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Sample records for anaplasma phagocytophilum exploits

  1. Cholesterol-Dependent Anaplasma phagocytophilum Exploits the Low-Density Lipoprotein Uptake Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Qingming; Lin, Mingqun; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2009-01-01

    In eukaryotes, intracellular cholesterol homeostasis and trafficking are tightly regulated. Certain bacteria, such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum, also require cholesterol; it is unknown, however, how this cholesterol-dependent obligatory intracellular bacterium of granulocytes interacts with the host cell cholesterol regulatory pathway to acquire cholesterol. Here, we report that total host cell cholesterol increased >2-fold during A. phagocytophilum infection in a human promyelocytic leukemia cell line. Cellular free cholesterol was enriched in A. phagocytophilum inclusions as detected by filipin staining. We determined that A. phagocytophilum requires cholesterol derived from low-density lipoprotein (LDL), because its replication was significantly inhibited by depleting the growth medium of cholesterol-containing lipoproteins, by blocking LDL uptake with a monoclonal antibody against LDL receptor (LDLR), or by treating the host cells with inhibitors that block LDL-derived cholesterol egress from late endosomes or lysosomes. However, de novo cholesterol biosynthesis is not required, since inhibition of the biosynthesis pathway did not inhibit A. phagocytophilum infection. The uptake of fluorescence-labeled LDL was enhanced in infected cells, and LDLR expression was up-regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels. A. phagocytophilum infection stabilized LDLR mRNA through the 3′ UTR region, but not through activation of the sterol regulatory element binding proteins. Extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) was up-regulated by A. phagocytophilum infection, and inhibition of its upstream kinase, MEK, by a specific inhibitor or siRNA knockdown, reduced A. phagocytophilum infection. Up-regulation of LDLR mRNA by A. phagocytophilum was also inhibited by the MEK inhibitor; however, it was unclear whether ERK activation is required for LDLR mRNA up-regulation by A. phagocytophilum. These data reveal that A. phagocytophilum exploits the host LDL uptake pathway and

  2. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ruminants in Europe.

    PubMed

    Woldehiwet, Zerai

    2006-10-01

    The agent that causes tick-borne fever (TBF) in sheep was first described in 1940, 8 years after the disease was first recognized in Scotland. The same agent was soon shown to cause TBF in sheep and pasture fever in cattle in other parts of the UK, Scandinavia, and other parts of Europe. After the initial use of the name Rickettsia phagocytophila, the organism was given the name Cytoecetes phagocytophila to reflect its association with granulocytes and its morphological similarity with Cytoecetes microti. This name continued to be used by workers in the UK until the recent reclassification of the granulocytic ehrlichiae affecting ruminants, horses, and humans as variants of the same species, Anaplasma phagocytophilum. TBF and pasture fever are characterized by high fever, recurrent bacteremia, neutropenia, lymphocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, and general immunosuppression, resulting in more severe secondary infections such as tick pyemia, pneumonic pasteurellosis, listeriosis, and enterotoxemia. During the peak period of bacteremia as many as 90% of granulocytes may be infected. The agent is transmitted transtadially by the hard tick Ixodes ricinus, and possibly other ticks. After patent bacteremia, sheep, goats, and cattle become persistently infected "carriers," perhaps playing an important role in the maintenance of infection, in the flock/herd. Little is known about how efficiently ticks acquire and maintain infection in ruminant populations or whether "carrier" domestic ruminants play an important role as reservoirs of infection, but deer, other free-living ruminants, and wild rodents are also potential sources of infection. During the late 1990s serological evidence of infection of humans was demonstrated in several European countries, creating a renewed interest and increased awareness of the zoonotic potential of TBF variants. More recently, a few cases of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) have been reported in some European countries, but it remains to

  3. Typical and atypical manifestations of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Eberts, Matthew D; Vissotto de Paiva Diniz, Pedro Paulo; Beall, Melissa J; Stillman, Brett A; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2011-01-01

    Eighteen clinically ill dogs, naturally infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, were examined at a veterinary practice in Baxter, Minnesota. A clinical examination, complete blood cell count, enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for A phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Ehrlichia canis antibodies and Dirofilaria immitis antigen, and a polymerase chain reaction test for A phagocytophilum DNA were obtained for all dogs. Physical examination findings included fever, arthropathy, lymphadenopathy, epistaxis, acute gastritis, cervical hyperpathia, and central nervous system dysfunction. Complete blood cell count abnormalities included thrombocytopenia, morulae in neutrophils, anemia, leukopenia, eosinopenia, lymphopenia, and monocytosis. Seroreactivity to A phagocytophilum was found in 61%, B burgdorferi antibodies in 17%, and D immitis antigen in 5% of the dogs. Fever, arthropathy, neurologic dysfunction, and epistaxis are clinical syndromes that can be associated with A phagocytophilum infection. Treatment with doxycycline resulted in rapid resolution of clinical signs in all dogs.

  4. Reservoir Competence of Vertebrate Hosts for Anaplasma phagocytophilum

    PubMed Central

    Hersh, Michelle H.; Tibbetts, Michael; McHenry, Diana J.; Duerr, Shannon; Brunner, Jesse; Killilea, Mary; LoGiudice, Kathleen; Schmidt, Kenneth A.; Ostfeld, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    Fourteen vertebrate species (10 mammals and 4 birds) were assessed for their ability to transmit Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the bacterium that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis, to uninfected feeding ixodid ticks. Small mammals were most likely to infect ticks but all species assessed were capable of transmitting the bacterium, in contrast to previous findings. PMID:23171835

  5. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale Elicit Different Gene Expression Responses in Cultured Tick Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zivkovic, Zorica; Blouin, Edmour F.; Manzano-Roman, Raúl; Almazán, Consuelo; Naranjo, Victoria; Massung, Robert F.; Jongejan, Frans; Kocan, Katherine M.; de la Fuente, José

    2009-01-01

    The genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) includes obligate tick-transmitted intracellular organisms, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale that multiply in both vertebrate and tick host cells. Recently, we showed that A. marginale affects the expression of tick genes that are involved in tick survival and pathogen infection and multiplication. However, the gene expression profile in A. phagocytophilum-infected tick cells is currently poorly characterized. The objectives of this study were to characterize tick gene expression profile in Ixodes scapularis ticks and cultured ISE6 cells in response to infection with A. phagocypthilum and to compare tick gene expression responses in A. phagocytophilum- and A. marginale-infected tick cells by microarray and real-time RT-PCR analyses. The results of these studies demonstrated modulation of tick gene expression by A. phagocytophilum and provided evidence of different gene expression responses in tick cells infected with A. phagocytophilum and A. marginale. These differences in Anaplasma-tick interactions may reflect differences in pathogen life cycle in the tick cells. PMID:19636428

  6. The pathogen-occupied vacuoles of anaplasma phagocytophilum and anaplasma marginale interact with the endoplasmic reticulum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Anaplasma consists of tick-transmitted obligate intracellular bacteria that invade white or red blood cells to cause debilitating and potentially fatal infections. A. phagocytophilum, a human and veterinary pathogen, infects neutrophils to cause granulocytic anaplasmosis. A. marginale inva...

  7. Type IV secretion system of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis.

    PubMed

    Rikihisa, Yasuko; Lin, Mingqun; Niu, Hua; Cheng, Zhihui

    2009-05-01

    The intracellular bacterial pathogens Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum have evolved to infect leukocytes and hijack biological compounds and processes of these host defensive cells. Bacterial type IV secretion (T4S) system transports macromolecules across the membrane in an ATP-dependent manner and is increasingly recognized as a virulence factor delivery mechanism that allows pathogens to modulate eukaryotic cell functions for their own benefit. Genes encoding T4S system homologous to those of a plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens have been identified in E. chaffeensis and A. phagocytophilum. Upon interaction with new host cells, E. chaffeensis and A. phagocytophilum genes encoding the T4S apparatus are upregulated. The delivered macromolecules are referred to as T4S substrates, or effectors, because they affect and alter basic host cellular processes, resulting in disease development. Recently, A. phagocytophilum 160-kDa AnkA protein was to be delivered by T4S system into the host cytoplasm. Thus, dynamic signal transduction events are likely induced by T4S substrates in the host cells for successful establishment of intracellular infection. Further studies on Ehrlichia and Anaplasma T4S effectors cognate host cell molecules will undoubtedly advance our understanding of the complex interplay between obligatory intracellular pathogens and their hosts. Such data can be applied toward treatment, diagnosis, and control of ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis. PMID:19538269

  8. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in central and western Wisconsin: a molecular survey.

    PubMed

    Michalski, M; Rosenfield, C; Erickson, M; Selle, R; Bates, K; Essar, D; Massung, R

    2006-11-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterium that is transmitted to humans through the bite of Ixodes spp. ticks, and causes a febrile disease known as human granulocytic anaplasmosis. The presence of A. phagocytophilum in Wisconsin white-tailed deer blood and in deer ticks was assessed using PCR and DNA sequencing. Sampling sites in the western part of the state (Buffalo County) and central region (Waushara, Waupaca, and Green Lake counties) were used. In Buffalo County, 5.6% of deer and 8.9% of ticks were infected. At Hartman Creek State Park (Waupaca County), 11.5% of ticks were infected, while the observed prevalence in deer from counties to the south of the park (Waushara and Green Lake) reached 19-26%. Based on 16S rRNA sequences, A. phagocytophilum strains associated and not associated with human infections were identified. Furthermore, two novel A. phagocytophilum variants were found in deer blood samples. Transmission of Lyme disease has been documented in both the Western and Central regions we sampled, and the presence of A. phagocytophilum in naturally occurring tick populations could present an additional risk of disease to humans that enter tick habitats. PMID:16738890

  9. Natural Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in ticks from a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic agent of public health importance, infecting both humans and animals. An investigation of the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum as well as Anaplasma platys was conducted in a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia, where ticks are widely distributed and tick-borne diseases are highly endemic. Ticks were collected and tested using polymerase chain reaction based on groEL methodology. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 14 (6%) of Ixodes persulcatus ticks and four (1%) Dermacentor nuttalli ticks; infection of Anaplasma platys was detected in 1% of Ixodes persulcatus ticks and 10% of Dermacentor nuttalli ticks. The phylogenetic tree showed that the Anaplasma phagocytophilum clustered with the Russian group, most likely due to similar geographical locations. This finding is significant for both veterinary and public health officials given that these agents can cause both animal and human illness. PMID:24734213

  10. Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum: Rickettsiales pathogens of veterinary and public health significance.

    PubMed

    Atif, Farhan Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are the most important tick-borne bacteria of veterinary and public health significance in the family Anaplasmataceae. The objective of current review is to provide knowledge on ecology and epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum and compare major similarities and differences of A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum. Bovine anaplasmosis is globally distributed tick-borne disease of livestock with great economic importance in cattle industry. A. phagocytophilum, a cosmopolitan zoonotic tick transmitted pathogen of wide mammalian hosts. The infection in domestic animals is generally referred as tick-borne fever. Concurrent infections exist in ticks, domestic and wild animals in same geographic area. All age groups are susceptible, but the prevalence increases with age. Movement of susceptible domestic animals from tick free non-endemic regions to disease endemic regions is the major risk factor of bovine anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever. Recreational activities or any other high-risk tick exposure habits as well as blood transfusion are important risk factors of human granulocytic anaplasmosis. After infection, individuals remain life-long carriers. Clinical anaplasmosis is usually diagnosed upon examination of stained blood smears. Generally, detection of serum antibodies followed by molecular diagnosis is usually recommended. There are problems of sensitivity and cross-reactivity with both the Anaplasma species during serological tests. Tetracyclines are the drugs of choice for treatment and elimination of anaplasmosis in animals and humans. Universal vaccine is not available for either A. marginale or A. phagocytophilum, effective against geographically diverse strains. Major control measures for bovine anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever include rearing of tick-resistant breeds, endemic stability, breeding Anaplasma-free herds, identification of regional vectors, domestic/wild reservoirs and control, habitat modification

  11. Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in moose (Alces alces) in Norway.

    PubMed

    Pūraitė, Irma; Rosef, Olav; Paulauskas, Algimantas; Radzijevskaja, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-borne bacterium that infects a wide range of animal species. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in Norwegian moose Alces alces and to characterize the bacteria by sequencing of partial msp4 and 16S rRNA genes. Hunters collected spleen samples from 99 moose of different ages during 2013 and 2014 in two areas: Aust-Agder County (n = 70) where Ixodes ricinus ticks are abundant and Oppland County (n = 29) where ticks were either absent, or abundance very low. A. phagocytophilum was detected only in moose from the I. ricinus - abundant area. The overall prevalence of infection according to 16S rRNA and msp4 gene-based PCR was 41.4% and 31.4% respectively. Sequence analysis of the partial 16S rRNA and msp4 gene revealed two and eight different sequence types respectively. Four of eight msp4 sequence types determined in this study were unique, while others were identical to sequences derived from other ruminants and ticks. The present study indicates that moose could be a potential wildlife reservoir of A. phagocytophilum in Norway.

  12. Monoubiquitinated proteins decorate the Anaplasma phagocytophilum-occupied vacuolar membrane.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bernice; Ojogun, Nore; Ragland, Stephanie A; Carlyon, Jason A

    2012-02-01

    An emerging theme among vacuole-adapted bacterial pathogens is the ability to hijack ubiquitin machinery to modulate host cellular processes and secure pathogen survival. Mono- and polyubiquitination differentially dictate the subcellular localization, activity, and fate of protein substrates. Monoubiquitination directs membrane traffic from the plasma membrane to the endosome and has been shown to promote autophagy. Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterium that replicates within a host cell-derived vacuole that co-opts membrane traffic and numerous other host cell processes. Here, we show that monoubiquitinated proteins decorate the A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuolar membrane (AVM) during infection of promyelocytic HL-60 cell, endothelial RF/6A cells, and to a lesser extent, embryonic tick ISE6 cells. Monoubiquitinated proteins are present on the AVM upon its formation and continue to accumulate throughout infection. Tetracycline-mediated inhibition of de novo bacterial protein synthesis promotes the loss of ubiquitinated proteins from the AVM. This effect is reversible, as removal of tetracycline restores AVM ubiquitination to pretreatment levels. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which A. phagocytophilum remodels the composition of its host cell-derived vacuolar membrane and present the first example of a Rickettsiales pathogen co-opting ubiquitin during intracellular residence. PMID:22066989

  13. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in horses and ticks: a preliminary survey of Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Passamonti, Fabrizio; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Cappelli, Katia; Capomaccio, Stefano; Coppola, Giacomo; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Piergili, Fioretti Daniela; Verini, Supplizi Andrea; Coletti, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of granulocytic ehrlichiosis, affects several species of wild and domesticated mammals, including horses. In this work we compared direct and indirect methods to evaluate A. phagocytophilum presence in Central Italy: 135 sera were screened by IFA for A. phagocytophilum and other haemopathogens (Theileria equi and Babesia caballi). Each horse was also tested for A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA with a nested-PCR technique. In order to examine the risk of A. phagocytophilum transmission, 114 ticks were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by PCR targeting the 16S rRNA. The seroprevalence against A. phagocytophilum was 17.03% and 11 horses (8.14%) showed positive PCR results. The concordance rate of A. phagocytophilum detection between IFAT and PCR had a K value of 0.34.

  14. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in small rodents in France.

    PubMed

    Chastagner, A; Moinet, M; Perez, G; Roy, E; McCoy, K D; Plantard, O; Agoulon, A; Bastian, S; Butet, A; Rantier, Y; Verheyden, H; Cèbe, N; Leblond, A; Vourc'h, G

    2016-07-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging zoonotic tick-borne pathogen affecting a wide range of mammals. Rodents are suspected to be natural reservoirs for this bacterium, but their role in the epidemiologic cycles affecting domestic animals and wild ungulates has not been demonstrated. This study aimed to improve our knowledge on A. phagocytophilum prevalence in Apodemus sylvaticus, A. flavicollis and Myodes glareolus using data collected in 2010 in one area in eastern France and in 2012-2013 in two others areas in western France. Rodents were captured in each site and infection was tested using qualitative real-time PCR assays on either blood or spleen samples. Prevalence showed high variability among sites. The highest prevalence was observed in the most eastern site (with an average infection rate of 22.8% across all species), whereas no rodent was found to be PCR positive in the south-west site and only 6.6% were positive in the north-west of France. Finally, a significant increase in prevalence was observed in autumn samples compared to spring samples in the north-west, but no change was found in the other two sites.

  15. The Pathogen-Occupied Vacuoles of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale Interact with the Endoplasmic Reticulum.

    PubMed

    Truchan, Hilary K; Cockburn, Chelsea L; Hebert, Kathryn S; Magunda, Forgivemore; Noh, Susan M; Carlyon, Jason A

    2016-01-01

    The genus Anaplasma consists of tick-transmitted obligate intracellular bacteria that invade white or red blood cells to cause debilitating and potentially fatal infections. A. phagocytophilum, a human and veterinary pathogen, infects neutrophils to cause granulocytic anaplasmosis. A. marginale invades bovine erythrocytes. Evidence suggests that both species may also infect endothelial cells in vivo. In mammalian and arthropod host cells, A. phagocytophilum and A. marginale reside in host cell derived pathogen-occupied vacuoles (POVs). While it was recently demonstrated that the A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuole (ApV) intercepts membrane traffic from the trans-Golgi network, it is unclear if it or the A. marginale-occupied vacuole (AmV) interacts with other secretory organelles. Here, we demonstrate that the ApV and AmV extensively interact with the host endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in endothelial, myeloid, and/or tick cells. ER lumen markers, calreticulin, and protein disulfide isomerase, and the ER membrane marker, derlin-1, were pronouncedly recruited to the peripheries of both POVs. ApV association with the ER initiated early and continued throughout the infection cycle. Both the ApV and AmV interacted with the rough ER and smooth ER. However, only derlin-1-positive rough ER derived vesicles were delivered into the ApV lumen where they localized with intravacuolar bacteria. Transmission electron microscopy identified multiple ER-POV membrane contact sites on the cytosolic faces of both species' vacuoles that corresponded to areas on the vacuoles' lumenal faces where intravacuolar Anaplasma organisms closely associated. A. phagocytophilum is known to hijack Rab10, a GTPase that regulates ER dynamics and morphology. Yet, ApV-ER interactions were unhindered in cells in which Rab10 had been knocked down, demonstrating that the GTPase is dispensable for the bacterium to parasitize the ER. These data establish the ApV and AmV as pathogen-host interfaces that directly

  16. The Pathogen-Occupied Vacuoles of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale Interact with the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Truchan, Hilary K.; Cockburn, Chelsea L.; Hebert, Kathryn S.; Magunda, Forgivemore; Noh, Susan M.; Carlyon, Jason A.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Anaplasma consists of tick-transmitted obligate intracellular bacteria that invade white or red blood cells to cause debilitating and potentially fatal infections. A. phagocytophilum, a human and veterinary pathogen, infects neutrophils to cause granulocytic anaplasmosis. A. marginale invades bovine erythrocytes. Evidence suggests that both species may also infect endothelial cells in vivo. In mammalian and arthropod host cells, A. phagocytophilum and A. marginale reside in host cell derived pathogen-occupied vacuoles (POVs). While it was recently demonstrated that the A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuole (ApV) intercepts membrane traffic from the trans-Golgi network, it is unclear if it or the A. marginale-occupied vacuole (AmV) interacts with other secretory organelles. Here, we demonstrate that the ApV and AmV extensively interact with the host endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in endothelial, myeloid, and/or tick cells. ER lumen markers, calreticulin, and protein disulfide isomerase, and the ER membrane marker, derlin-1, were pronouncedly recruited to the peripheries of both POVs. ApV association with the ER initiated early and continued throughout the infection cycle. Both the ApV and AmV interacted with the rough ER and smooth ER. However, only derlin-1-positive rough ER derived vesicles were delivered into the ApV lumen where they localized with intravacuolar bacteria. Transmission electron microscopy identified multiple ER-POV membrane contact sites on the cytosolic faces of both species' vacuoles that corresponded to areas on the vacuoles' lumenal faces where intravacuolar Anaplasma organisms closely associated. A. phagocytophilum is known to hijack Rab10, a GTPase that regulates ER dynamics and morphology. Yet, ApV-ER interactions were unhindered in cells in which Rab10 had been knocked down, demonstrating that the GTPase is dispensable for the bacterium to parasitize the ER. These data establish the ApV and AmV as pathogen-host interfaces that directly

  17. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Rab10-dependent parasitism of the trans-Golgi network is critical for completion of the infection cycle

    PubMed Central

    Truchan, Hilary K.; VieBrock, Lauren; Cockburn, Chelsea L.; Ojogun, Nore; Griffin, Brian P.; Wijesinghe, Dayanjan S.; Chalfant, Charles E.; Carlyon, Jason A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging human pathogen and obligate intracellular bacterium. It inhabits a host cell-derived vacuole and cycles between replicative reticulate cell (RC) and infectious dense-cored (DC) morphotypes. Host–pathogen interactions that are critical for RC-to-DC conversion are undefined. We previously reported that A. phagocytophilum recruits green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Rab10, a GTPase that directs exocytic traffic from the sphingolipid-rich trans-Golgi network (TGN) to its vacuole in a guanine nucleotide-independent manner. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous Rab10-positive TGN vesicles are not only routed to but also delivered into the A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuole (ApV). Consistent with this finding, A. phagocytophilum incorporates sphingolipids while intracellular and retains them when naturally released from host cells. TGN vesicle delivery into the ApV is Rab10 dependent, up-regulates expression of the DC-specific marker, APH1235, and is critical for the production of infectious progeny. The A. phagocytophilum surface protein, uridine monophosphate kinase, was identified as a guanine nucleotide-independent, Rab10-specific ligand. These data delineate why Rab10 is important for the A. phagocytophilum infection cycle and expand the understanding of the benefits that exploiting host cell membrane traffic affords intracellular bacterial pathogens. PMID:26289115

  18. Bovine anaplasmosis in Turkey: First laboratory confirmed clinical cases caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Munir; Özübek, Sezayi

    2015-08-01

    Anaplasma species are obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogens that affect the health of humans and other animals. Clinical cases of anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum were evaluated, and the frequency of bovine Anaplasma species was determined in cattle. Blood samples and thin blood smears were collected from 10 cattle exhibiting clinical signs of tick-borne fever. In addition, blood samples were collected from 123 apparently healthy cattle from the same area. DNA was screened by reverse line blot assay for the presence of the hypervariable V1 region of the 16S rRNA gene of Anaplasma/Ehrlichia species. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies of A. phagocytophilum were observed in neutrophils of 6 sick animals. Parasitemia ranged from 0.2 to 1.6% in individual slides. Reverse line blot showed 45.1% (60/133) of the sampled cattle to be positive for one or more of five Anaplasma species. The frequency of single infections was 20.3% (27/133), while mixed infections were found in 24.8% (33/133) of samples with six different combinations of species and a maximum of four pathogens detected. A. phagocytophilum was the most prevalent (41/133, 30.8%) followed by Anaplasma marginale (25/133, 18.8%), Anaplasma centrale (24/133, 18%), Ehrlichia sp. strain Omatjenne (18/133, 13.5%) and Anaplasma bovis (1/133, 0.7%). This is the first report of A. bovis in a cow from Turkey. This is also the first report of clinical cases caused by A. phagocytophilum in cattle from the country. Therefore, A. phagocytophilum should be taken into account as differential diagnosis in cases of high fever and anorexia in pastured animals. PMID:26051478

  19. Seroepidemiology of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in wild mice captured in northern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Güner, E S; Watanabe, M; Kadosaka, T; Polat, E; Gargili, A; Gulanber, A; Ohashi, N; Kaneda, K; Imai, Y; Masuzawa, T

    2005-04-01

    An expedition across the Asian part of the Black Sea coast and national parks of Northern Turkey was organized in the summer of 2001 to investigate the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), Lyme borreliosis agent, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, agent, in wild mice. A total of 65 Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus sylvaticus, Microtus epiroticus, Crocidura suaveolens and Mus macedonicus, were captured. Two out of 22 Apodemus sylvaticus specimens were seropositive for B. afzelii by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as confirmed by Western blotting, however cultures of skin and bladder samples from all small mammals in Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly's medium-II remained negative for B. burgdorferi s.l. All sera tested were negative for Anaplasma phagocytophilum by indirect immunofluorescent assay. The prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum is low in wild mice of the Asian part of Northern Turkey.

  20. Transovarial Transmission of Francisella-Like Endosymbionts and Anaplasma phagocytophilum Variants in Dermacentor albipictus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    PubMed Central

    BALDRIDGE, GERALD D.; SCOLES, GLEN. A.; BURKHARDT, NICOLE Y.; SCHLOEDER, BRIAN; KURTTI, TIMOTHY J.; MUNDERLOH, ULRIKE G.

    2009-01-01

    Dermacentor albipictus (Packard) is a North American tick that feeds on cervids and livestock. It is a suspected vector of anaplasmosis in cattle, but its microbial flora and vector potential remain underevaluated. We screened D. albipictus ticks collected from Minnesota white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) for bacteria of the genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Francisella, and Rickettsia using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) gene amplification and sequence analyses. We detected Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) in nymphal and adult ticks of both sexes at 45 and 94% prevalences, respectively. The A. phagocytophilum and FLEs were transovarially transmitted to F1 larvae by individual ticks at efficiencies of 10–40 and 95–100%, respectively. The FLEs were transovarially transmitted to F2 larvae obtained as progeny of adults from F1 larval ticks reared to maturity on a calf, but A. phagocytophilum were not. Based on PCR and tissue culture inoculation assays, A. phagocytophilum and FLEs were not transmitted to the calf. The amplified FLE 16S rRNA gene sequences were identical to that of an FLE detected in a D. albipictus from Texas, whereas those of the A. phagocytophilum were nearly identical to those of probable human-nonpathogenic A. phagocytophilum WI-1 and WI-2 variants detected in white-tailed deer from central Wisconsin. However, the D. albipictus A. phagocytophilum sequences differed from that of the nonpathogenic A. phagocytophilum variant-1 associated with Ixodes scapularis ticks and white-tailed deer as well as that of the human-pathogenic A. phagocytophilum ha variant associated with I. scapularis and the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus. The transovarial transmission of A. phagocytophilum variants in Dermacentor ticks suggests that maintenance of A. phagocytophilum in nature may not be solely dependent on horizontal transmission. PMID:19496436

  1. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Small Mammal Hosts of Ixodes Ticks, Western United States

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, Nathan C.; Adjemian, Jennifer; Dabritz, Haydee; Brown, Richard N.

    2008-01-01

    A total of 2,121 small mammals in California were assessed for Anaplasma phagocytophilum from 2006 through 2008. Odds ratios were >1 for 4 sciurids species and dusky-footed woodrats. High seroprevalence was observed in northern sites. Ten tick species were identified. Heavily infested rodent species included meadow voles, woodrats, deer mice, and redwood chipmunks. PMID:18598645

  2. Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in small mammal hosts of Ixodes ticks, western United States.

    PubMed

    Foley, Janet E; Nieto, Nathan C; Adjemian, Jennifer; Dabritz, Haydee; Brown, Richard N

    2008-07-01

    A total of 2,121 small mammals in California were assessed for Anaplasma phagocytophilum from 2006 through 2008. Odds ratios were >1 for 4 sciurids species and dusky-footed woodrats. High seroprevalence was observed in northern sites. Ten tick species were identified. Heavily infested rodent species included meadow voles, woodrats, deer mice, and redwood chipmunks. PMID:18598645

  3. Potential vertebrate reservoir hosts and invertebrate vectors of Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum in central Spain.

    PubMed

    De La Fuente, José; Naranjo, Victoria; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Höfle, Ursula; Fernández De Mera, Isabel G; Villanúa, Diego; Almazán, Consuelo; Torina, Alessandra; Caracappa, Santo; Kocan, Katherine M; Gortázar, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Organisms in the genus Anaplasma are obligate intracellular pathogens that multiply in both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. The type species, A. marginale, causes bovine anaplasmosis and only infects ticks and ruminants. A. phagocytophilum causes human and animal granulocytic anaplasmosis, and genetically closely related strains show a wide host range, including ticks, ruminants, rodents, equids, canids, birds, and humans. Recent reports demonstrated that A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum co-exist in geographic areas and that concurrent infections occur in ruminants and ticks. In this study, we characterized A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum infections in wild and domestic animals, and ticks collected in central Spain by serology, PCR, and sequence of 16S rRNA genotypes. Species tested included humans, cattle, dogs, rodents, Iberian red deer, European wild boar, birds, and ticks. Species of hematophagous Diptera were analyzed as potential mechanical vectors of Anaplasma spp. A. marginale was detected in tabanids, ticks, cattle, and deer, while A. phagocytophilum was detected in ticks, deer, cattle, and birds. Concurrent infections of the two Anaplasma were found in cattle and deer. These results illustrate the complexity of the epizootiology of A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum in regions where both pathogens co-exist and share common reservoir hosts and vectors. The increasing contact between wildlife, domestic animals, and human populations increases the risk of outbreaks of human and bovine anaplasmosis, and the difficulty of implementing surveillance and control measures. PMID:16417435

  4. Stat1 negatively regulates immune-mediated injury with Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection1

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Scorpio, Diana G.; Dumler, J. Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium, Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Our data previously demonstrated that A. phagocytophilum induces an immunopathologic response by activating IFNγ production through the signal transducer and activation of transcription 1 (Stat1) signaling pathway. In this study, we investigated the broader role of Stat1 signaling in the host response to infection with A. phagocytophilum. In Stat1 knock out (KO) compared to wild type mice, A. phagocytophilum infection was more highly pathogenic as characterized by the unanticipated development of clinical signs in mice including markedly increased splenomegaly, more severe inflammatory splenic and hepatic histopathology, >100-fold higher blood and splenic bacterial loads, and more elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine responses in serum. CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte populations were significantly expanded in spleens of A. phagocytophilum-infected Stat1 KO mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice. The leukocyte infiltrates in the livers and spleens of A. phagocytophilum-infected Stat1 KO mice also contained expansions in neutrophil and monocytes/macrophage populations. Importantly, A. phagocytophilum-infected Stat1 KO mice did not demonstrate induction of iNOS in splenocytes. These results show that Stat1 plays an important role in controlling bacterial loads but also by unexpectedly providing an undefined mechanism for dampening of the immunopathologic response observed with A. phagocytophilum infection. PMID:25305312

  5. Molecular surveillance of Theileria equi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in horses from Ukraine, Poland and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Slivinska, Kateryna; Víchová, Bronislava; Werszko, Joanna; Szewczyk, Tomasz; Wróblewski, Zbigniew; Peťko, Branislav; Ragač, Ondrej; Demeshkant, Vitaliy; Karbowiak, Grzegorz

    2016-01-15

    A survey was undertaken to assess the prevalence of Theileria equi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in some regions of Ukraine, Poland and Slovakia. Using a specific PCR assays, blood samples from 215 horses were tested. The prevalence of T. equi and A. phagocytophilum infection was 13.95% and 1.4%, respectively. BLAST analysis showed the isolates closest to the T. equi 18S rRNA and A. phagocytophilum msp4 gene sequences in GenBank with a similarity of ≥99%. No significant association was found between the T. equi PCR positivity and the age or sex of the horses. There was a significant association between the origin of horses and T. equi-PCR positivity. No significant association was found between the A. phagocytophilum-PCR positivity and the age, sex or origin.

  6. Molecular characterization reveals distinct genospecies of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from diverse North American hosts

    PubMed Central

    Bradburd, Gideon; Foley, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne pathogen that infects humans, domestic animals and wildlife throughout the Holarctic. In the far-western United States, multiple rodent species have been implicated as natural reservoirs for A. phagocytophilum. However, the presence of multiple A. phagocytophilum strains has made it difficult to determine which reservoir hosts pose the greatest risk to humans and domestic animals. Here we characterized three genetic markers (23S–5S rRNA intergenic spacer, ank and groESL) from 73 real-time TaqMan PCR-positive A. phagocytophilum strains infecting multiple rodent and reptile species, as well as a dog and a horse, from California. Bayesian and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analyses of all three genetic markers consistently identified two major clades, one of which consisted of A. phagocytophilum strains infecting woodrats and the other consisting of strains infecting sciurids (chipmunks and squirrels) as well as the dog and horse strains. In addition, analysis of the 23S–5S rRNA spacer region identified two unique and highly dissimilar clades of A. phagocytophilum strains infecting several lizard species. Our findings indicate that multiple unique strains of A. phagocytophilum with distinct host tropisms exist in California. Future epidemiological studies evaluating human and domestic animal risk should incorporate these distinctions. PMID:21921109

  7. Distinct Host Species Correlate with Anaplasma phagocytophilum ankA Gene Clusters▿†

    PubMed Central

    Scharf, Wiebke; Schauer, Sonja; Freyburger, Felix; Petrovec, Miroslav; Schaarschmidt-Kiener, Daniel; Liebisch, Gabriele; Runge, Martin; Ganter, Martin; Kehl, Alexandra; Dumler, J. Stephen; Garcia-Perez, Ana L.; Jensen, Jennifer; Fingerle, Volker; Meli, Marina L.; Ensser, Armin; Stuen, Snorre; von Loewenich, Friederike D.

    2011-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a Gram-negative, tick-transmitted, obligate intracellular bacterium that elicits acute febrile diseases in humans and domestic animals. In contrast to the United States, human granulocytic anaplasmosis seems to be a rare disease in Europe despite the initial recognition of A. phagocytophilum as the causative agent of tick-borne fever in European sheep and cattle. Considerable strain variation has been suggested to occur within this species, because isolates from humans and animals differed in their pathogenicity for heterologous hosts. In order to explain host preference and epidemiological diversity, molecular characterization of A. phagocytophilum strains has been undertaken. Most often the 16S rRNA gene was used, but it might be not informative enough to delineate distinct genotypes of A. phagocytophilum. Previously, we have shown that A. phagocytophilum strains infecting Ixodes ricinus ticks are highly diverse in their ankA genes. Therefore, we sequenced the 16S rRNA and ankA genes of 194 A. phagocytophilum strains from humans and several animal species. Whereas the phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences was not meaningful, we showed that distinct host species correlate with A. phagocytophilum ankA gene clusters. PMID:21177886

  8. Opening the black box of Anaplasma phagocytophilum diversity: current situation and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Dugat, Thibaud; Lagrée, Anne-Claire; Maillard, Renaud; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Haddad, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic obligate intracellular bacterium known to be transmitted by ticks belonging to the Ixodes persulcatus complex. This bacterium can infect several mammalian species, and is known to cause diseases with variable symptoms in many domestic animals. Specifically, it is the causative agent of tick-borne fever (TBF), a disease of important economic impact in European domestic ruminants, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), an emerging zoonotic disease in Asia, USA and Europe. A. phagocytophilum epidemiological cycles are complex and involve different ecotypes, vectors, and mammalian host species. Moreover, the epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum infection differs greatly between Europe and the USA. These different epidemiological contexts are associated with considerable variations in bacterial strains. Until recently, few A. phagocytophilum molecular typing tools were available, generating difficulties in completely elucidating the epidemiological cycles of this bacterium. Over the last few years, many A. phagocytophilum typing techniques have been developed, permitting in-depth epidemiological exploration. Here, we review the current knowledge and future perspectives regarding A. phagocytophilum epidemiology and phylogeny, and then focus on the molecular typing tools available for studying A. phagocytophilum genetic diversity. PMID:26322277

  9. Seroprevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum among healthy dogs and horses in Israel.

    PubMed

    Levi, O; Waner, T; Baneth, G; Keysary, A; Bruchim, Y; Silverman, J; Harrus, S

    2006-03-01

    The presence of reacting antibodies to Anaplasma phagocytophilum has previously been demonstrated in Israel, both in humans and the golden jackal (Canis aureus syriacus). This study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of A. phagocytophilum antibodies in two additional potential hosts, domestic dogs and horses in order to investigate the possibility of exposure to the organism in Israel. Of 195 dogs tested, 9% were seroreactive with A. phagocytophilum antigen and 30% were seroreactive to Ehrlichia canis. Twenty-nine percent of the dogs seropositive for E. canis were also reactive to A. phagocytophilum. Two dogs had immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) antibody titres for A. phagocytophilum greater than E. canis. The equine serological survey (n = 300) revealed no seroreactive horses. The results presented in this study suggest that dogs in Israel could have been accidentally exposed to A. phagocytophilum, for example by ticks carried on migrating birds, however, the possibility of cross-reaction with E. canis should also be considered. In spite of the high prevalence of ticks on horses in Israel during the summer months, no evidence for exposure to A. phagocytophilum was apparent. PMID:16626404

  10. Diversity of ankA and msp4 genes of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Strašek Smrdel, Katja; von Loewenich, Friederike D; Petrovec, Miroslav; Avšič Županc, Tatjana

    2015-03-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis is a tick transmitted emerging disease in Europe and worldwide. The agent, Anaplasma phagocytophilum is transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes and causes infections in humans and domestic animals. The analysis of different target genes showed that in nature several genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum were present. The purpose of our study was to genetically characterize A. phagocytophilum strains from eight humans, 16 dogs, 12 wild boars, one bear and 18 tick pools from Slovenia. Therefore, the ankA and msp4 genes of A. phagocytophilum were chosen. The same genetic ankA and msp4 variant of A. phagocytophilum was detected in humans, wild boar and a part of the pooled ticks indicating that it circulates in a zoonotic cycle between wild boar and ticks. In dogs, three ankA variants of A. phagocytophilum were detected. One of them was identical to the one that was found in humans. In contrast, all dogs harboured the same msp4 variant as humans and wild boar. In ticks, numerous ankA and msp4 variants were present. PMID:25511457

  11. Diversity of ankA and msp4 genes of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Strašek Smrdel, Katja; von Loewenich, Friederike D; Petrovec, Miroslav; Avšič Županc, Tatjana

    2015-03-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis is a tick transmitted emerging disease in Europe and worldwide. The agent, Anaplasma phagocytophilum is transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes and causes infections in humans and domestic animals. The analysis of different target genes showed that in nature several genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum were present. The purpose of our study was to genetically characterize A. phagocytophilum strains from eight humans, 16 dogs, 12 wild boars, one bear and 18 tick pools from Slovenia. Therefore, the ankA and msp4 genes of A. phagocytophilum were chosen. The same genetic ankA and msp4 variant of A. phagocytophilum was detected in humans, wild boar and a part of the pooled ticks indicating that it circulates in a zoonotic cycle between wild boar and ticks. In dogs, three ankA variants of A. phagocytophilum were detected. One of them was identical to the one that was found in humans. In contrast, all dogs harboured the same msp4 variant as humans and wild boar. In ticks, numerous ankA and msp4 variants were present.

  12. Postgenomic Analyses Reveal Development of Infectious Anaplasma phagocytophilum during Transmission from Ticks to Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kurscheid, Sebastian; Fikrig, Erol

    2012-01-01

    Obligate intracellular bacteria of the Rickettsiales order have evolved to colonize both arthropod and mammalian hosts, but few details are known about the bacterial adaptations that occur during transmission from blood-feeding arthropods to mammals. Here we apply proteomics and transcriptome sequencing to Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, in Ixodes scapularis tick salivary glands, to detect proteins or genes expressed by the pathogen during transmission feeding by the tick. We detected expression of 139 genes, representing 11% of the open reading frames (ORFs) in the A. phagocytophilum genome. The predominant categories of proteins were ribosomal proteins, cell surface proteins, chaperones, and uncharacterized proteins. There was no evidence of DNA replication enzymes, suggesting that most of the A. phagocytophilum cells were no longer dividing. Instead, protein expression reflected conversion to the extracellular, infectious “dense-core” (DC) form. High expression of a DC-specific marker, APH_1235, further suggested this developmental transition in ticks. We showed that blocking APH_1235 with antibodies reduced A. phagocytophilum infection levels in mammalian cell culture. This work represents a starting point for clarifying essential proteins expressed by A. phagocytophilum during transmission from ticks to mammals and demonstrates that the abundantly expressed, DC-associated APH_1235 protein is important during in vivo infection by A. phagocytophilum. PMID:22389475

  13. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from Romania.

    PubMed

    Matei, Ioana Adriana; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Magdaş, Cristian; Magdaş, Virginia; Toriay, Hortenzia; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Ionică, Angela Monica; D'Amico, Gianluca; Sándor, Attila D; Mărcuţan, Daniel Ioan; Domşa, Cristian; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis is a common vector-borne disease of humans and animals with natural transmission cycle that involves tick vectors, among which Ixodes ricinus is the most important. The present paper reports the prevalence and geographical distribution of A. phagocytophilum in 10,438 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected at 113 locations from 40 counties of Romania. The unfed ticks were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by PCR targeting a portion of ankA gene. The overall prevalence of infection was 3.42%, with local prevalences ranging between 0.29% and 22.45%, with an average prevalence of 5.39% in the infected localities. The infection with A. phagocytophilum was detected in 72 out of 113 localities and in 34 out of 40 counties. The highest prevalence was recorded in females followed by males and nymphs. The results and the distribution model have shown a large distribution of A. phagocytophilum, covering Romania's entire territory. This study is the first large scale survey of the presence of A. phagocytophilum in questing I. ricinus ticks from Romania.

  14. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Ats-1 Is Imported into Host Cell Mitochondria and Interferes with Apoptosis Induction

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Hua; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Rudel, Thomas; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2010-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, infects human neutrophils and inhibits mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Bacterial factors involved in this process are unknown. In the present study, we screened a genomic DNA library of A. phagocytophilum for effectors of the type IV secretion system by a bacterial two-hybrid system, using A. phagocytophilum VirD4 as bait. A hypothetical protein was identified as a putative effector, hereby named Anaplasma translocated substrate 1 (Ats-1). Using triple immunofluorescence labeling and Western blot analysis of infected cells, including human neutrophils, we determined that Ats-1 is abundantly expressed by A. phagocytophilum, translocated across the inclusion membrane, localized in the host cell mitochondria, and cleaved. Ectopically expressed Ats-1 targeted mitochondria in an N-terminal 17 residue-dependent manner, localized in matrix or at the inner membrane, and was cleaved as native protein, which required residues 55–57. In vitro-translated Ats-1 was imported in a receptor-dependent manner into isolated mitochondria. Ats-1 inhibited etoposide-induced cytochrome c release from mitochondria, PARP cleavage, and apoptosis in mammalian cells, as well as Bax-induced yeast apoptosis. Ats-1(55–57) had significantly reduced anti-apoptotic activity. Bax redistribution was inhibited in both etoposide-induced and Bax-induced apoptosis by Ats-1. Taken together, Ats-1 is the first example of a bacterial protein that traverses five membranes and prevents apoptosis at the mitochondria. PMID:20174550

  15. Integrated Metabolomics, Transcriptomics and Proteomics Identifies Metabolic Pathways Affected by Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Tick Cells.

    PubMed

    Villar, Margarita; Ayllón, Nieves; Alberdi, Pilar; Moreno, Andrés; Moreno, María; Tobes, Raquel; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; Weisheit, Sabine; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; de la Fuente, José

    2015-12-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. These intracellular bacteria establish infection by affecting cell function in both the vertebrate host and the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis. Previous studies have characterized the tick transcriptome and proteome in response to A. phagocytophilum infection. However, in the postgenomic era, the integration of omics datasets through a systems biology approach allows network-based analyses to describe the complexity and functionality of biological systems such as host-pathogen interactions and the discovery of new targets for prevention and control of infectious diseases. This study reports the first systems biology integration of metabolomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics data to characterize essential metabolic pathways involved in the tick response to A. phagocytophilum infection. The ISE6 tick cells used in this study constitute a model for hemocytes involved in pathogen infection and immune response. The results showed that infection affected protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum and glucose metabolic pathways in tick cells. These results supported tick-Anaplasma co-evolution by providing new evidence of how tick cells limit pathogen infection, while the pathogen benefits from the tick cell response to establish infection. Additionally, ticks benefit from A. phagocytophilum infection by increasing survival while pathogens guarantee transmission. The results suggested that A. phagocytophilum induces protein misfolding to limit the tick cell response and facilitate infection but requires protein degradation to prevent ER stress and cell apoptosis to survive in infected cells. Additionally, A. phagocytophilum may benefit from the tick cell's ability to limit bacterial infection through PEPCK inhibition leading to decreased glucose metabolism, which also results in the inhibition of cell apoptosis that increases infection of tick cells. These results

  16. Identification and Characterization of Anaplasma phagocytophilum Proteins Involved in Infection of the Tick Vector, Ixodes scapularis.

    PubMed

    Villar, Margarita; Ayllón, Nieves; Kocan, Katherine M; Bonzón-Kulichenko, Elena; Alberdi, Pilar; Blouin, Edmour F; Weisheit, Sabine; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Vancová, Marie; Bílý, Tomáš; Meyer, Damien F; Sterba, Jan; Contreras, Marinela; Rudenko, Nataliia; Grubhoffer, Libor; Vázquez, Jesús; de la Fuente, José

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging zoonotic pathogen transmitted by Ixodes scapularis that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Here, a high throughput quantitative proteomics approach was used to characterize A. phagocytophilum proteome during rickettsial multiplication and identify proteins involved in infection of the tick vector, I. scapularis. The first step in this research was focused on tick cells infected with A. phagocytophilum and sampled at two time points containing 10-15% and 65-71% infected cells, respectively to identify key bacterial proteins over-represented in high percentage infected cells. The second step was focused on adult female tick guts and salivary glands infected with A. phagocytophilum to compare in vitro results with those occurring during bacterial infection in vivo. The results showed differences in the proteome of A. phagocytophilum in infected ticks with higher impact on protein synthesis and processing than on bacterial replication in tick salivary glands. These results correlated well with the developmental cycle of A. phagocytophilum, in which cells convert from an intracellular reticulated, replicative form to the nondividing infectious dense-core form. The analysis of A. phagocytophilum differentially represented proteins identified stress response (GroEL, HSP70) and surface (MSP4) proteins that were over-represented in high percentage infected tick cells and salivary glands when compared to low percentage infected cells and guts, respectively. The results demonstrated that MSP4, GroEL and HSP70 interact and bind to tick cells, thus playing a role in rickettsia-tick interactions. The most important finding of these studies is the increase in the level of certain bacterial stress response and surface proteins in A. phagocytophilum-infected tick cells and salivary glands with functional implication in tick-pathogen interactions. These results gave a new dimension to the role of these stress response and surface

  17. Identification and Characterization of Anaplasma phagocytophilum Proteins Involved in Infection of the Tick Vector, Ixodes scapularis

    PubMed Central

    Kocan, Katherine M.; Bonzón-Kulichenko, Elena; Alberdi, Pilar; Blouin, Edmour F.; Weisheit, Sabine; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Vancová, Marie; Bílý, Tomáš; Meyer, Damien F.; Sterba, Jan; Contreras, Marinela; Rudenko, Nataliia; Grubhoffer, Libor; Vázquez, Jesús; de la Fuente, José

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging zoonotic pathogen transmitted by Ixodes scapularis that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Here, a high throughput quantitative proteomics approach was used to characterize A. phagocytophilum proteome during rickettsial multiplication and identify proteins involved in infection of the tick vector, I. scapularis. The first step in this research was focused on tick cells infected with A. phagocytophilum and sampled at two time points containing 10–15% and 65–71% infected cells, respectively to identify key bacterial proteins over-represented in high percentage infected cells. The second step was focused on adult female tick guts and salivary glands infected with A. phagocytophilum to compare in vitro results with those occurring during bacterial infection in vivo. The results showed differences in the proteome of A. phagocytophilum in infected ticks with higher impact on protein synthesis and processing than on bacterial replication in tick salivary glands. These results correlated well with the developmental cycle of A. phagocytophilum, in which cells convert from an intracellular reticulated, replicative form to the nondividing infectious dense-core form. The analysis of A. phagocytophilum differentially represented proteins identified stress response (GroEL, HSP70) and surface (MSP4) proteins that were over-represented in high percentage infected tick cells and salivary glands when compared to low percentage infected cells and guts, respectively. The results demonstrated that MSP4, GroEL and HSP70 interact and bind to tick cells, thus playing a role in rickettsia-tick interactions. The most important finding of these studies is the increase in the level of certain bacterial stress response and surface proteins in A. phagocytophilum-infected tick cells and salivary glands with functional implication in tick-pathogen interactions. These results gave a new dimension to the role of these stress response and surface

  18. Development of a new PCR-based assay to detect Anaplasmataceae and the first report of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma platys in cattle from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Dahmani, Mustapha; Davoust, Bernard; Benterki, Mohamed Seghir; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2015-04-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis is a hemoparasitic disease considered as a major constraint to cattle production in many countries. This pathology is at least partially caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma centrale, and Anaplasma bovis. The global threat and emergence of these species in animals require the reliable identification of these bacteria in animal samples. In this study, we developed a new qPCR tool targeting the 23S rRNA gene for the detection of Anaplasmataceae bacteria. The primers and probe for the qPCR reaction had 100% specificity and could identify at least A. phagocytophilum, A. marginale, A. centrale, Anaplasma ovis, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ruminantium, Neorickettisa sennetsu, and Neorickettsia risticii. We used this tool to test samples of bovines from Batna (Algeria), an area from which bovine anaplasmosis have never been reported. We identified three genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum, A. platys and Anaplasma sp. "variant 4". This finding should attract the attention of public authorities to assess the involvement of these pathogens in human and animal health.

  19. Global proteomic analysis of two tick-borne emerging zoonotic agents: Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Mingqun ..; Kikuchi, Takane; Brewer, Heather M.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2011-02-17

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis are obligatory intracellular {alpha}-proteobacteria that infect human leukocytes and cause potentially fatal emerging zoonoses. In the present study, we determined global protein expression profiles of these bacteria cultured in the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line, HL-60. Mass spectrometric (MS) analyses identified a total of 1,212 A. phagocytophilum and 1,021 E. chaffeensis proteins, representing 89.3 and 92.3% of the predicted bacterial proteomes, respectively. Nearly all bacterial proteins ({approx}99%) with known functions were expressed, whereas only approximately 80% of hypothetical proteins were detected in infected human cells. Quantitative MS/MS analyses indicated that highly expressed proteins in both bacteria included chaperones, enzymes involved in biosynthesis and metabolism, and outer membrane proteins, such as A. phagocytophilum P44 and E. chaffeensis P28/OMP-1. Among 113 A. phagocytophilum p44 paralogous genes, 110 of them were expressed and 88 of them were encoded by pseudogenes. In addition, bacterial infection of HL-60 cells up-regulated the expression of human proteins involved mostly in cytoskeleton components, vesicular trafficking, cell signaling, and energy metabolism, but down regulated some pattern recognition receptors involved in innate immunity. Our proteomics data represent a comprehensive analysis of A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis proteomes, and provide a quantitative view of human host protein expression profiles regulated by bacterial infection. The availability of these proteomic data will provide new insights into biology and pathogenesis of these obligatory intracellular pathogens.

  20. Reptile infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Nathan C; Foley, Janet E; Bettaso, Jamie; Lane, Robert S

    2009-10-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA) is a potentially fatal tick-borne rickettsial disease that occurs sporadically in the far western United States. We evaluated the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in multiple species of lizards and snakes from enzootic sites in northern California, described the infestation prevalence of its tick vector Ixodes pacificus on reptiles, and conducted an experimental challenge of western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) and Pacific gopher snakes (Pituophis catenifer) with A. phagocytophilum delivered via needle inoculation or tick bite. Both serologically and polymerase-chain reaction (PCR)-positive lizards (seroprevalence = 10.8%, PCR prevalence = 10.2%) and snakes (seroprevalence = 5.8%, PCR prevalence = 11.7%) were detected among wild-caught animals. A DNA sequence of the A. phagocytophilum groESL gene from a PCR-positive snake was 100% homologous to that of the human-derived A. phagocytophilum. Experimental attempts to infect naïve animals were unsuccessful for snakes (n = 2), but 1 of 12 lizards became infected for 1 wk only by tick bite. Xenodiagnostic I. pacificus larvae that fed on a PCR-positive lizard did not acquire or transmit rickettsiae. Our findings suggest that lizards and snakes are exposed to A. phagocytophilum by infected ticks, but that they do not serve as primary reservoir hosts of this rickettsia. PMID:19281295

  1. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in natural rodent and tick communities in Southern Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szekeres, Sándor; Claudia Coipan, Elena; Rigó, Krisztina; Majoros, Gábor; Jahfari, Setareh; Sprong, Hein; Földvári, Gábor

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the natural cycle of the new human pathogenic bacteria Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Southern Hungary. We collected rodents with live-traps (2010-2013) and questing ticks with flagging in 2012. Small mammals were euthanized, tissue samples were collected and all the ectoparasites were removed and stored in 70% alcohol. We found relatively low overall prevalence of tick infestation (8%). Samples were analysed for A. phagocytophilum and Candidatus N. mikurensis with multiplex quantitative real-time PCR targeting a part of major surface protein 2 (msp2) and the heat shock protein groEL genes, respectively. The overall prevalence in tissue samples was 6.6% (skin) and 5.1% (spleen) for A. phagocytophilum and 1.7% (skin) and 3.4% (spleen) for Candidatus N. mikurensis. Candidatus N. mikurensis was only detected in Apodemus flavicollis and Apodemus agrarius, while A. phagocytophilum was found in A. flavicollis, A. agrarius, Myodes glareolus, Microtus arvalis and Mus musculus samples. Prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in skin samples of A. flavicollis was significantly higher than prevalence of N. mikurensis (p<0.05). Among questing Ixodes ricinus ticks we found three (8.8%) individuals (female, male, nymph) infected with Candidatus N. mikurensis. Five (3.1%) questing ticks had A. phagocytophilum infection (one I. ricinus male, two Dermacentor reticulatus females and two Haemaphysalis concinna females). We found one I. ricinus nymph removed from a male A. flavicollis with A. phagocytophilum infection. Our study provides new data on the occurrence of these pathogens in rodent tissue samples, questing ticks and engorged ticks in Southern Hungary.

  2. The infection of reintroduced ruminants - Bison bonasus and Alces alces - with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Víchová, Bronislava; Werszko, Joanna; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Pyziel, Anna M; Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Szewczyk, Tomasz; Peťko, Branislav

    2015-12-01

    The north-eastern part of Poland is considered an area of high risk for infection with tick-borne diseases, including with human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agents. The etiological agent of HGE is Anaplasma phagocytophilum. As the animal reservoir for A. phagocytophilum in the environment serve the species from Cervidae and Bovidae families. European bison (Bison bonasus) and elk (Alces alces) are the big ruminant species, reintroduced to the forests of Middle Europe after many decades of absence. In the foci of zoonotic diseases they are able to play a role as natural reservoir to pathogens, however, their status as protected animals means their study has been rare and fragmentary. The studies of B. bonasus were conducted in Białowieża Primeval Forest and A. alces in Biebrza National Park. PCR amplifications were performed using primers amplifing the end of the groES gene, the intergenic spacer and approximately two-thirds of the groEL gene in the first round, and primers that span a 395-bp region of the groEL gene were used in the second round. The positive results were obtained in B. bonasus and A. alces, the prevalence of infection was 66.7 and 20.0%, respectively. Randomly selected samples were sequenced, sequences were compared with GenBank entries using Blast N2.2.13 and determined as A. phagocytophilum. The results presented herein are the first record of the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in A. alces, and at the same time confirm the previous observations regarding the infection of B. bonasus with A. phagocytophilum. PMID:26408585

  3. The infection of reintroduced ruminants - Bison bonasus and Alces alces - with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Víchová, Bronislava; Werszko, Joanna; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Pyziel, Anna M; Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Szewczyk, Tomasz; Peťko, Branislav

    2015-12-01

    The north-eastern part of Poland is considered an area of high risk for infection with tick-borne diseases, including with human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agents. The etiological agent of HGE is Anaplasma phagocytophilum. As the animal reservoir for A. phagocytophilum in the environment serve the species from Cervidae and Bovidae families. European bison (Bison bonasus) and elk (Alces alces) are the big ruminant species, reintroduced to the forests of Middle Europe after many decades of absence. In the foci of zoonotic diseases they are able to play a role as natural reservoir to pathogens, however, their status as protected animals means their study has been rare and fragmentary. The studies of B. bonasus were conducted in Białowieża Primeval Forest and A. alces in Biebrza National Park. PCR amplifications were performed using primers amplifing the end of the groES gene, the intergenic spacer and approximately two-thirds of the groEL gene in the first round, and primers that span a 395-bp region of the groEL gene were used in the second round. The positive results were obtained in B. bonasus and A. alces, the prevalence of infection was 66.7 and 20.0%, respectively. Randomly selected samples were sequenced, sequences were compared with GenBank entries using Blast N2.2.13 and determined as A. phagocytophilum. The results presented herein are the first record of the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in A. alces, and at the same time confirm the previous observations regarding the infection of B. bonasus with A. phagocytophilum.

  4. Ecology of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) in northwestern California.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Mourad W; Brown, Richard N; Foley, Janet E; Higley, J Mark; Botzler, Richard G

    2009-04-01

    Although granulocytic anaplasmosis, caused by infection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is an emerging human and domestic animal disease, the ecology and natural history of the parasite is not well understood. Gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) are relatively common, occasionally peri-urban mesocarnivores whose geographic distribution overlaps the reported distribution of granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans and domestic animals in North America. We evaluated the potential of foxes as hosts and reservoirs of A. phagocytophilum in both urban and backcountry habitats of the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation, Humboldt County, California, USA. We trapped 54 individual foxes and had 16 recaptures for a total of 70 fox samples between June 2003 and October 2004 in delineated urban and backcountry zones. We collected 296 adult and 145 nymphal ticks from the 70 captured foxes including 193 Ixodes pacificus, 149 Ixodes texanus, 98 Dermacentor variabilis, and one Dermacentor occidentalis. There were seasonal differences in tick intensities, with most I. pacificus adults occurring in winter and spring (P < 0.001), most I. texanus nymphs in spring (P = 0.03), and most D. variabilis adults in spring and summer (P = 0.01). Thirty-six (51%) of the 70 fox sera had antibodies against A. phagocytophilum, with a higher (P = 0.24) prevalence in backcountry foxes (16 of 23) than in urban-zone foxes (12 of 31). Six (9%) of 70 fox samples were polymerase chain reaction-positive for A. phagocytophilum. Twenty-eight (31%) of 90 domestic dogs sampled from vaccine clinics within the study area were seropositive for A. phagocytophilum. There was a significant difference in prevalence between dogs and backcountry foxes (70%), but no differences were found between dogs and urban foxes (39%). We propose that gray foxes are a good sentinel species for A. phagocytophilum infections in northwestern California. PMID:19395744

  5. First report of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti in rodents in Finland.

    PubMed

    Kallio, Eva R; Begon, Michael; Birtles, Richard J; Bown, Kevin J; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio; Watts, Phillip C

    2014-06-01

    Tick-borne diseases pose an increasingly important public health problem in Europe. Rodents are the reservoir host for many tick-transmitted pathogens, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti, which can cause human granulocytic anaplasmosis and babesiosis, respectively. To estimate the presence of these pathogens in rodents in Finland, we examined blood samples from 151 bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and demonstrate, for the first time, that A. phagocytophilum and B. microti commonly infect bank voles (in 22% and 40% of animals, respectively) in Finland. Sequence analysis of a fragment of 18S rRNA showed that the B. microti strain isolated was identical to the Munich strain, which is considered to be nonzoonotic. The A. phagocytophilum strain (based on a fragment of the msp4 gene) was identical to one found earlier in rodents in the United Kingdom that is transmitted by the tick Ixodes trianguliceps, all the life stages of which feed on small mammals. The infection probability of B. microti in the bank voles was the greater the older the individual was, and males were more often infected than females. A. phagocytophilum infection probability first increased and then decreased with the age of individual without any difference between sexes. While these pathogens presumably pose a limited zoonotic risk to humans in Finland, they might have important interactions with other rodent pathogens and therefore affect infection dynamics of, for example, zoonotic pathogens.

  6. Evaluation of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae) as ecologically significant hosts for Anaplasma phagocytophilum in California.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Nathan C; Foley, Janet E

    2008-07-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA), caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is a potentially fatal, emerging rickettsial disease of humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sciurids from multiple areas of northern California were infested with ticks or exposed to or infected with A. phagocytophilum using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and indirect-fluorescent antibody (IFA) serology. Sciurids of nine different tree- and ground-dwelling species were assessed: arboreal squirrels (western and eastern gray squirrels, Sciurus griseus and S. carolinensis, and Douglas squirrels, Tamiasciurus douglasii) but not northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) had greater evidence of exposure and current infection than did semiarboreal or ground dwelling sciurids (California ground squirrels, Spermophilus beecheyi, and chipmunks, Tamias spp.). Western gray squirrels had the most extensive exposure (70.7% seroprevalence and 12.1% PCR prevalence). Positive squirrels were identified in all regions where squirrels were collected. A logistic regression identified being a western gray squirrel (OR = 20.5, P = 2.95 X 10(-8)) and from the north coastal region of California (OR = 9.052, P = 1.41 X 10(-6)) as having the highest risk of exposure to A. phagocytophilum. Five of nine sciurid species had evidence of infestation with Ixodes pacificus or I. spinipalpis that could vector A. phagocytophilum. Extensive exposure from multiple areas suggests sciurids may be important in the maintenance of GA in California and indicates that studies of reservoir competence of these species are warranted. PMID:18714881

  7. Identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in tick populations in Estonia, the European part of Russia and Belarus.

    PubMed

    Katargina, O; Geller, J; Alekseev, A; Dubinina, H; Efremova, G; Mishaeva, N; Vasilenko, V; Kuznetsova, T; Järvekülg, L; Vene, S; Lundkvist, A; Golovljova, I

    2012-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is associated with diseases of goats, sheep, cattle, dogs and horses. In the beginning of the 1990s it was identified as a human pathogen, causing human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) in the USA, Europe and the far east of Russia. A. phagocytophilum is maintained in nature in an enzootic cycle including ticks as the main vector and a wide range of mammalian species as reservoirs. Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus ticks were collected in Estonia, Belarus and the European part of Russia and screened for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by real-time PCR. Positive samples were found only among I. ricinus, in 13.4% in the European part of Russia, 4.2% in Belarus, 1.7% in mainland Estonia and 2.6% on Saaremaa Island. Positive samples were sequenced for partial 16S rRNA, groESL and ankA genes and phylogenetic analyses were performed. The results showed that A. phagocytophilum circulating in Eastern Europe belongs to different groESL lineages and 16S rRNA gene variants and also consists of variable numbers of repetitive elements within the ankA gene.

  8. Reservoir Competence of the Redwood Chipmunk (Tamias Ochrogenys) for Anaplasma Phagocytophilum

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Janet E.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA) is an emerging tick-transmitted disease that persists in rodent- Ixodes ricinus-complex tick cycles across the Holarctic. Although the putative reservoir for anaplasmosis in the western United States is the dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes), this rodent was not shown reservoir-competent because of failure of infection from woodrats to other animals via ticks. Redwood chipmunks are common in habitats where Anaplasma phagocytophilum is common, have high PCR- and seroprevalence, and are infested with a diversity of Ixodes spp. ticks. Experimental infection of seven wild-caught A. phagocytophilum-negative redwood chipmunks induced persistent periods of recurrent rickettsemia during the persistent phase of infection. Of three animals for which xenodiagnosis was attempted, all successfully infected pools of I. pacificus larvae during the primary rickettsemia. We show that chipmunks are reservoir-competent for GA and may be important for maintaining infection in nature. PMID:19327022

  9. The dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes) is susceptible to infection by Anaplasma phagocytophilum originating from woodrats, horses, and dogs.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Nathan C; Madigan, John E; Foley, Janet E

    2010-07-01

    The dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes) is the putative reservoir for Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the western United States based on high prevalence of A. phagocytophilum genetic material detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), high antibody prevalence, and infestation with the vector tick Ixodes pacificus. Following inoculation of nine wild-caught woodrats with woodrat-, canine-, or equine-origin A. phagocytophilum, all became PCR-positive and seroconverted. However, when PCR-positive woodrat blood was delivered as inoculum to three horses, the horses never became clinically ill, PCR-positive, or antibody-positive. Each horse was subsequently infected with either the equine- or chipmunk-origin A. phagocytophilum, resulting in clinical anaplasmosis. Our data show that woodrats are permissive to several strains of A. phagocytophilum, but strains originating from woodrats did not cause clinical disease in horses.

  10. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from Brandenburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Härtwig, Vera; von Loewenich, Friederike D; Schulze, Christoph; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Daugschies, Arwid; Dyachenko, Viktor

    2014-04-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular and tick-transmitted bacterium, which causes granulocytic anaplasmosis in animals and humans. Although infection with A. phagocytophilum in domestic animals and vector ticks is documented, there is sparse information on the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in wild animals. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as well as raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are wildlife species highly abundant in certain areas of Germany and represent a potential wildlife reservoir for zoonotic diseases. To obtain data about the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in these animals, red fox and raccoon dog carcasses (hunted or found dead) were collected from January to September 2009 in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. Lung tissue samples were subjected to DNA extraction and were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA by means of real-time PCR. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 10 out of 122 (8.2%) lungs of red foxes and in 3 out of 13 (23%) lungs of raccoon dogs. To the best of our knowledge, A. phagocytophilum was detected for the first time in red foxes and raccoon dogs in Germany.

  11. SERUM ANTIBODIES TO BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM, AND BABESIA MICROTI IN RECAPTURED WHITE-FOOTED MICE

    PubMed Central

    Magnarelli, Louis A.; Williams, Scott C.; Norris, Steven J.; Fikrig, Erol

    2013-01-01

    A mark-release-recapture study was conducted during 2007 through 2010 in six, tick-infested sites in Connecticut, United States to measure changes in antibody titers for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti in Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mice). There was an overall recapture rate of 40%, but only four tagged mice were caught in ≥2 yr. Sera from 561 mice were analyzed for total antibodies to B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum by using whole-cell or recombinant (VlsE or protein 44) antigens in a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or to whole-cell B. microti by indirect fluorescent antibody staining. Antibody prevalences were highly variable for B. burgdorferi (from 56% to 98%), A. phagocytophilum (from 11% to 85%), and B. microti (from 11% to 84%) depending on the site and time of sampling. Of 463 mice with antibodies, 206 (45%) had antibodies to all three pathogens. Changes in antibody status for some mice from negative to positive (117 seroconversions) or from positive to negative (55 reversions) were observed. Seroconversions were observed in 10.1% of 417 mice for B. burgdorferi, 18.0% of 306 mice for A. phagocytophilum, and 6.6% of 304 mice for B. microti; reversion rates were 5.3, 5.9, and 4.9%, respectively. Antibodies to all pathogens persisted in some mice over several weeks while, in others, there were marked declines in titration end points to negative status. The latter may indicate elimination of a certain pathogen, such as A. phagocytophilum, or that mouse immune systems ceased to produce antibodies despite an existing patent infection. PMID:23568904

  12. Serum antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti in recaptured white-footed mice.

    PubMed

    Magnarelli, Louis A; Williams, Scott C; Norris, Steven J; Fikrig, Erol

    2013-04-01

    A mark-release-recapture study was conducted during 2007 through 2010 in six, tick-infested sites in Connecticut, United States to measure changes in antibody titers for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti in Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mice). There was an overall recapture rate of 40%, but only four tagged mice were caught in ≥2 yr. Sera from 561 mice were analyzed for total antibodies to B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum by using whole-cell or recombinant (VlsE or protein 44) antigens in a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or to whole-cell B. microti by indirect fluorescent antibody staining. Antibody prevalences were highly variable for B. burgdorferi (from 56% to 98%), A. phagocytophilum (from 11% to 85%), and B. microti (from 11% to 84%) depending on the site and time of sampling. Of 463 mice with antibodies, 206 (45%) had antibodies to all three pathogens. Changes in antibody status for some mice from negative to positive (117 seroconversions) or from positive to negative (55 reversions) were observed. Seroconversions were observed in 10.1% of 417 mice for B. burgdorferi, 18.0% of 306 mice for A. phagocytophilum, and 6.6% of 304 mice for B. microti; reversion rates were 5.3, 5.9, and 4.9%, respectively. Antibodies to all pathogens persisted in some mice over several weeks while, in others, there were marked declines in titration end points to negative status. The latter may indicate elimination of a certain pathogen, such as A. phagocytophilum, or that mouse immune systems ceased to produce antibodies despite an existing patent infection. PMID:23568904

  13. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia odocoilei DNA in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) collected in Indiana.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Fresia E; Pinger, Robert R; Vann, Carolyn N; Abley, Melanie J; Sullivan, Bridget; Grindle, Nate; Clay, Keith; Fuqua, Clay

    2006-03-01

    The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, first reported in Indiana in 1987, has now been detected in more than half of Indiana's counties. The first case of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (human anaplasmosis) in Indiana was reported in 2002. We now report the detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia odocoilei (Emerson and Wright 1968) in I. scapularis ticks collected in northern Indiana. Using polymerase chain reaction analysis, 41 of 193 adult ticks (21.2%) collected from deer were positive for A. phagocytophylum, and 22 (11.4%) were positive for Babesia sp. Restriction fragment analysis of 12, and sequencing of another five of the amplified products identified these parasites as B. odocoilei. Five ticks (2.6%) were coinfected. Eight of 68 questing adult ticks (11.8%) were positive for A. phagocytophilum; seven (10.3%) were positive for Babesia sp. Six of the latter seven positive samples were determined to be B. odocoilei by restriction fragment analysis and sequencing of two samples. None of 39 pools of nymphs was positive for Babesia sp. Three of 15 ticks (20%) collected from a dog were positive for A. phagocytophilum and three ticks (20%) were positive for Babesia sp. One was confirmed as B. odocoilei. One tick was coinfected. This is the first report of the presence of these two agents in ticks in Indiana.

  14. Anaplasma phagocytophilum inhibits apoptosis and promotes cytoskeleton rearrangement for infection of tick cells.

    PubMed

    Ayllón, Nieves; Villar, Margarita; Busby, Ann T; Kocan, Katherine M; Blouin, Edmour F; Bonzón-Kulichenko, Elena; Galindo, Ruth C; Mangold, Atilio J; Alberdi, Pilar; Pérez de la Lastra, José M; Vázquez, Jesús; de la Fuente, José

    2013-07-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Infection with this zoonotic pathogen affects gene expression in both the vertebrate host and the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis. Here, we identified new genes, including spectrin alpha chain or alpha-fodrin (CG8) and voltage-dependent anion-selective channel or mitochondrial porin (T2), that are involved in A. phagocytophilum infection/multiplication and the tick cell response to infection. The pathogen downregulated the expression of CG8 in tick salivary glands and T2 in both the gut and salivary glands to inhibit apoptosis as a mechanism to subvert host cell defenses and increase infection. In the gut, the tick response to infection through CG8 upregulation was used by the pathogen to increase infection due to the cytoskeleton rearrangement that is required for pathogen infection. These results increase our understanding of the role of tick genes during A. phagocytophilum infection and multiplication and demonstrate that the pathogen uses similar strategies to establish infection in both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts.

