing conditions. Neonatal rats showed a robust increase in corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) secretion in response to immobilization stress, which was significantly blunted in pups reared in LB conditions. Accordingly, LB pups exhibited reduced stress-induced Fos immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, with no significant differences in hypothalamic ECB content. Administration of the FAAH inhibitor URB597 (0.3 mg/kg, ip) 90 min prior to immobilization stress significantly dampened stress-induced CORT release, but only in pups reared in LB conditions. These results suggest that rearing in restricted bedding conditions dampens the neuroendocrine response to stress, while augmenting AEA mitigates stress-induced alterations in glucocorticoid secretion preferentially in pups subjected to early-life stress.

  8. Sensitization of C-fiber nociceptors in mice with sickle cell disease is decreased by local inhibition of anandamide hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Uhelski, Megan L; Gupta, Kalpna; Simone, Donald A

    2017-09-01

    Chronic pain and hyperalgesia, as well as pain resulting from episodes of vaso-occlusion, are characteristic features of sickle cell disease (SCD) and are difficult to treat. Since there is growing evidence that increasing local levels of endocannabinoids can decrease hyperalgesia, we examined the effects of URB597, a fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor, which blocks the hydrolysis of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide, on hyperalgesia and sensitization of cutaneous nociceptors in a humanized mouse model of SCD. Using homozygous HbSS-BERK sickle mice, we determined the effects of URB597 on mechanical hyperalgesia and on sensitization of C-fiber nociceptors in vivo. Intraplantar administration of URB597 (10 μg in 10 μL) decreased the frequency of withdrawal responses evoked by a von Frey monofilament (3.9 mN bending force) applied to the plantar hind paw. This was blocked by the CB1 receptor antagonist AM281 but not by the CB2 receptor antagonist AM630. Also, URB597 decreased hyperalgesia in HbSS-BERK/CB2R sickle mice, further confirming the role of CB1 receptors in the effects produced by URB597. Electrophysiological recordings were made from primary afferent fibers of the tibial nerve in anesthetized mice. The proportion of Aδ- and C-fiber nociceptors that exhibited spontaneous activity and responses of C-fibers to mechanical and thermal stimuli were greater in HbSS-BERK sickle mice as compared to control HbAA-BERK mice. Spontaneous activity and evoked responses of nociceptors were decreased by URB597 via CB1 receptors. It is suggested that enhanced endocannabinoid activity in the periphery may be beneficial in alleviating chronic pain associated with SCD.

  9. Identification of IAA transport inhibitors including compounds affecting cellular PIN trafficking by two chemical screening approaches using maize coleoptile systems.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Matano, Naoyuki; Morishima, Taichi; Kakinuma, Chieko; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Komano, Teruya; Kubo, Minoru; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Kamiya, Yuji; Koshiba, Tomokazu

    2012-10-01

    The monocot coleoptile tip region has been generally supposed to be the source of IAA to supply IAA to basal parts by the polar IAA transport system, which results in gravi- and phototropic curvature of coleoptiles. Based on this IAA transport system and gravitropism of maize coleoptiles, we have developed two screening methods to identify small molecules from a large chemical library that inhibit IAA transport. The methods detect molecules that affect (i) gravitropic curvature of coleoptiles; and (ii) the amount of IAA transported from the tip. From 10,000 chemicals, eight compounds were identified and categorized into two groups. Four chemicals in group A decreased IAA transport from the tip, and increased endogenous IAA levels in the tip. The structures of two compounds resembled that of 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), but those of the other two differed from structures of known IAA transport inhibitors. Four chemicals in group B strongly inhibited IAA transport from the tip, but IAA levels at the tip were only slightly affected. At higher concentrations, group B compounds inhibited germination of Arabidopsis, similarly to brefeldin A (BFA). Analysis of the cellular distribution of PIN2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and PIN1-GFP in Arabidopsis revealed that one of the four chemicals in group B induced internalization of PIN1 and PIN2 proteins into vesicles smaller than BFA bodies, suggesting that this compound affects cellular vesicle trafficking systems related to PIN trafficking. The eight chemicals identified here will be a useful tool for understanding the mechanisms of IAA transport in plants.

  10. SGLT2 inhibitor lowers serum uric acid through alteration of uric acid transport activity in renal tubule by increased glycosuria.

    PubMed

    Chino, Yukihiro; Samukawa, Yoshishige; Sakai, Soichi; Nakai, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Jun-ichi; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2014-10-01

    Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been reported to lower the serum uric acid (SUA) level. To elucidate the mechanism responsible for this reduction, SUA and the urinary excretion rate of uric acid (UE(UA)) were analysed after the oral administration of luseogliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, to healthy subjects. After dosing, SUA decreased, and a negative correlation was observed between the SUA level and the UE(UA), suggesting that SUA decreased as a result of the increase in the UE(UA). The increase in UE(UA) was correlated with an increase in urinary D-glucose excretion, but not with the plasma luseogliflozin concentration. Additionally, in vitro transport experiments showed that luseogliflozin had no direct effect on the transporters involved in renal UA reabsorption. To explain that the increase in UE(UA) is likely due to glycosuria, the study focused on the facilitative glucose transporter 9 isoform 2 (GLUT9ΔN, SLC2A9b), which is expressed at the apical membrane of the kidney tubular cells and transports both UA and D-glucose. It was observed that the efflux of [(14) C]UA in Xenopus oocytes expressing the GLUT9 isoform 2 was trans-stimulated by 10 mm D-glucose, a high concentration of glucose that existed under SGLT2 inhibition. On the other hand, the uptake of [(14) C]UA by oocytes was cis-inhibited by 100 mm D-glucose, a concentration assumed to exist in collecting ducts. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the UE(UA) could potentially be increased by luseogliflozin-induced glycosuria, with alterations of UA transport activity because of urinary glucose.

  11. SGLT2 inhibitor lowers serum uric acid through alteration of uric acid transport activity in renal tubule by increased glycosuria

    PubMed Central

    Chino, Yukihiro; Samukawa, Yoshishige; Sakai, Soichi; Nakai, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Jun-ichi; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2014-01-01

    Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been reported to lower the serum uric acid (SUA) level. To elucidate the mechanism responsible for this reduction, SUA and the urinary excretion rate of uric acid (UEUA) were analysed after the oral administration of luseogliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, to healthy subjects. After dosing, SUA decreased, and a negative correlation was observed between the SUA level and the UEUA, suggesting that SUA decreased as a result of the increase in the UEUA. The increase in UEUA was correlated with an increase in urinary d-glucose excretion, but not with the plasma luseogliflozin concentration. Additionally, in vitro transport experiments showed that luseogliflozin had no direct effect on the transporters involved in renal UA reabsorption. To explain that the increase in UEUA is likely due to glycosuria, the study focused on the facilitative glucose transporter 9 isoform 2 (GLUT9ΔN, SLC2A9b), which is expressed at the apical membrane of the kidney tubular cells and transports both UA and d-glucose. It was observed that the efflux of [14C]UA in Xenopus oocytes expressing the GLUT9 isoform 2 was trans-stimulated by 10 mm d-glucose, a high concentration of glucose that existed under SGLT2 inhibition. On the other hand, the uptake of [14C]UA by oocytes was cis-inhibited by 100 mm d-glucose, a concentration assumed to exist in collecting ducts. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the UEUA could potentially be increased by luseogliflozin-induced glycosuria, with alterations of UA transport activity because of urinary glucose. PMID:25044127

  12. Fatty acid transport protein-2 inhibitor Grassofermata/CB5 protects cells against lipid accumulation and toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Saini, Nipun; Black, Paul N.; Montefusco, David; DiRusso, Concetta C.

    2015-09-25

    The inhibition of the fatty acid uptake into non-adipose tissues provides an attractive target for prevention of lipotoxicity leading to obesity-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) are bifunctional proteins involved in the uptake and activation of fatty acids by esterification with coenzyme A. Here we characterize Grassofermata/CB5, previously identified as a fatty acid uptake inhibitor directed against HsFATP2. The compound was effective in inhibiting the uptake of fatty acids in the low micro-molar range (IC{sub 50} 8–11 μM) and prevented palmitate-mediated lipid accumulation and cell death in cell lines that are models for intestines, liver, muscle and pancreas. In adipocytes, uptake inhibition was less effective (IC{sub 50} 58 μM). Inhibition was specific for long chain fatty acids and was ineffective toward medium chain fatty acids, which are transported by diffusion. Kinetic analysis of Grassofermata-dependent FA transport inhibition verified a non-competitive mechanism. By comparison with Grassofermata, several atypical antipsychotic drugs previously implicated as inhibitors of FA uptake were ineffectual. In mice Grassofermata decreased absorption of {sup 13}C-oleate demonstrating its potential as a therapeutic agent. - Highlights: • Grassofermata is a small compound inhibitor of FATP2. • Uptake inhibition is specific for long chain fatty acids. • Uptake kinetics shows low specificity for adipocytes compared to other cell types. • Inhibition is by a non-competitive mechanism. • Atypical antipsychotics do not inhibit FA uptake by comparison with Grassofermata.

  13. Molecular analysis and structure-activity relationship modeling of the substrate/inhibitor interaction site of plasma membrane monoamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Ho, Horace T B; Pan, Yongmei; Cui, Zhiyi; Duan, Haichuan; Swaan, Peter W; Wang, Joanne

    2011-11-01

    Plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) is a new polyspecific transporter that interacts with a wide range of structurally diverse organic cations. To map the physicochemical descriptors of cationic compounds that allow interaction with PMAT, we systematically analyzed the interactions between PMAT and three series of structural analogs of known organic cation substrates including phenylalkylamines, n-tetraalkylammonium (n-TAA) compounds, and β-carbolines. Our results showed that phenylalkylamines with a distance between the aromatic ring and the positively charged amine nitrogen atom of ∼6.4 Å confer optimal interactions with PMAT, whereas studies with n-TAA compounds revealed an excellent correlation between IC(50) values and hydrophobicity. The five β-carbolines that we tested, which possess a pyridinium-like structure and are structurally related to the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, inhibited PMAT with high affinity (IC(50) values of 39.1-65.5 μM). Cytotoxicity analysis further showed that cells expressing PMAT are 14- to 15-fold more sensitive to harmalan and norharmanium, suggesting that these two β-carbolines are also transportable substrates of PMAT. We then used computer-aided modeling to generate qualitative and quantitative three-dimensional pharmacophore models on the basis of 23 previously reported and currently identified PMAT inhibitors and noninhibitors. These models are characterized by a hydrogen bond donor and two to three hydrophobic features with distances between the hydrogen bond donor and hydrophobic features ranging between 5.20 and 7.02 Å. The consistency between the mapping results and observed PMAT affinity of a set of test compounds indicates that the models performed well in inhibitor prediction and could be useful for future virtual screening of new PMAT inhibitors.

  14. Pharmacological and Behavioral Characterization of D-473, an Orally Active Triple Reuptake Inhibitor Targeting Dopamine, Serotonin and Norepinephrine Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Aloke K.; Santra, Soumava; Sharma, Horrick; Voshavar, Chandrashekhar; Xu, Liping; Mabrouk, Omar; Antonio, Tamara; Reith, Maarten E. A.

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating disease affecting a wide cross section of people around the world. The current therapy for depression is less than adequate and there is a considerable unmet need for more efficacious treatment. Dopamine has been shown to play a significant role in depression including production of anhedonia which has been one of the untreated symptoms in MDD. It has been hypothesized that drugs acting at all three monoamine transporters including dopamine transporter should provide more efficacious antidepressants activity. This has led to the development of triple reuptake inhibitor D-473 which is a novel pyran based molecule and interacts with all three monoamine transporters. The monoamine uptake inhibition activity in the cloned human transporters expressed in HEK-293 cells (70.4, 9.18 and 39.7 for DAT, SERT and NET, respectively) indicates a serotonin preferring triple reuptake inhibition profile for this drug. The drug D-473 exhibited good brain penetration and produced efficacious activity in rat forced swim test under oral administration. The optimal efficacy dose did not produce any locomotor activation. Microdialysis experiment demonstrated that systemic administration of D-473 elevated extracellular level of the three monoamines DA, 5-HT, and NE efficaciously in the dorsal lateral striatum (DLS) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) area, indicating in vivo blockade of all three monoamine transporters by D-473. Thus, the current biological data from D-473 indicate potent antidepressant activity of the molecule. PMID:25427177

  15. Pharmacological and behavioral characterization of D-473, an orally active triple reuptake inhibitor targeting dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine transporters.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Aloke K; Santra, Soumava; Sharma, Horrick; Voshavar, Chandrashekhar; Xu, Liping; Mabrouk, Omar; Antonio, Tamara; Reith, Maarten E A

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating disease affecting a wide cross section of people around the world. The current therapy for depression is less than adequate and there is a considerable unmet need for more efficacious treatment. Dopamine has been shown to play a significant role in depression including production of anhedonia which has been one of the untreated symptoms in MDD. It has been hypothesized that drugs acting at all three monoamine transporters including dopamine transporter should provide more efficacious antidepressants activity. This has led to the development of triple reuptake inhibitor D-473 which is a novel pyran based molecule and interacts with all three monoamine transporters. The monoamine uptake inhibition activity in the cloned human transporters expressed in HEK-293 cells (70.4, 9.18 and 39.7 for DAT, SERT and NET, respectively) indicates a serotonin preferring triple reuptake inhibition profile for this drug. The drug D-473 exhibited good brain penetration and produced efficacious activity in rat forced swim test under oral administration. The optimal efficacy dose did not produce any locomotor activation. Microdialysis experiment demonstrated that systemic administration of D-473 elevated extracellular level of the three monoamines DA, 5-HT, and NE efficaciously in the dorsal lateral striatum (DLS) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) area, indicating in vivo blockade of all three monoamine transporters by D-473. Thus, the current biological data from D-473 indicate potent antidepressant activity of the molecule.

  16. Importance of the Extracellular Loop 4 in the Human Serotonin Transporter for Inhibitor Binding and Substrate Translocation*

    PubMed Central

    Rannversson, Hafsteinn; Wilson, Pamela; Kristensen, Kristina Birch; Sinning, Steffen; Kristensen, Anders Skov; Strømgaard, Kristian; Andersen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) terminates serotonergic neurotransmission by performing reuptake of released serotonin, and SERT is the primary target for antidepressants. SERT mediates the reuptake of serotonin through an alternating access mechanism, implying that a central substrate site is connected to both sides of the membrane by permeation pathways, of which only one is accessible at a time. The coordinated conformational changes in SERT associated with substrate translocation are not fully understood. Here, we have identified a Leu to Glu mutation at position 406 (L406E) in the extracellular loop 4 (EL4) of human SERT, which induced a remarkable gain-of-potency (up to >40-fold) for a range of SERT inhibitors. The effects were highly specific for L406E relative to six other mutations in the same position, including the closely related L406D mutation, showing that the effects induced by L406E are not simply charge-related effects. Leu406 is located >10 Å from the central inhibitor binding site indicating that the mutation affects inhibitor binding in an indirect manner. We found that L406E decreased accessibility to a residue in the cytoplasmic pathway. The shift in equilibrium to favor a more outward-facing conformation of SERT can explain the reduced turnover rate and increased association rate of inhibitor binding we found for L406E. Together, our findings show that EL4 allosterically can modulate inhibitor binding within the central binding site, and substantiates that EL4 has an important role in controlling the conformational equilibrium of human SERT. PMID:25903124

  17. Pharmacology of Glutamate Transport in the CNS: Substrates and Inhibitors of Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters (EAATs) and the Glutamate/Cystine Exchanger System x c -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, Richard J.; Patel, Sarjubhai A.

    As the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS, l-glutamate participates not only in standard fast synaptic communication, but also contributes to higher order signal processing, as well as neuropathology. Given this variety of functional roles, interest has been growing as to how the extracellular concentrations of l-glutamate surrounding neurons are regulated by cellular transporter proteins. This review focuses on two prominent systems, each of which appears capable of influencing both the signaling and pathological actions of l-glutamate within the CNS: the sodium-dependent excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) and the glutamate/cystine exchanger, system x c - (Sx c -). While the family of EAAT subtypes limit access to glutamate receptors by rapidly and efficiently sequestering l-glutamate in neurons and glia, Sxc - provides a route for the export of glutamate from cells into the extracellular environment. The primary intent of this work is to provide an overview of the inhibitors and substrates that have been developed to delineate the pharmacological specificity of these transport systems, as well as be exploited as probes with which to selectively investigate function. Particular attention is paid to the development of small molecule templates that mimic the structural properties of the endogenous substrates, l-glutamate, l-aspartate and l-cystine and how strategic control of functional group position and/or the introduction of lipophilic R-groups can impact multiple aspects of the transport process, including: subtype selectivity, inhibitory potency, and substrate activity.

  18. [Escitalopram: a selective inhibitor and allosteric modulator of the serotonin transporter].

    PubMed

    Mnie-Filali, O; El Mansari, M; Scarna, H; Zimmer, L; Sánchez, C; Haddjeri, N

    2007-12-01

    Citalopram (Séropram) is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class, composed of equal amounts of S-enantiomer, escitalopram, and R-enantiomer, R-citalopram. Both clinical and preclinical studies have reported that escitalopram is a potent SSRI that possesses a faster onset of antidepressant activity in comparison with citalopram. Conversely, R-citalopram, although devoid of 5-HT reuptake inhibition property, was reported to counteract the effect of the S-enantiomer in several in vitro and in vivo experiments. For instance, microdialysis studies have shown that escitalopram increased the extracellular 5-HT levels in the frontal cortex and the ventral hippocampus, and this effect was prevented by concomitant injection of R-citalopram. The in vivo relevance of the antagonistic effect of R-citalopram on escitalopram efficacy was confirmed in dorsal raphe nucleus, a brain region known to be a target for SSRIs. In the later region, escitalopram was four times more potent than citalopram in suppressing the firing activity of 5-HT neurons and this effect of escitalopram was significantly prevented by R-citalopram. The antagonizing effect of R-citalopram on escitalopram efficacy was also observed in behavioural tests predictive of anxiolytic or antidepressant properties. In adult rats, R-citalopram reduced the anxiolytic-like effect of escitalopram obtained in the footshock-induced ultrasonic vocalization model, the conditioned fear model or the Vogel conflict and elevated plus maze tests. In validated chronic models with high predictive value for antidepressant activity, when escitalopram was administered for five weeks, either alone or with twice as much R-citalopram, the effect of the treatment regimens on reversal of hedonic deficit was significantly different. Importantly, chronic treatment with escitalopram reversed the decrease in cytogenesis in the rat dentate gyrus, induced by chronic mild stress. However, in naïve rats

  19. A liposomal method for evaluation of inhibitors of H(+)-coupled multidrug transporters.

    PubMed

    Melchior, Donald L; Brill, Shlomo; Wright, George E; Schuldiner, Shimon

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a novel technique, Fluorosomes, applied to investigating the interaction of antimicrobials with proton driven microbial efflux transporters. These transporters remove toxic compounds from the cytoplasm, including antibiotics and are involved in antibiotic resistance. To assess transporter activity we developed a methodology to generate a proton gradient across Fluorosome membranes into which selected purified fully active efflux transporters were reconstituted. The interior of the Fluorosome particle (a unilamellar liposome) contains a fluorescent drug sensing probe whose fluorescence is quantitatively quenched by transporter substrates. Using an injecting fluorescence plate reader to initiate a proton gradient and to monitor subsequent fluorescence change, real time transport kinetics can be followed and transport inhibition characterized. Fluorosomes containing the Escherichia coli EmrE efflux pump demonstrated transport of two known EmrE substrates, ethidium and methyl viologen upon creation of a proton gradient. For Fluorosomes containing the inactive EmrE mutant, E14Q, no transport was observed. When the gradient was fully collapsed by the addition of nigericin, full inhibition of substrate transport was observed. The IC50 for nigericin inhibition of ethidium was shown to be 0.71 μM. We have for the first time prepared and validated a single bacterial efflux pump assay, Fluorosome-trans-EmrE, that faithfully mimics properties of the transporter in vivo. It is faster than whole cell screens, simple to use, amenable to robotics, and reports on very specific targets. We have demonstrated proof of principle with EmrE and have created the first of an intended series of proton driven Fluorosomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hop-derived prenylflavonoids are substrates and inhibitors of the efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2).

    PubMed

    Tan, Kee W; Cooney, Janine; Jensen, Dwayne; Li, Yan; Paxton, James W; Birch, Nigel P; Scheepens, Arjan

    2014-11-01

    Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) produce unique prenylflavonoids that exhibit interesting bioactivities. This study investigates the interactions between selected prenylflavonoids and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), an efflux transporter important for xenobiotic bioavailability and multidrug resistance (MDR). ABCG2-inhibitory activity of xanthohumol (XN), isoxanthohumol (IX), 6-prenylnaringenin (6-PN), 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), and 6,8-diprenylnarigenin (6,8-diPN) was evaluated using mitoxantrone accumulation and vesicular transport assays. XN, IX, and 8-PN were tested for a substrate-type relationship with ABCG2 using ATPase and bidirectional transport assays. The prenylflavonoids exhibited significant ABCG2-inhibitory activities in mitoxantrone accumulation and vesicular transport assays. In the ATPase assay, XN, IX, and 8-PN inhibited baseline and sulfasalazine-stimulated ATPase activities with IC50 of 2.16-27.0 μM. IX and 8-PNalso displayed bell-shaped activation curves in Ko143-suppressed membranes, indicating a substrate-type relationship. For IX, efflux ratios of 1.25 ± 0.21 and 9.18 ± 0.56 were observed in wild type and ABCG2-overexpressing MDCKII cell monolayers, respectively. The latter was reduced to 1.25 ± 0.15 in the presence of the ABCG2-specific inhibitor Ko143, demonstrating an ABCG2-mediated efflux of IX. Additionally, evidence was shown for the involvement of ABCG2 in the efflux of 8-PN and/or its sulfate conjugate. Prenylflavonoids are potent inhibitors of ABCG2 and therefore implicated in ABCG2-mediated food/herb-drug interactions and MDR. ABCG2-mediated efflux of prenylflavonoids may represent one mechanism that regulates prenylflavonoid bioavailability. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. New lipid modulating drugs: the role of microsomal transport protein inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Manfredi; Wierzbicki, Anthony S

    2011-01-01

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is involved in the synthesis of very low density lipoprotein in the liver. Its deficiency results in abetalipoproteinemia. MTP inhibitors target the assembly and secretion of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. These agents may potentially play a role, alone or in combination, in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia or hypertriglyceridaemia. Clinical applications of MTP inhibitors initially focused primarily on high-dose monotherapy in order to produce substantial reductions in LDL-cholesterol levels but these proved to induce significant hepatic steatosis and transaminase elevations. However, likely orphan indications for MTP inhibitors, where a different risk-benefit profile applies, include patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia where statins often show a low response. Development of MTP inhibitors has continued to enter clinical trials at lower doses or in formulations aimed at utilizing their efficacy while avoiding their side effects. These have shown promising results in reducing cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoprotein B with a far lower incidence of, often, transient side-effects. The clinical efficacy and safety of MTP inhibition in patients with hyperlipidaemia remains to be fully determined and to be proven in both surrogate and clinical endpoint trials but there may be a role for these agents in orphan indications for rarer severe hyperlipidaemias.

  2. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors or sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors as an add-on to insulin therapy: A comparative review

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Singh, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    The gradual decline in β-cell function is inevitable in type 2 diabetes mellitus and therefore, substantial proportions of patients require insulin subsequently, in order to achieve optimal glucose control. While weight gain, hypoglycemia, and fluid retention especially during dose intensification is a known limitation to insulin therapy, these adverse effects also reduce patient satisfaction and treatment adherence. It is also possible that the benefits of intensive control achieved by insulin therapy, perhaps get nullified by the weight gain and hypoglycemia. In addition, improvement in plasma glucose or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) itself is associated with weight gain. Notably, studies have already suggested that reduction in body weight by ~3–5%, may allow a significantly better glycemic control. Thus, a class of drugs, which can reduce HbA1c effectively, yet are weight neutral or preferably reduce body weight, could be the most sought out strategy as an add-on therapy to insulin. While sulfonylureas (SUs) are associated with weight gain and hypoglycemia, pioglitazone increases body weight and fluid retention. Moreover, SUs are not recommended once premix or prandial insulin is commenced. The addition of newer agents, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist to insulin certainly appears to be an effective tool in reducing both HbA1c and body weight as is evident across the studies; however, this approach incurs an additional injection as well as cost. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4I) and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2I) are other exciting options, as an add-on to insulin therapy primarily because these are oral drugs and do not possess any intrinsic potential of hypoglycemia. Furthermore, these are either weight neutral or induce significant weight loss. This review article aims to comparatively analyze the safety and efficacy of DPP-4I and SGLT-2I, as an add-on therapy to insulin. PMID:26904466

  3. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors or sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors as an add-on to insulin therapy: A comparative review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Singh, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    The gradual decline in β-cell function is inevitable in type 2 diabetes mellitus and therefore, substantial proportions of patients require insulin subsequently, in order to achieve optimal glucose control. While weight gain, hypoglycemia, and fluid retention especially during dose intensification is a known limitation to insulin therapy, these adverse effects also reduce patient satisfaction and treatment adherence. It is also possible that the benefits of intensive control achieved by insulin therapy, perhaps get nullified by the weight gain and hypoglycemia. In addition, improvement in plasma glucose or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) itself is associated with weight gain. Notably, studies have already suggested that reduction in body weight by ~3-5%, may allow a significantly better glycemic control. Thus, a class of drugs, which can reduce HbA1c effectively, yet are weight neutral or preferably reduce body weight, could be the most sought out strategy as an add-on therapy to insulin. While sulfonylureas (SUs) are associated with weight gain and hypoglycemia, pioglitazone increases body weight and fluid retention. Moreover, SUs are not recommended once premix or prandial insulin is commenced. The addition of newer agents, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist to insulin certainly appears to be an effective tool in reducing both HbA1c and body weight as is evident across the studies; however, this approach incurs an additional injection as well as cost. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4I) and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2I) are other exciting options, as an add-on to insulin therapy primarily because these are oral drugs and do not possess any intrinsic potential of hypoglycemia. Furthermore, these are either weight neutral or induce significant weight loss. This review article aims to comparatively analyze the safety and efficacy of DPP-4I and SGLT-2I, as an add-on therapy to insulin.

  4. Multidrug transporter ABCG2 prevents tumor cell death induced by the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor Iressa (ZD1839, Gefitinib).

    PubMed

    Elkind, N Barry; Szentpétery, Zsófia; Apáti, Agota; Ozvegy-Laczka, Csilla; Várady, György; Ujhelly, Olga; Szabó, Katalin; Homolya, László; Váradi, András; Buday, László; Kéri, György; Német, Katalin; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2005-03-01

    Iressa (ZD1839, Gefitinib), used in clinics to treat non-small cell lung cancer patients, is a tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor that leads to specific decoupling of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Recent data indicate that Iressa is especially effective in tumors with certain EGFR mutations; however, a subset of these tumors does not respond to Iressa. In addition, certain populations have an elevated risk of side effects during Iressa treatment. The human ABCG2 (BCRP/MXR/ABCP) transporter causes cancer drug resistance by actively extruding a variety of cytotoxic drugs, and it functions physiologically to protect our tissues from xenobiotics. Importantly, ABCG2 modifies absorption, distribution, and toxicity of several pharmacologic agents. Previously, we showed that ABCG2 displays a high-affinity interaction with several tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitors, including Iressa. Here, we show that the expression of ABCG2, but not its nonfunctional mutant, protects the EGFR signaling-dependent A431 tumor cells from death on exposure to Iressa. This protection is reversed by the ABCG2-specific inhibitor, Ko143. These data, reinforced with cell biology and biochemical experiments, strongly suggest that ABCG2 can actively pump Iressa. Therefore, variable expression and polymorphisms of ABCG2 may significantly modify the antitumor effect as well as the absorption and tissue distribution of Iressa.

  5. Novel Inhibitors of Human Organic Cation/Carnitine Transporter (hOCTN2) via Computational Modeling and In Vitro Testing

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Lei; Ekins, Sean; Polli, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The objective was to elucidate the inhibition requirements of the human Organic Cation/Carnitine Transporter (hOCTN2). Methods Twenty-seven drugs were screened initially for their potential to inhibit uptake of L-carnitine into a stably transfected hOCTN2-MDCK cell monolayer. A HipHop common features pharmacophore was developed and used to search a drug database. Fifty-three drugs, including some not predicted to be inhibitors, were selected and screened in vitro. Results A common features pharmacophore was derived from initial screening data and consisted of three hydrophobic features and a positive ionizable feature. Among the 33 tested drugs that were predicted to map to the pharmacophore, 27 inhibited hOCTN2 in vitro (40% or less L-carnitine uptake from 2.5μM L-carnitine solution in presence of 500 μM drug, compared to L-carnitine uptake without drug present). Hence, the pharmacophore accurately prioritized compounds for testing. Ki measurements showed low micromolar inhibitors belonged to diverse therapeutic classes of drugs, including many not previously known to inhibit hOCTN2. Compounds were more likely to cause rhabdomyolysis if the Cmax/Ki ratio was higher than 0.0025. Conclusion A combined pharmacophore and in vitro approach found new, structurally diverse inhibitors for hOCTN2 that may possibly cause clinical significant toxicity such as rhabdomyolysis. PMID:19437106

  6. Structure-activity analysis of thiourea analogs as inhibitors of UT-A and UT-B urea transporters

    PubMed Central

    Esteva-Font, Cristina; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Lee, Sujin; Su, Tao; Anderson, Marc O.; Verkman, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Small-molecule inhibitors of urea transporter (UT) proteins in kidney have potential application as novel salt-sparing diuretics. The urea analog dimethylthiourea (DMTU) was recently found to inhibit the UT isoforms UT-A1 (expressed in kidney tubule epithelium) and UT-B (expressed in kidney vasa recta endothelium) with IC50 of 2-3 mM, and was shown to have diuretic action when administered to rats. Here, we measured UT-A1 and UT-B inhibition activity of 36 thiourea analogs, with the goal of identifying more potent and isoform-selective inhibitors, and establishing structure-activity relationships. The analog set systematically explored modifications of substituents on the thiourea including alkyl, heterocycles and phenyl rings, with different steric and electronic features. The analogs had a wide range of inhibition activities and selectivities. The most potent inhibitor, 3-nitrophenyl-thiourea, had an IC50 of ∼0.2 mM for inhibition of both UT-A1 and UT-B. Some analogs such as 4-nitrophenyl-thiourea were relatively UT-A1 selective (IC50 1.3 vs. 10 mM), and others such as thioisonicotinamide were UT-B selective (IC50 >15 vs. 2.8 mM). PMID:25613743

  7. Alpha adrenergic modulation on effects of norepinephrine transporter inhibitor reboxetine in five-choice serial reaction time task

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yia-Ping; Lin, Yu-Lung; Chuang, Chia-Hsin; Kao, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Shang-Tang; Tung, Che-Se

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the effects of a norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor reboxetine (RBX) on an attentional performance test. Adult SD rats trained with five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) were administered with RBX (0, 3.0 and 10 mg/kg) in the testing day. Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist PRA and alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist RX821002 were used to clarify the RBX effect. Results revealed that rat received RBX at 10 mg/kg had an increase in the percentage of the correct response and decreases in the numbers of premature response. Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist Prazosin (PRA) at 0.1 mg/kg reversed the RBX augmented correct responding rate. However, alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist RX821002 at 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg dose dependently reversed the RBX reduced impulsive responding. Our results suggested that RBX as a norepinephrine transporter inhibitor can be beneficial in both attentional accuracy and response control and alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenergic receptors might be involved differently. PMID:19678962

  8. Age-related changes of anandamide metabolism in CB1 cannabinoid receptor knockout mice: correlation with behaviour.

    PubMed

    Maccarrone, Mauro; Valverde, Olga; Barbaccia, Maria L; Castañé, Anna; Maldonado, Rafael; Ledent, Catherine; Parmentier, Marc; Finazzi-Agrò, Alessandro

    2002-04-01

    Anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are the most active endocannabinoids at brain (CB1) cannabinoid receptors. CD1 mice lacking the CB1 receptors ("knockout" [KO] mutants) were compared with wildtype (WT) littermates for their ability to degrade AEA through an AEA membrane transporter (AMT) and an AEA hydrolase (fatty acid amide hydrolase, FAAH). The age dependence of AMT and FAAH activity were investigated in 1- or 4-month-old WT and KO animals, and found to increase with age in KO, but not WT, mice and to be higher in the hippocampus than in the cortex of all animals. AEA and 2-AG were detected in nmol/mg protein (microm) concentrations in both regions, though the hippocampus showed approximately twice the amount found in the cortex. In the same regions, 2-AG failed to change across groups, while AEA was significantly decreased (approximately 30%) in hippocampus, but not in cortex, of old KO mice, when compared with young KO or age-matched WT animals. In the open-field test under bright light and in the lit-dark exploration model of anxiety, young KO mice, compared with old KO, exhibited a mild anxiety-related behaviour. In contrast, neither the increase in memory performance assessed by the object recognition test, nor the reduction of morphine withdrawal symptoms, showed age dependence in CB1 KO mice. These results suggest that invalidation of the CB1 receptor gene is associated with age-dependent adaptive changes of endocannabinoid metabolism which appear to correlate with the waning of the anxiety-like behaviour exhibited by young CB1 KO mice.

