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Sample records for anandamide transport inhibitor

  1. The Insertion and Transport of Anandamide in Synthetic Lipid Membranes Are Both Cholesterol-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Di Pasquale, Eric; Chahinian, Henri; Sanchez, Patrick; Fantini, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Background Anandamide is a lipid neurotransmitter which belongs to a class of molecules termed the endocannabinoids involved in multiple physiological functions. Anandamide is readily taken up into cells, but there is considerable controversy as to the nature of this transport process (passive diffusion through the lipid bilayer vs. involvement of putative proteic transporters). This issue is of major importance since anandamide transport through the plasma membrane is crucial for its biological activity and intracellular degradation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the involvement of cholesterol in membrane uptake and transport of anandamide. Methodology/Principal Findings Molecular modeling simulations suggested that anandamide can adopt a shape that is remarkably complementary to cholesterol. Physicochemical studies showed that in the nanomolar concentration range, anandamide strongly interacted with cholesterol monolayers at the air-water interface. The specificity of this interaction was assessed by: i) the lack of activity of structurally related unsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid and arachidonic acid at 50 nM) on cholesterol monolayers, and ii) the weak insertion of anandamide into phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin monolayers. In agreement with these data, the presence of cholesterol in reconstituted planar lipid bilayers triggered the stable insertion of anandamide detected as an increase in bilayer capacitance. Kinetics transport studies showed that pure phosphatidylcholine bilayers were weakly permeable to anandamide. The incorporation of cholesterol in phosphatidylcholine bilayers dose-dependently stimulated the translocation of anandamide. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that cholesterol stimulates both the insertion of anandamide into synthetic lipid monolayers and bilayers, and its transport across bilayer membranes. In this respect, we suggest that besides putative anandamide protein-transporters, cholesterol could

  2. A cyclooxygenase metabolite of anandamide causes inhibition of interleukin-2 secretion in murine splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, Cheryl E; Kaminski, Norbert E

    2004-11-01

    Arachidonyl ethanolamine, which is commonly known as anandamide, was the first endogenous compound to be identified that binds to the cannabinoid receptors. Anandamide mimics many of the physiological effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), including hypothermia, antinociception, immobility, catalepsy, and immune modulation. In the present studies, we show that anandamide caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of interleukin-2 in primary splenocytes. The CB1 and CB2 antagonists, SR141716A [N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorphenyl)-4-methyl-H-pyrazole-3 carboxyamidehydrochloride] and SR144528 [N-[(1S)-endo-1,3,3,-trimethylbicyclo[2,2,1]heptan-2-yl]-5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)-pyrazole-3-carboxamide], when used in combination, did not antagonize the inhibition of interleukin-2 by anandamide. Additionally, neither UCM707 [N-(3-furanylmethyl)-5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenamide], the inhibitor of the putative anandamide membrane transporter (AMT), nor methyl arachidonoyl fluorophosphonate (MAFP), the inhibitor of fatty acid amidohydrolase (FAAH), were able to affect the inhibitory activity of anandamide upon interleukin-2. Interestingly, arachidonic acid caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of interleukin-2 secretion (IC(50) = 10.3 microM), which was similar to that of structurally related anandamide (IC(50) = 11.4 microM). The inhibition of interleukin-2 by anandamide and arachidonic acid was partially reversed by pretreatment with the nonspecific cyclooxygenase inhibitors, flurbiprofen and piroxicam. Moreover, NS398 [N-[2-(cyclohexyloxy)-4-nitrophenyl]-methanesulfonamide], a cyclooxygenase-2-specific inhibitor, also attenuated the inhibitory effects of anandamide and arachidonic acid upon interleukin-2 secretion. Finally, pretreatment with a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma)-specific antagonist, T0070907 [2-chloro-5-nitro-N-4-pyridinyl-benzamide], partially antagonized

  3. A Personal Retrospective: Elevating Anandamide (AEA) by Targeting Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) and the Fatty Acid Binding Proteins (FABPs)

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Dale G.

    2016-01-01

    This perspective was adapted from a Career Achievement Award talk given at the International Cannabinoid Research Society Symposium in Bukovina, Poland on June 27, 2016. As a biochemist working in the neurosciences, I was always fascinated with neurotransmitter inactivation. In 1993 we identified an enzyme activity that breaks down anandamide. We called the enzyme anandamide amidase, now called FAAH. We and other laboratories developed FAAH inhibitors that were useful reagents that also proved to have beneficial physiological effects and until recently, new generations of inhibitors were in clinical trials. Nearly all neurotransmitters are water soluble and as such, require a transmembrane protein transporter to pass through the lipid membrane for inactivation inside the cell. However, using model systems, we and others have shown that this is unnecessary for anandamide, an uncharged hydrophobic molecule that readily diffuses across the cellular membrane. Interestingly, its uptake is driven by the concentration gradient resulting from its breakdown mainly by FAAH localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. We identified the FABPs as intracellular carriers that “solubilize” anandamide, transporting anandamide to FAAH. Compounds that bind to FABPs block AEA breakdown, raising its level. The cannabinoids (THC and CBD) also were discovered to bind FABPs and this may be one of the mechanisms by which CBD works in childhood epilepsy, raising anandamide levels. Targeting FABPs may be advantageous since they have some tissue specificity and do not require reactive serine hydrolase inhibitors, as does FAAH, with potential for off-target reactions. At the International Cannabis Research Society Symposium in 1992, Raphe Mechoulam revealed that his laboratory isolated an endogenous lipid molecule that binds to the CB1 receptor (cannabinoid receptor type 1) and this became the milestone paper published in December of that year describing anandamide (AEA, Devane et al., 1992

  4. Targeting the Endocannabinoid System for Neuroprotection: A 19F-NMR Study of a Selective FAAH Inhibitor Binding with an Anandamide Carrier Protein, HSA

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Jianqin; Yang, De-Ping; Tian, Xiaoyu; Nikas, Spyros P.; Sharma, Rishi; Guo, Jason Jianxin; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme involved in the inactivation of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA), is being considered as a therapeutic target for analgesia and neuroprotection. We have developed a brain permeable FAAH inhibitor, AM5206, which has served as a valuable pharmacological tool to explore neuroprotective effects of this class of compounds. In the present work, we characterized the interactions of AM5206 with a representative AEA carrier protein, human serum albumin (HSA), using 19F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Our data showed that as a drug carrier, albumin can significantly enhance the solubility of AM5206 in aqueous environment. Through a series of titration and competitive binding experiments, we also identified that AM5206 primarily binds to two distinct sites within HSA. Our results may provide insight into the mechanism of HSA-AM5206 interactions. The findings should also help in the development of suitable formulations of the lipophilic AM5206 and its congeners for their effective delivery to specific target sites in the brain. PMID:24533425

  5. Potent and Selective α-Ketoheterocycle-Based Inhibitors of the Anandamide and Oleamide Catabolizing Enzyme, Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Romero, F. Anthony; Du, Wu; Hwang, Inkyu; Rayl, Thomas J.; Kimball, F. Scott; Leung, Donmienne; Hoover, Heather S.; Apodaca, Richard L.; Breitenbucher, J. Guy; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Boger, Dale L.

    2008-01-01

    A study of the structure–activity relationships (SAR) of 2f (OL-135), a potent inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), is detailed targeting the 5-position of the oxazole. Examination of a series of substituted benzene derivatives (12–14) revealed that the optimal position for substitution was the meta-position with selected members approaching or exceeding the potency of 2f. Concurrent with these studies, the effect of substitution on the pyridine ring of 2f was also examined. A series of small, non-aromatic C5-substituents was also explored and revealed that the Ki follows a well-defined correlation with the Hammett σp constant (ρ = 3.01, R2 = 0.91) in which electron-withdrawing substituents enhance potency leading to inhibitors with Ki’s as low as 400 pM (20n). Proteomic-wide screening of the inhibitors revealed that most are exquisitely selective for FAAH over all other mammalian proteases reversing the 100-fold preference of 20a (C5 substituent = H) for the enzyme TGH. PMID:17279740

  6. Glycine Transporters and Their Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilfillan, Robert; Kerr, Jennifer; Walker, Glenn; Wishart, Grant

    Glycine plays a ubiquitous role in many biological processes. In the central nervous system it serves as an important neurotransmitter acting as an agonist at strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors and as an essential co-agonist with glutamate at the NMDA receptor complex. Control of glycine concentrations in the vicinity of these receptors is mediated by the specific glycine transporters, GlyT1 and GlyT2. Inhibition of these transporters has been postulated to be of potential benefit in several therapeutic indications including schizophrenia and pain. In this review we discuss our current knowledge of glycine transporters and focus on recent advances in the medicinal chemistry of GlyT1 and GlyT2 inhibitors.

  7. Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Urea Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Esteva-Font, Cristina; Cil, Onur; Anderson, Marc O.; Li, Fei; Li, Min; Lei, Tianluo; Ren, Huiwen; Yang, Baoxue

    2015-01-01

    Urea transporter (UT) proteins, which include isoforms of UT-A in kidney tubule epithelia and UT-B in vasa recta endothelia and erythrocytes, facilitate urinary concentrating function. Inhibitors of urea transporter function have potential clinical applications as sodium-sparing diuretics, or ‘urearetics,’ in edema from different etiologies, such as congestive heart failure and cirrhosis, as well as in syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). High-throughput screening of drug-like small molecules has identified UT-A and UT-B inhibitors with nanomolar potency. Inhibitors have been identified with different UT-A versus UT-B selectivity profiles and putative binding sites on UT proteins. Studies in rodent models support the utility of UT inhibitors in reducing urinary concentration, though testing in clinically relevant animal models of edema has not yet been done. PMID:25298345

  8. Anandamide mediates cognitive judgement bias in rats.

    PubMed

    Kregiel, J; Malek, N; Popik, P; Starowicz, K; Rygula, R

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute pharmacological manipulation of the endocannabinoid (EC) system on the valence of cognitive judgement bias of rats in the ambiguous-cue interpretation (ACI) paradigm. To accomplish this goal, after initial behavioural training, different groups of rats received single, systemic injections of the irreversible anandamide (AEA) hydrolysis inhibitor URB597, the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) inverse agonist AM251, the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) inverse agonist AM630, the combination of URB597 and AM251, and a combination of URB597 and AM630 and were subsequently tested with the ACI paradigm. We report that URB597 at a dose of 1 mg/kg significantly biased animals towards positive interpretation of the ambiguous cue and that this effect was abolished by pre-treatment with AM251 (1 mg/kg) or AM630 (1 mg/kg). The CB1 and CB2 inverse agonists administered alone (1 mg/kg) had no statistically significant effects on the interpretation of the ambiguous cue by rats. Our findings suggest involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the mediation of optimistic judgement bias.

  9. Inactivation of Anandamide Signaling: A Continuing Debate

    PubMed Central

    Khairy, Hesham; Houssen, Wael E.

    2010-01-01

    Since the first endocannabinoid anandamide was identified in 1992, extensive research has been conducted to characterize the elements of the tightly controlled endocannabinoid signaling system. While it was established that the activity of endocannabinoids are terminated by a two-step process that includes cellular uptake and degradation, there is still a continuing debate about the mechanistic role of these processes in inactivating anandamide signals.

  10. Molecular modeling of auxin transport inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, G.; Black-Schaefer, C.; Bures, M.G. )

    1990-05-01

    Molecular modeling techniques have been used to study the chemical and steric properties of auxin transport inhibitors. These bind to a specific site on the plant plasma membrane characterized by its affinity for N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). A three-dimensional model was derived from critical features of ligands for the NPA receptor, and a suggested binding conformation is proposed. This model, along with three-dimensional structural searching techniques, was then used to search the Abbott corporate database of chemical structures. Of the 467 compounds that satisfied the search criteria, 77 representative molecules were evaluated for their ability to compete for ({sup 3}H)NPA binding to corn microsomal membranes. Nineteen showed activity that ranged from 16 to 85% of the maximum NPA binding. Four of the most active of these, from chemical classes not included in the original compound set, also inhibited polar auxin transport through corn coleoptile sections.

  11. Anandamide induces endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction and CGRPergic nerve-mediated vasodilatation in the rat mesenteric vascular bed.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Chihiro; Nawa, Hideki; Takatori, Shingo; Oda, Sakiko; Sendo, Toshiaki; Zamami, Yoshito; Kawasaki, Hiromu

    2012-01-01

    An endogenous cannabinoid anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamide) has been shown to cause vasodilatation in vitro and a brief vasoconstriction followed by prolonged depressor response in vivo. This study investigated the vascular effects of anandamide and underlying mechanisms in rat mesenteric vascular beds. In preparations with an intact endothelium and active tone, anandamide at low concentrations (0.1 - 1 nM) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in perfusion pressure due to vasodilatation, but at high concentrations (10 nM - 1 µM) elicited an initial and sharp increase in perfusion pressure due to vasoconstriction followed by long-lasting vasodilatation in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment with SR141716A [cannabinoid-1 (CB(1))-receptor antagonist] blunted both the vasoconstrictor and vasodilator responses. Also, removal of the endothelium and indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor), but not adrenergic denervation with 6-hydoxydopamine (adrenergic neurotoxin), markedly inhibited the vasoconstrictor response to anandamide, while these treatments did not affect vasodilatation. The vasodilatation, but not vasoconstriction, in response to anandamide was markedly attenuated by capsazepine [selective antagonist for transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1)], pretreatment with capsaicin [calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)ergic-nerve depletor], or cold-storage denervation. These results suggest that in rat mesenteric vascular beds, anandamide causes CB(1)-receptor- and prostanoid-mediated endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction and perivascular capsaicin-sensitive CGRPergic nerve-mediated vasodilatation.

  12. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of sulfamide-based analogues of anandamide.

    PubMed

    Cano, Carolina; Páez, Juan Antonio; Goya, Pilar; Serrano, Antonia; Pavón, Javier; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suardíaz, Margarita; Martín, María Isabel

    2009-12-01

    Arachidonyl and linoleyl sulfamide derivatives have been synthesized and their potential cannabimimetic properties evaluated in in vitro functional and binding assays. Replacement of the ethanolamide moiety of anandamide by -CH(2)NHSO(2)NH-R considerably reduces the CB1 receptor activity and only some of the compounds showed modest cannabinoid properties in binding assays. The new compounds were also tested as inhibitors of the FAAH enzyme but were inactive.

  13. Comparisons of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Anandamide on a Battery of Cognition-Related Behavior in Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Kangas, Brian D; Leonard, Michael Z; Shukla, Vidyanand G; Alapafuja, Shakiru O; Nikas, Spyros P; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Bergman, Jack

    2016-04-01

    The primary psychoactive ingredient of marijuana, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), has medicinal value but also produces unwanted deleterious effects on cognitive function, promoting the search for improved cannabinergic therapeutics. The present studies used a battery of touchscreen procedures in squirrel monkeys to compare the effects of different types of cannabinergic drugs on several measures of performance including learning (repeated acquisition), cognitive flexibility (discrimination reversal), short-term memory (delayed matching-to-sample), attention (psychomotor vigilance), and motivation (progressive ratio). Drugs studied included the cannabinoid agonist Δ(9)-THC, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3-carbamoylbiphenyl-3-yl ester (URB597), and endocannabinoid anandamide and its stable synthetic analog methanandamide [(R)-(+)-arachidonyl-1'-hydroxy-2'-propylamide]. The effects of Δ(9)-THC and anandamide after treatment with the cannabinoid receptor type 1 inverse agonist/antagonist rimonabant [5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichloro-phenyl)-4-methyl-N-(piperidin-1-yl)-1Hpyrazole-3-carboxamide] and the FAAH inhibitor URB597, respectively, also were examined. The results showed the following: 1) Δ(9)-THC produced dose-related impairments of discrimination-based cognitive behavior with potency that varied across tasks (discriminative capability < learning < flexibility < short-term memory); 2) anandamide alone and URB597 alone were without effect on all endpoints; 3) anandamide following URB597 pretreatment and methanandamide had negligible effects on discriminative capability, learning, and reversal, but following large doses affected delayed matching-to-sample performance in some subjects; 4) all drugs, except anandamide and URB597, disrupted attention; and 5) progressive ratio breakpoints were generally unaffected by all drugs tested, suggesting little to no effect on motivation. Taken together, these data indicate

  14. Urea Transporter Inhibitors: En Route to New Diuretics

    PubMed Central

    Sands, Jeff M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary A selective urea transporter UT-A1 inhibitor would be a novel type of diuretic, likely with less undesirable side-effects than conventional diureticssince it acts on the last portion of the nephron. Esteva-Font et al. (2013) develop suchan inhibitor by using a clever high-throughput screening assay, and document its selectivity. . PMID:24210002

  15. Pharmacological elevation of anandamide impairs short-term memory by altering the neurophysiology in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Goonawardena, Anushka V; Sesay, John; Sexton, Cheryl Ann; Riedel, Gernot; Hampson, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    In rodents, many exogenous cannabinoid agonists including Δ(9)-THC and WIN55,212-2 (WIN-2) have been shown to impair short-term memory (STM) by inhibition of hippocampal neuronal assemblies. However, the mechanisms by which endocannabinoids such as anandamide and 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG) modulate STM processes are not well understood. Here the effects of anandamide on performance of a Delayed-Non-Match-to-Sample (DNMS) task (i.e. STM task) and concomitant hippocampal ensemble activity were assessed following administration of either URB597 (0.3, 3.0 mg/kg), an inhibitor of the Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH), AM404 (1.5, 10.0 mg/kg), a putative anandamide uptake/FAAH inhibitor, or R-methanandamide (3.0, 10.0 mg/kg), a stable analog of anandamide. Principal cells from hippocampal CA3/CA1 were recorded extracellularly by multi-electrode arrays in Long-Evans rats during DNMS task (1-30 s delays) performance and tracked throughout drug administration and recovery. Both R-methanandamide and URB597 caused dose- and delay-dependent deficits in DNMS performance with suppression of hippocampal ensemble activity during the encoding (sample) phase. R-methanandamide-induced effects were not reversed by capsaicin excluding a contribution of TRPV-1 receptors. AM404 produced subtle deficits at longer delay intervals but did not alter hippocampal neuronal activity during task-specific events. Collectively, these data indicate that endocannabinoid levels affect performance in a STM task and their pharmacological elevation beyond normal concentrations is detrimental also for the underlying physiological responses. They also highlight a specific window of memory processing, i.e. encoding, which is sensitive to cannabinoid modulation.

  16. Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Leweke, F M; Piomelli, D; Pahlisch, F; Muhl, D; Gerth, C W; Hoyer, C; Klosterkötter, J; Hellmich, M; Koethe, D

    2012-01-01

    Cannabidiol is a component of marijuana that does not activate cannabinoid receptors, but moderately inhibits the degradation of the endocannabinoid anandamide. We previously reported that an elevation of anandamide levels in cerebrospinal fluid inversely correlated to psychotic symptoms. Furthermore, enhanced anandamide signaling let to a lower transition rate from initial prodromal states into frank psychosis as well as postponed transition. In our translational approach, we performed a double-blind, randomized clinical trial of cannabidiol vs amisulpride, a potent antipsychotic, in acute schizophrenia to evaluate the clinical relevance of our initial findings. Either treatment was safe and led to significant clinical improvement, but cannabidiol displayed a markedly superior side-effect profile. Moreover, cannabidiol treatment was accompanied by a significant increase in serum anandamide levels, which was significantly associated with clinical improvement. The results suggest that inhibition of anandamide deactivation may contribute to the antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol potentially representing a completely new mechanism in the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:22832859

  17. Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Leweke, F M; Piomelli, D; Pahlisch, F; Muhl, D; Gerth, C W; Hoyer, C; Klosterkötter, J; Hellmich, M; Koethe, D

    2012-03-20

    Cannabidiol is a component of marijuana that does not activate cannabinoid receptors, but moderately inhibits the degradation of the endocannabinoid anandamide. We previously reported that an elevation of anandamide levels in cerebrospinal fluid inversely correlated to psychotic symptoms. Furthermore, enhanced anandamide signaling let to a lower transition rate from initial prodromal states into frank psychosis as well as postponed transition. In our translational approach, we performed a double-blind, randomized clinical trial of cannabidiol vs amisulpride, a potent antipsychotic, in acute schizophrenia to evaluate the clinical relevance of our initial findings. Either treatment was safe and led to significant clinical improvement, but cannabidiol displayed a markedly superior side-effect profile. Moreover, cannabidiol treatment was accompanied by a significant increase in serum anandamide levels, which was significantly associated with clinical improvement. The results suggest that inhibition of anandamide deactivation may contribute to the antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol potentially representing a completely new mechanism in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  18. Intrahippocampal administration of anandamide increases REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Rueda-Orozco, Pavel Ernesto; Soria-Gómez, Edgar; Montes-Rodríguez, Corinne Jennifer; Pérez-Morales, Marcel; Prospéro-García, Oscar

    2010-04-01

    A nascent literature has postulated endocannabinoids (eCBs) as strong sleep-inducing lipids, particularly rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMs), nevertheless the exact mechanisms behind this effect remain to be determined. Anandamide and 2-arachidonyl glycerol, two of the most important eCBS, are synthesized in the hippocampus. This structure also expresses a high concentration of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). Recent extensive literature supports eCBs as important regulators of hippocampal activity. It has also been shown that these molecules vary their expression on the hippocampus depending on the light-dark cycle. In this context we decided to analyze the effect of intrahippocampal administration of the eCB anandamide (ANA) on the sleep-waking cycle at two points of the light-dark cycle. Our data indicate that the administration of ANA directly into the hippocampus increases REMs in a dose dependent manner during the dark but not during the light phase of the cycle. The increase of REMs was blocked by the CB1 antagonist AM251. This effect was specific for the hippocampus since ANA administrations in the surrounding cortex did not elicit any change in REMs. These results support the idea of a direct relationship between hippocampal activity and sleep mechanisms by means of eCBs. The data presented here show, for the first time that eCBs administered into the hippocampus trigger REMs and support previous studies where chemical stimulation of limbic areas triggered sleep.

  19. Developing Hypothetical Inhibition Mechanism of Novel Urea Transporter B Inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Tou, Weng Ieong; Zhou, Hong; Li, Fei; Ren, Huiwen; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian; Yang, Baoxue

    2014-07-01

    Urea transporter B (UT-B) is a membrane channel protein that specifically transports urea. UT-B null mouse exhibited urea selective urine concentrating ability deficiency, which suggests the potential clinical applications of the UT-B inhibitors as novel diuretics. Primary high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS) of 50000 small-molecular drug-like compounds identified 2319 hit compounds. These 2319 compounds were screened by high-throughput screening using an erythrocyte osmotic lysis assay. Based on the pharmacological data, putative UT-B binding sites were identified by structure-based drug design and validated by ligand-based and QSAR model. Additionally, UT-B structural and functional characteristics under inhibitors treated and untreated conditions were simulated by molecular dynamics (MD). As the result, we identified four classes of compounds with UT-B inhibitory activity and predicted a human UT-B model, based on which computative binding sites were identified and validated. A novel potential mechanism of UT-B inhibitory activity was discovered by comparing UT-B from different species. Results suggest residue PHE198 in rat and mouse UT-B might block the inhibitor migration pathway. Inhibitory mechanisms of UT-B inhibitors and the functions of key residues in UT-B were proposed. The binding site analysis provides a structural basis for lead identification and optimization of UT-B inhibitors.

  20. Regulation of renal peripheral benzodiazepine receptors by anion transport inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, A.S.; Lueddens, W.M.; Skolnick, P.

    1988-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo regulation of (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4864 binding to peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) by ion transport/exchange inhibitors was studied in the kidney. The potencies of 9-anthroic acid, furosemide, bumetanide, hydrochlorothiazide and SITS as inhibitors of (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4864 binding to renal membranes were consistent with their actions as anion transport inhibitors (Ki approx. = 30 - 130 ..mu..M). In contrast, spironolactone, amiloride, acetazolamide, and ouabain were less potent (Ki=100-1000 ..mu..M). Administration of furosemide to rats for five days resulted in a profound diuresis accompanied by a significant increase in PBR density (43%) that was apparent by the fifth day of treatment. Administration of hydrochlorothiazide or Ro 5-4864 for five days also caused diuresis and increased renal PBR density. Both the diuresis and increased density of PBR produced by Ro 5-4864 were blocked by coadministration of PK 11195, which alone had no effect on either PBR density or urine volume. The equilibrium binding constants of (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4864 to cardiac membranes were unaffected by administration of any of these drugs. These findings suggest that renal PBR may be selectively modulated in vivo and in vitro by administration of ion transport/exchange inhibitors. 36 references, 4 tables.

  1. Monocarboxylate Transporter 1 Inhibitors as Potential Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Potent monocarboxylate transporter 1 inhibitors (MCT1) have been developed based on α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid template. Structure–activity relationship studies demonstrate that the introduction of p-N, N-dialkyl/diaryl, and o-methoxy groups into cyanocinnamic acid has maximal MCT1 inhibitory activity. Systemic toxicity studies in healthy ICR mice with few potent MCT1 inhibitors indicate normal body weight gains in treated animals. In vivo tumor growth inhibition studies in colorectal adenocarcinoma (WiDr cell line) in nude mice xenograft models establish that compound 27 exhibits single agent activity in inhibiting the tumor growth. PMID:26005533

  2. Monoamine Transporter Inhibitors and Substrates as Treatments for Stimulant Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Leonard L.; Negus, S. Stevens

    2015-01-01

    The acute and chronic effects of abused psychostimulants on monoamine transporters and associated neurobiology have encouraged development of candidate medications that target these transporters. Monoamine transporters in general, and dopamine transporters in particular, are critical molecular targets that mediate abuse-related effects of psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. Moreover, chronic administration of psychostimulants can cause enduring changes in neurobiology reflected in dysregulation of monoamine neurochemistry and behavior. The current review will evaluate evidence for the efficacy of monoamine transporter inhibitors and substrates to reduce abuse-related effects of stimulants in preclinical assays of stimulant self-administration, drug discrimination and reinstatement. In considering deployment of monoamine transport inhibitors and substrates as agonist-type medications to treat stimulant abuse, the safety and abuse liability of the medications are an obvious concern, and this will also be addressed. Future directions in drug discovery should identify novel medications that retain efficacy to decrease stimulant use but possess lower abuse liability, and evaluate the degree to which efficacious medications can attenuate or reverse neurobiological effects of chronic stimulant use. PMID:24484977

  3. Monoamine transporter inhibitors and substrates as treatments for stimulant abuse.

    PubMed

    Howell, Leonard L; Negus, S Stevens

    2014-01-01

    The acute and chronic effects of abused psychostimulants on monoamine transporters and associated neurobiology have encouraged development of candidate medications that target these transporters. Monoamine transporters, in general, and dopamine transporters, in particular, are critical molecular targets that mediate abuse-related effects of psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. Moreover, chronic administration of psychostimulants can cause enduring changes in neurobiology reflected in dysregulation of monoamine neurochemistry and behavior. The current review will evaluate evidence for the efficacy of monoamine transporter inhibitors and substrates to reduce abuse-related effects of stimulants in preclinical assays of stimulant self-administration, drug discrimination, and reinstatement. In considering deployment of monoamine transport inhibitors and substrates as agonist-type medications to treat stimulant abuse, the safety and abuse liability of the medications are an obvious concern, and this will also be addressed. Future directions in drug discovery should identify novel medications that retain efficacy to decrease stimulant use but possess lower abuse liability and evaluate the degree to which efficacious medications can attenuate or reverse neurobiological effects of chronic stimulant use. PMID:24484977

  4. Ni++ as a competitive inhibitor of calcium transport in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Bragadin, M; Viola, E R

    1997-06-01

    The kinetics of Ca++ uptake in rat liver mitochondria have been studied using the potassium diffusion potential. The advantage of this approach is that in this condition, the mitochondrial respiratory rate is not the limiting step, and therefore the effects of Ni++ on the Ca++ carrier can be studied. Our results suggest that Ni++ is a competitive inhibitor of the Ca++ carrier, but it is not transported into the mitochondria. PMID:9161009

  5. Production and physiological actions of anandamide in the vasculature of the rat kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, D G; Goligorsky, M S; Schmid, P C; Krebsbach, R J; Schmid, H H; Das, S K; Dey, S K; Arreaza, G; Thorup, C; Stefano, G; Moore, L C

    1997-01-01

    The endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonist anandamide is present in central and peripheral tissues. As the kidney contains both the amidase that degrades anandamide and transcripts for anandamide receptors, we characterized the molecular components of the anandamide signaling system and the vascular effects of exogenous anandamide in the kidney. We show that anandamide is present in kidney homogenates, cultured renal endothelial cells (EC), and mesangial cells; these cells also contain anandamide amidase. Reverse-transcriptase PCR shows that EC contain transcripts for cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors, while mesangial cells have mRNA for both CB1 and CB2 receptors. EC exhibit specific, high-affinity binding of anandamide (Kd = 27.4 nM). Anandamide (1 microM) vasodilates juxtamedullary afferent arterioles perfused in vitro; the vasodilation can be blocked by nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibition with L-NAME (0.1 mM) or CB1 receptor antagonism with SR 141716A (1 microM), but not by indomethacin (10 microM). Anandamide (10 nM) stimulates CB1-receptor-mediated NO release from perfused renal arterial segments; a similar effect was seen in EC. Finally, anandamide (1 microM) produces a NO-mediated inhibition of KCl-stimulated [3H]norepinephrine release from sympathetic nerves on isolated renal arterial segments. Hence, an anandamide signaling system is present in the kidney, where it exerts significant vasorelaxant and neuromodulatory effects. PMID:9294122

  6. Anandamide Externally Added to Lipid Vesicles Containing-Trapped Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Is Readily Hydrolyzed in a Sterol-Modulated Fashion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We show that anandamide (AEA) externally added to model membrane vesicles containing trapped fatty acid amide hydrolyase (FAAH) can be readily hydrolyzed, demonstrating facile, rapid anandamide movement across the lipid bilayer. The rate of hydrolysis is significantly facilitated by cholesterol and coprostanol, but not by cholesterol sulfate. The effects of sterol upon hydrolysis by FAAH bound to the outer surface of the bilayer were much smaller, although they followed the same pattern. We propose the facilitation of hydrolysis is a combination of the effects of sterol on accessibility of membrane-inserted endocannabinoids to surface protein, and on the rate of endocannabinod transport across the membrane bilayer. PMID:22860204

  7. Diabetic ketoacidosis, sodium glucose transporter-2 inhibitors and the kidney.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Biff F; Clegg, Deborah J; Taylor, Simeon I; Weir, Matthew R

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious metabolic condition that may occur in patients with either Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes. The accumulation of ketoacids in the serum is a consequence of insulin deficiency and glucagon excess. Sodium Glucose Transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are novel therapeutic treatments for improving glucose homeostasis in patients with diabetes. Through reductions in glucose reabsorption by the kidney, they lower serum glucose in patients with Type 2 diabetes and they improve glucose control whether used alone or in combination with other therapies. Mechanistically, these drugs increase serum ketoacids and increase glucagon production, which in some individuals, can lead to formation of diabetic ketoacidosis. This review will first focus in how the kidney normally handles ketoacids, and second will discuss how the SGLT2 inhibitors affect the kidney in such a way so as to enhance the risk for development of ketoacidosis in susceptible individuals. PMID:27240541

  8. Diabetic ketoacidosis, sodium glucose transporter-2 inhibitors and the kidney.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Biff F; Clegg, Deborah J; Taylor, Simeon I; Weir, Matthew R

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious metabolic condition that may occur in patients with either Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes. The accumulation of ketoacids in the serum is a consequence of insulin deficiency and glucagon excess. Sodium Glucose Transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are novel therapeutic treatments for improving glucose homeostasis in patients with diabetes. Through reductions in glucose reabsorption by the kidney, they lower serum glucose in patients with Type 2 diabetes and they improve glucose control whether used alone or in combination with other therapies. Mechanistically, these drugs increase serum ketoacids and increase glucagon production, which in some individuals, can lead to formation of diabetic ketoacidosis. This review will first focus in how the kidney normally handles ketoacids, and second will discuss how the SGLT2 inhibitors affect the kidney in such a way so as to enhance the risk for development of ketoacidosis in susceptible individuals.

  9. The endocannabinoid anandamide impairs in vitro decidualization of human cells.

    PubMed

    Almada, M; Amaral, C; Diniz-da-Costa, M; Correia-da-Silva, G; Teixeira, N A; Fonseca, B M

    2016-10-01

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are endogenous mediators that along with the cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), a membrane transporter and metabolic enzymes form the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Several eCBs have been discovered with emphasis on anandamide (AEA). They are involved in several biological processes such as energy balance, immune response and reproduction. Decidualization occurs during the secretory phase of human menstrual cycle, which involves proliferation and differentiation of endometrial stromal cells into decidual cells and is crucial for the establishment and progression of pregnancy. In this study, a telomerase-immortalized human endometrial stromal cell line (St-T1b) and non-differentiated primary cultures of human decidual fibroblasts from term placenta were used to characterize the ECS using immunoblotting and qRT-PCR techniques. It was shown that St-T1b cells express CB1, but not CB2, and that both receptors are expressed in HdF cells. Furthermore, the expression of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the main degrading enzyme of AEA, increased during stromal cell differentiation. AEA inhibited cell proliferation, through deregulation of cell cycle progression and induced polyploidy. Moreover, through CB1 binding receptor, AEA also impaired cell differentiation. Therefore, AEA is proposed as a modulator of human decidualization. Our findings may provide wider implications, as deregulated levels of AEA, due to Cannabis sativa consumption or altered expression of the metabolic enzymes, may negatively regulate human endometrial stromal cell decidualization with an impact on human (in)fertility.Free Portuguese abstract: A Portuguese translation of this abstract is freely available at http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/152/4/351/suppl/DC1. PMID:27568210

  10. A New Class of Synthetic Auxin Transport Inhibitors 1

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Elmo M.; Johnson, Alex L.; Sweetser, Philip B.

    1976-01-01

    Auxin transport inhibition by a new class of synthetic plant growth regulants, the 2-(3-aryl-5-pyrazolyl)benzoic acids, was examined in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) using the donor-receiver agar cylinder technique. These compounds can be prepared by the dehydrogenation and ring cleavage of compounds like DPX-1840 (2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,3adihydro-8H-pyrazolo[5,1-a] isoindol-8-one) which was previously reported (Plant Physiol. 1972. 50: 322-327) to be a potent inhibitor of auxin transport. These new growth regulators inhibit auxin transport more than DPX-1840 does as evidenced by their consistently greater reduction of basipetal auxin transport capacity in bean when incorporated into the receiver agar cylinder or applied foliarly to intact plants. Direct comparisons of the effect of DPX-1840, its dehydrogenation product (2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-8H-pyrazolo [5,1-a]isoindol-8-one), and its open-ring form (2-(3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrazolyl) benzoic acid) on auxin transport indicated the following order of activity: ring-open > dehydrogenated form > DPX-1840. DPX-1840-14C, applied at 0.5 mg/l to etiolated bean hypocotyl hooks followed by extraction and thin layer chromatography, indicated the biological conversion of DPX-1840 to its open-ring form. Collectively, these results suggest that the biologically active forms of DPX-1840-type compounds are the open-ring (2-(3-aryl-5-pyrazolyl) benzoic acids. Images PMID:16659581

  11. Anandamide-derived prostamide F2α negatively regulates adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Cristoforo; Martella, Andrea; Poloso, Neil J; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo; Woodward, David F; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-08-01

    Lipid mediators variedly affect adipocyte differentiation. Anandamide stimulates adipogenesis via CB1 receptors and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. Anandamide may be converted by PTGS2 (COX2) and prostaglandin F synthases, such as prostamide/prostaglandin F synthase, to prostaglandin F2α ethanolamide (PGF2αEA), of which bimatoprost is a potent synthetic analog. PGF2αEA/bimatoprost act via prostaglandin F2αFP receptor/FP alt4 splicing variant heterodimers. We investigated whether prostamide signaling occurs in preadipocytes and controls adipogenesis. Exposure of mouse 3T3-L1 or human preadipocytes to PGF2αEA/bimatoprost during early differentiation inhibits adipogenesis. PGF2αEA is produced from anandamide in preadipocytes and much less so in differentiating adipocytes, which express much less PTGS2, FP, and its alt4 splicing variant. Selective antagonism of PGF2αEA receptors counteracts prostamide effects on adipogenesis, as does inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Selective inhibition of PGF2αEA versus prostaglandin F2α biosynthesis accelerates adipogenesis. PGF2αEA levels are reduced in the white adipose tissue of high fat diet-fed mice where there is a high requirement for new adipocytes. Prostamides also inhibit zebrafish larval adipogenesis in vivo. We propose that prostamide signaling in preadipocytes is a novel anandamide-derived antiadipogenic mechanism. PMID:23801328

  12. Anandamide-derived Prostamide F2α Negatively Regulates Adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Silvestri, Cristoforo; Martella, Andrea; Poloso, Neil J.; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo; Woodward, David F.; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Lipid mediators variedly affect adipocyte differentiation. Anandamide stimulates adipogenesis via CB1 receptors and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. Anandamide may be converted by PTGS2 (COX2) and prostaglandin F synthases, such as prostamide/prostaglandin F synthase, to prostaglandin F2α ethanolamide (PGF2αEA), of which bimatoprost is a potent synthetic analog. PGF2αEA/bimatoprost act via prostaglandin F2αFP receptor/FP alt4 splicing variant heterodimers. We investigated whether prostamide signaling occurs in preadipocytes and controls adipogenesis. Exposure of mouse 3T3-L1 or human preadipocytes to PGF2αEA/bimatoprost during early differentiation inhibits adipogenesis. PGF2αEA is produced from anandamide in preadipocytes and much less so in differentiating adipocytes, which express much less PTGS2, FP, and its alt4 splicing variant. Selective antagonism of PGF2αEA receptors counteracts prostamide effects on adipogenesis, as does inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Selective inhibition of PGF2αEA versus prostaglandin F2α biosynthesis accelerates adipogenesis. PGF2αEA levels are reduced in the white adipose tissue of high fat diet-fed mice where there is a high requirement for new adipocytes. Prostamides also inhibit zebrafish larval adipogenesis in vivo. We propose that prostamide signaling in preadipocytes is a novel anandamide-derived antiadipogenic mechanism. PMID:23801328

  13. Effects of intrathecal anandamide on somatosensory evoked responses in rats.

    PubMed

    Bir, Levent Sinan; Ercan, Sevim

    2006-02-01

    Anandamide, endogenous ligand of cannabinoid receptors produces similar effects of cannabinoids via CB1 receptors in the central nervous system. Its effect on ascending pathways of somatosensory conduction and somatosensory cortex is not known. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of anandamide on somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP). In this study, 24 Wistar male rats were used. The rats were divided into 4 groups. At the beginning, sciatic nerve stimulated scalp SEP traces were obtained from all of the rats. Later, 0.02 cm(3) anhydrous ethanol, 100 microg/kg, 200 microg/kg and 400 microg/kg anandamide dissolved in anhydrous ethanol were injected intrathecally to the first (control), second, third and fourth groups, respectively. Five minutes later, second SEP traces were started. In every SEP trace, two negative waves (N1, N2) following positive deflections were obtained. The latency and amplitudes of these waves assessed were compared in each group. In control and second groups, the parameters of these waves before and after the injections were not significantly different. However, in the third and fourth groups, latencies of N1 and N2 after injections were found significantly longer. This effect was dose dependent. In any of the groups, no significant changes were detected in the amplitudes after injections. In conclusion, anandamide, when injected intrathecally in pharmacological doses caused an induction of moderate conduction delay in SEP systems. PMID:16289169

  14. Steroid hormones are novel nucleoside transport inhibitors by competition with nucleosides for their transporters.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Masahiro; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Kamei, Hiroyasu; Yamanaka, Daisuke; Chida, Kazuhiro; Minami, Shiro; Coe, Imogen R; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro

    2014-01-10

    Nucleoside transport is important for nucleic acid synthesis in cells that cannot synthesize nucleosides de novo, and for entry of many cytotoxic nucleoside analog drugs used in chemotherapy. This study demonstrates that various steroid hormones induce inhibition of nucleoside transport in mammalian cells. We analyzed the inhibitory effects of estradiol (E2) on nucleoside transport using SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. We observed inhibitory effects after acute treatment with E2, which lasted in the presence of E2. However, when E2 was removed, the effect immediately disappeared, suggesting that E2 effects are not mediated through the canonical regulatory pathway of steroid hormones, such as transcriptional regulation. We also discovered that E2 could competitively inhibit thymidine uptake and binding of the labeled nucleoside transporter inhibitor, S-[4-nitrobenzyl]-6-thioinosine (NBTI), indicating that E2 binds to endogenous nucleoside transporters, leading to inhibition of nucleoside transport. We then tested the effects of various steroids on nucleoside uptake in NBTI-sensitive cells, SH-SY5Y and NBTI-insensitive cells H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts. We found E2 and progesterone clearly inhibited both NBTI-sensitive and insensitive uptake at micromolar concentrations. Taken together, we concluded that steroid hormones function as novel nucleoside transport inhibitors by competition with nucleosides for their transporters.

  15. Anandamide and analogous endocannabinoids: a lipid self-assembly study

    SciTech Connect

    Sagnella, Sharon M.; Conn, Charlotte E.; Krodkiewska, Irena; Mulet, Xavier; Drummond, Calum J.

    2014-09-24

    Anandamide, the endogenous agonist of the cannabinoid receptors, has been widely studied for its interesting biological and medicinal properties and is recognized as a highly significant lipid signaling molecule within the nervous system. Few studies have, however, examined the effect of the physical conformation of anandamide on its function. The study presented herein has focused on characterizing the self-assembly behaviour of anandamide and four other endocannabinoid analogues of anandamide, viz., 2-arachidonyl glycerol, arachidonyl dopamine, 2-arachidonyl glycerol ether (noladin ether), and o-arachidonyl ethanolamide (virodhamine). Molecular modeling of the five endocannabinoid lipids indicates that the highly unsaturated arachidonyl chain has a preference for a U or J shaped conformation. Thermal phase studies of the neat amphiphiles showed that a glass transition was observed for all of the endocannabinoids at {approx} -110 C with the exception of anandamide, with a second glass transition occurring for 2-arachidonyl glycerol, 2-arachidonyl glycerol ether, and virodhamine (-86 C, -95 C, -46 C respectively). Both anandamide and arachidonyl dopamine displayed a crystal-isotropic melting point (-4.8 and -20.4 C respectively), while a liquid crystal-isotropic melting transition was seen for 2-arachidonyl glycerol (-40.7 C) and 2-arachidonyl glycerol ether (-71.2 C). No additional transitions were observed for virodhamine. Small angle X-ray scattering and cross polarized optical microscopy studies as a function of temperature indicated that in the presence of excess water, both 2-arachidonyl glycerol and anandamide form co-existing Q{sub II}{sup G} (gyroid) and Q{sub II}{sup D} (diamond) bicontinuous cubic phases from 0 C to 20 C, which are kinetically stable over a period of weeks but may not represent true thermodynamic equilibrium. Similarly, 2-arachidonyl glycerol ether acquired an inverse hexagonal (HII) phase in excess water from 0 C to 40 C, while

  16. Development of an activity assay for discovery of inhibitors of lipopolysaccharide transport.

    PubMed

    Gronenberg, Luisa S; Kahne, Daniel

    2010-03-01

    The outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria contains an outer leaflet composed of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that is transported to this location by a pathway that is essential for viability. It has been suggested that inhibitors of this pathway could be useful antibiotics. Herein we reconstitute the activity of the ATPase component (LptB) of the ABC transporter that initiates LPS transport and assembly. We developed a high-throughput assay and screened a library of kinase inhibitors against LptB. We identified two classes of ATP-competitive inhibitors. These are the first inhibitors of the ATPase component of any bacterial ABC transporter. The small-molecule inhibitors will be very useful tools for further biochemical studies of the proteins involved in LPS transport and assembly.

  17. Formation of prostamides from anandamide in FAAH knockout mice analyzed by HPLC with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Weber, Allan; Ni, Jinsong; Ling, Kah-Hiing John; Acheampong, Andrew; Tang-Liu, Diane D-S; Burk, Robert; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Woodward, David

    2004-04-01

    We investigated the formation of PGF(2alpha) 1-ethanolamide, PGE(2) 1-ethanolamide, and PGD(2) 1-ethanolamide (prostamides F(2alpha), E(2), and D(2), respectively) in liver, lung, kidney, and small intestine after a single intravenous bolus administration of 50 mg/kg of anandamide to normal and fatty acid amide hydrolase knockout (FAAH -/-) male mice. One group of three normal mice was not dosed (naïve) while another group of three normal mice received a bolus intravenous injection of 50 mg/kg of anandamide. Three FAAH -/- mice also received an intravenous injection of 50 mg/kg of anandamide. After 30 min, the lung, liver, kidney, and small intestine were harvested and processed by liquid-liquid extraction. The concentrations of prostamide F(2alpha), prostamide E(2), prostamide D(2), and anandamide were determined by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. Prostamide F(2alpha) was detected in tissues in FAAH -/- mice after administration of anandamide. Concentrations of anandamide, prostamide E(2), and prostamide D(2) in liver, kidney, lung, and small intestine were much higher in the anandamide-treated FAAH -/- mice than those of the anandamide-treated control mice. This report demonstrates that prostamides, including prostamide F(2alpha), were formed in vivo from anandamide, potentially by the cyclooxygenase-2 pathway when the competing FAAH pathway is lacking. PMID:14729864

  18. Development of a Novel Class of Glucose Transporter Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dasheng; Chu, Po-Chen; Yang, Chia-Ning; Yan, Ribai; Chuang, Yu-Chung; Kulp, Samuel K.; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2012-01-01

    Based on our finding that the antitumor effect of 5-(4-((1-methylcyclohexyl)methoxy)benzyl)thiazolidine-2,4-dione, a thiazolidinedione peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ agonist, was, in part, attributable to its ability to block glucose uptake independently of PPARγ, we used its PPARγ-inactive analogue to develop a novel class of glucose transporter (GLUT) inhibitors. This lead optimization led to compound 30 (5-(4-hydroxy-3-trifluoromethyl-benzylidene)-3-[4,4,4-trifluoro-2-methyl-2-(2,2,2-trifluoro-ethyl)-butyl]-thiazolidine-2,4-dione) as the optimal agent, which exhibited high antitumor potency through the suppression of glucose uptake (IC50, 2.5 μM), while not cytotoxic to prostate and mammary epithelial cells. This glucose uptake inhibition was associated with the inhibition of GLUT1 (IC50, 2 μM). Moreover, the mechanism of antitumor action of compound 30 was validated by its effect on a series of energy restriction-associated cellular responses. Homology modeling analysis suggests that the inhibitory effect of compound 30 on glucose entry was attributable to its ability to bind to the GLUT1 channel at a site distinct from that of glucose. PMID:22468970

  19. Adipocyte glucose transport regulation by eicosanoid precursors and inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.C.C.

    1987-01-01

    Glucose uptake and free fatty acid release by adipocytes are increased by catecholamines. The mechanism of the stimulatory action of catecholamines on glucose uptake may be via eicosanoid production from release fatty acids. Rats were fed iso-nutrient diets with high or low safflower oil. After one month, 5 rats per diet group were fed diets with aspirin or without aspirin for 2 days. Isolated adipocytes from epididymal fat pads were incubated at 37/sup 0/C, gassed with 95% O/sub 2/-5% CO/sub 2/ in KRB buffer with 3% bovine serum albumin and with or without eicosanoid modifiers; a stimulator (10/sup -5/ M norepinephrine, N), or inhibitors (167 ..mu..l of antiserum to prostaglandin E (AntiE) per 1600 ..mu..l or 23mM Asp), or combinations of these. At 2-, 5-, and 10-min incubation, samples of incubation mixtures were taken to measure 2-deoxy glucose transport using /sup 3/H-2-deoxy glucose, /sup 14/C-inulin, and liquid scintillation counter.

  20. High-Fat Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance Does Not Increase Plasma Anandamide Levels or Potentiate Anandamide Insulinotropic Effect in Isolated Canine Islets

    PubMed Central

    Woolcott, Orison O.; Richey, Joyce M.; Kabir, Morvarid; Chow, Robert H.; Iyer, Malini S.; Kirkman, Erlinda L.; Stefanovski, Darko; Lottati, Maya; Kim, Stella P.; Harrison, L. Nicole; Ionut, Viorica; Zheng, Dan; Hsu, Isabel R.; Catalano, Karyn J.; Chiu, Jenny D.; Bradshaw, Heather; Wu, Qiang; Bergman, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity has been associated with elevated plasma anandamide levels. In addition, anandamide has been shown to stimulate insulin secretion in vitro, suggesting that anandamide might be linked to hyperinsulinemia. Objective To determine whether high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance increases anandamide levels and potentiates the insulinotropic effect of anandamide in isolated pancreatic islets. Design and Methods Dogs were fed a high-fat diet (n = 9) for 22 weeks. Abdominal fat depot was quantified by MRI. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Fasting plasma endocannabinoid levels were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All metabolic assessments were performed before and after fat diet regimen. At the end of the study, pancreatic islets were isolated prior to euthanasia to test the in vitro effect of anandamide on islet hormones. mRNA expression of cannabinoid receptors was determined in intact islets. The findings in vitro were compared with those from animals fed a control diet (n = 7). Results Prolonged fat feeding increased abdominal fat content by 81.3±21.6% (mean±S.E.M, P<0.01). In vivo insulin sensitivity decreased by 31.3±12.1% (P<0.05), concomitant with a decrease in plasma 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (from 39.1±5.2 to 15.7±2.0 nmol/L) but not anandamide, oleoyl ethanolamide, linoleoyl ethanolamide, or palmitoyl ethanolamide. In control-diet animals (body weight: 28.8±1.0 kg), islets incubated with anandamide had a higher basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as compared with no treatment. Islets from fat-fed animals (34.5±1.3 kg; P<0.05 versus control) did not exhibit further potentiation of anandamide-induced insulin secretion as compared with control-diet animals. Glucagon but not somatostatin secretion in vitro was also increased in response to anandamide, but there was no difference between groups (P = 0.705). No differences in gene expression of CB1R or CB2R between groups

  1. Inhibition of anandamide hydrolysis attenuates nociceptor sensitization in a murine model of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Uhelski, Megan L.; Khasabova, Iryna A.

    2014-01-01

    Painful neuropathy frequently develops as a consequence of commonly used chemotherapy agents for cancer treatment and is often a dose-limiting side effect. Currently available analgesic treatments are often ineffective on pain induced by neurotoxicity. Although peripheral administration of cannabinoids, endocannabinoids, and inhibitors of endocannabinoid hydrolysis has been effective in reducing hyperalgesia in models of peripheral neuropathy, including chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), few studies have examined cannabinoid effects on responses of nociceptors in vivo. In this study we determined whether inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which slows the breakdown of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA), reduced sensitization of nociceptors produced by chemotherapy. Over the course of a week of daily treatments, mice treated with the platinum-based chemotherapy agent cisplatin developed robust mechanical allodynia that coincided with sensitization of cutaneous C-fiber nociceptors as indicated by the development of spontaneous activity and increased responses to mechanical stimulation. Administration of the FAAH inhibitor URB597 into the receptive field of sensitized C-fiber nociceptors decreased spontaneous activity, increased mechanical response thresholds, and decreased evoked responses to mechanical stimuli. Cotreatment with CB1 (AM281) or CB2 (AM630) receptor antagonists showed that the effect of URB597 was mediated primarily by CB1 receptors. These changes following URB597 were associated with an increase in the endocannabinoid anandamide in the skin. Our results suggest that enhanced signaling in the peripheral endocannabinoid system could be utilized to reduce nociceptor sensitization and pain associated with CIPN. PMID:25505113

  2. Metabolism of ATP-binding cassette drug transporter inhibitors: complicating factor for multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Cnubben, Nicole H P; Wortelboer, Heleen M; van Zanden, Jelmer J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; van Bladeren, Peter J

    2005-08-01

    Membrane transport proteins belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of transport proteins play a central role in the defence of organisms against toxic compounds, including anticancer drugs. However, for compounds that are designed to display a toxic effect, this defence system diminishes their effectiveness. This is typically the case in the development of cellular resistance to anticancer drugs. Inhibitors of these transporters are thus potentially useful tools to reverse this transporter-mediated cellular resistance to anticancer drugs and, eventually, to enhance the effectiveness of the treatment of patients with drug-resistant cancer. This review highlights the various types of inhibitors of several multidrug resistance-related ABC proteins, and demonstrates that the metabolism of inhibitors, as illustrated by recent data obtained for various natural compound inhibitors, may have considerable implications for their effect on drug transport and their potential for treatment of drug resistance.

  3. Effect of inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism on alpha-aminoisobutyric acid transport in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Udey, M C; Parker, C W

    1982-02-01

    The role of arachidonic acid metabolism (or metabolites) in the modulation of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid transport in resting and concanavalin A-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes was evaluated using previously characterized inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism. Nordihydroguairetic acid (a nonselective antioxidant), 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (an inhibitor of lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase activities), indomethacin and acetylsalicylic acid (selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors), and 1-benzylimidazole, Ro-22-3581 and Ro-22-3582 (thromboxane synthetase inhibitors) proved to be potent inhibitors of amino acid transport activity in normal resting and lectin-activated lymphocytes at concentrations known to decrease thromboxane A2 production. The rank order of effectiveness of these various inhibitors compared favorably with their relative potencies as inhibitors of thromboxane B2 synthesis under the same conditions, as determined by radioimmunoassay. Inhibitory effects noted were not due to overt cytotoxicity and seemed to involve changes primarily in the Vmax and not the Km of the transport process. Drug-induced alterations in the magnitude of concanavalin A binding were not observed. These results suggest that the activity of amino acid transport systems can be influenced by certain arachidonic acid metabolites, probably thromboxanes, in both stimulated and unstimulated lymphocytes. In addition, these findings may provide a partial explanation for the observation that inhibitors of thromboxane formation prevent lymphocyte mitogenesis.

  4. Anandamide inhibits adhesion and migration of breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Grimaldi, Claudia; Pisanti, Simona; Laezza, Chiara; Malfitano, Anna Maria; Santoro, Antonietta; Vitale, Mario; Caruso, Maria Gabriella; Notarnicola, Maria; Iacuzzo, Irma; Portella, Giuseppe; Di Marzo, Vincenzo . E-mail: vdimarzo@icmib.na.cnr.it; Bifulco, Maurizio . E-mail: maubiful@unina.it

    2006-02-15

    The endocannabinoid system regulates cell proliferation in human breast cancer cells. We reasoned that stimulation of cannabinoid CB{sub 1} receptors could induce a non-invasive phenotype in breast mtastatic cells. In a model of metastatic spreading in vivo, the metabolically stable anandamide analogue, 2-methyl-2'-F-anandamide (Met-F-AEA), significantly reduced the number and dimension of metastatic nodes, this effect being antagonized by the selective CB{sub 1} antagonist SR141716A. In MDA-MB-231 cells, a highly invasive human breast cancer cell line, and in TSA-E1 cells, a murine breast cancer cell line, Met-F-AEA inhibited adhesion and migration on type IV collagen in vitro without modifying integrin expression: both these effects were antagonized by SR141716A. In order to understand the molecular mechanism involved in these processes, we analyzed the phosphorylation of FAK and Src, two tyrosine kinases involved in migration and adhesion. In Met-F-AEA-treated cells, we observed a decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of both FAK and Src, this effect being attenuated by SR141716A. We propose that CB{sub 1} receptor agonists inhibit tumor cell invasion and metastasis by modulating FAK phosphorylation, and that CB{sub 1} receptor activation might represent a novel therapeutic strategy to slow down the growth of breast carcinoma and to inhibit its metastatic diffusion in vivo.

  5. Thermodynamics and kinetics of inhibitor binding to human equilibrative nucleoside transporter subtype-1.

    PubMed

    Rehan, Shahid; Ashok, Yashwanth; Nanekar, Rahul; Jaakola, Veli-Pekka

    2015-12-15

    Many nucleoside transport inhibitors are in clinical use as anti-cancer, vasodilator and cardioprotective drugs. However, little is known about the binding energetics of these inhibitors to nucleoside transporters (NTs) due to their low endogenous expression levels and difficulties in the biophysical characterization of purified protein with ligands. Here, we present kinetics and thermodynamic analyses of inhibitor binding to the human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (hENT1), also known as SLC29A1. Using a radioligand binding assay, we obtained equilibrium binding and kinetic rate constants of well-known NT inhibitors--[(3)H]nitrobenzylmercaptopurine ribonucleoside ([(3)H]NBMPR), dilazep, and dipyridamole--and the native permeant, adenosine, to hENT1. We observed that the equilibrium binding affinities for all inhibitors decreased whereas, the kinetic rate constants increased with increasing temperature. Furthermore, we found that binding is enthalpy driven and thus, an exothermic reaction, implying that the transporter does not discriminate between its inhibitors and substrates thermodynamically. This predominantly enthalpy-driven binding by four chemically distinct ligands suggests that the transporter may not tolerate diversity in the type of interactions that lead to high affinity binding. Consistent with this, the measured activation energy of [(3)H]NBMPR association was relatively large (20 kcal mol(-1)) suggesting a conformational change upon inhibitor binding. For all three inhibitors the enthalpy (ΔH°) and entropy (ΔS°) contributions to the reaction energetics were determined by van't Hoff analysis to be roughly similar (25-75% ΔG°). Gains in enthalpy with increasing polar surface area of inhibitors suggest that the binding is favored by electrostatic or polar interactions between the ligands and the transporter.

  6. Urearetics: a small molecule screen yields nanomolar potency inhibitors of urea transporter UT-B.

    PubMed

    Levin, Marc H; de la Fuente, Ricardo; Verkman, A S

    2007-02-01

    Functional studies in knockout mice indicate a critical role for urea transporters (UTs) in the urinary concentrating mechanism and in renal urea clearance. However, potent and specific urea transport blockers have not been available. Here, we used high-throughput screening to discover high-affinity, small molecule inhibitors of the UT-B urea transporter. A collection of 50,000 diverse, drug-like compounds was screened using a human erythrocyte lysis assay based on UT-B-facilitated acetamide transport. Primary screening yielded approximately 30 UT-B inhibitors belonging to the phenylsulfoxyoxazole, benzenesulfonanilide, phthalazinamine, and aminobenzimidazole chemical classes. Screening of approximately 700 structurally similar analogs gave many active compounds, the most potent of which inhibited UT-B urea transport with an EC50 of approximately 10 nM, and approximately 100% inhibition at higher concentrations. Phenylsulfoxyoxazoles and phthalazinamines also blocked rodent UT-B and had good UT-B vs. UT-A specificity. The UT-B inhibitors did not reduce aquaporin-1 (AQP1)-facilitated water transport. In AQP1-null erythrocytes, "chemical UT-B knockout" by UT-B inhibitors reduced by approximately 3-fold UT-B-mediated water transport, supporting an aqueous pore pathway through UT-B. UT-B inhibitors represent a new class of diuretics, "urearetics," which are predicted to increase renal water and solute clearance in water-retaining states.

  7. Evaluation of Proposed In Vivo Probe Substrates and Inhibitors for Phenotyping Transporter Activity in Humans.

    PubMed

    Momper, Jeremiah D; Tsunoda, Shirley M; Ma, Joseph D

    2016-07-01

    Drug transporters are present in various tissues and have a significant role in drug absorption, distribution, and elimination. The International Transporter Consortium has identified 7 transporters of increasing importance from evidence of clinically significant transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions. The transporters are P-glycoprotein, breast cancer resistance protein, organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1, OATP1B3, organic cation transporter 2, organic anion transporters (OAT) 1, and OAT3. Decision trees were created based on in vitro experiments to determine whether an in vivo transporter-mediated drug-drug interaction study is needed. Phenotyping is a methodology that evaluates real-time in vivo transporter activity, whereby changes in a probe substrate or probe inhibitor reflect alternations in the activity of the specified transporter. In vivo probe substrates and/or probe inhibitors have been proposed for each aforementioned transporter. In vitro findings and animal models provide the strongest evidence regarding probe specificity. However, such findings have not conclusively correlated with human phenotyping studies. Furthermore, the extent of contribution from multiple transporters in probe disposition complicates the ability to discern if study findings are the result of a specific transporter and thus provide a recommendation for a preferred probe for a drug transporter. PMID:27385182

  8. Anandamide in primary sensory neurons: too much of a good thing?

    PubMed

    Sousa-Valente, João; Varga, Angelika; Ananthan, Kajaluxy; Khajuria, Ankur; Nagy, Istvan

    2014-02-01

    The quest for possible targets for the development of novel analgesics has identified the activation of the cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor outside the CNS as a potential means of providing relief from persistent pain, which currently constitutes an unmet medical need. Increasing tissue levels of the CB1 receptor endogenous ligand N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide), by inhibiting anandamide degradation through blocking the anandamide-hydrolysing enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase, has been suggested to be used to activate the CB1 receptor. However, recent clinical trials revealed that this approach does not deliver the expected relief from pain. Here, we discuss one of the possible reasons, the activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 ion channel (TRPV1) on nociceptive primary sensory neurons (PSNs) by anandamide, which may compromise the beneficial effects of increased tissue levels of anandamide. We conclude that better design such as concomitant blocking of anandamide hydrolysis and anandamide uptake into PSNs, to inhibit TRPV1 activation, could overcome these problems.

  9. Mechanisms for Recycling and Biosynthesis of Endogenous Cannabinoids Anandamide and 2-Arachidonylglycerol

    PubMed Central

    Placzek, Ekaterina A.; Okamoto, Yasuo; Ueda, Natsuo; Barker, Eric L.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms of endogenous cannabinoid biosynthesis are not completely understood. We hypothesized that anandamide could be recycled by the cell to form new endocannabinoid molecules and released into the extracellular space. We determined that new endocannabinoids derived from exogenous anandamide or arachidonic acid were synthesized and released from RBL-2H3 cells in response to ionomycin. Treatment of RBL-2H3 cells with nystatin and progesterone, agents that disrupt organization of lipid raft/caveolae, resulted in the attenuation of anandamide and 2-arachidonyl glycerol synthesis and/or release in response to stimulation with ionomycin suggesting a role for these membrane microdomains in endocannabinoid biosynthesis. Furthermore, anandamide synthesis may be independent of N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D as expression of the enzyme was not detected in RBL-2H3 cells. We also established that extracellular calcium is necessary for endocannabinoid biosynthesis because release of intracellular calcium stores alone does not promote endocannabinoid biosynthesis. Next, we examined the role of calcium as a “switch” to activate the synthesis of anandamide and simultaneously reduce uptake. Indeed, [3H] anandamide uptake was reduced in the presence of calcium. Our findings suggest a mechanism indicative of calcium-modulated activation of anandamide synthesis and simultaneous termination of uptake. PMID:18778304

  10. Fatty Acid-binding Proteins Transport N-Acylethanolamines to Nuclear Receptors and Are Targets of Endocannabinoid Transport Inhibitors*

    PubMed Central

    Kaczocha, Martin; Vivieca, Stephanie; Sun, Jing; Glaser, Sherrye T.; Deutsch, Dale G.

    2012-01-01

    N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are bioactive lipids that engage diverse receptor systems. Recently, we identified fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) as intracellular NAE carriers. Here, we provide two new functions for FABPs in NAE signaling. We demonstrate that FABPs mediate the nuclear translocation of the NAE oleoylethanolamide, an agonist of nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). Antagonism of FABP function through chemical inhibition, dominant-negative approaches, or shRNA-mediated knockdown reduced PPARα activation, confirming a requisite role for FABPs in this process. In addition, we show that NAE analogs, traditionally employed as inhibitors of the putative endocannabinoid transmembrane transporter, target FABPs. Support for the existence of the putative membrane transporter stems primarily from pharmacological inhibition of endocannabinoid uptake by such transport inhibitors, which are widely employed in endocannabinoid research despite lacking a known cellular target(s). Our approach adapted FABP-mediated PPARα signaling and employed in vitro binding, arachidonoyl-[1-14C]ethanolamide ([14C]AEA) uptake, and FABP knockdown to demonstrate that transport inhibitors exert their effects through inhibition of FABPs, thereby providing a molecular rationale for the underlying physiological effects of these compounds. Identification of FABPs as targets of transport inhibitors undermines the central pharmacological support for the existence of an endocannabinoid transmembrane transporter. PMID:22170058

  11. Alkoxy-auxins Are Selective Inhibitors of Auxin Transport Mediated by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 Transporters*

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Etsuko; Yang, Haibing; Nishimura, Takeshi; Uehara, Yukiko; Sakai, Tatsuya; Furutani, Masahiko; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Hirose, Masakazu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Murphy, Angus S.; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Polar auxin movement is a primary regulator of programmed and plastic plant development. Auxin transport is highly regulated at the cellular level and is mediated by coordinated transport activity of plasma membrane-localized PIN, ABCB, and AUX1/LAX transporters. The activity of these transporters has been extensively analyzed using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and knock-out mutants in Arabidopsis. However, efforts to analyze auxin-dependent growth in other species that are less tractable to genetic manipulation require more selective inhibitors than are currently available. In this report, we characterize the inhibitory activity of 5-alkoxy derivatives of indole 3-acetic acid and 7-alkoxy derivatives of naphthalene 1-acetic acid, finding that the hexyloxy and benzyloxy derivatives act as potent inhibitors of auxin action in plants. These alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit polar auxin transport and tropic responses associated with asymmetric auxin distribution in Arabidopsis and maize. The alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit auxin transport mediated by AUX1, PIN, and ABCB proteins expressed in yeast. However, these analogs did not inhibit or activate SCFTIR1 auxin signaling and had no effect on the subcellular trafficking of PIN proteins. Together these results indicate that alkoxy-auxins are inactive auxin analogs for auxin signaling, but are recognized by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 auxin transport proteins. Alkoxy-auxins are powerful new tools for analyses of auxin-dependent development. PMID:21084292

  12. Alkoxy-auxins are selective inhibitors of auxin transport mediated by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 transporters.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Etsuko; Yang, Haibing; Nishimura, Takeshi; Uehara, Yukiko; Sakai, Tatsuya; Furutani, Masahiko; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Hirose, Masakazu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Murphy, Angus S; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-21

    Polar auxin movement is a primary regulator of programmed and plastic plant development. Auxin transport is highly regulated at the cellular level and is mediated by coordinated transport activity of plasma membrane-localized PIN, ABCB, and AUX1/LAX transporters. The activity of these transporters has been extensively analyzed using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and knock-out mutants in Arabidopsis. However, efforts to analyze auxin-dependent growth in other species that are less tractable to genetic manipulation require more selective inhibitors than are currently available. In this report, we characterize the inhibitory activity of 5-alkoxy derivatives of indole 3-acetic acid and 7-alkoxy derivatives of naphthalene 1-acetic acid, finding that the hexyloxy and benzyloxy derivatives act as potent inhibitors of auxin action in plants. These alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit polar auxin transport and tropic responses associated with asymmetric auxin distribution in Arabidopsis and maize. The alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit auxin transport mediated by AUX1, PIN, and ABCB proteins expressed in yeast. However, these analogs did not inhibit or activate SCF(TIR1) auxin signaling and had no effect on the subcellular trafficking of PIN proteins. Together these results indicate that alkoxy-auxins are inactive auxin analogs for auxin signaling, but are recognized by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 auxin transport proteins. Alkoxy-auxins are powerful new tools for analyses of auxin-dependent development.

  13. Identification of Inhibitor Concentrations to Efficiently Screen and Measure Inhibition Ki Values against Solute Carrier Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaowan; Polli, James

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to identify inhibitor concentrations to efficiently screen and measure inhibition Ki values of solute carrier (SLC) transporters. The intestinal bile acid transporter and its native substrate taurocholate were used as a model system. Inhibition experiments were conducted using 27 compounds. For each compound, the inhibition constant Ki was obtained from the comprehensive inhibition profile, and referred as the reference Ki. Ki values were also estimated from various partial profiles and were compared to the reference Ki. A screening Ki was estimated from one data point and also compared to the reference Ki. Results indicate that Ki can be accurately measured using an inhibitor concentration range of only 0-Ki via five different inhibitor concentrations. Additionally, a screening concentration of 10-fold the substrate affinity Kt for potent inhibitors (Ki < 20Kt) and 100-fold Kt for nonpotent inhibitors (Ki > 20Kt) provided an accurate Ki estimation. Results were validated through inhibition studies of two other SLC transporters. In conclusion, experimental conditions to screen and measure accurate transporter inhibition constant Ki are suggested where a low range of inhibitor concentrations can be used. This approach is advantageous in that minimal compound is needed to perform studies and accommodates compounds with low aqueous solubility. PMID:20553862

  14. Interaction of cocaine and dopamine transporter inhibitors on behavior and neurochemistry in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, Brett C; Kimmel, Heather L; Carroll, F Ivy; Goodman, Mark M; Howell, Leonard L

    2005-03-01

    Drugs that target the dopamine transporter (DAT) have been proposed as pharmacotherapies to treat cocaine abuse. Accordingly, it is paramount to understand pharmacological interactions between cocaine and DAT inhibitors. The present study characterized acute interactions between cocaine and several DAT inhibitors (RTI-177, FECNT, RTI-112) that differed in selectivity for monoamine transporters on operant behavior and in vivo neurochemistry in squirrel monkeys. RTI-177 and FECNT, two DAT inhibitors with low affinity at norepinephrine transporters (NET), produced dose-dependent stimulant effects on behavior maintained by a fixed-interval schedule of stimulus termination. Compared to cocaine, RTI-177 and FECNT had a slower onset and longer duration of action. In vivo microdialysis in the caudate nucleus of awake monkeys confirmed dose-dependent increases in extracellular dopamine that corresponded to behavioral effects. Among the drugs characterized, RTI-112 is reportedly the least selective for binding to DAT, NET, and serotonin transporters (SERT). Interestingly, RTI-112 failed to produce significant behavioral-stimulant effects, and its effects on extracellular dopamine were highly variable across subjects. The results indicate that the pharmacological profile of DAT inhibitors may be influenced by actions at multiple monoamine transporters. Importantly, there was little evidence of additivity on behavioral or neurochemical measures when cocaine was administered in combination with behavioral-stimulant doses of the DAT inhibitors.

  15. Binding site residues control inhibitor selectivity in the human norepinephrine transporter but not in the human dopamine transporter

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Jacob; Ringsted, Kristoffer B.; Bang-Andersen, Benny; Strømgaard, Kristian; Kristensen, Anders S.

    2015-01-01

    The transporters for norepinephrine and dopamine (NET and DAT, respectively) constitute the molecular targets for recreational drugs and therapeutics used in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Despite a strikingly similar amino acid sequence and predicted topology between these transporters, some inhibitors display a high degree of selectivity between NET and DAT. Here, a systematic mutational analysis of non-conserved residues within the extracellular entry pathway and the high affinity binding site in NET and DAT was performed to examine their role for selective inhibitor recognition. Changing the six diverging residues in the central binding site of NET to the complementary residues in DAT transferred a DAT-like pharmacology to NET, showing that non-conserved binding site residues in NET are critical determinants for inhibitor selectivity. In contrast, changing the equivalent residues in the central site of DAT to the corresponding residues in NET had modest effects on the same inhibitors, suggesting that non-conserved binding site residues in DAT play a minor role for selective inhibitor recognition. Our data points towards distinct structural determinants governing inhibitor selectivity in NET and DAT, and provide important new insight into the molecular basis for NET/DAT selectivity of therapeutic and recreational drugs. PMID:26503701

  16. Lipophilic Lysine-Spermine Conjugates are Potent Polyamine Transport Inhibitors for use in Combination with a Polyamine Biosynthesis Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Mark R.; Graminski, Gerard F.; Weeks, Reitha S.; Chen, Yan; O’Brien, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer cells can overcome the ability of polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors from completely depleting their internal polyamines by the importation polyamines from external sources. We have developed a group of lipophilic polyamine analogs that potently inhibit the cellular polyamine uptake system and greatly increase the effectiveness of polyamine depletion when used in combination with DFMO, a well-studied polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor. By the attachment of an length-optimized C16 lipophilic substituent to the epsilon-nitrogen atom of our earlier lead compound, d-Lys-Spm (5), we have produced an analog, d-Lys(C16acyl)-Spm (11) with several orders of magnitude more potent cell growth inhibition on a variety of cultured cancer cell types including breast (MDA-MB-231), prostate (PC-3), melanoma (A375) and ovarian (SK-OV-3), among others. We discuss these results in the context of a possible membrane-catalyzed interaction with the extracellular polyamine transport apparatus. The resulting novel two-drug combination therapy targeting cellular polyamine metabolism has shown exceptional efficacy against cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) in a transgenic ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) mouse model of skin cancer. A majority (88%) of large, aggressive SCCs exhibited complete or near-complete remission to this combination therapy, while responses to each agent alone were poor. The availability of a potent polyamine transport inhibitor allows, for the first time, for a real test of the hypothesis that starving cells of polyamines will lead to objective clinical response. PMID:19281226

  17. An expression system to screen for inhibitors of parasite glucose transporters.

    PubMed

    Feistel, Torben; Hodson, Cheryl A; Peyton, David H; Landfear, Scott M

    2008-11-01

    Chemotherapy of parasitic protists is limited by general toxicity, high expense and emergence of resistance to currently available drugs. Thus methods to identify new leads for further drug development are increasingly important. Previously, glucose transporters have been validated as new drug targets for protozoan parasites including Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania mexicana and Trypanosoma brucei. A recently derived glucose transporter null mutant (Deltalmgt) of L. mexicana was used to functionally express various heterologous glucose transporters including those from T. brucei THT1, P. falciparum PfHT and human GLUT1-resulting in recovery of growth of the Deltalmgt null mutant in glucose replete medium. This heterologous expression system can be employed to screen for compounds that retard growth by inhibiting the expressed glucose transporter. The ability of this expression system to identify specific glucose transporter inhibitors was demonstrated using 3-O-undec-10-enyl-d-glucose, a previously described specific inhibitor of PfHT.

  18. Inhibitors of proton pumping: effect on passive proton transport.

    PubMed

    Bisson, M A

    1986-05-01

    Reported inhibitors of the Characean plasmalemma proton pump were tested for their ability to inhibit the passive H(+) conductance which develops in Chara corallina Klein ex Willd. at high pH. Diethylstilbestrol inhibits the proton pump and the passive H(+) conductance with about the same time course, at concentrations that have no effect on cytoplasmic streaming. N-Ethylmaleimide, a sulfhydryl reagent which is small and relatively nonpolar, also inhibits both pumping and passive conductance of H(+). However, it also inhibits cytoplasmic streaming with about the same time course, and therefore could not be considered a specific ATPase inhibitor. p-Chloromercuribenzene sulfonate (PCMBS), a sulfhydryl reagent which is large and charged and hence less able to penetrate the membrane, does not inhibit pumping or conductance at low concentration. At high concentration, PCMBS sometimes inhibits pumping without affecting H(+) conductance, but since streaming is also inhibited, the effect on the pump cannot be said to be specific. 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide, a water soluble carbodiimide, weakly inhibits both pump and conductance, apparently specifically.

  19. Endogenous adenosine is an autacoid feedback inhibitor of chloride transport in the shark rectal gland.

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, G G; Aassar, O S; Forrest, J N

    1991-01-01

    The present studies define the physiologic role of endogenous adenosine in the perfused shark rectal gland, a model epithelia for hormone-stimulated chloride transport. Chloride ion secretion, and venous adenosine and inosine concentrations increased in parallel in response to hormone stimulation. From a basal rate of 157 +/- 26 mu eq/h per g, chloride secretion increased to 836 +/- 96 and 2170 +/- 358 with 1 and 10 microM forskolin, venous adenosine increased from 5.0 +/- 1 to 126 +/- 29 and 896 +/- 181 nM, and inosine increased from 30 +/- 9 to 349 +/- 77 and 1719 +/- 454 nM (all P less than 0.01). Nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI), a nucleoside transport inhibitor, completely blocked the release of adenosine and inosine. Inhibition of chloride transport with bumetanide, an inhibitor of the Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter, or ouabain, an inhibitor of Na+/K+ ATPase activity, reduced venous adenosine and inosine to basal values. When the interaction of endogenous adenosine with extracellular receptors was prevented by adenosine deaminase, NBTI, or 8-phenyltheophylline, the chloride transport response to secretagogues increased by 1.7-2.3-fold. These studies demonstrate that endogenous adenosine is released in response to hormone-stimulated cellular work and acts at A1 adenosine receptors as a feedback inhibitor of chloride transport. Images PMID:1752953

  20. A SMALL MOLECULE SCREEN IDENTIFIES SELECTIVE INHIBITORS OF UREA TRANSPORTER UT-A

    PubMed Central

    Esteva-Font, Cristina; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Anderson, Marc O.; Verkman, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Urea transporter (UT) proteins, including UT-A in kidney tubule epithelia and UT-B in vasa recta microvessels, facilitate urinary concentrating function. A screen for UT-A inhibitors was developed in MDCK cells expressing UT-A1, water channel aquaporin-1, and YFP-H148Q/V163S. An inwardly directed urea gradient produces cell shrinking followed by UT-A1-dependent swelling, which was monitored by YFP-H148Q/V163S fluorescence. Screening of ~90,000 synthetic small molecules yielded four classes of UT-A1 inhibitors with low micromolar IC50 that fully and reversibly inhibited urea transport by a non-competitive mechanism. Structure-activity analysis of >400 analogs revealed UT-A1-selective and UT-A1/UT-B non-selective inhibitors. Docking computations based on homology models of UT-A1 suggested inhibitor binding sites. UT-A inhibitors may be useful as diuretics (‘urearetics’) with a novel mechanism of action that may be effective in fluid-retaining conditions in which conventional salt transport-blocking diuretics have limited efficacy. PMID:24055006

  1. Amygdala FAAH and anandamide: mediating protection and recovery from stress

    PubMed Central

    Gunduz-Cinar, Ozge; Hill, Matthew N.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Holmes, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    A long-standing literature linking endocannabinoids (ECBs) to stress, fear, and anxiety has led to growing interest in developing novel anxiolytics targeting the ECB system. Following rapid on-demand biosynthesis and degradation upon neuronal activation, the ECB N-arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA) is actively degraded by the serine hydrolase enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Exposure to stress rapidly mobilizes FAAH to deplete the signaling pool of AEA and increase neuronal excitability in a key anxiety-mediating region – the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Gene deletion or pharmacological inhibition of FAAH prevents stress-induced reductions in AEA and associated increases in BLA dendritic hypertrophy and anxiety-like behavior. Additionally, inhibition of FAAH facilitates long-term fear extinction and rescues deficient fear extinction in rodent models by enhancing AEA–CB1 (cannabinoid type 1) receptor signaling and synaptic plasticity in the BLA. These preclinical findings propose restoring deficient BLA AEA levels by pharmacologically inhibiting FAAH as a mechanism to therapeutically mitigate the effects of traumatic stress. PMID:24325918

  2. Anandamide centrally depresses the respiratory rhythm generator of neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Tree, K; Caravagna, C; Hilaire, G; Peyronnet, J; Cayetanot, F

    2010-11-10

    Endogenous cannabinoid receptors are widely distributed throughout the CNS, including the brainstem, and modulate a variety of functions, including breathing. In adult rats, activation of cannabinoid 1 receptors has been shown to depress breathing. Here in neonatal mice, we used in vitro electrophysiology, pharmacology, and immunohistochemistry to analyse the central effects of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) on the activity of the medullary respiratory rhythm generator (RRG). First of all, in vitro electrophysiology on medullary preparations has revealed that bath application of AEA (30 μM, 15 min) significantly depressed respiratory activity. Secondly, applying pre-treatments with alpha-1 (Prazosin, 5 μM, 10 min) and alpha-2 (Yohimbine, 5 μM, 10 min) adrenoceptor antagonists prior to AEA application abolished the AEA-induced depression of the RRG. Finally, immunostaining revealed a dense network of fibres positive for the cannabinoid 1 receptor in the ventrolateral medulla (VLM), a region known to contain both the RRG and the modulatory A1/C1 catecholaminergic group. Moreover, cannabinoid 1 receptor positive fibres were found in close apposition with A1/C1 catecholaminergic cells, identified by the presence of tyrosine hydroxylase. In regard of our electrophysiological, pharmacological and immunostaining results, we conclude that AEA has a central depressive effect on the neonatal RRG, probably via the medullary A1/C1 catecholaminergic neurons which are already known to modulate the respiratory rhythm generator.