  15. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Inhibits Apoptosis and Promotes Cytoskeleton Rearrangement for Infection of Tick Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ayllón, Nieves; Villar, Margarita; Busby, Ann T.; Kocan, Katherine M.; Blouin, Edmour F.; Bonzón-Kulichenko, Elena; Galindo, Ruth C.; Mangold, Atilio J.; Alberdi, Pilar; Pérez de la Lastra, José M.; Vázquez, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Infection with this zoonotic pathogen affects gene expression in both the vertebrate host and the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis. Here, we identified new genes, including spectrin alpha chain or alpha-fodrin (CG8) and voltage-dependent anion-selective channel or mitochondrial porin (T2), that are involved in A. phagocytophilum infection/multiplication and the tick cell response to infection. The pathogen downregulated the expression of CG8 in tick salivary glands and T2 in both the gut and salivary glands to inhibit apoptosis as a mechanism to subvert host cell defenses and increase infection. In the gut, the tick response to infection through CG8 upregulation was used by the pathogen to increase infection due to the cytoskeleton rearrangement that is required for pathogen infection. These results increase our understanding of the role of tick genes during A. phagocytophilum infection and multiplication and demonstrate that the pathogen uses similar strategies to establish infection in both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. PMID:23630955

  16. Human Exposure to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Two Cities of Northwestern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Elhamiani Khatat, Sarah; Sahibi, Hamid; Hing, Mony; Alaoui Moustain, Ismail; El Amri, Hamid; Benajiba, Mohammed; Kachani, Malika; Duchateau, Luc; Daminet, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne zoonosis with extensive increased interest. Epidemiological data are available in several regions of the USA, Europe and Asia in contrast to other parts of the world such as North Africa. Blood samples of 261 healthy individuals divided in two groups i.e., dog handlers and blood donors were analysed. Indirect immunofluorescent assay using a commercial kit was performed to detect specific A. phagocytophilum IgG. Two dilutions were used to assess the prevalence of seroreactive samples. Demographic variables were assessed as potential risk factors using exact logistic regression. Seropositivity rates reached 37% and 27% in dog handlers and 36% and 22% in blood donors. No statistically significant differences were found in the prevalence rates between the two groups. Analysis of risk factors such as gender, age groups, outdoor activities, self-reported previous exposure to ticks, or contact with domestic animals (dogs, cats, ruminants and horses) did not shown any significant difference. A. phagocytophilum exposure was common in both high-risk population and blood donors in Morocco. PMID:27532208

  17. Human Exposure to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Two Cities of Northwestern Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Elhamiani Khatat, Sarah; Sahibi, Hamid; Hing, Mony; Alaoui Moustain, Ismail; El Amri, Hamid; Benajiba, Mohammed; Kachani, Malika; Duchateau, Luc; Daminet, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne zoonosis with extensive increased interest. Epidemiological data are available in several regions of the USA, Europe and Asia in contrast to other parts of the world such as North Africa. Blood samples of 261 healthy individuals divided in two groups i.e., dog handlers and blood donors were analysed. Indirect immunofluorescent assay using a commercial kit was performed to detect specific A. phagocytophilum IgG. Two dilutions were used to assess the prevalence of seroreactive samples. Demographic variables were assessed as potential risk factors using exact logistic regression. Seropositivity rates reached 37% and 27% in dog handlers and 36% and 22% in blood donors. No statistically significant differences were found in the prevalence rates between the two groups. Analysis of risk factors such as gender, age groups, outdoor activities, self-reported previous exposure to ticks, or contact with domestic animals (dogs, cats, ruminants and horses) did not shown any significant difference. A. phagocytophilum exposure was common in both high-risk population and blood donors in Morocco. PMID:27532208

  18. Bioinformatic and mass spectrometry identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum proteins translocated into host cell nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Sara H. G.; Garcia-Garcia, Jose C.; Dumler, J. Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Obligate intracellular bacteria have an arsenal of proteins that alter host cells to establish and maintain a hospitable environment for replication. Anaplasma phagocytophilum secrets Ankyrin A (AnkA), via a type IV secretion system, which translocates to the nucleus of its host cell, human neutrophils. A. phagocytophilum-infected neutrophils have dramatically altered phenotypes in part explained by AnkA-induced transcriptional alterations. However, it is unlikely that AnkA is the sole effector to account for infection-induced transcriptional changes. We developed a simple method combining bioinformatics and iTRAQ protein profiling to identify potential bacterial-derived nuclear-translocated proteins that could impact transcriptional programming in host cells. This approach identified 50 A. phagocytophilum candidate genes or proteins. The encoding genes were cloned to create GFP fusion protein-expressing clones that were transfected into HEK-293T cells. We confirmed nuclear translocation of six proteins: APH_0062, RplE, Hup, APH_0382, APH_0385, and APH_0455. Of the six, APH_0455 was identified as a type IV secretion substrate and is now under investigation as a potential nucleomodulin. Additionally, application of this approach to other intracellular bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Chlamydia trachomatis and other intracellular bacteria identified multiple candidate genes to be investigated. PMID:25705208

  19. Spatial distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Hepatozoon canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Tolnai, Z; Sréter-Lancz, Z; Sréter, T

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus were reported from Hungary. The aim of the present study was to reveal the spatial distribution pattern of pathogens transmitted by R. sanguineus in a sentinel species, red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary and to analyse the relationship of these patterns with landscape and climate by geographical information systems. Fox carcasses, representing 0.5% of the total fox population were randomly selected out of all the foxes of Hungary. The spleen samples of the animals were tested by real-time PCR for Anaplasma platys, Babesia vogeli, E. canis and H. canis infection. Positive results were confirmed by conventional PCR followed by sequencing. The prevalence of H. canis infection was 22.2% (95% CI=18.4-26.4%), and this parasite was detected in all areas including the mountain regions of Hungary. These findings indicate that other tick species or other transmission routes (oral and transplacental) might be in the background of the countrywide distribution of H. canis. Anaplasma platys was not found; nevertheless, the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection transmitted by Ixodes ricinus was 12.5% (95% CI=9.7-16.1%) in foxes. B. vogeli and E. canis infection was not detected. There was no correlation between environmental parameter values in the home range of foxes and A. phagocytophilum or H. canis infection, which is in line with that observed in the case of tick species infesting foxes in Hungary. The results of this study indicate that R. sanguineus, if present, might be rare in Hungary. Our baseline study can be used for future evaluation of the effect of climate change on the spreading and emergence of R. sanguineus transmitted pathogens in Hungary.

  20. Spatial distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Hepatozoon canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Tolnai, Z; Sréter-Lancz, Z; Sréter, T

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus were reported from Hungary. The aim of the present study was to reveal the spatial distribution pattern of pathogens transmitted by R. sanguineus in a sentinel species, red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary and to analyse the relationship of these patterns with landscape and climate by geographical information systems. Fox carcasses, representing 0.5% of the total fox population were randomly selected out of all the foxes of Hungary. The spleen samples of the animals were tested by real-time PCR for Anaplasma platys, Babesia vogeli, E. canis and H. canis infection. Positive results were confirmed by conventional PCR followed by sequencing. The prevalence of H. canis infection was 22.2% (95% CI=18.4-26.4%), and this parasite was detected in all areas including the mountain regions of Hungary. These findings indicate that other tick species or other transmission routes (oral and transplacental) might be in the background of the countrywide distribution of H. canis. Anaplasma platys was not found; nevertheless, the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection transmitted by Ixodes ricinus was 12.5% (95% CI=9.7-16.1%) in foxes. B. vogeli and E. canis infection was not detected. There was no correlation between environmental parameter values in the home range of foxes and A. phagocytophilum or H. canis infection, which is in line with that observed in the case of tick species infesting foxes in Hungary. The results of this study indicate that R. sanguineus, if present, might be rare in Hungary. Our baseline study can be used for future evaluation of the effect of climate change on the spreading and emergence of R. sanguineus transmitted pathogens in Hungary. PMID:26065623

  1. First molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sukyee; Lee, Seung-Hun; VanBik, Dorene; Kim, Neung-Hee; Kim, Kyoo-Tae; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Rhee, Man Hee; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the status of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection was assessed in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea, with PCR and phylogenetic analyses. Nested PCR on 1058 collected blood samples revealed only one A. phagocytophilum positive sample (female, age <1year, mixed breed, collected from the north of the Han River). The genetic variability of A. phagocytophilum was evaluated by genotyping, using the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 gene sequences of the positive sample. BLASTn analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 genes had 99.6%, 99.9%, and 100% identity with the following sequences deposited in GenBank: a cat 16S rRNA sequence from Korea (KR021166), a rat groEL sequence from Korea (KT220194), and a water deer msp2 sequence from Korea (HM752099), respectively. Phylogenetic analyses classified the groEL gene into two distinct groups (serine and alanine), whereas the msp2 gene showed a general classification into two groups (USA and Europe) that were further subgrouped according to region. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to describe the molecular diagnosis of A. phagocytophilum in dogs reared in Korea. In addition, the high genetic identity of the 16S rRNA and groEL sequences between humans and dogs from the same region suggests a possible epidemiological relation. Given the conditions of climate change, tick ecology, and recent incidence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis in Korea, the findings of this study underscore the need to establish appropriate control programs for tick-borne diseases in Korea. PMID:27130537

  2. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) - reservoir host of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Reiterová, Katarína; Špilovská, Silvia; Blaňarová, Lucia; Derdáková, Markéta; Čobádiová, Andrea; Hisira, Vladimír

    2016-03-01

    In Central Europe the wild boar population is permanently growing and consequently Cf foodborne infections. In this study serological and molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in wild boars was evaluated. Moreover, same samples were screened for the presence and genetic variability of tick-borne bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Blood samples collected from 113 wild boars from Southern Slovakia were examined for antibodies to T. gondii by indirect and to N. caninum by competitive ELISA. The presence of parasitic DNA in blood samples was determined by standard or real time PCR techniques. Antibodies against T. gondii and N. caninum were detected in 45 (39.8%) and 38 (33.6%) animals, respectively. Females were more frequently infected for both pathogens than males. The high seropositivity against both coccidia indicates a permanent occurrence of these pathogens in the studied locality. T. gondii DNA was confirmed in five seropositive boars (4.4%) and N. caninum in 23 blood samples (20.4%). Three out of 23 N. caninum PCR positive animals did not show seropositivity. Three out of 113 blood samples of wild boars were positive for A. phagocytophilum (2.7%). The obtained A. phagocytophilum sequences were 100% identical with GenBankTM isolates from Slovak dog (KC985242); German horse (JF893938) or wild boar (EF143810) and red deer (EF143808) from Poland. Coinfections of T. gondii with N. caninum and N. caninum with A. phagocytophilum were detected in single cases. Results suggest a potential zoonotic risk of toxoplasmosis transmission to humans and the spread of neosporosis to farm animals. PMID:27078648

  3. First molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sukyee; Lee, Seung-Hun; VanBik, Dorene; Kim, Neung-Hee; Kim, Kyoo-Tae; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Rhee, Man Hee; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the status of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection was assessed in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea, with PCR and phylogenetic analyses. Nested PCR on 1058 collected blood samples revealed only one A. phagocytophilum positive sample (female, age <1year, mixed breed, collected from the north of the Han River). The genetic variability of A. phagocytophilum was evaluated by genotyping, using the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 gene sequences of the positive sample. BLASTn analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 genes had 99.6%, 99.9%, and 100% identity with the following sequences deposited in GenBank: a cat 16S rRNA sequence from Korea (KR021166), a rat groEL sequence from Korea (KT220194), and a water deer msp2 sequence from Korea (HM752099), respectively. Phylogenetic analyses classified the groEL gene into two distinct groups (serine and alanine), whereas the msp2 gene showed a general classification into two groups (USA and Europe) that were further subgrouped according to region. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to describe the molecular diagnosis of A. phagocytophilum in dogs reared in Korea. In addition, the high genetic identity of the 16S rRNA and groEL sequences between humans and dogs from the same region suggests a possible epidemiological relation. Given the conditions of climate change, tick ecology, and recent incidence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis in Korea, the findings of this study underscore the need to establish appropriate control programs for tick-borne diseases in Korea.

  4. Differential exposure to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in rodent species in northern California.

    PubMed

    Foley, Janet E; Clueit, S Bernadette; Brown, Richard N

    2008-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic tick-borne rickettsial pathogen that causes granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA) in humans, horses, and dogs. In California, dusky-footed woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes) are a putative reservoir host, and Ixodes pacificus is a vector for transmission from rodents to humans, dogs, and horses. Cases are clustered in coastal and Sierra Nevada foothill regions, but not necessarily in proximity to infected woodrats. This study was designed to compare exposures and active infections of A. phagocytophilum in multiple rodents at a fine spatial scale in a hyperenzootic area and to evaluate the spatial clustering of infections. Of 331 rodents, the seroprevalence was 14.5%, with 60% in tree squirrels (Sciurus griseus and Tamiasciurus douglasii), 29% in woodrats, 14% in flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus), and 5% in chipmunks (Tamias senex). No seropositive ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) were detected. The seroprevalence was significantly higher west of the Trinity River (23.1%) than east (11.8%) of the river. One Douglas squirrel and one western gray squirrel were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive. There was more spatial clustering among seropositive animals compared with all animals tested across the spatial scales evaluated, and this clustering was significantly greater than expected by chance alone. A significant cluster of 24 seropositive animals was found west of the Trinity River, with a population of 56 animals considered within the 50% population-at-risk, and a radius of 362.8 meters. The diversity of cricetine and sciurid rodents infected suggests that squirrels and chipmunks may be underappreciated contributors to A. phagocytophilum ecology in the western United States. The spatial clustering of exposed animals suggests interesting underlying spatially heterogeneous environmental variables that could facilitate the persistence of A. phagocytophilum in nature. PMID:18047398

  5. Clinical and molecular features of one case of human infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum from Podlaskie Province in eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Welc-Falęciak, Renata; Kowalec, Maciej; Zajkowska, Joanna; Pancewicz, Sławomir A; Siński, Edward

    2015-01-01

    The article focuses on the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in one of 28 patients (3.6%; n=1/28 tested samples) with early Lyme borreliosis. The clinical and laboratory results of a 42-year-old patient fulfilled criteria of confirm anaplasmosis and suggest an acute stage of illness. The described case provides strong presumptive evidence that infection in this patient was acquired with a pathogenic strain of A. phagocytophilum through a tick bite. A positive DNA with PCR for A. phagocytophilum infection was sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Physicians should consider the possibility of anaplasmosis in patients with early Lyme borreliosis, and A. phagocytophilum should be considered as a differential diagnosis in all patients from an endemic region of potential high risk factors for tick-borne diseases. PMID:26403105

  6. Essential Domains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum Invasins Utilized to Infect Mammalian Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Seidman, David; Hebert, Kathryn S.; Truchan, Hilary K.; Miller, Daniel P.; Tegels, Brittney K.; Marconi, Richard T.; Carlyon, Jason A.

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes granulocytic anaplasmosis, an emerging disease of humans and domestic animals. The obligate intracellular bacterium uses its invasins OmpA, Asp14, and AipA to infect myeloid and non-phagocytic cells. Identifying the domains of these proteins that mediate binding and entry, and determining the molecular basis of their interactions with host cell receptors would significantly advance understanding of A. phagocytophilum infection. Here, we identified the OmpA binding domain as residues 59 to 74. Polyclonal antibody generated against a peptide spanning OmpA residues 59 to 74 inhibited A. phagocytophilum infection of host cells and binding to its receptor, sialyl Lewis x (sLex-capped P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1. Molecular docking analyses predicted that OmpA residues G61 and K64 interact with the two sLex sugars that are important for infection, α2,3-sialic acid and α1,3-fucose. Amino acid substitution analyses demonstrated that K64 was necessary, and G61 was contributory, for recombinant OmpA to bind to host cells and competitively inhibit A. phagocytophilum infection. Adherence of OmpA to RF/6A endothelial cells, which express little to no sLex but express the structurally similar glycan, 6-sulfo-sLex, required α2,3-sialic acid and α1,3-fucose and was antagonized by 6-sulfo-sLex antibody. Binding and uptake of OmpA-coated latex beads by myeloid cells was sensitive to sialidase, fucosidase, and sLex antibody. The Asp14 binding domain was also defined, as antibody specific for residues 113 to 124 inhibited infection. Because OmpA, Asp14, and AipA each contribute to the infection process, it was rationalized that the most effective blocking approach would target all three. An antibody cocktail targeting the OmpA, Asp14, and AipA binding domains neutralized A. phagocytophilum binding and infection of host cells. This study dissects OmpA-receptor interactions and demonstrates the effectiveness of binding domain-specific antibodies

  7. The first report of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and a novel Theileria spp. co-infection in a South African giraffe.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Tongyi; Cui, Yanyan; Wang, Jinhong; Lv, Yali; Wang, Rongjun; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Jiantang; Yang, Guangcheng; Ning, Changshen

    2016-08-01

    Organisms of the genera Anaplasma and Theileria are important intracellular bacteria and parasites that cause various tick-borne diseases, threatening the health of numerous animals as well as human beings. In the present study, a 12-month-old male wild South African giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) originating from South Africa, and living in Zhengzhou Zoo (located in the urban district of Zhengzhou in the provincial capital of Henan), suddenly developed an unknown fatal disease and died 1day after the onset of the clinical signs. By microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears combined with nested PCR and DNA sequence analysis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma bovis and a novel Theileria spp. were found in the blood of this giraffe. The six other Cervidae animals in the zoo and three ruminants living in the same colony house with them were found to be negative for both Anaplasma and Theileria in their blood specimens. We report on the first case of an A. phagocytophilum infection and the occurrence of a novel Theileria spp. in the blood of a giraffe. This is the first reported case of a multi-infection of A. bovis, A. phagocytophilum and Theileria spp. in a giraffe, as revealed by microscopic examination of blood smears and the results of nested PCR and DNA sequencing. PMID:27109775

  8. Genetic variability of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes persulcatus ticks and small mammals in the Asian part of Russia.

    PubMed

    Rar, Vera A; Epikhina, Tamara I; Livanova, Natalya N; Panov, Victor V; Doroschenko, Elena K; Pukhovskaya, Natalya M; Vysochina, Nelya P; Ivanov, Leonid I

    2011-08-01

    The specimens of 3552 questing adult Ixodes persulcatus and 1698 blood/tissue samples of small mammals collected in Ural, Siberia, and Far East of Russia were assayed for the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum by nested PCR based on the 16S rRNA gene. Totally, A. phagocytophilum was detected in 112 tick and 88 mammalian samples. The nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and groESL operon (1244-1295 bp) were determined for A. phagocytophilum samples from 65 ticks and 25 small mammals. Six different 16S rRNA gene variants differing by 1-5 nucleotide substitutions were detected, and only one variant matched the sequences deposited in GenBank. Analysis of groESL sequences allowed the A. phagocytophilum samples to be divided into three groups; moreover, the samples from different groups also differed in the 16S rRNA gene sequences. The A. phagocytophilum sequences from group I were detected in 11 Myodes spp. samples from West Siberia and Far East and in 19 I. persulcatus samples from all examined regions; from group II, in 10 samples of Myodes spp. and common shrews (Sorex araneus) from Ural; and from group III, in four samples of Asian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus) from West Siberia and Far East; and in 46 I. persulcatus samples from all examined regions. The nucleotide sequences of A. phagocytophilum groESL operon from groups I and II were strictly conserved and formed with A. phagocytophilum groESL sequence from a Swiss bank vole (Myodes glareolus) (GenBank accession no. AF192796), a separate cluster on the phylogenetic tree with a strong bootstrap support. The A. phagocytophilum groESL operon sequences from group III differed from one another by 1-4 nucleotides and formed a separate branch in the cluster generated by European A. phagocytophilum strains from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and Ixodes ricinus ticks. PMID:21612528

  9. Confirmation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes scapularis, Southwestern Virginia.

    PubMed

    Herrin, Brian H; Zajac, Anne M; Little, Susan E

    2014-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in a newly established population of Ixodes scapularis in the mountainous region of southwestern Virginia, questing adult ticks were collected and the identity and infection status of each tick was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. A total of 364 adult ticks were tested from three field sites. B. burgdorferi sensu stricto was identified in a total of 32/101 (32%) ticks from site A, 49/154 (32%) ticks from site B, and 36/101 (36%) ticks from site C, for a total prevalence rate of 33% (117/356). In addition, A. phagocytophilum was detected in 3/364 (0.8%) ticks, one from site A and two from site B. The prevalence of both pathogens in ticks at these sites is similar to that reported from established endemic areas. These data document the presence of I. scapularis and the agent of Lyme disease in a newly established area of the Appalachian region, providing further evidence of range expansion of both the tick and public and veterinary health risk it creates.

  10. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Domestic Animals in Ten Provinces/Cities of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijuan; Liu, Hong; Xu, Bianli; Lu, Qunying; Li, Liang; Chang, Litao; Zhang, Xiuchun; Fan, Desheng; Li, Guohua; Jin, Yuming; Cui, Feng; Shi, Yonglin; Li, Weihong; Xu, Jianguo; Yu, Xue Jie

    2012-01-01

    A nationwide epidemiologic investigation of domestic animal infections has been conducted in nine provinces and one city during 2007–2010. Serum samples from a total of 707 goats, 433 cattle, and 219 dogs were collected for detecting Anaplasma phagocytophilum IgG antibody by immunofluorescence assays and the average seroprevalences were 10.05% for dogs, 3.82% for goats, and 0.69% for cattle, respectively. A total of 472 goats, 201 cattle, 102 dog blood clots, and 1,580 ticks were collected for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifying A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA genes and the PCR-positive rates were 26.69% for goats, 23.38% for cattle, and 10.89% for dogs. Six species were identified and the average PCR-positive rates were 58.3% for Dermacentor silvarum, 43.9% for Haemaphysalis longicornis, 12.5% for Ixodes persulcatus, 7.5% (3 of 40) for Boophilus microplus, and 5.2% for Rhipicephalus sanguineus, respectively. The evidence in the study indicated the zoonotic Rickettsia is highly prevalent in China. PMID:22764312

  11. Habitat factors influencing distributions of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley.

    PubMed

    Manangan, J S; Schweitzer, S H; Nibbelink, N; Yabsley, M J; Gibbs, S E J; Wimberly, M C

    2007-01-01

    Human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (HME), caused by the bacterium Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), caused by the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum, are two emerging tick-borne zoonoses of concern. Factors influencing geographic distributions of these pathogens are not fully understood, especially at varying spatial extents (regional versus landscape) and resolutions (counties versus smaller land units). We used logistic regression to compare influences of physical environment, land cover composition, and landscape heterogeneity on distributions of A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis at multiple spatial extents. Pathogen presence or absence was determined from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) serum samples collected from 1981 to 2005. Ecological predictor variables were derived from spatial datasets that represented deer density, elevation, land cover, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), hydrology, and soil moisture. We used three strategies (a priori, exploratory, and spatial extent) to develop models. Best fitting models were applied within a geographic information system to create predictive probability surfaces for each bacterium. Ecological predictor variables generally resulted in better fitting models for E. chaffeensis than A. phagocytophilum (90.5% and 68% sensitivity, respectively), possibly as a result of differences in the natural histories of tick vectors. Although alternative model development strategies produced different models, in all cases bacteria presence or absence was affected by a combination of soil moisture or flooding variables (thought to affect primarily tick vectors) and forest cover or NDVI variables (thought to affect primarily mammalian hosts). This research demonstrates the potential for modeling the distributions of microscopic tick-borne pathogens using coarse regional datasets and emphasizes the importance of forest cover and flooding as environmental constraints, as well as

  12. The Prostaglandin E2-EP3 Receptor Axis Regulates Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Mediated NLRC4 Inflammasome Activation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaowei; Shaw, Dana K.; Hammond, Holly L.; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S.; Rayamajhi, Manira; Shirey, Kari Ann; Perkins, Darren J.; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Velayutham, Thangam S.; Evans, Sean M.; Rodino, Kyle G.; VieBrock, Lauren; Scanlon, Karen M.; Carbonetti, Nicholas H.; Carlyon, Jason A.; Miao, Edward A.; McBride, Jere W.; Kotsyfakis, Michail

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsial agents are sensed by pattern recognition receptors but lack pathogen-associated molecular patterns commonly observed in facultative intracellular bacteria. Due to these molecular features, the order Rickettsiales can be used to uncover broader principles of bacterial immunity. Here, we used the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, to reveal a novel microbial surveillance system. Mechanistically, we discovered that upon A. phagocytophilum infection, cytosolic phospholipase A2 cleaves arachidonic acid from phospholipids, which is converted to the eicosanoid prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) via cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and the membrane associated prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1). PGE2-EP3 receptor signaling leads to activation of the NLRC4 inflammasome and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Importantly, the receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 (RIPK2) was identified as a major regulator of the immune response against A. phagocytophilum. Accordingly, mice lacking COX2 were more susceptible to A. phagocytophilum, had a defect in IL-18 secretion and exhibited splenomegaly and damage to the splenic architecture. Remarkably, Salmonella-induced NLRC4 inflammasome activation was not affected by either chemical inhibition or genetic ablation of genes associated with PGE2 biosynthesis and signaling. This divergence in immune circuitry was due to reduced levels of the PGE2-EP3 receptor during Salmonella infection when compared to A. phagocytophilum. Collectively, we reveal the existence of a functionally distinct NLRC4 inflammasome illustrated by the rickettsial agent A. phagocytophilum. PMID:27482714

  13. Evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi infection in cats after exposure to wild-caught adult Ixodes scapularis.

    PubMed

    Lappin, Michael R; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Stillman, Brett; Liu, Jiayou; Mather, Thomas N

    2015-07-01

    Cats are infected by Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi when exposed to infected Ixodes scapularis (black-legged ticks). The purpose of our study was to allow wild-caught I. scapularis to feed on healthy research cats (n = 4) and temporally evaluate for A. phagocytophilum DNA in blood by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay as well as for antibody responses to the B. burgdorferi C6 peptide, to the A. phagocytophilum P44 peptide, and to a novel A. phagocytophilum peptide (P44-4). Prior to I. scapularis infestation, all cats were negative for antibodies against both organisms based on a kit optimized for dog serum, and negative for A. phagocytophilum DNA in blood using a conventional PCR assay. Using the pre-infestation samples, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting antibodies against the P44-4 peptide was optimized. Cats were infested with wild-caught I. scapularis for 7 days. Genomic DNA of A. phagocytophilum was amplified from the blood before antibodies were detected in all 4 cats. Antibodies against the C6 peptide, P44 peptide, and P44-4 peptide were detected in the sera of all 4 cats. Antibodies against P44-4 were detected prior to those against P44 in 3 out of 4 cats. The results suggest that a PCR assay should be considered in acutely ill cats with suspected anaplasmosis that are seronegative.

  14. The Prostaglandin E2-EP3 Receptor Axis Regulates Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Mediated NLRC4 Inflammasome Activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowei; Shaw, Dana K; Hammond, Holly L; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S; Rayamajhi, Manira; Shirey, Kari Ann; Perkins, Darren J; Bonventre, Joseph V; Velayutham, Thangam S; Evans, Sean M; Rodino, Kyle G; VieBrock, Lauren; Scanlon, Karen M; Carbonetti, Nicholas H; Carlyon, Jason A; Miao, Edward A; McBride, Jere W; Kotsyfakis, Michail; Pedra, Joao H F

    2016-08-01

    Rickettsial agents are sensed by pattern recognition receptors but lack pathogen-associated molecular patterns commonly observed in facultative intracellular bacteria. Due to these molecular features, the order Rickettsiales can be used to uncover broader principles of bacterial immunity. Here, we used the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, to reveal a novel microbial surveillance system. Mechanistically, we discovered that upon A. phagocytophilum infection, cytosolic phospholipase A2 cleaves arachidonic acid from phospholipids, which is converted to the eicosanoid prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) via cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and the membrane associated prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1). PGE2-EP3 receptor signaling leads to activation of the NLRC4 inflammasome and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Importantly, the receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 (RIPK2) was identified as a major regulator of the immune response against A. phagocytophilum. Accordingly, mice lacking COX2 were more susceptible to A. phagocytophilum, had a defect in IL-18 secretion and exhibited splenomegaly and damage to the splenic architecture. Remarkably, Salmonella-induced NLRC4 inflammasome activation was not affected by either chemical inhibition or genetic ablation of genes associated with PGE2 biosynthesis and signaling. This divergence in immune circuitry was due to reduced levels of the PGE2-EP3 receptor during Salmonella infection when compared to A. phagocytophilum. Collectively, we reveal the existence of a functionally distinct NLRC4 inflammasome illustrated by the rickettsial agent A. phagocytophilum. PMID:27482714

  15. The first clinical and laboratory evidence of co-infection by Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis in a Brazilian dog.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Júlia A G; Valente, Pâmela C L G; Paes, Paulo R O; Vasconcelos, Artur V; Silvestre, Bruna T; Ribeiro, Múcio F B

    2015-04-01

    Information on Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Brazil is very restricted. The aim of this study was to report clinical, parasitological, hematological and molecular evidence of a natural A. phagocytophilum infection of an urban Brazilian dog. The dog was an eight-month-old male French bulldog. Veterinary clinical examinations were performed three times: in April, June and December 2013. Biochemical and hematological analyses were performed during all examinations, and blood samples were collected for parasitological surveys in June and December. Morulae were present within neutrophils in blood smears from June. Both samples were PCR positive for A. phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia spp. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the phylogenetic topology placed samples from this study in close proximity to other A. phagocytophilum isolates. Ehrlichia isolates from this dog were 100% identical to E. canis isolates, thus E. canis and A. phagocytophilum co-infection was diagnosed in this dog. Lethargy and skin lesions were the clinical signs observed in this dog. Abnormal hematological parameters, among those, severe thrombocytopenia, were observed in all three occasions. This finding highlights the growing importance of A. phagocytophilum in South America.

  16. Anaplasma phagocytophilum induces Ixodes scapularis ticks to express an antifreeze glycoprotein gene that enhances their survival in the cold

    PubMed Central

    Neelakanta, Girish; Sultana, Hameeda; Fish, Durland; Anderson, John F.; Fikrig, Erol

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, Ixodes scapularis ticks overwinter in the Northeast and Upper Midwest and transmit the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, among other pathogens. We now show that the presence of A. phagocytophilum in I. scapularis ticks increases their ability to survive in the cold. We identified an I. scapularis antifreeze glycoprotein, designated IAFGP, and demonstrated via RNAi knockdown studies the importance of IAFGP for the survival of I. scapularis ticks in a cold environment. Transfection studies also show that IAFGP increased the viability of yeast cells subjected to cold temperature. Remarkably, A. phagocytophilum induced the expression of iafgp, thereby increasing the cold tolerance and survival of I. scapularis. These data define a molecular basis for symbiosis between a human pathogenic bacterium and its arthropod vector and delineate what we believe to be a new pathway that may be targeted to alter the life cycle of this microbe and its invertebrate host. PMID:20739755

  17. The infection of questing Dermacentor reticulatus ticks with Babesia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Vichová, Bronislavá; Slivinska, Kateryna; Werszko, Joanna; Didyk, Julia; Peťko, Branislav; Stanko, Michal; Akimov, Igor

    2014-08-29

    Tick occurrence was studied in the Chernobyl exclusion zone (CEZ) during the August-October 2009-2012. Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected using the flagging method and then screened for infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis by a PCR method incorporating specific primers and sequence analysis. The prevalence of infection with B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum was found to be 3.41% and 25.36%, respectively. The results present the first evidence of B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum in questing D. reticulatus ticks from the Chernobyl exclusion zone. They also reveal the presence of tick-borne disease foci in areas with no human activity, and confirm that they can be maintained in areas after a nuclear disaster with radioactive contamination.

  18. Nidicolous ticks of small mammals in Anaplasma phagocytophilum-enzootic sites in northern California

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Janet; Rejmanek, Daniel; Fleer, Katryna; Nieto, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Ixodes spp. tick-borne zoonotic diseases are present across the Holarctic in humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Small mammals are reservoirs for the rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum and tick vectors may include catholic-feeding bridge vectors as well as host-specialist or nidicolous ticks. Far western North American communities in which A. phagocytophilum is maintained are complex ecologically, with multiple reservoir host and tick species, multiple strains of the bacterial pathogen A. phagocytophilum and differences in dynamics of hosts and vectors across heterogeneous landscapes. We evaluated sites in northern California in order to identify primarily nidicolous ticks and the hosts they infest. A total of 667 ticks was found in 11 study sites, including 288 on flags and 379 attached to small mammals. Larvae were over-represented among attached ticks and adults on flags. The most abundant species was I. pacificus. Two-hundred fourteen nidicolous ticks were found, most abundantly I. angustus and I. spinipalpis. All adult I. ochotonae, I. auritulus, I. angustus, I. jellisoni, and I. woodi were female, while the male:female ratio of I. spinipalpis was 1.2:1 and 1:1 for I. pacificus. The greatest number of ticks was obtained from Tamias ochrogenys, Peromyscus spp., and Neotoma fuscipes. Of 234 small mammal individuals that were infested with Ixodes spp., only 81 (34.6%) were infested with I. pacificus. The remaining infested small mammals hosted nidicolous tick species. Eight ticks were PCR-positive, including 6 I. pacificus (one adult, one larva, and 6 nymphs), and 2 adult I. ochotonae and high PCR prevalences of 18% and 9% were detected in woodrats and chipmunks, respectively. Nymphal I. angustus ticks were active year-long with a possible increase in August while larval activity was only observed in December and spring months and adults only during spring and fall. Overall, we show high tick species richness and year-round high levels of

  19. Infection of Ixodes spp. tick cells with different Anaplasma phagocytophilum isolates induces the inhibition of apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Alberdi, Pilar; Ayllón, Nieves; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Zweygarth, Erich; Stuen, Snorre; de la Fuente, José

    2015-09-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an intracellular rickettsial pathogen transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks, which causes granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans, horses and dogs and tick-borne fever (TBF) in ruminants. In the United States, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is highly prevalent while TBF has not been reported. However, in Europe the situation is the opposite, with high prevalence for TBF in sheep and low prevalence of HGA. The origin of these differences has not been identified and our hypothesis is that different A. phagocytophilum isolates impact differently on tick vector capacity through inhibition of apoptosis to establish infection of the tick vector. In this study we used three different isolates of A. phagocytophilum of human, canine and ovine origin to infect the Ixodes ricinus-derived cell line IRE/CTVM20 and the Ixodes scapularis-derived cell line ISE6 in order to characterize the effect of infection on the level of tick cell apoptosis. Inhibition of apoptosis was observed by flow cytometry as early as 24h post-infection for both tick cell lines and all three isolates of A. phagocytophilum, suggesting that pathogen infection inhibits apoptotic pathways to facilitate infection independently of the origin of the A. phagocytophilum isolate and tick vector species. However, infection with A. phagocytophilum isolates inhibited the intrinsic apoptosis pathway at different levels in I. scapularis and I. ricinus cells. These results suggested an impact of vector-pathogen co-evolution on the adaptation of A. phagocytophilum isolates to grow in tick cells as each isolate grew better in the tick cell line derived from its natural vector species. These results increase our understanding of the mechanisms of A. phagocytophilum infection and multiplication and suggest that multiple mechanisms may affect disease prevalence in different geographical regions.

  20. Infection of Ixodes spp. tick cells with different Anaplasma phagocytophilum isolates induces the inhibition of apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Alberdi, Pilar; Ayllón, Nieves; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Zweygarth, Erich; Stuen, Snorre; de la Fuente, José

    2015-09-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an intracellular rickettsial pathogen transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks, which causes granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans, horses and dogs and tick-borne fever (TBF) in ruminants. In the United States, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is highly prevalent while TBF has not been reported. However, in Europe the situation is the opposite, with high prevalence for TBF in sheep and low prevalence of HGA. The origin of these differences has not been identified and our hypothesis is that different A. phagocytophilum isolates impact differently on tick vector capacity through inhibition of apoptosis to establish infection of the tick vector. In this study we used three different isolates of A. phagocytophilum of human, canine and ovine origin to infect the Ixodes ricinus-derived cell line IRE/CTVM20 and the Ixodes scapularis-derived cell line ISE6 in order to characterize the effect of infection on the level of tick cell apoptosis. Inhibition of apoptosis was observed by flow cytometry as early as 24h post-infection for both tick cell lines and all three isolates of A. phagocytophilum, suggesting that pathogen infection inhibits apoptotic pathways to facilitate infection independently of the origin of the A. phagocytophilum isolate and tick vector species. However, infection with A. phagocytophilum isolates inhibited the intrinsic apoptosis pathway at different levels in I. scapularis and I. ricinus cells. These results suggested an impact of vector-pathogen co-evolution on the adaptation of A. phagocytophilum isolates to grow in tick cells as each isolate grew better in the tick cell line derived from its natural vector species. These results increase our understanding of the mechanisms of A. phagocytophilum infection and multiplication and suggest that multiple mechanisms may affect disease prevalence in different geographical regions. PMID:26183310

  1. Transmission route efficacy and kinetics of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus.

    PubMed

    Massung, Robert F; Priestley, Rachael A; Levin, Michael L

    2004-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum was used to infect Peromyscus leucopus mice by three routes of inoculation: infected tick infestation and intraperitoneal (IP) and subcutaneous (SQ) injection of infected tissue culture cells. A set of 12 mice were infected (four tick, four IP, and four SQ), and blood was drawn at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 21, 28, 35, and 60 days post-infection and analyzed by use of a quantitative PCR assay to assess the level of infection. An additional set of 108 mice were infected (36 tick, 36 IP, 36 SQ) and euthanized at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 21, 28, and 35 days post-infection (four mice/time point), and blood, spleen, bone marrow, and bladder tissue samples were analyzed. Tick infection generally produced the highest average levels of infection and peaked at 9 days post-infestation in blood, spleen, and bone marrow and at 6 days after infestation in the bladder. IP injection resulted in levels of infection that peaked on day 6 (spleen) or 12 (bladder, bone marrow, and blood). A. phagocytophilum injected SQ showed low levels of infection, and the day of peak infection varied. The average level of infection in the blood drawstressed mice was consistently higher and peaked earlier than infection in the non-stressed, euthanized mice. Xenodiagnosis was used to assay a third set of 12 mice (four tick, four IP, and four SQ) on days 7 and 14 post-infection and ticks fed on tick-infected mice showed the highest rate of PCR-positive test results at both time points (day 7, 22.2%; day 14, 17.3%). These data indicate that P. leucopus mice can be infected by tick infestation, IP injection, or SQ injection but that the kinetics and level of infection are quite variable among individual mice, may be influenced by the route of inoculation, and may be further altered by common laboratory procedures such as repeated collection of blood samples.

  2. An O-Methyltransferase Is Required for Infection of Tick Cells by Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

    PubMed

    Oliva Chávez, Adela S; Fairman, James W; Felsheim, Roderick F; Nelson, Curtis M; Herron, Michael J; Higgins, LeeAnn; Burkhardt, Nicole Y; Oliver, Jonathan D; Markowski, Todd W; Kurtti, Timothy J; Edwards, Thomas E; Munderloh, Ulrike G

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (HGA), is an obligately intracellular α-proteobacterium that is transmitted by Ixodes spp ticks. However, the pathogen is not transovarially transmitted between tick generations and therefore needs to survive in both a mammalian host and the arthropod vector to complete its life cycle. To adapt to different environments, pathogens rely on differential gene expression as well as the modification of proteins and other molecules. Random transposon mutagenesis of A. phagocytophilum resulted in an insertion within the coding region of an o-methyltransferase (omt) family 3 gene. In wild-type bacteria, expression of omt was up-regulated during binding to tick cells (ISE6) at 2 hr post-inoculation, but nearly absent by 4 hr p.i. Gene disruption reduced bacterial binding to ISE6 cells, and the mutant bacteria that were able to enter the cells were arrested in their replication and development. Analyses of the proteomes of wild-type versus mutant bacteria during binding to ISE6 cells identified Major Surface Protein 4 (Msp4), but also hypothetical protein APH_0406, as the most differentially methylated. Importantly, two glutamic acid residues (the targets of the OMT) were methyl-modified in wild-type Msp4, whereas a single asparagine (not a target of the OMT) was methylated in APH_0406. In vitro methylation assays demonstrated that recombinant OMT specifically methylated Msp4. Towards a greater understanding of the overall structure and catalytic activity of the OMT, we solved the apo (PDB_ID:4OA8), the S-adenosine homocystein-bound (PDB_ID:4OA5), the SAH-Mn2+ bound (PDB_ID:4PCA), and SAM- Mn2+ bound (PDB_ID:4PCL) X-ray crystal structures of the enzyme. Here, we characterized a mutation in A. phagocytophilum that affected the ability of the bacteria to productively infect cells from its natural vector. Nevertheless, due to the lack of complementation, we cannot rule out secondary mutations

  3. An O-Methyltransferase Is Required for Infection of Tick Cells by Anaplasma phagocytophilum

    PubMed Central

    Oliva Chávez, Adela S.; Fairman, James W.; Felsheim, Roderick F.; Nelson, Curtis M.; Herron, Michael J.; Higgins, LeeAnn; Burkhardt, Nicole Y.; Oliver, Jonathan D.; Markowski, Todd W.; Kurtti, Timothy J.; Edwards, Thomas E.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (HGA), is an obligately intracellular α-proteobacterium that is transmitted by Ixodes spp ticks. However, the pathogen is not transovarially transmitted between tick generations and therefore needs to survive in both a mammalian host and the arthropod vector to complete its life cycle. To adapt to different environments, pathogens rely on differential gene expression as well as the modification of proteins and other molecules. Random transposon mutagenesis of A. phagocytophilum resulted in an insertion within the coding region of an o-methyltransferase (omt) family 3 gene. In wild-type bacteria, expression of omt was up-regulated during binding to tick cells (ISE6) at 2 hr post-inoculation, but nearly absent by 4 hr p.i. Gene disruption reduced bacterial binding to ISE6 cells, and the mutant bacteria that were able to enter the cells were arrested in their replication and development. Analyses of the proteomes of wild-type versus mutant bacteria during binding to ISE6 cells identified Major Surface Protein 4 (Msp4), but also hypothetical protein APH_0406, as the most differentially methylated. Importantly, two glutamic acid residues (the targets of the OMT) were methyl-modified in wild-type Msp4, whereas a single asparagine (not a target of the OMT) was methylated in APH_0406. In vitro methylation assays demonstrated that recombinant OMT specifically methylated Msp4. Towards a greater understanding of the overall structure and catalytic activity of the OMT, we solved the apo (PDB_ID:4OA8), the S-adenosine homocystein-bound (PDB_ID:4OA5), the SAH-Mn2+ bound (PDB_ID:4PCA), and SAM- Mn2+ bound (PDB_ID:4PCL) X-ray crystal structures of the enzyme. Here, we characterized a mutation in A. phagocytophilum that affected the ability of the bacteria to productively infect cells from its natural vector. Nevertheless, due to the lack of complementation, we cannot rule out secondary mutations

  4. Prevalence and Diversity among Anaplasma phagocytophilum Strains Originating from Ixodes ricinus Ticks from Northwest Norway.

    PubMed

    Tveten, Ann-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    The tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes great concern for livestock farmers. Tick-borne fever is a widespread disease in Norway, and antibodies have been produced amongst sheep, roe deer, red deer, and moose. The main vector Ixodes ricinus is found along the Norwegian coastline as far north as the Arctic Circle. A total number of 1804 I. ricinus ticks were collected and the prevalence of the pathogen was determined by species-specific qPCR. The overall infection rate varied from 2.83% to 3.32%, but there were no significant differences (p = 0.01) in the overall infection rate in 2010, 2011, or 2012. A multilocus sequencing analysis was performed to further characterise the isolates. The genotyping of 27 strains resulted in classification into 19 different sequences types (ST), none of which was found in the MLST database. The nucleotide diversity was for every locus <0.01, and the number of SNPs was between 1 and 2.8 per 100 bp. The majority of SNPs were synonymous. A goeBURST analysis demonstrated that the strains from northwest Norway cluster together with other Norwegian strains in the MLST database and the strains that are included in this study constitute clonal complexes (CC) 9, 10, and 11 in addition to the singleton. PMID:25215241

  5. Isolation, propagation and preliminary characterisation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in the tick cell line IDE8.

    PubMed

    Silaghi, Cornelia; Kauffmann, Melanie; Passos, Lygia M F; Pfister, Kurt; Zweygarth, Erich

    2011-12-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterium causing granulocytic anaplasmosis in dogs, horses, and humans and tick-borne fever of ruminants. The bacterium has been detected in a variety of other mammals including wild ruminants without overt clinical signs of disease. Isolates in cell culture have been obtained from humans, dogs, horses, sheep, and ticks, but no strain from wild ruminants exists in cell culture in Europe. From September to November 2010, EDTA blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of 19 shot roe deer from a forest in southern Germany. The presence of specific A. phagocytophilum DNA was demonstrated with a real-time PCR targeting the msp2 gene in all 19 animals. Subsequently, blood cells were used to inoculate the tick cell line IDE8. The first infected IDE8 cells were detected in Giemsa-stained smears 57 days post inoculation. Only one roe deer yielded a positive culture which has been propagated for 9 consecutive passages thus far representing 228 days in culture. Further analysis of the A. phagocytophilum strain was performed by PCR followed by sequencing for the partial 16S rRNA, groEL, msp2, and msp4 genes. Phylogenetic topology of groEL and msp4 sequences placed the roe deer isolate in close proximity to sequences available from roe deer and goats from the neighbouring Alpine regions of Austria and Switzerland, and of msp2 with other ruminant species. This represents the first isolation of A. phagocytophilum in a tick cell line directly from an infected wild ruminant reservoir host, Capreolus capreolus, in Europe. The availability of a cultured A. phagocytophilum strain isolated from roe deer will allow us to study the biological characteristics and the pathogenic potential of this strain as well as to compare its host tropism and its genetic and antigenetic properties with those of other A. phagocytophilum strains from other animal species. PMID:22108013

  6. Systems Biology of Tissue-Specific Response to Anaplasma phagocytophilum Reveals Differentiated Apoptosis in the Tick Vector Ixodes scapularis

    PubMed Central

    Ayllón, Nieves; Villar, Margarita; Galindo, Ruth C.; Kocan, Katherine M.; Šíma, Radek; López, Juan A.; Vázquez, Jesús; Alberdi, Pilar; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Kopáček, Petr; de la Fuente, José

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging pathogen that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Infection with this zoonotic pathogen affects cell function in both vertebrate host and the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis. Global tissue-specific response and apoptosis signaling pathways were characterized in I. scapularis nymphs and adult female midguts and salivary glands infected with A. phagocytophilum using a systems biology approach combining transcriptomics and proteomics. Apoptosis was selected for pathway-focused analysis due to its role in bacterial infection of tick cells. The results showed tissue-specific differences in tick response to infection and revealed differentiated regulation of apoptosis pathways. The impact of bacterial infection was more pronounced in tick nymphs and midguts than in salivary glands, probably reflecting bacterial developmental cycle. All apoptosis pathways described in other organisms were identified in I. scapularis, except for the absence of the Perforin ortholog. Functional characterization using RNA interference showed that Porin knockdown significantly increases tick colonization by A. phagocytophilum. Infection with A. phagocytophilum produced complex tissue-specific alterations in transcript and protein levels. In tick nymphs, the results suggested a possible effect of bacterial infection on the inhibition of tick immune response. In tick midguts, the results suggested that A. phagocytophilum infection inhibited cell apoptosis to facilitate and establish infection through up-regulation of the JAK/STAT pathway. Bacterial infection inhibited the intrinsic apoptosis pathway in tick salivary glands by down-regulating Porin expression that resulted in the inhibition of Cytochrome c release as the anti-apoptotic mechanism to facilitate bacterial infection. However, tick salivary glands may promote apoptosis to limit bacterial infection through induction of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway. These dynamic changes in response to A

  7. Systems biology of tissue-specific response to Anaplasma phagocytophilum reveals differentiated apoptosis in the tick vector Ixodes scapularis.

    PubMed

    Ayllón, Nieves; Villar, Margarita; Galindo, Ruth C; Kocan, Katherine M; Šíma, Radek; López, Juan A; Vázquez, Jesús; Alberdi, Pilar; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Kopáček, Petr; de la Fuente, José

    2015-03-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging pathogen that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Infection with this zoonotic pathogen affects cell function in both vertebrate host and the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis. Global tissue-specific response and apoptosis signaling pathways were characterized in I. scapularis nymphs and adult female midguts and salivary glands infected with A. phagocytophilum using a systems biology approach combining transcriptomics and proteomics. Apoptosis was selected for pathway-focused analysis due to its role in bacterial infection of tick cells. The results showed tissue-specific differences in tick response to infection and revealed differentiated regulation of apoptosis pathways. The impact of bacterial infection was more pronounced in tick nymphs and midguts than in salivary glands, probably reflecting bacterial developmental cycle. All apoptosis pathways described in other organisms were identified in I. scapularis, except for the absence of the Perforin ortholog. Functional characterization using RNA interference showed that Porin knockdown significantly increases tick colonization by A. phagocytophilum. Infection with A. phagocytophilum produced complex tissue-specific alterations in transcript and protein levels. In tick nymphs, the results suggested a possible effect of bacterial infection on the inhibition of tick immune response. In tick midguts, the results suggested that A. phagocytophilum infection inhibited cell apoptosis to facilitate and establish infection through up-regulation of the JAK/STAT pathway. Bacterial infection inhibited the intrinsic apoptosis pathway in tick salivary glands by down-regulating Porin expression that resulted in the inhibition of Cytochrome c release as the anti-apoptotic mechanism to facilitate bacterial infection. However, tick salivary glands may promote apoptosis to limit bacterial infection through induction of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway. These dynamic changes in response to A

  8. Systems biology of tissue-specific response to Anaplasma phagocytophilum reveals differentiated apoptosis in the tick vector Ixodes scapularis.

    PubMed

    Ayllón, Nieves; Villar, Margarita; Galindo, Ruth C; Kocan, Katherine M; Šíma, Radek; López, Juan A; Vázquez, Jesús; Alberdi, Pilar; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Kopáček, Petr; de la Fuente, José

    2015-03-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging pathogen that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Infection with this zoonotic pathogen affects cell function in both vertebrate host and the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis. Global tissue-specific response and apoptosis signaling pathways were characterized in I. scapularis nymphs and adult female midguts and salivary glands infected with A. phagocytophilum using a systems biology approach combining transcriptomics and proteomics. Apoptosis was selected for pathway-focused analysis due to its role in bacterial infection of tick cells. The results showed tissue-specific differences in tick response to infection and revealed differentiated regulation of apoptosis pathways. The impact of bacterial infection was more pronounced in tick nymphs and midguts than in salivary glands, probably reflecting bacterial developmental cycle. All apoptosis pathways described in other organisms were identified in I. scapularis, except for the absence of the Perforin ortholog. Functional characterization using RNA interference showed that Porin knockdown significantly increases tick colonization by A. phagocytophilum. Infection with A. phagocytophilum produced complex tissue-specific alterations in transcript and protein levels. In tick nymphs, the results suggested a possible effect of bacterial infection on the inhibition of tick immune response. In tick midguts, the results suggested that A. phagocytophilum infection inhibited cell apoptosis to facilitate and establish infection through up-regulation of the JAK/STAT pathway. Bacterial infection inhibited the intrinsic apoptosis pathway in tick salivary glands by down-regulating Porin expression that resulted in the inhibition of Cytochrome c release as the anti-apoptotic mechanism to facilitate bacterial infection. However, tick salivary glands may promote apoptosis to limit bacterial infection through induction of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway. These dynamic changes in response to A

  9. Multilocus sequence analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum reveals three distinct lineages with different host ranges in clinically ill French cattle.

    PubMed

    Chastagner, Amélie; Dugat, Thibaud; Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Verheyden, Hélène; Legrand, Loïc; Bachy, Véronique; Chabanne, Luc; Joncour, Guy; Maillard, Renaud; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Haddad, Nadia; Bailly, Xavier; Leblond, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology represents a powerful approach to elucidate the complex epidemiological cycles of multi-host pathogens, such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum. A. phagocytophilum is a tick-borne bacterium that affects a wide range of wild and domesticated animals. Here, we characterized its genetic diversity in populations of French cattle; we then compared the observed genotypes with those found in horses, dogs, and roe deer to determine whether genotypes of A. phagocytophilum are shared among different hosts. We sampled 120 domesticated animals (104 cattle, 13 horses, and 3 dogs) and 40 wild animals (roe deer) and used multilocus sequence analysis on nine loci (ankA, msp4, groESL, typA, pled, gyrA, recG, polA, and an intergenic region) to characterize the genotypes of A. phagocytophilum present. Phylogenic analysis revealed three genetic clusters of bacterial variants in domesticated animals. The two principal clusters included 98% of the bacterial genotypes found in cattle, which were only distantly related to those in roe deer. One cluster comprised only cattle genotypes, while the second contained genotypes from cattle, horses, and dogs. The third contained all roe deer genotypes and three cattle genotypes. Geographical factors could not explain this clustering pattern. These results suggest that roe deer do not contribute to the spread of A. phagocytophilum in cattle in France. Further studies should explore if these different clusters are associated with differing disease severity in domesticated hosts. Additionally, it remains to be seen if the three clusters of A. phagocytophilum genotypes in cattle correspond to distinct epidemiological cycles, potentially involving different reservoir hosts.

  10. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum genotypes that are potentially virulent for human in wild ruminants and Ixodes ricinus in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Domenico, M; Pascucci, I; Curini, V; Cocco, A; Dall'Acqua, F; Pompilii, C; Cammà, C

    2016-07-01

    Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is an emerging tick-borne zoonosis worldwide. As is the case for many tick-borne diseases, the epidemiological cycle is associated to the environmental conditions, including the presence of wild vertebrate reservoir hosts, vectors, climate and vegetation. In this study a total number of 87 spleen samples of wild ruminants carcasses from Central Italy, and 77 Ixodes ricinus collected from the same dead animals were screened for Anaplasma phagocytophilum by using Real Time PCR. A. phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 75%, 66.7% and 54.2% of the spleen samples from red deer (Cervus elaphus), Apennine chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) respectively, whereas it was detected in the 31.2% of I. ricinus. A total of 27 positive samples were characterized by sequencing a portion of the groEL gene. Two A. phagocytophilum lineages could clearly be delineated from the phylogenetic tree. Four sequences from red deer, 2 from I. ricinus and 1 from Apennine chamois clustered into lineage I together with those previously described as virulent genotypes related to HGA. The presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA in the Apennine chamois represents the first report for this Italian endemic subspecies. PMID:27020736

  11. Comparison of the reservoir competence of medium-sized mammals and Peromyscus leucopus for Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Levin, Michael L; Nicholson, William L; Massung, Robert F; Sumner, John W; Fish, Durland

    2002-01-01

    In the northeastern United States, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE), is transmitted by the tick vector Ixodes scapularis. The white-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus is a competent reservoir for this agent, but the reservoir competence of non-Peromyscus hosts of I. scapularis has not been studied. Here, we report data confirming reservoir competence of medium-sized mammals for A. phagocytophilum. Raccoons, Virginia opossums, gray squirrels, and striped skunks were live-trapped in June-August of 1998-1999 at two locations in Connecticut. Captured animals were kept for several days at the laboratory in wire-mesh cages over water to allow naturally attached ticks to drop off. Samples of blood and serum were taken from each animal prior to its release at the site of capture. Engorged ticks collected from each animal were allowed to molt. Resulting I. scapularis nymphs and adults were tested for the presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA by polymerase chain reaction, as were the blood samples from the animals. A. phagocytophilum DNA was detected in the blood of >10% of the raccoons tested. Raccoons, opossums, squirrels, and skunks produced adult I. scapularis infected with the agent of HGE. Prevalence of infection was the highest in adult ticks fed as nymphs upon raccoons (23%) and the lowest in those fed upon skunks and opossums (5-7%). The agent was present in nymphal I. scapularis fed as larvae upon raccoons and squirrels, but not in ticks fed upon skunks or opossums. We also tested the ability of I. scapularis to transmit A. phagocytophilum to laboratory-reared white-footed mice after acquiring it from medium-sized mammals. Ticks that acquired the agent from raccoons and squirrels successfully transmitted it to mice. Thus, raccoons and gray squirrels are reservoir-competent for the agent of HGE-they become naturally infected, and are capable of transmitting the infection to feeding ticks.

  12. Genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in wild caprine and cervid ungulates from the Alps in Tyrol, Austria.

    PubMed

    Silaghi, Cornelia; Hamel, Dietmar; Thiel, Claudia; Pfister, Kurt; Passos, Lygia Maria Friche; Rehbein, Steffen

    2011-04-01

    The occurrence of genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum was studied in wild ungulates from the northern and central eastern Alps in Tyrol, Austria. For this purpose, spleen samples collected from 53 game animals during the hunting season 2008/2009 (16 roe deer [Capreolus capreolus], 10 red deer [Cervus elaphus], 16 Alpine chamois [Rupicapra r. rupicapra], 7 Alpine ibex [Capra i. ibex], and 4 European mouflons [Ovis orientalis musimon]) were analyzed. Thirty-five animals originated from the Karwendel mountains, 12 from the Kaunertal area (Ötztal Alps), and the remaining from other mountainous areas in Tyrol. DNA extracts were screened with a real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting the msp2 gene of A. phagocytophilum. A total of 23 (43.4%) samples, from all ungulate species studied, were A. phagocytophilum positive. As of the date of this article, A. phagocytophilum has not been reported in the Alpine ibex. The positive samples were investigated further with polymerase chain reactions for amplification of the partial 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp4 genes. Sequence analysis using forward and reverse primers revealed seven different 16S rRNA gene variants. No variant could be attributed to any particular ungulate species. The groEL gene revealed 11 different variants, which grouped in the phylogenetic analysis into two distinct clusters: one cluster contained the sequences from roe deer, whereas the sequences of the other species formed the second cluster. The msp4 gene showed a high degree of variability in the amplified part with a total of 10 different sequence types. The results show that the wild mountain ungulates were infected to a considerable extent with various variants of A. phagocytophilum. The pathogenicity of the variants and the reservoir competence of the species investigated in this study deserve further attention in future studies.

  13. Prevalence of human-active and variant 1 strains of the tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum in hosts and forests of eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Keesing, Felicia; McHenry, Diana J; Hersh, Michelle; Tibbetts, Michael; Brunner, Jesse L; Killilea, Mary; LoGiudice, Kathleen; Schmidt, Kenneth A; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2014-08-01

    Anaplasmosis is an emerging infectious disease caused by infection with the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In the eastern United States, A. phagocytophilum is transmitted to hosts through the bite of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. We determined the realized reservoir competence of 14 species of common vertebrate hosts for ticks by establishing the probability that each species transmits two important strains of A. phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum human-active, which causes human cases, and A. phagocytophilum variant 1, which does not) to feeding larval ticks. We also sampled questing nymphal ticks from ∼ 150 sites in a single county over 2 years and sampled over 6 years at one location. White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and Eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) were the most competent reservoirs for infection with the A. phagocytophilum human-active strain. Across the county, prevalence in ticks for both strains together was 8.3%; ticks were more than two times as likely to be infected with A. phagocytophilum human-active as A. phagocytophilum variant 1. PMID:24865688

  14. Prevalence of human-active and variant 1 strains of the tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum in hosts and forests of eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Keesing, Felicia; McHenry, Diana J; Hersh, Michelle; Tibbetts, Michael; Brunner, Jesse L; Killilea, Mary; LoGiudice, Kathleen; Schmidt, Kenneth A; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2014-08-01

    Anaplasmosis is an emerging infectious disease caused by infection with the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In the eastern United States, A. phagocytophilum is transmitted to hosts through the bite of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. We determined the realized reservoir competence of 14 species of common vertebrate hosts for ticks by establishing the probability that each species transmits two important strains of A. phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum human-active, which causes human cases, and A. phagocytophilum variant 1, which does not) to feeding larval ticks. We also sampled questing nymphal ticks from ∼ 150 sites in a single county over 2 years and sampled over 6 years at one location. White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and Eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) were the most competent reservoirs for infection with the A. phagocytophilum human-active strain. Across the county, prevalence in ticks for both strains together was 8.3%; ticks were more than two times as likely to be infected with A. phagocytophilum human-active as A. phagocytophilum variant 1.

  15. Prevalence of Human-Active and Variant 1 Strains of the Tick-Borne Pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Hosts and Forests of Eastern North America

    PubMed Central

    Keesing, Felicia; McHenry, Diana J.; Hersh, Michelle; Tibbetts, Michael; Brunner, Jesse L.; Killilea, Mary; LoGiudice, Kathleen; Schmidt, Kenneth A.; Ostfeld, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    Anaplasmosis is an emerging infectious disease caused by infection with the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In the eastern United States, A. phagocytophilum is transmitted to hosts through the bite of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. We determined the realized reservoir competence of 14 species of common vertebrate hosts for ticks by establishing the probability that each species transmits two important strains of A. phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum human-active, which causes human cases, and A. phagocytophilum variant 1, which does not) to feeding larval ticks. We also sampled questing nymphal ticks from ∼150 sites in a single county over 2 years and sampled over 6 years at one location. White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and Eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) were the most competent reservoirs for infection with the A. phagocytophilum human-active strain. Across the county, prevalence in ticks for both strains together was 8.3%; ticks were more than two times as likely to be infected with A. phagocytophilum human-active as A. phagocytophilum variant 1. PMID:24865688

  16. Evaluation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum in sheep.

    PubMed

    Woldehiwet, Z; Yavari, C

    2012-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ovine serum samples was evaluated. The assay used purified A. phagocytophilum grown in tick cell cultures as antigen. Serum samples were diluted 1 in 200 and binding was detected with anti-sheep IgG conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. All tests were carried out in the presence of positive and negative control samples. Optical density (OD) values obtained for each test sample at 490 nm were used to calculate percentage positivity (PP) of each sample based on the ratio of the OD of the test sample that of the positive reference sample. Known negative samples (n=69) obtained from uninfected sheep bred and maintained in a tick-free environment and subsequently shown to be susceptible to A. phagocytophilum were used to establish the cut-off point between negative and positive samples and to establish the specificity of the test. Serum samples obtained from 92 animals 14-21 days after infection were used to establish the sensitivity of the test. Using a cut-off point of 20PP (mean+2 standard deviations of the PP of 69 control samples) the test was shown to have a sensitivity of 84.8% and a specificity of 95.7%. Lowering the cut-off point to 15PP increased the sensitivity to 94.6%, but reduced the specificity to 92.8%.

  17. Ixodes ricinus as a vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti in urban and suburban forests.

    PubMed

    Stańczak, Joanna; Gabre, Refaat Mohammed; Kruminis-Łozowska, Wiesława; Racewicz, Maria; Kubica-Biernat, Beata

    2004-01-01

    In the suburban and urban forests in the cities of Gdansk, Sopot and Gdynia (northern Poland), Ixodes ricinus ticks should be considered as the vector of pathogenic microorganisms that may cause significant diseases in wild and domestic animals and humans. These microorganisms include etiologic agents of Lyme disease, human anaplasmosis (HA) and babesiosis: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti, respectively. DNA extracts from 701 ticks collected in 15 localities were examined by PCR for the simultaneous detection of these 3 pathogens. Overall, 14 % were infected with A. phagocytophilum followed by 12.4 % with B. burgdorferi s.l. and 2.3 % with B. microti. In total, the percentage of infected females (32.9 %) was 2.4 times higher than in males (13.7 %) and 3.2 times higher than in nymphs (10.3 %). Among adult ticks (n = 303), 8.3 % were dually infected with A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l., 2.0 % with the agent of human anaplasmosis and B. microti and 0.3 % with borreliae and B. microti.

  18. Molecular Survey of Anaplasma Species in Small Ruminants Reveals the Presence of Novel Strains Closely Related to A. phagocytophilum in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Said, Mourad; Belkahia, Hanène; Alberti, Alberto; Zobba, Rosanna; Bousrih, Maha; Yahiaoui, Mouna; Daaloul-Jedidi, Monia; Mamlouk, Aymen; Gharbi, Mohamed; Messadi, Lilia

    2015-10-01

    A survey of Anaplasma species in small ruminants is still lacking in North African countries. In this study, the presence of A. phagocytophilum, A. phagocytophilum-related species, and A. ovis was investigated in a total of 563 healthy small ruminants (303 goats and 260 sheep), from 25 randomly selected flocks sampled in Tunisia. Anaplasma spp. and A. ovis overall infection rates were 95.0% and 93.8% in sheep and 69.6% and 65.3% in goats, respectively. A. phagocytophilum was not detected in any of tested animals. A total of 20 sheep (7.7%) and 144 goats (47.5%) were infected by Anaplasma strains genetically related to A. phagocytophilum. Both in sheep and goats A. ovis prevalence was higher in adults (≥2 years) than in young (<2 years) subjects (p = 0.001 and 0.002 for goats and sheep, respectively). In sheep, A. ovis prevalence was higher in ewes with respect to rams (p = 0.010). The A. ovis infection rate was significantly lower in goats of the local breed (p = 0.049) and it was higher in goats infested by ticks than in not infested animals (p = 0.005). Genetic analysis of the msp4 gene of A. ovis indicated the presence of strains shared by Tunisian sheep and goats. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic studies on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene provided evidence for the circulation of at least two different potentially novel species genetically related to A. phagocytophilum in Tunisian small ruminants. These findings cause concern about specificity of serological tests used for detection of A. phagocytophilum in ruminants and provide additional information for elucidating pathogenesis and molecular epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum and related species. PMID:26394065

  19. The Anaplasma phagocytophilum-occupied vacuole selectively recruits Rab-GTPases that are predominantly associated with recycling endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bernice; Hubber, Andree; McDonough, Justin A.; Roy, Craig R.; Scidmore, Marci A.; Carlyon, Jason A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterium that infects neutrophils to reside within a host cell-derived vacuole. The A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuole (ApV) fails to mature along the endocytic pathway and is non-fusogenic with lysosomes. Rab GTPases regulate membrane traffic. To better understand how the bacterium modulates the ApV’s selective fusogencity, we examined the intracellular localization of 20 green fluorescent protein (GFP) or red fluorescent protein (RFP)-tagged Rab GTPases in A. phagocytophilum infected HL-60 cells. GFP-Rab4A, GFP-Rab10, GFP-Rab11A, GFP-Rab14, RFP-Rab22A, and GFP-Rab35, which regulate endocytic recycling, and GFP-Rab1, which mediates endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi apparatus trafficking, localize to the ApV. Fluorescently tagged Rabs are recruited to the ApV upon its formation and remain associated throughout infection. Endogenous Rab14 localizes to the ApV. Tetracycline treatment concomitantly promotes loss of recycling endosome-associated GFP-Rabs and acquisition of GFP-Rab5, GFP-Rab7, and the lysosomal marker, LAMP-1. Wild-type and GTPase-deficient versions, but not GDP-restricted versions of GFP-Rab1, GFP-Rab4A, and GFP-Rab11A localize to the ApV. Strikingly, GFP-Rab10 recruitment to the ApV is guanine nucleotide-independent. These data establish that A. phagocytophilum selectively recruits Rab GTPases that are primarily associated with recycling endosomes to facilitate its intracellular survival and implicate bacterial proteins in regulating Rab10 membrane cycling on the ApV. PMID:20345488

  20. Unique strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum segregate among diverse questing and non-questing Ixodes tick species in the western United States

    PubMed Central

    Rejmanek, Daniel; Freycon, Pauline; Bradburd, Gideon; Dinstell, Jenna; Foley, Janet

    2013-01-01

    The emerging tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum infects humans, domestic animals, and wildlife throughout the Holarctic. In the western U.S., the ecology of A. phagocytophilum is particularly complex, with multiple pathogen strains, tick vectors, and reservoir hosts. A recent phylogenetic analysis of A. phagocytophilum strains isolated from various small mammal hosts in California documented distinct clustering of woodrat strains separate from sciurid (chipmunk and squirrel) strains. Here, we identified strains of A. phagocytophilum in various Ixodes tick species in California and related these genotypes to those found among reservoir and clinical hosts from the same areas. The sequences from all of the nidicolous (nest-dwelling) Ixodes ticks grouped within a clade that also contained all of the woodrat-origin A. phagocytophilum strains. Two of the I. pacificus sequences were also grouped within this woodrat clade, while the remaining five belonged to a less genetically diverse clade that included several sciurid-origin strains as well as a dog, a horse, and a human strain. By comparing A. phagocytophilum strains from multiple sources concurrently, we were able to gain a clearer picture of how A. phagocytophilum strains in the western U.S. are partitioned, which hosts and vectors are most likely to be infected with a particular strain, and which tick species and reservoir hosts pose the greatest health risk to humans and domestic animals. PMID:23994335

  1. Unique strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum segregate among diverse questing and non-questing Ixodes tick species in the western United States.

    PubMed

    Rejmanek, Daniel; Freycon, Pauline; Bradburd, Gideon; Dinstell, Jenna; Foley, Janet

    2013-12-01

    The emerging tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum infects humans, domestic animals, and wildlife throughout the Holarctic. In the western US, the ecology of A. phagocytophilum is particularly complex, with multiple pathogen strains, tick vectors, and reservoir hosts. A recent phylogenetic analysis of A. phagocytophilum strains isolated from various small mammal hosts in California documented distinct clustering of woodrat strains separate from sciurid (chipmunk and squirrel) strains. Here, we identified strains of A. phagocytophilum in various Ixodes tick species in California and related these genotypes to those found among reservoir and clinical hosts from the same areas. The sequences from all of the nidicolous (nest-dwelling) Ixodes ticks grouped within a clade that also contained all of the woodrat-origin A. phagocytophilum strains. Two of the I. pacificus sequences were also grouped within this woodrat clade, while the remaining five belonged to a less genetically diverse clade that included several sciurid-origin strains as well as a dog, a horse, and a human strain. By comparing A. phagocytophilum strains from multiple sources concurrently, we were able to gain a clearer picture of how A. phagocytophilum strains in the western US are partitioned, which hosts and vectors are most likely to be infected with a particular strain, and which tick species and reservoir hosts pose the greatest health risk to humans and domestic animals.

  2. Molecular Survey of Anaplasma Species in Small Ruminants Reveals the Presence of Novel Strains Closely Related to A. phagocytophilum in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Said, Mourad Ben; Belkahia, Hanène; Zobba, Rosanna; Bousrih, Maha; Yahiaoui, Mouna; Daaloul-Jedidi, Monia; Mamlouk, Aymen; Gharbi, Mohamed; Messadi, Lilia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A survey of Anaplasma species in small ruminants is still lacking in North African countries. In this study, the presence of A. phagocytophilum, A. phagocytophilum–related species, and A. ovis was investigated in a total of 563 healthy small ruminants (303 goats and 260 sheep), from 25 randomly selected flocks sampled in Tunisia. Anaplasma spp. and A. ovis overall infection rates were 95.0% and 93.8% in sheep and 69.6% and 65.3% in goats, respectively. A. phagocytophilum was not detected in any of tested animals. A total of 20 sheep (7.7%) and 144 goats (47.5%) were infected by Anaplasma strains genetically related to A. phagocytophilum. Both in sheep and goats A. ovis prevalence was higher in adults (≥2 years) than in young (<2 years) subjects (p = 0.001 and 0.002 for goats and sheep, respectively). In sheep, A. ovis prevalence was higher in ewes with respect to rams (p = 0.010). The A. ovis infection rate was significantly lower in goats of the local breed (p = 0.049) and it was higher in goats infested by ticks than in not infested animals (p = 0.005). Genetic analysis of the msp4 gene of A. ovis indicated the presence of strains shared by Tunisian sheep and goats. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic studies on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene provided evidence for the circulation of at least two different potentially novel species genetically related to A. phagocytophilum in Tunisian small ruminants. These findings cause concern about specificity of serological tests used for detection of A. phagocytophilum in ruminants and provide additional information for elucidating pathogenesis and molecular epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum and related species. PMID:26394065

  3. Prevalence of Rickettsiales (Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp.) in hard ticks (Ixodes ricinus) in the city of Hamburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    May, Kathrin; Strube, Christina

    2014-06-01

    To narrow the gap of missing knowledge on Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in ticks in northwestern Germany and, at the same time, to provide first prevalence data on these pathogens in the city of Hamburg, a total of 1,400 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected at ten different public green areas from April until October 2011. Ticks were examined using probe-based quantitative real-time PCR. A percentage of 3.6% (51/1,400) ticks were tested positive for A. phagocytophilum infections divided into 2.1% (3/141) adults [1.7% (1/60) females and 2.5% (2/81) males] and 3.8% (48/1,259) nymphs. The percentage of infected ticks per sampling site varied statistically significantly from 0.7% (1/140) to 12.1% (17/140), whereas between sampling months, no statistically significant differences were observed (2.0-6.5%, 4-13/140). The overall Rickettsia spp. infection rate was 52.5% (735/1,400). In adult ticks, Rickettsia spp. infection rate was 56% (79/141) divided into 61.7% (37/60) infected females and 51.9% (42/81) infected males. Nymphs showed an infection rate of 52.1% (656/1,259). In contrast to A. phagocytophilum infections, no statistically significant differences in Rickettsia spp. infection rates among sampling sites (44.3-63.6%, 62-89/140) were observed, whereas seasonal variations were obvious: the percentage of Rickettsia-positive ticks was significantly lower in April (36.5%, 73/200) and May (29.5%, 59/200) compared to the summer and fall months (55.0-64.5%, 110-129/200). Rickettsia species differentiation via real-time pyrosequencing revealed Rickettsia helvetica as the only occurring species. Co-infections with both Rickettsia spp. and A. phagocytophilum were detected in 2.0% (28/1,400) of the ticks. The present study revealed that in the city of Hamburg, the tick infection rate with A. phagocytophilum is comparable with other German data, whereas the Rickettsia spp. infection rate of 52.5% is by far the highest prevalence detected in

  4. In-vitro studies on the susceptibility of ovine strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum to antimicrobial agents and to immune serum.

    PubMed

    Woldehiwet, Z

    2010-01-01

    Five strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of tick-borne fever of sheep and cattle and human granulocytic anaplasmosis, were tested in vitro for their susceptibility to nine antibiotics using the continuous tick cell line ISE6. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were evaluated by comparing the percentage of infection of Giemsa-stained antibiotic-treated Anaplasma phagocytophilum-infected cells with that of untreated controls after 6 days of culture. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were evaluated after washing infected cells with antibiotic-free medium and further incubation of 6 days before comparing the percentage of infection of Giemsa-stained antibiotic-treated and untreated cells and by comparing the number of copies of the p44 gene by real-time polymerase chain reaction using p44-specific primers. The tick cell culture system was also used to assay the possible neutralizing effects of immune serum on cell-free bacteria in vitro. The neutralizing effects of immune serum were evaluated by comparing the number of copies of the p44 gene in samples inoculated with cell-free bacteria after 1h incubation with two-fold dilutions of immune sera obtained 21 days after infection with those inoculated with cell-free bacteria after incubation for 1h with two-fold dilutions of sera obtained before infection. Doxycycline, rifampin and ciprofloxacin were the most effective compounds, with MICs of 0.125 microg/ml, 0.5 mg/ml and 1 microg/ml, respectively. There was total resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, ceftriaxone and streptomycin and only very limited susceptibility to gentamycin and chloramphenicol. Both doxycycline and rifampin were also bactericidal at the same concentrations. Exposure of bacteria to immune ovine sera resulted in significant reductions of the number of copies of p44 gene.