  9. [Influence of anandamide, the endogenous agonist of cannabinoid receptors on the circulatory system].

    PubMed

    Kwolek, Grzegorz; Zakrzeska, Agnieszka; Kozłowska, Hanna; Malinowska, Barbara

    2005-05-19

    Cannabinoids, the active ingredients of Cannabis sativa, have been used by humans as hallucinogens and therapeutic agents for thousands of years. These agents are now known to act through the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. The recent discovery of endogenous cannabinoids and the fact that they are involved in the pathology of hypotension associated with hemorrhage, sepsis, cirrhosis, and myocardial infarction indicate that cannabinoids play a greater role in human and animal pathophysiology than initially anticipated. Anandamide is the first of the endogenous cannabinoid ligands discovered. Its intravenous administration produces a characteristic three-phase response in the circulatory systems of experimental animals: In phase 1--a short-lasting decrease in heart rate and systemic blood pressure is related to activation of vanilloid TRPV1 receptors. In phase 2 an increase in blood pressure involves multiple mechanisms, both central (probably through the rostral ventrolateral medulla) and peripheral (vascular, Ca2+-dependent). In phase 3 there is a prolonged decrease in blood pressure and sometimes bradycardia, related to the activation of cannabinoid CB1 and vanilloid TRPV1 receptors. On the basis of this three-phase mechanism, the present paper intends to describe the participation of anandamide in the circulatory system under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. It also discusses the possibility of applying cannabinoid ligands as new therapeutic agents for the treatment of some pathologies.

  10. Cocaine- and amphetamine-related transcript is involved in the orexigenic effect of endogenous anandamide.

    PubMed

    Osei-Hyiaman, Douglas; Depetrillo, Michael; Harvey-White, Judith; Bannon, Anthony W; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Kuhar, Michael J; Mackie, Ken; Palkovits, Miklós; Kunos, George

    2005-01-01

    Endocannabinoids acting at CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1) increase appetite. In view of the predominant presynaptic localization of CB1 in the brain, we tested the hypothesis that the orexigenic effect of endocannabinoids involves inhibition of the release of a tonically active anorexigenic mediator, such as the peptide product of the cocaine- and amphetamine-related transcript (CART). The CB1 antagonist rimonabant inhibited food intake in food-restricted wild-type mice, but not in their CART-deficient littermates. Mice deficient in fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme responsible for the in vivo metabolism of the endocannabinoid anandamide, have reduced levels of CART-immunoreactive nerve fibers and terminals in several brain regions implicated in appetite control, including the arcuate, dorsomedial and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, the amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the nucleus accumbens, and treatment of FAAH(-/-) mice with rimonabant, 3 mg/kg/day for 7 days, increased CART levels toward those seen in FAAH(+/+) wild-type controls. In contrast, no difference in the density of CART-immunoreactive fibers was observed in the median eminence and the paraventricular nucleus of FAAH(+/+) and FAAH(-/-) mice. Acute treatment of wild-type mice with the cannabinoid agonist HU-210 resulted in elevated CART levels in the dorsomedial nucleus and the shell portion of the nucleus accumbens. These observations are compatible with CART being a downstream mediator of the CB1-mediated orexigenic effect of endogenous anandamide.

  11. Silychristin, a Flavonolignan Derived From the Milk Thistle, Is a Potent Inhibitor of the Thyroid Hormone Transporter MCT8.

    PubMed

    Johannes, Jörg; Jayarama-Naidu, Roopa; Meyer, Franziska; Wirth, Eva Katrin; Schweizer, Ulrich; Schomburg, Lutz; Köhrle, Josef; Renko, Kostja

    2016-04-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are charged and iodinated amino acid derivatives that need to pass the cell membrane facilitated by thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters (THTT) to exert their biological function. The importance of functional THTT is affirmed by the devastating effects of mutations in the human monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 8, leading to a severe form of psychomotor retardation. Modulation of THTT function by pharmacological or environmental compounds might disturb TH action on a tissue-specific level. Therefore, it is important to identify compounds with relevant environmental exposure and THTT-modulating activity. Based on a nonradioactive TH uptake assay, we performed a screening of 13 chemicals, suspicious for TH receptor interaction, to test their potential effects on THTT in MCT8-overexpressing MDCK1-cells. We identified silymarin, an extract of the milk thistle, to be a potent inhibitor of T3 uptake by MCT8. Because silymarin is a complex mixture of flavonolignan substances, we further tested its individual components and identified silychristin as the most effective one with an IC50 of approximately 100 nM. The measured IC50 value is at least 1 order of magnitude below those of other known THTT inhibitors. This finding was confirmed by T3 uptake in primary murine astrocytes expressing endogenous Mct8 but not in MCT10-overexpressing MDCK1-cells, indicating a remarkable specificity of the inhibitor toward MCT8. Because silymarin is a frequently used adjuvant therapeutic for hepatitis C infection and chronic liver disease, our observations raise questions regarding its safety with respect to unwanted effects on the TH axis.

  12. Unexpected effects of azole transporter inhibitors on antifungal susceptibility in Candida glabrata and other pathogenic Candida species.

    PubMed

    Nagayoshi, Yohsuke; Miyazaki, Taiga; Shimamura, Shintaro; Nakayama, Hironobu; Minematsu, Asuka; Yamauchi, Shunsuke; Takazono, Takahiro; Nakamura, Shigeki; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kohno, Shigeru; Mukae, Hiroshi; Izumikawa, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenic fungus Candida glabrata is often resistant to azole antifungal agents. Drug efflux through azole transporters, such as Cdr1 and Cdr2, is a key mechanism of azole resistance and these genes are under the control of the transcription factor Pdr1. Recently, the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) inhibitor clorgyline was shown to inhibit the azole efflux pumps, leading to increased azole susceptibility in C. glabrata. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of clorgyline on susceptibility of C. glabrata to not only azoles, but also to micafungin and amphotericin B, using wild-type and several mutant strains. The addition of clorgyline to the culture media increased fluconazole susceptibility of a C. glabrata wild-type strain, whereas micafungin and amphotericin B susceptibilities were markedly decreased. These phenomena were also observed in other medically important Candida species, including Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. Expression levels of CDR1, CDR2 and PDR1 mRNAs and an amount of Cdr1 protein in the C. glabrata wild-type strain were highly increased in response to the treatment with clorgyline. However, loss of Cdr1, Cdr2, Pdr1, and a putative clorgyline target (Fms1), which is an ortholog of human MAO-A, or overexpression of CDR1 did not affect the decreased susceptibility to micafungin and amphotericin B in the presence of clorgyline. The presence of other azole efflux pump inhibitors including milbemycin A4 oxime and carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone also decreased micafungin susceptibility in C. glabrata wild-type, Δcdr1, Δcdr2, and Δpdr1 strains. These findings suggest that azole efflux pump inhibitors increase azole susceptibility but concurrently induce decreased susceptibility to other classes of antifungals independent of azole transporter functions.

  13. Unexpected effects of azole transporter inhibitors on antifungal susceptibility in Candida glabrata and other pathogenic Candida species

    PubMed Central

    Nagayoshi, Yohsuke; Shimamura, Shintaro; Nakayama, Hironobu; Minematsu, Asuka; Yamauchi, Shunsuke; Takazono, Takahiro; Nakamura, Shigeki; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kohno, Shigeru; Mukae, Hiroshi; Izumikawa, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenic fungus Candida glabrata is often resistant to azole antifungal agents. Drug efflux through azole transporters, such as Cdr1 and Cdr2, is a key mechanism of azole resistance and these genes are under the control of the transcription factor Pdr1. Recently, the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) inhibitor clorgyline was shown to inhibit the azole efflux pumps, leading to increased azole susceptibility in C. glabrata. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of clorgyline on susceptibility of C. glabrata to not only azoles, but also to micafungin and amphotericin B, using wild-type and several mutant strains. The addition of clorgyline to the culture media increased fluconazole susceptibility of a C. glabrata wild-type strain, whereas micafungin and amphotericin B susceptibilities were markedly decreased. These phenomena were also observed in other medically important Candida species, including Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. Expression levels of CDR1, CDR2 and PDR1 mRNAs and an amount of Cdr1 protein in the C. glabrata wild-type strain were highly increased in response to the treatment with clorgyline. However, loss of Cdr1, Cdr2, Pdr1, and a putative clorgyline target (Fms1), which is an ortholog of human MAO-A, or overexpression of CDR1 did not affect the decreased susceptibility to micafungin and amphotericin B in the presence of clorgyline. The presence of other azole efflux pump inhibitors including milbemycin A4 oxime and carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone also decreased micafungin susceptibility in C. glabrata wild-type, Δcdr1, Δcdr2, and Δpdr1 strains. These findings suggest that azole efflux pump inhibitors increase azole susceptibility but concurrently induce decreased susceptibility to other classes of antifungals independent of azole transporter functions. PMID:28700656

  14. Molecular targets for cannabidiol and its synthetic analogues: effect on vanilloid VR1 receptors and on the cellular uptake and enzymatic hydrolysis of anandamide

    PubMed Central

    Bisogno, Tiziana; Hanuš, Lumír; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Tchilibon, Susanna; Ponde, Datta E; Brandi, Ines; Moriello, Aniello Schiano; Davis, John B; Mechoulam, Raphael; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2001-01-01

    (−)-Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotropic component of Cannabis with possible therapeutic use as an anti-inflammatory drug. Little is known on the possible molecular targets of this compound. We investigated whether CBD and some of its derivatives interact with vanilloid receptor type 1 (VR1), the receptor for capsaicin, or with proteins that inactivate the endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide (AEA).CBD and its enantiomer, (+)-CBD, together with seven analogues, obtained by exchanging the C-7 methyl group of CBD with a hydroxy-methyl or a carboxyl function and/or the C-5′ pentyl group with a di-methyl-heptyl (DMH) group, were tested on: (a) VR1-mediated increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations in cells over-expressing human VR1; (b) [14C]-AEA uptake by RBL-2H3 cells, which is facilitated by a selective membrane transporter; and (c) [14C]-AEA hydrolysis by rat brain membranes, which is catalysed by the fatty acid amide hydrolase.Both CBD and (+)-CBD, but not the other analogues, stimulated VR1 with EC50=3.2 – 3.5 μM, and with a maximal effect similar in efficacy to that of capsaicin, i.e. 67 – 70% of the effect obtained with ionomycin (4 μM). CBD (10 μM) desensitized VR1 to the action of capsaicin. The effects of maximal doses of the two compounds were not additive.(+)-5′-DMH-CBD and (+)-7-hydroxy-5′-DMH-CBD inhibited [14C]-AEA uptake (IC50=10.0 and 7.0 μM); the (−)-enantiomers were slightly less active (IC50=14.0 and 12.5 μM). CBD and (+)-CBD were also active (IC50=22.0 and 17.0 μM).CBD (IC50=27.5 μM), (+)-CBD (IC50=63.5 μM) and (−)-7-hydroxy-CBD (IC50=34 μM), but not the other analogues (IC50>100 μM), weakly inhibited [14C]-AEA hydrolysis.Only the (+)-isomers exhibited high affinity for CB1 and/or CB2 cannabinoid receptors.These findings suggest that VR1 receptors, or increased levels of endogenous AEA, might mediate some of the pharmacological effects of CBD and its analogues. In view of the facile high yield

  15. Resistance mechanisms to mitochondrial electron transport inhibitors in a field-collected strain of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Van Pottelberge, S; Van Leeuwen, T; Nauen, R; Tirry, L

    2009-02-01

    A Belgian field strain (MR-VP) of Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) exhibits different levels of resistance to four frequently used METI (mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor)-acaricides, i.e. tebufenpyrad, fenpyroximate, pyridaben and fenazaquin. Resistance factors for these compounds were 184, 1547, 5971 and 35, respectively. A 23.5-fold increase in 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin O-deethylation activity suggested that metabolic resistance through elevated levels of cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase-activity is a possible resistance mechanism.However, synergism studies with different metabolic inhibitors revealed some contrasting resistance mechanisms between the METI-acaricides. Tebufenpyrad resistance could only be synergized after pre-treatment with the monooxygenase inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (PBO), whereas pyridaben resistance was strongly synergized both by PBO and the esterase inhibitor S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF). Resistance levels to fenpyroximate could neither be suppressed by PBO nor by DEF. Although METI-acaricides are structurally related, these findings probably reflect a different role of esterases and mono-oxygenases in metabolic detoxification between these compounds. The overall lack of synergism by diethylmaleate (DEM) suggests that glutathione-S-transferases are not an important factor in resistance to METIs.Reciprocal crosses between susceptible females and resistant males showed no maternal effect, and resistance to METI-acaricides was inherited generally as a dominant trait. Backcrosses with F1 females revealed striking differences in the mode of inheritance. Although resistance to fenpyroximate and pyridaben was under monogenic control, resistance to tebufenpyrad was under control of more than one gene.

  16. Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter-2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors: Comparing Trial and Real World Use (Study Protocol).

    PubMed

    McGovern, Andrew; Feher, Michael; Munro, Neil; de Lusignan, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors (gliflozins) are the newest class of medication available to treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Recent findings from the first complete cardiovascular safety trial in SGLT2 inhibitors, the Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcomes, and Mortality in type 2 diabetes (EMPA-REG OUTCOMES) trial, demonstrated reduced cardiovascular outcomes in people with high cardiovascular risk. How to apply these findings to clinical practice remains unclear, with questions remaining on who will reap this cardiovascular benefit. To describe the proportion of people in the real world currently treated with SGLT2 inhibitors who meet the inclusion criteria of the EMPA-REG trial and therefore could expect the cardiovascular benefit identified by the trial. Similarly, to describe the proportion of people from the whole T2DM population who could also expect this same benefit. Routinely collected data from UK primary care in the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) Research and Surveillance Centre (RSC) database will be used. The study population will include all people with T2DM within this database (approximately 60,000). We will perform a cross-sectional investigation to describe the characteristics of people currently using SGTL2 inhibitors compared with the population of the EMPA-REG trail. We will similarly compare the characteristics of the RCGP RSC T2DM cohort with the inclusion criteria of the EMPA-REG trial. People with T2DM using a pre-existing verified clinical ontological process will be identified, as will people with prescriptions for SGLT2 inhibitors and other medications using Read coded and other proprietary coding systems. Descriptive statistics will be used to characterise the key clinical characteristics of people with T2DM using SGLT2 inhibitors and to compare these characteristics to people included in EMPA-REG trial; the proportion of people who match the trial criteria will be reported. Peer review publication

  17. Synthesis, inhibition and binding of simple non-nitrogen inhibitors of monoamine transporters.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Mikkel Due; Boye, Søren Valdgård; Nielsen, Erik Holm; Willumsen, Jeanette; Sinning, Steffen; Wiborg, Ove; Bols, Mikael

    2007-06-15

    A series of simple truncated analogues of phenyl tropanes, 2-arylcycloalk-1-enyl carboxylic acid methylesters, were prepared and investigated for their activity towards the dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine transporters. The compounds were prepared from cyclic ketoesters, which were converted to enolic triflates and reacted with arylboronates using the Suzuki coupling. For comparison the corresponding piperidines were also made and investigated. The new compounds inhibit monoamine-transporters with Ki values ranging from 0.1 to 1000 microM.

  18. Specific interactions between the Candida albicans ABC transporter Cdr1p ectodomain and a d-octapeptide derivative inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Niimi, Kyoko; Harding, David R. K.; Holmes, Ann R.; Lamping, Erwin; Niimi, Masakazu; Tyndall, Joel D. A.; Cannon, Richard D.; Monk, Brian C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Over-expression of the Candida albicans ATP-binding cassette transporter CaCdr1p causes clinically significant resistance to azole drugs including fluconazole (FLC). Screening of a ~1.89 × 106 member d-octapeptide combinatorial library that concentrates library members at the yeast cell surface identified RC21v3, a 4-methoxy-2,3,6-trimethylbenzenesulphonyl derivative of the d-octapeptide d-NH2-FFKWQRRR-CONH2, as a potent and stereospecific inhibitor of CaCdr1p. RC21v3 chemosensitized Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains over-expressing CaCdr1p but not other fungal ABC transporters, the C. albicans MFS transporter CaMdr1p or the azole target enzyme CaErg11p, to FLC. RC21v3 also chemosensitized clinical C. albicans isolates over-expressing CaCDR1 to FLC, even when CaCDR2 was over-expressed. Specific targeting of CaCdr1p by RC21v3 was confirmed by spontaneous RC21v3 chemosensitization resistant suppressor mutants of S. cerevisiae expressing CaCdr1p. The suppressor mutations introduced a positive charge beside, or within, extracellular loops 1, 3, 4 and 6 of CaCdr1p or an aromatic residue near the extracytoplasmic end of transmembrane segment 5. The mutations did not affect CaCdr1p localization or Cdr1p ATPase activity but some increased susceptibility to the CaCdr1p substrates FLC, rhodamine 6G, rhodamine 123 and cycloheximide. The suppressor mutations showed that the drug-like CaCdr1p inhibitors FK506, enniatin, milbemycin α11 and milbemycin β9 have modes of action similar to RC21v3. PMID:22788839

  19. Isoform-selective inhibition of facilitative glucose transporters: elucidation of the molecular mechanism of HIV protease inhibitor binding.

    PubMed

    Hresko, Richard C; Kraft, Thomas E; Tzekov, Anatoly; Wildman, Scott A; Hruz, Paul W

    2014-06-06

    Pharmacologic HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) and structurally related oligopeptides are known to reversibly bind and inactivate the insulin-responsive facilitative glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). Several PIs exhibit isoform selectivity with little effect on GLUT1. The ability to target individual GLUT isoforms in an acute and reversible manner provides novel means both to investigate the contribution of individual GLUTs to health and disease and to develop targeted treatment of glucose-dependent diseases. To determine the molecular basis of transport inhibition, a series of chimeric proteins containing transmembrane and cytosolic domains from GLUT1 and GLUT4 and/or point mutations were generated and expressed in HEK293 cells. Structural integrity was confirmed via measurement of N-[2-[2-[2-[(N-biotinylcaproylamino)ethoxy)ethoxyl]-4-[2-(trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl]benzoyl]-1,3-bis(mannopyranosyl-4-yloxy)-2-propylamine (ATB-BMPA) labeling of the chimeric proteins in low density microsome fractions isolated from stably transfected 293 cells. Functional integrity was assessed via measurement of zero-trans 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG) uptake. ATB-BMPA labeling studies and 2-DOG uptake revealed that transmembrane helices 1 and 5 contain amino acid residues that influence inhibitor access to the transporter binding domain. Substitution of Thr-30 and His-160 in GLUT1 to the corresponding positions in GLUT4 is sufficient to completely transform GLUT1 into GLUT4 with respect to indinavir inhibition of 2-DOG uptake and ATB-BMPA binding. These data provide a structural basis for the selectivity of PIs toward GLUT4 over GLUT1 that can be used in ongoing novel drug design. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Ibogaine, a noncompetitive inhibitor of serotonin transport, acts by stabilizing the cytoplasm-facing state of the transporter.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Miriam T; Zhang, Yuan-Wei; Campbell, Scott D; Rudnick, Gary

    2007-10-05

    Ibogaine, a hallucinogenic alkaloid with purported anti-addiction properties, inhibited serotonin transporter (SERT) noncompetitively by decreasing V(max) with little change in the K(m) for serotonin (5-HT). Ibogaine also inhibited binding to SERT of the cocaine analog 2beta-2-carbomethoxy-3-(4-[(125)I]iodophenyl)tropane. However, inhibition of binding was competitive, increasing the apparent K(D) without much change in B(max). Ibogaine increased the reactivity of cysteine residues positioned in the proposed cytoplasmic permeation pathway of SERT but not at nearby positions out of that pathway. In contrast, cysteines placed at positions in the extracellular permeation pathway reacted at slower rates in the presence of ibogaine. These results are consistent with the proposal that ibogaine binds to and stabilizes the state of SERT from which 5-HT dissociates to the cytoplasm, in contrast with cocaine, which stabilizes the state that binds extracellular 5-HT.

  1. Examination of the Addictive and Behavioral Properties of Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Inhibitor SBFI26

    PubMed Central

    Thanos, Panayotis K.; Clavin, Brendan H.; Hamilton, John; O’Rourke, Joseph R.; Maher, Thomas; Koumas, Christopher; Miao, Erick; Lankop, Jessenia; Elhage, Aya; Haj-Dahmane, Samir; Deutsch, Dale; Kaczocha, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic properties of cannabinoids have been well demonstrated but are overshadowed by such adverse effects as cognitive and motor dysfunction, as well as their potential for addiction. Recent research on the natural lipid ligands of cannabinoid receptors, also known as endocannabinoids, has shed light on the mechanisms of intracellular transport of the endocannabinoid anandamide by fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) and subsequent catabolism by fatty acid amide hydrolase. These findings facilitated the recent development of SBFI26, a pharmacological inhibitor of epidermal- and brain-specific FABP5 and FABP7, which effectively increases anandamide signaling. The goal of this study was to examine this compound for any possible rewarding and addictive properties as well as effects on locomotor activity, working/recognition memory, and propensity for sociability and preference for social novelty (SN) given its recently reported anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Male C57BL mice were split into four treatment groups and conditioned with 5.0, 20.0, 40.0 mg/kg SBFI26, or vehicle during a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Following CPP, mice underwent a battery of behavioral tests [open field, novel object recognition (NOR), social interaction (SI), and SN] paired with acute SBFI26 administration. Results showed that SBFI26 did not produce CPP or conditioned place aversion regardless of dose and did not induce any differences in locomotor and exploratory activity during CPP- or SBFI26-paired open field activity. We also observed no differences between treatment groups in NOR, SI, and SN. In conclusion, as SBFI26 was shown previously by our group to have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, here we show that it does not pose a risk of dependence or motor and cognitive impairment under the conditions tested. PMID:27092087

  2. Examination of the Addictive and Behavioral Properties of Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Inhibitor SBFI26.

    PubMed

    Thanos, Panayotis K; Clavin, Brendan H; Hamilton, John; O'Rourke, Joseph R; Maher, Thomas; Koumas, Christopher; Miao, Erick; Lankop, Jessenia; Elhage, Aya; Haj-Dahmane, Samir; Deutsch, Dale; Kaczocha, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic properties of cannabinoids have been well demonstrated but are overshadowed by such adverse effects as cognitive and motor dysfunction, as well as their potential for addiction. Recent research on the natural lipid ligands of cannabinoid receptors, also known as endocannabinoids, has shed light on the mechanisms of intracellular transport of the endocannabinoid anandamide by fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) and subsequent catabolism by fatty acid amide hydrolase. These findings facilitated the recent development of SBFI26, a pharmacological inhibitor of epidermal- and brain-specific FABP5 and FABP7, which effectively increases anandamide signaling. The goal of this study was to examine this compound for any possible rewarding and addictive properties as well as effects on locomotor activity, working/recognition memory, and propensity for sociability and preference for social novelty (SN) given its recently reported anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Male C57BL mice were split into four treatment groups and conditioned with 5.0, 20.0, 40.0 mg/kg SBFI26, or vehicle during a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Following CPP, mice underwent a battery of behavioral tests [open field, novel object recognition (NOR), social interaction (SI), and SN] paired with acute SBFI26 administration. Results showed that SBFI26 did not produce CPP or conditioned place aversion regardless of dose and did not induce any differences in locomotor and exploratory activity during CPP- or SBFI26-paired open field activity. We also observed no differences between treatment groups in NOR, SI, and SN. In conclusion, as SBFI26 was shown previously by our group to have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, here we show that it does not pose a risk of dependence or motor and cognitive impairment under the conditions tested.

  3. Evidence for Bidirectional Endocannabinoid Transport across Cell Membranes*

    PubMed Central

    Chicca, Andrea; Marazzi, Janine; Nicolussi, Simon; Gertsch, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive research on the trafficking of anandamide (AEA) across cell membranes, little is known about the membrane transport of other endocannabinoids, such as 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Previous studies have provided data both in favor and against a cell membrane carrier-mediated transport of endocannabinoids, using different methodological approaches. Because AEA and 2-AG undergo rapid and almost complete intracellular hydrolysis, we employed a combination of radioligand assays and absolute quantification of cellular and extracellular endocannabinoid levels. In human U937 leukemia cells, 100 nm AEA and 1 μm 2-AG were taken up through a fast and saturable process, reaching a plateau after 5 min. Employing differential pharmacological blockage of endocannabinoid uptake, breakdown, and interaction with intracellular binding proteins, we show that eicosanoid endocannabinoids harboring an arachidonoyl chain compete for a common membrane target that regulates their transport, whereas other N-acylethanolamines did not interfere with AEA and 2-AG uptake. By combining fatty acid amide hydrolase or monoacyl glycerol lipase inhibitors with hydrolase-inactive concentrations of the AEA transport inhibitors UCM707 (1 μm) and OMDM-2 (5 μm), a functional synergism on cellular AEA and 2-AG uptake was observed. Intriguingly, structurally unrelated AEA uptake inhibitors also blocked the cellular release of AEA and 2-AG. We show, for the first time, that UCM707 and OMDM-2 inhibit the bidirectional movement of AEA and 2-AG across cell membranes. Our findings suggest that a putative endocannabinoid cell membrane transporter controls the cellular AEA and 2-AG trafficking and metabolism. PMID:22879589

  4. Development of new brain imaging agents based upon nocaine-modafinil hybrid monoamine transporter inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Musachio, John L; Hong, Jinsoo; Ichise, Masanori; Seneca, Nicholas; Brown, Amira K; Liow, Jeih-San; Halldin, Christer; Innis, Robert B; Pike, Victor W; He, Rong; Zhou, Jia; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2006-06-15

    11C-labeled (+)-trans-2-[[(3R,4S)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-methylpiperidin-3-yl]methylsulfanyl]ethanol ([11C]5) and (+)-trans-2-[[(3R,4S)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-methylpiperidin-3-yl]methylsulfanyl]-1-(piperidin-1-yl)ethanone ([11C]6) were synthesized and evaluated as new imaging agents for the norepinephrine transporter (NET). [11C]5 and [11C]6 display high affinity for the NET in vitro (Ki = 0.94 and 0.68 nM, respectively) and significant selectivity over the dopamine (DAT) and serotonin transporters (SERT). Because of their high affinity and favorable transporter selectivities we speculated that these ligands might serve as useful PET agents for imaging NET in vivo. Contrary to our expectations, both of these ligands provided brain images that were more typical of those shown by agents binding to the DAT.

  5. Intraplantar injection of anandamide inhibits mechanically-evoked responses of spinal neurones via activation of CB2 receptors in anaesthetised rats.

    PubMed

    Sokal, D M; Elmes, S J R; Kendall, D A; Chapman, V

    2003-09-01

    Anti-nociceptive effects of the endocannabinoid anandamide are well established. Anandamide has, however, also been shown to activate pro-nociceptive vanilloid 1 (VR1) receptors present on primary afferent nociceptors. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of intraplantar injection of anandamide on dorsal spinal neuronal responses in control rats and rats with hindpaw carrageenan-induced inflammation. Effects of intraplantar administration of anandamide (50 microg in 50 microl) on peripheral mechanically-evoked responses of spinal neurones were studied in halothane-anaesthetised rats in vivo. Responses of spinal neurones to mechanical punctate stimulation (von Frey filaments, 8-80 g) of the peripheral receptive field were similar in non-inflamed rats and rats with hindpaw carrageenan-induced inflammation. Intraplantar injection of anandamide, but not vehicle, significantly (P<0.05) inhibited innocuous and noxious mechanically-evoked responses of spinal neurones in rats with hindpaw inflammation, but not in non-inflamed rats. Co-administration of the cannabinoid (2) (CB(2)) receptor antagonist, SR144528 (10 microg in 50 microl), but not the cannabinoid (1) (CB(1)) receptor antagonist, SR141716A (10 microg in 50 microl), significantly blocked inhibitory effects of anandamide on peripheral evoked neuronal responses in rats with hindpaw inflammation. This study demonstrates inhibitory effects of exogenous anandamide on mechanically-evoked responses under inflammatory conditions in vivo, which are mediated by peripheral CB(2) receptors.

  6. Transport and equilibrium uptake of a peptide inhibitor of PACE4 into articular cartilage is dominated by electrostatic interactions.

    PubMed

    Byun, Sangwon; Tortorella, Micky D; Malfait, Anne-Marie; Fok, Kam; Frank, Eliot H; Grodzinsky, Alan J

    2010-07-01

    The availability of therapeutic molecules to targets within cartilage depends on transport through the avascular matrix. We studied equilibrium partitioning and non-equilibrium transport into cartilage of Pf-pep, a 760 Da positively charged peptide inhibitor of the proprotein convertase PACE4. Competitive binding measurements revealed negligible binding of Pf-pep to sites within cartilage. Uptake of Pf-pep depended on glycosaminoglycan charge density, and was consistent with predictions of Donnan equilibrium given the known charge of Pf-pep. In separate transport experiments, the diffusivity of Pf-pep in cartilage was measured to be approximately 1 x 10(-6) cm(2)/s, close to other similarly-sized non-binding solutes. These results suggest that small positively charged therapeutics will have a higher concentration within cartilage than in the surrounding synovial fluid, a desired property for local delivery; however, such therapeutics may rapidly diffuse out of cartilage unless there is additional specific binding to intra-tissue substrates that can maintain enhanced intra-tissue concentration for local delivery.

  7. C1-transport in gastric micorsomes. An ATP-dependent influx sensitive to membrane potential and to protein kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Soumarmon, A; Abastado, M; Bonfils, S; Lewin, M J

    1980-12-25

    Uptakes of radioactive C1- or 1- by gastric microsomal vesicles were stimulated 2- to 8-fold by AtP. The sensitivity of those uptakes to a C1- in equilibrium OH- ionophore and to osmotic swelling suggested they were due to transport rather than to binding. The ATP effect was labile, but dithiothreitol and methanol improved its stability. The stimulation of anion transport required magnesium; GTP and UTP were less potent than ATP whereas ADP and AMP had no effect. The apparent Km for ATP was estimated to be 2 X 10(-4) M at 22 degrees C. The rate of the ATP-dependent transport showed saturation-type kinetics, with half-maximal uptake at 10 mM for I- and 15 mM for C1-. Nonradioactive C1-, I-, and SCN- competed with 125I- uptake while SO42- did not. K+ valinomycin increased the ATP-dependent C1- uptake. The thermostable inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinases inhibited the effect of ATP. These results suggest the existence of an anion conductance, permeant to C1-, I-, and SCN- and nonpermeant to SO42-, which could be linked to a cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

  8. A conformational restriction approach to the development of dual inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase and serotonin transporter as potential agents for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Toda, Narihiro; Tago, Keiko; Marumoto, Shinji; Takami, Kazuko; Ori, Mayuko; Yamada, Naho; Koyama, Kazuo; Naruto, Shunji; Abe, Kazumi; Yamazaki, Reina; Hara, Takao; Aoyagi, Atsushi; Abe, Yasuyuki; Kaneko, Tsugio; Kogen, Hiroshi

    2003-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been treated with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors such as donepezil. However, the clinical usefulness of AChE inhibitors is limited mainly due to their adverse peripheral effects. Depression seen in AD patients has been treated with serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitors. We considered that combining SERT and AChE inhibition could improve the clinical usefulness of AChE inhibitors. In a previous paper, we found a potential dual inhibitor, 1, of AChE (IC50=101 nM) and SERT (IC50=42 nM), but its AChE inhibition activity was less than donepezil (IC50=10 nM). Here, we report the conformationally restricted (R)-18a considerably enhanced inhibitory activity against AChE (IC50=14 nM) and SERT (IC50=6 nM).

  9. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter Inhibitors: Effects on Renal and Intestinal Glucose Transport: From Bench to Bedside.

    PubMed

    Mudaliar, Sunder; Polidori, David; Zambrowicz, Brian; Henry, Robert R

    2015-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease with disabling micro- and macrovascular complications that lead to excessive morbidity and premature mortality. It affects hundreds of millions of people and imposes an undue economic burden on populations across the world. Although insulin resistance and insulin secretory defects play a major role in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia, several other metabolic defects contribute to the initiation/worsening of the diabetic state. Prominent among these is increased renal glucose reabsorption, which is maladaptive in patients with diabetes. Instead of an increase in renal glucose excretion, which could ameliorate hyperglycemia, there is an increase in renal glucose reabsorption, which helps sustain hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes. The sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors are novel antidiabetes agents that inhibit renal glucose reabsorption and promote glucosuria, thereby leading to reductions in plasma glucose concentrations. In this article, we review the long journey from the discovery of the glucosuric agent phlorizin in the bark of the apple tree through the animal and human studies that led to the development of the current generation of SGLT2 inhibitors.

