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Sample records for anatolian fault turkey

  1. No earthquake with characteristic slip on the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert-Ferrari, A.; Fraser, J.; Drab, L.; Altinok, S.; Vanneste, K.; Altunel, E.

    2009-04-01

    south-flowing river has an offset of 12 to 15 m and radiocarbon dating of the terrace above the riser suggests a maximum age of 400 years. To the East, a water channel in the village of Kuz is offset by about 15 m. Further to the East, larger geomorphological offsets were also documented near the Elmacik paleoseismic trench site (see EGU presentation: A relict sedimentary record of 7 earthquakes between 600AD and 2000BC on the central North Anatolian Fault at Elmacik, near Osmancik, Turkey. by J. Fraser, K. Vanneste, A. Hubert-Ferrari and S. Altinok in TS7.1). The age of the observed offset geomorphology is constrained using the trench data, terrace ages and the age of an abandoned stream bed. Most of the local geomorphology is relict due to stream incision which began around 700 AD. The 22 to 27 m offset geomorphology in that area suggests about 7 to 12 m dextral slip associated with the 1050 earthquake, an amount similar to the slip in 1668.

  2. Slip Partition on Central and East Parts of the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavasoglu, H.

    2013-12-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) has been a very useful tool in the area of geodynamics for the last two decades because of the validation of GPS results by Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) observations. The modest budget requirement and high accuracy relative positioning ability of GPS, increased its role as a tool in determining the extent of crustal and regional deformations in tectonic studies. The most important neo-tectonic feature in Turkey is the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) which has produced several major and lots of minor earthquakes for the past years. Since the beginning of the availability of GPS for civilian use in 1980, several seismic, geodetic, geological and geophysical researches through the NAF have used GPS. This study summarizes the results of previous projects, which were realized with funding from Scientific & Technical Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), State Planning Organization (DPT) and Istanbul Technical University (ITU). Additionally, GPS data of the NAF segments from Kastamonu to Bingöl, that is available to common use, were combined with the results of these projects and included in our modeling for a more perceptive interpretation. The aim of this study is to determine the movements along parts of the fault zones on the NAF. The studied areas of North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) are Mid-Anatolian region, Sivas region and Bingöl region, each one also representing the scope of the mentioned individual projects. In the course of the projects, campaign type GPS data were collected for nearly three to four years with nearly one year interval at each site established around the faults to represent the block movements of tectonic plates. The collected GPS data were processed by the GAMIT/GLOBK high precision GPS data processing software, which is one of the commonly used and acknowledged tools in its field. The results are represented as velocity vectors obtained using the yearly combinations

  3. The implication of gouge mineralogy evolution on fault creep: an example from The North Anatolian Fault, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaduri, M.; Gratier, J. P.; Renard, F.; Cakir, Z.; Lasserre, C.

    2015-12-01

    Aseismic creep is found along several sections of major active faults at shallow depth, such as the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey, the San Andreas Fault in California (USA), the Longitudinal Valley Fault in Taiwan, the Haiyuan fault in China and the El Pilar Fault in Venezuela. Identifying the mechanisms controlling creep and their evolution with time and space represents a major challenge for predicting the mechanical evolution of active faults, the interplay between creep and earthquakes, and the link between short-term observations from geodesy and the geological setting. Hence, studying the evolution of initial rock into damaged rock, then into gouge, is one of the key question for understanding the origin of fault creep. In order to address this question we collected samples from a dozen well-preserved fault outcrops along creeping and locked sections of the North Anatolian Fault. We used various methods such as microscopic and geological observations, EPMA, XRD analysis, combined with image processing, to characterize their mineralogy and strain. We conclude that (1) there is a clear correlation between creep localization and gouge composition. The locked sections of the fault are mostly composed of massive limestone. The creeping sections comprises clay gouges with 40-80% low friction minerals such as smectite, saponite, kaolinite, that facilitates the creeping. (2) The fault gouge shows two main structures that evolve with displacement: anastomosing cleavage develop during the first stage of displacement; amplifying displacement leads to layering development oblique or sub-parallel to the fault. (3) We demonstrate that the fault gouge result from a progressive evolution of initial volcanic rocks including dissolution of soluble species that move at least partially toward the damage zones and alteration transformations by fluid flow that weaken the gouge and strengthen the damage zone.

  4. Relative tectonic activity assessment along the East Anatolian strike-slip fault, Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalifa, Abdelrahman

    2016-04-01

    The East Anatolian transform fault is a morphologically distinct and seismically active left-lateral strike-slip fault that extends for ~ 500 km from Karlıova to the Maraş defining the boundary between the Anatolian Block and Syrian Foreland. Deformed landforms along the East Anatolian fault provide important insights into the nature of landscape development within an intra-continental strike-slip fault system. Geomorphic analysis of the East Anatolian fault using geomorphic indices including mountain front sinuosity, stream length-gradient index, drainage density, hypsometric integral, and the valley-width to valley height ratio helped differentiate the faulting into segments of differing degrees of the tectonic and geomorphic activity. Watershed maps for the East Anatolian fault showing the relative relief, incision, and maturity of basins along the fault zone help define segments of the higher seismic risk and help evaluate the regional seismic hazard. The results of the geomorphic indices show a high degree of activity, reveal each segment along the fault is active and represent a higher seismic hazard along the entire fault.

  5. The North Anatolian Fault in the Region of Iznik (Turkey) : Geomorphological Evolution and Archeoseismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjelloun, Y. N.; de Sigoyer, J.; Sahin, M.; Garambois, S.; Dessales, H.

    2015-12-01

    This work based on a pluridisciplinary approach coupling earth sciences and archaeology aims to study the recent tectonics along Iznik Lake, which follows the North Anatolian fault middle strand (NAFMS), south of the Marmara Sea in Turkey. Today this strand records a low seismicity and presents a lower slip rate (<5 mm/yr) than the northern strand . However, historical texts suggest a significant earthquake hazard over the last two millennia in this area. Data are needed to attest for the tectonic origin of the lake and the precise location of the faults. Long-term slip rates and stress accumulation on these faults zone are also unknown, which makes it difficult to estimate seismic hazard. The main goal of this work is to collect new data on the past activity of the NAFMS and to estimate slip rates at different time scales. For this, we observe geomorphic and archeological markers of past deformation. The main fault zones were identified using a high resolution DEM (<2m) derived from Pleiades images, and confirmed on the field. These faults intersect and deform geomorphic features, such as terraces, paleoshorelines, alluvial fans.... Terraces deposited by Iznik Lake during high stands, which were tilted and crossed by several faults, were sampled for dating in order to constrain the normal and strike-slip Quaternary slip rate of the faults and their influence on the lake formation. The valley of Kirandere river east of Iznik presents many deflected and offset rivers and ridges, that will be used to constrain a Holocene strike-slip rate. To document the historical activity of the NAFMS around Iznik, we have identified ancient buildings that underwent successive damages and repairs and characterized them through an archeoseismological approach. We particularly studied the roman aqueduct of Iznik which is cut and deformed by a small fault.

  6. Intraplate Deformation of the Anatolian Micro Plate on the Amasya Branch Fault in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, K.

    2010-12-01

    The discrepancy between geologic and geodetic slip rate along the North Anatolian fault has been more evident as solid incremental (Kondo et al. 2010) and cumulative (Kozaci et al. 2009, Okumura et al. 2010) slip rate data are accumulated. The strain transient effect (Kozaci et al. 2009) could be a plausible cause for the discrepancy. At the same time, the seismicity, crustal deformation, and active structures indicate significant amount of distributed tectonic strain far inside the Anatolian micro plate. The accumulation and release of the distributed strain may affect the seismic cycle of the plate boundary. However, there is almost no quantitative information on the earthquakes and faults in central Anatolia. Considering the magnitude of the discrepancy, it is important to understand the intra-plate tectonics and to prepare for the seismic hazard in less active intra-plate areas. For this purpose, the author carried out detailed survey of the Amasya fault. Amasya fault is the only major branch of the North Anatolian fault in Central Anatolia. While the main strand of the North Anatolian fault steps at the Niksar basin, the Amasya fault is the westward continuation of the North Anatolian fault along the Kerkit river valley in the east. The fault extends to southwest over 250 km into the Anatolian micro plate. In 1939 about 100 km long eastern portion of the Amasya fault ruptured together with the 200 km long main strand between Niksar and Erzincan. The location and slip distribution of the 1939 ruptures, as well as slip-rate and paleoseismicity on the Amasya fault have been studied very little. Preliminary fault mapping between 36° E and 37° E was done with Google-Earth satellite photos and 1939 rupture locations were confirmed on site by interviews to aged local people. Cumulative slip measurement and slip-rate estimation were conducted in east of Canbolat (37.6228° E) and east of Findicak (36.4572° E). At Canbolat, 11.4 m cumulative offset was measured on

  7. Regional Kappa Models on North Anatolian Fault Zone (Turkey) and Their Use in Ground Motion Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    karimzadeh Naghshineh, S.; Askan, A.; Sisman, F. N. N.

    2015-12-01

    One approach to model the high-frequency attenuation of spectral amplitudes of S-waves is to express the observed exponential decay in terms of Kappa factor. Kappa is a significant parameter used for identifying the high frequency attenuation behavior of ground motions as well as one of the key parameters for stochastic strong ground motion simulation method. Recently, it has been also used in adjusting ground motion predictions from one region to another. Currently, other than a previous study by the authors, there are no detailed studies on kappa using Turkish strong ground motion datasets. In this study, with the objective of deriving regional kappa models, we examine ground motion datasets from different regions in Turkey with varying source properties, site classes and epicentral distances. Statistical tools are used to investigate the dependency of kappa on these parameters. In addition, potential correlations between kappa and Vs30 values of the stations are also studied. Main findings of this study are regional kappa models on North Anatolian Fault zone. Finally, we also present high-frequency strong motion simulations of past events in the selected regions using the proposed kappa models. Regardless of the magnitude, source-to-site distance and local site conditions at the stations, the high-frequency spectral decay is simulated effectively.

  8. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of Holocene alluvial fans, East Anatolian Fault System, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Tamer; Cetin, Hasan; Yegingil, Zehra; Topaksu, Mustafa; Yüksel, Mehmet; Duygun, Fırat; Nur, Necmettin; Yegingil, İlhami

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the optically stimulated luminescence dating technique was used to determine the time of deposition of alluvial sediment samples from the Türkoğlu-Antakya segment of the East Anatolian Fault System (EAFS) in Turkey. The double-single aliquot regenerative dose protocol on fine grain samples was used to estimate equivalent doses (De). Annual dose rate was computed using elemental concentration of uranium (U) and thorium (Th) determined by using thick-source alpha counting and potassium (K) concentrations using X-ray fluorescence and/or atomic absorption spectroscopy. The environmental dose was measured in situ using α-Al2O3:C chips inside plastic tubes for a year. The two different bulk sediment samples collected from the Islahiye trench yielded ages of 4.54 ± 0.28 and 2.91 ± 0.23 ka. We also obtained a 2.60 ± 0.18 ka age for the alluvial deposit in the Kıranyurdu trench and 2.31 ± 0.14 ka age for an excavation area called Malzeme Ocağı. These ages were consistent with the corresponding calibrated Carbon-14 (14C) ages of the region. The differences between the determined ages were insufficient to clearly distinguish the disturbance event from the effects of bioturbation, biological mixing, or other sources of De variation in the region. They provide a record of alluvial aggradation in the region and may determine undocumented historical earthquake events.

  9. Risk analysis of 222Rn gas received from East Anatolian Fault Zone in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Mucahit; Kulahci, Fatih

    2016-06-01

    In this study, risk analysis and probability distribution methodologies are applied for 222Rn gas data received from Sürgü (Malatya) station located on East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ). 222Rn data are recorded between 21.02.2007 and 06.06.2010 dates. For study are used total 1151 222Rn data. Changes in concentration of 222Rn are modeled as statistically.

  10. Post-Seismic Crustal Deformation Following The 1999 Izmit Earthquake, Western Part Of North Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurkan, O.; Ozener, H.

    2004-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault is an about 1500 km long, extending from the Karliova to the North Aegean. Turkey is a natural laboratory with high tectonic activity caused by the relative motion of the Eurasian, Arabian and Anatolian plates. Western part of Turkey and its vicinity is a seismically active area. Since 1972 crustal deformation has been observed by various kinds of geodetic measurements in the area. Three GPS networks were installed in this region by Geodesy Department of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute( KOERI ) of Bogazici University: (1) Iznik Network, installed on the Iznik-Mekece fault zone, seismically low active part, (2) Sapanca Network, installed on the Izmit-Sapanca fault zone, seismically active part, (3) Akyazi Network, installed on their intersection area, the Mudurnu fault zone. First period observations were performed by using terrestrial methods in 1990 and these observations were repeated annually until 1993. Since 1994, GPS measurements have been carried out at the temporary and permanent points in the area and the crustal movements are being monitored. Horizontal deformations, which have not been detected by terrestrial methods, were determined from the results of GPS measurements. A M=7.4 earthquake hit Izmit, northern Turkey, on August 17, 1999. After this earthquake many investigations have been started in the region. An international project has been performed with the collaboration of Massachussets Institute of Technology, Turkish General Command of Mapping, Istanbul Technical University, TUBITAK-Marmara Research Center and Geodesy Department of KOERI. Postseismic movements have been observed by the region-wide network. A GPS network including 49 well spread points in Marmara region was observed twice a year between 1999 and 2003 years. During these surveys, another network with 6 points has been formed by using 2 points from each 3 microgeodetic networks on NAFZ with appropriate coverage and geometry. These

  11. Understanding the intraplate deformation of the Anatolian Scholle: Insights from the study of the Ovacik Fault (Eastern Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabcı, Cengiz; Sançar, Taylan; Tikhomirov, Dmitry; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Vockenhuber, Christof; Yazıcı, Müge; Natal'in, Boris A.; Akyüz, H. Serdar; Akçar, Naki

    2015-04-01

    The tectonic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean is mainly defined by the interaction between three major plates, Eurasia, Africa, Arabia and the smaller Anatolian 'scholle'. The Anatolia is being extruded westward along two major tectonic structures, the North Anatolian (NASZ) and the East Anatolian (EASZ) shear zones, respectively forming its northern and eastern boundaries. Although there are many geologic and geodetic studies infer that the deformation is mainly concentrated along the NASZ and the EASZ, it is also well documented that the central 'ova' neotectonic province, which defines a region between the Aegean extensional regime in the west, the NASZ in the north and the EASZ in the east, is also deformed internally by a series of NW-striking dextral and NE-striking sinistral strike-slip faults. These active structures clearly fit to the passive-Prandtl cell model of an internally deforming body, which is originally suggested by Sengör (1979) to interpret the neotectonics of the central Anatolia. The Malatya-Ovacik Fault Zone (MOFZ) and it is northeastern member, the Ovacik Fault (OF), is one the sinistral faults of the 'ova' province, located close to its eastern boundary. In the framework of the TUBITAK project no. 114Y227, we started to study the (a) the geologic slip rate, (b) the palaeoseismology and (c) the cumulative displacement of the OF in order to understand not only the short and long term spatio-temporal behaviour of this 110 km-long strike slip fault, but also its role in the internal deformation of the Anatolian 'scholle'. The faulting is clearly observed along the well-preserved scarps and displaced fluvial landforms at the northern margin of the Ovacik Basin (Tunceli, Turkey), where the deformation is mainly localised along a single strand. The preliminary cosmogenic 36Cl dates of two independent terrace risers at a single site yield slip rates about 1.5 and 1.9 mm/yr (Zabci et al. 2014), which slightly exceed the GPS-based block model

  12. Paleoseismologic Studies of the North Anatolian Fault, Cukurcimen and Ulaslar, North-Central Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartleb, R. D.; Dolan, J. F.; Kozaci, O.; Seitz, G. G.; Akyuz, H. S.; Barka, A. A.