  5. Anaplasma phagocytophilum AnkA secreted by type IV secretion system is tyrosine phosphorylated by Abl-1 to facilitate infection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mingqun; den Dulk-Ras, Amke; Hooykaas, Paul J J; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2007-11-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, is an obligate intracellular bacterium of granulocytes. A. phagocytophilum specifically induces tyrosine phosphorylation of a 160 kDa protein (P160) in host cells. However, identity of P160, kinases involved, and effects of tyrosine phosphorylation on bacterial infection remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrated through proteomic analysis that P160, an abundant and rapidly tyrosine-phosphorylated protein throughout infection, was AnkA of bacterial origin. Differential centrifugation and confocal microscopy revealed that AnkA was rarely retained within A. phagocytophilum or its inclusion, but localized mainly in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Using Cre recombinase reporter assay of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, we proved that AnkA could be secreted by VirB/D4-dependent type IV secretion (T4S) system. Yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that AnkA could bind to Abl-interactor 1 (Abi-1), an adaptor protein that interacts with Abl-1 tyrosine kinase, thus mediating AnkA phosphorylation. AnkA and Abl-1 were critical for bacterial infection, as infection was inhibited upon host cytoplasmic delivery of anti-AnkA antibody, Abl-1 knockdown with targeted siRNA, or treatment with a specific pharmacological inhibitor of Abl-1. These data establish AnkA as the first proven T4S substrate in members of obligate intracellular alpha-proteobacteria; furthermore, it demonstrated that AnkA plays an important role in facilitating intracellular infection by activating Abl-1 signalling pathway, and suggest a novel approach to treatment of human granulocytic anaplasmosis through inhibition of host cell signalling pathways. PMID:17587335

  6. Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and tick-transmitted bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in one selected goat farm in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Čobádiová, Andrea; Reiterová, Katarina; Derdáková, Markéta; Špilovská, Silvia; Turčeková, Ludmila; Hviščová, Ivana; Hisira, Vladimir

    2013-12-01

    Parasitic diseases of livestock together with poor welfare conditions can negatively affect the health status and production of small ruminants. Protozoan parasites and tick-borne infectious agents are common threat of livestock including small ruminants mostly during the pasture season. Therefore the priority of the study was to analyse the circulation and presence of two protozoan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum as well as tick-transmitted bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum in one selected goat farm in Eastern Slovakia. Throughout a three-year study period we have repeatedly screened the sera and blood of goats and dogs from monitored farm. In total, 343 blood serum samples from 116 goats were examined by ELISA. The mean seropositivity for T. gondii was 56.9% (66/116, CI (95%) = 48-66.0) and 15.5% (18/116, CI (95%) = 9.3-22.7) for N. caninum. The permanent occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma and anti-Neospora antibodies was detected in repeatedly examined goats during the whole monitored period. The presence of both parasites in the flock was analysed by PCR. DNA of T. gondii was confirmed in 12 out of 25 Toxoplasma-seropositive goats and N. caninum in 14 samples out of 18 Neospora-seropositive animals; four goats were co-infected with both pathogens. The risk of endogenous transmission of both parasites was pursued by examination of 41 kid's sera, where seropositivity for toxoplasmosis was 31.7% and for neosporosis 14.6%. In dogs 61.1% seropositivity for T. gondii and 38.9% for N. caninum was found, however, their faeces were negative for coccidian oocysts. Eight out of 108 tested animals were infected with A. phagocytophilum, the causative agent of tick-borne fever. Seven of them were simultaneously infected with T. gondii and A. phagocytophilum, out of which four goats were concurrently infected with all three pathogens.

  7. Rapid Sequential Changeover of Expressed p44 Genes during the Acute Phase of Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Horses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xueqi; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Lai, Tzung-Hui; Kumagai, Yumi; Zhi, Ning; Reed, Stephen M.

    2004-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum immunodominant polymorphic major surface protein P44s have been hypothesized to go through antigenic variation, but the within-host dynamics of p44 expression has not been demonstrated. In the present study we investigated the composition and changes of p44 transcripts in the blood during the acute phase of well-defined laboratory A. phagocytophilum infections in naïve equine hosts. Three traveling waves of sequential population changeovers of the p44 transcript species were observed within a single peak of rickettsemia of less than 1 month. During the logarithmic increase, the rapid switch-off of the initial dominant transcript p44-18 occurred regardless of whether the bacterium was transmitted by ticks or by intravenous inoculation. Each of the subsequently dominant p44 transcript species was phylogenetically dissimilar from p44-18. Development of antibody to the hypervariable region of P44-18 during the rickettsemia suggests the suppression of dominance of immuno-cross-reactive p44 populations. When A. phagocytophilum was preincubated with plasma from the infected horse and then coincubated with HL-60 cells, the dominance of the p44-18 transcript was rapidly suppressed in vitro and most of the newly emerged p44 transcript species were previously undetected in this horse. This work provides experimental evidence of within-host p44 antigenic variation. Results suggest that the rapid and synchronized switch of expression is an intrinsic property of p44s reinitiated after transmission to naïve mammalian hosts and shaped upon exposure to immune plasma. PMID:15557606

  8. Granulocytic anaplasmosis in a horse from Nova Scotia caused by infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum

    PubMed Central

    Uehlinger, Fabienne D.; Clancey, Noel P.; Lofstedt, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    A 16-year-old Paint stallion was presented with intermittent fever, inappetance, lethargy, icterus, distal limb edema, and submandibular lymphadenopathy. The horse was native to Nova Scotia and had never left that province. Morulae were detected in granulocytes. Ananaplasma phagocytophilum infection was confirmed by serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The horse responded to treatment with oxytetracycline. PMID:22043078

  9. Efficacy of sarolaner in the prevention of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum transmission from infected Ixodes scapularis to dogs.

    PubMed

    Honsberger, Nicole A; Six, Robert H; Heinz, Thomas J; Weber, Angela; Mahabir, Sean P; Berg, Thomas C

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis) to prevent transmission primarily of Borrelia burgdorferi and secondarily of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from infected wild-caught Ixodes scapularis to dogs was evaluated in a placebo-controlled laboratory study. Twenty-four purpose-bred laboratory Beagles seronegative for B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum antibodies were allocated randomly to one of three treatment groups: placebo administered orally on Days 0 and 7, or sarolaner at 2mg/kg administered orally on Day 0 (28 days prior to tick infestation) or on Day 7 (21 days prior to tick infestation). On Day 28, each dog was infested with approximately 25 female and 25 male wild caught adult I. scapularis that were determined to have prevalence of 57% for B. burgdorferi and 6.7% for A. phagocytophilum by PCR. In situ tick counts were conducted on Days 29 and 30. On Day 33, all ticks were counted and removed. Acaricidal efficacy was calculated based on the reduction of geometric mean live tick counts in the sarolaner-treated groups compared to the placebo-treated group for each tick count. Blood samples collected from each dog on Days 27, 49, 63, 77, 91 and 104 were tested for the presence of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum antibodies using the SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) Plus Test, and quantitatively assayed for B. burgdorferi antibodies using an ELISA test. Skin biopsies collected on Day 104 were tested for the presence of B. burgdorferi by bacterial culture and PCR. Geometric mean live tick counts for placebo-treated dogs were 14.8, 12.8, and 19.1 on Days 29, 30, and 33, respectively. The percent reductions in mean live tick counts at 1, 2, and 5 days after infestation were 86.3%, 100%, and 100% for the group treated with sarolaner 21 days prior to infestation, and 90.9%, 97.1%, and 100% for the group treated with sarolaner 28 days prior to infestation. Geometric mean live tick counts for both sarolaner-treated groups were significantly lower than those for the

  10. Comparative Experimental Infection Study in Dogs with Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, Anaplasma platys and A. phagocytophilum.

    PubMed

    Nair, Arathy D S; Cheng, Chuanmin; Ganta, Chanran K; Sanderson, Michael W; Alleman, Arthur R; Munderloh, Ulrike G; Ganta, Roman R

    2016-01-01

    Dogs acquire infections with the Anaplasmataceae family pathogens, E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum mostly during summer months when ticks are actively feeding on animals. These pathogens are also identified as causing diseases in people. Despite the long history of tick-borne diseases in dogs, much remains to be defined pertaining to the clinical and pathological outcomes of infections with these pathogens. In the current study, we performed experimental infections in dogs with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. Animals were monitored for 42 days to evaluate infection-specific clinical, hematological and pathological differences. All four pathogens caused systemic persistent infections detectible throughout the 6 weeks of infection assessment. Fever was frequently detected in animals infected with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, and A. platys, but not in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum. Hematological differences were evident in all four infected groups, although significant overlap existed between the groups. A marked reduction in packed cell volume that correlated with reduced erythrocytes and hemoglobin was observed only in E. canis infected animals. A decline in platelet numbers was common with E. canis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum infections. Histopathological lesions in lung, liver and spleen were observed in all four groups of infected dogs; infection with E. canis had the highest pathological scores, followed by E. chaffeensis, then A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. All four pathogens induced IgG responses starting on day 7 post infection, which was predominantly comprised of IgG2 subclass antibodies. This is the first detailed investigation comparing the infection progression and host responses in dogs after inoculation with four pathogens belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. The study revealed a significant overlap in clinical, hematological and pathological changes resulting from the

  11. Comparative Experimental Infection Study in Dogs with Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, Anaplasma platys and A. phagocytophilum

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Arathy D. S.; Cheng, Chuanmin; Ganta, Chanran K.; Sanderson, Michael W; Alleman, Arthur R.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.; Ganta, Roman R.

    2016-01-01

    Dogs acquire infections with the Anaplasmataceae family pathogens, E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum mostly during summer months when ticks are actively feeding on animals. These pathogens are also identified as causing diseases in people. Despite the long history of tick-borne diseases in dogs, much remains to be defined pertaining to the clinical and pathological outcomes of infections with these pathogens. In the current study, we performed experimental infections in dogs with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. Animals were monitored for 42 days to evaluate infection-specific clinical, hematological and pathological differences. All four pathogens caused systemic persistent infections detectible throughout the 6 weeks of infection assessment. Fever was frequently detected in animals infected with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, and A. platys, but not in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum. Hematological differences were evident in all four infected groups, although significant overlap existed between the groups. A marked reduction in packed cell volume that correlated with reduced erythrocytes and hemoglobin was observed only in E. canis infected animals. A decline in platelet numbers was common with E. canis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum infections. Histopathological lesions in lung, liver and spleen were observed in all four groups of infected dogs; infection with E. canis had the highest pathological scores, followed by E. chaffeensis, then A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. All four pathogens induced IgG responses starting on day 7 post infection, which was predominantly comprised of IgG2 subclass antibodies. This is the first detailed investigation comparing the infection progression and host responses in dogs after inoculation with four pathogens belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. The study revealed a significant overlap in clinical, hematological and pathological changes resulting from the

  12. Detection and characterization of p44/msp2 transcript variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from naturally infected ticks and wild deer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Gaowa; Wuritu; Wu, Dongxing; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Ohashi, Noiro; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Sugiyama, Kanji; Ohtake, Masayoshi; Ohashi, Masataka; Yamamoto, Seigo; Kitano, Tomokazu; Takada, Nobuhiro; Kawabata, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterium and causes a febrile illness in humans and livestock. In nature, this bacterium is sustained in a tick-mammal cycle. Several p44/msp2-related genes are expressed from a single expression locus by gene conversion. In this study, we obtained 119 cDNA sequences of p44/msp2 transcripts from A. phagocytophilum in 6 Haemaphysalis ticks and 3 wild sika deer (Cervus nippon) in Japan. These 119 sequences were classified into 36 different variant sequences based on their similarities. The 36 cDNA sequences were phylogenetically grouped into 2 major clusters--tick- and deer-associated. The tick-associated sequences were further classified into 4 distinct subclusters, suggesting that A. phagocytophilum in ticks seems to selectively express specific p44/msp2 transcripts, such as the transcripts in the 4 subclusters that were closely related to previously identified p44/msp2 genes. The deer-associated sequences were also grouped into 4 subclusters, but these transcripts were probably more diverse than the transcripts derived from ticks. This might be due to the relatively nonselective expression of p44/msp2 in deer or the strain differences in A. phagocytophilum from ticks and deer in separate geographic regions or both. Thus, this study may contribute to the understanding of A. phagocytophilum p44/msp2 expression in nature in Japan. PMID:22274164

  13. Coinfection of western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) and other sciurid rodents with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in California.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Nathan C; Leonhard, Sarah; Foley, Janet E; Lane, Robert S

    2010-01-01

    Overlapping geographic distributions of tick-borne disease agents utilizing the same tick vectors are common, and coinfection of humans, domestic animals, wildlife, and ticks with both Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum has been frequently reported. This study was undertaken in order to evaluate the prevalence of both B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (hereinafter referred to as B. burgdorferi) and A. phagocytophilum in several species of sciurid rodents from northern California, USA. Rodents were either collected dead as road-kills or live-trapped in four state parks from 13 counties. Thirty-seven western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus), nine nonnative eastern gray squirrels (S. carolinensis) and an eastern fox squirrel (S. niger), four Douglas squirrels (Tamiasciurus douglasii), and two northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serology for evidence of coinfection. Of the 14 individual S. griseus that were PCR-positive for B. burgdorferi, two (14%) also were PCR-positive for A. phagocytophilum and 11 (79%) had serologic evidence of A. phagocytophilum exposure. Two of the four Douglas squirrels were PCR positive for B. burgdorferi and seropositive to A. phagocytophilum. Evidence of coinfection with these zoonotic pathogens in western gray squirrels suggests that both bacteria may be maintained in a similar transmission cycle involving this sciurid and the western black-legged tick Ixodes pacificus, the primary bridging vector to humans in the far-western US. PMID:20090047

  14. Establishment of Cloned Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Analysis of p44 Gene Conversion within an Infected Horse and Infected SCID Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Quan; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2005-01-01

    Diverse p44 alleles at the p44 expression locus (p44Es) encoding surface-exposed major membrane proteins, P44s, of Anaplasma phagocytophilum were hypothesized to be garnered by recombination to enact antigenic variation. However, this hypothesis has not been proven so far, due to inability to clone this obligate intragranulocytic rickettsia. To define the p44E recombination, we developed a novel method to clone A. phagocytophilum. This isogenic cloned population containing a defined p44E was used to infect a naive horse and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. During a 58-day infection period in the blood of the horse, p44E conversion was evident in a total of 11 new p44Es, 48% (115/242) of the sequenced p44E population. During a 50-day infection period in the blood of SCID mice, p44E conversion was manifested in a total of 13 new p44Es, 42% (192/460) of the p44E population. Thus, similar levels of p44E convertants were detected in either the presence or absence of an acquired immune system, suggesting that T- and B-cell immune pressure was not essential for recombination and/or selection of the p44E variants. Analysis of sequentially changed p44Es revealed that the entire central hypervariable region of donor p44 pseudogenes or of donor full-length p44s replaced the same region of the resident p44E as a cassette. Putative recombination points were detected within p44 conserved regions flanking the central hypervariable region by the TOPALi analysis. Our results unambiguously demonstrated p44E recombination. The cloning method developed would facilitate precise analysis of the recombination process and the extent of diversity which the recombination creates in the antigenic repertoire. PMID:16041027

  15. Surveillance for Ixodes pacificus and the tick-borne pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi in birds from California's Inner Coast Range.

    PubMed

    Dingler, Regina J; Wright, Stan A; Donohue, Ann M; Macedo, Paula A; Foley, Janet E

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the involvement of birds in the ecology of the western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus, and its associated zoonotic bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, at two interior coast-range study sites in northern California. Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA), and B. burgdorferi s.s., the agent of Lyme disease (LD), are tick-borne pathogens that are well established in California. We screened blood and ticks from 349 individual birds in 48 species collected in 2011 and 2012 using pathogen-specific PCR. A total of 617 immature I. pacificus was collected with almost three times as many larvae than nymphs. There were 7.5 times more I. pacificus at the Napa County site compared to the Yolo County site. Two of 74 (3%) nymphal pools from an Oregon junco (Junco hyemalis) and a hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus) and 4 individual larvae (all from Oregon juncos) were PCR-positive for B. burgdorferi. Blood samples from a golden-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla) and a European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) were positive for A. phagocytophilum DNA at very low levels. Birds that forage on ground or bark and nest on the ground, as well as some migratory species, are at an increased risk for acquiring I. pacificus. Our findings show that birds contribute to the ecologies of LD and GA in California by serving as a blood-meal source, feeding and transporting immature I. pacificus, and sometimes as a source of Borrelia infection. PMID:24690191

  16. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and co-infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Hamburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    May, K; Jordan, D; Fingerle, V; Strube, C

    2015-12-01

    To obtain initial data on Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) in Ixodes ricinus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks in Hamburg, Germany, 1400 questing ticks were collected by flagging at 10 different public recreation areas in 2011 and analysed using probe-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The overall rate of infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. was 34.1%; 30.0% of adults were infected (36.7% of females and 26.0% of males), as were 34.5% of nymphs. Significant differences in tick infection rates were observed between the spring and summer/autumn months, as well as among sampling locations. Borrelia genospecies identification by reverse line blotting was successful in 43.6% of positive tick samples. The most frequent genospecies was Borrelia garinii/Borrelia bavariensis, followed by Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia valaisiana, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia bissettii and Borrelia lusitaniae. Based on previously published data, co-infection of Borrelia and Rickettsiales spp. was determined in 25.8% of ticks. Overall, 22.9% of ticks were co-infected with Rickettsia spp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), 1.7% with Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), and 1.2% with both pathogens. Study results show a high prevalence of Borrelia-positive ticks in recreation areas in the northern German city of Hamburg and the potential health risk to humans in these areas should not be underestimated.

  17. Serological reactivity to Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Neorickettsia risticii, Borrelia burgdorferi and Rickettsia conorii in dogs from northwestern Spain.

    PubMed

    Amusategui, Inmaculada; Tesouro, Miguel A; Kakoma, Ibulaimu; Sainz, Angel

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the seroprevalence against Ehrlichia canis (Ec), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ap), Neorickettsia risticii (Nr), Rickettsia conorii (Rc), and Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) in two different clusters of canine samples from Northwestern Spain. Cluster 1 included 479 dogs presented at veterinary clinics located in Ourense and Pontevedra. Cluster II included 170 dogs from the public kennel of Ourense. All 649 canine serum samples were analyzed by immunofluorescent antibody test. Prevalences against the above-mentioned agents in cluster I were: Rc (24.6%), Bb (6.26%), Ec (3.13%), Ap (5.01%), and Nr (1.04%), whereas for cluster II were: Rc (50%), Bb (8.8%), Ec (54.7%), Ap (45.3%), and Nr (4.7%). Rc was significantly associated with age and history of exposure to ticks, and Bb showed a statistical relationship with age and clinical status. Ec and Ap were related to the occupation of the dogs, with stray dogs being the most frequently seropositive. Furthermore, seroreactivity against Ec and Ap was significantly higher in Ourense than in Pontevedra. The univariate analysis demonstrated a significant concomitant seroreactivity between Ec and Ap and between Rc and Ec and Ap antigens. The seroreactivity to Nr must be interpreted very cautiously as this infectious agent has been seldom reported outside North America.

  18. Spatial and seasonal variation in the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in Norway

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the variation in prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Lyme Borreliosis Spirochaetes, LBS) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (causing tick-borne fever in ruminants and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis) in ticks is vital from both a human and an animal disease perspective to target the most effective mitigation measures. From the host competence hypothesis, we predicted that prevalence of LBS would decrease with red deer density, while prevalence of A. phagocytophilum would increase. Methods Based on a sample of 112 adult and 686 nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks collected with flagging during questing from 31 transects (4–500 m long) corresponding to individual seasonal home ranges of 41 red deer along the west coast of Norway, we tested whether there were spatial and seasonal variations in prevalence with a special emphasis on the population density of the most common large host in this area, the red deer (Cervus elaphus). We used a multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection of A. phagocytophilum and LBS. Results Prevalence of LBS was higher in adult female ticks (21.6%) compared to adult male ticks (11.5%) and nymphs (10.9%), while prevalence was similar among stages for prevalence of A. phagocytophilum (8.8%). Only partly consistent with predictions, we found a lower prevalence of LBS in areas of high red deer density, while there was no relationship between red deer density and prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in ticks. Prevalence of both bacteria was much higher in ticks questing in May compared to August. Conclusions Our study provides support to the notion that spatial variation in host composition forms a role for prevalence of LBS in ticks also in a northern European ecosystem, while no such association was found for A. phagocytophilum. Further studies are needed to fully understand the similar seasonal pattern of prevalence of the two pathogens. PMID:23786850

  19. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti in Ixodes scapularis from a Newly Established Lyme Disease Endemic Area, the Thousand Islands Region of Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Werden, Lisa; Lindsay, L Robbin; Barker, Ian K; Bowman, Jeff; Gonzales, Emily K; Jardine, Claire M

    2015-10-01

    Blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) are vectors for several important human diseases, including Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), and human babesiosis, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti, respectively. The continued northward range expansion of blacklegged ticks and associated pathogens is an increasing public health concern in Canada. The Thousand Islands region of eastern Ontario has recently been identified as a new endemic area for Lyme disease in Canada, but the occurrence of other pathogens in ticks in this area has not been fully described. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum and B. microti in small mammals and questing ticks in the Thousand Islands area and identify the strains of A. phagocytophilum circulating in ticks in the area. Serum and larval ticks were collected from trapped small mammals, and questing ticks were collected via drag sampling from up to 12 island and mainland sites in 2006, 2009, and 2010. A. phagocytophilum was identified by PCR in 3.4% (47/1388) ticks from eight of 12 sites; the prevalence ranged from 8.9% in 2006 to 3% in 2009. All 365 ticks tested for B. microti were negative. Antibodies to A. phagocytophilum were detected in 2.8% (17/611) of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) at two of 11 sites in 2006, 2009, or 2010. All 34 A. phagocytophilum-positive ticks submitted for strain identification using single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assays targeting the 16S rRNA gene were identified as a variant strain (Ap variant-1), which is not commonly associated with human disease. Our findings suggest that people are at low risk of contracting HGA or human babesiosis due to locally acquired tick bites in the Thousand Islands area. However, continued surveillance is warranted as these pathogens continue to expand their ranges in North America. PMID:26393476

  20. Tissue-Specific Signatures in the Transcriptional Response to Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes ricinus Tick Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Alberdi, Pilar; Mansfield, Karen L; Manzano-Román, Raúl; Cook, Charlotte; Ayllón, Nieves; Villar, Margarita; Johnson, Nicholas; Fooks, Anthony R; de la Fuente, José

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum are transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks and have become one of the most common and relevant tick-borne pathogens due to their impact on human and animal health. Recent results have increased our understanding of the molecular interactions between Ixodes scapularis and A. phagocytophilum through the demonstration of tissue-specific molecular pathways that ensure pathogen infection, development and transmission by ticks. However, little is known about the Ixodes ricinus genes and proteins involved in the response to A. phagocytophilum infection. The tick species I. scapularis and I. ricinus are evolutionarily closely related and therefore similar responses are expected in A. phagocytophilum-infected cells. However, differences may exist between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cells associated with tissue-specific signatures of these cell lines. To address this hypothesis, the transcriptional response to A. phagocytophilum infection was characterized by RNA sequencing and compared between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cell lines. The transcriptional response to infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells resembled that of tick hemocytes while the response in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells was more closely related to that reported previously in infected tick midguts. The inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum appears to be a key adaptation mechanism to facilitate infection of both vertebrate and tick cells and was used to investigate further the tissue-specific response of tick cell lines to pathogen infection. The results supported a role for the intrinsic pathway in the inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells. In contrast, the results in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells were similar to those obtained in tick midguts and suggested a role for the JAK/STAT pathway in the inhibition of apoptosis in tick cells infected with A. phagocytophilum. Nevertheless, tick

  1. Tissue-Specific Signatures in the Transcriptional Response to Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes ricinus Tick Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Alberdi, Pilar; Mansfield, Karen L.; Manzano-Román, Raúl; Cook, Charlotte; Ayllón, Nieves; Villar, Margarita; Johnson, Nicholas; Fooks, Anthony R.; de la Fuente, José

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum are transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks and have become one of the most common and relevant tick-borne pathogens due to their impact on human and animal health. Recent results have increased our understanding of the molecular interactions between Ixodes scapularis and A. phagocytophilum through the demonstration of tissue-specific molecular pathways that ensure pathogen infection, development and transmission by ticks. However, little is known about the Ixodes ricinus genes and proteins involved in the response to A. phagocytophilum infection. The tick species I. scapularis and I. ricinus are evolutionarily closely related and therefore similar responses are expected in A. phagocytophilum-infected cells. However, differences may exist between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cells associated with tissue-specific signatures of these cell lines. To address this hypothesis, the transcriptional response to A. phagocytophilum infection was characterized by RNA sequencing and compared between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cell lines. The transcriptional response to infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells resembled that of tick hemocytes while the response in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells was more closely related to that reported previously in infected tick midguts. The inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum appears to be a key adaptation mechanism to facilitate infection of both vertebrate and tick cells and was used to investigate further the tissue-specific response of tick cell lines to pathogen infection. The results supported a role for the intrinsic pathway in the inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells. In contrast, the results in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells were similar to those obtained in tick midguts and suggested a role for the JAK/STAT pathway in the inhibition of apoptosis in tick cells infected with A. phagocytophilum. Nevertheless, tick

  2. Host, habitat and climate preferences of Ixodes angustus (Acari: Ixodidae) and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in California, USA.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Nicole; Wong, Johnny; Foley, Janet

    2016-10-01

    The Holarctic tick Ixodes angustus is a competent vector for Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, and possibly Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the etiologic agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis, as well. From 2005 to 2013, we collected host-feeding I. angustus individuals from live-trapped small mammals and by flagging vegetation from 12 study sites in northern and central California, and tested for B. burgdorferi sensu lato, A. phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp. DNA by real-time PCR. Among 261 I. angustus collected (259 from hosts and two by flagging), the most common hosts were tree squirrels (20 % of ticks) and chipmunks (37 %). The PCR-prevalence for A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi in ticks was 2 % and zero, respectively. The minimum infection prevalence on pooled DNA samples was 10 % for Rickettsia spp. DNA sequencing of the ompA gene identified this rickettsia as Candidatus Rickettsia angustus, a putative endosymbiont. A zero-inflated negative binomial mixed effects model was used to evaluate geographical and climatological predictors of I. angustus burden. When host species within study site and season within year were included in the model as nested random effects, all significant variables revealed that I. angustus burden increased as temperature decreased. Together with published data, these findings suggest that I. angustus is a host generalist, has a broad geographic distribution, is more abundant in areas with lower temperature within it's range, and is rarely infected with the pathogens A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi.

  3. Elimination of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Rodent Reservoirs and Ixodes scapularis Ticks Using a Doxycycline Hyclate-Laden Bait

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Marc C.; Schulze, Terry L.; Jordan, Robert A.; Dietrich, Gabrielle; Schulze, Christopher J.; Hojgaard, Andrias; Ullmann, Amy J.; Sackal, Cherilyn; Zeidner, Nordin S.; Piesman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    A field trial was conducted in a Lyme disease-endemic area of New Jersey to determine the efficacy of a doxycyline hyclate rodent bait to prophylactically protect and cure small-mammal reservoirs and reduce infection rates in questing Ixodes scapularis ticks for Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The doxycycline-laden bait was formulated at a concentration of 500 mg/kg and delivered during the immature tick feeding season in rodent-targeted bait boxes. The percentage of infected small mammals recovered from treated areas after 2 years of treatment was reduced by 86.9% for B. burgdorferi and 74% for A. phagocytophilum. Infection rates in questing nymphal ticks for both B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum were reduced by 94.3% and 92%, respectively. Results from this study indicate that doxycycline-impregnated bait is an effective means of reducing infection rates for B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum in both rodent reservoirs and questing I. scapularis ticks. PMID:22144454

  4. Host, habitat and climate preferences of Ixodes angustus (Acari: Ixodidae) and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in California, USA.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Nicole; Wong, Johnny; Foley, Janet

    2016-10-01

    The Holarctic tick Ixodes angustus is a competent vector for Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, and possibly Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the etiologic agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis, as well. From 2005 to 2013, we collected host-feeding I. angustus individuals from live-trapped small mammals and by flagging vegetation from 12 study sites in northern and central California, and tested for B. burgdorferi sensu lato, A. phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp. DNA by real-time PCR. Among 261 I. angustus collected (259 from hosts and two by flagging), the most common hosts were tree squirrels (20 % of ticks) and chipmunks (37 %). The PCR-prevalence for A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi in ticks was 2 % and zero, respectively. The minimum infection prevalence on pooled DNA samples was 10 % for Rickettsia spp. DNA sequencing of the ompA gene identified this rickettsia as Candidatus Rickettsia angustus, a putative endosymbiont. A zero-inflated negative binomial mixed effects model was used to evaluate geographical and climatological predictors of I. angustus burden. When host species within study site and season within year were included in the model as nested random effects, all significant variables revealed that I. angustus burden increased as temperature decreased. Together with published data, these findings suggest that I. angustus is a host generalist, has a broad geographic distribution, is more abundant in areas with lower temperature within it's range, and is rarely infected with the pathogens A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi. PMID:27416728

  5. Anaplasma phagocytophilum up-regulates some anti-apoptotic genes in neutrophils and pro-inflammatory genes in mononuclear cells of sheep.

    PubMed

    Woldehiwet, Z; Yavari, C

    2014-05-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of tick-borne fever (TBF) in sheep and cattle and human granulocytic anaplasmosis, has the unique ability to selectively infect and multiply within the hostile environment of the neutrophil. Previous studies have shown that sheep with TBF are more susceptible to other infections and that infected neutrophils have reduced phagocytic ability and delayed apoptosis. This suggests that survival of A. phagocytophilum in these short-lived cells involves the ability to subvert or resist their bacterial killing, but also to modify the host cells such that the host cells survive long after infection. The present study shows that infection of sheep by A. phagocytophilum is characterized by up-regulation of some anti-apoptotic genes (BCL2, BIRC3 and CFLAR) in neutrophils and up-regulation of genes encoding the pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in mononuclear cells during the period of bacteraemia. Infection with A. phagocytophilum was also characterized by significant up-regulation of CYBB, which is associated with the respiratory burst of neutrophils. PMID:24602324

  6. Detecting DNAs of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia in the blood of patients suspected of Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Hermanowska-Szpakowicz, Teresa; Skotarczak, Bogumiła; Kondrusik, Maciej; Rymaszewska, Anna; Sawczuk, Marek; Maciejewska, Agnieszka; Adamska, Małgorzata; Pancewicz, Sławomir; Zajkowska, Joanna

    2004-01-01

    Co-occurrence of granulocytic anaplasmosis, borreliosis and babesiosis in humans is a result of common vectors for the respective pathogens of these diseases, most commonly ticks from the genus Ixodes. Studies on ticks in Europe and also in Poland have shown that several pathogens may co-occur in individuals of I. ricnus. A total of 96 hospitalised patients infected or suspected of being infected with borreliosis were screened for A. phagocytophilum and Babesia sp. DNA. Positive results of PCRs for A. phagocytophilum DNA were obtained for 10 patients, 8 of whom were diagnosed with borreliosis earlier, and 4 of whom were diagnosed with tick-borne encephalitis (on the basis of serological studies of serum and cerebrospinal fluid). None of the 10 patients had clinical or biochemical markers of anaplasmosis, corroborating the existence of asymptomatic anaplasmosis or self-limiting course. in Europe. Similarly, Babesia DNA was not found in the blood of any of the patients. The results of the studies show that in diagnosing tick-borne diseases, clinical examinations should consider infection by two or even three tick-borne pathogens. PMID:15627349

  7. Whole genome transcription profiling of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in human and tick host cells by tiling array analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Curtis M; Herron, Michael J; Felsheim, Roderick F; Schloeder, Brian R; Grindle, Suzanne M; Chavez, Adela Oliva; Kurtti, Timothy J; Munderloh, Ulrike G

    2008-01-01

    Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ap) is an obligate intracellular bacterium and the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, an emerging tick-borne disease. Ap alternately infects ticks and mammals and a variety of cell types within each. Understanding the biology behind such versatile cellular parasitism may be derived through the use of tiling microarrays to establish high resolution, genome-wide transcription profiles of the organism as it infects cell lines representative of its life cycle (tick; ISE6) and pathogenesis (human; HL-60 and HMEC-1). Results Detailed, host cell specific transcriptional behavior was revealed. There was extensive differential Ap gene transcription between the tick (ISE6) and the human (HL-60 and HMEC-1) cell lines, with far fewer differentially transcribed genes between the human cell lines, and all disproportionately represented by membrane or surface proteins. There were Ap genes exclusively transcribed in each cell line, apparent human- and tick-specific operons and paralogs, and anti-sense transcripts that suggest novel expression regulation processes. Seven virB2 paralogs (of the bacterial type IV secretion system) showed human or tick cell dependent transcription. Previously unrecognized genes and coding sequences were identified, as were the expressed p44/msp2 (major surface proteins) paralogs (of 114 total), through elevated signal produced to the unique hypervariable region of each – 2/114 in HL-60, 3/114 in HMEC-1, and none in ISE6. Conclusion Using these methods, whole genome transcription profiles can likely be generated for Ap, as well as other obligate intracellular organisms, in any host cells and for all stages of the cell infection process. Visual representation of comprehensive transcription data alongside an annotated map of the genome renders complex transcription into discernable patterns. PMID:18671858

  8. Anaplasma phagocytophilum increases the levels of histone modifying enzymes to inhibit cell apoptosis and facilitate pathogen infection in the tick vector Ixodes scapularis.

    PubMed

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Alberdi, Pilar; Ayllón, Nieves; Valdés, James J; Pierce, Raymond; Villar, Margarita; de la Fuente, José

    2016-04-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms have not been characterized in ticks despite their importance as vectors of human and animal diseases worldwide. The objective of this study was to characterize the histones and histone modifying enzymes (HMEs) of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis and their role during Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. We first identified 5 histones and 34 HMEs in I. scapularis in comparison with similar proteins in model organisms. Then, we used transcriptomic and proteomic data to analyze the mRNA and protein levels of I. scapularis histones and HMEs in response to A. phagocytophilum infection of tick tissues and cultured cells. Finally, selected HMEs were functionally characterized by pharmacological studies in cultured tick cells. The results suggest that A. phagocytophilum manipulates tick cell epigenetics to increase I. scapularis p300/CBP, histone deacetylase, and Sirtuin levels, resulting in an inhibition of cell apoptosis that in turn facilitates pathogen infection and multiplication. These results also suggest that a compensatory mechanism might exist by which A. phagocytophilum manipulates tick HMEs to regulate transcription and apoptosis in a tissue-specific manner to facilitate infection, but preserving tick fitness to guarantee survival of both pathogens and ticks. Our study also indicates that the pathogen manipulates arthropod and vertebrate cell epigenetics in similar ways to inhibit the host response to infection. Epigenetic regulation of tick biological processes is an essential element of the infection by A. phagocytophilum and the study of the mechanisms and principal actors involved is likely to provide clues for the development of anti-tick drugs and vaccines.

  9. Anaplasma phagocytophilum APH0032 Is Exposed on the Cytosolic Face of the Pathogen-Occupied Vacuole and Co-opts Host Cell SUMOylation

    PubMed Central

    Oki, Aminat T.; Huang, Bernice; Beyer, Andrea R.; May, Levi J.; Truchan, Hilary K.; Walker, Naomi J.; Galloway, Nathan L.; Borjesson, Dori L.; Carlyon, Jason A.

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a member of the family Anaplasmataceae and the obligate intracellular bacterium that causes granulocytic anaplasmosis, resides in a host cell-derived vacuole. Bacterial proteins that localize to the A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuole membrane (AVM) are critical host-pathogen interfaces. Of the few bacterial AVM proteins that have been identified, the domains responsible for AVM localization and the host cell pathways that they co-opt are poorly defined. APH0032 is an effector that is expressed and localizes to the AVM late during the infection cycle. Herein, the APH0032 domain that is essential for associating with host cell membranes was mapped. Immunofluorescent labeling of infected cells that had been differentially permeabilized confirmed that APH0032 is exposed on the AVM's cytosolic face, signifying its potential to interface with host cell processes. SUMOylation is the covalent attachment of a member of the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) family of proteins to lysines in target substrates. Previous work from our laboratory determined that SUMOylation is important for A. phagocytophilum survival and that SUMOylated proteins decorate the AVM. Algorithmic prediction analyses identified APH0032 as a candidate for SUMOylation. Endogenous APH0032 was precipitated from infected cells using a SUMO affinity matrix, confirming that the effector co-opts SUMOylation during infection. APH0032 pronouncedly colocalized with SUMO1, but not SUMO2/3 moieties on the AVM. Ectopic expression of APH0032 in A. phagocytophilum infected host cells significantly boosted the bacterial load. This study delineates the first domain of any Anaplasmataceae protein that is essential for associating with the pathogen-occupied vacuole membrane, demonstrates the importance of APH0032 to infection, and identifies it as the second A. phagocytophilum effector that co-opts SUMOylation, thus underscoring the relevance of this post-translational modification to

  10. Are Apodemus spp. mice and Myodes glareolus reservoirs for Borrelia miyamotoi, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Rickettsia helvetica, R. monacensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum?

    PubMed

    Burri, C; Schumann, O; Schumann, C; Gern, L

    2014-04-01

    In Europe, in addition to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus, other zoonotic pathogens, like B. miyamotoi, a species related to the relapsing fever spirochaetes, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (N. mikurensis), Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been reported in the ixodid tick Ixodes ricinus. No study was conducted to identify reservoir hosts for these pathogens. Here, we investigated the role played by wild rodents in the natural transmission cycle of B. miyamotoi, N. mikurensis, R. helvetica, R. monacensis, and A. phagocytophilum in Switzerland. In 2011 and 2012, small mammals were captured in an area where these pathogens occur in questing ticks. Ixodes ricinus ticks infesting captured small mammals were analysed after their moult by PCR followed by reverse line blot to detect the different pathogens. Xenodiagnostic larvae were used to evaluate the role of rodents as reservoirs and analysed after their moult. Most of the 108 captured rodents (95.4%) were infested by I. ricinus ticks; 4.9%, 3.9%, 24.0%, and 0% of the rodents were infested by Borrelia, N. mikurensis, Rickettsia spp., and A. phagocytophilum-infected larvae, respectively. Borrelia afzelii, B. miyamotoi, N. mikurensis, Rickettsia spp., and A. phagocytophilum were detected in 2.8%, 0.17%, 2.6%, 6.8%, and 0% of the ticks attached to rodents, respectively. Borrelia afzelii was transmitted by 4 rodents to 41.2% of the xenodiagnostic ticks, B. miyamotoi by 3 rodents to 23.8%, and N. mikurensis was transmitted by 6 rodents to 41.0% of the xenodiagnostic ticks. None of the tested rodent transmitted Rickettsia spp. or A. phagocytophilum to I. ricinus xenodiagnostic larvae. This study showed that rodents are reservoir hosts for B. miyamotoi and N. mikurensis in Europe. PMID:24582511

  11. Serologic and Molecular Prevalence of Rickettsia helvetica and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Wild Cervids and Domestic Mammals in the Central Parts of Sweden.

    PubMed

    Elfving, Karin; Malmsten, Jonas; Dalin, Anne-Marie; Nilsson, Kenneth

    2015-09-01

    Both Rickettsia helvetica and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are common in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Sweden. Knowledge is limited regarding different animal species' competence to act as reservoirs for these organism. For this reason, blood samples were collected from wild cervids (roe deer, moose) and domestic mammals (horse, cat, dog) in central Sweden, and sera were tested using immunofluorescence assay to detect antibodies against spotted fever rickettsiae using Rickettsia helvetica as antigen. Sera with a titer ≥1:64 were considered as positive, and 23.1% (104/450) of the animals scored positive. The prevalence of seropositivity was 21.5% (23/107) in roe deer, 23.3% (21/90) in moose, 36.5% (23/63) in horses, 22.1% (19/90) in cats, and 17.0% (17/100) in dogs. PCR analysis of 113 spleen samples from moose and sheep from the corresponding areas were all negative for rickettsial DNA. In roe deer, 85% (91/107) also tested seropositive for A. phagocytophilum with a titer cutoff of 1:128. The findings indicate that the surveyed animal species are commonly exposed to rickettsiae and roe deer also to A. phagocytophilum. PMID:26378972

  12. Variant-specific and diminishing immune responses towards the highly variable MSP2(P44) outer membrane protein of Anaplasma phagocytophilum during persistent infection in lambs.

    PubMed

    Granquist, Erik G; Stuen, Snorre; Crosby, Liliana; Lundgren, Anna M; Alleman, A Rick; Barbet, Anthony F

    2010-02-15

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the causative agent of tick-borne fever in small ruminants and has been identified as the zoonotic agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis. The Norwegian strains of the rickettsia are naturally persistent in lambs and represent a suitable experimental system for analyzing the mechanisms of persistence. Variation of the outer membrane protein MSP2(P44) by recombination of variable pseudogene segments into an expression site is believed to play a key role in persistence of the organism. The goal of the present study was to analyze the dynamics of the immune response towards A. phagocytophilum and MSP2(P44) during persistent infection of lambs. Responses to the hypervariable region of MSP2(P44) were detected shortly after appearance of the respective variants in cyclic rickettsemic peaks, consistent with a process of antigenic variation. In addition, there was a diminishing antibody response to MSP2(P44) and to other A. phagocytophilum antigens overall with time of infection, that was not associated with clearance of the infection.

  13. Detection and quantification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. in Ixodes ricinus ticks from urban and rural environment, northern Poland, by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Stańczak, Joanna; Cieniuch, Stella; Lass, Anna; Biernat, Beata; Racewicz, Maria

    2015-05-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. are emerging tick-borne pathogens which can threaten human health. A duplex real-time PCR and qPCRs with primers and probes targeting 97 and 116 bp fragments of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes, respectively, were used for qualitative and quantitative detection of both pathogens in Ixodes ricinus ticks. Altogether 1875 ticks (1084 adults and 791 nymphs) were collected from rural and urban habitats in northern Poland. Of them, at least 0.9% were found to be infected with A. phagocytophilum while 2.5% with Babesia spp. A comparison of the infection rates by the tick stage, the type of area, the collection site, habitats of different tick density and by the month of collection was done. The prevalence of pathogens was significantly lower in nymphs than in adult ticks (p = 0.02) and in rural areas than in urban areas (p = 0.007). Four different 16S rRNA gene variants of A. phagocytophilum were determine, however none of them showed 100% identity with compared sequences isolated from human patients. The dominant Babesia species was B. venatorum. Results of qPCRs with circular and linearized forms of plasmids used as the standards showed significant difference in the pathogen loads (p = 0.001). The copy numbers of A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. estimated from the linear plasmids were 28.7 and 5.1 times lower, respectively, when compared with their circular forms, and were accepted as more reliable. The average number of copies of 16S rRNA gene of A. phagocytophilum in the positive I. ricinus samples were 3.39 × 10(5) ± 6.09 × 10(5). The mean copy number of 18S rRNA gene of Babesia spp. was ~2.55 × 10(5) ± 1.04 × 10(6). We confirmed the presence of A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. in I. ricinus in both rural and urban environments. The determined low infection rates suggests, however, that the risk for local population and tourists to acquire infection is also low. Moreover, we confirmed recent findings that serious

  14. Comparative analysis of the infectivity rate of both Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in humans and dogs in a New Jersey community

    PubMed Central

    Gaito, Andrea; Gjivoje, Vedrana; Lutz, Sebastian; Baxter, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Ticks are important vectors of disease and transmit an extensive array of bacterial, viral and protozoan diseases to both humans and dogs within a community. Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, has been extensively studied within both the human and veterinary population. Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an intracellular rickettsial pathogen also transmitted by ixodid ticks, has emerged as an important zoonotic infection with significant veterinary and medical implications, and is responsible for both canine granulocytic anaplasmosis and human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Multiple surveys exist in the international literature referencing infectivity rates of both of these diseases separately in both the dog and human populations. This is the first study to simultaneously examine the infectivity rate of both anaplasmosis and Lyme disease in humans and dogs in a community endemic for tick-borne diseases. PMID:25143748

  15. Molecular evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti co-infections in Ixodes ricinus ticks in central-eastern region of Poland.

    PubMed

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Hapunik, Joanna; Szpechciński, Adam; Supergan-Marwicz, Marta; Goławska, Sylwia; Sprawka, Iwona; Czerniewicz, Paweł

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti co-infection in Ixodes ricinus populations within the central-eastern region of Poland. The prevalence of analysed tick-borne human pathogens in single and polymicrobial infections in I. ricinus ticks were analysed using the conventional and nested PCR techniques. A total number of 1,123 questing tick individuals (291 females, 267 males and 565 nymphs) were collected at different ecosystems (municipal parks, suburban forests, and woodlands). In the presented study, 95 samples of ticks (8.5%) were infected with A.phagocytophilum, 3.1% (n=35) with B. microti, whereas the co-existence status of these human pathogens was detected in 1.8% (n=20) of all tested samples. It has been demonstrated that the prevalence of co-infection status was the highest among females of I. ricinus (11 samples, 3.8%), whereas the lowest within tested nymphs (5 samples, 0.9%). Ticks collected at city parks in Warsaw and suburban areas of this town characterized the highest prevalence of co-infections (3.3 and 4.8%, respectively). Furthermore, it was established that co-infection rates of ticks inhabiting woodlands within Kampinos National Park and Nadbużański Landscape Park were similar and reached the levels of 1.4% (n=5) and 1.1% (n=4), respectively.

  16. Genome-Wide Anaplasma phagocytophilum AnkA-DNA Interactions Are Enriched in Intergenic Regions and Gene Promoters and Correlate with Infection-Induced Differential Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Dumler, J. Stephen; Sinclair, Sara H.; Pappas-Brown, Valeria; Shetty, Amol C.

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular prokaryote, infects neutrophils, and alters cardinal functions via reprogrammed transcription. Large contiguous regions of neutrophil chromosomes are differentially expressed during infection. Secreted A. phagocytophilum effector AnkA transits into the neutrophil or granulocyte nucleus to complex with DNA in heterochromatin across all chromosomes. AnkA binds to gene promoters to dampen cis-transcription and also has features of matrix attachment region (MAR)-binding proteins that regulate three-dimensional chromatin architecture and coordinate transcriptional programs encoded in topologically-associated chromatin domains. We hypothesize that identification of additional AnkA binding sites will better delineate how A. phagocytophilum infection results in reprogramming of the neutrophil genome. Using AnkA-binding ChIP-seq, we showed that AnkA binds broadly throughout all chromosomes in a reproducible pattern, especially at: (i) intergenic regions predicted to be MARs; (ii) within predicted lamina-associated domains; and (iii) at promoters ≤ 3000 bp upstream of transcriptional start sites. These findings provide genome-wide support for AnkA as a regulator of cis-gene transcription. Moreover, the dominant mark of AnkA in distal intergenic regions known to be AT-enriched, coupled with frequent enrichment in the nuclear lamina, provides strong support for its role as a MAR-binding protein and genome “re-organizer.” AnkA must be considered a prime candidate to promote neutrophil reprogramming and subsequent functional changes that belie improved microbial fitness and pathogenicity. PMID:27703927

  17. Evaluation of the performance of a rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum antibodies in horses.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Fabrizia; Passamonti, Fabrizio; Moretti, Annabella; Morganti, Giulia; Vardi, Doron Moshe; Laus, Fulvio; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Spaterna, Andrea; Coletti, Mauro; Fioretti, Daniela Piergili

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a commercially available rapid enzyme-linked immonosorbent assay, the Snap® 4Dx test, in the detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum antibodies in horses. Two hundred apparently healthy horses (asymptomatic) and 244 animals showing clinical symptoms (symptomatic), were tested for A. phagocytophilum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using both the Snap® 4Dx kit and an indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT), with the latter serving as a comparative test. Horses belonging to the symptomatic group were also tested for evidence of active infection with A. phagocytophilum by analysis of IFAT IgM titers and PCR assay amplifying a specific fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. The overall agreement between the results obtained using the two tests, as well as the relative performance exhibited by the Snap® 4Dx test in the two groups, was assessed. Forty of the 45 animals (89%) testing positive for IgG antibodies using IFAT were correctly identified using Snap® 4Dx testing. The agreement between the results of the two tests was very high (k>0.9), with almost identical performances in both symptomatic and asymptomatic animals. Conversely, within the symptomatic group, only 44% (no. 11/25) of Snap® 4Dx positives appeared to be associated with a state of active infection, whereas the remaining 56% (no. 14/25) were related both to not infected animals (no. 1) and to horses whose status of infection needed further evaluations to be confirmed (no. 13/25). This study suggests that the Snap® 4Dx test could represent a valid screening method for use during epidemiological surveys of equine populations. Nevertheless, in-clinic application of the test does not appear to be merited.

  18. Detection of Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum in bovine peripheral blood samples by duplex real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Reinbold, James B; Coetzee, Johann F; Sirigireddy, Kamesh R; Ganta, Roman R

    2010-07-01

    Insufficient diagnostic sensitivity and specificity coupled with the potential for cross-reactivity among closely related Anaplasma species has made the accurate determination of infection status problematic. A method for the development of simplex and duplex real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) assays for the detection of A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA in plasma-free bovine peripheral blood samples is described. The duplex assay was able to detect as few as 100 copies of 16S rRNA of both A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum in the same reaction. The ratio of 16S rRNA to 16S DNA copies for A. marginale was determined to be 117.9:1 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 100.7:1, 135.2:1). Therefore, the detection limit is the minimum infective unit of one A. marginale bacterium. The duplex assay detected nonequivalent molar ratios as high as 100-fold. Additionally, the duplex assay and a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) were used to screen 237 samples collected from herds in which anaplasmosis was endemic. When the cELISA was evaluated by the results of the qRT-PCR, its sensitivity and specificity for the detection of A. marginale infection were found to be 65.2% (95% CI, 55.3%, 75.1%) and 97.3% (95% CI, 94.7%, 99.9%), respectively. A. phagocytophilum infection was not detected in the samples analyzed. One- and two-way receiver operator characteristic curves were constructed in order to recommend the optimum negative cutoff value for the cELISA. Percentages of inhibition of 20 and 15.3% were recommended for the one- and two-way curves, respectively. In conclusion, the duplex real-time qRT-PCR assay is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for the accurate and precise detection of A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum infections in cattle.

  19. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. infections in hard ticks (Ixodes ricinus) in the city of Hanover (Germany): revisited.

    PubMed

    Tappe, Julia; Strube, Christina

    2013-09-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of Rickettsiales (A. phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp.) in 2100 I. ricinus ticks collected at 10 different sampling sites every month during the tick season 2010 in the city of Hanover, northern Germany. At the same time, the results served as a fifth-year-follow-up study to monitor whether changes or stagnation of tick infection rates - possibly due to climate change--were obvious or not. To detect infections with A. phagocytophilum and/or Rickettsia spp., tick samples were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR. Differentiation of Rickettsia species was accomplished using real-time pyrosequencing technology. Overall, 4.5% (94/2100) of the collected ticks were tested positive for A. phagocytophilum and 26.2% (551/2100) were positive for Rickettsia spp. infections. Species differentiation of Rickettsia-positive ticks via real-time pyrosequencing was possible in 48.6% (268/551) of samples, which were all identified as R. helvetica. Coinfections with both pathogens were found in 1.0% (20/2100) of ticks. Statistically significant seasonal fluctuations between sampling months as well as local differences between sampling sites were detected for Rickettsia spp. infection rates. For A. phagocytophilum infections, only significant seasonal variations were found. When comparing infection rates of Hanoverian ticks in 2010 to those in 2005, infection rates of A. phagocytophilum-infected nymphs increased statistically significant (P=0.008, power: 0.762) from 2.3% in 2005 (Schicht et al., 2011) to 4.5% in 2010. Rickettsia spp. infections in female ticks decreased significantly (P=0.049, power: 0.491) from 41.8% in 2005 (Schicht et al., 2012) to 32.4% in 2010. Comparison of the remaining tick stages showed no statistically significant differences.

  20. Role of Migratory Birds in Introduction and Range Expansion of Ixodes scapularis Ticks and of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Canada▿

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, N. H.; Lindsay, L. R.; Hanincová, K.; Barker, I. K.; Bigras-Poulin, M.; Charron, D. F.; Heagy, A.; Francis, C. M.; O'Callaghan, C. J.; Schwartz, I.; Thompson, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    During the spring in 2005 and 2006, 39,095 northward-migrating land birds were captured at 12 bird observatories in eastern Canada to investigate the role of migratory birds in northward range expansion of Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and their tick vector, Ixodes scapularis. The prevalence of birds carrying I. scapularis ticks (mostly nymphs) was 0.35% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30 to 0.42), but a nested study by experienced observers suggested a more realistic infestation prevalence of 2.2% (95% CI = 1.18 to 3.73). The mean infestation intensity was 1.66 per bird. Overall, 15.4% of I. scapularis nymphs (95% CI = 10.7 to 20.9) were PCR positive for Borrelia burgdorferi, but only 8% (95% CI = 3.8 to 15.1) were positive when excluding nymphs collected at Long Point, Ontario, where B. burgdorferi is endemic. A wide range of ospC and rrs-rrl intergenic spacer alleles of B. burgdorferi were identified in infected ticks, including those associated with disseminated Lyme disease and alleles that are rare in the northeastern United States. Overall, 0.4% (95% CI = 0.03 to 0.41) of I. scapularis nymphs were PCR positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. We estimate that migratory birds disperse 50 million to 175 million I. scapularis ticks across Canada each spring, implicating migratory birds as possibly significant in I. scapularis range expansion in Canada. However, infrequent larvae and the low infection prevalence in ticks carried by the birds raise questions as to how B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum become endemic in any tick populations established by bird-transported ticks. PMID:18245258

  1. Occurrence of ticks and prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in three types of urban biotopes: forests, parks and cemeteries.

    PubMed

    Hornok, Sándor; Meli, Marina L; Gönczi, Enikő; Halász, Edina; Takács, Nóra; Farkas, Róbert; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare different urban biotopes for the occurrence of ixodid tick species, for the population density of Ixodes ricinus and for the prevalence rates of two emerging, zoonotic pathogens. Altogether 2455 ticks were collected from the vegetation on 30 places (forests, parks, cemeteries) of Budapest, Hungary. I. ricinus and Haemaphysalis concinna were collected in all three biotope types, but Dermacentor reticulatus only in parks and forests, and D. marginatus only in a forest. Highest population density of I. ricinus was observed in neglected parts of cemeteries. In females of this tick species the prevalence rates of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were significantly lower in cemeteries, than in parks or forests. In conclusion, risks associated with the presence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens may be high in a city, but this depends on biotope types, due to habitat-related differences in the vegetation, as well as in the availability of tick hosts and pathogen reservoirs.

  2. Current Surveys of the Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Pantchev, Nikola; Schnyder, Manuela; Vrhovec, Majda Globokar; Schaper, Roland; Tsachev, Ilia

    2015-08-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) have increasingly become a focus of interest in recent years. Some of the CVBDs are zoonotic and may therefore also represent a risk for the human population. Different factors are in discussion to explain the expansion of vectors and pathogens into formerly unaffected areas. Knowledge of the prevalence and distribution of CVBDs in Bulgaria is scant overall and most data rely on single case descriptions. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of important CVBDs in 167 dogs from central-southern Bulgaria (Stara Zagora), with special emphasis on hitherto uninvestigated babesiosis and angiostrongylosis, on poorly investigated Lyme borreliosis and canine granulocytic anaplasmosis, and on the potentially zoonotic dirofilariosis and leishmaniosis. Relatively high prevalence rates were documented for anti-Babesia canis antibodies, Dirofilaria immitis antigen (16.2 %; 27/167 each), anti-Ehrlichia canis (21 %; 35/167) and anti-Anaplasma phagocytophilum antibodies (30.5 - 46.1 %; 51 - 77/167), while Borrelia burgdorferi seroprevalence was low (2.4 %; 4/167). All samples were negative for Leishmania infantum antibodies and Angiostrongylus vasorum antigen and antibodies. In total, 64.7 % (108/167) of the samples indicated infection or exposure to at least one agent and a high proportion of dual infections (39.8 %; 43/108) was demonstrated. Multiple infections with up to four different organisms were also detected. Our data underline the importance of CVBDs and especially of co-infections which could influence the clinical outcome in dogs.

  3. Nuclease Tudor-SN Is Involved in Tick dsRNA-Mediated RNA Interference and Feeding but Not in Defense against Flaviviral or Anaplasma phagocytophilum Rickettsial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ayllón, Nieves; Naranjo, Victoria; Hajdušek, Ondrej; Villar, Margarita; Galindo, Ruth C.; Kocan, Katherine M.; Alberdi, Pilar; Šíma, Radek; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Rückert, Claudia; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Kazimírová, Mária; Havlíková, Sabína; Klempa, Boris; Kopáček, Petr; de la Fuente, José

    2015-01-01

    Tudor staphylococcal nuclease (Tudor-SN) and Argonaute (Ago) are conserved components of the basic RNA interference (RNAi) machinery with a variety of functions including immune response and gene regulation. The RNAi machinery has been characterized in tick vectors of human and animal diseases but information is not available on the role of Tudor-SN in tick RNAi and other cellular processes. Our hypothesis is that tick Tudor-SN is part of the RNAi machinery and may be involved in innate immune response and other cellular processes. To address this hypothesis, Ixodes scapularis and I. ricinus ticks and/or cell lines were used to annotate and characterize the role of Tudor-SN in dsRNA-mediated RNAi, immune response to infection with the rickettsia Anaplasma phagocytophilum and the flaviviruses TBEV or LGTV and tick feeding. The results showed that Tudor-SN is conserved in ticks and involved in dsRNA-mediated RNAi and tick feeding but not in defense against infection with the examined viral and rickettsial pathogens. The effect of Tudor-SN gene knockdown on tick feeding could be due to down-regulation of genes that are required for protein processing and blood digestion through a mechanism that may involve selective degradation of dsRNAs enriched in G:U pairs that form as a result of adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing. These results demonstrated that Tudor-SN plays a role in tick RNAi pathway and feeding but no strong evidence for a role in innate immune responses to pathogen infection was found. PMID:26186700

  4. Nuclease Tudor-SN Is Involved in Tick dsRNA-Mediated RNA Interference and Feeding but Not in Defense against Flaviviral or Anaplasma phagocytophilum Rickettsial Infection.

    PubMed

    Ayllón, Nieves; Naranjo, Victoria; Hajdušek, Ondrej; Villar, Margarita; Galindo, Ruth C; Kocan, Katherine M; Alberdi, Pilar; Šíma, Radek; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Rückert, Claudia; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Kazimírová, Mária; Havlíková, Sabína; Klempa, Boris; Kopáček, Petr; de la Fuente, José

    2015-01-01

    Tudor staphylococcal nuclease (Tudor-SN) and Argonaute (Ago) are conserved components of the basic RNA interference (RNAi) machinery with a variety of functions including immune response and gene regulation. The RNAi machinery has been characterized in tick vectors of human and animal diseases but information is not available on the role of Tudor-SN in tick RNAi and other cellular processes. Our hypothesis is that tick Tudor-SN is part of the RNAi machinery and may be involved in innate immune response and other cellular processes. To address this hypothesis, Ixodes scapularis and I. ricinus ticks and/or cell lines were used to annotate and characterize the role of Tudor-SN in dsRNA-mediated RNAi, immune response to infection with the rickettsia Anaplasma phagocytophilum and the flaviviruses TBEV or LGTV and tick feeding. The results showed that Tudor-SN is conserved in ticks and involved in dsRNA-mediated RNAi and tick feeding but not in defense against infection with the examined viral and rickettsial pathogens. The effect of Tudor-SN gene knockdown on tick feeding could be due to down-regulation of genes that are required for protein processing and blood digestion through a mechanism that may involve selective degradation of dsRNAs enriched in G:U pairs that form as a result of adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing. These results demonstrated that Tudor-SN plays a role in tick RNAi pathway and feeding but no strong evidence for a role in innate immune responses to pathogen infection was found.

  5. Current Surveys of the Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Pantchev, Nikola; Schnyder, Manuela; Vrhovec, Majda Globokar; Schaper, Roland; Tsachev, Ilia

    2015-08-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) have increasingly become a focus of interest in recent years. Some of the CVBDs are zoonotic and may therefore also represent a risk for the human population. Different factors are in discussion to explain the expansion of vectors and pathogens into formerly unaffected areas. Knowledge of the prevalence and distribution of CVBDs in Bulgaria is scant overall and most data rely on single case descriptions. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of important CVBDs in 167 dogs from central-southern Bulgaria (Stara Zagora), with special emphasis on hitherto uninvestigated babesiosis and angiostrongylosis, on poorly investigated Lyme borreliosis and canine granulocytic anaplasmosis, and on the potentially zoonotic dirofilariosis and leishmaniosis. Relatively high prevalence rates were documented for anti-Babesia canis antibodies, Dirofilaria immitis antigen (16.2 %; 27/167 each), anti-Ehrlichia canis (21 %; 35/167) and anti-Anaplasma phagocytophilum antibodies (30.5 - 46.1 %; 51 - 77/167), while Borrelia burgdorferi seroprevalence was low (2.4 %; 4/167). All samples were negative for Leishmania infantum antibodies and Angiostrongylus vasorum antigen and antibodies. In total, 64.7 % (108/167) of the samples indicated infection or exposure to at least one agent and a high proportion of dual infections (39.8 %; 43/108) was demonstrated. Multiple infections with up to four different organisms were also detected. Our data underline the importance of CVBDs and especially of co-infections which could influence the clinical outcome in dogs. PMID:26152413

  6. A serological survey of tick-borne pathogens in dogs in North America and the Caribbean as assessed by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. platys, Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, and Borrelia burgdorferi species-specific peptides

    PubMed Central

    Qurollo, Barbara A.; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Hegarty, Barbara C.; Beall, Melissa J.; Stillman, Brett A.; Liu, Jiayou; Thatcher, Brendon; Pultorak, Elizabeth; Cerrito, Brian; Walsh, Mary; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tick-borne pathogens cause a spectrum of disease manifestations in both dogs and humans. Recognizing regional and temporal shifts in exposure are important as tick distributions change. To better delineate regional exposure to canine tick-borne pathogens, an expanded set of species-specific peptides were used to detect Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Aph), Anaplasma platys (Apl), Ehrlichia canis (Ec), Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Ech), Ehrlichia ewingii (Eew), and Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) antibodies in canine serum. Methods Archived canine serum samples (n=6,582) collected during 2008–2010 and in 2012 from the US, Canada, and the Caribbean were retrospectively screened for antibodies against Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species-specific peptides. Overall, regional and temporal seroprevalence rates were determined. Results Overall Bb and Eew were the most seroprevalent pathogens. During 2008–2010, seroprevalence rates increased overall for Aph and Ech, and regionally, Bb and Aph seroprevalence rates increased in the South. Canada had unexpectedly high seroprevalence rates for Ec and Apl. The most common co-exposures were Eew+Ech, followed by Aph+Bb and Eew+Bb. Conclusions This study demonstrated significant shifts in canine vector-borne disease seroprevalence rates. The use of specific peptides facilitated improved geographic delineation of tick-borne pathogen distributions among dogs, which may enhance epidemiological surveillance of vector-borne pathogens shared by dogs and humans. PMID:25405006

  7. Infection and co-infection rates of Anaplasma phagocytophilum variants, Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, and the rickettsial endosymbiont in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) from sites in Indiana, Maine, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Fresia E; Pinger, Robert R; Vann, Carolyn N; Grindle, Nate; Civitello, David; Clay, Keith; Fuqua, Clay

    2008-03-01

    In total, 394 questing adult blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae), collected at four sites were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for five microbial species: Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, Babesia odocoilei, Borrelia burgdorferi, and the rickettsial I. scapularis endosymbiont. Identities of genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum were determined by sequencing a portion of the 16S DNA. In 55% of infected ticks (193/351), a single agent was detected. In 45% (158/351), two or more agents were detected; 37% harbored two agents and 8% harbored three agents. One male tick, collected from Ft. McCoy, WI, harbored all four microbial genera The highest rates of co-infection were by the Ixodes endosymbiont and B. burgdorferi (95/351). Two species of Babesia co-occurred within a single tick population in Wells National Estuarine Research Reserve, Wells, ME, whereas only B. odocoilei was found in other tick populations. Only A. phagocytophilum human anaplasmosis variant was detected in questing ticks from Tippecanoe River State Park, IN; from Wells; and Ft. McCoy, whereas a single infected tick from Presque Isle, PA, was infected by AP-Variant 1. Partially engorged ticks from deer in Tippecanoe River State Park were all infected with AP-Variant 1. Frequency of infections with each agent varied among populations. Rates and types of co-infections were not significantly different from random except for the Ixodes endosymbiont and B. burgdorferi in male ticks, which co-occurred less frequently than expected. Thus, I. scapularis hosts an array of pathogenic and symbiotic agents and potential evidence of interactions among microbial species was observed.

  8. [Study of the heterogeneity of 16s rRNA gene and groESL operone in the dna samples of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia muris, and "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" determined in the Ixodes persulcatus ticks in the area of Urals, Siberia, and far east of Russia].

    PubMed

    Rar, V A; Epikhina, T I; Livanova, N N; Panov, V V; Doroshenko, E K; Pukhovskaia, N M; Vysochina, N P; Ivanov, L I

    2011-01-01

    A total of 3552 Ixodes persulcatus from Sverdlovsk, Chelyabinsk, Novosibirsk, Irkutsk regions and Khabarovsk Territory were examined on the Ehrlichia and Anaplasma presence by nested PCR based on the 16S rRNA gene. Both Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia muris DNA were found in I. persulcatus in all studied regions. A. Phagocytophilum was detected in 1.3-6.3% of ticks and E. muris - in 2.0-14.1% of ticks. Moreover, "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" DNA was found in 8 ticks collected in Novosibirsk, Irkutsk Regions and Khabarovsk Territory. Partial nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene and groESL operone (1240-1300 bp) were determined for 65 samples of A. Phagocytophilum, 17 samples of E. muris and 4 samples of "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis". Nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene and groESL operone of E. muris and "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" were shown to be highly conservative, and nucleotide sequences of groESL operone of both E. muris and "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" differed from the sequences found previously in other species of Ixodid tick. On the basis of analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and groESL operone sequences it was concluded that all revealed samples A. Phagocytophilum could be divided into 2 groups. GroESL operone sequences of A. Phagocytophilum from the first group were identical to each other but significantly differed from the known groESL operone sequences (less than 98.2% of similarity), whereas their 16S rRNA gene sequences were identical to the sequence of widely distributed and pathogenic for human A. Phagocytophilum genetic variant (CAHU-HGEl, GenBank AF093788) or differed from it by a single nucleotide substitution. The nucleotide sequences of groESL operone of A. Phagocytophilum from the second group differed from each other by 1-4 nucleotides and were closely related (99.2-99.4% of similarity) to the sequences of groESL operone ofA. phagocytophilum isolates found in Europe in Ixodes ricinus and roe deer. The

  9. DGGE Identification of Microorganisms Associated with Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato- or Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Infected Ixodes ricinus Ticks from Northwest Norway.

    PubMed

    Tveten, Ann-Kristin; Riborg, Andreas; Vadseth, Hanne Tjelle

    2013-01-01

    Ticks acquire a wide range of microorganisms as a natural part of their lifecycle. Bacteria, viruses, and protozoa can be transmitted to ticks during feeding and free-living phases. DGGE profiling is a molecular method to describe the microbial population associated with ticks and demonstrate some of the complexity and variety of tick-borne microorganisms. The present study profiled a total of 120 I. ricinus ticks, which were divided into three equally sized groups. We found that B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected ticks presented a pattern consisting of bacterial Pseudomonas spp. (67.5%), Bacillus spp. (50%), and Sphingomonas spp. (77.5%), while A. phagocytophilum-infected ticks were associated with Pseudomonas spp. (82.5%) and Sphingomonas spp. (57.5%). All profiles had one or more Pseudomonas species present, and the intramitochondrial endosymbiont Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii was present in more than 25% of the samples. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the microbial communities were not significantly different between the groups and that the groups could not be characterised by a specific microbial population.

  10. Molecular investigation and phylogeny of Anaplasma spp. in Mediterranean ruminants reveal the presence of neutrophil-tropic strains closely related to A. platys.

    PubMed

    Zobba, Rosanna; Anfossi, Antonio G; Pinna Parpaglia, Maria Luisa; Dore, Gian Mario; Chessa, Bernardo; Spezzigu, Antonio; Rocca, Stefano; Visco, Stefano; Pittau, Marco; Alberti, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Few data are available on the prevalence and molecular typing of species belonging to the genus Anaplasma in Mediterranean ruminants. In this study, PCR analysis and sequencing of both 16S rRNA and groEL genes were combined to investigate the presence, prevalence, and molecular traits of Anaplasma spp. in ruminants sampled on the Island of Sardinia, chosen as a subtropical representative area. The results demonstrate a high prevalence of Anaplasma spp. in ruminants, with animals infected by at least four of six Anaplasma species (Anaplasma marginale, A. bovis, A. ovis, and A. phagocytophilum). Moreover, ruminants host a number of neutrophil-tropic strains genetically closely related to the canine pathogen A. platys. The high Anaplasma spp. prevalence and the identification of as-yet-unclassified neutrophil-tropic strains raise concerns about the specificity of serological tests routinely used in ruminants and provide additional background for reconstructing the evolutionary history of species genetically related to A. phagocytophilum.

  11. Molecular survey and sequence analysis of Anaplasma spp. in cattle and ticks in a Malaysian farm.

    PubMed

    Tay, S T; Koh, F X; Kho, K L; Ong, B L

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of Anaplasma spp. in the blood samples of cattle, goats, deer and ticks in a Malaysian farm. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing approach, Anaplasma spp. was detected from 81(84.4%) of 96 cattle blood samples. All blood samples from 23 goats and 22 deer tested were negative. Based on the analysis of the Anaplasma partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene, four sequence types (genotypes 1 to 4) were identified in this study. Genotypes 1-3 showed high sequence similarity to those of Anaplasma platys/ Anaplasma phagocytophilum, whilst genotype 4 was identical to those of Anaplasma marginale/ Anaplasma centrale/ Anaplasma ovis. Anaplasma DNA was detected from six (5.5%) of 109 ticks which were identified as Rhipicephalus (formely known as Boophilus) microplus ticks collected from the cattle. This study reported for the first time the detection of four Anaplasma sequence types circulating in the cattle population in a farm in Malaysia. The detection of Anaplasma DNA in R. microplus ticks in this study provides evidence that the ticks are one of the potential vectors for transmission of anaplasmosis in the cattle. PMID:25776603

  12. First molecular evidence for the presence of Anaplasma DNA in milk from sheep and goats in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Lv, Yali; Cui, Yanyan; Wang, Jinhong; Cao, Shuxuan; Jian, Fuchun; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Longxian; Ning, Changshen

    2016-07-01

    Anaplasmosis, a disease caused by bacteria in the genus of Anaplasma, imposes economic constraints on animal breeders and also threatens human health. In the present study, we investigated the presence of Anaplasma spp. DNA in milk collected from sheep and goats in China. A total of 120 milk samples and 414 field-sampled blood specimens from sheep and goats were analyzed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Anaplasma ovis was detected in 12 milk samples (three from sheep and nine from goats). The blood specimens corresponding to the A. ovis DNA-positive milk were analyzed for Anaplasma DNA presence, and A. ovis DNA was identified in 10 out of the 12 blood specimens. One goat's milk sample was Anaplasma bovis DNA-positive, as was the corresponding blood sample. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was found in a milk sample and blood sample from one goat. One milk sample from Xinmi in Henan province was simultaneously positive for A. bovis and A. phagocytophilum; however, the corresponding blood was negative for both species. DNA sequencing of the PCR products and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the sequences from the milk samples matched those of the corresponding blood samples. This is the first report to detect the Anaplasma DNA in milk samples under natural condition, and represents the first evidence of the presence of A. ovis, A. bovis and A. phagocytophilum DNA in milk from sheep and goats.