  3. Enzyme- and transporter-mediated drug interactions with small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jie; Markowitz, John S; Bei, Di; An, Guohua

    2014-12-01

    Among the novel and target-specific classes of anticancer drugs, small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) represent an extremely promising and rapidly expanding group. TKIs attack cancer-specific targets and therefore have a favorable safety profile. However, as TKIs are taken orally along with other medications on a daily basis, there is an elevated risk of potentially significant drug-drug interactions. Most TKIs are metabolized primarily through CYP3A4. In addition, many TKIs are also CYP3A4 inhibitors at the same time. In addition to drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), another determinant of TKI disposition are drug transporters. There is accumulating evidence showing that the majority of currently marketed TKIs interact with ATP-binding cassette transporters, particularly P-glycoprotein as well as Breast Cancer Resistance Protein and serve as both substrates and inhibitors. Considering the dual roles of TKIs on both DMEs and drug transporters, and the importance of these enzyme and transporters in drug disposition, the potential for enzyme- and transporter-mediated TKI-drug interactions in patients with cancer is an important consideration. This review provides a comprehensive overview of drug interactions with small molecule TKIs mediated by DMEs and drug transporters. The TKI-drug interactions with TKIs being victims and/or perpetrators are summarized.

  4. The Effects of the Endocannabinoids Anandamide and 2-Arachidonoylglycerol on Human Osteoblast Proliferation and Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Marie; Wilson, Richard; O'Brien, Sally; Tufarelli, Cristina; Anderson, Susan I; O'Sullivan, Saoirse Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system is expressed in bone, although its role in the regulation of bone growth is controversial. Many studies have examined the effect of endocannabinoids directly on osteoclast function, but few have examined their role in human osteoblast function, which was the aim of the present study. Human osteoblasts were treated from seeding with increasing concentrations of anandamide or 2-arachidonoylglycerol for between 1 and 21 days. Cell proliferation (DNA content) and differentiation (alkaline phosphatase (ALP), collagen and osteocalcin secretion and calcium deposition) were measured. Anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol significantly decreased osteoblast proliferation after 4 days, associated with a concentration-dependent increase in ALP. Inhibition of endocannabinoid degradation enzymes to increase endocannabinoid tone resulted in similar increases in ALP production. 2-arachidonoylglycerol also decreased osteocalcin secretion. After prolonged (21 day) treatment with 2-arachidonoylglycerol, there was a decrease in collagen content, but no change in calcium deposition. Anandamide did not affect collagen or osteocalcin, but reduced calcium deposition. Anandamide increased levels of phosphorylated CREB, ERK 1/2 and JNK, while 2-arachidonoylglycerol increased phosphorylated CREB and Akt. RT-PCR demonstrated the expression of CB2 and TRPV1, but not CB1 in HOBs. Anandamide-induced changes in HOB differentiation were CB1 and CB2-independent and partially reduced by TRPV1 antagonism, and reduced by inhibition of ERK 1/2 and JNK. Our results have demonstrated a clear involvement of anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol in modulating the activity of human osteoblasts, with anandamide increasing early cell differentiation and 2-AG increasing early, but decreasing late osteoblast-specific markers of differentiation. PMID:26414859

  5. Electrochemical evaluation of corrosion inhibitors for repairing of highway transportation infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. Wayne; Cao, Yong; Brown, Richard; Guo, Rui-Guang

    2000-06-01

    Among the methods to tackle corrosion of steel reinforcement in highway transportation infrastructure, using corrosion inhibitors has been identified as the most easily and economically applied technique. This study used Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) to evaluate four corrosion inhibitors in simulated pore solution (SPS) and saturated calcium hydroxide solution (CHS). Three promising inhibitors were identified. It was also found that the electrochemical laboratory test was practical to evaluate corrosion inhibitors quickly and effectively in simulated concrete solutions. A simulated field concrete repair method was devised in order to verify the developed electrochemical laboratory test result. Sixty-three concrete short beam specimens were used. The embedded steel rebars were exposed to chloride environment and electrochemically monitored in accordance with the ASTM G109 procedure. After active corrosion of the upper rebars was detected, the chloride- contaminated concrete was removed. The three aforementioned promising inhibitors were applied to corroded rebars, and new concrete was cast. These rebars were electrochemically monitored to evaluate the effectiveness of corrosion inhibitors for corrosion control. It was found that there was a good correlation between these two test results, and the most effective inhibitor was finally identified.

  6. The organic anion transport inhibitor probenecid increases brain concentrations of the NKCC1 inhibitor bumetanide.

    PubMed

    Töllner, Kathrin; Brandt, Claudia; Römermann, Kerstin; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Bumetanide is increasingly being used for experimental treatment of brain disorders, including neonatal seizures, epilepsy, and autism, because the neuronal Na-K-Cl cotransporter NKCC1, which is inhibited by bumetanide, is implicated in the pathophysiology of such disorders. However, use of bumetanide for treatment of brain disorders is associated with problems, including poor brain penetration and systemic adverse effects such as diuresis, hypokalemic alkalosis, and hearing loss. The poor brain penetration is thought to be related to its high ionization rate and plasma protein binding, which restrict brain entry by passive diffusion, but more recently brain efflux transporters have been involved, too. Multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4), organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3) and organic anion transporting polypeptide 2 (OATP2) were suggested to mediate bumetanide brain efflux, but direct proof is lacking. Because MRP4, OAT3, and OATP2 can be inhibited by probenecid, we studied whether this drug alters brain levels of bumetanide in mice. Probenecid (50 mg/kg) significantly increased brain levels of bumetanide up to 3-fold; however, it also increased its plasma levels, so that the brain:plasma ratio (~0.015-0.02) was not altered. Probenecid markedly increased the plasma half-life of bumetanide, indicating reduced elimination of bumetanide most likely by inhibition of OAT-mediated transport of bumetanide in the kidney. However, the diuretic activity of bumetanide was not reduced by probenecid. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the clinically available drug probenecid can be used to increase brain levels of bumetanide and decrease its elimination, which could have therapeutic potential in the treatment of brain disorders.

  7. Proton Pump Inhibitors Inhibit Metformin Uptake by Organic Cation Transporters (OCTs)

    PubMed Central

    Nies, Anne T.; Hofmann, Ute; Resch, Claudia; Schaeffeler, Elke; Rius, Maria; Schwab, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Metformin, an oral insulin-sensitizing drug, is actively transported into cells by organic cation transporters (OCT) 1, 2, and 3 (encoded by SLC22A1, SLC22A2, or SLC22A3), which are tissue specifically expressed at significant levels in various organs such as liver, muscle, and kidney. Because metformin does not undergo hepatic metabolism, drug-drug interaction by inhibition of OCT transporters may be important. So far, comprehensive data on the interaction of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) with OCTs are missing although PPIs are frequently used in metformin-treated patients. Using in silico modeling and computational analyses, we derived pharmacophore models indicating that PPIs (i.e. omeprazole, pantoprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole, and tenatoprazole) are potent OCT inhibitors. We then established stably transfected cell lines expressing the human uptake transporters OCT1, OCT2, or OCT3 and tested whether these PPIs inhibit OCT-mediated metformin uptake in vitro. All tested PPIs significantly inhibited metformin uptake by OCT1, OCT2, and OCT3 in a concentration-dependent manner. Half-maximal inhibitory concentration values (IC50) were in the low micromolar range (3–36 µM) and thereby in the range of IC50 values of other potent OCT drug inhibitors. Finally, we tested whether the PPIs are also transported by OCTs, but did not identify PPIs as OCT substrates. In conclusion, PPIs are potent inhibitors of the OCT-mediated metformin transport in vitro. Further studies are needed to elucidate the clinical relevance of this drug-drug interaction with potential consequences on metformin disposition and/or efficacy. PMID:21779389

  8. Production and Actions of the Anandamide Metabolite Prostamide E2 in the Renal Medulla

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cao; Xia, Min; Poklis, Justin L.; Lichtman, Aron H.; Abdullah, Rehab A.; Dewey, William L.; Li, Pin-Lan

    2012-01-01

    Medullipin has been proposed to be an antihypertensive lipid hormone released from the renal medulla in response to increased arterial pressure and renal medullary blood flow. Because anandamide (AEA) possesses characteristics of this purported hormone, the present study tested the hypothesis that AEA or one of its metabolites represents medullipin. AEA was demonstrated to be enriched in the kidney medulla compared with cortex. Western blotting and enzymatic analyses of renal cortical and medullary microsomes revealed opposite patterns of enrichment of two AEA-metabolizing enzymes, with fatty acid amide hydrolase higher in the renal cortex and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) higher in the renal medulla. In COX-2 reactions with renal medullary microsomes, prostamide E2, the ethanolamide of prostaglandin E2, was the major product detected. Intramedullarily infused AEA dose-dependently increased urine volume and sodium and potassium excretion (15–60 nmol/kg/min) but had little effect on mean arterial pressure (MAP). The renal excretory effects of AEA were blocked by intravenous infusion of celecoxib (0.1 μg/kg/min), a selective COX-2 inhibitor, suggesting the involvement of a prostamide intermediate. Plasma kinetic analysis revealed longer elimination half-lives for AEA and prostamide E2 compared with prostaglandin E2. Intravenous prostamide E2 reduced MAP and increased renal blood flow (RBF), actions opposite to those of angiotensin II. Coinfusion of prostamide E2 inhibited angiotensin II effects on MAP and RBF. These results suggest that AEA and/or its prostamide metabolites in the renal medulla may represent medullipin and function as a regulator of body fluid and MAP. PMID:22685343

  9. Corticotropin-releasing hormone drives anandamide hydrolysis in the amygdala to promote anxiety.

    PubMed

    Gray, J Megan; Vecchiarelli, Haley A; Morena, Maria; Lee, Tiffany T Y; Hermanson, Daniel J; Kim, Alexander B; McLaughlin, Ryan J; Hassan, Kowther I; Kühne, Claudia; Wotjak, Carsten T; Deussing, Jan M; Patel, Sachin; Hill, Matthew N

    2015-03-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a central integrator in the brain of endocrine and behavioral stress responses, whereas activation of the endocannabinoid CB1 receptor suppresses these responses. Although these systems regulate overlapping functions, few studies have investigated whether these systems interact. Here we demonstrate a novel mechanism of CRH-induced anxiety that relies on modulation of endocannabinoids. Specifically, we found that CRH, through activation of the CRH receptor type 1 (CRHR1), evokes a rapid induction of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which causes a reduction in the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA), within the amygdala. Similarly, the ability of acute stress to modulate amygdala FAAH and AEA in both rats and mice is also mediated through CRHR1 activation. This interaction occurs specifically in amygdala pyramidal neurons and represents a novel mechanism of endocannabinoid-CRH interactions in regulating amygdala output. Functionally, we found that CRH signaling in the amygdala promotes an anxious phenotype that is prevented by FAAH inhibition. Together, this work suggests that rapid reductions in amygdala AEA signaling following stress may prime the amygdala and facilitate the generation of downstream stress-linked behaviors. Given that endocannabinoid signaling is thought to exert "tonic" regulation on stress and anxiety responses, these data suggest that CRH signaling coordinates a disruption of tonic AEA activity to promote a state of anxiety, which in turn may represent an endogenous mechanism by which stress enhances anxiety. These data suggest that FAAH inhibitors may represent a novel class of anxiolytics that specifically target stress-induced anxiety.

  10. Elevation of endogenous anandamide impairs LTP, learning, and memory through CB1 receptor signaling in mice.

    PubMed

    Basavarajappa, Balapal S; Nagre, Nagaraja N; Xie, Shan; Subbanna, Shivakumar

    2014-07-01

    In rodents, many exogenous and endogenous cannabinoids, such as anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG), have been shown to play an important role in certain hippocampal memory processes. However, the mechanisms by which endogenous AEA regulate this processes are not well understood. Here the effects of AEA on long-term potentiation (LTP), hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks, pERK1/2, pCaMKIV, and pCREB signaling events in both cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice were assessed following administration of URB597, an inhibitor of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Acute administration of URB597 enhanced AEA levels without affecting the levels of 2-AG or CB1R in the hippocampus and neocortex as compared to vehicle. In hippocampal slices, URB597 impaired LTP in CB1R WT but not in KO littermates. URB597 impaired object recognition, spontaneous alternation and spatial memory in the Y-maze test in CB1R WT mice but not in KO mice. Furthermore, URB597 enhanced ERK phosphorylation in WT without affecting total ERK levels in WT or KO mice. URB597 impaired CaMKIV and CREB phosphorylation in WT but not in KO mice. CB1R KO mice have a lower pCaMKIV/CaMKIV ratio and higher pCREB/CREB ratio as compared to WT littermates. Our results indicate that pharmacologically elevated AEA impair LTP, learning and memory and inhibit CaMKIV and CREB phosphorylation, via the activation of CB1Rs. Collectively, these findings also suggest that pharmacological elevation of AEA beyond normal concentrations is also detrimental for the underlying physiological responses.

  11. Elevation of Endogenous Anandamide Impairs LTP, Learning and Memory through CB1 Receptor Signaling in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Basavarajappa, Balapal S.; Nagre, Nagaraja N.; Xie, Shan; Subbanna, Shivakumar

    2014-01-01

    In rodents, many exogenous and endogenous cannabinoids, such as anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG), have been shown to play an important role in certain hippocampal memory processes. However, the mechanisms by which endogenous AEA regulate this processes are not well understood. Here the effects of AEA on long-term potentiation (LTP), hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks, pERK1/2, pCaMKIV, and pCREB signaling events in both cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice were assessed following administration of URB597, an inhibitor of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Acute administration of URB597 enhanced AEA levels without affecting the levels of 2-AG or CB1R in the hippocampus and neocortex compared to vehicle. In hippocampal slices, URB597 impaired LTP in CB1R WT but not in KO littermates. URB597 impaired object recognition, spontaneous alternation and spatial memory in the Y-maze test in CB1R WT mice but not in KO mice. Furthermore, URB597 enhanced ERK phosphorylation in WT without affecting total ERK levels in WT or KO mice. URB597 impaired CaMKIV and CREB phosphorylation in WT but not in KO mice. CB1R KO mice have a lower pCaMKIV/CaMKIV ratio and higher pCREB/CREB ratio compared to WT littermates. Our results indicate that pharmacologically elevated AEA impair LTP, learning and memory and inhibit CaMKIV and CREB phosphorylation, via the activation of CB1Rs. Collectively, these findings also suggest that pharmacological elevation of AEA beyond normal concentrations is also detrimental for the underlying physiological responses. PMID:24648181

  12. Cyclooxygenase-2 Mediates Anandamide Metabolism in the Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kaczocha, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mediates inflammation and contributes to neurodegeneration. Best known for its pathological up-regulation, COX-2 is also constitutively expressed within the brain and mediates synaptic transmission through prostaglandin synthesis. Along with arachidonic acid, COX-2 oxygenates the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol in vitro. Inhibition of COX-2 enhances retrograde signaling in the hippocampus, suggesting COX-2 mediates endocannabinoid tone in healthy brain. The degree to which COX-2 may regulate endocannabinoid metabolism in vivo is currently unclear. Therefore, we explored the effect of COX-2 inhibition on [3H]AEA metabolism in mouse brain. Although AEA is hydrolyzed primarily by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), ex vivo autoradiography revealed that COX-2 inhibition by nimesulide redirected [3H]AEA substrate from COX-2 to FAAH in the cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and periaqueductal gray. These data indicate that COX-2 possesses the capacity to metabolize AEA in vivo and can compete with FAAH for AEA in several brain regions. Temporal fluctuations in COX-2 expression were observed in the brain, with an increase in COX-2 protein and mRNA in the hippocampus at midnight compared with noon. COX-2 immunolocalization was robust in the hippocampus and several cortical regions. Although most regions exhibited no temporal changes in COX-2 immunolocalization, increased numbers of immunoreactive cells were detected at midnight in layers II and III of the somatosensory and visual cortices. These temporal variations in COX-2 distribution reduced the enzyme's contribution toward [3H]AEA metabolism in the somatosensory cortex at midnight. Taken together, our findings establish COX-2 as a mediator of regional AEA metabolism in mouse brain. PMID:20702753

  13. Identification and Characterization of ML352: A Novel, Noncompetitive Inhibitor of the Presynaptic Choline Transporter

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) is the rate-limiting determinant of acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis, yet the transporter remains a largely undeveloped target for the detection and manipulation of synaptic cholinergic signaling. To expand CHT pharmacology, we pursued a high-throughput screen for novel CHT-targeted small molecules based on the electrogenic properties of transporter-mediated choline transport. In this effort, we identified five novel, structural classes of CHT-specific inhibitors. Chemical diversification and functional analysis of one of these classes identified ML352 as a high-affinity (Ki = 92 nM) and selective CHT inhibitor. At concentrations that fully antagonized CHT in transfected cells and nerve terminal preparations, ML352 exhibited no inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) or cholineacetyltransferase (ChAT) and also lacked activity at dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters, as well as many receptors and ion channels. ML352 exhibited noncompetitive choline uptake inhibition in intact cells and synaptosomes and reduced the apparent density of hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) binding sites in membrane assays, suggesting allosteric transporter interactions. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed limited in vitro metabolism and significant CNS penetration, with features predicting rapid clearance. ML352 represents a novel, potent, and specific tool for the manipulation of CHT, providing a possible platform for the development of cholinergic imaging and therapeutic agents. PMID:25560927

  14. Inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Community Counts Blood Safety Inhibitors Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Videos Starting the Conversation Playing it Safe A Look at Hemophilia Joint Range of Motion My Story Links to Other Websites ...

  15. Dopamine Transport Inhibitors Based on GBR12909 and Benztropine as Potential Medications to Treat Cocaine Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Richard B.; Baumann, Michael; Prisinzano, Thomas E.; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2008-01-01

    The discovery and development of medications to treat addiction and notably, cocaine addiction, have been frustrated by both the complexity of the disorder and the lack of target validation in human subjects. The dopamine transporter has historically been a primary target for cocaine abuse medication development, but addictive liability and other confounds of such inhibitors of dopamine uptake have limited clinical evaluation and validation. Herein we describe efforts to develop analogues of the dopamine uptake inhibitors GBR 12909 and benztropine that show promising profiles in animal models of cocaine abuse that contrast to that of cocaine. Their unique pharmacological profiles have provided important insights into the reinforcing actions of cocaine and we propose that clinical investigation of novel dopamine uptake inhibitors will facilitate the discovery of cocaine-abuse medications. PMID:17897630

  16. The Cupric Ion as an Inhibitor of Photosynthetic Electron Transport in Isolated Chloroplasts 1

    PubMed Central

    Cedeno-Maldonado, Arturo; Swader, J. A.; Heath, Robert L.

    1972-01-01

    Strong inhibition of uncoupled photosynthetic electron transport by Cu2+ in isolated spinach chloroplasts was observed by measuring changes in O2 concentration in the reaction medium. Inhibition was dependent not only on the concentration of the inhibitor, but also on the ratio of chlorophyll to inhibitor. Binding of Cu2+ to the chloroplast membranes resulted in removal of Cu2+ from solution. When chloroplasts were exposed to preincubation in light, there was increased inhibition as a result of Cu2+ binding to inhibitory sites. Preincubation in the dark resulted in Cu2+ binding to noninhibitory sites and decreased inhibition. The degree of inhibition was lower at low light intensities than at high light intensities. When the photosystems were assayed separately, photosystem I was more resistant to inhibition than photosystem II. The most sensitive site to the inhibitor was the oxidizing side of photosystem II. PMID:16658246

  17. Identification of the First Highly Subtype-Selective Inhibitor of Human GABA Transporter GAT3.

    PubMed

    Damgaard, Maria; Al-Khawaja, Anas; Vogensen, Stine B; Jurik, Andreas; Sijm, Maarten; Lie, Maria E K; Bæk, Mathias I; Rosenthal, Emil; Jensen, Anders A; Ecker, Gerhard F; Frølund, Bente; Wellendorph, Petrine; Clausen, Rasmus P

    2015-09-16

    Screening a library of small-molecule compounds using a cell line expressing human GABA transporter 3 (hGAT3) in a [(3)H]GABA uptake assay identified isatin derivatives as a new class of hGAT3 inhibitors. A subsequent structure-activity relationship (SAR) study led to the identification of hGAT3-selective inhibitors (i.e., compounds 20 and 34) that were superior to the reference hGAT3 inhibitor, (S)-SNAP-5114, in terms of potency (low micromolar IC50 values) and selectivity (>30-fold selective for hGAT3 over hGAT1/hGAT2/hBGT1). Further pharmacological characterization of compound 20 (5-(thiophen-2-yl)indoline-2,3-dione) revealed a noncompetitive mode of inhibition at hGAT3. This suggests that this compound class, which has no structural resemblance to GABA, has a binding site different from the substrate, GABA. This was supported by a molecular modeling study that suggested a unique binding site that matched the observed selectivity, inhibition kinetics, and SAR of the compound series. These compounds are the most potent GAT3 inhibitors reported to date that provide selectivity for GAT3 over other GABA transporter subtypes.

  18. Vagal anandamide signaling via cannabinoid receptor 1 contributes to luminal 5-HT modulation of visceral nociception in rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chen-Chen; Yan, Xiu-Juan; Chen, Xin; Wang, Er-Man; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Li-Yan; Chen, Jun; Fang, Jing-Yuan; Chen, Sheng-Liang

    2014-08-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) plays pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS), and luminal 5-HT time-dependently modulates visceral nociception. We found that duodenal biopsies from PI-IBS patients exhibited increased 5-HT and decreased anandamide levels and that decreased anandamide was associated with abdominal pain severity, indicating a link between 5-HT and endocannabinoid signaling pathways in PI-IBS. To understand this, we investigated the role of endocannabinoids in 5-HT modulation of visceral nociception in a rat model. Acute intraduodenally applied 5-HT attenuated the visceromotor response (VMR) to colorectal distention, and this was reversed by the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonist AM251. Duodenal anandamide (but not 2-arachidonoylglycerol) content was greatly increased after luminal 5-HT treatment. This effect was abrogated by the 5-HT 3 receptor (5-HT3R) antagonist granisetron, which was luminally delivered to preferentially target vagal terminals. Chemical denervation of vagal afferents blocked 5-HT-evoked antinociception and anandamide release. Chronic luminal 5-HT exposure for 5 days increased baseline VMR and VMR post-5-HT (days 4 and 5). Duodenal levels of anandamide and N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD, the anandamide-synthesizing enzyme) protein gradually declined from day 1 to 5. The time-dependent effects of 5-HT were abolished by daily granisetron pretreatment. Daily pretreatment with CB1 agonists or anandamide from day 3 attenuated 5-HT-induced hyperalgesia. These data suggest that vagal 5-HT3R-mediated duodenal anandamide release contributes to acute luminal 5-HT-induced antinociception via CB1 signaling, whereas decreased anandamide is associated with hyperalgesia upon chronic 5-HT treatment. Further understanding of peripheral vagal anandamide signaling may provide insights into the mechanisms underlying 5-HT-related IBS.

  19. High-Throughput Screening Assay for Inhibitors of TonB-Dependent Iron Transport.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Mathew; Jordan, Lorne D; Shipelskiy, Yan; Newton, Salete M; Klebba, Phillip E

    2016-03-01

    The TonB-dependent Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane protein FepA actively transports the siderophore ferric enterobactin (FeEnt) into the periplasm. We developed a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay that observes FeEnt uptake through FepA in living Escherichia coli, by monitoring fluorescence quenching that occurs upon binding of FeEnt, and then unquenching as the bacteria deplete it from solution by transport. We optimized the labeling and spectroscopic methods to screen for inhibitors of TonB-dependent iron uptake through the outer membrane. The assay works like a molecular switch that is on in the presence of TonB activity and off in its absence. It functions in 96-well microtiter plates, in a variety of conditions, with Z factors of 0.8-1.0. TonB-dependent iron transport is energy dependent, and the inhibitory effects of the metabolic inhibitors carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, 2,4-dinitrophenol, azide, cyanide, and arsenate on FeEnt uptake were readily detected by the assay. Because iron acquisition is a determinant of bacterial pathogenesis, HTS with this method may identify inhibitors that block TonB function and constitute novel therapeutics against infectious disease caused by Gram-negative bacteria.

  20. Inhibitory properties of ibuprofen and its amide analogues towards the hydrolysis and cyclooxygenation of the endocannabinoid anandamide

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Christopher J.; Björklund, Emmelie; Lichtman, Aron H.; Naidu, Pattipati S.; Congiu, Cenzo; Onnis, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    A dual-action cyclooxygenase (COX) - fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor may have therapeutic usefulness as an analgesic, but a key issue is finding the right balance of inhibitory effects. This can be done by the design of compounds exhibiting different FAAH/COX inhibitory potencies. In the present study, eight ibuprofen analogues were investigated. Ibuprofen (1), 2-(4-Isobutylphenyl)-N-(2-(3-methylpyridin-2-ylamino)-2-oxoethyl)propanamide (9) and N-(3-methylpyridin-2-yl)-2-(4′-isobutylphenyl)propionamide (2) inhibited FAAH with IC50 values of 134, 3.6 and 0.52 μM respectively. The corresponding values for COX-1 were ~29, ~50 and ~60 μM, respectively. Using arachidonic acid as substrate, the compounds were weak inhibitors of COX-2. However, when anandamide was used as COX-2 substrate, potency increased, with approximate IC50 values of ~6, ~10 and ~19 μM, respectively. 2 was confirmed to be active in vivo in a murine model of visceral nociception, but the effects of the compound were not blocked by CB receptor antagonists. PMID:22225576

  1. Synthesis and Structure-activity Relationship Studies of O-Biphenyl-3-yl Carbamates as Peripherally Restricted Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Sanz, Guillermo; Duranti, Andrea; Melzig, Laurin; Fiorelli, Claudio; Ruda, Gian Filippo; Colombano, Giampiero; Mestichelli, Paola; Sanchini, Silvano; Tontini, Andrea; Mor, Marco; Bandiera, Tiziano; Scarpelli, Rita; Tarzia, Giorgio; Piomelli, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The peripherally restricted fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB937 (3, cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3’-carbamoyl-6-hydroxybiphenyl-3-yl ester) is extruded from the brain and spinal cord by the Abcg2 efflux transporter. Despite its inability to enter the central nervous system (CNS), 3 exerts profound antinociceptive effects in mice and rats, which result from the inhibition of FAAH in peripheral tissues and the consequent enhancement of anandamide signaling at CB1 cannabinoid receptors localized on sensory nerve endings. In the present study, we examined the structure-activity relationships (SAR) for the biphenyl region of compound 3, focusing on the carbamoyl and hydroxyl groups in the distal and proximal phenyl rings. Our SAR studies generated a new series of peripherally restricted FAAH inhibitors and identified compound 35 (cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3’-carbamoyl-5-hydroxybiphenyl-3-yl ester) as the most potent brain-impermeant FAAH inhibitor disclosed to date. PMID:23822179

  2. Phenylphthalazines as small-molecule inhibitors of urea transporter UT-B and their binding model

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Jian-hua; Li, Min; Tou, Weng-Ieong; Lei, Tian-luo; Zhou, Hong; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian; Yang, Bao-xue

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Urea transporters (UT) are a family of transmembrane proteins that specifically transport urea. UT inhibitors exert diuretic activity without affecting electrolyte balance. The purpose of this study was to discover novel UT inhibitors and determine the inhibition mechanism. Methods: The primary screening urea transporter B (UT-B) inhibitory activity was conducted in a collection of 10 000 diverse small molecules using mouse erythrocyte lysis assay. After discovering a hit with a core structure of 1-phenylamino-4-phenylphthalazin, the UT-B inhibitory activity of 160 analogs were examined with a stopped-flow light scattering assay and their structure-activity relationship (SAR) was analyzed. The inhibition mechanism was further investigated using in silico assays. Results: A phenylphthalazine compound PU1424, chemically named 5-(4-((4-methoxyphenyl) amino) phthalazin-1-yl)-2-methylbenzene sulfonamide, showed potent UT-B inhibition activity, inhibited human and mouse UT-B-mediated urea transport with IC50 value of 0.02 and 0.69 μmol/L, respectively, and exerted 100% UT-B inhibition at higher concentrations. The compound PU1424 did not affect membrane urea transport in mouse erythrocytes lacking UT-B. Structure-activity analysis revealed that the analogs with methoxyl group at R4 and sulfonic amide at R2 position exhibited the highest potency inhibition activity on UT-B. Furthermore, in silico assays validated that the R4 and R2 positions of the analogs bound to the UT-B binding pocket and exerted inhibition activity on UT-B. Conclusion: The compound PU1424 is a novel inhibitor of both human and mouse UT-B with IC50 at submicromolar ranges. Its binding site is located at the So site of the UT-B structure. PMID:27238209

  3. Crystallographic study of FABP5 as an intracellular endocannabinoid transporter

    PubMed Central

    Sanson, Benoît; Wang, Tao; Sun, Jing; Wang, Liqun; Kaczocha, Martin; Ojima, Iwao; Deutsch, Dale; Li, Huilin

    2014-01-01

    In addition to binding intracellular fatty acids, fatty-acid-binding proteins (FABPs) have recently been reported to also transport the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-­arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), arachidonic acid derivatives that function as neurotransmitters and mediate a diverse set of physiological and psychological processes. To understand how the endocannabinoids bind to FABPs, the crystal structures of FABP5 in complex with AEA, 2-AG and the inhibitor BMS-309403 were determined. These ligands are shown to interact primarily with the substrate-binding pocket via hydrophobic interactions as well as a common hydrogen bond to the Tyr131 residue. This work advances our understanding of FABP5–endocannabinoid interactions and may be useful for future efforts in the development of small-molecule inhibitors to raise endocannabinoid levels. PMID:24531463

  4. Central anandamide deficiency predicts stress-induced anxiety: behavioral reversal through endocannabinoid augmentation.

    PubMed

    Bluett, R J; Gamble-George, J C; Hermanson, D J; Hartley, N D; Marnett, L J; Patel, S

    2014-07-08

    Stress is a major risk factor for the development of mood and anxiety disorders; elucidation of novel approaches to mitigate the deleterious effects of stress could have broad clinical applications. Pharmacological augmentation of central endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) signaling may be an effective therapeutic strategy to mitigate the adverse behavioral and physiological consequences of stress. Here we show that acute foot-shock stress induces a transient anxiety state measured 24 h later using the light-dark box assay and novelty-induced hypophagia test. Acute pharmacological inhibition of the anandamide-degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), reverses the stress-induced anxiety state in a cannabinoid receptor-dependent manner. FAAH inhibition does not significantly affect anxiety-like behaviors in non-stressed mice. Moreover, whole brain anandamide levels are reduced 24 h after acute foot-shock stress and are negatively correlated with anxiety-like behavioral measures in the light-dark box test. These data indicate that central anandamide levels predict acute stress-induced anxiety, and that reversal of stress-induced anandamide deficiency is a key mechanism subserving the therapeutic effects of FAAH inhibition. These studies provide further support that eCB-augmentation is a viable pharmacological strategy for the treatment of stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  5. Method to Screen Multidrug Transport Inhibitors Using Yeast Overexpressing a Human MDR Transporter.

    PubMed

    Fiorini, Laura; Mus-Veteau, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistance has appeared to mitigate the efficiency of anticancer drugs and the possibility of successful cancer chemotherapy. The Hedgehog receptor Patched is a multidrug transporter expressed in several cancers and as such it represents a new target to circumvent chemotherapy resistance. In this chapter, we describe the screening test developed to identify molecules able to inhibit the drug efflux activity of Patched. This screening test uses yeast overexpressing functional human Patched that have been shown to resist to chemotherapeutic agents. This test can be adapted to other MDR transporters. PMID:27485344

  6. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors: a growing class of antidiabetic agents

    PubMed Central

    Vivian, Eva M

    2014-01-01

    Although several treatment options are available to reduce hyperglycemia, only about half of individuals with diagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM) achieve recommended glycemic targets. New agents that reduce blood glucose concentrations by novel mechanisms and have acceptable safety profiles are needed to improve glycemic control and reduce the complications associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The renal sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) is responsible for reabsorption of most of the glucose filtered by the kidney. Inhibitors of SGLT2 lower blood glucose independent of the secretion and action of insulin by inhibiting renal reabsorption of glucose, thereby promoting the increased urinary excretion of excess glucose. Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin are SGLT2 inhibitors approved as treatments for T2DM in the United States, Europe, and other countries. Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin increase renal excretion of glucose and improve glycemic parameters in patients with T2DM when used as monotherapy or in combination with other antihyperglycemic agents. Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors is associated with weight reduction, lowered blood pressure, and a low intrinsic propensity to cause hypoglycemia. Overall, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin are well tolerated. Cases of genital infections and, in some studies, urinary tract infections have been more frequent in canagliflozin-, dapagliflozin-, and empagliflozin-treated patients compared with those receiving placebo. Evidence from clinical trials suggests that SGLT2 inhibitors are a promising new treatment option for T2DM. PMID:25598831

  7. Electron transport chain inhibitors induce microglia activation through enhancing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production.

    PubMed

    Ye, Junli; Jiang, Zhongxin; Chen, Xuehong; Liu, Mengyang; Li, Jing; Liu, Na

    2016-01-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are believed to be mediators of excessive microglial activation, yet the resources and mechanism are not fully understood. Here we stimulated murine microglial BV-2 cells and primary microglial cells with different inhibitors of electron transport chain (ETC), rotenone, thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA), antimycin A, and NaN3 to induce mitochondrial ROS production and we observed the role of mitochondrial ROS in microglial activation. Our results showed that ETC inhibitors resulted in significant changes in cell viability, microglial morphology, cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial ROS production in a dose-dependent manner in both primary cultural microglia and BV-2 cell lines. Moreover, ETC inhibitors, especially rotenone and antimycin A stimulated secretion of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) by microglia with marked activation of mitogen-activated proteinkinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), which could be blocked by specific inhibitors of MAPK and NF-κB and mitochondrial antioxidants, Mito-TEMPO. Taken together, our results demonstrated that inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain in microglia led to production of mitochondrial ROS and therefore may activate MAPK/NF-кB dependent inflammatory cytokines release in microglia, which indicated that mitochondrial-derived ROS were contributed to microglial activation.

  8. Anandamide, a natural ligand for the peripheral cannabinoid receptor is a novel synergistic growth factor for hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Valk, P; Verbakel, S; Vankan, Y; Hol, S; Mancham, S; Ploemacher, R; Mayen, A; Löwenberg, B; Delwel, R

    1997-08-15

    We recently demonstrated that the gene encoding the peripheral cannabinoid receptor (Cb2) may be a proto-oncogene involved in murine myeloid leukemias. We show here that Cb2 may have a role in hematopoietic development. RNAse protection analysis showed that Cb2 is normally expressed in spleen and thymus. Cb2 mRNA is also expressed in 45 of 51 cell lines of distinct hematopoietic lineages, ie, myeloid, macrophage, mast, B-lymphoid, T-lymphoid, and erythroid cells. The effect of the fatty acid anandamide, an endogenous ligand for cannabinoid receptors, on primary murine marrow cells and hematopoietic growth factor (HGF)-dependent cell lines was then investigated. In vitro colony cultures of normal mouse bone marrow cells showed anandamide to potentiate interleukin-3 (IL-3)-induced colony growth markedly. Whereas HGFs alone stimulate proliferation of the various cell lines in serum-free culture only weakly, anandamide enhances the proliferative response of the cell lines to HGFs profoundly. This was apparent for responses induced by IL-3, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and erythropoietin. Anandamide was already effective at concentrations as low as 0.1 to 0.3 micromol/L and plateau effects were reached at 0.3 to 3 micromol/L. The addition of anandamide as single growth factor had no effect. The costimulatory effect of anandamide was not evident when cells were cultured with fetal calf serum (FCS), suggesting that FCS contains anandamide or another ligand capable of activating the peripheral cannabinoid receptor. Other cannabinoid ligands did not enhance the proliferative responsiveness of hematopoietic cells to HGFs. Transfection experiments of Cb2 in myeloid 32D cells showed that anandamide specifically activates proliferation through activation of the peripheral cannabinoid receptor. Anandamide appears to be a novel and synergistic growth stimulator for hematopoietic cells. PMID:9269762

  9. TWISTED DWARF1 Mediates the Action of Auxin Transport Inhibitors on Actin Cytoskeleton Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jinsheng; Bailly, Aurelien; Zwiewka, Marta; Sovero, Valpuri; Di Donato, Martin; Ge, Pei; Oehri, Jacqueline; Aryal, Bibek; Hao, Pengchao; Linnert, Miriam; Burgardt, Noelia Inés; Lücke, Christian; Weiwad, Matthias; Michel, Max; Weiergräber, Oliver H; Pollmann, Stephan; Azzarello, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano; Ferro, Noel; Fukao, Yoichiro; Hoffmann, Céline; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland; Friml, Jiří; Thomas, Clément; Geisler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Plant growth and architecture is regulated by the polar distribution of the hormone auxin. Polarity and flexibility of this process is provided by constant cycling of auxin transporter vesicles along actin filaments, coordinated by a positive auxin-actin feedback loop. Both polar auxin transport and vesicle cycling are inhibited by synthetic auxin transport inhibitors, such as 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), counteracting the effect of auxin; however, underlying targets and mechanisms are unclear. Using NMR, we map the NPA binding surface on the Arabidopsis thaliana ABCB chaperone TWISTED DWARF1 (TWD1). We identify ACTIN7 as a relevant, although likely indirect, TWD1 interactor, and show TWD1-dependent regulation of actin filament organization and dynamics and that TWD1 is required for NPA-mediated actin cytoskeleton remodeling. The TWD1-ACTIN7 axis controls plasma membrane presence of efflux transporters, and as a consequence act7 and twd1 share developmental and physiological phenotypes indicative of defects in auxin transport. These can be phenocopied by NPA treatment or by chemical actin (de)stabilization. We provide evidence that TWD1 determines downstream locations of auxin efflux transporters by adjusting actin filament debundling and dynamizing processes and mediating NPA action on the latter. This function appears to be evolutionary conserved since TWD1 expression in budding yeast alters actin polarization and cell polarity and provides NPA sensitivity. PMID:27053424

  10. A high-throughput screen for chemical inhibitors of exocytic transport in yeast.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lisha; Nebane, N Miranda; Wennerberg, Krister; Li, Yujie; Neubauer, Valerie; Hobrath, Judith V; McKellip, Sara; Rasmussen, Lynn; Shindo, Nice; Sosa, Melinda; Maddry, Joseph A; Ananthan, Subramaniam; Piazza, Gary A; White, E Lucile; Harsay, Edina

    2010-06-14

    Most of the components of the membrane and protein traffic machinery were discovered by perturbing their functions, either with bioactive compounds or by mutations. However, the mechanisms responsible for exocytic transport vesicle formation at the Golgi and endosomes are still largely unknown. Both the exocytic traffic routes and the signaling pathways that regulate these routes are highly complex and robust, so that defects can be overcome by alternate pathways or mechanisms. A classical yeast genetic screen designed to account for the robustness of the exocytic pathway identified a novel conserved gene, AVL9, which functions in late exocytic transport. We now describe a chemical-genetic version of the mutant screen, in which we performed a high-throughput phenotypic screen of a large compound library and identified novel small-molecule secretory inhibitors. To maximize the number and diversity of our hits, the screen was performed in a pdr5Delta snq2Delta mutant background, which lacks two transporters responsible for pleiotropic drug resistance. However, we found that deletion of both transporters reduced the fitness of our screen strain, whereas the pdr5Delta mutation had a relatively small effect on growth and was also the more important transporter mutation for conferring sensitivity to our hits. In this and similar chemical-genetic yeast screens, using just a single pump mutation might be sufficient for increasing hit diversity while minimizing the physiological effects of transporter mutations. PMID:20461743

  11. A high-throughput screen for chemical inhibitors of exocytic transport in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lisha; Nebane, N. Miranda; Wennerberg, Krister; Li, Yujie; Neubauer, Valerie; Hobrath, Judith V.; McKellip, Sara; Rasmussen, Lynn; Shindo, Nice; Sosa, Melinda; Maddry, Joseph A.; Ananthan, Subramaniam; Piazza, Gary A.; White, E. Lucile; Harsay, Edina

    2010-01-01

    Most of the components of the membrane and protein traffic machinery were discovered by perturbing their functions, either with bioactive compounds or by mutations. However, the mechanisms responsible for exocytic transport vesicle formation at the Golgi and endosomes are still largely unknown. Both the exocytic traffic routes and the signaling pathways that regulate these routes are highly complex and robust, so that defects can be overcome by alternate pathways or mechanisms. A classical yeast genetic screen designed to account for the robustness of the exocytic pathway identified a novel conserved gene, AVL9, that functions in late exocytic transport. We now describe a chemical-genetic version of the mutant screen, in which we performed a high-throughput phenotypic screen of a large compound library and identified novel small molecule secretory inhibitors. In order to maximize the number and diversity of our hits, the screen was performed in a pdr5Δ snq2Δ mutant background, which lacks two transporters responsible for pleiotropic drug resistance. However, we found that deletion of both transporters reduced the fitness of our screen strain, whereas the pdr5Δ mutation had relatively small effect on growth and was also the more important transporter mutation for conferring sensitivity to our hits. In this and similar chemical-genetic yeast screens, using just a single pump mutation may be sufficient for increasing hit diversity while minimizing the physiological effects of transporter mutations. PMID:20461743

  12. Auxin transport inhibitors impair vesicle motility and actin cytoskeleton dynamics in diverse eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Dhonukshe, Pankaj; Grigoriev, Ilya; Fischer, Rainer; Tominaga, Motoki; Robinson, David G.; Hašek, Jiří; Paciorek, Tomasz; Petrášek, Jan; Seifertová, Daniela; Tejos, Ricardo; Meisel, Lee A.; Zažímalová, Eva; Gadella, Theodorus W. J.; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Ueda, Takashi; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Akhmanova, Anna; Brock, Roland; Spang, Anne; Friml, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Many aspects of plant development, including patterning and tropisms, are largely dependent on the asymmetric distribution of the plant signaling molecule auxin. Auxin transport inhibitors (ATIs), which interfere with directional auxin transport, have been essential tools in formulating this concept. However, despite the use of ATIs in plant research for many decades, the mechanism of ATI action has remained largely elusive. Using real-time live-cell microscopy, we show here that prominent ATIs such as 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and 2-(1-pyrenoyl) benzoic acid (PBA) inhibit vesicle trafficking in plant, yeast, and mammalian cells. Effects on micropinocytosis, rab5-labeled endosomal motility at the periphery of HeLa cells and on fibroblast mobility indicate that ATIs influence actin cytoskeleton. Visualization of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in plants, yeast, and mammalian cells show that ATIs stabilize actin. Conversely, stabilizing actin by chemical or genetic means interferes with endocytosis, vesicle motility, auxin transport, and plant development, including auxin transport-dependent processes. Our results show that a class of ATIs act as actin stabilizers and advocate that actin-dependent trafficking of auxin transport components participates in the mechanism of auxin transport. These studies also provide an example of how the common eukaryotic process of actin-based vesicle motility can fulfill a plant-specific physiological role. PMID:18337510

  13. Biaryls as potent, tunable dual neurokinin 1 receptor antagonists and serotonin transporter inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Degnan, Andrew P; Tora, George O; Han, Ying; Rajamani, Ramkumar; Bertekap, Robert; Krause, Rudolph; Davis, Carl D; Hu, Joanna; Morgan, Daniel; Taylor, Sarah J; Krause, Kelly; Li, Yu-Wen; Mattson, Gail; Cunningham, Melissa A; Taber, Matthew T; Lodge, Nicholas J; Bronson, Joanne J; Gillman, Kevin W; Macor, John E

    2015-08-01

    Depression is a serious illness that affects millions of patients. Current treatments are associated with a number of undesirable side effects. Neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) antagonists have recently been shown to potentiate the antidepressant effects of serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in a number of animal models. Herein we describe the optimization of a biaryl chemotype to provide a series of potent dual NK1R antagonists/serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitors. Through the choice of appropriate substituents, the SERT/NK1R ratio could be tuned to afford a range of target selectivity profiles. This effort culminated in the identification of an analog that demonstrated oral bioavailability, favorable brain uptake, and efficacy in the gerbil foot tap model. Ex vivo occupancy studies with compound 58 demonstrated the ability to maintain NK1 receptor saturation (>88% occupancy) while titrating the desired level of SERT occupancy (11-84%) via dose selection. PMID:26048800

  14. Discovery of a specific inhibitor of human GLUT5 by virtual screening and in vitro transport evaluation

    PubMed Central

    George Thompson, Alayna M.; Ursu, Oleg; Babkin, Petr; Iancu, Cristina V.; Whang, Alex; Oprea, Tudor I.; Choe, Jun-yong

    2016-01-01

    GLUT5, a fructose-transporting member of the facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT, SLC2) family, is a therapeutic target for diabetes and cancer but has no potent inhibitors. We virtually screened a library of 6 million chemicals onto a GLUT5 model and identified N-[4-(methylsulfonyl)-2-nitrophenyl]-1,3-benzodioxol-5-amine (MSNBA) as an inhibitor of GLUT5 fructose transport in proteoliposomes. MSNBA inhibition was specific to GLUT5; this inhibitor did not affect the fructose transport of human GLUT2 or the glucose transport of human GLUT1-4 or bacterial GlcPSe. In MCF7 cells, a human breast cancer cell line, MSNBA competitively inhibited GLUT5 fructose uptake with a KI of 3.2 ± 0.4 μM. Ligand docking, mutagenesis and functional studies indicate that MSNBA binds near the active site and inhibitor discrimination involves H387 of GLUT5. Thus, MSNBA is a selective and potent inhibitor of fructose transport via GLUT5, and the first chemical probe for this transporter. Our data indicate that active site differences in GLUT members could be exploited to further enhance ligand specificity. PMID:27074918

  15. Sodium glucose transporter protein 2 inhibitors: focusing on the kidney to treat type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Peene, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide. Treatment of T2DM continues to present challenges, with a significant proportion of patients failing to achieve and maintain glycemic targets. Despite the availability of many oral antidiabetic agents, therapeutic efficacy is also offset by side effects such as weight gain and hypoglycemia. Therefore, the search for novel therapeutic agents with an improved benefit–risk profile continues. In the following review we focus on a novel class of oral antidiabetic drugs, the sodium glucose transporter protein 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, which have unique characteristics. SGLT2 inhibitors focus on the kidney as a therapeutic target, where they inhibit the reabsorption of glucose in the proximal tubule, causing an increase in urinary glucose excretion. Doing this, they reduce plasma glucose independently of the β-cell function of the pancreas. SGLT2 inhibitors are effective at lowering hemoglobin A1c, but also induce weight loss and reduce blood pressure, with a low risk of hypoglycemia. In general, the SGLT2 inhibitors are well tolerated, with the most frequent adverse events being mild urinal and genital infections. Since their primary site of effect is the kidney, these drugs are less effective in patients with impaired kidney function but evidence is emerging that these drugs may also have a protective effect against diabetic nephropathy. This review focuses on the most extensively studied SGLT2 inhibitors dapagliflozin, canagliflozin and empagliflozin. Dapagliflozin and canagliflozin have already been approved for marketing by the US Food and Drug Administration. The European Medicines Agency has accepted all three drugs for marketing. PMID:25419452

  16. Diphenyleneiodonium, an inhibitor of NOXes and DUOXes, is also an iodide-specific transporter.

    PubMed

    Massart, C; Giusti, N; Beauwens, R; Dumont, J E; Miot, F; Sande, J Van

    2013-01-01

    NADPH oxidases (NOXes) and dual oxidases (DUOXes) generate O2 (.-) and H2O2. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) inhibits the activity of these enzymes and is often used as a specific inhibitor. It is shown here that DPI, at concentrations similar to those which inhibit the generation of O2 derivatives, activated the efflux of radioiodide but not of its analog (99m)TcO4 (-) nor of the K(+) cation mimic (86)Rb(+) in thyroid cells, in the PCCl3 rat thyroid cell line and in COS cell lines expressing the iodide transporter NIS. Effects obtained with DPI, especially in thyroid cells, should therefore be interpreted with caution. PMID:24371722

  17. Effects of anion transport inhibitors and ion substitution on Cl sup minus transport in TAL of Henle's loop

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, Yoshiaki; Yoshitomi, Koji; Imai, Masashi )

    1987-12-01

    To identify the mechanism of Cl{sup {minus}} transport across the thin ascending limb of Henle's loop (TAL), the authors examined effects of anion transport inhibitors and ionic substitution in the isolated segments of hamsters using the in vitro microperfusion technique. 4,4{prime}-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid (DIDS) at 10{sup {minus}3} M changed the NaCl diffusion voltage (V{sub t}) to the orientation that corresponds to the decrease in the Cl{sup {minus}}-Na{sup +} permeability ratio when it was added either to the bath or to the lumen. DIDS, added to the bath or to the lumen decreased the lumen-to-bath flux coefficient for {sup 36}Cl, whereas it had little effect on the flux coefficient for {sup 22}Na. The inhibitory effect of phloretin was rapid and reversible. Phloridzin was ineffective. From these observations, they conclude that Cl{sup {minus}} transport across the TAL is distinct from Na{sup +} and is not coupled with Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, or HCO{sup {minus}}{sub 3}.

  18. Effects of combined dopamine and serotonin transporter inhibitors on cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Howell, Leonard L; Carroll, F Ivy; Votaw, John R; Goodman, Mark M; Kimmel, Heather L

    2007-02-01

    Dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitors may represent a promising class of drugs in the development of cocaine pharmacotherapies. In the present study, the effects of pretreatments with the selective DAT inhibitor 3beta-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane-2beta-[3-(4'-methylphenyl)isoxazol-5-yl] hydrochloride (RTI-336) (0.3-1.7 mg/kg) were characterized in rhesus monkeys trained to self-administer cocaine (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg/injection) under a multiple second-order schedule of i.v. drug or food delivery. In addition, RTI-336 (0.01-1.0 mg/kg/injection) was substituted for cocaine to characterize its reinforcing effects. Last, the dose of RTI-336 that reduced cocaine-maintained behavior by 50% (ED(50)) was coadministered with the selective serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitors fluoxetine (3.0 mg/kg) and citalopram (3.0 mg/kg) to characterize their combined effects on cocaine self-administration. PET neuroimaging with the selective DAT ligand [(18)F]8-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl)-2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-chlorophenyl)nortropane quantified DAT occupancy at behaviorally relevant doses of RTI-336. Pretreatments of RTI-336 produced dose-related reductions in cocaine self-administration, and the ED(50) dose resulted in approximately 90% DAT occupancy. RTI-336 was reliably self-administered, but responding maintained by RTI-336 was lower than responding maintained by cocaine. Doses of RTI-336 that maintained peak rates of responding resulted in approximately 62% DAT occupancy. Co-administration of the ED(50) dose of RTI-336 in combination with either SERT inhibitor completely suppressed cocaine self-administration without affecting DAT occupancy. Hence, at comparable levels of DAT occupancy, coadministration of SERT inhibitors with RTI-336 produced more robust reductions in cocaine self-administration compared with RTI-336 alone. Collectively, the results indicate that combined inhibition of DAT and SERT warrants consideration as a viable approach in the development of cocaine medications

  19. The polar auxin transport inhibitor TIBA inhibits endoreduplication in dark grown spinach hypocotyls.

    PubMed

    Amijima, Makoto; Iwata, Yuji; Koizumi, Nozomu; Mishiba, Kei-Ichiro

    2014-08-01

    We addressed the question of whether an additional round of endoreduplication in dark-grown hypocotyls is a common feature in dicotyledonous plants having endopolyploid tissues. Ploidy distributions of hypocotyl tissues derived from in vitro-grown spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Atlas) seedlings grown under different light conditions were analyzed by flow cytometry. An additional round of endoreduplication (represented by 32C cells) was found in the dark-grown hypocotyl tissues. This response was inhibited by light, the intensity of which is a crucial factor for the inhibition of endoreduplication. The higher ploidy cells in cortical tissues of the dark-grown hypocotyls had larger cell sizes, suggesting that the additional round of endoreduplication contributes to hypocotyl elongation. More importantly, a polar auxin transport inhibitor, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), strongly inhibits endoreduplication, not only in spinach but also in Arabidopsis. Because other polar auxin transport inhibitors or an auxin antagonist show no or mild effects, TIBA may have a specific feature that inhibits endoreduplication.

  20. FAAH inhibition enhances anandamide mediated anti-tumorigenic effects in non-small cell lung cancer by downregulating the EGF/EGFR pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Janani; Sneh, Amita; Shilo, Konstantin; Nasser, Mohd W.; Ganju, Ramesh K.

    2014-01-01

    The endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA), a neurotransmitter was shown to have anti-cancer effects. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) metabolizes AEA and decreases its anti-tumorigenic activity. In this study, we have analyzed the role of FAAH inhibition in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We have shown that FAAH and CB1 receptor which is activated by AEA are expressed in lung adenocarcinoma patient samples and NSCLC cell lines A549 and H460. Since the synthetic analogue of anandamide (Met-F-AEA) did not possess significant anti-tumorigenic effects, we used Met-F-AEA in combination with FAAH inhibitor URB597 which significantly reduced EGF (epidermal growth factor)-induced proliferative and chemotactic activities in vitro when compared to anti-tumorigenic activity of Met-F-AEA alone. Further analysis of signaling mechanisms revealed that Met-F-AEA in combination with URB597 inhibits activation of EGFR and its downstream signaling ERK, AKT and NF-kB. In addition, it inhibited MMP2 secretion and stress fiber formation. We have also shown that the Met-F-AEA in combination with URB597 induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest by downregulating cyclin D1 and CDK4 expressions, ultimately leading to apoptosis via activation of caspase-9 and PARP. Furthermore, the combination treatment inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft nude mouse model system. Tumors derived from Met-F-AEA and URB597 combination treated mice showed reduced EGFR, AKT and ERK activation and MMP2/MMP9 expressions when compared to Met-F-AEA or URB597 alone. Taken together, these data suggest in EGFR overexpressing NSCLC that the combination of Met-F-AEA with FAAH inhibitor resulted in superior therapeutic response compared to individual compound activity alone. PMID:24811863

  1. Hepatobiliary transport of YM466, a novel factor Xa inhibitor, in rats.

    PubMed

    Mano, Yuji; Usui, Takashi; Kamimura, Hidetaka

    2006-01-01

    YM466, a novel factor Xa inhibitor, is a hydrophilic compound with a carboxylic acid moiety. Previous studies in rats have shown that YM466 does nor undergo metabolism but is excreted into the bile and urine in unchanged form. Thus, in this study, we investigated in vivo hepatobiliary transport, focusing in particular on multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2/Abcc2)-mediated transport. The hepatobiliary transport of YM466 was investigated after its systemic infusion into Sprague-Dawley rats (SDRs) and Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats (EHBRs), which lack Mrp2. When the binding of YM466 in the plasma and liver was examined, the bile-to-plasma concentration ratio and the liver-to-plasma concentration ratio for the unbound concentration in SDRs amounted to 32.2 and 2.83, respectively, suggesting concentrated transport. The bile-to-liver concentration ratio for the unbound concentration in EHBRs was not lower than that found for SDRs. These findings suggest that YM466 is excreted from the plasma into the bile in a concentrated manner; however, Mrp2 does not play a major role in biliary excretion.

  2. Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter-2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors: A Review of Their Basic and Clinical Pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay

    2014-12-01

    Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a newly developed class of oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs) with a unique mechanism of action. This review describes the biochemistry and physiology underlying the use of SGLT2 inhibitors, and their clinical pharmacology, including mechanism of action and posology. The pragmatic placement of these molecules in the existing OAD arena is also discussed.

  3. Human intestine luminal ACE2 and amino acid transporter expression increased by ACE-inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vuille-dit-Bille, Raphael N; Camargo, Simone M; Emmenegger, Luca; Sasse, Tom; Kummer, Eva; Jando, Julia; Hamie, Qeumars M; Meier, Chantal F; Hunziker, Schirin; Forras-Kaufmann, Zsofia; Kuyumcu, Sena; Fox, Mark; Schwizer, Werner; Fried, Michael; Lindenmeyer, Maja; Götze, Oliver; Verrey, François

    2015-04-01

    Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) and imino acid (proline) transporter SIT1 (SLC6A20) are expressed at the luminal membrane of small intestine enterocytes and proximal tubule kidney cells where they exert key functions for amino acid (re)absorption as documented by their role in Hartnup disorder and iminoglycinuria, respectively. Expression of B(0)AT1 was shown in rodent intestine to depend on the presence of the carboxypeptidase angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). This enzyme belongs to the renin-angiotensin system and its expression is induced by treatment with ACE-inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs) in many rodent tissues. We show here in the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system that human ACE2 also functionally interacts with SIT1. To investigate in human intestine the potential effect of ACEIs or ARBs on ACE2, we analysed intestinal biopsies taken during routine gastroduodenoscopy and ileocolonoscopy from 46 patients of which 9 were under ACEI and 13 ARB treatment. Analysis of transcript expression by real-time PCR and of proteins by immunofluorescence showed a co-localization of SIT1 and B(0)AT1 with ACE2 in the brush-border membrane of human small intestine enterocytes and a distinct axial expression pattern of the tested gene products along the intestine. Patients treated with ACEIs displayed in comparison with untreated controls increased intestinal mRNA levels of ACE2, peptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) and AA transporters B(0)AT1 and PAT1 (SLC36A1). This study unravels in human intestine the localization and distribution of intestinal transporters involved in amino acid absorption and suggests that ACEIs impact on their expression.

  4. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of empagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Scheen, André J

    2014-03-01

    Empagliflozin is an orally active, potent and selective inhibitor of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2), currently in clinical development to improve glycaemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). SGLT2 inhibitors, including empagliflozin, are the first pharmacological class of antidiabetes agents to target the kidney in order to remove excess glucose from the body and, thus, offer new options for T2DM management. SGLT2 inhibitors exert their effects independently of insulin. Following single and multiple oral doses (0.5-800 mg), empagliflozin was rapidly absorbed and reached peak plasma concentrations after approximately 1.33-3.0 h, before showing a biphasic decline. The mean terminal half-life ranged from 5.6 to 13.1 h in single rising-dose studies, and from 10.3 to 18.8 h in multiple-dose studies. Following multiple oral doses, increases in exposure were dose-proportional and trough concentrations remained constant after day 6, indicating a steady state had been reached. Oral clearance at steady state was similar to corresponding single-dose values, suggesting linear pharmacokinetics with respect to time. No clinically relevant alterations in pharmacokinetics were observed in mild to severe hepatic impairment, or in mild to severe renal impairment and end-stage renal disease. Clinical studies did not reveal any relevant drug-drug interactions with several other drugs commonly prescribed to patients with T2DM, including warfarin. Urinary glucose excretion (UGE) rates were higher with empagliflozin versus placebo and increased with dose, but no relevant impact on 24-h urine volume was observed. Increased UGE resulted in proportional reductions in fasting plasma glucose and mean daily glucose concentrations.

  5. HIV protease inhibitors disrupt astrocytic glutamate transporter function and neurobehavioral performance

    PubMed Central

    Vivithanaporn, Pornpun; Asahchop, Eugene L.; Acharjee, Shaona; Baker, Glen B.; Power, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The neurotoxic actions of the HIV protease inhibitors, amprenavir (APV) and lopinavir (LPV) were investigated. Design: With combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-infected persons exhibit neurocognitive impairments, raising the possibility that cART might exert adverse central nervous system (CNS) effects. We examined the effects of LPV and APV using in-vitro and in-vivo assays of CNS function. Methods: Gene expression, cell viability and amino-acid levels were measured in human astrocytes, following exposure to APV or LPV. Neurobehavioral performance, amino-acid levels and neuropathology were examined in HIV-1 Vpr transgenic mice after treatment with APV or LPV. Results: Excitatory amino-acid transporter-2 (EAAT2) expression was reduced in astrocytes treated with LPV or APV, especially LPV (P < 0.05), which was accompanied by reduced intracellular l-glutamate levels in LPV-treated cells (P < 0.05). Treatment of astrocytes with APV or LPV reduced the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 (P < 0.05) although cell survival was unaffected. Exposure of LPV to astrocytes augmented glutamate-evoked transient rises in [Cai] (P < 0.05). Vpr mice treated with LPV showed lower concentrations of l-glutamate, l-aspartate and l-serine in cortex compared with vehicle-treated mice (P < 0.05). Total errors in T-maze assessment were increased in LPV and APV-treated animals (P < 0.05). EAAT2 expression was reduced in the brains of protease inhibitor-treated animals, which was associated with gliosis (P < 0.05). Conclusion: These results indicated that contemporary protease inhibitors disrupt astrocyte functions at therapeutic concentrations with enhanced sensitivity to glutamate, which can lead to neurobehavioral impairments. ART neurotoxicity should be considered in future therapeutic regimens for HIV/AIDS. PMID:26558720

  6. Molecular Docking Analysis of Steroid-based Copper Transporter 1 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kadioglu, Onat; Serly, Julianna; Seo, Ean-Jeong; Vincze, Irén; Somlai, Csaba; Saeed, Mohamed E M; Molnár, József; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Copper transporter 1 (CTR1) represents an important determinant of cisplatin resistance. A series of 35 semi-substituted steroids were recently investigated on cisplatin-resistant CTR1-expressing A2780cis ovarian carcinoma cells as well as their parental sensitive counterparts regarding their cytotoxic and resistance-reversing features. In the present investigation, three compounds ( 4: , 5: , 25: ) were selected for molecular docking analysis on the homology-modelled human CTR1 transmembrane domain. Steroids 4: , 5: and 25: interacted with CTR1 at a similar docking pose and with even higher binding affinities than the known CTR1 inhibitor, cimetidine. Applying the defined docking mode, the binding energies were found to be -7.15±<0.001 kcal/mol (compound 4: ), -8.71±0.06 kcal/mol (compound 5: ), -7.63±0.01 kcal/mol (compound 25: ), and -5.05±0.02 kcal/mol (for cimetidine). These steroids have the potential for further development as CTR1 inhibitors overcoming cisplatin resistance.

  7. Sodium-glucose linked transporter-2 inhibitors: potential for renoprotection beyond blood glucose lowering?

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Richard E

    2014-10-01

    The proximal tubule's sodium-glucose linked transporter-2 (SGLT2) accounts for the vast majority of glucose reabsorption by the kidney. Its selective inhibition, accordingly, leads to substantial glycosuria, lowering blood glucose, and facilitating weight loss in individuals with diabetes. During the past year, two SGLT2 inhibitors, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin, have been approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Beyond their anti-hyperglycemic properties, however, this new class of drugs has several other attributes that provide a theoretical basis for kidney protection. Like agents that block the renin-angiotensin system, SGLT2 inhibitors also reduce single-nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) in the chronically diseased kidney, though by quite different mechanisms. Additional potentially beneficial effects of SGLT2 inhibition include modest reductions in blood pressure and plasma uric acid. Finally, cell culture studies indicate that glucose uptake from the tubular lumen, as well as from the basolateral compartment, can contribute to proximal tubular production of extracellular matrix proteins. Whether such attributes will translate into reducing the progression of chronic kidney disease will require the undertaking of long-term, dedicated studies.

  8. Sodium glucose co-transporter inhibitors – A new class of old drugs

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Aneeta; Kudyar, Surbhi; Gupta, Anil K.; Kudyar, Rattan P.; Malhotra, Pavan

    2015-01-01

    Sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT) inhibitors are a new class of drugs which are used in the pharmacotherapy of Type-II diabetes, which happens to be a major risk factor for developing both micro as well as macro-vascular complications. These drugs inhibit the glucose reabsorption by inhibiting SGLT, which exhibits a novel and promising mechanism of action by promoting the urinary glucose excretion hence providing a basis of therapeutic intervention. Results of SGLT-II inhibitors are very encouraging as there is a significant elevation of GLP-1 level, which forms the basis of relevance in treatment of diabetes. It targets the HbA1C and keeps a check on its levels. It also exerts other positive benefits such as weight loss, reduction in blood glucose levels, reduction in blood pressure and improvement in insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction: All contributing to effective glycemic control. SGLT inhibition will develop as effective modality as it has the capability of inhibiting reabsorption of greater percentage of filtered glucose load. PMID:26539362

  9. Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors and euglycemic ketoacidosis: Wisdom of hindsight

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) are newly approved class of oral anti-diabetic drugs, in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, which reduces blood glucose through glucouresis via the kidney, independent, and irrespective of available pancreatic beta-cells. Studies conducted across their clinical development program found, a modest reduction in glycated hemoglobin ranging from −0.5 to −0.8%, without any significant hypoglycemia. Moreover, head-to-head studies versus active comparators yielded comparable efficacy. Interestingly, weight and blood pressure reduction were additionally observed, which was not only consistent but significantly superior to active comparators, including metformin, sulfonylureas, and dipeptydylpeptide-4 inhibitors. Indeed, these additional properties makes this class a promising oral anti-diabetic drug. Surprisingly, a potentially fatal unwanted side effect of diabetic ketoacidosis has been noted with its widespread use, albeit rarely. Nevertheless, this has created a passé among the clinicians. This review is an attempt to pool those ketosis data emerging with SGLT-2i, and put a perspective on its implicated mechanism. PMID:26693421

  10. Inhibition of polar calcium movement and gravitropism in roots treated with auxin-transport inhibitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. S.; Mulkey, T. J.; Evans, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) exhibit strong positive gravitropism. In both species, gravistimulation induces polar movement of calcium across the root tip from the upper side to the lower side. Roots of onion (Allium cepa L.) are not responsive to gravity and gravistimulation induces little or no polar movement of calcium across the root tip. Treatment of maize or pea roots with inhibitors of auxin transport (morphactin, naphthylphthalamic acid, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid) prevents both gravitropism and gravity-induced polar movement of calcium across the root tip. The results indicate that calcium movement and auxin movement are closely linked in roots and that gravity-induced redistribution of calcium across the root cap may play an important role in the development of gravitropic curvature.

  11. Atypical Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors that Provide Clues About Cocaine's Mechanism at the Dopamine Transporter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck Newman, Amy; Katz, Jonathan L.

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) has been a primary target for cocaine abuse/addiction medication discovery. However predicted addiction liability and limited clinical evaluation has provided a formidable challenge for development of these agents for human use. The unique and atypical pharmacological profile of the benztropine (BZT) class of dopamine uptake inhibitors, in preclinical models of cocaine effects and abuse, has encouraged further development of these agents. Moreover, in vivo studies have challenged the original DAT hypothesis and demonstrated that DAT occupancy and subsequent increases in dopamine produced by BZT analogues are significantly delayed and long lasting, as compared to cocaine. These important and distinctive elements are critical to the lack of abuse liability among BZT analogues, and improve their potential for development as treatments for cocaine abuse and possibly other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  12. The discovery of potent glycine transporter type-2 inhibitors: design and synthesis of phenoxymethylbenzamide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Eiki; Arai, Tadamasa; Akahira, Masato; Nakajima, Mayumi; Nishimura, Kazumi; Omori, Yu; Kumagai, Hiroki; Suzuki, Tomohiko; Hayashi, Ryoji

    2014-09-15

    We describe the discovery of phenoxymethylbenzamide derivatives as a novel class of glycine transporter type-2 (GlyT-2) inhibitors. We found hit compound 1 (human GlyT-2, IC50=4040 nM) in our library and converted its 1-(1-(naphthalen-2-ylmethyl)piperidin-4-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl group to an 1-(N,N-dimethylaminopropyl)piperidyl group and its tert-butyl group to a trifluoromethyl group to obtain N-(1-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)piperidin-4-yl)-4-((4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy)methyl)benzamide (20). Compound 20 showed good inhibitory activity against human GlyT-2 (IC50=15.3 nM) and exhibited anti-allodynia effects in a mouse neuropathic pain model. PMID:25176190

  13. Synthesis of pyrazole derivatives and their evaluation as photosynthetic electron transport inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vicentini, Chiara B; Mares, Donatella; Tartari, Alfredo; Manfrini, Maurizio; Forlani, Giuseppe

    2004-04-01

    Two series of new pyrazoles, namely six pyrazolo[1,5-a][1,3,5]triazine-2,4-dione and four pyrazolo[1,5-c][1,3,5]thiadiazine-2-one derivatives, were synthesized as potential inhibitors of the photosynthetic electron transport chain at the photosystem II level. The compounds were confirmed by 1H NMR, elemental, and IR analyses. Their biological activity was evaluated in vivo upon both the growth of blue-green algae and the photosynthetic oxygen evolution by eukaryotic algae and in vitro as the ability to interfere with light-driven reduction of ferricyanide by isolated spinach chloroplasts. Some compounds exhibited remarkable inhibitory properties, comparable to those of the reference commercial herbicides lenacil, diuron, and hexazinone. Results suggest that the substitution of triazine with thiadiazine ring may act as amplifier for herbicidal activity. PMID:15053526

  14. Characterization of Inhibitors of Glucocorticoid Receptor Nuclear Translocation: A Model of Cytoplasmic Dynein-Mediated Cargo Transport

    PubMed Central

    Daghestani, Hikmat N.; Zhu, Guangyu; Shinde, Sunita N.; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Agonist-induced glucocorticoid receptor [GR] transport from the cytoplasm to the nucleus was used as a model to identify dynein-mediated cargo transport inhibitors. Cell-based screening of the library of pharmacologically active compound (LOPAC)-1280 collection identified several small molecules that stalled the agonist-induced transport of GR-green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a concentration-dependent manner. Fluorescent images of microtubule organization, nuclear DNA staining, expression of GR-GFP, and its subcellular distribution were inspected and quantified by image analysis to evaluate the impact of compounds on cell morphology, toxicity, and GR transport. Given the complexity of the multi-protein complex involved in dynein-mediated cargo transport and the variety of potential mechanisms for interruption of that process, we therefore developed and validated a panel of biochemical assays to investigate some of the more likely intracellular target(s) of the GR transport inhibitors. Although the apomorphine enantiomers exhibited the most potency toward the ATPase activities of cytoplasmic dynein, myosin, and the heat-shock proteins (HSPs), their apparent lack of specificity made them unattractive for further study in our quest. Other molecules appeared to be nonspecific inhibitors that targeted reactive cysteines of proteins. Ideally, specific retrograde transport inhibitors would either target dynein itself or one of the other important proteins associated with the transport process. Although the hits from the cell-based screen of the LOPAC-1280 collection did not exhibit this desired profile, this screening platform provided a promising phenotypic system for the discovery of dynein/HSP modulators. PMID:21919741

  15. Discovery of Novel SPAK Inhibitors That Block WNK Kinase Signaling to Cation Chloride Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Eriko; Mori, Takayasu; Zeniya, Moko; Isobe, Kiyoshi; Ishigami-Yuasa, Mari; Fujii, Shinya; Kagechika, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Tomoaki; Mizushima, Tohru; Sasaki, Sei; Sohara, Eisei; Rai, Tatemitsu

    2015-01-01

    Upon activation by with-no-lysine kinases, STE20/SPS1-related proline–alanine-rich protein kinase (SPAK) phosphorylates and activates SLC12A transporters such as the Na+-Cl− cotransporter (NCC) and Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter type 1 (NKCC1) and type 2 (NKCC2); these transporters have important roles in regulating BP through NaCl reabsorption and vasoconstriction. SPAK knockout mice are viable and display hypotension with decreased activity (phosphorylation) of NCC and NKCC1 in the kidneys and aorta, respectively. Therefore, agents that inhibit SPAK activity could be a new class of antihypertensive drugs with dual actions (i.e., NaCl diuresis and vasodilation). In this study, we developed a new ELISA-based screening system to find novel SPAK inhibitors and screened >20,000 small-molecule compounds. Furthermore, we used a drug repositioning strategy to identify existing drugs that inhibit SPAK activity. As a result, we discovered one small-molecule compound (Stock 1S-14279) and an antiparasitic agent (Closantel) that inhibited SPAK-regulated phosphorylation and activation of NCC and NKCC1 in vitro and in mice. Notably, these compounds had structural similarity and inhibited SPAK in an ATP-insensitive manner. We propose that the two compounds found in this study may have great potential as novel antihypertensive drugs. PMID:25377078

  16. Discovery of drugs to treat cocaine dependence: behavioral and neurochemical effects of atypical dopamine transport inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tanda, Gianluigi; Newman, Amy H; Katz, Jonathan L

    2009-01-01

    Stimulant drugs acting at the dopamine transporter (DAT), like cocaine, are widely abused, yet effective medical treatments for this abuse have not been found. Analogs of benztropine (BZT) that, like cocaine, act at the DAT have effects that differ from cocaine and in some situations block the behavioral, neurochemical, and reinforcing actions of cocaine. Neurochemical studies of dopamine levels in brain and behavioral studies have demonstrated that BZT analogs have a relatively slow onset and reduced maximal effects compared to cocaine. Pharmacokinetic studies, however, indicated that the BZT analogs rapidly access the brain at concentrations above their in vitro binding affinities, while binding in vivo demonstrates apparent association rates for BZT analogs lower than that for cocaine. Additionally, the off-target effects of these compounds do not fully explain their differences from cocaine. Initial structure-activity studies indicated that BZT analogs bind to DAT differently from cocaine and these differences have been supported by site-directed mutagenesis studies of the DAT. In addition, BZT analog-mediated inhibition of uptake was more resistant to mutations producing inward conformational DAT changes than cocaine analogs. The BZT analogs have provided new insights into the relation between the molecular and behavioral actions of cocaine and the diversity of effects produced by dopamine transport inhibitors. Novel interactions of BZT analogs with the DAT suggest that these drugs may have a pharmacology that would be useful in their development as treatments for cocaine abuse.

  17. Enhancement of cellular uptake, transport and oral absorption of protease inhibitor saquinavir by nanocrystal formulation

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuan; Xia, Deng-ning; Li, Qiu-xia; Tao, Jin-song; Gan, Yong; Wang, Chi

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Saquinavir (SQV) is the first protease inhibitor for the treatment of HIV infection, but with poor solubility. The aim of this study was to prepare a colloidal nanocrystal suspension for improving the oral absorption of SQV. Methods: SQV nanocrystals were prepared using anti-solvent precipitation–high pressure homogenization method. The nanocrystals were characterized by a Zetasizer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Their dissolution, cellular uptake and transport across the human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2) monolayer were investigated. Bioimaging of ex vivo intestinal sections of rats was conducted with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed in rats administered nanocrystal SQV suspension (50 mg/kg, ig), and the plasma SQV concentrations were measured with HPLC. Results: The SQV nanocrystals were approximately 200 nm in diameter, with a uniform size distribution. The nanocrystals had a rod-like shape under TEM. The dissolution, cellular uptake, and transport across a Caco-2 monolayer of the nanocrystal formulation were significantly improved compared to those of the coarse crystals. The ex vivo intestinal section study revealed that the fluorescently labeled nanocrystals were located in the lamina propria and the epithelium of the duodenum and jejunum. Pharmacokinetic study showed that the maximal plasma concentration (Cmax) was 2.16-fold of that for coarse crystalline SQV suspension, whereas the area under the curve (AUC) of nanocrystal SQV suspension was 1.95-fold of that for coarse crystalline SQV suspension. Conclusion: The nanocrystal drug delivery system significantly improves the oral absorption of saquinavir. PMID:26256404

  18. Suppression of asymmetric acid efflux and gravitropism in maize roots treated with auxin transport inhibitors of sodium orthovanadate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulkey, T. J.; Evans, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    In gravitropically stimulated roots of maize (Zea mays L., hybrid WF9 x 38MS), there is more acid efflux on the rapidly growing upper side than on the slowly growing lower side. In light of the Cholodny/Went hypothesis of gravitropism which states that gravitropic curvature results from lateral redistribution of auxin, the effects of auxin transport inhibitors on the development of acid efflux asymmetry and curvature in gravistimulated roots were examined. All the transport inhibitors tested prevented both gravitropism and the development of asymmetric acid efflux in gravistimulated roots. The results indicate that auxin redistribution may cause the asymmetry of acid efflux, a finding consistent with the Cholodny/Went hypothesis of gravitropism. As further evidence that auxin-induced acid efflux asymmetry may mediate gravitropic curvature, sodium orthovanadate, an inhibitor of auxin-induced H+ efflux was found to prevent both gravitropism and the development of asymmetric acid efflux in gravistimulated roots.

  19. Modulation of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter by inhibitors of DNA synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Pressacco, J.; Wiley, J. S.; Jamieson, G. P.; Erlichman, C.; Hedley, D. W.