    2001-12-01

    The central North Anatolian fault (NAF) is a model opportunity to study long-term behavior of continental transforms because of its relative mechanical simplicity and long historic record of earthquakes. We excavated three trenches across the NAF at Cukurcimen, near Refahiye in north-central Turkey on the eastern part of the 1939 M7.9 surface rupture. Measurement of a nearby offset dirt road, together with interviews with residents, indicates that ~9 - 14 m of dextral slip occurred at the site during the 1939 event. Trench stratigraphy is superb, with alternating fine-scale alluvial and marsh deposits, including abundant, laterally-continuous peat horizons. These in-situ peat deposits provide excellent chronological control, which we are utilizing by strategic sampling and AMS 14C analysis. We identified evidence for at least two, and perhaps four, surface ruptures at Cukurcimen. Two distinct event horizons were recognized in trench 1 on the basis of upward fault terminations. The most recent event in trench 1 occurred shortly after deposition of a thin peat horizon (1332 - 1481 AD). We do not have an upper age limit for this event, but the event horizon lies ~75 cm below ground surface. We believe that this is the historical 1583 earthquake which razed Erzincan, and that the 1939 event is not recorded in trench 1. An older, clearly-defined event in trench 1 occurred shortly after deposition of another thin peat horizon (795 - 1022 AD), and before the 1583 (?) event. We suspect that this event is the historical 1045 earthquake. There is also equivocal evidence in trench 1 for an older event that occurred after deposition of a peat dated at BC 538 - 260, and before 795 - 1022 AD. Trench 2 revealed evidence for one event (1939?), peat dates are pending. Trench 3 revealed evidence for two events (probably 1939 and 1583). Additional excavations are planned at this site. We excavated two trenches across the NAF near Ulaslar, 12 km east of Gerede, on the 1944 M7

  13. Paleoseismic evidence of characteristic slip on the Western segment of the North Anatolian fault, Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klinger, Yann; Sieh, K.; Altunel, E.; Akoglu, A.; Barka, A.; Dawson, Tim; Gonzalez, Tania; Meltzner, A.; Rockwell, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    We have conducted a paleoseismic investigation of serial fault rupture at one site along the 110-km rupture of the North Anatolian fault that produced the Mw 7.4 earthquake of 17 August 1999. The benefit of using a recent rupture to compare serial ruptures lies in the fact that the location, magnitude, and slip vector of the most recent event are all very well documented. We wished to determine whether or not the previous few ruptures of the fault were similar to the recent one. We chose a site at a step-over between two major strike-slip traces, where the principal fault is a normal fault. Our two excavations across the 1999 rupture reveal fluvial sands and gravels with two colluvial wedges related to previous earthquakes. Each wedge is about 0.8 m thick. Considering the processes of collapse and subsequent diffusion that are responsible for the formation of a colluvial wedge, we suggest that the two paleoscarps were similar in height to the 1999 scarp. This similarity supports the concept of characteristic slip, at least for this location along the fault. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates of 16 charcoal samples are consistent with the interpretation that these two paleoscarps formed during large historical events in 1509 and 1719. If this is correct, the most recent three ruptures at the site have occurred at 210- and 280-year intervals.

  14. Microstructural study of the partition between seismic and aseismic deformation along the North Anatolian Fault zone, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaduri, M.; Gratier, J. P.; Renard, F.; Cakir, Z.; Lasserre, C.

    2014-12-01

    Along the North Anatolian Fault (Turkey), fault sliding is accommodated both by earthquakes and by aseismic creep. The creep processes develop either as transient (post-seismic or interseismic) sliding or as permanent sliding along zones localized on specific segments of the fault. Creep processes relax the stress and contribute to stress redistribution within the seismogenic zone. They participate to the deformation budget during the seismic cycle, sometimes delaying or on the contrary helping triggering the occurrence of large earthquakes. Identifying the mechanisms controlling creep and their evolution with time and space represents a major challenge for predicting the mechanical evolution of active faults. Our goal is to answer three main questions: How to identify at the outcrop scale permanent creep from transient creep? Is aseismic creep controlled by lithology? How does creep evolve before and after earthquakes? The challenge is to understand which key parameters control the shift from seismic to aseismic deformation, such as the effect of fabric, rock lithology, fault roughness, strain-rate, fluid pressure or stress.We collected samples from a dozen of fresh and well-preserved fault outcrops along creeping and locked segments of the North Anatolian Fault. We used various methods such as microscopic and geological observations, SEM, XRD analysis, strain measurements from image processing approaches in order to quantitatively characterize the amount of deformation and the mechanisms involved. Results show different relationships between lithology and mechanisms of deformation: (i) Along the locked segments of the North Anatolian Fault, in massive limestone, we found evidence of large earthquakes followed by pre- or post-seismic (i.e. afterslip) creep. (ii) Along some creeping segments, we observed gouges with weak clay (saponite) that could accommodate (or have accommodated in the past) large permanent creep. (iii) Along other creeping segments, we observed

  15. Microseismicity at the North Anatolian Fault in the Sea of Marmara offshore Istanbul, NW Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bulut, Fatih; Bohnhoff, Marco; Ellsworth, William L.; Aktar, Mustafa; Dresen, Georg

    2009-01-01

    The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) below the Sea of Marmara forms a “seismic gap” where a major earthquake is expected to occur in the near future. This segment of the fault lies between the 1912 Ganos and 1999 İzmit ruptures and is the only NAFZ segment that has not ruptured since 1766. To monitor the microseismic activity at the main fault branch offshore of Istanbul below the Çınarcık Basin, a permanent seismic array (PIRES) was installed on the two outermost Prince Islands, Yassiada and Sivriada, at a few kilometers distance to the fault. In addition, a temporary network of ocean bottom seismometers was deployed throughout the Çınarcık Basin. Slowness vectors are determined combining waveform cross correlation and P wave polarization. We jointly invert azimuth and traveltime observations for hypocenter determination and apply a bootstrap resampling technique to quantify the location precision. We observe seismicity rates of 20 events per month for M < 2.5 along the basin. The spatial distribution of hypocenters suggests that the two major fault branches bounding the depocenter below the Çınarcık Basin merge to one single master fault below ∼17 km depth. On the basis of a cross-correlation technique we group closely spaced earthquakes and determine composite focal mechanisms implementing recordings of surrounding permanent land stations. Fault plane solutions have a predominant right-lateral strike-slip mechanism, indicating that normal faulting along this part of the NAFZ plays a minor role. Toward the west we observe increasing components of thrust faulting. This supports the model of NW trending, dextral strike-slip motion along the northern and main branch of the NAFZ below the eastern Sea of Marmara.

  16. Finding the lost segment of the North Anatolian Fault in the Bursa Basin, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutoglu, S. H.; Deguchi, T.; Gundogdu, O.; Seker, D. Z.; Kuscu, S.

    2011-12-01

    After the 1999 Golcuk Mw=7.4, the seismic stress of the North Anatolian Fault has been transferred onto the segments in the Marmara Sea. The NAF is separated to three branches around the Marmara region; one branch runs into the Marmara Sea from the Yalova-Cinarcik location in the north, the second branch runs into the Marmara Sea from the Gemlik location in the south, and the last one goes toward the Bursa basin from the Sakarya-Pamukova location in the lower south. Some researchers consider that the south branch, which experienced the last major earthquake in the year 1064, poses a danger as much as the north branch.For that reason, this study has been conducted for monitoring the fault activities around the Bursa basin. In this respect, the four Palsar data having the best baseline condition have been obtained between the years 2007-2010. The processing of these data have been resulted in significant deformation interferograms for the data pairs of 31st Oct 2007-8th May 2010 and 31st Jan. 2008-24th Dec. 2010. There are seen deformation anomalies in the Bursa basin along 33 km long in E-W direction and 4.5 km long in N-S direction. The shape of the deformation fringes points out that there is a right lateral strike slip fault line passing through the Bursa basin. The geomorphologic characteristics in the region make us think this fault line may connect to the Sakarya-Geyve branch of the North Anatolian Fault system. The maximum amount of the deformation around the fault line has been determined 18 cm in three years. This amount is too much in comparison to 2.2 cm/yr slip rate of the NAF. As the deformation anomalies are investigated in detail a contraction draws attention, overlapping with a right lateral strike slip motion. Consequently, it can precociously be sad that there exits an uplifting combining with the lateral motion. In addition, significant deformation anomalies have been detected on the Gemlik location where the Iznik fault segment reaches the

  17. Surface creep on the North Anatolian Fault at Ismetpasa, Turkey, 1944-2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilham, Roger; Ozener, H.; Mencin, D.; Dogru, A.; Ergintav, S.; Cakir, Z.; Aytun, A.; Aktug, B.; Yilmaz, O.; Johnson, W.; Mattioli, G.

    2016-10-01

    We reevaluate the 72 year history of surface slip on the North Anatolian Fault at Ismetpasa since the Mw = 7.4 1944 Bolu/Gerede earthquake. A revised analysis of published observations suggests that days after the earthquake the fault had been offset by 3.7 m and 6 years later by an additional 0.74 m. Creep was first recognized on the fault in 1969 as a 0.13 m offset of a wall constructed in 1957 that now (2016) has been offset by 0.52 m. A carbon rod creep meter operated across the fault in the past 2 years confirms results from an invar wire creep meter operated 1982-1991 that surface slip is episodic. Months of fault inactivity are interrupted by slow slip (≤10 µm/d) or multiple creep events with cumulative amplitudes of 2-10 mm, durations of several weeks, and with slip rates briefly exceeding >2.5 mm/h. Creep events accommodate 80% of the surface slip and individually release ≈ 10-6 shear strain on the flanks of the uppermost 3-7 km of the fault. GPS and interferometric synthetic aperture radar methods yield a current fault slip rate of 7.6 ± 1 mm/yr suggesting that creep meters incompletely sample the full width of the surface shear zone. The slip rate has slowed from >10 mm/yr in 1969 to 6.1 mm/yr at present, 4.65 mm/yr of which appears to be due to steady interseismic creep driven by plate boundary stressing rates. We calculate that a further 1 m of aseismic surface slip will precede the next major earthquake on the fault assuming an ≈ 260 year main shock recurrence interval on this segment.

  18. Dendroseismology on the central North Anatolian fault; Turkey: Documenting three centuries of surface rupture history using tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozaci, O.

    2011-12-01

    Tree rings provide a precise dating source for characterizing natural hazards. Specifically, seismogenic disturbances on trees have been successfully documented on major faults such as San Andres fault in California or Denali fault in Alaska. Dendroseismology was employed along a 15-km-long stretch of the central North Anatolian fault (NAF) between Ilgaz and Tosya, Turkey where most recent surface rupturing event was the M7.6 1943 A.D. earthquake. Morphologic documentation and dendrochronologic analyses on 28 Pinus sylvestris trees demonstrated the effects of surface rupture and secondary earthquake deformation. Fourteen trees show similar abrupt growth suppression and accelerated recovery trends following the 1943 A.D. Tosya earthquake. Number of trees yielding positive results, linear spatial distribution of the traumatized trees along the NAF, similarity in the trend of annual ring growth response, and synchronity of these anomalies with the 1943 A.D. earthquake provide robust evidence for the attribution of the observed anomalies and the earthquake. In addition, four trees going back to early 18th century provide evidence for the lack of another surface rupturing large magnitude earthquake through this stretch of the fault. This finding corroborates that the historical 1668 A.D. earthquake is most likely the penultimate event for the Ilgaz-Tosya segment of the NAF.

  19. Dendroseismology on the central North Anatolian fault, Turkey: Documenting three centuries of surface rupture history using tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozacı, Ã.-Zgür

    2012-01-01

    Tree ring analysis provides a precise dating source for characterizing the timing of natural hazards. Specifically, seismogenic disturbances on trees have been successfully documented on major faults such as the San Andreas fault in California and Denali fault in Alaska. In this study, dendroseismology was employed along a 15-km-long stretch of the central North Anatolian fault (NAF) between Ilgaz and Tosya, Turkey where the most recent surface rupturing event was the Mw 7.6 1943 A.D. earthquake. Morphologic documentation and dendrochronologic analyses of 28Pinus sylvestristrees demonstrates the effects of proximal surface rupture and secondary earthquake deformation. Fourteen trees show similar abrupt growth suppression and accelerated recovery trends following the 1943 A.D. Tosya earthquake. The number of trees yielding similar results, the linear spatial distribution of the traumatized trees along the NAF, similarity in the trend of annual ring growth response, and synchronity of these anomalies with the 1943 A.D. earthquake provide robust evidence for the correlation of the observed anomalies and the earthquake. In addition, four trees going back to early 18th century provide evidence for the lack of another surface rupturing large magnitude earthquake along this stretch of the fault. This finding corroborates that the historical 1668 A.D. earthquake is most likely the penultimate event for the Ilgaz-Tosya segment of the NAF.

  20. A Late Holocene Slip Rate Of The North Anatolian Fault, Hersek Peninsula, Izmit Bay, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozaci, O.; Altunel, E.; Clahan, K.; Yonlu, O.; Sundermann, S. T.; Lettis, W. R.; Turner, J.; Altekruse, J.; Gumus, I.; Lindvall, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    The Hersek Peninsula has been a strategic site for at least the last two millennia as a result of its location. It extends into Izmit Bay and creates a shortcut for the historical Bagdad Road, an important section of the spice route, between Istanbul (Constantinople) and Iznik (Nicaea). It also controls the entrance of Izmit Bay to Izmit (Nicomedia). Civilizations have been investing in this location by building harbors, fortifications, baths, roads, bridges, aqueducts, and temples. The remnants of these historical structures record evidence for past destruction of both anthropogenic and tectonic origin. From an active tectonics point of view, the Hersek Peninsula is a key locality for understanding seismic hazard in the Marmara Region. It is the last place that the North Anatolian fault can be studied on land before it enters the Marmara Sea and it has experienced strong ground shaking most recently during the M7.4 Izmit earthquake in 1999. Paleoseismic trenching as well as archeoseismologic investigations were recently performed on the Hersek Peninsula for regional and site specific seismic hazard characterization. Our paleoseismic trenches north of the Hersek Lagoon provided fault exposures confirming the location of the North Anatolian fault on the peninsula. Detailed mapping of a 6th century A.D. Byzantine aqueduct offset 14 ± 1 meters along the projection of this fault trace revealed a minimum late Holocene slip rate of 13.6 +1/-3.5 mm yr-1. Rapid fan deposition and subsidence on the delta plain across the Hersek Peninsula has resulted in the relatively recent deposition of several meters of relatively young alluvium and nearshore tidal deposits. Nearly 2 km of trench exposures revealed these deposits were continuous and contain only minor evidence of ground shaking in the form of secondary liquefaction deposits and ground fractures. The lack of primary ground surface rupture evidence in these approximately 300-year-old sediments strongly suggests that the

  1. Seismic influence on the last 1500-year infill history of Lake Sapanca (North Anatolian Fault, NW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Suzanne A. G.; Schwab, Markus J.; Costa, Pedro J. M.

    2010-04-01

    Lake Sapanca is located on the North Anatolian Fault Zone in NW Turkey. It occupies a pull-apart basin at the junction between the İzmit-Sapanca fault segment, the Sakarya segment and the westernmost end of the Mudurnu Valley fault. Multiproxy analyses (lithology, loss-on-ignition, geochemistry, magnetic susceptibility and palynology) of a 586-cm-long sediment core taken in the centre of the lake revealed a complex history of at least five mass-movement events. The radiocarbon chronology suggests that the sediment sequence spans approximately the last 1500 years. The bottom metre of the sequence, before c. AD 580, is a gley soil resulting from a large sublacustrine landslide, whose origin is a collapse of the floodplain between the lake and River Sakarya. Sedimentation related to this eastern floodplain decreases progressively until c. AD 910. Sedimentological and palynological indicators from sediments younger than c. AD 910 document four major episodes of mass-movement originating most likely from the southern slopes of the lake. The landslide and the following four mass-movement events are suggested to be linked to earthquakes.

  2. Authigenic carbonate crusts and chimneys along the North Anatolian Fault in the Sea of Marmara, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldız, Güliz; Namık Çaǧatay, M.