  10. [Role of the sympathetic nervous system in vasovagal syncope and rationale for beta-blockers and norepinephrine transporter inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Márquez, Manlio F; Gómez-Flores, Jorge Rafael; González-Hermosillo, Jesús A; Ruíz-Siller, Teresita de Jesús; Cárdenas, Manuel

    2016-12-29

    Vasovagal or neurocardiogenic syncope is a common clinical situation and, as with other entities associated with orthostatic intolerance, the underlying condition is a dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. This article reviews various aspects of vasovagal syncope, including its relationship with orthostatic intolerance and the role of the autonomic nervous system in it. A brief history of the problem is given, as well as a description of how the names and associated concepts have evolved. The response of the sympathetic system to orthostatic stress, the physiology of the baroreflex system and the neurohumoral changes that occur with standing are analyzed. Evidence is presented of the involvement of the autonomic nervous system, including studies of heart rate variability, microneurography, cardiac innervation, and molecular genetic studies. Finally, we describe different studies on the use of beta-blockers and norepinephrine transporter inhibitors (sibutramine, reboxetine) and the rationality of their use to prevent this type of syncope.

  11. Antinociceptive effect of intracerebroventricular administration of glycine transporter-2 inhibitor ALX1393 in rat models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Hara, Koji; Haranishi, Yasunori; Terada, Tadanori; Obara, Goh; Sata, Takeyoshi

    2015-03-01

    Glycinergic transmission has an important role in regulating nociception in the spinal cord. The glycine transporter-2 (GlyT2) is localized at presynaptic terminals of glycinergic neurons and eliminates glycine from the synaptic cleft to terminate glycinergic transmission. Systemic and intrathecal administration of GlyT2 inhibitors alleviate various types of pain. Although the GlyT2s and glycine receptors are widely distributed in the central nervous system, little is known about the role of glycinergic transmission in pain perception at supraspinal regions. The present study examined the antinociceptive effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of the selective GlyT2 inhibitor ALX1393 on inflammatory and neuropathic pain in experimental models. For i.c.v. administration, a guide cannula was implanted into the right lateral ventricle of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Normal rats were used to assess inflammatory nociception using the formalin test and motor function using the rotarod test. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve was induced in the rats. The CCI rats were then used to assess mechanical, cold, and thermal hyperalgesia using the electronic von Frey test, cold plate test, and the plantar test, respectively. ALX1393 (25, 50, and 100 μg) was administered i.c.v. to examine its effects on supraspinal antinociception. Supraspinal ALX1393 in normal rats suppressed the late-phase response in the formalin test but did not affect motor performance. In the CCI rats, ALX1393 inhibited mechanical and cold hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent manner. The antihyperalgesic effects of ALX1393 (100 μg) were reversed completely by i.c.v. pretreatment with a glycine receptor antagonist strychnine (10 μg). These results suggest that GlyT2 contributes to nociceptive transmission at supraspinal level and that the selective GlyT2 inhibitor is a promising candidate for the treatment of inflammatory and neuropathic pain without causing motor dysfunction.

  12. Enhanced Dopamine Release by Dopamine Transport Inhibitors Described by a Restricted Diffusion Model and Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Alexander F; Spivak, Charles E; Lupica, Carl R

    2016-06-15

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) using carbon fiber electrodes is widely used to rapidly monitor changes in dopamine (DA) levels in vitro and in vivo. Current analytical approaches utilize parameters such as peak oxidation current amplitude and decay times to estimate release and uptake processes, respectively. However, peak amplitude changes are often observed with uptake inhibitors, thereby confounding the interpretation of these parameters. To overcome this limitation, we demonstrate that a simple five-parameter, two-compartment model mathematically describes DA signals as a balance of release (r/ke) and uptake (ku), summed with adsorption (kads and kdes) of DA to the carbon electrode surface. Using nonlinear regression, we demonstrate that our model precisely describes measured DA signals obtained in brain slice recordings. The parameters extracted from these curves were then validated using pharmacological manipulations that selectively alter vesicular release or DA transporter (DAT)-mediated uptake. Manipulation of DA release through altering the Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratio or adding tetrodotoxin reduced the release parameter with no effect on the uptake parameter. DAT inhibitors methylenedioxypyrovalerone, cocaine, and nomifensine significantly reduced uptake and increased vesicular DA release. In contrast, a low concentration of amphetamine reduced uptake but had no effect on DA release. Finally, the kappa opioid receptor agonist U50,488 significantly reduced vesicular DA release but had no effect on uptake. Together, these data demonstrate a novel analytical approach to distinguish the effects of manipulations on DA release or uptake that can be used to interpret FSCV data.

  13. Renal Safety of Canagliflozin, a Sodium Glucose Co-transporter 2 Inhibitor, in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Desai, Mehul; Yavin, Yshai; Balis, Dainius; Sun, Don; Xie, John; Canovatchel, William; Rosenthal, Norm

    2017-01-12

    The incidence of renal-related adverse events (AEs) with canagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from a pooled population of patients in 7 active- and placebo-controlled trials (N = 5,598) and in a 104-week study versus glimepiride (N = 1,450) was low and similar in canagliflozin and non-canagliflozin groups. In the study versus glimepiride, canagliflozin was associated with an initial acute decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) that attenuated over time, while eGFR declined progressively over 104 weeks with glimepiride; the incidence of renal-related AEs with canagliflozin was generally stable over time, while the incidence with glimepiride increased over 104 weeks. In the analysis reported in this manuscript based on postmarketing reports from the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System, a potential signal was identified for acute kidney injury with all approved sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors (ie, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin). The early onset of acute kidney injury events with SGLT2 inhibitors in postmarketing reports likely reflects the acute changes in eGFR due to the known renal haemodynamic effects of SGLT2 inhibition.

  14. Chicago sky blue 6B, a vesicular glutamate transporters inhibitor, attenuates methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity and behavioral sensitization in mice.

    PubMed

    He, Zongsheng; Yan, Lingdi; Yong, Zheng; Dong, Zhaoqi; Dong, Huajin; Gong, Zehui

    2013-02-15

    Several lines of evidence demonstrate that glutamatergic system plays an important role in drug addiction. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Chicago sky blue 6B (CSB6B), a vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) inhibitor, on methamphetamine (METH)-induced behaviors in mice. Mice were induced behavioral sensitization to METH by subcutaneous injection of 1mg/kg METH once daily for 7 days and then challenged with 1mg/kg METH in 14th day. Intracerebroventricular administration of CSB6B (7.5μg) 2.5h prior to METH was to observe its effects on METH -induced behavioral sensitization. Our results showed that the expressions of behavioral sensitization were significantly attenuated by intracerebroventricular administration of CSB6B 2.5h prior to METH either during the development period or before methamphetamine challenge in mice, while CSB6B itself had no effect on locomotor activity. Meanwhile, pretreatment of CSB6B also attenuated hyperactivity caused by a single injection of METH in mice. These results demonstrated that CSB6B, a VGLUTs inhibitor, attenuated acute METH-induced hyperactivity and chronic METH-induced behavioral sensitization, which indicated that VGLUTs were involved in the effect of chronic METH-induced behavioral sensitization and may be a new target against the addiction of METH.

  15. Canagliflozin: a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Norm; Meininger, Gary; Ways, Kirk; Polidori, David; Desai, Mehul; Qiu, Rong; Alba, Maria; Vercruysse, Frank; Balis, Dainius; Shaw, Wayne; Edwards, Robert; Bull, Scott; Di Prospero, Nicholas; Sha, Sue; Rothenberg, Paul; Canovatchel, William; Demarest, Keith

    2015-11-01

    The sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor canagliflozin is a novel treatment option for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In patients with hyperglycemia, SGLT2 inhibition lowers plasma glucose levels by reducing the renal threshold for glucose (RTG ) and increasing urinary glucose excretion (UGE). Increased UGE is also associated with a mild osmotic diuresis and net caloric loss, which can lead to reductions in body weight and blood pressure (BP). After promising results from preclinical and phase I/II studies, the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin was evaluated in a comprehensive phase III development program in over 10,000 patients with T2DM on various background therapies. Canagliflozin improved glycemic control and provided reductions in body weight and BP versus placebo and active comparators in studies of up to 2 years' duration. Canagliflozin was generally well tolerated, with higher incidences of adverse events (AEs) related to the mechanism of action, including genital mycotic infections and AEs related to osmotic diuresis. Results from the preclinical and clinical studies led canagliflozin to be the first-in-class SGLT2 inhibitor approved in the United States, and support canagliflozin as a safe and effective therapeutic option across a broad range of patients with T2DM. © 2015 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Mitochondrial genome-knockout cells demonstrate a dual mechanism of action for the electron transport complex I inhibitor mycothiazole.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Kirsten J; Singh, A Jonathan; Cameron, Alanna; Tan, An S; Leahy, Dora C; O'Sullivan, David; Joshi, Praneta; La Flamme, Anne C; Northcote, Peter T; Berridge, Michael V; Miller, John H

    2012-04-01

    Mycothiazole, a polyketide metabolite isolated from the marine sponge Cacospongia mycofijiensis, is a potent inhibitor of metabolic activity and mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I in sensitive cells, but other cells are relatively insensitive to the drug. Sensitive cell lines (IC(50) 0.36-13.8 nM) include HeLa, P815, RAW 264.7, MDCK, HeLa S3, 143B, 4T1, B16, and CD4/CD8 T cells. Insensitive cell lines (IC(50) 12.2-26.5 μM) include HL-60, LN18, and Jurkat. Thus, there is a 34,000-fold difference in sensitivity between HeLa and HL-60 cells. Some sensitive cell lines show a biphasic response, suggesting more than one mechanism of action. Mitochondrial genome-knockout ρ(0) cell lines are insensitive to mycothiazole, supporting a conditional mitochondrial site of action. Mycothiazole is cytostatic rather than cytotoxic in sensitive cells, has a long lag period of about 12 h, and unlike the complex I inhibitor, rotenone, does not cause G(2)/M cell cycle arrest. Mycothiazole decreases, rather than increases the levels of reactive oxygen species after 24 h. It is concluded that the cytostatic inhibitory effects of mycothiazole on mitochondrial electron transport function in sensitive cell lines may depend on a pre-activation step that is absent in insensitive cell lines with intact mitochondria, and that a second lower-affinity cytotoxic target may also be involved in the metabolic and growth inhibition of cells.

  17. Effect of periglandular ionic composition and transport inhibitors on rhesus monkey eccrine sweat gland function in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, F; Sato, K

    1987-01-01

    1. The effects of peritubular ions and transport inhibitors were studied on methacholine (MCH)-induced sweat secretion by the isolated, cannulated monkey palm sweat glands in vitro and on the transepithelial and basolateral membrane potential (p.d.). 2. Sweat secretory rate was a curvilinear function of peritubular Na+ and Cl- concentration. Among the anion substitutes only Br- was able to totally substitute for Cl-. Presence of HCO3- or H2PO4- in the bath was not essential. 3. Both bumetanide and furosemide inhibited sweat secretion in a dose-dependent manner with the median effective concentration (EC50) of 3 X 10(-6) and 3 X 10(-5) M, respectively. 4. Bumetanide (10(-4) M) had no significant effect on basolateral membrane p.d. but nearly abolished the transepithelial p.d. 5. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, 3 X 10(-4) M) inhibited sweat secretion by only 35%. Inhibitors of ion exchangers amiloride (10(-4) M) and DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid, 10(-4) M) lowered sweat secretion by less than 20%. 6. Removal of peritubular K+ as well as addition of 5 mM-Ba2+ also inhibited sweat rate. 5 mM-Ba2+ abolished the transepithelial p.d. and depolarized the basolateral p.d. by 26 mV, although the effects of Ba2+ on sweating and the transepithelial p.d. were only transient. 7. The data raise a possibility that either the NaCl or Na+-K+-2Cl- co-transport system or both may be involved in MCH-induced sweat secretion, whereas the role of parallel ion exchangers, if any, may be rather minor. PMID:2451736

  18. Mitochondrial Genome-Knockout Cells Demonstrate a Dual Mechanism of Action for the Electron Transport Complex I Inhibitor Mycothiazole

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Kirsten J.; Singh, A. Jonathan; Cameron, Alanna; Tan, An S.; Leahy, Dora C.; O’Sullivan, David; Joshi, Praneta; La Flamme, Anne C.; Northcote, Peter T.; Berridge, Michael V.; Miller, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Mycothiazole, a polyketide metabolite isolated from the marine sponge Cacospongia mycofijiensis, is a potent inhibitor of metabolic activity and mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I in sensitive cells, but other cells are relatively insensitive to the drug. Sensitive cell lines (IC50 0.36–13.8 nM) include HeLa, P815, RAW 264.7, MDCK, HeLa S3, 143B, 4T1, B16, and CD4/CD8 T cells. Insensitive cell lines (IC50 12.2–26.5 μM) include HL-60, LN18, and Jurkat. Thus, there is a 34,000-fold difference in sensitivity between HeLa and HL-60 cells. Some sensitive cell lines show a biphasic response, suggesting more than one mechanism of action. Mitochondrial genome-knockout ρ0 cell lines are insensitive to mycothiazole, supporting a conditional mitochondrial site of action. Mycothiazole is cytostatic rather than cytotoxic in sensitive cells, has a long lag period of about 12 h, and unlike the complex I inhibitor, rotenone, does not cause G2/M cell cycle arrest. Mycothiazole decreases, rather than increases the levels of reactive oxygen species after 24 h. It is concluded that the cytostatic inhibitory effects of mycothiazole on mitochondrial electron transport function in sensitive cell lines may depend on a pre-activation step that is absent in insensitive cell lines with intact mitochondria, and that a second lower-affinity cytotoxic target may also be involved in the metabolic and growth inhibition of cells. PMID:22690150

  19. Effect of periglandular ionic composition and transport inhibitors on rhesus monkey eccrine sweat gland function in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sato, F; Sato, K

    1987-12-01

    1. The effects of peritubular ions and transport inhibitors were studied on methacholine (MCH)-induced sweat secretion by the isolated, cannulated monkey palm sweat glands in vitro and on the transepithelial and basolateral membrane potential (p.d.). 2. Sweat secretory rate was a curvilinear function of peritubular Na+ and Cl- concentration. Among the anion substitutes only Br- was able to totally substitute for Cl-. Presence of HCO3- or H2PO4- in the bath was not essential. 3. Both bumetanide and furosemide inhibited sweat secretion in a dose-dependent manner with the median effective concentration (EC50) of 3 X 10(-6) and 3 X 10(-5) M, respectively. 4. Bumetanide (10(-4) M) had no significant effect on basolateral membrane p.d. but nearly abolished the transepithelial p.d. 5. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, 3 X 10(-4) M) inhibited sweat secretion by only 35%. Inhibitors of ion exchangers amiloride (10(-4) M) and DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid, 10(-4) M) lowered sweat secretion by less than 20%. 6. Removal of peritubular K+ as well as addition of 5 mM-Ba2+ also inhibited sweat rate. 5 mM-Ba2+ abolished the transepithelial p.d. and depolarized the basolateral p.d. by 26 mV, although the effects of Ba2+ on sweating and the transepithelial p.d. were only transient. 7. The data raise a possibility that either the NaCl or Na+-K+-2Cl- co-transport system or both may be involved in MCH-induced sweat secretion, whereas the role of parallel ion exchangers, if any, may be rather minor.

  20. Dapoxetine, a novel selective serotonin transport inhibitor for the treatment of premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Kendirci, Muammer; Salem, Emad; Hellstrom, Wayne JG

    2007-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common male sexual disorder, estimated to affect up to 30% of men. Over the past one or two decades, clinical investigators have participated in an increasing number of studies that are helping in our understanding of PE, which will undoubtedly facilitate future treatments. Apart from a number of behavioral approaches, the treatment of PE consists of primarily off-label use of oral selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) via either on-demand or daily delivery. However, various undesirable side-effects of these medications have led researchers to search for and develop new therapeutic approaches for PE. Dapoxetine is a short-acting SSRI developed specifically for the treatment of PE. Early trials with dapoxetine have documented successful outcomes without serious short- or long-term side-effects. This review addresses the definition, classification, diagnosis, physiology, and neurobiopathology of PE, and evaluates therapeutic strategies with novel treatments for PE. PMID:18360636

  1. Dapoxetine, a novel selective serotonin transport inhibitor for the treatment of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Kendirci, Muammer; Salem, Emad; Hellstrom, Wayne Jg

    2007-06-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common male sexual disorder, estimated to affect up to 30% of men. Over the past one or two decades, clinical investigators have participated in an increasing number of studies that are helping in our understanding of PE, which will undoubtedly facilitate future treatments. Apart from a number of behavioral approaches, the treatment of PE consists of primarily off-label use of oral selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) via either on-demand or daily delivery. However, various undesirable side-effects of these medications have led researchers to search for and develop new therapeutic approaches for PE. Dapoxetine is a short-acting SSRI developed specifically for the treatment of PE. Early trials with dapoxetine have documented successful outcomes without serious short- or long-term side-effects. This review addresses the definition, classification, diagnosis, physiology, and neurobiopathology of PE, and evaluates therapeutic strategies with novel treatments for PE.

  2. Chronic treatment with krill powder reduces plasma triglyceride and anandamide levels in mildly obese men.

    PubMed

    Berge, Kjetil; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Hoem, Nils; Silvestri, Cristoforo; Meyer, Ingo; Banni, Sebastiano; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-05-27

    We have previously shown that treatment of Zucker rats and mice with diet-induced obesity with dietary docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids in the form of krill oil reduces peripheral levels of endocannabinoids, ectopic fat formation and hyperglycemia. We reported that such treatment reduces plasma endocannabinoid levels also in overweight and obese human individuals, in whom high triglycerides may correlate with high circulating endocannabinoid levels. In this study, we report the effects of krill powder, which contains proteins (34%) in addition to krill oil (61.8%), on these two parameters. We submitted 11 obese men (average BMI of 32.3 kg/m², age of 42.6 years and plasma triglycerides of 192.5 ± 96.3 mg/dl) to a 24 week dietary supplementation with krill powder (4 g/day per os) and measured anthropometric and metabolic parameters, as well as blood endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and esterified DHA and EPA levels. Six subjects were included as control subjects and not given any supplements. The treatment produced, after 12 and 24 weeks, a significant increase in DHA and EPA in total plasma, a 59 and 84% decrease in anandamide plasma levels, and a 22.5 and 20.6% decrease in triglyceride levels, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in waist/hip ratio and visceral fat/skeletal muscle mass ratio at 24 weeks, but no change in body weight. These data confirm that dietary krill powder reduces peripheral endocannabinoid overactivity in obese subjects, and might ameliorate some parameters of the metabolic syndrome.

  3. Anandamide Levels Fluctuate in the Bovine Oviduct during the Oestrous Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Gervasi, Maria Gracia; Marczylo, Timothy H.; Lam, Patricia M.; Rana, Shashi; Franchi, Ana M.; Konje, Justin C.; Perez-Martinez, Silvina

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian oviduct acts as a reservoir for spermatozoa and provides an environment in which they may compete for the opportunity to fertilize the oocyte. Whilst in the oviduct spermatozoa undergo capacitation essential for fertilization. Sperm-oviduct interaction is essential for sperm capacitation and is a tightly regulated process influenced by the local microenvironment. Previously we reported that the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) regulates sperm release from epithelial oviductal cells by promoting sperm capacitation. The aims of this work were to measure the AEA content and to characterize the main AEA metabolic pathway in the bovine oviduct and determine how these change through the oestrous cycle. In this study, the levels of AEA and two other N-acylethanolamines, N-oleoylethanolamine and N-palmitoylethanolamine, were measured in bovine oviduct collected during different stages of oestrous cycle by ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results indicated that intracellular oviductal epithelial levels of all three N-acylethanolamines fluctuate during oestrous cycle. Anandamide from oviductal fluid also varied during oestrous cycle, with the highest values detected during the periovulatory period. Endocannabinoid levels from ipsilateral oviduct to ovulation were higher than those detected in the contralateral one, suggesting that levels of oviductal AEA may be regulated by ovarian hormones. The expression and localization of N-acylethanolamines metabolizing enzymes in bovine oviduct were also determined by RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry but no change was found during the oestrous cycle. Furthermore, nanomolar levels of AEA were detected in follicular fluids, suggesting that during ovulation the mature follicle may contribute to oviductal AEA levels to create an endocannabinoid gradient conducive to the regulation of sperm function for successful fertilization. PMID:23977311

  4. N[3-(4′-fluorophenyl)-3-(4′-phenylphenoxy)propyl]sarcosine (NFPS) is a selective persistent inhibitor of glycine transport

    PubMed Central

    Aubrey, Karin R; Vandenberg, Robert J

    2001-01-01

    The regulation of glycine concentrations within excitatory synapses is poorly understood and it has been proposed that the GLYT1 subtypes of glycine transporters play a critical role in determining resting concentrations of glycine. Selective GLYT1 inhibitors may provide pharmacological tools to probe the dynamics of synaptic glycine concentrations, which may influence the activation properties of NMDA receptor activity.We have characterized the selectivity and mechanism of action of the glycine transport inhibitor N[3-(4′-fluorophenyl)-3-(4′-phenylphenoxy)propyl]sarcosine (NFPS). The glycine transporters, GLYT1a, b and c and GLYT2a were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and two electrode voltage clamp techniques and radiolabelled 3H-glycine flux measurements were used to characterize the effects of NFPS on glycine transport.NFPS inhibits glycine transport by the GLYT1a, b and c subtypes of glycine transporters, but has no effect on the GLYT2a subtype of transporter. We show that NFPS does not attain its specificity via an interaction with the Na+, Cl− or glycine site, nor does it act at an intracellular site. NFPS inhibition of glycine transport is time and concentration dependent and inhibition of transport by NFPS persists after washout of NFPS from the bath solution, which suggests that inhibition by NFPS is long lasting. PMID:11724748

  5. The Effect of Anandamide on Uterine Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity Depends on the Presence of the Blastocyst

    PubMed Central

    Sordelli, Micaela S.; Beltrame, Jimena S.; Burdet, Juliana; Zotta, Elsa; Pardo, Romina; Cella, Maximiliano; Franchi, Ana M.; Ribeiro, Maria Laura

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide production, catalyzed by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), should be strictly regulated to allow embryo implantation. Thus, our first aim was to study NOS activity during peri-implantation in the rat uterus. Day 6 inter-implantation sites showed lower NOS activity (0.19±0.01 pmoles L-citrulline mg prot−1 h−1) compared to days 4 (0.34±0.03) and 5 (0.35±0.02) of pregnancy and to day 6 implantation sites (0.33±0.01). This regulation was not observed in pseudopregnancy. Both dormant and active blastocysts maintained NOS activity at similar levels. Anandamide (AEA), an endocannabinoid, binds to cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) and type 2 (CB2), and high concentrations are toxic for implantation and embryo development. Previously, we observed that AEA synthesis presents an inverted pattern compared to NOS activity described here. We adopted a pharmacological approach using AEA, URB-597 (a selective inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase, the enzyme that degrades AEA) and receptor selective antagonists to investigate the effect of AEA on uterine NOS activity in vitro in rat models of implantation. While AEA (0.70±0.02 vs 0.40±0.04) and URB-597 (1.08±0.09 vs 0.83±0.06) inhibited NOS activity in the absence of a blastocyst (pseudopregnancy) through CB2 receptors, AEA did not modulate NOS on day 5 pregnant uterus. Once implantation begins, URB-597 decreased NOS activity on day 6 implantation sites via CB1 receptors (0.25±0.04 vs 0.40±0.05). While a CB1 antagonist augmented NOS activity on day 6 inter-implantation sites (0.17±0.02 vs 0.27±0.02), a CB2 antagonist decreased it (0.17±0.02 vs 0.12±0.01). Finally, we described the expression and localization of cannabinoid receptors during implantation. In conclusion, AEA levels close to and at implantation sites seems to modulate NOS activity and thus nitric oxide production, fundamental for implantation, via cannabinoid receptors. This modulation depends on the presence of the blastocyst. These data

  6. Glycine Transporter Type 2 (GlyT2) Inhibitor Ameliorates Bladder Overactivity and Nociceptive Behavior in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Satoru; Oguchi, Tomohiko; Funahashi, Yasuhito; de Groat, William C.; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Background Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord, the concentration of which is regulated by two types of glycine transporters (GlyTs): GlyT1 and GlyT2. We hypothesized that the inhibition of GlyTs could ameliorate bladder overactivity and/or pain sensation in the lower urinary tract. Objective Investigate the effects of GlyT inhibitors on bladder overactivity and pain behavior in rats. Design, setting, and participants Cystometry was performed under urethane anesthesia in cyclophosphamide (CYP)–treated rats. In behavioral studies using conscious rats, nociceptive responses were induced by intravesical administration of resiniferatoxin (3 µM). Selective GlyT1 or GlyT2 inhibitors were administered intrathecally to evaluate their effects. Measurements Cystometric parameters, nociceptive behaviors (licking and freezing), and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of GlyTs and glycine receptor (GlyR) subunits in the dorsal spinal cord (L6–S1) were measured. Results and limitations During cystometry in CYP-treated rats, significant increases in intercontraction interval and micturition pressure threshold were elicited by ALX-1393, a selective GlyT2 inhibitor, but not by sarcosine, a GlyT1 inhibitor. These effects were completely reversed by strychnine, a GlyR antagonist. ALX-1393 also significantly suppressed nociceptive behaviors in a dose-dependent manner. In sham rats, GlyT2 mRNA was expressed at a much higher level (23-fold) in the dorsal spinal cord than GlyT1 mRNA. In CYP-treated rats, mRNA levels of GlyT2 and the GlyR α1 and β subunits were significantly reduced. Conclusions These results indicate that GlyT2 plays a major role in the clearance of extracellular glycine in the spinal cord and that GlyT2 inhibition leads to amelioration of CYP-induced bladder overactivity and pain behavior. GlyT2 may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of overactive bladder and/or bladder hypersensitive disorders such as bladder pain syndrome

  7. Opposite effects of anandamide and N-arachidonoyl dopamine in the regulation of prostaglandin E and 8-iso-PGF formation in primary glial cells.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Carmen M; Fiebich, Bernd L; de Vinuesa, Amaya García; Hess, Sandra; de Oliveira, Antonio C P; Candelario-Jalil, Eduardo; Caballero, Francisco J; Calzado, Marco A; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2009-04-01

    It is widely accepted that neuroinflammation is a key player in various pathological events associated with brain injury. More specifically, glial activation and the subsequent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and prostaglandins play a role of paramount importance in cerebral damage. In this study, we examined the role of two endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and N-arachidonoyldopamine (NADA) in the regulation of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) synthesis in primary glial cells. We show that NADA is a potent inhibitor of PGE(2) synthesis in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated cells, without modifying the expression or enzymatic activity of COX-2 and the production of prostaglandin D(2). We also show that NADA has the ability to prevent the free radical formation in primary microglial cells. The key findings of this investigation are our observation that AEA and NADA have opposite effects on glial cells and, most importantly, the first description of NADA as a potential antioxidative and anti-inflammatory agent acting through a mechanism that involves reduction in the synthesis of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase in LPS-activated microglia. These findings provide new mechanistic insights into the anti-inflammatory activities of NADA in the CNS and its potential to design novel therapeutic strategies to manage neuroinflammatory diseases.

  8. Microwave accelerated synthesis of isoxazole hydrazide inhibitors of the system xc− transporter: Initial homology model

    PubMed Central

    Matti, Afnan A.; Mirzaei, Joseph; Rudolph, John; Smith, Stephen A.; Newell, Jayme L.; Patel, Sarjubhai A.; Braden, Michael R.; Bridges, Richard J.; Natale, Nicholas R.

    2013-01-01

    Microwave accelerated reaction system (MARS) technology provided a good method to obtain selective and open isoxazole ligands that bind to and inhibit the Sxc− antiporter. The MARS provided numerous advantages, including: shorter time, better yield and higher purity of the product. Of the newly synthesized series of isoxazoles the salicyl hydrazide 6 exhibited the highest level of inhibitory activity in the transport assay. A homology model has been developed to summarize the SAR results to date, and provide a working hypothesis for future studies. PMID:24042010

  9. Microwave accelerated synthesis of isoxazole hydrazide inhibitors of the system xc- transporter: Initial homology model.

    PubMed

    Matti, Afnan A; Mirzaei, Joseph; Rudolph, John; Smith, Stephen A; Newell, Jayme L; Patel, Sarjubhai A; Braden, Michael R; Bridges, Richard J; Natale, Nicholas R

    2013-11-01

    Microwave accelerated reaction system (MARS) technology provided a good method to obtain selective and open isoxazole ligands that bind to and inhibit the Sxc- antiporter. The MARS provided numerous advantages, including: shorter time, better yield and higher purity of the product. Of the newly synthesized series of isoxazoles the salicyl hydrazide 6 exhibited the highest level of inhibitory activity in the transport assay. A homology model has been developed to summarize the SAR results to date, and provide a working hypothesis for future studies.

  10. Effects of natural nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitors on anticancer drug efflux transporter human P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Nabekura, Tomohiro; Hiroi, Takashi; Kawasaki, Tatsuya; Uwai, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    Drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein plays an important role in cancer chemotherapy. The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription factors play critical roles in development and progression of cancer. In this study, the effects of natural compounds that can inhibit NF-κB activation on the function of P-glycoprotein were investigated using human MDR1 gene-transfected KB/MDR1 cells. The accumulation of daunorubicin or rhodamine 123, fluorescent substrates of P-glycoprotein, in KB/MDR1 cells increased in the presence of caffeic acid phenetyl ester (CAPE), licochalcone A, anacardic acid, celastrol, xanthohumol, magnolol, and honokiol in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, lupeol, zerumbone, thymoquinone, emodin, and anethol had no effects. The ATPase activities of P-glycoprotein were stimulated by CAPE, licochalcone A, anacardic acid, celastrol, xanthohumol, magnolol, and honokiol. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α stimulated NF-κB activation was inhibited by CAPE, licochalcone A, anacardic acid, and xanthohumol. KB/MDR1 cells were sensitized to vinblastine cytotoxicity by CAPE, licochalcone A, anacardic acid, xanthohumol, magnolol, and honokiol, showing that these natural NF-κB inhibitors reverse multidrug resistance. These results suggest that natural compounds, such as CAPE, licochalcone A, and anacardic acid, have dual inhibitory effects on the anticancer drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein and NF-κB activation, and may become useful to enhance the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy.

  11. Anandamide inhibits Theiler's virus induced VCAM-1 in brain endothelial cells and reduces leukocyte transmigration in a model of blood brain barrier by activation of CB1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background VCAM-1 represents one of the most important adhesion molecule involved in the transmigration of blood leukocytes across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that is an essential step in the pathogenesis of MS. Several evidences have suggested the potential therapeutic value of cannabinoids (CBs) in the treatment of MS and their experimental models. However, the effects of endocannabinoids on VCAM-1 regulation are poorly understood. In the present study we investigated the effects of anandamide (AEA) in the regulation of VCAM-1 expression induced by Theiler's virus (TMEV) infection of brain endothelial cells using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Methods i) in vitro: VCAM-1 was measured by ELISA in supernatants of brain endothelial cells infected with TMEV and subjected to AEA and/or cannabinoid receptors antagonist treatment. To evaluate the functional effect of VCAM-1 modulation we developed a blood brain barrier model based on a system of astrocytes and brain endothelial cells co-culture. ii) in vivo: CB1 receptor deficient mice (Cnr1-/-) infected with TMEV were treated with the AEA uptake inhibitor UCM-707 for three days. VCAM-1 expression and microglial reactivity were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results Anandamide-induced inhibition of VCAM-1 expression in brain endothelial cell cultures was mediated by activation of CB1 receptors. The study of leukocyte transmigration confirmed the functional relevance of VCAM-1 inhibition by AEA. In vivo approaches also showed that the inhibition of AEA uptake reduced the expression of brain VCAM-1 in response to TMEV infection. Although a decreased expression of VCAM-1 by UCM-707 was observed in both, wild type and CB1 receptor deficient mice (Cnr1-/-), the magnitude of VCAM-1 inhibition was significantly higher in the wild type mice. Interestingly, Cnr1-/- mice showed enhanced microglial reactivity and VCAM-1 expression following TMEV infection, indicating that the lack of CB1 receptor exacerbated

  12. Single-molecule interrogation of a bacterial sugar transporter allows the discovery of an extracellular inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lingbing; Harrington, Leon; Li, Qiuhong; Cheley, Stephen; Davis, Benjamin G.; Bayley, Hagan

    2013-08-01

    Capsular polysaccharides form the outermost protective layer around many Gram-negative bacteria. Antibiotics aimed directly at weakening this layer are not yet available. In pathogenic Escherichia coli E69, a protein, Wza, forms a pore in the outer membrane that transports K30 capsular polysaccharide from its site of synthesis to the outside of the cell. This therefore represents a prospective antibiotic target. Here we test a variety of grommet-like mimics of K30 capsular polysaccharide on wild-type Wza and on mutant open forms of the pore by electrical recording in planar lipid bilayers. The most effective glycomimetic was the unnatural cyclic octasaccharide octakis(6-deoxy-6-amino)cyclomaltooctaose (am8γCD), which blocks the α-helix barrel of Wza, a site that is directly accessible from the external medium. This glycomimetic inhibited K30 polysaccharide transport in live E. coli E69. With the protective outer membrane disrupted, the bacteria can be recognized and killed by the human immune system.