    1995-01-01

    Expression of the equilibrative, S-(p-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBMPR)-sensitive nucleoside transporter (es), a component of the nucleoside salvage pathway, was measured during unperturbed growth and following exposure to various antimetabolites at growth-inhibitory concentrations. The probe 5-(SAENTA-x8)-fluorescein is a highly modified form of adenosine incorporating a fluorescein molecule. It binds. with high affinity and specificity to the (es) nucleoside transporter at a 1:1 stoichiometry, allowing reliable estimates of es expression by flow cytometry. Using a dual labelling technique which combined the vital DNA dye Hoechst-33342 and 5-(SAENTA-x8)-fluorescein, we found that surface expression of es approximately doubled between G1 and G2 + M phases of the cell cycle. To address the question of whether es expression could be modulated in cells exposed to drugs which inhibit de novo synthesis of nucleotides, cells were exposed to antimetabolite drugs having different modes of action. Hydroxyurea and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which inhibit the de novo synthesis of DNA precursors, produced increases in the expression of es. In contrast, cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) and aphidicolin, which directly inhibit DNA synthesis, produced no significant increase in es expression. Thymidine (TdR), which is an allosteric inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase that depletes dATP, dCTP and dGTP pools while repleting the dTTP pool, had no significant effect on es expression. These data suggest that surface expression of the es nucleoside transporter is regulated by a mechanism which is sensitive to the supply of deoxynucleotides. Because 5-FU (which specifically depletes dTTP pools) causes a large increase in expression whereas TdR (which depletes all precursors except dTTP) does not, this mechanism might be particularly sensitive to dTTP pools. PMID:7547244

  20. Inhibition of anandamide hydrolysis dampens the neuroendocrine response to stress in neonatal rats subjected to suboptimal rearing conditions.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Ryan Joseph; Verlezza, Silvanna; Gray, Jennifer Megan; Hill, Matthew Nicholas; Walker, Claire-Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress during early development can exert profound effects on the maturation of the neuroendocrine stress axis. The endocannabinoid (ECB) system has recently surfaced as a fundamental component of the neuroendocrine stress response; however, the effect of early-life stress on neonatal ECB signaling and the capacity to which ECB enhancement may modulate neonatal stress responses is relatively unknown. The present study assessed whether exposure to early-life stress in the form of limited access to nesting/bedding material (LB) from postnatal (PND) day 2 to 9 alters neuroendocrine activity and hypothalamic ECB content in neonatal rats challenged with a novel immobilization stressor. Furthermore, we examined whether inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme responsible for the degradation of anandamide (AEA) affects neuroendocrine responses in PND10 pups as a function of rearing conditions. Neonatal rats showed a robust increase in corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) secretion in response to immobilization stress, which was significantly blunted in pups reared in LB conditions. Accordingly, LB pups exhibited reduced stress-induced Fos immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, with no significant differences in hypothalamic ECB content. Administration of the FAAH inhibitor URB597 (0.3 mg/kg, ip) 90 min prior to immobilization stress significantly dampened stress-induced CORT release, but only in pups reared in LB conditions. These results suggest that rearing in restricted bedding conditions dampens the neuroendocrine response to stress, while augmenting AEA mitigates stress-induced alterations in glucocorticoid secretion preferentially in pups subjected to early-life stress.

  1. Crystallographic study of FABP5 as an intracellular endocannabinoid transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Sanson, Benoît; Wang, Tao; Sun, Jing; Wang, Liqun; Kaczocha, Martin; Ojima, Iwao; Deutsch, Dale; Li, Huilin

    2014-02-01

    FABP5 was recently found to intracellularly transport endocannabinoid signaling lipids. The structures of FABP5 complexed with two endocannabinoids and an inhibitor were solved. Human FABP5 was found to dimerize via a domain-swapping mechanism. This work will help in the development of inhibitors to raise endocannabinoid levels. In addition to binding intracellular fatty acids, fatty-acid-binding proteins (FABPs) have recently been reported to also transport the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), arachidonic acid derivatives that function as neurotransmitters and mediate a diverse set of physiological and psychological processes. To understand how the endocannabinoids bind to FABPs, the crystal structures of FABP5 in complex with AEA, 2-AG and the inhibitor BMS-309403 were determined. These ligands are shown to interact primarily with the substrate-binding pocket via hydrophobic interactions as well as a common hydrogen bond to the Tyr131 residue. This work advances our understanding of FABP5–endocannabinoid interactions and may be useful for future efforts in the development of small-molecule inhibitors to raise endocannabinoid levels.

  2. High-throughput flow cytometry to detect selective inhibitors of ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCG2 transporters.

    PubMed

    Ivnitski-Steele, Irena; Larson, Richard S; Lovato, Debbie M; Khawaja, Hadya M; Winter, Stuart S; Oprea, Tudor I; Sklar, Larry A; Edwards, Bruce S

    2008-04-01

    Up-regulation of pump (transporter) expression and selection of resistant cancer cells result in cancer multidrug resistance to diverse substrates of these transporters. While more than 48 members of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily have been identified, up to now only three human ABC transporters-ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCG2-have unambiguously been shown to contribute to cancer multidrug resistance. The use of low-toxicity and high-specificity agents as a targeted transporter inhibition strategy is necessary to effectively overcome multiple drug resistance. An objective of the present studies was to develop and validate HyperCyt (IntelliCyt, Albuquerque, NM) flow cytometry high-throughput screeening assays to assess the specificity of test compounds that inhibited transporters as an integral part of the screen. Two separate duplex assays were constructed: one in which ABCB1 and ABCG2 transporters were evaluated in parallel using fluorescent J-aggregate-forming lipophilic cation 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide as substrate, and the other in which ABCB1 and ABCC1 transporters were evaluated in parallel using fluorescent calcein acetoxymethyl ester as substrate. ABCB1-expressing cells were color-coded to allow their distinction from cells expressing the alternate transporter. The assays were validated in a screen of the Prestwick Chemical Library (Illkirch, France). Three novel selective inhibitors of the ABCC1 transporter were identified in the screen, and the activity of each was confirmed in follow-up chemosensitivity shift and reversal studies. This high-throughput screening assay provides an efficient approach for identifying selective inhibitors of individual ABC transporters, promising as probes of transporter function and therapeutic tools for treating chemotherapy-resistant cancers. PMID:18205550

  3. Differing effects of transport inhibitor on glutamate uptake by nerve terminals before and after exposure of rats to artificial gravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, T.; Krisanova, N.; Himmelreich, N.

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Subsequent to its release from glutamatergic neurons and activation of receptors, it is removed from extracellular space by high affinity Na^+-dependent glutamate transporters, which utilize the Na^+/K^+ electrochemical gradient as a driving force and located in nerve terminals and astrocytes. The glutamate transporters may modify the time course of synaptic events. Like glutamate itself, glutamate transporters are somehow involved in almost all aspects of normal and abnormal brain activity (e.g. cerebral ischemia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain injury, epilepsy and schizophrenia). The present study assessed transporter inhibitor for the ability to inhibit glutamate uptake by synaptosomes at the normal and hypergravity conditions (rats were rotated in a long-arm centrifuge at ten-G during one-hour period). DL-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartate (DL-TBOA) is a newly developed competitive inhibitor of the high-affinity, Na^+-dependent glutamate transporters. As a potent, non- transported inhibitor of glutamate transporters, DL-TBOA promises to be a valuable new compound for the study of glutamatergic mechanisms. We demonstrated that DL-TBOA inhibited glutamate uptake ( 100 μM glutamate, 30 sec incubation period) in dose-dependent manner as in control as in hypergravity. The effect of this transport inhibitor on glutamate uptake by control synaptosomes and synaptosomes prepared of animals exposed to hypergravity was different. IC50 values calculated on the basis of curves of non-linear regression kinetic analysis was 18±2 μM and 11±2 μM ((P≤0,05) before and after exposure to artificial gravity, respectively. Inhibition caused by 10 μM DL-TBOA was significantly increased from 38,0±3,8 % in control group to 51,0±4,1 % in animals, exposed to hypergravity (P≤0,05). Thus, DL-TBOA had complex effect on glutamate uptake process and perhaps, became more potent under

  4. Diuresis and reduced urinary osmolality in rats produced by small-molecule UT-A-selective urea transport inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Esteva-Font, Cristina; Cil, Onur; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Su, Tao; Lee, Sujin; Anderson, Marc O; Verkman, A S

    2014-09-01

    Urea transport (UT) proteins of the UT-A class are expressed in epithelial cells in kidney tubules, where they are required for the formation of a concentrated urine by countercurrent multiplication. Here, using a recently developed high-throughput assay to identify UT-A inhibitors, a screen of 50,000 synthetic small molecules identified UT-A inhibitors of aryl-thiazole, γ-sultambenzosulfonamide, aminocarbonitrile butene, and 4-isoxazolamide chemical classes. Structure-activity analysis identified compounds that inhibited UT-A selectively by a noncompetitive mechanism with IC50 down to ∼1 μM. Molecular modeling identified putative inhibitor binding sites on rat UT-A. To test compound efficacy in rats, formulations and administration procedures were established to give therapeutic inhibitor concentrations in blood and urine. We found that intravenous administration of an indole thiazole or a γ-sultambenzosulfonamide at 20 mg/kg increased urine output by 3-5-fold and reduced urine osmolality by ∼2-fold compared to vehicle control rats, even under conditions of maximum antidiuresis produced by 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP). The diuresis was reversible and showed urea > salt excretion. The results provide proof of concept for the diuretic action of UT-A-selective inhibitors. UT-A inhibitors are first in their class salt-sparing diuretics with potential clinical indications in volume-overload edemas and high-vasopressin-associated hyponatremias.

  5. The endocannabinoid transport inhibitor AM404 differentially modulates recognition memory in rats depending on environmental aversiveness

    PubMed Central

    Campolongo, Patrizia; Ratano, Patrizia; Manduca, Antonia; Scattoni, Maria L.; Palmery, Maura; Trezza, Viviana; Cuomo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Cannabinoid compounds may influence both emotional and cognitive processes depending on the level of environmental aversiveness at the time of drug administration. However, the mechanisms responsible for these responses remain to be elucidated. The present experiments investigated the effects induced by the endocannabinoid transport inhibitor AM404 (0.5–5 mg/kg, i.p.) on both emotional and cognitive performances of rats tested in a Spatial Open Field task and subjected to different experimental settings, named High Arousal (HA) and Low Arousal (LA) conditions. The two different experimental conditions influenced emotional reactivity independently of drug administration. Indeed, vehicle-treated rats exposed to the LA condition spent more time in the center of the arena than vehicle-treated rats exposed to the HA context. Conversely, the different arousal conditions did not affect the cognitive performances of vehicle-treated animals such as the capability to discriminate a spatial displacement of the objects or an object substitution. AM404 administration did not alter locomotor activity or emotional behavior of animals exposed to both environmental conditions. Interestingly, AM404 administration influenced the cognitive parameters depending on the level of emotional arousal: it impaired the capability of rats exposed to the HA condition to recognize a novel object while it did not induce any impairing effect in rats exposed to the LA condition. These findings suggest that drugs enhancing endocannabinoid signaling induce different effects on recognition memory performance depending on the level of emotional arousal induced by the environmental conditions. PMID:22454620

  6. Preclinical Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity Profile of a Glycine Transporter Type 1 (Glyt1) Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Paul; Parrott, Neil; Alberati, Daniela; Paehler, Axel; Koerner, Annette

    2016-06-01

    Bitopertin is a glycine type 1 (GlyT1) inhibitor intended for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. The principle adverse effect in the regulatory reproductive toxicity studies was peri-natal pup death when rat dams were treated during parturition at a dose resulting in five-times the human therapeutic exposure (AUC). Cessation of dosing two days before parturition prevented the pup deaths. Investigatory experiments and pharmacokinetic modelling suggested that the neonatal mortality was related to transplacental passage of bitopertin leading to high systemic levels in the newborn pups. Brain levels of bitopertin in the rat fetus and neonate were two-fold higher than in the mother. As illustrated by knock-out mice models, GlyT1 function is essential for neonatal pup survival in rodents, but is not necessary for normal prenatal morphological development. The glycine transport systems are immature at birth in the rat, but are functionally well-developed in the human newborn. While the relevance to humans of the neonatal mortality seen in rats following late gestational exposure is unknown, bitopertin would not be recommended for use during late pregnancy unless the anticipated benefit for the mother outweighs the potential risk to the newborn. PMID:27221585

  7. Synthesis and in Vitro Biological Evaluation of Carbonyl Group-Containing Inhibitors of Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Efange, Simon M. N.; Khare, Anil B.; von Hohenberg, Krystyna; Mach, Robert H.; Parsons, Stanley M.; Tu, Zhude

    2010-01-01

    To identify selective high-affinity inhibitors of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), we have interposed a carbonyl group between the phenyl and piperidyl groups of the prototypical VAChT ligand vesamicol, and its more potent analogues benzovesamicol and 5-aminobenzovesamicol. Of 33 compounds synthesized and tested, six display very high affinity for VAChT (Ki, 0.25 – 0.66 nM) and greater than 500-fold selectivity for VAChT over σ1 and σ2 receptors. Twelve compounds have high affinity (Ki, 1.0–10 nM) and good selectivity for VAChT. Furthermore, three halogenated compounds, namely, trans-3-[4-(4-fluorobenzoyl)piperidinyl]-2-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (28b) (Ki = 2.7 nM, VAChT/sigma selectivity index = 70), trans-3-[4-(5-iodothienylcarbonyl)piperidinyl]-2-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (28h) (Ki = 0.66 nM, VAChT/sigma selectivity index = 294), and 5-amino-3-[4-(p-fluorobenzoyl)piperidinyl]-2-hydroxy-1,2,3,4,-tetrahydronaphthalene (30b) (Ki = 2.40 nM, VAChT/sigma selectivity index = 410) display moderate to high selectivity for VAChT. These three compounds can be synthesized with the corresponding radioisotopes so as to serve as PET/SPECT probes for imaging the VAChT in vivo. PMID:20218624

  8. Flavonoids and Auxin Transport Inhibitors Rescue Symbiotic Nodulation in the Medicago truncatula Cytokinin Perception Mutant cre1

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Jason Liang Pin; Hassan, Samira; Truong, Thy T.; Hocart, Charles H.; Laffont, Carole; Frugier, Florian; Mathesius, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Initiation of symbiotic nodules in legumes requires cytokinin signaling, but its mechanism of action is largely unknown. Here, we tested whether the failure to initiate nodules in the Medicago truncatula cytokinin perception mutant cre1 (cytokinin response1) is due to its altered ability to regulate auxin transport, auxin accumulation, and induction of flavonoids. We found that in the cre1 mutant, symbiotic rhizobia cannot locally alter acro- and basipetal auxin transport during nodule initiation and that these mutants show reduced auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) accumulation and auxin responses compared with the wild type. Quantification of flavonoids, which can act as endogenous auxin transport inhibitors, showed a deficiency in the induction of free naringenin, isoliquiritigenin, quercetin, and hesperetin in cre1 roots compared with wild-type roots 24 h after inoculation with rhizobia. Coinoculation of roots with rhizobia and the flavonoids naringenin, isoliquiritigenin, and kaempferol, or with the synthetic auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5,-triiodobenzoic acid, rescued nodulation efficiency in cre1 mutants and allowed auxin transport control in response to rhizobia. Our results suggest that CRE1-dependent cytokinin signaling leads to nodule initiation through the regulation of flavonoid accumulation required for local alteration of polar auxin transport and subsequent auxin accumulation in cortical cells during the early stages of nodulation. PMID:26253705

  9. Flavonoids and Auxin Transport Inhibitors Rescue Symbiotic Nodulation in the Medicago truncatula Cytokinin Perception Mutant cre1.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jason Liang Pin; Hassan, Samira; Truong, Thy T; Hocart, Charles H; Laffont, Carole; Frugier, Florian; Mathesius, Ulrike

    2015-08-01

    Initiation of symbiotic nodules in legumes requires cytokinin signaling, but its mechanism of action is largely unknown. Here, we tested whether the failure to initiate nodules in the Medicago truncatula cytokinin perception mutant cre1 (cytokinin response1) is due to its altered ability to regulate auxin transport, auxin accumulation, and induction of flavonoids. We found that in the cre1 mutant, symbiotic rhizobia cannot locally alter acro- and basipetal auxin transport during nodule initiation and that these mutants show reduced auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) accumulation and auxin responses compared with the wild type. Quantification of flavonoids, which can act as endogenous auxin transport inhibitors, showed a deficiency in the induction of free naringenin, isoliquiritigenin, quercetin, and hesperetin in cre1 roots compared with wild-type roots 24 h after inoculation with rhizobia. Coinoculation of roots with rhizobia and the flavonoids naringenin, isoliquiritigenin, and kaempferol, or with the synthetic auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5,-triiodobenzoic acid, rescued nodulation efficiency in cre1 mutants and allowed auxin transport control in response to rhizobia. Our results suggest that CRE1-dependent cytokinin signaling leads to nodule initiation through the regulation of flavonoid accumulation required for local alteration of polar auxin transport and subsequent auxin accumulation in cortical cells during the early stages of nodulation.

  10. Pyrrolidine analogs of GZ-793A: synthesis and evaluation as inhibitors of the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2).

    PubMed

    Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Ponugoti, Purushothama Rao; Nickell, Justin R; Deaciuc, Agripina G; Dwoskin, Linda P; Crooks, Peter A

    2013-06-01

    Central heterocyclic ring size reduction from piperidinyl to pyrrolidinyl in the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) inhibitor GZ-793A and its analogs resulted in novel N-propane-1,2(R)-diol analogs 11a-i. These compounds were evaluated for their affinity for the dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) binding site on VMAT2 and for their ability to inhibit vesicular dopamine (DA) uptake. The 4-difluoromethoxyphenethyl analog 11f was the most potent inhibitor of [(3)H]-DTBZ binding (Ki=560 nM), with 15-fold greater affinity for this site than GZ-793A (Ki=8.29 μM). Analog 11f also showed similar potency of inhibition of [(3)H]-DA uptake into vesicles (Ki=45 nM) compared to that for GZ-793A (Ki=29 nM). Thus, 11f represents a new water-soluble inhibitor of VMAT function.

  11. Pyrrolidine analogs of GZ-793A: Synthesis and evaluation as inhibitors of the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2)

    PubMed Central

    Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Ponugoti, Purushothama Rao; Nickell, Justin R.; Deaciuc, Agripina G.; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Crooks, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Central heterocyclic ring size reduction from piperidinyl to pyrrolidinyl in the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) inhibitor GZ-793A and its analogs resulted in novel N-propane-1,2(R)-diol analogs 11a–i. These compounds were evaluated for their affinity for the dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) binding site on VMAT2 and for their ability to inhibit vesicular dopamine (DA) uptake. The 4-difluoromethoxyphenethyl analog 11f was the most potent inhibitor of [3H]-DTBZ binding (Ki=560 nM), with 15-fold greater affinity for this site than GZ-793A (Ki=8.29 μM). Analog 11f also showed similar potency of inhibition of [3H]-DA uptake into vesicles (Ki=45 nM) compared to that for GZ-793A (Ki=29 nM). Thus, 11f represents a new water-soluble inhibitor of VMAT function. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. PMID:23597792

  12. Influence of an oil soluble inhibitor on microbiologically influenced corrosion in a diesel transporting pipeline.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, N; Maruthamuthu, S; Mohanan, S; Palaniswamy, N

    2007-01-01

    Microbial degradation of the oil soluble corrosion inhibitor (OSCI) Baker NC 351 contributed to a decrease in inhibitor efficiency. Corrosion inhibition efficiency was studied by the rotating cage and flow loop methods. The nature of the biodegradation of the corrosion inhibitor was also analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The influence of bacterial activity on the degradation of the corrosion inhibitor and its influence on corrosion of API 5LX were evaluated using a weight loss technique and impedance studies. Serratia marcescens ACE2 and Bacillus cereus ACE4 can degrade aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons present in the corrosion inhibitor. The present study also discusses the demerits of the oil soluble corrosion inhibitors used in petroleum product pipeline.

  13. Effect of inhibitors of auxin transport and of calmodulin on a gravisensing-dependent current in maize roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, T.; Leopold, A. C.

    1987-01-01

    Some characteristics of the gravity sensing mechanism in maize root caps were investigated using a bioelectric current as an indicator of gravity sensing. This technique involves the measurement of a change in the current density which arises at the columella region coincidently with the presentation time. Two inhibitors of auxin transport, triiodobenzoic acid and naphthylphthalamic acid, blocked gravitropic curvature but not the change in current density. Two inhibitors of calmodulin activity, compound 48/80 and calmidazolium, blocked both curvature and gravity-induced current. The results suggest that auxin transport is not a component of gravity sensing in the root cap. By contrast, the results suggest that calmodulin plays an intrinsic role in gravity sensing.

  14. Temporal alteration of spreading depression by the glycine transporter type-1 inhibitors NFPS and Org-24461 in chicken retina.

    PubMed

    Kertesz, Szabolcs; Szabo, Geza; Udvari, Szabolcs; Levay, Gyorgy; Matyus, Peter; Harsing, Laszlo G

    2013-01-25

    We used isolated chicken retina to induce spreading depression by the glutamate receptor agonist N-methyl-d-aspartate. The N-methyl-d-aspartate-induced latency time of spreading depression was extended by the glycine(B) binding site competitive antagonist 7-chlorokynurenic acid. Addition of the glycine transporter type-1 inhibitors NFPS and Org-24461 reversed the inhibitory effect of 7-chlorokynurenic acid on N-methyl-d-aspartate-evoked spreading depression. The glycine uptake inhibitory activity of Org-24461, NFPS, and some newly synthesized analogs of NFPS was determined in CHO cells stably expressing human glycine transporter type-1b isoform. Compounds, which failed to inhibit glycine transporter type-1, also did not have effect on retinal spreading depression. These experiments indicate that the spreading depression model in chicken retina is a useful in vitro test to determine activity of glycine transporter type-1 inhibitors. In addition, our data serve further evidence for the role of glycine transporter type-1 in retinal neurotransmission and light processing.

  15. The glycine transporter-1 inhibitors NFPS and Org 24461: a pharmacological study.

    PubMed

    Harsing, Laszlo G; Gacsalyi, Istvan; Szabo, Geza; Schmidt, Eva; Sziray, Nora; Sebban, Claude; Tesolin-Decros, Brigitte; Matyus, Peter; Egyed, Andras; Spedding, Michael; Levay, Gyorgy

    2003-03-01

    The in vitro and in vivo pharmacology of two glycine transporter-1 (GlyT1) inhibitors, N[3-(4'-fluorophenyl)-3-(4'-phenylphenoxy)-propyl]sarcosine (NFPS) and R,S-(+/-)N-methyl-N-[(4-trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-3-phenyl-propylglycine (Org 24461), was studied. NFPS and Org 24461 inhibited the uptake of [3H]glycine in hippocampal synaptosomal preparation with IC(50) values of 0.022 and 2.5 microM. Neither NFPS nor Org 24461 (0.1 microM) showed significant binding to alpha-1, alpha-2, and beta-adrenoceptors, D(1) and D(2) dopamine receptors, and 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) serotonin receptors in membranes prepared from rat brain or to cloned 5-HT(6) and 5-HT(7) receptors. At 10 microM concentrations, binding affinity was measured for NFPS to 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) serotonin receptors and alpha-2 adrenoceptors and for NFPS and Org 24461 to 5-HT(7) serotonin receptors. Glycine (0.1 mM) and sarcosine (5 mM) increased [3H]glycine efflux from superfused rat hippocampal slices preloaded with [3H]glycine. NFPS and Org 24461 (0.1 mM) did not influence [3H]glycine efflux, however, they inhibited glycine-induced [3H]glycine release. These findings indicate that NFPS and Org 24461 selectively inhibit glycine uptake without being substrates of the transporter protein. Several antipsychotic tests were used to characterize antipsychotic effects of NFPS and Org 24461 in vivo. These compounds did not alter apomorphine-induced climbing and stereotypy in a dose of 10 mg/kg p.o. in mice and did not induce catalepsy in a dose of 10 mg/kg i.p. in rats. The ID(50) values of NFPS were 21.4 mg/kg and higher than 30 mg/kg i.p. for inhibition of phencyclidine (PCP)- and D-amphetamine-induced hypermotility in mice and these values were 2.5 and 8.6 mg/kg i.p. for Org 24461. NFPS and Org 24461 did not exhibit anxiolytic effects in light-dark test in mice, in the meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP)-induced anxiety test (minimal effective dose or MED was higher than 3 mg/kg i.p.) and in the Vogel conflict

  16. Discovery, synthesis and structure-activity analysis of symmetrical 2,7-disubstituted fluorenones as urea transporter inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sujin; Esteva-Font, Cristina; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Anderson, Marc O.; Verkman, A.S

    2015-01-01

    Kidney urea transporters are targets for development of small-molecule inhibitors with action as salt-sparing diuretics. A cell-based, functional high-throughput screen identified 2,7-bisacetamido fluorenone 3 as a novel inhibitor of urea transporters UT-A1 and UT-B. Here, we synthesized twenty-two 2,7-disubstituted fluorenone analogs by acylation. Structure-activity relationship analysis revealed: (a) the carbonyl moiety at C9 is required for UT inhibition; (b) steric limitation on C2, 7-substituents; and (c) the importance of a crescent-shape structure. The most potent fluorenones inhibited UT-A1 and UT-B urea transport with IC50 ~ 1 μM. Analysis of in vitro metabolic stability in hepatic microsomes indicated metabolism of 2,7-disubstituted fluorenones by reductase and subsequent elimination. Computational docking to a homology model of UT-A1 suggested UT inhibitor binding to the UT cytoplasmic domain at a site that does not overlap with the putative urea binding site. PMID:26191399

  17. Complex interaction between anandamide and the nitrergic system in the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray to modulate anxiety-like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Lisboa, S F; Magesto, A C; Aguiar, J C; Resstel, L B M; Guimarães, F S

    2013-12-01

    Stimulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors or inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dlPAG) decreases anxiety-like behavior. Moreover, activation of CB1 receptors attenuates flight responses induced by nitric oxide (NO) donors in the dlPAG, suggesting that endocannabinoids and NO could interact to control defensive responses such as anxiety-like behavior. To test this hypothesis male Wistar rats received intra-dlPAG microinjections of anandamide (AEA) or NO inhibitors and were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM). Combined administration of low and ineffective doses of AEA and the NO scavenger (c-Ptio), the nNOS inhibitor (NPA) or the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor (ODQ) induced anxiolytic-like effects. The CB1 receptor antagonist AM251, but not the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline, attenuated the effect induced by AEA+c-Ptio combination. No effect, however, was found when anxiolytic doses of these same drugs were administered together. Combination of higher, ineffective doses of AEA and c-Ptio, NPA or ODQ was again anxiolytic. The effect of the former combination was prevented by low and ineffective doses of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline or the GABA synthesis inhibitor L-allilglycine, suggesting that they depend on GABAA-mediated neurotransmission. AM251 was also able to attenuate this effect, indicating that in the presence of NO inhibition, the resultant anxiolytic-like effect could be due to AEA action on CB1 receptors. The present results suggest that the AEA and nitrergic systems exert a complex functional interaction in the dlPAG to modulate anxiety behavior, probably interfering, in addition to glutamate, also with GABAergic mechanisms.

  18. Synergistic effects of ion transporter and MAP kinase pathway inhibitors in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Eskiocak, Ugur; Ramesh, Vijayashree; Gill, Jennifer G; Zhao, Zhiyu; Yuan, Stacy W; Wang, Meng; Vandergriff, Travis; Shackleton, Mark; Quintana, Elsa; Johnson, Timothy M; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Morrison, Sean J

    2016-01-01

    New therapies are required for melanoma. Here, we report that multiple cardiac glycosides, including digitoxin and digoxin, are significantly more toxic to human melanoma cells than normal human cells. This reflects on-target inhibition of the ATP1A1 Na(+)/K(+) pump, which is highly expressed by melanoma. MEK inhibitor and/or BRAF inhibitor additively or synergistically combined with digitoxin to induce cell death, inhibiting growth of patient-derived melanomas in NSG mice and synergistically extending survival. MEK inhibitor and digitoxin do not induce cell death in human melanocytes or haematopoietic cells in NSG mice. In melanoma, MEK inhibitor reduces ERK phosphorylation, while digitoxin disrupts ion gradients, altering plasma membrane and mitochondrial membrane potentials. MEK inhibitor and digitoxin together cause intracellular acidification, mitochondrial calcium dysregulation and ATP depletion in melanoma cells but not in normal cells. The disruption of ion homoeostasis in cancer cells can thus synergize with targeted agents to promote tumour regression in vivo. PMID:27545456

  19. Synergistic effects of ion transporter and MAP kinase pathway inhibitors in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Eskiocak, Ugur; Ramesh, Vijayashree; Gill, Jennifer G.; Zhao, Zhiyu; Yuan, Stacy W.; Wang, Meng; Vandergriff, Travis; Shackleton, Mark; Quintana, Elsa; Johnson, Timothy M.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Morrison, Sean J.

    2016-01-01

    New therapies are required for melanoma. Here, we report that multiple cardiac glycosides, including digitoxin and digoxin, are significantly more toxic to human melanoma cells than normal human cells. This reflects on-target inhibition of the ATP1A1 Na+/K+ pump, which is highly expressed by melanoma. MEK inhibitor and/or BRAF inhibitor additively or synergistically combined with digitoxin to induce cell death, inhibiting growth of patient-derived melanomas in NSG mice and synergistically extending survival. MEK inhibitor and digitoxin do not induce cell death in human melanocytes or haematopoietic cells in NSG mice. In melanoma, MEK inhibitor reduces ERK phosphorylation, while digitoxin disrupts ion gradients, altering plasma membrane and mitochondrial membrane potentials. MEK inhibitor and digitoxin together cause intracellular acidification, mitochondrial calcium dysregulation and ATP depletion in melanoma cells but not in normal cells. The disruption of ion homoeostasis in cancer cells can thus synergize with targeted agents to promote tumour regression in vivo. PMID:27545456

  20. Identification of Conformationally Sensitive Residues Essential for Inhibition of Vesicular Monoamine Transport by the Noncompetitive Inhibitor Tetrabenazine*

    PubMed Central

    Ugolev, Yelena; Segal, Tali; Yaffe, Dana; Gros, Yael; Schuldiner, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) transports monoamines into storage vesicles in a process that involves exchange of the charged monoamine with two protons. VMAT2 is a member of the DHA12 family of multidrug transporters that belongs to the major facilitator superfamily of secondary transporters. Tetrabenazine (TBZ) is a non-competitive inhibitor of VMAT2 that is used in the treatment of hyperkinetic disorders associated with Huntington disease and Tourette syndrome. Previous biochemical studies suggested that the recognition site for TBZ and monoamines is different. However, the precise mechanism of TBZ interaction with VMAT2 remains unknown. Here we used a random mutagenesis approach and selected TBZ-resistant mutants. The mutations clustered around the lumenal opening of the transporter and mapped to either conserved proline or glycine, or to residues immediately adjacent to conserved proline and glycine. Directed mutagenesis provides further support for the essential role of the latter residues. Our data strongly suggest that the conserved α-helix breaking residues identified in this work play an important role in conformational rearrangements required for TBZ binding and substrate transport. Our results provide a novel insight into the mechanism of transport and TBZ binding by VMAT2. PMID:24062308

  1. Repositioning of Verrucosidin, a purported inhibitor of chaperone protein GRP78, as an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Simmy; Sharma, Natasha; Gonzalez, Reyna; Pao, Peng-Wen; Hofman, Florence M; Chen, Thomas C; Louie, Stan G; Pirrung, Michael C; Schönthal, Axel H

    2013-01-01

    Verrucosidin (VCD) belongs to a group of fungal metabolites that were identified in screening programs to detect molecules that preferentially kill cancer cells under glucose-deprived conditions. Its mode of action was proposed to involve inhibition of increased GRP78 (glucose regulated protein 78) expression during hypoglycemia. Because GRP78 plays an important role in tumorigenesis, inhibitors such as VCD might harbor cancer therapeutic potential. We therefore sought to characterize VCD's anticancer activity in vitro. Triple-negative breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 were treated with VCD under different conditions known to trigger increased expression of GRP78, and a variety of cellular processes were analyzed. We show that VCD was highly cytotoxic only under hypoglycemic conditions, but not in the presence of normal glucose levels, and VCD blocked GRP78 expression only when glycolysis was impaired (due to hypoglycemia or the presence of the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose), but not when GRP78 was induced by other means (hypoxia, thapsigargin, tunicamycin). However, VCD's strictly hypoglycemia-specific toxicity was not due to the inhibition of GRP78. Rather, VCD blocked mitochondrial energy production via inhibition of complex I of the electron transport chain. As a result, cellular ATP levels were quickly depleted under hypoglycemic conditions, and common cellular functions, including general protein synthesis, deteriorated and resulted in cell death. Altogether, our study identifies mitochondria as the primary target of VCD. The possibility that other purported GRP78 inhibitors (arctigenin, biguanides, deoxyverrucosidin, efrapeptin, JBIR, piericidin, prunustatin, pyrvinium, rottlerin, valinomycin, versipelostatin) might act in a similar GRP78-independent fashion will be discussed. PMID:23755268

  2. Combination therapy of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes: rationale and evidences.

    PubMed

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Singh, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    No single antidiabetic agent can correct all the pathophysiologic defects manifested in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and, therefore, multiple agents are often required to achieve optimal glycemic control. Combination therapies, having different mechanisms of action, not only have the potential to complement their action, but may possess the properties to counter the undesired compensatory response. Recent finding suggests that sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) increase endogenous glucose production (EGP) from liver, due to the increase in glucagon which may offset its glucose-lowering potential. In contrast, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i) decrease glucagon and EGP. Especially in the light of this finding, combination therapies with SGLT2i and DPP4i are particularly appealing, and are expected to produce an additive effect. Indeed, studies find no drug-drug interaction between SGLT2i and DPP4i. Moreover, significant reduction in glycated hemoglobin has also been observed. This article aims to review the efficacy and safety of combination therapy of SGLT2i and DPP4i in T2DM.

  3. Anandamide Levels Fluctuate in the Bovine Oviduct during the Oestrous Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Gervasi, Maria Gracia; Marczylo, Timothy H.; Lam, Patricia M.; Rana, Shashi; Franchi, Ana M.; Konje, Justin C.; Perez-Martinez, Silvina

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian oviduct acts as a reservoir for spermatozoa and provides an environment in which they may compete for the opportunity to fertilize the oocyte. Whilst in the oviduct spermatozoa undergo capacitation essential for fertilization. Sperm-oviduct interaction is essential for sperm capacitation and is a tightly regulated process influenced by the local microenvironment. Previously we reported that the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) regulates sperm release from epithelial oviductal cells by promoting sperm capacitation. The aims of this work were to measure the AEA content and to characterize the main AEA metabolic pathway in the bovine oviduct and determine how these change through the oestrous cycle. In this study, the levels of AEA and two other N-acylethanolamines, N-oleoylethanolamine and N-palmitoylethanolamine, were measured in bovine oviduct collected during different stages of oestrous cycle by ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results indicated that intracellular oviductal epithelial levels of all three N-acylethanolamines fluctuate during oestrous cycle. Anandamide from oviductal fluid also varied during oestrous cycle, with the highest values detected during the periovulatory period. Endocannabinoid levels from ipsilateral oviduct to ovulation were higher than those detected in the contralateral one, suggesting that levels of oviductal AEA may be regulated by ovarian hormones. The expression and localization of N-acylethanolamines metabolizing enzymes in bovine oviduct were also determined by RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry but no change was found during the oestrous cycle. Furthermore, nanomolar levels of AEA were detected in follicular fluids, suggesting that during ovulation the mature follicle may contribute to oviductal AEA levels to create an endocannabinoid gradient conducive to the regulation of sperm function for successful fertilization. PMID:23977311

  4. Presumed LRP1-targeting transport peptide delivers β-secretase inhibitor to neurons in vitro with limited efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Ah; Casalini, Tommaso; Brambilla, Davide; Leroux, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Interfering with the activity of β-secretase to reduce the production of Aβ peptides is a conceivable therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer’s disease. However, the development of efficient yet safe inhibitors is hampered by secondary effects, usually linked to the indiscriminate inhibition of other substrates’ processing by the targeted enzyme. Based on the spatial compartmentalization of the cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein by β-secretase, we hypothesized that by exploiting the endocytosis receptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein it would be possible to direct an otherwise cell-impermeable inhibitor to the endosomes of neurons, boosting the drug’s efficacy and importantly, sparing the off-target effects. We used the transport peptide Angiopep to build an endocytosis-competent conjugate and found that although the peptide facilitated the inhibitor’s internalization into neurons and delivered it to the endosomes, the delivery was not efficient enough to potently reduce β-secretase activity at the cellular level. This is likely connected to the finding that in the cell lines we used, Angiopep’s internalization was not mediated by its presumed receptor to a significant extent. Additionally, Angiopep exploited different internalization mechanisms when applied alone or when conjugated to the inhibitor, highlighting the impact that drug conjugation can have on transport peptides. PMID:27682851

  5. Place of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors for treatment of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mikhail, Nasser

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2), such as canagliflozin and dapagliflozin, are recently approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes. These agents lower blood glucose mainly by increasing urinary glucose excretion. Compared with placebo, SGLT2 inhibitors reduce hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels by an average of 0.5%-0.8% when used as monotherapy or add-on therapy. Advantages of this drug class include modest weight loss of approximately 2 kg, low risk of hypoglycemia, and decrease blood pressure of approximately 4 mmHg systolic and 2 mmHg diastolic. These characteristics make these agents potential add-on therapy in patients with HbA1c levels close to 7%-8.0%, particularly if these patients are obese, hypertensive, and/or prone for hypoglycemia. Meanwhile, these drugs are limited by high frequency of genital mycotic infections. Less common adverse effects include urinary tract infections, hypotension, dizziness, and worsening renal function. SGLT2 inhibitors should be used with caution in the elderly because of increased adverse effects, and should not be used in chronic kidney disease due to decreased or lack of efficacy and nephrotoxicity. Overall, SGLT2 inhibitors are useful addition for treatment of select groups of patients with type 2 diabetes, but their efficacy and safety need to be established in long-term clinical trials. PMID:25512787

  6. The Effect of Anandamide on Uterine Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity Depends on the Presence of the Blastocyst

    PubMed Central

    Sordelli, Micaela S.; Beltrame, Jimena S.; Burdet, Juliana; Zotta, Elsa; Pardo, Romina; Cella, Maximiliano; Franchi, Ana M.; Ribeiro, Maria Laura

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide production, catalyzed by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), should be strictly regulated to allow embryo implantation. Thus, our first aim was to study NOS activity during peri-implantation in the rat uterus. Day 6 inter-implantation sites showed lower NOS activity (0.19±0.01 pmoles L-citrulline mg prot−1 h−1) compared to days 4 (0.34±0.03) and 5 (0.35±0.02) of pregnancy and to day 6 implantation sites (0.33±0.01). This regulation was not observed in pseudopregnancy. Both dormant and active blastocysts maintained NOS activity at similar levels. Anandamide (AEA), an endocannabinoid, binds to cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) and type 2 (CB2), and high concentrations are toxic for implantation and embryo development. Previously, we observed that AEA synthesis presents an inverted pattern compared to NOS activity described here. We adopted a pharmacological approach using AEA, URB-597 (a selective inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase, the enzyme that degrades AEA) and receptor selective antagonists to investigate the effect of AEA on uterine NOS activity in vitro in rat models of implantation. While AEA (0.70±0.02 vs 0.40±0.04) and URB-597 (1.08±0.09 vs 0.83±0.06) inhibited NOS activity in the absence of a blastocyst (pseudopregnancy) through CB2 receptors, AEA did not modulate NOS on day 5 pregnant uterus. Once implantation begins, URB-597 decreased NOS activity on day 6 implantation sites via CB1 receptors (0.25±0.04 vs 0.40±0.05). While a CB1 antagonist augmented NOS activity on day 6 inter-implantation sites (0.17±0.02 vs 0.27±0.02), a CB2 antagonist decreased it (0.17±0.02 vs 0.12±0.01). Finally, we described the expression and localization of cannabinoid receptors during implantation. In conclusion, AEA levels close to and at implantation sites seems to modulate NOS activity and thus nitric oxide production, fundamental for implantation, via cannabinoid receptors. This modulation depends on the presence of the blastocyst. These data

  7. Examination of the Addictive and Behavioral Properties of Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Inhibitor SBFI26

    PubMed Central

    Thanos, Panayotis K.; Clavin, Brendan H.; Hamilton, John; O’Rourke, Joseph R.; Maher, Thomas; Koumas, Christopher; Miao, Erick; Lankop, Jessenia; Elhage, Aya; Haj-Dahmane, Samir; Deutsch, Dale; Kaczocha, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic properties of cannabinoids have been well demonstrated but are overshadowed by such adverse effects as cognitive and motor dysfunction, as well as their potential for addiction. Recent research on the natural lipid ligands of cannabinoid receptors, also known as endocannabinoids, has shed light on the mechanisms of intracellular transport of the endocannabinoid anandamide by fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) and subsequent catabolism by fatty acid amide hydrolase. These findings facilitated the recent development of SBFI26, a pharmacological inhibitor of epidermal- and brain-specific FABP5 and FABP7, which effectively increases anandamide signaling. The goal of this study was to examine this compound for any possible rewarding and addictive properties as well as effects on locomotor activity, working/recognition memory, and propensity for sociability and preference for social novelty (SN) given its recently reported anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Male C57BL mice were split into four treatment groups and conditioned with 5.0, 20.0, 40.0 mg/kg SBFI26, or vehicle during a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Following CPP, mice underwent a battery of behavioral tests [open field, novel object recognition (NOR), social interaction (SI), and SN] paired with acute SBFI26 administration. Results showed that SBFI26 did not produce CPP or conditioned place aversion regardless of dose and did not induce any differences in locomotor and exploratory activity during CPP- or SBFI26-paired open field activity. We also observed no differences between treatment groups in NOR, SI, and SN. In conclusion, as SBFI26 was shown previously by our group to have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, here we show that it does not pose a risk of dependence or motor and cognitive impairment under the conditions tested. PMID:27092087

  8. Anandamide inhibits Theiler's virus induced VCAM-1 in brain endothelial cells and reduces leukocyte transmigration in a model of blood brain barrier by activation of CB1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background VCAM-1 represents one of the most important adhesion molecule involved in the transmigration of blood leukocytes across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that is an essential step in the pathogenesis of MS. Several evidences have suggested the potential therapeutic value of cannabinoids (CBs) in the treatment of MS and their experimental models. However, the effects of endocannabinoids on VCAM-1 regulation are poorly understood. In the present study we investigated the effects of anandamide (AEA) in the regulation of VCAM-1 expression induced by Theiler's virus (TMEV) infection of brain endothelial cells using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Methods i) in vitro: VCAM-1 was measured by ELISA in supernatants of brain endothelial cells infected with TMEV and subjected to AEA and/or cannabinoid receptors antagonist treatment. To evaluate the functional effect of VCAM-1 modulation we developed a blood brain barrier model based on a system of astrocytes and brain endothelial cells co-culture. ii) in vivo: CB1 receptor deficient mice (Cnr1-/-) infected with TMEV were treated with the AEA uptake inhibitor UCM-707 for three days. VCAM-1 expression and microglial reactivity were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results Anandamide-induced inhibition of VCAM-1 expression in brain endothelial cell cultures was mediated by activation of CB1 receptors. The study of leukocyte transmigration confirmed the functional relevance of VCAM-1 inhibition by AEA. In vivo approaches also showed that the inhibition of AEA uptake reduced the expression of brain VCAM-1 in response to TMEV infection. Although a decreased expression of VCAM-1 by UCM-707 was observed in both, wild type and CB1 receptor deficient mice (Cnr1-/-), the magnitude of VCAM-1 inhibition was significantly higher in the wild type mice. Interestingly, Cnr1-/- mice showed enhanced microglial reactivity and VCAM-1 expression following TMEV infection, indicating that the lack of CB1 receptor exacerbated

  9. Fatty Acid Transport Protein-2 inhibitor Grassofermata/CB5 protects cells against lipid accumulation and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Nipun; Black, Paul N.; Montefusco, David; DiRusso, Concetta C.

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of the fatty acid uptake into non-adipose tissues provides an attractive target for prevention of lipotoxicity leading to obesity-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) are bifunctional proteins involved in the uptake and activation of fatty acids by esterification with coenzyme A. Here we characterize Grassofermata/CB5, previously identified as a fatty acid uptake inhibitor directed against HsFATP2. The compound was effective in inhibiting the uptake of fatty acids in the low micro-molar range (IC50 8–11μM) and prevented palmitate-mediated lipid accumulation and cell death in cell lines that are models for intestines, liver, muscle and pancreas. In adipocytes, uptake inhibition was less effective (IC50 58μM). Inhibition was specific for long chain fatty acids and was ineffective toward medium chain fatty acids, which are transported by diffusion. Kinetic analysis of Grassofermata-dependent FA transport inhibition verified a non-competitive mechanism. By comparison with Grassofermata, several atypical antipsychotic drugs previously implicated as inhibitors of FA uptake were ineffectual. In mice Grassofermata decreased absorption of 13C-oleate demonstrating its potential as a therapeutic agent. PMID:26284975

  10. Importance of the Extracellular Loop 4 in the Human Serotonin Transporter for Inhibitor Binding and Substrate Translocation*

    PubMed Central

    Rannversson, Hafsteinn; Wilson, Pamela; Kristensen, Kristina Birch; Sinning, Steffen; Kristensen, Anders Skov; Strømgaard, Kristian; Andersen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) terminates serotonergic neurotransmission by performing reuptake of released serotonin, and SERT is the primary target for antidepressants. SERT mediates the reuptake of serotonin through an alternating access mechanism, implying that a central substrate site is connected to both sides of the membrane by permeation pathways, of which only one is accessible at a time. The coordinated conformational changes in SERT associated with substrate translocation are not fully understood. Here, we have identified a Leu to Glu mutation at position 406 (L406E) in the extracellular loop 4 (EL4) of human SERT, which induced a remarkable gain-of-potency (up to >40-fold) for a range of SERT inhibitors. The effects were highly specific for L406E relative to six other mutations in the same position, including the closely related L406D mutation, showing that the effects induced by L406E are not simply charge-related effects. Leu406 is located >10 Å from the central inhibitor binding site indicating that the mutation affects inhibitor binding in an indirect manner. We found that L406E decreased accessibility to a residue in the cytoplasmic pathway. The shift in equilibrium to favor a more outward-facing conformation of SERT can explain the reduced turnover rate and increased association rate of inhibitor binding we found for L406E. Together, our findings show that EL4 allosterically can modulate inhibitor binding within the central binding site, and substantiates that EL4 has an important role in controlling the conformational equilibrium of human SERT. PMID:25903124

  11. Fatty acid transport protein-2 inhibitor Grassofermata/CB5 protects cells against lipid accumulation and toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Saini, Nipun; Black, Paul N.; Montefusco, David; DiRusso, Concetta C.

    2015-09-25

    The inhibition of the fatty acid uptake into non-adipose tissues provides an attractive target for prevention of lipotoxicity leading to obesity-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) are bifunctional proteins involved in the uptake and activation of fatty acids by esterification with coenzyme A. Here we characterize Grassofermata/CB5, previously identified as a fatty acid uptake inhibitor directed against HsFATP2. The compound was effective in inhibiting the uptake of fatty acids in the low micro-molar range (IC{sub 50} 8–11 μM) and prevented palmitate-mediated lipid accumulation and cell death in cell lines that are models for intestines, liver, muscle and pancreas. In adipocytes, uptake inhibition was less effective (IC{sub 50} 58 μM). Inhibition was specific for long chain fatty acids and was ineffective toward medium chain fatty acids, which are transported by diffusion. Kinetic analysis of Grassofermata-dependent FA transport inhibition verified a non-competitive mechanism. By comparison with Grassofermata, several atypical antipsychotic drugs previously implicated as inhibitors of FA uptake were ineffectual. In mice Grassofermata decreased absorption of {sup 13}C-oleate demonstrating its potential as a therapeutic agent. - Highlights: • Grassofermata is a small compound inhibitor of FATP2. • Uptake inhibition is specific for long chain fatty acids. • Uptake kinetics shows low specificity for adipocytes compared to other cell types. • Inhibition is by a non-competitive mechanism. • Atypical antipsychotics do not inhibit FA uptake by comparison with Grassofermata.

  12. Molecular analysis and structure-activity relationship modeling of the substrate/inhibitor interaction site of plasma membrane monoamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Ho, Horace T B; Pan, Yongmei; Cui, Zhiyi; Duan, Haichuan; Swaan, Peter W; Wang, Joanne

    2011-11-01

    Plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) is a new polyspecific transporter that interacts with a wide range of structurally diverse organic cations. To map the physicochemical descriptors of cationic compounds that allow interaction with PMAT, we systematically analyzed the interactions between PMAT and three series of structural analogs of known organic cation substrates including phenylalkylamines, n-tetraalkylammonium (n-TAA) compounds, and β-carbolines. Our results showed that phenylalkylamines with a distance between the aromatic ring and the positively charged amine nitrogen atom of ∼6.4 Å confer optimal interactions with PMAT, whereas studies with n-TAA compounds revealed an excellent correlation between IC(50) values and hydrophobicity. The five β-carbolines that we tested, which possess a pyridinium-like structure and are structurally related to the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, inhibited PMAT with high affinity (IC(50) values of 39.1-65.5 μM). Cytotoxicity analysis further showed that cells expressing PMAT are 14- to 15-fold more sensitive to harmalan and norharmanium, suggesting that these two β-carbolines are also transportable substrates of PMAT. We then used computer-aided modeling to generate qualitative and quantitative three-dimensional pharmacophore models on the basis of 23 previously reported and currently identified PMAT inhibitors and noninhibitors. These models are characterized by a hydrogen bond donor and two to three hydrophobic features with distances between the hydrogen bond donor and hydrophobic features ranging between 5.20 and 7.02 Å. The consistency between the mapping results and observed PMAT affinity of a set of test compounds indicates that the models performed well in inhibitor prediction and could be useful for future virtual screening of new PMAT inhibitors. PMID:21816955

  13. Identification of IAA transport inhibitors including compounds affecting cellular PIN trafficking by two chemical screening approaches using maize coleoptile systems.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Matano, Naoyuki; Morishima, Taichi; Kakinuma, Chieko; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Komano, Teruya; Kubo, Minoru; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Kamiya, Yuji; Koshiba, Tomokazu

    2012-10-01

    The monocot coleoptile tip region has been generally supposed to be the source of IAA to supply IAA to basal parts by the polar IAA transport system, which results in gravi- and phototropic curvature of coleoptiles. Based on this IAA transport system and gravitropism of maize coleoptiles, we have developed two screening methods to identify small molecules from a large chemical library that inhibit IAA transport. The methods detect molecules that affect (i) gravitropic curvature of coleoptiles; and (ii) the amount of IAA transported from the tip. From 10,000 chemicals, eight compounds were identified and categorized into two groups. Four chemicals in group A decreased IAA transport from the tip, and increased endogenous IAA levels in the tip. The structures of two compounds resembled that of 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), but those of the other two differed from structures of known IAA transport inhibitors. Four chemicals in group B strongly inhibited IAA transport from the tip, but IAA levels at the tip were only slightly affected. At higher concentrations, group B compounds inhibited germination of Arabidopsis, similarly to brefeldin A (BFA). Analysis of the cellular distribution of PIN2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and PIN1-GFP in Arabidopsis revealed that one of the four chemicals in group B induced internalization of PIN1 and PIN2 proteins into vesicles smaller than BFA bodies, suggesting that this compound affects cellular vesicle trafficking systems related to PIN trafficking. The eight chemicals identified here will be a useful tool for understanding the mechanisms of IAA transport in plants. PMID:22875609

  14. A rapid in vitro screening for delivery of peptide-derived peptidase inhibitors as potential drug candidates via epithelial peptide transporters.

    PubMed

    Foltz, Martin; Meyer, Antje; Theis, Stephan; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Daniel, Hannelore

    2004-08-01

    Targeting drugs or prodrugs to a specific enzyme by simultaneously targeting cell membrane carriers for efficient transport should provide the highest bioavailability along with specificity at the site of action. The peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2 are expressed in a variety of tissues, including the brush-border membranes of epithelial cells of the small intestine and kidney. The transporters accept a wide range of substrates and are therefore good targets for a transporter-mediated drug delivery. Here, we report a screening procedure for peptidomimetic drug candidates combining two independent expression systems: 1) a competition assay in transgenic Pichia pastoris yeast cells expressing either mammalian PEPT1 or PEPT2 for identifying substrate interaction with the transporter binding site; and 2) a Xenopus laevis-based oocyte expression of the peptide transporter for assessing electrogenic transport of drug candidates. Based on the known oral availability and in vivo efficacy of the dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPIV) inhibitor isoleucine-thiazolidide and its peptide-like structure, we first tested whether this compound is a substrate of epithelial peptide transporters. Additionally, a series of structurally related inhibitors were analyzed for transport. We identified various compounds that serve as substrates of the intestinal peptide transporter PEPT1. In contrast, none of these DPIV inhibitors showed electrogenic transport by PEPT2, although a variety of the compounds displayed good affinities for competition in peptide uptake in PEPT2-expressing cells, suggesting that they may serve as efficient inhibitors. In conclusion, we have applied an in vitro screening system that predicts efficient intestinal absorption of peptide-derived peptidase inhibitors via PEPT1 in vivo. PMID:15051798

  15. Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors combination therapy in type 2 diabetes: A systematic review of current evidence

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Singh, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    As type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic and progressive disease with multiple pathophysiologic defects, no single anti-diabetic agent can tackle all these multi-factorial pathways. Consequently, multiple agents working through the different mechanisms will be required for the optimal glycemic control. Moreover, the combination therapies of different anti-diabetic agents may complement their actions and possibly act synergistic. Furthermore, these combinations could possess the additional properties to counter their undesired physiological compensatory response. Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2I) are newly emerging class of drugs, with a great potential to reduce glucose effectively with an additional quality of lowering cardiovascular events as demonstrated very recently by one of the agents of this class. However, increase in endogenous glucose production (EGP) from the liver, either due to the increase in glucagon or compensatory response to glucosuria can offset the glucose-lowering potential of SGLT-2I. Interestingly, another class of drugs such as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4I) effectively decrease glucagon and reduce EGP. In light of these findings, combination therapies with SGLT-2I and DPP-4I are particularly appealing and are expected to produce a synergistic effect. Preclinical studies of combination therapies with DPP-4I and SGLT-2I have already demonstrated a significant lowering of hemoglobin A1c potential and human studies also find no drug-drug interaction between these agents. This article aims to systematically review the efficacy and safety of combination therapy of SGLT-2I and DPP-4I in T2DM. PMID:27042423

  16. Transport of endocannabinoids across the plasma membrane and within the cell.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Christopher J

    2013-05-01

    Endocannabinoids are readily accumulated from the extracellular space by cells. Although their uptake properties have the appearance of a process of facilitated diffusion, it is by no means clear as to whether there is a plasma membrane transporter dedicated to this task. Intracellular carrier proteins that shuttle the endocannabinoid anandamide from the plasma membrane to its intracellular targets such as the metabolic enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase, have been identified. These include proteins with other primary functions, such as fatty-acid-binding proteins and heat shock protein 70, and possibly a fatty acid amide hydrolase-like anandamide transporter protein. Thus, anandamide uptake can be adequately described as a diffusion process across the plasma membrane followed by intracellular carrier-mediated transport to effector molecules, catabolic enzymes and sequestration sites, although it is recognized that different cells are likely to utilize different mechanisms of endocannabinoid transport depending upon the utility of the endocannabinoid for the cell in question. PMID:23441874

  17. Simulation of Swanson's Literature-Based Discovery: Anandamide Treatment Inhibits Growth of Gastric Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Silico

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Weijie; Mou, Quan; Wang, Jinliang; Hu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Swanson's literature-based discovery focus on resurrecting previously published but neglected knowledge. In this study, we propose a two-step model of the discovery process and generate a hypothesis between anandamide and gastric cancer. Further, the potential relationship was confirmed by follow-up experimentation. The anandamide treatment resulted in cell cycle redistribution of gastric cancer cells. Most importantly, the variation of cell cycle was mediated by some genes from the B-terms of the closed discovery, indicating the potential role of the B-terms. Swanson's literature-based discovery not only collates data for possible interactions, but also provides the potential to observe the larger background behind these direct links and is an invaluable discovery tool for investigators. PMID:24949851

  18. Anandamide inhibits endothelin-1 production by human cultured endothelial cells: a new vascular action of this endocannabinoid.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Ana María; Llanos, Miguel; Tamayo, Daniela; Hirsch, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    The endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonist anandamide (AEA) exerts vascular effects such as vasodilatation and hypotension. In this study, we determined the effect of AEA on endothelin-1 production by cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Anandamide (>or=5 micromol/l) significantly decreased endothelin-1 production in a dose-dependent manner, a response not affected by the specific CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist SR-141716A. Adenosine, via activation of adenosine receptors (also targets for SR-141716A), was not involved in these effects. Conversely, AEA increased nitric oxide (NO) production, an effect inhibited by SR-141716A, indicating the involvement of CB1 receptors. Therefore, we hypothesize that AEA effects on endothelial cells may lead to vasodilatation through independent concerted mechanisms, involving a non-CB1 receptor-dependent inhibition of endothelin-1 production and a CB1-mediated increase of NO.

  19. Glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) inhibitors exhibit anticonvulsant properties in the rat maximal electroshock threshold (MEST) test.

    PubMed

    Kalinichev, Mikhail; Starr, Kathryn R; Teague, Simon; Bradford, Andrea M; Porter, Rod A; Herdon, Hugh J

    2010-05-17

    Glycine can act as either an inhibitory neurotransmitter or as a potentiator of NMDA-dependent excitatory neurotransmission. There is some evidence that glycine can have both pro- and anticonvulsant properties in various rodent models of epilepsy. In the present study we tested several glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) inhibitors including NFPS, SSR 504734, Lu AA21279, Org 25935, SB-710622, GSK931145, as well as the glycine agonist d-serine, in the maximal electroshock threshold (MEST) test in the rat. In a series of experiments, male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12/group) were pre-treated with a compound of interest and then received an electric shock delivered via corneal electrodes. A cohort of satellite animals (n=3/group) was also used to measure blood and brain levels of Org 25935. All GlyT1 inhibitors increased seizure thresholds dose-dependently, indicative of anticonvulsant activity. SB-710622 and GSK931145 had lower minimum effective doses (MEDs) in the MEST test than other GlyT1 inhibitors. At estimated t(max), increases in dose administered were paralleled by increases in blood and brain concentrations of Org 25935. Thus, increasing extracellular concentration of glycine via inhibition of its uptake protects from electroshock-induced seizures in the rat. Whether strychnine-sensitive or strychnine-insensitive glycine binding sites are involved in this effect remains to be determined.

  20. Novel Inhibitors of Human Organic Cation/Carnitine Transporter (hOCTN2) via Computational Modeling and In Vitro Testing

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Lei; Ekins, Sean; Polli, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The objective was to elucidate the inhibition requirements of the human Organic Cation/Carnitine Transporter (hOCTN2). Methods Twenty-seven drugs were screened initially for their potential to inhibit uptake of L-carnitine into a stably transfected hOCTN2-MDCK cell monolayer. A HipHop common features pharmacophore was developed and used to search a drug database. Fifty-three drugs, including some not predicted to be inhibitors, were selected and screened in vitro. Results A common features pharmacophore was derived from initial screening data and consisted of three hydrophobic features and a positive ionizable feature. Among the 33 tested drugs that were predicted to map to the pharmacophore, 27 inhibited hOCTN2 in vitro (40% or less L-carnitine uptake from 2.5μM L-carnitine solution in presence of 500 μM drug, compared to L-carnitine uptake without drug present). Hence, the pharmacophore accurately prioritized compounds for testing. Ki measurements showed low micromolar inhibitors belonged to diverse therapeutic classes of drugs, including many not previously known to inhibit hOCTN2. Compounds were more likely to cause rhabdomyolysis if the Cmax/Ki ratio was higher than 0.0025. Conclusion A combined pharmacophore and in vitro approach found new, structurally diverse inhibitors for hOCTN2 that may possibly cause clinical significant toxicity such as rhabdomyolysis. PMID:19437106

  1. Pharmacology of Glutamate Transport in the CNS: Substrates and Inhibitors of Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters (EAATs) and the Glutamate/Cystine Exchanger System x c -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, Richard J.; Patel, Sarjubhai A.

    As the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS, l-glutamate participates not only in standard fast synaptic communication, but also contributes to higher order signal processing, as well as neuropathology. Given this variety of functional roles, interest has been growing as to how the extracellular concentrations of l-glutamate surrounding neurons are regulated by cellular transporter proteins. This review focuses on two prominent systems, each of which appears capable of influencing both the signaling and pathological actions of l-glutamate within the CNS: the sodium-dependent excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) and the glutamate/cystine exchanger, system x c - (Sx c -). While the family of EAAT subtypes limit access to glutamate receptors by rapidly and efficiently sequestering l-glutamate in neurons and glia, Sxc - provides a route for the export of glutamate from cells into the extracellular environment. The primary intent of this work is to provide an overview of the inhibitors and substrates that have been developed to delineate the pharmacological specificity of these transport systems, as well as be exploited as probes with which to selectively investigate function. Particular attention is paid to the development of small molecule templates that mimic the structural properties of the endogenous substrates, l-glutamate, l-aspartate and l-cystine and how strategic control of functional group position and/or the introduction of lipophilic R-groups can impact multiple aspects of the transport process, including: subtype selectivity, inhibitory potency, and substrate activity.

  2. Baseline anandamide levels and body weight impact the weight loss effect of CB1 receptor antagonism in male rats.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Cecilia; Hjorth, Stephan; Karpefors, Martin; Hansson, Göran I; Carlsson, Björn

    2015-04-01

    The individual weight loss response to obesity treatment is diverse. Here we test the hypothesis that the weight loss response to the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant is influenced by endogenous levels of receptor agonists. We show that baseline anandamide levels and body weight independently contribute to predict the treatment response to rimonabant in rodents, demonstrating that addition of biomarkers related to mode of action is relevant for a personalized health care approach to obesity treatment.

  3. Full Inhibition of Spinal FAAH Leads to TRPV1-Mediated Analgesic Effects in Neuropathic Rats and Possible Lipoxygenase-Mediated Remodeling of Anandamide Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Starowicz, Katarzyna; Makuch, Wioletta; Korostynski, Michal; Malek, Natalia; Slezak, Michal; Zychowska, Magdalena; Petrosino, Stefania; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Cristino, Luigia; Przewlocka, Barbara; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Neuropathic pain elevates spinal anandamide (AEA) levels in a way further increased when URB597, an inhibitor of AEA hydrolysis by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), is injected intrathecally. Spinal AEA reduces neuropathic pain by acting at both cannabinoid CB1 receptors and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channels. Yet, intrathecal URB597 is only partially effective at counteracting neuropathic pain. We investigated the effect of high doses of intrathecal URB597 on allodynia and hyperalgesia in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. Among those tested, the 200 µg/rat dose of URB597 was the only one that elevated the levels of the FAAH non-endocannabinoid and anti-inflammatory substrates, oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and of the endocannabinoid FAAH substrate, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and fully inhibited thermal and tactile nociception, although in a manner blocked almost uniquely by TRPV1 antagonism. Surprisingly, this dose of URB597 decreased spinal AEA levels. RT-qPCR and western blot analyses demonstrated altered spinal expression of lipoxygenases (LOX), and baicalein, an inhibitor of 12/15-LOX, significantly reduced URB597 analgesic effects, suggesting the occurrence of alternative pathways of AEA metabolism. Using immunofluorescence techniques, FAAH, 15-LOX and TRPV1 were found to co-localize in dorsal spinal horn neurons of CCI rats. Finally, 15-hydroxy-AEA, a 15-LOX derivative of AEA, potently and efficaciously activated the rat recombinant TRPV1 channel. We suggest that intrathecally injected URB597 at full analgesic efficacy unmasks a secondary route of AEA metabolism via 15-LOX with possible formation of 15-hydroxy-AEA, which, together with OEA and PEA, may contribute at producing TRPV1-mediated analgesia in CCI rats. PMID:23573230

  4. Novel parent structures for inhibitors of the murine GABA transporters mGAT3 and mGAT4.

    PubMed

    Kragler, Andrea; Höfner, Georg; Wanner, Klaus T

    2005-09-01

    Searching for potent and subtype selective parent structures of the murine gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter subtypes mGAT3 and mGAT4 a series of amino acids was characterised in a uniform [3H]GABA uptake test system based on transiently expressed mGAT1-4. From several potent inhibitors showing IC50 values at mGAT3 and mGAT4 in the low microM range cis-4-aminocrotonic acid and (RS)-2,3-diaminopropionic acid turned out to be most subtype selective for these transporters. With (RS)-isoserine--a compound unknown as GAT inhibitor until now--one of the most potent amino acids selectively inhibiting mGAT3 and mGAT4 was found. Furthermore, (2-amino-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)acetic acid was identified as the first parent structure exhibiting a clear, though still moderate, selective inhibition of GABA uptake at mGAT3.

  5. Targeting anandamide metabolism rescues core and associated autistic-like symptoms in rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid

    PubMed Central

    Servadio, M; Melancia, F; Manduca, A; di Masi, A; Schiavi, S; Cartocci, V; Pallottini, V; Campolongo, P; Ascenzi, P; Trezza, V

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by altered sociability, compromised communication and stereotyped/repetitive behaviors, for which no specific treatments are currently available. Prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) is a known, although still underestimated, environmental risk factor for ASD. Altered endocannabinoid activity has been observed in autistic patients, and endocannabinoids are known to modulate behavioral traits that are typically affected in ASD. On this basis, we tested the hypothesis that changes in the endocannabinoid tone contribute to the altered phenotype induced by prenatal VPA exposure in rats, with focus on behavioral features that resemble the core and associated symptoms of ASD. In the course of development, VPA-exposed rats showed early deficits in social communication and discrimination, compromised sociability and social play behavior, stereotypies and increased anxiety, thus providing preclinical proof of the long-lasting deleterious effects induced by prenatal VPA exposure. At the neurochemical level, VPA-exposed rats displayed altered phosphorylation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in different brain areas, associated with changes in anandamide metabolism from infancy to adulthood. Interestingly, enhancing anandamide signaling through inhibition of its degradation rescued the behavioral deficits displayed by VPA-exposed rats at infancy, adolescence and adulthood. This study therefore shows that abnormalities in anandamide activity may underlie the deleterious impact of environmental risk factors on ASD-relevant behaviors and that the endocannabinoid system may represent a therapeutic target for the core and associated symptoms displayed by autistic patients. PMID:27676443

  6. Enzymatic formation of prostamide F2alpha from anandamide involves a newly identified intermediate metabolite, prostamide H2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wu; Ni, Jinsong; Woodward, David F; Tang-Liu, Diane D-S; Ling, Kah-Hiing John

    2005-12-01

    Prostaglandin F2alpha 1-ethanolamide (prostamide F2alpha) is a potent ocular hypotensive agent in animals and represents a new class of fatty acid amide compounds. Accumulated evidence indicated that anandamide, an endogenous bioactive ligand for cannabinoid receptors, may serve as a common substrate to produce all prostamides, including prostamide F2alpha. After incubation of anandamide with cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), the reaction mixture was profiled by HPLC and an intermediate metabolite was discovered and characterized as a cyclic endoperoxide ethanolamide using HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. Formation of prostamide F2alpha was also demonstrated when the intermediate metabolite was isolated and incubated with prostaglandin F synthase (PGF synthase). These results suggest that the biosynthesis of prostamide F2alpha proceeds in two consecutive steps: oxidation of anandamide to form an endoperoxide intermediate by COX-2, and reduction of the endoperoxide intermediate to form prostamide F2alpha by PGF synthase. This endoperoxide ethanolamide intermediate has been proposed as prostamide H2. PMID:16150817

  7. A novel Na(+) -Independent alanine-serine-cysteine transporter 1 inhibitor inhibits both influx and efflux of D-Serine.

    PubMed

    Sakimura, Katsuya; Nakao, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Masato; Suzuki, Motohisa; Kimura, Haruhide

    2016-10-01

    NMDA receptor dysfunctions are hypothesized to underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and treatment with D-serine (D-Ser), an NMDA receptor coagonist, may improve the clinical symptoms of schizophrenia. Thus, upregulating the synaptic D-Ser level is a novel strategy for schizophrenia treatment. Na(+) -independent alanine-serine-cysteine transporter 1 (asc-1) is a transporter responsible for regulating the extracellular D-Ser levels in the brain. In this study, we discovered a novel asc-1 inhibitor, (+)-amino(1-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)acetic acid (ACPP), and assessed its pharmacological profile. ACPP inhibited the D-[(3) H]Ser uptake in human asc-1-expressing CHO cells and rat primary neurons with IC50 values of 0.72 ± 0.13 and 0.89 ± 0.30 μM, respectively. In accordance with the lower asc-1 expression levels in astrocytes, ACPP did not inhibit D-Ser uptake in rat primary astrocytes. In a microdialysis study, ACPP dose dependently decreased the extracellular D-Ser levels in the rat hippocampus under the same conditions in which the asc-1 inhibitor S-methyl-L-cysteine (SMLC) increased it. To obtain insights into this difference, we conducted a D-[(3) H]Ser efflux assay using asc-1-expressing CHO cells. ACPP inhibited D-[(3) H]Ser efflux, whereas SMLC increased it. These results suggest that ACPP is a novel inhibitor of asc-1. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27302861

  8. Silychristin, a Flavonolignan Derived From the Milk Thistle, Is a Potent Inhibitor of the Thyroid Hormone Transporter MCT8.

    PubMed

    Johannes, Jörg; Jayarama-Naidu, Roopa; Meyer, Franziska; Wirth, Eva Katrin; Schweizer, Ulrich; Schomburg, Lutz; Köhrle, Josef; Renko, Kostja

    2016-04-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are charged and iodinated amino acid derivatives that need to pass the cell membrane facilitated by thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters (THTT) to exert their biological function. The importance of functional THTT is affirmed by the devastating effects of mutations in the human monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 8, leading to a severe form of psychomotor retardation. Modulation of THTT function by pharmacological or environmental compounds might disturb TH action on a tissue-specific level. Therefore, it is important to identify compounds with relevant environmental exposure and THTT-modulating activity. Based on a nonradioactive TH uptake assay, we performed a screening of 13 chemicals, suspicious for TH receptor interaction, to test their potential effects on THTT in MCT8-overexpressing MDCK1-cells. We identified silymarin, an extract of the milk thistle, to be a potent inhibitor of T3 uptake by MCT8. Because silymarin is a complex mixture of flavonolignan substances, we further tested its individual components and identified silychristin as the most effective one with an IC50 of approximately 100 nM. The measured IC50 value is at least 1 order of magnitude below those of other known THTT inhibitors. This finding was confirmed by T3 uptake in primary murine astrocytes expressing endogenous Mct8 but not in MCT10-overexpressing MDCK1-cells, indicating a remarkable specificity of the inhibitor toward MCT8. Because silymarin is a frequently used adjuvant therapeutic for hepatitis C infection and chronic liver disease, our observations raise questions regarding its safety with respect to unwanted effects on the TH axis.

  9. Behavioral Characterization of the Effects of Cannabis Smoke and Anandamide in Rats.

    PubMed

    Bruijnzeel, Adriaan W; Qi, Xiaoli; Guzhva, Lidia V; Wall, Shannon; Deng, Jie V; Gold, Mark S; Febo, Marcelo; Setlow, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) is the main psychoactive component of cannabis and its effects have been well-studied. However, cannabis contains many other cannabinoids that affect brain function. Therefore, these studies investigated the effect of cannabis smoke exposure on locomotor activity, rearing, anxiety-like behavior, and the development of dependence in rats. It was also investigated if cannabis smoke exposure leads to tolerance to the locomotor-suppressant effects of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide. Cannabis smoke was generated by burning 5.7% Δ9-THC cannabis cigarettes in a smoking machine. The effect of cannabis smoke on the behavior of rats in a small and large open field and an elevated plus maze was evaluated. Cannabis smoke exposure induced a brief increase in locomotor activity followed by a prolonged decrease in locomotor activity and rearing in the 30-min small open field test. The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist rimonabant increased locomotor activity and prevented the smoke-induced decrease in rearing. Smoke exposure also increased locomotor activity in the 5-min large open field test and the elevated plus maze test. The smoke exposed rats spent more time in the center zone of the large open field, which is indicative of a decrease in anxiety-like behavior. A high dose of anandamide decreased locomotor activity and rearing in the small open field and this was not prevented by rimonabant or pre-exposure to cannabis smoke. Serum Δ9-THC levels were 225 ng/ml after smoke exposure, which is similar to levels in humans after smoking cannabis. Exposure to cannabis smoke led to dependence as indicated by more rimonabant-precipitated somatic withdrawal signs in the cannabis smoke exposed rats than in the air-control rats. In conclusion, chronic cannabis smoke exposure in rats leads to clinically relevant Δ9-THC levels, dependence, and has a biphasic effect

  10. Behavioral Characterization of the Effects of Cannabis Smoke and Anandamide in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bruijnzeel, Adriaan W.; Qi, Xiaoli; Guzhva, Lidia V.; Wall, Shannon; Deng, Jie V.; Gold, Mark S.; Febo, Marcelo; Setlow, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) is the main psychoactive component of cannabis and its effects have been well-studied. However, cannabis contains many other cannabinoids that affect brain function. Therefore, these studies investigated the effect of cannabis smoke exposure on locomotor activity, rearing, anxiety-like behavior, and the development of dependence in rats. It was also investigated if cannabis smoke exposure leads to tolerance to the locomotor-suppressant effects of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide. Cannabis smoke was generated by burning 5.7% Δ9-THC cannabis cigarettes in a smoking machine. The effect of cannabis smoke on the behavior of rats in a small and large open field and an elevated plus maze was evaluated. Cannabis smoke exposure induced a brief increase in locomotor activity followed by a prolonged decrease in locomotor activity and rearing in the 30-min small open field test. The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist rimonabant increased locomotor activity and prevented the smoke-induced decrease in rearing. Smoke exposure also increased locomotor activity in the 5-min large open field test and the elevated plus maze test. The smoke exposed rats spent more time in the center zone of the large open field, which is indicative of a decrease in anxiety-like behavior. A high dose of anandamide decreased locomotor activity and rearing in the small open field and this was not prevented by rimonabant or pre-exposure to cannabis smoke. Serum Δ9-THC levels were 225 ng/ml after smoke exposure, which is similar to levels in humans after smoking cannabis. Exposure to cannabis smoke led to dependence as indicated by more rimonabant-precipitated somatic withdrawal signs in the cannabis smoke exposed rats than in the air-control rats. In conclusion, chronic cannabis smoke exposure in rats leads to clinically relevant Δ9-THC levels, dependence, and has a biphasic effect

  11. Discovery of novel inhibitors of the NorA multidrug transporter of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Brincat, Jean Pierre; Carosati, Emanuele; Sabatini, Stefano; Manfroni, Giuseppe; Fravolini, Arnaldo; Raygada, Jose L; Patel, Diixa; Kaatz, Glenn W; Cruciani, Gabriele

    2011-01-13

    Four novel inhibitors of the NorA efflux pump of Staphylococcus aureus, discovered through a virtual screening process, are reported. The four compounds belong to different chemical classes and were tested for their in vitro ability to block the efflux of a well-known NorA substrate, as well as for their ability to potentiate the effect of ciprofloxacin (CPX) on several strains of S. aureus, including a NorA overexpressing strain. Additionally, the MIC values of each of the compounds individually are reported. A structure-activity relationship study was also performed on these novel chemotypes, revealing three new compounds that are also potent NorA inhibitors. The virtual screening procedure employed FLAP, a new methodology based on GRID force field descriptors. PMID:21141825

  12. Yeast-based High-Throughput Screen Identifies Plasmodium falciparum Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1 Inhibitors That Kill Malaria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Frame, I. J.; Deniskin, Roman; Rinderspacher, Alison; Katz, Francine; Deng, Shi-Xian; Moir, Robyn D.; Adjalley, Sophie H.; Coburn-Flynn, Olivia; Fidock, David A.; Willis, Ian M.; Landry, Donald W.; Akabas, Myles H.

    2015-01-01

    Equilibrative transporters are potential drug targets, however most functional assays involve radioactive substrate uptake that is unsuitable for high-throughput screens (HTS). We developed a robust yeast-based growth assay that is potentially applicable to many equilibrative transporters. As proof of principle, we applied our approach to Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1 of the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfENT1). PfENT1 inhibitors might serve as novel antimalarial drugs since PfENT1-mediated purine import is essential for parasite proliferation. To identify PfENT1 inhibitors, we screened 64,560 compounds and identified 171 by their ability to rescue the growth of PfENT1-expressing fui1Δ yeast in the presence of a cytotoxic PfENT1 substrate, 5-fluorouridine (5-FUrd). In secondary assays, nine of the highest activity compounds inhibited PfENT1-dependent growth of a purine auxotrophic yeast strain with adenosine as the sole purine source (IC50 0.2–2 µM). These nine compounds completely blocked [3H]adenosine uptake into PfENT1-expressing yeast and erythrocyte-free trophozoite-stage parasites (IC50 5–50 nM), and inhibited chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant parasite proliferation (IC50 5–50 µM). Wild-type (WT) parasite IC50 values were up to four-fold lower compared to PfENT1-knockout (pfent1Δ) parasites. pfent1Δ parasite killing showed a delayed-death phenotype not observed with WT. We infer that in parasites, the compounds inhibit both PfENT1 and a secondary target with similar efficacy. The secondary target identity is unknown, but its existence may reduce the likelihood of parasites developing resistance to PfENT1 inhibitors. Our data support the hypothesis that blocking purine transport through PfENT1 may be a novel and compelling approach for antimalarial drug development. PMID:25602169

  13. Specific interactions between the Candida albicans ABC transporter Cdr1p ectodomain and a D-octapeptide derivative inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Kyoko; Harding, David R K; Holmes, Ann R; Lamping, Erwin; Niimi, Masakazu; Tyndall, Joel D A; Cannon, Richard D; Monk, Brian C

    2012-08-01

    Overexpression of the Candida albicans ATP-binding cassette transporter CaCdr1p causes clinically significant resistance to azole drugs including fluconazole (FLC). Screening of a ~1.89 × 10(6) member D-octapeptide combinatorial library that concentrates library members at the yeast cell surface identified RC21v3, a 4-methoxy-2,3,6-trimethylbenzenesulphonyl derivative of the D-octapeptide D-NH(2) -FFKWQRRR-CONH(2) , as a potent and stereospecific inhibitor of CaCdr1p. RC21v3 chemosensitized Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains overexpressing CaCdr1p but not other fungal ABC transporters, the C. albicans MFS transporter CaMdr1p or the azole target enzyme CaErg11p, to FLC. RC21v3 also chemosensitized clinical C. albicans isolates overexpressing CaCDR1 to FLC, even when CaCDR2 was overexpressed. Specific targeting of CaCdr1p by RC21v3 was confirmed by spontaneous RC21v3 chemosensitization-resistant suppressor mutants of S. cerevisiae expressing CaCdr1p. The suppressor mutations introduced a positive charge beside, or within, extracellular loops 1, 3, 4 and 6 of CaCdr1p or an aromatic residue near the extracytoplasmic end of transmembrane segment 5. The mutations did not affect CaCdr1p localization or CaCdr1p ATPase activity but some increased susceptibility to the CaCdr1p substrates FLC, rhodamine 6G, rhodamine 123 and cycloheximide. The suppressor mutations showed that the drug-like CaCdr1p inhibitors FK506, enniatin, milbemycin α11 and milbemycin β9 have modes of action similar to RC21v3. PMID:22788839

  14. Isoform-selective inhibition of facilitative glucose transporters: elucidation of the molecular mechanism of HIV protease inhibitor binding.