    2016-04-01

    The Sea of Marmara is located on the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) fault zone that is a major continental transform plate boundary. It has ca. 1250 m-deep Tekirdag, Central and Cinarcik basins that are separated by two NE-SW trending Central and Western Highs. Extensive cold seeps occur along the active fault segments of the NAF in the deep basins and highs, which are associated with authigenic carbonate crusts, carbonate chimneys and mounds, black sulphidic sediments, and local gas hydrates and oil seepage. The cold seep sites were observed and sampled during the Nautile submersible and Victor 6000 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives carried out during MARNAUT and MARSITE cruises in 2007 and 2014, respectively. Here, we report the mineralogical and stable isotopic composition of the authigenic carbonates and discuss their environmental conditions and mechanisms of formation. The carbonate crusts range up to 5 cm in thickness and the chimneys and mounds are up to 2 m high. Some chimneys are active emitting fresh to brackish water at ambient bottom water temperatures (˜ 14° C). The carbonate crusts occur as a pavements, and are commonly covered with black sulphidic sediments and bacterial mats that accommodate a rich chemosynthetic community of bivalves, sea urchins and marine annelid worms (Polychaeta). The authigenic carbonates commonly consist mainly of aragonite, but in a few instances contain subequal amounts of aragonite and calcite. High Mg-calcite is usually a minor to trace component, except in one sample in which it is present as a cement of mudstone. In the active methane emission zones, the sulphate/methane boundary occurs at or close to the seafloor, whereas elsewhere in the Sea of Marmara, the same boundary is located at 2-5 m below the seafloor. This, together with very light stable carbon isotope values (δ13C=-29.8 to - 46.3 ‰ V-PDB), indicates that the anaerobic oxidation of high methane flux emitted from the active faults is the major process

  3. Earthquake imprints on a lacustrine deltaic system: the Kürk Delta along the East Anatolian Fault (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; El-Ouahabi, Meriam; Garcia-Moreno, David; Avsar, Ulas; Altinok, Sevgi; Schmidt, Sabine; Cagatay, Namik

    2016-04-01

    Delta contains a sedimentary record primarily indicative of water level changes, but particularly sensitive to earthquake shaking, which results generally in soft-sediment-deformation structures. The Kürk Delta adjacent to a major strike-slip fault displays this type of deformation (Hempton and Dewey, 1983) as well as other types of earthquake fingerprints that are specifically investigated. This lacustrine delta stands at the south-western extremity of the Hazar Lake and is bound by the East Anatolian Fault (EAF), which generated earthquakes of magnitude 7 in eastern Turkey. Water level changes and earthquake shaking affecting the Kurk Delta have been reevaluated combining geophysical data (seismic-reflection profiles and side-scan sonar), remote sensing images, historical data, onland outcrops and offshore coring. The history of water level changes provides a temporal framework regarding the sedimentological record. In addition to the commonly soft-sediment-deformation previously documented, the onland outcrops reveal a record of deformation (faults and clastic dykes) linked to large earthquake-induced liquefactions. The recurrent liquefaction structures can be used to obtain a paleoseismological record. Five event horizons were identified that could be linked to historical earthquakes occurring in the last 1000 years along the EAF. Sedimentary cores sampling the most recent subaqueous sedimentation revealed the occurrence of another type of earthquake fingerprint. Based on radionuclide dating (137Cs and 210Pb), two major sedimentary events were attributed to the 1874-1875 earthquake sequence along the EAF. Their sedimentological characteristics were inferred based X-ray imagery, XRD, LOI, grain-size distribution, geophysical measurements. The events are interpreted to be hyperpycnal deposits linked to post-seismic sediment reworking of earthquake-triggered landslides. A time constraint regarding this sediment remobilization process could be achieved thanks to

  4. A 3000-year record of ground-rupturing earthquakes along the central North Anatolian fault near Lake Ladik, Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fraser, J.; Pigati, J.S.; Hubert-Ferrari, A.; Vanneste, K.; Avsar, U.; Altinok, S.

    2009-01-01

    The North Anatolian fault (NAF) is a ???1500 km long, arcuate, dextral strike-slip fault zone in northern Turkey that extends from the Karliova triple junction to the Aegean Sea. East of Bolu, the fault zone exhibits evidence of a sequence of large (Mw >7) earthquakes that occurred during the twentieth century that displayed a migrating earthquake sequence from east to west. Prolonged human occupation in this region provides an extensive, but not exhaustive, historical record of large earthquakes prior to the twentieth century that covers much of the last 2000 yr. In this study, we extend our knowledge of rupture events in the region by evaluating the stratigraphy and chronology of sediments exposed in a paleoseismic trench across a splay of the NAF at Destek, ???6:5 km east of Lake Ladik (40.868?? N, 36.121?? E). The trenched fault strand forms an uphill-facing scarp and associated sediment trap below a small catchment area. The trench exposed a narrow fault zone that has juxtaposed a sequence of weakly defined paleosols interbedded with colluvium against highly fractured bedrock. We mapped magnetic susceptibility variations on the trench walls and found evidence for multiple visually unrecognized colluvial wedges. This technique was also used to constrain a predominantly dip-slip style of displacement on this fault splay. Sediments exposed in the trench were dated using both charcoal and terrestrial gastropod shells to constrain the timing of the earthquake events. While the gastropod shells consistently yielded 14 C ages that were too old (by ???900 yr), we obtained highly reliable 14 C ages from the charcoal by dating multiple components of the sample material. Our radiocarbon chronology constrains the timing of seven large earthquakes over the past 3000 yr prior to the 1943 Tosya earthquake, including event ages of (2?? error): A.D. 1437-1788, A.D. 1034-1321, A.D. 549-719, A.D. 17-585 (1-3 events), 35 B.C.-A.D. 28, 700-392 B.C., 912-596 B.C. Our results

  5. Paleoseismic Trenching on 1939 Erzincan and 1942 Niksar-Erbaa Earthquake Surface Ruptures, the North Anatolian Fault (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyuz, H. S.; Karabacak, V.; Zabci, C.; Sancar, T.; Altunel, E.; Gursoy, H.; Tatar, O.

    2009-04-01

    Two devastating earthquakes occurred between Erzincan (39.75N, 39.49E) and Erbaa, Tokat (40.70N, 36.58E) just three years one after another in 1939 and 1942. While 1939 Erzincan earthquake (M=7.8) ruptured nearly 360 km, 1942 Erbaa-Niksar earthquake (M=7.1) has a length of 50 km surface rupture. Totally, more than 35000 citizens lost their lives after these events. Although Turkey has one of the richest historical earthquake records, there is no clear evidence of the spatial distribution of paleoevents within these two earthquake segments of the North Anatolian Fault. 17 August 1668 Anatolian earthquake is one of the known previous earthquakes that may have occurred on the same segments with a probable rupture length of more than 400 km. It is still under debate in different catalogues, if it was ruptured in multiple events or a single one. We achieved paleoseismic trench studies to have a better understanding on the recurrence of large earthquakes on these two faults in the framework of T.C. DPT. Project no. 2006K120220. We excavated a total of 8 trenches in 7 different sites. While three of them are along the 1942 Erbaa-Niksar Earthquake rupture, others are located on the 1939 Erzincan one. Alanici and Direkli trenches were excavated on the 1942 rupture. Direkli trench site is located at the west of Niksar, Tokat (40.62N, 36.85E) on the fluvial terrace deposits of the Kelkit River. Only one paleoevent could be determined from the structural relationships of the trench wall stratigraphy. By radiocarbon dating of charcoal sample from above the event horizon indicates that this earthquake should have occurred before 480-412 BC. The second trench, Alanici, on the same segment was located between Erbaa and Niksar (40.65N, 36.78E) at the western boundary of a sag-pond. While signs of two (possible three) earthquakes were identified on the trench wall, the prior event to 1942 Earthquake is dated to be before 5th century AD. We interpreted this to

  6. Activity on the multi-stranded Central Branch of the North Anatolian Fault along the southern shelf of the Marmara Sea, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okay, S.; Sorlien, C. C.; Cifci, G.; Cormier, M. H.; Dondurur, D.; Steckler, M. S.; Barin, B.; Seeber, L.

    2014-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF), a major continental transform boundary, splays westward into three branches in the Sea of Marmara region of NW Turkey. The main northern branch passes only ~20 km from Istanbul and has been the subject of intense investigation, The central branch enters the sea of Marmara in Gemlik Bay and extends westeward along the southern shelf of the Sea of Marmara. However, its detailed offshore geometry as well as its level of seismic activity have remained controversial. Under the SoMAR Project, two geophysical cruises were carried out in 2013 and 2014 to map the major sedimentary basins and shallow fault patterns of the southern shelf of the Marmara Sea. Including our 2008 and 2010 acquisition, we acquired 4,430 km of high-resolution multichannel seismic, sparker, multibeam bathymetric and CHIRP data. We used the new data to correlate our published late Quaternary stratigraphic age model across the outer shelf, and a ~1/4 Ma horizon across the Inner Shelf, thus providing a chronology that can be applied to the tectonic history of the central branch. As it exits Gemlik Bay, the central branch itself diverges westward into strands in a fan pattern. A half dozen southern strands strike WSW and W, with one continuing onland near the Kocasu River delta between Bandırma and Mudanya, and others dying out offshore. The northern strand strikes WNW and splays again into the İmrali Ridge Fault and the Imrali Fault across respectively the mid-shelf and the shelf break. A middle fault, the Kapidag fault, is present between Kapidag Peninsula and Marmara Island. Most of the faults increase their vertical component with depth, suggesting activity during Pliocene through Holocene time. The Kapidag fault and Imrali Ridge fault each exhibit between 1 and 2 km of vertical separation of acoustic basement. Late Quaternary rates of vertical separation on these faults can accumulate the total vertical component after Miocene time. Thus, steady-state activity is

  7. Collaborative Research: The North Anatolian Fault System in the Marmara Sea, Turkey - Insights from the Quaternary evolution of a multi-stranded transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okay, Seda; Sorlien, Christopher; Cifci, Gunay; Cormier, Marie-Helene; Dondurur, Derman; Steckler, Michael; Barin, Burcu; Seeber, Leonardo; Gungor, Talip; Meriç İlkimen, Elif; Becel, Anne

    2015-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF), a major continental transform boundary, splays westward into three branches in the Sea of Marmara region of NW Turkey. The main northern branch passes only ~20 km from Istanbul and has been the subject of intense investigation, The central branch enters the sea of Marmara in Gemlik Bay and extends westward along the southern shelf of the Sea of Marmara. However, its detailed offshore geometry as well as its level of seismic activity have remained controversial. Under the SoMAR, bilateral TUBITAK-NSF Project, two geophysical cruises were carried out in 2013 and 2014 to map the major sedimentary basins and shallow fault patterns of the southern shelf of the Marmara Sea. Including our 2008 and 2010 acquisition, we acquired 4,430 km of high-resolution multichannel seismic, sparker, multibeam bathymetric and CHIRP data. We used the new data to correlate our published late Quaternary stratigraphic age model across the outer shelf, and a ~1/4 Ma horizon across the Inner Shelf, thus providing a chronology that can be applied to the tectonic history of the central branch. As it exits Gemlik Bay, the central branch itself diverges westward into strands in a fan pattern. A half dozen southern strands strike WSW and W, with one continuing onland near the Kocasu River delta between Bandırma and Mudanya, and others dying out offshore. The northern strand strikes WNW and splays again into the İmrali Ridge Fault and the Imrali Fault across respectively the mid-shelf and the shelf break. A middle fault, the Kapidag fault, is present between Kapidag Peninsula and Marmara Island. Most of the faults increase their vertical component with depth, suggesting activity during Pliocene through Holocene time. The Kapidag fault and Imrali Ridge fault each exhibit between 1 and 2 km of vertical separation of acoustic basement. Late Quaternary rates of vertical separation on these faults can accumulate the total vertical component after Miocene time. Thus

  8. GPR investigations along the North Anatolian Fault near Izmit (Turkey): Constraints on the right-lateral movement and slip history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, M.; Meghraoui, M.; Rockwell, T. K.; Kozaci, Ö.; Akyuz, S.; Girard, J.-F.; Barka, A.

    2003-04-01

    The 1999 Ms 7.4 Izmit earthquake produced more than 110 km of surface rupture along the North Anatolian fault. We present here ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles surveyed across and parallel to the 1999 Izmit earthquake ruptures at two sites along the Izmit-Sapanca segment. Fine sandy and coarse gravels favor the penetration depth and processed radar profiles image clearly visible reflectors within the uppermost 10 m. In Köseköy, they document cumulative right-lateral offset of a stream channel by the fault. Old fluvial channel deposits also visible in trenches show a maximum 13.5 to 14 m lateral displacement. Younger channel units display 4 m of right-lateral displacement at 2.5 m depth and correlation with dated trench units yields an average slip rate of 15 mm/yr. At site 2, GPR profiles display the successive faulting of a medieval Ottoman Canal which excavation probably took place in 1591 A.D.. GPR profiles image the corresponding surface as well as numerous faults that affect it. A following trench study confirmed these results as they provide consistent results with the occurrence of three faulting events post-1591 A.D., one of which probably as large as the 1999 Izmit earthquake.

  9. The North Anatolian Fault: a New Look

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šengör, A. M. C.; Tüysüz, Okan; Imren, Caner; Sakinç, Mehmet; Eyidoǧan, Haluk; Görür, Naci; Le Pichon, Xavier; Rangin, Claude

    2005-01-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is a 1200-km-long dextral strike-slip fault zone that formed by progressive strain localization in a generally westerly widening right-lateral keirogen in northern Turkey mostly along an interface juxtaposing subduction-accretion material to its south and older and stiffer continental basements to its north. The NAF formed approximately 13 to 11 Ma ago in the east and propagated westward. It reached the Sea of Marmara no earlier than 200 ka ago, although shear-related deformation in a broad zone there had already commenced in the late Miocene. The fault zone has a very distinct morphological expression and is seismically active. Since the seventeenth century, it has shown cyclical seismic behavior, with century-long cycles beginning in the east and progressing westward. For earlier times, the record is less clear but does indicate a lively seismicity. The twentieth century record has been successfully interpreted in terms of a Coulomb failure model, whereby every earthquake concentrates the shear stress at the western tips of the broken segments leading to westward migration of large earthquakes. The August 17 and November 12, 1999, events have loaded the Marmara segment of the fault, mapped since the 1999 earthquakes, and a major, M 7.6 event is expected in the next half century with an approximately 50% probability on this segment. Currently, the strain in the Sea of Marmara region is highly asymmetric, with greater strain to the south of the Northern Strand. This is conditioned by the geology, and it is believed that this is generally the case for the entire North Anatolian Fault Zone. What is now needed is a more detailed geological mapping base with detailed paleontology and magnetic stratigraphy in the shear-related basins and more paleomagnetic observations to establish shear-related rotations.

  10. Ground-penetrating radar investigations along the North Anatolian fault near Izmit, Turkey: Constraints on the right-lateral movement and slip history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, Matthieu; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Girard, Jean-François; Rockwell, Thomas K.; Kozaci, Özgur; Akyuz, Serdar; Barka, Aykut

    2004-01-01

    We analyze ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles made across and parallel to the August 1999 earthquake ruptures of the North Anatolian fault in Turkey. The profiles document cumulative right-lateral offset of stream channels and the successive faulting of a medieval (Ottoman) canal. The dominance of fine sand to coarse gravel in the sections imaged allows for reasonably deep penetration, and processed radar signals clearly image visible reflectors within the uppermost 5 m. Near Köseköy, buried fluvial-channel deposits, exposed in some trenches dug to determine paleoseismicity, are also visible on profiles and show a maximum 6.7 7.4 m of lateral displacement. Younger channel units display 4.5 4.9 m of right-lateral displacement at 2 3 m depth and show that the penultimate rupture along the Izmit segment produced a similar amount of displacement as in 1999. At the Ottoman canal site, GPR profiles complement a trench study and provide consistent results showing the occurrence of three faulting events after A.D. 1591, the date of canal construction. This study demonstrates that the use of GPR method in paleoseismology contributes to better identification of cumulative slip along active faults.

  11. InSAR velocity field across the North Anatolian Fault (eastern Turkey): Implications for the loading and release of interseismic strain accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakir, Ziyadin; Ergintav, Semih; Akoǧlu, Ahmet M.; ćakmak, Rahşan; Tatar, Orhan; Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2014-10-01

    We use the Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PS-InSAR) technique with the European Space Agency's Envisat and ERS SAR data acquired on three neighboring descending tracks (T350, T078, and T307) to map the interseismic strain accumulation along a ~225 km long, NW-SE trending section of the North Anatolian Fault that ruptured during the 1939, 1942, and 1943 earthquakes in eastern Turkey. We derive a line-of-sight velocity map of the region with a high spatial resolution and accuracy which, together with the maps of earthquake surface ruptures, shed light on the style of continental deformation and the relationships between the loading and release of interseismic strain along segmented continental strike-slip faults. In contrast with the geometric complexities at the ground surface that appear to control rupture propagation of the 1939 event, modeling of the high-resolution PS-InSAR velocity field reveals a fairly linear and narrow throughgoing shear zone with an overall 20 ± 3 mm/yr slip rate above an unexpectedly shallow 7 ± 2 km locking depth. Such a shallow locking depth may result from the postseismic effects following recent earthquakes or from a simplified model that assumes a uniform degree of locking with depth on the fault. A narrow throughgoing shear zone supports the thick lithosphere model in which continental strike-slip faults are thought to extend as discrete shear zones through the entire crust. Fault segmentation previously reported from coseismic surface ruptures is thus likely inherited from heterogeneities in the upper crust that either preexist and/or develop during coseismic rupture propagation. The geometrical complexities that apparently persist for long periods may guide the dynamic rupture propagation surviving thousands of earthquake cycles.