  13. Anaplasma spp. in wild mammals and Ixodes ricinus from the north of Spain.

    PubMed

    Portillo, Aránzazu; Pérez-Martínez, Laura; Santibáñez, Sonia; Santibáñez, Paula; Palomar, Ana M; Oteo, José A

    2011-01-01

    Our objectives were to investigate the presence of Anaplasma spp. infection in red deer, wild boars, and Ixodes ricinus removed from deer surveyed in La Rioja, as well as to analyze the presence of Anaplasma spp. in I. ricinus from different Spanish regions--ours included. A total of 21 deer and 13 wild boar blood samples as well as 295 I. ricinus removed from deer, vegetation, or asymptomatic people were tested by polymerase chain reaction targeting Anaplasma spp. 16S rRNA gene and groESL heat shock operon. Twelve deer blood samples were found to be infected with Anaplasma centrale (n = 7) or Anaplasma phagocytophilum (n = 5). No wild boar blood samples gave positive polymerase chain reaction results. Further, A. phagocytophilum was detected in 12 out of 89 I. ricinus removed from deer and in 18 out of 168 I. ricinus collected over vegetation in the North of Spain. Anaplasma spp. was not detected in any of the 38 I. ricinus removed from people. Nucleotide sequences for 16S rRNA gene showed substancial heterogeneity. The etiological agent of human anaplasmosis was found in two deer blood samples, an adult tick from deer, and a nymph from vegetation. The 16S rRNA sequences for 12 out of 35 samples matched the sequence of the Ap-variant 1 strain previously described in the United States, and the remaining 19 positive samples (deer blood and I. ricinus) showed variations with unknown significance. Although the groEL DNA sequences varied among analyzed strains, the deduced amino acid sequences did not change for any of them. This study suggests that deer population from La Rioja harbors strains of A. phagocytophilum similar to that pathogen for humans and other of unknown pathogenicity. Further, it seems that the Ap-variant 1 is circulating among I. ricinus ticks from the North of Spain more frequently than the A. phagocytophilum strain associated to human anaplasmosis. PMID:20528172

  14. Molecular detection of Anaplasma spp. in pangolins (Manis javanica) and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Koh, Fui Xian; Kho, Kai Ling; Panchadcharam, Chandrawathani; Sitam, Frankie Thomas; Tay, Sun Tee

    2016-08-30

    Anaplasma spp. infects a wide variety of wildlife and domestic animals. This study describes the identification of a novel species of Anaplasma (Candidatus Anaplasma pangolinii) from pangolins (Manis javanica) and Anaplasma bovis from wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Malaysia. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, Candidatus Anaplasma pangolinii is identified in a distinct branch within the family Anaplasmataceae, exhibiting the closest sequence similarity with the type strains of Anaplasma bovis (97.7%) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (97.6%). The sequence also aligned closely (99.9%) with that of an Anaplasma spp. (strain AnAj360) detected from Amblyomma javanense ticks. The nearly full length sequence of the 16S rRNA gene derived from two wild boars in this study demonstrated the highest sequence similarity (99.7%) to the A. bovis type strain. Partial 16S rRNA gene fragments of A. bovis were also detected from a small population of Haemaphysalis bispinosa cattle ticks in this study. Our finding suggests a possible spread of two Anaplasma species in the Malaysian wildlife and ticks. The zoonotic potential of the Anaplasma species identified in this study is yet to be determined. PMID:27523941

  15. Molecular detection of Anaplasma spp. in pangolins (Manis javanica) and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Koh, Fui Xian; Kho, Kai Ling; Panchadcharam, Chandrawathani; Sitam, Frankie Thomas; Tay, Sun Tee

    2016-08-30

    Anaplasma spp. infects a wide variety of wildlife and domestic animals. This study describes the identification of a novel species of Anaplasma (Candidatus Anaplasma pangolinii) from pangolins (Manis javanica) and Anaplasma bovis from wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Malaysia. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, Candidatus Anaplasma pangolinii is identified in a distinct branch within the family Anaplasmataceae, exhibiting the closest sequence similarity with the type strains of Anaplasma bovis (97.7%) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (97.6%). The sequence also aligned closely (99.9%) with that of an Anaplasma spp. (strain AnAj360) detected from Amblyomma javanense ticks. The nearly full length sequence of the 16S rRNA gene derived from two wild boars in this study demonstrated the highest sequence similarity (99.7%) to the A. bovis type strain. Partial 16S rRNA gene fragments of A. bovis were also detected from a small population of Haemaphysalis bispinosa cattle ticks in this study. Our finding suggests a possible spread of two Anaplasma species in the Malaysian wildlife and ticks. The zoonotic potential of the Anaplasma species identified in this study is yet to be determined.

  16. Prevalence and Genotypes of Anaplasma Species and Habitat Suitability for Ticks in a Mediterranean Ecosystem▿

    PubMed Central

    Torina, Alessandra; Alongi, Angelina; Naranjo, Victoria; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Vicente, Joaquín; Scimeca, Salvatore; Marino, Anna M. F.; Salina, Felice; Caracappa, Santo; de la Fuente, José

    2008-01-01

    Anaplasma species are tick-transmitted pathogens that impact veterinary and human health. Sicily is one of the locations where these pathogens are endemic. Sicily represents a typical Mediterranean ecosystem to study Anaplasma infection and tick habitat suitability. The aims of this study were (i) to characterize by 16S rRNA and species-specific msp4 gene PCR the prevalence and genotypes of A. marginale, A. phagocytophilum, and A. ovis in the most abundant host species in Sicilian provinces and (ii) to correlate differences between hosts and between western and eastern Sicily with the habitat suitability for ticks in these regions. Differences were found in the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. between different hosts and between western and eastern provinces. The differences in Anaplasma prevalence between different hosts may be explained by pathogen host tropism. The differences between western and eastern provinces correlated with the tick habitat suitability in these regions. The analysis of Anaplasma genotypes suggested a higher host and regional specificity for A. phagocytophilum than for A. marginale and A. ovis strains, a finding probably associated with the broader host range of A. phagocytophilum. The presence of identical A. marginale genotypes in the two regions may reflect cattle movement. The results for A. ovis suggested the possibility of some genotypes being host specific. These results provide information potentially useful for the management of tick-borne diseases caused by Anaplasma spp. in Sicily and other Mediterranean regions and may contribute to the development of models to predict the risks for these tick-borne pathogens. PMID:18978093

  17. The occurrence of Anaplasma phagocyto- philum in wild bison from the Bialowieza Primeval Forest in Eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Dzięgiel, Beata; Adaszekl, Łukasz; Krzysiak, Michał; Skrzypczak, Maciej; Adaszek, Michał; Furmaga, Barbara; Winiarczyk, Stanislaw

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Anaplasma spp. in a group of 120 wild bison (Bison bonasus) from the Bialowieza Primeval Forest in eastern Poland and to determine which species of Anaplasma could infect these animals based on a PCR of a part of the 16S rRNA gene followed by sequencing. The PCR technique showed the presence of 16S rRNA Anaplasma spp. genetic material in the blood of 22 from a total of 120 animals. DNA amplification by means of the primers EHR 521 and EHR 747 gave a product size of 252-bp. The sequences of the PCR products obtained showed 100% homology with each other and 100% homology with the Anaplasma phagocytophilum GU 183908 sequence from our earlier study, isolated from a horse with a clinical case of anaplasmosis. The similarity of the sequences with the sequences of the 16S rRNA gene isolated from various Anaplasma species deposited in the GeneBank, ranged between 95.8% and 98.8%. Based on the results of molecular analysis, bacterial DNA detected in the blood of 22 wild bison was identified as Anaplasma phagocytophilum. PMID:26281444

  18. The occurrence of Anaplasma phagocyto- philum in wild bison from the Bialowieza Primeval Forest in Eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Dzięgiel, Beata; Adaszekl, Łukasz; Krzysiak, Michał; Skrzypczak, Maciej; Adaszek, Michał; Furmaga, Barbara; Winiarczyk, Stanislaw

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Anaplasma spp. in a group of 120 wild bison (Bison bonasus) from the Bialowieza Primeval Forest in eastern Poland and to determine which species of Anaplasma could infect these animals based on a PCR of a part of the 16S rRNA gene followed by sequencing. The PCR technique showed the presence of 16S rRNA Anaplasma spp. genetic material in the blood of 22 from a total of 120 animals. DNA amplification by means of the primers EHR 521 and EHR 747 gave a product size of 252-bp. The sequences of the PCR products obtained showed 100% homology with each other and 100% homology with the Anaplasma phagocytophilum GU 183908 sequence from our earlier study, isolated from a horse with a clinical case of anaplasmosis. The similarity of the sequences with the sequences of the 16S rRNA gene isolated from various Anaplasma species deposited in the GeneBank, ranged between 95.8% and 98.8%. Based on the results of molecular analysis, bacterial DNA detected in the blood of 22 wild bison was identified as Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

  19. Anaplasma phagocytophilum—a widespread multi-host pathogen with highly adaptive strategies

    PubMed Central

    Stuen, Snorre; Granquist, Erik G.; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    The bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum has for decades been known to cause the disease tick-borne fever (TBF) in domestic ruminants in Ixodes ricinus-infested areas in northern Europe. In recent years, the bacterium has been found associated with Ixodes-tick species more or less worldwide on the northern hemisphere. A. phagocytophilum has a broad host range and may cause severe disease in several mammalian species, including humans. However, the clinical symptoms vary from subclinical to fatal conditions, and considerable underreporting of clinical incidents is suspected in both human and veterinary medicine. Several variants of A. phagocytophilum have been genetically characterized. Identification and stratification into phylogenetic subfamilies has been based on cell culturing, experimental infections, PCR, and sequencing techniques. However, few genome sequences have been completed so far, thus observations on biological, ecological, and pathological differences between genotypes of the bacterium, have yet to be elucidated by molecular and experimental infection studies. The natural transmission cycles of various A. phagocytophilum variants, the involvement of their respective hosts and vectors involved, in particular the zoonotic potential, have to be unraveled. A. phagocytophilum is able to persist between seasons of tick activity in several mammalian species and movement of hosts and infected ticks on migrating animals or birds may spread the bacterium. In the present review, we focus on the ecology and epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum, especially the role of wildlife in contribution to the spread and sustainability of the infection in domestic livestock and humans. PMID:23885337

  20. First molecular survey and novel genetic variants' identification of Anaplasma marginale, A. centrale and A. bovis in cattle from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Belkahia, Hanène; Ben Said, Mourad; Alberti, Alberto; Abdi, Khaoula; Issaoui, Zakia; Hattab, Dorra; Gharbi, Mohamed; Messadi, Lilia

    2015-08-01

    Few data are available about the presence and distribution of Anaplasma species in cattle in North African countries. In this study prevalence, co-infections, risk factors and genetic diversity of Anaplasma species were evaluated in bovines from Northern Tunisia. A total of 232 cattle from 36 randomly selected farms in three Tunisian localities were investigated for the presence of Anaplasma species in blood by Real-time PCR and/or nested PCR. Overall infection rates of Anaplasma spp., Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma centrale and Anaplasma bovis were 34.9%, 25.4%, 15.1%, and 3.9%, respectively. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was not detected in cattle. The most common co-infection pattern was an association of A. marginale and A. centrale (11.2%). Five cattle (2.1%) all reared in the sub-humid bioclimatic area, were co-infected by the three Anaplasma species. Molecular prevalence of Anaplasma infection varied significantly according to locality, bioclimatic area, tick infestation and type of breeding. Animals of the Holstein breed were less infected by A. marginale and A. centrale than other breeds. Genetic analysis of A. marginale msp4 gene indicated a high sequence diversity of Tunisian strains, suggesting a multiple introduction of infected cattle from different origins. Phylogenetic studies based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that the most prevalent A. centrale strains were closely related to the A. centrale vaccine strain. Moreover, all A. bovis variants clustered with other A. bovis sequences obtained from domestic and wild ruminant strains. This is the first molecular investigation on Anaplasma species in Tunisian cattle providing pivotal background for designing epidemiological studies and to develop control strategies in the country.

  1. A Molecular and Serological Survey of Rickettsiales Bacteria in Wild Sika Deer (Cervus nippon nippon) in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan: High Prevalence of Anaplasma Species.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dongxing; Wuritu; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Gaowa; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Ikegaya, Asaka; Ohtake, Masayoshi; Ohashi, Masataka; Shimada, Masahiko; Takada, Ayumi; Iwai, Katsuki; Ohashi, Norio

    2015-01-01

    We surveyed Rickettsiales bacteria, including Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Neoehrlichia, in wild sika deer (Cervus nippon nippon) from Shizuoka prefecture, Japan. In spleen samples from 187 deer, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (deer type), A. bovis, and A. centrale were successfully detected by PCR assay targeting to 16S rDNA or p44/msp2, and their positive rates were 96.3% (180/187), 53.5% (100/187), and 78.1% (146/187), respectively. Additionally, 2 or 3 Anaplasma species could be detected from a single deer in 165 spleen samples (88.2%), indicating dual or triple infection. In contrast, A. phagocytophilum (human type) 16S rDNA, Rickettsia gltA, Ehrlichia p28/omp-1, and Neoehrlichia 16S rDNA could not be amplified. The serological test of 105 deer serum samples by immunofluorescence assay showed that the detection of antibodies against antigens of A. phagocytophilum HZ (US-human isolate) and Rickettsia japonica YH were 29.5% (31/105) and 75.2% (79/105), respectively. These findings suggest that A. phagocytophilum (deer type), A. centrale, and A. bovis are highly dominant and prevalent in wild sika deer from Shizuoka, a central region of Japan, and that the antibodies against some Rickettsiales bacteria have also been retained in deer blood.

  2. A Molecular and Serological Survey of Rickettsiales Bacteria in Wild Sika Deer (Cervus nippon nippon) in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan: High Prevalence of Anaplasma Species.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dongxing; Wuritu; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Gaowa; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Ikegaya, Asaka; Ohtake, Masayoshi; Ohashi, Masataka; Shimada, Masahiko; Takada, Ayumi; Iwai, Katsuki; Ohashi, Norio

    2015-01-01

    We surveyed Rickettsiales bacteria, including Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Neoehrlichia, in wild sika deer (Cervus nippon nippon) from Shizuoka prefecture, Japan. In spleen samples from 187 deer, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (deer type), A. bovis, and A. centrale were successfully detected by PCR assay targeting to 16S rDNA or p44/msp2, and their positive rates were 96.3% (180/187), 53.5% (100/187), and 78.1% (146/187), respectively. Additionally, 2 or 3 Anaplasma species could be detected from a single deer in 165 spleen samples (88.2%), indicating dual or triple infection. In contrast, A. phagocytophilum (human type) 16S rDNA, Rickettsia gltA, Ehrlichia p28/omp-1, and Neoehrlichia 16S rDNA could not be amplified. The serological test of 105 deer serum samples by immunofluorescence assay showed that the detection of antibodies against antigens of A. phagocytophilum HZ (US-human isolate) and Rickettsia japonica YH were 29.5% (31/105) and 75.2% (79/105), respectively. These findings suggest that A. phagocytophilum (deer type), A. centrale, and A. bovis are highly dominant and prevalent in wild sika deer from Shizuoka, a central region of Japan, and that the antibodies against some Rickettsiales bacteria have also been retained in deer blood. PMID:25971318

  3. A Molecular survey of Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia canis and Babesia microti in foxes and fleas from Sicily.

    PubMed

    Torina, A; Blanda, V; Antoci, F; Scimeca, S; D'Agostino, R; Scariano, E; Piazza, A; Galluzzo, P; Giudice, E; Caracappa, S

    2013-11-01

    Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) are obligate bloodsucking insects, which parasitize birds and mammals, and are distributed throughout the world. Several species have been implicated in pathogen transmission. This study aimed to monitor red foxes and the fleas isolated from them in the Palermo and Ragusa provinces of Sicily, Italy, as these organisms are potential reservoirs and vectors of pathogens. Thirteen foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 110 fleas were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect DNA of the pathogens Ehrlichia canis, Babesia microti, Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma ovis. In the foxes, A. ovis was detected in only one animal, whereas the prevalence of the E. canis pathogen was 31%. B. microti and Rickettsia spp. were not detected. Of all of the collected fleas, 75 belonged to the species Xenopsylla cheopis, 32 belonged to Ctenocephalides canis, two belonged to Ctenocephalides felis and one belonged to Cediopsylla inaequalis. In the fleas, the following pathogens were found: A. ovis (prevalence 25%), A. marginale (1%), A. phagocytophilum (1%), Rickettsia felis (2%) and E. canis (3%). X. cheopis was the flea species most frequently infected with Anaplasma, in particular A. ovis (33%), A. marginale (1%) and A. phagocytophilum (1%). Both C. felis exemplars were positive for R. felis. E. canis was found in the lone C. inaequalis and also in 3% of the X. cheopis specimens. No fleas were positive for B. microti or A. platys. As foxes often live in proximity to domestic areas, they may constitute potential reservoirs for human and animal parasites. Further studies should be performed on fleas to determine their vectorial capacity.

  4. Prevalence of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. in Ticks Collected from Korean Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Jo, Yong-Sun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Bae-Keun; Park, Jinho; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-02-01

    Deer serve as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide. In the Republic of Korea, the population of Korean water deer (KWD, Hydropotes inermis argyropus) has greatly increased from 1982 to 2011, in part, as a result of reforestation programs established following the Korean War when much of the land was barren of trees. Eighty seven Haemaphysalis flava, 228 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 8 Ixodes nipponensis, and 40 Ixodes persulcatus (21 larvae, 114 nymphs, and 228 adults) were collected from 27 out of 70 KWD. A total of 89/363 ticks (266 pools, 24.5% minimum infection rate) and 5 (1.4%) fed ticks were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum using nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 88/89 (98.9%) of positive samples for A. phagocytophilum corresponded to previously described gene sequences from KWD spleen tissues. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 20/363 (5.5%) of the ticks were positive for A. bovis and were identical to previously reported sequences. Using the ITS specific nested PCR, 11/363 (3.0%) of the ticks were positive for Bartonella spp. This is the first report of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. detected in ticks collected from KWD, suggesting that ticks are vectors of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. between reservoir hosts in natural surroundings. PMID:26951985

  5. Prevalence of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. in Ticks Collected from Korean Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A.; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Jo, Yong-Sun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Bae-Keun; Park, Jinho; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Deer serve as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide. In the Republic of Korea, the population of Korean water deer (KWD, Hydropotes inermis argyropus) has greatly increased from 1982 to 2011, in part, as a result of reforestation programs established following the Korean War when much of the land was barren of trees. Eighty seven Haemaphysalis flava, 228 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 8 Ixodes nipponensis, and 40 Ixodes persulcatus (21 larvae, 114 nymphs, and 228 adults) were collected from 27 out of 70 KWD. A total of 89/363 ticks (266 pools, 24.5% minimum infection rate) and 5 (1.4%) fed ticks were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum using nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 88/89 (98.9%) of positive samples for A. phagocytophilum corresponded to previously described gene sequences from KWD spleen tissues. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 20/363 (5.5%) of the ticks were positive for A. bovis and were identical to previously reported sequences. Using the ITS specific nested PCR, 11/363 (3.0%) of the ticks were positive for Bartonella spp. This is the first report of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. detected in ticks collected from KWD, suggesting that ticks are vectors of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. between reservoir hosts in natural surroundings. PMID:26951985

  6. Molecular detection of novel Anaplasmataceae closely related to Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Bastos, Armanda D S; Mohammed, Osama B; Bennett, Nigel C; Petevinos, Charalambos; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N

    2015-09-30

    Serological surveys have confirmed Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in dromedary camels, but molecular surveys and genetic characterisation of camel-associated Anaplasma species are lacking. In this study, we detected tick-borne Anaplasmataceae in 30 of 100 (30%) healthy dromedary camels screened using a combined 16S rRNA-groEL PCR-sequencing approach. Nucleotide sequencing confirmed Anaplasmataceae genome presence in 28 of the 33 16S rRNA PCR-positive samples, with two additional positive samples, for which 16S rRNA sequence data were ambiguous, being identified by groEL gene characterisation. Phylogenetic analyses of a 1289 nt segment of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed the presence of a unique Ehrlichia lineage and a discrete Anaplasma lineage, comprising three variants, occurring at an overall prevalence of 4% and 26%, respectively. Genetic characterisation of an aligned 559 nt groEL gene region revealed the camel-associated Anaplasma and Ehrlichia lineages to be novel and most closely related to Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis. Based on the confirmed monophyly, minimum pairwise genetic distances between each novel lineage and its closest sister taxon, and the inability to isolate the bacteria, we propose that Candidatus status be assigned to each. This first genetic characterisation of Anaplasmataceae from naturally infected, asymptomatic dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia confirms the presence of two novel lineages that are phylogenetically linked to two pathogenic canid species of increasing zoonotic concern. PMID:26096752

  7. Identification of Anaplasma spp. rickettsia isolated from horses from clinical disease cases in Poland.

    PubMed

    Adaszek, Ł; Winiarczyk, S

    2011-11-01

    This study was aimed at determining the cause of the diseases in five horses exhibiting symptoms of fever, joint oedema and ataxia and thrombocytopenia. The PCR technique revealed the presence in the blood of 16S RNA Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp. genetic material. DNA amplification with primers EHR 521 and EHR 747 gave a product with a size of 247 bp. The sequence of the PCR product obtained showed a 97.6-99.6% similarity with a sequence of a fragment of 16S RNA Anaplasma phagocytophilum, gene number EU 090186 from GenBank. Intravenous administration of oxytetracycline at a dose of 8 mg/kg of body mass for 7 days resulted in a gradual recovery.

  8. Sequence analysis of the msp4 gene of Anaplasma ovis strains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de la Fuente, J.; Atkinson, M.W.; Naranjo, V.; Fernandez de Mera, I. G.; Mangold, A.J.; Keating, K.A.; Kocan, K.M.

    2007-01-01

    Anaplasma ovis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) is a tick-borne pathogen of sheep, goats and wild ruminants. The genetic diversity of A. ovis strains has not been well characterized due to the lack of sequence information. In this study, we evaluated bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from Montana for infection with A. ovis by serology and sequence analysis of the msp4 gene. Antibodies to Anaplasma spp. were detected in 37% and 39% of bighorn sheep and mule deer analyzed, respectively. Four new msp4 genotypes were identified. The A. ovis msp4 sequences identified herein were analyzed together with sequences reported previously for the characterization of the genetic diversity of A. ovis strains in comparison with other Anaplasma spp. The results of these studies demonstrated that although A. ovis msp4 genotypes may vary among geographic regions and between sheep and deer hosts, the variation observed was less than the variation observed between A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum strains. The results reported herein further confirm that A. ovis infection occurs in natural wild ruminant populations in Western United States and that bighorn sheep and mule deer may serve as wildlife reservoirs of A. ovis. ?? 2006.

  9. Differences in prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma spp. infection among host-seeking Dermacentor occidentalis, Ixodes pacificus, and Ornithodoros coriaceus ticks in northwestern California

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Robert S.; Mun, Jeomhee; Peribáñez, Miguel A.; Fedorova, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies revealed that the Pacific Coast tick (Dermacentor occidentalis) is infected occasionally with the agents of Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) or human granulocytic anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum) and that it is an inefficient experimental vector of B. burgdorferi. The relationship of the pajahuello tick (Ornithodoros coriaceus) to each of these bacterial zoonotic agents has not been reported. The primary bridging vector of both bacterial zoonotic agents to humans is the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus). Because of the spatial and temporal overlap of D. occidentalis and O. coriaceus populations with those of I. pacificus in natural foci of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum in northwestern California, we conducted field and laboratory studies to determine if the Pacific Coast tick or the pajahuello tick potentially may serve as secondary vectors of either bacterium. Our findings reconfirmed that wild-caught D. occidentalis ticks are infected infrequently with B. burgdorferi or A. phagocytophilum, but some adult ticks from dense woodlands or chaparral were found to contain 2 important veterinary pathogens for the first time (Anaplasma bovis, A. ovis). The high prevalence of A. bovis infection (4.3%, n=185 ticks) within chaparral-derived ticks suggests that D. occidentalis could be an efficient vector of this rickettsia. Experimental attempts to transmit borreliae or Anaplasma spp. that may have been present in >100 wild-caught D. occidentalis adults to naïve rabbits were unsuccessful. Anaplasma spp. were not detected in O. coriaceus, but one (4.3%) of 23 nymphs was infected with B. bissettii. This finding and an antecedent report of a B. burgdorferi-like spirochete from the same tick species demonstrate that O. coriaceus sometimes acquires and transstadially passes Lyme disease group spirochetes. I. pacificus nymphs inhabiting a woodland nidus of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum had a 5-fold higher prevalence of

  10. Differences in prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma spp. infection among host-seeking Dermacentor occidentalis, Ixodes pacificus, and Ornithodoros coriaceus ticks in northwestern California.

    PubMed

    Lane, Robert S; Mun, Jeomhee; Peribáñez, Miguel A; Fedorova, Natalia

    2010-12-01

    Previous studies revealed that the Pacific Coast tick (Dermacentor occidentalis) is infected occasionally with the agents of Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) or human granulocytic anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum) and that it is an inefficient experimental vector of B. burgdorferi. The relationship of the pajahuello tick (Ornithodoros coriaceus) to each of these bacterial zoonotic agents has not been reported. The primary bridging vector of both bacterial zoonotic agents to humans is the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus). Because of the spatial and temporal overlap of D. occidentalis and O. coriaceus populations with those of I. pacificus in natural foci of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum in northwestern California, we conducted field and laboratory studies to determine if the Pacific Coast tick or the pajahuello tick potentially may serve as secondary vectors of either bacterium. Our findings reconfirmed that wild-caught D. occidentalis ticks are infected infrequently with B. burgdorferi or A. phagocytophilum, but some adult ticks from dense woodlands or chaparral were found to contain 2 important veterinary pathogens for the first time (Anaplasma bovis, A. ovis). The high prevalence of A. bovis infection (4.3%, n=185 ticks) within chaparral-derived ticks suggests that D. occidentalis could be an efficient vector of this rickettsia. Experimental attempts to transmit borreliae or Anaplasma spp. that may have been present in >100 wild-caught D. occidentalis adults to naïve rabbits were unsuccessful. Anaplasma spp. were not detected in O. coriaceus, but one (4.3%) of 23 nymphs was infected with B. bissettii. This finding and an antecedent report of a B. burgdorferi-like spirochete from the same tick species demonstrate that O. coriaceus sometimes acquires and transstadially passes Lyme disease group spirochetes. I. pacificus nymphs inhabiting a woodland nidus of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum had a 5-fold higher prevalence of

  11. Vector-Borne Diseases in Stray Dogs in Peninsular Malaysia and Molecular Detection of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia spp. from Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) Ticks.

    PubMed

    Koh, Fui Xian; Panchadcharam, Chandrawathani; Tay, Sun Tee

    2016-01-01

    Little data are available on the prevalence and transmission of vector-borne diseases in stray dogs in Peninsular Malaysia. This study was designed to determine the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens in Malaysian stray dogs using serological and molecular approaches. In total, 48 dog blood samples were subjected to serological analysis using SNAP 4Dx kit (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, ME). The presence of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma DNA in the dog blood samples and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) ticks was detected using nested polymerase chain reaction assays. Positive serological findings against Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum were obtained in 17 (39.5%) and four (9.3%) of 43 dog samples, respectively. None of the dog blood samples were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis. DNA of E. canis and A. phagocytophilum was detected in 12 (25.5%) and two (4.3%) of 47 dog blood samples, and 17 (51.5%) and one (3.0%) of 33 R. sanguineus ticks, respectively. Additionally, DNA of Ehrlichia spp. closely related to Ehrlichia chaffeensis was detected in two (6.1%) R. sanguineus ticks. This study highlights the prevalence of anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in dogs in Malaysia. Due to the zoonotic potential of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp., appropriate measures should be instituted for prevention and control of vector-borne diseases in dogs. PMID:26494821

  12. Vector-Borne Diseases in Stray Dogs in Peninsular Malaysia and Molecular Detection of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia spp. from Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) Ticks.

    PubMed

    Koh, Fui Xian; Panchadcharam, Chandrawathani; Tay, Sun Tee

    2016-01-01

    Little data are available on the prevalence and transmission of vector-borne diseases in stray dogs in Peninsular Malaysia. This study was designed to determine the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens in Malaysian stray dogs using serological and molecular approaches. In total, 48 dog blood samples were subjected to serological analysis using SNAP 4Dx kit (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, ME). The presence of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma DNA in the dog blood samples and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) ticks was detected using nested polymerase chain reaction assays. Positive serological findings against Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum were obtained in 17 (39.5%) and four (9.3%) of 43 dog samples, respectively. None of the dog blood samples were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis. DNA of E. canis and A. phagocytophilum was detected in 12 (25.5%) and two (4.3%) of 47 dog blood samples, and 17 (51.5%) and one (3.0%) of 33 R. sanguineus ticks, respectively. Additionally, DNA of Ehrlichia spp. closely related to Ehrlichia chaffeensis was detected in two (6.1%) R. sanguineus ticks. This study highlights the prevalence of anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in dogs in Malaysia. Due to the zoonotic potential of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp., appropriate measures should be instituted for prevention and control of vector-borne diseases in dogs.

  13. Molecular Detection of Zoonotic Rickettsiae and Anaplasma spp. in Domestic Dogs and Their Ectoparasites in Bushbuckridge, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kolo, Agatha O; Sibeko-Matjila, Kgomotso P; Maina, Alice N; Richards, Allen L; Knobel, Darryn L; Matjila, Paul T

    2016-04-01

    Members of the order Rickettsiales are small, obligate intracellular bacteria that are vector-borne and can cause mild to fatal diseases in humans worldwide. There is little information on the zoonotic rickettsial pathogens that may be harbored by dogs from rural localities in South Africa. To characterize rickettsial pathogens infecting dogs, we screened 141 blood samples, 103 ticks, and 43 fleas collected from domestic dogs in Bushbuckridge Municipality, Mpumalanga Province of South Africa, between October 2011 and May 2012 using the reverse line blot (RLB) and Rickettsia genus and species-specific quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays. Results from RLB showed that 49% of blood samples and 30% of tick pools were positive for the genus-specific probes for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma; 16% of the blood samples were positive for Ehrlichia canis. Hemoparasite DNA could not be detected in 36% of blood samples and 30% of tick pools screened. Seven (70%) tick pools and both flea pools were positive for Rickettsia spp; three (30%) tick pools were positive for Rickettsia africae; and both flea pools (100%) were positive for Rickettsia felis. Sequencing confirmed infection with R. africae and Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis; an R. felis-like organism from one of the R. felis-positive flea pools. Anaplasma sp. South Africa dog strain (closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum), A. phagocytophilum, and an Orientia tsutsugamushi-like sequence were identified from blood samples. The detection of emerging zoonotic agents from domestic dogs and their ectoparasites in a rural community in South Africa highlights the potential risk of human infection that may occur with these pathogens. PMID:26974185

  14. Prevalence of Anaplasma, Bartonella and Borrelia Species in Haemaphysalis longicornis collected from goats in North Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Smith, W Barney; Kim, Heung-Chul; Lee, In-Yong; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-06-30

    North Korea is located on the northern part of the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. While tick-borne pathogens of medical and veterinary importance have been reported from China and South Korea, they have not been reported from North Korea. To screen for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in North Korea, ticks were collected from domestic goats. A total of 292 (27 nymph, 26 male, 239 female) Haemaphysalis (H.) longicornis were collected and assayed individually for selected tick-borne pathogens. A total of 77 (26.4%) were positive for Anaplasma bovis, followed by Bartonella (B.) grahamii (15, 5.1%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (12, 4.1%), Bartonella henselae (10, 3.4%), and Borrelia spp. (3, 1.0%) based on 16S ribosomal RNA and ITS species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction. Using the groEL-based nested PCR, a total of 6 and 1 H. longicornis were positive for B. grahamii and B. henselae, respectively. All products were sequenced and demonstrated 100% identity and homology with previously reported sequences from other countries in GenBank. This is the first report of the detection of tick-borne pathogens in the North Korea and suggests that farm animals may act as reservoirs for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens.

  15. Prevalence of Anaplasma, Bartonella and Borrelia Species in Haemaphysalis longicornis collected from goats in North Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Smith, W. Barney; Kim, Heung-Chul; Lee, In-Yong

    2016-01-01

    North Korea is located on the northern part of the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. While tick-borne pathogens of medical and veterinary importance have been reported from China and South Korea, they have not been reported from North Korea. To screen for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in North Korea, ticks were collected from domestic goats. A total of 292 (27 nymph, 26 male, 239 female) Haemaphysalis (H.) longicornis were collected and assayed individually for selected tick-borne pathogens. A total of 77 (26.4%) were positive for Anaplasma bovis, followed by Bartonella (B.) grahamii (15, 5.1%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (12, 4.1%), Bartonella henselae (10, 3.4%), and Borrelia spp. (3, 1.0%) based on 16S ribosomal RNA and ITS species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction. Using the groEL-based nested PCR, a total of 6 and 1 H. longicornis were positive for B. grahamii and B. henselae, respectively. All products were sequenced and demonstrated 100% identity and homology with previously reported sequences from other countries in GenBank. This is the first report of the detection of tick-borne pathogens in the North Korea and suggests that farm animals may act as reservoirs for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens. PMID:26645342

  16. Serological and molecular investigation of Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. in ticks and blood of dogs, in the Thrace Region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Çetinkaya, Handan; Matur, Erdal; Akyazi, İbrahim; Ekiz, Elif Ergul; Aydin, Levent; Toparlak, Mufit

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, tick-borne diseases like ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis became widespread worldwide threatening the health of both human and companion animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the presence of Anaplasma spp., and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs and ticks in the Thrace Region of Turkey. A total of 400 blood samples and 912 ticks were collected from dogs living in shelters that are located in four cities (Istanbul, Edirne, Tekirdag and Kirklareli) of the Thrace Region. Blood and buffy coat smears were prepared for microscopic examination. Hematologic and serologic analyses were performed using cell counter and commercial Snap3Dx test kit, respectively. Eight hundred fifty of collected ticks were classified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 33 as Rhipicephalus turanicus and 29 as Ixodes ricinus. After DNA extraction from blood samples and pooled ticks (127 tick pools, in total), nested PCR was performed to detect the DNA of Anaplasma spp., and Ehrlichia spp. The seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis was 27.25% (109) by Snap3Dx test and the total molecular positivity was 11.75% (47) in dog blood samples and 21.25% (27) in tick pools by nested PCR. The frequencies of the infected blood samples with E. canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma platys were detected as 6%, 4% and 6%, respectively. E. canis and A. platys were detected in R. sanguineus pools with a ratio of 15.75% and 0.7%, respectively. In addition, A. platys was also detected in R. turanicus pools (0.7%). A. phagocytophilum was found only in I. ricinus pools (3.93%). Morulae of three species were detected in buffy coat and blood smears. While anemia was observed in dogs infected with E. canis and co-infected (with one or more species), thrombocytopenia was observed only in co-infected dogs. This is the first study providing evidence for the presence of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs and ticks in the Thrace Region of Turkey. Based on the results of the tests used in this study

  17. Serological and molecular investigation of Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. in ticks and blood of dogs, in the Thrace Region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Çetinkaya, Handan; Matur, Erdal; Akyazi, İbrahim; Ekiz, Elif Ergul; Aydin, Levent; Toparlak, Mufit

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, tick-borne diseases like ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis became widespread worldwide threatening the health of both human and companion animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the presence of Anaplasma spp., and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs and ticks in the Thrace Region of Turkey. A total of 400 blood samples and 912 ticks were collected from dogs living in shelters that are located in four cities (Istanbul, Edirne, Tekirdag and Kirklareli) of the Thrace Region. Blood and buffy coat smears were prepared for microscopic examination. Hematologic and serologic analyses were performed using cell counter and commercial Snap3Dx test kit, respectively. Eight hundred fifty of collected ticks were classified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 33 as Rhipicephalus turanicus and 29 as Ixodes ricinus. After DNA extraction from blood samples and pooled ticks (127 tick pools, in total), nested PCR was performed to detect the DNA of Anaplasma spp., and Ehrlichia spp. The seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis was 27.25% (109) by Snap3Dx test and the total molecular positivity was 11.75% (47) in dog blood samples and 21.25% (27) in tick pools by nested PCR. The frequencies of the infected blood samples with E. canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma platys were detected as 6%, 4% and 6%, respectively. E. canis and A. platys were detected in R. sanguineus pools with a ratio of 15.75% and 0.7%, respectively. In addition, A. platys was also detected in R. turanicus pools (0.7%). A. phagocytophilum was found only in I. ricinus pools (3.93%). Morulae of three species were detected in buffy coat and blood smears. While anemia was observed in dogs infected with E. canis and co-infected (with one or more species), thrombocytopenia was observed only in co-infected dogs. This is the first study providing evidence for the presence of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs and ticks in the Thrace Region of Turkey. Based on the results of the tests used in this study

  18. Antigens and Alternatives for Control of Anaplasma marginale Infection in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Kocan, Katherine M.; Fuente, José de la; Guglielmone, Alberto A.; Meléndez, Roy D.

    2003-01-01

    Anaplasmosis, a tick-borne cattle disease caused by the rickettsia Anaplasma marginale, is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The disease causes considerable economic loss to both the dairy and beef industries worldwide. Analyses of 16S rRNA, groESL, and surface proteins have resulted in the recent reclassification of the order Rickettsiales. The genus Anaplasma, of which A. marginale is the type species, now also includes A. bovis, A. platys, and A. phagocytophilum, which were previously known as Ehrlichia bovis, E. platys, and the E. phagocytophila group (which causes human granulocytic ehrlichiosis), respectively. Live and killed vaccines have been used for control of anaplasmosis, and both types of vaccines have advantages and disadvantages. These vaccines have been effective in preventing clinical anaplasmosis in cattle but have not blocked A. marginale infection. Thus, persistently infected cattle serve as a reservoir of infective blood for both mechanical transmission and infection of ticks. Advances in biochemical, immunologic, and molecular technologies during the last decade have been applied to research of A. marginale and related organisms. The recent development of a cell culture system for A. marginale provides a potential source of antigen for the development of improved killed and live vaccines, and the availability of cell culture-derived antigen would eliminate the use of cattle in vaccine production. Increased knowledge of A. marginale antigen repertoires and an improved understanding of bovine cellular and humoral immune responses to A. marginale, combined with the new technologies, should contribute to the development of more effective vaccines for control and prevention of anaplasmosis. PMID:14557295

  19. Molecular characterization and specific detection of Anaplasma species (AP-sd) in sika deer and its first detection in wild brown bears and rodents in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Mohamed Abdallah Mohamed; Lee, Kyunglee; Taylor, Kyle; Nakao, Ryo; Sashika, Mariko; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio

    2015-12-01

    A previously undescribed Anaplasma species (herein referred to as AP-sd) has been detected in sika deer, cattle and ticks in Japan. Despite being highly similar to some strains of A. phagocytophilum, AP-sd has never been detected in humans. Its ambiguous epidemiology and the lack of tools for its specific detection make it difficult to understand and interpret the prevalence of this Anaplasma species. We developed a method for specific detection, and examined AP-sd prevalence in Hokkaido wildlife. Our study included 250 sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis), 13 brown bears (Ursus arctos yesoensis) and 252 rodents including 138 (Apodemus speciosus), 45 (Apodemus argenteus), 42 (Myodes rufocanus) and 27 (Myodes rutilus) were collected from Hokkaido island, northern Japan, collected during 2010 to 2015. A 770 bp and 382 bp segment of the 16S rRNA and gltA genes, respectively, were amplified by nested PCR. Results were confirmed by cloning and sequencing of the positive PCR products. A reverse line blot hybridization (RLB) based on the 16S rRNA gene was then developed for the specific detection of AP-sd. The prevalence of AP-sd by nested PCR in sika deer was 51% (128/250). We detected this Anaplasma sp. for the first time in wild brown bears and rodents with a prevalence of 15% (2/13) and 2.4% (6/252), respectively. The sequencing results of the 16S rRNA and gltA gene amplicons were divergent from the selected A. phagocytophilum sequences in GenBank. Using a newly designed AP-sd specific probe for RLB has enabled us to specifically detect this Anaplasma species. Besides sika deer and cattle, wild brown bears and rodents were identified as potential reservoir hosts for AP-sd. This study provided a high throughput molecular method that specifically detects AP-sd, and which can be used to investigate its ecology and its potential as a threat to humans in Japan.

  20. Molecular characterization and specific detection of Anaplasma species (AP-sd) in sika deer and its first detection in wild brown bears and rodents in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Mohamed Abdallah Mohamed; Lee, Kyunglee; Taylor, Kyle; Nakao, Ryo; Sashika, Mariko; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio

    2015-12-01

    A previously undescribed Anaplasma species (herein referred to as AP-sd) has been detected in sika deer, cattle and ticks in Japan. Despite being highly similar to some strains of A. phagocytophilum, AP-sd has never been detected in humans. Its ambiguous epidemiology and the lack of tools for its specific detection make it difficult to understand and interpret the prevalence of this Anaplasma species. We developed a method for specific detection, and examined AP-sd prevalence in Hokkaido wildlife. Our study included 250 sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis), 13 brown bears (Ursus arctos yesoensis) and 252 rodents including 138 (Apodemus speciosus), 45 (Apodemus argenteus), 42 (Myodes rufocanus) and 27 (Myodes rutilus) were collected from Hokkaido island, northern Japan, collected during 2010 to 2015. A 770 bp and 382 bp segment of the 16S rRNA and gltA genes, respectively, were amplified by nested PCR. Results were confirmed by cloning and sequencing of the positive PCR products. A reverse line blot hybridization (RLB) based on the 16S rRNA gene was then developed for the specific detection of AP-sd. The prevalence of AP-sd by nested PCR in sika deer was 51% (128/250). We detected this Anaplasma sp. for the first time in wild brown bears and rodents with a prevalence of 15% (2/13) and 2.4% (6/252), respectively. The sequencing results of the 16S rRNA and gltA gene amplicons were divergent from the selected A. phagocytophilum sequences in GenBank. Using a newly designed AP-sd specific probe for RLB has enabled us to specifically detect this Anaplasma species. Besides sika deer and cattle, wild brown bears and rodents were identified as potential reservoir hosts for AP-sd. This study provided a high throughput molecular method that specifically detects AP-sd, and which can be used to investigate its ecology and its potential as a threat to humans in Japan. PMID:26431688

  1. Detection of Rickettsia and Anaplasma from hard ticks in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Malaisri, Premnika; Hirunkanokpun, Supanee; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2015-12-01

    We collected a total of 169 adult hard ticks and 120 nymphs from under the leaves of plants located along tourist nature trails in ten localities. The results present data examining the vector competence of ticks of different genera and the presence of Rickettsia and Anaplasma species. The ticks belonged to three genera, Amblyomma, Dermacentor, and Haemaphysalis, comprising 11 species. Rickettsia bacteria were detected at three collection sites, while Anaplasma bacteria were detected at only one site. Phylogenetic analysis revealed new rickettsia genotypes from Thailand that were closely related to Rickettsia tamurae, Rickettsia monacensis, and Rickettsia montana. This study was also the first to show that Anaplasma bacteria are found in Haemaphysalis shimoga ticks and are closely related evolutionarily to Anaplasma bovis. These results provide additional information for the geographical distribution of tick species and tick-borne bacteria in Thailand and can therefore be applied for ecotourism management. PMID:26611960

  2. Detection of Rickettsia and Anaplasma from hard ticks in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Malaisri, Premnika; Hirunkanokpun, Supanee; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2015-12-01

    We collected a total of 169 adult hard ticks and 120 nymphs from under the leaves of plants located along tourist nature trails in ten localities. The results present data examining the vector competence of ticks of different genera and the presence of Rickettsia and Anaplasma species. The ticks belonged to three genera, Amblyomma, Dermacentor, and Haemaphysalis, comprising 11 species. Rickettsia bacteria were detected at three collection sites, while Anaplasma bacteria were detected at only one site. Phylogenetic analysis revealed new rickettsia genotypes from Thailand that were closely related to Rickettsia tamurae, Rickettsia monacensis, and Rickettsia montana. This study was also the first to show that Anaplasma bacteria are found in Haemaphysalis shimoga ticks and are closely related evolutionarily to Anaplasma bovis. These results provide additional information for the geographical distribution of tick species and tick-borne bacteria in Thailand and can therefore be applied for ecotourism management.

  3. Anaplasma infections in wild and domestic ruminants: a review.

    PubMed

    Kuttler, K L

    1984-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale can be transmitted, will grow and can survive in a large number of domestic and wild animals. It is pathogenic in cattle, and usually produces nonapparent or mild infections in other species. Anaplasma marginale has been recovered from cattle, sheep, goats, water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana americana), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnu), blesbuck (Damaliscus albifrons), and duiker (Sylvicapra grimmi grimmi). Unidentified anaplasms have been seen in, and in some instances isolated from, Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer), giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), Cokes hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus cokii), Thompson's gazelle (Gazella thompsonii), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), and sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), with serological evidence of Anaplasma infection in an even wider range of wild ruminant species. Anaplasma ovis, A. centrale, or other as yet unidentified anaplasms may well occur in other ruminants. With the exception of black-tailed deer, the epidemiologic significance of anaplasmosis in wildlife has yet to be determined. The only wild animal in which Anaplasma is reported to produce serious clinical disease is the giraffe. PMID:6716555

  4. Anaplasma infections in wild and domestic ruminants: a review.

    PubMed

    Kuttler, K L

    1984-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale can be transmitted, will grow and can survive in a large number of domestic and wild animals. It is pathogenic in cattle, and usually produces nonapparent or mild infections in other species. Anaplasma marginale has been recovered from cattle, sheep, goats, water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana americana), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnu), blesbuck (Damaliscus albifrons), and duiker (Sylvicapra grimmi grimmi). Unidentified anaplasms have been seen in, and in some instances isolated from, Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer), giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), Cokes hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus cokii), Thompson's gazelle (Gazella thompsonii), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), and sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), with serological evidence of Anaplasma infection in an even wider range of wild ruminant species. Anaplasma ovis, A. centrale, or other as yet unidentified anaplasms may well occur in other ruminants. With the exception of black-tailed deer, the epidemiologic significance of anaplasmosis in wildlife has yet to be determined. The only wild animal in which Anaplasma is reported to produce serious clinical disease is the giraffe.

  5. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Rickettsia monacensis in dogs from Maio Island of Cape Verde archipelago.

    PubMed

    Lauzi, Stefania; Maia, João P; Epis, Sara; Marcos, Ricardo; Pereira, Cristina; Luzzago, Camilla; Santos, Marta; Puente-Payo, Pablo; Giordano, Alessia; Pajoro, Massimo; Sironi, Giuseppe; Faustino, Augusto

    2016-07-01

    Tick-borne diseases are emerging worldwide and have an important zoonotic relevance. Dogs play an important role in the epidemiology of several zoonotic tick-borne pathogens acting as sentinels and/or reservoirs. This study focused on the molecular identification of tick-borne pathogens in blood samples of 153 autochthonous asymptomatic dogs in Maio Island, Cape Verde archipelago. Eighty-four (54.9%) dogs were positive for one or more pathogens. Fifty-five (35.9%) dogs were infected with Hepatozoon canis, 53 (34.6%) with Anaplasma platys, five (3.3%) with Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia monacensis, an emerging human pathogen, was also identified in a single dog (0.7%). The former three pathogens cause important canine tick-borne diseases that are transmitted or potentially transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., the only hard tick identified in Cape Verde. Furthermore, Wolbachia spp. was amplified from the blood of one dog. None of the dogs were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Midichloria mitochondrii, Bartonella spp., Babesia spp. or Theileria spp. Fifty-four (35.3%) animals showed single infections and 30 (19.6%) co-infections, with A. platys and H. canis co-infection being the most frequent (28 dogs, 18.3%). The frequency of E. canis infection was statistically different among age groups (P=0.017), being higher among dogs older than 4 years compared to younger dogs. Infection by A. platys was also statistically different among age groups (P=0.031), being higher in dogs younger than 2 years compared to older dogs. The statistical analyses showed no significant association of PCR positivity with gender or location. The frequency of tick-borne pathogens detected in dogs in Maio Island, including R. monacensis, highlights the need to improve diagnosis and control in order to prevent the risk of transmission of these pathogens among dogs and humans living in or travelling to this touristic island.

  6. Seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in Texas cattle.

    PubMed

    Hairgrove, Thomas B; Craig, Thomas M; Budke, Christine M; Rodgers, Sandy J; Gill, Ronald J

    2014-09-01

    To our knowledge the seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in Texas has not been reported. The objective of this study was to estimate the point seroprevalence and spatial distribution of Texas cattle persistently infected with A. marginale. This was a cross-sectional observational study examining serum collected from 12,000 adult cattle marketed in 23 selected Texas auction markets during the second week of July 2011. A random subset of those cattle comprising 1835 individuals was evaluated for persistent infection with A. marginale using a commercial cELISA for antibody detection. The pooled apparent seroprevalence for cattle tested at auction markets across the state was 15.02% (95% CI: 11.02-19.53%), with markets in the western portion of the state demonstrating prevalence ⇒ 30%. The winter tick, Dermacentor albipictus is involved in the biological transfer of A. marginale and is prevalent in west Texas. Producers in endemic and non-endemic areas should be encouraged to determine the infection status of replacement cattle in order to implement effective management strategies for the control bovine anaplasmosis.

  7. Experimental infections of Anaplasma ovis in pronghorn antelope.

    PubMed

    Zaugg, J L

    1987-04-01

    Anaplasma ovis was experimentally transmitted from sheep to pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) and back to sheep. Anaplasma ovis was recovered in splenectomized sheep, from two of three spleen-intact pronghorns following their inoculation with blood from known A. ovis carrier sheep. These two pronghorns exhibited a 0.5% or higher A. ovis parasitemia within 48 days after exposure, and an anaplasmosis-positive serological response 91 days after exposure. Clinical signs of illness were not observed. Blood from the infected pronghorns produced disease in four splenectomized sheep. PMID:3586197

  8. Detection of Anaplasma sp. in Korean Native Goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) on Jeju Island, Korea.

    PubMed

    Seong, Giyong; Han, Yu-Jung; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Chae, Joon-Seok; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Lee, Young-Sung; Park, Jinho; Park, Bae-Keun; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2015-12-01

    Anaplasma species are obligate intracellular pathogens that can cause tick-borne diseases in mammalian hosts. To date, very few studies of their occurrence in Korean native goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) have been reported. In the present study, we investigated Anaplasma infection of Korean native goats on Jeju Island, Republic of Korea, and performed phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences. Our results showed that Anaplasma infection was found mostly in adult female goats. The phylogenetic tree revealed that the 7 sequences identified in Korean native goats could belong to Anaplasma sp. and were distinct from A. marginale, A. centrale, and A. ovis. The results indicated that the sequences identified to belong to Anaplasma were closely related to sequences isolated from goats in China and were clustered within the same group. To our knowledge, this is the first study to detect Anaplasma sp. infection in Korean native goats.

  9. Anaplasma sp. and hemoplasma infection in leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus) from Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jusun; Oh, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Hang

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the occurrence of Anaplasma spp. and hemoplasma infection in leopard cats, Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus, in Korea. Twenty-nine biological samples were tested by molecular analysis. Two (6.9%) and eight (27.6%) tested specimens were positive for Anaplasma bovis and hemoplasma infection, respectively. Based on our results, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp. and hemoplasma are regularly infecting leopard cat populations of Korea. Considering their endangered status, regular monitoring of infection by arthropod-borne pathogens known to cause clinical symptoms in feline hosts such as Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp. and hemoplasma would be crucial as part of ongoing conservation efforts. PMID:26040618

  10. Knockdown of the rhipicephalus microplus cytochrome c oxidase subunit III gene is associated with a failure of anaplasma marginale transmission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhipicephalus microplus is an obligate hematophagous ectoparasite of cattle and an important biological vector of Anaplasma marginale in tropical and subtropical regions. The primary determinants for Anaplasma transmission are infection of tick gut epithelial cells followed by infection of salivary ...

  11. Anaplasma marginale and Theileria annulata in questing ticks from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Antunes, S; Ferrolho, J; Domingues, N; Santos, A S; Santos-Silva, M M; Domingos, A

    2016-09-01

    Ticks are ubiquitous arthropods and vectors of several pathogenic agents in animals and humans. Monitoring questing ticks is of great importance to ascertain the occurrence of pathogens and the potential vector species, offering an insight into the risk of disease transmission in a given area. In this study 428 host-seeking ticks, belonging to nine species of Ixodidae and collected from 17 of the 23 Portuguese mainland subregions, were screened for several tick-borne agents with veterinary relevance: Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma ovis, Anaplasma centrale, Babesia spp., Coxiella burnetii and Theileria spp. Prevalence was assessed by PCR and amplified amplicons sequenced for validation of results. Twenty ticks, in a total of 428, were found positive: one Ixodes ventalloi for Theileria annulata and four Dermacentor marginatus, one Haemaphysalis punctata, five Ixodes ricinus, five I. ventalloi, and four Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato for A. marginale. According to the reviewed literature, this is the first report of A. marginale and T. annulata detection in I. ventalloi. Furthermore, the amplification of A. marginale DNA in several tick species suggests a broad range for this agent in Portugal that might include other uncommon species as R. sanguineus s.l. This work provides new data towards a better understanding of tick-pathogen associations and also contributes to the surveillance of tick-borne agents in geographic areas with limited information. PMID:27394441

  12. Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov. (family Anaplasmataceae) from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Tate, Cynthia M; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Mead, Daniel G; Dugan, Vivien G; Luttrell, M Page; Sahora, Alexandra I; Munderloh, Ulrike G; Davidson, William R; Yabsley, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Recently, an undescribed Anaplasma sp. (also called Ehrlichia-like sp. or WTD agent) was isolated in ISE6 tick cells from captive white-tailed deer. The goal of the current study was to characterize this organism using a combination of experimental infection, morphologic, serologic, and molecular studies. Each of 6 experimentally inoculated white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) became chronically infected (100+ days) with the Anaplasma sp. by inoculation of either infected whole blood or culture. None of the deer showed evidence of clinical disease, but 3 of the 6 deer evaluated had multiple episodes of transient thrombocytopenia. Light microscopy of Giemsa-stained, thin blood smears revealed tiny, dark, spherical structures in platelets of acutely infected deer. Anaplasma sp. was detected in platelets of inoculated deer by polymerase chain reaction, transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. Five of 6 deer developed antibodies reactive to Anaplasma sp. antigen, as detected by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, groESL, and gltA sequences confirmed the Anaplasma sp. is related to A. platys. Two attempts to transmit the Anaplasma sp. between deer by feeding Amblyomma americanum, a suspected tick vector, were unsuccessful. Based on its biologic, antigenic, and genetic characteristics, this organism is considered a novel species of Anaplasma, and the name Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov. is proposed with UMUM76(T) (=CSUR-A1) as the type strain.

  13. Alpha proteobacteria of genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae): Epidemiology and characteristics of Anaplasma species related to veterinary and public health importance.

    PubMed

    Atif, Farhan Ahmad

    2016-05-01

    The Anaplasma species are important globally distributed tick-transmitted bacteria of veterinary and public health importance. These pathogens, cause anaplasmosis in domestic and wild animal species including humans. Rhipicephalus, Ixodes, Dermacentor and Amblyomma genera of ticks are the important vectors of Anaplasma. Acute anaplasmosis is usually diagnosed upon blood smear examination followed by antibodies and nucleic acid detection. All age groups are susceptible but prevalence increases with age. Serological cross-reactivity is one of the important issues among Anaplasma species. They co-exist and concurrent infections occur in animals and ticks in same geographic area. These are closely related bacteria and share various common attributes which should be considered while developing vaccines and diagnostic assays. Movement of susceptible animals from non-endemic to endemic regions is the major risk factor of bovine/ovine anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever. Tetracyclines are currently available drugs for clearance of infection and treatment in humans and animals. Worldwide vaccine is not yet available. Identification, elimination of reservoirs, vector control (chemical and biological), endemic stability, habitat modification, rearing of tick resistant breeds, chemotherapy and tick vaccination are major control measures of animal anaplasmosis. Identification of reservoirs and minimizing the high-risk tick exposure activities are important control strategies for human granulocytic anaplasmosis.

  14. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Rickettsia monacensis in dogs from Maio Island of Cape Verde archipelago.

    PubMed

    Lauzi, Stefania; Maia, João P; Epis, Sara; Marcos, Ricardo; Pereira, Cristina; Luzzago, Camilla; Santos, Marta; Puente-Payo, Pablo; Giordano, Alessia; Pajoro, Massimo; Sironi, Giuseppe; Faustino, Augusto

    2016-07-01

    Tick-borne diseases are emerging worldwide and have an important zoonotic relevance. Dogs play an important role in the epidemiology of several zoonotic tick-borne pathogens acting as sentinels and/or reservoirs. This study focused on the molecular identification of tick-borne pathogens in blood samples of 153 autochthonous asymptomatic dogs in Maio Island, Cape Verde archipelago. Eighty-four (54.9%) dogs were positive for one or more pathogens. Fifty-five (35.9%) dogs were infected with Hepatozoon canis, 53 (34.6%) with Anaplasma platys, five (3.3%) with Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia monacensis, an emerging human pathogen, was also identified in a single dog (0.7%). The former three pathogens cause important canine tick-borne diseases that are transmitted or potentially transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., the only hard tick identified in Cape Verde. Furthermore, Wolbachia spp. was amplified from the blood of one dog. None of the dogs were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Midichloria mitochondrii, Bartonella spp., Babesia spp. or Theileria spp. Fifty-four (35.3%) animals showed single infections and 30 (19.6%) co-infections, with A. platys and H. canis co-infection being the most frequent (28 dogs, 18.3%). The frequency of E. canis infection was statistically different among age groups (P=0.017), being higher among dogs older than 4 years compared to younger dogs. Infection by A. platys was also statistically different among age groups (P=0.031), being higher in dogs younger than 2 years compared to older dogs. The statistical analyses showed no significant association of PCR positivity with gender or location. The frequency of tick-borne pathogens detected in dogs in Maio Island, including R. monacensis, highlights the need to improve diagnosis and control in order to prevent the risk of transmission of these pathogens among dogs and humans living in or travelling to this touristic island. PMID:27177475

  15. Pathological observations on clinical Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle.

    PubMed

    Jaswal, Hitesh; Bal, M S; Singla, L D; Gupta, K; Brar, A P S

    2015-09-01

    Gross and histopathological changes were recorded in a pregnant cattle died of clinical anaplasmosis, a tick transmitted economically important disease caused by Anaplasma marginale. Grossly emaciated carcass along with pale visible mucous membranes and pale serosal surface, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly was observed. Microscopically, in lungs variable extend of interstitial pneumonia, emphysema along with infiltration of mononuclear cells was seen. Spleen showed extensive increase in red pulp area with massive proliferation of lymphocytes. In liver marked thickening of capsule with fatty changes along with retention of bile was seen. Gall bladder showed congestion, glandular hyperplasia and thickening wall. Myocardium showed degeneration and necrosis. PMID:26345059

  16. Molecular detection of Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Coxiella and Francisella bacteria in ticks collected from Artiodactyla in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sumrandee, Chalao; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2016-07-01

    A total of 79 ticks collected from Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor), Barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak) and Wild boar (Sus scrofa) were examined by PCR for the presence of Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Coxiella, and Francisella bacteria. Of the 79 ticks, 13% tested positive for Rickettsia, 15% tested positive for Anaplasma, 4% tested positive for Coxiella, and 3% tested positive for Francisella. Interestingly, triple infection with Anaplasma, Rickettsia and Francisella was determined in a Dermacentor auratus tick. Moreover, another triple infection with Rickettsia, Anaplasma, and Coxiella was found in a Haemaphysalis lagrangei tick. Double infection of Rickettsia with Coxiella was also detected in another H. lagrangei tick. From the phylogenetic analyses, we found a Rickettsia sp. with a close evolutionary relationship to Rickettsia bellii in the H. lagrangei tick. We also found the first evidence of a Rickettsia sp. that is closely related to Rickettsia tamurae in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks from Thailand. H. lagrangei and Haemaphysalis obesa ticks collected from Sambar deer tested positive for Anaplasma species form the same clade with Anaplasma bovis. In contrast, other H. lagrangei ticks collected from Sambar deer and D. auratus ticks collected from Wild boar were also reported for the first time to be infected with an Anaplasma species that is closely related to Anaplasma platys. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of Coxiella bacteria revealed that Coxiella symbionts from H. lagrangei formed a distinctly different lineage from Coxiella burnetii (a human pathogen). Additionally, Francisella bacteria identified in D. auratus ticks were found to be distantly related to a group of pathogenic Francisella species. The identification of these bacteria in several feeding ticks suggests the risk of various emerging tick-borne diseases and endosymbionts in humans, wildlife, and domestic animals in Thailand. PMID:26934997

  17. Isolate of Anaplasma marginale not transmitted by ticks.

    PubMed

    Smith, R D; Levy, M G; Kuhlenschmidt, M S; Adams, J H; Rzechula, D L; Hardt, T A; Kocan, K M

    1986-01-01

    The tick-borne transmissibility of 2 isolates of Anaplasma marginale was compared. Dermacentor variabilis were exposed to A marginale as nymphs by feeding on 1 of 4 splenectomized calves during periods of ascending parasitemia (maximum 49% to 81% parasitized erythrocytes) induced by injection of a stabilate. Tick-borne transmission was attempted, using 26 to 224 adult ticks within 30 to 220 days after molting. Adult D variabilis did not transmit an Illinois isolate of A marginale in 7 tick-borne transmission experiments (P = 0.0047), including 2 experiments in which calves were inoculated IV with homogenates of adult ticks. In contrast, a Virginia isolate of A marginale was readily transmitted by the same tick colony. Thus, previously reported morphologic and immunologic differences among A marginale isolates may extend to tick-borne transmissibility. The Virginia and Illinois A marginale isolates had an inclusion appendage that was not a marker for tick transmissibility. PMID:3946891

  18. Molecular study on infection rates of Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma marginale in sheep and cattle in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Noaman, Vahid; Bastani, Davood

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the presence and frequency of Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma marginale in sheep and dairy cattle in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran. A total number of 200 blood samples were randomly collected via the jugular vein from apparently healthy cattle (100) and sheep (100). The extracted DNA from blood cells was screened using genus-specific (Anaplasma spp.) nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on 16S rRNA gene primer sets. Species-specific PCR was set up using major surface protein 4 (MSP4) gene primer set. None of cattle blood samples were positive for Anaplasma spp. by the first nested PCR. Five samples among the 100 sheep blood samples were both positive in the first nested PCR and A. ovis -specific PCR, based on MSP4 gene. In total, 5.00% of animals were A. ovis positive. This study identified a low prevalence of A. ovis in the blood of apparently healthy sheep in West Azerbaijan province. PMID:27482362

  19. Molecular study on infection rates of Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma marginale in sheep and cattle in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Noaman, Vahid; Bastani, Davood

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the presence and frequency of Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma marginale in sheep and dairy cattle in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran. A total number of 200 blood samples were randomly collected via the jugular vein from apparently healthy cattle (100) and sheep (100). The extracted DNA from blood cells was screened using genus-specific (Anaplasma spp.) nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on 16S rRNA gene primer sets. Species-specific PCR was set up using major surface protein 4 (MSP4) gene primer set. None of cattle blood samples were positive for Anaplasma spp. by the first nested PCR. Five samples among the 100 sheep blood samples were both positive in the first nested PCR and A. ovis -specific PCR, based on MSP4 gene. In total, 5.00% of animals were A. ovis positive. This study identified a low prevalence of A. ovis in the blood of apparently healthy sheep in West Azerbaijan province. PMID:27482362

  20. A molecular epidemiological survey of Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia and Anaplasma infections of dogs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Shotaro; Tateno, Morihiro; Ichikawa, Yasuaki; Endo, Yasuyuki

    2015-10-01

    Tick-borne diseases are often encountered in canine clinical practice. In the present study, a molecular epidemiological survey of dogs in Japan was conducted to understand the prevalence and geographical distribution of Babesia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. Pathogen-derived DNA in blood samples obtained from 722 dogs with a history of exposure to ticks and/or fleas was examined by PCR. The prevalence of Babesia gibsoni, Babesia odocoilei-like species, Hepatozoon canis and Ehrlichia spp./Anaplasma spp. was 2.4% (16/722), 0.1% (1/722), 2.5% (18/722) and 1.5% (11/722), respectively. While B. gibsoni and Ehrlichia spp./Anaplasma spp. were detected in the western part of Japan, H. canis was detected in Tohoku area in addition to western and central parts of Japan.

  1. Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and rickettsial pathogens in ixodid ticks infesting cattle and sheep in western Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teshale, Sori; Kumsa, Bersissa; Menandro, Maria Luisa; Cassini, Rudi; Martini, Marco

    2016-10-01

    Although ticks are widely distributed in all agro-ecological zones of Ethiopia, information on tick-borne pathogens is scarce. This study was conducted to determine the presence of Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., and Rickettsia spp. in Rhipicephalus evertsi and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus collected from cattle and sheep at Bako, western Oromia, Ethiopia, using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia ruminantium and Ehrlichia spp. were detected in Rh. decoloratus, whereas only A. ovis was detected in Rh. evertsi. Both tick species were found to harbor DNA belonging to Rickettsia spp., and Rickettsia africae. Our findings highlight the risk of infection of animals and humans with these zoonotic tick-borne bacteria in Ethiopia. PMID:27411938

  2. [Microbiological diagnosis of emerging bacterial pathogens: Anaplasma, Bartonella, Rickettsia, and Tropheryma whipplei].

    PubMed

    Blanco, José Ramón; Jado, Isabel; Marín, Mercedes; Sanfeliu, Isabel; Portillo, Aránzazu; Anda, Pedro; Pons, Immaculada; Oteo, José Antonio

    2008-11-01

    Ehrlichia/Anaplasma, Bartonella, Rickettsia and Tropheryma whipplei (formerly called whippelii) are fastidious bacterial organisms, considered the causative agents of potentially severe emerging and re-emerging diseases with repercussions on public health. The recent availability of advanced molecular biology and cell culture techniques has led to the implication of many of these species in human pathologies. These issues are extensively covered in number 27 of the SEIMC microbiological procedure: Diagnóstico microbiológico de las infecciones por patógenos bacterianos emergentes: Anaplasma, Bartonella, Rickettsia y Tropheryma whippelii (Microbiological diagnosis of Anaplasma, Bartonella, Rickettsia and Tropheryma whippelii infections) (2nd ed., 2007) (www.seimc.org/documentos/protocolos/microbiologia/). PMID:19100178

  3. A molecular epidemiological survey of Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia and Anaplasma infections of dogs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Shotaro; Tateno, Morihiro; Ichikawa, Yasuaki; Endo, Yasuyuki

    2015-10-01

    Tick-borne diseases are often encountered in canine clinical practice. In the present study, a molecular epidemiological survey of dogs in Japan was conducted to understand the prevalence and geographical distribution of Babesia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. Pathogen-derived DNA in blood samples obtained from 722 dogs with a history of exposure to ticks and/or fleas was examined by PCR. The prevalence of Babesia gibsoni, Babesia odocoilei-like species, Hepatozoon canis and Ehrlichia spp./Anaplasma spp. was 2.4% (16/722), 0.1% (1/722), 2.5% (18/722) and 1.5% (11/722), respectively. While B. gibsoni and Ehrlichia spp./Anaplasma spp. were detected in the western part of Japan, H. canis was detected in Tohoku area in addition to western and central parts of Japan. PMID:25947226

  4. A molecular epidemiological survey of Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia and Anaplasma infections of dogs in Japan

    PubMed Central

    KUBO, Shotaro; TATENO, Morihiro; ICHIKAWA, Yasuaki; ENDO, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases are often encountered in canine clinical practice. In the present study, a molecular epidemiological survey of dogs in Japan was conducted to understand the prevalence and geographical distribution of Babesia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. Pathogen-derived DNA in blood samples obtained from 722 dogs with a history of exposure to ticks and/or fleas was examined by PCR. The prevalence of Babesia gibsoni, Babesia odocoilei-like species, Hepatozoon canis and Ehrlichia spp./Anaplasma spp. was 2.4% (16/722), 0.1% (1/722), 2.5% (18/722) and 1.5% (11/722), respectively. While B. gibsoni and Ehrlichia spp./Anaplasma spp. were detected in the western part of Japan, H. canis was detected in Tohoku area in addition to western and central parts of Japan. PMID:25947226

  5. Humoral immune response and hematologic evaluation of pregnant Jersey cows after vaccination with Anaplasma centrale.

    PubMed

    Meléndez, R D; Toro Benítez, M; Niccita, G; Moreno, J; Puzzar, S; Morales, J

    2003-07-30

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the safety of an Anaplasma centrale vaccine in pregnant pure bred Jersey cows selected from a herd located at Miranda State, Venezuela. Ten cows of 3-5 months of gestation were chosen and previous vaccination all cows were tested for Anaplasma antibodies by the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), so only seronegative cows were included in the group, and for blood parameters, rectal temperature, and pregnancy. Selected cows were vaccinated intramuscularly with 1ml of an A. centrale live vaccine which had 10(8) A. centrale per ml. Over the next 2 months cows were checked weekly for hematological parameters and Anaplasma antibodies, and then for the next 2 months these evaluations were performed monthly. Among the values monitored were: A. centrale parasitemia, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and white blood cells (WBCs) (neutrophil, lymphocyte and eosinophil counts). Levels of Anaplasma antibodies were measured by IFA. Anaplasma were observed for the first time in blood films of two vaccinated cows at 14 days post-vaccination (PV), 6 out of 10 cows were A. centrale positive at 30 days PV, and all cows were A. centrale positive at 42 days PV. A. centrale often showed low parasitemia, 1-3%. Anaplasma antibodies were detected at day 14 PV in all vaccinated cows with a mean group titre of 360 (range: 80-1280). All vaccinated cows showed few changes in their hematologic parameters or in rectal temperature, and all gave birth to healthy calves. In conclusion, adult pregnant cows were safely vaccinated with this live A. centrale vaccine, which may help to develop a cross-protective immunity against field strains of A. marginale.

  6. Infectivity of three Anaplasma marginale isolates for Dermacentor andersoni.

    PubMed

    Wickwire, K B; Kocan, K M; Barron, S J; Ewing, S A; Smith, R D; Hair, J A

    1987-01-01

    Three isolates of Anaplasma marginale--Virginia (VAM), Illinois (IAM), and Florida (FAM)--were compared for infectivity for Dermacentor andersoni. The isolates were selected, in part, because of a tail-like appendage that has been demonstrated in the VAM and IAM, but not in the FAM. Ticks were exposed to the isolates as nymphs either naturally by feeding on a calf with anaplasmosis or artificially by percutaneous inoculation with infected bovine erythrocytes. They were examined for infectivity after molting to the adult stage by determining their capability to transmit the disease to susceptible calves and by demonstrating colonies in tick gut sections. Only those ticks exposed to the VAM proved to be infected with A marginale; ticks naturally exposed and those artificially infected with this isolate transmitted the disease to susceptible calves. Colonies of A marginale were observed only in gut tissues of ticks naturally infected with VAM. The IAM (appendage present) and FAM (appendage absent) could not be found in ticks exposed by either method, indicating that factors other than the presence of inclusion appendages may be involved in infection of ticks by A marginale. PMID:3826850

  7. The Indian Athlete: Exploiting or Exploited?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Michael A.

    It is the purpose of this paper to examine the nineteenth century Canadian Indian lacrosse player to determine whether or not he was exploited by his European counterparts, and if so, the manner in which this exploitation occurred. Caucasian lacrosse enthusiasts sought to promote "their" game by arranging for Indian demonstrations to be staged…

  8. Identification of Anaplasma marginale Type IV Secretion System Effector Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brayton, Kelly A.; Beare, Paul A.; Brown, Wendy C.; Heinzen, Robert A.; Broschat, Shira L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Anaplasma marginale, an obligate intracellular alphaproteobacterium in the order Rickettsiales, is a tick-borne pathogen and the leading cause of anaplasmosis in cattle worldwide. Complete genome sequencing of A. marginale revealed that it has a type IV secretion system (T4SS). The T4SS is one of seven known types of secretion systems utilized by bacteria, with the type III and IV secretion systems particularly prevalent among pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. The T4SS is predicted to play an important role in the invasion and pathogenesis of A. marginale by translocating effector proteins across its membrane into eukaryotic target cells. However, T4SS effector proteins have not been identified and tested in the laboratory until now. Results By combining computational methods with phylogenetic analysis and sequence identity searches, we identified a subset of potential T4SS effectors in A. marginale strain St. Maries and chose six for laboratory testing. Four (AM185, AM470, AM705 [AnkA], and AM1141) of these six proteins were translocated in a T4SS-dependent manner using Legionella pneumophila as a reporter system. Conclusions The algorithm employed to find T4SS effector proteins in A. marginale identified four such proteins that were verified by laboratory testing. L. pneumophila was shown to work as a model system for A. marginale and thus can be used as a screening tool for A. marginale effector proteins. The first T4SS effector proteins for A. marginale have been identified in this work. PMID:22140462

  9. Investigation of Anaplasma marginale Seroprevalence in a Traditionally Managed Large California Beef Herd

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Janet E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations by stakeholders suggested that ecosystem changes may be driving an increased incidence of bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis, resulting in a reemerging cattle disease in California. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to estimate the incidence of Anaplasma marginale infection using seroconversion in a northern California beef cattle herd. A total of 143 Black Angus cattle (106 prebreeding heifers and 37 cows) were enrolled in the study. Serum samples were collected to determine Anaplasma marginale seroprevalence using a commercially available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kit. Repeat sampling was performed in seronegative animals to determine the incidence density rate from March through September (2013). Seroprevalence of heifers was significantly lower than that of cows at the beginning of the study (P < 0.001) but not at study completion (P = 0.075). Incidence density rate of Anaplasma marginale infection was 8.17 (95% confidence interval: 6.04, 10.81) cases per 1000 cow-days during the study period. Study cattle became Anaplasma marginale seropositive and likely carriers protected from severe clinical disease that might have occurred had they been first infected as mature adults. No evidence was found within this herd to suggest increased risk for clinical bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis. PMID:27656312

  10. Primary structural variation in anaplasma marginale Msp2 efficiently generates immune escape variants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antigenic variation allows microbial pathogens to evade immune clearance and establish persistent infection. Anaplasma marginale utilizes gene conversion of a repertoire of silent msp2 alleles into a single active expression site to encode unique Msp2 variants. As the genomic complement of msp2 alle...

  11. Investigation of Anaplasma marginale Seroprevalence in a Traditionally Managed Large California Beef Herd

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Janet E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations by stakeholders suggested that ecosystem changes may be driving an increased incidence of bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis, resulting in a reemerging cattle disease in California. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to estimate the incidence of Anaplasma marginale infection using seroconversion in a northern California beef cattle herd. A total of 143 Black Angus cattle (106 prebreeding heifers and 37 cows) were enrolled in the study. Serum samples were collected to determine Anaplasma marginale seroprevalence using a commercially available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kit. Repeat sampling was performed in seronegative animals to determine the incidence density rate from March through September (2013). Seroprevalence of heifers was significantly lower than that of cows at the beginning of the study (P < 0.001) but not at study completion (P = 0.075). Incidence density rate of Anaplasma marginale infection was 8.17 (95% confidence interval: 6.04, 10.81) cases per 1000 cow-days during the study period. Study cattle became Anaplasma marginale seropositive and likely carriers protected from severe clinical disease that might have occurred had they been first infected as mature adults. No evidence was found within this herd to suggest increased risk for clinical bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis.