    PubMed

    Hresko, Richard C; Kraft, Thomas E; Tzekov, Anatoly; Wildman, Scott A; Hruz, Paul W

    2014-06-01

    Pharmacologic HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) and structurally related oligopeptides are known to reversibly bind and inactivate the insulin-responsive facilitative glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). Several PIs exhibit isoform selectivity with little effect on GLUT1. The ability to target individual GLUT isoforms in an acute and reversible manner provides novel means both to investigate the contribution of individual GLUTs to health and disease and to develop targeted treatment of glucose-dependent diseases. To determine the molecular basis of transport inhibition, a series of chimeric proteins containing transmembrane and cytosolic domains from GLUT1 and GLUT4 and/or point mutations were generated and expressed in HEK293 cells. Structural integrity was confirmed via measurement of N-[2-[2-[2-[(N-biotinylcaproylamino)ethoxy)ethoxyl]-4-[2-(trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl]benzoyl]-1,3-bis(mannopyranosyl-4-yloxy)-2-propylamine (ATB-BMPA) labeling of the chimeric proteins in low density microsome fractions isolated from stably transfected 293 cells. Functional integrity was assessed via measurement of zero-trans 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG) uptake. ATB-BMPA labeling studies and 2-DOG uptake revealed that transmembrane helices 1 and 5 contain amino acid residues that influence inhibitor access to the transporter binding domain. Substitution of Thr-30 and His-160 in GLUT1 to the corresponding positions in GLUT4 is sufficient to completely transform GLUT1 into GLUT4 with respect to indinavir inhibition of 2-DOG uptake and ATB-BMPA binding. These data provide a structural basis for the selectivity of PIs toward GLUT4 over GLUT1 that can be used in ongoing novel drug design. PMID:24706759

  15. Discovery of disubstituted piperidines and homopiperidines as potent dual NK1 receptor antagonists-serotonin reuptake transporter inhibitors for the treatment of depression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong-Jin; He, Huan; Bertekap, Robert; Westphal, Ryan; Lelas, Snjezana; Newton, Amy; Wallace, Tanya; Taber, Matthew; Davis, Carl; Macor, John E; Bronson, Joanne

    2013-04-15

    This report describes the synthesis, structure-activity relationships and activity of piperidine, homopiperidine, and azocane derivatives combining NK1 receptor (NK1R) antagonism and serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) inhibition. Our studies culminated in the discovery of piperidine 2 and homopiperidine 8 as potent dual NK1R antagonists-SERT inhibitors. Compound 2 demonstrated significant activity in the gerbil forced swimming test, suggesting that dual NK1R antagonists-SERT inhibitors may be useful in treating depression disorders. PMID:23477943

  16. Alterations in the Anandamide Metabolism in the Development of Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Natalia; Kucharczyk, Mateusz; Starowicz, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Endocannabinoids (EC), particularly anandamide (AEA), released constitutively in pain pathways might be accountable for the inhibitory effect on nociceptors. Pathogenesis of neuropathic pain may reflect complex remodeling of the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and spinal cord EC system. Multiple pathways involved both in the biosynthesis and degradation of AEA have been suggested. We investigated the local synthesis and degradation features of AEA in DRGs and spinal cord during the development and maintenance of pain in a model of chronic constriction injury (CCI). All AEA synthesis and degradation enzymes are present on the mRNA level in DRGs and lumbar spinal cord of intact as well as CCI-treated animals. Deregulation of EC system components was consistent with development of pain phenotype at days 3, 7, and 14 after CCI. The expression levels of enzymes involved in AEA degradation was significantly upregulated ipsilateral in DRGs and spinal cord at different time points. Expression of enzymes of the alternative, sPLA2-dependent and PLC-dependent, AEA synthesis pathways was elevated in both of the analyzed structures at all time points. Our data have shown an alteration of alternative AEA synthesis and degradation pathways, which might contribute to the variation of AEA levels and neuropathic pain development. PMID:25276812

  17. Acute and subchronic administration of anandamide or oleamide increases REM sleep in rats.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Solís, Andrea; Vásquez, Khalil Guzmán; Prospéro-García, Oscar

    2010-03-01

    Anandamide and oleamide, induce sleep when administered acutely, via the CB1 receptor. Their subchronic administration must be tested to demonstrate the absence of tolerance to this effect, and that the sudden withdrawal of these endocannabinoids (eCBs) does not affect sleep negatively. The sleep-waking cycle of rats was evaluated for 24h, under the effect of an acute or subchronic administration of eCBs, and during sudden eCBs withdrawal. AM251, a CB1 receptor antagonist (CB1Ra) was utilized to block eCBs effects. Our results indicated that both acute and subchronic administration of eCBs increase REMS. During eCBs withdrawal, rats lack the expression of an abstinence-like syndrome. AM251 was efficacious to prevent REMS increase caused by both acute and subchronic administration of these eCBs, suggesting that this effect is mediated by the CB1 receptor. Our data further support a role of the eCBs in REMS regulation.

  18. Anandamide and its metabolites: what are their roles in the kidney?

    PubMed

    Ritter, Joseph K; Li, Guangbi; Xia, Min; Boini, Krishna

    2016-01-01

       Anandamide (AEA) is the N-acyl ethanolamide of arachidonic acid, an agonist of cannabinoid and non-cannabinoid receptors in the body. The kidneys are enriched in AEA and in enzymes that metabolize AEA, but the roles of AEA and its metabolites in the kidney remain poorly understood. This system likely is involved in the regulation of renal blood flow and hemodynamics and of tubular sodium and fluid reabsorption. It may act as a neuromodulator of the renal sympathetic nervous system. AEA and its cyclooxygenase-2 metabolites, the prostamides, in the renal medulla may represent a unique antihypertensive system involved in the long-term control of blood pressure. AEA and its metabolites are also implicated as modulators of inflammation and mediators of signaling in inflammation. AEA and its metabolites may be influential in chronic kidney disease states associated with inflammation and cardiovascular diseases associated with hyperhomocysteinemia. The current knowledge of the roles of AEA and its derivatives highlights the need for further research to define and potentially exploit the role of this endocannabinoid system in the kidney. PMID:27100705

  19. Anandamide and decidual remodelling: COX-2 oxidative metabolism as a key regulator.

    PubMed

    Almada, M; Piscitelli, F; Fonseca, B M; Di Marzo, V; Correia-da-Silva, G; Teixeira, N

    2015-11-01

    Recently, endocannabinoids have emerged as signalling mediators in reproduction. It is widely accepted that anandamide (AEA) levels must be tightly regulated, and that a disturbance in AEA levels may impact decidual stability and regression. We have previously characterized the endocannabinoid machinery in rat decidual tissue and reported the pro-apoptotic action of AEA on rat decidual cells. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an inducible enzyme that plays a crucial role in early pregnancy, and is also a key modulator in the crosstalk between endocannabinoids and prostaglandins. On the other hand, AEA-oxidative metabolism by COX-2 is not merely a mean to inactivate its action, but it yields the formation of a new class of mediators, named prostaglandin-ethanolamides, or prostamides. In this study we found that AEA-induced apoptosis in decidual cells involves COX-2 metabolic pathway. AEA induced COX-2 expression through p38 MAPK, resulting in the formation of prostamide E2 (PME2). Our findings also suggest that AEA-induced effect is associated with NF-kB activation. Finally, we describe the involvement of PME2 in the induction of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in rat decidual cells. Altogether, our findings highlight the role of COX-2 as a gatekeeper in the uterine environment and clarify the impact of the deregulation of AEA levels on the decidual remodelling process. PMID:26335727

  20. Metabolism of anandamide into eoxamides by 15-lipoxygenase-1 and glutathione transferases.

    PubMed

    Forsell, Pontus K A; Brunnström, Asa; Johannesson, Malin; Claesson, Hans-Erik

    2012-08-01

    Human 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1) can metabolize arachidonic acid (ARA) into pro-inflammatory mediators such as the eoxins, 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HPETE), and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine. We have in this study investigated the formation of various lipid hydroperoxide by either purified 15-LO-1 or in the Hodgkin lymphoma cell line L1236, which contain abundant amount of 15-LO-1. Both purified 15-LO-1 and L1236 cells produced lipid hydroperoxides more efficiently when anandamide (AEA) or 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol ester was used as substrate than with ARA. Furthermore, L1236 cells converted AEA to a novel class of cysteinyl-containing metabolites. Based on RP-HPLC, mass spectrometry and comparison to synthetic products, these metabolites were identified as the ethanolamide of the eoxin (EX) C(4) and EXD(4). By using the epoxide EXA(4)-ethanol amide, it was also found that platelets have the capacity to produce the ethanolamide of EXC(4) and EXD(4). We suggest that the ethanolamides of the eoxins should be referred to as eoxamides, in analogy to the ethanolamides of prostaglandins which are named prostamides. The metabolism of AEA into eoxamides might engender molecules with novel biological effects. Alternatively, it might represent a new mechanism for the termination of AEA signalling. PMID:22684912

  1. Dose-response effects of systemic anandamide administration in mice sequentially submitted to the open field and elevated plus-maze tests.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, A; Ferraz-de-Paula, V; Pinheiro, M L; Palermo-Neto, J

    2009-06-01

    The endocannabinoid system is involved in the control of many physiological functions, including the control of emotional states. In rodents, previous exposure to an open field increases the anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze. Anxiolytic-like effects of pharmacological compounds that increase endocannabinoid levels have been well documented. However, these effects are more evident in animals with high anxiety levels. Several studies have described characteristic inverted U-shaped dose-response effects of drugs that modulate the endocannabinoid levels. However, there are no studies showing the effects of different doses of exogenous anandamide, an endocannabinoid, in animal models of anxiety. Thus, in the present study, we determined the dose-response effects of exogenous anandamide at doses of 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/kg in C57BL/6 mice (N = 10/group) sequentially submitted to the open field and elevated plus-maze. Anandamide was diluted in 0.9% saline, ethyl alcohol, Emulphor (18:1:1) and administered ip (0.1 mL/10 g body weight); control animals received the same volume of anandamide vehicle. Anandamide at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg (but not of 0.01 or 1 mg/kg) increased (P < 0.05) the time spent and the distance covered in the central zone of the open field, as well as the exploration of the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. Thus, exogenous anandamide, like pharmacological compounds that increase endocannabinoid levels, promoted a characteristic inverted U-shaped dose-response effect in animal models of anxiety. Furthermore, anandamide (0.1 mg/kg) induced an anxiolytic-like effect in the elevated plus-maze (P < 0.05) after exposing the animals to the open field test.

  2. Dose-response effects of systemic anandamide administration in mice sequentially submitted to the open field and elevated plus-maze tests.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, A; Ferraz-de-Paula, V; Pinheiro, M L; Palermo-Neto, J

    2009-06-01

    The endocannabinoid system is involved in the control of many physiological functions, including the control of emotional states. In rodents, previous exposure to an open field increases the anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze. Anxiolytic-like effects of pharmacological compounds that increase endocannabinoid levels have been well documented. However, these effects are more evident in animals with high anxiety levels. Several studies have described characteristic inverted U-shaped dose-response effects of drugs that modulate the endocannabinoid levels. However, there are no studies showing the effects of different doses of exogenous anandamide, an endocannabinoid, in animal models of anxiety. Thus, in the present study, we determined the dose-response effects of exogenous anandamide at doses of 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/kg in C57BL/6 mice (N = 10/group) sequentially submitted to the open field and elevated plus-maze. Anandamide was diluted in 0.9% saline, ethyl alcohol, Emulphor (18:1:1) and administered ip (0.1 mL/10 g body weight); control animals received the same volume of anandamide vehicle. Anandamide at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg (but not of 0.01 or 1 mg/kg) increased (P < 0.05) the time spent and the distance covered in the central zone of the open field, as well as the exploration of the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. Thus, exogenous anandamide, like pharmacological compounds that increase endocannabinoid levels, promoted a characteristic inverted U-shaped dose-response effect in animal models of anxiety. Furthermore, anandamide (0.1 mg/kg) induced an anxiolytic-like effect in the elevated plus-maze (P < 0.05) after exposing the animals to the open field test. PMID:19448906

  3. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter Inhibitors: Effects on Renal and Intestinal Glucose Transport: From Bench to Bedside.

    PubMed

    Mudaliar, Sunder; Polidori, David; Zambrowicz, Brian; Henry, Robert R

    2015-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease with disabling micro- and macrovascular complications that lead to excessive morbidity and premature mortality. It affects hundreds of millions of people and imposes an undue economic burden on populations across the world. Although insulin resistance and insulin secretory defects play a major role in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia, several other metabolic defects contribute to the initiation/worsening of the diabetic state. Prominent among these is increased renal glucose reabsorption, which is maladaptive in patients with diabetes. Instead of an increase in renal glucose excretion, which could ameliorate hyperglycemia, there is an increase in renal glucose reabsorption, which helps sustain hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes. The sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors are novel antidiabetes agents that inhibit renal glucose reabsorption and promote glucosuria, thereby leading to reductions in plasma glucose concentrations. In this article, we review the long journey from the discovery of the glucosuric agent phlorizin in the bark of the apple tree through the animal and human studies that led to the development of the current generation of SGLT2 inhibitors. PMID:26604280

  4. Antinociceptive effect of intracerebroventricular administration of glycine transporter-2 inhibitor ALX1393 in rat models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Hara, Koji; Haranishi, Yasunori; Terada, Tadanori; Obara, Goh; Sata, Takeyoshi

    2015-03-01

    Glycinergic transmission has an important role in regulating nociception in the spinal cord. The glycine transporter-2 (GlyT2) is localized at presynaptic terminals of glycinergic neurons and eliminates glycine from the synaptic cleft to terminate glycinergic transmission. Systemic and intrathecal administration of GlyT2 inhibitors alleviate various types of pain. Although the GlyT2s and glycine receptors are widely distributed in the central nervous system, little is known about the role of glycinergic transmission in pain perception at supraspinal regions. The present study examined the antinociceptive effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of the selective GlyT2 inhibitor ALX1393 on inflammatory and neuropathic pain in experimental models. For i.c.v. administration, a guide cannula was implanted into the right lateral ventricle of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Normal rats were used to assess inflammatory nociception using the formalin test and motor function using the rotarod test. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve was induced in the rats. The CCI rats were then used to assess mechanical, cold, and thermal hyperalgesia using the electronic von Frey test, cold plate test, and the plantar test, respectively. ALX1393 (25, 50, and 100 μg) was administered i.c.v. to examine its effects on supraspinal antinociception. Supraspinal ALX1393 in normal rats suppressed the late-phase response in the formalin test but did not affect motor performance. In the CCI rats, ALX1393 inhibited mechanical and cold hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent manner. The antihyperalgesic effects of ALX1393 (100 μg) were reversed completely by i.c.v. pretreatment with a glycine receptor antagonist strychnine (10 μg). These results suggest that GlyT2 contributes to nociceptive transmission at supraspinal level and that the selective GlyT2 inhibitor is a promising candidate for the treatment of inflammatory and neuropathic pain without causing motor dysfunction

  5. Enhanced Dopamine Release by Dopamine Transport Inhibitors Described by a Restricted Diffusion Model and Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Alexander F; Spivak, Charles E; Lupica, Carl R

    2016-06-15

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) using carbon fiber electrodes is widely used to rapidly monitor changes in dopamine (DA) levels in vitro and in vivo. Current analytical approaches utilize parameters such as peak oxidation current amplitude and decay times to estimate release and uptake processes, respectively. However, peak amplitude changes are often observed with uptake inhibitors, thereby confounding the interpretation of these parameters. To overcome this limitation, we demonstrate that a simple five-parameter, two-compartment model mathematically describes DA signals as a balance of release (r/ke) and uptake (ku), summed with adsorption (kads and kdes) of DA to the carbon electrode surface. Using nonlinear regression, we demonstrate that our model precisely describes measured DA signals obtained in brain slice recordings. The parameters extracted from these curves were then validated using pharmacological manipulations that selectively alter vesicular release or DA transporter (DAT)-mediated uptake. Manipulation of DA release through altering the Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratio or adding tetrodotoxin reduced the release parameter with no effect on the uptake parameter. DAT inhibitors methylenedioxypyrovalerone, cocaine, and nomifensine significantly reduced uptake and increased vesicular DA release. In contrast, a low concentration of amphetamine reduced uptake but had no effect on DA release. Finally, the kappa opioid receptor agonist U50,488 significantly reduced vesicular DA release but had no effect on uptake. Together, these data demonstrate a novel analytical approach to distinguish the effects of manipulations on DA release or uptake that can be used to interpret FSCV data. PMID:27018734

  6. Accelerated transport and maturation of lysosomal alpha-galactosidase A in Fabry lymphoblasts by an enzyme inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Fan, J Q; Ishii, S; Asano, N; Suzuki, Y

    1999-01-01

    Fabry disease is a disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism caused by deficiency of lysosomal alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-Gal A), resulting in renal failure along with premature myocardial infarction and strokes. No effective treatment of this disorder is available at present. Studies of residual activities of mutant enzymes in many Fabry patients showed that some of them had kinetic properties similar to those for normal alpha-Gal A, but were significantly less stable, especially in conditions of neutral pH (refs. 3-5). The biosynthetic processing was delayed in cultured fibroblasts of a Fabry patient, and the mutant protein formed an aggregate in endoplasmic reticulum, indicating that the enzyme deficiency in some mutants was mainly caused by abortive exit from the endoplasmic reticulum, leading to excessive degradation of the enzyme. We report here that 1-deoxy-galactonojirimycin (DGJ), a potent competitive inhibitor of alpha-Gal A, effectively enhanced alpha-Gal A activity in Fabry lymphoblasts, when administrated at concentrations lower than that usually required for intracellular inhibition of the enzyme. DGJ seemed to accelerate transport and maturation of the mutant enzyme. Oral administration of DGJ to transgenic mice overexpressing a mutant alpha-Gal A substantially elevated the enzyme activity in some organs. We propose a new molecular therapeutic strategy for genetic metabolic diseases of administering competitive inhibitors as 'chemical chaperons' at sub-inhibitory intracellular concentrations. PMID:9883849

  7. Chicago sky blue 6B, a vesicular glutamate transporters inhibitor, attenuates methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity and behavioral sensitization in mice.

    PubMed

    He, Zongsheng; Yan, Lingdi; Yong, Zheng; Dong, Zhaoqi; Dong, Huajin; Gong, Zehui

    2013-02-15

    Several lines of evidence demonstrate that glutamatergic system plays an important role in drug addiction. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Chicago sky blue 6B (CSB6B), a vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) inhibitor, on methamphetamine (METH)-induced behaviors in mice. Mice were induced behavioral sensitization to METH by subcutaneous injection of 1mg/kg METH once daily for 7 days and then challenged with 1mg/kg METH in 14th day. Intracerebroventricular administration of CSB6B (7.5μg) 2.5h prior to METH was to observe its effects on METH -induced behavioral sensitization. Our results showed that the expressions of behavioral sensitization were significantly attenuated by intracerebroventricular administration of CSB6B 2.5h prior to METH either during the development period or before methamphetamine challenge in mice, while CSB6B itself had no effect on locomotor activity. Meanwhile, pretreatment of CSB6B also attenuated hyperactivity caused by a single injection of METH in mice. These results demonstrated that CSB6B, a VGLUTs inhibitor, attenuated acute METH-induced hyperactivity and chronic METH-induced behavioral sensitization, which indicated that VGLUTs were involved in the effect of chronic METH-induced behavioral sensitization and may be a new target against the addiction of METH.

  8. Uptake of antimonite and antimonate by arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata: Effects of chemical analogs and transporter inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Tisarum, Rujira; Chen, Yanshan; Dong, Xiaoling; Lessl, Jason T; Ma, Lena Q

    2015-11-01

    Antimonite (SbIII) is transported into plants via aquaglyceroporin channels but it is unknown in As-hyperaccumulator Ptreis vittata (PV). We tested the effects of SbIII analogs (arsenite-AsIII, glycerol, silicic acid-Si, and, glucose), antimonate (SbV) analog (phosphate-P), and aquaglyceroporin transporter inhibitor (silver, Ag) on the uptake of SbIII or SbV by PV gametophytes. PV gametophytes were grown in 20% Hoagland solution containing 65 μM SbIII or SbV and increasing concentrations of analogs at 65-6500 μM for 2 h or 4 h under sterile condition. After exposing to 65 μM Sb for 2 h, PV accumulated 767 mg/kg Sb in SbIII treatment and 419 mg/kg in SbV treatment. SbIII uptake by PV gametophytes was not impacted by glycerol or AsIII nor aquaglyceroporin inhibitor Ag during 2 h exposure. While Si increased SbIII uptake and glucose decreased SbIII uptake by PV gametophytes, the impact disappeared during 4 h exposure. Under P-sufficient condition, P increased SbIII uptake and decreased SbV uptake during 2 h exposure, but the effect again disappeared after 4 h. After being P-starved for 2 weeks, P decreased SbIII with no effect on SbV uptake during 2 h exposure. Our results indicated that: 1) PV gametophytes could serve as an efficient model to study Sb uptake, and 2) unique SbIII uptake by PV may be related to its trait of As hyperaccumulation. PMID:26142750

  9. Uptake of antimonite and antimonate by arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata: Effects of chemical analogs and transporter inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Tisarum, Rujira; Chen, Yanshan; Dong, Xiaoling; Lessl, Jason T; Ma, Lena Q

    2015-11-01

    Antimonite (SbIII) is transported into plants via aquaglyceroporin channels but it is unknown in As-hyperaccumulator Ptreis vittata (PV). We tested the effects of SbIII analogs (arsenite-AsIII, glycerol, silicic acid-Si, and, glucose), antimonate (SbV) analog (phosphate-P), and aquaglyceroporin transporter inhibitor (silver, Ag) on the uptake of SbIII or SbV by PV gametophytes. PV gametophytes were grown in 20% Hoagland solution containing 65 μM SbIII or SbV and increasing concentrations of analogs at 65-6500 μM for 2 h or 4 h under sterile condition. After exposing to 65 μM Sb for 2 h, PV accumulated 767 mg/kg Sb in SbIII treatment and 419 mg/kg in SbV treatment. SbIII uptake by PV gametophytes was not impacted by glycerol or AsIII nor aquaglyceroporin inhibitor Ag during 2 h exposure. While Si increased SbIII uptake and glucose decreased SbIII uptake by PV gametophytes, the impact disappeared during 4 h exposure. Under P-sufficient condition, P increased SbIII uptake and decreased SbV uptake during 2 h exposure, but the effect again disappeared after 4 h. After being P-starved for 2 weeks, P decreased SbIII with no effect on SbV uptake during 2 h exposure. Our results indicated that: 1) PV gametophytes could serve as an efficient model to study Sb uptake, and 2) unique SbIII uptake by PV may be related to its trait of As hyperaccumulation.

  10. Dapoxetine, a novel selective serotonin transport inhibitor for the treatment of premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Kendirci, Muammer; Salem, Emad; Hellstrom, Wayne JG

    2007-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common male sexual disorder, estimated to affect up to 30% of men. Over the past one or two decades, clinical investigators have participated in an increasing number of studies that are helping in our understanding of PE, which will undoubtedly facilitate future treatments. Apart from a number of behavioral approaches, the treatment of PE consists of primarily off-label use of oral selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) via either on-demand or daily delivery. However, various undesirable side-effects of these medications have led researchers to search for and develop new therapeutic approaches for PE. Dapoxetine is a short-acting SSRI developed specifically for the treatment of PE. Early trials with dapoxetine have documented successful outcomes without serious short- or long-term side-effects. This review addresses the definition, classification, diagnosis, physiology, and neurobiopathology of PE, and evaluates therapeutic strategies with novel treatments for PE. PMID:18360636

  11. Development of a Cell-Based High-Throughput Assay to Screen for Inhibitors of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides 1B1 and 1B3

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Chunshan; Obaidat, Amanda; Chaguturu, Rathnam; Hagenbuch, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    The two organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) 1B1 and 1B3 are expressed at the sinusoidal membrane of hepatocytes. They have a broad and overlapping substrate specificity and transport many endobiotics and drugs. Specific inhibitors are required to determine the contribution of each OATP to the hepatocellular uptake of common substrates. We have developed a cell-based high-throughput assay to screen chemical libraries in order to identify such inhibitors for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. We have used OATP1B1- or OATP1B3-expressing Chinese Hamster Ovary cells on 96-well plates and determined uptake of fluorescein-methotrexate (FMTX). We validated the assay with known inhibitors and screened the well characterized Prestwick library of 1120 drugs. Along with several known OATP inhibitors including rifampicin, cyclosporine A and mifepristone we identified some new inhibitors. For inhibitors that seemed to be able to distinguish between OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated FMTX uptake IC50 values were determined. Estropipate (estrone-3-sulfate stabilized with piperazine) was the most selective OATP1B1 inhibitor (IC50 = 0.06 μM vs. 19.3 μM for OATP1B3). Ursolic acid was the most selective OATP1B3 inhibitor (IC50 = 2.3 μM vs. 12.5 μM for OATP1B1). In conclusion, this cell-based assay should allow us to identify even more specific inhibitors by screening larger chemical libraries. PMID:20448812

  12. Development of a cell-based high-throughput assay to screen for inhibitors of organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B1 and 1B3.

    PubMed

    Gui, Chunshan; Obaidat, Amanda; Chaguturu, Rathnam; Hagenbuch, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    The two organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) 1B1 and 1B3 are expressed at the sinusoidal membrane of hepatocytes. They have a broad and overlapping substrate specificity and transport many endobiotics and drugs. Specific inhibitors are required to determine the contribution of each OATP to the hepatocellular uptake of common substrates. We have developed a cell-based high-throughput assay to screen chemical libraries in order to identify such inhibitors for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. We have used OATP1B1- or OATP1B3-expressing Chinese Hamster Ovary cells on 96-well plates and determined uptake of fluorescein-methotrexate (FMTX). We validated the assay with known inhibitors and screened the well characterized Prestwick library of 1120 drugs. Along with several known OATP inhibitors including rifampicin, cyclosporine A and mifepristone we identified some new inhibitors. For inhibitors that seemed to be able to distinguish between OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated FMTX uptake IC(50) values were determined. Estropipate (estrone-3-sulfate stabilized with piperazine) was the most selective OATP1B1 inhibitor (IC(50) = 0.06 microM vs. 19.3 microM for OATP1B3). Ursolic acid was the most selective OATP1B3 inhibitor (IC(50) = 2.3 microM vs. 12.5 microM for OATP1B1). In conclusion, this cell-based assay should allow us to identify even more specific inhibitors by screening larger chemical libraries. PMID:20448812

  13. Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism of bovine ciliary process: effects of metabolic and transport inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Braunagel, S C; Yorio, T

    1987-01-01

    In the present study we have measured the oxygen consumption and lactic acid production, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, in the bovine ciliary process epithelium (CPE) in the presence and absence of transport modifiers. Basal oxygen consumption was 8-15 microliters O2 consumed/mg protein/hr and decreased by 35% when sodium was removed or ouabain was added to the media. Anaerobic metabolism as measured by lactate production was also attenuated by sodium-free or ouabain treatment. When O2 consumption was severely limited by cyanide, lactic acid production increased significantly ("Pasteur effect"), whereas 2-deoxyglucose reduced lactate formation. Both chloride-free and acetazolamide treated CPE increased their dependency on aerobic glycolysis, and this response was also observed under anaerobic conditions, suggesting the presence of an anion transport mechanism. A net lactate production was also found to occur across the aqueous epithelium under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These results are consistent with the presence of a bicarbonate-sensitive anion transport system located in the ciliary process epithelium.

  14. Anandamide restricts uterine stromal differentiation and is critical for complete decidualization.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, B M; Correia-da-Silva, G; Teixeira, N A

    2015-08-15

    The major endocannabinoid, anandamide (AEA), is widely distributed in the body, especially in the reproductive tissues, where it is implicated in early pregnancy events, particularly during implantation period. Although AEA is synthesized in decidual cells and showed to induce apoptosis through CB1 receptor, its roles in decidualization remain to be elucidated. This study examined the effect of AEA in the progression of decidualization both in vitro and in vivo and explored the involvement of COX-2 in its action. To determine the function of AEA during this differentiation process, we employed a primary culture system in which undifferentiated stromal cells isolated from pregnant rat uterus undergo decidualization. AEA treatment markedly interfered with the differentiation program, as revealed by α2-macroglobulin (α2-MG) expression and alkaline phosphatase activity. Additionally, it was evaluated the effects of AEA in decidual establishment in the pseudopregnant rat model. The abundance of AEA in the uterine lumen disrupted the decidualization process accompanied by a decreased expression of COX-2 and VEGF. It was also observed that uterine lumen, which failed the progression of decidualization in response to AEA, also presented lower expression of NAPE-PLD and FAAH. Thus, the mechanisms by which AEA inhibits decidualization can be either via direct actions on stromal cell differentiation within the reproductive tract system or by the inhibition of COX-2 derived products and, consequently, the vascular remodeling required to proper decidualization. In addition, the previous observations showing that higher AEA levels in pre-implantation sites are hostile to blastocyst survival may result from problems in decidual cell reaction more than with implantation failure. PMID:25960165

  15. Piperidine-based nocaine/modafinil hybrid ligands as highly potent monoamine transporter inhibitors: efficient drug discovery by rational lead hybridization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jia; He, Rong; Johnson, Kenneth M; Ye, Yanping; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2004-11-18

    Some piperidine-based nocaine/modafinil hybrid ligands have been designed, synthesized, and found to display an improved potency at all three monoamine transporters and particularly for DAT and/or NET. Some highly active and selective monoamine transporter inhibitors with low nanomolar to subnanomolar potency were identified. Ligands of this type may find important applications as positron emission tomography imaging tools and in the treatment of central nervous system disorders such as depression and sleep apnea.

  16. Identification of 3-Nitro-2,4,6-trihydroxybenzamide Derivatives as Photosynthetic Electron Transport Inhibitors by QSAR and Pharmacophore Studies.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukesh C

    2016-06-01

    In the present investigation, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis was performed on a data set consisting of structurally diverse compounds in order to investigate the role of their structural features on their photosynthetic electron transport Inhibitors. The best 2D-QSAR model was selected, having correlation coefficient r (2) = 0.8544 and cross-validated squared correlation coefficient q (2) = 0.7139 with external predictive ability of pred_r (2) = 0.7753. The results obtained in this study indicate that the presence of hydroxy and nitro groups, expressed by the SsOHcount and SddsN (nitro) count, is the most relevant molecular property determining efficiency of photosynthetic inhibitory. Molecular field analysis was used to construct the best k-nearest neighbor (kNN-MFA)-based 3D-QSAR model using SA-PLS method, showing good correlative and predictive capabilities in terms of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. The pharmacophore model includes three features viz. hydrogen bond donor, hydrogen bond acceptor, and one aromatic feature. The developed model was found to be predictive and can be used to design potent photosynthetic electron transport activities prior to their synthesis for further lead modification.

  17. Effects of natural nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitors on anticancer drug efflux transporter human P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Nabekura, Tomohiro; Hiroi, Takashi; Kawasaki, Tatsuya; Uwai, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    Drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein plays an important role in cancer chemotherapy. The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription factors play critical roles in development and progression of cancer. In this study, the effects of natural compounds that can inhibit NF-κB activation on the function of P-glycoprotein were investigated using human MDR1 gene-transfected KB/MDR1 cells. The accumulation of daunorubicin or rhodamine 123, fluorescent substrates of P-glycoprotein, in KB/MDR1 cells increased in the presence of caffeic acid phenetyl ester (CAPE), licochalcone A, anacardic acid, celastrol, xanthohumol, magnolol, and honokiol in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, lupeol, zerumbone, thymoquinone, emodin, and anethol had no effects. The ATPase activities of P-glycoprotein were stimulated by CAPE, licochalcone A, anacardic acid, celastrol, xanthohumol, magnolol, and honokiol. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α stimulated NF-κB activation was inhibited by CAPE, licochalcone A, anacardic acid, and xanthohumol. KB/MDR1 cells were sensitized to vinblastine cytotoxicity by CAPE, licochalcone A, anacardic acid, xanthohumol, magnolol, and honokiol, showing that these natural NF-κB inhibitors reverse multidrug resistance. These results suggest that natural compounds, such as CAPE, licochalcone A, and anacardic acid, have dual inhibitory effects on the anticancer drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein and NF-κB activation, and may become useful to enhance the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy.

  18. The Prostaglandin Transporter: Eicosanoid Reuptake, Control of Signaling, and Development of High-Affinity Inhibitors as Drug Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Victor L.; Chi, Yuling; Lu, Run

    2015-01-01

    We discovered the prostaglandin transporter (PGT) and cloned the human cDNA and gene. PGT transports extracellular prostaglandins (PGs) into the cytoplasm for enzymatic inactivation. PGT knockout mice have elevated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and neonatal patent ductus arteriosus, which reflects PGT's control over PGE2 signaling at EP1/EP4 cell-surface receptors. Interestingly, rescued PGT knockout pups have a nearly normal phenotype, as do human PGT nulls. Given the benign phenotype of PGT genetic nulls, and because PGs are useful medicines, we have approached PGT as a drug target. Triazine library screening yielded a lead compound of inhibitory constant 50% (IC50) = 3.7 μM, which we developed into a better inhibitor of IC50 378 nM. Further structural improvements have yielded 26 rationally designed derivatives with IC50 < 100 nM. The therapeutic approach of increasing endogenous PGs by inhibiting PGT offers promise in diseases such as pulmonary hypertension and obesity. PMID:26330684

  19. Pre-steady state transport by erythrocyte band 3 protein: uphill countertransport induced by the impermeant inhibitor H2DIDS.

    PubMed

    Jennings, M L; Whitlock, J; Shinde, A

    1998-01-01

    Pre-steady state Cl- efflux experiments have been performed to test directly the idea that the transport inhibitor H2DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatodihydrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate) binds preferentially to the outward-facing state of the transporter. Cells were equilibrated with a medium consisting of 150 mM sodium phosphate, pH 6.2, N2 atmosphere, and 80-250 microM 36Cl-. Addition of H2DIDS (10-fold molar excess compared with band 3) induces a transient efflux of Cl-, as expected if H2DIDS binds more tightly to outward-facing than to inward-facing states. The size of the H2DIDS-induced efflux depends on the Cl- concentration and is about 700,000 ions per cell at the highest concentrations tested. The size of the transient efflux is larger than would be expected if the catalytic cycle for anion exchange involved one pair of exchanging anions per band 3 dimer. These results are completely consistent with a ping-pong mechanism of anion exchange in which the catalytic cycle consists of one pair of exchanging anions per subunit of the band 3 dimer.

  20. Anandamide drives cell cycle progression through CB1 receptors in a rat model of synchronized liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Pisanti, Simona; Picardi, Paola; Pallottini, Valentina; Martini, Chiara; Petrosino, Stefania; Proto, Maria Chiara; Vitale, Mario; Laezza, Chiara; Gazzerro, Patrizia; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Bifulco, Maurizio

    2015-12-01

    The endocannabinoid system, through cannabinoid receptor signaling by endocannabinoids, is involved in a wide range of functions and physiopathological conditions. To date, very little is known concerning the role of the endocannabinoids in the control and regulation of cell proliferation. An anti-proliferative action of CB1 signaling blockade in neurogenesis and angiogenesis argues in favor of proliferation-promoting functions of endocannabinoids through CB1 receptors when pro-growth signals are present. Furthermore, liver regeneration, a useful in vivo model of synchronized cell proliferation, is characterized by a peak of anandamide that elicits through CB1 receptor, the expression of critical mitosis genes. The aim of this study was to focus on the timing of endocannabinoid signaling changes during the different phases of the cell cycle, exploiting the rat liver regeneration model following partial hepatectomy, the most useful to study synchronized cell cycle in vivo. Hepatic regeneration led to increased levels of anandamide and endocannabinoid-like molecules oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, with a concomitant increase in CB1 mRNA levels, whose protein expression peaked later during the S phase. Blocking of CB1 receptor with a low dose of the selective antagonist/inverse agonist SR141716 (0.7 mg/kg/dose) affected cell cycle progression reducing the expression of PCNA, and through the inhibition of pERK and pSTAT3 pathways. These results support the notion that the signaling mediated by anandamide through CB1 receptor may be important for the entry and progression of cells into the cell cycle and hence for their proliferation under mitogenic signals.

  1. Competition of nucleoside transport inhibitors with binding of 6-[(4-nitrobenzyl)-mercapto]purine ribonucleoside to intact erythrocytes and ghost membranes from different species.

    PubMed

    Ogbunude, P O; Baer, H P

    1990-04-01

    The potency of nucleoside transport inhibitors, including 6-[(4-nitrobenzyl)-mercapto]purine ribonucleoside (NBMPR), dilazep, mioflazine and its derivatives soluflazine and R57974 as inhibitors of the binding of [3H(G)]NBMPR to intact erythrocytes and respective ghost membranes from human, mouse and hamster was determined. There was no close agreement between the IC50 profiles for the different inhibitors when comparing values obtained for intact cells and membranes from each species, and there was no consistent profile of differences when considering individual drugs and comparing their actions in the three species. Present data also were compared with potency values obtained previously with the same drugs directly in nucleoside transport inhibition studies with erythrocytes from the same species as well as with [3H(G)]NBMPR binding studies in isolated liver and lung membranes from hamster. The overall conclusion from this and previous studies is that the evaluation of relative potencies in screening of potential nucleoside transport inhibitors is best carried out at the level actual nucleoside transport studies in intact cells, since [3H(G)]NBMPR binding studies yield discrepant data. PMID:2322305

  2. Microwave accelerated synthesis of isoxazole hydrazide inhibitors of the system xc- transporter: Initial homology model.

    PubMed

    Matti, Afnan A; Mirzaei, Joseph; Rudolph, John; Smith, Stephen A; Newell, Jayme L; Patel, Sarjubhai A; Braden, Michael R; Bridges, Richard J; Natale, Nicholas R

    2013-11-01

    Microwave accelerated reaction system (MARS) technology provided a good method to obtain selective and open isoxazole ligands that bind to and inhibit the Sxc- antiporter. The MARS provided numerous advantages, including: shorter time, better yield and higher purity of the product. Of the newly synthesized series of isoxazoles the salicyl hydrazide 6 exhibited the highest level of inhibitory activity in the transport assay. A homology model has been developed to summarize the SAR results to date, and provide a working hypothesis for future studies.

  3. Single-molecule interrogation of a bacterial sugar transporter allows the discovery of an extracellular inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lingbing; Harrington, Leon; Li, Qiuhong; Cheley, Stephen; Davis, Benjamin G.; Bayley, Hagan

    2013-08-01

    Capsular polysaccharides form the outermost protective layer around many Gram-negative bacteria. Antibiotics aimed directly at weakening this layer are not yet available. In pathogenic Escherichia coli E69, a protein, Wza, forms a pore in the outer membrane that transports K30 capsular polysaccharide from its site of synthesis to the outside of the cell. This therefore represents a prospective antibiotic target. Here we test a variety of grommet-like mimics of K30 capsular polysaccharide on wild-type Wza and on mutant open forms of the pore by electrical recording in planar lipid bilayers. The most effective glycomimetic was the unnatural cyclic octasaccharide octakis(6-deoxy-6-amino)cyclomaltooctaose (am8γCD), which blocks the α-helix barrel of Wza, a site that is directly accessible from the external medium. This glycomimetic inhibited K30 polysaccharide transport in live E. coli E69. With the protective outer membrane disrupted, the bacteria can be recognized and killed by the human immune system.

  4. The dynein inhibitor Ciliobrevin D inhibits the bidirectional transport of organelles along sensory axons and impairs NGF-mediated regulation of growth cones and axon branches.

    PubMed

    Sainath, Rajiv; Gallo, Gianluca

    2015-07-01

    The axonal transport of organelles is critical for the development, maintenance, and survival of neurons, and its dysfunction has been implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases. Retrograde axon transport is mediated by the motor protein dynein. In this study, using embryonic chicken dorsal root ganglion neurons, we investigate the effects of Ciliobrevin D, a pharmacological dynein inhibitor, on the transport of axonal organelles, axon extension, nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced branching and growth cone expansion, and axon thinning in response to actin filament depolymerization. Live imaging of mitochondria, lysosomes, and Golgi-derived vesicles in axons revealed that both the retrograde and anterograde transport of these organelles was inhibited by treatment with Ciliobrevin D. Treatment with Ciliobrevin D reversibly inhibits axon extension and transport, with effects detectable within the first 20 min of treatment. NGF induces growth cone expansion, axonal filopodia formation and branching. Ciliobrevin D prevented NGF-induced formation of axonal filopodia and branching but not growth cone expansion. Finally, we report that the retrograde reorganization of the axonal cytoplasm which occurs on actin filament depolymerization is inhibited by treatment with Ciliobrevin D, indicating a role for microtubule based transport in this process, as well as Ciliobrevin D accelerating Wallerian degeneration. This study identifies Ciliobrevin D as an inhibitor of the bidirectional transport of multiple axonal organelles, indicating this drug may be a valuable tool for both the study of dynein function and a first pass analysis of the role of axonal transport.

  5. Targeting the Warburg effect with a novel glucose transporter inhibitor to overcome gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lai, I-Lu; Chou, Chih-Chien; Lai, Po-Ting; Fang, Chun-Sheng; Shirley, Lawrence A.; Yan, Ribai; Mo, Xiaokui; Bloomston, Mark; Kulp, Samuel K.; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2014-01-01

    Gemcitabine resistance remains a significant clinical challenge. Here, we used a novel glucose transporter (Glut) inhibitor, CG-5, as a proof-of-concept compound to investigate the therapeutic utility of targeting the Warburg effect to overcome gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer. The effects of gemcitabine and/or CG-5 on viability, survival, glucose uptake and DNA damage were evaluated in gemcitabine-sensitive and gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cell lines. Mechanistic studies were conducted to determine the molecular basis of gemcitabine resistance and the mechanism of CG-5-induced sensitization to gemcitabine. The effects of CG-5 on gemcitabine sensitivity were investigated in a xenograft tumor model of gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer. In contrast to gemcitabine-sensitive pancreatic cancer cells, the resistant Panc-1 and Panc-1GemR cells responded to gemcitabine by increasing the expression of ribonucleotide reductase M2 catalytic subunit (RRM2) through E2F1-mediated transcriptional activation. Acting as a pan-Glut inhibitor, CG-5 abrogated this gemcitabine-induced upregulation of RRM2 through decreased E2F1 expression, thereby enhancing gemcitabine-induced DNA damage and inhibition of cell survival. This CG-5-induced inhibition of E2F1 expression was mediated by the induction of a previously unreported E2F1-targeted microRNA, miR-520f. The addition of oral CG-5 to gemcitabine therapy caused greater suppression of Panc-1GemR xenograft tumor growth in vivo than either drug alone. Glut inhibition may be an effective strategy to enhance gemcitabine activity for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:24879635

  6. Targeting the Warburg effect with a novel glucose transporter inhibitor to overcome gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, I-Lu; Chou, Chih-Chien; Lai, Po-Ting; Fang, Chun-Sheng; Shirley, Lawrence A; Yan, Ribai; Mo, Xiaokui; Bloomston, Mark; Kulp, Samuel K; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2014-10-01

    Gemcitabine resistance remains a significant clinical challenge. Here, we used a novel glucose transporter (Glut) inhibitor, CG-5, as a proof-of-concept compound to investigate the therapeutic utility of targeting the Warburg effect to overcome gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer. The effects of gemcitabine and/or CG-5 on viability, survival, glucose uptake and DNA damage were evaluated in gemcitabine-sensitive and gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cell lines. Mechanistic studies were conducted to determine the molecular basis of gemcitabine resistance and the mechanism of CG-5-induced sensitization to gemcitabine. The effects of CG-5 on gemcitabine sensitivity were investigated in a xenograft tumor model of gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer. In contrast to gemcitabine-sensitive pancreatic cancer cells, the resistant Panc-1 and Panc-1(GemR) cells responded to gemcitabine by increasing the expression of ribonucleotide reductase M2 catalytic subunit (RRM2) through E2F1-mediated transcriptional activation. Acting as a pan-Glut inhibitor, CG-5 abrogated this gemcitabine-induced upregulation of RRM2 through decreased E2F1 expression, thereby enhancing gemcitabine-induced DNA damage and inhibition of cell survival. This CG-5-induced inhibition of E2F1 expression was mediated by the induction of a previously unreported E2F1-targeted microRNA, miR-520f. The addition of oral CG-5 to gemcitabine therapy caused greater suppression of Panc-1(GemR) xenograft tumor growth in vivo than either drug alone. Glut inhibition may be an effective strategy to enhance gemcitabine activity for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  7. Incretins and selective renal sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors in hypertension and coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Ramiro A; Sanabria, Hugo; de los Santos, Cecilia; Ramirez, Agustin J

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and the consequences of intensive therapy may depend on the mechanism of the anti-diabetic agent(s) used to achieve a tight control. In animal models, stable analogues of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were able to reduce body weight and blood pressure and also had favorable effects on ischemia following coronary reperfusion. In a similar way, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) showed to have favorable effects in animal models of ischemia/reperfusion. This could be due to the fact that DPP-IV inhibitors were able to prevent the breakdown of GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, but they also decreased the degradation of several vasoactive peptides. Preclinical data for GLP-1, its derivatives and inhibitors of the DPP-IV enzyme degradation suggests that these agents may be able to, besides controlling glycaemia, induce cardio-protective and vasodilator effects. Notwithstanding the many favorable cardiovascular effects of GLP-1/incretins reported in different studies, many questions remain unanswered due the limited number of studies in human beings that aim to examine the effects of GLP-1 on cardiovascular endpoints. For this reason, long-term trials searching for positive cardiovascular effects are now in process, such as the CAROLINA and CARMELINA trials, which are supported by small pilot studies performed in humans (and many more animal studies) with incretin-based therapies. On the other hand, selective renal sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors were also evaluated in the prevention of cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes. However, it is quite early to draw conclusions, since data on cardiovascular outcomes and cardiovascular death are limited and long-term studies are still ongoing. In this review, we will analyze the mechanisms underlying the cardiovascular effects of incretins and, at the same time, we will present a critical position about the real

  8. The monoamine oxidase A inhibitor clorgyline is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of fungal ABC and MFS transporter efflux pump activities which reverses the azole resistance of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Ann R; Keniya, Mikhail V; Ivnitski-Steele, Irena; Monk, Brian C; Lamping, Erwin; Sklar, Larry A; Cannon, Richard D

    2012-03-01

    Resistance to the commonly used azole antifungal fluconazole (FLC) can develop due to overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and major facilitator superfamily (MFS) plasma membrane transporters. An approach to overcoming this resistance is to identify inhibitors of these efflux pumps. We have developed a pump assay suitable for high-throughput screening (HTS) that uses recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains hyperexpressing individual transporters from the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans. The recombinant strains possess greater resistance to azoles and other pump substrates than the parental host strain. A flow cytometry-based HTS, which measured increased intracellular retention of the fluorescent pump substrate rhodamine 6G (R6G) within yeast cells, was used to screen the Prestwick Chemical Library (PCL) of 1,200 marketed drugs. Nine compounds were identified as hits, and the monoamine oxidase A inhibitor (MAOI) clorgyline was identified as an inhibitor of two C. albicans ABC efflux pumps, CaCdr1p and CaCdr2p. Secondary in vitro assays confirmed inhibition of pump-mediated efflux by clorgyline. Clorgyline also reversed the FLC resistance of S. cerevisiae strains expressing other individual fungal ABC transporters (Candida glabrata Cdr1p or Candida krusei Abc1p) or the C. albicans MFS transporter Mdr1p. Recombinant strains were also chemosensitized by clorgyline to other azoles (itraconazole and miconazole). Importantly, clorgyline showed synergy with FLC against FLC-resistant C. albicans clinical isolates and a C. glabrata strain and inhibited R6G efflux from a FLC-resistant C. albicans clinical isolate. Clorgyline is a novel broad-spectrum inhibitor of two classes of fungal efflux pumps that acts synergistically with azoles against azole-resistant C. albicans and C. glabrata strains. PMID:22203607

  9. Antihyperalgesic activity of nucleoside transport inhibitors in models of inflammatory pain in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Sabine S; Pype, Stefan; Hoffmann, Vincent LH; Biermans, Maria; Meert, Theo F

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods The role of the endogenous purine nucleoside, adenosine, in nociception is well established. Inhibition of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1) prevents adenosine uptake into cells, and could therefore enhance the antinociceptive properties of adenosine. The effects of ENT1 inhibition were studied in two animal models of inflammatory pain. Analgesic activity was assessed in a complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced and carrageenan-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia model in the guinea pig. Results Draflazine, dipyridamole, dilazep, lidoflazine, soluflazine, and KF24345 showed efficacy in the CFA thermal hyperalgesia model. Draflazine, the most potent compound in this test, was further characterized in the CFA model of mechanical hyperalgesia and the carrageenan inflammation model of thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia, where it completely reversed the hypersensitivity. The antihyperalgesic effects of draflazine (10 mg/kg, administered subcutaneously) were attenuated by the A1 receptor antagonist, cyclopentyltheophylline (5–40 mg/kg, administered intraperitoneally), by the nonselective adenosine antagonist, caffeine (10–40 mg/kg intraperitoneally), and by the A2 antagonist, DMPX (10 mg/kg administered intraperitoneally). Conclusion ENT1 inhibition is an effective way of reversing mechanical and thermal inflammatory hyperalgesia in the guinea pig, and these effects are mediated by enhancement of endogenous adenosine levels. Both A1 and A2 adenosine receptor subtypes are likely to be involved. PMID:23091396

  10. Synthesis of rubrolide analogues as new inhibitors of the photosynthetic electron transport chain.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Luiz C A; Maltha, Célia R A; Lage, Mateus R; Barcelos, Rosimeire C; Donà, Alice; Carneiro, José W M; Forlani, Giuseppe

    2012-10-24

    Many natural products have been used as a model for the development of new drugs and agrochemicals. Following this strategy 11 rubrolide analogues, bearing electron-withdrawing and -donating groups at both benzene rings, were prepared starting from commercially available mucobromic acid. The ability of all compounds to inhibit the photosynthetic electron transport chain in the chloroplast was investigated. The rubrolide analogues were effective in interfering with the light-driven ferricyanide reduction by isolated chloroplasts. The IC(50) values of the most active derivatives are in fact only 1 order of magnitude higher than those of commercial herbicides sharing the same mode of action, such as Diuron (0.27 μM). QSAR studies indicate that the most efficient compounds are those having higher ability to accept electrons, either by a reduction process or by an electrophilic reaction mechanism. The results obtained suggest that the rubrolide analogues represent promising candidates for the development of new active principles targeting photosynthesis to be used as herbicides.

  11. Importazole, a small molecule inhibitor of the transport receptor importin-β.

    PubMed

    Soderholm, Jonathan F; Bird, Stephen L; Kalab, Petr; Sampathkumar, Yasaswini; Hasegawa, Keisuke; Uehara-Bingen, Michael; Weis, Karsten; Heald, Rebecca

    2011-07-15

    During interphase, the transport receptor importin-β carries cargoes into the nucleus, where RanGTP releases them. A similar mechanism operates in mitosis to generate a gradient of active spindle assembly factors around mitotic chromosomes. Importin-β and RanGTP have been implicated in additional cellular processes, but the precise roles of the Ran/importin-β pathway throughout the cell cycle remain poorly understood. We implemented a FRET-based, high-throughput small molecule screen for compounds that interfere with the interaction between RanGTP and importin-β and identified importazole, a 2,4-diaminoquinazoline. Importazole specifically blocks importin-β-mediated nuclear import both in Xenopus egg extracts and cultured cells, without disrupting transportin-mediated nuclear import or CRM1-mediated nuclear export. When added during mitosis, importazole impairs the release of an importin-β cargo FRET probe and causes both predicted and novel defects in spindle assembly. Together, these results indicate that importazole specifically inhibits the function of importin-β, likely by altering its interaction with RanGTP. Importazole is a valuable tool to evaluate the function of the importin-β/RanGTP pathway at specific stages during the cell cycle. PMID:21469738

  12. The endocannabinoid anandamide during lactation increases body fat content and CB1 receptor levels in mice adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, C A; Castillo, V A; Llanos, M N

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R) modulate energy balance; thus, their premature activation may result in altered physiology of tissues involved in such a function. Activation of CB1R mainly occurs after binding to the endocannabinoid Anandamide (AEA). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of AEA treatment during lactation on epididymal and body fat content, in addition to CB1R protein level at weaning. With this purpose, male mice pups were orally treated with AEA (20 μg g−1 body weight) or vehicle during lactation. Mice (21 days old) were killed and epididymal fat was extracted to evaluate its amount, adipocyte size and CB1R protein levels by western blot analysis. Total body fat percentage was also evaluated. Anandamide-treated mice showed an increased body fat content at 21 and 150 days of age. Moreover, epididymal adipose tissue amount, adipocyte size and CB1R protein levels were higher in the AEA-treated group. This in vivo study shows for the first time that a progressive increase in body fat accumulation can be programmed in early stages of life by oral treatment with the endocannabinoid AEA, a fact associated with an increased amount of epididymal fat pads and a higher expression of CB1R in this tissue. PMID:26098446

  13. Anandamide hydrolysis in FAAH reveals a dual strategy for efficient enzyme-assisted amide bond cleavage via nitrogen inversion.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Giulia; Campomanes, Pablo; Cavalli, Andrea; Rothlisberger, Ursula; De Vivo, Marco

    2015-01-22

    Herein, we combined classical molecular dynamics (MD) and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations to unravel the whole catalytic cycle of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in complex with anandamide, the main neurotransmitters involved in the control of pain. While microsecond MD simulations of FAAH in a realistic membrane/water environment provided a solid model for the reactant state of the enzymatic complex (Palermo et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2013, 9, 1202-1213.), QM/MM simulations depict now a highly concerted two-step catalytic mechanism characterized by (1) acyl-enzyme formation after hydrolysis of the substrate amide bond and (2) deacylation reaction with restoration of the catalytic machinery. We found that a crucial event for anandamide hydrolysis is the inversion of the reactive nitrogen of the scissile amide bond, which occurs during the acylation rate-limiting step. We show that FAAH uses an exquisite catalytic strategy to induce amide bond distortion, reactive nitrogen inversion, and amide bond hydrolysis, promoting catalysis to completion. This new strategy is likely to be of general applicability to other amidases/peptidases that show similar catalytic site architectures, providing crucial insights for de novo enzyme design or drug discovery efforts.

  14. The endocannabinoid anandamide during lactation increases body fat content and CB1 receptor levels in mice adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, C A; Castillo, V A; Llanos, M N

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R) modulate energy balance; thus, their premature activation may result in altered physiology of tissues involved in such a function. Activation of CB1R mainly occurs after binding to the endocannabinoid Anandamide (AEA). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of AEA treatment during lactation on epididymal and body fat content, in addition to CB1R protein level at weaning. With this purpose, male mice pups were orally treated with AEA (20 μg g(-1) body weight) or vehicle during lactation. Mice (21 days old) were killed and epididymal fat was extracted to evaluate its amount, adipocyte size and CB1R protein levels by western blot analysis. Total body fat percentage was also evaluated. Anandamide-treated mice showed an increased body fat content at 21 and 150 days of age. Moreover, epididymal adipose tissue amount, adipocyte size and CB1R protein levels were higher in the AEA-treated group. This in vivo study shows for the first time that a progressive increase in body fat accumulation can be programmed in early stages of life by oral treatment with the endocannabinoid AEA, a fact associated with an increased amount of epididymal fat pads and a higher expression of CB1R in this tissue. PMID:26098446

  15. Synthesis and Evaluation of in Vitro Bioactivity for Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter Inhibitors Containing Two Carbonyl Groups

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Zhude; Wang, Wei; Cui, Jinquan; Zhang, Xiang; Lu, Xiaoxia; Xu, Jinbin; Parsons, Stanley M.

    2012-01-01

    To identify selective high-affinity ligands for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), we have incorporated a carbonyl group into the structures of trozamicol and prezamicol scaffolds, and also converted the secondary amines of the piperidines of trozamicols and prezamicols into amides. Of 18 new racemic compounds, 4 compounds displayed high affinity for VAChT (Ki = 10 - 20 nM) and greater than 300-fold selectivity for VAChT over σ1 and σ2 receptors, namely (4-(4-fluorobenzoyl)-4'-hydroxy-[1,3'-bipiperidin]-1'-yl)(3-methylthiophen-2-yl)methanone oxalate (9g) (Ki-VAChT = 11.4 nM, VAChT/σ1 = 1063, VAChT/σ2 = 370), (1'-benzoyl-4'-hydroxy-[1,3'-bipiperidin]-4-yl)(4-methoxyphenyl)methanone oxalate (10c) (Ki-VAChT = 15.4 nM, VAChT/σ1 = 374, VAChT/ σ2 = 315), (4'-hydroxy-1'-(thiophene-2-carbonyl)-[1,3'-bipiperidin]-4-yl)(4-methoxyphenyl)methanone oxalate (10e) (Ki-VAChT = 19.0 nM, VAChT/σ1 = 1787, VAChT/ σ2 = 335), and (4'-hydroxy-1'-(3-methylthiophene-2-carbonyl)-[1,3'-bipiperidin]-4-yl)(4-methoxyphenyl)methanone oxalate (10g) (Ki-VAChT = 10.2 nM, VAChT/σ1 = 1500, VAChT/ σ2 = 2030). These 4 compounds can be radiosynthesized with C-11 or F-18 to validate their possibilities of serving as PET probes for quantifying the levels of VAChT in vivo. PMID:22739089

  16. Identification, Ki determination and CoMFA analysis of nuclear receptor ligands as competitive inhibitors of OATP1B1-mediated estradiol-17β-glucuronide transport

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Chunshan; Wahlgren, Brett; Lushington, Gerald H.; Hagenbuch, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Evidence shows that drug-drug interactions can occur at the level of drug transporters such as the organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), a group of membrane solute carriers that mediate the sodium-independent transport of a wide range of amphipathic organic compounds. The polyspecific OATP1B1 is exclusively expressed at the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes and mediates uptake of amphipathic organic compounds from blood into hepatocytes. Nuclear receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that play an important role in xenobiotic disposition and human diseases. Quite a few nuclear receptor ligands interact with transport proteins. A high-resolution three-dimensional structure is critical to understand the polyspecificity of OATP1B1 to predict and prevent adverse drug-drug interactions. Unfortunately there are no crystal structures of OATPs/Oatps available to date. Therefore, in this study we attempted to elucidate the characteristics of the substrate binding site of OATP1B1 based on small molecules interacting with it. First, we identified inhibitors of the OATP1B1 model substrate estradiol-17β-glucuronide from about forty nuclear receptor ligands. Among them, GW1929, paclitaxel and troglitazone were strong inhibitors, while 5α-androstane, 5α-androstane-3β, 17β-diol-17-hexahydrobenzoate and estradiol-3-benzoate were weak inhibitors. Then, we selected 25 compounds and performed inhibition kinetic studies to identify competitive inhibitors and determine their Ki values which ranged from submicromolar to submillimolar. Finally, we performed CoMFA analysis on the identified competitive inhibitors. The CoMFA results indicate that the substrate binding site of OATP1B1 consists of a large hydrophobic middle part with basic residues at both ends that could be very important for substrate binding. PMID:19427586

  17. The anti-tumour agent lonidamine is a potent inhibitor of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier and plasma membrane monocarboxylate transporters.

    PubMed

    Nancolas, Bethany; Guo, Lili; Zhou, Rong; Nath, Kavindra; Nelson, David S; Leeper, Dennis B; Blair, Ian A; Glickson, Jerry D; Halestrap, Andrew P

    2016-04-01

    Lonidamine (LND) is an anti-tumour drug particularly effective at selectively sensitizing tumours to chemotherapy, hyperthermia and radiotherapy, although its precise mode of action remains unclear. It has been reported to perturb the bioenergetics of cells by inhibiting glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration, whereas indirect evidence suggests it may also inhibit L-lactic acid efflux from cells mediated by members of the proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family and also pyruvate uptake into the mitochondria by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC). In the present study, we test these possibilities directly. We demonstrate that LND potently inhibits MPC activity in isolated rat liver mitochondria (Ki2.5 μM) and co-operatively inhibits L-lactate transport by MCT1, MCT2 and MCT4 expressed in Xenopus laevisoocytes with K0.5 and Hill coefficient values of 36-40 μM and 1.65-1.85 respectively. In rat heart mitochondria LND inhibited the MPC with similar potency and uncoupled oxidation of pyruvate was inhibited more effectively (IC50~ 7 μM) than other substrates including glutamate (IC50~ 20 μM). In isolated DB-1 melanoma cells 1-10 μM LND increased L-lactate output, consistent with MPC inhibition, but higher concentrations (150 μM) decreased L-lactate output whereas increasing intracellular [L-lactate] > 5-fold, consistent with MCT inhibition. We conclude that MPC inhibition is the most sensitive anti-tumour target for LND, with additional inhibitory effects on MCT-mediated L-lactic acid efflux and glutamine/glutamate oxidation. Together these actions can account for published data on the selective tumour effects of LND onL-lactate, intracellular pH (pHi) and ATP levels that can be partially mimicked by the established MPC and MCT inhibitor α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (CHC). PMID:26831515

  18. The anti-tumour agent lonidamine is a potent inhibitor of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier and plasma membrane monocarboxylate transporters

    PubMed Central

    Nancolas, Bethany; Guo, Lili; Zhou, Rong; Nath, Kavindra; Nelson, David S.; Leeper, Dennis B.; Blair, Ian A.; Glickson, Jerry D.; Halestrap, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Lonidamine (LND) is an anti-tumour drug particularly effective at selectively sensitising tumours to chemotherapy, hyperthermia and radiotherapy, although its precise mode of action remains unclear. It has been reported to perturb the bioenergetics of cells by inhibiting glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration, while indirect evidence suggests it may also inhibit L-lactic acid efflux from cells mediated by members of the proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family and also pyruvate uptake into the mitochondria by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC). Here we test these possibilities directly. We demonstrate that LND potently inhibits MPC activity in isolated rat liver mitochondria (Ki 2.5 μM) and cooperatively inhibits L-lactate transport by MCT1, MCT2 and MCT4 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes with K0.5 and Hill Coefficient values of 36–40 μM and 1.65–1.85. In rat heart mitochondria LND inhibited the MPC with similar potency and uncoupled oxidation of pyruvate was inhibited more effectively (IC50 ~7 μM) than other substrates including glutamate (IC50 ~20 μM). In isolated DB-1 melanoma cells 1–10 μM LND increased L-lactate output, consistent with MPC inhibition, but higher concentrations (150 μM) decreased L-lactate output while increasing intracellular [L-lactate] > five-fold, consistent with MCT inhibition. We conclude that MPC inhibition is the most sensitive anti-tumour target for LND, with additional inhibitory effects on MCT-mediated L-lactic acid efflux and glutamine/glutamate oxidation. Together these actions can account for published data on the selective tumour effects of LND on L-lactate, intracellular pH (pHi) and ATP levels that can be partially mimicked by the established MPC and MCT inhibitor α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate. PMID:26831515

  19. 1,4-Diphenalkylpiperidines: A new scaffold for the design of potent inhibitors of the vesicular monoamine transporter-2.

    PubMed

    Nickell, Justin R; Culver, John P; Janganati, Venumadhav; Zheng, Guangrong; Dwoskin, Linda P; Crooks, Peter A

    2016-07-01

    A series of 1,4-diphenalkylpiperidine analogs were synthesized and evaluated for their affinity and inhibitory potency at the [(3)H]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) binding site and [(3)H]dopamine (DA) uptake site on the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2). Results revealed that translocation of the phenethyl side chains of lobelane from C2 and C6 to C1 and C4 around the central piperidine ring slightly reduces affinity and inhibitory potency at VMAT2 with respect to lobelane. However, methoxy and fluoro-substitution of either phenyl ring of these 1,4-diphenethyl analogs afforded VMAT2 inhibition comparable or higher (5-fold) affinity at the DTBZ binding and DA uptake sites relative to lobelane, whereas replacement of the 4-phenethyl moiety in these analogs with a 4-phenmethyl moiety markedly reduced affinity for the DTBZ binding and DA uptake sites by 3- and 5-fold, respectively. Among the twenty five 1,4-diphenethylpiperidine analogs evaluated, compounds containing a 4-(2-methoxyphenethyl) moiety exhibited the most potent inhibition of DTBZ binding and vesicular DA uptake. From this subgroup, analogs 8h, 8j and 8m exhibited Ki values of 9.3nM, 13nM and 13nM, respectively, for inhibition of [(3)H]DA uptake by VMAT2, and represent some of the most potent inhibitors of VMAT2 function reported thus far.

  20. The atypical dopamine transport inhibitor, JHW 007, prevents amphetamine-induced sensitization and synaptic reorganization within the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Sánchez, Clara; García-Verdugo, José M; Murga, Juan; Canales, Juan J

    2013-07-01

    Benztropine (BZT) analogs, a family of agents with high affinity for the dopamine transporter have been postulated as potential treatments in stimulant abuse due to their ability to attenuate a wide range of effects evoked by psychomotor stimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine (AMPH). Repeating administration of drugs, including stimulants, can result in behavioral sensitization, a progressive increase in their psychomotor activating effects. We examined in mice the sensitizing effects and the neuroplasticity changes elicited by chronic AMPH exposure, and the modulation of these effects by the BZT derivative and atypical dopamine uptake inhibitor, JHW007, a candidate medication for stimulant abuse. The results indicated that JHW007 did not produce sensitized locomotor activity when given alone but prevented the sensitized motor behavior induced by chronic AMPH administration. Morphological analysis of medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens revealed that JHW 007 prevented the neuroadaptations induced by chronic AMPH exposure, including increments in dendritic arborization, lengthening of dendritic processes and increases in spine density. Furthermore, data revealed that AMPH produced an increase in the density of asymmetric, possibly glutamatergic synapses in the nucleus accumbens, an effect that was also blocked by JHW007 pretreatment. The present observations demonstrate that JHW007 is able to prevent not only AMPH-induced behavioral sensitization but also the long-term structural changes induced by chronic AMPH in the nucleus accumbens. Such findings support the development and evaluation of BZT derivatives as possible leads for treatment in stimulant addiction.

  1. Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors as add-on therapy to insulin: rationale and evidences.

    PubMed

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Singh, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2I) are recently approved class of anti-hyperglycaemic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). SGLT-2I inhibits renal glucose reabsorption, thereby ensuing urinary glucose excretion in a dose-dependent manner. This caloric loss and osmotic diuresis, secondary to increased urinary glucose excretion, has a unique potential to counter insulin induced weight gain and fluid retention, with little potential of hypoglycemic exacerbation. Also, as these agents act independently of insulin secretion or action, they are effective even in long-standing diabetes with depleted β-cell reserve. Improvement in insulin sensitivity, as observed with SGLT-2I can also facilitate insulin action. Furthermore, significant reduction in total daily insulin dosage and reduction of body weight as observed during combination therapy renders SGLT-2I, a near-ideal partner to insulin. This review aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of currently used SGLT-2I as an add-on to insulin therapy in the treatment of T2DM.

  2. Relationship between rate of drug uptake in brain and behavioral pharmacology of monoamine transporter inhibitors in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, Heather L; Negus, S Stevens; Wilcox, Kristin M; Ewing, Sarah B; Stehouwer, Jeffrey; Goodman, Mark M; Votaw, John R; Mello, Nancy K; Carroll, F Ivy; Howell, Leonard L

    2008-09-01

    Although inhibition of dopamine transporters (DAT) and the subsequent increase in dopamine clearly play a role in the effects of psychomotor stimulants, the reinforcing effectiveness of DAT inhibitors varies. Previous studies suggest that pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of these drugs account for this variability. The present studies compared the time course and behavioral effects of five phenyltropane analogs of cocaine with high affinity for DAT and varying time courses of action in rhesus monkeys. The rate of drug uptake in putamen was measured using positron emission tomography neuroimaging. The rank order of the time to peak drug uptake was cocaine

  3. Lactate transport by rainbow trout white muscle: kinetic characteristics and sensitivity to inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Wright, P M; Heigenhauser, G J; Wood, C M

    1997-05-01

    This study used an isolated-perfused tail-trunk preparation of rainbow trout to examine the uptake and release of lactate (Lac) and metabolic protons (delta H+M) in resting and exercised fish white muscle. In exercised muscle, L(+)-Lac efflux was inhibited (approximately 40%) by 5 mM alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (CIN), but not by 0.5 mM 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (SITS) or 0.1 mM amiloride. These results suggest that Lac release occurs through a Lac(-)-H- symport and the free diffusion of lactic acid (HLac) or Lac-, but not via the Lac-/HCO3(-)-Cl- antiporter. Lac efflux was accompanied by delta H+m influx in all treatments, and increased delta H+m influx occurred after SITS treatment. In resting muscle, Lac uptake rates were greater than Lac efflux rates in the postexercise preparation. L-Lac influx exhibited partial saturation kinetics, whereas D(-)-Lac influx was linearly related to its extracellular concentration (0-32 mM). At 16 mM extracellular L-Lac, with a negligible transmembrane L-HLac gradient and an outwardly directed not driving force on L-Lac-, CIN, and SITS reduced net L-Lac uptake by 75 and 45%, respectively. At 16 mM extracellular concentration, D-Lac influx was 64% of the net L-Lac influx. These results suggest that in trout muscle at 16 mM extracellular L-Lac, the Lac -H+ symport accounts for 30-36%, the Lac-/HCO3(-)-Cl- antiport for 39-45%, and diffusion for 19-25% of uptake, although the latter is probably overestimated and the former underestimated for methodological reasons. Net L-Lac efflux was not affected by extracellular D-Lac concentration and/or D-Lac influx, implying the existence of a concurrent L-Lac efflux during L-Lac influx. The D-Lac influx kinetics data indicated that the Lac-/HCO3 antiport was not saturable in the extracellular D-Lac concentration range of 0-32 mM. This study clearly demonstrates the involvement of carrier-mediated transport in transmembrane Lac movement in fish muscle and

  4. Pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Scheen, André J

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several compounds are already available in many countries (dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, empagliflozin and ipragliflozin) and some others are in a late phase of development. The available SGLT2 inhibitors share similar pharmacokinetic characteristics, with a rapid oral absorption, a long elimination half-life allowing once-daily administration, an extensive hepatic metabolism mainly via glucuronidation to inactive metabolites, the absence of clinically relevant drug-drug interactions and a low renal elimination as parent drug. SGLT2 co-transporters are responsible for reabsorption of most (90 %) of the glucose filtered by the kidneys. The pharmacological inhibition of SGLT2 co-transporters reduces hyperglycaemia by decreasing renal glucose threshold and thereby increasing urinary glucose excretion. The amount of glucose excreted in the urine depends on both the level of hyperglycaemia and the glomerular filtration rate. Results of numerous placebo-controlled randomised clinical trials of 12-104 weeks duration have shown significant reductions in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), resulting in a significant increase in the proportion of patients reaching HbA1c targets, and a significant lowering of fasting plasma glucose when SGLT2 inhibitors were administered as monotherapy or in addition to other glucose-lowering therapies including insulin in patients with T2DM. In head-to-head trials of up to 2 years, SGLT2 inhibitors exerted similar glucose-lowering activity to metformin, sulphonylureas or sitagliptin. The durability of the glucose-lowering effect of SGLT2 inhibitors appears to be better; however, this remains to be more extensively investigated. The risk of hypoglycaemia was much lower with SGLT2 inhibitors than with sulphonylureas and was similarly low as that reported with metformin, pioglitazone or sitagliptin

  5. Non-occlusive Mesenteric Ischemia with Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Lactic Acidosis Following the Administration of a Sodium Glucose Co-transporter 2 Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Gocho, Naoki; Aoki, Ema; Okada, Chiho; Omura, Kazuki; Hirashima, Takeshi; Suzuki, Natsuko; Tanaka, Hideki; Omori, Yasue

    2016-01-01

    We herein describe a patient with non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI) potentially associated with the administration of a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor. A 60-year-old man with type 1 diabetes was transferred to our hospital due to vomiting and respiratory distress. He was treated with insulin, metformin and a SGLT2 inhibitor, which had recently been added. He was diagnosed with intestinal ischemia complicated by diabetic ketoacidosis and lactic acidosis. Urgent exploratory surgery was performed, and the gangrenous bowel was resected. Histological findings confirmed the diagnosis of NOMI. The administration of SGLT2 inhibitors therefore requires certain exceptions for type 1 diabetes and cautious monitoring for the occurrence of these possible adverse effects. PMID:27374678

  6. Clinical Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacodynamic, and Drug-Drug Interaction Profile of Canagliflozin, a Sodium-Glucose Co-transporter 2 Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Devineni, Damayanthi; Polidori, David

    2015-10-01

    The sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors represent novel therapeutic approaches in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus; they act on kidneys to decrease the renal threshold for glucose (RTG) and increase urinary glucose excretion (UGE). Canagliflozin is an orally active, reversible, selective SGLT2 inhibitor. Orally administered canagliflozin is rapidly absorbed achieving peak plasma concentrations in 1-2 h. Dose-proportional systemic exposure to canagliflozin has been observed over a wide dose range (50-1600 mg) with an oral bioavailability of 65 %. Canagliflozin is glucuronidated into two inactive metabolites, M7 and M5 by uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A9 and UGT2B4, respectively. Canagliflozin reaches steady state in 4 days, and there is minimal accumulation observed after multiple dosing. Approximately 60 % and 33 % of the administered dose is excreted in the feces and urine, respectively. The half-life of orally administered canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg in healthy participants is 10.6 and 13.1 h, respectively. No clinically relevant differences are observed in canagliflozin exposure with respect to age, race, sex, and body weight. The pharmacokinetics of canagliflozin remains unaffected by mild or moderate hepatic impairment. Systemic exposure to canagliflozin is increased in patients with renal impairment relative to those with normal renal function; however, the efficacy is reduced in patients with renal impairment owing to the reduced filtered glucose load. Canagliflozin did not show clinically relevant drug interactions with metformin, glyburide, simvastatin, warfarin, hydrochlorothiazide, oral contraceptives, probenecid, and cyclosporine, while co-administration with rifampin modestly reduced canagliflozin plasma concentrations and thus may necessitate an appropriate monitoring of glycemic control. Canagliflozin increases UGE and suppresses RTG in a dose-dependent manner, thereby lowering the plasma glucose

  7. MEK1/2 inhibitors activate macrophage ABCG1 expression and reverse cholesterol transport-An anti-atherogenic function of ERK1/2 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Chen, Yuanli; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Jie; Cao, Xingyue; Li, Xiaoju; Li, Luyuan; Miao, Qing Robert; Hajjar, David P; Duan, Yajun; Han, Jihong

    2016-09-01

    Expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1), a molecule facilitating cholesterol efflux to HDL, is activated by liver X receptor (LXR). In this study, we investigated if inhibition of ERK1/2 can activate macrophage ABCG1 expression and functions. MEK1/2 inhibitors, PD98059 and U0126, increased ABCG1 mRNA and protein expression, and activated the natural ABCG1 promoter but not the promoter with the LXR responsive element (LXRE) deletion. Inhibition of ABCG1 expression by ABCG1 siRNA did enhance the formation of macrophage/foam cells and it attenuated the inhibitory effect of MEK1/2 inhibitors on foam cell formation. MEK1/2 inhibitors activated macrophage cholesterol efflux to HDL in vitro, and they enhanced reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in vivo. ApoE deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice receiving U0126 treatment had reduced sinus lesions in the aortic root which was associated with activated macrophage ABCG1 expression in the lesion areas. MEK1/2 inhibitors coordinated the RXR agonist, but not the LXR agonist, to induce ABCG1 expression. Furthermore, induction of ABCG1 expression by MEK1/2 inhibitors was associated with activation of SIRT1, a positive regulator of LXR activity, and inactivation of SULT2B1 and RIP140, two negative regulators of LXR activity. Taken together, our study suggests that MEK1/2 inhibitors activate macrophage ABCG1 expression/RCT, and inhibit foam cell formation and lesion development by multiple mechanisms, supporting the concept that ERK1/2 inhibition is anti-atherogenic. PMID:27365310

  8. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 3-biphenyl-4-yl-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazoles as novel glycine transporter 1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sugane, Takashi; Tobe, Takahiko; Hamaguchi, Wataru; Shimada, Itsuro; Maeno, Kyoichi; Miyata, Junji; Suzuki, Takeshi; Kimizuka, Tetsuya; Kohara, Atsuyuki; Morita, Takuma; Doihara, Hitoshi; Saita, Kyouko; Aota, Masaki; Furutani, Masako; Shimada, Yoshiaki; Hamada, Noritaka; Sakamoto, Shuichi; Tsukamoto, Shin-ichi

    2011-01-13

    We describe the preparation and evaluation of a novel series of glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) inhibitors derived from a high-throughput screening hit. The SAR studies resulted in the discovery of 3-biphenyl-4-yl-4-(2-fluorophenyl)-5-isopropyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole (6p). A pharmacokinetic study was also conducted and revealed that 6p had excellent oral bioavailability and ameliorated learning impairment in passive avoidance tasks in mice.