  12. A Poisson method application to the assessment of the earthquake hazard in the North Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türker, Tuǧba; Bayrak, Yusuf

    2016-04-01

    North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is one from the most important strike-slip fault zones in the world and located among regions in the highest seismic activity. The NAFZ observed very large earthquakes from the past to present. The aim of this study; the important parameters of Gutenberg-Richter relationship (a and b values) estimated and this parameters taking into account, earthquakes were examined in the between years 1900-2015 for 10 different seismic source regions in the NAFZ. After that estimated occurrence probabilities and return periods of occurring earthquakes in fault zone in the next years, and is being assessed with Poisson method the earthquake hazard of the NAFZ. The Region 2 were observed the largest earthquakes for the only historical period and hasn't been observed large earthquake for the instrumental period in this region. Two historical earthquakes (1766, MS=7.3 and 1897, MS=7.0) are included for Region 2 (Marmara Region) where a large earthquake is expected in the next years. The 10 different seismic source regions are determined the relationships between the cumulative number-magnitude which estimated a and b parameters with the equation of LogN=a-bM in the Gutenberg-Richter. A homogenous earthquake catalog for MS magnitude which is equal or larger than 4.0 is used for the time period between 1900 and 2015. The database of catalog used in the study has been created from International Seismological Center (ISC) and Boǧazici University Kandilli observation and earthquake research institute (KOERI). The earthquake data were obtained until from 1900 to 1974 from KOERI and ISC until from 1974 to 2015 from KOERI. The probabilities of the earthquake occurring are estimated for the next 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 years in the 10 different seismic source regions. The highest earthquake occur probabilities in 10 different seismic source regions in the next years estimated that the region Tokat-Erzincan (Region 9) %99 with an earthquake

  13. A shallow fault-zone structure illuminated by trapped waves in the Karadere-Duzce branch of the North Anatolian Fault, western Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ben-Zion, Y.; Peng, Z.; Okaya, D.; Seeber, L.; Armbruster, J.G.; Ozer, N.; Michael, A.J.; Baris, S.; Aktar, M.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the subsurface structure of the Karadere-Duzce branch of the North Anatolian Fault based on analysis of a large seismic data set recorded by a local PASSCAL network in the 6 months following the Mw = 7.4 1999 Izmit earthquake. Seismograms observed at stations located in the immediate vicinity of the rupture zone show motion amplification and long-period oscillations in both P- and S-wave trains that do not exist in nearby off-fault stations. Examination of thousands of waveforms reveals that these characteristics are commonly generated by events that are well outside the fault zone. The anomalous features in fault-zone seismograms produced by events not necessarily in the fault may be referred to generally as fault-zone-related site effects. The oscillatory shear wave trains after the direct S arrival in these seismograms are analysed as trapped waves propagating in a low-velocity fault-zone layer. The time difference between the S arrival and trapped waves group does not grow systematically with increasing source-receiver separation along the fault. These observations imply that the trapping of seismic energy in the Karadere-Duzce rupture zone is generated by a shallow fault-zone layer. Traveltime analysis and synthetic waveform modelling indicate that the depth of the trapping structure is approximately 3-4 km. The synthetic waveform modelling indicates further that the shallow trapping structure has effective waveguide properties consisting of thickness of the order of 100 m, a velocity decrease relative to the surrounding rock of approximately 50 per cent and an S-wave quality factor of 10-15. The results are supported by large 2-D and 3-D parameter space studies and are compatible with recent analyses of trapped waves in a number of other faults and rupture zones. The inferred shallow trapping structure is likely to be a common structural element of fault zones and may correspond to the top part of a flower-type structure. The motion amplification

  14. High Resolution Multichannel Imaging of Basin Growth Along a Continental Transform: The Marmara Sea Along the North Anatolian Fault in NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckler, M. S.; Çifçi, G.; Demirbağ, E.; Akhun, S. D.; Büyükaşik, E.; Cevatoglu, M.; Coşkun, S.; Diebold, J.; Dondurur, D.; Gürçay, S.; Imren, C.; Kücük, H. M.; Kurt, H.; Özer, P. G.; Perinçek, E.; Seeber, L.; Shillington, D.; Sorlien, C.; Timur, D.

    2008-12-01

    The 1500-km-long North Anatolian continental transform (NAF) accommodates the westward motion of the Anatolian platelet relative to Asia. The Marmara Trough in western Turkey is a large composite Quaternary structure that includes three main extensional basins with water depths reaching ~1200m separated by shallower ridges. Syntectonic sedimentation in the basins with highly variable sea-level-related changes in accumulation rates provide valuable time-space markers for reconstructing structural growth and basin development in the Marmara Sea. The TAMAM (Turkish-American MArmara Multichannel) Project is a collaboration between several US and Turkish research institutes. During July 2008, TAMAM collected ~2700 km of multichannel profiles in the Marmara Sea using the R/V K. Piri Reis. MCS data were sampled with a 1-ms interval on the first 72 channels with 6.25m group spacing in a 600m streamer. The source was a 45/45 cu. in. GI air gun, which was fired every 12.5 or18.75m. The gun-streamer offset was 40 or 100 m depending on water depth. Both the gun and streamer were towed at a depth of 3 or 4m. This configuration yielded high-resolution images of the stratigraphy in the Marmara Sea. TAMAM follows a recent series of impressive seismotectonic studies of the NAF in the Marmara Sea area. Previous seismic cruises focused on deep penetration MCS imaging of the overall basin structure and faulting or very high-resolution imaging of the near-surface faulting. TAMAM fills a gap in resolution imaging the stratigraphy that records the history of deformation in the basins and linkages between faults. We will present preliminary high-resolution images of the stratigraphy and tectonics beneath the Marmara Sea highlighting the following exciting observations and initial results from this experiment: 1) Improved stratigraphic correlations between the major basins, a primary goal of the experiment; 2) Clearer imaging of active faults, including the NAF, the less studied southern

  15. Late Pleistocene intraplate extension of the Central Anatolian Plateau, Turkey: Inferences from cosmogenic exposure dating of alluvial fan, landslide and moraine surfaces along the Ecemiş Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, Cengiz; Akif Sarikaya, Mehmet; Ciner, Attila

    2016-04-01

    Late Pleistocene activity of the Ecemiş Fault Zone is integrally tied to ongoing intraplate crustal deformation in the Central Anatolian Plateau. Here we document the vertical displacement, slip rate, extension rate, and geochronology of normal faults within a narrow strip along the main strand of the fault zone. The Kartal, Cevizlik and Lorut faults are normal faults that have evident surface expression within the strip. Terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide geochronology reveals that the Kartal Fault deformed a 104.2 ± 16.5 ka alluvial fan surface and the Cevizlik Fault deformed 21.9 ± 1.8 ka glacial moraine and talus fan surfaces. The Cevizlik Fault delimits mountain front of the Aladaglar and forms >1 km relief. Our topographic surveys indicate 13.1 ± 1.4 m surface breaking vertical displacements along Cevizlik Faults, respectively. Accordingly, we suggest a 0.60 ± 0.08 mm a-1 slip rate and 0.35 ± 0.05 mm a-1 extension rate for the last 21.9 ± 1.8 ka on the Cevizlik Fault. Taken together with other structural observations in the region, we believe that the Cevizlik, Kartal ve Lorut faults are an integral part of intraplate crustal deformation in Central Anatolia. They imply that intraplate structures such as the Ecemiş Fault Zone may change their mode through time; presently, the Ecemiş Fault Zone has been deformed predominantly by normal faults. The presence of steep preserved fault scarps along the Kartal, Cevizlik and Lorut faults point to surface breaking normal faulting away from the main strand and particularly signify that these structures need to be taken into account for regional seismic hazard assessments. This project is supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK, Grant number: 112Y087).

  16. Seismic structure from sea-bottom to mantle top of the North Anatolian fault in the Sea of Marmara (NW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bécel, Anne; Laigle, Mireille; Hirn, Alfred; Bayrakci, Gaye; Taymaz, Tuncay; Yolsal-Ćevikbilen, Seda

    2010-05-01

    New constraints on the deep structure in the North Marmara Trough (NMT) have been investigated during the Seismarmara-Leg1 survey. This survey consisted of a grid of MCS marine deep-penetration multichannel reflection profiles, in addition to coincident reversed and overlapping refraction profiles sounding with the same source recorded on OBS, Ocean Bottom Seismometers and on land stations (Laigle et al., EPSL, 2008, Bécel et al., Tectonoph. 2009 and in press). Results illustrate a complex partitioned motion of the North Anatolian Fault localized on active faults with diverse natures and orientations. MCS sections crossing the Cinarcik and Imrali basins in the eastern half of the NMT, reveal several active faults that involve the basement and have changing strike and proportions of normal and strike-slip displacement. They might be viewed as petals of a large scale negative flower-structure that spreads over a width of 30 km at surface and is rooted in the deeper lithosphere. Under the Central Basin, a very deep sediment infill is revealed and its extensional bounding faults are active and imaged down to 6 km depth. We interpret them as two deep-rooted faults encompassing a foundering basement block. The segment between the deep eastern basins and the Central Basin contains also a tilted basement block, with the subdued Kumburgaz marine basin in its hanging wall and a sediment-filled one on top of its southward tilted footwall. The width of the NMT, and the sizes of the tilted blocks it contains and basins they control, vary along it. Nevertheless a similar process prevailed: a deformation partitioned over more than one or even two faults across the NMT that may have changed activity with time at places. For the deeper structure, with the strong seismic source recorded up to 200 km offset, the Moho boundary is positively identified from reversed observations at large offset by land stations, as well as at several OBS. A significant and sharp reduction in its depth

  17. Geophysical investigations on the gravity and aeromagnetic anomalies of the region between Sapanca and Duzce, along the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tigli, Cigdem Sendur; Ates, Abdullah; Aydemir, Attila

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, it is aimed to model subsurface structures to the east of the Gulf of Izmit through Duzce by using the gravity and aeromagnetic anomaly data. 1/500.000 scaled gravity anomaly map of the area was taken from the General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) and it was digitized. The aeromagnetic anomaly data were obtained in the digital form. 3D and 2D models were constructed to reveal the subsurface structure in two different inset regions in the study area including most important negative and positive gravity anomalies. Seismic velocities obtained from the deep seismic recordings were converted to densities. In addition, density information from a previous research was also taken. These densities were used for construction of 3D and 2D gravity models where it was shown that there are narrow and long sedimentary basins and depressions with 0.5-3 km depths. These sedimentary basins with the shape of negative flower structures indicating pull-apart basins are controlled by the active fault segments of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF). Earthquake epicenter data were also correlated with the constructed models from the gravity anomalies. Positive gravity anomalies are also caused by very shallow (about 2 km) masses that are accepted as the crustal origin intrusions into the fractures of the NAF and, ophiolites and gabbro outcropping on the surface of the studied regions. These intrusives and remnants of the Tethys Ocean are located between the fault segments where the fault bifurcates and they also constitute barriers for straight extension of the NAF. Analytic signal method was applied to the aeromagnetic anomaly data to determine the locations and boundaries of the causative bodies. Those bodies are observed around Duzce, and to the E-SE of it, to the NW of Golyaka and a large mass between Adapazari and Sapanca. Shallow settlement of these magmatics was confirmed by the second vertical derivative of the aeromagnetic data. An anti

  18. Seismically-triggered organic-rich layers in recent sediments from Göllüköy Lake (North Anatolian Fault, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avşar, Ulaş; Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; De Batist, Marc; Lepoint, Gilles; Schmidt, Sabine; Fagel, Nathalie

    2014-11-01

    Multi-proxy analyses on the sedimentary sequence of Göllüköy Lake, which is located on the eastern North Anatolian Fault (NAF), reveals a complete and high-resolution paleoseismic record for the last 650 years. Six sedimentary events are detected in a 3.1 m-long piston core. They form distinct organic-rich intercalations within the background sedimentation, which are characterized by strong anomalies on the loss-on-ignition (LOI550) and total organic carbon (TOC) profiles, as well as by lighter colours on the X-ray radiographic images. Itrax micro-XRF core scanner data are also used to contribute to the detection and characterization of the event deposits. After the detection of the sedimentary events, their temporal correlation with the earthquakes in the historical seismicity catalogue of the NAF is tested. The youngest event is dated to 1940s by using 210Pb and 137Cs profiles in sediment, which coincides with the 1939 earthquake (Ms = 7.7) on the NAF. The ages of the older five events are determined based on radiocarbon dating and regional time-stratigraphic correlation. Radiocarbon dating on the bulk sediment samples does not provide reliable results due to hard-water effect. On the other hand, dating on charcoals, Ephippia of Daphnia and phragmite remains significantly improves the results and implies a mean sedimentation rate of 0.28 cm/yr. Based on this preliminary sedimentation rate, we show that organic matter content variations through our record correlate with the varve-based δ18O record of Nar Lake, which is located 350 km southwest of Göllüköy Lake. Accordingly, high-precipitation/low-evaporation climatic episodes detected in Nar Lake are represented by higher organic matter content in Göllüköy sediments. Fine-tuning the Göllüköy LOI550 record to the Nar δ18O record reveals that the ages of the sedimentary events in Göllüköy match with well-known historical earthquakes that occurred around the lake. Finally, the origin of the organic

  19. Continuous creep measurements on the North Anatolian Fault at Ismetpasa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozener, Haluk; Aytun, Alkut; Aktug, Bahadir; Dogru, Asli; Mencin, David; Ergintav, Semih; Bilham, Roger

    2016-04-01

    A graphite creep-meter was installed across the North Anatolian fault near a wall at Ismetpasa, Turkey, that has been offset by fault creep processes more than 51 cm since its construction in 1957. The creep-meter is 40-cm-deep, 16.5-m-long and crosses the fault at 30 degrees within a 2 cm diameter telescopic PVC conduit. The SW end of the 6-mm-diameter graphite rod is fastened to a buried stainless steel tripod, and motion of its free end relative to a similar tripod at its NE end is monitored by two sensors: an LVDT with 6 μm resolution and 13 mm range, and a Hall-effect rotary transducer with 30 μm resolution and 1.5 m range. The two sensors track each other to better than 1%. Data are sampled every 30 minutes and are publically available via the Iridium satellite with a delay of less than 1 hour. Since May 2014, for periods of months the surface fault has been inactive, followed by several weeks or months of slow slip at rates of ≈3 mm/yr and with cumulative slip amplitude less than 1 mm, terminated by a pair of distinct creep events with durations of up to 8 days and amplitudes of up to 2.3 mm, after which slip ceases until the next episode. Maximum slip rates on the surface fault are 0.54 mm/hour at the onset of a creep event. The decay time constant of the two pairs of creep events we have observed varies from 3 to 5 hours, similar to those observed by Altay and Sav, (1982) who operated a creepmeter here from 1980-1989. The decadal creep rate observed by these authors was 7.35±0.9 mm/yr, whereas our currently observed least-squares creep-rate is 5.4±1 mm/yr based on 19 months of data. Since most of the annual of the creep occurs in large creep events (80%), we anticipate that our rate will change with elapsed time, and our uncertainty will decrease accordingly. As expected, the 2014-2016 observed creep rate is somewhat lower than the regional creep on the fault deduced from Insar analysis and GPS observations (≈7-8 mm/yr), but both the amplitude of

  20. The analysis of historical earthquakes of the North Anatolian Fault in the Marmara Region, Turkey for the last 15 centuries based on intensity and continuous Coulomb scenarios: Implications for the fault geometry and the interaction of individual earthqua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaltırak, Cenk; Şahin, Murat

    2016-04-01

    In this study we evaluated the historical earthquakes of the Marmara Region totally in three-stages. In first stage, historical earthquakes were compiled from the available catalogues and classified according to their spatial distribution, whereas only the ones, related with the active northern branch of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) were selected. Then, the next phase of classification was made to relate historical data to the ancient and historical settlements, for which a kind of shake map was produced for each event. In the second stage, three different fault models, suggested for the geometry of the NAF in the Marmara Region, were integrated into a GIS database. Mw magnitudes were calculated for each fault segment by using lengths, seismogenic depths, and slip-rates of fault segments. In the third stage, the revised digital geological map of the Marmara Region were compiled based on 1:500k conventional maps and were used to estimate the Vs30 distribution within a grid of 750x750 m. Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) maps were produced for each earthquake scenario, depending on the geometry of different fault models, calculated model magnitudes and intensity distributions. Moreover, we tested the surface ruptures of each earthquake scenarios by using the Coulomb stress change model for historical data covering a time era between AD 478 and 2016 in assumption with a constant horizontal slip rate of 19 mma-1 for all fault segments. As conclusion, the horsetail-fault geometry (Yaltırak, 2002) among all 3 fault models yielded the best fit to the distribution of intensities and coulomb models.