  13. The discovery of novel auxin transport inhibitors by molecular modeling and three-dimensional pattern analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bures, Mark G.; Black-Schaefer, Candace; Gardner, Gary

    1991-08-01

    Molecular modeling techniques and three-dimensional (3D) pattern analysis have been used to investigate the chemical and steric properties of compounds that inhibit transport of the plant hormone auxin. These compounds bind to a specific site on the plant plasma membrane characterized by its affinity for the herbicide N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). A 3D model was derived from critical features of a set of ligands for the NPA receptor, a suggested binding conformation is proposed, and implications for the topographical features of the NPA receptor are discussed. This model, along with 3D structural analysis techniques, was then used to search the Abbott corporate database of chemical structures. Of the 467 compounds that satisfied the criteria of the model, 77 representative molecules were evaluated for their ability to compete for the binding of [3H]NPA to corn microsomal membranes. Nineteen showed activity that ranged from 16 to 85% of the maximum NPA binding. Four of the most active of these, representing chemical classes not included in the original compound set, were also found to inhibit polar auxin transport through corn coleoptile sections. Thus, this study demonstrates that 3D analysis techniques can identify active, novel ligands for biochemical target sites with concomitant physiological activity.

  14. Bicarbonate transport inhibitor SITS modulates pH homeostasis triggering apoptosis of Dalton's lymphoma: implication of novel molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kant, Shiva; Kumar, Ajay; Singh, Sukh Mahendra

    2014-12-01

    Bicarbonate transporter (BCT) plays a crucial role in maintaining pH homeostasis of tumor cells by import of HCO3(-). This helps the tumor cells in manifesting extracellular tumor acidosis, accompanied by a relative intracellular alkalinization, which in turn promotes tumor progression. Therefore, blocking BCT-mediated HCO3(-) transport is envisaged as a promising anticancer therapeutic approach. Thus, using a murine model of a T cell lymphoma, designated as Dalton's lymphoma (DL), in the present in vitro investigation the antitumor consequences of blocking BCT function by its inhibitor 4-acetamido-4-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2-disulfonate (SITS) were explored. Treatment of DL cells with SITS resulted in an increase in the extracellular pH, associated with a decline in DL cell survival and augmented induction of apoptosis. BCT inhibition also elevated the expression of cytochrome c, caspase-9, caspase-3, Bax, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide along with inhibition of HSP-70 and Bcl2, which regulate tumor cell survival and apoptosis. SITS-treated DL cells displayed upregulated production of IFN-γ and IL-6 along with a decline of IL-10. Treatment of DL cells with SITS also inhibited the expression of fatty acid synthase, which is crucial for membrane biogenesis in neoplastic cells. The expression of lactate transporter MCT-1 and multidrug resistance regulating protein MRP-1 got inhibited along with hampered uptake of glucose and lactate production in SITS-treated DL cells. Thus, the declined tumor cell survival following inhibition of BCT could be the consequence of interplay of several inter-connected regulatory molecular events. The outcome of this study indicates the potential of BCT inhibition as a novel therapeutic approach for treatment of hematological malignancies.

  15. Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 inhibitor diminishes hepcidin-enhanced duodenal calcium transport in hemizygous β-globin knockout thalassemic mice.

    PubMed

    Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Kraidith, Kamonshanok; Lertsuwan, Kornkamon; Sripong, Chanakarn; Suntornsaratoon, Panan; Svasti, Saovaros; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Wongdee, Kannikar

    2017-03-01

    Recent investigation has shown that the liver-derived iron-regulating hormone, hepcidin, can potentiate intestinal calcium absorption in hemizygous β-globin knockout thalassemic (BKO) mice. Since the upregulation of Fe(2+) and H(+) cotransporter, divalent metal transporter (DMT)-1, has been shown to correlate with thalassemia-induced intestinal calcium absorption impairment, the inhibition of the apical Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE)-3 that is essential for cytoplasmic pH regulation and transepithelial sodium absorption was hypothesized to negatively affect hepcidin action. Herein, the positive effect of hepcidin on the duodenal calcium transport was evaluated using Ussing chamber technique. The results showed that BKO mice had lower absorptive surface area and duodenal calcium transport than wild-type mice. Besides, paracellular transport of zinc in BKO mice was compromised. Hepcidin administration completely restored calcium transport. Since this hepcidin action was totally abolished by inhibitors of the basolateral calcium transporters, Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX1) and plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA1b), the enhanced calcium flux potentially occurred through the transcellular pathway rather than paracellular pathway. Interestingly, the selective NHE3 inhibitor, 100 nM tenapanor, markedly inhibited hepcidin-enhanced calcium transport. Accordingly, hepcidin is one of the promising therapeutic agents for calcium malabsorption in β-thalassemia. It mainly stimulates the transcellular calcium transport across the duodenal epithelium in an NHE3-dependent manner.

  16. The dynein inhibitor Ciliobrevin D inhibits the bidirectional transport of organelles along sensory axons and impairs NGF-mediated regulation of growth cones and axon branches.

    PubMed

    Sainath, Rajiv; Gallo, Gianluca

    2015-07-01

    The axonal transport of organelles is critical for the development, maintenance, and survival of neurons, and its dysfunction has been implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases. Retrograde axon transport is mediated by the motor protein dynein. In this study, using embryonic chicken dorsal root ganglion neurons, we investigate the effects of Ciliobrevin D, a pharmacological dynein inhibitor, on the transport of axonal organelles, axon extension, nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced branching and growth cone expansion, and axon thinning in response to actin filament depolymerization. Live imaging of mitochondria, lysosomes, and Golgi-derived vesicles in axons revealed that both the retrograde and anterograde transport of these organelles was inhibited by treatment with Ciliobrevin D. Treatment with Ciliobrevin D reversibly inhibits axon extension and transport, with effects detectable within the first 20 min of treatment. NGF induces growth cone expansion, axonal filopodia formation and branching. Ciliobrevin D prevented NGF-induced formation of axonal filopodia and branching but not growth cone expansion. Finally, we report that the retrograde reorganization of the axonal cytoplasm which occurs on actin filament depolymerization is inhibited by treatment with Ciliobrevin D, indicating a role for microtubule based transport in this process, as well as Ciliobrevin D accelerating Wallerian degeneration. This study identifies Ciliobrevin D as an inhibitor of the bidirectional transport of multiple axonal organelles, indicating this drug may be a valuable tool for both the study of dynein function and a first pass analysis of the role of axonal transport.

  17. Breeding of a low pyruvate-producing sake yeast by isolation of a mutant resistant to ethyl alpha-transcyanocinnamate, an inhibitor of mitochondrial pyruvate transport.

    PubMed

    Horie, Kenta; Oba, Takahiro; Motomura, Saori; Isogai, Atsuko; Yoshimura, Takashi; Tsuge, Keisuke; Koganemaru, Kazuyoshi; Kobayashi, Genta; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Pyruvate is the key substance controlling the formation of diacetyl, acetaldehyde, and acetate during alcoholic fermentation. Here we report the breeding of a low pyruvate-producing sake yeast by isolation of a mutant resistant to ethyl alpha-transcyanocinnamate, an inhibitor of mitochondrial pyruvate transport. Mitochondrial function was involved in resistance to this substance and in the production of pyruvate by the mutants.

  18. Rapid chemoenzymatic route to glutamate transporter inhibitor l-TFB-TBOA and related amino acids.

    PubMed

    Fu, Haigen; Younes, Sabry H H; Saifuddin, Mohammad; Tepper, Pieter G; Zhang, Jielin; Keller, Erik; Heeres, André; Szymanski, Wiktor; Poelarends, Gerrit J

    2017-03-21

    The complex amino acid (l-threo)-3-[3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoylamino]benzyloxy]aspartate (l-TFB-TBOA) and its derivatives are privileged compounds for studying the roles of excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) in regulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission, animal behavior, and in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. The wide-spread use of l-TFB-TBOA stems from its high potency of EAAT inhibition and the lack of off-target binding to glutamate receptors. However, one of the main challenges in the evaluation of l-TFB-TBOA and its derivatives is the laborious synthesis of these compounds in stereoisomerically pure form. Here, we report an efficient and step-economic chemoenzymatic route that gives access to enantio- and diastereopure l-TFB-TBOA and its derivatives at multigram scale.

  19. Quercetin, Morin, Luteolin, and Phloretin Are Dietary Flavonoid Inhibitors of Monocarboxylate Transporter 6.

    PubMed

    Jones, Robert S; Parker, Mark D; Morris, Marilyn E

    2017-09-05

    Monocarboxylate transporter 6 (MCT6; SLC16A5) has been recognized for its role as a xenobiotic transporter, with characterized substrates probenecid, bumetanide, and nateglinide. To date, the impact of commonly ingested dietary compounds on MCT6 function has not been investigated, and therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate a variety of flavonoids for their potential MCT6-specific interactions. Flavonoids are a large group of polyphenolic phytochemicals found in commonly consumed plant-based products that have been recognized for their dietary health benefits. The uptake of bumetanide in human MCT6 gene-transfected Xenopus laevis oocytes was significantly decreased in the presence of a variety of flavonoids (e.g., quercetin, luteolin, phloretin, and morin), but was not significantly affected by flavonoid glycosides (e.g., naringin, rutin, phlorizin). The IC50 values of quercetin, phloretin, and morin were determined to be 25.3 ± 3.36, 17.3 ± 2.37, and 33.1 ± 3.29 μM, respectively. The mechanism of inhibition of phloretin was reversible and competitive, with a Ki value of 22.8 μM. Furthermore, typical MCT substrates were also investigated for their potential interactions with MCT6. Substrates of MCTs 1, 2, 4, 8, and 10 did not cause any significant decrease in MCT6-mediated bumetanide uptake, suggesting that MCT6 has distinct compound selectivity. In summary, these results suggest that dietary aglycon flavonoids may significantly alter the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of bumetanide and other MCT6-specific substrates, and may represent potential substrates for MCT6.

  20. Effects of Transport Inhibitors on the Cellular Uptake of Carboxylated Polystyrene Nanoparticles in Different Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Tiago; Varela, Juan; Lynch, Iseult; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is expected to play a vital role in the rapidly developing field of nanomedicine, creating innovative solutions and therapies for currently untreatable diseases, and providing new tools for various biomedical applications, such as drug delivery and gene therapy. In order to optimize the efficacy of nanoparticle (NP) delivery to cells, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms by which NPs are internalized by cells, as this will likely determine their ultimate sub-cellular fate and localisation. Here we have used pharmacological inhibitors of some of the major endocytic pathways to investigate nanoparticle uptake mechanisms in a range of representative human cell lines, including HeLa (cervical cancer), A549 (lung carcinoma) and 1321N1 (brain astrocytoma). Chlorpromazine and genistein were used to inhibit clathrin and caveolin mediated endocytosis, respectively. Cytochalasin A and nocodazole were used to inhibit, respectively, the polymerisation of actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. Uptake experiments were performed systematically across the different cell lines, using carboxylated polystyrene NPs of 40 nm and 200 nm diameters, as model NPs of sizes comparable to typical endocytic cargoes. The results clearly indicated that, in all cases and cell types, NPs entered cells via active energy dependent processes. NP uptake in HeLa and 1321N1 cells was strongly affected by actin depolymerisation, while A549 cells showed a stronger inhibition of NP uptake (in comparison to the other cell types) after microtubule disruption and treatment with genistein. A strong reduction of NP uptake was observed after chlorpromazine treatment only in the case of 1321N1 cells. These outcomes suggested that the same NP might exploit different uptake mechanisms to enter different cell types. PMID:21949717

  1. Enhanced dopamine release by dopamine transport inhibitors described by a restricted diffusion model and fast scan cyclic voltammetry

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Alexander F.; Spivak, Charles E.; Lupica, Carl R.

    2016-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) using carbon fiber electrodes is widely used to rapidly monitor changes in dopamine (DA) levels in vitro and in vivo. Current analytical approaches utilize parameters such as peak oxidation current amplitude and decay times to estimate release and uptake processes, respectively. However, peak amplitude changes are often observed with uptake inhibitors, thereby confounding the interpretation of these parameters. To overcome this limitation, we demonstrate that a simple, 5 parameter, two compartment model mathematically describes DA signals as a balance of release (r/ke) and uptake (ku), summed with adsorption (kads and kdes) of DA to the carbon electrode surface. Using non-linear regression, we demonstrate that our model precisely describes measured DA signals obtained in brain slice recordings. The parameters extracted from these curves were then validated using pharmacological manipulations that selectively alter vesicular release or DA transporter (DAT)-mediated uptake. Manipulation of DA release through altered Ca2+/Mg2+ ratio or tetrodotoxin (TTX), reduced the release parameter with no effect on the uptake parameter. The DAT inhibitors methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), cocaine, and nomifensine significantly reduced uptake and increased vesicular DA release. In contrast, a low concentration of amphetamine reduced uptake but had no effect on DA release. Finally, the kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) agonist U50,488 significantly reduced vesicular DA release but had no effect on uptake. Together, these data demonstrate a novel analytical approach to distinguish the effects of manipulations on DA release or uptake that can be used to interpret FSCV data. PMID:27018734

  2. A nanomedicine transports a peptide caspase-3 inhibitor across the blood-brain barrier and provides neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Karatas, Hulya; Aktas, Yesim; Gursoy-Ozdemir, Yasemin; Bodur, Ebru; Yemisci, Muge; Caban, Secil; Vural, Atay; Pinarbasli, Onur; Capan, Yilmaz; Fernandez-Megia, Eduardo; Novoa-Carballal, Ramon; Riguera, Ricardo; Andrieux, Karine; Couvreur, Patrick; Dalkara, Turgay

    2009-11-04

    Caspases play an important role as mediators of cell death in acute and chronic neurological disorders. Although peptide inhibitors of caspases provide neuroprotection, they have to be administered intracerebroventricularly because they cannot cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Herein, we present a nanocarrier system that can transfer chitosan nanospheres loaded with N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Asp(OMe)-Glu(OMe)-Val-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethyl ketone (Z-DEVD-FMK), a relatively specific caspase-3 inhibitor, across BBB. Caspase-3 was chosen as a pharmacological target because of its central role in cell death. Polyethylene glycol-coated nanospheres were conjugated to an anti-mouse transferrin receptor monoclonal antibody (TfRMAb) that selectively recognizes the TfR type 1 on the cerebral vasculature. We demonstrate with intravital microscopy that this nanomedicine is rapidly transported across the BBB without being measurably taken up by liver and spleen. Pre- or post-treatment (2 h) with intravenously injected Z-DEVD-FMK-loaded nanospheres dose dependently decreased the infarct volume, neurological deficit, and ischemia-induced caspase-3 activity in mice subjected to 2 h of MCA occlusion and 24 h of reperfusion, suggesting that they released an amount of peptide sufficient to inhibit caspase activity. Similarly, nanospheres inhibited physiological caspase-3 activity during development in the neonatal mouse cerebellum on postnatal day 17 after closure of the BBB. Neither nanospheres functionalized with TfRMAb but not loaded with Z-DEVD-FMK nor nanospheres lacking TfRMAb but loaded with Z-DEVD-FMK had any effect on either paradigm, suggesting that inhibition of caspase activity and subsequent neuroprotection were due to efficient penetration of the peptide into brain. Thus, chitosan nanospheres open new and exciting opportunities for brain delivery of biologically active peptides that are useful for the treatment of CNS disorders.

  3. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Inhibitors Serve as Substrates for Multidrug Transporter Proteins MDR1 and MRP1 but Retain Antiviral Efficacy in Cell Lines Expressing These Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, Ranga V.; Middlemas, David; Flynn, Pat; Fridland, Arnold

    1998-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors (PIs)—saquinavir, ritonavir, nelfinavir, and indinavir—interact with the ABC-type multidrug transporter proteins MDR1 and MRP1 in CEM T-lymphocytic cell lines. Calcein fluorescence was significantly enhanced in MDR1+ CEM/VBL100 and MRP1+ CEM/VM-1-5 cells incubated in the presence of various HIV PIs and calcein acetoxymethyl ester. HIV PIs also enhanced the cytotoxic activity of doxorubicin, a known substrate for MDR1 and MRP1, in both VBL100 and VM-1-5 CEM lines. Saquinavir, ritonavir, and nelfinavir enhanced doxorubicin toxicity in CEM/VBL100 cells by approximately three- to sevenfold. Saquinavir and ritonavir also enhanced doxorubicin toxicity in CEM/VM-1-5 cells. HIV-1 replication was effectively inhibited by the various PIs in all of the cell lines, and the 90% inhibitory concentration for a given compound was comparable between the different cell types. Therefore, overexpression of MDR1 or MRP1 by T lymphocytes is not likely to limit the antiviral efficacy of HIV PI therapy. PMID:9835508

  4. Incretins and selective renal sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors in hypertension and coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Ramiro A; Sanabria, Hugo; de los Santos, Cecilia; Ramirez, Agustin J

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and the consequences of intensive therapy may depend on the mechanism of the anti-diabetic agent(s) used to achieve a tight control. In animal models, stable analogues of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were able to reduce body weight and blood pressure and also had favorable effects on ischemia following coronary reperfusion. In a similar way, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) showed to have favorable effects in animal models of ischemia/reperfusion. This could be due to the fact that DPP-IV inhibitors were able to prevent the breakdown of GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, but they also decreased the degradation of several vasoactive peptides. Preclinical data for GLP-1, its derivatives and inhibitors of the DPP-IV enzyme degradation suggests that these agents may be able to, besides controlling glycaemia, induce cardio-protective and vasodilator effects. Notwithstanding the many favorable cardiovascular effects of GLP-1/incretins reported in different studies, many questions remain unanswered due the limited number of studies in human beings that aim to examine the effects of GLP-1 on cardiovascular endpoints. For this reason, long-term trials searching for positive cardiovascular effects are now in process, such as the CAROLINA and CARMELINA trials, which are supported by small pilot studies performed in humans (and many more animal studies) with incretin-based therapies. On the other hand, selective renal sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors were also evaluated in the prevention of cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes. However, it is quite early to draw conclusions, since data on cardiovascular outcomes and cardiovascular death are limited and long-term studies are still ongoing. In this review, we will analyze the mechanisms underlying the cardiovascular effects of incretins and, at the same time, we will present a critical position about the real

  5. Evaluation of the endothelin receptor antagonists ambrisentan, darusentan, bosentan, and sitaxsentan as substrates and inhibitors of hepatobiliary transporters in sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hartman, J Craig; Brouwer, Kenneth; Mandagere, Arun; Melvin, Lawrence; Gorczynski, Richard

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate potential mechanisms of clinical hepatotoxicity, 4 endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) were examined for substrate activity and inhibition of hepatic uptake and efflux transporters in sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes. The 4 transporters studied were sodium-dependent taurocholate cotransporter (NTCP), organic anion transporter (OATP), bile salt export pump (BSEP), and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2). ERA transporter inhibition was examined using the substrates taurocholate (for NTCP and BSEP), [(3)H]estradiol-17beta-D-glucuronide (for OATP), and [2-D-penicillamine, 5-D-penicillamine]enkephalin (for MRP2). ERA substrate activity was evaluated using probe inhibitors ritonavir (OATP and BSEP), bromosulfalein (OATP), erythromycin (P-glycoprotein), probenecid (MRP2 and OATP), and cyclosporin (NTCP). ERAs were tested at 2, 20, and 100 micromol*L-1 for inhibition and at 2 micromol*L-1 as substrates. OATP, NTCP, or BSEP transport activity was not reduced by ambrisentan or darusentan. Bosentan and sitaxsentan attenuated NTCP transport at higher concentrations. Only sitaxsentan decreased OATP transport (52%), and only bosentan reduced BSEP transport (78%). MRP2 transport activity was unaltered. OATP inhibitors decreased influx of all ERAs. Darusentan influx was least affected (84%-100% of control), whereas bosentan was most affected (32%-58% of control). NTCP did not contribute to influx of ERAs. Only bosentan and darusentan were shown as substrates for both BSEP and P-glycoprotein efflux. All ERAs tested were substrates for at least one hepatic transporter. Bosentan and sitaxsentan, but not ambrisentan and darusentan, inhibited human hepatic transporters, which provides a potential mechanism for the increased hepatotoxicity observed for these agents in the clinical setting.

  6. Enhanced anandamide plasma levels in patients with complex regional pain syndrome following traumatic injury: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, I; Hauer, D; Huge, V; Vogeser, M; Campolongo, P; Chouker, A; Thiel, M; Schelling, G

    2009-01-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a disabling neuropathic pain condition that may develop following injuries of the extremities. The pathogenesis of this syndrome is not clear; however, it includes complex interactions between the nervous and the immune system resulting in chronic inflammation, pain and trophic changes. This interaction may be mediated by chronic stress which is thought to activate the endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) system (ECS). We conducted an open, prospective, comparative clinical study to determine plasma level of the endocannabinoid anandamide by high-performance liquid chromatography and a tandem mass spectrometry system in 10 patients with CRPS type I versus 10 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. As compared to healthy controls, CRPS patients showed significantly higher plasma concentrations of anandamide. These results indicate that the peripheral ECS is activated in CRPS. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the role of the ECS in the limitation of inflammation and pain. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Simulation of Swanson's literature-based discovery: anandamide treatment inhibits growth of gastric cancer cells in vitro and in silico.

    PubMed

    Dong, Weiwei; Liu, Yixuan; Zhu, Weijie; Mou, Quan; Wang, Jinliang; Hu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Swanson's literature-based discovery focus on resurrecting previously published but neglected knowledge. In this study, we propose a two-step model of the discovery process and generate a hypothesis between anandamide and gastric cancer. Further, the potential relationship was confirmed by follow-up experimentation. The anandamide treatment resulted in cell cycle redistribution of gastric cancer cells. Most importantly, the variation of cell cycle was mediated by some genes from the B-terms of the closed discovery, indicating the potential role of the B-terms. Swanson's literature-based discovery not only collates data for possible interactions, but also provides the potential to observe the larger background behind these direct links and is an invaluable discovery tool for investigators.

  8. Baseline anandamide levels and body weight impact the weight loss effect of CB1 receptor antagonism in male rats.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Cecilia; Hjorth, Stephan; Karpefors, Martin; Hansson, Göran I; Carlsson, Björn

    2015-04-01

    The individual weight loss response to obesity treatment is diverse. Here we test the hypothesis that the weight loss response to the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant is influenced by endogenous levels of receptor agonists. We show that baseline anandamide levels and body weight independently contribute to predict the treatment response to rimonabant in rodents, demonstrating that addition of biomarkers related to mode of action is relevant for a personalized health care approach to obesity treatment.

  9. Full Inhibition of Spinal FAAH Leads to TRPV1-Mediated Analgesic Effects in Neuropathic Rats and Possible Lipoxygenase-Mediated Remodeling of Anandamide Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Starowicz, Katarzyna; Makuch, Wioletta; Korostynski, Michal; Malek, Natalia; Slezak, Michal; Zychowska, Magdalena; Petrosino, Stefania; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Cristino, Luigia; Przewlocka, Barbara; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Neuropathic pain elevates spinal anandamide (AEA) levels in a way further increased when URB597, an inhibitor of AEA hydrolysis by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), is injected intrathecally. Spinal AEA reduces neuropathic pain by acting at both cannabinoid CB1 receptors and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channels. Yet, intrathecal URB597 is only partially effective at counteracting neuropathic pain. We investigated the effect of high doses of intrathecal URB597 on allodynia and hyperalgesia in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. Among those tested, the 200 µg/rat dose of URB597 was the only one that elevated the levels of the FAAH non-endocannabinoid and anti-inflammatory substrates, oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and of the endocannabinoid FAAH substrate, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and fully inhibited thermal and tactile nociception, although in a manner blocked almost uniquely by TRPV1 antagonism. Surprisingly, this dose of URB597 decreased spinal AEA levels. RT-qPCR and western blot analyses demonstrated altered spinal expression of lipoxygenases (LOX), and baicalein, an inhibitor of 12/15-LOX, significantly reduced URB597 analgesic effects, suggesting the occurrence of alternative pathways of AEA metabolism. Using immunofluorescence techniques, FAAH, 15-LOX and TRPV1 were found to co-localize in dorsal spinal horn neurons of CCI rats. Finally, 15-hydroxy-AEA, a 15-LOX derivative of AEA, potently and efficaciously activated the rat recombinant TRPV1 channel. We suggest that intrathecally injected URB597 at full analgesic efficacy unmasks a secondary route of AEA metabolism via 15-LOX with possible formation of 15-hydroxy-AEA, which, together with OEA and PEA, may contribute at producing TRPV1-mediated analgesia in CCI rats. PMID:23573230

  10. Full inhibition of spinal FAAH leads to TRPV1-mediated analgesic effects in neuropathic rats and possible lipoxygenase-mediated remodeling of anandamide metabolism.

    PubMed

    Starowicz, Katarzyna; Makuch, Wioletta; Korostynski, Michal; Malek, Natalia; Slezak, Michal; Zychowska, Magdalena; Petrosino, Stefania; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Cristino, Luigia; Przewlocka, Barbara; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Neuropathic pain elevates spinal anandamide (AEA) levels in a way further increased when URB597, an inhibitor of AEA hydrolysis by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), is injected intrathecally. Spinal AEA reduces neuropathic pain by acting at both cannabinoid CB1 receptors and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channels. Yet, intrathecal URB597 is only partially effective at counteracting neuropathic pain. We investigated the effect of high doses of intrathecal URB597 on allodynia and hyperalgesia in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. Among those tested, the 200 µg/rat dose of URB597 was the only one that elevated the levels of the FAAH non-endocannabinoid and anti-inflammatory substrates, oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and of the endocannabinoid FAAH substrate, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and fully inhibited thermal and tactile nociception, although in a manner blocked almost uniquely by TRPV1 antagonism. Surprisingly, this dose of URB597 decreased spinal AEA levels. RT-qPCR and western blot analyses demonstrated altered spinal expression of lipoxygenases (LOX), and baicalein, an inhibitor of 12/15-LOX, significantly reduced URB597 analgesic effects, suggesting the occurrence of alternative pathways of AEA metabolism. Using immunofluorescence techniques, FAAH, 15-LOX and TRPV1 were found to co-localize in dorsal spinal horn neurons of CCI rats. Finally, 15-hydroxy-AEA, a 15-LOX derivative of AEA, potently and efficaciously activated the rat recombinant TRPV1 channel. We suggest that intrathecally injected URB597 at full analgesic efficacy unmasks a secondary route of AEA metabolism via 15-LOX with possible formation of 15-hydroxy-AEA, which, together with OEA and PEA, may contribute at producing TRPV1-mediated analgesia in CCI rats.

  11. Targeting anandamide metabolism rescues core and associated autistic-like symptoms in rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid

    PubMed Central

    Servadio, M; Melancia, F; Manduca, A; di Masi, A; Schiavi, S; Cartocci, V; Pallottini, V; Campolongo, P; Ascenzi, P; Trezza, V

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by altered sociability, compromised communication and stereotyped/repetitive behaviors, for which no specific treatments are currently available. Prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) is a known, although still underestimated, environmental risk factor for ASD. Altered endocannabinoid activity has been observed in autistic patients, and endocannabinoids are known to modulate behavioral traits that are typically affected in ASD. On this basis, we tested the hypothesis that changes in the endocannabinoid tone contribute to the altered phenotype induced by prenatal VPA exposure in rats, with focus on behavioral features that resemble the core and associated symptoms of ASD. In the course of development, VPA-exposed rats showed early deficits in social communication and discrimination, compromised sociability and social play behavior, stereotypies and increased anxiety, thus providing preclinical proof of the long-lasting deleterious effects induced by prenatal VPA exposure. At the neurochemical level, VPA-exposed rats displayed altered phosphorylation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in different brain areas, associated with changes in anandamide metabolism from infancy to adulthood. Interestingly, enhancing anandamide signaling through inhibition of its degradation rescued the behavioral deficits displayed by VPA-exposed rats at infancy, adolescence and adulthood. This study therefore shows that abnormalities in anandamide activity may underlie the deleterious impact of environmental risk factors on ASD-relevant behaviors and that the endocannabinoid system may represent a therapeutic target for the core and associated symptoms displayed by autistic patients. PMID:27676443

  12. Metformin enhances anti-tumor effect of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Seiji; Kimura, Toru; Yamaga, Takashi; Kawada, Akihiko; Ochiai, Toshiaki; Endou, Hitoshi; Sakurai, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    In many cancer cells, L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) transports neutral amino acids with bulky side chain, which activate mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) to cause cell proliferation. An anti-diabetic drug, metformin, has been shown to activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which leads to inhibition of mTOR. LAT1 inhibition in combination with metformin could result in more prominent suppression of mTOR activity. Anti-proliferative effect of a newly developed LAT1 specific inhibitor JPH203 in combination with metformin is evaluated in 2 head and neck cancer cell lines, Ca9-22 and HEp-2 cells and in nude mice inoculated with Ca9-22 cells. By MTT assay, 0.5 mM metformin inhibited proliferation of Ca9-22 cells to 70% of control. In the presence of 100 μM JPH203, proliferation of Ca9-22 cells was inhibited to 60% of control. By combining these 2 drugs, proliferation of Ca9-22 was significantly inhibited to 40% of control. However, this regimen was not very effective against HEp-2 cells. This combination also suppressed in vivo growth of Ca9-22 cells in a xenotransplant model. A combination of anti-LAT1 drug with metformin may be an effective anti-proliferative therapy for certain subsets of cancers. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The anti-tumour agent lonidamine is a potent inhibitor of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier and plasma membrane monocarboxylate transporters

    PubMed Central

    Nancolas, Bethany; Guo, Lili; Zhou, Rong; Nath, Kavindra; Nelson, David S.; Leeper, Dennis B.; Blair, Ian A.; Glickson, Jerry D.; Halestrap, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Lonidamine (LND) is an anti-tumour drug particularly effective at selectively sensitising tumours to chemotherapy, hyperthermia and radiotherapy, although its precise mode of action remains unclear. It has been reported to perturb the bioenergetics of cells by inhibiting glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration, while indirect evidence suggests it may also inhibit L-lactic acid efflux from cells mediated by members of the proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family and also pyruvate uptake into the mitochondria by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC). Here we test these possibilities directly. We demonstrate that LND potently inhibits MPC activity in isolated rat liver mitochondria (Ki 2.5 μM) and cooperatively inhibits L-lactate transport by MCT1, MCT2 and MCT4 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes with K0.5 and Hill Coefficient values of 36–40 μM and 1.65–1.85. In rat heart mitochondria LND inhibited the MPC with similar potency and uncoupled oxidation of pyruvate was inhibited more effectively (IC50 ~7 μM) than other substrates including glutamate (IC50 ~20 μM). In isolated DB-1 melanoma cells 1–10 μM LND increased L-lactate output, consistent with MPC inhibition, but higher concentrations (150 μM) decreased L-lactate output while increasing intracellular [L-lactate] > five-fold, consistent with MCT inhibition. We conclude that MPC inhibition is the most sensitive anti-tumour target for LND, with additional inhibitory effects on MCT-mediated L-lactic acid efflux and glutamine/glutamate oxidation. Together these actions can account for published data on the selective tumour effects of LND on L-lactate, intracellular pH (pHi) and ATP levels that can be partially mimicked by the established MPC and MCT inhibitor α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate. PMID:26831515

  14. Behavioral Characterization of the Effects of Cannabis Smoke and Anandamide in Rats.

    PubMed

    Bruijnzeel, Adriaan W; Qi, Xiaoli; Guzhva, Lidia V; Wall, Shannon; Deng, Jie V; Gold, Mark S; Febo, Marcelo; Setlow, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) is the main psychoactive component of cannabis and its effects have been well-studied. However, cannabis contains many other cannabinoids that affect brain function. Therefore, these studies investigated the effect of cannabis smoke exposure on locomotor activity, rearing, anxiety-like behavior, and the development of dependence in rats. It was also investigated if cannabis smoke exposure leads to tolerance to the locomotor-suppressant effects of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide. Cannabis smoke was generated by burning 5.7% Δ9-THC cannabis cigarettes in a smoking machine. The effect of cannabis smoke on the behavior of rats in a small and large open field and an elevated plus maze was evaluated. Cannabis smoke exposure induced a brief increase in locomotor activity followed by a prolonged decrease in locomotor activity and rearing in the 30-min small open field test. The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist rimonabant increased locomotor activity and prevented the smoke-induced decrease in rearing. Smoke exposure also increased locomotor activity in the 5-min large open field test and the elevated plus maze test. The smoke exposed rats spent more time in the center zone of the large open field, which is indicative of a decrease in anxiety-like behavior. A high dose of anandamide decreased locomotor activity and rearing in the small open field and this was not prevented by rimonabant or pre-exposure to cannabis smoke. Serum Δ9-THC levels were 225 ng/ml after smoke exposure, which is similar to levels in humans after smoking cannabis. Exposure to cannabis smoke led to dependence as indicated by more rimonabant-precipitated somatic withdrawal signs in the cannabis smoke exposed rats than in the air-control rats. In conclusion, chronic cannabis smoke exposure in rats leads to clinically relevant Δ9-THC levels, dependence, and has a biphasic effect

  15. Behavioral Characterization of the Effects of Cannabis Smoke and Anandamide in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bruijnzeel, Adriaan W.; Qi, Xiaoli; Guzhva, Lidia V.; Wall, Shannon; Deng, Jie V.; Gold, Mark S.; Febo, Marcelo; Setlow, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) is the main psychoactive component of cannabis and its effects have been well-studied. However, cannabis contains many other cannabinoids that affect brain function. Therefore, these studies investigated the effect of cannabis smoke exposure on locomotor activity, rearing, anxiety-like behavior, and the development of dependence in rats. It was also investigated if cannabis smoke exposure leads to tolerance to the locomotor-suppressant effects of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide. Cannabis smoke was generated by burning 5.7% Δ9-THC cannabis cigarettes in a smoking machine. The effect of cannabis smoke on the behavior of rats in a small and large open field and an elevated plus maze was evaluated. Cannabis smoke exposure induced a brief increase in locomotor activity followed by a prolonged decrease in locomotor activity and rearing in the 30-min small open field test. The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist rimonabant increased locomotor activity and prevented the smoke-induced decrease in rearing. Smoke exposure also increased locomotor activity in the 5-min large open field test and the elevated plus maze test. The smoke exposed rats spent more time in the center zone of the large open field, which is indicative of a decrease in anxiety-like behavior. A high dose of anandamide decreased locomotor activity and rearing in the small open field and this was not prevented by rimonabant or pre-exposure to cannabis smoke. Serum Δ9-THC levels were 225 ng/ml after smoke exposure, which is similar to levels in humans after smoking cannabis. Exposure to cannabis smoke led to dependence as indicated by more rimonabant-precipitated somatic withdrawal signs in the cannabis smoke exposed rats than in the air-control rats. In conclusion, chronic cannabis smoke exposure in rats leads to clinically relevant Δ9-THC levels, dependence, and has a biphasic effect

  16. Synthesis and preliminary pharmacological evaluation of novel derivatives of L-beta-threo-benzylaspartate as inhibitors of the neuronal glutamate transporter EAAT3.