  9. A diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor, R59022, stimulates glucose transport through a MKK3/6-p38 signaling pathway in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Nagamine, Miho; Tanno, Satoshi; Motomura, Wataru; Kohgo, Yutaka; Okumura, Toshikatsu

    2007-08-17

    Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is one of lipid-regulating enzymes, catalyzes phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid. Because skeletal muscle, a major insulin-target organ for glucose disposal, expresses DGK, we investigated in the present study a role of DGK on glucose transport in skeletal muscle cells. PCR study showed that C2C12 myotubes expressed DGKalpha, delta, epsilon, zeta, or theta isoform mRNA. R59022, a specific inhibitor of DGK, significantly increased glucose transport, p38 and MKK3/6 activation in C2C12 myotubes. The R59022-induced glucose transport was blocked by SB203580, a specific p38 inhibitor. In contrast, R59022 failed to stimulate both possible known mechanisms to enhance glucose transport, an IRS1-PI3K-Akt pathway, muscle contraction signaling or GLUT1 and 4 expression. All these results suggest that DGK may play a role in glucose transport in the skeletal muscle cells through modulating a MKK3/6-p38 signaling pathway. PMID:17588539

  10. Copper oxide and zinc oxide nanomaterials act as inhibitors of multidrug resistance transport in sea urchin embryos: their role as chemosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bing; Torres-Duarte, Cristina; Cole, Bryan J; Cherr, Gary N

    2015-05-01

    The ability of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) to act as inhibitors of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporters in embryos of white sea urchin (Lytechinus pictus) was studied. Nanocopper oxide (nano-CuO), nanozinc oxide (nano-ZnO), and their corresponding metal ions (CuSO4 and ZnSO4) were used as target chemicals. The results showed that nano-CuO, nano-ZnO, CuSO4, and ZnSO4, even at relatively low concentrations (0.5 ppm), significantly increased calcein-AM (CAM, an indicator of ABC transporter activity) accumulation in sea urchin embryos at different stages of development. Exposure to nano-CuO, a very low solubility NM, at increasing times after fertilization (>30 min) decreased CAM accumulation, but nano-ZnO (much more soluble NM) did not, indicating that metal ions could cross the hardened fertilization envelope, but not undissolved metal oxide NMs. Moreover, nontoxic levels (0.5 ppm) of nano-CuO and nano-ZnO significantly increased developmental toxicity of vinblastine (an established ABC transporter substrate) and functioned as chemosensitizers. The multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP, one of ABC transporters) inhibitor MK571 significantly increased copper concentrations in embryos, indicating ABC transporters are important in maintaining low intracellular copper levels. We show that low concentrations of nano-CuO and nano-ZnO can make embryos more susceptible to other contaminants, representing a potent amplification of nanomaterial-related developmental toxicity.

  11. A diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor, R59022, stimulates glucose transport through a MKK3/6-p38 signaling pathway in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Nagamine, Miho; Tanno, Satoshi; Motomura, Wataru; Kohgo, Yutaka; Okumura, Toshikatsu

    2007-08-17

    Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is one of lipid-regulating enzymes, catalyzes phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid. Because skeletal muscle, a major insulin-target organ for glucose disposal, expresses DGK, we investigated in the present study a role of DGK on glucose transport in skeletal muscle cells. PCR study showed that C2C12 myotubes expressed DGKalpha, delta, epsilon, zeta, or theta isoform mRNA. R59022, a specific inhibitor of DGK, significantly increased glucose transport, p38 and MKK3/6 activation in C2C12 myotubes. The R59022-induced glucose transport was blocked by SB203580, a specific p38 inhibitor. In contrast, R59022 failed to stimulate both possible known mechanisms to enhance glucose transport, an IRS1-PI3K-Akt pathway, muscle contraction signaling or GLUT1 and 4 expression. All these results suggest that DGK may play a role in glucose transport in the skeletal muscle cells through modulating a MKK3/6-p38 signaling pathway.

  12. Comparative effects of auxin transport inhibitors on rhizogenesis and mycorrhizal establishment of spruce seedlings inoculated with Laccaria bicolor.

    PubMed

    Rincón, Ana; Priha, Outi; Sotta, Bruno; Bonnet, Magda; Le Tacon, François

    2003-08-01

    We compared the effects of two auxin transport inhibitors (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA)) on rhizogenesis and mycorrhizal establishment of Picea abies L. (Karst.) seedlings inoculated with Laccaria bicolor S238N (Maire) Orton. Inoculation of seedlings with L. bicolor under in vitro conditions strongly increased host root and shoot growth. Although TIBA had no effect on taproot growth, NPA decreased taproot growth and deformed the root apex into a globular shape in both non-inoculated seedlings and seedlings inoculated with L. bicolor. Inoculation with L. bicolor strongly increased lateral rhizogenesis of the seedlings, and application of 100 microM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) partially reproduced this effect. Although TIBA completely inhibited the stimulatory effect of L. bicolor on lateral root formation, NPA inhibited it only partially. Both TIBA and NPA counteracted the effect of exogenous IAA on lateral rhizogenesis. Inoculation with L. bicolor significantly increased shoot growth and seedling dry biomass, whereas application of exogenous IAA had no effect on either parameter. There was no effect of NPA on shoot growth and biomass production. The presence of TIBA completely prevented the development of ectomycorrhizal structures (mantle and Hartig net). In the presence of NPA, the number of seedlings colonized by the fungus was reduced and the degree of development of ectomycorrhizal structures was variable, but not completely prevented. In medium lacking tryptophan, neither TIBA nor NPA inhibited the release of IAA produced by L. bicolor in pure culture. When 100 microM tryptophan was added to the medium, TIBA significantly increased the amount of IAA released by the fungus, whereas NPA had no significant effect. We conclude that fungal IAA plays an important role in plant rhizogenesis and in the establishment of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis.

  13. The potential of inhibitors of endocannabinoid metabolism as anxiolytic and antidepressive drugs--A practical view.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Christopher J

    2015-06-01

    The endocannabinoid system, comprising cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, their endogenous ligands anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglyerol, and their synthetic and metabolic enzymes, are involved in many biological processes in the body, ranging from appetite to bone turnover. Compounds inhibiting the breakdown of anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol increase brain levels of these lipids and thus modulate endocannabinoid signalling. In the present review, the preclinical evidence that these enzymes are good targets for development of novel therapies for anxiety and depression are discussed from a practical, rather than mechanistic, point of view. It is concluded that the preclinical data are promising, albeit tempered by problems of tolerance as well as effects upon learning and memory for irreversible monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitors, and limited by a focus upon male rodents alone. Clinical data so far has been restricted to safety studies with inhibitors of anandamide hydrolysis and a hitherto unpublished study on such a compound in elderly patients with major depressive disorders, but under the dose regimes used, they are well tolerated and show no signs of "cannabis-like" behaviours. PMID:25791296

  14. High-affinity nitrate/nitrite transporters NrtA and NrtB of Aspergillus nidulans exhibit high specificity and different inhibitor sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Naureen; Karabika, Eugenia; Kinghorn, James R.; Glass, Anthony D.M.; Unkles, Shiela E.

    2015-01-01

    The NrtA and NrtB nitrate transporters are paralogous members of the major facilitator superfamily in Aspergillus nidulans. The availability of loss-of-function mutations allowed individual investigation of the specificity and inhibitor sensitivity of both NrtA and NrtB. In this study, growth response tests were carried out at a growth-limiting concentration of nitrate (1 mM) as the sole nitrogen source, in the presence of a number of potential nitrate analogues at various concentrations, to evaluate their effect on nitrate transport. Both chlorate and chlorite inhibited fungal growth, with chlorite exerting the greater inhibition. The main transporter of nitrate, NrtA, proved to be more sensitive to chlorate than the minor transporter, NrtB. Similarly, the cation caesium was shown to exert differential effects, strongly inhibiting the activity of NrtB, but not NrtA. In contrast, no inhibition of nitrate uptake by NrtA or NrtB transporters was observed in either growth tests or uptake assays in the presence of bicarbonate, formate, malonate or oxalate (sulphite could not be tested in uptake assays owing to its reaction with nitrate), indicating significant specificity of nitrate transport. Kinetic analyses of nitrate uptake revealed that both chlorate and chlorite inhibited NrtA competitively, while these same inhibitors inhibited NrtB in a non-competitive fashion. The caesium ion appeared to inhibit NrtA in a non-competitive fashion, while NrtB was inhibited uncompetitively. The results provide further evidence of the distinctly different characteristics as well as the high specificity of nitrate uptake by these two transporters. PMID:25855763

  15. Identification of Selective Inhibitors of the Plasmodium falciparum Hexose Transporter PfHT by Screening Focused Libraries of Anti-Malarial Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Alex; Elya, Carolyn; Anderson, Johanna; Clark, Julie; Connelly, Michele; Yang, Lei; Min, Jaeki; Sato, Yuko; Guy, R. Kiplin; Landfear, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Development of resistance against current antimalarial drugs necessitates the search for novel drugs that interact with different targets and have distinct mechanisms of action. Malaria parasites depend upon high levels of glucose uptake followed by inefficient metabolic utilization via the glycolytic pathway, and the Plasmodium falciparum hexose transporter PfHT, which mediates uptake of glucose, has thus been recognized as a promising drug target. This transporter is highly divergent from mammalian hexose transporters, and it appears to be a permease that is essential for parasite viability in intra-erythrocytic, mosquito, and liver stages of the parasite life cycle. An assay was developed that is appropriate for high throughput screening against PfHT based upon heterologous expression of PfHT in Leishmania mexicana parasites that are null mutants for their endogenous hexose transporters. Screening of two focused libraries of antimalarial compounds identified two such compounds that are high potency selective inhibitors of PfHT compared to human GLUT1. Additionally, 7 other compounds were identified that are lower potency and lower specificity PfHT inhibitors but might nonetheless serve as starting points for identification of analogs with more selective properties. These results further support the potential of PfHT as a novel drug target. PMID:25894322

  16. Discovery of a subtype selective inhibitor of the human betaine/GABA transporter 1 (BGT-1) with a non-competitive pharmacological profile.

    PubMed

    Kragholm, Bolette; Kvist, Trine; Madsen, Karsten K; Jørgensen, Lars; Vogensen, Stine B; Schousboe, Arne; Clausen, Rasmus P; Jensen, Anders A; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2013-08-15

    The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters (GATs) are essential regulators of the activity in the GABAergic system through their continuous uptake of the neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft and extrasynaptic space. Four GAT subtypes have been identified to date, each displaying different pharmacological properties and expression patterns. The present study focus on the human betaine/GABA transporter 1 (BGT-1), which has recently emerged as a new target for treatment of epilepsy. However, the lack of selective inhibitors of this transporter has impaired the exploration of this potential considerably. With the objective of identifying novel compounds displaying selectivity for BGT-1, we performed a screening of a small compound library at cells expressing BGT-1 using a [(3)H]GABA uptake assay. The screening resulted in the identification of the compound N-(1-benzyl-4-piperidinyl)-2,4-dichlorobenzamide (BPDBA), a selective inhibitor of the human BGT-1 transporter with a non-competitive profile exhibiting no significant inhibitory activity at the other three human GAT subtypes. The selectivity profile of the compound was subsequently confirmed at cells expressing the four mouse GAT subtypes. Thus, BPDBA constitutes a potential useful pharmacological tool compound for future explorations of the function of the BGT-1 subtype.

  17. Impact of passive permeability and gut efflux transport on the oral bioavailability of novel series of piperidine-based renin inhibitors in rodents.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Jean-François; Bleasby, Kelly; Chefson, Amandine; Chen, Austin; Dubé, Daniel; Ducharme, Yves; Fournier, Pierre-André; Gagné, Sébastien; Gallant, Michel; Grimm, Erich; Hafey, Michael; Han, Yongxin; Houle, Robert; Lacombe, Patrick; Laliberté, Sébastien; MacDonald, Dwight; Mackay, Bruce; Papp, Robert; Tschirret-Guth, Richard

    2011-09-15

    An oral bioavailability issue encountered during the course of lead optimization in the renin program is described herein. The low F(po) of pyridone analogs was shown to be caused by a combination of poor passive permeability and gut efflux transport. Substitution of pyridone ring for a more lipophilic moiety (logD>1.7) had minimal effect on rMdr1a transport but led to increased passive permeability (P(app)>10 × 10(-6) cm/s), which contributed to overwhelm gut transporters and increase rat F(po). LogD and in vitro passive permeability determination were found to be key in guiding SAR and improve oral exposure of renin inhibitors.

  18. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of the effect of an sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibitor, phlorizin, on renal glucose transport in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Koji; Kato, Motohiro; Suzuki, Masayuki; Asanuma, Kimie; Aso, Yoshinori; Ikeda, Sachiya; Ishigai, Masaki

    2011-10-01

    A pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model for the inhibitory effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) inhibitors on renal glucose reabsorption was developed to predict in vivo efficacy. First, using the relationship between renal glucose clearance and plasma glucose level in rats and both the glucose affinity and transport capacity obtained from in vitro vesicle experiments, a pharmacodynamic model analysis was performed based on a nonlinear parallel tube model to express the renal glucose transport mediated by SGLT1 and SGLT2. This model suitably expressed the relationship between plasma glucose level and renal glucose excretion. A PK-PD model was developed next to analyze the inhibitory effect of phlorizin on renal glucose reabsorption. The PK-PD model analysis was performed using averaged concentrations of both the drug and glucose in plasma and the corresponding renal glucose clearance. The model suitably expressed the concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of phlorizin on renal glucose reabsorption. The in vivo inhibition constants of phlorizin for SGLT in rats were estimated to be 67 nM for SGLT1 and 252 nM for SGLT2, which are similar to the in vitro data reported previously. This suggests that the in vivo efficacy of SGLT inhibitors could be predicted from an in vitro study based on the present PK-PD model. The present model is based on physiological and biochemical parameters and, therefore, would be helpful in understanding individual differences in the efficacy of an SGLT inhibitor.

  19. Interactions of human P-glycoprotein transport substrates and inhibitors at the drug binding domain: Functional and molecular docking analyses.

    PubMed

    Kadioglu, Onat; Saeed, Mohamed E M; Valoti, Massimo; Frosini, Maria; Sgaragli, Giampietro; Efferth, Thomas

    2016-03-15

    Rhodamine 123 (R123) transport substrate sensitizes P-glycoprotein (P-gp) to inhibition by compound 2c (cis-cis) N,N-bis(cyclohexanolamine)aryl ester isomer in a concentration-dependent manner in human MDR1-gene transfected mouse T-lymphoma L5178 cells as shown previously. By contrast, epirubicin (EPI) concentration changes left unaltered 2c IC50 values of EPI efflux. To clarify this discrepancy, defined molecular docking (DMD) analyses of 12 N,N-bis(cyclohexanolamine)aryl esters, the highly flexible aryl ester analog 4, and several P-gp substrate/non-substrate inhibitors were performed on human P-gp drug- or nucleotide-binding domains (DBD or NBD). DMD measurements yielded lowest binding energy (LBE, kcal/mol) values (mean ± SD) ranging from -11.8 ± 0.54 (valspodar) to -3.98 ± 0.01 (4). Lys234, Ser952 and Tyr953 residues formed H-bonds with most of the compounds. Only 2c docked also at ATP binding site (LBE value of -6.9 ± 0.30 kcal/mol). Inhibition of P-gp-mediated R123 efflux by 12 N,N-bis(cyclohexanolamine)aryl esters and 4 significantly correlated with LBE values. DMD analysis of EPI, (3)H-1EPI, (3)H-2EPI, (14)C-1EPI, (14)C-2EPI, R123 and 2c before and after previous docking of each of them indicated that pre-docking of either 2c or EPI significantly reduced LBE of both EPI and R123, and that of both (3)H-2EPI and (14)C-2EPI, respectively. Since the clusters of DBD amino acid residues interacting with EPI were different, if EPI docked alone or after pre-docking of EPI or 2c, the existence of alternative secondary binding site for EPI on P-gp is credible. In conclusion, 2c may allocate the drug-binding pocket and reduce strong binding of EPI and R123 in agreement with P-gp inhibition experiments, where 2c reduced efflux of EPI and R123.

  20. Interactions of human P-glycoprotein transport substrates and inhibitors at the drug binding domain: Functional and molecular docking analyses.

    PubMed

    Kadioglu, Onat; Saeed, Mohamed E M; Valoti, Massimo; Frosini, Maria; Sgaragli, Giampietro; Efferth, Thomas

    2016-03-15

    Rhodamine 123 (R123) transport substrate sensitizes P-glycoprotein (P-gp) to inhibition by compound 2c (cis-cis) N,N-bis(cyclohexanolamine)aryl ester isomer in a concentration-dependent manner in human MDR1-gene transfected mouse T-lymphoma L5178 cells as shown previously. By contrast, epirubicin (EPI) concentration changes left unaltered 2c IC50 values of EPI efflux. To clarify this discrepancy, defined molecular docking (DMD) analyses of 12 N,N-bis(cyclohexanolamine)aryl esters, the highly flexible aryl ester analog 4, and several P-gp substrate/non-substrate inhibitors were performed on human P-gp drug- or nucleotide-binding domains (DBD or NBD). DMD measurements yielded lowest binding energy (LBE, kcal/mol) values (mean ± SD) ranging from -11.8 ± 0.54 (valspodar) to -3.98 ± 0.01 (4). Lys234, Ser952 and Tyr953 residues formed H-bonds with most of the compounds. Only 2c docked also at ATP binding site (LBE value of -6.9 ± 0.30 kcal/mol). Inhibition of P-gp-mediated R123 efflux by 12 N,N-bis(cyclohexanolamine)aryl esters and 4 significantly correlated with LBE values. DMD analysis of EPI, (3)H-1EPI, (3)H-2EPI, (14)C-1EPI, (14)C-2EPI, R123 and 2c before and after previous docking of each of them indicated that pre-docking of either 2c or EPI significantly reduced LBE of both EPI and R123, and that of both (3)H-2EPI and (14)C-2EPI, respectively. Since the clusters of DBD amino acid residues interacting with EPI were different, if EPI docked alone or after pre-docking of EPI or 2c, the existence of alternative secondary binding site for EPI on P-gp is credible. In conclusion, 2c may allocate the drug-binding pocket and reduce strong binding of EPI and R123 in agreement with P-gp inhibition experiments, where 2c reduced efflux of EPI and R123. PMID:26807479

  1. Pressure-induced inhibition of fast axonal transport of proteins in the rabbit vagus nerve in galactose neuropathy: prevention by an aldose reductase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    McLean, W G

    1988-07-01

    Fast and slow anterograde axonal transport and retrograde axonal transport of proteins were studied in the mainly non-myelinated sensory fibres of the vagus nerve of rabbits fed a diet of 50% galactose over a period of 29 days. Galactose feeding had no effect on the rate or protein composition of slow transport nor on the amount of retrogradely transported proteins. There was a slight retardation of fast transported proteins although their composition was unchanged. The galactose feeding led to a significant increase (p less than 0.005) in nerve water content and nerve galactitol but no significant change in myo-inositol. When 20 mm Hg pressure was applied locally to the cervical vagus nerve, fast transported proteins accumulated proximal to the compression zone in the galactose-fed but not in control rabbits. Administration of the aldose reductase inhibitor Statil (ICI 128436) throughout the experiment prevented the increased susceptibility to pressure and the increase in nerve galactitol and water content. The effects of pressure are similar to those found in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat although the underlying mechanisms may differ.

  2. Guineensine is a novel inhibitor of endocannabinoid uptake showing cannabimimetic behavioral effects in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Nicolussi, Simon; Viveros-Paredes, Juan Manuel; Gachet, María Salomé; Rau, Mark; Flores-Soto, Mario Eduardo; Blunder, Martina; Gertsch, Jürg

    2014-02-01

    High-content screening led to the identification of the N-isobutylamide guineensine from Piper nigrum as novel nanomolar inhibitor (EC50=290nM) of cellular uptake of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA). Noteworthy, guineensine did not inhibit endocannabinoid degrading enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) nor interact with cannabinoid receptors or fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5), a major cytoplasmic AEA carrier. Activity-based protein profiling showed no inhibition of serine hydrolases. Guineensine also inhibited the cellular uptake of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Preliminary structure-activity relationships between natural guineensine analogs indicate the importance of the alkyl chain length interconnecting the pharmacophoric isobutylamide and benzodioxol moieties for AEA cellular uptake inhibition. Guineensine dose-dependently induced cannabimimetic effects in BALB/c mice shown by strong catalepsy, hypothermia, reduced locomotion and analgesia. The catalepsy and analgesia were blocked by the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR141716A). Guineensine is a novel plant natural product which specifically inhibits endocannabinoid uptake in different cell lines independent of FAAH. Its scaffold may be useful to identify yet unknown targets involved in endocannabinoid transport.

  3. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of inhibitor-sensitive (mENT1) and inhibitor-resistant (mENT2) equilibrative nucleoside transporters from mouse brain.

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, A; Farah, K; Kim, J; Garriock, R J; Drysdale, T A; Hammond, J R

    2000-01-01

    Mammalian cells express at least two subtypes of equilibrative nucleoside transporters, i.e. ENT1 and ENT2, which can be distinguished functionally by their sensitivity and resistance respectively to inhibition by nitrobenzylthioinosine. The ENT1 transporters exhibit distinctive species differences in their sensitivities to inhibition by dipyridamole, dilazep and draflazine (human>mouse>rat). A comparison of the ENT1 structures in the three species would facilitate the identification of the regions involved in the actions of these cardioprotective agents. We now report the molecular cloning and functional expression of the murine (m)ENT1 and mENT2 transporters. mENT1 and mENT2 encode proteins containing 458 and 456 residues respectively, with a predicted 11-transmembrane-domain topology. mENT1 has 88% and 78% amino acid identity with rat ENT1 and human ENT1 respectively; mENT2 is more highly conserved, with 94% and 88% identity with rat ENT2 and human ENT2 respectively. We have also isolated two additional distinct cDNAs that encode proteins similar to mENT1; these probably represent distinct mENT1 isoforms or alternative splicing products. One cDNA encodes a protein with two additional amino acids (designated mENT1b) that adds a potential protein kinase CK2 phosphorylation site in the central intracellular loop of the transporter, and is similar, in this regard, to the human and rat ENT1 orthologues. The other cDNA has a 5'-untranslated region sequence that is distinct from that of full-length mENT1. Microinjection of mENT1, mENT1b or mENT2 cRNA into Xenopus oocytes resulted in enhanced uptake of [(3)H]uridine by the oocytes relative to that seen in water-injected controls. mENT1-mediated, but not mENT2-mediated, [(3)H]uridine uptake was inhibited by nitrobenzylthioinosine and dilazep. Dipyridamole inhibited both mENT1 and mENT2, but was significantly more effective against mENT1. Adenosine inhibited both systems with a similar potency, as did a range of other

  4. Concise Asymmetric Synthesis and Pharmacological Characterization of All Stereoisomers of Glutamate Transporter Inhibitor TFB-TBOA and Synthesis of EAAT Photoaffinity Probes.

    PubMed

    Leuenberger, Michele; Ritler, Andreas; Simonin, Alexandre; Hediger, Matthias A; Lochner, Martin

    2016-05-18

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. Its rapid clearance after the release into the synaptic cleft is vital in order to avoid toxic effects and is ensured by several transmembrane transport proteins, so-called excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). Impairment of glutamate removal has been linked to several neurodegenerative diseases and EAATs have therefore received increased attention as therapeutic targets. O-Benzylated l-threo-β-hydroxyaspartate derivatives have been developed previously as highly potent inhibitors of EAATs with TFB-TBOA ((2S,3S)-2-amino-3-((3-(4-(trifluoromethyl)benzamido)benzyl)oxy)succinic acid) standing out as low-nanomolar inhibitor. We report the stereoselective synthesis of all four stereoisomers of TFB-TBOA in less than a fifth of synthetic steps than the published route. For the first time, the inhibitory activity and isoform selectivity of these TFB-TBOA enantio- and diastereomers were assessed on human glutamate transporters EAAT1-3. Furthermore, we synthesized potent photoaffinity probes based on TFB-TBOA using our novel synthetic strategy. PMID:26918289

  5. Identification of new highly selective inhibitors of the human ADP/ATP carriers by molecular docking and in vitro transport assays.

    PubMed

    Todisco, Simona; Di Noia, Maria Antonietta; Onofrio, Angelo; Parisi, Giovanni; Punzi, Giuseppe; Redavid, Giandomenico; De Grassi, Anna; Pierri, Ciro Leonardo

    2016-01-15

    Mitochondrial carriers are proteins that shuttle a variety of metabolites, nucleotides and coenzymes across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers (AACs) specifically translocate the ATP synthesized within mitochondria to the cytosol in exchange for the cytosolic ADP, playing a key role in energy production, in promoting cell viability and regulating mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. In Homo sapiens four genes code for AACs with different tissue distribution and expression patterns. Since AACs are dysregulated in several cancer types, the employment of known and new AAC inhibitors might be crucial for inducing mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells. Albeit carboxyatractyloside (CATR) and bongkrekic acid (BKA) are known to be powerful and highly selective AAC inhibitors, able to induce mitochondrial dysfunction at molecular level and poisoning at physiological level, we estimated here for the first time their affinity for the human recombinant AAC2 by in vitro transport assays. We found that the inhibition constants of CATR and BKA are 4 nM and 2.0 μM, respectively. For finding new AAC inhibitors we also performed a docking-based virtual screening of an in-house developed chemical library and we identified about 100 ligands showing high affinity for the AAC2 binding region. By testing 13 commercially available molecules, out of the 100 predicted candidates, we found that 2 of them, namely suramin and chebulinic acid, are competitive AAC2 inhibitors with inhibition constants 0.3 μM and 2.1 μM, respectively. We also demonstrated that chebulinic acid and suramin are "highly selective" AAC2 inhibitors, since they poorly inhibit other human mitochondrial carriers (namely ORC1, APC1 and AGC1).

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors interact with ATP binding cassette transporter 4/multidrug resistance protein 4: a basis for unanticipated enhanced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Yu; Takenaka, Kazumasa; Sparreboom, Alex; Cheepala, Satish B; Wu, Chung-Pu; Ekins, Sean; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Schuetz, John D

    2013-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pharmacotherapy, by combining different drug classes such as nucleoside analogs and HIV protease inhibitors (PIs), has increased HIV-patient life expectancy. Consequently, among these patients, an increase in non-HIV-associated cancers has produced a patient cohort requiring both HIV and cancer chemotherapy. We hypothesized that multidrug resistance protein 4/ATP binding cassette transporter 4 (MRP4/ABCC4), a widely expressed transporter of nucleoside-based antiviral medications as well as cancer therapeutics might interact with PIs. Among the PIs evaluated (nelfinavir, ritonavir, amprenavir, saquinavir, and indinavir), only nelfinavir both effectively stimulated MRP4 ATPase activity and inhibited substrate-stimulated ATPase activity. Saos2 and human embryonic kidney 293 cells engineered to overexpress MRP4 were then used to assess transport and cytotoxicity. MRP4 expression reduced intracellular accumulation of nelfinavir and consequently conferred survival advantage to nelfinavir cytotoxicity. Nelfinavir blocked Mrp4-mediated export, which is consistent with its ability to increase the sensitivity of MRP4-expressing cells to methotrexate. In contrast, targeted inactivation of Abcc4/Mrp4 in mouse cells specifically enhanced nelfinavir and 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl) adenine cytotoxicity. These results suggest that nelfinavir is both an inhibitor and substrate of MRP4. Because nelfinavir is a new MRP4/ABCC4 substrate, we developed a MRP4/ABCC4 pharmacophore model, which showed that the nelfinavir binding site is shared with chemotherapeutic substrates such as adefovir and methotrexate. Our studies reveal, for the first time, that nelfinavir, a potent and cytotoxic PI, is both a substrate and inhibitor of MRP4. These findings suggest that HIV-infected cancer patients receiving nelfinavir might experience both enhanced antitumor efficacy and unexpected adverse toxicity given the role of MRP4/ABCC4 in exporting nucleoside

  7. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Inhibitors Interact with ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 4/Multidrug Resistance Protein 4: A Basis for Unanticipated Enhanced Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Yu; Takenaka, Kazumasa; Sparreboom, Alex; Cheepala, Satish B.; Wu, Chung-Pu; Ekins, Sean; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pharmacotherapy, by combining different drug classes such as nucleoside analogs and HIV protease inhibitors (PIs), has increased HIV-patient life expectancy. Consequently, among these patients, an increase in non-HIV–associated cancers has produced a patient cohort requiring both HIV and cancer chemotherapy. We hypothesized that multidrug resistance protein 4/ATP binding cassette transporter 4 (MRP4/ABCC4), a widely expressed transporter of nucleoside-based antiviral medications as well as cancer therapeutics might interact with PIs. Among the PIs evaluated (nelfinavir, ritonavir, amprenavir, saquinavir, and indinavir), only nelfinavir both effectively stimulated MRP4 ATPase activity and inhibited substrate-stimulated ATPase activity. Saos2 and human embryonic kidney 293 cells engineered to overexpress MRP4 were then used to assess transport and cytotoxicity. MRP4 expression reduced intracellular accumulation of nelfinavir and consequently conferred survival advantage to nelfinavir cytotoxicity. Nelfinavir blocked Mrp4-mediated export, which is consistent with its ability to increase the sensitivity of MRP4-expressing cells to methotrexate. In contrast, targeted inactivation of Abcc4/Mrp4 in mouse cells specifically enhanced nelfinavir and 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl) adenine cytotoxicity. These results suggest that nelfinavir is both an inhibitor and substrate of MRP4. Because nelfinavir is a new MRP4/ABCC4 substrate, we developed a MRP4/ABCC4 pharmacophore model, which showed that the nelfinavir binding site is shared with chemotherapeutic substrates such as adefovir and methotrexate. Our studies reveal, for the first time, that nelfinavir, a potent and cytotoxic PI, is both a substrate and inhibitor of MRP4. These findings suggest that HIV-infected cancer patients receiving nelfinavir might experience both enhanced antitumor efficacy and unexpected adverse toxicity given the role of MRP4/ABCC4 in exporting nucleoside

  8. Optimization of the choline transporter (CHT) inhibitor ML352: Development of VU6001221, an improved in vivo tool compound.

    PubMed

    Bertron, Jeanette L; Ennis, Elizabeth A; Tarr, Christopher J; Wright, Jane; Dickerson, Jonathan W; Locuson, Charles W; Blobaum, Anna L; Rook, Jerri M; Blakely, Randy D; Lindsley, Craig W

    2016-10-01

    This Letter describes the further lead optimization of the CHT inhibitor probe, ML352 (VU0476201), and the development of VU6001221, an improved in vivo tool. A multi-dimensional optimization effort encountered steep SAR, and ultimately, subtle tuning of the electronics of the central phenyl core provided VU6001221, a CHT inhibitor with comparable potency for choline uptake inhibition as ML352, yet improved PK and CNS penetration. Moreover, VU6001221 enabled evaluation, for the first time, of a CHT inhibitor in a standard preclinical rodent cognition model, novel object recognition (NOR). We observed VU6001221 to elicit a dose-responsive increase in NOR, raising the possibility of agonism of synaptic α7 nicotinic ACh receptors by elevated extracellular choline, that if confirmed would represent a novel molecular strategy to enhance cognition. PMID:27575469

  9. [Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors: from the bark of apple trees and familial renal glycosuria to the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Mauricio, Dídac

    2013-09-01

    The therapeutic armamentarium for the treatment of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus is still inadequate. We are currently witnessing the introduction of a new mode of hypoglycemic treatment through induction of glycosuria to decrease the availability of the metabolic substrate, i.e. glucose. Clinical trials have shown that sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are as efficacious as other oral hypoglycemic drugs. This article discusses the basic features of this new treatment concept and the efficacy and safety of this new drug group.

  10. [Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors: from the bark of apple trees and familial renal glycosuria to the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Mauricio, Dídac

    2013-09-01

    The therapeutic armamentarium for the treatment of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus is still inadequate. We are currently witnessing the introduction of a new mode of hypoglycemic treatment through induction of glycosuria to decrease the availability of the metabolic substrate, i.e. glucose. Clinical trials have shown that sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are as efficacious as other oral hypoglycemic drugs. This article discusses the basic features of this new treatment concept and the efficacy and safety of this new drug group. PMID:24444522

  11. Novel inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Sit, S Y; Conway, Charlie; Bertekap, Robert; Xie, Kai; Bourin, Clotilde; Burris, Kevin; Deng, Hongfeng

    2007-06-15

    A class of bisarylimidazole derivatives are identified as potent inhibitors of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Compound 17 (IC(50)=2 nM) dose-dependently (0.1-10mg/kg, iv) potentiates the effects of exogenous anandamide (1 mg/kg, iv) in a rat thermal escape test (Hargreaves test), and shows robust antinociceptive activity in animal models of persistent (formalin test) and neuropathic (Chung model) pain. Compound 17 (20 mg/kg, iv) demonstrates activity in the formalin test that is comparable to morphine (3mg/kg, iv), and is dose-dependently inhibited by the CB1 antagonist SR141716A. In the Chung model, compound 17 shows antineuropathic effects similar to high-dose (100 mg/kg) gabapentin. FAAH inhibition shows potential utility for the clinical treatment of persistent and neuropathic pain.

  12. O-Hydroxyacetamide Carbamates as a Highly Potent and Selective Class of Endocannabinoid Hydrolase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The two major endocannabinoid transmitters, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are degraded by distinct enzymes in the nervous system, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), respectively. FAAH and MAGL inhibitors cause elevations in brain AEA and 2-AG levels, respectively, and reduce pain, anxiety, and depression in rodents without causing the full spectrum of psychotropic behavioral effects observed with direct cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1) agonists. These findings have inspired the development of several classes of endocannabinoid hydrolase inhibitors, most of which have been optimized to show specificity for either FAAH or MAGL or, in certain cases, equipotent activity for both enzymes. Here, we investigate an unusual class of O-hydroxyacetamide carbamate inhibitors and find that individual compounds from this class can serve as selective FAAH or dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitors in vivo across a dose range (0.125–12.5 mg kg–1) suitable for behavioral studies. Competitive and click chemistry activity-based protein profiling confirmed that the O-hydroxyacetamide carbamate SA-57 is remarkably selective for FAAH and MAGL in vivo, targeting only one other enzyme in brain, the additional 2-AG hydrolase ABHD6. These data designate O-hydroxyacetamide carbamates as a versatile chemotype for creating endocannabinoid hydrolase inhibitors that display excellent in vivo activity and tunable selectivity for FAAH-anandamide versus MAGL (and ABHD6)-2-AG pathways. PMID:22860211

  13. Design, synthesis and pharmacological characterization of coumarin-based fluorescent analogs of excitatory amino acid transporter subtype 1 selective inhibitors, UCPH-101 and UCPH-102.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Tri H V; Abrahamsen, Bjarke; Madsen, Karsten K; Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Jensen, Anders A; Bunch, Lennart

    2012-12-01

    The excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) play a pivotal role in regulating the synaptic concentration of glutamate in the mammalian central nervous system. To date, five different subtypes have been identified, named EAAT15 in humans (and GLAST, GLT-1, EAAC1, EAAT4, and EAAT5, respectively, in rodents). Recently, we have published and presented a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of a novel class of selective inhibitors of EAAT1 (and GLAST), with the analogs UCPH-101 (IC(50)=0.66μM) and UCPH-102 (IC(50)=0.43μM) being the most potent inhibitors in the series. In this paper, we present the design, synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of six coumarin-based fluorescent analogs of UCPH-101/102 as subtype-selective inhibitors at EAAT1. Analogs 1114 failed to inhibit EAAT1 function (IC(50) values >300μM), whereas analogs 15 and UCPH-102F inhibited EAAT1 with IC(50) values in the medium micromolar range (17μM and 14μM, respectively). Under physiological pH no fluorescence was observed for analog 15, while a bright blue fluorescence emission was observed for analog UCPH-102F. Regrettably, under confocal laser scanning microscopy selective visualization of expression of EAAT1 over EAAT3 was not possible due to nonspecific binding of UCPH-102F. PMID:23072958

  14. In vitro investigations into the roles of drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes in the disposition and drug interactions of dolutegravir, a HIV integrase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Reese, Melinda J; Savina, Paul M; Generaux, Grant T; Tracey, Helen; Humphreys, Joan E; Kanaoka, Eri; Webster, Lindsey O; Harmon, Kelly A; Clarke, James D; Polli, Joseph W

    2013-02-01

    Dolutegravir (DTG; S/GSK1349572) is a potent HIV-1 integrase inhibitor with a distinct resistance profile and a once-daily dose regimen that does not require pharmacokinetic boosting. This work investigated the in vitro drug transport and metabolism of DTG and assessed the potential for clinical drug-drug interactions. DTG is a substrate for the efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Its high intrinsic membrane permeability limits the impact these transporters have on DTG's intestinal absorption. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 is the main enzyme responsible for the metabolism of DTG in vivo, with cytochrome P450 (P450) 3A4 being a notable pathway and UGT1A3 and UGT1A9 being only minor pathways. DTG demonstrated little or no inhibition (IC(50) values > 30 μM) in vitro of the transporters Pgp, BCRP, multidrug resistance protein 2, organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1/3, organic cation transporter (OCT) 1, or the drug metabolizing enzymes CYP1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 3A4, UGT1A1, or 2B7. Further, DTG did not induce CYP1A2, 2B6, or 3A4 mRNA in vitro using human hepatocytes. DTG does inhibit the renal OCT2 (IC(50) = 1.9 μM) transporter, which provides a mechanistic basis for the mild increases in serum creatinine observed in clinical studies. These in vitro studies demonstrate a low propensity for DTG to be a perpetrator of clinical drug interactions and provide a basis for predicting when other drugs could result in a drug interaction with DTG. PMID:23132334

  15. Vaccenic acid suppresses intestinal inflammation by increasing anandamide and related N-acylethanolamines in the JCR:LA-cp rat.

    PubMed

    Jacome-Sosa, Miriam; Vacca, Claudia; Mangat, Rabban; Diane, Abdoulaye; Nelson, Randy C; Reaney, Martin J; Shen, Jianheng; Curtis, Jonathan M; Vine, Donna F; Field, Catherine J; Igarashi, Miki; Piomelli, Daniele; Banni, Sebastiano; Proctor, Spencer D

    2016-04-01

    Vaccenic acid (VA), the predominant ruminant-derivedtransfat in the food chain, ameliorates hyperlipidemia, yet mechanisms remain elusive. We investigated whether VA could influence tissue endocannabinoids (ECs) by altering the availability of their biosynthetic precursor, arachidonic acid (AA), in membrane phospholipids (PLs). JCR:LA-cprats were assigned to a control diet with or without VA (1% w/w),cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (1% w/w) or VA+CLA (1% + 0.5% w/w) for 8 weeks. VA reduced the EC, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), in the liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) relative to control diet (P< 0.001), but did not change AA in tissue PLs. There was no additive effect of combining VA+CLA on 2-AG relative to VA alone (P> 0.05). Interestingly, VA increased jejunal concentrations of anandamide and those of the noncannabinoid signaling molecules, oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide, relative to control diet (P< 0.05). This was consistent with a lower jejunal protein abundance (but not activity) of their degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase, as well as the mRNA expression of TNFα and interleukin 1β (P< 0.05). The ability of VA to reduce 2-AG in the liver and VAT provides a potential mechanistic explanation to alleviate ectopic lipid accumulation. The opposing regulation of ECs and other noncannabinoid lipid signaling molecules by VA suggests an activation of benefit via the EC system in the intestine.

  16. Forces and Dynamics of Glucose and Inhibitor Binding to Sodium Glucose Co-transporter SGLT1 Studied by Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy*

    PubMed Central

    Neundlinger, Isabel; Puntheeranurak, Theeraporn; Wildling, Linda; Rankl, Christian; Wang, Lai-Xi; Gruber, Hermann J.; Kinne, Rolf K. H.; Hinterdorfer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Single molecule force spectroscopy was employed to investigate the dynamics of the sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT1) upon substrate and inhibitor binding on the single molecule level. CHO cells stably expressing rbSGLT1 were probed by using atomic force microscopy tips carrying either thioglucose, 2′-aminoethyl β-d-glucopyranoside, or aminophlorizin. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains of different length and varying end groups were used as tether. Experiments were performed at 10, 25 and 37 °C to address different conformational states of SGLT1. Unbinding forces between ligands and SGLT1 were recorded at different loading rates by changing the retraction velocity, yielding binding probability, width of energy barrier of the binding pocket, and the kinetic off rate constant of the binding reaction. With increasing temperature, width of energy barrier and average life time increased for the interaction of SGLT1 with thioglucose (coupled via acrylamide to a long PEG) but decreased for aminophlorizin binding. The former indicates that in the membrane-bound SGLT1 the pathway to sugar translocation involves several steps with different temperature sensitivity. The latter suggests that also the aglucon binding sites for transport inhibitors have specific, temperature-sensitive conformations. PMID:24962566

  17. Reversible competitive α-ketoheterocycle inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase containing additional conformational constraints in the acyl side chain: orally active, long-acting analgesics.

    PubMed

    Ezzili, Cyrine; Mileni, Mauro; McGlinchey, Nicholas; Long, Jonathan Z; Kinsey, Steven G; Hochstatter, Dustin G; Stevens, Raymond C; Lichtman, Aron H; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Bilsky, Edward J; Boger, Dale L

    2011-04-28

    A series of α-ketooxazoles containing conformational constraints in the C2 acyl side chain of 2 (OL-135) were examined as inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Only one of the two possible enantiomers displayed potent FAAH inhibition (S vs R enantiomer), and their potency is comparable or improved relative to 2, indicating that the conformational restriction in the C2 acyl side chain is achievable. A cocrystal X-ray structure of the α-ketoheterocycle 12 bound to a humanized variant of rat FAAH revealed its binding details, confirmed that the (S)-enantiomer is the bound active inhibitor, shed light on the origin of the enantiomeric selectivity, and confirmed that the catalytic Ser241 is covalently bound to the electrophilic carbonyl as a deprotonated hemiketal. Preliminary in vivo characterization of the inhibitors 12 and 14 is reported demonstrating that they raise brain anandamide levels following either intraperitoneal (ip) or oral (po) administration indicative of effective in vivo FAAH inhibition. Significantly, the oral administration of 12 caused dramatic accumulation of anandamide in the brain, with peak levels achieved between 1.5 and 3 h, and these elevations were maintained over 9 h. Additional studies of these two representative members of the series (12 and 14) in models of thermal hyperalgesia and neuropathic pain are reported, including the demonstration that 12 administered orally significantly attenuated mechanical (>6 h) and cold (>9 h) allodynia for sustained periods consistent with its long-acting effects in raising the endogenous concentration of anandamide.

  18. Metformin Is a Substrate and Inhibitor of the Human Thiamine Transporter, THTR-2 (SLC19A3).

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaomin; Chien, Huan-Chieh; Yee, Sook Wah; Giacomini, Marilyn M; Chen, Eugene C; Piao, Meiling; Hao, Jia; Twelves, Jolyn; Lepist, Eve-Irene; Ray, Adrian S; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2015-12-01

    The biguanide metformin is widely used as first-line therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Predominately a cation at physiological pH's, metformin is transported by membrane transporters, which play major roles in its absorption and disposition. Recently, our laboratory demonstrated that organic cation transporter 1, OCT1, the major hepatic uptake transporter for metformin, was also the primary hepatic uptake transporter for thiamine, vitamin B1. In this study, we tested the reverse, i.e., that metformin is a substrate of thiamine transporters (THTR-1, SLC19A2, and THTR-2, SLC19A3). Our study demonstrated that human THTR-2 (hTHTR-2), SLC19A3, which is highly expressed in the small intestine, but not hTHTR-1, transports metformin (Km = 1.15 ± 0.2 mM) and other cationic compounds (MPP(+) and famotidine). The uptake mechanism for hTHTR-2 was pH and electrochemical gradient sensitive. Furthermore, metformin as well as other drugs including phenformin, chloroquine, verapamil, famotidine, and amprolium inhibited hTHTR-2 mediated uptake of both thiamine and metformin. Species differences in the substrate specificity of THTR-2 between human and mouse orthologues were observed. Taken together, our data suggest that hTHTR-2 may play a role in the intestinal absorption and tissue distribution of metformin and other organic cations and that the transporter may be a target for drug-drug and drug-nutrient interactions.

  19. The FLT3 and PDGFR inhibitor crenolanib is a substrate of the multidrug resistance protein ABCB1 but does not inhibit transport function at pharmacologically relevant concentrations.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Trevor J; Natarajan, Karthika; Shukla, Suneet; Doshi, Kshama A; Singh, Zeba N; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Baer, Maria R

    2015-04-01

    Background Crenolanib (crenolanib besylate, 4-piperidinamine, 1-[2-[5-[(3-methyl-3-oxetanyl)methoxy]-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl]-8-quinolinyl]-, monobenzenesulfonate) is a potent and specific type I inhibitor of fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) that targets the active kinase conformation and is effective against FLT3 with internal tandem duplication (ITD) with point mutations induced by, and conferring resistance to, type II FLT3 inhibitors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Crenolanib is also an inhibitor of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and beta and is in clinical trials in both gastrointestinal stromal tumors and gliomas. Methods We tested crenolanib interactions with the multidrug resistance-associated ATP-binding cassette proteins ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein), ABCG2 (breast cancer resistance protein) and ABCC1 (multidrug resistance-associated protein 1), which are expressed on AML cells and other cancer cells and are important components of the blood-brain barrier. Results We found that crenolanib is a substrate of ABCB1, as evidenced by approximate five-fold resistance of ABCB1-overexpressing cells to crenolanib, reversal of this resistance by the ABCB1-specific inhibitor PSC-833 and stimulation of ABCB1 ATPase activity by crenolanib. In contrast, crenolanib was not a substrate of ABCG2 or ABCC1. Additionally, it did not inhibit substrate transport by ABCB1, ABCG2 or ABCC1, at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. Finally, incubation of the FLT3-ITD AML cell lines MV4-11 and MOLM-14 with crenolanib at a pharmacologically relevant concentration of 500 nM did not induce upregulation of ABCB1 cell surface expression. Conclusions Thus ABCB1 expression confers resistance to crenolanib and likely limits crenolanib penetration of the central nervous system, but crenolanib at therapeutic concentrations should not alter cellular exposure to ABC protein substrate chemotherapy drugs.

  20. Evaluation of the potency of telaprevir and its metabolites as inhibitors of renal organic cation transporters, a potential mechanism for the elevation of serum creatinine.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Tomohisa; Kito, Tomoko; Inoue, Katsuhisa; Masuda, Satohiro; Inui, Ken-ichi; Matsubara, Kazuo; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Hisanaga, Noriko; Adachi, Yasuhisa; Suzuki, Masayuki; Yamada, Ichimaro; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Telaprevir-based triple therapy is a highly effective treatment for chronic hepatitis C. However, adverse reactions include reversible and dose-dependent elevation of serum creatinine levels. We speculated that this effect reflects inhibition of the renal organic cation transporters hOCT2, hMATE1, and hMATE2-K by telaprevir or its metabolites (VRT-127394 and VRT-0922061). Telaprevir, VRT-127394, and VRT-0922061 showed negligible or weak effects on hOCT2 at concentrations of ≥20 µM, but inhibited hMATE1 by 35, 38, and 53% and hMATE2-K by 47, 45, and 61% at 100 µM, respectively. Telaprevir or its metabolites (10 µM) did not affect basal-to-apical transport of MPP(+) across monolayers of hOCT2-hMATE1 double-transfected MDCKII cells, whereas pyrimethamine, a potent inhibitor of hMATE1, markedly inhibited MPP(+) transport. Taken together, inhibition of hOCT2, hMATE1, and hMATE2-K is unlikely to be clinically relevant because unbound plasma concentrations of telaprevir and its metabolites reach only 2 µM following oral administration of a dose of 750 mg telaprevir. Hence, elevated serum creatinine during telaprevir therapy may not be related to direct inhibition of renal organic cation transporters.

  1. Hepatic transport of PKI166, an epidermal growth factor receptor kinase inhibitor of the pyrrolo-pyrimidine class, and its main metabolite, ACU154.

    PubMed

    Takada, Tappei; Weiss, H Markus; Kretz, Olivier; Gross, Gerhard; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2004-11-01

    PKI166, a specific inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase activity of two epidermal growth factor receptors, was under development for the treatment of cancer. In preclinical studies PKI166 was mainly cleared by metabolism, and its metabolites were eliminated by biliary excretion, emphasizing the role of liver transport processes for its disposition. Here the transport properties of [14C]PKI166 and its main metabolite [14C]ACU154, an O-glucuronide, were analyzed using 1) Madin-Darby canine kidney II (MDCKII) cells stably transfected with human multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and/or human organic anion-transporting peptide 2 (OATP2) and 2) liver canalicular membrane vesicles (CMVs) prepared from Wistar and mrp2-deficient TR- rats. Analysis of transport through MDCKII cells revealed that [14C]ACU154 was a substrate of MRP2 and OATP2. Rat mrp2 was shown to transport [14C]ACU154 with a Km of approximately 1 microM. [14C]PKI166 efficiently crossed MDCKII cells, particularly toward the apical side, but expression of MRP2 and/or OATP2 did not increase the flux. The effect of PKI166 and ACU154 on transport of [3H]estradiol-17beta-d-glucuronide (EG; via mrp2/MRP2 and OATP2) or [3H]taurocholic acid (TCA; via bile salt export pump (bsep) was analyzed. PKI166 inhibited the transport of [3H]EG by OATP2. ACU154 did strongly inhibit [3H]TCA uptake into CMVs from Wistar but not from TR- rats, demonstrating a dependence of bsep inhibition on mrp2 activity. ATP-dependent uptake of [3H]EG into CMVs from Wistar rats was inhibited by ACU154 but up to 4-fold increased by PKI166. In conclusion, OATP2 and MRP2/mrp2 were identified as transporters involved in ACU154 transport into bile. Both PKI166 and its O-glucuronide ACU154 affected mrp2/MRP2-, OATP2-, and/or bsep-mediated transport processes.

  2. Modulation of liver canalicular transport processes by the tyrosine-kinase inhibitor genistein: implications of genistein metabolism in the rat.

    PubMed

    Jäger, W; Winter, O; Halper, B; Salamon, A; Sartori, M; Gajdzik, L; Hamilton, G; Theyer, G; Graf, J; Thalhammer, T

    1997-12-01

    Rat liver cells express the multispecific organic anion transporter (cmoat, cmrp, mrp2) and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) in their canalicular membranes, proteins that are homologous to the multidrug-resistance related protein (MRP) and multidrug resistance (MDR) gene products in multidrug resistant tumor cells. We tested whether genistein, a modulator of drug resistance in tumor cells, affects biliary secretion of substrates of canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cmoat) (glucuronides of bilirubin and rhodamine, glutathione conjugate of bromsulphthalein) and of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) (rhodamine), respectively. Using the isolated perfused rat liver of control Wistar rats (TR+) and of a mutant strain (TR-) that expresses Pgp but not cmoat, we show that genistein effectively inhibits the secretion of anionic substrates of cmoat in Wistar rats but stimulates secretion of cationic rhodamine in TR- rats. Genistein is subject to glucuronidation and sulfatation and secretion of genistein and its metabolites stimulates bile flow in Wistar rats, but secretion is nearly absent in TR- rats. Because genistein and its metabolites are substrates for cmoat, inhibition of anion secretion by genistein is partially explained by competition for this transporter. Genistein is also a substrate of uridindiphosphate (UDP)-glucuronyltransferase isoenzyme(s). Inhibition of glucuronidation reduces the availability of bilirubin and rhodamine glucuronates for transport via cmoat, but unconjugated cationic rhodamine becomes available for transport via Pgp at an increased cellular concentration. Daidzein, a genistein analogue with no effect on protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) shows Similar effects on secretion of organic anions and cations supporting the conclusion that genistein affects transport in liver mainly through competition with other substrates at the sites of glucuronidation and transport via cmoat.

  3. Discovery and characterization of a novel non-competitive inhibitor of the divalent metal transporter DMT1/SLC11A2.

    PubMed

    Montalbetti, Nicolas; Simonin, Alexandre; Simonin, Céline; Awale, Mahendra; Reymond, Jean-Louis; Hediger, Matthias A

    2015-08-01

    Divalent metal transporter-1 (SLC11A2/DMT1) uses the H(+) electrochemical gradient as the driving force to transport divalent metal ions such as Fe(2+), Mn(2+) and others metals into mammalian cells. DMT1 is ubiquitously expressed, most notably in proximal duodenum, immature erythroid cells, brain and kidney. This transporter mediates H(+)-coupled transport of ferrous iron across the apical membrane of enterocytes. In addition, in cells such as to erythroid precursors, following transferrin receptor (TfR) mediated endocytosis; it mediates H(+)-coupled exit of ferrous iron from endocytic vesicles into the cytosol. Dysfunction of human DMT1 is associated with several pathologies such as iron deficiency anemia hemochromatosis, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, as well as colorectal cancer and esophageal adenocarcinoma, making DMT1 an attractive target for drug discovery. In the present study, we performed a ligand-based virtual screening of the Princeton database (700,000 commercially available compounds) to search for pharmacophore shape analogs of recently reported DMT1 inhibitors. We discovered a new compound, named pyrimidinone 8, which mediates a reversible linear non-competitive inhibition of human DMT1 (hDMT1) transport activity with a Ki of ∼20μM. This compound does not affect hDMT1 cell surface expression and shows no dependence on extracellular pH. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence that hDMT1 can be allosterically modulated by pharmacological agents. Pyrimidinone 8 represents a novel versatile tool compound and it may serve as a lead structure for the development of therapeutic compounds for pre-clinical assessment.

  4. In vitro and in vivo downregulation of the ATP binding cassette transporter B1 by the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor simvastatin.

    PubMed

    Atil, Bihter; Berger-Sieczkowski, Evelyn; Bardy, Johanna; Werner, Martin; Hohenegger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Extrusion of chemotherapeutics by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters like ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) represents a crucial mechanism of multidrug resistance in cancer therapy. We have previously shown that the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor simvastatin directly inhibits ABCB1, alters the glycosylation of the transporter, and enhances the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin with subsequent anti-cancer action. Here, we show that simvastatin reduces endogenous dolichol levels and ABCB1 in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Coapplication with dolichol prevents the downregulation of the ABCB1 transporter. Importantly, dolichol also attenuated simvastatin-induced apoptosis, unmasking involvement of unfolded protein response. Direct monitoring of the fluorescent fusion protein YFP-ABCB1 further confirms concentration-dependent reduction of ABCB1 in HEK293 cells by simvastatin. In simvastatin-treated murine xenografts, ABCB1 was also reduced in the liver and rhabdomyosarcoma but did not reach significance in neuroblastoma. Nevertheless, the in vivo anti-cancer effects of simvastatin are corroborated by increased apoptosis in tumor tissues. These findings provide experimental evidence for usage of simvastatin in novel chemotherapeutic regimens and link dolichol depletion to simvastatin-induced anti-cancer activity.

  5. Use of a selective inhibitor to define the chemotherapeutic potential of the plasmodial hexose transporter in different stages of the parasite's life cycle.

    PubMed

    Slavic, Ksenija; Delves, Michael J; Prudêncio, Miguel; Talman, Arthur M; Straschil, Ursula; Derbyshire, Elvira T; Xu, Zhengyao; Sinden, Robert E; Mota, Maria M; Morin, Christophe; Tewari, Rita; Krishna, Sanjeev; Staines, Henry M

    2011-06-01

    During blood infection, malarial parasites use D-glucose as their main energy source. The Plasmodium falciparum hexose transporter (PfHT), which mediates the uptake of D-glucose into parasites, is essential for survival of asexual blood-stage parasites. Recently, genetic studies in the rodent malaria model, Plasmodium berghei, found that the orthologous hexose transporter (PbHT) is expressed throughout the parasite's development within the mosquito vector, in addition to being essential during intraerythrocytic development. Here, using a D-glucose-derived specific inhibitor of plasmodial hexose transporters, compound 3361, we have investigated the importance of D-glucose uptake during liver and transmission stages of P. berghei. Initially, we confirmed the expression of PbHT during liver stage development, using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagging strategy. Compound 3361 inhibited liver-stage parasite development, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) of 11 μM. This process was insensitive to the external D-glucose concentration. In addition, compound 3361 inhibited ookinete development and microgametogenesis, with IC₅₀s in the region of 250 μM (the latter in a D-glucose-sensitive manner). Consistent with our findings for the effect of compound 3361 on vector parasite stages, 1 mM compound 3361 demonstrated transmission blocking activity. These data indicate that novel chemotherapeutic interventions that target PfHT may be active against liver and, to a lesser extent, transmission stages, in addition to blood stages.

  6. Interleukin 17A evoked mucosal damage is attenuated by cannabidiol and anandamide in a human colonic explant model.

    PubMed

    Harvey, B S; Sia, T C; Wattchow, D A; Smid, S D

    2014-02-01

    Interleukin 17A (IL-17A) is a cytokine linked to inflammatory bowel disease. We investigated IL-17A expression in human colonic mucosa, whether IL-17A can elicit colonic mucosal damage in a human explant model and modulate gastrointestinal epithelial permeability in cell culture. We also tested if select cannabinoid ligands, shown to be protective in colitis models could attenuate damage caused by IL-17A. In addition, the ability of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β to modulate levels of IL-17A in the explant colitis model was also explored. IL-17A incubation caused significant mucosal epithelial and crypt damage which were attenuated following hydrocortisone treatment, and also reduced following anandamide or cannabidiol incubation. IL-17A-evoked mucosal damage was also associated with an increase in matrix metalloprotease activity. However, IL-17A did not induce any significant changes in epithelial permeability in confluent Caco-2 cell monolayers over a 48h incubation period. IL-17A was located predominantly in human mucosal epithelium together with IL-17C, but both IL-17A and IL-17C were also expressed in the lamina propria and submucosa. Incubation of human colonic mucosal tissue or Caco-2 cells with pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β however did not alter IL-17A expression. These results indicate IL-17A has a widespread distribution in the human colon and the capacity to elicit mucosal damage which can be attenuated by cannabinoid ligands.

  7. Distinct roles of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol in social behavior and emotionality at different developmental ages in rats.

    PubMed

    Manduca, Antonia; Morena, Maria; Campolongo, Patrizia; Servadio, Michela; Palmery, Maura; Trabace, Luigia; Hill, Matthew N; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Trezza, Viviana

    2015-08-01

    To date, our understanding of the relative contribution and potential overlapping roles of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the regulation of brain function and behavior is still limited. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of systemic administration of JZL195, that simultaneously increases AEA and 2-AG signaling by inhibiting their hydrolysis, in the regulation of socio-emotional behavior in adolescent and adult rats. JZL195, administered at the dose of 0.01mg/kg, increased social play behavior, that is the most characteristic social activity displayed by adolescent rats, and increased social interaction in adult animals. At both ages, these behavioral effects were antagonized by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR141716A and were associated with increased brain levels of 2-AG, but not AEA. Conversely, at the dose of 1mg/kg, JZL195 decreased general social exploration in adolescent rats without affecting social play behavior, and induced anxiogenic-like effects in the elevated plus-maze test both in adolescent and adult animals. These effects, mediated by activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors, were paralleled by simultaneous increase in AEA and 2-AG levels in adolescent rats, and by an increase of only 2-AG levels in adult animals. These findings provide the first evidence for a role of 2-AG in social behavior, highlight the different contributions of AEA and 2-AG in the modulation of emotionality at different developmental ages and suggest that pharmacological inhibition of AEA and 2-AG hydrolysis is a useful approach to investigate the role of these endocannabinoids in neurobehavioral processes.

  8. Alterations in brain extracellular dopamine and glycine levels following combined administration of the glycine transporter type-1 inhibitor Org-24461 and risperidone.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Katalin; Marko, Bernadett; Zsilla, Gabriella; Matyus, Peter; Pallagi, Katalin; Szabo, Geza; Juranyi, Zsolt; Barkoczy, Jozsef; Levay, Gyorgy; Harsing, Laszlo G

    2010-12-01

    The most dominant hypotheses for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia have focused primarily upon hyperfunctional dopaminergic and hypofunctional glutamatergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system. The therapeutic efficacy of all atypical antipsychotics is explained in part by antagonism of the dopaminergic neurotransmission, mainly by blockade of D(2) dopamine receptors. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction in schizophrenia can be reversed by glycine transporter type-1 (GlyT-1) inhibitors, which regulate glycine concentrations at the vicinity of NMDA receptors. Combined drug administration with D(2) dopamine receptor blockade and activation of hypofunctional NMDA receptors may be needed for a more effective treatment of positive and negative symptoms and the accompanied cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. To investigate this type of combined drug administration, rats were treated with the atypical antipsychotic risperidone together with the GlyT-1 inhibitor Org-24461. Brain microdialysis was applied in the striatum of conscious rats and determinations of extracellular dopamine, DOPAC, HVA, glycine, glutamate, and serine concentrations were carried out using HPLC/electrochemistry. Risperidone increased extracellular concentrations of dopamine but failed to influence those of glycine or glutamate measured in microdialysis samples. Org-24461 injection reduced extracellular dopamine concentrations and elevated extracellular glycine levels but the concentrations of serine and glutamate were not changed. When risperidone and Org-24461 were added in combination, a decrease in extracellular dopamine concentrations was accompanied with sustained elevation of extracellular glycine levels. Interestingly, the extracellular concentrations of glutamate were also enhanced. Our data indicate that coadministration of an antipsychotic with a GlyT-1 inhibitor may normalize hypofunctional NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission with reduced

  9. Fetzima (levomilnacipran), a drug for major depressive disorder as a dual inhibitor for human serotonin transporters and beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme-1.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Syed Mohd Danish; Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Khan, Mahiuddin; Biswas, Deboshree; Hameed, Nida; Shakil, Shazi

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacological management of Major Depressive Disorder includes the use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors which targets serotonin transporters (SERT) to increase the synaptic concentrations of serotonin. Beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE-1) is responsible for amyloid β plaque formation. Hence it is an interesting target for Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy. This study describes molecular interactions of a new Food and Drug Administration approved antidepressant drug named 'Fetzima' with BACE-1 and SERT. Fetzima is chemically known as levomilnacipran. The study has explored a possible link between the treatment of Depression and AD. 'Autodock 4.2' was used for docking study. The free energy of binding (ΔG) values for 'levomilnacipran-SERT' interaction and 'levomilnacipran-BACE1' interaction were found to be -7.47 and -8.25 kcal/mol, respectively. Levomilnacipran was found to interact with S438, known to be the most important amino acid residue of serotonin binding site of SERT during 'levomilnacipran-SERT' interaction. In the case of 'levomilnacipran-BACE1' interaction, levomilnacipran interacted with two very crucial aspartic acid residues of BACE-1, namely, D32 and D228. These residues are accountable for the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein and the subsequent formation of amyloid β plaques in AD brain. Hence, Fetzima (levomilnacipran) might act as a potent dual inhibitor of SERT and BACE-1 and expected to form the basis of a future dual therapy against depression and AD. It is an established fact that development of AD is associated with Major Depressive Disorder. Therefore, the design of new BACE-1 inhibitors based on antidepressant drug scaffolds would be particularly beneficial. PMID:25345508

  10. The Efflux Pump Inhibitor Reserpine Selects Multidrug-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains That Overexpress the ABC Transporters PatA and PatB▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Garvey, Mark I.; Piddock, Laura J. V.

    2008-01-01

    One way to combat multidrug-resistant microorganisms is the use of efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs). Spontaneous mutants resistant to the EPI reserpine selected from Streptococcus pneumoniae NCTC 7465 and R6 at a frequency suggestive of a single mutational event were also multidrug resistant. No mutations in pmrA (which encodes the efflux protein PmrA) were detected, and the expression of pmrA was unaltered in all mutants. In the reserpine-resistant multidrug-resistant mutants, the overexpression of both patA and patB, which encode ABC transporters, was associated with accumulation of low concentrations of antibiotics and dyes. The addition of sodium orthovanadate, an inhibitor of ABC efflux pumps, or the insertional inactivation of either gene restored wild-type antibiotic susceptibility and wild-type levels of accumulation. Only when patA was insertionally inactivated were both multidrug resistance and reserpine resistance lost. Strains in which patA was insertionally inactivated grew significantly more slowly than the wild type. These data indicate that the overexpression of both patA and patB confers multidrug resistance in S. pneumoniae but that only patA is involved in reserpine resistance. The selection of reserpine-resistant multidrug-resistant pneumococci has implications for analogous systems in other bacteria or in cancer. PMID:18362193

  11. Pisum sativum wild-type and mutant stipules and those induced by an auxin transport inhibitor demonstrate the entire diversity of laminated stipules observed in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Sharma, Vishakha; Khan, Moinuddin; Tripathi, Bhumi Nath; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-02-01

    About a quarter of angiosperm species are stipulate. They produce stipule pairs at stem nodes in association with leaves. Stipule morphology is treated as a species-specific characteristic. Many species bear stipules as laminated organs in a variety of configurations, including laterally free large foliaceous, small, or wholly leaf-like stipules, and as fused intrapetiolar, opposite, ochreate or interpetiolar stipules. In Pisum sativum, the wild-type and stipule-reduced and cochleata mutants are known to form free large, small, and leaf-like stipules, respectively. Auxin controls initiation and development of plant organs and perturbations in its availability and distribution in the meristems, caused by auxin transport inhibitor(s) (ATIs), lead to aberrations in leaf development. The effect(s) of ATI(s) on stipule development are unexplored. To study the effect of the ATI 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) on stipule morphogenesis, P. sativum explants were grown in vitro in presence of a sublethal concentration of NPA. The NPA-treated shoots produced fused stipules of all the different types described in angiosperms. The observations indicate that (a) the gene sets for stipule differentiation may be common in angiosperms and (b) the interspecies stipule architectural differences are due to mutations, affecting gene expression or activity that got selected in the course of evolution. PMID:22456952

  12. Synthesis and biological evaluation of (4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)isoquinoline derivatives as selective glycine transporter 1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sugane, Takashi; Tobe, Takahiko; Hamaguchi, Wataru; Shimada, Itsuro; Maeno, Kyoichi; Miyata, Junji; Suzuki, Takeshi; Kimizuka, Tetsuya; Morita, Takuma; Sakamoto, Shuichi; Tsukamoto, Shin-ichi

    2012-01-01

    To identify novel glycine transporter 1(GlyT1) inhibitors with greater selectivity relative to GlyT2 and improved aqueous solubility, we synthesized a series of 4H-1,2,4-triazole derivatives with heteroaromatic rings at the 4-position and investigated their structure-activity relationships. Replacement of the 2-fluorophenyl group of lead compound 5 with various aromatic groups led to the identification of 5-(3-biphenyl-4-yl-5-ethyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)isoquinoline (15) with 38-fold selectivity between GlyT1 and GlyT2. 15 also showed improved aqueous solubility and in vivo efficacy on (+)-HA966-induced hyperlocomotion in mice over the lead compound.

  13. Characterization of thien-2-yl 1S,2R-milnacipran analogues as potent norepinephrine/serotonin transporter inhibitors for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Dyck, Brian; Tamiya, Junko; Jovic, Florence; Pick, Rebecca R; Bradbury, Margaret J; O'Brien, Julie; Wen, Jenny; Johns, Michael; Madan, Ajay; Fleck, Beth A; Foster, Alan C; Li, Binfeng; Zhang, Mingzhu; Tran, Joe A; Vickers, Troy; Grey, Jonathan; Saunders, John; Chen, Chen

    2008-11-27

    Thien-2-yl 1S,2R-milnacipran analogues were synthesized and characterized as norepinephrine/serotonin transporter inhibitors. These compounds possessed higher potencies than 1S,2R-milnacipran (2R-1) while maintaining low molecular weight and moderate lipophilicity, which are the important features for the pharmacological and pharmacokinetic characteristics of milnacipran (1). Thus, compound 5c exhibited IC50 values of 2.3 and 32 nM, respectively, at NET and SERT, which were more than 10-fold better than those of 1 (NET IC50 = 77 nM, SERT IC50 = 420 nM). Moreover, 5c achieved the same efficacy as 1, but with much lower doses, in a rodent spinal nerve ligation pain model. In addition, 5c displayed desirable pharmacokinetic properties in several species, including high oral availability and significant brain penetration.

  14. Treatment of obesity and pulmonary arterial hypertension with inhibitors of the prostaglandin transporter: evaluation of patent WO2014/204895A1.

    PubMed

    Dingemanse, Jasper; Bolli, Martin; Iglarz, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Prostaglandins display a wide array of pharmacological effects and prostaglandin analogs are already used in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). After synthesis and release from cells, prostaglandins undergo reuptake by the prostaglandin transporter (PGT). WO2014/204895 claims the use of a series of trisubstituted triazine derivatives for the treatment of obesity and PAH. Composition of matter of these triazines has been claimed in WO2011/037610 and the compounds are described as potent inhibitors of the PGT. One compound (nr 146) was shown to improve high fat diet-induced glucose tolerance in a mouse model. In addition, this compound has been explored in the rat monocrotaline model of PAH and reduced characteristic features of the pathology. This class of compounds presents a potential new treatment paradigm in the treatment of obesity-related disorders and PAH. PMID:26099857

  15. Vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in the brain of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR): effect of treatment with an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Tayebati, S K; Di Tullio, M A; Amenta, F

    2008-11-01

    The cholinergic marker vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) was investigated in different cerebral areas of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) by immunochemistry (Western blot analysis) and by immunohistochemistry. SHR were used as an animal model of hypertensive brain damage. The sensitivity of manipulation of cholinergic system on VAChT was assessed in rats treated for four weeks with the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor galantamine (3 mg/Kg/day). VAChT concentrations were increased in the brain of control SHR compared to age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. This increase probably represents an up-regulation of VAChT to oppose cholinergic deficits reported in SHR and is countered by galantamine administration. The possibility that cholinergic neurotransmission enhancement may represent a therapeutic strategy in cerebrovascular disease is discussed.

  16. Assessment of the in vitro binding of JHW 007, a dopamine transport inhibitor that blocks the effects of cocaine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Benztropine (BZT) and its analogues, like cocaine, bind to the dopamine transporter and block dopamine uptake. However, while BZT analogues bind the DAT with high affinity, they generally do not have cocaine-like behavioral effects. JHW 007 is a BZT analogue that displaces [3H]WIN 35,428 from the D...

  17. Inhibition of leukocyte function and interleukin-2 gene expression by 2-methylarachidonyl-(2'-fluoroethyl)amide, a stable congener of the endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand anandamide

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, Barbara L.F.; Ouyang Yanli; Herring, Amy; Yea, Sung Su; Razdan, Raj; Kaminski, Norbert E. . E-mail: kamins11@msu.edu

    2005-06-01

    Arachidonylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA) has been identified as an endogenous ligand for cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Characterization of the direct cannabimimetic actions of anandamide has been hampered by its short duration of action and rapid degradation in in vivo and in vitro systems to arachidonic acid, a precursor in the biosynthesis of a broad range of biologically active molecules. In the present studies, we utilized 2-methylarachidonyl-(2'-fluoroethyl)amide (F-Me-AEA), an analog of anandamide resistant to enzymatic degradation, to determine whether F-Me-AEA modulated T cell function similar to that of plant-derived cannabinoids. Indeed, F-Me-AEA at low micromolar concentrations exhibited a marked inhibition of phorbol ester plus calcium ionophore (PMA/Io)-induced IL-2 protein secretion and steady state mRNA expression. Likewise, a modest suppression of the mixed lymphocyte response was observed in the presence of F-Me-AEA indicating an alteration in T cell responsiveness to allogeneic MHC class II antigens. F-Me-AEA was also found to modestly inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in thymocytes and splenocytes, a hallmark of cannabinoid receptor agonists. Further characterization of the influence of F-Me-AEA on the cAMP signaling cascade revealed an inhibition of CREB-1/ATF-1 phosphorylation and subsequently, an inhibition of CRE DNA binding activity. Characterization of nuclear binding proteins further revealed that NF-AT and, to a lesser extent, NF-{kappa}B DNA binding activities were also suppressed. These studies demonstrate that F-Me-AEA modulates T cell function in a similar manner to plant-derived and endogenous cannabinoids and therefore can be utilized as an amidase- and hydrolysis-resistant endogenous cannabinoid.

  18. L-Cysteine/D,L-homocysteine-regulated ileum motility via system L and B°(,+) transporter: Modification by inhibitors of hydrogen sulfide synthesis and dietary treatments.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Satoshi; Nomura, Ryouya; Yanagihara, Madoka; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Fujino, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Horie, Syunji; Murayama, Toshihiko

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies including ours demonstrated that L-cysteine treatments decreased motility in gastrointestinal tissues including the ileum via hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is formed from sulfur-containing amino acids such as L-cysteine and L-homocysteine. However, the amino acid transport systems involved in L-cysteine/L-homocysteine-induced responses have not yet been elucidated in detail; therefore, we investigated these systems pharmacologically by measuring electrical stimulation (ES)-induced contractions with amino acids in mouse ileum preparations. The treatments with L-cysteine and D,L-homocysteine inhibited ES-induced contractions in ileum preparations from fasted mice, and these responses were decreased by the treatment with 2-aminobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylate (BCH), an inhibitor of systems L and B°(,+). The results obtained using ileum preparations and a model cell line (PC12 cells) with various amino acids and BCH showed that not only L-cysteine, but also aminooxyacetic acid and D,L-propargylglycine, which act as H2S synthesis inhibitors, appeared to be taken up by these preparations/cells in L and B°(,+) system-dependent manners. The L-cysteine and D,L-homocysteine responses were delayed and abolished, respectively, in ileum preparations from fed mice. Our results suggested that the regulation of ileum motility by L-cysteine and D,L-homocysteine was dependent on BCH-sensitive systems, and varied depending on feeding in mice. Therefore, the effects of aminooxyacetic acid and D,L-propargylglycine on transport systems need to be considered in pharmacological analyses.

  19. Nitromusk and Polycyclic Musk Compounds as Long-Term Inhibitors of Cellular Xenobiotic Defense Systems Mediated by Multidrug Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Luckenbach, Till; Epel, David

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic musk compounds, widely used as fragrances in consumer products, have been detected in human tissue and, surprisingly, in aquatic organisms such as fish and mollusks. Although their persistence and potential to bioaccumulate are of concern, the toxicity and environmental risks of these chemicals are generally regarded as low. Here, however, we show that nitromusks and polycyclic musks inhibit the activity of multidrug efflux transporters responsible for multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) in gills of the marine mussel Mytilus californianus. The IC10 (concentration that inhibits 10%) values for the different classes of musks were in the range of 0.09–0.39 μM, and IC50 values were 0.74–2.56 μM. The immediate consequence of inhibition of efflux transporters is that normally excluded xenobiotics will now be able to enter the cell. Remarkably, the inhibitory effects of a brief 2-hr exposure to musks were only partially reversed after a 24- to 48-hr recovery period in clean seawater. This unexpected consequence of synthetic musks—a long-term loss of efflux transport activity—will result in continued accumulation of normally excluded toxicants even after direct exposure to the musk has ended. These findings also point to the need to determine whether other environmental chemicals have similar long-term effects on these transporters. The results are relevant to human health because they raise the possibility that exposure to common xenobiotics and pharmaceuticals could cause similar long-term inhibition of these transporters and lead to increased exposure to normally excluded toxicants. PMID:15626642

  20. Automorphosis of etiolated pea seedlings in space is simulated by a three-dimensional clinostat and the application of inhibitors of auxin polar transport.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kensuke; Hoshino, Tomoki; Yamashita, Masamichi; Ueda, Junichi

    2005-04-01

    Etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings grown under microgravity conditions in space show automorphosis: bending of epicotyls, inhibition of hook formation and changes in root growth direction. In order to determine the mechanisms of microgravity conditions that induce automorphosis, we used a three-dimensional clinostat and obtained the successful induction of automorphosis-like growth of etiolated pea seedlings. Kinetic studies revealed that epicotyls bent at their basal region towards the clockwise direction far from the cotyledons from the vertical line (0 degrees) at approximately 40 degrees in seedlings grown both at 1 g and in the clinostat within 48 h after watering. Thereafter, epicotyls retained this orientation during growth in the clinostat, whereas those at 1 g changed their growth direction against the gravity vector and exhibited a negative gravitropic response. On the other hand, the plumular hook that had already formed in the embryo axis tended to open continuously by growth at the inner basal portion of the elbow; thus, the plumular hook angle initially increased; this was followed by equal growth on the convex and concave sides at 1 g, resulting in normal hook formation; in contrast, hook formation was inhibited on the clinostat. The automorphosis-like growth and development of etiolated pea seedlings was induced by auxin polar transport inhibitors (9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid, N-(1-naphthyl)phthalamic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid), but not by anti-auxin (p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid) at 1 g. An ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor, 1-aminooxyacetic acid, inhibited hook formation at 1 g, and ethylene production of etiolated seedlings was suppressed on the clinostat. Clinorotation on the clinostat strongly reduced the activity of auxin polar transport of epicotyls in etiolated pea seedlings, similar to that observed in space experiments (Ueda J, Miyamoto K, Yuda T, Hoshino T, Fujii S, Mukai C, Kamigaichi S, Aizawa S

  1. Effect of electron-transport inhibitors on the generation of reactive oxygen species by pea mitochondria during succinate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Popov, V N; Ruuge, E K; Starkov, A A

    2003-07-01

    The effect of inhibitors of the cytochrome pathway and alternative oxidase on the rate of respiration and generation of reactive oxygen species by pea mitochondria was studied. Respiration of mitochondria from pea cotyledons was inhibited by 70-80% by salicylhydroxamate (SHAM). The rate of hydrogen peroxide production by pea cotyledon mitochondria during succinate oxidation was 0.15 nmol/min per mg protein. SHAM considerably accelerated the hydrogen peroxide production. The SHAM-dependent H2O2 production was stimulated by 2 micro M antimycin A and inhibited by 5 mM KCN and 1 micro M myxothiazol. The study of the rate of O2*- generation by pea mitochondria using EPR spin traps and epinephrine oxidation showed that H2O2 accumulation can be accounted for by a significant increase in the rate of O2*- production.