  1. Radon measurements for earthquake prediction along the North Anatolian Fault Zone: a progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedmann, H.; Aric, K.; Gutdeutsch, R.; King, C.-Y.; Altay, C.; Sav, H.

    1988-01-01

    Radon (222Rn) concentration has been continuously measured since 1983 in groundwater at a spring and in subsurface soil gas at five sites along a 200 km segment of the North Anatolian Fault Zone near Bolu, Turkey. The groundwater radon concentration showed a significant increase before the Biga earthquake of magnitude 5.7 on 5 July 1983 at an epicentral distance of 350 km, and a long-term increase between March 1983 and April 1985. The soil-gas radon concentration showed large changes in 1985, apparently not meteorologically induced. The soil-gas and groundwater data at Bolu did not show any obvious correlation. ?? 1988.

  2. Lithospheric Structure of the Western North Anatolian Fault Zone from 3-D Teleseismic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaleo, E.

    2015-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) is a 1500 km long active strike-slip fault that spans northern Turkey. During the past century a series of migrating earthquakes have sequentially activated different segments of the fault. The last major events of this sequence are the 1999 Izmit and Düzce earthquakes, which are consistent with a gradual westward migration in seismicity. The next active segment of the fault may be close to the city of Istanbul, posing a major risk for its population. Historically, the NAFZ exhibits a recurrent migrating sequence of high magnitude earthquakes along the fault zone, suggesting that it accommodates most of the plate motion between Anatolian and Eurasian plates in a narrow shear zone. From GPS studies following the Izmit and Düzce events, this motion does not appear to be constrained to the upper crust, and may extend at least to the lower crust. However, the geometry of the fault in the lower crust and upper mantle is at present poorly understood and previous tomographic studies do not provide a consistent picture of the velocity structure in this region. To better constrain the geometry of the shear zone at depth, in particular beneath the most recently active segment of the fault, an array of 70 temporary seismic stations with a 7 km spacing was deployed for 18 months as part of the FaultLab project. Amongst all the events recorded, those of magnitude ≥ 5 and situated between 27 and 98 degrees from the centre of the array were selected to perform 3D teleseismic tomography. Synthetic resolution tests indicate that structures as small as the average station spacing can be recovered to a depth of approximately 80 km. The work aims to provide a higher resolution image of the velocity structure beneath the western segment of the NAFZ, leading to a better understanding of the shear zone in the lower crust and upper mantle.

  3. 3D mechanical modeling of the GPS velocity field along the North Anatolian fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Ann-Sophie; Chéry, Jean; Hassani, Riad

    2003-04-01

    The North Anatolian fault (NAF) extends over 1500 km in a complex tectonic setting. In this region of the eastern Mediterranean, collision of the Arabian, African and Eurasian plates resulted in creation of mountain ranges (i.e. Zagros, Caucasus) and the westward extrusion of the Anatolian block. In this study we investigate the effects of crustal rheology on the long-term displacement rate along the NAF. Heat flow and geodetic data are used to constrain our mechanical model, built with the three-dimensional finite element code ADELI. The fault motion occurs on a material discontinuity of the model which is controlled by a Coulomb-type friction. The rheology of the lithosphere is composed of a frictional upper crust and a viscoelastic lower crust. The lithosphere is supported by a hydrostatic pressure at its base (representing the asthenospheric mantle). We model the long-term deformation of the surroundings of the NAF by adjusting the effective fault friction and also the geometry of the surface fault trace. To do so, we used a frictional range of 0.0-0.2 for the fault, and a viscosity varying between 10 19 and 10 21 Pa s. One of the most striking results of our rheological tests is that the upper part of the fault is locked if the friction exceeds 0.2. By comparing our results with geodetic measurements [McClusky et al., J. Geophys. Res. B 105 (2000) 5695-5719] and tectonic observations, we have defined a realistic model in which the displacement rate on the NAF reaches ˜17 mm/yr for a viscosity of 10 19 Pa s and a fault friction of 0.05. This strongly suggests that the NAF is a weak fault like the San Andreas fault in California. Adding topography with its corresponding crustal root does not induce gravity flow of Anatolia. Rather, it has the counter-intuitive effect of decreasing the westward Anatolian escape. We find a poor agreement between our calculated velocity field and what is observed with GPS in the Marmara and the Aegean regions. We suspect that the

  4. Shear wave velocity structure of the Anatolian Plate: anomalously slow crust in southwestern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delph, Jonathan R.; Biryol, C. Berk; Beck, Susan L.; Zandt, George; Ward, Kevin M.

    2015-07-01

    The Anatolian Plate is composed of different lithospheric blocks and ribbon continents amalgamated during the closure of the Paleotethys Ocean and Neotethys Ocean along a subduction margin. Using ambient noise tomography, we investigate the crustal and uppermost mantle shear wave velocity structure of the Anatolian Plate. A total of 215 broad-band seismic stations were used spanning 7 yr of recording to compute 13 778 cross-correlations and obtain Rayleigh wave dispersion measurements for periods between 8 and 40 s. We then perform a shear wave inversion to calculate the seismic velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle. Our results show that the overall crustal shear wave velocities of the Anatolian crust are low (˜3.4 km s-1), indicative of a felsic overall composition. We find that prominent lateral seismic velocity gradients correlate with Tethyan suture zones, supporting the idea that the neotectonic structures of Turkey are exploiting the lithospheric weaknesses associated with the amalgamation of Anatolia. Anomalously slow shear wave velocities (˜3.15 km s-1 at 25 km) are located in the western limb of the Isparta Angle in southwestern Turkey. In the upper crust, we find that these low shear wave velocities correlate well with the projected location of a carbonate platform unit (Bey Dağlari) beneath the Lycian Nappe complex. In the lower crust and upper mantle of this region, we propose that the anomalously slow velocities are due to the introduction of aqueous fluids related to the underplating of accretionary material from the underthrusting of a buoyant, attenuated continental fragment similar to the Eratosthenes seamount. We suggest that this fragment controlled the location of the formation of the Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator fault in the eastern Aegean Sea during rapid slab rollback of the Aegean Arc in early Miocene times. Lastly, we observe that the uppermost mantle beneath continental Anatolia is generally slow (˜4.2 km s-1

  5. Application of chaos analyses methods on East Anatolian Fault Zone fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamışlıoǧlu, Miraç; Külahcı, Fatih

    2016-06-01

    Nonlinear time series analysis techniques have large application areas on the geoscience and geophysics fields. Modern nonlinear methods are provided considerable evidence for explain seismicity phenomena. In this study nonlinear time series analysis, fractal analysis and spectral analysis have been carried out for researching the chaotic behaviors of release radon gas (222Rn) concentration occurring during seismic events. Nonlinear time series analysis methods (Lyapunov exponent, Hurst phenomenon, correlation dimension and false nearest neighbor) were applied for East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ) Turkey and its surroundings where there are about 35,136 the radon measurements for each region. In this paper were investigated of 222Rn behavior which it's used in earthquake prediction studies.

  6. Spatiotemporal earthquake clusters along the North Anatolian fault zone offshore Istanbul

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bulut, Fatih; Ellsworth, William L.; Bohnhoff, Marco; Aktar, Mustafa; Dresen, Georg

    2011-01-01

    We investigate earthquakes with similar waveforms in order to characterize spatiotemporal microseismicity clusters within the North Anatolian fault zone (NAFZ) in northwest Turkey along the transition between the 1999 ??zmit rupture zone and the Marmara Sea seismic gap. Earthquakes within distinct activity clusters are relocated with cross-correlation derived relative travel times using the double difference method. The spatiotemporal distribution of micro earthquakes within individual clusters is resolved with relative location accuracy comparable to or better than the source size. High-precision relative hypocenters define the geometry of individual fault patches, permitting a better understanding of fault kinematics and their role in local-scale seismotectonics along the region of interest. Temporal seismic sequences observed in the eastern Sea of Marmara region suggest progressive failure of mostly nonoverlapping areas on adjacent fault patches and systematic migration of microearthquakes within clusters during the progressive failure of neighboring fault patches. The temporal distributions of magnitudes as well as the number of events follow swarmlike behavior rather than a mainshock/aftershock pattern.

  7. Geodetically constrained models of viscoelastic stress transfer and earthquake triggering along the North Anatolian fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVries, Phoebe M. R.; Krastev, Plamen G.; Meade, Brendan J.

    2016-07-01

    Over the past 80 years, 8 MW > 6.7 strike-slip earthquakes west of 40° longitude have ruptured the North Anatolian fault (NAF) from east to west. The series began with the 1939 Erzincan earthquake in eastern Turkey, and the most recent 1999 MW = 7.4 Izmit earthquake extended the pattern of ruptures into the Sea of Marmara in western Turkey. The mean time between seismic events in this westward progression is 8.5 ± 11 years (67% confidence interval), much greater than the timescale of seismic wave propagation (seconds to minutes). The delayed triggering of these earthquakes may be explained by the propagation of earthquake-generated diffusive viscoelastic fronts within the upper mantle that slowly increase the Coulomb failure stress change (ΔCFS) at adjacent hypocenters. Here we develop three-dimensional stress transfer models with an elastic upper crust coupled to a viscoelastic Burgers rheology mantle. Both the Maxwell (ηM = 4 × 1018-1 × 1019 Pa s) and Kelvin (ηK = 1 × 1018-1 × 1019 Pa s) viscosities are constrained by studies of geodetic observations before and after the 1999 Izmit earthquake. We combine this geodetically constrained rheological model with the observed sequence of large earthquakes since 1939 to calculate the time evolution of ΔCFS changes along the North Anatolian fault due to viscoelastic stress transfer. Apparent threshold values of mean ΔCFS at which the earthquakes in the eight decade sequence occur are between ˜0.02 to ˜3.15 MPa and may exceed the magnitude of static ΔCFS values by as much as 177%. By 2023, we infer that the mean time-dependent stress change along the northern NAF strand in the Marmara Sea near Istanbul, which may have previously ruptured in 1766, may reach the mean apparent time-dependent stress thresholds of the previous NAF earthquakes.

  8. 2-D Stress Accumulation Analysis of the North Anatolian Fault East of the Marmara Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, B.; McQuarrie, N.; Harbert, W.; Lin, J.

    2011-12-01

    On August 17th, 1999, a magnitude 7.4 earthquake shook the city of Kocaeli (Izmit), Turkey killing over 17,000 people. The epicenter was approximately 100-km east of Turkey's largest city, Istanbul, along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) system. This 1600-km long, strike-slip boundary divides the Anatolian plate and the Eurasian plate. The NAF slips at an average rate of 2-3-cm y-1, and has an earthquake recurrence interval of approximately 300 years. To further understand the NAF system and its dynamics, a simplified 2-D mesh model was developed to describe fault stress accumulation along an ~110-km stretch of the NAF system east of the Marmara Sea. This region was selected because it is where two sets of faults within the NAF system converge, and then diverge. One set diverges to the NW to bound the northern rim of the Marmara Sea, while the second set continues to the SW along the southern rim of the Marmara Sea. The 2-D mesh separates the study area into three geologic provinces defined by these faults: the Istanbul Zone, the Armatlu-Almacik Zone, and the Sakarya Zone. The resulting mesh was then processed using the Numerical Manifold Method (NMM) and PyLith, a finite element code deformation software. The NMM and PyLith simulations model the stress field in the region by employing surface fault geometry, rock physics parameters of the surface geology, and relative plate motions as determined by GPS velocities from Turkey's extensive network of GPS stations. Surface geology was simplified into the three rock types, and rock physics parameters were assigned using general physical parameters for each rock type and extrapolating further data from the Canadian Rock Physics Database. For the three zones, an average value for density and P-wave velocity was assigned using this database, and these averaged values were used to calculate S-wave velocity, shear modulus, bulk modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and Lamé's first parameter for use in processing the

  9. Faunistic Composition, Ecological Properties and Zoogeographical Composition of the Family Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kabalak, Mahmut; Sert, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study was to understand the faunistic composition, ecological properties and zoogeographical composition of Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Central Anatolian region. 72 species belonging to seven subfamilies and 25 genera were identified. The major part of the Elateridae fauna of the Central Anatolian region is formed by the subfamilies Elaterinae and Cardiophorinae. The genus Cardiophorus was the most species-rich genus. The species composition of the Elateridae fauna of the Central Anatolian region is partially consistent with known Elateridae fauna of Turkey. The Central Anatolian region shares most species with the European part of the Western Palaearctic as does the Elateridae fauna of Turkey. Detailed localities of nine species are given for the first time for Turkey, with emphasis on the Central Anatolian region. PMID:21864150

  10. Progressive failure on the North Anatolian fault since 1939 by earthquake stress triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stein, R.S.; Barka, A.A.; Dieterich, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    10 M ??? 6.7 earthquakes ruptured 1000 km of the North Anatolian fault (Turkey) during 1939-1992, providing an unsurpassed opportunity to study how one large shock sets up the next. We use the mapped surface slip and fault geometry to infer the transfer of stress throughout the sequence. Calculations of the change in Coulomb failure stress reveal that nine out of 10 ruptures were brought closer to failure by the preceding shocks, typically by 1-10 bar, equivalent to 3-30 years of secular stressing. We translate the calculated stress changes into earthquake probability gains using an earthquake-nucleation constitutive relation, which includes both permanent and transient effects of the sudden stress changes. The transient effects of the stress changes dominate during the mean 10 yr period between triggering and subsequent rupturing shocks in the Anatolia sequence. The stress changes result in an average three-fold gain in the net earthquake probability during the decade after each event. Stress is calculated to be high today at several isolated sites along the fault. During the next 30 years, we estimate a 15 per cent probability of a M ??? 6.7 earthquake east of the major eastern centre of Ercinzan, and a 12 per cent probability for a large event south of the major western port city of Izmit. Such stress-based probability calculations may thus be useful to assess and update earthquake hazards elsewhere.

  11. Measurement of interseismic strain accumulation across the North Anatolian Fault by satellite radar interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Tim; Parsons, Barry; Fielding, Eric

    In recent years, interseismic crustal velocities and strains have been determined for a number of tectonically active areas through repeated measurements using the Global Positioning System. The terrain in such areas is often remote and difficult, and the density of GPS measurements relatively sparse. In principle, satellite radar interferometry can be used to make millimetric-precision measurements of surface displacement over large surface areas. In practice, the small crustal deformation signal is dominated over short time intervals by errors due to atmospheric, topographic and orbital effects. Here we show that these effects can be over-come by stacking multiple interferograms, after screening for atmospheric anomalies, effectively creating a new interferogram that covers a longer time interval. In this way, we have isolated a 70 km wide region of crustal deformation across the eastern end of the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey. The distribution of deformation is consistent with slip of 17-32 mm/yr below 5-33 km on the extension of the surface fault at depth. If the GPS determined slip rate of 24±1 mm/yr is accepted, the locking depth is constrained to 18±6 km.

  12. GPS measurements along the North Anatolian fault zone ont he Mid-Anatolia segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavasoglu, H.; Team

    2003-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is the most important tectonic feature in Turkey producing lots of earthquakes that cause deaths, wounds and loss of property in large scale. So, there are a lot of seismic, geodetic, geologic and geophysical researches through NAF. A new project, "Determination of Kinematics along the North Anatolian Fault Branch between Ladik and Ilgaz with GPS Measurements", founded by The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) and Istanbul Technical University (ITU) Research Fund is also started. The aim of the project is to determine the magnitude and direction of the block movements in the region by using GPS. Having the knowledge about the neotectonics of the region with the contributions of geology and seismology after the GPS campaigns will provide further information on the assessment of the earthquake potential. In this work, the planning stage of the network is examined. Also pre-results from the first and second surveying campaigns are presented. 1. INTRODUCTION The tectonic framework of the Eastern Mediterranean is dominated by the collision of the Arabian and African plates with the Eurasia. This collision created wide variety of tectonic processes such as folds and thrust belts, major continental strike-slip faults, opening of pull-apart basins etc. All these tectonic caused long-term destructive earthquakes in Anatolia Last earthquakes occurred at the end of the 20th Century, in 17th of August and 12 of November 1999, Golcuk and Duzce earthquakes, also focused the attention of international science community over the tectonics and kinematics of the NAF. A westward migrating earthquakes series starting from 1939 Erzincan earthquake, produced more than 1000 kilometers of ruptures between Erzincan and Sea of Marmara 2. GEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NAF The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is one of the longest active strike slip systems. Slip rate of the NAF was estimated from the GPS data as 24±1mm/yr. One of the important

  13. Structure of the North Anatolian Fault Zone from the Autocorrelation of Ambient Seismic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, George; Rost, Sebastian; Houseman, Gregory

    2016-04-01

    In recent years the technique of cross-correlating the ambient seismic noise wavefield at two seismometers to reconstruct empirical Green's Functions for the determination of Earth structure has been a powerful tool to study the Earth's interior without earthquakes or man-made sources. However, far less attention has been paid to using auto-correlations of seismic noise to reveal body wave reflections from interfaces in the subsurface. In principle, the Green's functions thus derived should be comparable to the Earth's impulse response to a co-located source and receiver. We use data from a dense seismic array (Dense Array for Northern Anatolia - DANA) deployed across the northern branch of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in the region of the 1999 magnitude 7.6 Izmit earthquake in western Turkey. The NAFZ is a major strike-slip system that extends ~1200 km across northern Turkey and continues to pose a high level of seismic hazard, in particular to the mega-city of Istanbul. We construct body wave images for the entire crust and the shallow upper mantle over the ~35 km by 70 km footprint of the 70-station DANA array. Using autocorrelations of the vertical component of ground motion, P-wave reflections can be retrieved from the wavefield to constrain crustal structure. We show that clear P-wave reflections from the crust-mantle boundary (Moho) can be retrieved using the autocorrelation technique, indicating topography on the Moho on horizontal scales of less than 10 km. Offsets in crustal structure can be identified that seem to be correlated with the surface expression of the northern branch of the fault zone, indicating that the NAFZ reaches the upper mantle as a narrow structure. The southern branch has a less clear effect on crustal structure. We also see evidence of several discontinuities in the mid-crust in addition to an upper mantle reflector that we interpret to represent the Hales discontinuity.