  12. Subdominant outer membrane antigens in anaplasma marginale: conservation, antigenicity, and protective capacity using recombinant protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle with a worldwide distribution. Currently a safe and efficacious vaccine is unavailable. Outer membrane protein (OMP) extracts or a well- defined surface protein complex reproducibly induce protective immunity. However, there are seve...

  13. Molecular and serological in-herd prevalence of Anaplasma marginale infection in Texas cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine anaplasmosis is an infectious, non-contagious disease caused by the rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma marginale (A. marginale). The organism has a global distribution and infects erythrocytes, resulting in anemia, jaundice, fever, abortions and death. Once infected, animals remain carriers for l...

  14. Anaplasma marginale actively modulates vacuolar maturation during intracellular infection of its tick vector dermacentor andersoni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tick-borne transmission of bacterial pathogens in the Order Rickettsiales is responsible for a diversity of infectious diseases, many of them severe, in both humans and animals. Transmission dynamics differ among these pathogens and are reflected in the pathogen-vector interaction. Anaplasma margina...

  15. Protective immunity induced by immunization with a live, cultured anaplasma marginale strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite significant economic losses resulting from infection with Anaplasma marginale, a tick-transmitted rickettsial disease of cattle, available vaccines provide, at best, only partial protection against clinical disease. The green-fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing mutant of the A. marginale St...

  16. Association of anaplasma marginale strain superinfection with infection prevalence within tropical regions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strain superinfection occurs when a second strain infects a host already infected with a primary strain. The incidence of superinfection with Anaplasma marginale, a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of domestic and wild ruminants, has been shown to be higher in tropical versus temperate regions. This ...

  17. Knockout of an outer membrane protein operon of anaplasma marginale by transposon mutagenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large amounts of data generated by genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics technologies have increased our understanding of the biology of Anaplasma marginale. However, these data have also led to new assumptions that require testing, ideally through classic genetic mutation. One example is the def...

  18. Investigation of Anaplasma marginale Seroprevalence in a Traditionally Managed Large California Beef Herd.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Thomas R; Aly, Sharif S; Maas, John; Davy, Josh S; Foley, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations by stakeholders suggested that ecosystem changes may be driving an increased incidence of bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis, resulting in a reemerging cattle disease in California. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to estimate the incidence of Anaplasma marginale infection using seroconversion in a northern California beef cattle herd. A total of 143 Black Angus cattle (106 prebreeding heifers and 37 cows) were enrolled in the study. Serum samples were collected to determine Anaplasma marginale seroprevalence using a commercially available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kit. Repeat sampling was performed in seronegative animals to determine the incidence density rate from March through September (2013). Seroprevalence of heifers was significantly lower than that of cows at the beginning of the study (P < 0.001) but not at study completion (P = 0.075). Incidence density rate of Anaplasma marginale infection was 8.17 (95% confidence interval: 6.04, 10.81) cases per 1000 cow-days during the study period. Study cattle became Anaplasma marginale seropositive and likely carriers protected from severe clinical disease that might have occurred had they been first infected as mature adults. No evidence was found within this herd to suggest increased risk for clinical bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis. PMID:27656312

  19. Serological investigation for West Nile virus, Anaplasma ovis and Leishmania infantum in Greek cattle.

    PubMed

    Giadinis, Nektarios; Katsoulos, Panagiotis; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tselentis, Yannis; Ntais, Pantelis; Lafi, Shawkat; Karatzias, Harilaos; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the seroprevalence of Greek adult cattle against West Nile virus, Anaplasma ovis and Lehismania infantum. In total, 156 serum samples were examined, drawn from cattle between 2-4 years old. All the examined cattle originated from slaughterhouses of 4 prefectures in Northern Greece (Thessaloniki, Pella, Chalkidiki, Kilkis), in 2 of which (Thessaloniki, Pella) human cases of West Nile virus had been recorded some months before. Thirty out of the 156 (18.6%) samples have tested positive for West Nile virus and fifty-five (35.9%) samples for Anaplasma ovis. All the examined samples tested negative for Leishmania infantum. The prefectures with positive samples against West Nile virus also showed human cases of West Nile virus infections. This should raise questions whether cattle could become markers for West Nile virus activity in high risk areas.

  20. Survey on blood-sucking lice (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) of ruminants and pigs with molecular detection of Anaplasma and Rickettsia spp.

    PubMed

    Hornok, S; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; de Mera, I G Fernández; Meli, M L; Elek, V; Hajtós, I; Répási, A; Gönczi, E; Tánczos, B; Farkas, R; Lutz, H; de la Fuente, J

    2010-12-15

    Lice may serve as biological or mechanical vectors for various infectious agents. To investigate louse infestation of ruminants and pigs, and pathogens potentially transmitted by them, anopluran lice (n=1182) were collected in Hungary, and evaluated for the presence of anaplasma, rickettsia and haemotropic mycoplasma DNA. On cattle the following species were found: Linognathus vituli (57%), Haematopinus eurysternus (38%) and Solenopotes capillatus (5%). L. vituli had a lower mean individual count/host when compared to H. eurysternus. On calves only L. vituli was observed, with a higher louse burden than on full-grown cattle. H. eurysternus and S. capillatus were more likely to occur simultaneously with another species on the same host, than L. vituli. Goats infested with Linognathus stenopsis had the overall highest prevalence (68%), while pigs harbouring Haematopinus suis showed the lowest (<1%). Anaplasma DNA was detected in 50% of pools analysed. In L. vituli Anaplasma ovis (or a closely related novel Anaplasma marginale genotype) was identified. Anaplasma-positivity of H. suis suggests that pigs may extend the reservoir and/or host spectrum of relevant species. Anaplasma-infected L. stenopsis pools show for the first time that caprine anaplasmosis is endemic in Hungary. Rickettsia spp. were demonstrated from Linognathus spp. and H. eurysternus. No haemotropic mycoplasmas were detected in any samples. In conclusion, this is the first molecularly confirmed report of bovine and ovine Anaplasma spp. in L. vituli, L. stenopsis and H. suis. The present results suggest that phthirapterosis of domestic animals deserves more attention, and lice should be evaluated among the broad range of potential vectors of arthropod-borne pathogens.

  1. The Exploitation of Drug Users.

    PubMed

    Stallings, Shirley; Montagne, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Drug users have been exploited in research studies and clinical practice. We explore ways in which exploitation has occurred and strategies to help patients, research subjects and communities to prevent or avoid exploitation.

  2. Survey of Ticks Collected from Tennessee Cattle and Their Pastures for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia Species.

    PubMed

    Pompo, K; Mays, S; Wesselman, C; Paulsen, D J; Fryxell, R T Trout

    2016-02-01

    Anaplasma marginale is the causative agent for bovine anaplasmosis (BA) and Ehrlichia ruminantium is the causative agent for heartwater, 2 devastating diseases of cattle. BA is common in the United States and frequently reported in western Tennessee cattle; however, cases of heartwater are not yet established in the continental United States. Because both pathogens are transmitted via the bites of infected ticks, the objective of this study was to survey cattle and pastures for ticks and for each pathogen. University of Tennessee AgResearch has 7 research and education centers (REC) located throughout the state at which they manage cattle. Ticks were collected from selected cattle (every fourth to sixth animal) and pastures (via dragging) associated with the herd from each REC during the summer of 2013. A total of 512 ticks were collected from cattle (n = 386) and pastures (n = 126) and were PCR-screened for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia using genus-specific primers. Collections consisted of 398 (77.7%) Amblyomma americanum, 84 (16.4%) Amblyomma maculatum, and 30 (5.9%) Dermacentor variabilis. Ticks were not recovered from pastures or cattle east of the Tennessee Plateau. The North American vectors for An. marginale and E. ruminantium were identified (D. variabilis and A. maculatum, respectively), but neither pathogen was recovered. A large proportion of ticks were collected from cattle and, of these, a majority were attached to their host (compared to questing on their host or engorged on the host). Four A. americanum were positive for Ehrlichia spp. (Ehrlichia ewingii, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Panola Mountain Ehrlichia), all in western Tennessee. With the identification of a few Ehrlichia infections in cattle-associated ticks and current A. marginale rates in Tennessee beef cattle nearing 11%, additional research is needed to establish baseline tick, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia data for future management studies.

  3. Molecular identification and characterization of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Almazán, Consuelo; González-Álvarez, Vicente H; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Martínez, Rafael; de la Fuente, José

    2016-03-01

    The tick-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys are the causative agents of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) and canine cyclic thrombocytopenia (CCT). Although molecular evidence of E. canis has been shown, phylogenetic analysis of this pathogen has not been performed and A. platys has not been identified in Mexico, where the tick vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) is common. The aim of this research was to screen, identify and characterize E. canis and A. platys by PCR and phylogenetic analysis in dogs from La Comarca Lagunera, a region formed by three municipalities, Torreon, Gomez-Palacio and Lerdo, in the Northern states of Coahuila and Durango, Mexico. Blood samples and five engorged R. sanguineus s.l. ticks per animal were collected from 43 females and 57 male dogs presented to veterinary clinics or lived in the dog shelter from La Comarca Lagunera. All the sampled dogs were apparently healthy and PCR for Anaplasma 16S rRNA, Ehrlichia 16S rRNA, and E. canis trp36 were performed. PCR products were sequenced and used for phylogenetic analysis. PCR products were successfully amplified in 31% of the samples using primers for Anaplasma 16S rRNA, while 10% and 4% amplified products using primers for Ehrlichia 16S rRNA and E. canis trp36 respectively. Subsequent sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of these products showed that three samples corresponded to A. platys and four to E. canis. Based on the analysis of trp36 we confirmed that the E. canis strains isolated from Mexico belong to a conservative clade of E. canis and are closely related to strains from USA. In conclusion, this is the first molecular identification of A. platys and the first molecular characterization and phylogenetic study of both A. platys and E. canis in dogs in Mexico. PMID:26615872

  4. Validation of an Anaplasma marginale cELISA for use in the diagnosis of A. ovis infections in domestic sheep and Anaplasma spp. in wild ungulates.

    PubMed

    Scoles, Glen A; Goff, Will L; Lysyk, Timothy J; Lewis, Gregory S; Knowles, Donald P

    2008-07-27

    A commercially available (cELISA) kit for diagnosing Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle was validated for diagnosing A ovis infection in sheep using the bovine serum controls as supplied by the manufacturer (BcELISA) and sheep serum controls from pathogen-free sheep (OcELISA). True positives were identified using two previously established assays, a nested PCR (nPCR) test and an indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA). The BcELISA was also applied to sera from various species of wild ruminants, comparing the results with the IFA. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the predicted threshold inhibition for the BcELISA was 19.2. The sensitivity for the BcELISA was 98.2% and the specificity was 96.3%. The predicted threshold inhibition decreased to 14.3 for the OcELISA; the sensitivity was 96.5% and the specificity was 98.1%. There was >/=90% concordance between IFA and nPCR, as well as between the BcELISA at 19% inhibition cutoff and either IFA or PCR. Concordance between the cELISA and IFA using sera from elk, mule deer, bighorn sheep, pronghorn antelope, and black-tailed deer ranged from 64% to 100%. This commercially available cELISA test kit can be used very effectively to test domestic sheep for infection with A. ovis using the kit-supplied controls (i.e. the BcELISA) and a 19% inhibition cutoff; the kit may also be useful for detecting intra-erythrocytic Anaplasma infections in wild ruminants. PMID:18272296

  5. Validation of an Anaplasma marginale cELISA for use in the diagnosis of A. ovis infections in domestic sheep and Anaplasma spp. in wild ungulates.

    PubMed

    Scoles, Glen A; Goff, Will L; Lysyk, Timothy J; Lewis, Gregory S; Knowles, Donald P

    2008-07-27

    A commercially available (cELISA) kit for diagnosing Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle was validated for diagnosing A ovis infection in sheep using the bovine serum controls as supplied by the manufacturer (BcELISA) and sheep serum controls from pathogen-free sheep (OcELISA). True positives were identified using two previously established assays, a nested PCR (nPCR) test and an indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA). The BcELISA was also applied to sera from various species of wild ruminants, comparing the results with the IFA. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the predicted threshold inhibition for the BcELISA was 19.2. The sensitivity for the BcELISA was 98.2% and the specificity was 96.3%. The predicted threshold inhibition decreased to 14.3 for the OcELISA; the sensitivity was 96.5% and the specificity was 98.1%. There was >/=90% concordance between IFA and nPCR, as well as between the BcELISA at 19% inhibition cutoff and either IFA or PCR. Concordance between the cELISA and IFA using sera from elk, mule deer, bighorn sheep, pronghorn antelope, and black-tailed deer ranged from 64% to 100%. This commercially available cELISA test kit can be used very effectively to test domestic sheep for infection with A. ovis using the kit-supplied controls (i.e. the BcELISA) and a 19% inhibition cutoff; the kit may also be useful for detecting intra-erythrocytic Anaplasma infections in wild ruminants.

  6. Molecular Evidence of Anaplasma platys Infection in Two Women from Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Arraga-Alvarado, Cruz M.; Qurollo, Barbara A.; Parra, Omaira C.; Berrueta, Maribel A.; Hegarty, Barbara C.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents two case reports of Anaplasma platys detection in two women from Venezuela. Both patients were exposed to Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the presumed tick vector, and experienced chronic, nonspecific clinical signs including headaches and muscle pains. Intra-platelet inclusion bodies resembling A. platys were observed in buffy coat smears and A. platys DNA was amplified and sequenced from whole blood; however, treatment with doxycycline did not alleviate their symptoms. These cases provide further support for A. platys as a zoonotic tick-borne pathogen, most likely of low pathogenicity; nonetheless, the cause of illness in humans by A. platys is yet to be confirmed. PMID:25266347

  7. Quantitative Differences in Salivary Pathogen Load during Tick Transmission Underlie Strain-Specific Variation in Transmission Efficiency of Anaplasma marginale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relative fitness of arthropod-borne pathogens within the vector can be a major determinant of pathogen prevalence within the mammalian host population. Strains of the tick-borne rickettsia Anaplasma marginale differ markedly in transmission efficiency with consequent impact on pathogen strain st...

  8. Identification of multi-locus genetic heterogeneity in anaplasma marginale ss. centrale and its restriction following tick-borne transmission.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaplasma marginale ss. centrale was the first vaccine used to protect against a rickettsial disease and continues in widespread use a century after initial implementation. As its use preceded development of either cryopreservation or cell culture, the vaccine strain was maintained for decades by se...

  9. Molecular and serological prevalence of Anaplasma marginale in water buffaloes in northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa da Silva, Jenevaldo; Vinhote, Wagner Marcelo Sousa; Oliveira, Carlos Magno Chaves; André, Marcos Rogério; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2014-03-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis, caused by Anaplasma marginale, occurs in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world and is a major constraint on cattle production in many countries. Approximately 60% of the buffalo herds in South America are located in northern Brazil. However, compared with the research on cattle, research on buffaloes has been neglected. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the distribution of A. marginale in water buffaloes in northern Brazil. A total of 500 buffalo blood samples was randomly collected from 16 provinces and was analyzed using both nPCR assay and ELISA techniques. The percentage of animals that were seropositive for A. marginale according to ELISA was 49% (245/500). The main risk factors associated with seroprevalence were the region (p=0.021; OR=1.2) and the reproductive status (p=0.0001; OR=1.6). Anaplasma marginale DNA was detected in 5.4% (27/500) of the sampled buffaloes. Our data provide information about the incidence of A. marginale infection in water buffaloes and may guide future programs aimed at controlling the disease in the northern region of Brazil. Although these water buffaloes are exposed to A. marginale, a low rate of A. marginale PCR-positive animals was found, which could be explained by the habitat in which the sampled animals live because they exhibited a low rate of attached ticks on their skin.

  10. Coinfection of sheep with Anaplasma, Theileria and Babesia species in the Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Renneker, S; Abdo, J; Bakheit, M A; Kullmann, B; Beyer, D; Ahmed, J; Seitzer, U

    2013-11-01

    Infections of small ruminants with Anaplasma, Theileria and Babesia species are widely distributed in the old world and are of great economic impact. In Iraq, data on disease occurrence in sheep caused by above-mentioned infectious agents are scarce. This study provides information on various haemoparasitic agents infecting sheep in the Kurdistan Region, Iraq, using molecular diagnostic tools. Altogether, 195 samples originating from three governorates in the Kurdistan Region, namely Duhok, Erbil and Sulaimaniya, were analysed. The following pathogens were identified: Anaplasma ovis (62.6%), Theileria ovis (14.35%), T. lestoquardi (7.7%), T. uilenbergi (5.6%) and Babesia ovis (1.5%). T. uilenbergi is detected for the first time in Iraq. Coinfection of sheep with different pathogens could be observed in this study, and it was found that 45 of 195 (23%) of the samples contained more than one pathogen. Even triple-positive samples were identified in 3% of the investigated animals. In conclusion, we confirm the coinfection of sheep with various haemoparasitic pathogen species in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Further investigations are needed to reveal the epidemiology of the diseases, the respective tick vectors, and, in the case of coinfection, pathogens' interaction and possible cross-protection.

  11. First description of natural Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys infections in dogs from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Eiras, Diego Fernando; Craviotto, María Belén; Vezzani, Darío; Eyal, Osnat; Baneth, Gad

    2013-03-01

    Bacteria belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family are vector transmitted agents that affect a variety of vertebrate hosts including the tick-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys, which cause canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and cyclic thrombocytopenia, respectively. These two infections, typically reported from tropical and sub-tropical regions, have not been previously reported in dogs from Argentina. A total of 86 blood samples from dogs with suspected rickettsial disease and 28 non-suspected dogs were studied. Analysis included evaluation of hematological findings, PCR for Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species and sequencing of the positive PCR products. E. canis was detected in the blood of six dogs and A. platys in eighteen. All the dogs categorized as non-suspected were negative by PCR. Co-infection with Hepatozoon canis and Babesia vogeli was documented. This first report of E. canis and A. platys infections in dogs from Argentina indicates that these tick-borne infections have a considerably broader range than previously recognized in South America. PMID:23273677

  12. [Child sexual exploitation].

    PubMed

    Cabello, María F; Castaldi, Paula D; Cataldo, Andrea M

    2009-01-01

    Child Sexual Exploitation is a complex phenomenon in our country and the world; it dates back to an ancient past but it has a very recent conceptualization and specific approach. This article proposes a tour through this process as well as some inputs for its categorization, the attention to the affected subjects by the very design of public policies taken from a concrete institutional experience. PMID:19812796

  13. Multilevel fusion exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, Perry C.; Dasarathy, Belur V.; McCullough, Claire L.

    1996-06-01

    This paper describes a project that was sponsored by the U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command (USASSDC) to develop, test, and demonstrate sensor fusion algorithms for target recognition. The purpose of the project was to exploit the use of sensor fusion at all levels (signal, feature, and decision levels) and all combinations to improve target recognition capability against tactical ballistic missile (TBM) targets. These algorithms were trained with simulated radar signatures to accurately recognize selected TBM targets. The simulated signatures represent measurements made by two radars (S-band and X- band) with the targets at a variety of aspect and roll angles. Two tests were conducted: one with simulated signatures collected at angles different from those in the training database and one using actual test data. The test results demonstrate a high degree of recognition accuracy. This paper describes the training and testing techniques used; shows the fusion strategy employed; and illustrates the advantages of exploiting multi-level fusion.

  14. Attempted transmission to cattle of Anaplasma marginale from overwintered Dermacentor andersoni ticks.

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, L N; Saunders, J R

    1987-01-01

    Since the 1983 summer outbreak of anaplasmosis in southern Saskatchewan, the role of the tick, Dermacentor andersoni as an overwintering reservoir for Anaplasma marginale has been questioned. The purpose of this study was to determine if spring-collected ticks carried virulent A. marginale. Sixteen splenectomized calves were assigned randomly to two groups of 14 principals and two controls. Adult D. andersoni, collected in April from areas having high transmission rates of A. marginale, were confined to the ears of the principals by special bags and allowed to feed for eight days. The two control calves were subsequently challenged intravenously with blood from a calf infected with the Virginia strain of A. marginale. Principals and controls were monitored for 60 and 50 days postexposure respectively for signs of infection by clinical, hematological and serological procedures. None of the principals developed anaplasmosis but both control calves developed signs of disease. PMID:3651893

  15. Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Bartonella in ticks and fleas from dogs and cats in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Foongladda, Suporn; Inthawong, Dutsadee; Kositanont, Uraiwan; Gaywee, Jariyanart

    2011-10-01

    Flea and tick specimens (5-10 fleas or ticks) on dogs and cats from various sites in Bangkok were tested by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing to detect DNA of bacteria Rickettsia (gltA and 17 kDa genes), Anaplasmataceae (16S rRNA gene), and Bartonella (pap31 and its genes). We confirmed that Rickettsia sp. related to Rickettsia felis was detected in 66 of 98 (67.4%) flea specimens from dogs, whereas 8 Bartonella henselae and 2 Bartonella clarridgeiae were detected in 10 of 54 (18.5%) flea specimens from cats. Further, this work provides the first evidence of 10 Ehrlichia canis (3.3%), 7 Anaplasma platys (2.3%), and 2 Wolbachia spp. (0.66%) in 304 Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick specimens in Thailand.

  16. First identification of Anaplasma platys in the blood of dogs from French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Dahmani, Mustapha; Marié, Jean-Lou; Mediannikov, Oleg; Raoult, Didier; Davoust, Bernard

    2015-02-01

    Anaplasma platys is the causative agent of infectious cyclic thrombocytopenia in dogs. This infection is worldwide and reported with a higher incidence in tropical and subtropical areas such as South America. Until now, there has been no report of this bacterium in French Guiana. The aim of this study was molecular investigation of A. platys occurrence in the blood of autochthonous dogs in this region. A total 65 blood samples were taken from the shelter dogs in the cities of Cayenne and Kourou, and from dogs of private owners in the city of Cayenne. The results show that at least 15.38% (10/65) were positive to this pathogen. The strain identified in this study has been reported worldwide. These findings should be considered in the way that local veterinarians handle suspected cases of canine anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis.

  17. The oxidant defence system in water-buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) experimentally infected with Anaplasma marginale.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G R; More, T; Sharma, S P; Singh, L N

    1988-03-01

    The glutathione (GSH) -oxidant defence system protects the erythrocytes and leucocytes from oxidative damage. Leucocyte -superoxide dismutase (SOD), GSH-peroxidase (GSH-px), GSH-reductase (GR), GSH-S-transferase (GSH-S-t) and arginase were examined in samples from buffaloes infected with Anaplasma marginale. All the enzymes, except arginase, were also studied in the red cell haemolysates from these animals. GSH-S-t, GSH- and glutathione-reductase (GR) levels in leucocytes decreased in infected animals suggesting a decline in the efficiency of the GSH-oxidant defence system. SOD levels increased but there was no change in leucocyte-arginase activity due to infection. Infection caused no significant changes in red cell SOD, GSH-px, GR and GSH. However, GSH-S-t significantly decreased (P less than 0.05).

  18. Biotechnological exploitation of microalgae.

    PubMed

    Gangl, Doris; Zedler, Julie A Z; Rajakumar, Priscilla D; Martinez, Erick M Ramos; Riseley, Anthony; Włodarczyk, Artur; Purton, Saul; Sakuragi, Yumiko; Howe, Christopher J; Jensen, Poul Erik; Robinson, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Microalgae are a diverse group of single-cell photosynthetic organisms that include cyanobacteria and a wide range of eukaryotic algae. A number of microalgae contain high-value compounds such as oils, colorants, and polysaccharides, which are used by the food additive, oil, and cosmetic industries, among others. They offer the potential for rapid growth under photoautotrophic conditions, and they can grow in a wide range of habitats. More recently, the development of genetic tools means that a number of species can be transformed and hence used as cell factories for the production of high-value chemicals or recombinant proteins. In this article, we review exploitation use of microalgae with a special emphasis on genetic engineering approaches to develop cell factories, and the use of synthetic ecology approaches to maximize productivity. We discuss the success stories in these areas, the hurdles that need to be overcome, and the potential for expanding the industry in general.

  19. The Geohazards Exploitation Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laur, Henri; Casu, Francesco; Bally, Philippe; Caumont, Hervé; Pinto, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    The Geohazards Exploitation Platform, or Geohazards TEP (GEP), is an ESA originated R&D activity of the EO ground segment to demonstrate the benefit of new technologies for large scale processing of EO data. This encompasses on-demand processing for specific user needs, systematic processing to address common information needs of the geohazards community, and integration of newly developed processors for scientists and other expert users. The platform supports the geohazards community's objectives as defined in the context of the International Forum on Satellite EO and Geohazards organised by ESA and GEO in Santorini in 2012. The GEP is a follow on to the Supersites Exploitation Platform (SSEP) an ESA initiative to support the Geohazards Supersites & Natural Laboratories initiative (GSNL). Today the GEP allows to exploit 70+ Terabyte of ERS and ENVISAT archive and the Copernicus Sentinel-1 data available on line. The platform has already engaged 22 European early adopters in a validation activity initiated in March 2015. Since September, this validation has reached 29 single user projects. Each project is concerned with either integrating an application, running on demand processing or systematically generating a product collection using an application available in the platform. The users primarily include 15 geoscience centres and universities based in Europe: British Geological Survey (UK), University of Leeds (UK), University College London (UK), ETH University of Zurich (CH), INGV (IT), CNR-IREA and CNR-IRPI (IT), University of L'Aquila (IT), NOA (GR), Univ. Blaise Pascal & CNRS (FR), Ecole Normale Supérieure (FR), ISTERRE / University of Grenoble-Alpes (FR). In addition, there are users from Africa and North America with the University of Rabat (MA) and the University of Miami (US). Furthermore two space agencies and four private companies are involved: the German Space Research Centre DLR (DE), the European Space Agency (ESA), Altamira Information (ES

  20. Exploiting Endocytosis for Nanomedicines

    PubMed Central

    Akinc, Akin; Battaglia, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we briefly review the endocytic pathways used by cells, pointing out their defining characteristics and highlighting physical limitations that may direct the internalization of nanoparticles to a subset of these pathways. A more detailed description of these pathways is presented in the literature. We then focus on the endocytosis of nanomedicines and present how various nanomaterial parameters impact these endocytic processes. This topic is an area of active research, motivated by the recognition that an improved understanding of how nanomaterials interact at the molecular, cellular, and whole-organism level will lead to the design of better nanomedicines in the future. Next, we briefly review some of the important nanomedicines already on the market or in clinical development that serve to exemplify how endocytosis can be exploited for medical benefit. Finally, we present some key unanswered questions and remaining challenges to be addressed by the field. PMID:24186069

  1. Image exploitation for MISAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, N.; Edrich, M.; Saur, G.; Krüger, W.

    2007-04-01

    The miniature SAR-system MiSAR has been developed by EADS Germany for lightweight UAVs like the LUNASystem. MiSAR adds to these tactical UAV-systems the all-weather reconnaissance capability, which is missing until now. Unlike other SAR sensors, that produce large strip maps at update rates of several seconds, MiSAR generates sequences of SAR images with approximately 1 Hz frame rate. photo interpreters (PI) of tactical drones, now mainly experienced with visual interpretation, are not used to SARimages, especially not with SAR-image sequence characteristics. So they should be supported to improve their ability to carry out their task with a new, demanding sensor system. We have therefore analyzed and discussed with military PIs in which task MiSAR can be used and how the PIs can be supported by special algorithms. We developed image processing- and exploitation-algorithms for such SAR-image sequences. A main component is the generation of image sequence mosaics to get more oversight. This mosaicing has the advantage that also non straight /linear flight-paths and varying squint angles can be processed. Another component is a screening-component for manmade objects to mark regions of interest in the image sequences. We use a classification based approach, which can be easily adapted to new sensors and scenes. These algorithms are integrated into an image exploitation system to improve the image interpreters ability to get a better oversight, better orientation and helping them to detect relevant objects, especially considering long endurance reconnaissance missions.

  2. Bacterial Profiling Reveals Novel "Ca. Neoehrlichia", Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma Species in Australian Human-Biting Ticks.

    PubMed

    Gofton, Alexander W; Doggett, Stephen; Ratchford, Andrew; Oskam, Charlotte L; Paparini, Andrea; Ryan, Una; Irwin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In Australia, a conclusive aetiology of Lyme disease-like illness in human patients remains elusive, despite growing numbers of people presenting with symptoms attributed to tick bites. In the present study, we surveyed the microbial communities harboured by human-biting ticks from across Australia to identify bacteria that may contribute to this syndrome. Universal PCR primers were used to amplify the V1-2 hyper-variable region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes in DNA samples from individual Ixodes holocyclus (n = 279), Amblyomma triguttatum (n = 167), Haemaphysalis bancrofti (n = 7), and H. longicornis (n = 7) ticks. The 16S amplicons were sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform and analysed in USEARCH, QIIME, and BLAST to assign genus and species-level taxonomies. Nested PCR and Sanger sequencing were used to confirm the NGS data and further analyse novel findings. All 460 ticks were negative for Borrelia spp. by both NGS and nested PCR analysis. Two novel "Candidatus Neoehrlichia" spp. were identified in 12.9% of I. holocyclus ticks. A novel Anaplasma sp. was identified in 1.8% of A. triguttatum ticks, and a novel Ehrlichia sp. was identified in both A. triguttatum (1.2%) ticks and a single I. holocyclus (0.6%) tick. Further phylogenetic analysis of novel "Ca. Neoehrlichia", Anaplasma and Ehrlichia based on 1,265 bp 16S rRNA gene sequences suggests that these are new species. Determining whether these newly discovered organisms cause disease in humans and animals, like closely related bacteria do abroad, is of public health importance and requires further investigation. PMID:26709826

  3. Co-infection with Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum in a veterinarian

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During a two year period, a 27-year-old female veterinarian experienced migraine headaches, seizures, including status epilepticus, and other neurological and neurocognitive abnormalities. Prior to and during her illness, she had been actively involved in hospital-based work treating domestic animals, primarily cats and dogs, in Grenada and Ireland and anatomical research requiring the dissection of wild animals (including lions, giraffe, rabbits, mongoose, and other animals), mostly in South Africa. The woman reported contact with fleas, ticks, lice, biting flies, mosquitoes, spiders and mites and had also been scratched or bitten by dogs, cats, birds, horses, reptiles, rabbits and rodents. Prior diagnostic testing resulted in findings that were inconclusive or within normal reference ranges and no etiological diagnosis had been obtained to explain the patient’s symptoms. Methods PCR assays targeting Anaplasma spp. Bartonella spp. and hemotopic Mycoplasma spp. were used to test patient blood samples. PCR positive amplicons were sequenced directly and compared to GenBank sequences. In addition, Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) enrichment blood culture was used to facilitate bacterial growth and Bartonella spp. serology was performed by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Results Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum DNA was amplified and sequenced from the woman’s blood, serum or blood culture samples. Her serum was variably seroreactive to several Bartonella sp. antigens. Despite symptomatic improvement, six months of doxycycline most likely failed to eliminate the B. henselae infection, whereas A. platys and Candidatus M. haematoparvum DNA was no longer amplified from post-treatment samples. Conclusions As is typical of many veterinary professionals, this individual had frequent exposure to arthropod vectors and near daily contact with persistently bacteremic reservoir hosts, including

  4. Propagation of the Israeli vaccine strain of Anaplasma centrale in tick cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Palomar, Ana M.; Bradford, Emma L.; Shkap, Varda

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma centrale has been used in cattle as a live blood vaccine against the more pathogenic Anaplasma marginale for over 100 years. While A. marginale can be propagated in vitro in tick cell lines, facilitating studies on antigen production, immunisation and vector-pathogen interaction, to date there has been no in vitro culture system for A. centrale. In the present study, 25 cell lines derived from 13 ixodid tick species were inoculated with the Israeli vaccine strain of A. centrale and monitored for at least 12 weeks by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained cytocentrifuge smears. Infection of 19 tick cell lines was subsequently attempted by transfer of cell-free supernate from vaccine-inoculated tick cells. In two separate experiments, rickettsial inclusions were detected in cultures of the Rhipicephalus appendiculatus cell line RAE25 28–32 days following inoculation with the vaccine. Presence of A. centrale in the RAE25 cells was confirmed by PCR assays targeting the 16S rRNA, groEL and msp4 genes; sequenced PCR products were 100% identical to published sequences of the respective genes in the Israeli vaccine strain of A. centrale. A. centrale was taken through three subcultures in RAE25 cells over a 30 week period. In a single experiment, the Dermacentor variabilis cell line DVE1 was also detectably infected with A. centrale 11 weeks after inoculation with the vaccine. Availability of an in vitro culture system for A. centrale in tick cells opens up the possibility of generating a safer and more ethical vaccine for bovine anaplasmosis. PMID:26210950

  5. AMU NEXRAD Exploitation Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred C.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Applied Meteorology Unit's NEXRAD Exploitation Task. The objectives of this task are to determine what radar signatures are present prior to and at the time of convection initiation, and to determine radar signatures which will help distinguish whether the ensuing convection will become severe. Radar data from the WSR-88D radar located at NWS Melbourne (WSR-88D/KMLB) were collected between June and September 1995, and 16 convective case studies were analyzed for which the radar was operating during the entire period of interest. All WSR-88D/KMLB products were scrutinized for their utility in detecting convection initiation and severe storm signatures. Through process of elimination, it was found that the 0.5 deg reflectivity product with the lowest reflectivity values displayed is the best product to monitor for convection initiation signatures. Seven meteorological features associated with the initiation of deep convection were identified: the Merritt Island and Indian River convergence zones, interlake convergence, horizontal convective rolls, the sea breeze, storm outflow boundaries, and fires. Their reflectivity values ranged from -5 to 20 dBZ. Of the three severe weather phenomena (winds greater than or equal to 50 kts, tornado, 3/4 inch hail), high wind events due to microbursts were most common in the data set. It was found that the values and trends of composite reflectivity, vertically integrated liquid, and core aspect ratio were key indicators of the potential of a cell to produce a microburst. The data were not analyzed for the other two severe weather phenomena because they rarely occurred during the data collection period. This report also includes suggestions for new WSR-88D products, summaries of ongoing research aimed at creating new products, and explicit recommended procedures for detecting convection initiation and severe storm signatures in the radar data using the currently available technology.

  6. Detection of Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., and other eubacteria in ticks from the Thai-Myanmar border and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Parola, Philippe; Cornet, Jean-Paul; Sanogo, Yibayiri Osée; Miller, R Scott; Thien, Huynh Van; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Raoult, Didier; Telford III, Sam R; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2003-04-01

    A total of 650 ticks, including 13 species from five genera, were collected from animals, from people, or by flagging of the vegetation at sites on the Thai-Myanmar border and in Vietnam. They were tested by PCR to detect DNA of bacteria of the order RICKETTSIALES: Three Anaplasma spp. were detected in ticks collected in Thailand, including (i) Anaplasma sp. strain AnDa465, which was considered a genotype of Anaplasma platys (formerly Ehrlichia platys) and which was obtained from Dermacentor auratus ticks collected from dogs; (ii) Anaplasma sp. strain AnAj360, which was obtained from Amblyomma javanense ticks collected on a pangolin; and (iii) Anaplasma sp. strain AnHl446, which was closely related to Anaplasma bovis and which was detected in Haemaphysalis lagrangei ticks collected from a bear. Three Ehrlichia spp. were identified, including (i) Ehrlichia sp. strain EBm52, which was obtained from Boophilus microplus ticks collected from cattle from Thailand; (ii) Ehrlichia sp. strain EHh324, which was closely related to Ehrlichia chaffeensis and which was detected in Haemaphysalis hystricis ticks collected from wild pigs in Vietnam; and (iii) Ehrlichia sp. strain EHh317, which was closely related to Ehrlichia sp. strain EBm52 and which was also detected in H. hystricis ticks collected from wild pigs in Vietnam. Two Rickettsia spp. were detected in Thailand, including (i) Rickettsia sp. strain RDla420, which was detected in Dermacentor auratus ticks collected from a bear, and (ii) Rickettsia sp. strain RDla440, which was identified from two pools of Dermacentor larvae collected from a wild pig nest. Finally, two bacteria named Eubacterium sp. strain Hw124 and Eubacterium sp. strain Hw191 were identified in Haemaphysalis wellingtoni ticks collected from chicken in Thailand; these strains could belong to a new group of bacteria. PMID:12682151

  7. Real-time exploitation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, Richard D.

    1998-11-01

    The proliferation and technology advances of digital sensors for reconnaissance imaging require a commensurate increase in the productivity of ground-based exploitation system to process the increased volume of remotely-sensed data. Systems to support this level of production, themselves, must have significantly reduced development and life-cycle costs from previously installed systems. For cost, growth, and integration advantages, reconnaissance exploitation systems should be designed to maximize Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) hardware and software. As an example, the Real-Time Exploitation System is a state-of-the-art system for photo interpretation and exploitation of real-time digital reconnaissance imagery. Using COTS hardware, the system is able to receive imagery at rates greater than 80 Mpixels/sec; perform detailed interpretation, exploitation and report generation, and; disseminate reports to intelligence users over secure networks. New technologies have been applied in workflow management, database management, and user interfaces to provide the image analyst with superior analysis tools and access to other intelligence data sources. Photogrammetric functions are also provided for monoscopic and stereoscopic imagery. These functions provide greater geographic accuracy than is achievable in most reconnaissance exploitation systems. The Real-Time Exploitation System significantly reduces timelines for the analysis and report generation process, and significantly increases the quality and accuracy of reports.

  8. Introduction to the alpha-proteobacteria: Wolbachia and Bartonella, Rickettsia, Brucella, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Dwight D

    2011-11-01

    Wolbachia is an obligate intracellular endosymbiont and likely mutualist living within the heartworm Dirofilaria immitis and a number of other filarial nematodes in the family Onchocercidae. The bacterial infection is passed from worm to worm transovarially; the organisms are in ovarian cells, the developing microfilariae, and multiply and persist in all later developmental stages through the mosquito and into the next host. Besides being present in the ovaries of the adult worms, they also are present in large numbers within the hypodermal tissues of the nematode. It is now know that these bacteria that were first observed in heartworms more than 30 years ago are actually related to similar Wolbachia bacteria that are found in arthropods. Wolbachia is an alpha-proteobacteria, and this group includes a number of important arthropod-transmitted bacterial agents of dogs and cats: Rickettsia rickettsii, R. felis, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, and E. ewingii. Alpha-proteobacteria are also important as obligate intracellular mutualists in plants in which they are responsible for nitrogen fixation. Recent work on the treatment of heartworms in dogs with doxycycline stems from related work with the human filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus that causes river blindness in people. PMID:22152604

  9. Theileria, Babesia, and Anaplasma detected by PCR in ruminant herds at Bié Province, Angola

    PubMed Central

    Kubelová, M.; Mazancová, J.; Široký, P.

    2012-01-01

    Distribution of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp., Theileria spp., and Ehrlichia ruminantium, was for the first time studied in Bié Province, central Angola. We examined 76 blood samples of cattle originated from seven farms, and 13 blood samples of goats from two farms employing molecular genetic tools (PCR). Most prevalent was A. ovis-infection in goats (100%) and A. marginale-infection in cattle (38% of examined animals, and six out of seven farms). B. bigemina-infection was detected in only one specimen at Andulo, whereas B. bovis was not detected in Bié. We did not detected T. parva, the causative agent of serious diseases in cattle; nevertheless, infection by T. velifera was quite frequent (14% of examined animals, and five out of seven farms). Causative agent of heartwater disease – E. ruminantium, was not detected. Taking into account short-term perspective of PCR methods in monitoring of epidemiological status in herds, the number of infected animals and distribution of detected pathogens should not be ignored. PMID:23193527

  10. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in dogs from Kabylie, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Dahmani, Mustapha; Loudahi, Abdelghani; Mediannikov, Oleg; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier; Davoust, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys are bacteria belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family that cause acute, self-limiting and sometimes fatal vector-borne infections in dogs. These bacteria have been reported worldwide and are transmitted mainly by Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Aside from a report on E. canis once in 1935, no other Anaplasmataceae bacteria have been reported in Algeria to date. The aim of this study was to identify the microbial species implicated in ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis by a molecular epidemiological survey in dogs. The study was carried out in Kabylie, in northeast Algeria. Sampling was performed in 11 municipalities in the province of Tizi Ouzou and 2 municipalities in the province of Béjaïa. Peripheral blood samples from 110 dogs were screened by qPCR, which is capable of identifying most Anaplasmataceae bacteria. Out of 110, a total of 13 samples screened positive (7/110 E. canis and 6/110 A. platys), and two genetic variants of A. platys and one of E. canis were identified. This is the first study to report the presence of A. platys in dogs from Algeria using a molecular investigative method. This survey was conducted in early spring. As tick activity can affect the prevalence of these pathogens in dogs, further investigations are needed to establish the year-round prevalence of these infections.

  11. Detection and phylogenetic characterization of Theileria spp. and Anaplasma marginale in Rhipicephalus bursa in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ferrolho, Joana; Antunes, Sandra; Santos, Ana S; Velez, Rita; Padre, Ludovina; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Santos-Silva, Maria Margarida; Domingos, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Ticks are obligatory blood-sucking arthropod (Acari:Ixodida) ectoparasites of domestic and wild animals as well as humans. The incidence of tick-borne diseases is rising worldwide, challenging our approach toward diagnosis, treatment and control options. Rhipicephalus bursa Canestrini and Fanzago, 1877, a two-host tick widely distributed in the Palearctic Mediterranean region, is considered a multi-host tick that can be commonly found on sheep, goats and cattle, and occasionally on horses, dogs, deer and humans. R. bursa is a species involved in the transmission of several tick-borne pathogens with a known impact on animal health and production. The aim of this study was to estimate R. bursa prevalence in Portugal Mainland and circulating pathogens in order to contribute to a better knowledge of the impact of this tick species. Anaplasma marginale and Theileria spp. were detected and classified using phylogenetic analysis. This is the first report of Theileria annulata and Theileria equi detection in R. bursa ticks feeding on cattle and horses, respectively, in Portugal. This study contributes toward the identification of currently circulating pathogens in this tick species as a prerequisite for developing future effective anti-tick control measures.

  12. Functional and Immunological Relevance of Anaplasma marginale Major Surface Protein 1a Sequence and Structural Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Passos, Lygia M. F.; Lis, Katarzyna; Kenneil, Rachel; Valdés, James J.; Ferrolho, Joana; Tonk, Miray; Pohl, Anna E.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Zweygarth, Erich; Shkap, Varda; Ribeiro, Mucio F. B.; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Kocan, Katherine M.; de la Fuente, José

    2013-01-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis is caused by cattle infection with the tick-borne bacterium, Anaplasma marginale. The major surface protein 1a (MSP1a) has been used as a genetic marker for identifying A. marginale strains based on N-terminal tandem repeats and a 5′-UTR microsatellite located in the msp1a gene. The MSP1a tandem repeats contain immune relevant elements and functional domains that bind to bovine erythrocytes and tick cells, thus providing information about the evolution of host-pathogen and vector-pathogen interactions. Here we propose one nomenclature for A. marginale strain classification based on MSP1a. All tandem repeats among A. marginale strains were classified and the amino acid variability/frequency in each position was determined. The sequence variation at immunodominant B cell epitopes was determined and the secondary (2D) structure of the tandem repeats was modeled. A total of 224 different strains of A. marginale were classified, showing 11 genotypes based on the 5′-UTR microsatellite and 193 different tandem repeats with high amino acid variability per position. Our results showed phylogenetic correlation between MSP1a sequence, secondary structure, B-cell epitope composition and tick transmissibility of A. marginale strains. The analysis of MSP1a sequences provides relevant information about the biology of A. marginale to design vaccines with a cross-protective capacity based on MSP1a B-cell epitopes. PMID:23776456

  13. Detection and phylogenetic characterization of Theileria spp. and Anaplasma marginale in Rhipicephalus bursa in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ferrolho, Joana; Antunes, Sandra; Santos, Ana S; Velez, Rita; Padre, Ludovina; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Santos-Silva, Maria Margarida; Domingos, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Ticks are obligatory blood-sucking arthropod (Acari:Ixodida) ectoparasites of domestic and wild animals as well as humans. The incidence of tick-borne diseases is rising worldwide, challenging our approach toward diagnosis, treatment and control options. Rhipicephalus bursa Canestrini and Fanzago, 1877, a two-host tick widely distributed in the Palearctic Mediterranean region, is considered a multi-host tick that can be commonly found on sheep, goats and cattle, and occasionally on horses, dogs, deer and humans. R. bursa is a species involved in the transmission of several tick-borne pathogens with a known impact on animal health and production. The aim of this study was to estimate R. bursa prevalence in Portugal Mainland and circulating pathogens in order to contribute to a better knowledge of the impact of this tick species. Anaplasma marginale and Theileria spp. were detected and classified using phylogenetic analysis. This is the first report of Theileria annulata and Theileria equi detection in R. bursa ticks feeding on cattle and horses, respectively, in Portugal. This study contributes toward the identification of currently circulating pathogens in this tick species as a prerequisite for developing future effective anti-tick control measures. PMID:26797395

  14. Isolation and restriction endonuclease cleavage of Anaplasma marginale DNA in situ in agarose.

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, C M; Buening, G M

    1988-01-01

    Bacterial restriction endonucleases were used to produce DNA cleavage patterns that could be useful as tools to study the relatedness among Anaplasma marginale isolates. Bovine erythrocytes infected with A. marginale were lysed, washed, and embedded in agarose. The embedded erythrocytes and bacterial pathogens were partially digested by sequential infiltration of the agarose with acetone, lysozyme, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and proteinase K. The unfragmented genomic DNA was left supported and protected in a porous matrix. The DNA was digested in situ in agarose under the following conditions: (i) brief treatment with phenol, (ii) brief washing with distilled water, and (iii) adjustment of restriction enzyme digestion mixture to compensate for the volume of the agarose. The cleaved DNA was electrophoresed horizontally to produce a DNA cleavage pattern. Of 19 restriction enzymes screened, 12 produced distinct DNA bands from the genomes of each of the five A. marginale isolates examined. The DNA cleavage pattern produced from each isolate with a given restriction enzyme was reproducible. However, the DNA cleavage patterns produced from different isolates with a given restriction enzyme were not necessarily identical. This procedure could be modified for general bacterial DNA isolation, in situ agarose digestion, and manipulations. Images PMID:2838504

  15. Protective immunity induced by immunization with a live, cultured Anaplasma marginale strain

    PubMed Central

    Hammac, G. Kenitra; Ku, Pei-Shin; Galletti, Maria F.; Noh, Susan M.; Scoles, Glen A.; Palmer, Guy H.; Brayton, Kelly A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant economic losses resulting from infection with Anaplasma marginale, a tick-transmitted rickettsial pathogen of cattle, available vaccines provide, at best, only partial protection against clinical disease. The green-fluorescent protein expressing mutant of the A. marginale St. Maries strain is a live, marked vaccine candidate (AmStM-GFP1). To test whether AmStM-GFP is safe and provides clinical protection, a group of calves was vaccinated, and clinical parameters, including percent parasitized erythrocytes (PPE), packed cell volume (PCV) and days required to reach peak bacteremia, were measured following inoculation and following tick challenge with wild type St Maries strain (AmStM). These clinical parameters were compared to those obtained during infection with the A. marginale subsp. centrale vaccine strain (A. centrale) or wild type AmStM. AmStM-GFP resulted in similar clinical parameters to A. centrale, but had a lower maximum PPE, smaller drop in PCV and took longer to reach peak bacteremia than wild type AmStM. AmStM-GFP provided clinical protection, yielding a stable PCV and low bacteremia following challenge, whereas A. centrale only afforded partial clinical protection. PMID:23664994

  16. Introduction to the alpha-proteobacteria: Wolbachia and Bartonella, Rickettsia, Brucella, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Dwight D

    2011-11-01

    Wolbachia is an obligate intracellular endosymbiont and likely mutualist living within the heartworm Dirofilaria immitis and a number of other filarial nematodes in the family Onchocercidae. The bacterial infection is passed from worm to worm transovarially; the organisms are in ovarian cells, the developing microfilariae, and multiply and persist in all later developmental stages through the mosquito and into the next host. Besides being present in the ovaries of the adult worms, they also are present in large numbers within the hypodermal tissues of the nematode. It is now know that these bacteria that were first observed in heartworms more than 30 years ago are actually related to similar Wolbachia bacteria that are found in arthropods. Wolbachia is an alpha-proteobacteria, and this group includes a number of important arthropod-transmitted bacterial agents of dogs and cats: Rickettsia rickettsii, R. felis, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, and E. ewingii. Alpha-proteobacteria are also important as obligate intracellular mutualists in plants in which they are responsible for nitrogen fixation. Recent work on the treatment of heartworms in dogs with doxycycline stems from related work with the human filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus that causes river blindness in people.

  17. Transplacental transmission of Anaplasma marginale in beef cattle chronically infected in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Grau, Hermann Eduardo Gonzalez; Cunha Filho, Nilton Azevedo da; Pappen, Felipe Geraldo; Farias, Nara Amélia da Rosa

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated the incidence of transplacental transmission of Anaplasma marginale in chronically infected cows with no history of acute anaplasmosis during gestation. In addition, we evaluated various techniques for detection of transplacental transmission of A. marginale. Blood samples were collected from 30 cows at three different periods: at the time of artificial insemination, at gestational diagnosis, and after calving. Also, blood was collected from the newborn calves, including one sample before colostrum intake, and another three days after birth. A. marginale-specific antibodies were detected in 100% of the cows with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and in 97% of them, using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Also, we observed that all of the three-day-old newborn calves were seropositive by IFAT. According to polymerase chain reaction, 63.3% of the cows were carriers of A. marginale, as well as 6.7% of the newborn calves. This represented a transplacental transmission rate of 10.5%. Furthermore, a correlation of 93.3% was observed between the two serodiagnostic techniques, demonstrating that both ELISA and IFAT can be used in epidemiological surveys of A. marginale. These results confirm the occurrence of transplacental transmission of A. marginale in chronically infected cows and suggest the importance of this transmission route in areas of enzootic instability. PMID:23856734

  18. Association of Anaplasma marginale Strain Superinfection with Infection Prevalence within Tropical Regions

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda-Ortiz, Elizabeth J.; Ueti, Massaro W.; Camacho-Nuez, Minerva; Mosqueda, Juan J.; Mousel, Michelle R.; Johnson, Wendell C.; Palmer, Guy H.

    2015-01-01

    Strain superinfection occurs when a second strain infects a host already infected with and having mounted an immune response to a primary strain. The incidence of superinfection with Anaplasma marginale, a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of domestic and wild ruminants, has been shown to be higher in tropical versus temperate regions. This has been attributed to the higher prevalence of infection, with consequent immunity against primary strains and thus greater selective pressure for superinfection with antigenically distinct strains. However an alternative explanation would be the differences in the transmitting vector, Dermacentor andersoni in the studied temperate regions and Rhipicephalus microplus in the studied tropical regions. To address this question, we examined two tropical populations sharing the same vector, R. microplus, but with significantly different infection prevalence. Using two separate markers, msp1α (one allele per genome) and msp2 (multiple alleles per genome), there were higher levels of multiple strain infections in the high infection prevalence as compared to the low prevalence population. The association of higher strain diversity with infection prevalence supports the hypothesis that high levels of infection prevalence and consequent population immunity is the predominant driver of strain superinfection. PMID:25793966

  19. First molecular survey of Anaplasma bovis in small ruminants from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Said, Mourad; Belkahia, Hanène; Karaoud, Maroua; Bousrih, Maha; Yahiaoui, Mouna; Daaloul-Jedidi, Monia; Messadi, Lilia

    2015-09-30

    To date, no information is available regarding the presence of Anaplasma bovis in the South Mediterranean area. In this study, prevalence, risk factors, and genetic diversity of A. bovis were assessed in small ruminants. A total of 563 healthy small ruminants (260 sheep and 303 goats), from 25 randomly selected flocks located in 5 localities from two bioclimatic areas in Tunisia, were investigated for the detection of A. bovis in blood by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assay. The overall infection rates of A. bovis were 42.7 and 23.8% in sheep and goats, respectively. Goats located in a sub-humid area were statistically more infected than those located in a humid area. A. bovis prevalence rate varied significantly according to sheep and goat flocks, and to the sheep breed. Infection with A. bovis was validated by sequencing. Sequence analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that A. bovis from Tunisian goats and sheep clustered with other strain sequences detected from wild and domestic animals and published in GenBank. This study gives the first insight of presence of A. bovis DNA in small ruminants in Tunisia and suggests that these animal species may be playing an important role in the bovine anaplasmosis natural cycle caused by A. bovis in the South Mediterranean ecosystem. PMID:26088935

  20. First molecular survey of Anaplasma bovis in small ruminants from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Said, Mourad; Belkahia, Hanène; Karaoud, Maroua; Bousrih, Maha; Yahiaoui, Mouna; Daaloul-Jedidi, Monia; Messadi, Lilia

    2015-09-30

    To date, no information is available regarding the presence of Anaplasma bovis in the South Mediterranean area. In this study, prevalence, risk factors, and genetic diversity of A. bovis were assessed in small ruminants. A total of 563 healthy small ruminants (260 sheep and 303 goats), from 25 randomly selected flocks located in 5 localities from two bioclimatic areas in Tunisia, were investigated for the detection of A. bovis in blood by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assay. The overall infection rates of A. bovis were 42.7 and 23.8% in sheep and goats, respectively. Goats located in a sub-humid area were statistically more infected than those located in a humid area. A. bovis prevalence rate varied significantly according to sheep and goat flocks, and to the sheep breed. Infection with A. bovis was validated by sequencing. Sequence analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that A. bovis from Tunisian goats and sheep clustered with other strain sequences detected from wild and domestic animals and published in GenBank. This study gives the first insight of presence of A. bovis DNA in small ruminants in Tunisia and suggests that these animal species may be playing an important role in the bovine anaplasmosis natural cycle caused by A. bovis in the South Mediterranean ecosystem.

  1. Canine infection with Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma spp., and Ehrlichia spp. in the United States, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The geographic distribution of canine infection with vector-borne disease agents in the United States appears to be expanding. Methods To provide an updated assessment of geographic trends in canine infection with Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia spp., and Anaplasma spp., we evaluated results from an average of 3,588,477 dogs tested annually by veterinarians throughout the United States from 2010 – 2012. Results As in an earlier summary report, the percent positive test results varied by agent and region, with antigen of D. immitis and antibody to Ehrlichia spp. most commonly identified in the Southeast (2.9% and 3.2%, respectively) and antibody to both B. burgdorferi and Anaplasma spp. most commonly identified in the Northeast (13.3% and 7.1%, respectively) and upper Midwest (4.4% and 3.9%, respectively). Percent positive test results for D. immitis antigen were lower in every region considered, including in the Southeast, than previously reported. Percent positive test results for antibodies to B. burgdorferi and Ehrlichia spp. were higher nationally than previously reported, and, for antibodies to Anaplasma spp., were higher in the Northeast but lower in the Midwest and West, than in the initial report. Annual reports of human cases of Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, and anaplasmosis were associated with percent positive canine test results by state for each respective tick-borne disease agent (R2 = 0.701, 0.457, and 0.314, respectively). Within endemic areas, percent positive test results for all three tick-borne agents demonstrated evidence of geographic expansion. Conclusions Continued national monitoring of canine test results for vector-borne zoonotic agents is an important tool for accurately mapping the geographic distribution of these agents, and greatly aids our understanding of the veterinary and public health threats they pose. PMID:24886589

  2. Molecular characterization of Anaplasma marginale in ticks naturally feeding on buffaloes.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-10-01

    Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent pathogen transmitted by ticks in cattle in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. However, the tick species involved in the transmission of A. marginale in buffaloes in Brazil have not been identified. The objective of the present study was to determine the presence of A. marginale in ticks parasitizing water buffaloes. A total of 200 samples of Rhipicephalus microplus, Dermacentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense, and Amblyomma maculatum were collected and tested by conventional and quantitative PCR for the presence of the msp1a and msp5 genes. In the present study, 35 ticks (17.5%) were positive for A. marginale DNA by qPCR analysis. The positive ticks belonged to four different species: R. microplus (22.2%), A. cajennense (13.8%), A. maculatum (16.0%), and D. nitens (10.0%). Individuals of the three developmental stages (larvae, nymphs, and adults) of R. microplus and A. cajennense were found to be positive for A. marginale, only nymphs and adults of A. maculatum were found to be positive, and finally, only adults of D. nitens were positive for A. marginale. Our results suggest that R. microplus, A. cajennense, A. maculatum, and D. nitens ticks may be involved in the transmission of A. marginale in buffaloes. However, while A. marginale PCR positive ticks were recorded, this does not indicate vector competence; only that the ticks may contain a blood meal from an infected host. Additionally, the results show that the strains of A. marginale from buffaloes and cattle are phylogenetically related. PMID:26209411

  3. The efficacy of three chlortetracycline regimens in the treatment of persistent Anaplasma marginale infection.

    PubMed

    Reinbold, James B; Coetzee, Johann F; Hollis, Larry C; Nickell, Jason S; Riegel, Casey; Olson, K C; Ganta, Roman R

    2010-09-28

    Chemosterilization is reported in cattle fed chlortetracycline hydrochloride (CTC) at dosages ranging from 1.1mg/kg for 120 days to 11 mg/kg for 30-60 days. The relationship between plasma CTC drug concentration and carrier clearance has not been described. Chronic carrier status was established in 21 steers with a Virginia isolate of Anaplasma marginale and confirmed by cELISA and an A. marginale-specific RT-PCR. Four negative, splenectomized steers served as active disease transmission sentinels. Steers were randomized to receive 4.4 mg/kg/day (LD); 11 mg/kg/day (MD); or 22 mg/kg/day (HD) of oral chlortetracycline; or placebo (CONTROL) for 80 days. The LD, MD and HD treatment groups consisted of 5 infected steers and 1 splenectomized steer; CONTROL group had six infected steers and 1 splenectomized steer. The daily treatments and ration were divided equally and fed twice daily. Blood samples were collected semi-weekly for determining plasma drug concentration by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry method and assessment of disease status by both cELISA and RT-PCR. Mean (CV%) chlortetracycline plasma drug concentrations in the LD, MD, and HD groups were 85.3 (28%), 214.5 (32%) and 518.9 (40%)ng/mL during days 4 through 53 of treatment. A negative RT-PCR assay result was confirmed in all CTC-treated groups within 49 days of treatment; however, cELISA required an additional 49 to 88 days before similar results. Subinoculation of splenectomized steers confirmed chemosterilization. These results are important for influencing future chemosterilization strategies and impacting free trade policy among countries and regions of contrasting endemicity.

  4. Molecular characterization of Anaplasma marginale in ticks naturally feeding on buffaloes.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-10-01

    Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent pathogen transmitted by ticks in cattle in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. However, the tick species involved in the transmission of A. marginale in buffaloes in Brazil have not been identified. The objective of the present study was to determine the presence of A. marginale in ticks parasitizing water buffaloes. A total of 200 samples of Rhipicephalus microplus, Dermacentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense, and Amblyomma maculatum were collected and tested by conventional and quantitative PCR for the presence of the msp1a and msp5 genes. In the present study, 35 ticks (17.5%) were positive for A. marginale DNA by qPCR analysis. The positive ticks belonged to four different species: R. microplus (22.2%), A. cajennense (13.8%), A. maculatum (16.0%), and D. nitens (10.0%). Individuals of the three developmental stages (larvae, nymphs, and adults) of R. microplus and A. cajennense were found to be positive for A. marginale, only nymphs and adults of A. maculatum were found to be positive, and finally, only adults of D. nitens were positive for A. marginale. Our results suggest that R. microplus, A. cajennense, A. maculatum, and D. nitens ticks may be involved in the transmission of A. marginale in buffaloes. However, while A. marginale PCR positive ticks were recorded, this does not indicate vector competence; only that the ticks may contain a blood meal from an infected host. Additionally, the results show that the strains of A. marginale from buffaloes and cattle are phylogenetically related.

  5. Molecular and serological in-herd prevalence of Anaplasma marginale infection in Texas cattle.

    PubMed

    Hairgrove, Thomas; Schroeder, Megan E; Budke, Christine M; Rodgers, Sandy; Chung, Chungwon; Ueti, Massaro W; Bounpheng, Mangkey A

    2015-04-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis is an infectious, non-contagious disease caused by the rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma marginale (A. marginale). The organism has a global distribution and infects erythrocytes, resulting in anemia, jaundice, fever, abortions and death. Once infected, animals remain carriers for life. The carrier status provides immunity to clinical disease, but is problematic if infected and naïve cattle are comingled. Knowledge of infection prevalence and spatial distribution is important in disease management. The objective of this study was to assess A. marginale infection in-herd prevalence in Texas cattle using both molecular and serological methods. Blood samples from 11 cattle herds within Texas were collected and analyzed by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Samples from experimentally infected animals were also analyzed and RT-qPCR detected A. marginale infection up to 15 days before cELISA, providing empirical data to support the interpretation of herd prevalence results. Herds with high prevalence were located in the north Texas Rolling Plains and west Trans-Pecos Desert, with RT-qPCR prevalence as high as 82% and cELISA prevalence as high as 88%. Overall prevalence was significantly higher in cattle in north and west Texas compared to cattle in east Texas (p<0.0001 for prevalence based on both RT-qPCR and cELISA). The overall RT-qPCR and cELISA results exhibited 90% agreement (kappa=0.79) and provide the first A. marginale infection prevalence study for Texas cattle using two diagnostic methods. Since cattle are the most important reservoir host for A. marginale and can serve as a source of infection for tick and mechanical transmission, information on infection prevalence is beneficial in the development of prevention and control strategies.

  6. Primary Structural Variation in Anaplasma marginale Msp2 Efficiently Generates Immune Escape Variants

    PubMed Central

    Paradiso, Lydia; Broschat, Shira L.; Noh, Susan M.; Palmer, Guy H.

    2015-01-01

    Antigenic variation allows microbial pathogens to evade immune clearance and establish persistent infection. Anaplasma marginale utilizes gene conversion of a repertoire of silent msp2 alleles into a single active expression site to encode unique Msp2 variants. As the genomic complement of msp2 alleles alone is insufficient to generate the number of variants required for persistence, A. marginale uses segmental gene conversion, in which oligonucleotide segments from multiple alleles are recombined into the expression site to generate a novel msp2 mosaic not represented elsewhere in the genome. Whether these segmental changes are sufficient to evade a broad antibody response is unknown. We addressed this question by identifying Msp2 variants that differed in primary structure within the immunogenic hypervariable region microdomains and tested whether they represented true antigenic variants. The minimal primary structural difference between variants was a single amino acid resulting from a codon insertion, and overall, the amino acid identity among paired microdomains ranged from 18 to 92%. Collectively, 89% of the expressed structural variants were also antigenic variants across all biological replicates, independent of a specific host major histocompatibility complex haplotype. Biological relevance is supported by the following: (i) all structural variants were expressed during infection of a natural host, (ii) the structural variation observed in the microdomains corresponded to the mean length of variants generated by segmental gene conversion, and (iii) antigenic variants were identified using a broad antibody response that developed during infection of a natural host. The findings demonstrate that segmental gene conversion efficiently generates Msp2 antigenic variants. PMID:26259814

  7. Molecular and serological in-herd prevalence of Anaplasma marginale infection in Texas cattle.

    PubMed

    Hairgrove, Thomas; Schroeder, Megan E; Budke, Christine M; Rodgers, Sandy; Chung, Chungwon; Ueti, Massaro W; Bounpheng, Mangkey A

    2015-04-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis is an infectious, non-contagious disease caused by the rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma marginale (A. marginale). The organism has a global distribution and infects erythrocytes, resulting in anemia, jaundice, fever, abortions and death. Once infected, animals remain carriers for life. The carrier status provides immunity to clinical disease, but is problematic if infected and naïve cattle are comingled. Knowledge of infection prevalence and spatial distribution is important in disease management. The objective of this study was to assess A. marginale infection in-herd prevalence in Texas cattle using both molecular and serological methods. Blood samples from 11 cattle herds within Texas were collected and analyzed by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Samples from experimentally infected animals were also analyzed and RT-qPCR detected A. marginale infection up to 15 days before cELISA, providing empirical data to support the interpretation of herd prevalence results. Herds with high prevalence were located in the north Texas Rolling Plains and west Trans-Pecos Desert, with RT-qPCR prevalence as high as 82% and cELISA prevalence as high as 88%. Overall prevalence was significantly higher in cattle in north and west Texas compared to cattle in east Texas (p<0.0001 for prevalence based on both RT-qPCR and cELISA). The overall RT-qPCR and cELISA results exhibited 90% agreement (kappa=0.79) and provide the first A. marginale infection prevalence study for Texas cattle using two diagnostic methods. Since cattle are the most important reservoir host for A. marginale and can serve as a source of infection for tick and mechanical transmission, information on infection prevalence is beneficial in the development of prevention and control strategies. PMID:25732914

  8. [Immune-humoral response of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) against Anaplasma marginale (Theiler, 1910)].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ricardo A; Machado, Rosangela Z; Starke-Buzetti, Wilma A; Bonesso, Maria A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the humoral-immune response of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) naturally infected against Anaplasma marginale. For this work, colostrums/milk and blood samples were sequentially collected from buffalo cows prior and after partum for a period of 335 days and from buffalo calves from birth to 365 days after. The antibodies in the colostrums/milk and serum samples of these animals were determined using an ELISA indirect method and the data were analyzed as a mean of a group of animals with the matched ages during the period of 1999/2000 or individually during the year of 2005. The data from animals analyzed in group showed that the antibodies against A. marginale were in low concentration (below the cut off point: D.O. = 0.265 and ELISA levels, EL < or =3), in the sera of buffalo, during the first 90 and 105 days, respectively for cows and calves. Then, the levels of antibodies in the serum samples of buffalo calves, slightly raised to above the cut-off point and kept in higher levels up to approximately 365 days after birth, indicating active acquired immunity. Furthermore, when the animals were individually examined, the buffalo cows showed high antibody levels in the colostrums, but low levels in the blood stream during the first seven days post-partum, suggesting antibody transference from blood to mammary gland. In addition to that, buffalo calves showed high antibody levels during the first 24 hours after suckling colostrum, indicating a colostral passive immunity. By conclusion, the buffaloes were able to arm a humoral immune response against A. marginale and were considered reservoir of this parasite.

  9. Immunization-induced anaplasma marginale-specific T lymphocyte reponses impaired by A. marginale infection are restored after eliminating the infection with tetracycline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of cattle with Anaplasma marginale fails to prime sustained effector/memory T-cell responses, and high bacterial load may induce antigen-specific CD4 T exhaustion and deletion. We tested the hypothesis that clearance of persistent infection restores the exhausted T-cell response. We show t...

  10. Anaplasma marginale infection with persistent high-load bacteremia induces a dysfunctional memory CD4+ T lymphocyte response but sustained high IgG titers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of blood-borne infections is dependent on antigen-specific effector and memory T cells and high-affinity IgG responses. In chronic infections characterized by a high antigen load, it has been shown that antigen-specific T and B cells are vulnerable to downregulation and apoptosis. Anaplasma ...

  11. Molecular characterization of Rickettsia massiliae and Anaplasma platys infecting Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and domestic dogs, Buenos Aires (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; Brambati, Diego F; Rodríguez Eugui, Juan I; Lebrero, Cecilia González; De Salvo, María N; Beltrán, Fernando J; Gury Dohmen, Federico E; Jado, Isabel; Anda, Pedro

    2014-09-01

    Rickettsioses, ehrlichioses and anaplasmoses are emerging diseases that are mainly transmitted by arthropods and that affect humans and animals. The aim of the present study was to use molecular techniques to detect and characterize those pathogens in dogs and ticks from Buenos Aires city. We studied 207 Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and 52 canine blood samples from poor neighborhoods of Buenos Aires city. The samples were molecularly screened for the genera Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma by PCR and sequencing. DNA of Rickettsia massiliae (3.4%) and Anaplasma platys (13.5%) was detected in ticks and blood samples, respectively. For characterization, the positive samples were subjected to amplification of a fragment of the 190-kDa outer membrane protein gene (spotted fever group rickettsiae) and a fragment of the groESL gene (specific for A. platys). A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the neighbor-joining method, revealing that the sequences were closely related to those of strains from other geographic regions. The results indicate that human and animal pathogens are abundant in dogs and their ticks in Buenos Aires city and portray the potentially high risk of human exposure to infection with these agents, especially in poor neighborhoods, where there is close contact with animals in an environment of poor health conditions.

  12. Real time polymerase chain reaction to diagnose Anaplasma marginale in cattle and deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus leucogaster) of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Picoloto, Graziela; Lima, Renileide Ferreira de; Olegário, Lílian Andressa Oliveira; Carvalho, Cristiano Miranda Espínola; Lacerda, Ana Crystina Reis; Tomás, Walfrido Moraes; Borges, Paulo André Lima; Pellegrin, Aiesca Oliveira; Madruga, Cláudio Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Epizootiological study of Anaplasma marginale in regions that contain various reservoir hosts, co-existence of rickettsia pathogens, and common vectors is a complicated task. To achieve diagnosis of this rickettsia in cattle and campeiro deer of Brazilian Pantanal, a comparison was made between a real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with intercalating Sybr Green fluorochrome and primers based on msp5 gene of A. marginale; a conventional PCR (C-PCR); and parasitological examination using thin blood smear stained with Giemsa-MayGrunwald. Both PCRs showed good performance in the diagnosis of A. marginale in cattle, and were superior to the parasitological exam. The RT-PCR detected seven positive campeiro deer (16.3%). This rate was significantly higher compared to C-PCR, which identified one animal as positive (2.3%), and also compared to parasitological diagnosis, which did not find any positive animals. The dissociation temperature average of positive reactions in cattle (81.72 °C ± 0.20) was identical to dissociation temperature found in the cervids (81.72 °C ± 0.12), suggesting that both animal species were infected with A. marginale. We concluded that RT-PCR can be used for A. marginale diagnosis and in epizootiological studies of cattle and cervids; in spite of the small number of campeiro deer samples, the results indicated that this wildlife species has importance in the Anaplasma epizootiology in the Brazilian Pantanal.

  13. The Exploitation of Black Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry

    1983-01-01

    Colleges and universities have not up held their end of the bargain with athletes, exploiting a disproportionate number of talented Black athletes by not providing the kind of education the students sought or needed and by applying rigid academic standards for eligibility. (MSE)

  14. Epidemiology and evolution of the genetic variability of Anaplasma marginale in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mutshembele, Awelani M; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Mtshali, Moses S; Thekisoe, Oriel M M; Galindo, Ruth C; de la Fuente, José

    2014-10-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis caused by infection of cattle with Anaplasma marginale has been considered to be endemic in South Africa, an assumption based primarily on the distribution of the tick vectors of A. marginale and serological studies on the prevalence of anaplasmosis in Limpopo, Free State, and North West. However, molecular evidence of the distribution of anaplasmosis has only been reported in the Free State province. In order to establish effective control measures for anaplasmosis, epidemiological surveys are needed to define the prevalence and distribution of A. marginale in South Africa. In addition, a proposed control strategy for anaplasmosis is the development of an A. marginale major surface protein 1a (MSP1a)-based vaccine. Nevertheless, regional variations of this gene would need to be characterized prior to vaccine development for South Africa. The objectives of the present study were therefore to conduct a national survey of the prevalence of A. marginale in South Africa, followed by an evaluation of the diversity and evolution of msp1a in South African strains of A. marginale. To accomplish these objectives, species-specific PCR was used to test 250 blood samples from cattle collected from all South African provinces (including 26 districts and municipalities), except the Free State province where similar studies were reported previously. The prevalence of A. marginale ranged from 65% to 100%, except in Northern Cape province where A. marginale was not detected. A correlation was found between the prevalence and genetic diversity of A. marginale MSP1a. Additionally, the genetic diversity of the A. marginale MSP1a was found to evolve under negative and positive selection, and 23 new tandem repeats in South Africa were shown to have evolved from the extant tandem repeat 4. Despite the MSP1a genetic variability, some types of tandem repeats were found to be conserved among the A. marginale strains, and low-variable peptides in MSP1a tandem repeats were

  15. Subdominant Outer Membrane Antigens in Anaplasma marginale: Conservation, Antigenicity, and Protective Capacity Using Recombinant Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ducken, Deirdre R.; Brown, Wendy C.; Alperin, Debra C.; Brayton, Kelly A.; Reif, Kathryn E.; Turse, Joshua E.; Palmer, Guy H.; Noh, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle with a worldwide distribution. Currently a safe and efficacious vaccine is unavailable. Outer membrane protein (OMP) extracts or a defined surface protein complex reproducibly induce protective immunity. However, there are several knowledge gaps limiting progress in vaccine development. First, are these OMPs conserved among the diversity of A. marginale strains circulating in endemic regions? Second, are the most highly conserved outer membrane proteins in the immunogens recognized by immunized and protected animals? Lastly, can this subset of OMPs recognized by antibody from protected vaccinates and conserved among strains recapitulate the protection of outer membrane vaccines? To address the first goal, genes encoding OMPs AM202, AM368, AM854, AM936, AM1041, and AM1096, major subdominant components of the outer membrane, were cloned and sequenced from geographically diverse strains and isolates. AM202, AM936, AM854, and AM1096 share 99.9 to 100% amino acid identity. AM1041 has 97.1 to 100% and AM368 has 98.3 to 99.9% amino acid identity. While all four of the most highly conserved OMPs were recognized by IgG from animals immunized with outer membranes, linked surface protein complexes, or unlinked surface protein complexes and shown to be protected from challenge, the highest titers and consistent recognition among vaccinates were to AM854 and AM936. Consequently, animals were immunized with recombinant AM854 and AM936 and challenged. Recombinant vaccinates and purified outer membrane vaccinates had similar IgG and IgG2 responses to both proteins. However, the recombinant vaccinates developed higher bacteremia after challenge as compared to adjuvant-only controls and outer membrane vaccinates. These results provide the first evidence that vaccination with specific antigens may exacerbate disease. Progressing from the protective capacity of outer membrane formulations to recombinant vaccines

  16. Teotihuacan, tepeapulco, and obsidian exploitation.

    PubMed

    Charlton, T H

    1978-06-16

    Current cultural ecological models of the development of civilization in central Mexico emphasize the role of subsistence production techniques and organization. The recent use of established and productive archeological surface survey techniques along natural corridors of communication between favorable niches for cultural development within the Central Mexican symbiotic region resulted in the location of sites that indicate an early development of a decentralized resource exploitation, manufacturing, and exchange network. The association of the development of this system with Teotihuacán indicates the importance such nonsubsistence production and exchange had in the evolution of this first central Mexican civilization. The later expansion of Teotihuacán into more distant areas of Mesoamerica was based on this resource exploitation model. Later civilizations centered at Tula and Tenochtitlán also used such a model in their expansion.