    PubMed

    Mavencamp, Terri L; Rhoderick, Joseph F; Bridges, Richard J; Esslinger, C Sean

    2008-08-15

    A series of beta-benzylaspartate derivatives were prepared from N-trityl-L-aspartate dimethyl ester and evaluated as inhibitors of neuronal glutamate transporter EAAT3. The result of the structure-activity studies suggests that the position occupied by the aromatic ring of beta-benzylaspartate within the binding site of EAAT3 may be different from that occupied by comparable groups in previously identified inhibitors, such as L-threo-benzyloxy aspartate (TBOA). Further, halogen substitutions at the 3-position of the aromatic ring of beta-benzylaspartate can increase the potency with which the analogues inhibit EAAT3.

  17. Chloride Co-transporter NKCC1 Inhibitor Bumetanide Enhances Neurogenesis and Behavioral Recovery in Rats After Experimental Stroke.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wangshu; Mu, Xiaopeng; Wang, Huibin; Song, Chengguang; Ma, Wenping; Jolkkonen, Jukka; Zhao, Chuansheng

    2017-05-01

    Bumetanide, a selective Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-co-transporter inhibitor, is widely used in clinical practice as a loop diuretic. In addition, bumetanide has been reported to attenuate ischemia-induced cerebral edema and reduce neuronal injury. This study examined whether bumetanide could influence neurogenesis and behavioral recovery in rats after experimentally induced stroke. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: sham, sham treated with bumetanide, ischemia, and ischemia treated with bumetanide. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by injection of endothelin-1. Bumetanide (0.2 mg/kg/day) was infused into the lateral ventricle with drug administration being initiated 1 week after ischemia and continued for 3 weeks. Behavioral impairment and recovery were evaluated by tapered/ledged beam-walking test on post-stroke days 28. Then, the rats were perfused for BrdU/DCX (neuroblast marker), BrdU/NeuN (neuronal marker), BrdU/GFAP (astrocyte marker), and BrdU/Iba-1 (microglia marker) immunohistochemistry. The numbers of neuroblasts in the subventricular zone (SVZ) were significantly increased after the experimentally induced stroke. Bumetanide treatment increased migration of neuroblasts in the SVZ towards the infarct area, enhanced long-term survival of newborn neurons, and improved sensorimotor recovery, but it did not exert any effects on inflammation. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that chronic bumetanide treatment enhances neurogenesis and behavioral recovery after experimentally induced stroke in rats.

  18. Effects of selected electron transport chain inhibitors on 24-h hydrogen production by Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Elizabeth H; Chaplen, Frank W R; Ely, Roger L

    2011-02-01

    One factor limiting biosolar hydrogen (H(2)) production from cyanobacteria is electron availability to the hydrogenase enzyme. In order to optimize 24-h H(2) production this study used Response Surface Methodology and Q2, an optimization algorithm, to investigate the effects of five inhibitors of the photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Over 3 days of diurnal light/dark cycling, with the optimized combination of 9.4 mM KCN (3.1 μmol 10(10) cells(-1)) and 1.5 mM malonate (0.5 μmol 10(10) cells(-1)) the H(2) production was 30-fold higher, in EHB-1 media previously optimized for nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), and carbon (C) concentrations (Burrows et al., 2008). In addition, glycogen concentration was measured over 24 h with two light/dark cycling regimes in both standard BG-11 and EHB-1 media. The results suggest that electron flow as well as glycogen accumulation should be optimized in systems engineered for maximal H(2) output. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Small compound inhibitors of basal glucose transport inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in cancer cells via glucose-deprivation-like mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Weihe; Cao, Yanyan; Liu, Yan; Bergmeier, Stephen; Chen, Xiaozhuo

    2010-12-08

    Cancer cells depend heavily on glucose as both energy and biosynthesis sources and are found to upregulate glucose transport and switch their main energy supply pathway from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. These molecular and metabolic changes also provide targets for cancer treatment. Here we report that novel small molecules inhibited basal glucose transport and cell proliferation, and induced apoptosis in lung and breast cancer cells without affecting much their normal cell counterparts. Cancer cells survived the compound treatment lost their capability to proliferate. Mechanistic study indicates that the cancer cell inhibition by the test compounds has a component of apoptosis and the induced apoptosis was p53-independent and caspase 3-dependent, similar to those resulted from glucose deprivation. Compound treatment also led to cell cycle arrest in G1/S phase. The inhibition of cancer cell growth was partially relieved when additional glucose was supplied to cells, suggesting that the inhibition was due to, at least in part, the inhibition of basal glucose transport. When used in combination, the test compounds demonstrated synergistic effects with anticancer drugs cisplatin or paclitaxel in inhibition of cancer cell growth. All these results suggest that these glucose transport inhibitors mimic glucose deprivation and work through inhibiting basal glucose transport. These inhibitors have the potential to complement and replace traditional glucose deprivation, which cannot be used in animals, as new tools to study the effects of glucose transport and metabolism on cancer and normal cells.

  20. The ileal bile acid transporter inhibitor A4250 decreases serum bile acids by interrupting the enterohepatic circulation.

    PubMed

    Graffner, H; Gillberg, P-G; Rikner, L; Marschall, H-U

    2016-01-01

    Reabsorption of bile acids from the intestine by ileal bile acid transporter is pivotal for the enterohepatic circulation of BAs and sterol homoeostasis. To assess tolerability and study, bile acid metabolism in a phase 1 trial with the selective ileal bile acid transporter inhibitor A4250. A randomised double-blind, single-ascending dose (SAD) and multiple-ascending-dose study consisting of five cohorts comprising 40 individuals with a single administration of A4250 (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, or 10 mg) or placebo and three cohorts comprising 24 individuals with a 1-week administration of A4250 (1 or 3 mg once daily or 1.5 mg twice daily) or placebo. For the multiple-ascending-dose study, bile acids were measured by HPLC-MS in plasma and faeces, and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) and 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) were measured in plasma. No serious adverse events occurred and all participants finished the trial per protocol. At the end of the multiple-ascending-dose study, plasma total bile acids and FGF19 decreased by 47% and 76%, respectively, at 3 mg/day (P < 0.01), and by 15% and 16%, respectively, at 1.5 mg twice daily (P < 0.05). Plasma C4 and faecal bile acids increased at all dose regimens, by 555%, 664%, 292% and 338%, 421%, 420%, respectively (P < 0.01-0.05). The primary bile acids cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids constituted the majority of faecal bile acids in the A4250-treated groups. A4250 is well tolerated. By blocking ileal bile acid transporter in the terminal ileum, it highly efficiently interrupts the enterohepatic circulation of BAs, and should be of benefit to patients with cholestatic liver diseases. Clinical Trial registration EudraCT 2013-001175-21. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Scheen, André J

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several compounds are already available in many countries (dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, empagliflozin and ipragliflozin) and some others are in a late phase of development. The available SGLT2 inhibitors share similar pharmacokinetic characteristics, with a rapid oral absorption, a long elimination half-life allowing once-daily administration, an extensive hepatic metabolism mainly via glucuronidation to inactive metabolites, the absence of clinically relevant drug-drug interactions and a low renal elimination as parent drug. SGLT2 co-transporters are responsible for reabsorption of most (90 %) of the glucose filtered by the kidneys. The pharmacological inhibition of SGLT2 co-transporters reduces hyperglycaemia by decreasing renal glucose threshold and thereby increasing urinary glucose excretion. The amount of glucose excreted in the urine depends on both the level of hyperglycaemia and the glomerular filtration rate. Results of numerous placebo-controlled randomised clinical trials of 12-104 weeks duration have shown significant reductions in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), resulting in a significant increase in the proportion of patients reaching HbA1c targets, and a significant lowering of fasting plasma glucose when SGLT2 inhibitors were administered as monotherapy or in addition to other glucose-lowering therapies including insulin in patients with T2DM. In head-to-head trials of up to 2 years, SGLT2 inhibitors exerted similar glucose-lowering activity to metformin, sulphonylureas or sitagliptin. The durability of the glucose-lowering effect of SGLT2 inhibitors appears to be better; however, this remains to be more extensively investigated. The risk of hypoglycaemia was much lower with SGLT2 inhibitors than with sulphonylureas and was similarly low as that reported with metformin, pioglitazone or sitagliptin

  2. Alterations in the Anandamide Metabolism in the Development of Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Natalia; Kucharczyk, Mateusz; Starowicz, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Endocannabinoids (EC), particularly anandamide (AEA), released constitutively in pain pathways might be accountable for the inhibitory effect on nociceptors. Pathogenesis of neuropathic pain may reflect complex remodeling of the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and spinal cord EC system. Multiple pathways involved both in the biosynthesis and degradation of AEA have been suggested. We investigated the local synthesis and degradation features of AEA in DRGs and spinal cord during the development and maintenance of pain in a model of chronic constriction injury (CCI). All AEA synthesis and degradation enzymes are present on the mRNA level in DRGs and lumbar spinal cord of intact as well as CCI-treated animals. Deregulation of EC system components was consistent with development of pain phenotype at days 3, 7, and 14 after CCI. The expression levels of enzymes involved in AEA degradation was significantly upregulated ipsilateral in DRGs and spinal cord at different time points. Expression of enzymes of the alternative, sPLA2-dependent and PLC-dependent, AEA synthesis pathways was elevated in both of the analyzed structures at all time points. Our data have shown an alteration of alternative AEA synthesis and degradation pathways, which might contribute to the variation of AEA levels and neuropathic pain development. PMID:25276812

  3. The effects of anandamide and oleamide on cognition depend on diurnal variations.

    PubMed

    Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E; Montes-Rodriguez, Corinne J; Ruiz-Contreras, Alejandra E; Mendez-Diaz, Monica; Prospero-Garcia, Oscar

    2017-10-01

    Cannabinergic receptor 1 (CB1r) is highly expressed in almost the entire brain; hence, its activation affects diverse functions, including cognitive processes such as learning and memory. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that CB1r expression fluctuates along the light-dark cycle. In this context, the objective of this work was to characterize the cannabinergic influence over cognitive processes and its relationship with the light-dark cycle. To this aim we studied the effects of two endogenous cannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and oleamide (ODA), on the consolidation of memory and event-related potentials (ERPs) depending on the light-dark cycle. Our results indicate that AEA and ODA impair the consolidation of spatial and emotional memories and reduce the amplitude of several components of the ERP complex, depending on the phase of the light-dark cycle. This study further supports the notion that endocannabinoids participate in the regulation of cognitive processes with strong influence of environmental variables such as the light-dark cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. TRPV1 activation by endogenous anandamide triggers postsynaptic LTD in dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Chávez, Andrés E.; Chiu, Chiayu Q.; Castillo, Pablo E.

    2010-01-01

    The transient receptor potential TRPV1 is a nonselective cation channel that mediates pain sensations and is commonly activated by a wide variety of exogenous and endogenous, physical and chemical stimuli. While TRPV1 receptors are mainly found in nociceptive neurons of the peripheral nervous system, these receptors have also been described in the brain where their role is far less understood. Activation of TRPV1 reportedly regulates neurotransmitter release at several central synapses. Here we show, however, that TRPV1 suppresses excitatory transmission in rat and mouse dentate gyrus by regulating postsynaptic function in an input-specific manner. This suppression is due to a Ca2+-calcineurin and clathrin-dependent internalization of AMPA receptors. Moreover, synaptic activation of TRPV1 triggers a form of long-term depression (TRPV1-LTD) mediated by the endocannabinoid anandamide in a type 1 cannabinoid receptor-independent manner. Thus, our findings reveal a novel form of endocannabinoid- and TRPV1-mediated regulation of synaptic strength at central synapses. PMID:21076423

  5. Physiological and behavioural effects of the endogenous cannabinoid, arachidonylethanolamide (anandamide), in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, E. A.; Fuller, S. A.; Edgemond, W. S.; Campbell, W. B.

    1996-01-01

    1. Arachidonylethanolamide (AEA; anandamide) has been isolated from mammalian brain and found to bind to, and is thought to be, an endogenous ligand for the cannabinoid receptor. In order to understand better its behavioural and physiological properties, we have examined its acute effects in unanaesthetized freely behaving rats. 2. Intravenous AEA caused dose-related decreases in locomotor behaviour, a pronounced hyperreflexia, and a moderate antinociceptive state. At doses between 3 and 30 mg kg-1, a dose-dependent hypothermia and profound, time-dependent cardiovascular changes were also observed. 3. An immediate bradycardia exceeding 50% was seen within 10-15 s of administration and lasted up to 11 min following the highest dose of the drug. In contrast, the change in mean arterial pressure was biphasic: an immediate 20% decrease in mean arterial pressure followed by a significant increase in blood pressure that lasted about 13 min after the highest dose. 4. These data demonstrate that AEA in the unanaesthetized rat exerts behavioural and physiological effects generally similar to those seen following natural cannabinoids and synthetic cannabimimetic agents and suggests a role for AEA in regulation of various physiological processes. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:8872363

  6. Anandamide and decidual remodelling: COX-2 oxidative metabolism as a key regulator.

    PubMed

    Almada, M; Piscitelli, F; Fonseca, B M; Di Marzo, V; Correia-da-Silva, G; Teixeira, N

    2015-11-01

    Recently, endocannabinoids have emerged as signalling mediators in reproduction. It is widely accepted that anandamide (AEA) levels must be tightly regulated, and that a disturbance in AEA levels may impact decidual stability and regression. We have previously characterized the endocannabinoid machinery in rat decidual tissue and reported the pro-apoptotic action of AEA on rat decidual cells. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an inducible enzyme that plays a crucial role in early pregnancy, and is also a key modulator in the crosstalk between endocannabinoids and prostaglandins. On the other hand, AEA-oxidative metabolism by COX-2 is not merely a mean to inactivate its action, but it yields the formation of a new class of mediators, named prostaglandin-ethanolamides, or prostamides. In this study we found that AEA-induced apoptosis in decidual cells involves COX-2 metabolic pathway. AEA induced COX-2 expression through p38 MAPK, resulting in the formation of prostamide E2 (PME2). Our findings also suggest that AEA-induced effect is associated with NF-kB activation. Finally, we describe the involvement of PME2 in the induction of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in rat decidual cells. Altogether, our findings highlight the role of COX-2 as a gatekeeper in the uterine environment and clarify the impact of the deregulation of AEA levels on the decidual remodelling process.

  7. Endocannabinoids Anandamide and 2-Arachidonoylglycerol Are Substrates for Human CYP2J2 Epoxygenase

    PubMed Central

    McDougle, Daniel R.; Kambalyal, Amogh; Meling, Daryl D.

    2014-01-01

    The endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are arachidonic acid (AA) derivatives that are known to regulate human cardiovascular functions. CYP2J2 is the primary cytochrome P450 in the human heart and is most well known for the metabolism of AA to the biologically active epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. In this study, we demonstrate that both 2-AG and AEA are substrates for metabolism by CYP2J2 epoxygenase in the model membrane bilayers of nanodiscs. Reactions of CYP2J2 with AEA formed four AEA-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, whereas incubations with 2-AG yielded detectable levels of only two 2-AG epoxides. Notably, 2-AG was shown to undergo enzymatic oxidative cleavage to form AA through a NADPH-dependent reaction with CYP2J2 and cytochrome P450 reductase. The formation of the predominant AEA and 2-AG epoxides was confirmed using microsomes prepared from the left myocardium of porcine and bovine heart tissues. The nuances of the ligand-protein interactions were further characterized using spectral titrations, stopped-flow small-molecule ligand egress, and molecular modeling. The experimental and theoretical data were in agreement, which showed that substitution of the AA carboxylic acid with the 2-AG ester-glycerol changes the binding interaction of these lipids within the CYP2J2 active site, leading to different product distributions. In summary, we present data for the functional metabolomics of AEA and 2-AG by a membrane-bound cardiovascular epoxygenase. PMID:25277139

  8. Clinical Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacodynamic, and Drug-Drug Interaction Profile of Canagliflozin, a Sodium-Glucose Co-transporter 2 Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Devineni, Damayanthi; Polidori, David

    2015-10-01

    The sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors represent novel therapeutic approaches in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus; they act on kidneys to decrease the renal threshold for glucose (RTG) and increase urinary glucose excretion (UGE). Canagliflozin is an orally active, reversible, selective SGLT2 inhibitor. Orally administered canagliflozin is rapidly absorbed achieving peak plasma concentrations in 1-2 h. Dose-proportional systemic exposure to canagliflozin has been observed over a wide dose range (50-1600 mg) with an oral bioavailability of 65 %. Canagliflozin is glucuronidated into two inactive metabolites, M7 and M5 by uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A9 and UGT2B4, respectively. Canagliflozin reaches steady state in 4 days, and there is minimal accumulation observed after multiple dosing. Approximately 60 % and 33 % of the administered dose is excreted in the feces and urine, respectively. The half-life of orally administered canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg in healthy participants is 10.6 and 13.1 h, respectively. No clinically relevant differences are observed in canagliflozin exposure with respect to age, race, sex, and body weight. The pharmacokinetics of canagliflozin remains unaffected by mild or moderate hepatic impairment. Systemic exposure to canagliflozin is increased in patients with renal impairment relative to those with normal renal function; however, the efficacy is reduced in patients with renal impairment owing to the reduced filtered glucose load. Canagliflozin did not show clinically relevant drug interactions with metformin, glyburide, simvastatin, warfarin, hydrochlorothiazide, oral contraceptives, probenecid, and cyclosporine, while co-administration with rifampin modestly reduced canagliflozin plasma concentrations and thus may necessitate an appropriate monitoring of glycemic control. Canagliflozin increases UGE and suppresses RTG in a dose-dependent manner, thereby lowering the plasma glucose

  9. The antinociceptive effect of SNAP5114, a gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter-3 inhibitor, in rat experimental pain models.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Kazunori; Hara, Koji; Haranishi, Yasunori; Terada, Tadanori; Sata, Takeyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. GABAergic transmission has an important role in regulating nociception at the spinal dorsal horn. It is terminated by rapid uptake of the neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft into neurons and glial cells, via specific GABA transporters (GATs). Among the 4 GATs, GAT-3 has the greatest expression in central nervous system regions closely associated with nociceptive transmission, including the spinal cord. In this study, we examined the antinociceptive effect of intrathecal administration of a selective GAT-3 inhibitor, SNAP5114, on acute, inflammatory, and neuropathic pain in experimental models. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to assess thermal, mechanical, and chemical nociception in the tail flick and hotplate tests, the paw pressure test, and the formalin test. A rotarod test was performed to assess motor function. Chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve was induced in the rats. The electronic von Frey test and the plantar test were then performed to assess mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. SNAP5114 (10, 50, 100, or 200 μg) was administered intrathecally to examine antinociceptive activity. To confirm whether the action of SNAP5114 was mediated by GABAergic transmission, the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline (0.3 μg) or the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP35348 (30 μg) was administered intrathecally before 200 μg of SNAP5114 in the tail flick test, the formalin test, and the electronic von Frey test. Spinally applied SNAP5114 in normal rats dose-dependently prolonged withdrawal latencies in the tail flick test and suppressed the late-phase response in the formalin test. SNAP5114 did not affect motor performance. In the chronic constriction injury rats, SNAP5114 inhibited mechanical allodynia dose-dependently. The antinociceptive action of SNAP5114 was partially reversed by bicuculline or CGP35348 at doses at which

  10. Bone effects of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Thomas C; Farooki, Azeez

    2017-01-01

    Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), lowers blood glucose by inhibiting renal glucose reabsorption and increasing urinary glucose excretion. It has been reported that SGLT2 inhibitors may have potential adverse effects on bone, including increased fracture risk and decreased bone mineral density (BMD). Across clinical studies, canagliflozin was not associated with meaningful changes in serum or urine calcium, vitamin D, or parathyroid hormone. Minimal increases in serum phosphate and magnesium that were within normal limits were seen with canagliflozin versus placebo. Canagliflozin was associated with increases in serum collagen type 1 beta-carboxy telopeptide (beta-CTX), a bone resorption marker, and osteocalcin, a bone formation marker. Decreases in total hip BMD were seen with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg versus placebo after 2 years (-1.7%, -2.1%, -0.8%; differences of -0.9% and -1.2%), but not at other skeletal sites (normal age-related bone loss, ~0.5-1.0%/year). Changes in beta-CTX and total hip BMD were significantly associated with weight loss, which is known to increase bone resorption markers and decrease BMD. Canagliflozin was associated with a higher fracture incidence in an interim analysis of the CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study (CANVAS) in patients with a history or high risk of cardiovascular disease (incidence per 100 patient-years of 1.6, 1.6, and 1.1 with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg and placebo), but not in other clinical studies of patients with T2DM. Fractures tended to occur as early as 12 weeks after initiating treatment and were primarily located in the distal parts of the upper and lower extremities. The reason for increased fracture risk with canagliflozin treatment is unknown, but is likely not related to a direct effect of canagliflozin on bone-related biomarkers. Data from ongoing canagliflozin studies, including CANVAS, will

  11. Loratadine and analogues: discovery and preliminary structure-activity relationship of inhibitors of the amino acid transporter B(0)AT2.

    PubMed

    Cuboni, Serena; Devigny, Christian; Hoogeland, Bastiaan; Strasser, Andrea; Pomplun, Sebastian; Hauger, Barbara; Höfner, Georg; Wanner, Klaus T; Eder, Matthias; Buschauer, Armin; Holsboer, Florian; Hausch, Felix

    2014-11-26

    B(0)AT2, encoded by the SLC6A15 gene, is a transporter for neutral amino acids that has recently been implicated in mood and metabolic disorders. It is predominantly expressed in the brain, but little is otherwise known about its function. To identify inhibitors for this transporter, we screened a library of 3133 different bioactive compounds. Loratadine, a clinically used histamine H1 receptor antagonist, was identified as a selective inhibitor of B(0)AT2 with an IC50 of 4 μM while being less active or inactive against several other members of the SLC6 family. Reversible inhibition of B(0)AT2 was confirmed by electrophysiology. A series of loratadine analogues were synthesized to gain insight into the structure-activity relationships. Our studies provide the first chemical tool for B(0)AT2.

  12. Targeting Type 2 Diabetes with C-Glucosyl Dihydrochalcones as Selective Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jesus, Ana R; Vila-Viçosa, Diogo; Machuqueiro, Miguel; Marques, Ana P; Dore, Timothy M; Rauter, Amélia P

    2017-01-26

    Inhibiting glucose reabsorption by sodium glucose co-transporter proteins (SGLTs) in the kidneys is a relatively new strategy for treating type 2 diabetes. Selective inhibition of SGLT2 over SGLT1 is critical for minimizing adverse side effects associated with SGLT1 inhibition. A library of C-glucosyl dihydrochalcones and their dihydrochalcone and chalcone precursors was synthesized and tested as SGLT1/SGLT2 inhibitors using a cell-based fluorescence assay of glucose uptake. The most potent inhibitors of SGLT2 (IC50 = 9-23 nM) were considerably weaker inhibitors of SGLT1 (IC50 = 10-19 μM). They showed no effect on the sodium independent GLUT family of glucose transporters, and the most potent ones were not acutely toxic to cultured cells. The interaction of a C-glucosyl dihydrochalcone with a POPC membrane was modeled computationally, providing evidence that it is not a pan-assay interference compound. These results point toward the discovery of structures that are potent and highly selective inhibitors of SGLT2.

  13. A diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor, R59022, stimulates glucose transport through a MKK3/6-p38 signaling pathway in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Nagamine, Miho; Tanno, Satoshi; Motomura, Wataru; Kohgo, Yutaka; Okumura, Toshikatsu

    2007-08-17

    Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is one of lipid-regulating enzymes, catalyzes phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid. Because skeletal muscle, a major insulin-target organ for glucose disposal, expresses DGK, we investigated in the present study a role of DGK on glucose transport in skeletal muscle cells. PCR study showed that C2C12 myotubes expressed DGKalpha, delta, epsilon, zeta, or theta isoform mRNA. R59022, a specific inhibitor of DGK, significantly increased glucose transport, p38 and MKK3/6 activation in C2C12 myotubes. The R59022-induced glucose transport was blocked by SB203580, a specific p38 inhibitor. In contrast, R59022 failed to stimulate both possible known mechanisms to enhance glucose transport, an IRS1-PI3K-Akt pathway, muscle contraction signaling or GLUT1 and 4 expression. All these results suggest that DGK may play a role in glucose transport in the skeletal muscle cells through modulating a MKK3/6-p38 signaling pathway.

  14. Increasing influence of the glutamate transporter inhibitor on glutamate release in low [Na +] media under extremal conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, T.; Krisanova, N.; Himmelreich, N.

    The effect of the competitive nontransportable inhibitor DL-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartate DL-TBOA on the release of glutamate in Ca 2 -free Na - and NMDG-supplemented media was evaluated after exposure of rats to extremal conditions 6 min incubation of synaptosomes with 10 mu M DL-TBOA in low Na media resulted in the increase in extracellular L- 14 C glutamate level for control animals by 2 0 pm 0 5 of total accumulated label and 100 mu M DL-TBOA - 3 5 pm 0 5 respectively The experimental data for animals subjected to centrifuge-induced hypergravity showed 4 0 pm 1 0 and 9 0 pm 2 0 increase in L- 14 C glutamate level for 10 mu M and 100 mu M DL-TBOA respectively D le 0 05 The enhancement of the extracellular level of L- 14 C glutamate after application of DL-TBOA would be expected to connect with the inhibition of L- 14 C glutamate uptake process It appears that DL-TBOA inhibited uptake more potently after hypergravity The effect of DL-TBOA on depolarization-induced carrier-mediated L- 14 C glutamate release increased after hypergravity loading in Na - and low Na NMDG- supplemented media 10 mu M DL-TBOA-induced decrease in L- 14 C glutamate release in Na - supplemented medium was 15 2 pm 2 2 in the control experiments and 26 2 pm 3 9 after loading D le 0 05 and in low Na medium was 37 0 pm 2 5 and 45 0 pm 3 4 respectively DL-TBOA was demonstrated to better inhibit the transporter-mediated

  15. A Role for Accumbal Glycine Receptors in Modulation of Dopamine Release by the Glycine Transporter-1 Inhibitor Org25935

    PubMed Central

    Lidö, Helga Höifödt; Ericson, Mia; Marston, Hugh; Söderpalm, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Accumbal glycine modulates basal and ethanol-induced dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (nAc) as well as voluntary ethanol consumption. Also, systemic administration of the glycine transporter-1 inhibitor Org25935 elevates dopamine levels in nAc, prevents a further ethanol-induced dopamine elevation and robustly and dose-dependently decreases ethanol consumption in rats. Here we investigated whether Org25935 applied locally in nAc modulates dopamine release, and whether accumbal glycine receptors or NMDA receptors are involved in this tentative effect. We also addressed whether Org25935 and ethanol applied locally in nAc interact with dopamine levels, as seen after systemic administration. We used in vivo microdialysis coupled to HPLC-ED in freely moving male Wistar rats to monitor dopamine output in nAc after local perfusion of Org25935 alone, with ethanol, or Org25935-perfusion after pre-treatment with the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine or the NMDA receptor glycine site antagonist L-701.324. Local Org25935 increased extracellular dopamine levels in a subpopulation of rats. Local strychnine, but not systemic L-701.324, antagonized the dopamine-activating effect of Org25935. Ethanol failed to induce a dopamine overflow in the subpopulation responding to Org25935 with a dopamine elevation. The study supports a role for accumbal glycine receptors rather than NMDA receptor signaling in the dopamine-activating effect of Org25935. The results further indicate that the previously reported systemic Org25935–ethanol interaction with regard to accumbal dopamine is localized to the nAc. This adds to the growing evidence for the glycine receptor as an important player in the dopamine reward circuitry and in ethanol's effects within this system. PMID:21556278

  16. Interaction of the EGFR inhibitors gefitinib, vandetanib, pelitinib and neratinib with the ABCG2 multidrug transporter: implications for the emergence and reversal of cancer drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Hegedüs, Csilla; Truta-Feles, Krisztina; Antalffy, Géza; Várady, György; Német, Katalin; Ozvegy-Laczka, Csilla; Kéri, György; Orfi, László; Szakács, Gergely; Settleman, Jeffrey; Váradi, András; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2012-08-01

    Human ABCG2 is a plasma membrane glycoprotein that provides physiological protection against xenobiotics. ABCG2 also significantly influences biodistribution of drugs through pharmacological tissue barriers and confers multidrug resistance to cancer cells. Moreover, ABCG2 is the molecular determinant of the side population that is characteristically enriched in normal and cancer stem cells. Numerous tumors depend on unregulated EGFR signaling, thus inhibition of this receptor by small molecular weight inhibitors such as gefitinib, and the novel second generation agents vandetanib, pelitinib and neratinib, is a promising therapeutic option. In the present study, we provide detailed biochemical characterization regarding the interaction of these EGFR inhibitors with ABCG2. We show that ABCG2 confers resistance to gefitinib and pelitinib, whereas the intracellular action of vandetanib and neratinib is unaltered by the presence of the transporter. At higher concentrations, however, all these EGFR inhibitors inhibit ABCG2 function, thereby promoting accumulation of ABCG2 substrate drugs. We also report enhanced expression of ABCG2 in gefitinib-resistant non-small cell lung cancer cells, suggesting potential clinical relevance of ABCG2 in acquired drug resistance. Since ABCG2 has important impact on both the pharmacological properties and anti-cancer efficiencies of drugs, our results regarding the novel EGFR inhibitors should provide useful information about their therapeutic applicability against ABCG2-expressing cancer cells depending on EGFR signaling. In addition, the finding that these EGFR inhibitors efficiently block ABCG2 function may help to design novel drug-combination therapeutic strategies.

  17. The influence of donor and reservoir additives on Caco-2 permeability and secretory transport of HIV protease inhibitors and other lipophilic compounds.

    PubMed

    Aungst, B J; Nguyen, N H; Bulgarelli, J P; Oates-Lenz, K

    2000-10-01

    To optimize the conditions for determining Caco-2 permeation of HIV protease inhibitors and other lipophilic compounds, and to compare cyclic urea HIV protease inhibitors with marketed compounds. Absorptive and secretory Caco-2 membrane permeation studies were performed with HIV protease inhibitors and various reference compounds, examining the effects of adding the solubilizing agents dimethylacetamide (DMAC) and albumin in donor and reservoir compartments, respectively. DMAC was useful as an additive in the donor vehicles, increasing the dissolved concentrations of poorly water-soluble HIV protease inhibitors, and enabling more reliable determination of P(app) values. Donor vehicles containing up to 5% DMAC could be used without altering Caco-2 barrier function, as indicated by the lack of effect on permeabilities of reference compounds with diverse absorption characteristics. The utilization of a reservoir containing albumin resulted in marked increases in absorptive Papp values for some HIV protease inhibitors as well as other lipophilic, highly protein bound compounds, consistent with albumin increasing the release of these compounds from the cell monolayer. Poorly soluble, lipophilic, highly bound compounds may require using solubilizing agents in the donor and reservoir compartments of Caco-2 permeation experiments for estimating in vivo absorption potential. If the reservoir does not provide adequate sink conditions, cellular retention could over-emphasize the contributions of secretory transport. The cyclic ureas, DMP 450, DMP 850, and DMP 851, have Caco-2 permeabilities suggestive of moderate-to-high oral absorption potential in humans.