  14. Geodynamic and Magmatic Evolution of the Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskin, Mehmet

    2014-05-01

    The Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone represents a crucial site within the Tethyan domain where a subduction system involving a volcanic arc (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Pontide volcanic arc in the north) associated with a large subduction-accretion complex (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Eastern Anatolian Accretionary Complex i.e. "EAAC" in the south) turned later into a major continental collision zone that experienced a series of geodynamic events including lithospheric delamination, slab-steepening & breakoff, regional domal uplift, widespread volcanism and tectonic escape via strike slip fault systems. The region includes some of the largest volcanic centers (e.g. Karacadaǧ, Aǧırkaya caldera, Ararat, Nemrut, Tendürek and Süphan volcanoes) and plateaus (e.g. The Erzurum-Kars Plateau) as well as the largest transform fault zones in the Mediterranean region. A recent geodynamic modeling study (Faccenna et al., 2013) has suggested that both the closure of the Tethys Ocean and the resultant collision were driven by a large scale and northerly directed asthenospheric mantle flow named the "Tethyan convection cell". This convection cell initiated around 25 Ma by combined effects of mantle upwelling of the Afar super plume located in the south, around 3,000 km away from the collision zone and the slab-pull of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere beneath Anatolia in the north. The aforementioned mantle flow dragged Arabia to the north towards Eastern Anatolia with an average velocity of 2 cm/y for the last 20 My, twice as fast as the convergence of the African continent (i.e. 1 cm/y) with western and Central Turkey. This 1 cm/y difference resulted in the formation of the left lateral Dead Sea Strike Slip Fault between the African and Arabian plates. Not only did this mantle flow result in the formation of a positive dynamic topography in the west of Arabian block, but also created a dynamic tilting toward the Persian Gulf (Faccenna et al., 2013). Another

  15. Elongation Of The North Anatolian Fault Zone in the Sea of Marmara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtulus, C.; Canbay, M. M.

    2003-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) is a 1500 km long, seismically active, right lateral strike sleep fault that accommodates the relative motion between the Anatolian and Pontide blocks. The Sea of Marmara is an intra-continental sea lying along the western part of the NAFZ. There are two major fault systems in the Sea of Marmara one of which consists of the east-west striking faults and the other one is made up of NE-SW-trending faults that dissect the first group. The east, middle and the south parts of the Sea of Marmara are interpreted as pull-apart basins characterized by shear stresses. The interpretation of the structural framework indicates that the northern strand of the NAFZ traverses the Gulf of Izmit and deep Marmara to bind the Gulf of Saros and the middle strand of it traverses the Gulf of Gemlik, Bandirma and the Gulf of Erdek.

  16. Paleo-earthquake timing on the North Anatolian Fault: Where, when, and how sure are we?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, J.; Vanneste, K.; Hubert-Ferrari, A.

    2009-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) traces from the Karilova Triple Junction in the east 1400km into the Aegean Sea in the west, forming a northwardly convex arch across northern Turkey. In the 20th century the NAF ruptured in an approximate east to west migrating sequence of large, destructive and deadly earthquakes. This migrating sequence suggests a simple relationship between crustal loading and fault rupture. A primary question remains unclear: Does the NAF always rupture in episodic bursts? To address this question we have reanalysed selected pre-existing paleoseismic investigations (PIs), from along the NAF, using Bayesian statistical modelling to determine a standardised record of the temporal probability distribution of earthquakes. A wealth of paleoseismic records have accumulated over recent years concerning the NAF although sadly much research remains un-published. A significant output of this study is tabulated results from all of the existing published paleoseismic studies on the NAF with recalibration of the radiocarbon ages using standardized methodology and standardized error reporting by determining the earthquake probability rather than using errors associated with individual bounding dates. We followed the approach outlined in Biasi & Weldon (1994) and in Biasi et al. (2002) to calculate the actual probability density distributions for the timing of paleoseismic events and for the recurrence intervals. Our implementation of these algorithms is reasonably fast and yields PDFs that are comparable to but smoother than those obtained by Markov Chain Monte Carlo type simulations (e.g., OxCal, Bronk-Ramsey, 2007). Additionally we introduce three new earthquake records from PIs we have conducted in spatial gaps in the existing data. By presenting all of this earthquake data we hope to focus further studies and help to define the distribution of earthquake risk. Because of the long historical record of earthquakes in Turkey, we can begin to address some

  17. Slip rates and seismic potential on the East Anatolian Fault System using an improved GPS velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktug, B.; Ozener, H.; Dogru, A.; Sabuncu, A.; Turgut, B.; Halicioglu, K.; Yilmaz, O.; Havazli, E.

    2016-03-01

    The East Anatolian Fault System (EAFS) is the second major fault system in Turkey, following the North Anatolian Fault System (NAFS). Unlike the NAFS, which produced 11 large earthquakes in the last ∼75 years, the EAFS has been relatively quiet during the same period of time. While historical records show that the EAFS has the potential to produce large earthquakes, the fault slip rates on the EAFS were not studied in detail, and were not quantified sufficiently. This is possibly due to the relatively low seismicity and slow slip-rates of the EAFS with respect to the NAFS. However, the determination of the slip rates of the EAFS is equally important in order to understand the kinematics of the Anatolian plate. In this study, we collected and analyzed new survey-type GPS data, and homogeneously combined published velocities from other studies, to form the most complete GPS data set covering the EAFS. In particular, continuous GPS observations were utilized for the first time to study the northern part of the EAFS. The results of the analysis give well-constrained slip rates of the northwestern segments of the EAFS, which is further connected to the Dead Sea Fault System (DSFS) in the south. The results show that while the slip rate of the EAFS is nearly constant (∼10 mm/yr) to the north of Türkoğlu, it then decreases to 4.5 mm/yr in the south. The slip rate on the northern part of the Dead Sea Fault System (DSFS) was also found to be 4.2 ± 1.3 mm/yr, consistent with earlier studies. The contraction rates along the EAFS are below 5 mm/yr, except for the northernmost part near Karliova, where it reaches a maximum value of 6.3 ± 1.0 mm/yr. The results also show that two well-known seismic gaps across the EAFS, Palu-Sincik and Çelikhan-Türkoğlu segments, have slip deficits of 1.5 m and 5.2 m and have the potential to produce earthquakes with magnitudes of Mw7.4 and Mw7.7, respectively.

  18. Late Pleistocene intraplate extension of the Central Anatolian Plateau, Turkey: Inferences from cosmogenic exposure dating of alluvial fan, landslide, and moraine surfaces along the Ecemiş Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldırım, Cengiz; Sarıkaya, M. Akif; ćiner, Attila

    2016-06-01

    Here we documented the vertical displacement, slip rate, extension rate, and geochronology of normal faults within a narrow strip along the main strand of the Ecemiş Fault Zone. The Kartal, Cevizlik, and Lorut Faults are normal faults that have evident surface expression within the strip. Terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide geochronology revealed that the Kartal Fault deformed the 104.2 ± 16.5 ka aged alluvial fan surface and the Cevizlik Fault deformed the 21.9 ± 1.8 ka old moraine and talus fan surfaces. Our topographic surveys indicated 120 ± 10 m and 13.1 ± 1.4 m surface-breaking vertical displacements along the Kartal and Cevizlik Faults, respectively. Accordingly, we suggest a 1.15 ± 0.21 mm a-1 slip rate and 0.66 ± 0.12 mm a-1 extension rate for the last 104.2 ± 16.5 ka on the Kartal Fault, and a 0.60 ± 0.08 mm a-1 slip rate and 0.35 ± 0.05 mm a-1 extension rate for the last 21.9 ± 1.8 ka on the Cevizlik Fault. We believe that these structures are an integral part of intraplate crustal deformation in the Central Anatolia. They imply that intraplate structures such as the Ecemiş Fault Zone may change their mode through time; presently, the Ecemiş Fault Zone has been deformed predominantly by normal faults. The presence of steep preserved fault scarps along the Kartal, Cevizlik, and Lorut Faults point to surface-breaking normal faulting away from the main strand and particularly signify that these structures need to be taken into account for regional seismic hazard assessments.

  19. Crustal Anisotropy Beneath the Western Segment of North Anatolian Fault Zone from Local Shear-Wave Splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altuncu Poyraz, S.; Teoman, U.; Kahraman, M.; Turkelli, N.; Rost, S.; Thompson, D. A.; Houseman, G.

    2014-12-01

    Shear-wave splitting from local earthquakes provides valuable knowledge on anisotropy of the upper crust. Upper-crustal anisotropy is widely interpreted as due to aligned fluid-filled cracks or pores. Differential stress is thought to close cracks aligned perpendicular to the maximum principal stress and leaves cracks open that are aligned perpendicular to the minimum horizontal compressional stress. In other cases local shear-wave splitting has been found to be aligned with regional faulting. Temporal variations in local splitting patterns might provide hints of changes in stress orientation related to earthquakes or volcanoes. North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) is a large-scale continental strike slip fault system originating at the Karlıova Junction in the east where it intersects the East Anatolian Fault (EAF) and extends west cutting across the entire Northern Turkey towards the Aegean Sea and the mainland Greece. Our primary focus is to provide constraints on the crustal anisotropy beneath the western segment of the North Anatolian Fault Zone with the use of a data set collected from a dense temporary seismic network consisting of 70 stations that was deployed in early May 2012 and operated for 18 months in the Sakarya region and the surroundings during the Faultlab experiment. For the local shear wave splitting analysis, out of 1344 events, we extracted 90 well located earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 2.0. Local shear-wave splitting makes use of earthquakes close to and nearly directly below the recording station. Incidence angles of less than 45 degrees were used to avoid the free-surface effect and resulting non-linear particle motion. Basically, two essential parameters for each station-event pair is needed for shear wave splitting calculations. One of them is fast polarization direction (ɸ) and the other is delay time (δt) between the fast and slow components of the shear wave. In this study, delay times vary between 0,02 and 0,25 seconds

  20. Moganite and quartz inclusions in the nano-structured Anatolian fire opals from Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatipoğlu, Murat

    2009-05-01

    Red, orange, yellow and colorless chick-pea shaped Anatolian fire opals with massive translucent zoned inclusions, from the Kütahya-Şaphane-Yeni Karamanca region in Turkey, investigated using optical microscopy (gemmoscope and polarizing), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetric spectroscopy (TGA), and thermoluminescent spectroscopy (TL). Hydrothermally deposited Anatolian fire opals are found as nodules within the shrinkage and dehydration cracks of rhyolitic lavas and siliceous cemented tuffs. Initially, the opal bearing zone and its surroundings were geologically mapped. Then, different colored fire opal samples were obtained from the field, and finally, tests were carried out on the representative samples to determine their texture, crystalline phases, crystallinity ratios, and the formation temperatures of the silica phases. The gemmoscope and polarizing microscope investigations show the presence of two different sized textures in Anatolian fire opals: a nano-sized matrix (opal-CT and opal-C) and micron-sized inclusions (moganite and quartz). The analyses of the XRD patterns of the Anatolian fire opals using a comparative matching technique show that there are two pseudo-crystalline and three crystalline silica phases in addition to the amorphous phase. The pseudo-crystalline phases are opal-CT and opal-C. The three crystalline phases are moganite, quartz, and also orthorhombic-silica inclusions. The analyses of the XRD patterns of Anatolian fire opals using the graphical modelling technique reveal that the crystallite sizes of the pseudo-crystalline phases are between 23 nm (red and colorless) and 27 nm (orange and yellow), and the crystallite sizes of the inclusions range between 125 and 600 nm (average 225 nm). Additionally, the amounts of tridymite present in the opal-CT are estimated to be 30-35% (for red), 45-50% (for orange and yellow), and 55-60% (for colorless). The SEM images

  1. Natural hazards at the southern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau (CAP) (southern Turkey): Tsunami evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogretmen, Nazik; Cosentino, Domenico; Gliozzi, Elsa; Cipollari, Paola; Radeff, Giuditta; Yıldırım, Cengiz

    2016-04-01

    In regions that are located in steep, orogenic plateau margins, such as the coastal area of the Central Anatolian Plateau (CAP) southern margin, natural hazard studies related to active tectonics and events that are triggered by active tectonics (e.g., earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis) are very essential in the context of preventing possible damages. This work herein, represents some evidence of the tsunami hazard along the coast between Aydıncık and Narlıkuyu, in southern Turkey. The work is based on a study on out-of-place beachrock-slab boulder acummulation in Aydıncık district, which were transported onshore by sliding process, and on out-of-place more rounded boulders that were transported by saltation process in Narlıkuyu and Yeşilovacık districts. The presence of intertidal organisms (e.g., lithophaga boring, balanids, oysters, etc.) encrusting the boulders of both localities shows that those boulders were carried onland from a marine environment. According to their dimensions and weight, in agreement with out-of-place boulders from areas surely affected by tsunamis, those out-of-place boulders here are interpreted as due to tsunami waves. The tsunamites in the Aydıncık area are located on beachrock slabs. They are platty and some of those blocks are embricated and oriented perpendicular to the shoreline (NE-SW direction). Those boulders have been interpreted as transported by sliding process, in relation with the coastal morphology and the boulder geometry, which means that to move those boulders the energy of the tsunami not necessarily should have been as high as in saltation or rolling transport processes. On the contrary, in Narlıkuyu and Yeşilovacık localities, the boulders are well-rounded and ellipsoidal shaped, suggesting that they were transported by rolling and/or saltation mode rather than by sliding. To carry onland the tsunami boulders observed in the Narlıkuyu and Yeşilovacık districts, which in the Yeşilovacık area they are

  2. Source Parameters of Bala-Sirapinar (Central Turkey) Earthquakes of 2005-2008: Implications on Internal Deformations of the Anatolian Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubuk, Yesim; Yolsal-Cevikbilen, Seda; Taymaz, Tuncay

    2013-04-01

    Active tectonics of central Anatolia are governed by the collision between African, Arabian and Anatolian plates which causes westwards escape of Anatolia along the North and East Anatolian fault zones, and responsible for the counterclockwise rotation of Kırşehir block with slight internal deformation. Although central Anatolia region has not been known with destructive earthquakes, many small and moderate size earthquakes (2.5 ≤ Mw ≤ 6.0) have been observed in last decade or so. These earthquakes are crucial as they also contribute to better understanding of shallow crustal deformation in the central Anatolian block. The intense earthquake activity in the Balâ-Afşar-Sırapınar (Ankara, central Turkey) region during 2005-2008 such as July 30, 2005 (Mw=5.2); December 20, 2007 (Mw=5.7) and December 26, 2007 (Mw =5.6) earthquakes are mainly correlated with mapped faults of whose lengths varies between 1-25 km. In the present study, we have obtained source parameters, and estimated centroid depths of 27 earthquakes with magnitudes ranging between 3.5 ≤ ML ≤ 5.6 by using regional moment tensor (RMT) inversion method. Complete broad-band waveforms recorded at near-field epicenter distances (0.45° ≤ Δ ≤ 3.6°) distributed by KOERI-UDIM were analyzed. The importance of moment tensor inversion arises to give faulting mechanisms of smaller to moderate size earthquakes even in case of sparse networks with reliable depth information. Our results reveal both NW-SE directed right-lateral strike slip faulting and NE-SW directed left-lateral strike-slip faulting mechanisms which are clearly correlated with the conjugate fault systems in the Balâ-Afşar-Sırapınar region. However, some earthquakes also have E-W directed normal faulting components. We conclude that the major characteristics of 2005-2008 earthquake activity have been dominantly represented by right-lateral strike slip faulting mechanism. Furthermore, our results are also consistent with the

  3. Maximum earthquake magnitudes along different sections of the North Anatolian fault zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnhoff, Marco; Martínez-Garzón, Patricia; Bulut, Fatih; Stierle, Eva; Ben-Zion, Yehuda

    2016-04-01

    Constraining the maximum likely magnitude of future earthquakes on continental transform faults has fundamental consequences for the expected seismic hazard. Since the recurrence time for those earthquakes is typically longer than a century, such estimates rely primarily on well-documented historical earthquake catalogs, when available. Here we discuss the maximum observed earthquake magnitudes along different sections of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in relation to the age of the fault activity, cumulative offset, slip rate and maximum length of coherent fault segments. The findings are based on a newly compiled catalog of historical earthquakes in the region, using the extensive literary sources that exist owing to the long civilization record. We find that the largest M7.8-8.0 earthquakes are exclusively observed along the older eastern part of the NAFZ that also has longer coherent fault segments. In contrast, the maximum observed events on the younger western part where the fault branches into two or more strands are smaller. No first-order relations between maximum magnitudes and fault offset or slip rates are found. The results suggest that the maximum expected earthquake magnitude in the densely populated Marmara-Istanbul region would probably not exceed M7.5. The findings are consistent with available knowledge for the San Andreas Fault and Dead Sea Transform, and can help in estimating hazard potential associated with different sections of large transform faults.