  17. Teotihuacan, tepeapulco, and obsidian exploitation.

    PubMed

    Charlton, T H

    1978-06-16

    Current cultural ecological models of the development of civilization in central Mexico emphasize the role of subsistence production techniques and organization. The recent use of established and productive archeological surface survey techniques along natural corridors of communication between favorable niches for cultural development within the Central Mexican symbiotic region resulted in the location of sites that indicate an early development of a decentralized resource exploitation, manufacturing, and exchange network. The association of the development of this system with Teotihuacán indicates the importance such nonsubsistence production and exchange had in the evolution of this first central Mexican civilization. The later expansion of Teotihuacán into more distant areas of Mesoamerica was based on this resource exploitation model. Later civilizations centered at Tula and Tenochtitlán also used such a model in their expansion. PMID:17738704

  18. In vitro establishment and propagation of a Brazilian strain of Anaplasma marginale with appendage in IDE8 (Ixodes scapularis) cells

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Camila V.; Passos, Lygia M. F.; Vasconcelos, Maria Mercês C.; Ribeiro, Múcio F. B.

    2009-01-01

    A Brazilian isolate of Anaplasma marginale with appendage was successfully established and maintained in vitro in a tick cell line (IDE8). Infection was confirmed by optical and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, primers MSP1aNF2 and MSP1aNR2 amplified products from DNA extracted from infected IDE8 cells. Comparisons with partial sequences of the msp1α gene and the complete genome of A. marginale confirmed that the sequences of amplified fragments were from the A. marginale genome. This is the first establishment of a Brazilian A. marginale isolate in tick cells, representing a new system for biological and molecular studies and also a new source of material for diagnosis and development of vaccines. PMID:24031379

  19. Characterization of Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale Strains by Use of msp1aS Genotyping Reveals a Wildlife Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Khumalo, Zamantungwa T H; Catanese, Helen N; Liesching, Nicole; Hove, Paidashe; Collins, Nicola E; Chaisi, Mamohale E; Gebremedhin, Assefaw H; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Brayton, Kelly A

    2016-10-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis caused by the intraerythrocytic rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma marginale is endemic in South Africa. Anaplasma marginale subspecies centrale also infects cattle; however, it causes a milder form of anaplasmosis and is used as a live vaccine against A. marginale There has been less interest in the epidemiology of A. marginale subsp. centrale, and, as a result, there are few reports detecting natural infections of this organism. When detected in cattle, it is often assumed that it is due to vaccination, and in most cases, it is reported as coinfection with A. marginale without characterization of the strain. A total of 380 blood samples from wild ruminant species and cattle collected from biobanks, national parks, and other regions of South Africa were used in duplex real-time PCR assays to simultaneously detect A. marginale and A. marginale subsp. centrale. PCR results indicated high occurrence of A. marginale subsp. centrale infections, ranging from 25 to 100% in national parks. Samples positive for A. marginale subsp. centrale were further characterized using the msp1aS gene, a homolog of msp1α of A. marginale, which contains repeats at the 5' ends that are useful for genotyping strains. A total of 47 Msp1aS repeats were identified, which corresponded to 32 A. marginale subsp. centrale genotypes detected in cattle, buffalo, and wildebeest. RepeatAnalyzer was used to examine strain diversity. Our results demonstrate a diversity of A. marginale subsp. centrale strains from cattle and wildlife hosts from South Africa and indicate the utility of msp1aS as a genotypic marker for A. marginale subsp. centrale strain diversity.

  20. Bacterial Profiling Reveals Novel “Ca. Neoehrlichia”, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma Species in Australian Human-Biting Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Gofton, Alexander W.; Doggett, Stephen; Ratchford, Andrew; Oskam, Charlotte L.; Paparini, Andrea; Ryan, Una; Irwin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In Australia, a conclusive aetiology of Lyme disease-like illness in human patients remains elusive, despite growing numbers of people presenting with symptoms attributed to tick bites. In the present study, we surveyed the microbial communities harboured by human-biting ticks from across Australia to identify bacteria that may contribute to this syndrome. Universal PCR primers were used to amplify the V1-2 hyper-variable region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes in DNA samples from individual Ixodes holocyclus (n = 279), Amblyomma triguttatum (n = 167), Haemaphysalis bancrofti (n = 7), and H. longicornis (n = 7) ticks. The 16S amplicons were sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform and analysed in USEARCH, QIIME, and BLAST to assign genus and species-level taxonomies. Nested PCR and Sanger sequencing were used to confirm the NGS data and further analyse novel findings. All 460 ticks were negative for Borrelia spp. by both NGS and nested PCR analysis. Two novel “Candidatus Neoehrlichia” spp. were identified in 12.9% of I. holocyclus ticks. A novel Anaplasma sp. was identified in 1.8% of A. triguttatum ticks, and a novel Ehrlichia sp. was identified in both A. triguttatum (1.2%) ticks and a single I. holocyclus (0.6%) tick. Further phylogenetic analysis of novel “Ca. Neoehrlichia”, Anaplasma and Ehrlichia based on 1,265 bp 16S rRNA gene sequences suggests that these are new species. Determining whether these newly discovered organisms cause disease in humans and animals, like closely related bacteria do abroad, is of public health importance and requires further investigation. PMID:26709826

  1. The ESA Geohazard Exploitation Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, Philippe; Laur, Henri; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Pinto, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    Earthquakes represent one of the world's most significant hazards in terms both of loss of life and damages. In the first decade of the 21st century, earthquakes accounted for 60 percent of fatalities from natural disasters, according to the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR). To support mitigation activities designed to assess and reduce risks and improve response in emergency situations, satellite EO can be used to provide a broad range of geo-information services. This includes for instance crustal block boundary mapping to better characterize active faults, strain rate mapping to assess how rapidly faults are deforming, soil vulnerability mapping to help estimate how the soil is behaving in reaction to seismic phenomena, geo-information to assess the extent and intensity of the earthquake impact on man-made structures and formulate assumptions on the evolution of the seismic sequence, i.e. where local aftershocks or future main shocks (on nearby faults) are most likely to occur. In May 2012, the European Space Agency and the GEO Secretariat convened the International Forum on Satellite EO for Geohazards now known as the Santorini Conference. The event was the continuation of a series of international workshops such as those organized by the Geohazards Theme of the Integrated Global Observing Strategy Partnership. In Santorini the seismic community has set out a vision of the EO contribution to an operational global seismic risk program, which lead to the Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories (GSNL) initiative. The initial contribution of ESA to suuport the GSNL was the first Supersites Exploitation Platform (SSEP) system in the framework of Grid Processing On Demand (GPOD), now followed by the Geohazard Exploitation Platform (GEP). In this presentation, we will describe the contribution of the GEP for exploiting satellite EO for geohazard risk assessment. It is supporting the GEO Supersites and has been further

  2. Grassroots opposition to animal exploitation.

    PubMed

    Siegel, S

    1989-01-01

    The director of Trans-Species Unlimited (TSU) describes his radical organization's philosophy and controversial methods of working to end what its members view as the exploitation of animals. TSU advocates a grassroots approach to achieve its main goals, facilitating effective outreach, and acting directly at the local and national levels on issues such as animal experimentation. Siegel describes the objectives and stages of the animal rights movement, and defends his group's aggressive use of confrontational tactics and the potential use of civil disobedience to end "an evil without equal."

  3. Routing Algorithm Exploits Spatial Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okino, Clayton; Jennings, Esther

    2004-01-01

    A recently developed routing algorithm for broadcasting in an ad hoc wireless communication network takes account of, and exploits, the spatial relationships among the locations of nodes, in addition to transmission power levels and distances between the nodes. In contrast, most prior algorithms for discovering routes through ad hoc networks rely heavily on transmission power levels and utilize limited graph-topology techniques that do not involve consideration of the aforesaid spatial relationships. The present algorithm extracts the relevant spatial-relationship information by use of a construct denoted the relative-neighborhood graph (RNG).

  4. Molecular study of free-ranging mule deer and white-tailed deer from British Columbia, Canada, for evidence of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp.

    PubMed

    Lobanov, V A; Gajadhar, A A; Al-Adhami, B; Schwantje, H M

    2012-06-01

    Twenty-three free-ranging white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) and six mule deer (MD; Odocoileus hemionus) from south-central British Columbia, Canada, were tested for Anaplasma marginale by msp5 gene-specific PCR and Ehrlichia spp. by 16S rRNA or citrate synthase (gltA) gene-specific PCR, as well as by PCR with universal 16S rRNA primers detecting a wide range of bacteria. No deer tested positive for A. marginale. Amplification with universal 16S rRNA primers followed by sequencing of cloned fragments detected an Anaplasma sp. in one of 23 (4.3%) WTD and six of six (100%) MD and Bartonella sp. in four of 23 (17.4%) WTD. The Anaplasma sp. was genetically distinct from A. marginale and all other recognized members of the genus. Four of six (66.7%) MD and 0 of 23 (0%) WTD were Ehrlichia positive by PCR with primers for 16S rRNA and gltA genes. The sequences of gltA PCR fragments were identical to each other and to the respective region of the gltA gene of an Ehrlichia sp. which we detected previously in naturally infected cattle from the same area, suggesting the possibility of biological transmission of this rickettsia between cattle and wild cervids. Antibodies reactive with the MSP5 protein of A. marginale were detected using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in two of six (33.3%) MD, but not in WTD. The two seropositive MD were PCR positive for both the Anaplasma sp. and Ehrlichia sp. detected in this study, suggesting a reaction of antibodies against one or both of these rickettsias with the MSP5 antigen.

  5. National Center for Missing and Exploited Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... child Call 1-800-843-5678 Report sexual exploitation of a child The CyberTipline ® receives leads and tips regarding suspected crimes of sexual exploitation committed against children. More than 3.3 million ...

  6. The comparison of spatial variation and risk factors between mosquito-borne and tick-borne diseases: Seroepidemiology of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma species, and Dirofilaria immitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Yumi; Hsu, Tien-Huan; Chou, Chi-Chung; Huang, Chia-Cheng; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2012-12-01

    Canine ehrlichiosis/anaplasmosis and heartworm diseases are vector-borne and zoonotic infections. To compare epidemiology of these vector-borne diseases, a community-based study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma sp. and Dirofilaria immitis infections among healthy pet dogs. Prevalence distribution patterns were geographically contrasting between tick-borne E. canis/Anaplasma sp. infections and mosquito-borne D. immitis infection. Although highly enzootic communities of ehrlichiosis/anaplasmosis scattered in mountainous environment at elevations between 100m and 1000m, those of heartworm disease mainly distributed in urbanized plains. After multiple logistic regression analysis, it further showed that older age group and outdoor housing were associated with higher risk of heartworm infection; being male and having tick infestation associated with higher risk of E. canis infection whereas being male and free-roaming associated with higher risk of Anaplasma infection. These findings may reflect different vectors for disease transmission, and different kinetics of environment-pathogen-host interaction. PMID:22925931

  7. Energy for lunar resource exploitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1992-01-01

    Humanity stands at the threshold of exploiting the known lunar resources that have opened up with the access to space. America's role in the future exploitation of space, and specifically of lunar resources, may well determine the level of achievement in technology development and global economic competition. Space activities during the coming decades will significantly influence the events on Earth. The 'shifting of history's tectonic plates' is a process that will be hastened by the increasingly insistent demands for higher living standards of the exponentially growing global population. Key to the achievement of a peaceful world in the 21st century, will be the development of a mix of energy resources at a societally acceptable and affordable cost within a realistic planning horizon. This must be the theme for the globally applicable energy sources that are compatible with the Earth's ecology. It is in this context that lunar resources development should be a primary goal for science missions to the Moon, and for establishing an expanding human presence. The economic viability and commercial business potential of mining, extracting, manufacturing, and transporting lunar resource based materials to Earth, Earth orbits, and to undertake macroengineering projects on the Moon remains to be demonstrated. These extensive activities will be supportive of the realization of the potential of space energy sources for use on Earth. These may include generating electricity for use on Earth based on beaming power from Earth orbits and from the Moon to the Earth, and for the production of helium 3 as a fuel for advanced fusion reactors.

  8. Opportunistic exploitation: an overlooked pathway to extinction.

    PubMed

    Branch, Trevor A; Lobo, Aaron S; Purcell, Steven W

    2013-07-01

    How can species be exploited economically to extinction? Past single-species hypotheses examining the economic plausibility of exploiting rare species have argued that the escalating value of rarity allows extinction to be profitable. We describe an alternative pathway toward extinction in multispecies exploitation systems, termed 'opportunistic exploitation'. In this mode, highly valued species that are targeted first by fishing, hunting, and logging become rare, but their populations can decline further through opportunistic exploitation while more common but less desirable species are targeted. Effectively, expanding exploitation to more species subsidizes the eventual extinction of valuable species at low densities. Managers need to recognize conditions that permit opportunistic depletion and pass regulations to protect highly desirable species when exploitation can expand to other species.

  9. Opportunistic exploitation: an overlooked pathway to extinction.

    PubMed

    Branch, Trevor A; Lobo, Aaron S; Purcell, Steven W

    2013-07-01

    How can species be exploited economically to extinction? Past single-species hypotheses examining the economic plausibility of exploiting rare species have argued that the escalating value of rarity allows extinction to be profitable. We describe an alternative pathway toward extinction in multispecies exploitation systems, termed 'opportunistic exploitation'. In this mode, highly valued species that are targeted first by fishing, hunting, and logging become rare, but their populations can decline further through opportunistic exploitation while more common but less desirable species are targeted. Effectively, expanding exploitation to more species subsidizes the eventual extinction of valuable species at low densities. Managers need to recognize conditions that permit opportunistic depletion and pass regulations to protect highly desirable species when exploitation can expand to other species. PMID:23562732

  10. Molecular detection and genetic identification of Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis and Anaplasma marginale in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mo; Cao, Shinuo; Sevinc, Ferda; Sevinc, Mutlu; Ceylan, Onur; Moumouni, Paul Franck Adjou; Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Guanbo; Iguchi, Aiko; Vudriko, Patrick; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2016-02-01

    Babesia spp., Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. are significant tick-borne pathogens of livestock globally. In this study, we investigated the presence and distribution of Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis and Anaplasma marginale in cattle from 6 provinces of Turkey using species-specific PCR assays. The PCR were conducted using the primers based on the B. bigemina rhoptry-associated protein 1a (BbiRAP-1a), T. annulata merozoite surface antigen-1 (Tams-1), T. orientalis major piroplasm surface protein (ToMPSP) and A. marginale major surface protein 4 (AmMSP4) genes, respectively. Fragments of B. bigemina internal transcribed spacer (BbiITS), T. annulata internal transcribed spacer (TaITS), ToMPSP and AmMSP4 genes were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. PCR results revealed that the overall infections of A. marginale, T. annulata, B. bigemina and T. orientalis were 29.1%, 18.9%, 11.2% and 5.6%, respectively. The co-infection of two or three pathogens was detected in 29/196 (15.1%) of the cattle samples. The results of sequence analysis indicated that BbiRAP-1a, BbiITS, Tams-1, ToMPSP and AmMSP4 were conserved among the Turkish samples, with 99.76%, 99-99.8%, 99.34-99.78%, 96.9-99.61% and 99.42-99.71% sequence identity values, respectively. In contrast, the Turkish TaITS gene sequences were relatively diverse with 92.3-96.63% identity values. B. bigemina isolates from Turkey were found in the same clade as the isolates from other countries in phylogenetic analysis. On the other hand, phylogenetic analysis based on T. annulata ITS sequences revealed significant differences in the genotypes of T. annulata isolates from Turkey. Additionally, the T. orientalis isolates from Turkish samples were classified as MPSP type 3 genotype. This is the first report of type 3 MPSP in Turkey. Moreover, AmMSP4 isolates from Turkey were found in the same clade as the isolates from other countries. This study provides important data for understanding the

  11. Exploiting dual otoacoustic emission sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdala, Carolina; Kalluri, Radha

    2015-12-01

    Two distinct processes generate otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). Reflection-source emissions, here recorded as stimulus frequency OAEs, are optimally informative at low sound levels and are more sensitive to slight hearing loss; they have been linked to cochlear amplifier gain and tuning. Distortion-source emissions are strongest at moderate-high sound levels and persist despite mild hearing loss; they likely originate in the nonlinear process of hair cell transduction. In this preliminary study, we exploit the unique features of each by generating a combined reflection-distortion OAE profile in normal hearing and hearing-impaired ears. Distortion-product (DP) and stimulus-frequency (SF) OAEs were recorded over a broad range of stimulus levels and frequencies. Individual I/O and transfer functions were generated for both emission types in each ear, and OAE peak strength, compression threshold, and rate of compression were calculated. These combined SFOAE and DPOAE features in normal and hearing-impaired ears may provide a potentially informative and novel index of hearing loss. This is an initial step toward utilizing OAE source in characterizing cochlear function and dysfunction.

  12. Exploiting scientific advances. Philip Russell.

    PubMed

    1992-04-01

    The Children's Vaccine Initiative (CVI) will hopefully accelerate the vaccine development process, make it more efficient, and produce new and better vaccines which will prevent most, if not all, of today's preventable diseases which lead to childhood mortality. The technology exists, but has simply not been exploited. Many exciting approaches to vaccine development never advance beyond the product development stage because, until now, there has been no mechanism for overseeing the entire process from the initial conception of a vaccine in the laboratory to its development by industry and its incorporation into vaccine programs. The CVI, however, has been established to provide such oversight and to coordinate the process. Recently developed technologies which could advance the attainment of CVI goals are the microencapsulation process and the use of live viral or attenuated bacterial vectors, genetically engineered to express desired vaccine antigen structures and induce immunity to specific infectious agents. The scientific obstacles are simply challenges which can be overcome. However, for the CVI to achieve its goals, it requires both adequate public sector resources and the collaboration of private industry. PMID:12321835

  13. Exploiting Dual Otoacoustic Emission Sources

    PubMed Central

    Abdala, Carolina; Kalluri, Radha

    2016-01-01

    Two distinct processes generate otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). Reflection-source emissions, here recorded as stimulus frequency OAEs, are optimally informative at low sound levels and are more sensitive to slight hearing loss; they have been linked to cochlear amplifier gain and tuning. Distortion-source emissions are strongest at moderate-high sound levels and persist despite mild hearing loss; they likely originate in the nonlinear process of hair cell transduction. In this preliminary study, we exploit the unique features of each by generating a combined reflection-distortion OAE profile in normal hearing and hearing-impaired ears. Distortion-product (DP) and stimulus-frequency (SF) OAEs were recorded over a broad range of stimulus levels and frequencies. Individual I/O and transfer functions were generated for both emission types in each ear, and OAE peak strength, compression threshold, and rate of compression were calculated. These combined SFOAE and DPOAE features in normal and hearing-impaired ears may provide a potentially informative and novel index of hearing loss. This is an initial step toward utilizing OAE source in characterizing cochlear function and dysfunction.

  14. The Gaia scientific exploitation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueras, F.; Jordi, C.

    2015-05-01

    On July 2014 the Gaia satellite, placed at L2 since January 2014, finished their commissioning phase and started collecting high accurate scientific data. New and more realistic estimations of the astrometric, photometric and spectroscopic accuracy expected after five years mission operation (2014-2019) have been recently published in the Gaia Science Performance Web page. Here we present the coordination efforts and the activities being conducted through the two GREAT (Gaia Research for European Astronomy Training) European Networks, the GREAT-ESF, a programme supported by the European Science Foundation (2010-2015), and the GREAT-ITN network, from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (2011-2015). The main research theme of these networks is to unravel the origin and history of our home galaxy. Emphasis is placed on the research projects being conducted by the Spanish Researchers through these networks, well coordinated by the Red Española de Explotación Científica de Gaia (REG network, with more than 140 participants). Members of the REG play an important role on the collection of complementary spectroscopic data from ground based telescopes, on the development of new tools for an optimal scientific exploitation of Gaia data and on the preparation task to create the Gaia archive.

  15. Identification of Anaplasma marginale long-term carrier cattle by detection of serum antibody to isolated MSP-3.

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, T C; Davis, W C; Brassfield, A L; McElwain, T F; Palmer, G H

    1991-01-01

    Rapid and accurate detection of Anaplasma marginale-infected cattle would enhance anaplasmosis control procedures and evaluation of vaccines. Current tests based on detection of antibodies in serum are not widely used for several reasons, including the occurrence of either false-positive or false-negative results. We evaluated binding of antibodies in serum to a subunit antigen isolated from A. marginale initial bodies--major surface protein 3 (MSP-3). MSP-3 was detected in lysates of eight geographically different isolates of A. marginale and purified by affinity chromatography with monoclonal antibody AmG75C2. Antibodies from cattle infected with any of five geographically different isolates of A. marginale reacted in immunoblots with MSP-3. Sera from uninfected cattle and cattle infected with another rickettsial organism and two hemoprotozoal organisms failed to react with MSP-3. Six carrier cattle infected with the Florida isolate of A. marginale had antibody titers to MSP-3 ranging from 10(3) to 10(6) during a 5-year evaluation period. Since specific antibodies to isolated MSP-3 persist in high titers in long-term carrier cattle sera and MSP-3 is common among A. marginale isolates, it is recommended as a subunit antigen for an anaplasmosis test. Images PMID:1890178

  16. Anaplasma marginale infection in a Japanese Black cow 13 years after eradication of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ooshiro, Mamoru; Zakimi, Satoshi; Matsukawa, Yoshimasa; Yafuso, Makoto; Katagiri, Yoshito; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2009-03-23

    In October 2007, a 15-year-old Japanese Black cow on Ishigaki Island, Okinawa, Japan, was diagnosed with Anaplasma marginale infection based on clinical symptoms, blood examination, smear observation, 16S rRNA and groEL gene sequence analysis, and the result of a CF test. The cow was introduced into the farm from mainland Japan as a calf in 1993, one year before the eradication of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, the main vector of A. marginale in Okinawa Prefecture. It is possible that the cow was first infected with A. marginale as a calf in Ishigaki Island and had been persistently infected since then. This is the first reported clinical case of A. marginale infection of cattle since the eradication of R. microplus in Okinawa Prefecture. Additional analysis of major surface protein 1alpha amino acid sequences revealed that the A. marginale Okinawa strain presented four new repeat forms which were not seen in other strains. This indicates that the Okinawa strain may be a unique geographical variant of A. marginale.

  17. Seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in 2 Iowa feedlots and its association with morbidity, mortality, production parameters, and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Johann F; Schmidt, Peggy L; O'Connor, Annette M; Apley, Michael D

    2010-08-01

    A prospective cohort observational study was conducted to investigate the seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in Iowa feedlots and its association with morbidity, mortality, and treatment costs. Blood samples were taken from 659 calves from 31 consigners at processing and classified as seropositive to A. marginale using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) with a 30% cutoff. Health and production parameters were modeled by A. marginale serostatus with mixed model regression analysis. The apparent prevalence of seropositive cattle was 15.17% (100/659). When the cELISA positive cutoff was at 42% inhibition, the apparent prevalence was 5.00% (33/659). There was no significant association between A. marginale serostatus and production parameters; however, seropositive status had a weak positive association with undifferentiated fever (P = 0.17). Although prevalence of anaplasmosis in Iowa feedlots is higher than reported in Montana-sourced calves arriving in Canadian feedlots, this was not associated with increased production costs.

  18. Infection of water buffalo in Rio de Janeiro Brazil with Anaplasma marginale strains also reported in cattle.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jenevaldo B; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Barbosa, José D; de la Fuente, José

    2014-10-15

    Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent pathogen of cattle in tropical and subtropical regions of the world and causes the disease bovine anaplasmosis. The importance of water buffalo in the world economy is increasing. In addition, while water buffalo may serve as a reservoir host for A. marginale, the susceptibility of this host for A. marginale cattle strains in Brazil has not been reported. The major surface protein 1 alpha (msp1α) gene has been shown to be a stable genetic marker for identification of A. marginale strains. Herein, we analyzed blood samples from 200 water buffalo and identified the A. marginale strains in an endemic area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where ticks were present and water buffalo and cattle co-mingled. Ticks that were feeding on the study buffalo were collected and identified. The prevalence of A. marginale in water buffalo in this study was low (10%). Sequence analysis of the msp1α gene demonstrated the presence of 8 different A. marginale strains. Two A. marginale strains in the water buffalo, (α-β-β-β-Γ) and (α-β-β-Γ), were similar to those reported in cattle from nearby regions. The results of this study suggested that water buffalo in this region are naturally infected with the same strains of A. marginale found in cattle.

  19. The exploitation of Gestalt principles by magicians.

    PubMed

    Barnhart, Anthony S

    2010-01-01

    Magicians exploit a host of psychological principles in deceiving their audiences. Psychologists have recently attempted to pinpoint the most common psychological tendencies exploited by magicians. This paper highlights two co-occurring principles that appear to be the basis for many popular magic tricks: accidental alignment and good continuation. PMID:21125955

  20. The exploitation of Gestalt principles by magicians.

    PubMed

    Barnhart, Anthony S

    2010-01-01

    Magicians exploit a host of psychological principles in deceiving their audiences. Psychologists have recently attempted to pinpoint the most common psychological tendencies exploited by magicians. This paper highlights two co-occurring principles that appear to be the basis for many popular magic tricks: accidental alignment and good continuation.

  1. Interviewing Child Victims of Sexual Exploitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, William

    The interviewing of the child victim of sexual exploitation is one of the first and most important steps in solving and prosecuting a case of child exploitation and is the topic of this document. The first chapter discusses the interviewer's role, focusing on improving communication, dealing with emotion, the interviewer's response, male or female…

  2. Financial exploitation, financial capacity, and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Research in the past decade has documented that financial exploitation of older adults has become a major problem, and psychology is only recently increasing its presence in efforts to reduce exploitation. During the same time period, psychology has been a leader in setting best practices for the assessment of diminished capacity in older adults culminating in the 2008 American Bar Association Commission on Law and Aging and American Psychological Association (ABA/APA) joint publication on a handbook for psychologists. Assessment of financial decision-making capacity is often the cornerstone assessment needed in cases of financial exploitation. This article will examine the intersection of financial exploitation and decision-making capacity and introduce a new conceptual model and new tools for both the investigation and prevention of financial exploitation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27159438

  3. Financial exploitation, financial capacity, and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Research in the past decade has documented that financial exploitation of older adults has become a major problem, and psychology is only recently increasing its presence in efforts to reduce exploitation. During the same time period, psychology has been a leader in setting best practices for the assessment of diminished capacity in older adults culminating in the 2008 American Bar Association Commission on Law and Aging and American Psychological Association (ABA/APA) joint publication on a handbook for psychologists. Assessment of financial decision-making capacity is often the cornerstone assessment needed in cases of financial exploitation. This article will examine the intersection of financial exploitation and decision-making capacity and introduce a new conceptual model and new tools for both the investigation and prevention of financial exploitation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Global Climate Responses to Anthropogenic Groundwater Exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Y.; Xie, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a groundwater exploitation scheme is incorporated into the earth system model, Community Earth System Model 1.2.0 (CESM1.2.0), which is called CESM1.2_GW, and the climatic responses to anthropogenic groundwater withdrawal are then investigated on global scale. The scheme models anthropogenic groundwater exploitation and consumption, which are then divided into agricultural irrigation, industrial use and domestic use. A group of 41-year ensemble groundwater exploitation simulations with six different initial conditions, and a group of ensemble control simulations without exploitation are conducted using the developed model CESM1.2_GW with water supplies and demands estimated. The results reveal that the groundwater exploitation and water consumption cause drying effects on soil moisture in deep layers and wetting effects in upper layers, along with a rapidly declining groundwater table in Central US, Haihe River Basin in China and Northern India and Pakistan where groundwater extraction are most severe in the world. The atmosphere also responds to anthropogenic groundwater exploitation. Cooling effects on lower troposphere appear in large areas of North China Plain and of Northern India and Pakistan. Increased precipitation occurs in Haihe River Basin due to increased evapotranspiration from irrigation. Decreased precipitation occurs in Northern India because water vapor here is taken away by monsoon anomalies induced by anthropogenic alteration of groundwater. The local reducing effects of anthropogenic groundwater exploitation on total terrestrial water storage evinces that water resource is unsustainable with the current high exploitation rate. Therefore, a balance between slow groundwater withdrawal and rapid human economic development must be achieved to maintain a sustainable water resource, especially in over-exploitation regions such as Central US, Northern China, India and Pakistan.

  5. Development of a multilocus sequence typing scheme for the study of Anaplasma marginale population structure over space and time.

    PubMed

    Guillemi, Eliana C; Ruybal, Paula; Lia, Verónica; Gonzalez, Sergio; Lew, Sergio; Zimmer, Patricia; Lopez Arias, Ludmila; Rodriguez, Jose L; Rodriguez, Sonia Y; Frutos, Roger; Wilkowsky, Silvina E; Farber, Marisa D

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma marginale is a worldwide disease prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions where Rhipicephalus microplus is considered the most significant biological vector. Molecular markers previously applied for A. marginale typing are efficient for isolate discrimination but they are not a suitable tool for studying population structure and dynamics. Here we report the development of an MLST scheme based on the study of seven genes: dnaA, ftsZ, groEl, lipA, recA, secY and sucB. Five annotated genomes (Saint Maries, Florida, Mississippi, Puerto Rico and Virginia) and 53 bovine blood samples from different world regions were analyzed. High nucleotide diversity and a large proportion of synonymous substitutions, indicative of negative selection resulted from DnaSP 5.00.02 package application. Recombination events were detected in almost all genes, this evidence together with the coexistence of more than one A. marginale strain in the same sample might suggest the superinfection phenomena as a potential source of variation. The allelic profile analysis performed through GoeBURST shown two main CC that did not support geography. In addition, the AMOVA test confirmed the occurrence of at least two main genetically divergent groups. The composition of the emergent groups reflected the impact of both historical and environmental traits on A. marginale population structure. Finally, a web-based platform "Galaxy MLST-Pipeline" was developed to automate DNA sequence editing and data analysis that together with the Data Base are freely available to users. The A. marginale MLST scheme developed here is a valuable tool with a high discrimination power, besides PCR based strategies are still the better choice for epidemiological intracellular pathogens studies. Finally, the allelic profile describe herein would contribute to uncover the mechanisms in how intracellular pathogens challenge virulence paradigm.

  6. Low genetic diversity associated with low prevalence of Anaplasma marginale in water buffaloes in Marajó Island, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jenevaldo B; Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Barbosa, José D; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; de la Fuente, José

    2014-10-01

    The rickettsia Anaplasma marginale is the etiologic agent of bovine anaplasmosis, an important tick-borne disease affecting cattle in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In endemic regions, the genetic diversity of this pathogen is usually related to the high prevalence of the disease in cattle. The major surface protein 1 alpha (MSP1a) has been used as a marker to characterize the genetic diversity and for geographical identification of A. marginale strains. The present study reports the characterization of A. marginale MSP1a diversity in water buffaloes. Blood samples were collected from 200 water buffaloes on Marajó Island, Brazil where the largest buffalo herd is located in the Western hemisphere. Fifteen buffaloes (7.5%) were positive for A. marginale msp1α by PCR. Four different strains of A. marginale with MSP1a tandem repeat structures (4-63-27), (162-63-27), (78-24-24-25-31) and (τ-10-10-15) were found, being (4-63-27) the most common. MSP1a tandem repeats composition in buffalos and phylogenetic analysis using msp1α gene showed that the A. marginale strains identified in buffaloes are closely related to A. marginale strains from cattle. The results demonstrated low genetic diversity of A. marginale associated with low bacterial prevalence in buffaloes and suggested that buffaloes may be reservoirs of this pathogen for cattle living in the same area. The results also suggested that mechanical transmission and not biological transmission by ticks might be playing the major role for pathogen circulation among water buffaloes in Marajó Island, Brazil.

  7. A new quantitative PCR method for the detection of Anaplasma platys in dogs based on the citrate synthase gene.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Claudia B; Pires, Marcus S; Vilela, Joice A R; Peckle, Maristela; da Costa, Renata L; Vitari, Gabriela L V; Santos, Leandro A; Santos, Huarrisson A; Massard, Carlos L

    2016-09-01

    Anaplasma platys is an obligate intracellular bacterium that primarily affects dogs, but it can also infect humans. Our study aimed to standardize a quantitative real-time (q)PCR method using the citrate synthase gene (gltA) as a specific target for A. platys detection in naturally infected dogs. Primers (gltA84F and gltA84R) and probe (PLATYSp) were designed to amplify an 84-bp fragment based on the gltA gene sequences of A. platys available in GenBank. A total of 186 dog blood samples originating from the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro were tested by qPCR. Additionally, the same samples were tested by cytology and a nested (n)PCR that targeted the 16S ribosomal DNA to determine the performance of our qPCR method compared to these existing techniques. Among the samples tested with qPCR, 17.2% were considered positive, significantly more than detected by nPCR (14.0%). Under optical microscopy, inclusions were observed in platelets of 25.3% of the samples, and among these samples, only 33.9% were identified as positive for A. platys using qPCR. The qPCR technique proved to be more specific than cytology and to have superior sensitivity to nPCR for detecting A. platys in dogs. The development of this new qPCR method contributes to the advancement of research involving A. platys Furthermore, it can be used to quantify the presence of this bacterium to evaluate the treatment of infected animals, or even as a more sensitive and specific tool for situations indicating possible clinical disease but with negative cytology. PMID:27423737

  8. Development of a multilocus sequence typing scheme for the study of Anaplasma marginale population structure over space and time.

    PubMed

    Guillemi, Eliana C; Ruybal, Paula; Lia, Verónica; Gonzalez, Sergio; Lew, Sergio; Zimmer, Patricia; Lopez Arias, Ludmila; Rodriguez, Jose L; Rodriguez, Sonia Y; Frutos, Roger; Wilkowsky, Silvina E; Farber, Marisa D

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma marginale is a worldwide disease prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions where Rhipicephalus microplus is considered the most significant biological vector. Molecular markers previously applied for A. marginale typing are efficient for isolate discrimination but they are not a suitable tool for studying population structure and dynamics. Here we report the development of an MLST scheme based on the study of seven genes: dnaA, ftsZ, groEl, lipA, recA, secY and sucB. Five annotated genomes (Saint Maries, Florida, Mississippi, Puerto Rico and Virginia) and 53 bovine blood samples from different world regions were analyzed. High nucleotide diversity and a large proportion of synonymous substitutions, indicative of negative selection resulted from DnaSP 5.00.02 package application. Recombination events were detected in almost all genes, this evidence together with the coexistence of more than one A. marginale strain in the same sample might suggest the superinfection phenomena as a potential source of variation. The allelic profile analysis performed through GoeBURST shown two main CC that did not support geography. In addition, the AMOVA test confirmed the occurrence of at least two main genetically divergent groups. The composition of the emergent groups reflected the impact of both historical and environmental traits on A. marginale population structure. Finally, a web-based platform "Galaxy MLST-Pipeline" was developed to automate DNA sequence editing and data analysis that together with the Data Base are freely available to users. The A. marginale MLST scheme developed here is a valuable tool with a high discrimination power, besides PCR based strategies are still the better choice for epidemiological intracellular pathogens studies. Finally, the allelic profile describe herein would contribute to uncover the mechanisms in how intracellular pathogens challenge virulence paradigm. PMID:25550150

  9. Cattle experimentally infected by Anaplasma marginale: Influence of splenectomy on disease pathogenesis, oxidative profile, and antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Rovaina L; França, Raqueli T; Oliveira, Camila B; Rezer, João F P; Klafke, Guilherme M; Martins, João R; Santos, Andrea P; do Nascimento, Naíla C; Mesick, Joanne B; Lopes, Sonia T A; Leal, Daniela B R; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Andrade, Cinthia M

    2016-06-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis is caused by the obligate intraerythrocytic bacteria Anaplasma marginale. These bacteria are transmitted by tick species such as Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, blood-sucking insects, and fomites (needles, clippers, and other blood contaminated equipment). During the acute phase of infection, animals may develop fever, anemia, jaundice, and hepatosplenomegaly. The aims of this study are to quantify the bacteremia by quantitative PCR in eight naïve calves experimentally infected by A. marginale [splenectomized (n = 4), and intact/non-splenectomized (n = 4)], and to correlate these findings with markers of oxidative stress on days 0, 8, 15, 21 and 23 post-infection. Complete blood counts (CBC) were performed in both groups. Lipid peroxidation was estimated by quantifying thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS); and non-enzymatic antioxidants were assessed by erythrocyte content of non-protein thiols (NPSH). There were no significant differences in complete blood counts (CBC) between the two groups. However, both groups had a slight decrease on packet cell volume (PCV), erythrocytes and hemoglobin concentration, as well as an increase in total leukocyte counts due to elevated lymphocytes when comparing pre and post-infection with A. marginale. Progressive increase on TBARS levels and concomitant decrease on NPSH content were observed in all animals, without significant differences between splenectomized and intact animals. A positive correlation between bacteremia and TBARS, and a negative correlation between bacteremia and NPSH were observed in both groups with higher correlation for NPSH in splenectomized animals. A negative correlation between TBARS and NPSH levels was observed in both groups indicating lipid peroxidation without a non-enzymatic antioxidant response. The results of experimental infection by A. marginale in cattle showed that bacteremia has an impact on lipid peroxidation regardless of the splenectomy. PMID

  10. Loss of immunization-induced epitope-specific CD4 T-cell response following anaplasma marginale infection requires presence of the T-cell epitope on the pathogen and is not associated with an increase in lymphocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have shown that in cattle previously immunized with outer membrane proteins, infection with Anaplasma marginale induces a functionally exhausted CD4 T-cell response to the A. marginale immunogen. Furthermore, T-cell responses following infection in nonimmunized cattle had a delayed onset and were...

  11. Evaluation of the immune response to Anaplasma marginale MSP5 protein using a HSV-1 amplicon vector system or recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Carlos; Torioni de Echaide, Susana; Mattion, Nora

    2014-12-01

    Anaplasma marginale is an intraerythrocytic vector-borne infectious agent of cattle. Immunization with the current vaccine, based on parasitized erythrocytes with live Anaplasma centrale, shows some constraints and confers partial protection, suggesting the feasibility for the development of new generation of vaccines. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of sequential immunization of BALB/c mice, with herpesvirus amplicon vector-based vaccines combined with protein-based vaccines, on the quality of the immune response against the major surface protein 5 of A. marginale. The highest antibody titers against MSP5 were elicited in mice that received two doses of adjuvanted recombinant protein (p < 0.0001). Mice treated with a heterologous prime-boost strategy generated sustained antibody titers at least up to 200 days, and a higher specific cellular response. The results presented here showed that sequential immunization with HSV-based vectors and purified antigen enhances the quality of the immune response against A. marginale. PMID:25458492

  12. Evaluation of the immune response to Anaplasma marginale MSP5 protein using a HSV-1 amplicon vector system or recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Carlos; Torioni de Echaide, Susana; Mattion, Nora

    2014-12-01

    Anaplasma marginale is an intraerythrocytic vector-borne infectious agent of cattle. Immunization with the current vaccine, based on parasitized erythrocytes with live Anaplasma centrale, shows some constraints and confers partial protection, suggesting the feasibility for the development of new generation of vaccines. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of sequential immunization of BALB/c mice, with herpesvirus amplicon vector-based vaccines combined with protein-based vaccines, on the quality of the immune response against the major surface protein 5 of A. marginale. The highest antibody titers against MSP5 were elicited in mice that received two doses of adjuvanted recombinant protein (p < 0.0001). Mice treated with a heterologous prime-boost strategy generated sustained antibody titers at least up to 200 days, and a higher specific cellular response. The results presented here showed that sequential immunization with HSV-based vectors and purified antigen enhances the quality of the immune response against A. marginale.

  13. Molecular biological identification of Babesia, Theileria, and Anaplasma species in cattle in Egypt using PCR assays, gene sequence analysis and a novel DNA microarray.

    PubMed

    El-Ashker, Maged; Hotzel, Helmut; Gwida, Mayada; El-Beskawy, Mohamed; Silaghi, Cornelia; Tomaso, Herbert

    2015-01-30

    In this preliminary study, a novel DNA microarray system was tested for the diagnosis of bovine piroplasmosis and anaplasmosis in comparison with microscopy and PCR assay results. In the Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt, 164 cattle were investigated for the presence of piroplasms and Anaplasma species. All investigated cattle were clinically examined. Blood samples were screened for the presence of blood parasites using microscopy and PCR assays. Seventy-one animals were acutely ill, whereas 93 were apparently healthy. In acutely ill cattle, Babesia/Theileria species (n=11) and Anaplasma marginale (n=10) were detected. Mixed infections with Babesia/Theileria spp. and A. marginale were present in two further cases. A. marginale infections were also detected in apparently healthy subjects (n=23). The results of PCR assays were confirmed by DNA sequencing. All samples that were positive by PCR for Babesia/Theileria spp. gave also positive results in the microarray analysis. The microarray chips identified Babesia bovis (n=12) and Babesia bigemina (n=2). Cattle with babesiosis were likely to have hemoglobinuria and nervous signs when compared to those with anaplasmosis that frequently had bloody feces. We conclude that clinical examination in combination with microscopy are still very useful in diagnosing acute cases of babesiosis and anaplasmosis, but a combination of molecular biological diagnostic assays will detect even asymptomatic carriers. In perspective, parallel detection of Babesia/Theileria spp. and A. marginale infections using a single microarray system will be a valuable improvement.

  14. Exploitations and their complications: the necessity of identifying the multiple forms of exploitation in pharmaceutical trials.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jeremy

    2012-06-01

    Human subject trials of pharmaceuticals in low and middle income countries (LMICs) have been associated with the moral wrong of exploitation on two grounds. First, these trials may include a placebo control arm even when proven treatments for a condition are in use in other (usually wealthier) parts of the world. Second, the trial researchers or sponsors may fail to make a successful treatment developed through the trial available to either the trial participants or the host community following the trial. Many commentators have argued that a single form of exploitation takes place during human subject research in LMICs. These commentators do not, however, agree as to what kind of moral wrong exploitation is or when exploitation is morally impermissible. In this paper, I have two primary goals. First, I will argue for a taxonomy of exploitation that identifies three distinct forms of exploitation. While each of these forms of exploitation has its critics, I will argue that they can each be developed into plausible accounts of exploitation tied to different vulnerabilities and different forms of wrongdoing. Second, I will argue that each of these forms of exploitation can coexist in single situations, including human subject trials of pharmaceuticals. This lesson is important, since different forms of exploitation in a single relationship can influence, among other things, whether the relationship is morally permissible.

  15. Exploitation in International Paid Surrogacy Arrangements

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many critics have suggested that international paid surrogacy is exploitative. Taking such concerns as its starting point, this article asks: (1) how defensible is the claim that international paid surrogacy is exploitative and what could be done to make it less exploitative? (2) In the light of the answer to (1), how strong is the case for prohibiting it? Exploitation could in principle be dealt with by improving surrogates' pay and conditions. However, doing so may exacerbate problems with consent. Foremost amongst these is the argument that surrogates from economically disadvantaged countries cannot validly consent because their background circumstances are coercive. Several versions of this argument are examined and I conclude that at least one has some merit. The article's overall conclusion is that while ethically there is something to be concerned about, paid surrogacy is in no worse a position than many other exploitative commercial transactions which take place against a backdrop of global inequality and constrained options, such as poorly‐paid and dangerous construction work. Hence, there is little reason to single surrogacy out for special condemnation. On a policy level, the case for prohibiting international commercial surrogacy is weak, despite legitimate concerns about consent and background poverty. PMID:27471338

  16. Anaplasma marginale msp1alpha genotypes evolved under positive selection pressure but are not markers for geographic isolates.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, José; Van Den Bussche, Ronald A; Prado, Tulio M; Kocan, Katherine M

    2003-04-01

    Anaplasma marginale (order Rickettsiales, family Anaplasmataceae), a tick-borne pathogen of cattle, is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Many geographic isolates of A. marginale occur in the United States and have been identified by major surface protein 1a (MSP1a), which varies in sequence and molecular weight due to different numbers of tandem 28- to 29-amino-acid repeats. The present study was undertaken to examine the genetic variations among isolates of A. marginale obtained during 2001 from infected cattle from east-central Oklahoma, where A. marginale is endemic. The gene and protein sequences of MSP1a and msp4 nucleotide sequences were used to infer the phylogenetic relationships among Oklahoma and New World isolates from Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. All 11 A. marginale isolates collected from Oklahoma had different MSP1a sequences but identical MSP4 sequences. The phylogenies of the msp4 sequences of 13 isolates from Oklahoma in comparison with those of 7 Latin American isolates and 12 U.S. isolates by maximum-parsimony (MP) and maximum-likelihood (ML) analyses, with A. centrale and A. ovis sequences used as outgroups, provided strong bootstrap analysis support for a Latin American clade. Isolates of A. marginale from the southern United States (Florida, Mississippi, and Virginia) and the west-central United States (California, Idaho, Illinois, Oregon, Missouri, and Texas) also grouped into two clades. Both clades contained isolates from Oklahoma, suggesting extensive cattle movement. ML analysis of the msp4 sequences of isolates from Oklahoma provided bootstrap analysis support for east-central and north-central clades in Oklahoma, and both clades included isolates from Stillwater, Okla. Analysis of the codon and amino acid changes among the msp4 sequences of isolates with different phylogenies provided evidence that msp4 is not under positive selection pressure. In contrast, the phylogenies of the MSP1a DNA

  17. Rethinking exploitation: a process-centered account.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Lynn A; Wall, Steven

    2013-12-01

    Exploitation has become an important topic in recent discussions of biomedical and research ethics. This is due in no small measure to the influence of Alan Wertheimer's path-breaking work on the subject. This paper presents some objections to Wertheimer's account of the concept. The objections attempt to show that his account places too much emphasis on outcome-based considerations and too little on process-based considerations. Building on these objections, the paper develops an alternative process-centered account of the concept. This alternative account of exploitation takes as its point of departure the broadly Kantian notion that it is wrong to use another as an instrument for the advancement of one's own ends. It sharpens this slippery notion and adds a number of refinements to it. The paper concludes by arguing that process-centered accounts of exploitation better illuminate the ethical challenges posed by research on human subjects than outcome-centered accounts. PMID:24552077

  18. Rethinking exploitation: a process-centered account.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Lynn A; Wall, Steven

    2013-12-01

    Exploitation has become an important topic in recent discussions of biomedical and research ethics. This is due in no small measure to the influence of Alan Wertheimer's path-breaking work on the subject. This paper presents some objections to Wertheimer's account of the concept. The objections attempt to show that his account places too much emphasis on outcome-based considerations and too little on process-based considerations. Building on these objections, the paper develops an alternative process-centered account of the concept. This alternative account of exploitation takes as its point of departure the broadly Kantian notion that it is wrong to use another as an instrument for the advancement of one's own ends. It sharpens this slippery notion and adds a number of refinements to it. The paper concludes by arguing that process-centered accounts of exploitation better illuminate the ethical challenges posed by research on human subjects than outcome-centered accounts.

  19. Courseware Design: Exploiting the Colour Micro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Marilyn E.; Holmes, Glyn

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the impact of the presentation of data on the educational effectiveness of computer assisted learning systems, describes some of the existing systems for controlling the display of instructional data on CRTs, and outlines a project undertaken at the University of Western Ontario to exploit the capabilities of microcomputer color…

  20. Exploiting a natural auxotrophy for genetic selection.

    PubMed

    Ramage, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Larry; Manoil, Colin

    2012-08-01

    We exploited the natural histidine auxotrophy of Francisella species to develop hisD (encodes histidinol dehydrogenase) as a positive selection marker. A shuttle plasmid (pBR103) carrying Escherichia coli hisD and designed for cloning of PCR fragments replicated in both attenuated and highly virulent Francisella strains. During this work, we formulated a simplified defined growth medium for Francisella novicida.

  1. Geothermal energy exploitation in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The essential factors, human and technical, which control the operation of geothermal systems, particularly those which allow prediction of behavior during and after exploitation, are sketched. The strategy and co-ordination involved in using New Zealand's geothermal resources for power production are considered. The broader aspects of the technical matters involved in the design of the parasitic plant reservoir system are described. (MHR)

  2. Child Exploitation: Some Pieces of the Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlader, Dorothy

    The report addresses the status in North Carolina and in the nation of child exploitation. Legislative and judicial backgrounds of child pornography and child prostitution are reviewed, and difficulties in obtaining statistical data are noted. Law enforcement issues in pornography are cited, and suggestions for further legislation regarding child…

  3. A Knowledge-Based Imagery Exploitation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyrniotis, Chuck; Payton, Paul M.; Barrett, Eamon B.

    1989-03-01

    Automation of major portions of the imagery exploitation process is becoming a necessity for meeting current and future imagery exploitation needs. In this paper we describe a prototype Automated Exploitation System (AES) which addresses requirements for monitoring objects of interest and situation assessment in large geographic areas. The purpose of AES is to aid the image analyst in performing routine, commonplace tasks more effectively. AES consists of four main subsystems: Cue Extractor (CE), Knowledge-Based Exploitation (KBE), Interactive Work-Station (IWS), and a database subsystem. The CE processes raw image data, and identifies objects and target cues based on pixel- and object-model data. Cues and image registration coefficients are passed to KBE for screening and verification, situation assessment and planning. KBE combines the cues with ground-truth and doctrinal knowledge in screening the cues to determine their importance. KBE generates reports on image analysis which passes on to the IWS from which an image analyst can monitor, observe, and evaluate system functionality as well as respond to critical items identified by KBE. The database subsystem stores and shares reference imagery, collateral information and digital terrain data to support both automated and interactive processing. This partitioning of functions to subsystems facilitates hierarchical application of knowledge in image interpretation. The AES current prototype helps in identification, capture, representation, and refinement of knowledge. The KBE subsystem, which is the primary focus of the present paper, runs on a Symbolics 3675 computer and its software is written in the ART expert system and LISP language.

  4. Trolling may intensify exploitation in crappie fisheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meals, K. O.; Dunn, A. W.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2012-01-01

    In some parts of the USA, anglers targeting crappies Pomoxis spp. are transitioning from mostly stationary angling with a single pole around submerged structures to using multiple poles while drifting with the wind or under power. This shift in fishing methods could result in a change in catch efficiency, possibly increasing exploitation rates to levels that would be of concern to managers. We studied the catch statistics of anglers fishing while trolling with multiple poles (trollers) and those fishing with single poles (polers) in Mississippi reservoirs. Specifically, we tested whether (1) various catch statistics differed between trollers and polers, (2) catch rates of trollers were related to the number of poles fished, and (3) trollers could raise exploitation rates to potentially unsustainable levels. Results showed that participation in the crappie fisheries was about equally split between polers and trollers. In spring, 90% of crappie anglers were polers; in summer, 85% of crappie anglers were trollers. The size of harvested crappies was similar for the two angler groups, but the catch per hour was almost three times higher for trollers than for polers. Catch rates by trollers were directly correlated to the number of poles fished, although the relationship flattened as the number of poles increased. The average harvest rate for one troller fishing with three poles was similar to the harvest rate obtained by one poler. Simulations predicted that at the existing mix of about 50% polers and 50% trollers and with no restrictions on the number of poles used by trollers, exploitation of crappies is about 1.3 times higher than that in a polers-only fishery; under a scenario in which 100% of crappie anglers were trollers, exploitation was forecasted to increase to about 1.7 times the polers-only rate. The efficiency of trolling for crappies should be of concern to fishery managers because crappie fisheries are mostly consumptive and may increase exploitation

  5. Active surveillance of Anaplasma marginale in populations of arthropod vectors (Acari: Ixodidae; Diptera: Tabanidae) during and after an outbreak of bovine anaplasmosis in southern Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed

    Yunik, Matthew E M; Galloway, Terry D; Lindsay, L Robbin

    2016-04-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis is the disease caused by the bacterium Anaplasma marginale. It can cause production loss and death in cattle and bison. This was a reportable disease in Canada until April 2014. Before then, infected herds were quarantined and culled, removing infected animals. In North America, A. marginale is biologically vectored by hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae), Dermacentor variabilis and D. andersoni. Biting flies, particularly horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae), can also act as mechanical vectors. An outbreak of bovine anaplasmosis, consisting of 14 herds, was detected in southern Manitoba in 2008. This outbreak lasted multiple rounds of testing and culling before eradication in 2011, suggesting local maintenance of the pathogen was occurring. We applied novel approaches to examine the vector ecology of this disease in this region. We did not detect A. marginale by screening of 2056 D. variabilis (2011 and 2012) and 520 horse flies (2011) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PMID:27127345

  6. Active surveillance of Anaplasma marginale in populations of arthropod vectors (Acari: Ixodidae; Diptera: Tabanidae) during and after an outbreak of bovine anaplasmosis in southern Manitoba, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Yunik, Matthew E.M.; Galloway, Terry D.; Lindsay, L. Robbin

    2016-01-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis is the disease caused by the bacterium Anaplasma marginale. It can cause production loss and death in cattle and bison. This was a reportable disease in Canada until April 2014. Before then, infected herds were quarantined and culled, removing infected animals. In North America, A. marginale is biologically vectored by hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae), Dermacentor variabilis and D. andersoni. Biting flies, particularly horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae), can also act as mechanical vectors. An outbreak of bovine anaplasmosis, consisting of 14 herds, was detected in southern Manitoba in 2008. This outbreak lasted multiple rounds of testing and culling before eradication in 2011, suggesting local maintenance of the pathogen was occurring. We applied novel approaches to examine the vector ecology of this disease in this region. We did not detect A. marginale by screening of 2056 D. variabilis (2011 and 2012) and 520 horse flies (2011) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PMID:27127345

  7. Intelligence, mapping, and geospatial exploitation system (IMAGES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moellman, Dennis E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1998-08-01

    This paper provides further detail to one facet of the battlespace visualization concept described in last year's paper Battlespace Situation Awareness for Force XXI. It focuses on the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) goal to 'provide customers seamless access to tailorable imagery, imagery intelligence, and geospatial information.' This paper describes Intelligence, Mapping, and Geospatial Exploitation System (IMAGES), an exploitation element capable of CONUS baseplant operations or field deployment to provide NIMA geospatial information collaboratively into a reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (RSTA) environment through the United States Imagery and Geospatial Information System (USIGS). In a baseplant CONUS setting IMAGES could be used to produce foundation data to support mission planning. In the field it could be directly associated with a tactical sensor receiver or ground station (e.g. UAV or UGV) to provide near real-time and mission specific RSTA to support mission execution. This paper provides IMAGES functional level design; describes the technologies, their interactions and interdependencies; and presents a notional operational scenario to illustrate the system flexibility. Using as a system backbone an intelligent software agent technology, called Open Agent ArchitectureTM (OAATM), IMAGES combines multimodal data entry, natural language understanding, and perceptual and evidential reasoning for system management. Configured to be DII COE compliant, it would utilize, to the extent possible, COTS applications software for data management, processing, fusion, exploitation, and reporting. It would also be modular, scaleable, and reconfigurable. This paper describes how the OAATM achieves data synchronization and enables the necessary level of information to be rapidly available to various command echelons for making informed decisions. The reasoning component will provide for the best information to be developed in the timeline

  8. Integrative mobile elements exploiting Xer recombination.

    PubMed

    Das, Bhabatosh; Martínez, Eriel; Midonet, Caroline; Barre, François-Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Integrative mobile genetic elements directly participate in the rapid response of bacteria to environmental challenges. They generally encode their own dedicated recombination machineries. CTXφ, a filamentous bacteriophage that harbors the genes encoding cholera toxin in Vibrio cholerae provided the first notable exception to this rule: it hijacks XerC and XerD, two chromosome-encoded tyrosine recombinases for lysogenic conversion. XerC and XerD are highly conserved in bacteria because of their role in the topological maintenance of circular chromosomes and, with the advent of high throughput sequencing, numerous other integrative mobile elements exploiting them have been discovered. Here, we review our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of integration of the different integrative mobile elements exploiting Xer (IMEXs) so far described. PMID:23127381

  9. Exploiting Quantum Resonance to Solve Combinatorial Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail; Fijany, Amir

    2006-01-01

    Quantum resonance would be exploited in a proposed quantum-computing approach to the solution of combinatorial optimization problems. In quantum computing in general, one takes advantage of the fact that an algorithm cannot be decoupled from the physical effects available to implement it. Prior approaches to quantum computing have involved exploitation of only a subset of known quantum physical effects, notably including parallelism and entanglement, but not including resonance. In the proposed approach, one would utilize the combinatorial properties of tensor-product decomposability of unitary evolution of many-particle quantum systems for physically simulating solutions to NP-complete problems (a class of problems that are intractable with respect to classical methods of computation). In this approach, reinforcement and selection of a desired solution would be executed by means of quantum resonance. Classes of NP-complete problems that are important in practice and could be solved by the proposed approach include planning, scheduling, search, and optimal design.

  10. DANDRUFF: THE MOST COMMERCIALLY EXPLOITED SKIN DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, S; Mukhopadhyay, T

    2010-01-01

    The article discuss in detail about the prevalence, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations of dandruff including the etio-pathology. The article also discusses in detail about various treatment methods available for dandruff. The status of dandruff being amphibious – a disease/disorder, and relatively less medical intervention is sought after for the treatment, dandruff is the most commercially exploited skin and scalp disorder/disease by personal care industries. PMID:20606879

  11. Macropinocytosis Exploitation by Cancers and Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Kevin D.; Bidlingmaier, Scott M.; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Macropinocytosis has long been known as a primary method for cellular intake of fluid-phase and membrane-bound bulk cargo. This review seeks to re-examine the latest studies to emphasize how cancers exploit macropinocytosis to further their tumorigenesis, including details in how macropinocytosis can be adapted to serve diverse functions. Furthermore, this review will also cover the latest endeavors in targeting macropinocytosis as an avenue for novel therapeutics.

  12. Joint multisensor exploitation for mine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaven, Scott G.; Stocker, Alan D.; Winter, Edwin M.

    2004-09-01

    Robust, timely, and remote detection of mines and minefields is central to both tactical and humanitarian demining efforts, yet remains elusive for single-sensor systems. Here we present an approach to jointly exploit multisensor data for detection of mines from remotely sensed imagery. LWIR, MWIR, laser, multispectral, and radar sensor have been applied individually to the mine detection and each has shown promise for supporting automated detection. However, none of these sources individually provides a full solution for automated mine detection under all expected mine, background and environmental conditions. Under support from Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) we have developed an approach that, through joint exploitation of multiple sensors, improves detection performance over that achieved from a single sensor. In this paper we describe the joint exploitation method, which is based on fundamental detection theoretic principles, demonstrate the strength of the approach on imagery from minefields, and discuss extensions of the method to additional sensing modalities. The approach uses pre-threshold anomaly detector outputs to formulate accurate models for marginal and joint statistics across multiple detection or sensor features. This joint decision space is modeled and decision boundaries are computed from measured statistics. Since the approach adapts the decision criteria based on the measured statistics and no prior target training information is used, it provides a robust multi-algorithm or multisensor detection statistic. Results from the joint exploitation processing using two different imaging sensors over surface mines acquired by NVESD will be presented to illustrate the process. The potential of the approach to incorporate additional sensor sources, such as radar, multispectral and hyperspectral imagery is also illustrated.

  13. Macropinocytosis Exploitation by Cancers and Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Kevin D.; Bidlingmaier, Scott M.; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Macropinocytosis has long been known as a primary method for cellular intake of fluid-phase and membrane-bound bulk cargo. This review seeks to re-examine the latest studies to emphasize how cancers exploit macropinocytosis to further their tumorigenesis, including details in how macropinocytosis can be adapted to serve diverse functions. Furthermore, this review will also cover the latest endeavors in targeting macropinocytosis as an avenue for novel therapeutics. PMID:27672367

  14. Dandruff: the most commercially exploited skin disease.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, S; Mukhopadhyay, T

    2010-01-01

    The article discuss in detail about the prevalence, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations of dandruff including the etio-pathology. The article also discusses in detail about various treatment methods available for dandruff. The status of dandruff being amphibious - a disease/disorder, and relatively less medical intervention is sought after for the treatment, dandruff is the most commercially exploited skin and scalp disorder/disease by personal care industries. PMID:20606879

  15. Exploitation of subsea gas hydrate reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

    2016-04-01

    Natural gas hydrates are considered to be a potential energy resource in the future. They occur in permafrost areas as well as in subsea sediments and are stable at high pressure and low temperature conditions. According to estimations the amount of carbon bonded in natural gas hydrates worldwide is two times larger than in all known conventional fossil fuels. Besides technical challenges that have to be overcome climate and safety issues have to be considered before a commercial exploitation of such unconventional reservoirs. The potential of producing natural gas from subsea gas hydrate deposits by various means (e.g. depressurization and/or injection of carbon dioxide) is numerically studied in the frame of the German research project »SUGAR«. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into a numerical model. The physics of the process leads to strong non-linear couplings between hydraulic fluid flow, hydrate dissociation and formation, hydraulic properties of the sediment, partial pressures and seawater solution of components and the thermal budget of the system described by the heat equation. This paper is intended to provide an overview of the recent development regarding the production of natural gas from subsea gas hydrate reservoirs. It aims at giving a broad insight into natural gas hydrates and covering relevant aspects of the exploitation process. It is focused on the thermodynamic principles and technological approaches for the exploitation. The effects occurring during natural gas production within hydrate filled sediment layers are identified and discussed by means of numerical simulation results. The behaviour of relevant process parameters such as pressure, temperature and phase saturations is described and compared for different strategies. The simulations are complemented by calculations for different safety relevant problems.

  16. Gaze interaction in UAS video exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hild, Jutta; Brüstle, Stefan; Heinze, Norbert; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth

    2013-05-01

    A frequently occurring interaction task in UAS video exploitation is the marking or selection of objects of interest in the video. If an object of interest is visually detected by the image analyst, its selection/marking for further exploitation, documentation and communication with the team is a necessary task. Today object selection is usually performed by mouse interaction. As due to sensor motion all objects in the video move, object selection can be rather challenging, especially if strong and fast and ego-motions are present, e.g., with small airborne sensor platforms. In addition to that, objects of interest are sometimes too shortly visible to be selected by the analyst using mouse interaction. To address this issue we propose an eye tracker as input device for object selection. As the eye tracker continuously provides the gaze position of the analyst on the monitor, it is intuitive to use the gaze position for pointing at an object. The selection is then actuated by pressing a button. We integrated this gaze-based "gaze + key press" object selection into Fraunhofer IOSB's exploitation station ABUL using a Tobii X60 eye tracker and a standard keyboard for the button press. Representing the object selections in a spatial relational database, ABUL enables the image analyst to efficiently query the video data in a post processing step for selected objects of interest with respect to their geographical and other properties. An experimental evaluation is presented, comparing gaze-based interaction with mouse interaction in the context of object selection in UAS videos.

  17. Exploiting Allee effects for managing biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Patrick C; Berec, Luděk; Liebhold, Andrew M

    2011-06-01

    Biological invasions are a global and increasing threat to the function and diversity of ecosystems. Allee effects (positive density dependence) have been shown to play an important role in the establishment and spread of non-native species. Although Allee effects can be considered a bane in conservation efforts, they can be a benefit in attempts to manage non-native species. Many biological invaders are subject to some form of an Allee effect, whether due to a need to locate mates, cooperatively feed or reproduce or avoid becoming a meal, yet attempts to highlight the specific exploitation of Allee effects in biological invasions are surprisingly unprecedented. In this review, we highlight current strategies that effectively exploit an Allee effect, and propose novel means by which Allee effects can be manipulated to the detriment of biological invaders. We also illustrate how the concept of Allee effects can be integral in risk assessments and in the prioritization of resources allocated to manage non-native species, as some species beset by strong Allee effects could be less successful as invaders. We describe how tactics that strengthen an existing Allee effect or create new ones could be used to manage biological invasions more effectively.

  18. Exploration versus exploitation in polydomous ant colonies.

    PubMed

    Cook, Zoe; Franks, Daniel W; Robinson, Elva J H

    2013-04-21

    In socially foraging species resource information can be shared between individuals, increasing foraging success. In ant colonies, nestmate recruitment allows high exploitation rates at known resources however, to maximise foraging efficiency this must be balanced with searching for new resources. Many ant species form colonies inhabiting two or more spatially separated but socially connected nests: this type of organisation is known as polydomy. Polydomous colonies may benefit from increased foraging efficiency by carrying out dispersed-central place foraging. However, decentralisation of the colony may affect recruitment success by limiting interaction between ants based in separate nests. We use an agent-based model which compares the foraging success of monodomous and polydomous colonies in different food environments, incorporating recruitment through pheromone trails and group foraging. In contrast to previous results we show that polydomy is beneficial in some but not all cases. Polydomous colonies discover resources at a higher rate, making them more successful when food is highly dispersed, but their relative success can be lowered by limitations on recruitment success. Monodomous colonies can have higher foraging efficiency than polydomous colonies by exploiting food more rapidly. The results show the importance of interactions between recruitment strategy, colony size, and colony organisation. PMID:23380232

  19. Large size space construction for space exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondyurin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Space exploitation is impossible without large space structures. We need to make sufficient large volume of pressurized protecting frames for crew, passengers, space processing equipment, & etc. We have to be unlimited in space. Now the size and mass of space constructions are limited by possibility of a launch vehicle. It limits our future in exploitation of space by humans and in development of space industry. Large-size space construction can be made with using of the curing technology of the fibers-filled composites and a reactionable matrix applied directly in free space. For curing the fabric impregnated with a liquid matrix (prepreg) is prepared in terrestrial conditions and shipped in a container to orbit. In due time the prepreg is unfolded by inflating. After polymerization reaction, the durable construction can be fitted out with air, apparatus and life support systems. Our experimental studies of the curing processes in the simulated free space environment showed that the curing of composite in free space is possible. The large-size space construction can be developed. A project of space station, Moon base, Mars base, mining station, interplanet space ship, telecommunication station, space observatory, space factory, antenna dish, radiation shield, solar sail is proposed and overviewed. The study was supported by Humboldt Foundation, ESA (contract 17083/03/NL/SFe), NASA program of the stratospheric balloons and RFBR grants (05-08-18277, 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011).

  20. 77 FR 36491 - Request for Information Regarding Senior Financial Exploitation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... PROTECTION Request for Information Regarding Senior Financial Exploitation AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer... senior financial exploitation, please call James Miner at 202-435-7953. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In... efforts; and (e) financial exploitation of older Americans, including veterans of the Armed Forces....

  1. Social network analysis realization and exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, Jack H.; Nolan, James J.

    2015-05-01

    Intelligence analysts demand rapid information fusion capabilities to develop and maintain accurate situational awareness and understanding of dynamic enemy threats in asymmetric military operations. The ability to extract meaning in relationships between people, objects, and locations from a variety of unstructured text datasets is critical to proactive decision making. Additionally, the ability to automatically cluster text documents about entities and discover connections between those documents allows the analyst to navigate an extremely large collection of documents. Analysts also demand a temporal understanding of the extracted relationships between entities and connections between documents. We describe approaches to automatically realize the social networks via concept extraction, relationship extraction, and document connection algorithms; we also describe approaches to exploit the network by visualizing the results to the analyst such that changes over time are evident.

  2. Exploiting data redundancy in computational optical imaging.

    PubMed

    Munro, Peter R T

    2015-11-30

    We present an algorithm which exploits data redundancy to make computational, coherent, optical imaging more computationally efficient. This algorithm specifically addresses the computation of how light scattered by a sample is collected and coherently detected. It is of greatest benefit in the simulation of broadband optical systems employing coherent detection, such as optical coherence tomography. Although also amenable to time-harmonic data, the algorithm is designed to be embedded within time-domain electromagnetic scattering simulators such as the psuedo-spectral and finite-difference time domain methods. We derive the algorithm in detail as well as criteria which ensure accurate execution of the algorithm. We present simulations that verify the developed algorithm and demonstrate its utility. We expect this algorithm to be important to future developments in computational imaging.

  3. Protocol to Exploit Waiting Resources for UASNs.

    PubMed

    Hung, Li-Ling; Luo, Yung-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    The transmission speed of acoustic waves in water is much slower than that of radio waves in terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Thus, the propagation delay in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASN) is much greater. Longer propagation delay leads to complicated communication and collision problems. To solve collision problems, some studies have proposed waiting mechanisms; however, long waiting mechanisms result in low bandwidth utilization. To improve throughput, this study proposes a slotted medium access control protocol to enhance bandwidth utilization in UASNs. The proposed mechanism increases communication by exploiting temporal and spatial resources that are typically idle in order to protect communication against interference. By reducing wait time, network performance and energy consumption can be improved. A performance evaluation demonstrates that when the data packets are large or sensor deployment is dense, the energy consumption of proposed protocol is less than that of existing protocols as well as the throughput is higher than that of existing protocols.

  4. Digital video steganalysis exploiting collusion sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budhia, Udit; Kundur, Deepa

    2004-09-01

    In this paper we present an effective steganalyis technique for digital video sequences based on the collusion attack. Steganalysis is the process of detecting with a high probability and low complexity the presence of covert data in multimedia. Existing algorithms for steganalysis target detecting covert information in still images. When applied directly to video sequences these approaches are suboptimal. In this paper, we present a method that overcomes this limitation by using redundant information present in the temporal domain to detect covert messages in the form of Gaussian watermarks. Our gains are achieved by exploiting the collusion attack that has recently been studied in the field of digital video watermarking, and more sophisticated pattern recognition tools. Applications of our scheme include cybersecurity and cyberforensics.

  5. Exploiting epigenetic vulnerabilities for cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Mair, Barbara; Kubicek, Stefan; Nijman, Sebastian M B

    2014-03-01

    Epigenetic deregulation is a hallmark of cancer, and there has been increasing interest in therapeutics that target chromatin-modifying enzymes and other epigenetic regulators. The rationale for applying epigenetic drugs to treat cancer is twofold. First, epigenetic changes are reversible, and drugs could therefore be used to restore the normal (healthy) epigenetic landscape. However, it is unclear whether drugs can faithfully restore the precancerous epigenetic state. Second, chromatin regulators are often mutated in cancer, making them attractive drug targets. However, in most instances it is unknown whether cancer cells are addicted to these mutated chromatin proteins, or whether their mutation merely results in epigenetic instability conducive to the selection of secondary aberrations. An alternative incentive for targeting chromatin regulators is the exploitation of cancer-specific vulnerabilities, including synthetic lethality, caused by epigenetic deregulation. We review evidence for the hypothesis that mechanisms other than oncogene addiction are a basis for the application of epigenetic drugs, and propose future research directions.

  6. Protocol to Exploit Waiting Resources for UASNs.

    PubMed

    Hung, Li-Ling; Luo, Yung-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    The transmission speed of acoustic waves in water is much slower than that of radio waves in terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Thus, the propagation delay in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASN) is much greater. Longer propagation delay leads to complicated communication and collision problems. To solve collision problems, some studies have proposed waiting mechanisms; however, long waiting mechanisms result in low bandwidth utilization. To improve throughput, this study proposes a slotted medium access control protocol to enhance bandwidth utilization in UASNs. The proposed mechanism increases communication by exploiting temporal and spatial resources that are typically idle in order to protect communication against interference. By reducing wait time, network performance and energy consumption can be improved. A performance evaluation demonstrates that when the data packets are large or sensor deployment is dense, the energy consumption of proposed protocol is less than that of existing protocols as well as the throughput is higher than that of existing protocols. PMID:27005624

  7. Exploitation of host cells by Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Mark P; Galyov, Edouard E

    2004-04-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens have evolved mechanisms to enter and exit eukaryotic cells using the power of actin polymerisation and to subvert the activity of cellular enzymes and signal transduction pathways. The proteins deployed by bacteria to subvert cellular processes often mimic eukaryotic proteins in their structure or function. Studies on the exploitation of host cells by the facultative intracellular pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei are providing novel insights into the pathogenesis of melioidosis, a serious invasive disease of animals and humans that is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas. B. pseudomallei can invade epithelial cells, survive and proliferate inside phagocytes, escape from endocytic vesicles, form actin-based membrane protrusions and induce host cell fusion. Here we review current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes.