  2. Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with transportation and energy use. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss the implication of energy usage as it applies to the area of transportation. Some topics covered are efficiencies of various transportation…

  3. Coupling between H+ transport and anaerobic glycolysis in turtle urinary bladder: effect of inhibitors of H+ ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmetz, P.R.; Husted, R.F.; Mueller, A.; Beauwens, R.

    1981-03-15

    The coupling between H+ transport (JH) and anaerobic glycolysis was examined in vitro in an anaerobic preparation of turtle urinary bladder. JH was measured as the short-circuit current after Na+ transport was abolished with ouabain and by pH stat titration. The media were gassed with N2 and 1% CO2 (PO2 less than 0.5 mm Hg) and contained 10 mM glucose. Under these conditions, JH was not inhibited by 3 mM serosal (S) cyanide or by 0.1 mM mucosal (M) dinitrophenol. Control anaerobic lactate production (Jlac) of 47 bladders was plotted as a function of simultaneously measured JH. The slope of Jlac on JH was 0.58

  4. Novel compound, organic cation transporter 3 detection agent and organic cation transporter 3 activity inhibitor, WO2015002150 A1: a patent evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tao; Wang, Li; Pan, Xiaolei; Qi, Hualin

    2016-08-01

    Increasing pharmacological studies have demonstrated that organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3) plays an important role in controlling the extracellular concentrations of released monoamine neurotransmitter, suggesting that OCT3 might be a promising target in the treatment of depression. As a consequence, compounds showing inhibitory effects on the function of OCT3 have the potential for depression treatment. The current patent WO2015002150 A1 described the synthesis of 59 novel guanidine derivatives. All investigated compounds exhibited significant inhibitory effects (41.9-88.2%) on human OCT3 activity at 30 µM, using human OCT3-transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cell. Concentration-response curves (IC50 values) were determined for seven compounds with higher inhibition potency from the initial screening. IC50 values ranged from 1.9 to 24 µM. In addition, the concentration of these compound in aqueous solution with artificial membranes containing human OCT3 protein was measured. The concentration of compound 6 (SR-2045) was significantly reduced in the presence of human OCT3. Therefore, these compounds have the potential to be further developed as novel antidepressant and human OCT3 detection agent. Future investigations are needed to study the pharmacokinetic and pharmacological properties of these compounds and potential interaction with other transporters. PMID:27097290

  5. Novel Azido-Iodo Photoaffinity Ligands for the Human Serotonin Transporter Based on the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (S)-Citalopram

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Three photoaffinity ligands (PALs) for the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) were synthesized based on the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), (S)-citalopram (1). The classic 4-azido-3-iodo-phenyl group was appended to either the C-1 or C-5 position of the parent molecule, with variable-length linkers, to generate ligands 15, 22, and 26. These ligands retained high to moderate affinity binding (Ki = 24–227 nM) for hSERT, as assessed by [3H]5-HT transport inhibition. When tested against Ser438Thr hSERT, all three PALs showed dramatic rightward shifts in inhibitory potency, with Ki values ranging from 3.8 to 9.9 μM, consistent with the role of Ser438 as a key residue for high-affinity binding of many SSRIs, including (S)-citalopram. Photoactivation studies demonstrated irreversible adduction to hSERT by all ligands, but the reduced (S)-citalopram inhibition of labeling by [125I]15 compared to that by [125I]22 and [125I]26 suggests differences in binding mode(s). These radioligands will be useful for characterizing the drug–protein binding interactions for (S)-citalopram at hSERT. PMID:26153715

  6. Kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside-7-O-rhamnoside is an endogenous flavonol inhibitor of polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis shoots

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Ruohe; Han, Kerstin; Heller, Werner; Albert, Andreas; Dobrev, Petre I; Zažímalová, Eva; Schäffner, Anton R

    2014-01-01

    Polar auxin transport (PAT) plays key roles in the regulation of plant growth and development. Flavonoids have been implicated in the inhibition of PAT. However, the active flavonoid derivative(s) involved in this process in vivo has not yet been identified. Here, we provide evidence that a specific flavonol bis-glycoside is correlated with shorter plant stature and reduced PAT. Specific flavonoid-biosynthetic or flavonoid-glycosylating steps were genetically blocked in Arabidopsis thaliana. The differential flavonol patterns established were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and related to altered plant stature. PAT was monitored in stem segments using a radioactive [3H]-indole-3-acetic acid tracer. The flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase mutant ugt78d2 exhibited a dwarf stature in addition to its altered flavonol glycoside pattern. This was accompanied by reduced PAT in ugt78d2 shoots. The ugt78d2-dependent growth defects were flavonoid dependent, as they were rescued by genetic blocking of flavonoid biosynthesis. Phenotypic and metabolic analyses of a series of mutants defective at various steps of flavonoid formation narrowed down the potentially active moiety to kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside-7-O-rhamnoside. Moreover, the level of this compound was negatively correlated with basipetal auxin transport. These results indicate that kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside-7-O-rhamnoside acts as an endogenous PAT inhibitor in Arabidopsis shoots. PMID:24251900

  7. Characterization of the Endocannabinoid System in Human Neuronal Cells and Proteomic Analysis of Anandamide-induced Apoptosis*

    PubMed Central

    Pasquariello, Nicoletta; Catanzaro, Giuseppina; Marzano, Valeria; Amadio, Daniele; Barcaroli, Daniela; Oddi, Sergio; Federici, Giorgio; Urbani, Andrea; Finazzi Agrò, Alessandro; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Anandamide (AEA) is an endogenous agonist of type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R) that, along with metabolic enzymes of AEA and congeners, compose the “endocannabinoid system.” Here we report the biochemical, morphological, and functional characterization of the endocannabinoid system in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells that are an experimental model for neuronal cell damage and death, as well as for major human neurodegenerative disorders. We also show that AEA dose-dependently induced apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells. Through proteomic analysis, we further demonstrate that AEA-induced apoptosis was paralleled by an ∼3 to ∼5-fold up-regulation or down-regulation of five genes; IgG heavy chain-binding protein, stress-induced phosphoprotein-1, and triose-phosphate isomerase-1, which were up-regulated, are known to act as anti-apoptotic agents; actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5 and peptidylprolyl isomerase-like protein 3 isoform PPIL3b were down-regulated, and the first is required for actin network formation whereas the second is still function-orphan. Interestingly, only the effect of AEA on BiP was reversed by the CB1R antagonist SR141716, in SH-SY5Y cells as well as in human neuroblastoma LAN-5 cells (that express a functional CB1R) but not in SK-NBE cells (which do not express CB1R). Silencing or overexpression of BiP increased or reduced, respectively, AEA-induced apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, the expression of BiP and of the BiP-related apoptotic markers p53 and PUMA was increased by AEA through a CB1R-dependent pathway that engages p38 and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Consistently, this effect of AEA was minimized by SR141716. In conclusion, we identified BiP as a key protein in neuronal apoptosis induced by AEA. PMID:19690173

  8. Genetic polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region and response to serotonin reuptake inhibitors in patients with premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Ozbek, Emin; Otunctemur, Alper; Simsek, Abdulmuttalip; Polat, Emre Can; Ozcan, Levent; Köse, Osman; Cekmen, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Serotonin plays a central role in ejaculation and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been successfully used to treat premature ejaculation. Here, we evaluated the relationship between a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and the response of patients with premature ejaculation to SSRI medication. METHODS: Sixty-nine premature ejaculation patients were treated with 20 mg/d paroxetine for three months. The Intravaginal Ejaculatory Latency Time and International Index of Erectile Function scores were compared with baseline values. The patients were scored as having responded to therapy when a 2-fold or greater increase was observed in Intravaginal Ejaculatory Latency Time compared with baseline values after three months. Three genotypes of 5-HTTLPR were studied: LL, LS and SS. The appropriateness of the allele frequencies in 5-HTTLPR were analyzed according to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium using the χ2-test. RESULTS: The short (S) allele of 5-HTTLPR was significantly more frequent in responders than in nonresponders (p<0.05). Out of the 69 total PE patients, 41 patients (59%) responded to therapy. There was no significant difference in the International Index of Erectile Function score at the end of therapy between the responder and nonresponder groups. The frequencies of the L allele and S allele were 20% and 39%, respectively, in the responder group (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: We conclude that premature ejaculation patients with the SS genotype respond well to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor therapy. Further studies with large patient groups are necessary to confirm this conclusion. PMID:25518026

  9. A DKP Cyclo(L-Phe-L-Phe) Found in Chicken Essence Is a Dual Inhibitor of the Serotonin Transporter and Acetylcholinesterase

    PubMed Central

    Tsuruoka, Nobuo; Beppu, Yoshinori; Koda, Hirofumi; Doe, Nobutaka; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Abe, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    Diketopiperazines (DKPs) are naturally-occurring cyclic dipeptides with a small structure and are found in many organisms and in large amounts in some foods and beverages. We found that a chicken essence beverage, which is popular among Southeast Asians as a traditional remedy and a rich source of DKPs, inhibited the serotonin transporter (SERT) and suppressed serotonin uptake from rat brain synaptosomes, which prompted us to isolate and identify the active substance(s). We purified a SERT inhibitor from the chicken essence beverage and identified it as the DKP cyclo(L-Phe-L-Phe). Interestingly, it was a naturally occurring dual inhibitor that inhibited both SERT and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in vitro. The DKP increased extracellular levels of the cerebral monoamines serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine in the medial prefrontal cortex and acetylcholine in the ventral hippocampus of freely moving rats when administered orally. Moreover, cyclo(L-Phe-L-Phe) significantly shortened escape latency in the water maze test in depressed mice previously subjected to a repeated open-space swimming task, which induces a depression-like state. Cyclo(L-Phe-L-Phe) also significantly improved accuracy rates in a radial maze test in rats and increased step-through latencies in a passive avoidance test in mice with scopolamine-induced amnesia. These animal test results suggest that cyclo(L-Phe-L-Phe), which is present abundantly in some foods such as chicken essence, may abrogate the onset of depression and, thus, contribute to preventing the development of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementia, because senile depression is a risk factor for dementia. PMID:23209830

  10. Acute blockade of the Caenorhabditis elegans dopamine transporter DAT-1 by the mammalian norepinephrine transporter inhibitor nisoxetine reveals the influence of genetic modifications of dopamine signaling in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, Daniel P; Hardaway, J Andrew; Snarrenberg, Chelsea L; Robinson, Sarah B; Folkes, Oakleigh M; Salimando, Greg J; Jinnah, Hussain; Blakely, Randy D

    2016-09-01

    Modulation of neurotransmission by the catecholamine dopamine (DA) is conserved across phylogeny. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, excess DA signaling triggers Swimming-Induced Paralysis (Swip), a phenotype first described in animals with loss of function mutations in the presynaptic DA transporter (dat-1). Swip has proven to be a phenotype suitable for the identification of novel dat-1 mutations as well as the identification of novel genes that impact DA signaling. Pharmacological manipulations can also induce Swip, though the reagents employed to date lack specificity and potency, limiting their use in evaluation of dat-1 expression and function. Our lab previously established the mammalian norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor nisoxetine to be a potent antagonist of DA uptake conferred by DAT-1 following heterologous expression. Here we demonstrate the ability of low (μM) concentrations of nisoxetine to trigger Swip within minutes of incubation, with paralysis dependent on DA release and signaling, and non-additive with Swip triggered by dat-1 deletion. Using nisoxetine in combination with genetic mutations that impact DA release, we further demonstrate the utility of the drug for demonstrating contributions of presynaptic DA receptors and ion channels to Swip. Together, these findings reveal nisoxetine as a powerful reagent for monitoring multiple dimensions of DA signaling in vivo, thus providing a new resource that can be used to evaluate contributions of dat-1 and other genes linked to DA signaling without the potential for compensations that attend constitutive genetic mutations.

  11. Respiratory inhibitors affect incorporation of glucose into Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, but not the activity of glucose transport.

    PubMed

    Walsh, M C; Smits, H P; van Dam, K

    1994-12-01

    Incubation of starved galactose-grown S. cerevisiae cells with cyanide reduced glucose uptake as measured over a 5-s period. The Vmax for glucose uptake was decreased by over a factor of two but the apparent affinity for glucose doubled. When measured in the sub-second time scale, however, there was no significant inhibition of glucose uptake, by cyanide, up to 200-ms, clearly demonstrating that, in cyanide treated cells, glucose uptake was not linear for the first 5-s. After a 200-ms exposure of untreated cells to radio-labelled glucose, less than 10% of the intracellular label resided in soluble uncharged compounds. In cyanide-treated cells up to 43% of the labelled compounds were uncharged, with a concurrent reduction of intracellular label residing in anionic compounds. The results suggest that, in the presence of 10 mM cyanide when respiration is inhibited, a reduction in the cellular ATP concentration causes a reduction in hexose-kinase activity which results in an accumulation of internal free glucose, which in turn causes a reduction in net glucose transport.

  12. FLUID AND ION SECRETION BY MALPIGHIAN TUBULES OF LARVAL CHIRONOMIDS, Chironomus riparius: EFFECTS OF REARING SALINITY, TRANSPORT INHIBITORS, AND SEROTONIN.

    PubMed

    Zadeh-Tahmasebi, Melika; Bui, Phuong; Donini, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Larvae of Chironomus riparius respond to ion-poor and brackish water (IPW, BW) conditions by activating ion uptake mechanisms in the anal papillae and reducing ion absorption at the rectum, respectively. The role that the Malpighian tubules play in ion and osmoregulation under these conditions is not known in this species. This study examines rates of fluid secretion and major cation composition of secreted fluid from tubules of C. riparius reared in IPW, freshwater (FW) and BW. Fluid secretion of tubules from FW and BW larvae was similar but tubules from IPW larvae secrete fluid at higher rates, are more sensitive to serotonin stimulation, and the secreted fluid contains less Na(+) . Therefore in IPW, tubules work in concert with anal papillae to eliminate excess water while conserving Na(+) in the hemolymph. Tubules do not appear to play a significant role in ion/osmoregulation under BW. Serotonin immunoreactivity in the nervous system and gastrointestinal tract of larval C. riparius was similar to that seen in mosquito larvae with the exception that the hindgut was devoid of staining. Hemolymph serotonin titer was similar in FW and IPW; hence, serotonin is not responsible for the observed high rates of fluid secretion in IPW. Instead, it is suggested that serotonin may work in a synergistic manner with an unidentified hormonal factor in IPW. Ion transport mechanisms in the tubules of C. riparius are pharmacologically similar to those of other insects.

  13. The Oligopeptide Permease Opp Mediates Illicit Transport of the Bacterial P-site Decoding Inhibitor GE81112 †

    PubMed Central

    Maio, Alessandro; Brandi, Letizia; Donadio, Stefano; Gualerzi, Claudio O.

    2016-01-01

    GE81112 is a tetrapeptide antibiotic that binds to the 30S ribosomal subunit and specifically inhibits P-site decoding of the mRNA initiation codon by the fMet-tRNA anticodon. GE81112 displays excellent microbiological activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in both minimal and complete, chemically defined, broth, but is essentially inactive in complete complex media. This is due to the presence of peptides that compete with the antibiotic for the oligopeptide permease system (Opp) responsible for its illicit transport into the bacterial cells as demonstrated in the cases of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Mutations that inactivate the Opp system and confer GE81112 resistance arise spontaneously with a frequency of ca. 1 × 10−6, similar to that of the mutants resistant to tri-l-ornithine, a known Opp substrate. On the contrary, cells expressing extrachromosomal copies of the opp genes are extremely sensitive to GE81112 in rich medium and GE81112-resistant mutations affecting the molecular target of the antibiotic were not detected upon examining >109 cells of this type. However, some mutations introduced in the 16S rRNA to confer kasugamycin resistance were found to reduce the sensitivity of the cells to GE81112. PMID:27231947

  14. Ectopic expression of the Brassica SHOOTMERISTEMLESS attenuates the deleterious effects of the auxin transport inhibitor TIBA on somatic embryo number and morphology.

    PubMed

    Elhiti, Mohamed; Stasolla, Claudio

    2011-02-01

    The auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) is a useful compound for investigating the role of auxin flow during plant growth and development. In Arabidopsis lines, applications of TIBA during the induction phase of somatic embryogenesis inhibit embryo development and induce the differentiation of the meristematic cells of the shoot apical meristem (SAM), leading to the fusion of the cotyledons. These abnormalities were associated to changes in the expression levels of auxin transporter genes (PINs) and endogenous distribution of IAA. Treatments of TIBA caused a rapid accumulation of IAA within the epidermal and cortical root cells of the explants (bent-cotyledon zygotic embryos), as well as in the apical and sub-apical cells of the callus generated by the surface of the cotyledons of the explants. Within the callus only a few cells acquired meristematic characteristics, and this was associated to low expression levels of genes involved in embryogenic cell fate acquisition, such as WUSCHEL (WUS), LEAFY COTYLEDON 1 and 2. All these deleterious effects were attenuated when TIBA was administered to lines over-expressing SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) isolated from Brassica oleracea (Bo), B. napus (Bn), and B. rapa (Br). Of interest, TIBA-treated explants of Arabidopsis lines over-expressing the Brassica STM were able to produce a large number of embryogenic cells and somatic embryos which exhibited a normal morphology and two distinct cotyledons. A proposed reason for this behaviour was ascribed to the ability of the transformed tissue to retain a normal distribution of auxin in the presence of TIBA. Proper localization of auxin might be required for the normal expression of several genes needed for the acquisition of embryogenic competence and formation of somatic embryos.

  15. Ectopic expression of the Brassica SHOOTMERISTEMLESS attenuates the deleterious effects of the auxin transport inhibitor TIBA on somatic embryo number and morphology.

    PubMed

    Elhiti, Mohamed; Stasolla, Claudio

    2011-02-01

    The auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) is a useful compound for investigating the role of auxin flow during plant growth and development. In Arabidopsis lines, applications of TIBA during the induction phase of somatic embryogenesis inhibit embryo development and induce the differentiation of the meristematic cells of the shoot apical meristem (SAM), leading to the fusion of the cotyledons. These abnormalities were associated to changes in the expression levels of auxin transporter genes (PINs) and endogenous distribution of IAA. Treatments of TIBA caused a rapid accumulation of IAA within the epidermal and cortical root cells of the explants (bent-cotyledon zygotic embryos), as well as in the apical and sub-apical cells of the callus generated by the surface of the cotyledons of the explants. Within the callus only a few cells acquired meristematic characteristics, and this was associated to low expression levels of genes involved in embryogenic cell fate acquisition, such as WUSCHEL (WUS), LEAFY COTYLEDON 1 and 2. All these deleterious effects were attenuated when TIBA was administered to lines over-expressing SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) isolated from Brassica oleracea (Bo), B. napus (Bn), and B. rapa (Br). Of interest, TIBA-treated explants of Arabidopsis lines over-expressing the Brassica STM were able to produce a large number of embryogenic cells and somatic embryos which exhibited a normal morphology and two distinct cotyledons. A proposed reason for this behaviour was ascribed to the ability of the transformed tissue to retain a normal distribution of auxin in the presence of TIBA. Proper localization of auxin might be required for the normal expression of several genes needed for the acquisition of embryogenic competence and formation of somatic embryos. PMID:21421384

  16. Effects of a glycine transporter-1 inhibitor and D-serine on MK-801-induced immobility in the forced swimming test in rats.

    PubMed

    Kawaura, Kazuaki; Koike, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Kohnosuke; Kambe, Daiji; Kaku, Ayaka; Karasawa, Jun-ichi; Chaki, Shigeyuki; Hikichi, Hirohiko

    2015-02-01

    Glutamatergic dysfunction, particularly the hypofunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, is involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The positive modulation of the glycine site on the NMDA receptor has been proposed as a novel therapeutic approach for schizophrenia. However, its efficacy against negative symptoms, which are poorly managed by current medications, has not been fully addressed. In the present study, the effects of the positive modulation of the glycine site on the NMDA receptor were investigated in an animal model of negative symptoms of schizophrenia. The subchronic administration of MK-801 increased immobility in the forced swimming test in rats without affecting spontaneous locomotor activity. The increased immobility induced by MK-801 was attenuated by the atypical antipsychotic clozapine but not by either the typical antipsychotic haloperidol or the antidepressant imipramine, indicating that the increased immobility induced by subchronic treatment with MK-801 in the forced swimming test may represent a negative symptom of schizophrenia. Likewise, positive modulation of the glycine sites on the NMDA receptor using an agonist for the glycine site, D-serine, and a glycine transporter-1 inhibitor, N-[(3R)-3-([1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yloxy)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)propyl]-N-methylglycine hydrochloride (NFPS), significantly reversed the increase in immobility in MK-801-treated rats without reducing the immobility time in vehicle-treated rats. The present results show that the stimulation of the NMDA receptor through the glycine site on the receptor either directly with D-serine or by blocking glycine transporter-1 attenuates the immobility elicited by the subchronic administration of MK-801 and may be potentially useful for the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

  17. Pharmacophore modeling of nilotinib as an inhibitor of ATP-binding cassette drug transporters and BCR-ABL kinase using a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship approach.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Suneet; Kouanda, Abdul; Silverton, Latoya; Talele, Tanaji T; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2014-07-01

    Nilotinib (Tasigna) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved by the FDA to treat chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients. It is also a transport substrate of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug efflux transporters ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein, P-gp) and ABCG2 (BCRP), which may have an effect on the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of this drug. The goal of this study was to identify pharmacophoric features of nilotinib in order to potentially develop specific inhibitors of BCR-ABL kinase with minimal interactions with ABC drug transporters. Three-dimensional pharmacophore modeling and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies were carried out on a series of nilotinib analogues to identify chemical features that contribute to inhibitory activity of nilotinib against BCR-ABL kinase activity, P-gp, and ABCG2. Twenty-five derivatives of nilotinib were synthesized and were then tested to measure their activity to inhibit BCR-ABL kinase and to inhibit the function of ABC drug transporters. A set of in vitro experiments including kinase activity and cell-based transport assays and photolabeling of P-gp and ABCG2 with a transport substrate, [(125)I]-iodoarylazido-prazosin (IAAP), were carried out in isolated membranes to evaluate the potency of the derivatives to inhibit the function of ABC drug transporters and BCR-ABL kinase. Sixteen, fourteen, and ten compounds were selected as QSAR data sets, respectively, to generate PHASE v3.1 pharmacophore models for BCR-ABL kinase, ABCG2, and P-gp inhibitors. The IC50 values of these derivatives against P-gp, ABCG2, or BCR-ABL kinase were used to generate pharmacophore features required for optimal interactions with these targets. A seven-point pharmacophore (AADDRRR) for BCR-ABL kinase inhibitory activity, a six-point pharmacophore (ADHRRR) for ABCG2 inhibitory activity, and a seven-point pharmacophore (AADDRRR) for P-gp inhibitory activity were generated. The derived models clearly demonstrate high predictive power

  18. Quinolyl analogues of norlobelane: novel potent inhibitors of [(3)H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding and [(3)H]dopamine uptake at the vesicular monoamine transporter-2.

    PubMed

    Ding, Derong; Nickell, Justin R; Dwoskin, Linda P; Crooks, Peter A

    2015-07-01

    We have previously shown that quinolyl moieties are attractive structural replacements for the phenyl groups in lobelane. These quinolyl analogues had improved water-solubility over lobelane and retained the potent vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2) inhibitory properties of the parent compound, with quinlobelane (4) exhibiting potent inhibition of uptake at VMAT-2 (Ki=51nM). However, the VMAT-2 inhibitory properties of quinolyl analogues of norlobelane, which is equipotent with lobeline as an inhibitor of [(3)H]dopamine (DA) uptake at VMAT-2, have not been reported. In the current communication, we describe the synthesis of some novel des-methyl quinolyl analogues of lobelane that exhibit greater affinity (Ki=178-647nM) for the dihydrotetrabenazine binding site located on VMAT-2 compared with lobelane (Ki=970nM), norlobelane (Ki=2310nM) and quinlobelane (Ki=2640nM). The most potent compounds, 14 and 15, also exhibited inhibition of [(3)H]DA uptake at VMAT-2 (Ki=42nM) which was comparable to both lobelane (Ki=45nM) and norlobelane (Ki=43nM). Results reveal that binding affinity at VMAT-2 serves as an accurate predictor of inhibition of the function of VMAT-2 for the majority of these analogues. These novel analogues are under consideration for further development as treatments for methamphetamine abuse.

  19. Evaluation of drug-drug interaction between henagliflozin, a novel sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, and metformin in healthy Chinese males.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liupeng; Wu, Chunyong; Shen, Lu; Liu, Haiyan; Chen, Ying; Liu, Fang; Wang, Youqun; Yang, Jin

    2016-08-01

    1. Henagliflozin is a novel sodium-glucose transporter 2 inhibitor and presents a complementary therapy to metformin for patients with T2DM due to its insulin-independent mechanism of action. This study evaluated the potential pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction between henagliflozin and metformin in healthy Chinese male subjects. 2. In open-label, single-center, single-arm, two-period, three-treatment self-control study, 12 subjects received 25 mg henagliflozin, 1000 mg metformin or the combination. Lack of PK interaction was defined as the ratio of geometric means and 90% confidence interval (CI) for combination: monotherapy being within the range of 0.80-1.25. 3. Co-administration of henagliflozin with metformin had no effect on henagliflozin area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-24) (GRM: 1.08; CI: 1.05, 1.10) and peak plasma concentration (Cmax) (GRM: 0.99; CI: 0.92, 1.07). Reciprocally, co-administration of metformin with henagliflozin had no clinically significant on metformin AUC0-24 (GRM: 1.09, CI: 1.02, 1.16) although there was an 11% increase in metformin Cmax (GRM 1.12; CI 1.02, 1.23). All monotherapies and combination therapy were well tolerated. 4. Henagliflozin can be co-administered with metformin without dose adjustment of either drug.

  20. Bioavailability Studies and in vitro Profiling of the Selective Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter Subtype 1 (EAAT1) Inhibitor UCPH-102.

    PubMed

    Haym, Isabell; Huynh, Tri H V; Hansen, Stinne W; Pedersen, Martin H F; Ruiz, Josep A; Erichsen, Mette N; Gynther, Mikko; Bjørn-Yoshimoto, Walden E; Abrahamsen, Bjarke; Bastlund, Jesper F; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Eriksen, Anette L; Jensen, Anders A; Bunch, Lennart

    2016-02-17

    Although the selective excitatory amino acid transporter subtype 1 (EAAT1) inhibitor UCPH-101 has become a standard pharmacological tool compound for in vitro and ex vivo studies in the EAAT research field, its inability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier makes it unsuitable for in vivo studies. In the present study, per os (p.o.) administration (40 mg kg(-1) ) of the closely related analogue UCPH-102 in rats yielded respective plasma and brain concentrations of 10.5 and 6.67 μm after 1 h. Three analogue series were designed and synthesized to improve the bioavailability profile of UCPH-102, but none displayed substantially improved properties in this respect. In vitro profiling of UCPH-102 (10 μm) at 51 central nervous system targets in radioligand binding assays strongly suggests that the compound is completely selective for EAAT1. Finally, in a rodent locomotor model, p.o. administration of UCPH-102 (20 mg kg(-1) ) did not induce acute effects or any visible changes in behavior. PMID:26797816

  1. Evaluation of drug-drug interaction between henagliflozin, a novel sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, and metformin in healthy Chinese males.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liupeng; Wu, Chunyong; Shen, Lu; Liu, Haiyan; Chen, Ying; Liu, Fang; Wang, Youqun; Yang, Jin

    2016-08-01

    1. Henagliflozin is a novel sodium-glucose transporter 2 inhibitor and presents a complementary therapy to metformin for patients with T2DM due to its insulin-independent mechanism of action. This study evaluated the potential pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction between henagliflozin and metformin in healthy Chinese male subjects. 2. In open-label, single-center, single-arm, two-period, three-treatment self-control study, 12 subjects received 25 mg henagliflozin, 1000 mg metformin or the combination. Lack of PK interaction was defined as the ratio of geometric means and 90% confidence interval (CI) for combination: monotherapy being within the range of 0.80-1.25. 3. Co-administration of henagliflozin with metformin had no effect on henagliflozin area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-24) (GRM: 1.08; CI: 1.05, 1.10) and peak plasma concentration (Cmax) (GRM: 0.99; CI: 0.92, 1.07). Reciprocally, co-administration of metformin with henagliflozin had no clinically significant on metformin AUC0-24 (GRM: 1.09, CI: 1.02, 1.16) although there was an 11% increase in metformin Cmax (GRM 1.12; CI 1.02, 1.23). All monotherapies and combination therapy were well tolerated. 4. Henagliflozin can be co-administered with metformin without dose adjustment of either drug. PMID:26608671

  2. Anandamide reverses depressive-like behavior, neurochemical abnormalities and oxidative-stress parameters in streptozotocin-diabetic rats: Role of CB1 receptors.

    PubMed

    de Morais, Helen; de Souza, Camila P; da Silva, Luisa M; Ferreira, Daniele M; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko; Vanvossen, Ana Carolina; Cristina de Carvalho, Milene; da Silva-Santos, José Eduardo; Bertoglio, Leandro José; Cunha, Joice M; Zanoveli, Janaina M

    2016-10-01

    The pathophysiology associated with increased prevalence of depression in diabetics is not completely understood, although studies have pointed the endocannabinoid system as a possible target. Then, we aimed to investigate the role of this system in the pathophysiology of depression associated with diabetes. For this, diabetic (DBT) male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally treated with cannabinoid CB1 (AM251, 1mg/kg) or CB2 (AM630, 1mg/kg) receptor antagonists followed by anandamide (AEA, 0.005mg/kg) and then submitted to the forced swimming test (FST). Oxidative stress parameters, CB1 receptor expression and serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline levels in the hippocampus (HIP) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) were also performed. It was observed that DBT animals presented a more pronounced depressive-like behavior and increase of CB1 receptor expression in the HIP. AEA treatment induced a significant improvement in the depressive-like behavior, which was reversed by the CB1 antagonist AM251, without affecting the hyperglycemia or weight gain. AEA was also able to restore the elevated CB1 expression and also to elevate the reduced level of 5-HT in the HIP from DBT animals. In addition, AEA restored the elevated noradrenaline levels in the PFC and induced a neuroprotective effect by restoring the decreased reduced glutathione and increased lipid hydroperoxides levels along with the decreased superoxide dismutase activity observed in HIP or PFC. Together, our data suggest that in depression associated with diabetes, the endocannabinoid anandamide has a potential to induce neuroadaptative changes able to improve the depressive-like response by its action as a CB1 receptor agonist.

  3. NBI‐98854, a selective monoamine transport inhibitor for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia: A randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Roland; Hauser, Robert A.; Factor, Stewart A.; Burke, Joshua; Mandri, Daniel; Castro‐Gayol, Julio C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Tardive dyskinesia is a persistent movement disorder induced by chronic neuroleptic exposure. NBI‐98854 is a novel, highly selective, vesicular monoamine transporter 2 inhibitor. We present results of a randomized, 6‐week, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, dose‐titration study evaluating the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of NBI‐98854 for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia. Methods Male and female adult subjects with moderate or severe tardive dyskinesia were included. NBI‐98854 or placebo was given once per day starting at 25 mg and then escalated by 25 mg to a maximum of 75 mg based on dyskinesia and tolerability assessment. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale from baseline at week 6 scored by blinded, central video raters. The secondary endpoint was the Clinical Global Impression of Change—Tardive Dyskinesia score assessed by the blinded investigator. Results Two hundred five potential subjects were screened, and 102 were randomized; 76% of NBI‐98854 subjects and 80% of placebo subjects reached the maximum allowed dose. Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale scores for NBI‐98854 compared with placebo were significantly reduced (p = 0.0005). Active drug was also superior on the Clinical Global Impression of Change—Tardive Dyskinesia (p < 0.0001). Treatment‐emergent adverse event rates were 49% in the NBI‐98854 and 33% in the placebo subjects. The most common adverse events (active vs. placebo) were fatigue and headache (9.8% vs. 4.1%) and constipation and urinary tract infection (3.9% vs. 6.1%). No clinically relevant changes in safety assessments were noted. Conclusion NBI‐98854 significantly improved tardive dyskinesia and was well tolerated in patients. These results support the phase 3 clinical trials of NBI‐98854 now underway. © 2015 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder

  4. Quinine dimers are potent inhibitors of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter and are active against quinoline-resistant P. falciparum.

    PubMed

    Hrycyna, Christine A; Summers, Robert L; Lehane, Adele M; Pires, Marcos M; Namanja, Hilda; Bohn, Kelsey; Kuriakose, Jerrin; Ferdig, Michael; Henrich, Philipp P; Fidock, David A; Kirk, Kiaran; Chmielewski, Jean; Martin, Rowena E

    2014-03-21

    Chloroquine (CQ) resistance in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is primarily conferred by mutations in the "chloroquine resistance transporter" (PfCRT). The resistance-conferring form of PfCRT (PfCRT(CQR)) mediates CQ resistance by effluxing the drug from the parasite's digestive vacuole, the acidic compartment in which CQ exerts its antiplasmodial effect. PfCRT(CQR) can also decrease the parasite's susceptibility to other quinoline drugs, including the current antimalarials quinine and amodiaquine. Here we describe interactions between PfCRT(CQR) and a series of dimeric quinine molecules using a Xenopus laevis oocyte system for the heterologous expression of PfCRT and using an assay that detects the drug-associated efflux of H(+) ions from the digestive vacuole in parasites that harbor different forms of PfCRT. The antiplasmodial activities of dimers 1 and 6 were also examined in vitro (against drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains of P. falciparum) and in vivo (against drug-sensitive P. berghei). Our data reveal that the quinine dimers are the most potent inhibitors of PfCRT(CQR) reported to date. Furthermore, the lead compounds (1 and 6) were not effluxed by PfCRT(CQR) from the digestive vacuole but instead accumulated to very high levels within this organelle. Both 1 and 6 exhibited in vitro antiplasmodial activities that were inversely correlated with CQ. Moreover, the additional parasiticidal effect exerted by 1 and 6 in the drug-resistant parasites was attributable, at least in part, to their ability to inhibit PfCRT(CQR). This highlights the potential for devising new antimalarial therapies that exploit inherent weaknesses in a key resistance mechanism of P. falciparum.

  5. Effects of rifampin, cyclosporine A, and probenecid on the pharmacokinetic profile of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, in healthy participants

    PubMed Central

    Devineni, Damayanthi; Vaccaro, Nicole; Murphy, Joe; Curtin, Christopher; Mamidi, Rao N.V.S.; Weiner, Sveta; Wang, Shean-Sheng; Ariyawansa, Jay; Stieltjes, Hans; Wajs, Ewa; Di Prospero, Nicholas A.; Rothenberg, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, approved for the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is metabolized by uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) 1A9 and UGT2B4, and is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Canagliflozin exposures may be affected by coadministration of drugs that induce (e.g., rifampin for UGT) or inhibit (e.g. probenecid for UGT; cyclosporine A for P-gp) these pathways. The primary objective of these three independent studies (single-center, open-label, fixed-sequence) was to evaluate the effects of rifampin (study 1), probenecid (study 2), and cyclosporine A (study 3) on the pharmacokinetics of canagliflozin in healthy participants. Methods: Participants received; in study 1: canagliflozin 300 mg (days 1 and 10), rifampin 600 mg (days 4 – 12); study 2: canagliflozin 300 mg (days 1 – 17), probenecid 500 mg twice daily (days 15 – 17); and study 3: canagliflozin 300 mg (days 1 – 8), cyclosporine A 400 mg (day 8). Pharmacokinetics were assessed at pre-specified intervals on days 1 and 10 (study 1); on days 14 and 17 (study 2), and on days 2 – 8 (study 3). Results: Rifampin decreased the maximum plasma canagliflozin concentration (Cmax) by 28% and its area under the curve (AUC) by 51%. Probenecid increased the Cmax by 13% and the AUC by 21%. Cyclosporine A increased the AUC by 23% but did not affect the Cmax. Conclusion: Coadministration of canagliflozin with rifampin, probenecid, and cyclosporine A was well-tolerated. No clinically meaningful interactions were observed for probenecid or cyclosporine A, while rifampin coadministration modestly reduced canagliflozin plasma concentrations and could necessitate an appropriate monitoring of glycemic control. PMID:25407255

  6. Development and Validation of a High-Content Screening Assay to Identify Inhibitors of Cytoplasmic Dynein-Mediated Transport of Glucocorticoid Receptor to the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Shinde, Sunita N.; Hua, Yun; Shun, Tong Ying; Lazo, John S.; Day, Billy W.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Rapid ligand-induced trafficking of glucocorticoid nuclear hormone receptor (GR) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus is an extensively studied model for intracellular retrograde cargo transport employed in constructive morphogenesis and many other cellular functions. Unfortunately, potent and selective small-molecule disruptors of this process are lacking, which has restricted pharmacological investigations. We describe here the development and validation of a 384-well high-content screening (HCS) assay to identify inhibitors of the rapid ligand-induced retrograde translocation of cytoplasmic glucocorticoid nuclear hormone receptor green fluorescent fusion protein (GR-GFP) into the nuclei of 3617.4 mouse mammary adenocarcinoma cells. We selected 3617.4 cells, because they express GR-GFP under the control of a tetracycline (Tet)-repressible promoter and are exceptionally amenable to image acquisition and analysis procedures. Initially, we investigated the time-dependent expression of GR-GFP in 3617.4 cells under Tet-on and Tet-off control to determine the optimal conditions to measure dexamethasone (Dex)-induced GR-GFP nuclear translocation on the ArrayScan-VTI automated imaging platform. We then miniaturized the assay into a 384-well format and validated the performance of the GR-GFP nuclear translocation HCS assay in our 3-day assay signal window and dimethylsulfoxide validation tests. The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) plays an essential role in the regulation of GR steroid binding affinity and ligand-induced retrograde trafficking to the nucleus. We verified that the GR-GFP HCS assay captured the concentration-dependent inhibition of GR-GFP nuclear translocation by 17-AAG, a benzoquinone ansamycin that selectively blocks the binding and hydrolysis of ATP by Hsp90. We screened the 1280 compound library of pharmacologically active compounds set in the Dex-induced GR-GFP nuclear translocation assay and used the multi-parameter HCS data to

  7. Proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Teicher, Beverly A; Tomaszewski, Joseph E

    2015-07-01

    Proteasome inhibitors have a 20 year history in cancer therapy. The first proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib (Velcade, PS-341), a break-through multiple myeloma treatment, moved rapidly through development from bench in 1994 to first approval in 2003. Bortezomib is a reversible boronic acid inhibitor of the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome. Next generation proteasome inhibitors include carfilzomib and oprozomib which are irreversible epoxyketone proteasome inhibitors; and ixazomib and delanzomib which are reversible boronic acid proteasome inhibitors. Two proteasome inhibitors, bortezomib and carfilzomib are FDA approved drugs and ixazomib and oprozomib are in late stage clinical trials. All of the agents are potent cytotoxics. The disease focus for all the proteasome inhibitors is multiple myeloma. This focus arose from clinical observations made in bortezomib early clinical trials. Later preclinical studies confirmed that multiple myeloma cells were indeed more sensitive to proteasome inhibitors than other tumor cell types. The discovery and development of the proteasome inhibitor class of anticancer agents has progressed through a classic route of serendipity and scientific investigation. These agents are continuing to have a major impact in their treatment of hematologic malignancies and are beginning to be explored as potential treatment agent for non-cancer indications. PMID:25935605

  8. Allosteric modulation of an excitatory amino acid transporter: the subtype-selective inhibitor UCPH-101 exerts sustained inhibition of EAAT1 through an intramonomeric site in the trimerization domain.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsen, Bjarke; Schneider, Nicole; Erichsen, Mette N; Huynh, Tri H V; Fahlke, Christoph; Bunch, Lennart; Jensen, Anders A

    2013-01-16

    In the present study, the mechanism of action and molecular basis for the activity of the first class of selective inhibitors of the human excitatory amino acid transporter subtype 1 (EAAT1) and its rodent ortholog GLAST are elucidated. The previously reported specificity of UCPH-101 and UCPH-102 for EAAT1 over EAAT2 and EAAT3 is demonstrated to extend to the EAAT4 and EAAT5 subtypes as well. Interestingly, brief exposure to UCPH-101 induces a long-lasting inactive state of EAAT1, whereas the inhibition exerted by closely related analogs is substantially more reversible in nature. In agreement with this, the kinetic properties of UCPH-101 unblocking of the transporter are considerably slower than those of UCPH-102. UCPH-101 exhibits noncompetitive inhibition of EAAT1, and its binding site in GLAST has been delineated in an elaborate mutagenesis study. Substitutions of several residues in TM3, TM4c, and TM7a of GLAST have detrimental effects on the inhibitory potency and/or efficacy of UCPH-101 while not affecting the pharmacological properties of (S)-glutamate or the competitive EAAT inhibitor TBOA significantly. Hence, UCPH-101 is proposed to target a predominantly hydrophobic crevice in the "trimerization domain" of the GLAST monomer, and the inhibitor is demonstrated to inhibit the uptake through the monomer that it binds to exclusively and not to affect substrate translocation through the other monomers in the GLAST trimer. The allosteric mode of UCPH-101 inhibition underlines the functional importance of the trimerization domain of the EAAT and demonstrates the feasibility of modulating transporter function through ligand binding to regions distant from its "transport domain." PMID:23325245

  9. Identification of Novel Inhibitors of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides 1B1 and 1B3 (OATP1B1 and OATP1B3) Using a Consensus Vote of Six Classification Models

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B1 and 1B3 are transporters selectively expressed on the basolateral membrane of the hepatocyte. Several studies reveal that they are involved in drug–drug interactions, cancer, and hyperbilirubinemia. In this study, we developed a set of classification models for OATP1B1 and 1B3 inhibition based on more than 1700 carefully curated compounds from literature, which were validated via cross-validation and by use of an external test set. After combining several sets of descriptors and classifiers, the 6 best models were selected according to their statistical performance and were used for virtual screening of DrugBank. Consensus scoring of the screened compounds resulted in the selection and purchase of nine compounds as potential dual inhibitors and of one compound as potential selective OATP1B3 inhibitor. Biological testing of the compounds confirmed the validity of the models, yielding an accuracy of 90% for OATP1B1 and 80% for OATP1B3, respectively. Moreover, at least half of the new identified inhibitors are associated with hyperbilirubinemia or hepatotoxicity, implying a relationship between OATP inhibition and these severe side effects. PMID:26469880

  10. Identification of Novel Inhibitors of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides 1B1 and 1B3 (OATP1B1 and OATP1B3) Using a Consensus Vote of Six Classification Models.

    PubMed

    Kotsampasakou, Eleni; Brenner, Stefan; Jäger, Walter; Ecker, Gerhard F

    2015-12-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B1 and 1B3 are transporters selectively expressed on the basolateral membrane of the hepatocyte. Several studies reveal that they are involved in drug-drug interactions, cancer, and hyperbilirubinemia. In this study, we developed a set of classification models for OATP1B1 and 1B3 inhibition based on more than 1700 carefully curated compounds from literature, which were validated via cross-validation and by use of an external test set. After combining several sets of descriptors and classifiers, the 6 best models were selected according to their statistical performance and were used for virtual screening of DrugBank. Consensus scoring of the screened compounds resulted in the selection and purchase of nine compounds as potential dual inhibitors and of one compound as potential selective OATP1B3 inhibitor. Biological testing of the compounds confirmed the validity of the models, yielding an accuracy of 90% for OATP1B1 and 80% for OATP1B3, respectively. Moreover, at least half of the new identified inhibitors are associated with hyperbilirubinemia or hepatotoxicity, implying a relationship between OATP inhibition and these severe side effects. PMID:26469880

  11. Pharmacodynamic Effects of Canagliflozin, a Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitor, from a Randomized Study in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Sue; Devineni, Damayanthi; Ghosh, Atalanta; Polidori, David; Hompesch, Marcus; Arnolds, Sabine; Morrow, Linda; Spitzer, Heike; Demarest, Keith; Rothenberg, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single and multiple ascending-dose study evaluated the pharmacodynamic effects and safety/tolerability of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Patients (N = 116) discontinued their antihyperglycemic medications 2 weeks before randomization. Patients received canagliflozin 30, 100, 200, or 400 mg once daily or 300 mg twice daily, or placebo at 2 study centers in the United States and Germany, or canagliflozin 30 mg once daily or placebo at 1 study center in Korea, while maintaining an isocaloric diet for 2 weeks. On Days –1, 1, and 16, urinary glucose excretion (UGE), plasma glucose (PG), fasting PG (FPG), and insulin were measured. The renal threshold for glucose (RTG) was calculated from UGE, PG, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Safety was evaluated based on adverse event (AE) reports, vital signs, electrocardiograms, clinical laboratory tests, and physical examinations. Results Canagliflozin increased UGE dose-dependently (∼80–120 g/day with canagliflozin ≥100 mg), with increases maintained over the 14-day dosing period with each dose. Canagliflozin dose-dependently decreased RTG, with maximal reductions to ∼4–5 mM (72–90 mg/dL). Canagliflozin also reduced FPG and 24-hour mean PG; glucose reductions were seen on Day 1 and maintained over 2 weeks. Plasma insulin reductions with canagliflozin were consistent with observed PG reductions. Canagliflozin also reduced body weight. AEs were transient, mild to moderate in intensity, and balanced across groups; 1 canagliflozin-treated female reported an episode of vaginal candidiasis. Canagliflozin did not cause hypoglycemia, consistent with the RTG values remaining above the hypoglycemia threshold. At Day 16, there were no clinically meaningful changes in urine volume, urine electrolyte excretion, renal function, or routine laboratory test values. Conclusions

  12. Platelet Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shifrin, Megan M; Widmar, S Brian

    2016-03-01

    Antithrombotic medications have become standard of care for management of acute coronary syndrome. Platelet adhesion, activation, and aggregation are essential components of platelet function; platelet-inhibiting medications interfere with these components and reduce incidence of thrombosis. Active bleeding is a contraindication for administration of platelet inhibitors. There is currently no reversal agent for platelet inhibitors, although platelet transfusion may be used to correct active bleeding after administration of platelet inhibitors. PMID:26897422

  13. Cannabinoid-Induced Changes in the Activity of Electron Transport Chain Complexes of Brain Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Singh, Namrata; Hroudová, Jana; Fišar, Zdeněk

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the activity of individual mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes (I, II/III, IV) and citrate synthase induced by pharmacologically different cannabinoids. In vitro effects of selected cannabinoids on mitochondrial enzymes were measured in crude mitochondrial fraction isolated from pig brain. Both cannabinoid receptor agonists, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, anandamide, and R-(+)-WIN55,212-2, and antagonist/inverse agonists of cannabinoid receptors, AM251, and cannabidiol were examined in pig brain mitochondria. Different effects of these cannabinoids on mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and citrate synthase were found. Citrate synthase activity was decreased only by Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and AM251. Significant increase in the complex I activity was induced by anandamide. At micromolar concentration, all the tested cannabinoids inhibited the activity of electron transport chain complexes II/III and IV. Stimulatory effect of anandamide on activity of complex I may participate on distinct physiological effects of endocannabinoids compared to phytocannabinoids or synthetic cannabinoids. Common inhibitory effect of cannabinoids on activity of complex II/III and IV confirmed a non-receptor-mediated mechanism of cannabinoid action on individual components of system of oxidative phosphorylation.

  14. Review of insulin-dependent and insulin-independent agents for treating patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and potential role for sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Jeffrey S

    2013-05-01

    Diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), continues to be a global health care problem. Although the beneficial effects of glycemic control are well established, in the United States, > 40% of adults with diabetes fail to achieve target glycated hemoglobin levels. Antidiabetic drug classes vary with respect to their mechanisms of action, glucose-lowering potential, and safety and tolerability profiles. Antidiabetic drug classes include some agents that depend on the presence or action of insulin for their therapeutic effect. As the disease state of T2DM progresses, patient pancreatic β-cell function declines, and therapies that stimulate insulin secretion or improve insulin sensitivity become less effective for this population. Therefore, the development of additional antidiabetic agents with novel mechanisms of action that can be used alone or in combination with currently approved medications may help patients achieve glycemic control. Agents that have comparable glucose-lowering capabilities but different mechanisms of action may fill treatment gaps or meet the needs of patient subpopulations. For example, inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) represent an emerging class of glucose-lowering agents. The SGLT2 inhibitors reduce glucose reabsorption by the kidney, leading to increased urinary glucose excretion and caloric loss. In clinical trials, these agents have been shown to improve glycemic control and to reduce body weight in patients with T2DM. Additionally, SGLT2 inhibitors pose a low risk for hypoglycemia and are generally well tolerated; however, their use has been associated with an increase in the frequency of genital infections and, in some studies, urinary tract infections. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors may provide an alternative or an addition to existing therapies for the treatment of patients with T2DM.

  15. Comparative effectiveness of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors for controlling hyperglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min; Xie, Chun-Guang; Gao, Hong; Zheng, Hui; Chen, Qin; Fang, Jian-Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Introduction As a new class of glucose-lowering drugs, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are effective for controlling hyperglycaemia, however, the relative effectiveness and safety of 6 recently available SGLT2 inhibitors have rarely been studied. Therefore, we aim to perform pairwise comparisons of the 6 SGLT2 inhibitors. Methods and analysis A systematic review and network meta-analysis will be conducted. Clinical studies that examine effectiveness and safety of either canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, ipragliflozin, tofogliflozin or luseogliflozin will be included. These studies will be systematically retrieved in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library, from inception to November 2015. Two reviewers will independently screen for eligible studies and then extract data from the studies as well as assess risk of bias. Discrepancies in screening and data extraction will be arbitrated by a third reviewer. A traditional meta-analysis will be performed to combine the effect sizes calculated from head-to-head comparisons with a random effect model. The effect sizes computed from indirect comparisons will be further combined in a network meta-analysis. Heterogeneity will be tested with the Cochrane's Q statistic, and publication bias will be assessed using a funnel plot and the Egger's test. Ethics and dissemination Relative effectiveness and harms of the 6 SGLT2 inhibitors will be demonstrated through this systematic review and network meta-analysis. The result of the review will be disseminated through a peer-review journal and conference presentations. Patients, clinicians and policymakers will benefit from this review in selecting a SGLT2 inhibitor for glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD42015025981. PMID:26826156

  16. Corrosion inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Wisotsky, M.J.; Metro, S.J.

    1989-10-31

    A corrosion inhibitor for use in synthetic ester lubricating oils is disclosed. It comprises an effective amount of: at least one aromatic amide; and at least one hydroxy substituted aromatic compound. The corrosion inhibitor thus formed is particularly useful in synthetic ester turbo lubricating oils.

  17. Blood levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide are increased in anorexia nervosa and in binge-eating disorder, but not in bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Monteleone, Palmiero; Matias, Isabelle; Martiadis, Vassilis; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Maj, Mario; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2005-06-01

    The endocannabinoid system, consisting of two cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) and the endogenous ligands anandamide (arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA)) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), has been shown to control food intake in both animals and humans, modulating either rewarding or quantitative aspects of the eating behavior. Moreover, hypothalamic endocannabinoids seem to be part of neural circuitry involved in the modulating effects of leptin on energy homeostasis. Therefore, alterations of the endocannabinoid system could be involved in the pathophysiology of eating disorders, where a deranged leptin signalling has been also reported. In order to verify this hypothesis, we measured plasma levels of AEA, 2-AG, and leptin in 15 women with anorexia nervosa (AN), 12 women with bulimia nervosa (BN), 11 women with binge-eating disorder (BED), and 15 healthy women. Plasma levels of AEA resulted significantly enhanced in both anorexic and BED women, but not in bulimic patients. No significant change occurred in the plasma levels of 2-AG in all the patients' groups. Moreover, circulating AEA levels were significantly and inversely correlated with plasma leptin concentrations in both healthy controls and anorexic women. These findings show for the first time a derangement in the production of the endogenous cannabinoid AEA in drug-free symptomatic women with AN or with BED. Although the pathophysiological significance of this alteration awaits further studies to be clarified, it suggests a possible involvement of AEA in the mediation of the rewarding aspects of the aberrant eating behaviors occurring in AN and BED.

  18. Systems Biology Analysis of the Endocannabinoid System Reveals a Scale-free Network with Distinct Roles for Anandamide and 2-Arachidonoylglycerol

    PubMed Central

    Bernabò, Nicola; Barboni, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We represented the endocannabinoid system (ECS) as a biological network, where ECS molecules are the nodes (123) and their interactions the links (189). ECS network follows a scale-free topology, which confers robustness against random damage, easy navigability, and controllability. Network topological parameters, such as clustering coefficient (i.e., how the nodes form clusters) of 0.0009, network diameter (the longest shortest path among all pairs of nodes) of 12, averaged number of neighbors (the mean number of connections per node) of 3.073, and characteristic path length (the expected distance between two connected nodes) of 4.715, suggested that molecular messages are transferred through the ECS network quickly and specifically. Interestingly, ∼75% of nodes are located on, or are active at the level of, the cell membrane. The hubs of ECS network are anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), which have also the highest value of betweeness centrality, and their removal causes network collapse into multiple disconnected components. Importantly, AEA is a ubiquitous player while 2-AG plays more restricted actions. Instead, the product of their degradation, arachidonic acid, and their hydrolyzing enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase, FAAH, have a marginal impact on ECS network, indeed their removal did not significantly affect its topology. PMID:24117401

  19. Discovery and molecular basis of potent noncovalent inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH)

    PubMed Central

    Min, Xiaoshan; Thibault, Stephen T.; Porter, Amy C.; Gustin, Darin J.; Carlson, Timothy J.; Xu, Haoda; Lindstrom, Michelle; Xu, Guifen; Uyeda, Craig; Ma, Zhihua; Li, Yihong; Kayser, Frank; Walker, Nigel P. C.; Wang, Zhulun

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an amidase-signature family member, is an integral membrane enzyme that degrades lipid amides including the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide and the sleep-inducing molecule oleamide. Both genetic knock out and pharmacological administration of FAAH inhibitors in rodent models result in analgesic, anxiolytic, and antiinflammatory phenotypes. Targeting FAAH activity, therefore, presents a promising new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pain and other neurological-related or inflammatory disorders. Nearly all FAAH inhibitors known to date attain their binding potency through a reversible or irreversible covalent modification of the nucleophile Ser241 in the unusual Ser-Ser-Lys catalytic triad. Here, we report the discovery and mechanism of action of a series of ketobenzimidazoles as unique and potent noncovalent FAAH inhibitors. Compound 2, a representative of these ketobenzimidazoles, was designed from a series of ureas that were identified from high-throughput screening. While urea compound 1 is characterized as an irreversible covalent inhibitor, the cocrystal structure of FAAH complexed with compound 2 reveals that these ketobenzimidazoles, though containing a carbonyl moiety, do not covalently modify Ser241. These inhibitors achieve potent inhibition of FAAH activity primarily from shape complementarity to the active site and through numerous hydrophobic interactions. These noncovalent compounds exhibit excellent selectivity and good pharmacokinetic properties. The discovery of this distinctive class of inhibitors opens a new avenue for modulating FAAH activity through nonmechanism-based inhibition. PMID:21502526

  20. PDE5 inhibitors, sildenafil and vardenafil, reverse multidrug resistance by inhibiting the efflux function of multidrug resistance protein 7 (ATP-binding Cassette C10) transporter.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-Jiang; Sun, Yue-Li; Tiwari, Amit K; Xiao, Zhi-Jie; Sodani, Kamlesh; Yang, Dong-Hua; Vispute, Saraubh G; Jiang, Wen-Qi; Chen, Si-Dong; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2012-08-01

    Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of male erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. Recently, several groups have evaluated the ability of PDE5 inhibitors for their anticancer activities. Previously, we had shown that sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil could reverse P-glycoprotein (ATP-binding cassette B1)-mediated MDR. In the present study, we determined whether these PDE5 inhibitors have the potential to reverse multidrug resistance protein 7 (MRP7; ATP-binding cassette C10)-mediated MDR. We found that sildenafil and vardenafil dose-dependently enhanced the sensitivity of MRP7-transfected HEK293 cells to paclitaxel, docetaxel and vinblastine, while tadalafil had only a minimal effect. Accumulation and efflux experiments demonstrated that sildenafil and vardenafil increased the intracellular accumulation of [(3)H]-paclitaxel by inhibiting the efflux of [(3 H]-paclitaxel in HEK/MRP7 cells. In addition, immunoblot and immunofluorescence analyses indicated that no significant alterations of MRP7 protein expression and localization in plasma membranes were found after treatment with sildenafil, vardenafil or tadalafil. These results demonstrate that sildenafil and vardenafil reverse MRP7-mediated a MDR through inhibition of the drug efflux function of MRP7. Our findings indicate a potentially novel use of PDE5 inhibitors as an adjuvant chemotherapeutic agent in clinical practice. PMID:22578167

  1. Discovery and characterization of novel inhibitors of the sodium-coupled citrate transporter (NaCT or SLC13A5)

    PubMed Central

    Huard, Kim; Brown, Janice; Jones, Jessica C.; Cabral, Shawn; Futatsugi, Kentaro; Gorgoglione, Matthew; Lanba, Adhiraj; Vera, Nicholas B.; Zhu, Yimin; Yan, Qingyun; Zhou, Yingjiang; Vernochet, Cecile; Riccardi, Keith; Wolford, Angela; Pirman, David; Niosi, Mark; Aspnes, Gary; Herr, Michael; Genung, Nathan E.; Magee, Thomas V.; Uccello, Daniel P.; Loria, Paula; Di, Li; Gosset, James R.; Hepworth, David; Rolph, Timothy; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A.; Erion, Derek M.

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is a key regulatory metabolic intermediate as it facilitates the integration of the glycolysis and lipid synthesis pathways. Inhibition of hepatic extracellular citrate uptake, by blocking the sodium-coupled citrate transporter (NaCT or SLC13A5), has been suggested as a potential therapeutic approach to treat metabolic disorders. NaCT transports citrate from the blood into the cell coupled to the transport of sodium ions. The studies herein report the identification and characterization of a novel small dicarboxylate molecule (compound 2) capable of selectively and potently inhibiting citrate transport through NaCT, both in vitro and in vivo. Binding and transport experiments indicate that 2 specifically binds NaCT in a competitive and stereosensitive manner, and is recognized as a substrate for transport by NaCT. The favorable pharmacokinetic properties of 2 permitted in vivo experiments to evaluate the effect of inhibiting hepatic citrate uptake on metabolic endpoints. PMID:26620127

  2. Discovery and characterization of novel inhibitors of the sodium-coupled citrate transporter (NaCT or SLC13A5).

    PubMed

    Huard, Kim; Brown, Janice; Jones, Jessica C; Cabral, Shawn; Futatsugi, Kentaro; Gorgoglione, Matthew; Lanba, Adhiraj; Vera, Nicholas B; Zhu, Yimin; Yan, Qingyun; Zhou, Yingjiang; Vernochet, Cecile; Riccardi, Keith; Wolford, Angela; Pirman, David; Niosi, Mark; Aspnes, Gary; Herr, Michael; Genung, Nathan E; Magee, Thomas V; Uccello, Daniel P; Loria, Paula; Di, Li; Gosset, James R; Hepworth, David; Rolph, Timothy; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Erion, Derek M

    2015-12-01

    Citrate is a key regulatory metabolic intermediate as it facilitates the integration of the glycolysis and lipid synthesis pathways. Inhibition of hepatic extracellular citrate uptake, by blocking the sodium-coupled citrate transporter (NaCT or SLC13A5), has been suggested as a potential therapeutic approach to treat metabolic disorders. NaCT transports citrate from the blood into the cell coupled to the transport of sodium ions. The studies herein report the identification and characterization of a novel small dicarboxylate molecule (compound 2) capable of selectively and potently inhibiting citrate transport through NaCT, both in vitro and in vivo. Binding and transport experiments indicate that 2 specifically binds NaCT in a competitive and stereosensitive manner, and is recognized as a substrate for transport by NaCT. The favorable pharmacokinetic properties of 2 permitted in vivo experiments to evaluate the effect of inhibiting hepatic citrate uptake on metabolic endpoints.

  3. Efflux transporters at the blood-brain barrier limit delivery and efficacy of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor palbociclib (PD-0332991) in an orthotopic brain tumor model.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Karen E; Pokorny, Jenny; Mittapalli, Rajendar K; Bakken, Katrina; Sarkaria, Jann N; Elmquist, William F

    2015-11-01

    6-Acetyl-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-2-([5-(piperazin-1-yl)pyridin-2-yl]amino)pyrido(2,3-d)pyrimidin-7(8H)-one [palbociclib (PD-0332991)] is a cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor approved for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer and is currently undergoing clinical trials for many solid tumors. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults and has limited treatment options. The cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 pathway is commonly dysregulated in GBM and is a promising target in treating this devastating disease. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the delivery of drugs to invasive regions of GBM, where the efflux transporters P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein can prevent treatments from reaching the tumor. The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanisms limiting the effectiveness of palbociclib therapy in an orthotopic xenograft model. The in vitro intracellular accumulation results demonstrated that palbociclib is a substrate for both P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein. In vivo studies in transgenic mice confirmed that efflux transport is responsible for the limited brain distribution of palbociclib. There was an ∼115-fold increase in brain exposure at steady state in the transporter deficient mice when compared with wild-type mice, and the efflux inhibitor elacridar significantly increased palbociclib brain distribution. Efficacy studies demonstrated that palbociclib is an effective therapy when GBM22 tumor cells are implanted in the flank, but ineffective in an orthotopic (intracranial) model. Moreover, doses designed to mimic brain exposure were ineffective in treating flank tumors. These results demonstrate that efflux transport in the BBB is involved in limiting the brain distribution of palbociclib and this has critical implications in determining effective dosing regimens of palbociclib therapy in the treatment of brain tumors. PMID:26354993

  4. SGLT2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dardi, I; Kouvatsos, T; Jabbour, S A

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a serious health issue and an economic burden, rising in epidemic proportions over the last few decades worldwide. Although several treatment options are available, only half of the global diabetic population achieves the recommended or individualized glycemic targets. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetic agents with a novel insulin-independent action. SGLT2 is a transporter found in the proximal renal tubules, responsible for the reabsorption of most of the glucose filtered by the kidney. Inhibition of SGLT2 lowers the blood glucose level by promoting the urinary excretion of excess glucose. Due to their insulin-independent action, SGLT2 inhibitors can be used with any degree of beta-cell dysfunction or insulin resistance, related to a very low risk of hypoglycemia. In addition to improving glycemic control, SGLT2 inhibitors have been associated with a reduction in weight and blood pressure when used as monotherapy or in combination with other antidiabetic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors is usually well tolerated; however, they have been associated with an increased incidence of urinary tract and genital infections, although these infections are usually mild and easy to treat. SGLT2 inhibitors are a promising new option in the armamentarium of drugs for patients with T2DM. PMID:26362302

  5. Anandamide Attenuates Th-17 Cell-Mediated Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity Response by Triggering IL-10 Production and Consequent microRNA Induction

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Austin R.; Nagarkatti, Prakash; Nagarkatti, Mitzi

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous cannabinoids [endocannabinoids] are lipid signaling molecules that have been shown to modulate immune functions. However, their role in the regulation of Th17 cells has not been studied previously. In the current study, we used methylated Bovine Serum Albumin [mBSA]-induced delayed type hypersensitivity [DTH] response in C57BL/6 mice, mediated by Th17 cells, as a model to test the anti-inflammatory effects of endocannabinoids. Administration of anandamide [AEA], a member of the endocannabinoid family, into mice resulted in significant mitigation of mBSA-induced inflammation, including foot pad swelling, cell infiltration, and cell proliferation in the draining lymph nodes [LN]. AEA treatment significantly reduced IL-17 and IFN-γ production, as well as decreased RORγt expression while causing significant induction of IL-10 in the draining LNs. IL-10 was critical for the AEA-induced mitigation of DTH response inasmuch as neutralization of IL-10 reversed the effects of AEA. We next analyzed miRNA from the LN cells and found that 100 out of 609 miRNA species were differentially regulated in AEA-treated mice when compared to controls. Several of these miRNAs targeted proinflammatory mediators. Interestingly, many of these miRNA were also upregulated upon in vitro treatment of LN cells with IL-10. Together, the current study demonstrates that AEA may suppress Th-17 cell–mediated DTH response by inducing IL-10 which in turn triggers miRNA that target proinflammatory pathways. PMID:24699635

  6. Evaluation of the Endothelin Receptor Antagonists Ambrisentan, Bosentan, Macitentan, and Sitaxsentan as Hepatobiliary Transporter Inhibitors and Substrates in Sandwich-Cultured Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lepist, Eve-Irene; Gillies, Hunter; Smith, William; Hao, Jia; Hubert, Cassandra; St. Claire, Robert L.; Brouwer, Kenneth R.; Ray, Adrian S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Inhibition of the transporter-mediated hepatobiliary elimination of bile salts is a putative mechanism for liver toxicity observed with some endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs). Methods Sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes were used to study the hepatobiliary distribution and accumulation of exogenous taurocholate, ERAs and endogenous bile acids. The molecular mechanisms for findings in hepatocytes or clinical observations were further explored using either vesicular assays (efflux transporters) or transfected cell-lines (uptake transporters). Inhibition constants (IC50) were measured for the human hepatobiliary transporters bile salt export pump (BSEP), sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2), P-glycoprotein (Pgp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) and OATP1B3. Results The ERAs showed dose-dependent reductions in exogenous taurocholate cellular accumulation in human hepatocytes, with macitentan having the greatest effect. Consistent with their effects on bile acids, the ERAs inhibited bile transporters. IC50 values for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 ranged from 2 µM for macitentan to 47 µM for ambrisentan. Macitentan and bosentan also inhibited NTCP with IC50 values of 10 and 36 µM, respectively. Similar to previously reported findings with sitaxsentan, BSEP inhibition was observed for bosentan and macitentan with IC50 values of 42 and 12 µM, respectively. In contrast, ambrisentan showed little or no inhibition of these transporters. Other transporters tested were weakly inhibited by the ERAs. Accumulation in hepatocytes was also a factor in the effects on bile transport. Macitentan demonstrated the greatest accumulation in human hepatocytes (∼100x) followed by sitaxsentan (∼40x), bosentan (∼20x) and ambrisentan (∼2x). Conclusions Significant differences in the inhibition of hepatic transporters were observed between the evaluated ERAs in

  7. Fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors confer anti-invasive and antimetastatic effects on lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Katrin; Ramer, Robert; Dithmer, Sophie; Ivanov, Igor; Merkord, Jutta; Hinz, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of endocannabinoid degradation has been suggested as tool for activation of endogenous tumor defense. One of these strategies lies in blockade of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) which catalyzes the degradation of endocannabinoids (anandamide [AEA], 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG]) and endocannabinoid-like substances (N-oleoylethanolamine [OEA], N-palmitoylethanolamine [PEA]). This study addressed the impact of two FAAH inhibitors (arachidonoyl serotonin [AA-5HT], URB597) on A549 lung cancer cell metastasis and invasion. LC-MS analyses revealed increased levels of FAAH substrates (AEA, 2-AG, OEA, PEA) in cells incubated with either FAAH inhibitor. In athymic nude mice FAAH inhibitors were shown to elicit a dose-dependent antimetastatic action yielding a 67% and 62% inhibition of metastatic lung nodules following repeated administration of 15 mg/kg AA-5HT and 5 mg/kg URB597, respectively. In vitro, a concentration-dependent anti-invasive action of either FAAH inhibitor was demonstrated, accompanied with upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1). Using siRNA approaches, a causal link between the TIMP-1-upregulating and anti-invasive action of FAAH inhibitors was confirmed. Moreover, knockdown of FAAH by siRNA was shown to confer decreased cancer cell invasiveness and increased TIMP-1 expression. Inhibitor experiments point toward a role of CB2 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in conferring anti-invasive effects of FAAH inhibitors and FAAH siRNA. Finally, antimetastatic and anti-invasive effects were confirmed for all FAAH substrates with AEA and OEA causing a TIMP-1-dependent anti-invasive action. Collectively, the present study provides first-time proof for an antimetastatic action of FAAH inhibitors. As mechanism of its anti-invasive properties an upregulation of TIMP-1 was identified. PMID:26930716

  8. Probing for improved potency and in vivo bioavailability of excitatory amino acid transporter subtype 1 inhibitors UCPH-101 and UCPH-102: design, synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of substituted 7-biphenyl analogs.

    PubMed

    Erichsen, Mette N; Hansen, Jeanette; Ruiz, Josep A; Demmer, Charles S; Abrahamsen, Bjarke; Bastlund, Jesper F; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Jensen, Anders A; Bunch, Lennart

    2014-10-01

    Uptake of the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS, (S)-glutamate, is mediated by a family of excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT). Previously we have explored the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of a series of EAAT1 selective inhibitors, leading to the development of the potent inhibitors UCPH-101 and UCPH-102. In the present study, we set out to improve the solubility properties of these EAAT1 inhibitors with the objective to develop analogs more suited as pharmacological tools for in vivo studies of EAAT1 in terms of their bioavailability. A total of 23 novel UCPH-101/102 analogs were designed, synthesized and characterized pharmacologically at EAAT1-3 in a [(3)H]-D-aspartate uptake assay. Most notably, the potent EAAT1 inhibition displayed of UCPH-101 and UCPH-102 was retained in analog 1d in which the napht-1-yl group in the 7-position of UCPH-102 has been replaced by an o-biphenyl moiety. In contrast, EAAT1 activity was dramatically compromised in analogs 1e and 1f comprising m- and p-biphenyl groups as 7-substituents, respectively. Analog 1d displayed low bioavailability after oral administration in rats, and this problem was addressed by the synthesis of a series of analogs with different chloro, fluoro, methoxy, triflouromethyl and carboxy substitution patterns at the o-biphenyl group of 1d (1h-1s) and m- and p-pyridine analogs of 1d (1t and 1v). Unfortunately, all of the modifications resulted in substantial decreased EAAT1 inhibitory activity, which supports the notion of a very lipophilic binding pocket in EAAT1 for the aromatic 7-substituent in these ligands. In conclusion, while we have not succeeded in developing UCPH-101/102 analogs possessing improved bioavailability properties, this study does offer interesting SAR information about this inhibitor class, and analog 1d seems to be an interesting lead for future SAR studies with focus on the development of more potent EAAT1 inhibitors. PMID:24682739

  9. New Insight into the Structure-Activity Relationships of the Selective Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter Subtype 1 (EAAT1) Inhibitors UCPH-101 and UCPH-102.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Stinne W; Erichsen, Mette N; Huynh, Tri H V; Ruiz, Josep A; Haym, Isabell; Bjørn-Yoshimoto, Walden E; Abrahamsen, Bjarke; Hansen, Jeanette; Storgaard, Morten; Eriksen, Anette L; Jensen, Anders A; Bunch, Lennart

    2016-02-17

    In the present study, we made further investigations on the structure-activity requirements of the selective excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAT1) inhibitor, 2-amino-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-(naphthalen-1-yl)-5-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4H-chromene-3-carbonitrile (UCPH-101), by exploring 15 different substituents (R(1) ) at the 7-position in combination with eight different substituents (R(2) ) at the 4-position. Among the 63 new analogues synthesized, we identified a number of compounds that unexpectedly displayed inhibitory activities at EAAT1 in light of understanding the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of this inhibitor class extracted from previous studies. Moreover, the nature of the R(1) and R(2) substituents were observed to contribute to the functional properties of the various analogues in additive and non-additive ways. Finally, separation of the four stereoisomers of analogue 14 g (2-amino-4-([1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)-3-cyano-7-isopropyl-5-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4H-chromene) was carried out, and in agreement with a study of a related scaffold, the R configuration at C4 was found to be mandatory for inhibitory activity, while both the C7 diastereomers were found to be active as EAAT1 inhibitors. A study of the stereochemical stability of the four pure stereoisomers 14 g-A-D showed that epimerization takes places at C7 via a ring-opening, C-C bond rotation, ring-closing mechanism. PMID:26757239

  10. Synthesis of poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide] conjugates of inhibitors of the ABC transporter that overcome multidrug resistance in doxorubicin-resistant P388 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Subr, V; Sivák, L; Koziolová, E; Braunová, A; Pechar, M; Strohalm, J; Kabešová, M; Ríhová, B; Ulbrich, K; Kovář, M

    2014-08-11

    The effects of novel polymeric therapeutics based on water-soluble N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymers (P(HPMA)) bearing the anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox), an inhibitor of ABC transporters, or both, on the viability and the proliferation of the murine monocytic leukemia cell line P388 (parental cell line) and its doxorubicin-resistant subline P388/MDR were studied in vitro. The inhibitor derivatives 5-methyl-4-oxohexanoyl reversin 121 (MeOHe-R121) and 5-methyl-4-oxohexanoyl ritonavir ester (MeOHe-RIT), showing the highest inhibitory activities, were conjugated to the P(HPMA) via the biodegradable pH-sensitive hydrazone bond, and the ability of these conjugates to block the ATP driven P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump was tested. The P(HPMA) conjugate P-Ahx-NH-N═MeOHe-R121 showed a dose-dependent increase in the ability to sensitize the P388/MDR cells to Dox from 1.5 to 24 μM, and achieved an approximately 50-fold increase in sensitization at 24 μM. The P(HPMA) conjugate P-Ahx-NH-N═MeOHe-RIT showed moderate activity at 6 μM (∼10 times higher sensitization) and increased sensitization by 50-fold at 12 μM. The cytostatic activity of the P(HPMA) conjugate P-Ahx-NH-N═MeOHe-R121(Dox) containing Dox and the P-gp inhibitor MeOHe-R121, both bound via hydrazone bonds to the P(HPMA) carrier, was almost 30 times higher than that of the conjugate P-Ahx-NH-N═Dox toward the P388/MDR cells in vitro. A similar result was observed for P-Ahx-NH-N═MeOHe-RIT(Dox), which exhibited almost 10 times higher cytostatic activity than P-Ahx-NH-N═Dox.

  11. Lobelane analogues containing 4-hydroxy and 4-(2-fluoroethoxy) aromatic substituents: Potent and selective inhibitors of [(3)H]dopamine uptake at the vesicular monoamine transporter-2.

    PubMed

    Joolakanti, Shyamsunder R; Nickell, Justin R; Janganati, Venumadhav; Zheng, Guangrong; Dwoskin, Linda P; Crooks, Peter A

    2016-05-15

    A series of lobelane and GZ-793A analogues that incorporate aromatic 4-hydroxy and 4-(2-fluoroethoxy) substituents were synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of [(3)H]dopamine (DA) uptake at the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) and the dopamine transporter (DAT), and [(3)H]serotonin uptake at the serotonin transporter (SERT). Most of these compounds exhibited potent inhibition of DA uptake at VMAT2 in the nanomolar range (Ki=30-70nM). The two most potent analogues, 7 and 14, both exhibited a Ki value of 31nM for inhibition of VMAT2. The lobelane analogue 14, incorporating 4-(2-fluoroethoxy) and 4-hydroxy aromatic substituents, exhibited 96- and 335-fold greater selectivity for VMAT2 versus DAT and SERT, respectively, in comparison to lobelane. Thus, lobelane analogues bearing hydroxyl and fluoroethoxy moieties retain the high affinity for VMAT2 of the parent compound, while enhancing selectivity for VMAT2 versus the plasmalemma transporters.

  12. Antidepressant-like activity and cardioprotective effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB694 in socially stressed Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Carnevali, Luca; Vacondio, Federica; Rossi, Stefano; Callegari, Sergio; Macchi, Emilio; Spadoni, Gilberto; Bedini, Annalida; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    In humans, depression is often triggered by prolonged exposure to psychosocial stressors and is often associated with cardiovascular comorbidity. Mounting evidence suggests a role for endocannabinoid signaling in the regulation of both emotional behavior and cardiovascular function. Here, we examined cardiac activity in a rodent model of social stress-induced depression and investigated whether pharmacological inhibition of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which terminates signaling of the endocannabinoid anandamide, exerts antidepressant-like and cardioprotective effects. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were exposed to five weeks of repeated social stress or control procedure. Starting from the third week, they received daily administration of the selective FAAH inhibitor URB694 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle. Cardiac electrical activity was recorded by radiotelemetry. Repeated social stress triggered biological and behavioral changes that mirror symptoms of human depression, such as (i) reductions in body weight gain and sucrose solution preference, (ii) hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, and (iii) increased immobility in the forced swim test. Moreover, stressed rats showed (i) alterations in heart rate daily rhythm and cardiac autonomic neural regulation, (ii) a larger incidence of spontaneous arrhythmias, and (iii) signs of cardiac hypertrophy. Daily treatment with URB694 (i) increased central and peripheral anandamide levels, (ii) corrected stress-induced alterations of biological and behavioral parameters, and (iii) protected the heart against the adverse effects of social stress. Repeated social stress in Wistar Kyoto rats reproduces aspects of human depression/cardiovascular comorbidity. Pharmacological enhancement of anandamide signaling might be a promising strategy for the treatment of these comorbid conditions.