  4. Is the Marmara Sea segment of the North Anatolian Fault Creeping or loading ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Emilie; Masson, Frédéric; Duputel, Zacharie; Yavasoglu, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    During the last century, the North Anatolian Fault has experienced a migrating Mw>7 earthquakes sequence that ruptured about 1000 km of the fault westward. The last major earthquakes occurred in 1999 in Izmit (Mw7.4) and Duzce (Mw7.2). Only the segments located directly offshore of Istanbul, in the Marmara Sea, remain unbroken in this series of events. This region represents a major issue in terms of seismic hazard with more than 13 millions inhabitants in the city of Istanbul. However, a strong controversy remains over whether the central segment of the Main Marmara Fault is locked and likely to experience a major earthquake, or not. Recent studies based on geodetic data suggest indeed that, contrary to the Prince's Island segment which is fully locked, the central segment is accommodating the strain by aseismic fault creep. So it has not the potential to generate a Mw ~7 event. These results, mostly based on relatively simple strain accumulation models over infinitely long faults, is contested by a recent seismic data study, which suggests on the contrary that this fault segment is fully locked and mature to generate such a great earthquake. In this study, we revisit the available geodetic data considering a 3D geometry of the fault, allowing to take into account the lateral variations of behavior along the fault. In particular, we evaluate if current geodetic datasets are sufficient to constrain strain accumulation and thus to conclude about the seismic hazard in the region.

  5. Preliminary results on the deformation rates of the Malatya Fault (Malatya-Ovacık Fault Zone, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sançar, Taylan; Zabcı, Cengiz; Akçar, Naki; Karabacak, Volkan; Yazıcı, Müge; Akyüz, Hüsnü Serdar; Öztüfekçi Önal, Ayten; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Christl, Marcus; Vockenhuber, Christof

    2016-04-01

    The complex tectonic architecture of the eastern Mediterranean is mainly shaped by the interaction between the Eurasian, African, Arabian plates and smaller Anatolian Scholle. Ongoing post-collisional convergence between Eurasian and Arabian plates causes; (1) the westward motion of the Anatolia and and (2) the formation of four neo-tectonic provinces in Turkey: (a) East Anatolian Province of Shortening (b) North Anatolian Province (c) Central Anatolian "Ova" Province (d) West Anatolian Extensional Province. The Central "Ova" Province, which defines a region between the Aegean extensional regime in the west, the North Anatolian Shear Zone (NASZ) in the north and the East Anatolian Shear Zone (EASZ) in the east, is deformed internally by a series of NW-striking dextral and NE-striking sinistral strike-slip faults. The Malatya-Ovacık Fault Zone (MOFZ) is one the sinistral faults of the "Ova" province, located close to its eastern boundary. In order to understand not only the spatio-temporal behaviour of the MOFZ, but also its role in the internal deformation of the Anatolian Scholle we started to study the southern section, the Malatya Fault (MF), of this strike-slip fault zone in the framework of the TÜBITAK project no. 114Y580. The scope of the study is to calculate (a) the horizontal geologic slip rate, (b) the uplift rate, and (c) the cumulative displacement of the Malatya Fault (MF) that constitute the southwest part of MOFZ. Offset streams between 20-1700 m, pressure ridges, hot springs and small pull-apart basin formations are clear geological and geomorphological evidences for fault geometry along the MF. Among them the ~1700 m offset of the Tohma River (TR) presents unique site to understand deformational characteristics of the MF. Three levels of strath terraces (T1 to T3) identified along the both flanks of the TR by analyses of aerial photos and the field observations. The spatial distribution of these terraces are well-constrained by using the high

  6. L band InSAR sudy on the Ganos section of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Michele, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF), with a total length of about 1500 km, is one of the most active right-lateral strike-slip faults in the world. It defines the tectonic boundary between the Anatolian Plate and the Eurasian Plate in northern Turkey, accommodating ~14-30 mm/yr of relative plate motion between the two plates (fig. 1). The Gazikoy-Saros segment (the Ganos fault, GF) is the onshore segment of the northern strand of the NAF between the Marmara Sea and the Gulf of Saros. It was last ruptured in 1912 with a Ms=7.4 earthquake that broke the entire inland segment of the fault, a length of about 50 km, and produced a right-lateral strike-slip component of at least 3 m. Other large historical earthquakes that have been attributed to the Ganos fault occurred in A.D. 824, 1343, 1509 and 1766 (e. g. Reilinger et al., 2000; Meade et al., 2002; Motagh et al., 2007; Janssen et al., 2009; Megraoui et al., 2012 ; Ersen Aksoy et al., 2010). The GF forms a 45 km long linear fault system and represents the link between the northern strand of the NAFZ in the Sea of Marmara and the North Aegean Trough where slip partitioning results in branching of the fault zone. The present study aims at showing the results retrieved from L band Interferometric Syntethic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements for the monitoring of Crustal Deformation in the Anatolian Fault Zone in the frame of the MARMARA SUPERSITE PROJECT "MARSITE" on the Ganos section of the North Anatolian fault zone. We processed SAR data made available through the CAT-1 ESA (European Space Agency) archives, acquired by the L-band radar sensor ALOS PALSAR between 2007 and 2011. The aim of this exercise is to test L-band capabilities to map the spatial and temporal evolution of the present-day crustal deformation phenomena affecting the Ganos section of the NAFZ with high level of spatial details. The goal of this task is to assess whether InSAR L-Band data can be useful to evaluate the long-term behavior of active faults

  7. High-resolution palynological analysis in Lake Sapanca as a tool to detect recent earthquakes on the North Anatolian Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Suzanne A. G.; Boyraz, Sonay; Gürbüz, Alper

    2009-12-01

    High-resolution palynological analysis of a 38-cm long core collected from Lake Sapanca, northwest Turkey, reveals large earthquakes that occurred during the second half of the 20th century along the North Anatolian Fault Zone. Four events have disturbed the lacustrine sedimentary sequence. Three of the four events are historical earthquakes in 1999 in Izmit, 1967 in Mudurnu and 1957 in Abant. These events are recorded in the core by turbiditic deposits and reworked sediment and by low overall palynomorph concentrations but high values of thick-exined pollen, fern spores and fungal spores. Palynomorphs in the event beds have been grouped based on their associations in modern moss, river and lake samples. The inferred mechanisms of transport and sources for the palynomorphs are: 1- lake sediment displaced by slump, 2- collapsed shoreline sediment owing to seiche, waves and sudden lake level changes, 3- subsidence of deltas and 4- river-transported soil and sediment from upland areas. The 1999 Izmit earthquake is only weakly recorded by palynomorphs, probably due to recent engineering control on the rivers. The 1967 Mudurnu earthquake had the strongest effect on the lake, introducing successive packages of sediment to the centre of the lake from underwater slopes, the lakeshore and rivers.

  8. Kinematic indicators on active normal faults in Western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, P. L.; Barka, A. A.

    Quaternary normal fault zones in western Turkey comprise multiple slip planes and zone-parallel layers of fault breccia. They also contain several little-known kinematic indicators that are probably typical of many formed at shallow levels in extending terrains. The recent exhumation by contractors of about 2000 m 2 of slip planes in a SSE-dipping fault zone separating Quaternary colluvium from bedrock carbonates at Yavansu (7 km SE of Kuşadasi) permits an unusually complete inventory of the indicators to be compiled. The most spectacular indicators are metre-scale 69°W-pitching corrugations in slip planes and recemented breccia sheets underlying them. Corrugations, characterized by sinusoidal profiles normal to their long axes and, less commonly, culminations and depression along their axes possibly developed as a result of upwards-propagating slip planes seeking undemanding pathways through heterogeneous fault-precursor breccias that formed in advance of tip lines. Parallel to corrugation long axes are those of gutters, flat-floored, sleep-sided channels a few centimetres wide, probably related to the abrasion of subslip-plane breccia sheets. Centimetre-scale tool tracks scored in the uppermost subslip-plane breccia sheet by resistant colluvial clasts are irregular at their proximal ends but distally they swing into alignment with corrugation axes. Frictional-wear striae, centimetres long but only a few millimetres wide and pitching 78°W, are superimposed on the other slip-parallel lineations. Comb fractures nearly perpendicular to slip planes define an intersection lineation which is normal to corrugation axes. Fault-plane solutions of earthquakes on SSE-dipping active faults in the West Anatolian extensional province indicate that mainly normal, combined with minor dextral slip is the dominant mode, a conclusion in accord with the sense of slip inferred from the indicators exposed on the Yavansu slip planes.

  9. Health-risk behaviors in agriculture and related factors, southeastern Anatolian region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Hasret; Simsek, Zeynep; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2014-01-01

    Human behavior plays a central role in the maintenance of health and the prevention of diseases. This study aimed to determine the risky behaviors of farm operators selected from a province of Turkey's southeastern Anatolian region, as well as the factors related to risky behaviors. In this cross-sectional analysis, 380 farm operators were enrolled through simple random selection method, and the response rate was 85%. Health-risk behavior was measured using the Control List of Occupational Risks in Agriculture. Of 323 farm operators, 85.4% were male. The prevalence of risky behaviors related to measures of environmental risks were higher in animal husbandry, transportation, transportation and maintenance of machinery, pesticide application, child protection, thermal stress, and psychosocial factors in the work place. Education, age, duration of work, and size of agricultural area were associated with risky behaviors in a multiple linear regression (P < .05). Findings showed that a certified training program and a behavior surveillance system for agriculture should be developed.

  10. Crustal anisotropy along the North Anatolian Fault Zone from receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licciardi, Andrea; Eken, Tuna; Taymaz, Tuncay; Piana Agostinetti, Nicola; Yolsal-Çevikbilen, Seda; Tilmann, Frederik

    2016-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) that is considered to be one of the largest plate-bounding transform faults separates the Anatolian Plate to the south from the Eurasian Plate to the north. A proper estimation of the crustal anisotropy in the area is a key point to understand the present and past tectonic processes associated with the plate boundary as well as for assessing its strength and stability. In this work we used data from the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) passive seismic experiment in order to retrieve the anisotropic properties of the crust by means of the receiver function (RF) method. This approach provides robust constraints on the location at depth of anisotropic bodies compared to other seismological tools like S-waves splitting observations where anisotropic parameters are obtained through a path-integrated measurement process over depth. We computed RFs from teleseismic events, for 39 stations with a recording period of nearly 2 years, providing an excellent azimuthal coverage. The observed azimuthal variations in amplitudes and delay times on the Radial and Transverse RF indicate the presence of anisotropy in the crust. Isotropic and anisotropic effects on the RFs are analyzed separately after harmonic decomposition of the RF dataset (Bianchi et al. 2010). Pseudo 2D profiles are built to observe both the seismic isotropic structure and the depth-dependent lateral variations of crustal anisotropy in the area, including orientation of the symmetry axis. Preliminary results show that the isotropic structure is characterized by a complex crustal setting above a nearly flat Moho at a depth of ~40 km in the central portion of the studied area. Strong anisotropy is present in the upper crust along some portions of the NAFZ and the Ezinepazari-Sungurlu Fault (ESF), with a strong correlation between the orientation of the symmetry axis of anisotropy and the strike of the main geological structures. More complex patterns of anisotropy are present in the

  11. Earthquake Records of North Anatolian Fault from Sapanca Lake Sediments, NW Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalamaz, Burak; Cagatay, Namık; Acar, Dursun; Demirbag, Emin; Gungor, Emin; Gungor, Nurdan; Gulen, Levent

    2014-05-01

    We determined earthquake records in sediment cores of Sapanca Lake which is a pull-apart basin located along the North Anatolian Fault zone in NW Anatolia. The lake has a maximum depth of 55 m, and a surface area of 46.8 km2, measuring 16 km in E-W and 5 km in N-S directions. A systematic study of the sedimentological, physical and geochemical properties of three water-sediment interface cores, up to 75.7 cm long, located along depth transects ranging from 43 to 51.5 m water depths. The cores were analyzed using Geotek Multi Sensor Core Logger (MSCL) for physical properties, laser particle size analyzer for granulometry, TOC Analyzer for Total Organic Content (TOC) and Total Inorganic Carbon (TIC) analysis, Itrax-XRF Core Scanner for elemental analysis and digital X-RAY Radiography. The geochronology was determined using AMS radiocarbon and radionuclide methods. The Sapanca Lake earthquake records are characterized by mass flow units consisting of grey or dark grey coarse to fine sand and silty mud with sharp basal and transional upper boundaries. The units commonly show normal size grading with their basal parts showing high density, and high magnetic susceptibility and enrichment in one or more elements, such as Si, Ca, Tİ, K, Rb, Zr and Fe, indicative of coarse detrial input. Based on radionuclide and radiocarbon analyses the mass flow units are correlated with 1999 İzmit and Düzce earthquakes (Mw=7.4 and 7.2, respectively) , 1967 Mudurnu earthquake (Mw= 6,8), and 1957 Abant (Mw= 7.1) earthquake. Keywords: Sapanca Lake, North Anatolian Fault, Earthquake, Grain size, Itrax-XRF, MSCL

  12. Seafloor Geodetic Monitoring of the North Anatolian Fault in the Sea of Marmara: System Installation and its Initial Result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kido, M.

    2015-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) get across the mainland of Turkey is known as a quite active strike slip fault. The earthquake recurrence period for individual segment is estimated roughly 300 years based on historical records. The Marmara Segment is the major seismic gap since the last earthquake in 1766, while the Murefte earthquake occurred in 1912 at its west side and the Izmit earthquake in 1999 at its east side. The relative motion across the NAF is ~22 mm/yr based on the data from space geodesy. Investigating how much degree of this displacement is released by aseismic creep or accumulated by slip deficit in the Marmara Segment is crucial to know the total seismic risk in this region. Because the NAF is submerged in the Sea of Marmara and is inaccessible by space geodesy, we employed seafloor geodetic technique using extensometers, which acoustically monitor baseline length across a strain-localized zone, such as surface trace of a fault. In 2014, we installed five extensometers at the Western High crossing the NAF one after the other, where the surface trace of the NAF is prominent and gas emission from the seafloor is reported in. Totally four beselines of ~1 km range are successfully formed and quality of initial test data was promising. Based on the initial data, detectable level of the baseline change is estimated to be ~2mm, which owing to quite stable seawater near the bottom due to strong density stratification in the Sea of Marmara. The extensometers are designed that data can be recovered via acoustic modem without disrupt the monitoring. Since the installation, we have visited the site twice and have recovered the data for ten months in total. Temperature measured by thermistor equipped on each extensometer showed coherent change and gradual increase by 0.007 degree during the period. This reflects apparent beseline shortening due to the corresponding increase of the sound speed. In the preliminary temperature correction, difference of the change

  13. Paleoseismology of the 1966 Varto Earthquake (Ms 6.8) and Structure of the Varto Fault Zone, Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isik, V.; Caglayan, A.; Saber, R.; Yesilyurt, N.