  8. On the practical exploitation of scarsity.

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, A.; Utke, J.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2008-01-01

    Scarsity is the notion that the Jacobian J for a given function f: {Re}{sup n} {yields} {Re}{sup m} may have fewer than n {sup *} m degrees of freedom. A scarse J may be represented by a graph with a minimal edge count. So far, scarsity has been recognized only from a high-level application point of view, and no automatic exploitation has been attempted. We introduce an approach to recognize and use scarsity in computational graphs in a source transformation context. The goal is to approximate the minimal graph representation through a sequence of transformations including eliminations, reroutings, and normalizations, with a secondary goal of minimizing the transformation cost. The method requires no application-level insight and is implemented as a fully automatic transformation in OpenAD. This paper introduces the problem and a set of heuristics to approximate the minimal graph representation. We also present results on a set of test problems.

  9. Exploiting Resistive Guiding for Fast Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Alex

    2012-10-01

    Devising methods and schemes for controlling fast electron transport remains a major challenge in Fast Ignition research. Realistic estimates of the fast electron divergence angle require this control in order to ensure that the fast electron to hot spot coupling efficiency does not reach excessively low values. Resistivity gradients in the target will lead to strong magnetic field growth (via ∇ηxj) which can be exploited for the purposes of controlling the fast electron propagation (Robinson and Sherlock, PoP (2007)). There are a number of possible schemes which might be considered. Here we will report on numerical simulations that we have carried out on both simple configurations such as parabolic reflectors, and complex arrangements (Robinson, Key and Tabak, PRL (2012)). Substantial improvements to the fast electron to hot spot coupling efficiency have been found even for realistic fast electron divergence angles.

  10. Iron and Zinc Exploitation during Bacterial Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li; Terwilliger, Austen; Maresso, Anthony W.

    2016-01-01

    Ancient bacteria originated from metal-rich environments. Billions of years of evolution directed these tiny single cell creatures to exploit the versatile properties of metals in catalyzing chemical reactions and biological responses. The result is an entire metallome of proteins that use metal co-factors to facilitate key cellular process that range from the production of energy to the replication of DNA. Two key metals in this regard are iron and zinc, both abundant on Earth but not readily accessible in a human host. Instead, pathogenic bacteria must employ clever ways to acquire these metals. In this review we describe the many elegant ways these bacteria mine, regulate, and craft the use of two key metals (iron and zinc) to build a virulence arsenal that challenges even the most sophisticated immune response. PMID:26497057

  11. Exploiting Genetic Interference for Antiviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Elizabeth J; Kirkegaard, Karla A; Weinberger, Leor S

    2016-05-01

    Rapidly evolving viruses are a major threat to human health. Such viruses are often highly pathogenic (e.g., influenza virus, HIV, Ebola virus) and routinely circumvent therapeutic intervention through mutational escape. Error-prone genome replication generates heterogeneous viral populations that rapidly adapt to new selection pressures, leading to resistance that emerges with treatment. However, population heterogeneity bears a cost: when multiple viral variants replicate within a cell, they can potentially interfere with each other, lowering viral fitness. This genetic interference can be exploited for antiviral strategies, either by taking advantage of a virus's inherent genetic diversity or through generating de novo interference by engineering a competing genome. Here, we discuss two such antiviral strategies, dominant drug targeting and therapeutic interfering particles. Both strategies harness the power of genetic interference to surmount two particularly vexing obstacles-the evolution of drug resistance and targeting therapy to high-risk populations-both of which impede treatment in resource-poor settings.

  12. Seroprevalence of Antibodies That React with Anaplasma phagocytophila, the Agent of Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis, in Different Populations in Westchester County, New York

    PubMed Central

    Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria E.; Donnarumma, Lorraine; Zentmaier, Lois; Jacob, Jobby; Frey, Michael; Noto, Richard; Carbonaro, Carol A.; Wormser, Gary P.

    2002-01-01

    We determined the frequencies of antibodies to Anaplasma phagocytophila, the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE), in different groups of adults and children from Westchester County, New York. The groups included 159 adult blood donors and 215 children who were seronegative for Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies, 118 adult patients and 57 children who were seropositive for B. burgdorferi antibodies, and 42 adult patients with culture-confirmed erythema migrans. Eighteen (11.3%) of the blood donors and 11 (5.1%) of the B. burgdorferi-seronegative children were found to have A. phagocytophila antibodies by indirect immunofluorescent-antibody assay (IFA). Nine of 42 (21.4%) patients with culture-confirmed erythema migrans tested at the baseline visit, 42 of 118 (35.6%) adults, and 3 of 57 (5.3%) children whose sera were reactive for B. burgdorferi antibodies also tested positive for A. phagocytophila antibodies. The geometric mean titer ranged from 219 to 315 for all groups, and the differences in titers among the groups were not statistically significant. Only one-third of the healthy blood donors reactive by IFA were confirmed to be positive by immunoblotting. We conclude that a significant proportion of adults and children without clinical evidence of HGE will test positive for A. phagocytophila antibodies when the conventional cutoff titer of 80 is used in the IFA. This information must be considered in interpretation of test results. PMID:12089287

  13. Bacterial membranes enhance the immunogenicity and protective capacity of the surface exposed tick Subolesin-Anaplasma marginale MSP1a chimeric antigen.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Marinela; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Domingos, Ana; Canales, Mario; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Pérez de la Lastra, José M; Sánchez, Emilio; Merino, Octávio; Zavala, Rigoberto López; Ayllón, Nieves; Boadella, Mariana; Villar, Margarita; Gortázar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2015-09-01

    Ticks are vectors of diseases that affect humans and animals worldwide. Tick vaccines have been proposed as a cost-effective and environmentally sound alternative for tick control. Recently, the Rhipicephalus microplus Subolesin (SUB)-Anaplasma marginale MSP1a chimeric antigen was produced in Escherichia coli as membrane-bound and exposed protein and used to protect vaccinated cattle against tick infestations. In this research, lipidomics and proteomics characterization of the E. coli membrane-bound SUB-MSP1a antigen showed the presence of components with potential adjuvant effect. Furthermore, vaccination with membrane-free SUB-MSP1a and bacterial membranes containing SUB-MSP1a showed that bacterial membranes enhance the immunogenicity of the SUB-MSP1a antigen in animal models. R. microplus female ticks were capillary-fed with sera from pigs orally immunized with membrane-free SUB, membrane bound SUB-MSP1a and saline control. Ticks ingested antibodies added to the blood meal and the effect of these antibodies on reduction of tick weight was shown for membrane bound SUB-MSP1a but not SUB when compared to control. Using the simple and cost-effective process developed for the purification of membrane-bound SUB-MSP1a, endotoxin levels were within limits accepted for recombinant vaccines. These results provide further support for the development of tick vaccines using E. coli membranes exposing chimeric antigens such as SUB-MSP1a. PMID:26219233

  14. Characterization of two strains of Anaplasma marginale isolated from cattle in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, after propagation in tick cell culture.

    PubMed

    Baêta, Bruna A; Ribeiro, Carla C D U; Teixeira, Rafaella C; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Passos, Lygia M F; Zweygarth, Erich; Fonseca, Adivaldo H

    2015-03-01

    IDE8 tick cell cultures have been used for the isolation and propagation of several isolates of Anaplasma marginale. The genetic heterogeneity of A. marginale strains in cattle is diverse in endemic regions worldwide and the analyses of msp1α (major surface protein 1 alpha) gene sequences have allowed the identification of different strains. This study reports the isolation and propagation of two new isolates of A. marginale in IDE8 cells from blood of two cattle and their morphological and molecular characterization using light microscopy and the msp1α gene, respectively. Small colonies were observed in cytospin smears of each of the isolates 60 days after culture initiation. Based on msp1α sequence variation, the two isolates were found to be separate strains and were named AmRio1 and AmRio2. Analysis of msp1α microsatellite in both strains resulted in a single genotype, genotype E. The amino acid sequence of one MSP1α tandem repeat from the strain AmRio1 resulted in a new sequence (named 162) with one amino acid change. The results of these phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that A. marginale strains from Brazil and Argentina formed two large clusters of which one was less divergent that the other.

  15. The prevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys and Babesia spp. in dogs in Nueva Ecija, Philippines based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay.

    PubMed

    Corales, Joyce Marielle I; Viloria, Victoria V; Venturina, Virginia M; Mingala, Claro N

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys and Babesia spp. in dogs. It describes the practice of veterinarians in detecting tick-borne diseases in Nueva Ecija, Philippines. Seventy blood samples were collected and were subjected to multiplex PCR for the detection of E. canis, Babesia spp. and A. platys. The prevalence of babesiosis is the highest in Cabanatuan City (2/10), while a 10% prevalence (1/10) was observed in Science City of Muñoz, Talavera and Sta. Rosa. E. canis were only detected in Cabanatuan City. However, no anaplasmosis was detected in any area. The prevalence of babesiosis and ehrlichiosis in Nueva Ecija is 7.14% (5/70) and 2.85% (2/70) respectively. In addition, 70% (7/10) of the Nueva Ecija veterinary practitioners encountered cases of suspected ehrlichiosis in their practice. The diagnosis of ehrlichiosis is based primarily on presented clinical signs and complete blood counts, which include a platelet count. Of the 10 respondents, half utilized test kits while 90% interpreted blood samples. Meanwhile, only 60% of the respondents used an ELISA test kit for ehrlichiosis. For some practitioners, the main reason for not utilizing a kit is the high cost. None of the respondents had previously attended cases of suspected anaplasmosis. Only one respondent diagnosed a case of babesiosis by blood smear microscopy. PMID:25706424

  16. Infection with Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) in two lineages of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; Tarragona, Evelina L; De Salvo, M Nazarena; Mangold, Atilio J; Nava, Santiago

    2015-09-01

    Natural infection with Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in ticks belonging to the tropical and temperate lineages of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato from Argentina was evaluated. Samples were tested for Ehrlichia canis infection by PCR assays using 16S rRNA, dsb and p28 gene, while detection of A. platys was performed with 16S rRNA and groESL gene. The assignment of the ticks to each lineage was corroborated with 16S rDNA sequences. All ticks infected with E. canis and A. platys belonged to the tropical lineage. These results constitute the first record of E. canis infection in R. sanguineus s.l ticks from Argentina. No ticks from the temperate lineage were found to be infected with E. canis, coinciding with previous studies performed in Argentina and Uruguay where E. canis infection was not detected in R. sanguineus s.l from the temperate lineage. Because the presence of the tropical lineage of R. sanguineus s.l has been documented in tropical areas of northern Argentina between 22° and 24° of south latitude, the findings of this work indicate that transmission of E. canis and A. platys to dogs by R. sanguineus s.l probably occurs along this region. PMID:26100492

  17. Immunogenicity of Outer Membrane Proteins VirB9-1 and VirB9-2, a Novel Nanovaccine against Anaplasma marginale.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Mahony, Donna; Cavallaro, Antonino S; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Jun; Deringer, James R; Zhao, Chun-Xia; Brown, Wendy C; Yu, Chengzhong; Mitter, Neena; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent tick-borne livestock pathogen and poses a significant threat to cattle industry. In contrast to currently available live blood-derived vaccines against A. marginale, alternative safer and better-defined subunit vaccines will be of great significance. Two proteins (VirB9-1 and VirB9-2) from the Type IV secretion system of A. marginale have been shown to induce humoral and cellular immunity. In this study, Escherichia coli were used to express VirB9-1 and VirB9-2 proteins. Silica vesicles having a thin wall of 6 nm and pore size of 5.8 nm were used as the carrier and adjuvant to deliver these two antigens both as individual or mixed nano-formulations. High loading capacity was achieved for both proteins, and the mouse immunisation trial with individual as well as mixed nano-formulations showed high levels of antibody titres over 107 and strong T-cell responses. The mixed nano-formulation also stimulated high-level recall responses in bovine T-cell proliferation assays. These results open a promising path towards the development of efficient A. marginale vaccines and provide better understanding on the role of silica vesicles to deliver multivalent vaccines as mixed nano-formulations able to activate both B-cell and T-cell immunity, for improved animal health. PMID:27115492

  18. Subdominant antigens in bacterial vaccines: AM779 is subdominant in the Anaplasma marginale outer membrane vaccine but does not associate with protective immunity.

    PubMed

    Albarrak, Saleh M; Brown, Wendy C; Noh, Susan M; Reif, Kathryn E; Scoles, Glen A; Turse, Joshua E; Norimine, Junzo; Ueti, Massaro W; Palmer, Guy H

    2012-01-01

    Identification of specific antigens responsible for the ability of complex immunogens to induce protection is a major goal in development of bacterial vaccines. Much of the investigation has focused on highly abundant and highly immunodominant outer membrane proteins. Recently however, genomic and proteomic approaches have facilitated identification of minor components of the bacterial outer membrane that have previously been missed or ignored in immunological analyses. Immunization with Anaplasma marginale outer membranes or a cross-linked surface complex induces protection against bacteremia, however the components responsible for protection within these complex immunogens are unknown. Using outer membrane protein AM779 as a model, we demonstrated that this highly conserved but minor component of the A. marginale surface was immunologically sub-dominant in the context of the outer membrane or surface complex vaccines. Immunologic sub-dominance could be overcome by targeted vaccination with AM779 for T lymphocyte responses but not for antibody responses, suggesting that both abundance and intrinsic immunogenicity determine relative dominance. Importantly, immunization with AM779 supports that once priming is achieved by specific targeting, recall upon infectious challenge is achieved. While immunization with AM779 alone was not sufficient to induce protection, the ability of targeted immunization to prime the immune response to highly conserved but low abundance proteins supports continued investigation into the role of sub-dominant antigens, individually and collectively, in vaccine development for A. marginale and related bacterial pathogens.

  19. Immunogenicity of Outer Membrane Proteins VirB9-1 and VirB9-2, a Novel Nanovaccine against Anaplasma marginale

    PubMed Central

    Cavallaro, Antonino S.; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Jun; Deringer, James R.; Zhao, Chun-Xia; Brown, Wendy C.; Yu, Chengzhong; Mitter, Neena; Middelberg, Anton P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent tick-borne livestock pathogen and poses a significant threat to cattle industry. In contrast to currently available live blood-derived vaccines against A. marginale, alternative safer and better-defined subunit vaccines will be of great significance. Two proteins (VirB9-1 and VirB9-2) from the Type IV secretion system of A. marginale have been shown to induce humoral and cellular immunity. In this study, Escherichia coli were used to express VirB9-1 and VirB9-2 proteins. Silica vesicles having a thin wall of 6 nm and pore size of 5.8 nm were used as the carrier and adjuvant to deliver these two antigens both as individual or mixed nano-formulations. High loading capacity was achieved for both proteins, and the mouse immunisation trial with individual as well as mixed nano-formulations showed high levels of antibody titres over 107 and strong T-cell responses. The mixed nano-formulation also stimulated high-level recall responses in bovine T-cell proliferation assays. These results open a promising path towards the development of efficient A. marginale vaccines and provide better understanding on the role of silica vesicles to deliver multivalent vaccines as mixed nano-formulations able to activate both B-cell and T-cell immunity, for improved animal health. PMID:27115492

  20. High throughput pyrosequencing technology for molecular differential detection of Babesia vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in canine blood samples.

    PubMed

    Kaewkong, Worasak; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Kongklieng, Amornmas; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Boonmars, Thidarut; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2014-06-01

    Canine babesiosis, hepatozoonosis, ehrlichiosis, and anaplasmosis are tick-borne diseases caused by different hemopathogens. These diseases are causes of morbidity and mortality in dogs. The classic method for parasite detection and differentiation is based on microscopic observation of blood smears. The limitations of the microscopic method are that its performance requires a specially qualified person with professional competence, and it is ineffective in differentiating closely related species. This study applied PCR amplification with high throughput pyrosequencing for molecular differential detection of the following 4 hemoparasites common to tropical areas in dog blood samples: Babesia vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma platys. PCR was initially used to amplify specific target regions of the ribosomal RNA genes of each parasite using 2 primer pairs that included 18S rRNA for protozoa (B. vogeli and H. canis) and 16S rRNA for rickettsia (E. canis and A. platys). Babesia vogeli and H. canis were discriminated using 9 nucleotide positions out of 30 base pairs, whereas E. canis and A. platys were differentiated using 15 nucleotide positions out of 34 base pairs that were determined from regions adjacent to 3' ends of the sequencing primers. This method provides a challenging alternative for a rapid diagnosis and surveillance of these tick-borne diseases in canines.

  1. Anaplasmataceae in wild ungulates and carnivores in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, A L; Oporto, B; Espí, A; del Cerro, A; Barral, M; Povedano, I; Barandika, J F; Hurtado, A

    2016-03-01

    Wild vertebrates are essential hosts for tick-borne diseases but data on the prevalence and diversity of Anaplasma spp. in wildlife are scarce. In this study, we used real-time PCR to investigate the distribution of Anaplasma species in spleen samples collected from 625 wild animals (137 cervids, 227 wild boar, and 261 carnivores) in two regions in northern Spain. A first generic real-time PCR assay was used to screen for the presence of Anaplasma spp. followed by a second species-specific multiplex real-time PCR or partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for species identification. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was highly prevalent in cervids (64.2%), but it was absent from wild boar and carnivores. Interestingly, Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma ovis were not detected in cervids, but Anaplasma centrale was identified in 1 roe deer and 1 red deer, A. bovis in 4 roe deer, and a novel Ehrlichia sp. in one badger. These findings were highly associated with the tick burden identified in the different hosts. Thus, Ixodes ricinus, the recognized vector of A. phagocytophilum in Europe, was the main tick species parasitizing cervids (93.5%, 1674/1791), whereas Dermacentor reticulatus was the most abundant in wild boar (76.1%, 35/46) and Ixodes hexagonus in carnivores (58.4%, 265/454). More investigations are needed to assess the impact of the different Anaplasma species in wildlife and the risk of transmission to domestic animals. PMID:26596894

  2. GOCE Exploitation for Moho Modeling and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampierto, D.

    2011-07-01

    New ESA missions dedicated to the observation of the Earth from space, like the gravity-gradiometry mission GOCE and the radar altimetry mission CRYOSAT 2, foster research, among other subjects, also on inverse gravimetric problems and on the description of the nature and the geographical location of gravimetric signals. In this framework the GEMMA project (GOCE Exploitation for Moho Modeling and Applications), funded by the European Space Agency and Politecnico di Milano, aims at estimating the boundary between Earth's crust and mantle (the so called Mohorovičić discontinuity or Moho) from GOCE data in key regions of the world. In the project a solution based on a simple two layer model in spherical approximation is proposed. This inversion problem based on the linearization of the Newton's gravitational law around an approximate mean Moho surface will be solved by exploiting Wiener-Kolmogorov theory in the frequency domain where the depth of the Moho discontinuity will be treated as a random signal with a zero mean and its own covariance function. The algorithm can be applied in a numerically efficient way by using the Fast Fourier Transform. As for the gravity observations, we will consider grids of the anomalous gravitational potential and its second radial derivative at satellite altitude. In particular this will require first of all to elaborate GOCE data to obtain a local grid of the gravitational potential field and its second radial derivative and after that to separate the gravimetric signal due to the considered discontinuity from the gravitational effects of other geological structures present into the observations. The first problem can be solved by applying the so called space- wise approach to GOCE observations, while the second one can be achieved by considering a priori models and geophysical information by means of an appropriate Bayesan technique. Moreover other data such as ground gravity anomalies or seismic profiles can be combined, in an

  3. Mission Exploitation Platform PROBA-V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goor, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    VITO and partners developed an end-to-end solution to drastically improve the exploitation of the PROBA-V EO-data archive (http://proba-v.vgt.vito.be/), the past mission SPOT-VEGETATION and derived vegetation parameters by researchers, service providers and end-users. The analysis of time series of data (+1PB) is addressed, as well as the large scale on-demand processing of near real-time data. From November 2015 an operational Mission Exploitation Platform (MEP) PROBA-V, as an ESA pathfinder project, will be gradually deployed at the VITO data center with direct access to the complete data archive. Several applications will be released to the users, e.g. - A time series viewer, showing the evolution of PROBA-V bands and derived vegetation parameters for any area of interest. - Full-resolution viewing services for the complete data archive. - On-demand processing chains e.g. for the calculation of N-daily composites. - A Virtual Machine will be provided with access to the data archive and tools to work with this data, e.g. various toolboxes and support for R and Python. After an initial release in January 2016, a research platform will gradually be deployed allowing users to design, debug and test applications on the platform. From the MEP PROBA-V, access to Sentinel-2 and landsat data will be addressed as well, e.g. to support the Cal/Val activities of the users. Users can make use of powerful Web based tools and can self-manage virtual machines to perform their work on the infrastructure at VITO with access to the complete data archive. To realise this, private cloud technology (openStack) is used and a distributed processing environment is built based on Hadoop. The Hadoop ecosystem offers a lot of technologies (Spark, Yarn, Accumulo, etc.) which we integrate with several open-source components. The impact of this MEP on the user community will be high and will completely change the way of working with the data and hence open the large time series to a larger

  4. Exploiting the picture through ExPReS (the exploitation process re-engineering study)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krygiel, Annette J.

    1995-07-01

    The Central Imagery Office, established in May 1992 as a Combat Support Agency of the Department of Defense, has begun implementing a range of initiatives designed to enhance the capabilities of the United States Imagery System and improve the overall U.S. imagery effort in response to continuing shortfalls amplified principally during Operations DESERT SHIELD and DESERT STORM in the Persian Gulf. One of these initiatives, and the subject of this paper, is the Exploitation Process Reengineering Study, or ExPReS. Focused on the area of imagery exploitation, this initiative aims to ensure all aspects of this particular process are sufficiently robust and effective to stay in step with other, rapidly-expanding segments of the imagery cycle.

  5. Molecular Detection of Tick-Borne Rickettsiales in Goats and Sheep from Southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yan; Yin, Hongmei; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Pan, Weiqing; Yin, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Members from Rickettsiales such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and some spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsiae are important tick-borne pathogens. One hundred goats and sheep from southeastern China were examined for the presence of Anaplasma, E. chaffeensis, and SFG Rickettsiae by PCR. A. phagocytophilum, Anaplasma bovis, and Anaplasma centrale were detected in 15, 49, and 16 samples, respectively. The A. phagocytophilum and A. centrale were highly homologous to strains from Japanese sika deer and Japanese cattle, respectively, whereas a diversity of A. bovis sequences were detected. New genetic variants of Anaplasma close to A. centrale have been revealed. No Ehrlichia was detected in this study. The presence of SFG Rickettsiae was determined in 26 samples. The coinfection with more than two pathogens tested in this study was as high as 29%. This study has molecularly characterized the circulation of Anaplasma and Rickettsiae in goats and sheep in southeastern China, which highlights the risk of contracting the pathogens upon tick exposure. PMID:26872274

  6. Exploiting Microbeams for Membrane Protein Structure Determination.

    PubMed

    Warren, Anna J; Axford, Danny; Paterson, Neil G; Owen, Robin L

    2016-01-01

    A reproducible, and sample independent means of predictably obtaining large, well-ordered crystals has proven elusive in macromolecular crystallography. In the structure determination pipeline, crystallisation often proves to be a rate-limiting step, and the process of obtaining even small or badly ordered crystals can prove time-consuming and laborious. This is particularly true in the field of membrane protein crystallography and this is reflected in the limited number of unique membrane protein structures deposited in the protein data bank (less than 650 by June 2016 - http://blanco.biomol.uci.edu/mpstruc ). Over recent years the requirement for, and time and cost associated with obtaining, large crystals has been partially alleviated through the development of beamline instrumentation allowing data collection, and structure solution, from ever-smaller crystals. Advances in several areas have led to a step change in what might be considered achievable during a synchrotron trip over the last decade. This chapter will briefly review the current status of the field, the tools available to ease data collection and processing, and give some examples of exploitation of these for membrane protein microfocus macromolecular crystallography. PMID:27553238

  7. Exploiting range imagery: techniques and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armbruster, Walter

    2009-07-01

    Practically no applications exist for which automatic processing of 2D intensity imagery can equal human visual perception. This is not the case for range imagery. The paper gives examples of 3D laser radar applications, for which automatic data processing can exceed human visual cognition capabilities and describes basic processing techniques for attaining these results. The examples are drawn from the fields of helicopter obstacle avoidance, object detection in surveillance applications, object recognition at high range, multi-object-tracking, and object re-identification in range image sequences. Processing times and recognition performances are summarized. The techniques used exploit the bijective continuity of the imaging process as well as its independence of object reflectivity, emissivity and illumination. This allows precise formulations of the probability distributions involved in figure-ground segmentation, feature-based object classification and model based object recognition. The probabilistic approach guarantees optimal solutions for single images and enables Bayesian learning in range image sequences. Finally, due to recent results in 3D-surface completion, no prior model libraries are required for recognizing and re-identifying objects of quite general object categories, opening the way to unsupervised learning and fully autonomous cognitive systems.

  8. Exploiting Virtualization and Cloud Computing in ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harald Barreiro Megino, Fernando; Benjamin, Doug; De, Kaushik; Gable, Ian; Hendrix, Val; Panitkin, Sergey; Paterson, Michael; De Silva, Asoka; van der Ster, Daniel; Taylor, Ryan; Vitillo, Roberto A.; Walker, Rod

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS Computing Model was designed around the concept of grid computing; since the start of data-taking, this model has proven very successful in the federated operation of more than one hundred Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) sites for offline data distribution, storage, processing and analysis. However, new paradigms in computing, namely virtualization and cloud computing, present improved strategies for managing and provisioning IT resources that could allow ATLAS to more flexibly adapt and scale its storage and processing workloads on varied underlying resources. In particular, ATLAS is developing a “grid-of-clouds” infrastructure in order to utilize WLCG sites that make resources available via a cloud API. This work will present the current status of the Virtualization and Cloud Computing R&D project in ATLAS Distributed Computing. First, strategies for deploying PanDA queues on cloud sites will be discussed, including the introduction of a “cloud factory” for managing cloud VM instances. Next, performance results when running on virtualized/cloud resources at CERN LxCloud, StratusLab, and elsewhere will be presented. Finally, we will present the ATLAS strategies for exploiting cloud-based storage, including remote XROOTD access to input data, management of EC2-based files, and the deployment of cloud-resident LCG storage elements.

  9. Exploiting Genetic Interference for Antiviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Elizabeth J; Kirkegaard, Karla A; Weinberger, Leor S

    2016-05-01

    Rapidly evolving viruses are a major threat to human health. Such viruses are often highly pathogenic (e.g., influenza virus, HIV, Ebola virus) and routinely circumvent therapeutic intervention through mutational escape. Error-prone genome replication generates heterogeneous viral populations that rapidly adapt to new selection pressures, leading to resistance that emerges with treatment. However, population heterogeneity bears a cost: when multiple viral variants replicate within a cell, they can potentially interfere with each other, lowering viral fitness. This genetic interference can be exploited for antiviral strategies, either by taking advantage of a virus's inherent genetic diversity or through generating de novo interference by engineering a competing genome. Here, we discuss two such antiviral strategies, dominant drug targeting and therapeutic interfering particles. Both strategies harness the power of genetic interference to surmount two particularly vexing obstacles-the evolution of drug resistance and targeting therapy to high-risk populations-both of which impede treatment in resource-poor settings. PMID:27149616

  10. Understanding Online Child Sexual Exploitation Offenses.

    PubMed

    Ly, Thanh; Murphy, Lisa; Fedoroff, J Paul

    2016-08-01

    In the past three decades, there has been an exponential increase in the worldwide availability of Internet access and devices that are able to access online materials. This literature review investigated whether increased accessibility of Internet child pornography (CP) increases the risk of in-person child sexual exploitation. The current review found little to no evidence that availability of the Internet has increased the worldwide incidence or prevalence of in-person child sexual abuse. In fact, during the time period in which the Internet has flourished, international crime statistics have shown a steady decrease of in-person child sexual abuse. The only exception to this trend is an increase in Internet child pornography or luring offenses (e.g., Stats Can, 2014), which involves child abuse by definition. This article reviews the impact of the Internet on child sexual abuse. It also reviews the characteristics of online CP offenders. Treatment of these offenders and prevention of such offenses is also discussed. PMID:27325170

  11. Relationship between exploitation, oscillation, MSY and extinction.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Bapan; Kar, T K; Legovic, T

    2014-10-01

    We give answers to two important problems arising in current fisheries: (i) how maximum sustainable yield (MSY) policy is influenced by the initial population level, and (ii) how harvesting, oscillation and MSY are related to each other in prey-predator systems. To examine the impact of initial population on exploitation, we analyze a single species model with strong Allee effect. It is found that even when the MSY exists, the dynamic solution may not converge to the equilibrium stock if the initial population level is higher but near the critical threshold level. In a prey-predator system with Allee effect in the prey species, the initial population does not have such important impact neither on MSY nor on maximum sustainable total yield (MSTY). However, harvesting the top predator may cause extinction of all species if odd number of trophic levels exist in the ecosystem. With regard to the second problem, we study two prey-predator models and establish that increasing harvesting effort either on prey, predator or both prey and predator destroys previously existing oscillation. Moreover, equilibrium stock both at MSY and MSTY level is stable. We also discuss the validity of found results to other prey-predator systems.

  12. Exploiting Genetic Interference for Antiviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kirkegaard, Karla A.; Weinberger, Leor S.

    2016-01-01

    Rapidly evolving viruses are a major threat to human health. Such viruses are often highly pathogenic (e.g., influenza virus, HIV, Ebola virus) and routinely circumvent therapeutic intervention through mutational escape. Error-prone genome replication generates heterogeneous viral populations that rapidly adapt to new selection pressures, leading to resistance that emerges with treatment. However, population heterogeneity bears a cost: when multiple viral variants replicate within a cell, they can potentially interfere with each other, lowering viral fitness. This genetic interference can be exploited for antiviral strategies, either by taking advantage of a virus’s inherent genetic diversity or through generating de novo interference by engineering a competing genome. Here, we discuss two such antiviral strategies, dominant drug targeting and therapeutic interfering particles. Both strategies harness the power of genetic interference to surmount two particularly vexing obstacles—the evolution of drug resistance and targeting therapy to high-risk populations—both of which impede treatment in resource-poor settings. PMID:27149616

  13. Understanding Online Child Sexual Exploitation Offenses.

    PubMed

    Ly, Thanh; Murphy, Lisa; Fedoroff, J Paul

    2016-08-01

    In the past three decades, there has been an exponential increase in the worldwide availability of Internet access and devices that are able to access online materials. This literature review investigated whether increased accessibility of Internet child pornography (CP) increases the risk of in-person child sexual exploitation. The current review found little to no evidence that availability of the Internet has increased the worldwide incidence or prevalence of in-person child sexual abuse. In fact, during the time period in which the Internet has flourished, international crime statistics have shown a steady decrease of in-person child sexual abuse. The only exception to this trend is an increase in Internet child pornography or luring offenses (e.g., Stats Can, 2014), which involves child abuse by definition. This article reviews the impact of the Internet on child sexual abuse. It also reviews the characteristics of online CP offenders. Treatment of these offenders and prevention of such offenses is also discussed.

  14. Exploiting phase transitions for fusion optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenson, Pontus

    2005-05-01

    Many optimization problems that arise in multi-target tracking and fusion applications are known to be NP-complete, ie, believed to have worst-case complexities that are exponential in problem size. Recently, many such NP-complete problems have been shown to display threshold phenomena: it is possible to define a parameter such that the probability of a random problem instance having a solution jumps from 1 to 0 at a specific value of the parameter. It is also found that the amount of resources needed to solve the problem instance peaks at the transition point. Among the problems found to display this behavior are graph coloring (aka clustering, relevant for multi-target tracking), satisfiability (which occurs in resource allocation and planning problem), and the travelling salesperson problem. Physicists studying these problems have found intriguing similarities to phase transitions in spin models of statistical mechanics. Many methods previously used to analyze spin glasses have been used to explain some of the properties of the behavior at the transition point. It turns out that the transition happens because the fitness landscape of the problem changes as the parameter is varied. Some algorithms have been introduced that exploit this knowledge of the structure of the fitness landscape. In this paper, we review some of the experimental and theoretical work on threshold phenomena in optimization problems and indicate how optimization problems from tracking and sensor resource allocation could be analyzed using these results.

  15. Accelerating Large Data Analysis By Exploiting Regularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Patrick J.; Ellsworth, David

    2003-01-01

    We present techniques for discovering and exploiting regularity in large curvilinear data sets. The data can be based on a single mesh or a mesh composed of multiple submeshes (also known as zones). Multi-zone data are typical to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. Regularities include axis-aligned rectilinear and cylindrical meshes as well as cases where one zone is equivalent to a rigid-body transformation of another. Our algorithms can also discover rigid-body motion of meshes in time-series data. Next, we describe a data model where we can utilize the results from the discovery process in order to accelerate large data visualizations. Where possible, we replace general curvilinear zones with rectilinear or cylindrical zones. In rigid-body motion cases we replace a time-series of meshes with a transformed mesh object where a reference mesh is dynamically transformed based on a given time value in order to satisfy geometry requests, on demand. The data model enables us to make these substitutions and dynamic transformations transparently with respect to the visualization algorithms. We present results with large data sets where we combine our mesh replacement and transformation techniques with out-of-core paging in order to achieve significant speed-ups in analysis.

  16. Exploiting graph properties of game trees

    SciTech Connect

    Plaat, A.; Pijls, W.; Bruin, A. de; Schaeffer, J.

    1996-12-31

    The state space of most adversary games is a directed graph. However, due to the success of simple recursive algorithms based on alpha-beta, theoreticians and practitioners have concentrated on the traversal of trees, giving the field the name {open_quotes}game-tree search,{close_quotes} This paper shows that the focus on trees has obscured some important properties of the underlying graphs. One of the hallmarks of the field of game-tree search has been the notion of the minimal tree, the smallest tree that has to be searched by any algorithm to find the minimax value. In fact, for most games it is a directed graph. As demonstrated in chess and checkers, we show that the minimal graph is significantly smaller than previously thought, proving that there is more room for improvement of current algorithms. We exploit the graph properties of the search space to reduce the size of trees built in practice by at least 25%. For over a decade, fixed-depth alpha-beta searching has been considered a closed subject, with research moving on to more application-dependent techniques. This work opens up new avenues of research for further application-independent improvements.

  17. Competing Discourses about Youth Sexual Exploitation in Canadian News Media

    PubMed Central

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Miller, Bonnie B.; Rivers, Robert; Matthews, Jennifer; Hilario, Carla; Hirakata, Pam

    2015-01-01

    Media holds the power to create, maintain, or break down stigmatizing attitudes, which affect policies, funding, and services. To understand how Canadian news media depicts the commercial sexual exploitation of children and youth, we examined 835 Canadian newspaper articles from 1989–2008 using a mixed methods critical discourse analysis approach, comparing representations to existing research about sexually exploited youth. Despite research evidence that equal rates of boys and girls experience exploitation, Canadian news media depicted exploited youth predominantly as heterosexual girls, and described them alternately as victims or workers in a trade, often both in the same story. News media mentioned exploiters far less often than victims, and portrayed them almost exclusively as male, most often called ‘customers’ or ‘consumers,’ and occasionally ‘predators’; in contrast, research has documented the majority of sexually exploited boys report female exploiters. Few news stories over the past two decades portrayed the diversity of victims, perpetrators, and venues of exploitation reported in research. The focus on victims but not exploiters helps perpetuate stereotypes of sexual exploitation as business or a ‘victimless crime,’ maintains the status quo, and blurs responsibility for protecting youth under the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Health care providers and researchers can be advocates for accuracy in media coverage about sexual exploitation; news reporters and editors should focus on exploiters more than victims, draw on existing research evidence to avoid perpetuating stereotypes, and use accurate terms, such as commercial sexual exploitation, rather than terms related to business or trade. PMID:26793015

  18. Against Permitted Exploitation in Developing World Research Agreements.

    PubMed

    Wenner, Danielle M

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines the moral force of exploitation in developing world research agreements. Taking for granted that some clinical research which is conducted in the developing world but funded by developed world sponsors is exploitative, it asks whether a third party would be morally justified in enforcing limits on research agreements in order to ensure more fair and less exploitative outcomes. This question is particularly relevant when such exploitative transactions are entered into voluntarily by all relevant parties, and both research sponsors and host communities benefit from the resulting agreements. I show that defenders of the claim that exploitation ought to be permitted rely on a mischaracterization of certain forms of interference as unjustly paternalistic and two dubious empirical assumptions about the results of regulation. The view I put forward is that by evaluating a system of constraints on international research agreements, rather than individual transaction-level interference, we can better assess the alternatives to permitting exploitative research agreements.

  19. Aspects of abuse: commercial sexual exploitation of children.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Melissa; Jackson, Allison M; Deye, Katherine

    2015-03-01

    Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) and adolescents is a serious worldwide problem. It is, in essence, the sexual abuse of a minor for economic gain. In the United States, there is no uniform nationwide database to capture the incidence and prevalence of CSEC. Therefore, there is a great variation in the estimates, but the actual numbers are unknown. Given the clandestine nature of the practice, it is often underreported and underidentified. Healthcare providers will often encounter victims of commercial sexual exploitation due to mental health, physical health, and sexual health consequences, and therefore should be knowledgeable in the signs of possible sexual exploitation. The aim of this article is to educate healthcare providers on how vulnerable children may become sexually exploited, the health consequences involved with sexual exploitation, how to better identify possible victims, and the medical evaluation of a victim of sexual exploitation.

  20. Transnational gestational surrogacy: does it have to be exploitative?

    PubMed

    Kirby, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the controversial practice of transnational gestational surrogacy and poses a provocative question: Does it have to be exploitative? Various existing models of exploitation are considered and a novel exploitation-evaluation heuristic is introduced to assist in the analysis of the potentially exploitative dimensions/elements of complex health-related practices. On the basis of application of the heuristic, I conclude that transnational gestational surrogacy, as currently practiced in low-income country settings (such as rural, western India), is exploitative of surrogate women. Arising out of consideration of the heuristic's exploitation conditions, a set of public education and enabled choice, enhanced protections, and empowerment reforms to transnational gestational surrogacy practice is proposed that, if incorporated into a national regulatory framework and actualized within a low income country, could possibly render such practice nonexploitative.

  1. Transnational gestational surrogacy: does it have to be exploitative?

    PubMed

    Kirby, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the controversial practice of transnational gestational surrogacy and poses a provocative question: Does it have to be exploitative? Various existing models of exploitation are considered and a novel exploitation-evaluation heuristic is introduced to assist in the analysis of the potentially exploitative dimensions/elements of complex health-related practices. On the basis of application of the heuristic, I conclude that transnational gestational surrogacy, as currently practiced in low-income country settings (such as rural, western India), is exploitative of surrogate women. Arising out of consideration of the heuristic's exploitation conditions, a set of public education and enabled choice, enhanced protections, and empowerment reforms to transnational gestational surrogacy practice is proposed that, if incorporated into a national regulatory framework and actualized within a low income country, could possibly render such practice nonexploitative. PMID:24766117

  2. A numerical differentiation library exploiting parallel architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voglis, C.; Hadjidoukas, P. E.; Lagaris, I. E.; Papageorgiou, D. G.

    2009-08-01

    We present a software library for numerically estimating first and second order partial derivatives of a function by finite differencing. Various truncation schemes are offered resulting in corresponding formulas that are accurate to order O(h), O(h), and O(h), h being the differencing step. The derivatives are calculated via forward, backward and central differences. Care has been taken that only feasible points are used in the case where bound constraints are imposed on the variables. The Hessian may be approximated either from function or from gradient values. There are three versions of the software: a sequential version, an OpenMP version for shared memory architectures and an MPI version for distributed systems (clusters). The parallel versions exploit the multiprocessing capability offered by computer clusters, as well as modern multi-core systems and due to the independent character of the derivative computation, the speedup scales almost linearly with the number of available processors/cores. Program summaryProgram title: NDL (Numerical Differentiation Library) Catalogue identifier: AEDG_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEDG_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 73 030 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 630 876 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: ANSI FORTRAN-77, ANSI C, MPI, OPENMP Computer: Distributed systems (clusters), shared memory systems Operating system: Linux, Solaris Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes RAM: The library uses O(N) internal storage, N being the dimension of the problem Classification: 4.9, 4.14, 6.5 Nature of problem: The numerical estimation of derivatives at several accuracy levels is a common requirement in many computational tasks, such

  3. Exploitation of Parallelism in Climate Models

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, F.; Tribbia, J.J.; Williamson, D.L.

    1999-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), through its CHAMMP initiative, hopes to develop the capability to make meaningful regional climate forecasts on time scales exceeding a decade, such capability to be based on numerical prediction type models. We propose research to contribute to each of the specific items enumerated in the CHAMMP announcement (Notice 91-3); i.e., to consider theoretical limits to prediction of climate and climate change on appropriate time scales, to develop new mathematical techniques to utilize massively parallel processors (MPP), to actually utilize MPPs as a research tool, and to develop improved representations of some processes essential to climate prediction. In particular, our goals are to: (1) Reconfigure the prediction equations such that the time iteration process can be compressed by use of MMP architecture, and to develop appropriate algorithms. (2) Develop local subgrid scale models which can provide time and space dependent parameterization for a state- of-the-art climate model to minimize the scale resolution necessary for a climate model, and to utilize MPP capability to simultaneously integrate those subgrid models and their statistics. (3) Capitalize on the MPP architecture to study the inherent ensemble nature of the climate problem. By careful choice of initial states, many realizations of the climate system can be determined concurrently and more realistic assessments of the climate prediction can be made in a realistic time frame. To explore these initiatives, we will exploit all available computing technology, and in particular MPP machines. We anticipate that significant improvements in modeling of climate on the decadal and longer time scales for regional space scales will result from our efforts.

  4. Exploiting Untapped Information Resources in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, R.; Fox, P. A.; Kempler, S.; Maskey, M.

    2015-12-01

    One of the continuing challenges in any Earth science investigation is the amount of time and effort required for data preparation before analysis can begin. Current Earth science data and information systems have their own shortcomings. For example, the current data search systems are designed with the assumption that researchers find data primarily by metadata searches on instrument or geophysical keywords, assuming that users have sufficient knowledge of the domain vocabulary to be able to effectively utilize the search catalogs. These systems lack support for new or interdisciplinary researchers who may be unfamiliar with the domain vocabulary or the breadth of relevant data available. There is clearly a need to innovate and evolve current data and information systems in order to improve data discovery and exploration capabilities to substantially reduce the data preparation time and effort. We assert that Earth science metadata assets are dark resources, information resources that organizations collect, process, and store for regular business or operational activities but fail to utilize for other purposes. The challenge for any organization is to recognize, identify and effectively utilize the dark data stores in their institutional repositories to better serve their stakeholders. NASA Earth science metadata catalogs contain dark resources consisting of structured information, free form descriptions of data and pre-generated images. With the addition of emerging semantic technologies, such catalogs can be fully utilized beyond their original design intent of supporting current search functionality. In this presentation, we will describe our approach of exploiting these information resources to provide novel data discovery and exploration pathways to science and education communities

  5. Functional Epitope Core Motif of the Anaplasma marginale Major Surface Protein 1a and Its Incorporation onto Bioelectrodes for Antibody Detection

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Luciano P.; Santos, Fabiana A. A.; Faria, Paula C. B.; Martins, João R. S.; Brito-Madurro, Ana G.; Madurro, João M.; Goulart, Luiz R.

    2012-01-01

    Anaplasmosis, a persistent intraerythrocytic infection of cattle by Anaplasma marginale, causes severe anemia and a higher rate of abortion, resulting in significant loss to both dairy and beef industries. Clinical diagnosis is based on symptoms and confirmatory laboratory tests are required. Currently, all the diagnostic assays have been developed with whole antigens with indirect ELISA based on multiple epitopes. In a pioneer investigation we demonstrated the use of critical motifs of an epitope as biomarkers for immunosensor applications. Mimotopes of the MSP1a protein functional epitope were obtained through Phage Display after three cycles of selection of a 12-mer random peptide library against the neutralizing monoclonal antibody 15D2. Thirty-nine clones were randomly selected, sequenced, translated and aligned with the native sequence. The consensus sequence SxSSQSEASTSSQLGA was obtained, which is located in C-terminal end of the 28-aa repetitive motif of the MSP1a protein, but the alignment and sequences' variation among mimotopes allowed us to map the critical motif STSSxL within the consensus sequence. Based on these results, two peptides were chemically synthesized: one based on the critical motif (STSSQL, Am1) and the other based on the consensus sequence aligned with the native epitope (SEASTSSQLGA, Am2). Sera from 24 infected and 52 healthy animals were tested by ELISA for reactivity against Am1 and Am2, which presented sensitivities of 96% and 100%, respectively. The Am1 peptide was incorporated onto a biolectrode (graphite modified with poly-3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) and direct serum detection was demonstrated by impedance, differential pulse voltammetry, and atomic force microscopy. The electrochemical sensor system proved to be highly effective in discriminating sera from positive and negative animals. These immunosensors were highly sensitive and selective for positive IgG, contaminants did not affect measurements, and were based on a simple

  6. Nanostructures Exploit Hybrid-Polariton Resonances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructured devices that exploit the hybrid-polariton resonances arising from coupling among photons, phonons, and plasmons are subjects of research directed toward the development of infrared-spectroscopic sensors for measuring extremely small quantities of molecules of interest. The spectroscopic techniques in question are surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA). An important intermediate goal of this research is to increase the sensitivity achievable by these techniques. The basic idea of the approach being followed in this research is to engineer nanostructured devices and thereby engineer their hybrid-polariton resonances to concentrate infrared radiation incident upon their surfaces in such a manner as to increase the absorption of the radiation for SEIRA and measure the frequency shifts of surface vibrational modes. The underlying hybrid-polariton-resonance concept is best described by reference to experimental devices that have been built and tested to demonstrate the concept. The nanostructure of each such device includes a matrix of silicon carbide particles of approximately 1 micron in diameter that are supported on a potassium bromide (KBr) or poly(tetrafluoroethylene) [PTFE] window. These grains are sputter-coated with gold grains of 40-nm size (see figure). From the perspective of classical electrodynamics, in this nanostructure, that includes a particulate or otherwise rough surface, the electric-field portion of an incident electromagnetic field becomes concentrated on the particles when optical resonance conditions are met. Going beyond the perspective of classical electrodynamics, it can be seen that when the resonance frequencies of surface phonons and surface plasmons overlap, the coupling of the resonances gives rise to an enhanced radiation-absorption or -scattering mechanism. The sizes, shapes, and aggregation of the particles determine the frequencies of the resonances. Hence, the task of

  7. Simulation of subsea gas hydrate exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

    2014-05-01

    The recovery of methane from gas hydrate layers that have been detected in several subsea sediments and permafrost regions around the world is a promising perspective to overcome future shortages in natural gas supply. Being aware that conventional natural gas resources are limited, research is going on to develop technologies for the production of natural gas from such new sources. Thus various research programs have started since the early 1990s in Japan, USA, Canada, India, and Germany to investigate hydrate deposits and develop required technologies. In recent years, intensive research has focussed on the capture and storage of CO2 from combustion processes to reduce climate impact. While different natural or man-made reservoirs like deep aquifers, exhausted oil and gas deposits or other geological formations are considered to store gaseous or liquid CO2, the storage of CO2 as hydrate in former methane hydrate fields is another promising alternative. Due to beneficial stability conditions, methane recovery may be well combined with CO2 storage in the form of hydrates. Regarding technological implementation many problems have to be overcome. Especially mixing, heat and mass transfer in the reservoir are limiting factors causing very long process times. Within the scope of the German research project »SUGAR« different technological approaches for the optimized exploitation of gas hydrate deposits are evaluated and compared by means of dynamic system simulations and analysis. Detailed mathematical models for the most relevant chemical and physical processes are developed. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into simulation programs. Simulations based on geological field data have been carried out. The studies focus on the potential of gas production from turbidites and their fitness for CO2 storage. The effects occurring during gas production and CO2 storage within

  8. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance

  9. Exploiting for medical and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giano, Michael C.

    Biotherapeutics are an emerging class of drug composed of molecules ranging in sizes from peptides to large proteins. Due to their poor stability and mucosal membrane permeability, biotherapeutics are administered by a parenteral method (i.e., syringe, intravenous or intramuscular). Therapeutics delivered systemically often experience short half-lives. While, local administration may involve invasive surgical procedures and suffer from poor retention at the site of application. To compensate, the patient receives frequent doses of highly concentrated therapeutic. Unfortunately, the off-target side effects and discomfort associated with multiple injections results in poor patient compliance. Therefore, new delivery methods which can improve therapeutic retention, reduce the frequency of administration and may aid in decreasing the off-target side effects is a necessity. Hydrogels are a class of biomaterials that are gaining interests for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Hydrogel materials are defined as porous, 3-dimensional networks that are primarily composed of water. Generally, they are mechanically rigid, cytocompatible and easily chemically functionalized. Collectively, these properties make hydrogels fantastic candidates to perform as drug delivery depots. Current hydrogel delivery systems physically entrap the target therapeutic which is then subsequently released over time at the site of administration. The swelling and degradation of the material effect the diffusion of the therapy from the hydrogel, and therefore should be controlled. Although these strategies provide some regulation over therapeutic release, full control of the delivery is not achieved. Newer approaches are focused on designing hydrogels that exploit known interactions, covalently attach the therapy or respond to an external stimulus in an effort to gain improved control over the therapy's release. Unfortunately, the biotherapeutic is typically required to be chemically

  10. A Descriptive Study on Sexually Exploited Children in Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twill, Sarah E.; Green, Denise M.; Traylor, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Sexual exploitation and prostitution of children and adolescents is a multibillion dollar industry in the United States (Estes and Weiner in "Medical, legal & social science aspects of child sexual exploitation: A comprehensive review of pornography, prostitution, and internet crimes, vol I," G.W. Medical Publishing, Inc, St Louis, 2005; Milloy in…

  11. Self-Report Measure of Financial Exploitation of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kendon J.; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W.; Langley, Kate; Wilber, Kathleen H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to improve the measurement of financial exploitation (FE) by testing psychometric properties of the older adult financial exploitation measure (OAFEM), a client self-report instrument. Design and Methods: Rasch item response theory and traditional validation approaches were used. Questionnaires were administered by…

  12. Exploit and ignore the consequences: A mother of planetary issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustafa, K.

    2016-07-01

    Many environmental and planetary issues are due to an exploitation strategy based on exploit, consume and ignore the consequences. As many natural and environmental resources are limited in time and space, such exploitation approach causes important damages on earth, in the sea and maybe soon in the space. To sustain conditions under which humans and other living species can coexist in productive and dynamic harmony with their environments, terrestrial and space exploration programs may need to be based on 'scrutinize the consequences, prepare adequate solutions and then, only then, exploit'. Otherwise, the exploitation of planetary resources may put the environmental stability and sustainability at a higher risk than it is currently predicted. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploit and ignore the consequences: A mother of planetary issues.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-07-01

    Many environmental and planetary issues are due to an exploitation strategy based on exploit, consume and ignore the consequences. As many natural and environmental resources are limited in time and space, such exploitation approach causes important damages on earth, in the sea and maybe soon in the space. To sustain conditions under which humans and other living species can coexist in productive and dynamic harmony with their environments, terrestrial and space exploration programs may need to be based on 'scrutinize the consequences, prepare adequate solutions and then, only then, exploit'. Otherwise, the exploitation of planetary resources may put the environmental stability and sustainability at a higher risk than it is currently predicted. PMID:27133936

  14. The Intersection of Financial Exploitation and Financial Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberg, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    Research in the past decade has documented that financial exploitation of older adults has become a major problem and Psychology is only recently increasing its presence in efforts to reduce exploitation. During the same time period, Psychology has been a leader in setting best practices for the assessment of diminished capacity in older adults culminating in the 2008 ABA/APA joint publication on a handbook for psychologists. Assessment of financial decision making capacity is often the cornerstone assessment needed in cases of financial exploitation. This paper will examine the intersection of financial exploitation and decision making capacity; introduce a new conceptual model and new tools for both the investigation and prevention of financial exploitation. PMID:27159438

  15. [Ecotourism exploitation model in Bita Lake Natural Reserve of Yunnan].

    PubMed

    Yang, G; Wang, Y; Zhong, L

    2000-12-01

    Bita lake provincial natural reserve is located in Shangri-La region of North-western Yunnan, and was set as a demonstrating area for ecotourism exploitation in 1998. After a year's exploitation construction and half a year's operation as a branch of the 99' Kunming International Horticulture Exposition to accept tourists, it was proved that the ecotourism demonstrating area attained four integrated functions of ecotourism, i.e., tourism, protection, poverty clearing and environment education. Five exploitation and management models including function zoned exploitation model, featured tourism communication model signs system designing model, local Tibetan family reception model and environmental monitoring model, were also successful, which were demonstrated and spreaded to the whole province. Bita lake provincial natural reserve could be a good sample for the ecotourism exploitation natural reserves of the whole country.

  16. Rationalising predictors of child sexual exploitation and sex-trading.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Thimna; Cavner, Della; Egan, Vincent

    2014-02-01

    Although there is evidence for specific risk factors leading to child sexual exploitation and prostitution, these influences overlap and have rarely been examined concurrently. The present study examined case files for 175 young persons who attended a voluntary organization in Leicester, United Kingdom, which supports people who are sexually exploited or at risk of sexual exploitation. Based on the case files, the presence or absence of known risk factors for becoming a sex worker was coded. Data were analyzed using t-test, logistic regression, and smallest space analysis. Users of the voluntary organization's services who had been sexually exploited exhibited a significantly greater number of risk factors than service users who had not been victims of sexual exploitation. The logistic regression produced a significant model fit. However, of the 14 potential predictors--many of which were associated with each other--only four variables significantly predicted actual sexual exploitation: running away, poverty, drug and/or alcohol use, and having friends or family members in prostitution. Surprisingly, running away was found to significantly decrease the odds of becoming involved in sexual exploitation. Smallest space analysis of the data revealed 5 clusters of risk factors. Two of the clusters, which reflected a desperation and need construct and immature or out-of-control lifestyles, were significantly associated with sexual exploitation. Our research suggests that some risk factors (e.g. physical and emotional abuse, early delinquency, and homelessness) for becoming involved in sexual exploitation are common but are part of the problematic milieu of the individuals affected and not directly associated with sex trading itself. Our results also indicate that it is important to engage with the families and associates of young persons at risk of becoming (or remaining) a sex worker if one wants to reduce the numbers of persons who engage in this activity.

  17. Exploration-exploitation strategy is dependent on early experience.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Lee, Steve S; Telzer, Eva H; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel J; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Tottenham, Nim

    2015-04-01

    Traditional conceptualizations of early adversity characterize behavioral outcomes as maladaptive. However, conditional adaptation theory proposes that differing behavioral phenotypes following early experience are appropriate for the expected environment (e.g., behaviors likely to result in the best outcome based on environmental expectations). In the present study, youth with (n = 46) and without (n = 91) a history of previous institutionalization completed a laboratory-based experimental paradigm in which exploration-exploitation strategy was examined, a phenotype relevant to environmental expectations. Previous institutionalization was associated with decreased exploration and increased exploitation. A strategy favoring exploration resulted in greater success in the generous task condition whereas a strategy favoring exploitation produced greater success in the restricted task condition. These results suggest that exploration-exploitation strategy may be influenced by early experience, and the resulting success of strategy choice is context dependent and in line with expectations of the future environment based on early experience. PMID:25783033

  18. Exploration-exploitation strategy is dependent on early experience.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Lee, Steve S; Telzer, Eva H; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel J; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Tottenham, Nim

    2015-04-01

    Traditional conceptualizations of early adversity characterize behavioral outcomes as maladaptive. However, conditional adaptation theory proposes that differing behavioral phenotypes following early experience are appropriate for the expected environment (e.g., behaviors likely to result in the best outcome based on environmental expectations). In the present study, youth with (n = 46) and without (n = 91) a history of previous institutionalization completed a laboratory-based experimental paradigm in which exploration-exploitation strategy was examined, a phenotype relevant to environmental expectations. Previous institutionalization was associated with decreased exploration and increased exploitation. A strategy favoring exploration resulted in greater success in the generous task condition whereas a strategy favoring exploitation produced greater success in the restricted task condition. These results suggest that exploration-exploitation strategy may be influenced by early experience, and the resulting success of strategy choice is context dependent and in line with expectations of the future environment based on early experience.

  19. Conceptual model and map of financial exploitation of older adults.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Kendon J; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W; Fairman, Kimberly P; Rosen, Abby; Wilber, Kathleen H

    2011-10-01

    This article describes the processes and outcomes of three-dimensional concept mapping to conceptualize financial exploitation of older adults. Statements were generated from a literature review and by local and national panels consisting of 16 experts in the field of financial exploitation. These statements were sorted and rated using Concept Systems software, which grouped the statements into clusters and depicted them as a map. Statements were grouped into six clusters, and ranked by the experts as follows in descending severity: (a) theft and scams, (b) financial victimization, (c) financial entitlement, (d) coercion, (e) signs of possible financial exploitation, and (f) money management difficulties. The hierarchical model can be used to identify elder financial exploitation and differentiate it from related but distinct areas of victimization. The severity hierarchy may be used to develop measures that will enable more precise screening for triage of clients into appropriate interventions.

  20. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Leishmania infantum in apparently healthy and CVBD-suspect dogs in Portugal - a national serological study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are caused by a wide range of pathogens transmitted to dogs by arthropods including ticks and insects. Many CVBD-agents are of zoonotic concern, with dogs potentially serving as reservoirs and sentinels for human infections. The present study aimed at assessing the seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Leishmania infantum in dogs in Portugal. Methods Based on 120 veterinary medical centres from all the regions of mainland and insular Portugal, 557 apparently healthy and 628 CVBD-suspect dogs were sampled. Serum, plasma or whole blood was tested for qualitative detection of D. immitis antigen and antibodies to E. canis, B. burgdorferi s. l., Anaplasma spp. and L. infantum with two commercial in-clinic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated by logistic regression analysis to identify independent risk factors of exposure to the vector-borne agents. Results Total positivity levels to D. immitis, E. canis, B. burgdorferi, Anaplasma spp., L. infantum, one or more agents and mixed agents were 3.6%, 4.1%, 0.2%, 4.5%, 4.3%, 14.0% and 2.0% in the healthy group, and 8.9%, 16.4%, 0.5%, 9.2%, 25.2%, 46.3% and 11.6% in the clinically suspect group, respectively. Non-use of ectoparasiticides was a risk factor for positivity to one or more agents both in the apparently healthy (OR = 2.1) and CVBD-suspect (OR = 1.5) dogs. Seropositivity to L. infantum (OR = 7.6), E. canis (OR = 4.1) and D. immitis (OR = 2.4) were identified as risk factors for the presence of clinical signs compatible with CVBDs. Positivity to mixed agents was not found to be a risk factor for disease. Conclusions Dogs in Portugal are at risk of becoming infected with vector-borne pathogens, some of which are of zoonotic concern. CVBDs should be considered by practitioners and prophylactic measures must be put in place to protect dogs

  1. Life history correlates of responses to fisheries exploitation

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, S.; Reynolds, J. D.; Mills, S. C.

    1998-01-01

    We use an approach based on phylogenetic comparisons to identify life history correlates of abundance trends in 18 intensively exploited fish stocks from the north-east Atlantic. After accounting for differences in fishing mortality, we show that those fishes that have decreased in abundance compared with their nearest relatives mature later, attain a larger maximum size, and exhibit significantly lower potential rates of population increase. Such trends were not evident in a more traditional cross-species analysis. This is the first phylogenetically independent evidence to link life histories with abundance trends, and provides a quantitative basis for assessing vulnerability of fish populations to exploitation. Our approach can be applied to the conservation and management of other exploited taxa.

  2. Off-shoring clinical research: exploitation and the reciprocity constraint.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Agomoni Ganguli

    2013-12-01

    The last 20 years have seen a staggering growth in the practice of off-shoring clinical research to low-and middle-income countries (LICs and MICs), a growth that has been matched by the neoliberal policies adopted by host countries towards attracting trials to their shores. A recurring concern in this context is the charge of exploitation, linked to various aspects of off-shoring. In this paper, I examine Alan Wertheimer's approach and offer an alternative view of understanding exploitation in this context. I will suggest that the justification for the enterprise of research is largely dependent on its integration within a health system from which participants regularly benefit and I argue that an attention to a principle of reciprocity will enable us to better recognize and address exploitation in international research.

  3. Exploitation of a single species by a threshold management policy.

    PubMed

    Meza, Magno Enrique Mendoza; Costa, Michel Iskin da Silveira

    2011-11-01

    Continuous time models of single exploited populations usually generate outcomes expressing a dependence of yield and economic items on harvest intensity. In this work it is shown that a known threshold policy is able to generate yield and related economic items that do not depend on harvest intensity, but rather on the values of the population threshold itself and the species intrinsic parameters. It is argued that since this result can be carried over to other models of single species dynamics, it may have significant implications in the management and conservation of exploited populations.

  4. Exploration-exploitation: A cognitive dilemma still unresolved.

    PubMed

    James, Russell N

    2015-01-01

    The solution to the exploration-exploitation dilemma presented essentially subsumes exploitation into an information-maximizing model. Such a single-maximization model is shown to be (1) more tractable than the initial dual-maximization dilemma, (2) useful in modeling information-maximizing subsystems, and (3) profitably applied in artificial simulations where exploration is costless. However, the model fails to resolve the dilemma in ethological or practical circumstances with objective outcomes, such as inclusive fitness, rather than information outcomes, such as lack of surprise.

  5. From Exploitation to Industry: Definitions, Risks, and Consequences of Domestic Sexual Exploitation and Sex Work Among Women and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Gerassi, Lara

    2015-01-01

    In the last 15 years, terms such as prostitution, sex trafficking, sexual exploitation, modern-day slavery, and sex work have elicited much confusion and debate as to their definitions. Consequently several challenges have emerged for both law enforcement in the prosecution of criminals and practitioners in service provision. This article reviews the state of the literature with regard to domestic, sexual exploitation among women and girls in the United States and seeks to (1) provide definitions and describe the complexity of all terms relating to domestic sexual exploitation of women and girls in the United States, (2) explore available national prevalence data according to the definitions provided, and (3) review the evidence of mental health, social, and structural risk factors at the micro-, mezzo-, and macrolevels. PMID:26726289

  6. Exploitation and community engagement: can community advisory boards successfully assume a role minimising exploitation in international research?

    PubMed

    Pratt, Bridget; Lwin, Khin Maung; Zion, Deborah; Nosten, Francois; Loff, Bebe; Cheah, Phaik Yeong

    2015-04-01

    It has been suggested that community advisory boards (CABs) can play a role in minimising exploitation in international research. To get a better idea of what this requires and whether it might be achievable, the paper first describes core elements that we suggest must be in place for a CAB to reduce the potential for exploitation. The paper then examines a CAB established by the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit under conditions common in resource-poor settings - namely, where individuals join with a very limited understanding of disease and medical research and where an existing organisational structure is not relied upon to serve as the CAB. Using the Tak Province Border Community Ethics Advisory Board (T-CAB) as a case study, we assess the extent to which it might be able to take on a role minimising exploitation were it to decide to do so. We investigate whether, after two years in operation, T-CAB is capable of assessing clinical trials for exploitative features and addressing those found to have them. The findings show that, although T-CAB members have gained knowledge and developed capacities that are foundational for one-day taking on a role to reduce exploitation, their ability to critically evaluate studies for the presence of exploitative elements has not yet been strongly demonstrated. In light of this example, we argue that CABs may not be able to perform such a role for a number of years after initial formation, making it an unsuitable responsibility for many short-term CABs.

  7. The forecast effectiveness of mining exploitation effects on the exploited area conducted with the use of Bialek`s formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orwat, Justyna

    2016-06-01

    The article presents the results of numerical calculations conducted with the use of a computer programme EDN - OPN for forecasting permanent deformations of a mining area being the result of the underground exploitation of coal deposits. The theoretical values of basic deformation indicators (decreases, inclinations, curvatures, displacements and horizontal strains) were determined with the use of Bialek`s formulas. They were subsequently juxtaposed with the practical values obtained thanks to the geodetic measurements conducted in the years 2001-2011 on the established observation line. The evaluation of the effectiveness of the conducted forecast of effects of the mining exploitation was carried out on this basis.

  8. The Sexual Exploitation of Missing Children: A Research Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotaling, Gerald T.; Finkelhor, David

    This paper evaluates current knowledge about the prevalence, dynamics, and short- and long-term effects of sexual exploitation among missing children. It is based upon empirical research findings from books, papers presented at professional meetings, doctoral dissertations, works in progress, and more than 75 articles in professional journals.…

  9. Key points in biotechnological patents to be exploited.

    PubMed

    García, Alfredo Mateos; López-Moya, José Rafael; Ramos, Patricia

    2013-08-01

    Patents in some biotechnological fields are controversial. Despite this fact, the number of patent applications increases every year. Total revenues in the global biotechnology market are expected to increase in the middle term. Nowadays, the bioeconomy is an important socio-economic area, which is reflected in the number of firms dedicated to or using biotechnology. The exploitation of biotechnological patents is an essential task in the management of intellectual capital. This paper explains the multiplicity of factors that influence the exploitation of biotechnological patents; specifically, the internal and external key points of patents exploitation. The external determining factors for patents are: (i) the market need for biotechnological products and services, (ii) the importance of the freedom to operate analysis before entering the market, and (iii) efficiency in prosecution by Patent Offices. This paper primarily focuses on the internal determining factors, more particularly, the characteristics that the patent's owner must take into consideration in order to have a strong, broad subject-matter in the granted patent. The experimentation needed to obtain an adequate scope of the subject- matter in the claims is a critical issue in the exploitation of a patent or patent application.

  10. Bats track and exploit changes in insect pest populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of bats or any generalist predator in suppressing prey populations depends on the predator’s ability to exploit available prey in space and time. Using a qPCR faecal DNA assay, we document significant association between numbers of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) consumin...

  11. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and the School Nurse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Lisa Goldblatt; Starck, Maureen; Potenza, Jane; Kenney, Patricia A.; Sheetz, Anne H.

    2012-01-01

    As trusted health professionals in the school setting, school nurses are well positioned to identify students who may be victims of commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC). However, until recently this issue has been clouded by lack of awareness, stigma, and/or denial. Since nationally the average age of entry for girls into the…

  12. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Perceived Exploitation of College Athletes Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rheenen, Derek; Atwood, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    The exploitation of college athletes has been a topic of controversy within American higher education for over half of a century. Especially in the revenue-generating sports of men's basketball and football, critics have highlighted the surplus gains expropriated by colleges and universities on the backs of these young men, who are…

  13. Conservation combats exploitation: choices within an evolutionary framework.

    PubMed

    Wang, X T; Li, Shu; Rao, Li-Lin

    2014-08-01

    Intentional change when viewed as making a risky or intertemporal choice with evolutionary relevance helps us understand its successes and its failures. To promote future-oriented ecological rationality requires establishing a linkage between nongenetic, cultural, and symbolic selections and genetic adaptations. Coupled with biophilic instinct, intentional conservation is more likely to prevail against evolved desires of environmental exploitation. PMID:25162882

  14. Grooming Cybervictims: The Psychosocial Effects of Online Exploitation for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Ilene R.

    2003-01-01

    Presents an overview of the benefits and risks of Web-based interactions for youth. Discusses, as an illustrative example, the psychosocial effects of online "grooming" practices that are designed to lure and exploit children by enticing them, typically in a nonsexual way, toward a sexual encounter. Suggests constructive solutions and a plan for…

  15. Risk assessment by dynamic representation of vulnerability, exploitation, and impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cam, Hasan

    2015-05-01

    Assessing and quantifying cyber risk accurately in real-time is essential to providing security and mission assurance in any system and network. This paper presents a modeling and dynamic analysis approach to assessing cyber risk of a network in real-time by representing dynamically its vulnerabilities, exploitations, and impact using integrated Bayesian network and Markov models. Given the set of vulnerabilities detected by a vulnerability scanner in a network, this paper addresses how its risk can be assessed by estimating in real-time the exploit likelihood and impact of vulnerability exploitation on the network, based on real-time observations and measurements over the network. The dynamic representation of the network in terms of its vulnerabilities, sensor measurements, and observations is constructed dynamically using the integrated Bayesian network and Markov models. The transition rates of outgoing and incoming links of states in hidden Markov models are used in determining exploit likelihood and impact of attacks, whereas emission rates help quantify the attack states of vulnerabilities. Simulation results show the quantification and evolving risk scores over time for individual and aggregated vulnerabilities of a network.

  16. Sexual Exploitation: What Parents of Handicapped Persons Should Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Dept. of Social and Health Services, Olympia.

    Directed toward parents of handicapped children, this brochure defines five major categories of sexual exploitation under Washington State laws: rape, attempted rape, incest, indecent liberties, and statutory rape. Changes in child behavior that may signal victimization are discussed, as well as immediate and long-term action that parents can…

  17. Beyond the Bravado: Sex Roles and the Exploitive Male.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taubman, Stan

    1986-01-01

    Examines the tendency of men to engage in domestic violence and sexual exploitation and presents male sex-role acquisition as a process of psychosocial violence against young boys, which creates a sense of shame, powerlessness, self-alienation, isolation from others, and retaliatory rage and inhibits capacities for intimacy and mutuality.…

  18. Exploiting Patient Labour at Kew Cottages, Australia, 1887-1950

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Lee-Ann

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the exploitation of patient labour at Kew Cottages, Australia's first purpose-built state institution for people with learning disabilities. Analysing historical evidence for the period 1887-1950 shows that unpaid patient labour contributed significantly to the economy of the Cottages and so to the government department of…

  19. Exploiting link dynamics in LEO-to-ground communications

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Joseph Mcrae; Caffrey, Michael P

    2009-01-01

    The high dynamics of the LEO-to-ground radio channel are described. An analysis shows how current satellite radio systems largely underutilize the available radio link, and that a radio that can adaptively vary the bit rate can more fully exploit it, resulting in increased data throughput and improved power efficiency. We propose one method for implementing the adaptivity, and present simulation results.

  20. Detection of canine vector-borne diseases in eastern Poland by ELISA and PCR.

    PubMed

    Dzięgiel, Beata; Adaszek, Łukasz; Carbonero, Alfonso; Łyp, Paweł; Winiarczyk, Mateusz; Dębiak, Piotr; Winiarczyk, Stanisław

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the prevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs in eastern Poland and to determine the factors associated with exposure (seroposity) or infection (PCR). Anti-A. phagocytophilum, anti-B. burgdorferi and anti-E. canis antibodies were determined in 400 dogs, using the SNAP 4Dx ® test (IDEXX Laboratories). In addition, PCRs were performed for the detection of E. canis, A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi DNA. In reference to the risk factor analysis, a regression logistic model was determined for each aetiological agent. The overall seroprevalence was highest for B. burgdorferi (11.0 %), followed by A. phagocytophilum (8.0 %) and E. canis (1.5 %). Eleven healthy dogs were found to be infected with A. phagocytophilum, as determined by PCR, while the remainder were seronegative. For B. burgdorferi, the DNA of the spirochetes was detected in the blood of 20 dogs, while the presence of anti-B. burgdorferi IgG was detected in the sera of ten of these. For E. canis, none of the dogs tested positive by PCR. Tick control was included as a protective factor for A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi, while the origin (rural) was included as a risk factor for B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum infection. In addition, breed (pure) was a risk factor for B. burgdorferi infection, and sex (female) was a risk factor for E. canis. PMID:26581374

  1. Lunar Resource Exploitation with Team Hakuto Swarm Rovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acierno, Kyle

    2016-07-01

    While much research has been done on the exploration, extraction and utilization of the Moon's resources, little attention has been given to exploring the economic opportunities that exist in the exploitation of those resources with the use of swam rovers. In order to develop a holistic view of lunar resources, this paper will first investigate the most important volatiles and minerals that are known to exist on the Moon. Next, Google Lunar XPRIZE Team Hakuto's technology and current robotic set up will be given. Finally, TEAM HAKUTO's 2017 Lunar mission plan will be outlined, providing an overview of future architectures using future swarm robotics to search for, map and eventually exploit the resources and volatiles.

  2. White Sharks Exploit the Sun during Predatory Approaches.

    PubMed

    Huveneers, Charlie; Holman, Dirk; Robbins, Rachel; Fox, Andrew; Endler, John A; Taylor, Alex H

    2015-04-01

    There is no conclusive evidence of any nonhuman animal using the sun as part of its predation strategy. Here, we show that the world's largest predatory fish-the white shark (Carcharodon carcharias)-exploits the sun when approaching baits by positioning the sun directly behind them. On sunny days, sharks reversed their direction of approach along an east-west axis from morning to afternoon but had uniformly distributed approach directions during overcast conditions. These results show that white sharks have sufficient behavioral flexibility to exploit fluctuating environmental features when predating. This sun-tracking predation strategy has a number of potential functional roles, including improvement of prey detection, avoidance of retinal overstimulation, and predator concealment.