  18. Sodium glucose co-transport 2 inhibitors in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of randomized double-blind controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The discovery of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, with a novel mechanism independent of insulin secretion or sensitization, bring about a new therapeutic approach to the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors at different doses in randomized double blind clinical trials. Methods This meta-analysis was conducted by including randomized double-blind controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes irrespective of their antidiabetic drug exposure history but with an inadequate glycemic control. All the effect sizes were computed using the random effects model. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) and odds ratios (OR) were computed for continuous and dichotomous variables, respectively. Additional analyses like sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis and meta-regression were also performed. Results The pooled analyses demonstrated a significant reduction in mean changes in Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (SMD = −0.78%, 95% CI, -0.87 to −0.69), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (SMD = −0.70 mg/dl, 95% CI, -0.79 to −0.61), body weight (overall SMD = −0.59 kg, 95% CI, -0.65 to −0.52) and blood pressure from baseline with SGLT2 inhibitors based therapy. Consistently a significant number of patients treated with SGLT2 inhibitors achieved HbA1c < 7% (OR = 2.09, 95% CI, 1.77 to 2.46). SGLT2 inhibitors based therapy was associated with adverse events like genital and urinary tract infections. Conclusion All studied doses of SGLT2 inhibitors, either as monotherapy or in combination with other antidiabetic agents, consistently improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, a small percentage of patients suffer from genital and urinary tract infections. PMID:24341330

  19. Interactions Between Anandamide and Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Signaling Modulate Human Amygdala Function and Risk for Anxiety Disorders: An Imaging Genetics Strategy for Modeling Molecular Interactions.

    PubMed

    Demers, Catherine H; Drabant Conley, Emily; Bogdan, Ryan; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2016-09-01

    Preclinical models reveal that stress-induced amygdala activity and impairment in fear extinction reflect reductions in anandamide driven by corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRF1) potentiation of the anandamide catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase. Here, we provide clinical translation for the importance of these molecular interactions using an imaging genetics strategy to examine whether interactions between genetic polymorphisms associated with differential anandamide (FAAH rs324420) and CRF1 (CRHR1 rs110402) signaling modulate amygdala function and anxiety disorder diagnosis. Analyses revealed that individuals with a genetic background predicting relatively high anandamide and CRF1 signaling exhibited blunted basolateral amygdala habituation, which further mediated increased risk for anxiety disorders among these same individuals. The convergence of preclinical and clinical data suggests that interactions between anandamide and CRF1 represent a fundamental molecular mechanism regulating amygdala function and anxiety. Our results further highlight the potential of imaging genetics to powerfully translate complex preclinical findings to clinically meaningful human phenotypes. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High-affinity nitrate/nitrite transporters NrtA and NrtB of Aspergillus nidulans exhibit high specificity and different inhibitor sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Naureen; Karabika, Eugenia; Kinghorn, James R.; Glass, Anthony D.M.; Unkles, Shiela E.

    2015-01-01

    The NrtA and NrtB nitrate transporters are paralogous members of the major facilitator superfamily in Aspergillus nidulans. The availability of loss-of-function mutations allowed individual investigation of the specificity and inhibitor sensitivity of both NrtA and NrtB. In this study, growth response tests were carried out at a growth-limiting concentration of nitrate (1 mM) as the sole nitrogen source, in the presence of a number of potential nitrate analogues at various concentrations, to evaluate their effect on nitrate transport. Both chlorate and chlorite inhibited fungal growth, with chlorite exerting the greater inhibition. The main transporter of nitrate, NrtA, proved to be more sensitive to chlorate than the minor transporter, NrtB. Similarly, the cation caesium was shown to exert differential effects, strongly inhibiting the activity of NrtB, but not NrtA. In contrast, no inhibition of nitrate uptake by NrtA or NrtB transporters was observed in either growth tests or uptake assays in the presence of bicarbonate, formate, malonate or oxalate (sulphite could not be tested in uptake assays owing to its reaction with nitrate), indicating significant specificity of nitrate transport. Kinetic analyses of nitrate uptake revealed that both chlorate and chlorite inhibited NrtA competitively, while these same inhibitors inhibited NrtB in a non-competitive fashion. The caesium ion appeared to inhibit NrtA in a non-competitive fashion, while NrtB was inhibited uncompetitively. The results provide further evidence of the distinctly different characteristics as well as the high specificity of nitrate uptake by these two transporters. PMID:25855763

  1. Direct Anandamide Activation of TRPV1 Produces Divergent Calcium and Current Responses.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Axel J; Fowler, Daniel K; Wu, Shaw-Wen; Shaffer, Forrest J; Lindberg, Jonathan E M; Kinch, Dallas C; Peters, James H

    2017-01-01

    In the brainstem nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), primary vagal afferent neurons express the transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) at their central terminals where it contributes to quantal forms of glutamate release. The endogenous membrane lipid anandamide (AEA) is a putative TRPV1 agonist in the brain, yet the extent to which AEA activation of TRPV1 has a neurophysiological consequence is not well established. We investigated the ability of AEA to activate TRPV1 in vagal afferent neurons in comparison to capsaicin (CAP). Using ratiometric calcium imaging and whole-cell patch clamp recordings we confirmed that AEA excitatory activity requires TRPV1, binds competitively at the CAP binding site, and has low relative affinity. While AEA-induced increases in peak cytosolic calcium were similar to CAP, AEA-induced membrane currents were significantly smaller. Removal of bath calcium increased the AEA current with no change in peak CAP currents revealing a calcium sensitive difference in specific ligand activation of TRPV1. Both CAP- and AEA-activated TRPV1 currents maintained identical reversal potentials, arguing against a major difference in ion selectivity to resolve the AEA differences in signaling. In contrast with CAP, AEA did not alter spontaneous glutamate release at NTS synapses. We conclude: (1) AEA activation of TRPV1 is markedly different from CAP and produces different magnitudes of calcium influx from whole-cell current; and (2) exogenous AEA does not alter spontaneous glutamate release onto NTS neurons. As such, AEA may convey modulatory changes to calcium-dependent processes, but does not directly facilitate glutamate release.

  2. Emotional, endocrine and brain anandamide response to social challenge in infant male rats.

    PubMed

    Marco, Eva M; Scattoni, Maria Luisa; Rapino, Cinzia; Ceci, Chiara; Chaves, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Maccarrone, Mauro; Laviola, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    Individual response to stress is orchestrated by hypothalamus-pituitary axis corticosteroids, although critically modulated by the central endocannabinoid (eCB) system. Whilst the role of the eCB system in stress response and emotional homeostasis in adult animals has been extensively studied, it has only been scarcely investigated in developing animals. Herein, we aimed to investigate the participation of eCB ligands in the stress responses of neonate rats. Twelve days-old Wistar male rats were exposed to a social challenge (repeated brief isolations from dam and littermates), which resulted in a significant increase in serum corticosterone levels. This stressful social challenge also decreased spontaneous rat pups' behaviours and augmented isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations. Notably, a specific decrease in anandamide content (not 2-AG) was observed within the hippocampus (not in the striatum). However, the enhancement of eCB signalling by URB597 administration (0.1mg/kg) did not affect the adrenocortical and behavioural responses to this postnatal social challenge. The influence of gestational stress was also evaluated in the infant offspring of rats dams exposed to restraint stress (PRS, three episodes/day, on gestation days 14 till delivery); however, PRS did not modify neonate responses to this postnatal challenge. Present findings provide evidence for the participation of the eCB system in the acute response to a social challenge in infant male rats. However, the lack of evidences from the pharmacological study encourages the investigation of alternative and/or indirect mechanisms that may participate in the behavioural and endocrine response to stress in developing animals. Further experiments are still needed to clarify the interactions between the HPA axis and the eCB system in stress reactivity at early postnatal stages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and endogenous cannabinoid anandamide directly potentiate the function of glycine receptors.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, Nadia; Zhou, Chunyi; Oz, Murat; Sun, Hui; Ye, Jiang Hong; Zhang, Li

    2006-03-01

    Anandamide (AEA) and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are endogenous and exogenous ligands, respectively, for cannabinoid receptors. Whereas most of the pharmacological actions of cannabinoids are mediated by CB1 receptors, there is also evidence that these compounds can produce effects that are not mediated by the activation of identified cannabinoid receptors. Here, we report that THC and AEA, in a CB1 receptor-independent manner, cause a significant potentiation of the amplitudes of glycine-activated currents (I(Gly)) in acutely isolated neurons from rat ventral tegmental area (VTA) and in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing human homomeric (alpha1) and heteromeric (alpha1beta1) subunits of glycine receptors (GlyRs). The potentiation of I(Gly) by THC and AEA is concentration-dependent, with respective EC50 values of 86 +/- 9 and 319 +/- 31 nM for alpha1 homomeric receptors, 73 +/- 8 and 318 +/- 24 nM for alpha1beta1 heteromeric receptors, and 115 +/- 13 and 230 +/- 29 nM for native GlyRs in VTA neurons. The effects of THC and AEA are selective for I(Gly), because GABA-activated current in VTA neurons or in X. laevis oocytes expressing alpha2beta3gamma2 GABA(A) receptor subunits were unaffected by these compounds. The maximal potentiation by THC and AEA was observed at the lowest concentration of glycine; with increasing concentrations of glycine, the potentiation significantly decreased. The site for THC and AEA seems to be distinct from that of the alcohol and volatile anesthetics. The results indicate that THC and AEA, in pharmacologically relevant concentrations, directly potentiate the function of GlyRs through an allosteric mechanism.

  4. Dietary linoleic acid elevates endogenous 2-AG and anandamide and induces obesity.

    PubMed

    Alvheim, Anita R; Malde, Marian K; Osei-Hyiaman, Douglas; Lin, Yu Hong; Pawlosky, Robert J; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Frøyland, Livar; Hibbeln, Joseph R

    2012-10-01

    Suppressing hyperactive endocannabinoid tone is a critical target for reducing obesity. The backbone of both endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA) is the ω-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA). Here we posited that excessive dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA), the precursor of AA, would induce endocannabinoid hyperactivity and promote obesity. LA was isolated as an independent variable to reflect the dietary increase in LA from 1 percent of energy (en%) to 8 en% occurring in the United States during the 20th century. Mice were fed diets containing 1 en% LA, 8 en% LA, and 8 en% LA + 1 en% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in medium-fat diets (35 en% fat) and high-fat diets (60 en%) for 14 weeks from weaning. Increasing LA from 1 en% to 8 en% elevated AA-phospholipids (PL) in liver and erythrocytes, tripled 2-AG + 1-AG and AEA associated with increased food intake, feed efficiency, and adiposity in mice. Reducing AA-PL by adding 1 en% long-chain ω-3 fats to 8 en% LA diets resulted in metabolic patterns resembling 1 en% LA diets. Selectively reducing LA to 1 en% reversed the obesogenic properties of a 60 en% fat diet. These animal diets modeled 20th century increases of human LA consumption, changes that closely correlate with increasing prevalence rates of obesity. In summary, dietary LA increased tissue AA, and subsequently elevated 2-AG + 1-AG and AEA resulting in the development of diet-induced obesity. The adipogenic effect of LA can be prevented by consuming sufficient EPA and DHA to reduce the AA-PL pool and normalize endocannabinoid tone.

  5. The Volitional Nature of Nicotine Exposure Alters Anandamide and Oleoylethanolamide Levels in the Ventral Tegmental Area

    PubMed Central

    Buczynski, Matthew W; Polis, Ilham Y; Parsons, Loren H

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoid-1 receptors (CB1) have an important role in nicotine reward and their function is disrupted by chronic nicotine exposure, suggesting nicotine-induced alterations in endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling. However, the effects of nicotine on brain eCB levels have not been rigorously evaluated. Volitional intake of nicotine produces physiological and behavioral effects distinct from forced drug administration, although the mechanisms underlying these effects are not known. This study compared the effects of volitional nicotine self-administration (SA) and forced nicotine exposure (yoked administration (YA)) on levels of eCBs and related neuroactive lipids in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and other brain regions. Brain lipid levels were indexed both by in vivo microdialysis in the VTA and lipid extractions from brain tissues. Nicotine SA, but not YA, reduced baseline VTA dialysate oleoylethanolamide (OEA) levels relative to nicotine-naïve controls, and increased anandamide (AEA) release during nicotine intake. In contrast, all nicotine exposure paradigms increased VTA dialysate 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) levels. Thus, nicotine differentially modulates brain lipid (2-AG, AEA, and OEA) signaling, and these modulations are influenced by the volitional nature of the drug exposure. Corresponding bulk tissue analysis failed to identify these lipid changes. Nicotine exposure had no effect on fatty acid amide hydrolase activity in the VTA, suggesting that changes in AEA and OEA signaling result from alterations in their nicotine-induced biosynthesis. Both CB1 (by AEA and 2-AG) and non-CB1 (by OEA) targets can alter the excitability and activity of the dopaminergic neurons in the VTA. Collectively, these findings implicate disrupted lipid signaling in the motivational effects of nicotine. PMID:23169348

  6. The volitional nature of nicotine exposure alters anandamide and oleoylethanolamide levels in the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Buczynski, Matthew W; Polis, Ilham Y; Parsons, Loren H

    2013-03-01

    Cannabinoid-1 receptors (CB(1)) have an important role in nicotine reward and their function is disrupted by chronic nicotine exposure, suggesting nicotine-induced alterations in endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling. However, the effects of nicotine on brain eCB levels have not been rigorously evaluated. Volitional intake of nicotine produces physiological and behavioral effects distinct from forced drug administration, although the mechanisms underlying these effects are not known. This study compared the effects of volitional nicotine self-administration (SA) and forced nicotine exposure (yoked administration (YA)) on levels of eCBs and related neuroactive lipids in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and other brain regions. Brain lipid levels were indexed both by in vivo microdialysis in the VTA and lipid extractions from brain tissues. Nicotine SA, but not YA, reduced baseline VTA dialysate oleoylethanolamide (OEA) levels relative to nicotine-naïve controls, and increased anandamide (AEA) release during nicotine intake. In contrast, all nicotine exposure paradigms increased VTA dialysate 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) levels. Thus, nicotine differentially modulates brain lipid (2-AG, AEA, and OEA) signaling, and these modulations are influenced by the volitional nature of the drug exposure. Corresponding bulk tissue analysis failed to identify these lipid changes. Nicotine exposure had no effect on fatty acid amide hydrolase activity in the VTA, suggesting that changes in AEA and OEA signaling result from alterations in their nicotine-induced biosynthesis. Both CB(1) (by AEA and 2-AG) and non-CB(1) (by OEA) targets can alter the excitability and activity of the dopaminergic neurons in the VTA. Collectively, these findings implicate disrupted lipid signaling in the motivational effects of nicotine.

  7. Evidence for a role of human organic anion transporters in the muscular side effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Michio; Noshiro, Rie; Onozato, Maristela Lika; Tojo, Akihiro; Hasannejad, Habib; Huang, Xiu-Lin; Narikawa, Shinichi; Endou, Hitoshi

    2004-01-12

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of human organic anion transporters (human OATs) in the induction of drug-induced skeletal muscle abnormalities. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors have been clinically used for lowering plasma cholesterol levels, and are known to induce various forms of skeletal muscle abnormalities including myopathy and rhabdomyolysis. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that human OAT1 and human OAT3 are localized in the cytoplasmic membrane of the human skeletal muscles. The activities of human OATs were measured using mouse cell lines from renal proximal tubules stably expressing human OATs. Human OAT3, but not human OAT1, mediates the transport of pravastatin. Fluvastatin inhibited organic anion uptake mediated by human OAT1 in a mixture of competitive and noncompetitive manner, whereas simvastatin and fluvastatin noncompetitively inhibited the organic anion uptake mediated by human OAT3. In conclusion, the organic anion transporters OAT1 and OAT3 are localized in the cytoplasmic membrane of human skeletal muscles. Pravastatin, simvasatin, and fluvasatin inhibit human OATs activity. These results suggest that muscle organic anion transporters play a role in the muscular side effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors.

  8. Vascular effects of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), anandamide and N-arachidonoyldopamine (NADA) in the rat isolated aorta.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Saoirse E; Kendall, David A; Randall, Michael D

    2005-01-10

    The vascular effects of cannabinoids have been compared in the rat isolated aorta. Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), anandamide and N-arachidonoyl-dopamine (NADA) all caused vasorelaxation to similar degrees in pre-constricted aortae. Vasorelaxation to THC was inhibited by in vivo pre-treatment with pertussis toxin (10 microg/kg) or with the synthetic cannabinoid CP55,940 (((-)-cis-3-[2-hydroxy-4-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)phenyl]-trans-4-(3-hydroxypropyl)cyclohexanol), acutely or chronically), exposure to capsaicin in vitro (10 microM for 1 h), and de-endothelialisation. Vasorelaxation to anandamide was only inhibited by pertussis toxin and chronic CP55,940 pre-treatment (0.4 mg/kg for 11 days). Vasorelaxation to NADA was inhibited by pertussis toxin and chronic CP55,940 pre-treatment, and by de-endothelialisation. The vasorelaxant effects of the cannabinoids were not inhibited by cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonism; however, vasorelaxation to both CP55,940 and THC was inhibited by cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonism. Vasorelaxation to all cannabinoids was enhanced in the presence of indomethacin (10 microM). THC also caused vasoconstriction of the aorta while anandamide, NADA, CP55,940 and WIN 55,212-2 (R(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-[(morpholinyl)methyl]pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4benzoxazin-yl]-(1-naphthalenyl)methanone mesylate) did not. The vasoconstrictor effects of THC were inhibited by in vivo pre-treatment with pertussis toxin or CP55,940, acute exposure to CP55,940, cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonism and cyclooxygenase inhibition. These results demonstrate the opposing vascular effects of cannabinoids in the rat aorta, and although vasorelaxation to each of the cannabinoids is of similar magnitude, it is mediated through different pathways. This gives further indication of the different vascular actions of cannabinoid compounds.

  9. Dopaminergic augmentation of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) discrimination: possible involvement of D2-induced formation of anandamide

    PubMed Central

    Solinas, Marcello; Tanda, Gianluigi; Wertheim, Carrie E.; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Rational Although THC-induced elevations in accumbal dopamine levels are believed to play an important role in the abuse-related effects of cannabis, little direct evidence has been provided that the dopaminergic system is involved in the psychotropic effects of THC. Objectives To investigate whether drugs activating or blocking the dopaminergic system modulate the discriminative effects of THC. Methods and Results In rats that had learned to discriminate 3 mg/kg of THC from vehicle injections, the indirect dopaminergic agonists cocaine and amphetamine, the D1-receptor agonist SKF-38393, and the D2-receptor agonists quinpirole and apomorphine did not produce significant THC-like discriminative effects. However, both cocaine and amphetamine and D2-, but not the D1-, receptor agonists, augmented THC discrimination. Neither the D1-receptor antagonist SCH-23390 nor the D2-receptor antagonist raclopride reduced the discriminative effects of THC, even at doses that significantly depressed baseline operant responding. However, the D2-, but not the D1-, antagonist counteracted the augmentation of THC’s discriminative effects produced by cocaine and amphetamine. We hypothesized that release of anandamide by activation of D2 receptors was responsible for the observed augmentation of THC discrimination. This hypothesis was supported by two findings. First, the cannabinoid CB1-receptor antagonist rimonabant blocked quinpirole-induced augmentation of THC discrimination. Second, inhibition of anandamide degradation by blockade of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) augmented the THC-like effects of quinpirole. Conclusions Dopamine does not play a major role in THC discrimination. However, activation of the dopaminergic system positively modulates the discriminative effects of THC, possibly through D2-induced elevations in brain levels of anandamide. PMID:20179908

  10. A novel class of apical sodium--dependent bile salt transporter inhibitors: 1-(2,4-bifluorophenyl)-7-dialkylamino-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxamides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongtao; Pang, Guoxun; Ren, Jinfeng; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Juxian

    2017-03-01

    The apical sodium--dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) is the main transporter to promote re-absorption of bile acids from the intestinal tract into the enterohepatic circulation. Inhibition of ASBT could increase the excretion of bile acids, thus increasing bile acid synthesis and consequently cholesterol consumption. Therefore, ASBT is an attractive target for developing new cholesterol-lowering drugs. In this report, a series of 1-(2,4-bifluorophenyl)-7-dialkylamino-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxamides were designed as inhibitors of ASBT. Most of them demonstrated potency against ASBT transport of bile acids. In particular, compound 4a1 was found to have the best activity, resulting in 80.1% inhibition of ASBT at 10 μmol/L.

  11. The role of hepatic transport and metabolism in the interactions between pravastatin or repaglinide and two rOatp inhibitors in rats.

    PubMed

    Badolo, Lassina; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Garmer, Mats; Jensen, Bente

    2013-07-16

    A change in the function or expression of hepatic drug transporters may have significant effect on the efficacy or safety of orally administered drugs. Although a number of clinical drug-drug interactions associated with hepatic transport proteins have been reported, in practice it is not always straightforward to discriminate other pathways (e.g. drug metabolism) from being involved in these interactions. The present study was designed to assess the interactions between organic anion transporting polypeptide (Oatp) substrates (pravastatin or repaglinide) and inhibitors (spironolactone or diphenhydramine) in vivo in rats. The mechanisms behind the interactions were then investigated using in vitro tools (isolated hepatocytes and rat liver microsomes). The results showed a significant increase in the systemic exposures of pravastatin (2.5-fold increase in AUC) and repaglinide (1.8-fold increase in AUC) after co-administration of spironolactone to rats. Diphenhydramine increased the AUC of repaglinide by 1.4-fold. The in vivo interactions observed in rats between Oatp substrates and inhibitors may a priori be classified as transport-mediated drug-drug interactions. However, mechanistic studies performed in vitro using both isolated rat hepatocytes and rat liver microsomes showed that the interaction between pravastatin and spironolactone may be solely linked to the inhibition of pravastatin uptake in liver. On the contrary, the inhibition of cytochrome P450 seemed to be the reason for the interactions observed between repaglinide and spironolactone. Although the function and structure of transport proteins may vary between rats and humans, the approach used in the present study can be applied to humans and help to understand the role of drug transport and drug metabolism in a given drug-drug interaction. This is important to predict and mitigate the risk of drug-drug interactions for a candidate drug in pre-clinical development, it is also important for the optimal

  12. Potent inhibitors of human LAT1 (SLC7A5) transporter based on dithiazole and dithiazine compounds for development of anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Lara; Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Koyioni, Maria; Koutentis, Panayiotis; Catto, Marco; Eberini, Ivano; Parravicini, Chiara; Palazzolo, Luca; Pisani, Leonardo; Galluccio, Michele; Console, Lara; Carotti, Angelo; Indiveri, Cesare

    2017-11-01

    The LAT1 transporter is acknowledged as a pharmacological target of tumours since it is strongly overexpressed in many human cancers. The purpose of this work was to find novel compounds exhibiting potent and prolonged inhibition of the transporter. To this aim, compounds based on dithiazole and dithiazine scaffold have been screened in the proteoliposome experimental model. Inhibition was tested on the antiport catalysed by hLAT1 as transport of extraliposomal [(3)H]histidine in exchange with intraliposomal histidine. Out of 59 compounds tested, 8 compounds, showing an inhibition higher than 90% at 100µM concentration, were subjected to dose-response analysis. Two of them exhibited IC50 lower than 1µM. Inhibition kinetics, performed on the two best inhibitors, indicated a mixed type of inhibition with respect to the substrate. Furthermore, inhibition of the transporter was still present after removal of the compounds from the reaction mixture, but was reversed on addition of dithioerythritol, a S-S reducing agent, indicating the formation of disulfide(s) between the compounds and the protein. Molecular docking of the two best inhibitors on the hLAT1 homology structural model, highlighted interaction with the substrate binding site and formation of a covalent bond with the residue C407. Indeed, the inhibition was impaired in the hLAT1 mutant C407A confirming the involvement of that Cys residue. Treatment of SiHa cells expressing hLAT1 at relatively high level, with the two most potent inhibitors led to cell death which was not observed after treatment with a compound exhibiting very poor inhibitory effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Interactions of human P-glycoprotein transport substrates and inhibitors at the drug binding domain: Functional and molecular docking analyses.

    PubMed

    Kadioglu, Onat; Saeed, Mohamed E M; Valoti, Massimo; Frosini, Maria; Sgaragli, Giampietro; Efferth, Thomas

    2016-03-15

    Rhodamine 123 (R123) transport substrate sensitizes P-glycoprotein (P-gp) to inhibition by compound 2c (cis-cis) N,N-bis(cyclohexanolamine)aryl ester isomer in a concentration-dependent manner in human MDR1-gene transfected mouse T-lymphoma L5178 cells as shown previously. By contrast, epirubicin (EPI) concentration changes left unaltered 2c IC50 values of EPI efflux. To clarify this discrepancy, defined molecular docking (DMD) analyses of 12 N,N-bis(cyclohexanolamine)aryl esters, the highly flexible aryl ester analog 4, and several P-gp substrate/non-substrate inhibitors were performed on human P-gp drug- or nucleotide-binding domains (DBD or NBD). DMD measurements yielded lowest binding energy (LBE, kcal/mol) values (mean ± SD) ranging from -11.8 ± 0.54 (valspodar) to -3.98 ± 0.01 (4). Lys234, Ser952 and Tyr953 residues formed H-bonds with most of the compounds. Only 2c docked also at ATP binding site (LBE value of -6.9 ± 0.30 kcal/mol). Inhibition of P-gp-mediated R123 efflux by 12 N,N-bis(cyclohexanolamine)aryl esters and 4 significantly correlated with LBE values. DMD analysis of EPI, (3)H-1EPI, (3)H-2EPI, (14)C-1EPI, (14)C-2EPI, R123 and 2c before and after previous docking of each of them indicated that pre-docking of either 2c or EPI significantly reduced LBE of both EPI and R123, and that of both (3)H-2EPI and (14)C-2EPI, respectively. Since the clusters of DBD amino acid residues interacting with EPI were different, if EPI docked alone or after pre-docking of EPI or 2c, the existence of alternative secondary binding site for EPI on P-gp is credible. In conclusion, 2c may allocate the drug-binding pocket and reduce strong binding of EPI and R123 in agreement with P-gp inhibition experiments, where 2c reduced efflux of EPI and R123.

  14. A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Phase IIb Trial of A3309, A Bile Acid Transporter Inhibitor, for Chronic Idiopathic Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Chey, William D; Camilleri, Michael; Chang, Lin; Rikner, Leif; Graffner, Hans

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A3309 is a minimally absorbed ileal bile acid (BA) transporter (IBAT) inhibitor. We conducted an 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, phase IIb study, which evaluated A3309 in patients with chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC). METHODS: Patients with CIC (modified Rome III criteria and <3 complete (CSBM) spontaneous bowel movements (SBMs)/week during the 2-week baseline) were randomized to 5, 10, or 15 mg A3309 or placebo once daily. The primary end point was change in SBM number during week 1 compared with baseline. Other bowel and abdominal symptoms were assessed as secondary end points. Serum 7αC4 and lipids were evaluated as biomarkers of BA synthesis/loss. RESULTS: In all, 190 patients (mean 48 years, 90% female) were randomized. Mean increase (95% confidence interval) in SBM for week 1 were 1.7 (0.7–2.8) for placebo vs. 2.5 (1.5–3.5), 4.0 (2.9–5.0), and 5.4 (4.4–6.4) for 5 mg, 10 mg (P<0.002), and 15 mg (P<0.001) A3309, respectively. Increased stool frequency was maintained over 8 weeks. Time to first SBM and CSBM were significantly reduced in the 10- and 15-mg A3309 groups compared with placebo. Straining and bloating decreased with A3309 compared with placebo (P<0.05). Increased 7αC4 and reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with A3309 suggested increased BA synthesis and BA loss. The most common adverse events (AEs) were abdominal pain and diarrhea, which occurred most commonly in the 15-mg A3309 group. No drug-related serious AEs were observed. CONCLUSIONS: A3309 increased stool frequency and improved constipation-related symptoms in CIC; effects were maintained over 8 weeks of treatment. PMID:21606974

  15. Sperm Release From the Oviductal Epithelium Depends on Ca(2+) Influx Upon Activation of CB1 and TRPV1 by Anandamide.

    PubMed

    Gervasi, M G; Osycka-Salut, C; Sanchez, T; Alonso, C A I; Llados, C; Castellano, L; Franchi, A M; Villalón, M; Perez-Martinez, S

    2016-02-01

    The oviduct acts as a functional sperm reservoir in many mammalian species. Both binding and release of spermatozoa from the oviductal epithelium are mainly modulated by sperm capacitation. Several molecules from oviductal fluid are involved in the regulation of sperm function. Anandamide is a lipid mediator involved in reproductive physiology. Previously, we demonstrated that anandamide, through activation of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1), promotes sperm release from bovine oviductal epithelial cells, and through CB1 and the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), induces sperm capacitation. Herein we investigate co-activation between CB1 and TRPV1, and Ca(2+) influx as part of the mechanism of action of anandamide during sperm release from oviductal cells. Our results indicate that in the absence of Ca(2+) anandamide failed to release spermatozoa from oviductal epithelial cells. Additionally, sperm release promoted by cannabinoid and vanilloid agonists was abolished when the spermatozoa were preloaded with BAPTA-AM, a Ca(2+) chelator. We also determined Ca(2+) levels in spermatozoa preloaded with FURA2-AM co-cultured with oviductal cells and incubated with different cannabinoid and vanilloid agonists. The incubation with different agonists induced Ca(2+) influx, which was abolished by CB1 or TRPV1 antagonists. Our results also suggest that a phospholypase C (PLC) might mediate the activation of CB1 and TRPV1 in sperm release from the bovine oviduct. Therefore, our findings indicate that anandamide, through CB1 and TRPV1 activation, is involved in sperm release from the oviductal reservoir. An increase of sperm Ca(2+) levels and the PLC activation might be involved in anandamide signaling pathway.

  16. y+ LAT-1 mediates transport of the potent and selective iNOS inhibitor, GW274150, in control J774 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Baydoun, A R; Bertran, J; Thakur, S; Dawson, J; Palacín, M; Knowles, R G

    2006-09-01

    This study has characterised the transport mechanism(s) for the novel and selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), GW274150, in murine macrophage J774 cells. Transport of GW274150 was saturable (K(m) = 0.24 +/- 0.01 mM and V(max) of 8.5 +/- 0.12 pmol.microg protein(-1) min(-1)), pH-insensitive and largely Na(+)-independent. Transport was also susceptible to trans-stimulation and was significantly inhibited by a 10-fold excess of L-arginine, L-lysine, L-leucine, L-methionine, L-glutamine and 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine but not by other amino acids or by N-ethylmaleimide. More importantly, the inhibitions caused by the neutral amino acids were critically dependent on Na(+). These results strongly implicate system y(+)L in the transport of GW274150. Northern blot analysis confirmed this by revealing the presence of transcripts for y(+)LAT-1 but not y(+)LAT-2. Thus, taken together, our data show for the first time that J774 macrophages express y(+)LAT-1 transporters and that these carriers mediate transport of GW2741500 at least in these cells.

  17. TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation outline: transport principles, effective solubility; gasoline composition; and field examples (plume diving).
    Presentation conclusions: MTBE transport follows from - phyiscal and chemical properties and hydrology. Field examples show: MTBE plumes > benzene plu...

  18. The transport of cationic amino acids in human airway cells: expression of system y+L activity and transepithelial delivery of NOS inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rotoli, Bianca Maria; Bussolati, Ovidio; Sala, Roberto; Gazzola, Gian C; Dall'Asta, Valeria

    2005-05-01

    The transport of arginine has been characterized in human airway Calu-3 cells. As assessed with RT-PCR, Calu-3 cells express the genes for several transporters, such as the system y+-related SLC7A1, SLC7A2, and SLC7A4; the system y+L-related SLC7A6, SLC7A7, and SLC3A2; and the system B0,+-related SLC6A14. In polarized Calu-3 cell monolayers, apical arginine influx has a leucine-sensitive, sodium-dependent component and a leucine- and lysine-resistant sodium-independent fraction. At the basolateral membrane, arginine transport was fully sodium-independent and partially inhibited by leucine provided that sodium was present in the extracellular medium. Moreover, extracellular leucine trans-stimulated arginine efflux from the basolateral membrane in the presence, but not in the absence, of sodium. The transepithelial, apical to basolateral, arginine transport strictly depended on the presence of sodium and was markedly inhibited by apical leucine, but significantly trans-stimulated by the neutral amino acid added at the basolateral side. When added at the apical side, the NOS-inhibitors NMMA and NIL, CAA analogs with a free carboxyl group, markedly inhibited the apical arginine influx and the transepithelial flux of the cationic amino acid. The same compounds trans-stimulated basolateral arginine efflux. None of these effects were observed in the presence of the methyl ester analog NAME. The basolateral medium of Calu-3 cell monolayers, obtained after incubation in the presence of the three inhibitors at the apical side, inhibited the production of NO by activated murine macrophages. The inhibitory effect of the Calu-3 cell conditioned medium was time-dependent and markedly higher with NMMA and NIL than with NAME. Moreover, the NOS-inhibitory effect of the medium was significantly enhanced if NMMA and NIL, at the apical side, and basolateral leucine were simultaneously present during the conditioning procedure. These results indicate that 1) human airway epithelial

  19. Phase I/II clinical trial of 2-difluoromethyl-ornithine (DFMO) and a novel polyamine transport inhibitor (MQT 1426) for feline oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Skorupski, K A; O'Brien, T G; Guerrero, T; Rodriguez, C O; Burns, M R

    2011-12-01

    Polyamines are essential for cell proliferation. Their production is dysregulated in many cancers and polyamine depletion leads to tumour regression in mouse models of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The purpose of this study was to determine the maximally tolerated dose of the polyamine transport inhibitor, MQT 1426, when combined with the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) inhibitor, DFMO, and to determine whether this therapy results in reduction in tumour polyamine levels. Thirteen cats with oral SCC received both drugs orally and serial tumour biopsies were obtained for polyamine measurement. Cats were monitored for response to therapy and toxicity. A maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of MQT 1426 when combined with DFMO was determined. Dose-limiting toxicity was vestibular in nature, but was fully reversible. Spermidine and total polyamine levels decreased significantly in tissues, two cats experienced objective tumour regression and six cats had stable disease. These results suggest that further study of polyamine depletion therapies is warranted.