  13. Antidepressant-like activity and cardioprotective effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB694 in socially stressed Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Carnevali, Luca; Vacondio, Federica; Rossi, Stefano; Callegari, Sergio; Macchi, Emilio; Spadoni, Gilberto; Bedini, Annalida; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    In humans, depression is often triggered by prolonged exposure to psychosocial stressors and is often associated with cardiovascular comorbidity. Mounting evidence suggests a role for endocannabinoid signaling in the regulation of both emotional behavior and cardiovascular function. Here, we examined cardiac activity in a rodent model of social stress-induced depression and investigated whether pharmacological inhibition of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which terminates signaling of the endocannabinoid anandamide, exerts antidepressant-like and cardioprotective effects. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were exposed to five weeks of repeated social stress or control procedure. Starting from the third week, they received daily administration of the selective FAAH inhibitor URB694 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle. Cardiac electrical activity was recorded by radiotelemetry. Repeated social stress triggered biological and behavioral changes that mirror symptoms of human depression, such as (i) reductions in body weight gain and sucrose solution preference, (ii) hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, and (iii) increased immobility in the forced swim test. Moreover, stressed rats showed (i) alterations in heart rate daily rhythm and cardiac autonomic neural regulation, (ii) a larger incidence of spontaneous arrhythmias, and (iii) signs of cardiac hypertrophy. Daily treatment with URB694 (i) increased central and peripheral anandamide levels, (ii) corrected stress-induced alterations of biological and behavioral parameters, and (iii) protected the heart against the adverse effects of social stress. Repeated social stress in Wistar Kyoto rats reproduces aspects of human depression/cardiovascular comorbidity. Pharmacological enhancement of anandamide signaling might be a promising strategy for the treatment of these comorbid conditions. PMID:26391492

  14. Nostocyclopeptide-M1: a potent, nontoxic inhibitor of the hepatocyte drug transporters OATP1B3 and OATP1B1.

    PubMed

    Herfindal, Lars; Myhren, Lene; Kleppe, Rune; Krakstad, Camilla; Selheim, Frode; Jokela, Jouni; Sivonen, Kaarina; Døskeland, Stein O

    2011-04-01

    We have isolated a novel cyanobacterial cyclic peptide (nostocyclopeptide M1; Ncp-M1) that blocks the hepatotoxic action of microcystin (MC) and nodularin (Nod). We show here that Ncp-M1 is nontoxic to primary hepatocytes in long-term culture. Ncp-M1 does not affect any known intracellular targets or pathways involved in MC action, like protein phosphatases, CaM-KII, or ROS-dependent cell death effectors. In support of this conclusion Ncp-M1 had no protective effect when microinjected into cells. Rather, the antitoxin effect was solely due to blocked hepatocyte uptake of MC and Nod. The hepatic uptake of MC and Nod is mainly via the closely related organic anion transporters OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, which also mediate hepatic transport of endogenous metabolites and hormones as well as drugs. OATP1B3 is also expressed in some aggressive cancers, where it confers apoptosis resistance. We show that Ncp-M1 inhibits transport through OATP1B3 and OATP1B1 expressed in HEK293 cells. The Ncp-M1 molecule has several nonproteinogenic amino acids and an imino bond, which hamper its synthesis. Moreover, a cyclic all L-amino acid heptapeptide analogue of Ncp-M1 also inhibits the OATP1B1/1B3 transporters, and with higher OATP1B3 preference than Ncp-M1 itself. The nontoxic Ncp-M1 and its synthetic cyclic peptide analogues thus provide new tools to probe the role of OATB1B1/1B3 mediated drug and metabolite transport in liver and cancer cells. They can also serve as scaffolds to design new, exopeptidase resistant OATP1B3-specific modulators.

  15. Structure-guided inhibitor design for human FAAH by interspecies active site conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Mileni, Mauro; Johnson, Douglas S.; Wang, Zhigang; Everdeen, Daniel S.; Liimatta, Marya; Pabst, Brandon; Bhattacharya, Keshab; Nugent, Richard A.; Kamtekar, Satwik; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Ahn, Kay; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2008-11-24

    The integral membrane enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) hydrolyzes the endocannabinoid anandamide and related amidated signaling lipids. Genetic or pharmacological inactivation of FAAH produces analgesic, anxiolytic, and antiinflammatory phenotypes but not the undesirable side effects of direct cannabinoid receptor agonists, indicating that FAAH may be a promising therapeutic target. Structure-based inhibitor design has, however, been hampered by difficulties in expressing the human FAAH enzyme. Here, we address this problem by interconverting the active sites of rat and human FAAH using site-directed mutagenesis. The resulting humanized rat (h/r) FAAH protein exhibits the inhibitor sensitivity profiles of human FAAH but maintains the high-expression yield of the rat enzyme. We report a 2.75-{angstrom} crystal structure of h/rFAAH complexed with an inhibitor, N-phenyl-4-(quinolin-3-ylmethyl)piperidine-1-carboxamide (PF-750), that shows strong preference for human FAAH. This structure offers compelling insights to explain the species selectivity of FAAH inhibitors, which should guide future drug design programs.

  16. Investigating the selectivity of metalloenzyme inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Day, Joshua A; Cohen, Seth M

    2013-10-24

    The inhibitory activity of a broad group of known metalloenzyme inhibitors against a panel of metalloenzymes was evaluated. Clinically approved inhibitors were selected as well as several other reported metalloprotein inhibitors in order to represent a broad range of metal binding groups (MBGs), including hydroxamic acid, carboxylate, hydroxypyridinonate, thiol, and N-hydroxyurea functional groups. A panel of metalloenzymes, including carbonic anhydrase (hCAII), several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), histone deacetylase (HDAC-2), and tyrosinase (TY), was selected based on their clinical importance for a range of pathologies. In addition, each inhibitor was evaluated for its ability to remove Fe(3+) from holo-transferrin to gauge the ability of the inhibitors to access Fe(3+) from a primary transport protein. The results show that the metalloenzyme inhibitors are quite selective for their intended targets, suggesting that despite their ability to bind metal ions, metalloprotein inhibitors are not prone to widespread off-target enzyme inhibition activity.

  17. Investigating the Selectivity of Metalloenzyme Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Day, Joshua A.; Cohen, Seth M.

    2013-01-01

    The inhibitory activity of a broad group of known metalloenzyme inhibitors against a panel of metalloenzymes was evaluated. Clinically approved inhibitors were selected as well as several other reported metalloprotein inhibitors, in order to represent a broad range of metal binding groups (MBGs), including hydroxamic acid, carboxylate, hydroxypyridinonate, thiol, and N-hydroxyurea functional groups. A panel of metalloenzymes, including carbonic anhydrase (hCAII), several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), histone deacetylase (HDAC-2), and tyrosinase (TY) was selected based on their clinical importance for a range of pathologies. In addition, each inhibitor was evaluated for its ability to remove Fe3+ from holo-transferrin to gauge the ability of the inhibitors to access Fe3+ from a primary transport protein. The results show that the metalloenzyme inhibitors are quite selective for their intended targets, suggesting that despite their ability to bind metal ions, metalloprotein inhibitors are not prone to widespread off-target enzyme inhibition activity. PMID:24074025

  18. Invokana (Canagliflozin) as a dual inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and sodium glucose co-transporter 2: advancement in Alzheimer's disease- diabetes type 2 linkage via an enzoinformatics study.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Syed M D; Shakil, Shahnawaz; Biswas, Deboshree; Shakil, Shazi; Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Bagga, Paramdeep; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2014-04-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a primary target for Alzheimer's therapy while recently sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) has gained importance as a potential target for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) therapy. The present study emphasizes the molecular interactions between a new Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved antidiabetic drug 'Invokana' (chemically known as Canagliflozin) with AChE and SGLT2 to establish a link between the treatment of T2DM and Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Docking study was performed using 'Autodock4.2'. Both hydrophobic and π-π interactions play an important role in the correct positioning of Canagliflozin within SGLT2 and catalytic site (CAS) of AChE to permit docking. Free energy of binding (ΔG) for 'Canagliflozin-SGLT2' interaction and 'Canagliflozin - CAS domain of AChE' interaction were found to be -10.03 kcal/mol and -9.40 kcal/mol, respectively. During 'Canagliflozin-SGLT2' interaction, Canagliflozin was found to interact with the most important amino acid residue Q457 of SGLT2. This residue is known for its interaction with glucose during reabsorption in kidney. However, 'Canagliflozin-CAS domain of AChE' interaction revealed that out of the three amino acids constituting the catalytic triad (S203, H447 and E334), two amino acid residues (S203 and H447) interact with Canagliflozin. Hence, Invokana (Canagliflozin) might act as a potent dual inhibitor of AChE and SGLT2. However, scope still remains in the determination of the three-dimensional structure of SGLT2-Canagliflozin and AChE-Canagliflozin complexes by X-ray crystallography to validate the described data. Since the development of diabetes is associated with AD, the design of new AChE inhibitors based on antidiabetic drug scaffolds would be particularly beneficial. Moreover, the present computational study reveals that Invokana (Canagliflozin) is expected to form the basis of a future dual therapy against diabetes associated neurological disorders.

  19. Biaryl analogues of conformationally constrained tricyclic tropanes as potent and selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors: synthesis and evaluation of their uptake inhibition at monoamine transporter sites.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jia; Zhang, Ao; Kläss, Thomas; Johnson, Kenneth M; Wang, Cheng Z; Ye, Yan Ping; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2003-05-01

    A series of novel conformationally constrained tricyclic tropane derivatives containing a biaryl moiety, (Z)-9-(biarylylmethylene)-7-azatricyclo[4.3.1.0(3,7)]decanes, were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit reuptake of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and norepinephrine (NE) by the DA, 5-HT, and NE transporters. Most of the compounds containing a methoxycarbonyl substituent at C-10 exhibit moderate to high inhibitory activity at the NET but lower activity at the DAT and SERT. Among these new compounds, some potent, NET-selective ligands were identified. The p-methoxy derivative 11a has a K(i) value of 39 nM for uptake inhibition at the NET and moderate to high selectivity over the SERT (100-fold) and the DAT (20-fold). Compound 11f exhibits a remarkable potency (K(i) = 9.7 nM) at the NET and a 25-fold selectivity over both the SERT and the DAT. Analogue 23 containing a thiophene ring as a bioisosteric replacement of the phenyl ring Ar(1) displays a high activity (K(i) = 10.3 nM) for the NET and similar selectivity over the SERT (50-fold) and the DAT (37-fold). The selectivity profile of biaryl analogues differs from that of the monoaryl series, as most members of that series display excellent potency at and selectivity for the SERT (J. Med. Chem. 2002, 45, 1930). This finding suggests that the different shape and size of the lipophilic recognition pocket that encompasses the aryl ring(s) of these tropanes are major determinants of a ligand's transporter activity at either the NET or the SERT. Some of the compounds in this series may also be valuable in sorting out the contribution of the individual transporters to cocaine's reinforcing properties.

  20. Comparative potencies of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) analogues as inhibitors of [3H]noradrenaline and [3H]5-HT transport in mammalian cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, T; Buon, C; Eibauer, S; Guiry, P J; Keenan, A K; McBean, G J

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Illegal ‘ecstasy' tablets frequently contain 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-like compounds of unknown pharmacological activity. Since monoamine transporters are one of the primary targets of MDMA action in the brain, a number of MDMA analogues have been tested for their ability to inhibit [3H]noradrenaline uptake into rat PC12 cells expressing the noradrenaline transporter (NET) and [3H]5-HT uptake into HEK293 cells stably transfected with the 5-HT transporter (SERT). Experimental approach: Concentration–response curves for the following compounds at both NET and SERT were determined under saturating substrate conditions: 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine (HMA), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-hydroxyamphetamine (MDOH), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenylethylamine (2CB), 3,4-dimethoxymethamphetamine (DMMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-butanamine (BDB), 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-N-methyl-2-butanamine (MBDB) and 2,3-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (2,3-MDMA). Key results: 2,3-MDMA was significantly less potent than MDMA at SERT, but equipotent with MDMA at NET. 2CB and BDB were both significantly less potent than MDMA at NET, but equipotent with MDMA at SERT. MBDB, DMMA, MDOH and the MDMA metabolites HMA and HMMA, were all significantly less potent than MDMA at both NET and SERT. Conclusions and implications: This study provides an important insight into the structural requirements of MDMA analogue affinity at both NET and SERT. It is anticipated that these results will facilitate understanding of the likely pharmacological actions of structural analogues of MDMA. PMID:17891159

  1. The Pim kinase inhibitor SGI-1776 decreases cell surface expression of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) and drug transport by Pim-1-dependent and -independent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Karthika; Bhullar, Jasjeet; Shukla, Suneet; Burcu, Mehmet; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Baer, Maria R.

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug efflux proteins P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) on malignant cells is associated with inferior chemotherapy outcomes. Both, ABCB1 and ABCG2, are substrates of the serine/threonine kinase Pim-1; Pim-1 knockdown decreases their cell surface expression, but SGI-1776, the first clinically tested Pim inhibitor, was shown to reverse drug resistance by directly inhibiting ABCB1-mediated transport. We sought to characterize Pim-1-dependent and -independent effects of SGI-1776 on drug resistance. SGI-1776 at the Pim-1-inhibitory and non-cytotoxic concentration of 1 μM decreased the IC50s of the ABCG2 and ABCB1 substrate drugs in cytotoxicity assays in resistant cells, with no effect on the IC50 of non-substrate drug, nor in parental cells. SGI-1776 also increased apoptosis of cells overexpressing ABCG2 or ABCB1 exposed to substrate chemotherapy drugs and decreased their colony formation in the presence of substrate, but not non-substrate, drugs, with no effect on parental cells. SGI-1776 decreased ABCB1 and ABCG2 surface expression on K562/ABCB1 and K562/ABCG2 cells, respectively, with Pim-1 overexpression, but not HL60/VCR and 8226/MR20 cells, with lower-level Pim-1 expression. Finally, SGI-1776 inhibited uptake of ABCG2 and ABCB1 substrates in a concentration-dependent manner irrespective of Pim-1 expression, inhibited ABCB1 and ABCG2 photoaffinity labeling with the transport substrate [125I]iodoarylazidoprazosin ([125I]IAAP) and stimulated ABCB1 and ABCG2 ATPase activity. Thus SGI-1776 decreases cell surface expression of ABCB1 and ABCG2 and inhibits drug transport by Pim-1-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively. Decrease in ABCB1 and ABCG2 cell surface expression mediated by Pim-1 inhibition represents a novel mechanism of chemosensitization. PMID:23261525

  2. Random Mutagenesis of the Multidrug Transporter AcrB from Escherichia coli for Identification of Putative Target Residues of Efflux Pump Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Samay; Buck, Annika; Dambacher, Christine; König, Armin; Bohnert, Jürgen A.; Kern, Winfried V.

    2014-01-01

    Efflux is an important mechanism of bacterial multidrug resistance (MDR), and the inhibition of MDR pumps by efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) could be a promising strategy to overcome MDR. 1-(1-Naphthylmethyl)-piperazine (NMP) and phenylalanine-arginine-β-naphthylamide (PAβN) are model EPIs with activity in various Gram-negative bacteria expressing AcrB, the major efflux pump of Escherichia coli, or similar homologous pumps of the resistance-nodulation-cell division class. The aim of the present study was to generate E. coli AcrB mutants resistant to the inhibitory action of the two model EPIs and to identify putative EPI target residues in order to better understand mechanisms of pump inhibition. Using an in vitro random mutagenesis approach focusing on the periplasmic domain of AcrB, we identified the double mutation G141D N282Y, which substantially compromised the synergistic activity of NMP with linezolid, was associated with similar intracellular linezolid concentrations in the presence and absence of NMP, and did not impair the intrinsic MICs of various pump substrates and dye accumulation. We propose that these mutations near the outer face of the distal substrate binding pocket reduce NMP trapping. Other residues found to be relevant for efflux inhibition by NMP were G288 and A279, but mutations at these sites also changed the susceptibility to several pump substrates. Unlike with NMP, we were unable to generate AcrB periplasmic domain mutants with resistance or partial resistance to the EPI activity of PAβN, which is consistent with the modes of action of PAβN differing from those of NMP. PMID:25182653

  3. Dapagliflozin, a Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitor, Acutely Reduces Energy Expenditure in BAT via Neural Signals in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Yumiko; Yamada, Tetsuya; Tsukita, Sohei; Takahashi, Kei; Munakata, Yuichiro; Shirai, Yuta; Kodama, Shinjiro; Asai, Yoichiro; Sugisawa, Takashi; Uno, Kenji; Sawada, Shojiro; Imai, Junta; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Katagiri, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Selective sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) treatment promotes urinary glucose excretion, thereby reducing blood glucose as well as body weight. However, only limited body weight reductions are achieved with SGLT2i treatment. Hyperphagia is reportedly one of the causes of this limited weight loss. However, the effects of SGLT2i treatment on systemic energy expenditure have not been fully elucidated. Herein, we investigated the acute effects of dapagliflozin, a SGLT2i, on systemic energy expenditure in mice. Eighteen hours after dapagliflozin treatment oxygen consumption and brown adipose tissue (BAT) expression of ucp1, a thermogenesis-related gene, were significantly decreased as compared to those after vehicle treatment. In addition, dapagliflozin significantly suppressed norepinephrine (NE) turnover in BAT and c-fos expression in the rostral raphe pallidus nucleus (rRPa) which contains the sympathetic premotor neurons responsible for thermogenesis. These findings indicate that the dapagliflozin-mediated acute decrease in energy expenditure involves a reduction in BAT thermogenesis via decreased sympathetic nerve activity from the rRPa. Furthermore, common hepatic branch vagotomy abolished the reductions in ucp1 expression and NE contents in BAT and c-fos expression in the rRPa. In addition, alterations in hepatic carbohydrate metabolism, such as decreases in glycogen contents and upregulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, manifested prior to the suppression of BAT thermogenesis, e.g. 6 hours after dapagliflozin treatment. Collectively, these results suggest that SGLT2i treatment acutely suppresses energy expenditure in BAT via regulation of an inter-organ neural network consisting of the common hepatic vagal branch and sympathetic nerves. PMID:26963613

  4. Dapagliflozin, a Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitor, Acutely Reduces Energy Expenditure in BAT via Neural Signals in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Yumiko; Yamada, Tetsuya; Tsukita, Sohei; Takahashi, Kei; Munakata, Yuichiro; Shirai, Yuta; Kodama, Shinjiro; Asai, Yoichiro; Sugisawa, Takashi; Uno, Kenji; Sawada, Shojiro; Imai, Junta; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Katagiri, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Selective sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) treatment promotes urinary glucose excretion, thereby reducing blood glucose as well as body weight. However, only limited body weight reductions are achieved with SGLT2i treatment. Hyperphagia is reportedly one of the causes of this limited weight loss. However, the effects of SGLT2i treatment on systemic energy expenditure have not been fully elucidated. Herein, we investigated the acute effects of dapagliflozin, a SGLT2i, on systemic energy expenditure in mice. Eighteen hours after dapagliflozin treatment oxygen consumption and brown adipose tissue (BAT) expression of ucp1, a thermogenesis-related gene, were significantly decreased as compared to those after vehicle treatment. In addition, dapagliflozin significantly suppressed norepinephrine (NE) turnover in BAT and c-fos expression in the rostral raphe pallidus nucleus (rRPa) which contains the sympathetic premotor neurons responsible for thermogenesis. These findings indicate that the dapagliflozin-mediated acute decrease in energy expenditure involves a reduction in BAT thermogenesis via decreased sympathetic nerve activity from the rRPa. Furthermore, common hepatic branch vagotomy abolished the reductions in ucp1 expression and NE contents in BAT and c-fos expression in the rRPa. In addition, alterations in hepatic carbohydrate metabolism, such as decreases in glycogen contents and upregulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, manifested prior to the suppression of BAT thermogenesis, e.g. 6 hours after dapagliflozin treatment. Collectively, these results suggest that SGLT2i treatment acutely suppresses energy expenditure in BAT via regulation of an inter-organ neural network consisting of the common hepatic vagal branch and sympathetic nerves. PMID:26963613

  5. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of water-soluble 1,4-diphenethylpiperazine analogs as novel inhibitors of the vesicular monoamine transporter-2.

    PubMed

    Nickell, Justin R; Culver, John P; Janganati, Venumadhav; Zheng, Guangrong; Dwoskin, Linda P; Crooks, Peter A

    2016-09-15

    A small library of 1,4-diphenethylpiperazine analogs was synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of [(3)H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding and [(3)H]dopamine uptake at the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2). Results from these studies identified three novel molecules, 6b, 6e and 9a (Ki=35nM, 48nM and 37nM, respectively) that exhibit similar potency for inhibition of VMAT2 function compared with lobelane (Ki=45nM), and importantly, have enhanced water-solubility when compared to the previously reported 1,4-diphenethylpiperidine analogs. These 1,4-diphenethylpiperazine analogs constitute promising new leads in the discovery of potential pharmacotherapeutics for treatment of methamphetamine use disorders.

  6. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of water-soluble 1,4-diphenethylpiperazine analogs as novel inhibitors of the vesicular monoamine transporter-2.

    PubMed

    Nickell, Justin R; Culver, John P; Janganati, Venumadhav; Zheng, Guangrong; Dwoskin, Linda P; Crooks, Peter A

    2016-09-15

    A small library of 1,4-diphenethylpiperazine analogs was synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of [(3)H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding and [(3)H]dopamine uptake at the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2). Results from these studies identified three novel molecules, 6b, 6e and 9a (Ki=35nM, 48nM and 37nM, respectively) that exhibit similar potency for inhibition of VMAT2 function compared with lobelane (Ki=45nM), and importantly, have enhanced water-solubility when compared to the previously reported 1,4-diphenethylpiperidine analogs. These 1,4-diphenethylpiperazine analogs constitute promising new leads in the discovery of potential pharmacotherapeutics for treatment of methamphetamine use disorders. PMID:27524311

  7. The development of benzo- and naphtho-fused quinoline-2,4-dicarboxylic acids as vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) inhibitors reveals a possible role for neuroactive steroids.

    PubMed

    Carrigan, Christina N; Patel, Sarjubhai A; Cox, Holly D; Bolstad, Erin S; Gerdes, John M; Smith, Wesley E; Bridges, Richard J; Thompson, Charles M

    2014-02-01

    Substituted quinoline-2,4-dicarboxylates (QDCs) are conformationally-restricted mimics of glutamate that were previously reported to selectively block the glutamate vesicular transporters (VGLUTs). We find that expanding the QDC scaffold to benzoquinoline dicarboxylic acids (BQDC) and naphthoquinoline dicarboxylic acids (NQDCs) improves inhibitory activity with the NQDCs showing IC50∼70 μM. Modeling overlay studies showed that the polycyclic QDCs resembled steroid structures and led to the identification and testing of estrone sulfate, pregnenolone sulfate and pregnanolone sulfate that blocked the uptake of l-Glu by 50%, 70% and 85% of control, respectively. Pregnanolone sulfate was further characterized by kinetic pharmacological determinations that demonstrated competitive inhibition and a Ki of ≈20 μM. PMID:24424130

  8. 5'-azido-N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid, a photolabile analog of the auxin transport inhibitor, N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid: synthesis and binding properties

    SciTech Connect

    Voet, J.G.; Howley, K.; Shumsky, J.S.

    1987-05-01

    The polar transport of the plant growth regulator, auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAAH), is thought to involve the participation of several proteins in the plasma membrane, including a specific, saturable, voltage independent H/sup +//IAA/sup -/ efflux carrier located preferentially at the basal end of each cell. Auxin transport is specifically inhibited by the herbicide, N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), which binds specifically to a protein in the plasma membrane, thought to be either the IAA/sup -/ efflux carrier or an allosteric effector protein. They have synthesized and characterized a photolabile analog of NPA, 5'-azido-N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (Az-NPA). This potential photoaffinity label for the NPA binding protein competes with /sup 3/H-NPA for binding sites on Curcurbita pepo L. (zucchini) stem cell membranes with K/sub j/ = 1.5 x 10/sup -7/ M. The K/sub i/ for NPA under these conditions is 2 x 10/sup -8/M, indicating that the affinity of Az-NPA for the membranes is only 7.5 fold lower than NPA. While the binding of 4.6 x 10/sup -6/ M Az-NPA to NPA binding sites is reversible in the dark, exposure to light results in a 30% loss in /sup 3/H-NPA binding ability. Pretreatment with 10/sup -4/ M NPA protects the membranes against photodestruction of /sup 3/H-NPA binding sites by Az-NPA, supporting the conclusion that Az-NPA destroys these sites by specific covalent attachment.

  9. Dendrite inhibitor

    DOEpatents

    Miller, W.E.

    1988-06-07

    An apparatus for removing dendrites or other crystalline matter from the surface of a liquid in a matter transport process, and an electrolytic cell including such an apparatus. A notch may be provided to allow continuous exposure of the liquid surface, and a bore may be further provided to permit access to the liquid. 2 figs.

  10. Dendrite inhibitor

    DOEpatents

    Miller, William E.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus for removing dendrites or other crystalline matter from the surface of a liquid in a matter transport process, and an electrolytic cell including such an apparatus. A notch may be provided to allow continuous exposure of the liquid surface, and a bore may be further provided to permit access to the liquid.

  11. A kinetic investigation of the effects of adrenaline on 45Ca2+ exchange in isolated hepatocytes at different Ca2+ concentrations, at 20 degrees C and in the presence of inhibitors of mitochondrial Ca2+ transport.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, J C; Barritt, G J; Wadsworth, J C

    1983-01-01

    of antimycin A and oligomycin, adrenaline did not increase the quantity of Ca2+ in C2 or the flux and fractional transfer rate for the transport of Ca2+ from C1 to C2, whereas these parameters were increased in the absence of the inhibitors. PMID:6651779

  12. Cannabinoid system and cyclooxygenases inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Coman, OA; Coman, L; Ghiţă, I; Georgescu, SR; Drăia, F; Fulga, I

    2011-01-01

    Rationale. The cannabinoid system consists of a complex array of receptors, substances with agonist/antagonist properties for those receptors, biosynthetic machineries and mechanisms for cellular uptake and degradation for endocannabinoids. This system is in interrelation with other systems that comprise lipid mediators like prostaglandins/leukotrienes systems. A clear antagonist, additive or synergic effect of nonsteroidal anti–inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)–cannabinoid associations was not yet demonstrated. Aim. The present study tried to summarize the existent data on NSAIDS-cannabinoid system interactions. Methods and results A bibliographic research in Medline, Scirus, Embase was made using as keywords cannabinoid, nonsteroidal anti–inflammatory drugs, aspirin, ibuprofen, flurbiprofen, diclofenac, indomethacin, acetaminophen, coxibs, antinociceptive, antinociception, analgesia DiscussionsA systematization of the results focusing on the NSAIDs drugs interaction with the cannabinoid system was presented. Out of all the substances analyzed in the present review, acetaminophen was studied the most regarding its interferences with the cannabinoid system, mainly due to contradictory results. Conclusions Some NSAIDs have additional influences on the cannabinoid system either by inhibiting fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or by inhibiting a possible intracellular transporter of endocannabinoids. All the NSAIDs that inhibit COX2 can influence the cannabinoid system because a possible important degradative pathway for anandamide and 2–arachidonoyl glycerol might involve COX 2. One of the causes for the variety of experimental results presented might be due to pharmacokinetic mechanisms, depending on the route of administration and the dose Abbreviationsdelta9 THC, (–)–(6aR,10aR)–6,6,9–trimethyl–3–pentyl–6a,7,8,10a–tetrahydro–6H–benzo[c]chromen–1–ol; delta9–THC–11–oic acid, 1–hydroxy–6,6–dimethyl–3–pentyl–6a,7,8,10a

  13. Further studies on conformationally constrained tricyclic tropane analogues and their uptake inhibition at monoamine transporter sites: synthesis of (Z)-9-(substituted arylmethylene)-7-azatricyclo[4.3.1.0(3,7)]decanes as a novel class of serotonin transporter inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ao; Zhou, Guochun; Hoepping, Alexander; Mukhopadhyaya, Jayanta; Johnson, Kenneth M; Zhang, Mei; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2002-04-25

    A novel series of conformationally constrained tricyclic tropane analogues, (Z)-9-(substituted arylmethylene)-7-azatricyclo[4.3.1.0(3,7)]decanes, were prepared, and their abilities to inhibit high-affinity uptake of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and norepinephrine (NE) into rat brain nerve endings (synaptosomes) were evaluated. First, a systematic screening of a variety of different substituents on the phenyl ring indicated that the substitution pattern plays an important role in the monoamine transporter activity. Most compounds in this series possessed a very low activity at the DA transporter (DAT) but a good to excellent affinity for the 5-HT transporter (SERT). In the case of para-substituted phenyl analogues, the electronic character of the substituent did not affect uptake inhibition as dramatically as observed in some benztropine analogues. Among these compounds, the 4-bromophenyl and 4-isopropylphenyl analogues 8d and 8j exhibited the highest potency at the SERT with a K(i) value of 10 nM. In the 3,4-disubstituted phenyl series, even more potent and highly selective compounds were discovered. Compound 8o has a K(i) value of 2.3 nM for uptake inhibition at the SERT, a DAT/SERT uptake ratio of 2360, and a NET/SERT uptake ratio of 200. Compound 8p exhibited a K(i) value of 1.8 nM for uptake inhibition at the SERT, a DAT/SERT uptake ratio of 1740, and a NET/SERT uptake ratio of 151. These compounds are 3-4-fold more potent than the antidepressant medication fluoxetine, and the selectivities for SERT over DAT and NET are also better than those of fluoxetine. Second, a variety of functional modifications on the ester moiety were investigated. Substitution by other esters or amides as well as alkenes did not increase potency, while most of the acetates or benzoates (16-21, 23, and 24) and the ketone 28 exhibited significantly improved activity. A good hydrogen-bonding ability of the substituent is believed to be required for high activity. The most potent and

  14. Discovery of 3-Chloro-N-{(S)-[3-(1-ethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)phenyl][(2S)-piperidine-2-yl]methyl}-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine-2-carboxamide as a Potent Glycine Transporter 1 Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shuji; Shibata, Tsuyoshi; Abe, Kumi; Oda, Koji; Aoki, Takeshi; Kawakita, Yasunori; Kawamoto, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    A novel glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) inhibitor was designed by the superposition of different chemotypes to enhance its inhibitory activity. Starting from 2-chloro-N-{(S)-phenyl[(2S)-piperidin-2-yl]methyl}-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzamide (2, SSR504734), the introduction of heteroaromatic rings enabled an increase in the GlyT1 inhibitory activity. Subsequent optimization led to the identification of 3-chloro-N-{(S)-[3-(1-ethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)phenyl][(2S)-piperidine-2-yl]methyl}-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine-2-carboxamide (7w), which showed a powerful GlyT1 inhibitory activity (IC50=1.8 nM), good plasma exposure and a plasma to brain penetration in rats that was sufficient to evaluate the compound's pharmacological properties. Compound 7w showed significant effects in several rodent models for schizophrenia without causing any undesirable central nervous system side effects. PMID:27581637

  15. HDAC Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Olzscha, Heidi; Bekheet, Mina E; Sheikh, Semira; La Thangue, Nicholas B

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation in proteins is one of the most abundant posttranslational modifications in eukaryotic cells. The dynamic homeostasis of lysine acetylation and deacetylation is dictated by the action of histone acetyltransferases (HAT) and histone deacetylases (HDAC). Important substrates for HATs and HDACs are histones, where lysine acetylation generally leads to an open and transcriptionally active chromatin conformation. Histone deacetylation forces the compaction of the chromatin with subsequent inhibition of transcription and reduced gene expression. Unbalanced HAT and HDAC activity, and therefore aberrant histone acetylation, has been shown to be involved in tumorigenesis and progression of malignancy in different types of cancer. Therefore, the development of HDAC inhibitors (HDIs) as therapeutic agents against cancer is of great interest. However, treatment with HDIs can also affect the acetylation status of many other non-histone proteins which play a role in different pathways including angiogenesis, cell cycle progression, autophagy and apoptosis. These effects have led HDIs to become anticancer agents, which can initiate apoptosis in tumor cells. Hematological malignancies in particular are responsive to HDIs, and four HDIs have already been approved as anticancer agents. There is a strong interest in finding adequate biomarkers to predict the response to HDI treatment. This chapter provides information on how to assess HDAC activity in vitro and determine the potency of HDIs on different HDACs. It also gives information on how to analyze cellular markers following HDI treatment and to analyze tissue biopsies from HDI-treated patients. Finally, a protocol is provided on how to detect HDI sensitivity determinants in human cells, based on a pRetroSuper shRNA screen upon HDI treatment. PMID:27246222

  16. A validated LC-MS/MS method for the determination of canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, in a lower volume of rat plasma: application to pharmacokinetic studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Kobuchi, Shinji; Yano, Kyoka; Ito, Yukako; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki

    2016-10-01

    Canagliflozin is a novel, orally selective inhibitor of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantitative analysis of canagliflozin in a lower volume of rat plasma (0.1 mL) was established and applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rats. Following liquid-liquid extraction by tert-butyl methyl ether, chromatographic separation of canagliflozin was performed on a Quicksorb ODS (2.1 mm i.d. × 150 mm, 5 µm size) using acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid (90:10, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The detection was carried out using an API 3200 triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in the positive electrospray ionization mode. Selected ion monitoring transitions of m/z = 462.0 [M + NH4 ](+)  → 191.0 for canagliflozin and m/z = 451.2 [M + H](+)  → 71.0 for empagliflozin (internal standard) were obtained. The validation of the method was investigated, and it was found to be of sufficient specificity, accuracy and precision. Canagliflozin in rat plasma was stable under the analytical conditions used. This validated method was successfully applied to assess the pharmacokinetics of canagliflozin in rats using 0.1 mL rat plasma. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Pharmacology of Iron Transport

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Shaina L.; Krishnamurthy, Divya; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating the molecular basis for the regulation of iron uptake, storage, and distribution is necessary to understand iron homeostasis. Pharmacological tools are emerging to identify and distinguish among different iron transport pathways. Stimulatory or inhibitory small molecules with effects on iron uptake can help characterize the mechanistic elements of iron transport and the roles of the transporters involved in these processes. In particular, iron chelators can serve as potential pharmacological tools to alleviate diseases of iron overload. This review focuses on the pharmacology of iron transport, introducing iron transport membrane proteins and known inhibitors. PMID:23020294

  18. Monoamine Reuptake Inhibitors in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Huot, Philippe; Fox, Susan H.; Brotchie, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    The motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD) are secondary to a dopamine deficiency in the striatum. However, the degenerative process in PD is not limited to the dopaminergic system and also affects serotonergic and noradrenergic neurons. Because they can increase monoamine levels throughout the brain, monoamine reuptake inhibitors (MAUIs) represent potential therapeutic agents in PD. However, they are seldom used in clinical practice other than as antidepressants and wake-promoting agents. This review article summarises all of the available literature on use of 50 MAUIs in PD. The compounds are divided according to their relative potency for each of the monoamine transporters. Despite wide discrepancy in the methodology of the studies reviewed, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) selective serotonin transporter (SERT), selective noradrenaline transporter (NET), and dual SERT/NET inhibitors are effective against PD depression; (2) selective dopamine transporter (DAT) and dual DAT/NET inhibitors exert an anti-Parkinsonian effect when administered as monotherapy but do not enhance the anti-Parkinsonian actions of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA); (3) dual DAT/SERT inhibitors might enhance the anti-Parkinsonian actions of L-DOPA without worsening dyskinesia; (4) triple DAT/NET/SERT inhibitors might exert an anti-Parkinsonian action as monotherapy and might enhance the anti-Parkinsonian effects of L-DOPA, though at the expense of worsening dyskinesia. PMID:25810948

  19. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and endocannabinoid degradative enzyme inhibitors attenuate intracranial self-stimulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Wiebelhaus, Jason M; Grim, Travis W; Owens, Robert A; Lazenka, Matthew F; Sim-Selley, Laura J; Abdullah, Rehab A; Niphakis, Micah J; Vann, Robert E; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Wiley, Jenny L; Negus, S Stevens; Lichtman, Aron H

    2015-02-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates endogenous cannabinoids as modulators of the mesolimbic dopamine system and motivated behavior. Paradoxically, the reinforcing effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis, have been difficult to detect in preclinical rodent models. In this study, we investigated the impact of THC and inhibitors of the endocannabinoid hydrolytic enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) on operant responding for electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle [intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS)], which is known to activate the mesolimbic dopamine system. These drugs were also tested in assays of operant responding for food reinforcement and spontaneous locomotor activity. THC and the MAGL inhibitor JZL184 (4-[bis(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)hydroxymethyl]-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 4-nitrophenyl ester) attenuated operant responding for ICSS and food, and also reduced spontaneous locomotor activity. In contrast, the FAAH inhibitor PF-3845 (N-3-pyridinyl-4-[[3-[[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]oxy]phenyl]methyl]-1-piperidinecarboxamide) was largely without effect in these assays. Consistent with previous studies showing that combined inhibition of FAAH and MAGL produces a substantially greater cannabimimetic profile than single enzyme inhibition, the dual FAAH-MAGL inhibitor SA-57 (4-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 2-(methylamino)-2-oxoethyl ester) produced a similar magnitude of ICSS depression as that produced by THC. ICSS attenuation by JZL184 was associated with increased brain levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), whereas peak effects of SA-57 were associated with increased levels of both N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and 2-AG. The cannabinoid receptor type 1 receptor antagonist rimonabant, but not the cannabinoid receptor type 2 receptor antagonist SR144528, blocked the attenuating effects of THC, JZL184, and SA-57 on

  20. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and endocannabinoid degradative enzyme inhibitors attenuate intracranial self-stimulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Wiebelhaus, Jason M; Grim, Travis W; Owens, Robert A; Lazenka, Matthew F; Sim-Selley, Laura J; Abdullah, Rehab A; Niphakis, Micah J; Vann, Robert E; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Wiley, Jenny L; Negus, S Stevens; Lichtman, Aron H

    2015-02-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates endogenous cannabinoids as modulators of the mesolimbic dopamine system and motivated behavior. Paradoxically, the reinforcing effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis, have been difficult to detect in preclinical rodent models. In this study, we investigated the impact of THC and inhibitors of the endocannabinoid hydrolytic enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) on operant responding for electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle [intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS)], which is known to activate the mesolimbic dopamine system. These drugs were also tested in assays of operant responding for food reinforcement and spontaneous locomotor activity. THC and the MAGL inhibitor JZL184 (4-[bis(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)hydroxymethyl]-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 4-nitrophenyl ester) attenuated operant responding for ICSS and food, and also reduced spontaneous locomotor activity. In contrast, the FAAH inhibitor PF-3845 (N-3-pyridinyl-4-[[3-[[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]oxy]phenyl]methyl]-1-piperidinecarboxamide) was largely without effect in these assays. Consistent with previous studies showing that combined inhibition of FAAH and MAGL produces a substantially greater cannabimimetic profile than single enzyme inhibition, the dual FAAH-MAGL inhibitor SA-57 (4-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 2-(methylamino)-2-oxoethyl ester) produced a similar magnitude of ICSS depression as that produced by THC. ICSS attenuation by JZL184 was associated with increased brain levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), whereas peak effects of SA-57 were associated with increased levels of both N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and 2-AG. The cannabinoid receptor type 1 receptor antagonist rimonabant, but not the cannabinoid receptor type 2 receptor antagonist SR144528, blocked the attenuating effects of THC, JZL184, and SA-57 on

  1. Effects of a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 selective inhibitor, ipragliflozin, on the diurnal profile of plasma glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes: A study using continuous glucose monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Kentaro; Nakayama, Hitomi; Yoshinobu, Satoko; Kawano, Seiko; Tsuruta, Munehisa; Nohara, Masayuki; Hasuo, Rika; Akasu, Shoko; Tokubuchi, Ichiro; Wada, Nobuhiko; Hirao, Saori; Iwata, Shinpei; Kaku, Hiroo; Tajiri, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction To assess the effects of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor therapy on the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods We administered ipragliflozin to 21 inpatients with type 2 diabetes for 7 days, and analyzed the diurnal profiles of plasma glucose and 3-hydroxybutyrate. A total of 21 age-, sex- and body mass index-matched diabetic patients served as controls. Results Continuous glucose monitoring showed that the 24-h glucose curve was shifted downward without hypoglycemia by the administration of ipragliflozin. The average glucose level was reduced from 182 ± 54 mg/dL to 141 ± 33 mg/dL (P < 0.0001). The magnitude of the reduction was highly correlated with the baseline average glucose level. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was decreased, and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function was increased during the treatment. Urinary glucose excretion was correlated with the average glucose level both on day 0 and on day 7, although the regression line was steeper and shifted leftward on day 7. The ipragliflozin-treated patients lost more weight than the control patients (1.4 ± 0.5 vs 0.5 ± 0.6 kg, P < 0.0001). Plasma levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate were significantly increased with peaks before breakfast and before dinner. Patient age and bodyweight loss were negatively and positively correlated with the peak levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate on day 7, respectively. Conclusions The ipragliflozin treatment improved the 24-h glucose curve without causing hypoglycemia. The close correlation between the magnitude of glucose reduction and the baseline plasma glucose concentration suggests that the risk of hypoglycemia is likely low. It might be prudent to monitor ketone body levels in younger patients and in patients with rapid weight loss. PMID:26543545

  2. Proton pump inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are medicines that work by reducing the amount of stomach acid made by ... Proton pump inhibitors are used to: Relieve symptoms of acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This ...

  3. High-throughput salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile for the determination of anandamide in plasma of hemodialysis patients with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xin; Zhang, Lei; Cheng, Litao; Mao, Wei

    2015-09-01

    Anandamide (AEA) is an endocannabinoid present in human plasma that is associated with several physiological functions and disease states. However, low AEA plasma levels pose challenges in terms of analytical characterization. Classical liquid-based lipid extraction and solid-phase extraction require complicated procedures and the drying down of relatively large volumes of solvents, making them unsuitable for high-throughput analysis. Here a high-throughput salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) method with acetonitrile and mass spectrometry compatible salts for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of AEA in human plasma has been developed and validated. The seamless interface of SALLE and LC-MS eliminated the drying-down step, only 100 μL of plasma is required and minimal volumes of organic solvent are used. Good reproducibility, accuracy and precision were demonstrated during the method validation. The method is linear up to 10 ng/mL with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.1 ng/mL for AEA, the accuracy for AEA was from 93.3 to 96.7% and the precision was <8.57%. This new methodology was successfully applied to analysis of clinical samples from maintenance hemodialysis patients.

  4. Selective Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibitors: Antinociceptive versus Cannabimimetic Effects in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wilkerson, Jenny L.; Mustafa, Mohammed; Abdullah, Rehab; Niphakis, Micah; Wiley, Jenny L.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Lichtman, Aron H.

    2015-01-01

    The endogenous cannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) plays an important role in a variety of physiologic processes, but its rapid breakdown by monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) results in short-lived actions. Initial MAGL inhibitors were limited by poor selectivity and low potency. In this study, we tested JZL184 [4-nitrophenyl 4-[bis(2H-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)(hydroxy)methyl]piperidine-1-carboxylate] and MJN110 [2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl 4-(bis(4-chlorophenyl)methyl)piperazine-1-carboxylate], MAGL inhibitors that possess increased selectivity and potency, in mouse behavioral assays of neuropathic pain [chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve], interoceptive cannabimimetic effects (drug-discrimination paradigm), and locomotor activity in an open field test. MJN110 (1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg) and JZL184 (16 and 40 mg/kg) significantly elevated 2-AG and decreased arachidonic acid but did not affect anandamide in whole brains. Both MAGL inhibitors significantly reduced CCI-induced mechanical allodynia with the following potencies [ED50 (95% confidence limit [CL]) values in mg/kg: MJN110 (0.43 [0.30–0.63]) > JZL184 (17.8 [11.6–27.4])] and also substituted for the potent cannabinoid receptor agonist CP55,940 [2-[(1R,2R,5R)-5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxypropyl)cyclohexyl]-5-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)phenol] in the drug-discrimination paradigm [ED50 (95% CL) values in mg/kg: MJN110 (0.84 [0.69–1.02]) > JZL184 (24.9 [14.6–42.5])]; however, these compounds elicited differential effects on locomotor behavior. Similar to cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor agonists, JZL184 produced hypomotility, whereas MJN110 increased locomotor behavior and did not produce catalepsy or hypothermia. Although both drugs substituted for CP55,940 in the drug discrimination assay, MJN110 was more potent in reversing allodynia in the CCI model than in producing CP55,940-like effects. Overall, these results suggest that MAGL inhibition may alleviate neuropathic pain, while displaying limited

  5. SGLT2 Inhibitors May Predispose to Ketoacidosis

    PubMed Central

    Blau, Jenny E.; Rother, Kristina I.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are antidiabetic drugs that increase urinary excretion of glucose, thereby improving glycemic control and promoting weight loss. Since approval of the first-in-class drug in 2013, data have emerged suggesting that these drugs increase the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis. In May 2015, the Food and Drug Administration issued a warning that SGLT2 inhibitors may lead to ketoacidosis. Evidence Acquisition: Using PubMed and Google, we conducted Boolean searches including terms related to ketone bodies or ketoacidosis with terms for SGLT2 inhibitors or phlorizin. Priority was assigned to publications that shed light on molecular mechanisms whereby SGLT2 inhibitors could affect ketone body metabolism. Evidence Synthesis: SGLT2 inhibitors trigger multiple mechanisms that could predispose to diabetic ketoacidosis. When SGLT2 inhibitors are combined with insulin, it is often necessary to decrease the insulin dose to avoid hypoglycemia. The lower dose of insulin may be insufficient to suppress lipolysis and ketogenesis. Furthermore, SGLT2 is expressed in pancreatic α-cells, and SGLT2 inhibitors promote glucagon secretion. Finally, phlorizin, a nonselective inhibitor of SGLT family transporters decreases urinary excretion of ketone bodies. A decrease in the renal clearance of ketone bodies could also increase the plasma ketone body levels. Conclusions: Based on the physiology of SGLT2 and the pharmacology of SGLT2 inhibitors, there are several biologically plausible mechanisms whereby this class of drugs has the potential to increase the risk of developing diabetic ketoacidosis. Future research should be directed toward identifying which patients are at greatest risk for this side effect and also to optimizing pharmacotherapy to minimize the risk to patients. PMID:26086329

  6. Synthesis and QSAR of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitors: Modulation at the N-Portion of Biphenyl-3-yl Alkylcarbamates

    PubMed Central

    Mor, Marco; Lodola, Alessio; Rivara, Silvia; Vacondio, Federica; Duranti, Andrea; Tontini, Andrea; Sanchini, Silvano; Piersanti, Giovanni; Clapper, Jason R.; King, Alvin R.; Tarzia, Giorgio; Piomelli, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Alkylcarbamic acid biphenyl-3-yl esters are a class of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors that comprises cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3′-carbamoylbiphenyl-3-yl ester (URB597), a compound with analgesic, anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like properties in rat and mouse models. Here, we extended the structure-activity relationships (SARs) for this class of compounds by replacing the cyclohexyl ring of the parent compound cyclohexylcarbamic acid biphenyl-3-yl ester (URB524) (IC50, for FAAH = 63 nM) with a selected set of substituents of different size, shape, flexibility and lipophilicity. Docking experiments and Linear Interaction Energy (LIE) calculations indicated that the N-terminal group of O-arylcarbamates fits within the lipophilic region of the substrate-binding site, mimicking the arachidonoyl chain of anandamide. Significant potency improvements were observed for the β-naphthylmethyl derivative 4q (IC50 = 5.3 nM) and its 3′-carbamoylbiphenyl-3-yl ester 4z (URB880, IC50 = 0.63 nM), indicating that shape complementarity and hydrogen bonds are crucial to obtain highly potent inhibitors. PMID:18507372

  7. Renal transepithelial transport of nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Nelson, J A; Vidale, E; Enigbokan, M

    1988-01-01

    Previous work from this and other laboratories has suggested that the mammalian kidney has unique mechanisms for handling purine nucleosides. For example, in humans and in mice, adenosine undergoes net renal reabsorption whereas deoxyadenosine is secreted [Kuttesch and Nelson: Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 8, 221 (1982)]. The relationships between these renal transport systems and classical renal organic cation and anion, carbohydrate, and cell membrane nucleoside transport carriers are not established. To investigate possible relationships between such carriers, we have tested effects of selected classical transport inhibitors on the renal clearances of adenosine, deoxyadenosine, 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-dFUR), and 5-fluorouracil in mice. The secretion of deoxyadenosine and 5'-dFUR, but not the reabsorption of adenosine or 5-fluorouracil, was prevented by the classical nucleoside transport inhibitors, dipyridamole and nitrobenzylthioinosine. Cimetidine, an inhibitor of the organic cation secretory system, also inhibited the secretion of 5'-dFUR, although it did not inhibit deoxyadenosine secretion in earlier studies [Nelson et al.: Biochem. Pharmacol. 32, 2323 (1983)]. The specific inhibitor of glucose renal reabsorption, phloridzin, failed to inhibit the reabsorption of adenosine or the secretion of deoxyadenosine. Failure of the nucleoside transport inhibitors and phloridzin to prevent adenosine reabsorption suggests that adenosine reabsorption may occur via a unique process. On the other hand, inhibition of the net secretion of deoxyadenosine and 5'-dFUR by dipyridamole and nitrobenzylthioinosine implies a role for the carrier that is sensitive to these compounds in the renal secretion (active transport) of these nucleosides.

  8. Novel corrosion inhibitor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Van de Ven, P.; Fritz, P.; Pellet, R.

    1999-11-01

    A novel, patented corrosion inhibitor technology has been identified for use in heat transfer applications such as automotive and heavy-duty coolant. The new technology is based on a low-toxic, virtually depletion-free carboxylic acid corrosion inhibitor package that performs equally well in mono ethylene glycol and in less toxic propylene glycol coolants. An aqueous inhibitor concentrate is available to provide corrosion protection where freezing protection is not an issue. In the present paper, this inhibitor package is evaluated in the different base fluids: mono ethylene glycol, mono propylene glycol and water. Results are obtained in both standardized and specific corrosion tests as well as in selected field trials. These results indicate that the inhibitor package remains effective and retains the benefits previously identified in automotive engine coolant applications: excellent corrosion protection under localized conditions, general corrosion conditions as well as at high temperature.

  9. Pathway modulators and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Smith, John A

    2009-07-01

    Inhibitors of specific cellular pathways are useful for investigating the roles of proteins of unknown function, and for selectively inhibiting a protein in complex pathways to uncover its relationships to other proteins in this and other interacting pathways. This appendix provides links to Web sites that describe cellular processes and pathways along with the various classes of inhibitors, numerous references, downloadable diagrams, and technical tips.

  10. Update on TNF Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kerdel, Francisco A

    2016-06-01

    The introduction of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors dramatically improved the management of psoriasis. Some newer or investigational biologics with different mechanisms of action have demonstrated noninferiority or superiority to etanercept, the first self-injectable anti-TNF-α agent to become available in the United States. Nonetheless, TNF-α inhibitors are likely to remain a mainstay of therapy for many years.

  11. Synthetic inhibitors of elastase.

    PubMed

    Edwards, P D; Bernstein, P R

    1994-03-01

    For more than two decades investigators around the world, in both academic and industrial institutions, have been developing inhibitors of human neutrophil elastase. A number of very elegant and insightful strategies have been reported. In the case of reversible peptidic inhibitors, this has resulted in the identification of some extremely potent compounds with dissociation constants in the 10(-11) M range. This is quite an accomplishment considering that these low molecular-weight inhibitors are only tri- and tetrapeptides. In the case of the heterocyclic-based inhibitors, the challenge of balancing the heterocycle's inherent reactivity and aqueous stability with the stability of the enzyme-inhibitor adduct has been meet by either using a latent, reactive functionality which is only activated within the enzyme, or by incorporating features which selectively obstruct deacylation but have little effect on the enzyme acylation step. The underlying goal of this research has been the identification of agents to treat diseases associated with HNE. Several animal models have been developed for evaluating the in vivo activity of elastase inhibitors, and compounds have been shown to be effective in all of these models by the intravenous, intratrachael or oral routes of administration. However, only a very small percentage of compounds have possessed all the necessary properties, including lack of toxicity, for progression into the clinic. The peptidyl TFMK ICI 200,880 (25-12) has many of the desired characteristics of a drug to treat the diseases associated with HNE: chemical stability, in vitro and in vivo activity, a long duration of action, and adequate metabolic stability. Currently ICI 200,880 is the only low molecular-weight HNE inhibitor known to be undergoing clinical trials, and may be the compound which finally demonstrates the clinical utility of a synthetic HNE inhibitor. PMID:8189835

  12. Small-molecule caspase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhenodarova, S. M.

    2010-02-01

    The review considers low-molecular weight inhibitors of caspases, cysteine proteases being key contributors to apoptosis (programmed cell death). The inhibitors with aspartic acid residues or various heterocyclic systems (both synthetic and natural) are covered. Their possible mechanisms of action are discussed. Data on inhibitor structure-activity relationship studies are systematically surveyed. The interactions of the non-peptide fragments of an inhibitor with the enzymes are examined. Examples of the use of some inhibitors for apoptosis suppression are provided.

  13. Metabolism considerations for kinase inhibitors in cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Duckett, Derek R.; Cameron, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field A concerted effort by the pharmaceutical industry over the last decade has led to the successful clinical development of protein kinase inhibitors as effective targeted therapies for certain cancers. Areas covered in this review This review details the eight small molecule kinase inhibitors that have been approved for the treatment of cancer in either the United States or Europe as of March 2010: imatinib, sorafenib, gefitinib, erlotinib, dasatinib, lapatinib, sunitinib and nilotinib. These eight compounds vary from the relatively specific inhibitor lapatinib, to the more promiscuous kinase inhibitors dasatinib and sunitinib. What the reader will gain A brief discussion on the biology of each inhibitor, selectivity over other kinases, and toxicity are provided. More detailed discussion on metabolism, drug transporters, drug-drug interactions, and the possible roles of metabolism in compound toxicity is provided for each compound. Take home message The majority of the currently approved kinase inhibitors are heavily influenced by drug transporters and significantly affected by CYP3A4 inhibitors/inducers. At least three, gefitinib, erlotinib, and dasatinib, are metabolized to form reactive metabolites capable of covalently binding biomolecules. PMID:20684746

  14. Natural inhibitors of thrombin.

    PubMed

    Huntington, James A

    2014-04-01

    The serine protease thrombin is the effector enzyme of blood coagulation. It has many activities critical for the formation of stable clots, including cleavage of fibrinogen to fibrin, activation of platelets and conversion of procofactors to active cofactors. Thrombin carries-out its multiple functions by utilising three special features: a deep active site cleft and two anion binding exosites (exosite I and II). Similarly, thrombin inhibitors have evolved to exploit the unique features of thrombin to achieve rapid and specific inactivation of thrombin. Exogenous thrombin inhibitors come from several different protein families and are generally found in the saliva of haematophagous animals (blood suckers) as part of an anticoagulant cocktail that allows them to feed. Crystal structures of several of these inhibitors reveal how peptides and proteins can be targeted to thrombin in different and interesting ways. Thrombin activity must also be regulated by endogenous inhibitors so that thrombi do not occlude blood flow and cause thrombosis. A single protein family, the serpins, provides all four of the endogenous thrombin inhibitors found in man. The crystal structures of these serpins bound to thrombin have been solved, revealing a similar exosite-dependence on complex formation. In addition to forming the recognition complex, serpins destroy the structure of thrombin, allowing them to be released from cofactors and substrates for clearance. This review examines how the special features of thrombin have been exploited by evolution to achieve inhibition of the ultimate coagulation protease.

  15. Cholinesterase inhibitors from botanicals

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Faiyaz; Ghalib, Raza Murad; Sasikala, P.; Ahmed, K. K. Mueen

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, wherein a progressive loss of cholinergic synapses occurs in hippocampus and neocortex. Decreased concentration of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (ACh), appears to be critical element in the development of dementia, and the most appropriate therapeutic approach to treat AD and other form of dementia is to restore acetylcholine levels by inhibiting both major form of cholinesterase: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Consequently, researches have focused their attention towards finding cholinesterase inhibitors from natural products. A large number of such inhibitors have been isolated from medicinal plants. This review presents a comprehensive account of the advances in field of cholinesterase inhibitor phytoconstituents. The structures of some important phytoconstituents (collected through www.Chemspider.com) are also presented and the scope for future research is discussed. PMID:24347920

  16. Cholinesterase inhibitors from botanicals.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Faiyaz; Ghalib, Raza Murad; Sasikala, P; Ahmed, K K Mueen

    2013-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, wherein a progressive loss of cholinergic synapses occurs in hippocampus and neocortex. Decreased concentration of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (ACh), appears to be critical element in the development of dementia, and the most appropriate therapeutic approach to treat AD and other form of dementia is to restore acetylcholine levels by inhibiting both major form of cholinesterase: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Consequently, researches have focused their attention towards finding cholinesterase inhibitors from natural products. A large number of such inhibitors have been isolated from medicinal plants. This review presents a comprehensive account of the advances in field of cholinesterase inhibitor phytoconstituents. The structures of some important phytoconstituents (collected through www.Chemspider.com) are also presented and the scope for future research is discussed. PMID:24347920

  17. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cockrill, Barbara A; Waxman, Aaron B

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) signaling plays a key role in modulating vascular tone and remodeling in the pulmonary circulation. The guanylate cyclase/cyclic guanylate monophosphate-signaling pathway primarily mediates nitric oxide signaling. This pathway is critical in normal regulation of the pulmonary vasculature, and is an important target for therapy in patients with pulmonary hypertension. In the pulmonary vasculature, degradation of cGMP is primarily regulated by PDE-5, and inhibition of this enzyme has important effects on pulmonary vasculature smooth muscle tone. Large randomized placebo-controlled trials of PDE-5 inhibitors demonstrated improved exercise capacity, hemodynamics and quality of life in adult patients with PAH. This chapter will discuss the mechanisms of NO signaling in the vasculature, characteristics of the PDE5-inhibitors approved for treatment of PH, and review available data on the use of phosphodiesterase inhibitors in PH. PMID:24092343

  18. A new method for evaluating wax inhibitors and drag reducers

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.J.C.; Brubaker, J.P.

    1995-12-01

    Conventional wax inhibitor evaluation methods such as cold finger and laminar flow loop are not adequate and accurate for evaluating wax inhibitors to be used in a wide operating temperature range and flow regimes such as North Sea subsea transport pipelines. A new method has been developed to simultaneously measure fluid rheology change and wax inhibition and to evaluate wax inhibitors or drag reducers at the field operating conditions. Selection criteria have been defined to search for an effective wax inhibitor. The criteria ensure the chemical selected is the most effective one for the specific oil and flow conditions. The operation cost savings by this accurate method is significant. Nine chemical companies joined the project of finding an wax inhibitor for a North Sea prospect. More than twenty wax inhibitors have been tested and evaluated with this new method for several waxy oil fields. The new method provides data of fluid rheology, war deposition rates and wax inhibition in the operating temperature range, overall average wax inhibition and degree of fluid flow improvement. These data are important to evaluate a wax inhibitor or drag reducer. Most of the wax inhibitors tested have good wax inhibition at high temperatures, but not many chemicals work well at low temperatures. The chemical tested may improved fluid flow behavior at low temperature but not wax deposition. Drag reducers tested did not work well at North Sea seabed temperature.

  19. Tetracycline transport in Bacteroides fragilis.

    PubMed Central

    Fayolle, F; Privitera, G; Sebald, M

    1980-01-01

    In susceptible strain of Bacteroides fragilis, tetracycline uptake is biphasic. The initial phase is independent of adenosine 5'-triphosphate synthesis, which is coupled to fumarate reduction; this phase is not altered by expression of tetracycline resistance genes in a resistant strain. The second phase appears to occur by active transport, since it is largely reduced by rotenone, an inhibitor of electron transport to fumarate; moreover, this phase is under negative control of the tetracycline resistance gene. PMID:7447414

  20. Pectin methylesterase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Giovane, A; Servillo, L; Balestrieri, C; Raiola, A; D'Avino, R; Tamburrini, M; Ciardiello, M A; Camardella, L

    2004-02-12

    Pectin methylesterase (PME) is the first enzyme acting on pectin, a major component of plant cell wall. PME action produces pectin with different structural and functional properties, having an important role in plant physiology. Regulation of plant PME activity is obtained by the differential expression of several isoforms in different tissues and developmental stages and by subtle modifications of cell wall local pH. Inhibitory activities from various plant sources have also been reported. A proteinaceous inhibitor of PME (PMEI) has been purified from kiwi fruit. The kiwi PMEI is active against plant PMEs, forming a 1:1 non-covalent complex. The polypeptide chain comprises 152 amino acid residues and contains five Cys residues, four of which are connected by disulfide bridges, first to second and third to fourth. The sequence shows significant similarity with the N-terminal pro-peptides of plant PME, and with plant invertase inhibitors. In particular, the four Cys residues involved in disulfide bridges are conserved. On the basis of amino acid sequence similarity and Cys residues conservation, a large protein family including PMEI, invertase inhibitors and related proteins of unknown function has been identified. The presence of at least two sequences in the Arabidopsis genome having high similarity with kiwi PMEI suggests the ubiquitous presence of this inhibitor. PMEI has an interest in food industry as inhibitor of endogenous PME, responsible for phase separation and cloud loss in fruit juice manufacturing. Affinity chromatography on resin-bound PMEI can also be used to concentrate and detect residual PME activity in fruit and vegetable products.

  1. Identification of human metabolites of (-)-N-{2-[(R)-3-(6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-2-carbonyl)piperidino]ethyl}-4-fluorobenzamide (YM758), a novel If channel inhibitor, and investigation of the transporter-mediated renal and hepatic excretion of these metabolites.

    PubMed

    Umehara, Ken-ichi; Shirai, Nobuaki; Iwatsubo, Takafumi; Noguchi, Kiyoshi; Usui, Takashi; Kamimura, Hidetaka

    2009-08-01

    (-)-N-{2-[(R)-3-(6,7-Dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-2-carbonyl)piperidino]ethyl}-4-fluorobenzamide (YM758) is a novel inhibitor of the "funny" If current channel (If channel) that is expressed in the sinus node of heart and is being developed as a treatment for stable angina and atrial fibrillation. Its metabolites were identified in human urine, plasma, and feces by radio-high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses after oral administration of [(14)C]YM758. 6,7-Dimethoxy-2-[(3R)-piperidin-3-ylcarbonyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (YM-252124), (5R)-5-[(6,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-yl)carbonyl]piperidin-2-one (YM-385459), 2-{[(3R)-1-{2-[(4-fluorobenzoyl)amino]ethyl}piperidin-3-yl]carbonyl}-7-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisonolin-6-yl beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (AS2036329), and the unchanged drug were detected as major constituents in both urine and plasma, whereas N-(4-fluorobenzoyl)glycine (YM-385461) was detected in plasma, but not in urine. The renal and hepatic uptake transporters for these metabolites were investigated by assessing their inhibitory effect on uptake activity in human (h) organic cation transporter (OCT) 1-3/rat (r) Oct1-3, human organic anion transporter (OAT) 1/rOat1, hOAT3/rOat3, and organic anion-transporting protein 1B1/1B3-expressing HEK293 cells. IC(50) values of YM-252124 for 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium uptake via hOCT2 and rOct2 were 93.9 and 1700 microM, respectively, suggesting that this metabolite is secreted into urine via hOCT2/rOct2 and that the large difference in the inhibitory potentials between hOCT2 and rOct2 explains the species difference in the urinary excretion ratio of the radioactivity. The renal secretion of YM-385461, one derivative of p-aminohippuric acid, via hOAT1/rOat1, and hepatic uptake of YM-252124 via hOCT1/rOct1 was also expected. This kind of study was useful in investigating the relationship between the urinary

  2. Potential Therapeutic Value of a Novel FAAH Inhibitor for the Treatment of Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Marco, Eva M; Rapino, Cinzia; Caprioli, Antonio; Borsini, Franco; Laviola, Giovanni; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric diseases with high personal costs and a remarkable socio-economic burden. However, current treatment of anxiety is far from satisfactory. Novel pharmacological targets have emerged in the recent years, and attention has focused on the endocannabinoid (eCB) system, given the increasing evidence that supports its central role in emotion, coping with stress and anxiety. In the management of anxiety disorders, drug development strategies have left apart the direct activation of type-1 cannabinoid receptors to indirectly enhance eCB signalling through the inhibition of eCB deactivation, that is, the inhibition of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) enzyme. In the present study, we provide evidence for the anxiolytic-like properties of a novel, potent and selective reversible inhibitor of FAAH, ST4070, orally administered to rodents. ST4070 (3 to 30 mg/kg per os) administered to CD1 male mice induced an increase of time spent in the exploration of the open arms of the elevated-plus maze. A partial reduction of anxiety-related behaviour by ST4070 was also obtained in Wistar male rats, which moderately intensified the time spent in the illuminated compartment of the light-dark box. ST4070 clearly inhibited FAAH activity and augmented the levels of two of its substrates, N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and N-palmitoylethanolamine, in anxiety-relevant brain regions. Altogether, ST4070 offers a promising anxiolytic-like profile in preclinical studies, although further studies are warranted to clearly demonstrate its efficacy in the clinic management of anxiety disorders. PMID:26360704

  3. Acyclic peptide inhibitors of amylases.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Nicola

    2005-12-01

    In this issue of Chemistry and Biology, a library screening approach reveals a linear octapeptide inhibitor of alpha-amylases reached by de novo design . The selected molecule shares characteristics with naturally occurring protein inhibitors -- a result that suggests general rules for the design of peptide-based amylase inhibitors may be achievable.

  4. [JAK2 inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Hernández Boluda, Juan Carlos; Gómez, Montse; Pérez, Ariadna

    2016-07-15

    Pharmacological inhibition of the kinase activity of JAK proteins can interfere with the signaling of immunomodulatory cytokines and block the constitutive activation of the JAK-STAT pathway that characterizes certain malignancies, including chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. JAK inhibitors may, therefore, be useful to treat malignancies as well as inflammatory or immune disorders. Currently, the most significant advances have been made in the treatment of myelofibrosis, where these drugs may lead to a remarkable improvement in the control of hyperproliferative manifestations. However, available data suggest that this treatment is not curative of myelofibrosis. In general, JAK2 inhibition induces cytopaenias, with this being considered a class side-effect. By contrast, the extrahaematologic toxicity profile varies significantly among the different JAK inhibitors. At present, there are several clinical trials evaluating the combination of ruxolitinib with other drugs, in order to improve its therapeutic activity as well as reducing haematologic toxicity. PMID:27033437

  5. Coagulation inhibitors in inflammation.

    PubMed

    Esmon, C T

    2005-04-01

    Coagulation is triggered by inflammatory mediators in a number of ways. However, to prevent unwanted clot formation, several natural anticoagulant mechanisms exist, such as the antithrombin-heparin mechanism, the tissue factor pathway inhibitor mechanism and the protein C anticoagulant pathway. This review examines the ways in which these pathways are down-regulated by inflammation, thus limiting clot formation and decreasing the natural anti-inflammatory mechanisms that these pathways possess. PMID:15787615

  6. Neutrophil Elastase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Groutas, William C.; Dou, Dengfeng; Alliston, Kevin R.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) constitutes a worldwide health problem. There is currently an urgent and unmet need for the development of small molecule therapeutics capable of blocking and/or reversing the progression of the disorder. Recent studies have greatly illuminated our understanding of the multiple pathogenic processes associated with COPD. Of paramount importance is the key role played by proteases, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation. Insights gained from these studies have made possible the exploration of new therapeutic approaches. Areas covered An overview of major developments in COPD research with emphasis on low molecular weight neutrophil elastase inhibitors is described in this review. Expert opinion Great strides have been made toward our understanding of the biochemical and cellular events associated with COPD. However, our knowledge regarding the inter-relationships among the multiple pathogenic mechanisms and their mediators involved is till limited. The problem is further compounded by the unavailability of suitable validated biomarkers for assessing the efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions. The complexity of COPD suggests that effective therapeutic interventions may require the administration of more than one agent such as, for instance, an HNE or MMP-12 inhibitor with an anti-inflammatory agent such as a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, or a dual function agent capable of disrupting the cycle of proteolysis, apoptosis, inflammation and oxidative stress PMID:21235378

  7. The Inhibitor Ko143 Is Not Specific for ABCG2.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Lora D; Zoghbi, Sami S; Lu, Shuiyu; Shukla, Suneet; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Pike, Victor W; Mulder, Jan; Gottesman, Michael M; Innis, Robert B; Hall, Matthew D

    2015-09-01

    Imaging ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter activity in vivo with positron emission tomography requires both a substrate and a transporter inhibitor. However, for ABCG2, there is no inhibitor proven to be specific to that transporter alone at the blood-brain barrier. Ko143 [[(3S,6S,12aS)-1,2,3,4,6,7,12,12a-octahydro-9-methoxy-6-(2-methylpropyl)-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1',2':1,6]pyrido[3,4- b]indole-3-propanoic acid 1,1-dimethylethyl ester], a nontoxic analog of fungal toxin fumitremorgin C, is a potent inhibitor of ABCG2, although its specificity in mouse and human systems is unclear. This study examined the selectivity of Ko143 using human embryonic kidney cell lines transfected with ABCG2, ABCB1, or ABCC1 in several in vitro assays. The stability of Ko143 in rat plasma was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Our results show that, in addition to being a potent inhibitor of ABCG2, at higher concentrations (≥1 μM) Ko143 also has an effect on the transport activity of both ABCB1 and ABCC1. Furthermore, Ko143 was found to be unstable in rat plasma. These findings indicate that Ko143 lacks specificity for ABCG2 and this should be taken into consideration when using Ko143 for both in vitro and in vivo experiments. PMID:26148857

  8. The Inhibitor Ko143 Is Not Specific for ABCG2

    PubMed Central

    Zoghbi, Sami S.; Lu, Shuiyu; Shukla, Suneet; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Pike, Victor W.; Mulder, Jan; Gottesman, Michael M.; Innis, Robert B.; Hall, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    Imaging ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter activity in vivo with positron emission tomography requires both a substrate and a transporter inhibitor. However, for ABCG2, there is no inhibitor proven to be specific to that transporter alone at the blood-brain barrier. Ko143 [[(3S,6S,12aS)-1,2,3,4,6,7,12,12a-octahydro-9-methoxy-6-(2-methylpropyl)-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1′,2′:1,6]pyrido[3,4- b]indole-3-propanoic acid 1,1-dimethylethyl ester], a nontoxic analog of fungal toxin fumitremorgin C, is a potent inhibitor of ABCG2, although its specificity in mouse and human systems is unclear. This study examined the selectivity of Ko143 using human embryonic kidney cell lines transfected with ABCG2, ABCB1, or ABCC1 in several in vitro assays. The stability of Ko143 in rat plasma was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Our results show that, in addition to being a potent inhibitor of ABCG2, at higher concentrations (≥1 μM) Ko143 also has an effect on the transport activity of both ABCB1 and ABCC1. Furthermore, Ko143 was found to be unstable in rat plasma. These findings indicate that Ko143 lacks specificity for ABCG2 and this should be taken into consideration when using Ko143 for both in vitro and in vivo experiments. PMID:26148857

  9. Radiation Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Urbatsch, Todd James

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  10. Chamber transport

    SciTech Connect

    OLSON,CRAIG L.

    2000-05-17

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system.

  11. Protein farnesyltransferase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ayral-Kaloustian, Semiramis; Salaski, Edward J

    2002-05-01

    Specific mutations in the ras gene impair the guanosine triphophatase (GTPase) activity of Ras proteins, which play a fundamental role in the signaling cascade, leading to uninterrupted growth signals and to the transformation of normal cells into malignant phenotypes. It has been shown that normal cells transfected with mutant ras gene become cancerous and that unfarnesylated, cytosolic mutant Ras protein does not anchor onto cell membranes and cannot induce this transformation. Posttranslational modification and plasma membrane association of mutant Ras is necessary for this transforming activity. Since its identification, the enzyme protein farnesyltransferase (FTase) that catalyzes the first and essential step of the three Ras-processing steps has emerged as the most promising target for therapeutic intervention. FTase has been implicated as a potential target in inhibiting the prenylation of a variety of proteins, thus in controlling varied disease states (e.g. cancer, neurofibromatosis, restenosis, viral hepatitis, bone resorption, parasitic infections, corneal inflammations, and diabetes) associated with prenyl modifications of Ras and other proteins. Furthermore, it has been suggested that FTase inhibitors indirectly help in inhibiting tumors via suppression of angiogenesis and induction of apoptosis. Major milestones have been achieved with small-molecule FTase inhibitors that show efficacy without toxicity in vitro, as well as in mouse models bearing ras-dependent tumors. With the determination of the crystal structure of mammalian FTase, existent leads have been fine-tuned and new potent molecules of diverse structural classes have been designed. A few of these molecules are currently in the clinic, with at least three drug candidates in Phase II studies and one in Phase III. This article will review the progress that has been reported with FTase inhibitors in drug discovery and in the clinic. PMID:12733981

  12. 1-[4-[4[(4R,5R)-3,3-Dibutyl-7-(dimethylamino)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxido-1-benzothiepin-5-yl]phenoxy]butyl]-4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane methanesulfonate (SC-435), an ileal apical sodium-codependent bile acid transporter inhibitor alters hepatic cholesterol metabolism and lowers plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    West, Kristy L; Ramjiganesh, Tripurasundari; Roy, Suheeta; Keller, Bradley T; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2002-10-01

    Male Hartley guinea pigs (10/group) were assigned either to a control diet (no drug treatment) or to diets containing 0.4, 2.2, or 7.3 mg/day of an ileal apical sodium-codependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) inhibitor, 1-[4-[4[(4R,5R)-3,3-dibutyl-7-(dimethylamino)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxido-1-benzothiepin-5-yl]phenoxy]butyl]-4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2] octane methanesulfonate (SC-435). Based on food consumption, guinea pigs received 0, 0.8, 3.7, or 13.4 mg/kg/day of the ASBT inhibitor. The amount of cholesterol in the four diets was maintained at 0.17%, equivalent to 1200 mg/day in the human situation. Guinea pigs treated with 13.4 mg/kg/day SC-435 had 41% lower total cholesterol and 44% lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations compared with control (P < 0.01), whereas no significant differences were observed with either of the lower doses of SC-435. Hepatic cholesterol esters were significantly reduced by 43, 56, and 70% in guinea pigs fed 0.8, 3.7, and 13.4 mg/kg/day of the ASBT inhibitor, respectively (P < 0.01). In addition, the highest dose of the inhibitor resulted in a 42% increase in the number of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triacylglycerol molecules and a larger VLDL diameter compared with controls (P < 0.05). Acyl-CoA cholesterol/acyltransferase activity was 30% lower with the highest dose treatment, whereas cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, the regulatory enzyme of bile acid synthesis, was 30% higher with the highest ASBT inhibitor dose (P < 0.05). Furthermore, bile acid excretion increased 2-fold with the highest dose of SC-435 compared with the control group (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the reduction in total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations by the ASBT inhibitor is a result of alterations in hepatic cholesterol metabolism due to modifications in the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids.

  13. Chemosensitization potential of P-glycoprotein inhibitors in malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Laura M; Kim, Junwon; Moraes, Carolina B; Franco, Caio H; Franzoi, Kathrin D; Lee, Sukjun; Freitas-Junior, Lucio H; Ayong, Lawrence S

    2013-06-01

    Members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-type transporter superfamily have been implicated in multidrug resistance in malaria, and various mechanistic models have been postulated to explain their interaction with diverse antimalarial drugs. To gain insight into the pharmacological benefits of inhibiting ABC-type transporters in malaria chemotherapy, we investigated the in vitro chemosensitization potential of various P-glycoprotein inhibitors. A fluorescent chloroquine derivative was synthesized and used to assess the efflux dynamics of chloroquine in MDR and wild type Plasmodium falciparum parasites. This novel BODIPY-based probe accumulated in the digestive vacuole (DV) of CQ-sensitive parasites but less so in MDR cells. Pre-exposure of the MDR parasites to non-cytocidal concentrations of unlabeled chloroquine resulted in a diffused cytoplasmic retention of the probe whereas a similar treatment with the CQR-reversing agent, chlorpheniramine, resulted in DV accumulation. A diffused cytoplasmic distribution of the probe was also obtained following treatment with the P-gp specific inhibitors zosuquidar and tariquidar, whereas treatments with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib or imatinib produced a partial accumulation within the DV. Isobologram analyses of the interactions between these inhibitors and the antimalarial drugs chloroquine, mefloquine, and artemisinin revealed distinct patterns of drug synergism, additivity and antagonism. Taken together, the data indicate that competitive tyrosine kinase and noncompetitive P-glycoprotein ATPase-specific inhibitors represent two new classes of chemosensitizing agents in malaria parasites, but caution against the indiscriminate use of these agents in antimalarial drug combinations.

  14. Transport proteins.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Jack D

    2013-04-16

    This Teaching Resource provides and describes two animated lessons that illustrate general properties of transport proteins. The lesson called "transport protein classes" depicts major classes and subclasses of transport proteins. The "transporters, mechanism of action" lesson explains how transporters and P class ATPase (adenosine triphosphatase) pumps function. These animations serve as valuable resources for any collegiate-level course that describes these important factors. Courses that might use them include introductory biology, biochemistry, cell biology, physiology, and biophysics.

  15. Synthesis of Lysine Methyltransferase Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Tao; Hui, Chunngai

    2015-07-01

    Lysine methyltransferase which catalyze methylation of histone and nonhistone proteins, play a crucial role in diverse biological processes and has emerged as a promising target for the development of various human diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and psychiatric disorders. However, inhibiting Lysine methyltransferases selectively has presented many challenges to medicinal chemists. During the past decade, lysine methyltransferase inhibitors covering many different structural classes have been designed and developed. In this review, we describe the development of selective, small-molecule inhibitors of lysine methyltransferases with an emphasis on their discovery and chemical synthesis. We highlight the current state of lysine methyltransferase inhibitors and discuss future directions and opportunities for lysine methyltransferase inhibitor discovery.

  16. High performance oilfield scale inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Duccini, Y.; Dufour, A.; Hann, W.M.; Sanders, T.W.; Weinstein, B.

    1997-08-01

    Sea water often reacts with the formation water in offshore fields to produce barium, calcium and strontium sulfate deposits that hinder oil production. Newer fields often have more difficult to control scale problems than older ones, and current technology scale inhibitors are not able to control the deposits as well as needed. In addition, ever more stringent regulations designed to minimize the impact of inhibitors on the environment are being enacted. Three new inhibitors are presented that overcome many of the problems of older technology scale inhibitors.

  17. Acetylcholine and acetylcarnitine transport in peritoneum: Role of the SLC22A4 (OCTN1) transporter.

    PubMed

    Pochini, Lorena; Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Di Silvestre, Sara; Belviso, Stefania; Pandolfi, Assunta; Arduini, Arduino; Bonomini, Mario; Indiveri, Cesare

    2016-04-01

    A suitable experimental tool based on proteoliposomes for assaying Organic Cation Transporter Novel member 1 (OCTN1) of peritoneum was pointed out. OCTN1, recently acknowledged as acetylcholine transporter, was immunodetected in rat peritoneum. Transport was assayed following flux of radiolabelled TEA, acetylcholine or acetylcarnitine in proteoliposomes reconstituted with peritoneum extract. OCTN1 mediated, besides TEA, also acetylcholine and a slower acetylcarnitine transport. External sodium inhibited acetylcholine uptake but not its release from proteoliposomes. Differently, sodium did not affect acetylcarnitine uptake. These results suggested that physiologically, acetylcholine should be released while acetylcarnitine was taken up by peritoneum cells. Transport was impaired by OCTN1 inhibitors, butyrobetaine, spermine, and choline. Biotin was also found as acetylcholine transport inhibitor. Anti-OCTN1 antibody specifically inhibited acetylcholine transport confirming the involvement of OCTN1. The transporter was also immunodetected in human mesothelial primary cells. Extract from these cells was reconstituted in proteoliposomes. Transport features very similar to those found with rat peritoneum were observed. Validation of the proteoliposome model for peritoneal transport study was then achieved assaying transport in intact mesothelial cells. TEA, butyrobetaine and Na(+) inhibited acetylcholine transport in intact cells while efflux was Na(+) insensitive. Therefore transport features in intact cells overlapped those found in proteoliposomes.