  3. Exploitation of puddles for breakthroughs in claustrum research

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, John-Irwin; Fenske, Brian A.; Jaswa, Amar S.; Morris, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Since its first identification as a thin strip of gray matter enclosed between stretches of neighboring fiber bundles, the claustrum has been considered impossible to study by many modern techniques that need a certain roominess of tissue for their application. Known as the front wall, vormauren in German from 1822, and still called avant-mur in French, we here propose a means for breaking into and through this wall, by utilizing the instances where the claustral tissue itself has broken free into more spacious dimensions. This has occurred several times in the evolution of modern mammals, and all that needs be done is to exploit these natural expansions in order to take advantage of a great panoply of technological advances now at our disposal. So here we review the kinds of breakout “puddles” that await productive exploitation, to bring our knowledge of structure and function up to the level enjoyed for other more accessible regions of the brain. PMID:24860441

  4. Mathematical modeling of the behavior of geothermal systems under exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1982-01-01

    Analytical and numerical methods have been used in this investigation to model the behavior of geothermal systems under exploitation. The work is divided into three parts: (1) development of a numerical code, (2) theoretical studies of geothermal systems, and (3) field applications. A new single-phase three-dimensional simulator, capable of solving heat and mass flow problems in a saturated, heterogeneous porous or fractured medium has been developed. The simulator uses the integrated finite difference method for formulating the governing equations and an efficient sparse solver for the solution of the linearized equations. In the theoretical studies, various reservoir engineering problems have been examined. These include (a) well-test analysis, (b) exploitation strategies, (c) injection into fractured rocks, and (d) fault-charged geothermal reservoirs.

  5. Online child sexual exploitation: prevalence, process, and offender characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kloess, Juliane A; Beech, Anthony R; Harkins, Leigh

    2014-04-01

    This review provides an overview of current knowledge and understanding of the process of sexual grooming and exploitation of children via the Internet. Specifically, the prevalence of online sexual grooming and exploitation is explored as well as associated challenges relating to the identification of its occurrence. This is complemented by a detailed outline and discussion of the process, both online and in the physical world, and legal responses to this phenomenon. A number of factors are examined to provide an explanation of the facilitating and contributing role they may play in offense processes online. Finally, current typologies are discussed in relation to characteristics of Internet offenders in general and "groomers"/chat room offenders specifically. This review concludes by offering suggestions for future research.

  6. Online child sexual exploitation: prevalence, process, and offender characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kloess, Juliane A; Beech, Anthony R; Harkins, Leigh

    2014-04-01

    This review provides an overview of current knowledge and understanding of the process of sexual grooming and exploitation of children via the Internet. Specifically, the prevalence of online sexual grooming and exploitation is explored as well as associated challenges relating to the identification of its occurrence. This is complemented by a detailed outline and discussion of the process, both online and in the physical world, and legal responses to this phenomenon. A number of factors are examined to provide an explanation of the facilitating and contributing role they may play in offense processes online. Finally, current typologies are discussed in relation to characteristics of Internet offenders in general and "groomers"/chat room offenders specifically. This review concludes by offering suggestions for future research. PMID:24608540

  7. Exploitation of evolutionarily conserved amoeba and mammalian processes by Legionella.

    PubMed

    Al-Quadan, Tasneem; Price, Christopher T; Abu Kwaik, Yousef

    2012-06-01

    Legionella pneumophila proliferates within various protists and metazoan cells, where a cadre of ∼300 effectors is injected into the host cell by the defect in organelle trafficking/intracellular multiplication (Dot/Icm) type IVB translocation system. Interkingdom horizontal gene transfer of genes of protists and their subsequent convergent evolution to become translocated effectors has probably enabled L. pneumophila to adapt to the intracellular life within various protists and metazoan cells through exploitation of evolutionarily eukaryotic processes, such as endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi vesicle traffic, phosphoinositol metabolism, AMPylation, deAMPylation, prenylation, polyubiquitination, proteasomal degradation and cytosolic amino- and oligo-peptidases. This is highlighted by the ankyrin B (AnkB) F-box effector that exploits multiple conserved eukaryotic machineries to generate high levels of free amino acids as sources of carbon and energy essential for intracellular proliferation in protists and metazoan cells and for manifestation of pulmonary disease in mammals.

  8. Exploiting endobiotic metabolic pathways to target xenobiotic antioxidants to mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Anders, M W

    2013-09-01

    Oxidative stress plays a role in a range of human disease entities. Hence, strategies to target antioxidants to mitochondria are an active area of investigation. Triphenylphosphonium cation-based antioxidants and SS-peptides have been described and show significant uptake by mitochondria and effectiveness in animal models of conditions linked to oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis that the mitochondrial β-oxidation pathway could be exploited to activate the antioxidant phenolic and methimazole prodrugs. Most compounds studied underwent mitochondrial biotransformation to release their antioxidant moieties, and some were cytoprotective in a hypoxia-reoxygenation model in rat cardiomyocytes. These results demonstrate the feasibility of exploiting mitochondrial bioactivation reactions for targeted drug delivery.

  9. Exploiting calnexin expression on phagosomes to isolate Leishmania parasitophorous vacuoles.

    PubMed

    Kima, Peter E; Dunn, Waltraud

    2005-04-01

    We have developed a simple scheme for the isolation of parasitophorous vacuoles (PVs) that harbor Leishmania parasites. This scheme exploits the observation that PVs display endoplasmic reticulum molecules, including the transmembrane protein calnexin. The presence of calnexin at the surface of the PVs distinguishes them from late endosomal vesicles of comparable density. As a result, PVs can be isolated by calnexin affinity selection from an enriched PV fraction obtained by sucrose density fractionation.

  10. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Zehner, Claus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Bojkov, Bojan; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Goryl, Philippe; Pinnock, Simon

    2015-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS,ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan has been established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. The 2015 SEOM work plan is covering the organisation of three Science users consultation workshops for Sentinel1/3/5P , the launch of new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels, the development of open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes, the organisation of advanced international training courses, summer schools and educational materials, as well as activities for promoting the scientific use of EO data. The first SEOM projects have been tendered since 2013 including the development of Sentinel toolboxes, advanced INSAR algorithms for Sentinel-1 TOPS data exploitation, Improved Atmospheric Spectroscopic data-base (IAS), as well as grouped studies for Sentinel-1, -2, and -3 land and ocean applications and studies for exploiting the synergy between the Sentinels. The status and first results from these SEOM projects will be presented and an outlook for upcoming SEOM studies will be given.

  11. Abuse, neglect, and exploitation: considerations in aging with lifelong disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ansello, Edward F; O'Neill, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Persons with lifelong disabilities are newcomers to later life. Many are relatively high functioning, engaged, and happy members of their communities. Some are, and have been, victims of abuse, neglect, and exploitation. This article reviews factors that contribute to the current incomplete picture of the victimization of these older adults, reports the state of existing data on prevalence and treatments, and suggests initiatives to strengthen continued community living and improve both prevention and identification strategies.

  12. Architectures for intelligent robots in the age of exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E. L.; Ali, S. M. Alhaj; Ghaffari, M.; Liao, X.; Sarkar, Saurabh; Mathur, Kovid; Tennety, Srinivas

    2009-01-01

    History shows that problems that cause human confusion often lead to inventions to solve the problems, which then leads to exploitation of the invention, creating a confusion-invention-exploitation cycle. Robotics, which started as a new type of universal machine implemented with a computer controlled mechanism in the 1960's, has progressed from an Age of Over-expectation, a Time of Nightmare, an Age of Realism, and is now entering the Age of Exploitation. The purpose of this paper is to propose architecture for the modern intelligent robot in which sensors permit adaptation to changes in the environment are combined with a "creative controller" that permits adaptive critic, neural network learning, and a dynamic database that permits task selection and criteria adjustment. This ideal model may be compared to various controllers that have been implemented using Ethernet, CAN Bus and JAUS architectures and to modern, embedded, mobile computing architectures. Several prototypes and simulations are considered in view of peta-computing. The significance of this comparison is that it provides some insights that may be useful in designing future robots for various manufacturing, medical, and defense applications.

  13. Distinct Urban Mines: Exploiting secondary resources in unique anthropogenic spaces.

    PubMed

    Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D; Whitlock, G

    2015-11-01

    Fear of scarcity of resources highlight the need to exploit secondary materials from urban mines in the anthroposphere. Analogous to primary mines rich in one type of material (e.g. copper, gold, etc.), some urban mines are unique/distinct. We introduce, illustrate and discuss the concept of Distinct Urban Mines (DUM). Using the example of a university DUM in the UK, analogous to a primary mine, we illustrate potential product/material yields in respect of size, concentration and spatial location of the mine. Product ownership and replacement cycles for 17 high-value electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) among students showed that 20 tonnes of valuable e-waste were in stockpile in this DUM and a further 87 tonnes would 'soon' be available for exploitation. We address the opportunities and challenges of exploiting DUMs and conclude that they are readily available reservoirs for resource recovery. Two original contributions arise from this work: (i) a novel approach to urban mining with a potential for maximising resource recovery within the anthroposphere is conceptualised; and (ii) previously unavailable data for high-value products for a typical university DUM are presented and analysed.

  14. Harsh childhood environmental characteristics predict exploitation and retaliation in humans

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Michael E.; Pedersen, Eric J.; Schroder, Jaclyn M.; Tabak, Benjamin A.; Carver, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    Across and within societies, people vary in their propensities towards exploitative and retaliatory defection in potentially cooperative interaction. We hypothesized that this variation reflects adaptive responses to variation in cues during childhood that life will be harsh, unstable and short—cues that probabilistically indicate that it is in one's fitness interests to exploit co-operators and to retaliate quickly against defectors. Here, we show that childhood exposure to family neglect, conflict and violence, and to neighbourhood crime, were positively associated for men (but not women) with exploitation of an interaction partner and retaliatory defection after that partner began to defect. The associations between childhood environment and both forms of defection for men appeared to be mediated by participants' endorsement of a ‘code of honour’. These results suggest that individual differences in mutual benefit cooperation are not merely due to genetic noise, random developmental variation or the operation of domain-general cultural learning mechanisms, but rather, might reflect the adaptive calibration of social strategies to local social–ecological conditions. PMID:23118435

  15. Relativistic Quantum Metrology: Exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Bruschi, David Edward; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes, Ivette

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for relativistic quantum metrology that is useful for both Earth-based and space-based technologies. Quantum metrology has been so far successfully applied to design precision instruments such as clocks and sensors which outperform classical devices by exploiting quantum properties. There are advanced plans to implement these and other quantum technologies in space, for instance Space-QUEST and Space Optical Clock projects intend to implement quantum communications and quantum clocks at regimes where relativity starts to kick in. However, typical setups do not take into account the effects of relativity on quantum properties. To include and exploit these effects, we introduce techniques for the application of metrology to quantum field theory. Quantum field theory properly incorporates quantum theory and relativity, in particular, at regimes where space-based experiments take place. This framework allows for high precision estimation of parameters that appear in quantum field theory including proper times and accelerations. Indeed, the techniques can be applied to develop a novel generation of relativistic quantum technologies for gravimeters, clocks and sensors. As an example, we present a high precision device which in principle improves the state-of-the-art in quantum accelerometers by exploiting relativistic effects. PMID:24851858

  16. Neanderthal exploitation of ibex and chamois in southwestern Europe.

    PubMed

    Yravedra, José; Cobo-Sánchez, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that Neanderthals had a diverse and flexible diet. They exploited a wide range of resources from large proboscideans to small animals like turtles, rabbits, and marine species. Here, we discuss the importance of ibex and chamois in Neanderthal hunting strategies. The exploitation of both animals has traditionally been regarded as typical of Homo sapiens hunting behavior but was not a feature of Neanderthal behavior, which was thought to have focused on other kinds of game like deer, horses or large bovids. Our analysis of an extensive sample of Middle Paleolithic sites with faunal remains in the Iberian Peninsula reveals that Iberian ibex and chamois were frequently present throughout this period. Statistical analyses allowed us to assess the conditions that might have favored the presence or absence of these animals in the sites, while the taphonomic analyses enabled us to address the issue of whether ibex and chamois were indeed hunted by Neanderthals in the Iberian Peninsula. Our results indicate a better representation of both species in rocky and mountainous areas. The taphonomy of some sites reveals that chamois and ibex were hunted by Neanderthals, who showed great adaptive capacities to a wide variety of environments, including mountainous habitats. In contrast, other sites with favorable ecological conditions for ibex and chamois where these animals were not exploited by Neanderthals, who chose to hunt other species like deer, horses or aurochs, suggest behavioral complexity and large versatility. PMID:25481629

  17. Exploitation of genetically modified inoculants for industrial ecology applications.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, John P; Walsh, Ultan F; O'Donnell, Anne; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; O'Gara, Fergal

    2002-08-01

    The major growth seen in the biotechnology industry in recent decades has largely been driven by the exploitation of genetic engineering techniques. The initial benefits have been predominantly in the biomedical area, with products such as vaccines and hormones that have received broad public approval. In the environmental biotechnology and industrial ecology sectors, biotechnology has the potential to make significant advances through the use of genetically modified (GM) microbial inoculants that can reduce agri-chemical usage or remediate polluted environments. Although many GM inoculants have been developed and tested under laboratory conditions, commercial exploitation has lagged behind. Here, we review scientific and regulatory requirements that must be satisfied as part of that exploitation process. Particular attention is paid to new European Union (EU) regulations (Directives) that govern the testing and release of genetically modified organisms and microbial plant protection inoculants in the EU. With regard to the release of GM inoculants, the impact of the inoculant and the fate of modified genes are important concerns. Long term monitoring of release sites is necessary to address these issues. Data are reported from the monitoring of a site 6 years after release of GM Sinorhizobium meliloti strains. It was found that despite the absence of a host plant, the GM strains persisted in the soil for at least 6 years. Horizontal transfer and microevolution of a GM plasmid between S. meliloti strains was also observed. These data illustrate the importance of assessing the long-term persistence of GM inoculants. PMID:12448755

  18. Distinct Urban Mines: Exploiting secondary resources in unique anthropogenic spaces.

    PubMed

    Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D; Whitlock, G

    2015-11-01

    Fear of scarcity of resources highlight the need to exploit secondary materials from urban mines in the anthroposphere. Analogous to primary mines rich in one type of material (e.g. copper, gold, etc.), some urban mines are unique/distinct. We introduce, illustrate and discuss the concept of Distinct Urban Mines (DUM). Using the example of a university DUM in the UK, analogous to a primary mine, we illustrate potential product/material yields in respect of size, concentration and spatial location of the mine. Product ownership and replacement cycles for 17 high-value electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) among students showed that 20 tonnes of valuable e-waste were in stockpile in this DUM and a further 87 tonnes would 'soon' be available for exploitation. We address the opportunities and challenges of exploiting DUMs and conclude that they are readily available reservoirs for resource recovery. Two original contributions arise from this work: (i) a novel approach to urban mining with a potential for maximising resource recovery within the anthroposphere is conceptualised; and (ii) previously unavailable data for high-value products for a typical university DUM are presented and analysed. PMID:26066575

  19. Relativistic quantum metrology: exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Bruschi, David Edward; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes, Ivette

    2014-05-22

    We present a framework for relativistic quantum metrology that is useful for both Earth-based and space-based technologies. Quantum metrology has been so far successfully applied to design precision instruments such as clocks and sensors which outperform classical devices by exploiting quantum properties. There are advanced plans to implement these and other quantum technologies in space, for instance Space-QUEST and Space Optical Clock projects intend to implement quantum communications and quantum clocks at regimes where relativity starts to kick in. However, typical setups do not take into account the effects of relativity on quantum properties. To include and exploit these effects, we introduce techniques for the application of metrology to quantum field theory. Quantum field theory properly incorporates quantum theory and relativity, in particular, at regimes where space-based experiments take place. This framework allows for high precision estimation of parameters that appear in quantum field theory including proper times and accelerations. Indeed, the techniques can be applied to develop a novel generation of relativistic quantum technologies for gravimeters, clocks and sensors. As an example, we present a high precision device which in principle improves the state-of-the-art in quantum accelerometers by exploiting relativistic effects.

  20. Relativistic quantum metrology: exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Bruschi, David Edward; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes, Ivette

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for relativistic quantum metrology that is useful for both Earth-based and space-based technologies. Quantum metrology has been so far successfully applied to design precision instruments such as clocks and sensors which outperform classical devices by exploiting quantum properties. There are advanced plans to implement these and other quantum technologies in space, for instance Space-QUEST and Space Optical Clock projects intend to implement quantum communications and quantum clocks at regimes where relativity starts to kick in. However, typical setups do not take into account the effects of relativity on quantum properties. To include and exploit these effects, we introduce techniques for the application of metrology to quantum field theory. Quantum field theory properly incorporates quantum theory and relativity, in particular, at regimes where space-based experiments take place. This framework allows for high precision estimation of parameters that appear in quantum field theory including proper times and accelerations. Indeed, the techniques can be applied to develop a novel generation of relativistic quantum technologies for gravimeters, clocks and sensors. As an example, we present a high precision device which in principle improves the state-of-the-art in quantum accelerometers by exploiting relativistic effects. PMID:24851858

  1. Exploitation of marine gas hydrates: Benefits and risks (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallmann, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Vast amounts of natural gas are stored in marine gas hydrates deposited at continental margins. The global inventory of carbon bound as methane in gas hydrates is currently estimated as 1000 × 500 Gt. Large-scale national research projects located mostly in South-East Asia but also in North America and Europe are aiming to exploit these ice-like solids as new unconventional resource of natural gas. Japan, South Korea and other Asian countries are taking the lead because their national waters harbor exploitable gas hydrate deposits which could be developed to reduce the dependency of these nations on costly LGN imports. In 2013, the first successful production test was performed off Japan at water depths of ca. 1000 m demonstrating that natural gas can be released and produced from marine hydrates by lowering the pressure in the sub-seabed hydrate reservoirs. In an alternative approach, CO2 from coal power plans and other industrial sources is used to release natural gas (methane) from hydrates while CO2 is bound and stored in the sub-surface as solid hydrate. These new approaches and technologies are still in an early pre-commercial phase; the costs of field development and gas production exceed the value of natural gas being produced from the slowly dissociating hydrates. However, new technologies are currently under development in the German SUGAR project and elsewhere to reduce costs and enhance gas production rates such that gas hydrates may become commercially exploitable over the coming decade(s). The exploitation of marine gas hydrates may help to reduce CO2 emissions from the fossil fuel sector if the produced natural gas is used to replace coal and/or LNG. Hydrate development could also provide important incentives for carbon capture technologies since CO2 can be used to produce natural gas from hydrates. However, leakage of gas may occur during the production process while slope failure may be induced by the accompanying dissociation/conversion of gas

  2. Widespread exploitation of the honeybee by early Neolithic farmers.

    PubMed

    Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Regert, Martine; Evershed, Richard P; Outram, Alan K; Cramp, Lucy J E; Decavallas, Orestes; Dunne, Julie; Gerbault, Pascale; Mileto, Simona; Mirabaud, Sigrid; Pääkkönen, Mirva; Smyth, Jessica; Šoberl, Lucija; Whelton, Helen L; Alday-Ruiz, Alfonso; Asplund, Henrik; Bartkowiak, Marta; Bayer-Niemeier, Eva; Belhouchet, Lotfi; Bernardini, Federico; Budja, Mihael; Cooney, Gabriel; Cubas, Miriam; Danaher, Ed M; Diniz, Mariana; Domboróczki, László; Fabbri, Cristina; González-Urquijo, Jesus E; Guilaine, Jean; Hachi, Slimane; Hartwell, Barrie N; Hofmann, Daniela; Hohle, Isabel; Ibáñez, Juan J; Karul, Necmi; Kherbouche, Farid; Kiely, Jacinta; Kotsakis, Kostas; Lueth, Friedrich; Mallory, James P; Manen, Claire; Marciniak, Arkadiusz; Maurice-Chabard, Brigitte; Mc Gonigle, Martin A; Mulazzani, Simone; Özdoğan, Mehmet; Perić, Olga S; Perić, Slaviša R; Petrasch, Jörg; Pétrequin, Anne-Marie; Pétrequin, Pierre; Poensgen, Ulrike; Pollard, C Joshua; Poplin, François; Radi, Giovanna; Stadler, Peter; Stäuble, Harald; Tasić, Nenad; Urem-Kotsou, Dushka; Vuković, Jasna B; Walsh, Fintan; Whittle, Alasdair; Wolfram, Sabine; Zapata-Peña, Lydia; Zoughlami, Jamel

    2015-11-12

    The pressures on honeybee (Apis mellifera) populations, resulting from threats by modern pesticides, parasites, predators and diseases, have raised awareness of the economic importance and critical role this insect plays in agricultural societies across the globe. However, the association of humans with A. mellifera predates post-industrial-revolution agriculture, as evidenced by the widespread presence of ancient Egyptian bee iconography dating to the Old Kingdom (approximately 2400 BC). There are also indications of Stone Age people harvesting bee products; for example, honey hunting is interpreted from rock art in a prehistoric Holocene context and a beeswax find in a pre-agriculturalist site. However, when and where the regular association of A. mellifera with agriculturalists emerged is unknown. One of the major products of A. mellifera is beeswax, which is composed of a complex suite of lipids including n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids and fatty acyl wax esters. The composition is highly constant as it is determined genetically through the insect's biochemistry. Thus, the chemical 'fingerprint' of beeswax provides a reliable basis for detecting this commodity in organic residues preserved at archaeological sites, which we now use to trace the exploitation by humans of A. mellifera temporally and spatially. Here we present secure identifications of beeswax in lipid residues preserved in pottery vessels of Neolithic Old World farmers. The geographical range of bee product exploitation is traced in Neolithic Europe, the Near East and North Africa, providing the palaeoecological range of honeybees during prehistory. Temporally, we demonstrate that bee products were exploited continuously, and probably extensively in some regions, at least from the seventh millennium cal BC, likely fulfilling a variety of technological and cultural functions. The close association of A. mellifera with Neolithic farming communities dates to the early onset of agriculture and may provide

  3. Entropy principle, non-regular processes, and generalized exploitation procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triani, V.; Cimmelli, V. A.

    2012-06-01

    The classical Coleman-Noll approach to the exploitation of the entropy principle regards the classical balances of mass, linear and angular momentum and energy as differential constraints for the entropy inequality, and presupposes that the second law of thermodynamics is a restriction on the constitutive equations describing the material properties [B. D. Coleman and W. Noll, "The thermodynamics of elastic materials with heat conduction and viscosity," Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. 13, 167-178 (1963), 10.1007/BF01262690]. In 1996, Muschik and Ehrentraut proved that this presupposition may be confirmed by a rigorous proof, provided that an amendment to the classical second law of thermodynamics, which asserts that, except in equilibria, reversible process directions in state space do not exist, is postulated ["An amendment to the second law," J. Non-Equilib. Thermodyn. 21, 175-192 (1996), 10.1515/jnet.1996.21.2.175]. In their paper, the authors considered regular processes only. In a recent article [V. Triani and V. A. Cimmelli, "Interpretation of second law of thermodynamics in the presence of interfaces," Continuum. Mech. Thermodyn. 24, 165-174 (2012), 10.1007/s00161-011-0231-8], we proved that the result above remains valid in the presence of interfaces across which the unknown fields suffer jump discontinuities. Here, we show that the same conclusions achieved by Muschik and Ehrentraut and Triani and Cimmelli hold when the classical Coleman-Noll and Liu ["Method of Lagrange multipliers for exploitation of the entropy principle," Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. 46, 131-148 (1972), 10.1007/BF00250688] procedures for the exploitation of the second law, are generalized by considering also the gradients of the fundamental balance equations as constraints for the entropy inequality.

  4. Widespread exploitation of the honeybee by early Neolithic farmers.

    PubMed

    Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Regert, Martine; Evershed, Richard P; Outram, Alan K; Cramp, Lucy J E; Decavallas, Orestes; Dunne, Julie; Gerbault, Pascale; Mileto, Simona; Mirabaud, Sigrid; Pääkkönen, Mirva; Smyth, Jessica; Šoberl, Lucija; Whelton, Helen L; Alday-Ruiz, Alfonso; Asplund, Henrik; Bartkowiak, Marta; Bayer-Niemeier, Eva; Belhouchet, Lotfi; Bernardini, Federico; Budja, Mihael; Cooney, Gabriel; Cubas, Miriam; Danaher, Ed M; Diniz, Mariana; Domboróczki, László; Fabbri, Cristina; González-Urquijo, Jesus E; Guilaine, Jean; Hachi, Slimane; Hartwell, Barrie N; Hofmann, Daniela; Hohle, Isabel; Ibáñez, Juan J; Karul, Necmi; Kherbouche, Farid; Kiely, Jacinta; Kotsakis, Kostas; Lueth, Friedrich; Mallory, James P; Manen, Claire; Marciniak, Arkadiusz; Maurice-Chabard, Brigitte; Mc Gonigle, Martin A; Mulazzani, Simone; Özdoğan, Mehmet; Perić, Olga S; Perić, Slaviša R; Petrasch, Jörg; Pétrequin, Anne-Marie; Pétrequin, Pierre; Poensgen, Ulrike; Pollard, C Joshua; Poplin, François; Radi, Giovanna; Stadler, Peter; Stäuble, Harald; Tasić, Nenad; Urem-Kotsou, Dushka; Vuković, Jasna B; Walsh, Fintan; Whittle, Alasdair; Wolfram, Sabine; Zapata-Peña, Lydia; Zoughlami, Jamel

    2015-11-12

    The pressures on honeybee (Apis mellifera) populations, resulting from threats by modern pesticides, parasites, predators and diseases, have raised awareness of the economic importance and critical role this insect plays in agricultural societies across the globe. However, the association of humans with A. mellifera predates post-industrial-revolution agriculture, as evidenced by the widespread presence of ancient Egyptian bee iconography dating to the Old Kingdom (approximately 2400 BC). There are also indications of Stone Age people harvesting bee products; for example, honey hunting is interpreted from rock art in a prehistoric Holocene context and a beeswax find in a pre-agriculturalist site. However, when and where the regular association of A. mellifera with agriculturalists emerged is unknown. One of the major products of A. mellifera is beeswax, which is composed of a complex suite of lipids including n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids and fatty acyl wax esters. The composition is highly constant as it is determined genetically through the insect's biochemistry. Thus, the chemical 'fingerprint' of beeswax provides a reliable basis for detecting this commodity in organic residues preserved at archaeological sites, which we now use to trace the exploitation by humans of A. mellifera temporally and spatially. Here we present secure identifications of beeswax in lipid residues preserved in pottery vessels of Neolithic Old World farmers. The geographical range of bee product exploitation is traced in Neolithic Europe, the Near East and North Africa, providing the palaeoecological range of honeybees during prehistory. Temporally, we demonstrate that bee products were exploited continuously, and probably extensively in some regions, at least from the seventh millennium cal BC, likely fulfilling a variety of technological and cultural functions. The close association of A. mellifera with Neolithic farming communities dates to the early onset of agriculture and may provide

  5. Human collective intelligence under dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Toyokawa, Wataru; Kim, Hye-rin; Kameda, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    The exploration-exploitation dilemma is a recurrent adaptive problem for humans as well as non-human animals. Given a fixed time/energy budget, every individual faces a fundamental trade-off between exploring for better resources and exploiting known resources to optimize overall performance under uncertainty. Colonies of eusocial insects are known to solve this dilemma successfully via evolved coordination mechanisms that function at the collective level. For humans and other non-eusocial species, however, this dilemma operates within individuals as well as between individuals, because group members may be motivated to take excessive advantage of others' exploratory findings through social learning. Thus, even though social learning can reduce collective exploration costs, the emergence of disproportionate "information scroungers" may severely undermine its potential benefits. We investigated experimentally whether social learning opportunities might improve the performance of human participants working on a "multi-armed bandit" problem in groups, where they could learn about each other's past choice behaviors. Results showed that, even though information scroungers emerged frequently in groups, social learning opportunities reduced total group exploration time while increasing harvesting from better options, and consequentially improved collective performance. Surprisingly, enriching social information by allowing participants to observe others' evaluations of chosen options (e.g., Amazon's 5-star rating system) in addition to choice-frequency information had a detrimental impact on performance compared to the simpler situation with only the choice-frequency information. These results indicate that humans groups can handle the fundamental "dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas" successfully, and that social learning about simple choice-frequencies can help produce collective intelligence. PMID:24755892

  6. Enhancing data exploitation through DTN-based data transmission protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daglis, Ioannis A.; Tsaoussidis, Vassilis; Rontogiannis, Athanasios; Balasis, Georgios; Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Paronis, Dimitrios; Sykioti, Olga; Tsinganos, Antonios

    2014-05-01

    Data distribution and data access are major issues in space sciences and geosciences as they strongly influence the degree of data exploitation. Processing and analysis of large volumes of Earth observation and space/planetary data face two major impediments: limited access capabilities due to narrow connectivity windows between spacecraft and ground receiving stations and lack of sufficient communication and dissemination mechanisms between space data receiving centres and the end-user community. Real-time data assimilation that would be critical in a number of forecasting capabilities is particularly affected by such limitations. The FP7-Space project "Space-Data Routers" (SDR) has the aim of allowing space agencies, academic institutes and research centres to disseminate/share space data generated by single or multiple missions, in an efficient, secure and automated manner. The approach of SDR relies on space internetworking - and in particular on Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN), which marks the new era in space communications, unifies space and earth communication infrastructures and delivers a set of tools and protocols for space-data exploitation. The project includes the definition of limitations imposed by typical space mission scenarios in which the National Observatory of Athens is currently involved, including space and planetary exploration, as well as satellite-supported geoscience applications. In this paper, we present the mission scenarios, the SDR-application and the evaluation of the associated impact from the space-data router enhancements. The work leading to this paper has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2010-1) under grant agreement no. 263330 for the SDR (Space-Data Routers for Exploiting Space Data) collaborative research project. This paper reflects only the authors' views and the Union is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

  7. Biosonar navigation above water II: exploiting mirror images.

    PubMed

    Genzel, Daria; Hoffmann, Susanne; Prosch, Selina; Firzlaff, Uwe; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2015-02-15

    As in vision, acoustic signals can be reflected by a smooth surface creating an acoustic mirror image. Water bodies represent the only naturally occurring horizontal and acoustically smooth surfaces. Echolocating bats flying over smooth water bodies encounter echo-acoustic mirror images of objects above the surface. Here, we combined an electrophysiological approach with a behavioral experimental paradigm to investigate whether bats can exploit echo-acoustic mirror images for navigation and how these mirrorlike echo-acoustic cues are encoded in their auditory cortex. In an obstacle-avoidance task where the obstacles could only be detected via their echo-acoustic mirror images, most bats spontaneously exploited these cues for navigation. Sonar ensonifications along the bats' flight path revealed conspicuous changes of the reflection patterns with slightly increased target strengths at relatively long echo delays corresponding to the longer acoustic paths from the mirrored obstacles. Recordings of cortical spatiotemporal response maps (STRMs) describe the tuning of a unit across the dimensions of elevation and time. The majority of cortical single and multiunits showed a special spatiotemporal pattern of excitatory areas in their STRM indicating a preference for echoes with (relative to the setup dimensions) long delays and, interestingly, from low elevations. This neural preference could effectively encode a reflection pattern as it would be perceived by an echolocating bat detecting an object mirrored from below. The current study provides both behavioral and neurophysiological evidence that echo-acoustic mirror images can be exploited by bats for obstacle avoidance. This capability effectively supports echo-acoustic navigation in highly cluttered natural habitats. PMID:25411457

  8. Biosonar navigation above water II: exploiting mirror images.

    PubMed

    Genzel, Daria; Hoffmann, Susanne; Prosch, Selina; Firzlaff, Uwe; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2015-02-15

    As in vision, acoustic signals can be reflected by a smooth surface creating an acoustic mirror image. Water bodies represent the only naturally occurring horizontal and acoustically smooth surfaces. Echolocating bats flying over smooth water bodies encounter echo-acoustic mirror images of objects above the surface. Here, we combined an electrophysiological approach with a behavioral experimental paradigm to investigate whether bats can exploit echo-acoustic mirror images for navigation and how these mirrorlike echo-acoustic cues are encoded in their auditory cortex. In an obstacle-avoidance task where the obstacles could only be detected via their echo-acoustic mirror images, most bats spontaneously exploited these cues for navigation. Sonar ensonifications along the bats' flight path revealed conspicuous changes of the reflection patterns with slightly increased target strengths at relatively long echo delays corresponding to the longer acoustic paths from the mirrored obstacles. Recordings of cortical spatiotemporal response maps (STRMs) describe the tuning of a unit across the dimensions of elevation and time. The majority of cortical single and multiunits showed a special spatiotemporal pattern of excitatory areas in their STRM indicating a preference for echoes with (relative to the setup dimensions) long delays and, interestingly, from low elevations. This neural preference could effectively encode a reflection pattern as it would be perceived by an echolocating bat detecting an object mirrored from below. The current study provides both behavioral and neurophysiological evidence that echo-acoustic mirror images can be exploited by bats for obstacle avoidance. This capability effectively supports echo-acoustic navigation in highly cluttered natural habitats.

  9. Human Collective Intelligence under Dual Exploration-Exploitation Dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Toyokawa, Wataru; Kim, Hye-rin; Kameda, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    The exploration-exploitation dilemma is a recurrent adaptive problem for humans as well as non-human animals. Given a fixed time/energy budget, every individual faces a fundamental trade-off between exploring for better resources and exploiting known resources to optimize overall performance under uncertainty. Colonies of eusocial insects are known to solve this dilemma successfully via evolved coordination mechanisms that function at the collective level. For humans and other non-eusocial species, however, this dilemma operates within individuals as well as between individuals, because group members may be motivated to take excessive advantage of others' exploratory findings through social learning. Thus, even though social learning can reduce collective exploration costs, the emergence of disproportionate “information scroungers” may severely undermine its potential benefits. We investigated experimentally whether social learning opportunities might improve the performance of human participants working on a “multi-armed bandit” problem in groups, where they could learn about each other's past choice behaviors. Results showed that, even though information scroungers emerged frequently in groups, social learning opportunities reduced total group exploration time while increasing harvesting from better options, and consequentially improved collective performance. Surprisingly, enriching social information by allowing participants to observe others' evaluations of chosen options (e.g., Amazon's 5-star rating system) in addition to choice-frequency information had a detrimental impact on performance compared to the simpler situation with only the choice-frequency information. These results indicate that humans groups can handle the fundamental “dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas” successfully, and that social learning about simple choice-frequencies can help produce collective intelligence. PMID:24755892

  10. The strv 1 microsatellite semes: Exploiting the geosynchronous transfer orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blott, R. J.; Wells, N. S.; Eves, J.

    Following 3 successful years in orbit, the UK Defence Evaluation and Research Agency's two Space Technology Research Vehicle microsatellites (STRV) 1 a&b will be followed by a second mission. STRV 1 c&d are now in construction for a planned launch in 1999. The new mission, which includes 22 experimental payloads and developmental spacecraft bus technologies from European, US and Canadian military, civil and commercial sponsors, exploits the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) to offer an affordable, working space research tool for both government and industry. The STRV 1 programme objective is to promote the enhancement of military and civil space communications, remote sensing and navigation capabilities at reduced cost and risk. Additional aims are to help industry to achieve commercial benefit from investment in emerging technologies and to develop the synergy between government, commercial and civilian space applications. The paper explains how STRV 1 exploits the variable altitude and high radiation environment of GTO to investigate the performance of emerging technologies and techniques. This includes the accelerated life testing of components and materials, such as infra-red detectors, advanced microprocessors and solar cell technologies, and the prototyping of new techniques to improve communications and spacecraft autonomy. Experiments include implementing a secure version of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) packet telecommand and telemetry standards, further development of the Internet-based Space Communication Protocol Standards (SCPS) and evaluating the exploitation of the Global Positioning System (GPS) in geosynchronous orbit. The new mission also builds on and extends the comprehensive environmental monitoring achieved by STRV 1 a&b.

  11. Exploitation of Eukaryotic Subcellular Targeting Mechanisms by Bacterial Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Stuart W.; Galán, Jorge E.

    2013-01-01

    Several bacteria have evolved specialized secretion systems to deliver bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic cells with the capacity to modulate cellular pathways to promote bacterial survival and replication. The spatial and temporal context in which effectors exert their biochemical activities is critical for their function. Understanding the mechanisms that lead to their precise subcellular localization following delivery into host cells is essential for understanding effector function in the context of infection. Recent studies have shown that bacterial effectors exploit host cellular machinery to accurately target their biochemical activities within the host cell. PMID:23588250

  12. Questioning 'black humour': racial exploitation, media and health.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Darrin; Stolte, Ottilie

    2009-07-01

    This commentary explores the relevance of media racism to health psychology. While supporting Dr Estacio's call for health psychologists to get involved in promoting social justice via the media, we propose that health psychologists should not overstate the negative influence of the media on racism in society. Media content is complex and contradictory. It contains both racist and anti-racist representations. Challenging racism requires a conceptualization of links between the representational spaces provided by the media and the everyday geographic places within which inter-personal interactions and exploitation occur.

  13. Exploiting the Potential of Data Centers in the Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Yu-An; Liu, Xiaojing; Cao, Tengfei

    As the number of cloud computing data centers grows rapidly in recent years, from the perspective of smart grid, they are really large and noticeable electric load. In this paper, we focus on the important role and the potential of data centers as controllable loads in the smart grid. We reviewed relevant research in the area of letting data centers participate in the ancillary services market and demand response programs of the grid, and further investigate the possibility of exploiting the impact of data center placement on the grid. Various opportunities and challenges are summarized, which could provide more chances for researches to explore this field.

  14. On the Exploitation of Sensitivity Derivatives for Improving Sampling Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Yanzhao; Hussaini, M. Yousuff; Zang, Thomas A.

    2003-01-01

    Many application codes, such as finite-element structural analyses and computational fluid dynamics codes, are capable of producing many sensitivity derivatives at a small fraction of the cost of the underlying analysis. This paper describes a simple variance reduction method that exploits such inexpensive sensitivity derivatives to increase the accuracy of sampling methods. Three examples, including a finite-element structural analysis of an aircraft wing, are provided that illustrate an order of magnitude improvement in accuracy for both Monte Carlo and stratified sampling schemes.

  15. Exploiting personalized information for reagent selection in drug design.

    PubMed

    Boström, Jonas; Falk, Niklas; Tyrchan, Christian

    2011-03-01

    Drug discovery is currently being industrialized. This fact is confusing, given that it is happening in times when the rest of the world has entered the subsequent information age. Here, we introduce a concept and an infrastructure for the now popular and well-known recommender systems in the context of exploiting one of the cornerstones of drug design: chemical reagent selection. The goal is to create and transfer information openly to facilitate intuition and serendipity in drug design. The system is tailored to highlight reagents from our corporate reagent database; reagents that a chemist might not have considered based purely on their own experience.

  16. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element, first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Pinnock, Simon; Foumelis, Michael; Ramoino, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan is established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. During 2015 SEOM, Science users consultation workshops have been organized for Sentinel1/3/5P ( Fringe, S3 Symposium and Atmospheric science respectively) , new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels have been launched ( S3 for Science SAR Altimetry and Ocean Color , S2 for Science,) , open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes have been launched (in particular the SNAP/S1-2-3 Toolbox). In addition two advanced international training courses have been organized in Europe to exploit the new S1-A and S2-A data for Land and Ocean remote sensing (over 120 participants from 25 countries) as well as activities for promoting the first scientific results ( e.g. Chili Earthquake) . In addition the First EO Open Science 2.0 was organised at ESA in October 2015 with 225 participants from 31 countries bringing together young EO scientists and data scientists. During the conference precursor activities in EO Open Science and Innovation were presented, while developing a Roadmap preparing for future ESA scientific exploitation activities. Within the conference, the first

  17. Questioning 'black humour': racial exploitation, media and health.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Darrin; Stolte, Ottilie

    2009-07-01

    This commentary explores the relevance of media racism to health psychology. While supporting Dr Estacio's call for health psychologists to get involved in promoting social justice via the media, we propose that health psychologists should not overstate the negative influence of the media on racism in society. Media content is complex and contradictory. It contains both racist and anti-racist representations. Challenging racism requires a conceptualization of links between the representational spaces provided by the media and the everyday geographic places within which inter-personal interactions and exploitation occur. PMID:19515676

  18. Cheating by exploitation of developmental prestalk patterning in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Khare, Anupama; Shaulsky, Gad

    2010-02-01

    The cooperative developmental system of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is susceptible to exploitation by cheaters-strains that make more than their fair share of spores in chimerae. Laboratory screens in Dictyostelium have shown that the genetic potential for facultative cheating is high, and field surveys have shown that cheaters are abundant in nature, but the cheating mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we describe cheater C (chtC), a strong facultative cheater mutant that cheats by affecting prestalk differentiation. The chtC gene is developmentally regulated and its mRNA becomes stalk-enriched at the end of development. chtC mutants are defective in maintaining the prestalk cell fate as some of their prestalk cells transdifferentiate into prespore cells, but that defect does not affect gross developmental morphology or sporulation efficiency. In chimerae between wild-type and chtC mutant cells, the wild-type cells preferentially give rise to prestalk cells, and the chtC mutants increase their representation in the spore mass. Mixing chtC mutants with other cell-type proportioning mutants revealed that the cheating is directly related to the prestalk-differentiation propensity of the victim. These findings illustrate that a cheater can victimize cooperative strains by exploiting an established developmental pathway. PMID:20195510

  19. Herbivore exploits orally secreted bacteria to suppress plant defenses.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Scully, Erin D; Peiffer, Michelle; Tooker, John F; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

    2013-09-24

    Induced plant defenses in response to herbivore attack are modulated by cross-talk between jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathways. Oral secretions from some insect herbivores contain effectors that overcome these antiherbivore defenses. Herbivores possess diverse microbes in their digestive systems and these microbial symbionts can modify plant-insect interactions; however, the specific role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae exploit bacteria in their oral secretions to suppress antiherbivore defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We found that antibiotic-untreated larvae decreased production of JA and JA-responsive antiherbivore defenses, but increased SA accumulation and SA-responsive gene expression. Beetles benefit from down-regulating plant defenses by exhibiting enhanced larval growth. In SA-deficient plants, suppression was not observed, indicating that suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA-signaling pathway. Applying bacteria isolated from larval oral secretions to wounded plants confirmed that three microbial symbionts belonging to the genera Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter are responsible for defense suppression. Additionally, reinoculation of these bacteria to antibiotic-treated larvae restored their ability to suppress defenses. Flagellin isolated from Pseudomonas sp. was associated with defense suppression. Our findings show that the herbivore exploits symbiotic bacteria as a decoy to deceive plants into incorrectly perceiving the threat as microbial. By interfering with the normal perception of herbivory, beetles can evade antiherbivore defenses of its host. PMID:24019469

  20. Exploiting GPUs in Virtual Machine for BioCloud

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Heeseung; Jeong, Jinkyu; Lee, Myoungho; Choi, Dong Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Recently, biological applications start to be reimplemented into the applications which exploit many cores of GPUs for better computation performance. Therefore, by providing virtualized GPUs to VMs in cloud computing environment, many biological applications will willingly move into cloud environment to enhance their computation performance and utilize infinite cloud computing resource while reducing expenses for computations. In this paper, we propose a BioCloud system architecture that enables VMs to use GPUs in cloud environment. Because much of the previous research has focused on the sharing mechanism of GPUs among VMs, they cannot achieve enough performance for biological applications of which computation throughput is more crucial rather than sharing. The proposed system exploits the pass-through mode of PCI express (PCI-E) channel. By making each VM be able to access underlying GPUs directly, applications can show almost the same performance as when those are in native environment. In addition, our scheme multiplexes GPUs by using hot plug-in/out device features of PCI-E channel. By adding or removing GPUs in each VM in on-demand manner, VMs in the same physical host can time-share their GPUs. We implemented the proposed system using the Xen VMM and NVIDIA GPUs and showed that our prototype is highly effective for biological GPU applications in cloud environment. PMID:23710465

  1. Herbivore exploits orally secreted bacteria to suppress plant defenses

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Scully, Erin D.; Peiffer, Michelle; Tooker, John F.; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S.; Felton, Gary W.

    2013-01-01

    Induced plant defenses in response to herbivore attack are modulated by cross-talk between jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathways. Oral secretions from some insect herbivores contain effectors that overcome these antiherbivore defenses. Herbivores possess diverse microbes in their digestive systems and these microbial symbionts can modify plant–insect interactions; however, the specific role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae exploit bacteria in their oral secretions to suppress antiherbivore defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We found that antibiotic-untreated larvae decreased production of JA and JA-responsive antiherbivore defenses, but increased SA accumulation and SA-responsive gene expression. Beetles benefit from down-regulating plant defenses by exhibiting enhanced larval growth. In SA-deficient plants, suppression was not observed, indicating that suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA-signaling pathway. Applying bacteria isolated from larval oral secretions to wounded plants confirmed that three microbial symbionts belonging to the genera Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter are responsible for defense suppression. Additionally, reinoculation of these bacteria to antibiotic-treated larvae restored their ability to suppress defenses. Flagellin isolated from Pseudomonas sp. was associated with defense suppression. Our findings show that the herbivore exploits symbiotic bacteria as a decoy to deceive plants into incorrectly perceiving the threat as microbial. By interfering with the normal perception of herbivory, beetles can evade antiherbivore defenses of its host. PMID:24019469

  2. Exploitation of induced 2n-gametes for plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Younis, Adnan; Hwang, Yoon-Jung; Lim, Ki-Byung

    2014-02-01

    Unreduced gamete formation derived via abnormal meiotic cell division is an important approach to polyploidy breeding. This process is considered the main driving force in spontaneous polyploids formation in nature, but the potential application of these gametes to plant breeding has not been fully exploited. An effective mechanism for their artificial induction is needed to attain greater genetic variation and enable efficient use of unreduced gametes in breeding programs. Different approaches have been employed for 2n-pollen production including interspecific hybridization, manipulation of environmental factors and treatment with nitrous oxide, trifluralin, colchicine, oryzalin and other chemicals. These chemicals can act as a stimulus to produce viable 2n pollen; however, their exact mode of action, optimum concentration and developmental stages are still not known. Identification of efficient methods of inducing 2n-gamete formation will help increase pollen germination of sterile interspecific hybrids for inter-genomic recombination and introgression breeding to develop new polyploid cultivars and increase heterozygosity among plant populations. Additionally, the application of genomic tools and identification and isolation of genes and mechanisms involved in the induction of 2n-gamete will enable increased exploitation in different plant species, which will open new avenues for plant breeding. PMID:24311154

  3. REG and GREAT, two networks to optimize Gaia scientific exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueras, F.; Jordi, C.; Spanish Participants in Reg; Great

    2013-05-01

    The launch of Gaia satellite by the European Space Agency is a year ahead (last quarter of 2013), and Spanish and European community have already out in place two networks devoted to the preparation of the scientific exploitation of the data acquired by the satellite: GREAT (Gaia Research for European Astronomy Training), funded by the European Science Foundation and by Marie Curie Actions in its People 7th Programme, and REG (Spanish Network for the scientific exploitation of Gaia) funded by MINECO. These networks, which are open to the international community, have adopted the challenges of Gaia mission: to revolutionize our understanding of the Milky Way and its components, trace the distribution of dark matter in the local universe, validate and improve models of stellar structure and evolution, characterizing solar system objects, ... and many more. Both networks promote the close interaction among researchers of different institutes, by supporting short and long exchange visits, workshops, schools and large conferences. Currently, 128 Spanish people actively participate in the several working groups in GREAT and REG and 2 students are performing their PhD in the framework of the GREAT-ITN Spanish node. This paper provides detailed information about the structure of these networks, the Spanish participation, and present and future tasks that are foreseen.

  4. Exploiting similarity in turbulent shear flows for turbulence modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David F.; Harris, Julius E.; Hassan, H. A.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that current k-epsilon models cannot predict the flow over a flat plate and its wake. In an effort to address this issue and other issues associated with turbulence closure, a new approach for turbulence modeling is proposed which exploits similarities in the flow field. Thus, if we consider the flow over a flat plate and its wake, then in addition to taking advantage of the log-law region, we can exploit the fact that the flow becomes self-similar in the far wake. This latter behavior makes it possible to cast the governing equations as a set of total differential equations. Solutions of this set and comparison with measured shear stress and velocity profiles yields the desired set of model constants. Such a set is, in general, different from other sets of model constants. The rational for such an approach is that if we can correctly model the flow over a flat plate and its far wake, then we can have a better chance of predicting the behavior in between. It is to be noted that the approach does not appeal, in any way, to the decay of homogeneous turbulence. This is because the asymptotic behavior of the flow under consideration is not representative of the decay of homogeneous turbulence.

  5. A case study of exploiting enterprise resource planning requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Nan; Jin, Mingzhou; Cheng, Jing-Ru C.

    2011-05-01

    The requirements engineering (RE) processes have become a key to conceptualising corporate-wide integrated solutions based on packaged enterprise resource planning (ERP) software. The RE literature has mainly focused on procuring the most suitable ERP package. Little is known about how an organisation exploits the chosen ERP RE model to frame the business application development. This article reports an exploratory case study of a key tenet of ERP RE adoption, namely that aligning business applications to the packaged RE model leads to integral practices and economic development. The case study analysed a series interrelated pilot projects developed for a business division of a large IT manufacturing and service company, using Oracle's appl1ication implementation method (AIM). The study indicated that AIM RE improved team collaboration and project management experience, but needed to make hidden assumptions explicit to support data visibility and integrity. Our study can direct researchers towards rigorous empirical evaluations of ERP RE adoption, collect experiences and lessons learned for practitioners, and help generate more effective and mature processes when exploiting ERP RE methods.

  6. Exploiting prior knowledge in compressed sensing wireless ECG systems.

    PubMed

    Polanía, Luisa F; Carrillo, Rafael E; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Barner, Kenneth E

    2015-03-01

    Recent results in telecardiology show that compressed sensing (CS) is a promising tool to lower energy consumption in wireless body area networks for electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring. However, the performance of current CS-based algorithms, in terms of compression rate and reconstruction quality of the ECG, still falls short of the performance attained by state-of-the-art wavelet-based algorithms. In this paper, we propose to exploit the structure of the wavelet representation of the ECG signal to boost the performance of CS-based methods for compression and reconstruction of ECG signals. More precisely, we incorporate prior information about the wavelet dependencies across scales into the reconstruction algorithms and exploit the high fraction of common support of the wavelet coefficients of consecutive ECG segments. Experimental results utilizing the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database show that significant performance gains, in terms of compression rate and reconstruction quality, can be obtained by the proposed algorithms compared to current CS-based methods. PMID:24846672

  7. An automated data exploitation system for airborne sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike

    2014-06-01

    Advanced wide area persistent surveillance (WAPS) sensor systems on manned or unmanned airborne vehicles are essential for wide-area urban security monitoring in order to protect our people and our warfighter from terrorist attacks. Currently, human (imagery) analysts process huge data collections from full motion video (FMV) for data exploitation and analysis (real-time and forensic), providing slow and inaccurate results. An Automated Data Exploitation System (ADES) is urgently needed. In this paper, we present a recently developed ADES for airborne vehicles under heavy urban background clutter conditions. This system includes four processes: (1) fast image registration, stabilization, and mosaicking; (2) advanced non-linear morphological moving target detection; (3) robust multiple target (vehicles, dismounts, and human) tracking (up to 100 target tracks); and (4) moving or static target/object recognition (super-resolution). Test results with real FMV data indicate that our ADES can reliably detect, track, and recognize multiple vehicles under heavy urban background clutters. Furthermore, our example shows that ADES as a baseline platform can provide capability for vehicle abnormal behavior detection to help imagery analysts quickly trace down potential threats and crimes.

  8. User-Driven Sampling Strategies in Image Exploitation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Harvey, Neal R.; Porter, Reid B.

    2013-12-23

    Visual analytics and interactive machine learning both try to leverage the complementary strengths of humans and machines to solve complex data exploitation tasks. These fields overlap most significantly when training is involved: the visualization or machine learning tool improves over time by exploiting observations of the human-computer interaction. This paper focuses on one aspect of the human-computer interaction that we call user-driven sampling strategies. Unlike relevance feedback and active learning sampling strategies, where the computer selects which data to label at each iteration, we investigate situations where the user selects which data is to be labeled at each iteration. User-drivenmore » sampling strategies can emerge in many visual analytics applications but they have not been fully developed in machine learning. We discovered that in user-driven sampling strategies suggest new theoretical and practical research questions for both visualization science and machine learning. In this paper we identify and quantify the potential benefits of these strategies in a practical image analysis application. We find user-driven sampling strategies can sometimes provide significant performance gains by steering tools towards local minima that have lower error than tools trained with all of the data. Furthermore, in preliminary experiments we find these performance gains are particularly pronounced when the user is experienced with the tool and application domain.« less

  9. User-Driven Sampling Strategies in Image Exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Neal R.; Porter, Reid B.

    2013-12-23

    Visual analytics and interactive machine learning both try to leverage the complementary strengths of humans and machines to solve complex data exploitation tasks. These fields overlap most significantly when training is involved: the visualization or machine learning tool improves over time by exploiting observations of the human-computer interaction. This paper focuses on one aspect of the human-computer interaction that we call user-driven sampling strategies. Unlike relevance feedback and active learning sampling strategies, where the computer selects which data to label at each iteration, we investigate situations where the user selects which data is to be labeled at each iteration. User-driven sampling strategies can emerge in many visual analytics applications but they have not been fully developed in machine learning. We discovered that in user-driven sampling strategies suggest new theoretical and practical research questions for both visualization science and machine learning. In this paper we identify and quantify the potential benefits of these strategies in a practical image analysis application. We find user-driven sampling strategies can sometimes provide significant performance gains by steering tools towards local minima that have lower error than tools trained with all of the data. Furthermore, in preliminary experiments we find these performance gains are particularly pronounced when the user is experienced with the tool and application domain.

  10. Salmonella Typhimurium exploits inflammation to its own advantage in piglets.

    PubMed

    Chirullo, Barbara; Pesciaroli, Michele; Drumo, Rosanna; Ruggeri, Jessica; Razzuoli, Elisabetta; Pistoia, Claudia; Petrucci, Paola; Martinelli, Nicola; Cucco, Lucilla; Moscati, Livia; Amadori, Massimo; Magistrali, Chiara F; Alborali, Giovanni L; Pasquali, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is responsible for foodborne zoonotic infections that, in humans, induce self-limiting gastroenteritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the wild-type strain S. Typhimurium (STM14028) is able to exploit inflammation fostering an active infection. Due to the similarity between human and porcine diseases induced by S. Typhimurium, we used piglets as a model for salmonellosis and gastrointestinal research. This study showed that STM14028 is able to efficiently colonize in vitro porcine mono-macrophages and intestinal columnar epithelial (IPEC-J2) cells, and that the colonization significantly increases with LPS pre-treatment. This increase was then reversed by inhibiting the LPS stimulation through LPS antagonist, confirming an active role of LPS stimulation in STM14028-intracellular colonization. Moreover, LPS in vivo treatment increased cytokines blood level and body temperature at 4 h post infection, which is consistent with an acute inflammatory stimulus, capable to influence the colonization of STM14028 in different organs and tissues. The present study proves for the first time that in acute enteric salmonellosis, S. Typhimurium exploits inflammation for its benefit in piglets.

  11. Characterization of CRISPR RNA transcription by exploiting stranded metatranscriptomic data

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yuzhen; Zhang, Quan

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR–Cas systems are bacterial adaptive immune systems, each typically composed of a locus of cas genes and a CRISPR array of spacers flanked by repeats. Processed transcripts of CRISPR arrays (crRNAs) play important roles in the interference process mediated by these systems, guiding targeted immunity. Here we developed computational approaches that allow us to characterize the expression of many CRISPRs in their natural environments, using community RNA-seq (metatranscriptomic) data. By exploiting public human gut metatranscriptomic data sets, we studied the expression of 56 repeat-sequence types of CRISPRs, revealing that most CRISPRs are transcribed in one direction (producing crRNAs). In rarer cases, including a type II system associated with Bacteroides fragilis, CRISPRs are transcribed in both directions. Type III CRISPR–Cas systems were found in the microbiomes, but metatranscriptomic reads were barely found for their CRISPRs. We observed individual-level variation of the crRNA transcription, and an even greater transcription of a CRISPR from the antisense strand than the crRNA strand in one sample. The orientations of CRISPR expression implicated by metatranscriptomic data are largely in agreement with prior predictions for CRISPRs, with exceptions. Our study shows the promise of exploiting community RNA-seq data for investigating the transcription of CRISPR–Cas systems. PMID:27190232

  12. The exploration-exploitation dilemma: a multidisciplinary framework.

    PubMed

    Berger-Tal, Oded; Nathan, Jonathan; Meron, Ehud; Saltz, David

    2014-01-01

    The trade-off between the need to obtain new knowledge and the need to use that knowledge to improve performance is one of the most basic trade-offs in nature, and optimal performance usually requires some balance between exploratory and exploitative behaviors. Researchers in many disciplines have been searching for the optimal solution to this dilemma. Here we present a novel model in which the exploration strategy itself is dynamic and varies with time in order to optimize a definite goal, such as the acquisition of energy, money, or prestige. Our model produced four very distinct phases: Knowledge establishment, Knowledge accumulation, Knowledge maintenance, and Knowledge exploitation, giving rise to a multidisciplinary framework that applies equally to humans, animals, and organizations. The framework can be used to explain a multitude of phenomena in various disciplines, such as the movement of animals in novel landscapes, the most efficient resource allocation for a start-up company, or the effects of old age on knowledge acquisition in humans.

  13. Activity-based exploitation of Full Motion Video (FMV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kant, Shashi

    2012-06-01

    Video has been a game-changer in how US forces are able to find, track and defeat its adversaries. With millions of minutes of video being generated from an increasing number of sensor platforms, the DOD has stated that the rapid increase in video is overwhelming their analysts. The manpower required to view and garner useable information from the flood of video is unaffordable, especially in light of current fiscal restraints. "Search" within full-motion video has traditionally relied on human tagging of content, and video metadata, to provision filtering and locate segments of interest, in the context of analyst query. Our approach utilizes a novel machine-vision based approach to index FMV, using object recognition & tracking, events and activities detection. This approach enables FMV exploitation in real-time, as well as a forensic look-back within archives. This approach can help get the most information out of video sensor collection, help focus the attention of overburdened analysts form connections in activity over time and conserve national fiscal resources in exploiting FMV.

  14. Exploiting first-class arrays in Fortran for accelerator programming

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, Craig E; Weseloh, Wayne N; Robey, Robert W; Matthew, Sottile J; Quinlan, Daniel; Overbye, Jeffrey

    2010-12-15

    Emerging architectures for high performance computing often are well suited to a data parallel programming model. This paper presents a simple programming methodology based on existing languages and compiler tools that allows programmers to take advantage of these systems. We will work with the array features of Fortran 90 to show how this infrequently exploited, standardized language feature is easily transformed to lower level accelerator code. Our transformations are based on a mapping from Fortran 90 to C++ code with OpenCL extensions. The sheer complexity of programming for clusters of many or multi-core processors with tens of millions threads of execution make the simplicity of the data parallel model attractive. Furthermore, the increasing complexity of todays applications (especially when convolved with the increasing complexity of the hardware) and the need for portability across hardware architectures make a higher-level and simpler programming model like data parallel attractive. The goal of this work has been to exploit source-to-source transformations that allow programmers to develop and maintain programs at a high-level of abstraction, without coding to a specific hardware architecture. Furthermore these transformations allow multiple hardware architectures to be targeted without changing the high-level source. It also removes the necessity for application programmers to understand details of the accelerator architecture or to know OpenCL.

  15. Cheating by exploitation of developmental prestalk patterning in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Khare, Anupama; Shaulsky, Gad

    2010-02-26

    The cooperative developmental system of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is susceptible to exploitation by cheaters-strains that make more than their fair share of spores in chimerae. Laboratory screens in Dictyostelium have shown that the genetic potential for facultative cheating is high, and field surveys have shown that cheaters are abundant in nature, but the cheating mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we describe cheater C (chtC), a strong facultative cheater mutant that cheats by affecting prestalk differentiation. The chtC gene is developmentally regulated and its mRNA becomes stalk-enriched at the end of development. chtC mutants are defective in maintaining the prestalk cell fate as some of their prestalk cells transdifferentiate into prespore cells, but that defect does not affect gross developmental morphology or sporulation efficiency. In chimerae between wild-type and chtC mutant cells, the wild-type cells preferentially give rise to prestalk cells, and the chtC mutants increase their representation in the spore mass. Mixing chtC mutants with other cell-type proportioning mutants revealed that the cheating is directly related to the prestalk-differentiation propensity of the victim. These findings illustrate that a cheater can victimize cooperative strains by exploiting an established developmental pathway.

  16. Herbivore exploits orally secreted bacteria to suppress plant defenses.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Scully, Erin D; Peiffer, Michelle; Tooker, John F; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

    2013-09-24

    Induced plant defenses in response to herbivore attack are modulated by cross-talk between jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathways. Oral secretions from some insect herbivores contain effectors that overcome these antiherbivore defenses. Herbivores possess diverse microbes in their digestive systems and these microbial symbionts can modify plant-insect interactions; however, the specific role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae exploit bacteria in their oral secretions to suppress antiherbivore defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We found that antibiotic-untreated larvae decreased production of JA and JA-responsive antiherbivore defenses, but increased SA accumulation and SA-responsive gene expression. Beetles benefit from down-regulating plant defenses by exhibiting enhanced larval growth. In SA-deficient plants, suppression was not observed, indicating that suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA-signaling pathway. Applying bacteria isolated from larval oral secretions to wounded plants confirmed that three microbial symbionts belonging to the genera Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter are responsible for defense suppression. Additionally, reinoculation of these bacteria to antibiotic-treated larvae restored their ability to suppress defenses. Flagellin isolated from Pseudomonas sp. was associated with defense suppression. Our findings show that the herbivore exploits symbiotic bacteria as a decoy to deceive plants into incorrectly perceiving the threat as microbial. By interfering with the normal perception of herbivory, beetles can evade antiherbivore defenses of its host.

  17. Infomax Strategies for an Optimal Balance Between Exploration and Exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Gautam; Celani, Antonio; Vergassola, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    Proper balance between exploitation and exploration is what makes good decisions that achieve high reward, like payoff or evolutionary fitness. The Infomax principle postulates that maximization of information directs the function of diverse systems, from living systems to artificial neural networks. While specific applications turn out to be successful, the validity of information as a proxy for reward remains unclear. Here, we consider the multi-armed bandit decision problem, which features arms (slot-machines) of unknown probabilities of success and a player trying to maximize cumulative payoff by choosing the sequence of arms to play. We show that an Infomax strategy (Info-p) which optimally gathers information on the highest probability of success among the arms, saturates known optimal bounds and compares favorably to existing policies. Conversely, gathering information on the identity of the best arm in the bandit leads to a strategy that is vastly suboptimal in terms of payoff. The nature of the quantity selected for Infomax acquisition is then crucial for effective tradeoffs between exploration and exploitation.

  18. Forgiveness results from integrating information about relationship value and exploitation risk.

    PubMed

    Burnette, Jeni L; McCullough, Michael E; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Davis, Don E

    2012-03-01

    Exploitation is a fact of life for social organisms, and natural selection gives rise to revenge mechanisms that are designed to deter such exploitations. However, humans may also possess cognitive forgiveness mechanisms designed to promote the restoration of valuable social relationships following exploitation. In the current article, the authors test the hypothesis that decisions about forgiveness result from a computational system that combines information about relationship value and exploitation risk to produce decisions about whom to forgive following interpersonal offenses. The authors examined the independent and interactive effects of relationship value and exploitation risk across two studies. In Study 1, controlling for other constructs related to forgiveness, the authors assessed relationship value and exploitation risk. In Study 2, participants experienced experimental manipulations of relationship value and exploitation risk. Across studies, using hypothetical and actual offenses and varied forgiveness measures, the combination of low exploitation risk and high relationship value predicted the greatest forgiveness.

  19. The Illusions and Juxtapositions of Commercial Sexual Exploitation among Youth: Identifying Effective Street-Outreach Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holger-Ambrose, Beth; Langmade, Cheree; Edinburgh, Laurel D.; Saewyc, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    To explore sexually exploited youths' perspectives of how street outreach workers can effectively provide outreach and connections to services, we conducted qualitative interviews with 13 female participants, ages 14 to 22, in a Midwest U.S. city. Participants reported multiple types of exploitation, most first exploited by age 13, plus…

  20. 75 FR 40838 - Establishment of the Advisory Board on Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Establishment of the Advisory Board on Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation AGENCY... Board on Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation is authorized under section 2021, Subtitle H--Elder... establishment of the Advisory Board on Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation, as directed by section...

  1. 25 CFR 20.516 - How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.516 How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled? Reported child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases and...

  2. Exploiting the colloidal nanocrystal library to construct electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Wang, Han; Oh, Soong Ju; Paik, Taejong; Sung, Pil; Sung, Jinwoo; Ye, Xingchen; Zhao, Tianshuo; Diroll, Benjamin T.; Murray, Christopher B.; Kagan, Cherie R.

    2016-04-01

    Synthetic methods produce libraries of colloidal nanocrystals with tunable physical properties by tailoring the nanocrystal size, shape, and composition. Here, we exploit colloidal nanocrystal diversity and design the materials, interfaces, and processes to construct all-nanocrystal electronic devices using solution-based processes. Metallic silver and semiconducting cadmium selenide nanocrystals are deposited to form high-conductivity and high-mobility thin-film electrodes and channel layers of field-effect transistors. Insulating aluminum oxide nanocrystals are assembled layer by layer with polyelectrolytes to form high–dielectric constant gate insulator layers for low-voltage device operation. Metallic indium nanocrystals are codispersed with silver nanocrystals to integrate an indium supply in the deposited electrodes that serves to passivate and dope the cadmium selenide nanocrystal channel layer. We fabricate all-nanocrystal field-effect transistors on flexible plastics with electron mobilities of 21.7 square centimeters per volt-second.

  3. Individual ambidexterity: exploring and exploiting in dynamic contexts.

    PubMed

    Good, Darren; Michel, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Previous research regarding the role of individuals within the organizational ambidexterity construct has primarily focused on behavioral characteristics of managers. Drawing from the organizational, psychological, and neuroscience literatures, this study develops and tests hypotheses concerning the formative construct of Individual Ambidexterity (IA), the cognitive abilities necessary to balance efforts of exploration and exploitation. In an initial criterion-related predictive validity laboratory study, 181 undergraduate students completed successive trials in a computer-simulated, real-time dynamic microworld context. Findings explained unique variance beyond measures of general intelligence on the total score of task adaptive performance. The results indicate a novel combination of abilities that may further understanding of how individual abilities contribute to the ambidexterity literature.

  4. Compressive SAR imaging with joint sparsity and local similarity exploitation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fangfang; Zhao, Guanghui; Shi, Guangming; Dong, Weisheng; Wang, Chenglong; Niu, Yi

    2015-02-12

    Compressive sensing-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging has shown its superior capability in high-resolution image formation. However, most of those works focus on the scenes that can be sparsely represented in fixed spaces. When dealing with complicated scenes, these fixed spaces lack adaptivity in characterizing varied image contents. To solve this problem, a new compressive sensing-based radar imaging approach with adaptive sparse representation is proposed. Specifically, an autoregressive model is introduced to adaptively exploit the structural sparsity of an image. In addition, similarity among pixels is integrated into the autoregressive model to further promote the capability and thus an adaptive sparse representation facilitated by a weighted autoregressive model is derived. Since the weighted autoregressive model is inherently determined by the unknown image, we propose a joint optimization scheme by iterative SAR imaging and updating of the weighted autoregressive model to solve this problem. Eventually, experimental results demonstrated the validity and generality of the proposed approach.

  5. How Polyomaviruses Exploit the ERAD Machinery to Cause Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dupzyk, Allison; Tsai, Billy

    2016-01-01

    To infect cells, polyomavirus (PyV) traffics from the cell surface to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where it hijacks elements of the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) machinery to penetrate the ER membrane and reach the cytosol. From the cytosol, the virus transports to the nucleus, enabling transcription and replication of the viral genome that leads to lytic infection or cellular transformation. How PyV exploits the ERAD machinery to cross the ER membrane and access the cytosol, a decisive infection step, remains enigmatic. However, recent studies have slowly unraveled many aspects of this process. These emerging insights should advance our efforts to develop more effective therapies against PyV-induced human diseases. PMID:27589785

  6. Exploiting material softening in hard PZTs for resonant bandwidth enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leadenham, S.; Moura, A.; Erturk, A.

    2016-04-01

    Intentionally designed nonlinearities have been employed by several research groups to enhance the frequency bandwidth of vibration energy harvesters. Another type of nonlinear resonance behavior emerges from the piezoelectric constitutive behavior for high excitation levels and is manifested in the form of softening stiffness. This material nonlinearity does not result in the jump phenomenon in soft piezoelectric ceramics, e.g. PZT-5A and PZT-5H, due to their large internal dissipation. This paper explores the potential for wideband energy harvesting using a hard (relatively high quality factor) PZT-8 bimorph by exploiting its material softening. A wide range of base excitation experiments conducted for a set of resistive electrical loads confirms the frequency bandwidth enhancement.

  7. Exploiting hypoxia in solid tumors to achieve oncolysis.

    PubMed

    Payne, Anthony G

    2007-01-01

    Chemo- and radio-resistant cancer cells within solid tumors undermine the effectiveness of these approaches to achieving oncolysis. These resistant cells and clusters of cells typically thrive at low oxygen tensions and are reliant on anaerobic metabolic pathways that churn out lactate. This hypoxic state is one that can be exploited and in this paper a novel method is advanced involving tumor cell infiltration by bifidobacterium species which should bring about prodigious lactate synthesis; concomitant blocking of its enzymatic degradation by urea as well as export (from the cell) by use of quercetin; depletion of ATP using exogenous thyroid; and compromised oxidative catabolism of free fatty acids and amino acids via oral intake of l-hydroxycitrate, melatonin and nontoxic NDGA. This "anaerobic pathway cocktail", it is hypothesized, will bring about a profound reduction in intracellular pH and a compromised state of cellular energetics sufficient to effect oncolysis. PMID:17055180

  8. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and State Child Welfare Systems.

    PubMed

    Bounds, Dawn; Julion, Wrenetha A; Delaney, Kathleen R

    2015-01-01

    In several states, commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is now a reportable child abuse offense. Illinois has taken the lead in tackling the issue and the Illinois experience illuminates valuable lessons. This article delineates the protection, practice, and policy implications that evolve when CSEC falls under a state child welfare system. The specific aims are to (a) discuss CSEC, its victims, risks, harms, and challenges inherent in providing effective care; (b) use Illinois as an exemplar to explicate the consequences and implementation challenges of establishing a state reporting system that frames CSEC as a child welfare issue; (c) recommend strategies for developing effective state reporting models, and (d) demonstrate how nurses are well poised to advocate for victims of human trafficking on both state and national levels. Recommendations for improving the identification of CSEC victims and overcoming challenges to state implementation are offered. PMID:25908664

  9. Exploiting existing software in libraries : successes, failures, and reasons why.

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.

    1999-01-13

    The PETSc (Portable Extensible Tools for Scientific computing) library arose from research into domain decomposition methods which require combining many different solutions in a single application. The initial efforts tried to use existing numerical software but had limited success. The problems include everything from faulty assumptions about the computing environment (e.g., how many processes there are) to implicit (yet deadly) global state. More recently, PETSC and PVODE have found a way to cooperate, and new techniques that exploit dynamically linked libraries offer a more general approach to interoperable components. The paper highlights some of the issues in building sharable component software and discussing mistakes still often made in designing, maintaining, documenting, and testing components.

  10. Microbial biosurfactants: challenges and opportunities for future exploitation.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Roger; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2012-11-01

    The drive for industrial sustainability has pushed biosurfactants to the top of the agenda of many companies. Biosurfactants offer the possibility of replacing chemical surfactants, produced from nonrenewable resources, with alternatives produced from cheap renewable feedstocks. Biosurfactants are also attractive because they are less damaging to the environment yet are robust enough for industrial use. The most promising biosurfactants at the present time are the glycolipids, sophorolipids produced by Candida yeasts, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) produced by Pseudozyma yeasts, and rhamnolipids produced by Pseudomonas. Despite the current enthusiasm for these compounds several residual problems remain. This review highlights remaining problems and indicates the prospects for imminent commercial exploitation of a new generation of microbial biosurfactants.

  11. Exploiting sparsity and equation-free architectures in complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, J. L.; Brunton, S. L.; Brunton, B. W.; Kutz, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    Complex systems exhibit dynamics that typically evolve on low-dimensional attractors and may have sparse representation in some optimal basis. Recently developed compressive sensing techniques exploit this sparsity for state reconstruction and/or categorical identification from limited measurements. We argue that data-driven dimensionality reduction methods integrate naturally with sparse sensing in the context of complex systems. This framework works equally well with a physical model or in an equation-free context, where data is available but the governing equations may be unknown. We demonstrate the advantages of combining these methods on three prototypical examples: classification of dynamical regimes, optimal sensor placement, and equation-free dynamic model reduction. These examples motivate the potentially transformative role that state-of-the-art data methods and machine learning can play in the analysis of complex systems.

  12. Smart facility application: exploiting space technology for smart city solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Termizi, A. A. A.; Ahmad, N.; Omar, M. F.; Wahap, N. A.; Zainal, D.; Ismail, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Facilities and amenities management is amongst the core functionalities of local government. Considering the vast area that local government has to manage, a smart solution is extremely inevitable to solve issues such as inefficient maintenance of public parks, drainage system and so forth. Therefore, this paper aims to offer a smart city solution which exploits the benefit of space technology. This proposed solution is one of the modules developed in Spatial Smart City Service Delivery Engine (SSC SDE) Project undertaken by Agensi Angkasa Negara (ANGKASA). Various levels of local government have been chosen to understand real issues faced by them. Based on this data, a Smart Facility application has been developed with the aim to enhance the service delivery by the local government hence improving citizens’ satisfaction. Since this project is still in progress, this paper will merely discussing the concept of this application.