  20. Inhibition of thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia by intrathecal administration of gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter-1 inhibitor NO-711 in rats with chronic constriction injury.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shan-Shan; Zeng, Yin-Ming; Wang, Jun-Ke; Yan, Rong; Nie, Xin; Cao, Jun-Li

    2005-04-25

    The present study was undertaken to explore the role of gamma-aminobutyric acid transporters in the neuropathic pain. On the chronic constriction injury (CCI) rats 4 doses (5, 10, 20, 40 microg in group N5, N10, N20, N40, respectively) of specific gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter-1 inhibitor NO-711 or normal saline (in group NS) were intrathecally administered before sciatic nerve ligation (pre-treatment) or at the third day after ligation (post-treatment). The paw withdrawl latency (PWL) from a noxious thermal stimulus and paw withdrawl mechanical threshold (PWMT) of von Frey filament was used as measure of thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia respectively. The results demonstrated that post-treatment of NO-711 significantly suppressed thermal hyperalgesia and allodynia in CCI rats (P<0.05, P<0.01), the inhibitory effect lasted for 2 h (N40 group) and 4 h (N20 group) respectively. NO-711 inhibited thermal hyperalgesia induced by CCI in a dose-dependent manner. Intrathecal pretreatment with different doses of NO-711 delayed the occurrence of thermal hyperalgesia, but could not delay the emergence of allodynia induced by CCI. This study indicates that gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter inhibitor has anti-thermal hyperalgesia and anti-tactile allodynia effects in neuropathic rats.

  1. Evidence that 2-arachidonoylglycerol but not N-palmitoylethanolamine or anandamide is the physiological ligand for the cannabinoid CB2 receptor. Comparison of the agonistic activities of various cannabinoid receptor ligands in HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, T; Kondo, S; Kishimoto, S; Miyashita, T; Nakane, S; Kodaka, T; Suhara, Y; Takayama, H; Waku, K

    2000-01-07

    We examined the effect of 2-arachidonoylglycerol, an endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand, on the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentrations in HL-60 cells that express the cannabinoid CB2 receptor. We found that 2-arachidonoylglycerol induces a rapid transient increase in intracellular free Ca(2+) concentrations in HL-60 cells. The response was affected by neither cyclooxygenase inhibitors nor lipoxygenase inhibitors, suggesting that arachidonic acid metabolites are not involved. Consistent with this notion, free arachidonic acid was devoid of any agonistic activity. Importantly, the Ca(2+) transient induced by 2-arachidonoylglycerol was blocked by pretreatment of the cells with SR144528, a CB2 receptor-specific antagonist, but not with SR141716A, a CB1 receptor-specific antagonist, indicating the involvement of the CB2 receptor but not the CB1 receptor in this cellular response. G(i) or G(o) is also assumed to be involved, because pertussis toxin treatment of the cells abolished the response. We further examined the structure-activity relationship. We found that 2-arachidonoylglycerol is the most potent compound among a number of naturally occurring cannabimimetic molecules. Interestingly, anandamide and N-palmitoylethanolamine, other putative endogenous ligands, were found to be a weak partial agonist and an inactive ligand, respectively. These results strongly suggest that the CB2 receptor is originally a 2-arachidonoylglycerol receptor, and 2-arachidonoylglycerol is the intrinsic natural ligand for the CB2 receptor that is abundant in the immune system.

  2. Exoplasmic cysteine Cys384 of the HDL receptor SR-BI is critical for its sensitivity to a small-molecule inhibitor and normal lipid transport activity

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Miao; Romer, Katherine A.; Nieland, Thomas J. F.; Xu, Shangzhe; Saenz-Vash, Veronica; Penman, Marsha; Yesilaltay, Ayce; Carr, Steven A.; Krieger, Monty

    2011-01-01

    The HDL receptor, scavenger receptor, class B, type I (SR-BI), is a homooligomeric cell surface glycoprotein that controls HDL structure and metabolism by mediating the cellular selective uptake of lipids, mainly cholesteryl esters, from HDL. The mechanism underlying SR-BI-mediated lipid transfer, which differs from classic receptor-mediated endocytosis, involves a two-step process (binding followed by lipid transport) that is poorly understood. Our previous structure/activity analysis of the small-molecule inhibitor blocker of lipid transport 1 (BLT-1), which potently (IC50 ∼ 50 nM) blocks SR-BI-mediated lipid transport, established that the sulfur in BLT-1’s thiosemicarbazone moiety was essential for activity. Here we show that BLT-1 is an irreversible inhibitor of SR-BI, raising the possibility that cysteine(s) in SR-BI interact with BLT-1. Mass spectrometric analysis of purified SR-BI showed two of its six exoplasmic cysteines have free thiol groups (Cys251 and Cys384). Converting Cys384 (but not Cys251) to serine resulted in complete BLT-1 insensitivity, establishing that the unique molecular target of BLT-1 inhibition of cellular SR-BI dependent lipid transport is SR-BI itself. The C384S substitution reduced the receptor’s intrinsic lipid uptake activity by approximately 60% without dramatically altering its surface expression, homooligomerization, or HDL binding. Thus, a small-molecule screening approach identified a key residue in SR-BI involved in lipid transport, providing a powerful springboard into the analyses of the structure and mechanism of SR-BI, and highlighting the power of this approach for such analyses. PMID:21746906

  3. Anandamide hydrolysis in FAAH reveals a dual strategy for efficient enzyme-assisted amide bond cleavage via nitrogen inversion.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Giulia; Campomanes, Pablo; Cavalli, Andrea; Rothlisberger, Ursula; De Vivo, Marco

    2015-01-22

    Herein, we combined classical molecular dynamics (MD) and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations to unravel the whole catalytic cycle of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in complex with anandamide, the main neurotransmitters involved in the control of pain. While microsecond MD simulations of FAAH in a realistic membrane/water environment provided a solid model for the reactant state of the enzymatic complex (Palermo et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2013, 9, 1202-1213.), QM/MM simulations depict now a highly concerted two-step catalytic mechanism characterized by (1) acyl-enzyme formation after hydrolysis of the substrate amide bond and (2) deacylation reaction with restoration of the catalytic machinery. We found that a crucial event for anandamide hydrolysis is the inversion of the reactive nitrogen of the scissile amide bond, which occurs during the acylation rate-limiting step. We show that FAAH uses an exquisite catalytic strategy to induce amide bond distortion, reactive nitrogen inversion, and amide bond hydrolysis, promoting catalysis to completion. This new strategy is likely to be of general applicability to other amidases/peptidases that show similar catalytic site architectures, providing crucial insights for de novo enzyme design or drug discovery efforts.

  4. The endocannabinoid anandamide during lactation increases body fat content and CB1 receptor levels in mice adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, C A; Castillo, V A; Llanos, M N

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R) modulate energy balance; thus, their premature activation may result in altered physiology of tissues involved in such a function. Activation of CB1R mainly occurs after binding to the endocannabinoid Anandamide (AEA). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of AEA treatment during lactation on epididymal and body fat content, in addition to CB1R protein level at weaning. With this purpose, male mice pups were orally treated with AEA (20 μg g−1 body weight) or vehicle during lactation. Mice (21 days old) were killed and epididymal fat was extracted to evaluate its amount, adipocyte size and CB1R protein levels by western blot analysis. Total body fat percentage was also evaluated. Anandamide-treated mice showed an increased body fat content at 21 and 150 days of age. Moreover, epididymal adipose tissue amount, adipocyte size and CB1R protein levels were higher in the AEA-treated group. This in vivo study shows for the first time that a progressive increase in body fat accumulation can be programmed in early stages of life by oral treatment with the endocannabinoid AEA, a fact associated with an increased amount of epididymal fat pads and a higher expression of CB1R in this tissue. PMID:26098446

  5. Effects of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide on voltage-dependent sodium and calcium channels in rat ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Al Kury, Lina T; Voitychuk, Oleg I; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Thayyullathil, Faisal T; Doroshenko, Petro; Ramez, Ali M; Shuba, Yaroslav M; Galadari, Sehamuddin; Howarth, Frank Christopher; Oz, Murat

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The endocannabinoid anandamide (N-arachidonoyl ethanolamide; AEA) exerts negative inotropic and antiarrhythmic effects in ventricular myocytes. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Whole-cell patch-clamp technique and radioligand-binding methods were used to analyse the effects of anandamide in rat ventricular myocytes. KEY RESULTS In the presence of 1–10 μM AEA, suppression of both Na+ and L-type Ca2+ channels was observed. Inhibition of Na+ channels was voltage and Pertussis toxin (PTX) – independent. Radioligand-binding studies indicated that specific binding of [3H] batrachotoxin (BTX) to ventricular muscle membranes was also inhibited significantly by 10 μM metAEA, a non-metabolized AEA analogue, with a marked decrease in Bmax values but no change in Kd. Further studies on L-type Ca2+ channels indicated that AEA potently inhibited these channels (IC50 0.1 μM) in a voltage- and PTX-independent manner. AEA inhibited maximal amplitudes without affecting the kinetics of Ba2+ currents. MetAEA also inhibited Na+ and L-type Ca2+ currents. Radioligand studies indicated that specific binding of [3H]isradipine, was inhibited significantly by metAEA. (10 μM), changing Bmax but not Kd. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Results indicate that AEA inhibited the function of voltage-dependent Na+ and L-type Ca2+ channels in rat ventricular myocytes, independent of CB1 and CB2 receptor activation. PMID:24758718

  6. Biosynthesis of anandamide and related acylethanolamides in mouse J774 macrophages and N18 neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Di Marzo, V; De Petrocellis, L; Sepe, N; Buono, A

    1996-01-01

    Anandamide (arachidonoylethanolamide, AnNH) has been recently proposed as the endogenous ligand at the brain cannabinoid receptor CB1. Two alternative pathways have been suggested for the biosynthesis of this putative mediator in the central nervous system. Here we present data (1) substantiating further the mechanism by which AnNH is produced by phospholipase D (PLD)-catalysed hydrolysis of N-arachidonoylphosphatidylethanolamine in mouse neuroblastoma N18TG2 cells, and (2) suggesting for the first time that AnNH is biosynthesized via the same mechanism in a non-neuronal cell line, mouse J774 macrophages, together with other acylethanolamides and is possibly involved in the control of the immune/inflammatory response. Lipids from both neuroblastoma cells and J774 macrophages were shown to contain a family of N-acylphosphatidylethanolamines (N-aPEs), including the possible precursor of AnNH, N-arachidonoyl-PE. Treatment with exogenous PLD, but not with exogenous phospholipase A2 and ethanolamine, resulted in the production of a series of acylethanolamides (AEs), including AnNH, from both cell types. The formation of AEs was accompanied by a decrease in the levels of the corresponding N-aPEs. Enzymically active homogenates from either neuroblastoma cells or J774 macrophages were shown to convert synthetic N-[3H]arachidonoyl-PE into [3H]AnNH, thus suggesting that in both cells an enzyme is present which is capable of catalysing the hydrolysis of N-aPE(s) to the corresponding AE(s). Finally, as previously shown in central neurons, on stimulation with ionomycin, J774 macrophages also produced a mixture of AEs including AnNH and palmitoylethanolamide, which has been proposed as the preferential endogenous ligand at the peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 and, consequently, as a possible down-modulator of mast cells. On the basis of this as well as previous findings it is now possible to hypothesize for AnNH and palmitoylethanolamide, co-synthesized by macrophages, a role

  7. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Inhibitors Interact with ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 4/Multidrug Resistance Protein 4: A Basis for Unanticipated Enhanced Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Yu; Takenaka, Kazumasa; Sparreboom, Alex; Cheepala, Satish B.; Wu, Chung-Pu; Ekins, Sean; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pharmacotherapy, by combining different drug classes such as nucleoside analogs and HIV protease inhibitors (PIs), has increased HIV-patient life expectancy. Consequently, among these patients, an increase in non-HIV–associated cancers has produced a patient cohort requiring both HIV and cancer chemotherapy. We hypothesized that multidrug resistance protein 4/ATP binding cassette transporter 4 (MRP4/ABCC4), a widely expressed transporter of nucleoside-based antiviral medications as well as cancer therapeutics might interact with PIs. Among the PIs evaluated (nelfinavir, ritonavir, amprenavir, saquinavir, and indinavir), only nelfinavir both effectively stimulated MRP4 ATPase activity and inhibited substrate-stimulated ATPase activity. Saos2 and human embryonic kidney 293 cells engineered to overexpress MRP4 were then used to assess transport and cytotoxicity. MRP4 expression reduced intracellular accumulation of nelfinavir and consequently conferred survival advantage to nelfinavir cytotoxicity. Nelfinavir blocked Mrp4-mediated export, which is consistent with its ability to increase the sensitivity of MRP4-expressing cells to methotrexate. In contrast, targeted inactivation of Abcc4/Mrp4 in mouse cells specifically enhanced nelfinavir and 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl) adenine cytotoxicity. These results suggest that nelfinavir is both an inhibitor and substrate of MRP4. Because nelfinavir is a new MRP4/ABCC4 substrate, we developed a MRP4/ABCC4 pharmacophore model, which showed that the nelfinavir binding site is shared with chemotherapeutic substrates such as adefovir and methotrexate. Our studies reveal, for the first time, that nelfinavir, a potent and cytotoxic PI, is both a substrate and inhibitor of MRP4. These findings suggest that HIV-infected cancer patients receiving nelfinavir might experience both enhanced antitumor efficacy and unexpected adverse toxicity given the role of MRP4/ABCC4 in exporting nucleoside

  8. Identification of novel natural inhibitor for NorM - a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion transporter - an insilico molecular modeling and simulation studies.

    PubMed

    Kesherwani, Manish; Michael Gromiha, M; Fukui, Kazuhiko; Velmurugan, Devadasan

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of bacterial multidrug resistance is an increasing problem in treatment of infectious diseases. An important cause for the multidrug resistance of bacteria is the expression of multidrug efflux transporters. The multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporters are most recently recognized as unique efflux system for extrusion of antimicrobials and therapeutic drugs due to energy stored in either Na(+) or H(+) electrochemical gradient. In the present study, high throughput virtual screening of natural compound collections against NorM - a MATE transporter from Neisseria gonorrhea (NorM-NG) has been carried out followed by flexible docking. The molecular simulation in membrane environment has been performed for understanding the stability and binding energetic of top lead compounds. Results identified a compound from the Indian medicinal plant "Terminalia chebula" which has good binding free energy compared to substrates (rhodamine 6 g, ethidium) and more favorable interactions with the central cavity forming active site residues. The compound has restricted movement in TM7, TM8, and TM1, thus blocking the disruption of Na+ - coordination along with equilibrium state bias towards occlude state of NorM transporter. Thus, this compound blocks the effluxing pathway of antimicrobial drugs and provides as a natural bioactive lead inhibitor against NorM transporter in drug-resistant gonorrhea.

  9. Guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor is essential for Rab1 function in budding from the endoplasmic reticulum and transport through the Golgi stack

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The small GTPase Rab1 is required for vesicular traffic from the ER to the cis-Golgi compartment, and for transport between the cis and medial compartments of the Golgi stack. In the present study, we examine the role of guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) in regulating the function of Rab1 in the transport of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) in vitro. Incubation in the presence of excess GDI rapidly (t1/2 < 30 s) extracted Rab1 from membranes, inhibiting vesicle budding from the ER and sequential transport between the cis-, medial-, and trans-Golgi cisternae. These results demonstrate a direct role for GDI in the recycling of Rab proteins. Analysis of rat liver cytosol by gel filtration revealed that a major pool of Rab1 fractionates with a molecular mass of approximately 80 kD in the form of a GDI-Rab1 complex. When the GDI-Rab1 complex was depleted from cytosol by use of a Rab1-specific antibody, VSV-G failed to exit the ER. However, supplementation of depleted cytosol with a GDI-Rab1 complex prepared in vitro from recombinant forms of Rab1 and GDI efficiently restored export from the ER, and transport through the Golgi stack. These results provide evidence that a cytosolic GDI-Rab1 complex is required for the formation of non-clathrin-coated vesicles mediating transport through the secretory pathway. PMID:8089173

  10. Atypical dopamine transporter inhibitors R-modafinil and JHW 007 differentially affect D2 autoreceptor neurotransmission and the firing rate of midbrain dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Avelar, Alicia J; Cao, Jianjing; Newman, Amy Hauck; Beckstead, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    Abuse of psychostimulants like cocaine that inhibit dopamine (DA) reuptake through the dopamine transporter (DAT) represents a major public health issue, however FDA-approved pharmacotherapies have yet to be developed. Recently a class of ligands termed "atypical DAT inhibitors" has gained attention due to their range of effectiveness in increasing extracellular DA levels without demonstrating significant abuse liability. These compounds not only hold promise as therapeutic agents to treat stimulant use disorders but also as experimental tools to improve our understanding of DAT function. Here we used patch clamp electrophysiology in mouse brain slices to explore the effects of two atypical DAT inhibitors (R-modafinil and JHW 007) on the physiology of single DA neurons in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. Despite their commonalities of being DAT inhibitors that lack cocaine-like behavioral profiles, these compounds exhibited surprisingly divergent cellular effects. Similar to cocaine, R-modafinil slowed DA neuron firing in a D2 receptor-dependent manner and rapidly enhanced the amplitude and duration of D2 receptor-mediated currents in the midbrain. In contrast, JHW 007 exhibited little effect on firing, slow DAT blockade, and an unexpected inhibition of D2 receptor-mediated currents that may be due to direct D2 receptor antagonism. Furthermore, pretreatment with JHW 007 blunted the cellular effects of cocaine, suggesting that it may be valuable to investigate similar DAT inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents. Further exploration of these and other atypical DAT inhibitors may reveal important cellular effects of compounds that will have potential as pharmacotherapies for treating cocaine use disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Discovery of novel conformationally constrained tropane-based biaryl and arylacetylene ligands as potent and selective norepinephrine transporter inhibitors and potential antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jia; Kläss, Thomas; Johnson, Kenneth M; Giberson, Kelly M; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2005-05-16

    To further explore the structure-activity relationships of conformationally constrained tropanes, a number of new biaryl and arylacetylene analogs were designed and synthesized. Some of these compounds such as 3a-b, 3d, 3f-h, 5b, and 7g were found to be highly potent and selective or mixed norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitors with Ki values of 0.8-9.4 nM. Moreover, all of these compounds display weak to extremely weak muscarinic receptor binding affinity, indicating that as potential antidepressants, they may overcome certain side effects that are of concern with other antidepressants, which are thought to be mediated by their anticholinergic properties.

  12. Flow cytometric measurement of calcium influx in murine T cell hybrids using Fluo-3 and an organic-anion transport inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Baus, E; Urbain, J; Leo, O; Andris, F

    1994-07-12

    A method is described to facilitate flow cytometric analysis of calcium mobilization upon stimulation of murine T cell hybrids. In these transformed cell lines, the accuracy of cytometric measurement of free cytoplasmic calcium with Fluo-3 is compromised by the rapid loss of the intracellular dye. We have found that the addition of sulfinpyrazone, a known organic-anion transporter inhibitor in epithelial cells and in macrophages, severely impairs the leakage of the Fluo-3 probe from the cytoplasmic matrix. Under appropriate conditions, sulfinpyrazone has little effect on the cell physiology and permits the detection of calcium influx in a variety of murine T cell hybrids.

  13. [Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors: from the bark of apple trees and familial renal glycosuria to the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Mauricio, Dídac

    2013-09-01

    The therapeutic armamentarium for the treatment of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus is still inadequate. We are currently witnessing the introduction of a new mode of hypoglycemic treatment through induction of glycosuria to decrease the availability of the metabolic substrate, i.e. glucose. Clinical trials have shown that sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are as efficacious as other oral hypoglycemic drugs. This article discusses the basic features of this new treatment concept and the efficacy and safety of this new drug group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Regulation of divalent metal transporter-1 by serine phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Young Ah; Kumara, Ruvin; Wetli, Herbert; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) mediates dietary iron uptake across the intestinal mucosa and facilitates peripheral delivery of iron released by transferrin in the endosome. Here, we report that classical cannabinoids (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ9-THC), nonclassical cannabinoids (CP 55,940), aminoalkylindoles (WIN 55,212-2) and endocannabinoids (anandamide) reduce 55Fe and 54Mn uptake by HEK293T(DMT1) cells stably expressing the transporter. siRNA knockdown of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) abrogated inhibition. CB2 is a G-protein (GTP-binding protein)-coupled receptor that negatively regulates signal transduction cascades involving serine/threonine kinases. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that DMT1 is serine-phosphorylated under basal conditions, but that treatment with Δ9-THC reduced phosphorylation. Site-directed mutation of predicted DMT1 phosphosites further showed that substitution of serine with alanine at N-terminal position 43 (S43A) abolished basal phosphorylation. Concordantly, both the rate and extent of 55Fe uptake in cells expressing DMT1(S43A) was reduced compared with those expressing wild-type DMT1. Among kinase inhibitors that affected DMT1-mediated iron uptake, staurosporine also reduced DMT1 phosphorylation confirming a role for serine phosphorylation in iron transport regulation. These combined data indicate that phosphorylation at serine 43 of DMT1 promotes transport activity, whereas dephosphorylation is associated with loss of iron uptake. Since anti-inflammatory actions mediated through CB2 would be associated with reduced DMT1 phosphorylation, we postulate that this pathway provides a means to reduce oxidative stress by limiting iron uptake. PMID:27681840

  15. Thiorhodamines Containing Amide and Thioamide Functionality as Inhibitors of the ATP-Binding Cassette Drug Transporter P-glycoprotein (ABCB1)

    PubMed Central

    Orchard, Alexandra; Schamerhorn, Gregory A.; Calitree, Brandon D.; Sawada, Geri A.; Loo, Tip W.; Bartlett, M. Claire; Clarke, David M.; Dettya, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Twelve thiorhodamine derivatives have been examined for their ability to stimulate the ATPase activity of purified human P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-His10, to promote uptake of calcein AM and vinblastine into multidrug-resistant, P-gp-overexpressing MDCKII-MDR1 cells, and for their rates of transport in monolayers of multidrug-resistant, P-gp-overexpressing MDCKII-MDR1 cells. The thiorhodamine derivatives have structural diversity from amide and thioamide functionality (N,N-diethyl and N-piperidyl) at the 5-position of a 2-thienyl substituent on the thiorhodamine core and from diversity at the 3-amino substituent with N,N-dimethylamino, fused azadecalin (julolidyl), and fused N-methylcyclohexylamine (half-julolidyl) substituents. The julolidyl and half-julolidyl derivatives were more effective inhibitors of P-gp than the dimethylamino analogues. Amide-containing derivatives were transported much more rapidly than thioamide-containing derivatives. PMID:22727780

  16. A virtual high-throughput screening approach to the discovery of novel inhibitors of the bacterial leucine transporter, LeuT.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Katie J; Gotfryd, Kamil; Billesbølle, Christian B; Loland, Claus J; Gether, Ulrik; Fishwick, Colin W G; Johnson, A Peter

    2013-03-01

    Membrane proteins are intrinsically involved in both human and pathogen physiology, and are the target of 60% of all marketed drugs. During the past decade, advances in the studies of membrane proteins using X-ray crystallography, electron microscopy and NMR-based techniques led to the elucidation of over 250 unique membrane protein crystal structures. The aim of the European Drug Initiative for Channels and Transporter (EDICT) project is to use the structures of clinically significant membrane proteins for the development of lead molecules. One of the approaches used to achieve this is a virtual high-throughput screening (vHTS) technique initially developed for soluble proteins. This paper describes application of this technique to the discovery of inhibitors of the leucine transporter (LeuT), a member of the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter (NSS) family.

  17. Arachidonoylserotonin and other novel inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Bisogno, T; Melck, D; De Petrocellis, L; Bobrov MYu; Gretskaya, N M; Bezuglov, V V; Sitachitta, N; Gerwick, W H; Di Marzo, V

    1998-07-30

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) catalyzes the hydrolysis of bioactive fatty acid amides and esters such as the endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligands, anandamide (N-arachidonoyl-ethanolamine) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and the putative sleep inducing factor cis-9-octadecenoamide (oleamide). Most FAAH blockers developed to date also inhibit cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and/or bind to the CB1 cannabinoid receptor subtype. Here we report the finding of four novel FAAH inhibitors, two of which, malhamensilipin A and grenadadiene, were screened out of a series of thirty-two different algal natural products, and two others, arachidonoylethylene glycol (AEG) and arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5-HT) were selected out of five artificially functionalized polyunsaturated fatty acids. When using FAAH preparations from mouse neuroblastoma N18TG2 cells and [14C]anandamide as a substrate, the IC50s for these compounds ranged from 12.0 to 26 microM, the most active compound being AA-5-HT. This substance was also active on FAAH from rat basophilic leukaemia (RBL-2H3) cells (IC50 = 5.6 microM), and inhibited [14C]anandamide hydrolysis by both N18TG2 and RBL-2H3 intact cells without affecting [14C]anandamide uptake. While AEG behaved as a competitive inhibitor and was hydrolyzed to arachidonic acid (AA) by FAAH preparations, AA-5-HT was resistant to FAAH-catalyzed hydrolysis and behaved as a tight-binding, albeit non-covalent, mixed inhibitor. AA-5-HT did not interfere with cPLA2-mediated, ionomycin or antigen-induced release of [3H]AA from RBL-2H3 cells, nor with cPLA2 activity in cell-free experiments. Finally, AA-5-HT did not activate CB1 cannabinoid receptors since it acted as a very weak ligand in in vitro binding assays, and, at 10-15 mg/kg body weight, it was not active in the 'open field', 'hot plate' and rectal hypothermia tests carried out in mice. Conversely AEG behaved as a cannabimimetic substance in these tests as well as in the 'ring' immobility test where AA-5

  18. Blockade of the high-affinity noradrenaline transporter (NET) by the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor escitalopram: an in vivo microdialysis study in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hai T; Guiard, Bruno P; Bacq, Alexandre; David, Denis J; David, Indira; Quesseveur, Gaël; Gautron, Sophie; Sanchez, Connie; Gardier, Alain M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Escitalopram, the S(+)-enantiomer of citalopram is the most selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor approved. Although all 5-HT selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) increase extracellular levels of 5-HT ([5-HT]ext). some also enhance, to a lesser extent, extracellular levels of noradrenaline ([NA]ext). However, the mechanisms by which SSRIs activate noradrenergic transmission in the brain remain to be determined. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH This study examined the effects of escitalopram, on both [5-HT]ext and [NA]ext in the frontal cortex (FCx) of freely moving wild-type (WT) and mutant mice lacking the 5-HT transporter (SERT−/−) by using intracerebral microdialysis. We explored the possibilities that escitalopram enhances [NA]ext, either by a direct mechanism involving the inhibition of the low- or high-affinity noradrenaline transporters, or by an indirect mechanism promoted by [5-HT]ext elevation. The forced swim test (FST) was used to investigate whether enhancing cortical [5-HT]ext and/or [NA]ext affected the antidepressant-like activity of escitalopram. KEY RESULTS In WT mice, a single systemic administration of escitalopram produced a significant increase in cortical [5-HT]ext and [NA]ext. As expected, escitalopram failed to increase cortical [5-HT]ext in SERT−/− mice, whereas its neurochemical effects on [NA]ext persisted in these mutants. In WT mice subjected to the FST, escitalopram increased swimming parameters without affecting climbing behaviour. Finally, escitalopram, at relevant concentrations, failed to inhibit cortical noradrenaline and 5-HT uptake mediated by low-affinity monoamine transporters. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These experiments suggest that escitalopram enhances, although moderately, cortical [NA]extin vivo by a direct mechanism involving the inhibition of the high-affinity noradrenaline transporter (NET). PMID:22233336

  19. Dicumarol, an inhibitor of ADP-ribosylation of CtBP3/BARS, fragments golgi non-compact tubular zones and inhibits intra-golgi transport.

    PubMed

    Mironov, Alexander A; Colanzi, Antonino; Polishchuk, Roman S; Beznoussenko, Galina V; Mironov, Alexander A; Fusella, Aurora; Di Tullio, Giuseppe; Silletta, Maria Giuseppina; Corda, Daniela; De Matteis, Maria Antonietta; Luini, Alberto

    2004-07-01

    Dicumarol (3,3'-methylenebis[4-hydroxycoumarin]) is an inhibitor of brefeldin-A-dependent ADP-ribosylation that antagonises brefeldin-A-dependent Golgi tubulation and redistribution to the endoplasmic reticulum. We have investigated whether dicumarol can directly affect the morphology of the Golgi apparatus. Here we show that dicumarol induces the breakdown of the tubular reticular networks that interconnect adjacent Golgi stacks and that contain either soluble or membrane-associated cargo proteins. This results in the formation of 65-120-nm vesicles that are sometimes invaginated. In contrast, smaller vesicles (45-65 nm in diameter, a size consistent with that of coat-protein-I-dependent vesicles) that excluded cargo proteins from their lumen are not affected by dicumarol. All other endomembranes are largely unaffected by dicumarol, including Golgi stacks, the ER, multivesicular bodies and the trans-Golgi network. In permeabilized cells, dicumarol activity depends on the function of CtBP3/BARS protein and pre-ADP-ribosylation of cytosol inhibits the breakdown of Golgi tubules by dicumarol. In functional experiments, dicumarol markedly slows down intra-Golgi traffic of VSV-G transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the medial Golgi, and inhibits the diffusional mobility of both galactosyl transferase and VSV-G tagged with green fluorescent protein. However, it does not affect: transport from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface; Golgi-to-endoplasmic reticulum traffic of ERGIC58; coat-protein-I-dependent Golgi vesiculation by AlF4 or ADP-ribosylation factor; or ADP-ribosylation factor and beta-coat protein binding to Golgi membranes. Thus the ADP-ribosylation inhibitor dicumarol induces the selective breakdown of the tubular components of the Golgi complex and inhibition of intra-Golgi transport. This suggests that lateral diffusion between adjacent stacks has a role in protein transport through the Golgi complex.

  20. The potential of inhibitors of endocannabinoid metabolism as anxiolytic and antidepressive drugs--A practical view.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Christopher J

    2015-06-01

    The endocannabinoid system, comprising cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, their endogenous ligands anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglyerol, and their synthetic and metabolic enzymes, are involved in many biological processes in the body, ranging from appetite to bone turnover. Compounds inhibiting the breakdown of anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol increase brain levels of these lipids and thus modulate endocannabinoid signalling. In the present review, the preclinical evidence that these enzymes are good targets for development of novel therapies for anxiety and depression are discussed from a practical, rather than mechanistic, point of view. It is concluded that the preclinical data are promising, albeit tempered by problems of tolerance as well as effects upon learning and memory for irreversible monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitors, and limited by a focus upon male rodents alone. Clinical data so far has been restricted to safety studies with inhibitors of anandamide hydrolysis and a hitherto unpublished study on such a compound in elderly patients with major depressive disorders, but under the dose regimes used, they are well tolerated and show no signs of "cannabis-like" behaviours.