  18. Osteocompatibility of Biofilm Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Monica; Haggard, Warren; Jennings, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    The demand for infection prevention therapies has led to the discovery of several biofilm inhibitors. These inhibiting signals are released by bacteria, fungi, or marine organisms to signal biofilm dispersal or disruption in Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and fungal microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to test the biocompatibility of five different naturally-produced biofilm chemical dispersal and inhibition signals with osteoblast-like cells: D-amino acids (D-AA), lysostaphin (LS), farnesol, cis-2-decenoic acid (C2DA), and desformyl flustrabromine (dFBr). In this preliminary study, compatibility of these anti-biofilm agents with differentiating osteoblasts was examined over a 21 days period at levels above and below concentrations active against bacterial biofilm. Anti-biofilm compounds listed above were serially diluted in osteogenic media and added to cultures of MC3T3 cells. Cell viability and cytotoxicity, after exposure to each anti-biofilm agent, were measured using a DNA assay. Differentiation characteristics of osteoblasts were determined qualitatively by observing staining of mineral deposits and quantitatively with an alkaline phosphatase assay. D-AA, LS, and C2DA were all biocompatible within the reported biofilm inhibitory concentration ranges and supported osteoblast differentiation. Farnesol and dFBr induced cytotoxic responses within the reported biofilm inhibitory concentration range and low doses of dFBr were found to inhibit osteoblast differentiation. At high concentrations, such as those that may be present after local delivery, many of these biofilm inhibitors can have effects on cellular viability and osteoblast function. Concentrations at which negative effects on osteoblasts occur should serve as upper limits for delivery to orthopaedic trauma sites and guide development of these potential therapeutics for orthopaedics. PMID:25505496

  19. Osteocompatibility of biofilm inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Monica; Haggard, Warren; Jennings, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    The demand for infection prevention therapies has led to the discovery of several biofilm inhibitors. These inhibiting signals are released by bacteria, fungi, or marine organisms to signal biofilm dispersal or disruption in Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and fungal microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to test the biocompatibility of five different naturally-produced biofilm chemical dispersal and inhibition signals with osteoblast-like cells: D-amino acids (D-AA), lysostaphin (LS), farnesol, cis-2-decenoic acid (C2DA), and desformyl flustrabromine (dFBr). In this preliminary study, compatibility of these anti-biofilm agents with differentiating osteoblasts was examined over a 21 days period at levels above and below concentrations active against bacterial biofilm. Anti-biofilm compounds listed above were serially diluted in osteogenic media and added to cultures of MC3T3 cells. Cell viability and cytotoxicity, after exposure to each anti-biofilm agent, were measured using a DNA assay. Differentiation characteristics of osteoblasts were determined qualitatively by observing staining of mineral deposits and quantitatively with an alkaline phosphatase assay. D-AA, LS, and C2DA were all biocompatible within the reported biofilm inhibitory concentration ranges and supported osteoblast differentiation. Farnesol and dFBr induced cytotoxic responses within the reported biofilm inhibitory concentration range and low doses of dFBr were found to inhibit osteoblast differentiation. At high concentrations, such as those that may be present after local delivery, many of these biofilm inhibitors can have effects on cellular viability and osteoblast function. Concentrations at which negative effects on osteoblasts occur should serve as upper limits for delivery to orthopaedic trauma sites and guide development of these potential therapeutics for orthopaedics. PMID:25505496

  20. Biological abatement of cellulase inhibitors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bio-abatement uses a fungus to metabolize and remove fermentation inhibitors. To determine whether bio-abatement could alleviate enzyme inhibitor effects observed in biomass liquors after pretreatment, corn stover at 10% (w/v) solids was pretreated with either dilute acid or liquid hot water. The ...

  1. Anthranilamide inhibitors of factor Xa.

    PubMed

    Mendel, David; Marquart, Angela L; Joseph, Sajan; Waid, Philip; Yee, Ying K; Tebbe, Anne Louise; Ratz, Andrew M; Herron, David K; Goodson, Theodore; Masters, John J; Franciskovich, Jeffry B; Tinsley, Jennifer M; Wiley, Michael R; Weir, Leonard C; Kyle, Jeffrey A; Klimkowski, Valentine J; Smith, Gerald F; Towner, Richard D; Froelich, Larry L; Buben, John; Craft, Trelia J

    2007-09-01

    SAR about the B-ring of a series of N(2)-aroyl anthranilamide factor Xa (fXa) inhibitors is described. B-ring o-aminoalkylether and B-ring p-amine probes of the S1' and S4 sites, respectively, afforded picomolar fXa inhibitors that performed well in in vitro anticoagulation assays.

  2. Proteinaceous alpha-amylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Birte; Fukuda, Kenji; Nielsen, Peter K; Bønsager, Birgit C

    2004-02-12

    Proteins that inhibit alpha-amylases have been isolated from plants and microorganisms. These inhibitors can have natural roles in the control of endogenous alpha-amylase activity or in defence against pathogens and pests; certain inhibitors are reported to be antinutritional factors. The alpha-amylase inhibitors belong to seven different protein structural families, most of which also contain evolutionary related proteins without inhibitory activity. Two families include bifunctional inhibitors acting both on alpha-amylases and proteases. High-resolution structures are available of target alpha-amylases in complex with inhibitors from five families. These structures indicate major diversity but also some similarity in the structural basis of alpha-amylase inhibition. Mutational analysis of the mechanism of inhibition was performed in a few cases and various protein engineering and biotechnological approaches have been outlined for exploitation of the inhibitory function. PMID:14871655

  3. Authentic HIV-1 integrase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chenzhong; Marchand, Christophe; Burke, Terrence R; Pommier, Yves; Nicklaus, Marc C

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) is indispensable for HIV-1 replication and has become a validated target for developing anti-AIDS agents. In two decades of development of IN inhibition-based anti-HIV therapeutics, a significant number of compounds were identified as IN inhibitors, but only some of them showed antiviral activity. This article reviews a number of patented HIV-1 IN inhibitors, especially those that possess high selectivity for the strand transfer reaction. These compounds generally have a polar coplanar moiety, which is assumed to chelate two magnesium ions in the binding site. Resistance to those compounds, when given to patients, can develop as a result of IN mutations. We refer to those compounds as authentic IN inhibitors. Continued drug development has so far delivered one authentic IN inhibitor to the market (raltegravir in 2007). Current and future attention will be focused on the development of novel authentic IN inhibitors with the goal of overcoming viral resistance. PMID:21426159

  4. School Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Educator, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This special section on student transportation offers a case study of a school system that recycles buses for safety drills; articles on fuel-saving strategies, the pros and cons of contracting for transportation services or operating a publicly owned bus fleet, and advice on full cost accounting for transportation costs; and a transportation…

  5. Transport Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Timothy M.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Boering, Kristie A.; Eckman, Richard S.; Lerner, Jean; Plumb, R. Alan; Rind, David H.; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Wei, Chu-Feng

    1999-01-01

    MM II defined a series of experiments to better understand and characterize model transport and to assess the realism of this transport by comparison to observations. Measurements from aircraft, balloon, and satellite, not yet available at the time of MM I [Prather and Remsberg, 1993], provide new and stringent constraints on model transport, and address the limits of our transport modeling abilities. Simulations of the idealized tracers the age spectrum, and propagating boundary conditions, and conserved HSCT-like emissions probe the relative roles of different model transport mechanisms, while simulations of SF6 and C02 make the connection to observations. Some of the tracers are related, and transport diagnostics such as the mean age can be derived from more than one of the experiments for comparison to observations. The goals of the transport experiments are: (1) To isolate the effects of transport in models from other processes; (2) To assess model transport for realistic tracers (such as SF6 and C02) for comparison to observations; (3) To use certain idealized tracers to isolate model mechanisms and relationships to atmospheric chemical perturbations; (4) To identify strengths and weaknesses of the treatment of transport processes in the models; (5) To relate evaluated shortcomings to aspects of model formulation. The following section are included:Executive Summary, Introduction, Age Spectrum, Observation, Tropical Transport in Models, Global Mean Age in Models, Source-Transport Covariance, HSCT "ANOY" Tracer Distributions, and Summary and Conclusions.

  6. Oxidized mucus proteinase inhibitor: a fairly potent neutrophil elastase inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Boudier, C; Bieth, J G

    1994-01-01

    N-chlorosuccinimide oxidizes one of the methionine residues of mucus proteinase inhibitor with a second-order rate constant of 1.5 M-1.s-1. Cyanogen bromide cleavage and NH2-terminal sequencing show that the modified residue is methionine-73, the P'1 component of the inhibitor's active centre. Oxidation of the inhibitor decreases its neutrophil elastase inhibitory capacity but does not fully abolish it. The kinetic parameters describing the elastase-oxidized inhibitor interaction are: association rate constant kass. = 2.6 x 10(5) M-1.s-1, dissociation rate constant kdiss. = 2.9 x 10(-3) s-1 and equilibrium dissociation constant Ki = 1.1 x 10(-8) M. Comparison with the native inhibitor indicates that oxidation decreases kass. by a factor of 18.8 and increases kdiss. by a factor of 6.4, and therefore leads to a 120-fold increase in Ki. Yet, the oxidized inhibitor may still act as a potent elastase inhibitor in the upper respiratory tract where its concentration is 500-fold higher than Ki, i.e. where the elastase inhibition is pseudo-irreversible. Experiments in vitro with fibrous human lung elastin, the most important natural substrate of elastase, support this view: 1.35 microM elastase is fully inhibited by 5-6 microM oxidized inhibitor whether the enzyme-inhibitor complex is formed in the presence or absence of elastin and whether elastase is pre-adsorbed on elastin or not. PMID:7945266

  7. The fatty-acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 does not affect triacylglycerol hydrolysis in rat tissues.

    PubMed

    Clapper, Jason R; Duranti, Andrea; Tontini, Andrea; Mor, Marco; Tarzia, Giorgio; Piomelli, Daniele

    2006-11-01

    The O-arylcarbamate URB597 (cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3'-carbamoylbiphenyl-3-yl ester; also referred to as KDS-4103) is a potent inhibitor of fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an intracellular serine hydrolase responsible for the inactivation of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide. URB597 demonstrates a remarkable degree of selectivity for FAAH over other serine hydrolases (e.g. cholinesterases) or other components of the endocannabinoid system (e.g. cannabinoid receptors). However, in a proteomic-based selectivity screen based on the displacement of fluorophosphonate-rhodamine (FPR) from mouse brain proteins, it was recently shown that URB597 prevents FPR binding to triacylglycerol hydrolase (TGH) with a median inhibitory concentration of 192nM. To determine whether this effect correlates with inhibition of TGH activity, we investigated the ability of URB597 to inhibit triolein hydrolysis in rat liver and heart tissues, which are rich in TGH, as well as white adipose tissue (WAT), which is rich in adipose triacylglycerol lipase (TGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase. The results show that URB597 does not affect triolein hydrolysis in any of these tissues at concentrations as high as 10microM, whereas it inhibits FAAH activity at low nanomolar concentrations. Moreover, intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of URB597 at doses that maximally inhibit FAAH in vivo (0.3-3mgkg(-1)) exerts no effect on triolein hydrolysis and tissue triacylglycerol (TAG) levels in rat liver, heart or WAT. The results indicate that URB597, while potent at inhibiting FAAH, does not affect TGH and TGL activities in rat tissues.

  8. Flavivirus Entry Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Yin; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2015-09-11

    Many flaviviruses are significant human pathogens that are transmitted by mosquitoes and ticks. Although effective vaccines are available for yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitic virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus, these and other flaviviruses still cause thousands of human deaths and millions of illnesses each year. No clinically approved antiviral therapy is available for flavivirus treatment. To meet this unmet medical need, industry and academia have taken multiple approaches to develop antiflavivirus therapy, among which targeting viral entry has been actively pursued in the past decade. Here we review the current knowledge of flavivirus entry and its use for small molecule drug discovery. Inhibitors of two major steps of flaviviral entry have been reported: (i) molecules that block virus-receptor interaction; (ii) compounds that prevent conformational change of viral envelope protein during virus-host membrane fusion. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of targeting viral entry for treatment of flavivirus infection as compared to targeting viral replication proteins. PMID:27617926

  9. Small molecules inhibitors of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 - an overview.

    PubMed

    Rouch, Anne; Vanucci-Bacqué, Corinne; Bedos-Belval, Florence; Baltas, Michel

    2015-03-01

    PAI-1, a glycoprotein from the serpin family and the main inhibitor of tPA and uPA, plays an essential role in the regulation of intra and extravascular fibrinolysis by inhibiting the formation of plasmin from plasminogen. PAI-1 is also involved in pathological processes such as thromboembolic diseases, atherosclerosis, fibrosis and cancer. The inhibition of PAI-1 activity by small organic molecules has been observed in vitro and with some in vivo models. Based on these findings, PAI-1 appears as a potential therapeutic target for several pathological conditions. Over the past decades, many efforts have therefore been devoted to developing PAI-1 inhibitors. This article provides an overview of the publishing activity on small organic molecules used as PAI-1 inhibitors. The chemical synthesis of the most potent inhibitors as well as their biological and biochemical evaluations is also presented.

  10. Advances in plant-based inhibitors of P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun; Zhou, Peng; Asenso, James; Yang, Xiao-Dan; Wang, Chun; Wei, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) has emerged as the main problem in anti-cancer therapy. Although MDR involves complex factors and processes, the main pivot is the expression of multidrug efflux pumps. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) belongs to the family of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. It functions in cellular detoxification, pumping a wide range of xenobiotic compounds out of the cell. An attractive therapeutic strategy for overcoming MDR is to inhibit the transport function of P-gp and thus, increase intracellular concentration of drugs. Recently, various types of P-gp inhibitors have been found and used in experiments. However, none of them has passed clinical trials due to their high side-effects. Hence, the search for alternatives, such as plant-based P-gp inhibitors have gained attention recently. Therefore, we give an overview of the source, function, structure and mechanism of plant-based P-gp inhibitors and give more attention to cancer-related studies. These products could be the future potential drug candidates for further research as P-gp inhibitors.

  11. Synthetic conversion of ACAT inhibitor to acetylcholinesterase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Obata, R; Sunazuka, T; Otoguro, K; Tomoda, H; Harigaya, Y; Omura, S

    2000-06-19

    Natural product acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitor pyripyropene A was synthetically converted to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor via heterolitic cleavage of the 2-pyrone ring, followed by gamma-acylation/cyclization with several aroyl chlorides. The 4-pyridyl analogue selectively showed AChE inhibitory activity (IC50 7.9 microM) and no ACAT inhibitory activity IC50 = >1000 microM. PMID:10890154

  12. Glycosylasparaginase inhibition studies: competitive inhibitors, transition state mimics, noncompetitive inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Risley, J M; Huang, D H; Kaylor, J J; Malik, J J; Xia, Y Q

    2001-01-01

    Glycosylasparaginase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the N-glycosylic bond between asparagine and N-acetylglucosamine in the catabolism of N-linked glycoproteins. Previously only three competitive inhibitors, one noncompetitive inhibitor, and one irreversible inhibitor of glycosylasparaginase activity had been reported. Using human glycosylasparaginase from human amniotic fluid, L-aspartic acid and four of its analogues, where the alpha-amino group was substituted with a chloro, bromo, methyl or hydrogen, were competitive inhibitors having Ki values between 0.6-7.7 mM. These results provide supporting evidence for a proposed intramolecular autoproteolytic activation reaction. A proposed phosphono transition state mimic and a sulfo transition state mimic were competitive inhibitors with Ki values 0.9 mM and 1.4 mM, respectively. These results support a mechanism for the enzyme-catalyzed reaction involving formation of a tetrahedral high-energy intermediate. Three analogues of the natural substrate were noncompetitive inhibitors with Ki values between 0.56-0.75 mM, indicating the presence of a second binding site that may recognize (substituted)acetamido groups.

  13. Mechanism of ochratoxin A transport in kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Sokol, P.P.; Ripich, G.; Holohan, P.D.; Ross, C.R.

    1988-08-01

    The effect of the fungal metabolite (mycotoxin) Ochratoxin A (OTA) on the transport of p-amino(/sup 3/H)hippurate (PAH), a prototypic organic anion, was examined in renal brush border (BBMV) and basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV). OTA was as effective an inhibitor of PAH uptake in both membranes as probenecid. The dose response curves for OTA in BBMV and BLMV gave IC50 values of 20 +/- 6 and 32 +/- 7 microM, respectively. The effect was specific since the transport of the organic cation N1-methylnicotinamide was not affected. The phenomenon of counterflow was studied to establish that OTA is translocated. OTA produced trans stimulation of PAH transport in both BBMV and BLMV, demonstrating that OTA is transported across both these membranes. The data suggest that OTA interacts with the PAH transport system in both BBMV and BLMV. We conclude that OTA transport in the kidney is mediated via the renal organic anion transport system.

  14. Carotenoid biosynthesis in Rhodospirillum rubrum: effect of pteridine inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Nugent, N A; Fuller, R C

    1967-11-17

    A known inhibitor of pteridine utilization (4-phenoxy,2,6-diamino pyridine) blocks the synthesis of colored carotenoids in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. In many ways the effect is similar to the inhibition of the synthesis of colored carotenoids by diphenylamine. This inhibition is probably independent of other effects of pteridine on photosynthetic electron transport since it is not as readily reversible as the total inhibition of photosynthetic activity by pteridine analogs.

  15. Mechanistic study and modeling of precipitation scale inhibitor squeeze processes

    SciTech Connect

    Malandrino, A.; Yuan, M.D.; Sorbie, K.S.; Jordan, M.M.

    1995-11-01

    A scale inhibitor precipitation squeeze is one of the two main types of treatment for preventing downhole scale deposition; the other type is an adsorption squeeze. However, unlike for the adsorption squeeze process, the mechanism for inhibitor retention within the formation through precipitation/re-dissolution is not fully understood and it is this issue that is considered in this work. Here, the central objective is to consider a range of possible models of the precipitation squeeze process and to determine which of these are consistent with the available laboratory core flood and field data. Such models range from pure precipitation through to more complex models which couple the precipitation process with an adsorption process or with a mechanical transport phenomenon. The various models are explained in terms of the chemical processes which are observed. Results from two inhibitor precipitation core floods and one field squeeze treatment are presented along with the modeled inhibitor return curves. Based on certain model assumptions, the authors understanding of the process allows them to optimize the squeeze design of both inhibitor solution and operational parameters for extending the precipitation squeeze life time.

  16. Inhibitors of Protein Translocation Across the ER Membrane.

    PubMed

    Kalies, Kai-Uwe; Römisch, Karin

    2015-10-01

    Protein translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) constitutes the first step of protein secretion. ER protein import is essential in all eukaryotic cells and is particularly critical in fast-growing tumour cells. Thus, the process can serve as target both for potential cancer drugs and for bacterial virulence factors. Inhibitors of protein transport across the ER membrane range from broad-spectrum to highly substrate-specific and can interfere with virtually any stage of this multistep process, and even with transport of endocytosed antigens into the cytosol for cross-presentation. PMID:26122014

  17. Can proton pump inhibitors accentuate skin aging?

    PubMed

    Namazi, Mohammad Reza; Jowkar, Farideh

    2010-02-01

    Skin aging has long been important to human beings and in recent years this field has received tremendous attention by both researchers and the general population. Cutaneous aging includes two distinct phenomena, intrinsic aging and photoaging, and is characterized mainly by the loss of collagen fibers from dermis. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely prescribed gastric acid-reducing agents that are usually consumed for long periods in some conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease. We suggest that PPIs can accentuate skin aging by two mechanisms. First, through increasing intralysosomal PH, PPIs can suppress transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) processing and consequently decrease its secretion. Second, through inhibiting MNK, a P-type ATPase with steady-state localization at the trans-Golgi network, PPIs can hamper copper transport and consequently curb lysyl oxidase activity. PMID:20470945

  18. Selective Inhibitors of Protein Methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that protein methyltransferases (PMTs), which catalyze methylation of histone and nonhistone proteins, play a crucial role in diverse biological processes and human diseases. In particular, PMTs have been recognized as major players in regulating gene expression and chromatin state. PMTs are divided into two categories: protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs) and protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). There has been a steadily growing interest in these enzymes as potential therapeutic targets and therefore discovery of PMT inhibitors has also been pursued increasingly over the past decade. Here, we present a perspective on selective, small-molecule inhibitors of PMTs with an emphasis on their discovery, characterization, and applicability as chemical tools for deciphering the target PMTs’ physiological functions and involvement in human diseases. We highlight the current state of PMT inhibitors and discuss future directions and opportunities for PMT inhibitor discovery. PMID:25406853

  19. Synthesis of lysine methyltransferase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Chunngai; Ye, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Lysine methyltransferase which catalyze methylation of histone and non-histone proteins, play a crucial role in diverse biological processes and has emerged as a promising target for the development of various human diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and psychiatric disorders. However, inhibiting lysine methyltransferases selectively has presented many challenges to medicinal chemists. During the past decade, lysine methyltransferase inhibitors covering many different structural classes have been designed and developed. In this review, we describe the development of selective, small-molecule inhibitors of lysine methyltransferases with an emphasis on their discovery and chemical synthesis. We highlight the current state of lysine methyltransferase inhibitors and discuss future directions and opportunities for lysine methyltransferase inhibitor discovery. PMID:26258118

  20. Converting potent indeno[1,2-b]indole inhibitors of protein kinase CK2 into selective inhibitors of the breast cancer resistance protein ABCG2.

    PubMed

    Jabor Gozzi, Gustavo; Bouaziz, Zouhair; Winter, Evelyn; Daflon-Yunes, Nathalia; Aichele, Dagmar; Nacereddine, Abdelhamid; Marminon, Christelle; Valdameri, Glaucio; Zeinyeh, Waël; Bollacke, Andre; Guillon, Jean; Lacoudre, Aline; Pinaud, Noël; Cadena, Silvia M; Jose, Joachim; Le Borgne, Marc; Di Pietro, Attilio

    2015-01-01

    A series of indeno[1,2-b]indole-9,10-dione derivatives were synthesized as human casein kinase II (CK2) inhibitors. The most potent inhibitors contained a N(5)-isopropyl substituent on the C-ring. The same series of compounds was found to also inhibit the breast cancer resistance protein ABCG2 but with totally different structure-activity relationships: a N(5)-phenethyl substituent was critical, and additional hydrophobic substituents at position 7 or 8 of the D-ring or a methoxy at phenethyl position ortho or meta also contributed to inhibition. The best ABCG2 inhibitors, such as 4c, 4h, 4i, 4j, and 4k, behaved as very weak inhibitors of CK2, whereas the most potent CK2 inhibitors, such as 4a, 4p, and 4e, displayed limited interaction with ABCG2. It was therefore possible to convert, through suitable substitutions of the indeno[1,2-b]indole-9,10-dione scaffold, potent CK2 inhibitors into selective ABCG2 inhibitors and vice versa. In addition, some of the best ABCG2 inhibitors, which displayed a very low cytotoxicity, thus giving a high therapeutic ratio, and appeared not to be transported, constitute promising candidates for further investigations.

  1. [Pharmacology of bone resorption inhibitor].

    PubMed

    Menuki, Kunitaka; Sakai, Akinori

    2015-10-01

    Currently, bone resorption inhibitor is mainly used for osteoporosis. A number of these agents have been developed. These pharmacological action are various. Bisphosphonate inhibit functions of the osteoclasts by inducing apoptosis. On the one hand, RANK-ligand inhibitor and selective estrogen receptor modulator inhibit formation of osteoclasts. It is important to understand these pharmacological action for the selection of the appropriate medicine. PMID:26529923

  2. MAPK pathway activation leads to Bim loss and histone deacetylase inhibitor resistance: rationale to combine romidepsin with an MEK inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Arup R; Robey, Robert W; Luchenko, Victoria L; Zhan, Zhirong; Piekarz, Richard L; Gillet, Jean-Pierre; Kossenkov, Andrew V; Wilkerson, Julia; Showe, Louise C; Gottesman, Michael M; Collie, Nathan L; Bates, Susan E

    2013-05-16

    To identify molecular determinants of histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDI) resistance, we selected HuT78 cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) cells with romidepsin in the presence of P-glycoprotein inhibitors to prevent transporter upregulation. Resistant sublines were 250- to 385-fold resistant to romidepsin and were resistant to apoptosis induced by apicidin, entinostat, panobinostat, belinostat, and vorinostat. A custom TaqMan array identified increased insulin receptor (INSR) gene expression; immunoblot analysis confirmed increased protein expression and a four- to eightfold increase in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MEK) phosphorylation in resistant cells compared with parental cells. Resistant cells were exquisitely sensitive to MEK inhibitors, and apoptosis correlated with restoration of proapoptotic Bim. Romidepsin combined with MEK inhibitors yielded greater apoptosis in cells expressing mutant KRAS compared with romidepsin treatment alone. Gene expression analysis of samples obtained from patients with CTCL enrolled on the NCI1312 phase 2 study of romidepsin in T-cell lymphoma suggested perturbation of the MAPK pathway by romidepsin. Immunohistochemical analysis of Bim expression demonstrated decreased expression in some skin biopsies at disease progression. These findings implicate increased activation of MEK and decreased Bim expression as a resistance mechanism to HDIs, supporting combination of romidepsin with MEK inhibitors in clinical trials.

  3. Transport Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCready, Mark J.; Leighton, David T.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the problems created in graduate chemical engineering programs when students enter with a wide diversity of understandings of transport phenomena. Describes a two-semester graduate transport course sequence at the University of Notre Dame which focuses on fluid mechanics and heat and mass transfer. (TW)

  4. Impact of protease inhibitors on intracellular concentration of tenofovir-diphosphate among HIV-1 infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Lahiri, Cecile D.; Tao, Sijia; Jiang, Yong; Sheth, Anandi N.; Acosta, Edward P.; Marconi, Vincent C.; Armstrong, Wendy S.; Schinazi, Raymond F.; Vunnava, Aswani; Sanford, Sara; Ofotokun, Ighovwerha

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) concentrations are associated with plasma HIV-1 response. Coadministration of protease inhibitors with NRTIs can affect intra-cellular concentrations due to protease inhibitor inhibition of efflux transporters. Tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) concentrations within peripheral blood mononuclear cells were compared among individuals receiving either atazanavir or darunavir-based regimens. There was a trend towards higher TFV-DP concentrations among women and among participants receiving atazanavir. TFV-DP intracellular concentrations were positively associated with undetectable plasma HIV-1 RNA. PMID:25870991

  5. Peptidomimetic inhibitors of HIV protease.

    PubMed

    Randolph, John T; DeGoey, David A

    2004-01-01

    There are currently (July, 2002) six protease inhibitors approved for the treatment of HIV infection, each of which can be classified as peptidomimetic in structure. These agents, when used in combination with other antiretroviral agents, produce a sustained decrease in viral load, often to levels below the limits of quantifiable detection, and a significant reconstitution of the immune system. Therapeutic regimens containing one or more HIV protease inhibitors thus provide a highly effective method for disease management. The important role of protease inhibitors in HIV therapy, combined with numerous challenges remaining in HIV treatment, have resulted in a continued effort both to optimize regimens using the existing agents and to identify new protease inhibitors that may provide unique properties. This review will provide an overview of the discovery and clinical trials of the currently approved HIV protease inhibitors, followed by an examination of important aspects of therapy, such as pharmacokinetic enhancement, resistance and side effects. A description of new peptidomimetic compounds currently being investigated in the clinic and in preclinical discovery will follow. PMID:15193140

  6. Microbial inhibitors of cysteine proteases.

    PubMed

    Kędzior, Mateusz; Seredyński, Rafał; Gutowicz, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Cysteine proteases are one of the major classes of proteolytic enzymes involved in a number of physiological and pathological processes in plants, animals and microorganisms. When their synthesis, activity and localization in mammalian cells are altered, they may contribute to the development of many diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis and cancer. Therefore, cysteine proteases have become promising drug targets for the medical treatment of these disorders. Inhibitors of cysteine proteases are also produced by almost every group of living organisms, being responsible for the control of intracellular proteolytic activity. Microorganisms synthesize cysteine protease inhibitors not only to regulate the activity of endogenous, often virulent enzymes, but also to hinder the host's proteolytic defense system and evade its immune responses against infections. Present work describes known to date microbial inhibitors of cysteine proteases in terms of their structure, enzyme binding mechanism, specificity and pathophysiological roles. The overview of both proteinaceous and small-molecule inhibitors produced by all groups of microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists) and viruses is provided. Subsequently, possible applications of microbial inhibitors in science, medicine and biotechnology are also highlighted. PMID:27048482

  7. Evolutionary families of peptidase inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Rawlings, Neil D; Tolle, Dominic P; Barrett, Alan J

    2004-01-01

    The proteins that inhibit peptidases are of great importance in medicine and biotechnology, but there has never been a comprehensive system of classification for them. Some of the terminology currently in use is potentially confusing. In the hope of facilitating the exchange, storage and retrieval of information about this important group of proteins, we now describe a system wherein the inhibitor units of the peptidase inhibitors are assigned to 48 families on the basis of similarities detectable at the level of amino acid sequence. Then, on the basis of three-dimensional structures, 31 of the families are assigned to 26 clans. A simple system of nomenclature is introduced for reference to each clan, family and inhibitor. We briefly discuss the specificities and mechanisms of the interactions of the inhibitors in the various families with their target enzymes. The system of families and clans of inhibitors described has been implemented in the MEROPS peptidase database (http://merops.sanger.ac.uk/), and this will provide a mechanism for updating it as new information becomes available. PMID:14705960

  8. Microbial inhibitors of cysteine proteases.

    PubMed

    Kędzior, Mateusz; Seredyński, Rafał; Gutowicz, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Cysteine proteases are one of the major classes of proteolytic enzymes involved in a number of physiological and pathological processes in plants, animals and microorganisms. When their synthesis, activity and localization in mammalian cells are altered, they may contribute to the development of many diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis and cancer. Therefore, cysteine proteases have become promising drug targets for the medical treatment of these disorders. Inhibitors of cysteine proteases are also produced by almost every group of living organisms, being responsible for the control of intracellular proteolytic activity. Microorganisms synthesize cysteine protease inhibitors not only to regulate the activity of endogenous, often virulent enzymes, but also to hinder the host's proteolytic defense system and evade its immune responses against infections. Present work describes known to date microbial inhibitors of cysteine proteases in terms of their structure, enzyme binding mechanism, specificity and pathophysiological roles. The overview of both proteinaceous and small-molecule inhibitors produced by all groups of microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists) and viruses is provided. Subsequently, possible applications of microbial inhibitors in science, medicine and biotechnology are also highlighted.

  9. Strong cellulase inhibitors from the hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose with subsequent fermentation to ethanol provides a green alternative for the production of transportation fuels. Because of its recalcitrant nature, the lignocellulosic biomass must be pretreated before enzymatic hydrolysis. However, the pretreatment often results in the formation of compounds that are inhibitory for the enzymes or fermenting organism. Although well recognized, little quantitative information on the inhibition of individual cellulase components by identified inhibitors is available. Results Strong cellulase inhibitors were separated from the liquid fraction of the hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw. HPLC and mass-spectroscopy analyses confirmed that the inhibitors were oligosaccharides (inhibitory oligosaccharides, IOS) with a degree of polymerization from 7 to 16. The IOS are composed of a mixture of xylo- (XOS) and gluco-oligosaccharides (GOS). We propose that XOS and GOS are the fragments of the xylan backbone and mixed-linkage β-glucans, respectively. The IOS were approximately 100 times stronger inhibitors for Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) than cellobiose, which is one of the strongest inhibitors of these enzymes reported to date. Inhibition of endoglucanases (EGs) by IOS was weaker than that of CBHs. Most of the tested cellulases and hemicellulases were able to slowly degrade IOS and reduce the inhibitory power of the liquid fraction to some extent. The most efficient single enzyme component here was T. reesei EG TrCel7B. Although reduced by the enzyme treatment, the residual inhibitory power of IOS and the liquid fraction was strong enough to silence the major component of the T. reesei cellulase system, CBH TrCel7A. Conclusions The cellulase inhibitors described here may be responsible for the poor yields from the enzymatic conversion of the whole slurries from lignocellulose pretreatment under conditions that do not favor complete degradation of

  10. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.; Langstrom, B.

    1990-04-03

    This invention involves a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography.

  11. Electrochemical studies of corrosion inhibitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of single salts, as well as multicomponent mixtures, on corrosion inhibition was studied for type 1010 steel; for 5052, 1100, and 2219-T87 aluminum alloys; and for copper. Molybdate-containing inhibitors exhibit an immediate, positive effect for steel corrosion, but an incubation period may be required for aluminum before the effect of a given inhibitor can be determined. The absence of oxygen was found to provide a positive effect (smaller corrosion rate) for steel and copper, but a negative effect for aluminum. This is attributed to the two possible mechanisms by which aluminum can oxidize. Corrosion inhibition is generally similar for oxygen-rich and oxygen-free environments. The results show that the electrochemical method is an effective means of screening inhibitors for the corrosion of single metals, with caution to be exercised in the case of aluminum.

  12. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.

    1987-05-22

    This invention involved a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide in activators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography. 2 figs.

  13. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, Joanna S.; MacGregor, Robert R.; Wolf, Alfred P.; Langstrom, Bengt

    1990-01-01

    This invention involves a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography.

  14. Corrosion inhibitors from expired drugs.

    PubMed

    Vaszilcsin, Nicolae; Ordodi, Valentin; Borza, Alexandra

    2012-07-15

    This paper presents a method of expired or unused drugs valorization as corrosion inhibitors for metals in various media. Cyclic voltammograms were drawn on platinum in order to assess the stability of pharmaceutically active substances from drugs at the metal-corrosive environment interface. Tafel slope method was used to determine corrosion rates of steel in the absence and presence of inhibitors. Expired Carbamazepine and Paracetamol tablets were used to obtain corrosion inhibitors. For the former, the corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in 0.1 mol L(-1) sulfuric acid solution was about 90%, whereas for the latter, the corrosion inhibition efficiency of the same material in the 0.25 mol L(-1) acetic acid-0.25 mol L(-1) sodium acetate buffer solution was about 85%.

  15. An environmentally friendly scale inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbs, J.B.; Brown, J.M.

    1999-11-01

    This paper describes a method of inhibiting the formation of scales such as barium and strontium sulfate in low pH aqueous systems, and calcium carbonate in systems containing high concentrations of dissolved iron. The solution, chemically, involves treating the aqueous system with an inhibitor designed to replace organic-phosphonates. Typical low pH aqueous systems where the inhibitor is particularly useful are oilfield produced-water, resin bed water softeners that form scale during low pH, acid regeneration operations. Downhole applications are recommended where high concentrations of dissolved iron are present in the produced water. This new approach to inhibition replaces typical organic phosphonates and polymers with a non-toxic, biodegradable scale inhibitor that performs in harsh environments.

  16. Diverse inhibitors of aflatoxin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Robert A; Boston, Rebecca S; Payne, Gary A

    2008-03-01

    Pre-harvest and post-harvest contamination of maize, peanuts, cotton, and tree nuts by members of the genus Aspergillus and subsequent contamination with the mycotoxin aflatoxin pose a widespread food safety problem for which effective and inexpensive control strategies are lacking. Since the discovery of aflatoxin as a potently carcinogenic food contaminant, extensive research has been focused on identifying compounds that inhibit its biosynthesis. Numerous diverse compounds and extracts containing activity inhibitory to aflatoxin biosynthesis have been reported. Only recently, however, have tools been available to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which these inhibitors affect aflatoxin biosynthesis. Many inhibitors are plant-derived and a few may be amenable to pathway engineering for tissue-specific expression in susceptible host plants as a defense against aflatoxin contamination. Other compounds show promise as protectants during crop storage. Finally, inhibitors with different modes of action could be used in comparative transcriptional and metabolomic profiling experiments to identify regulatory networks controlling aflatoxin biosynthesis.

  17. In vivo characterization of the highly selective monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor KML29: antinociceptive activity without cannabimimetic side effects

    PubMed Central

    Ignatowska-Jankowska, B M; Ghosh, S; Crowe, M S; Kinsey, S G; Niphakis, M J; Abdullah, R A; Tao, Q; O' Neal, S T; Walentiny, D M; Wiley, J L; Cravatt, B F; Lichtman, A H

    2014-01-01

    Background and PurposeSince monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) has been firmly established as the predominant catabolic enzyme of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), a great need has emerged for the development of highly selective MAGL inhibitors. Here, we tested the in vivo effects of one such compound, KML29 (1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-yl 4-(bis(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate). Experimental ApproachIn the present study, we tested KML29 in murine inflammatory (i.e. carrageenan) and sciatic nerve injury pain models, as well as the diclofenac-induced gastric haemorrhage model. KML29 was also evaluated for cannabimimetic effects, including measurements of locomotor activity, body temperature, catalepsy, and cannabinoid interoceptive effects in the drug discrimination paradigm. Key ResultsKML29 attenuated carrageenan-induced paw oedema and completely reversed carrageenan-induced mechanical allodynia. These effects underwent tolerance after repeated administration of high-dose KML29, which were accompanied by cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) receptor desensitization. Acute or repeated KML29 administration increased 2-AG levels and concomitantly reduced arachidonic acid levels, but without elevating anandamide (AEA) levels in the whole brain. Furthermore, KML29 partially reversed allodynia in the sciatic nerve injury model and completely prevented diclofenac-induced gastric haemorrhages. CB1 and CB2 receptors played differential roles in these pharmacological effects of KML29. In contrast, KML29 did not elicit cannabimimetic effects, including catalepsy, hypothermia and hypomotility. Although KML29 did not substitute for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in C57BL/6J mice, it fully and dose-dependantly substituted for AEA in fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) (−/−) mice, consistent with previous work showing that dual FAAH and MAGL inhibition produces THC-like subjective effects. Conclusions and ImplicationsThese results

  18. Intercellular transport.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Jack D

    2013-04-16

    These animations depict generalities of intercellular transport. The animation called "permeability and transport" demonstrates the permeability of four classes of molecules. The "gap junctions" animation shows how these intercellular complexes exclude large factors while they allow small factors to diffuse between cells. These animations serve as useful resources for any collegiate-level course that describes these processes. Courses that might use them include biochemistry, biophysics, cell biology, introductory biology, and physiology.

  19. Selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE) as novel therapeutics for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Mendonca, Janet; Sharma, Anup; Kim, Hae-Soo; Hammers, Hans; Meeker, Alan; De Marzo, Angelo; Carducci, Michael; Kauffman, Michael; Shacham, Sharon; Kachhap, Sushant

    2014-08-15

    Mislocalization of proteins is a common feature of cancer cells. Since localization of proteins is tightly linked to its function, cancer cells can inactivate function of a tumor suppressor protein through mislocalization. The nuclear exportin CRM1/XPO 1 is upregulated in many cancers. Targeting XPO 1 can lead to nuclear retention of cargo proteins such as p53, Foxo, and BRCA1 leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. We demonstrate that selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE) can functionally inactivate XPO 1 in prostate cancer cells. Unlike the potent, but toxic, XPO 1 inhibitor leptomycin B, SINE inhibitors (KPT-185, KPT-330, and KPT-251) cause a decrease in XPO 1 protein level through the proteasomal pathway. Treatment of prostate cancer cells with SINE inhibitors lead to XPO 1 inhibition, as evaluated by RevGFP export assay, leading to nuclear retention of p53 and Foxo proteins, consequently, triggering apoptosis. Our data reveal that treatment with SINE inhibitors at nanomolar concentrations results in decrease in proliferation and colonogenic capacity of prostate cancer cells by triggering apoptosis without causing any cell cycle arrest. We further demonstrate that SINE inhibitors can be combined with other chemotherapeutics like doxorubicin to achieve enhanced growth inhibition of prostate cancer cells. Since SINE inhibitors offer increased bioavailability, reduced toxicity to normal cells, and are orally available they can serve as effective therapeutics against prostate cancer. In conclusion, our data reveals that nucleocytoplasmic transport in prostate cancer can be effectively targeted by SINE inhibitors.

  20. Nonnucleoside inhibitors of adenosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Gomtsyan, Arthur; Lee, Chih-Hung

    2004-01-01

    Adenosine (ADO) is an endogenous inhibitory neuromodulator that increases nociceptive thresholds in response to tissue trauma and inflammation. Adenosine kinase (AK) is a key intracellular enzyme regulating intra- and extracellular concentrations of ADO. AK inhibition selectively amplifies extracellular ADO levels at cell and tissue sites where accelerated release of ADO occurs. AK inhibitors have been shown to provide effective antinociceptive, antiinflammatory and anticonvulsant activity in animal models, thus suggesting their potential therapeutic utility for pain, inflammation, epilepsy and possibly other central and peripheral nervous system diseases associated with cellular trauma and inflammation. This beneficial outcome may potentially lack nonspecific effects associated with the systemic administration of ADO receptor agonists. Until recently all of the reported AK inhibitors contained adenosine-like structural motif. The present review will discuss design, synthesis and analgesic and antiinflammatory properties of the novel nonnucleoside AK inhibitors that do not have close structural resemblance with the natural substrate ADO. Two classes of the nonnucleoside AK inhibitors are built on pyridopyrimidine and alkynylpyrimidine cores.

  1. C1-inhibitor and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kirschfink, Michael

    2002-09-01

    Excessive activation of the protein cascade systems has been associated with post-transplantation inflammatory disorders. There is increasing evidence that complement not only significantly contributes to ischemia/reperfusion injury upon cold storage of the organ but also, although to a different degree, to allograft rejection. Complement activation is most fulminant in hyperacute rejection but seems also to contribute to acute transplant rejection. Therapeutic substitution of appropriate regulators, therefore, appears to be a reasonable approach to reduce undesirable inflammatory reactions in the grafted organ. C1-inhibitor, a multifunctional regulator of the various kinin-generating cascade systems (for review see: E. Hack, chapter in this issue), is frequently reduced in patients suffering from severe inflammatory disorders. Studies applying pathophysiologically relevant animal models of allo- and xenotransplantation as well as promising first clinical results from successful allotransplantation now provide evidence that C1-inhibitor may also serve as an effective means to protect the grafted organ against inflammatory tissue injury. In xenotransplantation, complement inhibition by specific regulators such as C1-inhibitor may help to overcome hyperacute graft rejection. After a brief introduction on the significance of complement to allo- and xenotransplantation the following review will focus on the impact of C1-inhibitor treatment on transplantation-associated inflammatory disorders, where complement contributes to the pathogenesis.

  2. Bivalent Inhibitors of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Gower, Carrie M.; Chang, Matthew E. K.; Maly, Dustin J.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases are key players in a large number of cellular signaling pathways. Dysregulated kinase activity has been implicated in a number of diseases, and members of this enzyme family are of therapeutic interest. However, due to the fact that most inhibitors interact with the highly conserved ATP-binding sites of kinases, it is a significant challenge to develop pharmacological agents that target only one of the greater than 500 kinases present in humans. A potential solution to this problem is the development of bisubstrate and bivalent kinase inhibitors, in which an active site-directed moiety is tethered to another ligand that targets a location outside of the ATP-binding cleft. Because kinase signaling specificity is modulated by regions outside of the ATP-binding site, strategies that exploit these interactions have the potential to provide reagents with high target selectivity. This review highlights examples of kinase interaction sites that can potentially be exploited by bisubstrate and bivalent inhibitors. Furthermore, an overview of efforts to target these interactions with bisubstrate and bivalent inhibitors is provided. Finally, several examples of the successful application of these reagents in a cellular setting are described. PMID:24564382

  3. PDE-5 inhibitors: clinical points.

    PubMed

    Doumas, Michael; Lazaridis, Antonios; Katsiki, Niki; Athyros, Vasilios

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is usually of vascular origin and is frequently encountered in men with cardiovascular disease. The introduction of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors has revolutionized the management of patients with erectile dysfunction. Currently available phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors have distinct pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, thus permitting for tailoring sexual therapy according to patient characteristics and needs. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors possess vasorelaxing properties and exert systemic hemodynamic effects, which need to be taken into account when other cardiovascular drugs are co-administered. Special caution is needed with alpha-blockers, while the co-administration with nitrates is contra-indicated due to the risk of life-threatening hypotension. This review presents the advent of sexual therapy, describes the mechanism of action and the specific characteristics of commercially available phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, summarizes the efficacy and safety of these drugs with special emphasis on the cardiovascular system, and discusses the clinical criteria used for the selection of each drug for the individual patient. PMID:25392015

  4. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: Pharmacology and Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Čolović, Mirjana B; Krstić, Danijela Z; Lazarević-Pašti, Tamara D; Bondžić, Aleksandra M; Vasić, Vesna M

    2013-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase is involved in the termination of impulse transmission by rapid hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in numerous cholinergic pathways in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The enzyme inactivation, induced by various inhibitors, leads to acetylcholine accumulation, hyperstimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, and disrupted neurotransmission. Hence, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, interacting with the enzyme as their primary target, are applied as relevant drugs and toxins. This review presents an overview of toxicology and pharmacology of reversible and irreversible acetylcholinesterase inactivating compounds. In the case of reversible inhibitors being commonly applied in neurodegenerative disorders treatment, special attention is paid to currently approved drugs (donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine) in the pharmacotherapy of Alzheimer’s disease, and toxic carbamates used as pesticides. Subsequently, mechanism of irreversible acetylcholinesterase inhibition induced by organophosphorus compounds (insecticides and nerve agents), and their specific and nonspecific toxic effects are described, as well as irreversible inhibitors having pharmacological implementation. In addition, the pharmacological treatment of intoxication caused by organophosphates is presented, with emphasis on oxime reactivators of the inhibited enzyme activity administering as causal drugs after the poisoning. Besides, organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides can be detoxified in mammals through enzymatic hydrolysis before they reach targets in the nervous system. Carboxylesterases most effectively decompose carbamates, whereas the most successful route of organophosphates detoxification is their degradation by corresponding phosphotriesterases. PMID:24179466

  5. Biocatalysts with enhanced inhibitor tolerance

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Shihui; Linger, Jeffrey; Franden, Mary Ann; Pienkos, Philip T.; Zhang, Min

    2015-12-08

    Disclosed herein are biocatalysts for the production of biofuels, including microorganisms that contain genetic modifications conferring tolerance to growth and fermentation inhibitors found in many cellulosic feedstocks. Methods of converting cellulose-containing materials to fuels and chemicals, as well as methods of fermenting sugars to fuels and chemicals, using these biocatalysts are also disclosed.

  6. Cloning of the cocaine-sensitive bovine dopamine transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Usdin, T.B.; Chen, C.; Brownstein, M.J.; Hoffman, B.J. ); Mezey, E. )

    1991-12-15

    A cDNA encoding the dopamine transporter from bovine brain substantia nigra was identified on the basis of its structural homology to other, recently cloned, neurotransmitter transporters. The sequence of the 693-amino acid protein is quite similar to those of the rat {gamma}-aminobutyric acid, human norepinephrine, and rat serotonin transporters. Dopamine transporter mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization in the substantia nigra but not in the locus coeruleus, raphe, caudate, or other brain areas. ({sup 3}H)Dopamine accumulation in tissue culture cells transfected with the cDNA was inhibited by amphetamine, cocaine, and specific inhibitors of dopamine transports, including GBR12909.

  7. Stereoselectivity of chiral drug transport: a focus on enantiomer-transporter interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Quan; Yu, Lu-Shan; Zeng, Su

    2014-08-01

    Drug transporters and drug metabolism enzymes govern drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination. Many literature works presenting important aspects related to stereochemistry of drug metabolism are available. However, there is very little literature on stereoselectivity of chiral drug transport and enantiomer-transporter interaction. In recent years, the experimental research within this field showed good momentum. Herein, an up-to-date review on this topic was presented. Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP), Multidrug Resistance Proteins (MRP), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), Organic Anion Transporters (OATs), Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides (OATPs), Organic Cation Transporters (OCTs), Peptide Transport Proteins (PepTs), Human Proton-Coupled Folate Transporter (PCFT) and Multidrug and Toxic Extrusion Proteins (MATEs), have been reported to exhibit either positive or negative enantio-selective substrate recognition. The approaches utilized to study chirality in enantiomer-transporter interaction include inhibition experiments of specific transporters in cell models (e.g. Caco-2 cells), transport study using drug resistance cell lines or transgenic cell lines expressing transporters in wild type or variant, the use of transporter knockout mice, pharmacokinetics association of single nucleotide polymorphism in transporters, pharmacokinetic interaction study of racemate in the presence of specific transporter inhibitor or inducer, molecule cellular membrane affinity chromatography and pharmacophore modeling. Enantiomer-enantiomer interactions exist in chiral transport. The strength and/or enantiomeric preference of stereoselectivity may be species or tissue-specific, concentration-dependent and transporter family member-dependent. Modulation of specific drug transporter by pure enantiomers might exhibit opposite stereoselectivity. Further studies with integrated approaches will open up new horizons in stereochemistry of pharmacokinetics. PMID:24796860

  8. Cardioprotective effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB694, in a rodent model of trait anxiety.

    PubMed

    Carnevali, Luca; Vacondio, Federica; Rossi, Stefano; Macchi, Emilio; Spadoni, Gilberto; Bedini, Annalida; Neumann, Inga D; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2015-12-14

    In humans, chronic anxiety represents an independent risk factor for cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. Here we evaluate in male Wistar rats bred for high (HAB) and low (LAB) anxiety-related behavior, as well as non-selected (NAB) animals, the relationship between trait anxiety and cardiac electrical instability and investigate whether pharmacological augmentation of endocannabinoid anandamide-mediated signaling exerts anxiolytic-like and cardioprotective effects. HAB rats displayed (i) a higher incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by isoproterenol, and (ii) a larger spatial dispersion of ventricular refractoriness assessed by means of an epicardial mapping protocol. In HAB rats, acute pharmacological inhibition of the anandamide-degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), with URB694 (0.3 mg/kg), (i) decreased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze, (ii) increased anandamide levels in the heart, (iii) reduced isoproterenol-induced occurrence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias, and (iv) corrected alterations of ventricular refractoriness. The anti-arrhythmic effect of URB694 was prevented by pharmacological blockade of the cannabinoid type 1 (CB1), but not of the CB2, receptor. These findings suggest that URB694 exerts anxiolytic-like and cardioprotective effects in HAB rats, the latter via anandamide-mediated activation of CB1 receptors. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of FAAH might be a viable pharmacological strategy for the treatment of anxiety-related cardiac dysfunction.

  9. A Competitive Inhibitor Traps LeuT in an Open-to-Out Conformation

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.; Piscitelli, C; Yamashita, A; Gouaux, E

    2008-01-01

    Secondary transporters are workhorses of cellular membranes, catalyzing the movement of small molecules and ions across the bilayer and coupling substrate passage to ion gradients. However, the conformational changes that accompany substrate transport, the mechanism by which a substrate moves through the transporter, and principles of competitive inhibition remain unclear. We used crystallographic and functional studies on the leucine transporter (LeuT), a model for neurotransmitter sodium symporters, to show that various amino acid substrates induce the same occluded conformational state and that a competitive inhibitor, tryptophan (Trp), traps LeuT in an open-to-out conformation. In the Trp complex, the extracellular gate residues arginine 30 and aspartic acid 404 define a second weak binding site for substrates or inhibitors as they permeate from the extracellular solution to the primary substrate site, which demonstrates how residues that participate in gating also mediate permeation.

  10. Osteopontin upregulates the expression of glucose transporters in osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, I-Shan; Yang, Rong-Sen; Fu, Wen-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone. Even after the traditional standard surgical therapy, metastasis still occurs in a high percentage of patients. Glucose is an important source of metabolic energy for tumor proliferation and survival. Tumors usually overexpress glucose transporters, especially hypoxia-responsive glucose transporter 1 and glucose transporter 3. Osteopontin, hypoxia-responsive glucose transporter 1, and glucose transporter 3 are overexpressed in many types of tumors and have been linked to tumorigenesis and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the regulation of glucose transporters by osteopontin in osteosarcoma. We observed that both glucose transporters and osteopontin were upregulated in hypoxic human osteosarcoma cells. Endogenously released osteopontin regulated the expression of glucose transporter 1 and glucose transporter 3 in osteosarcoma and enhanced glucose uptake into cells via the αvβ3 integrin. Knockdown of osteopontin induced cell death in 20% of osteosarcoma cells. Phloretin, a glucose transporter inhibitor, also caused cell death by treatment alone. The phloretin-induced cell death was significantly enhanced in osteopontin knockdown osteosarcoma cells. Combination of a low dose of phloretin and chemotherapeutic drugs, such as daunomycin, 5-Fu, etoposide, and methotrexate, exhibited synergistic cytotoxic effects in three osteosarcoma cell lines. Inhibition of glucose transporters markedly potentiated the apoptotic sensitivity of chemotherapeutic drugs in osteosarcoma. These results indicate that the combination of a low dose of a glucose transporter inhibitor with cytotoxic drugs may be beneficial for treating osteosarcoma patients. PMID:25310823

  11. Proton pump inhibitor-induced hypomagnesemic hypoparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors are the one of the most widely used drugs in the world. Hypomagnesemic hypoparathyroidism has been reported with different proton pump inhibitors with prolonged oral use. We report the first reported case of possible such effect with intravenous preparation of proton pump inhibitor. This case report raises awareness among physicians worldwide of this often unknown association, as life-threatening cardiac and neuromuscular complications can arise with unrecognized hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia with proton pump inhibitors.

  12. KID, a Kinase Inhibitor Database project.

    PubMed

    Collin, O; Meijer, L

    1999-01-01

    The Kinase Inhibitor Database is a small specialized database dedicated to the gathering of information on protein kinase inhibitors. The database is accessible through the World Wide Web system and gives access to structural and bibliographic information on protein kinase inhibitors. The data in the database will be collected and submitted by researchers working in the kinase inhibitor field. The submitted data will be checked by the curator of the database before entry.

  13. Pupil Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bete, Tim, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the opinions of four transportation experts on issues related to school buses. The experts respond to the following questions: will advertisements placed on buses be used to generate district revenue; will compressed natural gas or liquefied natural gas become standard fuel for school buses; and will school bus seat belts be mandatory and…

  14. Membrane Transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The selective movement and redistribution of ions and small organic molecules is essential for plant growth and cellular homeostasis. Because of this, plants have evolved numerous proteins that facilitate the transport of minerals, sugars, metabolites, and other compounds through the limiting membra...

  15. Characterisation of (R)-2-(2-Fluorobiphenyl-4-yl)-N-(3-Methylpyridin-2-yl)Propanamide as a Dual Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase: Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Karlsson, Jessica; Deplano, Alessandro; Hashemian, Sanaz; Svensson, Mona; Fredriksson Sundbom, Marcus; Congiu, Cenzo; Onnis, Valentina; Fowler, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased endocannabinoid tonus by dual-action fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and substrate selective cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors is a promising approach for pain-relief. One such compound with this profile is 2-(2-fluorobiphenyl-4-yl)-N-(3-methylpyridin-2-yl)propanamide (Flu-AM1). These activities are shown by Flu-AM1 racemate, but it is not known whether its two single enantiomers behave differently, as is the case towards COX-2 for the parent flurbiprofen enantiomers. Further, the effects of the compound upon COX-2-derived lipids in intact cells are not known. Methodology/Principal Findings COX inhibition was determined using an oxygraphic method with arachidonic acid and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) as substrates. FAAH was assayed in mouse brain homogenates using anandamide (AEA) as substrate. Lipidomic analysis was conducted in unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide + interferon γ- stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Both enantiomers inhibited COX-2 in a substrate-selective and time-dependent manner, with IC50 values in the absence of a preincubation phase of: (R)-Flu-AM1, COX-1 (arachidonic acid) 6 μM; COX-2 (arachidonic acid) 20 μM; COX-2 (2-AG) 1 μM; (S)-Flu-AM1, COX-1 (arachidonic acid) 3 μM; COX-2 (arachidonic acid) 10 μM; COX-2 (2-AG) 0.7 μM. The compounds showed no enantiomeric selectivity in their FAAH inhibitory properties. (R)-Flu-AM1 (10 μM) greatly inhibited the production of prostaglandin D2 and E2 in both unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide + interferon γ- stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Levels of 2-AG were not affected either by (R)-Flu-AM1 or by 10 μM flurbiprofen, either alone or in combination with the FAAH inhibitor URB597 (1 μM). Conclusions/Significance Both enantiomers of Flu-AM1 are more potent inhibitors of 2-AG compared to arachidonic acid oxygenation by COX-2. Inhibition of COX in lipopolysaccharide + interferon γ- stimulated RAW 264.7 cells is insufficient to affect 2-AG levels despite the

  16. Salicylanilide inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Fomovska, Alina; Wood, Richard D; Mui, Ernest; Dubey, Jitenter P; Ferreira, Leandra R; Hickman, Mark R; Lee, Patricia J; Leed, Susan E; Auschwitz, Jennifer M; Welsh, William J; Sommerville, Caroline; Woods, Stuart; Roberts, Craig; McLeod, Rima

    2012-10-11

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an apicomplexan parasite that can cause eye disease, brain disease, and death, especially in congenitally infected and immune-compromised people. Novel medicines effective against both active and latent forms of the parasite are greatly needed. The current study focused on the discovery of such medicines by exploring a family of potential inhibitors whose antiapicomplexan activity has not been previously reported. Initial screening efforts revealed that niclosamide, a drug approved for anthelmintic use, possessed promising activity in vitro against T. gondii. This observation inspired the evaluation of the activity of a series of salicylanilides and derivatives. Several inhibitors with activities in the nanomolar range with no appreciable in vitro toxicity to human cells were identified. An initial structure-activity relationship was explored. Four compounds were selected for evaluation in an in vivo model of infection, and two derivatives with potentially enhanced pharmacological parameters demonstrated the best activity profiles.

  17. Salicylanilide Inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Fomovska, Alina; Wood, Richard D.; Mui, Ernest; Dubey, Jitenter P.; Ferriera, Leandra R.; Hickman, Mark R.; Lee, Patricia J.; Leed, Susan E.; Auschwitz, Jennifer M.; Welsh, William J.; Sommerville, Caroline; Woods, Stuart; Roberts, Craig; McLeod, Rima

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii(T. gondii) is an apicomplexan parasite that can cause eye disease, brain disease, and death, especially in congenitally infected and immune-compromised people. Novel medicines effective against both active and latent forms of the parasite are greatly needed. The current study focused on the discovery of such medicines by exploring a family of potential inhibitors whose anti-apicomplexan activity has not been previously reported. Initial screening efforts revealed that niclosamide, a drug approved for anthelmintic use, possessed promising activity in vitro against T. gondii. This observation inspired the evaluation of the activity of a series of salicylanilides and derivatives. Several inhibitors with activities in the nanomolar range with no appreciable in vitro toxicity to human cells were identified. An initial structure-activity relationship was explored. Four compounds were selected for evaluation in an in vivo model of infection, and two derivatives with potentially enhanced pharmacological parameters demonstrated the best activity profiles. PMID:22970937

  18. Macrocyclic compounds as corrosion inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Quraishi, M.A.; Rawat, J.; Ajmal, M.

    1998-12-01

    The influence of three macrocyclic compounds on corrosion of mild steel (MS) in hydrochloric acid (HCl) was investigated using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, alternating current (AC) impedance, and hydrogen permeation techniques. All the investigated compounds showed significant efficiencies and reduced permeation of hydrogen through MS in HCl. Inhibition efficiency (IE) varied with the nature and concentrations of the inhibitors, temperature, and concentrations of the acid solutions. The addition of iodide ions (I{sup {minus}}) increased IE of all the tested compounds as a result of the synergistic effect. Potentiodynamic polarization results revealed that macrocyclic compounds acted as mixed inhibitors in 1 M HCl to 5 M HCl. Adsorption on the metal surface obeyed Temkin`s adsorption isotherm. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) of the polished MS surface, exposed with tetraphenyldithia-octaazacyclotetradeca-hexaene (PTAT) proved adsorption of this compound on the surface through nitrogen and sulfur atoms.

  19. [Proteasome inhibitors in cancer therapy].

    PubMed

    Romaniuk, Wioletta; Ołdziej, Agnieszka Ewa; Zińczuk, Justyna; Kłoczko, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Proteasomes are multisubunit enzyme complexes. They contain three enzymatic active sites which are termed chymotrypsin-like, trypsin-like, and caspase-like. The elementary function of the proteasomes is degradation of damaged proteins. Proteasome inhibition leads to accumulation of damaged protein, which leads to caspase activation and cell death. This relationship is used in cancer therapy. Bortezomib is the first proteasome inhibitor approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. Carfilzomib belongs to the second generation of drugs, which was approved by the US FDA in 2012. Currently in the study phase there are four new inhibitors: ixazomib (MLN9780/MLN2238), delanzomib (CEP-18770), oprozomib (ONX0912/PR-047) and marizomib (NPI-0052). PMID:27259216

  20. Suppression of serum gonadal steroids in rats by chronic treatment with dopamine and serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rehavi, M; Attali, G; Gil-Ad, I; Weizman, A

    2000-05-01

    The impact of chronic administration (3 weeks) of dopamine and serotonin reuptake inhibitors on serum gonadal steroid hormones and prolactin was studied in intact male and female rats. Both the dopamine and the serotonin reuptake inhibitors lowered serum estradiol and progesterone levels in the female rats. The dopamine transporter blockers suppressed testosterone serum levels in the male rats, whereas serotonin reuptake inhibitors induced only a non-significant reduction (30%) of this hormone. In contrast to the decrease in gonadal steroids, none of the serotonin or the dopamine reuptake blockers altered prolactin serum levels in either the male or female rats. It seems that the effect of these agents on ovarian and testicular hormones is related to the impact of the monoamine reuptake inhibitors on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  1. Design, synthesis, and characterization of peptide-based rab geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kui-Thong; Guiu-Rozas, Ester; Bon, Robin S; Guo, Zhong; Delon, Christine; Wetzel, Stefan; Arndt, Sabine; Alexandrov, Kirill; Waldmann, Herbert; Goody, Roger S; Wu, Yao-Wen; Blankenfeldt, Wulf

    2009-12-24

    Rab geranylgeranyl transferase (RabGGTase) catalyzes the attachment of geranylgeranyl isoprenoids to Rab guanine triphosphatases, which are key regulators in vesicular transport. Because geranylgeranylation is required for proper function and overexpression of Rabs has been observed in various cancers, RabGGTase may be a target for novel therapeutics. The development of selective inhibitors is, however, difficult because two related enzymes involved in other cellular processes exist in eukaryotes and because RabGGTase recognizes protein substrates indirectly, resulting in relaxed specificity. We report the synthesis of a peptidic library based on the farnesyl transferase inhibitor pepticinnamin E. Of 469 compounds investigated, several were identified as selective for RabGGTase with low micromolar IC(50) values. The compounds were not generally cytotoxic and inhibited Rab isoprenylation in COS-7 cells. Crystal structure analysis revealed that selective inhibitors interact with a tunnel unique to RabGGTase, implying that this structural motif is an attractive target for improved RabGGTase inhibitors.

  2. Aromatase Inhibitors and Other Compounds for Lowering Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... References Aromatase inhibitors and other compounds for lowering breast cancer risk Aromatase inhibitors (drugs that lower estrogen levels) ... day. Can aromatase inhibitors lower the risk of breast cancer? Aromatase inhibitors are used mainly to treat hormone ...

  3. Inhibition of leucine transport in Saccharomyces by S-adenosylmethionine.

    PubMed

    Law, R E; Ferro, A J

    1980-07-01

    S-Adenoxyl-L-methionine (SAM) inhibited leucine transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By using a mutant defective in the active transport of SAM, we demonstrated that the inhibitory effect was exerted at an extracellular site. Cells preincubated wtih SAM for 120 min became refractory to its inhibitory effect, which was not a result of either the active transport or the metabolism of SAM. The quantitative recovery of labeled SAM from the incubation medium indicated that SAM, and not a metabolite, was the true inhibitory molecule. S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine and S-adenosyl-L-ethionine also functioned as inhibitors of leucine transport, whereas S-adenosyl-D-methionine, S-adenosyl-D-homocystein, 5'-methylthioadenosine, 5'-dimethylthioadenosine, and adenosine lacked this property. Kinetic studies demonstrated that SAM was a competitive inhibitor of leucine transport.

  4. Inhibition of leucine transport in Saccharomyces by S-adenosylmethionine.

    PubMed Central

    Law, R E; Ferro, A J

    1980-01-01

    S-Adenoxyl-L-methionine (SAM) inhibited leucine transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By using a mutant defective in the active transport of SAM, we demonstrated that the inhibitory effect was exerted at an extracellular site. Cells preincubated wtih SAM for 120 min became refractory to its inhibitory effect, which was not a result of either the active transport or the metabolism of SAM. The quantitative recovery of labeled SAM from the incubation medium indicated that SAM, and not a metabolite, was the true inhibitory molecule. S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine and S-adenosyl-L-ethionine also functioned as inhibitors of leucine transport, whereas S-adenosyl-D-methionine, S-adenosyl-D-homocystein, 5'-methylthioadenosine, 5'-dimethylthioadenosine, and adenosine lacked this property. Kinetic studies demonstrated that SAM was a competitive inhibitor of leucine transport. PMID:6995442

  5. Conformation-specific inhibitors of Raf kinases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolun; Schleicher, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery linking B-Raf mutations to human tumors in 2002, significant advances in the development of Raf inhibitors have been made, leading to the recent approval of two Raf inhibitor drugs. This chapter includes a brief introduction to B-Raf as a validated target and focuses on the three different binding modes observed with Raf small-molecule inhibitors. These various binding modes lock the Raf kinase in different conformations that impact the toxicity profiles of the inhibitors. Possible solutions to mitigate the side effects caused by inhibitor-induced dimerization are also discussed.

  6. Thioredoxin Reductase and its Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Saccoccia, Fulvio; Angelucci, Francesco; Boumis, Giovanna; Carotti, Daniela; Desiato, Gianni; Miele, Adriana E; Bellelli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Thioredoxin plays a crucial role in a wide number of physiological processes, which span from reduction of nucleotides to deoxyriboucleotides to the detoxification from xenobiotics, oxidants and radicals. The redox function of Thioredoxin is critically dependent on the enzyme Thioredoxin NADPH Reductase (TrxR). In view of its indirect involvement in the above mentioned physio/pathological processes, inhibition of TrxR is an important clinical goal. As a general rule, the affinities and mechanisms of binding of TrxR inhibitors to the target enzyme are known with scarce precision and conflicting results abound in the literature. A relevant analysis of published results as well as the experimental procedures is therefore needed, also in view of the critical interest of TrxR inhibitors. We review the inhibitors of TrxR and related flavoreductases and the classical treatment of reversible, competitive, non competitive and uncompetitive inhibition with respect to TrxR, and in some cases we are able to reconcile contradictory results generated by oversimplified data analysis. PMID:24875642

  7. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors drug design.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Robert; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) has pharmacologic applications in the field of antiglaucoma, anticonvulsant, antiobesity, and anticancer agents but is also emerging for designing anti-infectives (antifungal and antibacterial agents) with a novel mechanism of action. As a consequence, the drug design of CA inhibitors (CAIs) is a very dynamic field. Sulfonamides and their isosteres (sulfamates/sulfamides) constitute the main class of CAIs which bind to the metal ion in the enzyme active site. Recently the dithiocarbamates, possessing a similar mechanism of action, were reported as a new class of inhibitors. Other families of CAIs possess a distinct mechanism of action: phenols, polyamines, some carboxylates, and sulfocoumarins anchor to the zinc-coordinated water molecule. Coumarins and five/six-membered lactones are prodrug inhibitors, binding in hydrolyzed form at the entrance of the active site cavity. Novel drug design strategies have been reported principally based on the tail approach for obtaining all these types of CAIs, which exploit more external binding regions within the enzyme active site (in addition to coordination to the metal ion), leading thus to isoform-selective compounds. Sugar-based tails as well as click chemistry were the most fruitful developments of the tail approach. Promising compounds that inhibit CAs from bacterial and fungal pathogens, of the dithiocarbamate, phenol and carboxylate types have also been reported. PMID:24146385

  8. ANTIDEPRESSANT ACTIONS OF HDAC INHIBITORS

    PubMed Central

    Covington, Herbert E.; Maze, Ian; LaPlant, Quincey C.; Vialou, Vincent F.; Yoshinori, Ohnishi N.; Berton, Olivier; Fass, Dan M.; Renthal, William; Rush, Augustus J.; Wu, Emma Y.; Ghose, Subroto; Krishnan, Vaishnav; Russo, Scott J.; Tamminga, Carol; Haggarty, Stephen J.; Nestler, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Persistent symptoms of depression suggest the involvement of stable molecular adaptations in brain, which may be reflected at the level of chromatin remodeling. We find that chronic social defeat stress in mice causes a transient decrease, followed by a persistent increase, in levels of acetylated histone H3 in the nucleus accumbens, an important limbic brain region. This persistent increase in H3 acetylation is associated with decreased levels of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) in the nucleus accumbens. Similar effects were observed in the nucleus accumbens of depressed humans studied postmortem. These changes in H3 acetylation and HDAC2 expression mediate long-lasting positive neuronal adaptations, since infusion of HDAC inhibitors into the nucleus accumbens, which increases histone acetylation, exerts robust antidepressant-like effects in the social defeat paradigm and other behavioral assays. HDAC inhibitor (MS-275) infusion also reverses the effects of chronic defeat stress on global patterns of gene expression in the nucleus accumbens, as determined by microarray analysis, with striking similarities to the effects of the standard antidepressant, fluoxetine. Stress-regulated genes whose expression is normalized selectively by MS-275 may provide promising targets for the future development of novel antidepressant treatments. Together, these findings provide new insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms of depression and antidepressant action, and support the antidepressant potential of HDAC inhibitors and perhaps other agents that act at the level of chromatin structure. PMID:19759294

  9. [A Case of Life-Threatening Angioedema Occurred During Prolonged Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Treatment].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Rintaro; Nihei, Shun-Ichi; Arai, Hideaki; Nagata, Keiji; Isa, Yasuki; Harayama, Nobuya; Aibara, Keiji; Kamochi, Msayuki

    2016-03-01

    Although angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are widely used as the first choice drug for treating hypertension, we have only a superficial understanding of their relationship to angioedema. We report a case of life-threatening angioedema. The case was a 60-year-old man who had been taking an ACE inhibitor for hypertension for 11 years. He visited his home doctor for dyspnea, and tongue and neck swelling. He was transported to our hospital because of the possibility of airway obstruction. On admission, his tongue and neck swelling became more severe. We performed an intubation using an endoscope and started airway management. We also stopped his ACE inhibitor. The severe tongue and neck swelling improved gradually and he was extubated on day 3. On the fifth day he was discharged. We diagnosed angioedema caused by an ACE inhibitor. Although the risk of airway obstruction with ACE inhibitors is acknowledged, we have only a superficial understanding of how prolonged ACE inhibitor treatment induces angioedema. So we should consider angioedema in cases of taking ACE inhibitors, especially in cases of prolonged treatment. PMID:26972946

  10. Dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors (gliptins): focus on drug-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Scheen, André J

    2010-09-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are generally treated with many pharmacological compounds and are exposed to a high risk of drug-drug interactions. Indeed, blood glucose control usually requires a combination of various glucose-lowering agents, and the recommended global approach to reduce overall cardiovascular risk generally implies administration of several protective compounds, including HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), antihypertensive compounds and antiplatelet agents. New compounds have been developed to improve glucose-induced beta-cell secretion and glucose control, without inducing hypoglycaemia or weight gain, in patients with T2DM. Dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are novel oral glucose-lowering agents, which may be used as monotherapy or in combination with other antidiabetic compounds, metformin, thiazolidinediones or even sulfonylureas. Sitagliptin, vildagliptin and saxagliptin are already on the market, either as single agents or in fixed-dose combined formulations with metformin. Other compounds, such as alogliptin and linagliptin, are in a late phase of development. This review summarizes the available data on drug-drug interactions reported in the literature for these five DDP-4 inhibitors: sitagliptin, vildagliptin, saxagliptin, alogliptin and linagliptin. Possible pharmacokinetic interferences have been investigated between each of these compounds and various pharmacological agents, which were selected because there are other glucose-lowering agents (metformin, glibenclamide [glyburide], pioglitazone/rosiglitazone) that may be prescribed in combination with DPP-4 inhibitors, other drugs that are currently used in patients with T2DM (statins, antihypertensive agents), compounds that are known to interfere with the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system (ketoconazole, diltiazem, rifampicin [rifampin]) or with P-glycoprotein transport (ciclosporin), or agents with a narrow therapeutic safety window (warfarin, digoxin). Generally

  11. Discovery of a Potent, Dual Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the described research effort was to identify a novel serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) with improved norepinephrine transporter activity and acceptable metabolic stability and exhibiting minimal drug–drug interaction. We describe herein the discovery of a series of 3-substituted pyrrolidines, exemplified by compound 1. Compound 1 is a selective SNRI in vitro and in vivo, has favorable ADME properties, and retains inhibitory activity in the formalin model of pain behavior. Compound 1 thus represents a potential new probe to explore utility of SNRIs in central nervous system disorders, including chronic pain conditions. PMID:24900709

  12. Flavonoids act as negative regulators of auxin transport in vivo in arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. E.; Rashotte, A. M.; Murphy, A. S.; Normanly, J.; Tague, B. W.; Peer, W. A.; Taiz, L.; Muday, G. K.

    2001-01-01

    Polar transport of the plant hormone auxin controls many aspects of plant growth and development. A number of synthetic compounds have been shown to block the process of auxin transport by inhibition of the auxin efflux carrier complex. These synthetic auxin transport inhibitors may act by mimicking endogenous molecules. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolic compounds, have been suggested to be auxin transport inhibitors based on their in vitro activity. The hypothesis that flavonoids regulate auxin transport in vivo was tested in Arabidopsis by comparing wild-type (WT) and transparent testa (tt4) plants with a mutation in the gene encoding the first enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis, chalcone synthase. In a comparison between tt4 and WT plants, phenotypic differences were observed, including three times as many secondary inflorescence stems, reduced plant height, decreased stem diameter, and increased secondary root development. Growth of WT Arabidopsis plants on naringenin, a biosynthetic precursor to those flavonoids with auxin transport inhibitor activity in vitro, leads to a reduction in root growth and gravitropism, similar to the effects of synthetic auxin transport inhibitors. Analyses of auxin transport in the inflorescence and hypocotyl of independent tt4 alleles indicate that auxin transport is elevated in plants with a tt4 mutation. In hypocotyls of tt4, this elevated transport is reversed when flavonoids are synthesized by growth of plants on the flavonoid precursor, naringenin. These results are consistent with a role for flavonoids as endogenous regulators of auxin transport.

  13. Flavonoids Act as Negative Regulators of Auxin Transport in Vivo in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Dana E.; Rashotte, Aaron M.; Murphy, Angus S.; Normanly, Jennifer; Tague, Brian W.; Peer, Wendy A.; Taiz, Lincoln; Muday, Gloria K.

    2001-01-01

    Polar transport of the plant hormone auxin controls many aspects of plant growth and development. A number of synthetic compounds have been shown to block the process of auxin transport by inhibition of the auxin efflux carrier complex. These synthetic auxin transport inhibitors may act by mimicking endogenous molecules. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolic compounds, have been suggested to be auxin transport inhibitors based on their in vitro activity. The hypothesis that flavonoids regulate auxin transport in vivo was tested in Arabidopsis by comparing wild-type (WT) and transparent testa (tt4) plants with a mutation in the gene encoding the first enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis, chalcone synthase. In a comparison between tt4 and WT plants, phenotypic differences were observed, including three times as many secondary inflorescence stems, reduced plant height, decreased stem diameter, and increased secondary root development. Growth of WT Arabidopsis plants on naringenin, a biosynthetic precursor to those flavonoids with auxin transport inhibitor activity in vitro, leads to a reduction in root growth and gravitropism, similar to the effects of synthetic auxin transport inhibitors. Analyses of auxin transport in the inflorescence and hypocotyl of independent tt4 alleles indicate that auxin transport is elevated in plants with a tt4 mutation. In hypocotyls of tt4, this elevated transport is reversed when flavonoids are synthesized by growth of plants on the flavonoid precursor, naringenin. These results are consistent with a role for flavonoids as endogenous regulators of auxin transport. PMID:11402184

  14. The burden of inhibitors in haemophilia patients.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Christopher E; Jiménez-Yuste, Víctor; Auerswald, Guenter; Grancha, Salvador

    2016-08-31

    The burden of disease in haemophilia patients has wide ranging implications for the family and to society. There is evidence that having a current inhibitor increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. Morbidity is increased by the inability to treat adequately and its consequent disabilities, which then equates to a poor quality of life compared with non-inhibitor patients. The societal cost of care, or `burden of inhibitors', increases with the ongoing presence of an inhibitor. Therefore, it is clear that successful eradication of inhibitors by immune tolerance induction (ITI) is the single most important milestone one can achieve in an inhibitor patient. The type of factor VIII (FVIII) product used in ITI regimens varies worldwide. Despite ongoing debate, there is in vitro and retrospective clinical evidence to support the use of plasma-derived VWF-containing FVIII concentrates in ITI regimens in order to achieve early and high inhibitor eradication success rates. PMID:27528280

  15. Substrates of the human oligopeptide transporter hPEPT2.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dongxin; Lu, Kui

    2015-08-01

    Oligopeptide transporters serve important functions in nutrition and pharmacology. In particular, these transporters help maintain the homeostasis of peptides. The peptide-transporter PEPT2 is a high-affinity and low-capacity type oligopeptide transporter from the proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter family. PEPT2 has recently received attention because of its potential application in targeted drug delivery. PEPT2 is widely distributed in kidney, central nervous system, and lung of organisms. In general, all dipeptides, tripeptides, and peptide-like drugs such as β-lactam antibiotics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors could be mediated and transported as a substrate of PEPT2. The design of many extant drugs and prodrugs is based on the substrate structure of PEPT2 to accelerate absor