  1. Avertin®, but Not Volatile Anesthetics Addressing the Two-Pore Domain K+ Channel, TASK-1, Slows Down Cilia-Driven Particle Transport in the Mouse Trachea

    PubMed Central

    Murtaza, Ghulam; Mermer, Petra; Pfeil, Uwe; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Volatile anesthetics inhibit mucociliary clearance in the airways. The two-pore domain K+ channel, TASK-1, represents one of their molecular targets in that they increase its open probability. Here, we determine whether particle transport speed (PTS) at the mucosal surface of the mouse trachea, an important factor of the cilia-driven mechanism in mucociliary clearance, is regulated by TASK-1. Methodology/Results RT-PCR analysis revealed expression of TASK-1 mRNA in the manually dissected and laser-assisted microdissected tracheal epithelium of the mouse. Effects of anesthetics (isoflurane and Avertin®) and TASK-1 inhibitors (anandamide and A293) on ciliary activity were investigated by assessment of PTS at the mucosal surface of the explanted and opened murine trachea. Neither TASK-1 inhibitors nor isoflurane had any impact on basal and ATP-stimulated PTS. Avertin® reduced basal PTS, and ATP-stimulated PTS decreased in its presence in wild-type (WT) mice. Avertin®-induced decrease in basal PTS persisted in WT mice in the presence of TASK-1 inhibitors, and in two different strains of TASK-1 knockout mice. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that TASK-1 is expressed by the tracheal epithelium but is not critically involved in the regulation of tracheal PTS in mice. Avertin® reduces PTS independent of TASK-1. PMID:27930725

  2. Pharmacological characterization of RS-1259, an orally active dual inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and serotonin transporter, in rodents: possible treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yasuyuki; Aoyagi, Atsushi; Hara, Takao; Abe, Kazumi; Yamazaki, Reina; Kumagae, Yoshihiro; Naruto, Shunji; Koyama, Kazuo; Marumoto, Shinji; Tago, Keiko; Toda, Narihiro; Takami, Kazuko; Yamada, Naho; Ori, Mayuko; Kogen, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Tsugio

    2003-09-01

    A dual inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and serotonin transporter (SERT), RS-1259 (4-[1S)-methylamino-3-(4-nitrophenoxy)]propylphenyl N,N-dimethylcarbamate (fumaric acid)(1/2)salt), was newly synthesized. RS-1259 simultaneously inhibited AChE and SERT in the brain following an oral administration in mice and rats. Actual simultaneous elevation of extracellular levels of 5-HT and ACh in the rat hippocampus was confirmed by microdialysis. The compound was as effective as SERT inhibitors such as fluoxetine and fluvoxamine in a 5-hydroxytryptophan-enhancing test in mice. Spatial memory deficits in the two-platform task of a water maze in aged rats were ameliorated by RS-1259 as well as donepezil. Both RS-1259 and donepezil increased the awake episodes in the daytime electroencephalogram of rats. Although RS-1259 was weaker than donepezil in enhancing central cholinergic transmission, as observed by ACh elevation in the hippocampus and memory enhancement in aged rats, the efficacy of RS-1259 on the consciousness level, which reflects the whole activity in the brain, was almost the same as that of donepezil. These results suggest that both cholinergic and serotonergic systems are involved in maintaining brain arousal and that a dual inhibitor of AChE and SERT may be useful for the treatment of cognitive disorders associated with reduced brain activity such as in Alzheimer's disease.

  3. β-Sulfonamido Functionalized Aspartate Analogues as Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter Inhibitors: Distinct Subtype Selectivity Profiles Arising from Subtle Structural Differences.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jacob C; Bjørn-Yoshimoto, Walden E; Bisballe, Niels; Nielsen, Birgitte; Jensen, Anders A; Bunch, Lennart

    2016-10-13

    In this study inspired by previous work on 3-substituted Asp analogues, we designed and synthesized a total of 32 β-sulfonamide Asp analogues and characterized their pharmacological properties at the excitatory amino acid transporter subtypes EAAT1, EAAT2, and EAAT3. In addition to several potent EAAT inhibitors displaying IC50 values ∼1 μM at all three subtypes, this elaborate structure-activity relationship also identified analogues exhibiting distinct preferences or selectivities for specific transporter subtypes. Introduction of two fluorine atoms on the phenyl ring yielded analogue 4y that displayed an IC50 of 0.8 μM at EAAT1 with a 14- and 9-fold preference over EAAT2 and EAAT3, respectively. Conversely, the m-CF3-phenyl analogue 4r was a potent selective EAAT2-inhibitor (IC50 = 2.8 μM) exhibiting 30- and 50-fold selectivity over EAAT1 and EAAT3, respectively. In conclusion, even small structural differences in these β-sulfonamide Asp analogues provide analogues with diverse EAAT subtype selectivity profiles.

  4. Analysis of anandamide- and lysophosphatidylinositol-induced inhibition of the vasopressor responses produced by sympathetic stimulation or noradrenaline in pithed rats.

    PubMed

    Marichal-Cancino, Bruno A; Manrique-Maldonado, Guadalupe; Altamirano-Espinoza, Alain H; Ruiz-Salinas, Inna; González-Hernández, Abimael; Maassenvandenbrink, Antoinette; Villalón, Carlos M

    2013-12-05

    The endocannabinoid system exhibits multiple functions in cardiovascular regulation mainly by cannabinoid (CB1 and CB2) receptors, vanilloid TRPV1 receptors and, probably, by the orphan G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55). Hence, the role of these receptors was investigated in Wistar pithed rats on anandamide- and lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI)-induced inhibition of the vasopressor responses induced by preganglionic (T7-T9) stimulation of the vasopressor sympathetic outflow or i.v. bolus injections of noradrenaline. The corresponding frequency- and dose-dependent vasopressor responses were analyzed before and during i.v. continuous infusions of anandamide (CB1, CB2, TRPV1 and GPR55), JWH-015 (CB2) and LPI (GPR55) in animals receiving (i.v.) the antagonists NIDA41020 (CB1), AM630 (CB2), capsazepine (TRPV1) and/or cannabidiol (GPR55). Anandamide (0.1-3.1 μg/kg min) inhibited the vasopressor responses by electrical stimulation, but not those by noradrenaline; while LPI (5.6-10 μg/kg min) inhibited both responses. In contrast, JWH-015 (5.6-10 μg/kg min) failed to induce sympatho-inhibition. Anandamide-induced sympatho-inhibition was: (i) dose-dependently blocked by 31 and 100 μg/kg NIDA41020; (ii) slightly blocked by 310 μg/kg AM630 or 31 μg/kg cannabidiol; and (iii) unaffected by 310 μg/kg capsazepine. Moreover, LPI-induced inhibition of both vasopressor responses was blocked and abolished by 10 and 31 μg/kg cannabidiol, respectively, and weakly blocked by 100 μg/kg NIDA41020. Thus, the sympatho-inhibition by anandamide is primarily mediated by cannabinoid CB1 and, minimally, by cannabidiol-sensitive receptors. In contrast, LPI-induced inhibition of both responses seems to be mainly mediated by postjunctional cannabidiol-sensitive (presumably endothelial GPR55) receptors.

  5. Transcriptional Responses of Escherichia coli to a Small-Molecule Inhibitor of LolCDE, an Essential Component of the Lipoprotein Transport Pathway.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Christian; Dougherty, Thomas J; Lory, Stephen

    2016-12-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, a dedicated machinery consisting of LolABCDE components targets lipoproteins to the outer membrane. We used a previously identified small-molecule inhibitor of the LolCDE complex of Escherichia coli to assess the global transcriptional consequences of interference with lipoprotein transport. Exposure of E. coli to the LolCDE inhibitor at concentrations leading to minimal and significant growth inhibition, followed by transcriptome sequencing, identified a small group of genes whose transcript levels were decreased and a larger group whose mRNA levels increased 10- to 100-fold compared to those of untreated cells. The majority of the genes whose mRNA concentrations were reduced were part of the flagellar assembly pathway, which contains an essential lipoprotein component. Most of the genes whose transcript levels were elevated encode proteins involved in selected cell stress pathways. Many of these genes are involved with envelope stress responses induced by the mislocalization of outer membrane lipoproteins. Although several of the genes whose RNAs were induced have previously been shown to be associated with the general perturbation of the cell envelope by antibiotics, a small subset was affected only by LolCDE inhibition. Findings from this work suggest that the efficiency of the Lol system function may be coupled to a specific monitoring system, which could be exploited in the development of reporter constructs suitable for use for screening for additional inhibitors of lipoprotein trafficking. Inhibition of the lipoprotein transport pathway leads to E. coli death and subsequent lysis. Early significant changes in the levels of RNA for a subset of genes identified to be associated with some periplasmic and envelope stress responses were observed. Together these findings suggest that disruption of this key pathway can have a severe impact on balanced outer membrane synthesis sufficient to affect viability. Copyright © 2016 Lorenz et al.

  6. Characterization of the K+ (Na+)/H+ monovalent cation exchanger in the human red blood cell membrane: effects of transport inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, I; Bogdanova, A Y; Kummerow, D; Kiessling, K; Hamann, J; Ellory, J C

    1999-06-01

    The (ouabain + bumetanide + EGTA)-insensitive K+ influx (defined as residual K+ influx) in the human erythrocyte was investigated with respect to the characterization of the recently identified K+(Na+)/H+ exchanger (Richter et al. 1997). In particular, the effects of selected ion transport inhibitors on this flux in physiological ionic strength (high ionic strength, HIS) as well as low ionic strength (LIS) solutions were qstudied. The stimulation of the K+ influx observed in LIS medium was further enhanced when DIDS, phloretin, eosin-5-maleimide, furosemide, DIOA, NPPB, or DCDPC was present at a concentration of 0.1 mmol/l. This paradoxical, inhibitor-induced increase of the K+ influx was more pronounced in LIS media where chloride (7.5 mmol/l) was replaced by nitrate. For DNDS, niflumic acid, and MK-196 (0.1 mmol/l) an enhanced K+ transport could only be observed in nitrate-containing LIS solution. Bumetanide and purine riboside, at a concentration of 0.1 mmol/l, did not cause significant changes of the K+ influx in either chloride- or nitrate-containing LIS media. Dipyridamole and ruthenium red (0.1 mmol/l), which are positively charged, significantly reduced the K+ influx in both chloride- and nitrate-containing LIS media. In nitrate-containing HIS solution only dipyridamole inhibited the K+ influx. The residual K+ influx in LIS solution was significantly increased by removing internal [Mg2+], and decreased by quinacrine (1 mmol/l). In HIS solution, no effect of altering intracellular Mg2+ occurred but a stimulation of the flux by quinacrine was observed. The results are discussed in terms of a more general surface charge effect of the used inhibitors on the K+(Na+)/H+ exchanger.

  7. Transcriptional Responses of Escherichia coli to a Small-Molecule Inhibitor of LolCDE, an Essential Component of the Lipoprotein Transport Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Christian; Dougherty, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Gram-negative bacteria, a dedicated machinery consisting of LolABCDE components targets lipoproteins to the outer membrane. We used a previously identified small-molecule inhibitor of the LolCDE complex of Escherichia coli to assess the global transcriptional consequences of interference with lipoprotein transport. Exposure of E. coli to the LolCDE inhibitor at concentrations leading to minimal and significant growth inhibition, followed by transcriptome sequencing, identified a small group of genes whose transcript levels were decreased and a larger group whose mRNA levels increased 10- to 100-fold compared to those of untreated cells. The majority of the genes whose mRNA concentrations were reduced were part of the flagellar assembly pathway, which contains an essential lipoprotein component. Most of the genes whose transcript levels were elevated encode proteins involved in selected cell stress pathways. Many of these genes are involved with envelope stress responses induced by the mislocalization of outer membrane lipoproteins. Although several of the genes whose RNAs were induced have previously been shown to be associated with the general perturbation of the cell envelope by antibiotics, a small subset was affected only by LolCDE inhibition. Findings from this work suggest that the efficiency of the Lol system function may be coupled to a specific monitoring system, which could be exploited in the development of reporter constructs suitable for use for screening for additional inhibitors of lipoprotein trafficking. IMPORTANCE Inhibition of the lipoprotein transport pathway leads to E. coli death and subsequent lysis. Early significant changes in the levels of RNA for a subset of genes identified to be associated with some periplasmic and envelope stress responses were observed. Together these findings suggest that disruption of this key pathway can have a severe impact on balanced outer membrane synthesis sufficient to affect viability. PMID

  8. The effect of electron transport (ET) inhibitors and thiabendazole on the fumarate reductase (FR) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) of Strongyloides ratti infective (L3) larvae.

    PubMed

    Armson, A; Grubb, W B; Mendis, A H

    1995-02-01

    The fumarate reductase (FR) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activities of isolated submitochondrial particles (SMPs) prepared from axenised L3 larvae of S. ratti were characterised with respect to their response to a selected range of inhibitors. Rotenone (a specific inhibitor of electron transport Complex I) inhibited the S. ratti FR (EC50 = 3.0 x 10(-7) M) but not SDH. This strongly suggests that the S. ratti FR is functionally linked with the S. ratti ET-Complex I. 2-Thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA, an inhibitor of ET-Complex II) inhibited FR (EC50 = 2.6 x 10(-5) M) and SDH (EC50 = 2.8 x 10(-5) M) with similar effectiveness. Sodium malonate (substrate analogue of succinate) had a greater affinity for SDH (EC50 = 6.8 x 10(-4) M), than FR (EC50 = 1.9 x 10(-2) M). Sodium fumarate was ca. 8-fold more effective in inhibiting the S. ratti FR (EC50 = 6.0 x 10(-4) M) than SDH (EC50 = 4.8 x 10(-3) M). The S. ratti FR was more sensitive to inhibition by thiabendazole (TBZ; EC50 = 4.6 x 10(-4) M) than SDH (EC50 > 1.0 x 10(-3) M), suggesting that one of the sites-of-action of TBZ to be the FR of S. ratti mitochondria. More potent inhibitors of S. ratti FR, if developed, may prove to be effective chemotherapeutic agents in the management of human strongloidiasis.

  9. Inhibitors of V-ATPase Proton Transport Reveal Uncoupling Functions of Tether Linking Cytosolic and Membrane Domains of V0 Subunit a (Vph1p)*

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chun-Yuan; Prudom, Catherine; Raines, Summer M.; Charkhzarrin, Sahba; Melman, Sandra D.; De Haro, Leyma P.; Allen, Chris; Lee, Samuel A.; Sklar, Larry A.; Parra, Karlett J.

    2012-01-01

    Vacuolar ATPases (V-ATPases) are important for many cellular processes, as they regulate pH by pumping cytosolic protons into intracellular organelles. The cytoplasm is acidified when V-ATPase is inhibited; thus we conducted a high-throughput screen of a chemical library to search for compounds that acidify the yeast cytosol in vivo using pHluorin-based flow cytometry. Two inhibitors, alexidine dihydrochloride (EC50 = 39 μm) and thonzonium bromide (EC50 = 69 μm), prevented ATP-dependent proton transport in purified vacuolar membranes. They acidified the yeast cytosol and caused pH-sensitive growth defects typical of V-ATPase mutants (vma phenotype). At concentrations greater than 10 μm the inhibitors were cytotoxic, even at the permissive pH (pH 5.0). Membrane fractions treated with alexidine dihydrochloride and thonzonium bromide fully retained concanamycin A-sensitive ATPase activity despite the fact that proton translocation was inhibited by 80–90%, indicating that V-ATPases were uncoupled. Mutant V-ATPase membranes lacking residues 362–407 of the tether of Vph1p subunit a of V0 were resistant to thonzonium bromide but not to alexidine dihydrochloride, suggesting that this conserved sequence confers uncoupling potential to V1V0 complexes and that alexidine dihydrochloride uncouples the enzyme by a different mechanism. The inhibitors also uncoupled the Candida albicans enzyme and prevented cell growth, showing further specificity for V-ATPases. Thus, a new class of V-ATPase inhibitors (uncouplers), which are not simply ionophores, provided new insights into the enzyme mechanism and original evidence supporting the hypothesis that V-ATPases may not be optimally coupled in vivo. The consequences of uncoupling V-ATPases in vivo as potential drug targets are discussed. PMID:22215674

  10. Sarcosine-Based Glycine Transporter Type-1 (GlyT-1) Inhibitors Containing Pyridazine Moiety: A Further Search for Drugs with Potential to Influence Schizophrenia Negative Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Harsing, Laszlo G; Timar, Julia; Szabo, Geza; Udvari, Szabolcs; Nagy, Katalin M; Marko, Bernadett; Zsilla, Gabriella; Czompa, Andrea; Tapolcsanyi, Pal; Kocsis, Akos; Matyus, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We have synthesized a novel series of N-substituted sarcosines, analogues of NFPS (N-[3-(biphenyl-4- yloxy)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)propyl]-N-methylglycine), as type-1 glycine transporter (GlyT-1) inhibitors. Several compounds incorporated a diazine ring inhibited recombinant hGlyT-1b expressed permanently in CHO cells and GlyT-1 in rat brain synaptosomal preparations. A structure-activity relationship for the newly synthesized compounds was obtained and discussed on the ground of their GlyT-1 inhibitory potencies. Replacement of the biphenyl-4-yloxy moiety in NFPS with a 5-pyridazinylphenoxy moiety (compounds 3, 4, 5, and 6) or a 2-phenyl-5- pyridazinyloxy moiety (compounds 10, 11, and 12) afforded compounds exhibiting potent inhibition on GlyT-1 activity. The GlyT-1 inhibitory properties of NFPS analogues, in which sarcosine was closed into a ring forming (methylamino)pyridazine-3-(2H)-one, were markedly reduced (compounds 13 and 14). The pyridazine-containing GlyT-1 inhibitors with in vitro GlyT-1 inhibitory potency also enhanced extracellular glycine concentrations in conscious rat striatum as was measured by microdialysis technique. In contrast to NFPS, sarcosine-based pyridazine containing GlyT-1 inhibitors failed to evoke compulsive running behavior whereas they inhibited phencyclidine- induced hypermotility in mice. It is believed that increase of extracellular concentrations of glycine by inhibition of its reuptake may probably influence positively glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type ionotropic receptors in the central nervous system. This may have importance in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders associated with hypofunctional NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic neurochemical transmission. Thus, impaired NMDA receptor functions have been shown to be involved in the development of the negative symptoms and the cognitive deficit of schizophrenia and the treatment of these symptoms is the possible clinical indication of GlyT-1 inhibitors including

  11. Stimulation of glucose metabolism in human blood cells by inhibitors of carnitine-dependent fatty acid transport.

    PubMed

    Haeckel, R; Colic, D; Binder, L; Oellerich, M

    1990-05-01

    According to a well accepted hypothesis, increased fatty acid oxidation can lead to hyperglycaemia by stimulating gluconeogenesis and reducing glycolysis. Therefore, inhibitors of fatty acid metabolism should cause hypoglycaemia by inhibiting gluconeogenesis and activating glycolysis. Various substances were tested to validate this hypothesis with regard to glucose oxidation in human mononuclear leukocytes and thrombocytes. 2-(3-Methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate, an inhibitor of the carnitine acyltransfer system was found to cause hypoglycaemia in whole animals and to inhibit gluconeogensis in the perfused guinea pig liver, while the acetyl-CoA/CoASH ratio was decreased. This substance stimulated the metabolism of glucose to CO2 in human mononuclear leukocytes and especially in platelets. This effect could be potentiated if concanavalin A and 2-(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate were applied simultaneously. Under these conditions, however, fatty acid oxidation was no longer inhibited. From these results, it can be concluded that the activation of glucose oxidation by 2-(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate is independent of its effect on fatty acid metabolism. Other inhibitors of fatty acid metabolism which were also investigated behaved similarly.

  12. Regulation of nuclear transport and degradation of the Xenopus cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p27Xic1.

    PubMed

    Chuang, L C; Yew, P R

    2001-01-12

    The regulation of the vertebrate cell cycle is controlled by the function of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), cyclins, and CDK inhibitors. The Xenopus laevis kinase inhibitor, p27(Xic1) (Xic1) is a member of the p21(Cip1)/p27(Kip1)/p57(Kip2) CDK inhibitor family and inhibits CDK2-cyclin E in vitro as well as DNA replication in Xenopus egg extracts. Xic1 is targeted for degradation in interphase extracts in a manner dependent on both the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, Cdc34, and nuclei. Here we show that ubiquitination of Xic1 occurs exclusively in the nucleus and that nuclear localization of Xic1 is necessary for its degradation. We find that Xic1 nuclear localization is independently mediated by binding to CDK2-cyclin E and by nuclear localization sequences within the C terminus of Xic1. Our results also indicate that binding of Xic1 to CDK2-cyclin E is dispensable for Xic1 ubiquitination and degradation. Moreover, we show that amino acids 180-183 of Xic1 are critical determinants of Xic1 degradation. This region of Xic1 may define a motif of Xic1 essential for recognition by the ubiquitin conjugation machinery or for binding an alternate protein required for degradation.

  13. Guineensine is a novel inhibitor of endocannabinoid uptake showing cannabimimetic behavioral effects in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Nicolussi, Simon; Viveros-Paredes, Juan Manuel; Gachet, María Salomé; Rau, Mark; Flores-Soto, Mario Eduardo; Blunder, Martina; Gertsch, Jürg

    2014-02-01

    High-content screening led to the identification of the N-isobutylamide guineensine from Piper nigrum as novel nanomolar inhibitor (EC50=290nM) of cellular uptake of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA). Noteworthy, guineensine did not inhibit endocannabinoid degrading enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) nor interact with cannabinoid receptors or fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5), a major cytoplasmic AEA carrier. Activity-based protein profiling showed no inhibition of serine hydrolases. Guineensine also inhibited the cellular uptake of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Preliminary structure-activity relationships between natural guineensine analogs indicate the importance of the alkyl chain length interconnecting the pharmacophoric isobutylamide and benzodioxol moieties for AEA cellular uptake inhibition. Guineensine dose-dependently induced cannabimimetic effects in BALB/c mice shown by strong catalepsy, hypothermia, reduced locomotion and analgesia. The catalepsy and analgesia were blocked by the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR141716A). Guineensine is a novel plant natural product which specifically inhibits endocannabinoid uptake in different cell lines independent of FAAH. Its scaffold may be useful to identify yet unknown targets involved in endocannabinoid transport. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Involvement of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase and Fatty Acid Binding Protein 5 in the Uptake of Anandamide by Cell Lines with Different Levels of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Expression: A Pharmacological Study

    PubMed Central

    Björklund, Emmelie; Blomqvist, Anders; Hedlin, Joel; Persson, Emma; Fowler, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The endocannabinoid ligand anandamide (AEA) is removed from the extracellular space by a process of cellular uptake followed by metabolism. In many cells, such as the RBL-2H3 cell line, inhibition of FAAH activity reduces the observed uptake, indicating that the enzyme regulates uptake by controlling the intra- : extracellular AEA concentration gradient. However, in other FAAH-expressing cells, no such effect is seen. It is not clear, however, whether these differences are methodological in nature or due to properties of the cells themselves. In consequence, we have reinvestigated the role of FAAH in gating the uptake of AEA. Methodology/Principal Findings The effects of FAAH inhibition upon AEA uptake were investigated in four cell lines: AT1 rat prostate cancer, RBL-2H3 rat basophilic leukaemia, rat C6 glioma and mouse P19 embryonic carcinoma cells. Semi-quantitative PCR for the cells and for a rat brain lysate confirmed the expression of FAAH. No obvious expression of a transcript with the expected molecular weight of FLAT was seen. FAAH expression differed between cells, but all four could accumulate AEA in a manner inhibitable by the selective FAAH inhibitor URB597. However, there was a difference in the sensitivities seen in the reduction of uptake for a given degree of FAAH inhibition produced by a reversible FAAH inhibitor, with C6 cells being more sensitive than RBL-2H3 cells, despite rather similar expression levels and activities of FAAH. The four cell lines all expressed FABP5, and AEA uptake was reduced in the presence of the FABP5 inhibitor SB-FI-26, suggesting that the different sensitivities to FAAH inhibition for C6 and RBL2H3 cells is not due to differences at the level of FABP-5. Conclusions/Significance When assayed using the same methodology, different FAAH-expressing cells display different sensitivities of uptake to FAAH inhibition. PMID:25078278

  15. Discovery and characterization of a novel non-competitive inhibitor of the divalent metal transporter DMT1/SLC11A2.

    PubMed

    Montalbetti, Nicolas; Simonin, Alexandre; Simonin, Céline; Awale, Mahendra; Reymond, Jean-Louis; Hediger, Matthias A

    2015-08-01

    Divalent metal transporter-1 (SLC11A2/DMT1) uses the H(+) electrochemical gradient as the driving force to transport divalent metal ions such as Fe(2+), Mn(2+) and others metals into mammalian cells. DMT1 is ubiquitously expressed, most notably in proximal duodenum, immature erythroid cells, brain and kidney. This transporter mediates H(+)-coupled transport of ferrous iron across the apical membrane of enterocytes. In addition, in cells such as to erythroid precursors, following transferrin receptor (TfR) mediated endocytosis; it mediates H(+)-coupled exit of ferrous iron from endocytic vesicles into the cytosol. Dysfunction of human DMT1 is associated with several pathologies such as iron deficiency anemia hemochromatosis, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, as well as colorectal cancer and esophageal adenocarcinoma, making DMT1 an attractive target for drug discovery. In the present study, we performed a ligand-based virtual screening of the Princeton database (700,000 commercially available compounds) to search for pharmacophore shape analogs of recently reported DMT1 inhibitors. We discovered a new compound, named pyrimidinone 8, which mediates a reversible linear non-competitive inhibition of human DMT1 (hDMT1) transport activity with a Ki of ∼20μM. This compound does not affect hDMT1 cell surface expression and shows no dependence on extracellular pH. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence that hDMT1 can be allosterically modulated by pharmacological agents. Pyrimidinone 8 represents a novel versatile tool compound and it may serve as a lead structure for the development of therapeutic compounds for pre-clinical assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Transport Inhibition of Digoxin Using Several Common P-gp Expressing Cell Lines Is Not Necessarily Reporting Only on Inhibitor Binding to P-gp

    PubMed Central

    Lumen, Annie Albin; Li, Libin; Li, Jiben; Ahmed, Zeba; Meng, Zhou; Owen, Albert; Ellens, Harma; Hidalgo, Ismael J.; Bentz, Joe

    2013-01-01

    We have reported that the P-gp substrate digoxin required basolateral and apical uptake transport in excess of that allowed by digoxin passive permeability (as measured in the presence of GF120918) to achieve the observed efflux kinetics across MDCK-MDR1-NKI (The Netherlands Cancer Institute) confluent cell monolayers. That is, GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport was kinetically required. Therefore, IC50 measurements using digoxin as a probe substrate in this cell line could be due to inhibition of P-gp, of digoxin uptake transport, or both. This kinetic analysis is now extended to include three additional cell lines: MDCK-MDR1-NIH (National Institute of Health), Caco-2 and CPT-B2 (Caco-2 cells with BCRP knockdown). These cells similarly exhibit GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport of digoxin. We demonstrate that inhibition of digoxin transport across these cell lines by GF120918, cyclosporine, ketoconazole and verapamil is greater than can be explained by inhibition of P-gp alone. We examined three hypotheses for this non-P-gp inhibition. The inhibitors can: (1) bind to a basolateral digoxin uptake transporter, thereby inhibiting digoxin's cellular uptake; (2) partition into the basolateral membrane and directly reduce membrane permeability; (3) aggregate with digoxin in the donor chamber, thereby reducing the free concentration of digoxin, with concomitant reduction in digoxin uptake. Data and simulations show that hypothesis 1 was found to be uniformly acceptable. Hypothesis 2 was found to be uniformly unlikely. Hypothesis 3 was unlikely for GF120918 and cyclosporine, but further studies are needed to completely adjudicate whether hetero-dimerization contributes to the non-P-gp inhibition for ketoconazole and verapamil. We also find that P-gp substrates with relatively low passive permeability such as digoxin, loperamide and vinblastine kinetically require basolateral uptake transport over that allowed by +GF120918 passive permeability, while highly permeable

  17. The noncompetitive inhibitor WW781 senses changes in erythrocyte anion exchanger (AE1) transport site conformation and substrate binding.

    PubMed

    Knauf, P A; Raha, N M; Spinelli, L J

    2000-02-01

    WW781 binds reversibly to red blood cell AE1 and inhibits anion exchange by a two-step mechanism, in which an initial complex (complex 1) is rapidly formed, and then there is a slower equilibration to form a second complex (complex 2) with a lower free energy. According to the ping-pong kinetic model, AE1 can exist in forms with the anion transport site facing either inward or outward, and the transition between these forms is greatly facilitated by binding of a transportable substrate such as Cl(-). Both the rapid initial binding of WW781 and the formation of complex 2 are strongly affected by the conformation of AE1, such that the forms with the transport site facing outward have higher affinity than those with the transport site facing inward. In addition, binding of Cl(-) seems to raise the free energy of complex 2 relative to complex 1, thereby reducing the equilibrium binding affinity, but Cl(-) does not compete directly with WW781. The WW781 binding site, therefore, reveals a part of the AE1 structure that is sensitive to Cl(-) binding and to transport site orientation, in addition to the disulfonic stilbene binding site. The relationship of the inhibitory potency of WW781 under different conditions to the affinities for the different forms of AE1 provides information on the possible asymmetric distributions of unloaded and Cl(-)-loaded transport sites that are consistent with the ping-pong model, and supports the conclusion from flux and nuclear magnetic resonance data that both the unloaded and Cl(-)-loaded sites are very asymmetrically distributed, with far more sites facing the cytoplasm than the outside medium. This asymmetry, together with the ability of WW781 to recruit toward the forms with outward-facing sites, implies that WW781 may be useful for changing the conformation of AE1 in studies of structure-function relationships.

  18. Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vontiesenhausen, G.

    1986-01-01

    A summary of tether transportation is given. Four steps were used over a period of time. First, theoretical engineering feasibility and technology requirements were determined. Then the survivors of that effort went into step two in the analysis of promising candidates. Those survivors went into the third phase which is engineering design and cost benefits. Survivors entered into the demonstration mission definition phase. Transportation studies have covered two kinds of deployments. First, steady state deployment was studied. Like the TSS, it's nearly vertical. It takes a long time to deploy and involves relatively high tether tension. Secondly, dynamic deployment was studied. Deployment started in an almost horizontal direction under a very shallow angle which allows a high deployment rate under very low tension. Momentum transfer here occurs by libration. Specific payloads were used to study tethered transportation benefits. Four transportation concepts were studied with regard to cost benefits. A tethered orbiter deboost from the space station, an OTV boost up from the Space Station, a science platform on a tether with a possible micro-g lab moving in between platform and station, and a tethered boost of payloads fromthe orbiter are the four concepts. These benefits are examined in detail.

  19. Assessment of the in vitro binding of JHW 007, a dopamine transport inhibitor that blocks the effects of cocaine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Benztropine (BZT) and its analogues, like cocaine, bind to the dopamine transporter and block dopamine uptake. However, while BZT analogues bind the DAT with high affinity, they generally do not have cocaine-like behavioral effects. JHW 007 is a BZT analogue that displaces [3H]WIN 35,428 from the D...

  20. Ginsenosides, ingredients of the root of Panax ginseng, are not substrates but inhibitors of sodium-glucose transporter 1.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shengli; Kushida, Hirotaka; Makino, Toshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Recent pharmacokinetic studies have revealed that ginsenosides, the major ingredients of ginseng (the roots of Panax ginseng), are present in the plasma collected from subjects receiving ginseng, and speculated that ginsenosides might be actively transported via glucose transporters. We evaluated whether ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1, and their metabolites from enteric bacteria act as substrates of sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 1, the major glucose transporter expressed on the apical side of intestinal epithelial cells. First, we evaluated the competing effects of ginseng extract and ginsenosides on the uptake of [(14)C]methyl-glucose, a substrate of SGLT1, by SGLT1-overexpressing HEK293 cells. A boiling water extract of ginseng inhibited SGLT1 in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 0.85 mg/ml. By activity-guided fractionation, we determined that the fraction containing ginsenosides displayed an inhibitory effect on SGLT1. Of the ginsenosides evaluated, protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides were not found to inhibit SGLT1, whereas protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides, including ginsenosides Rd, Rg3, Rh2, F2 and compound K, exhibited significant inhibitory effects on SGLT1, with ginsenoside F2 having the highest activity with an IC50 value of 23.0 µM. Next, we measured the uptake of ginsenoside F2 and compound K into Caco-2 cells, a cell line frequently used to evaluate the intestinal absorption of drugs. The uptake of ginsenoside F2 and compound K into Caco-2 cells was not competitively inhibited by glucose. Furthermore, the uptake of ginsenoside F2 and compound K into SGLT1-overexpressing HEK293 cells was not significantly higher than into mock cells. Ginsenoside F2 and compound K did not appear to be substrates of SGLT1, although these compounds could inhibit SGLT1. Ginsenosides might be absorbed by passive diffusion through the intestinal membrane or actively transported via unknown transporters other than SGLT1.

  1. Nitromusk and Polycyclic Musk Compounds as Long-Term Inhibitors of Cellular Xenobiotic Defense Systems Mediated by Multidrug Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Luckenbach, Till; Epel, David

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic musk compounds, widely used as fragrances in consumer products, have been detected in human tissue and, surprisingly, in aquatic organisms such as fish and mollusks. Although their persistence and potential to bioaccumulate are of concern, the toxicity and environmental risks of these chemicals are generally regarded as low. Here, however, we show that nitromusks and polycyclic musks inhibit the activity of multidrug efflux transporters responsible for multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) in gills of the marine mussel Mytilus californianus. The IC10 (concentration that inhibits 10%) values for the different classes of musks were in the range of 0.09–0.39 μM, and IC50 values were 0.74–2.56 μM. The immediate consequence of inhibition of efflux transporters is that normally excluded xenobiotics will now be able to enter the cell. Remarkably, the inhibitory effects of a brief 2-hr exposure to musks were only partially reversed after a 24- to 48-hr recovery period in clean seawater. This unexpected consequence of synthetic musks—a long-term loss of efflux transport activity—will result in continued accumulation of normally excluded toxicants even after direct exposure to the musk has ended. These findings also point to the need to determine whether other environmental chemicals have similar long-term effects on these transporters. The results are relevant to human health because they raise the possibility that exposure to common xenobiotics and pharmaceut