    2014-12-01

    Turkey is a region of active faulting and contains several strike-slip fault zones, which have generated both historical and recent large earthquakes. Two active fault zones in Turkey, the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) and the East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ), divide the area into the Anatolian micro-plate accommodating WSW-directed movement. The southeastern continuation of the NAFZ is often referred to the Varto Fault Zone (VFZ). The VFZ cuts mainly Pliocene volcano-sedimentary units and/or Quaternary deposits and is characterized by multiple fault strands and multiple, closely spaced, active seismogenic zones. Fault motions in the zone are primarily right-lateral, with a subordinate component of NNW-SSE shortening. Study area is Varto region in which indications of active faulting are very well preserved. We recognized three coseismic ruptures from five trench exposures. It is referred to these as events 1 (youngest) through 3 (oldest). The best evidence of event 3 comes from fault traces and its upward terminations. The major components of this fault are fault core and damage zone. The fault is not just one plane of discontinuity and bifurcates and creates additional slip surfaces, which propagate out of the plane of the original fault. Event 2 and event 1, referring to 1946 and 1966 earthquakes, are characterized primarily by discrete, regularly spaced normal faults with and 55-80 cm and 105-270 cm throws, respectively and geometry of growth strata. The VFZ in the study area include typical structures of strike-slip fault zone. It forms a number of parallel and slightly sub-parallel strands striking N50°-72°W including contractional and extensional brittle structures. Several meters to tens of meters wavelength active folds with ENE-WSW and WNW-ESE trending fold axis. These folds deform the Plio-Quaternary units and show classic asymmetry associated with both a south- and north-vergent fault propagation fold. Meso-scale normal faults are also well

  14. Assessment of Grazing Effect on Sheep Fescue (Festuca valesiaca)Dominated Steppe Rangelands in the semi-arid Central Anatolian Region of Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of increased grazing pressure over the last fifty years, vegetation of the steppe rangelands in the semi-arid Central Anatolian Region of Turkey has been severely degraded. In these pastures, Festuca valesiaca (a sod forming short-grass) and Thymus sipyleus ssp rosulans (a prostrate shrub) a...

  15. Magmatic evolution of the Early Pliocene Etrüsk stratovolcano, Eastern Anatolian Collision Zone, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyan, Vural; Keskin, Mehmet; Lebedev, Vladimir A.; Chugaev, Andrey V.; Sharkov, Evgenii V.

    2016-07-01

    The Pliocene Etrüsk stratovolcano, located in the northeast of Lake Van (Eastern Anatolia; Turkey), is one of the important volcanic centres in the Eastern Anatolian collision zone. Mt. Etrüsk overlies a widespread volcanic plateau, consisting of basaltic and hawaiitic lavas formed by fissure eruptions between 4.9-4.5 Ma. These basic lavas contain a phenocryst phase consisting of olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene. Trace element ratio diagrams imply that these basic magmas were generated from a mantle that contained a clear subduction component that is related to the subducted sediments rather than fluids or altered oceanic crust. Results of the melting models on the basaltic plateau lavas indicate that there was a marked variation both in the mantle source mineralogy (i.e. the ratio of garnet peridotite to spinel peridotite in the source varies between 60/40% and 40/60%) and the degree of melting (i.e. F between 0.8-4%). This can be explained by a model in which magmas were generated by partial melting of both metasomatised lithospheric and deeper asthenospheric mantle sources in an extensional setting in response to the partial delamination of the lithospheric mantle of Eastern Anatolia and then mixed with each other during Pliocene times. Central eruptions that formed the Etrüsk volcano lasted ~ 600 kyr between 4.3-3.7 Ma during Zanclean times. The estimated depth of the Etrüsk magma chamber is ~ 9-12 km. The volcano erupted lavas with a rather narrow compositional range from latite to rhyolite, which are either transitional or mildly alkaline in character. The Etrüsk lavas contain plagioclase, clino- and orthopyroxene, biotite, K-feldspar and rarely, minor amounts of olivine and amphibole in the phenocryst phase. A composite chemo-stratigraphic section of the volcano and petrological models indicate that the evolved lavas of the Etrüsk volcano differentiated from a parental magma composition, which is similar to that of the most primitive plateau

  16. The Earthquake Loading Cycle and the Deep Structure of the North Anatolian Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, T. J.; Cornwell, D. G.; Farrell, K.; Hawthorne, J. C.; Houseman, G. A.; Hussain, E.; Lloyd, G. E.; Phillips, R. J.; Thompson, D. A.; Rost, S.; Yamasaki, T.; Turkelli, N.; Gülen, L.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation of the Earth's upper crust is localized onto narrow fault zones, which may slip suddenly and catastrophically in earthquakes. Strain in the upper mantle is more broadly distributed and is thought to occur by continuous ductile creep. The properties of the lower crust are the primary control on the behavior of the coupled system during the earthquake loading cycle. However, the distribution of strain in the lower crust is poorly understood. Here we show that the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) continues as a narrow structure through most of the crust. We use scattering migration from an 18 month deployment of 73 broadband seismometers in a dense array (~7 km spacing) across the NAF in the location of the 1999 Izmit earthquake rupture. The results reveal clear discontinuities in the lower crust across the northern and southern branches of the NAF, which extend to a depth of at least 25 km. Seismicity, by contrast, is confined to the upper ~15 km. Deformation on the fault was well recorded both before and after the 1999 earthquakes. Prior to the earthquake, strain was focused in a ~50 km region around the fault. Following the earthquake, a rapid post-seismic transient was observed, which slowly decayed over the subsequent decade. Earthquake cycle models require at least two relaxation time constants to explain these observations - a strong material to allow focused interseismic strain, and a material capable of relaxing quickly, to give rapid postseismic deformation. We present two models capable of reproducing these observations - (i) a visco-elastic model in which the weak material is found in a zone beneath the seismogenic fault, and (ii) a model in which postseismic deformation occurs through afterslip on a deep extension of the seismogenic fault plane. The latter appears more consistent with the seismic images. We also present results from geological analogues of the mid-lower crust beneath the NAF, which are also consistent with the idea that strain is

  17. Geomorphological and Paleoseismological Studies of the Malatya Fault (Malatya-Ovacık Fault Zone, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sançar, Taylan; Zabcı, Cengiz; Karabacak, Volkan; Akyüz, Hüsnü Serdar

    2016-04-01

    The Malatya-Ovacık Fault Zone (MOFZ is about 240 km-long sinistral strike-slip tectonic structure within the Anatolian Scholle. Although the MOFZ is claimed to be an inactive structure since 3 Ma (Westaway and Arger, 2001), recent GPS measurements, morphotectonic studies and micro seismicity strongly suggest considerable amount of strain accumulation along this tectonic feature. The GPS-based elastic block model results yield horizontal slip rates of about 1.2 and 1.6 mm/a, for the northeastern and southwestern sections of this fault zone, respectively (Aktuǧ et al., 2013). In order to understand the seismic potential of the southwestern section, Malatya Fault (MF), of the MOFZ, we carried out paleoseismological trenching and morphometric analyses in the frame of the TÜBİTAK project no. 114Y580. The preliminary results of morphometric analyses, including the hypsometric curve and channel longitudinal profiles, suggest that the northernmost part of the MF accommodate more deformation than the southern part, where the fault zone bifurcates into several discrete segments. Relatively high values of hypsometric integral and the shape of hypsometric curves and the longitudinal channel profiles, indicate youthful topography at northern part of the MF. In the northern section of the MF, Kızık Basin is one of the most remarkable fault-related landforms, which is 9 km long and 2 km wide, and is directly controlled by the extensional step-over of the fault segments. On the northern parts of this relatively narrow depression, a linear scarp prolongs between Kızık and Ahlas villages for about 150 m. In summer 2015, we excavated a single trench on this straight lineament, where mostly braided river-related gravels and sands were exposed. Although we could not observe any evidence of surface faulting inside the erosional channel systems, the bedrock has very well-developed shear fabric at the toe of the observed scarp. We sampled the most bottom section of the undeformed

  18. Structure of the North Anatolian Fault Zone from the Auto-Correlation of Ambient Seismic Noise Recorded at a Dense Seismometer Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, D. G.; Rost, S.; Houseman, G.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years the technique of cross-correlating the ambient seismic noise wavefield at two seismometers to reconstruct empirical Green's Functions for the determination of Earth structure has been a powerful tool to study the Earth's interior without earthquake or man-made sources. However, far less attention has been paid to using auto-correlations of seismic noise to reveal body wave reflections from interfaces in the subsurface. In principle, the Green's functions thus derived should be comparable to the Earth's impulse response to a co-located source and receiver. We use data from a dense seismic array (Dense Array for Northern Anatolia - DANA) deployed across the northern branch of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in the region of the 1999 magnitude 7.6 Izmit earthquake in western Turkey. The NAFZ is a major strike-slip system that extends ~1200 km across northern Turkey and continues to pose a high level of seismic hazard, in particular to the mega-city of Istanbul. We construct reflection images for the entire crust and upper mantle over the ~35 km by 70 km footprint of the 70-station DANA array. Using auto-correlations of vertical and horizontal components of ground motion, both P- and S-wave velocity information can be retrieved from the wavefield to constrain crustal structure further to established methods. We show that clear P-wave reflections from the crust-mantle boundary (Moho) can be retrieved using the autocorrelation technique, indicating topography on the Moho on horizontal scales of less than 10 km. Offsets in crustal structure can be identified that seem to be correlated with the surface expression of the fault zone in the region. The combined analysis of auto-correlations using vertical and horizontal components will lead to further insight into the fault zone structure throughout the crust and upper mantle.

  19. 3D architecture and Miocene evolution of the Tuz Gölü Basin in Central Anatolian Plateau, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutluay, Alkor; Dirik, Kadir; Ćiner, Attila; Bertotti, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    Central Anatolian Plateau (CAP) is the only orogenic plateau in the Mediterranean collision zone that can be compared to the evolution of its larger counterparts such as Tibet, the North American Cordilleran Plateau or the Andean Altiplano-Puna. Tuz Gölü Basin (TGB) is located in the middle of CAP and the dominant tectonic regime is extension with active normal faults. TGB is represented by a thick lacustrine sequence made up of evaporites, limestones, conglomerates, cross-bedded sandstones and mudstones with ignimbritic levels that unconformably cover the pre-Miocene basement units. Active normal faults represent a common feature within many orogens, and the negative tectonic inversion (a transition from contraction to extension) occurs often during the advanced stages of uplift. Tuz Gölü Fault, which is a normal fault with a dextral strike-slip component, bounds the TGB at the east. Our preliminary fault-slip data collected from the fault surfaces and kinematic analyses results show parallel normal faults and the tilting of the key-levels indicate that there is a graben formation due to a NE-SW extension within the area. To state the relationship between the extensional tectonics within a plateau and the formation and evolution of the plateau, the uplift rates by using structural data such as kinematic analyzes of the faults and tilting of the strata and ancient shorelines due to normal faulting will be calculated. Additionally, dating the ignimbrites in the basin using radiometric techniques will help to determine the initiation age of the normal faulting, which is one of the key observations that helps to understand the evolution of the plateau. This presentation was supported by the EUROCORES programme TOPO-EUROPE of the European Science Foundation.

  20. Patterns of active and passive smoking, and associated factors, in the South-east Anatolian Project (SEAP) region in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Ali I; Şahinöz, Saime; Özçırpıcı, Birgül; Özgür, Servet; Şahinöz, Turgut; Acemoğlu, Hamit; Saka, Günay; Ceylan, Ali; Palanci, Yılmaz; İlçin, Ersen; Akkafa, Feridun

    2006-01-01

    Background Smoking is an important health threat in Turkey. This study aimed to determine the frequency of and main factors associated with smoking in persons of 15 years and over, and the frequency of passive smoking in homes in the South-east Anatolian Project (SEAP) Region in Turkey. Methods A cross sectional design was employed. The sample waschosen by the State Institute of Statistics using a stratified cluster probability sampling method. 1126 houses representing the SEAP Region were visited. Questionnaires about tobacco smoking and related factors were applied to 2166 women and 1906 men (of 15 years old and above) in their homes. Face-to-face interview methods were employed. Participants were classified as current, ex, and non-smokers. The presence of a regular daily smoker in a house was used as an indication of passive smoking. The chi-square andlogistic regressionanalysis methods were used for the statistical analysis. Results The prevalence of smoking, in those of 15 years and over, was 11.8% in women and 49.7% in men. The prevalence of current smokers was higher in urban (34.5 %) than in rural (22.8 %) regions. The mean of total cigarette consumption was 6.5 packs/year in women and 17.9 packs/year in men. There was at least one current smoker in 70.1% of the houses. Conclusion Smoking is a serious problem in the South-eastern Anatolian Region. Male gender, middle age, a high level of education and urban residency were most strongly associated with smoking. PMID:16436202

  1. Determination of the Deformation along the Tuzla Fault, Izmir, Turkey by Geodetic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabuncu, A.; Ozener, H.

    2010-12-01

    The Aegean region is the most seismically active domain in Western Anatolia which comprises Greece, the Hellenic Arc, and Western Turkey. The Aegean region is mainly under pure shear stress from an internally deforming counter-clockwise direction of the Anatolian Plate relative to the Eurasia Plate. Izmir is the third largest city in Turkey with 2.7 million population. The Tuzla Fault is lying between the town of Menderes and Cape Doganbey which has NE-SW lineament trending. It is 42 km long through the land with 3 right lateral strike slip segments. This fault has a great importance as its proximity to the city of Izmir. The study aims to perform a large scale investigation, focusing on the Tuzla Fault and its vicinity for better understanding of the region’s tectonics. A micro-geodetic network with 15 points has been established in the study area. In order to investigate the crustal deformation and relative displacements along the Tuzla Fault GPS and Precise leveling techniques were used. Observations of two GPS campaigns and two precise leveling measurements were performed in 2009 and 2010. In order to process collected data by GPS campaigns, GAMIT/GLOBK software was used. As a result of two GPS campaigns, the velocity vectors of points are rated between 21mm/yr to 25mm/yr. In addition, 6.6 mm vertical displacement was observed between two leveling benchmarks which seems critical and needs further investigation.

  2. Preliminary investigation on the deformation rates of the Nazimiye Fault (Eastern Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sançar, Taylan

    2016-04-01

    fault-bounded mountain fronts. In addition to that I also extracted hypsometric curves, hypsometric integrals and stream length gradient index to understand the relationship between characteristics of the drainage basins and tectonic activity. As preliminary results, I conclude that the southern segment of the NF is tectonically quiescent, whereas the deformation is mainly accommodated on the northern branch. References Emre, Ö., Duman, T.Y., Kondo, H., Olgun, Ş., Özalp, S., Elmacı, H., 2012. 1:250.000 Ölçekli Türkiye Diri Fay Haritası Serisi, Erzincan (NJ37-3) Paftası, Seri No:44, Maden Tetkik ve Arama Genel Müdürlüǧü, Ankara-Türkiye. Kara, K., Sançar, T., Zabci, C., 2013. Morphologic and Morphotectonic Characteristics of the Nazimiye Fault Zone, Eastern Turkey. EGU2013-8105, EGU General Assembly Vienna, Austria. Şengör, A.M.C., 1979. The North Anatolian transform fault; its age, offset and tectonic significance. Journal of the Geological Society of London 136, Part 3, 269-282.

  3. Development of a geodetic monitoring system using seafloor extensometers for the state of the submerged North Anatolian Fault in the Sea of Marmara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kido, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Narumi; Yamamoto, Yojiro; Kalafat, Dogan; Pinar, Ali; Ozeren, Sinan; Ohta, Yusaku; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2015-04-01

    Failure of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) accompanied by a large earthquake is sequentially propagating to the west in Turley during the last century. However the region of the Marmara Sea, close to populous Istanbul, still remains unmoved and hence expected to have an impending devastating earthquake. In order to evaluate stress accumulation along the unmoved fault, which possibly controls the magnitude of the earthquake, it is crucial to know coupling ratio between the segments across the fault. The NAF is submerged beneath the Marmara Sea and inaccessible using onshore GNSS data. Therefore we have developed five seafloor extensometers and started their operation since September 2014 under SATREPS program between Japan and Turkey to directly measure the fault movement. The installation site is just on the Western High (~700m of depth), where strain partitioning is expected smaller (i.e., strain is concentrated at the main fault) because fewer sub-branches are observed. Four out of the five extensometers are alternately aligned across the fault in oblique direction with a baseline of roughly 1-km for each. The exact position of the fault is inferred from fine-scale bathymetric data based on multibeam surveys provided by Ifremer. The extensometers are designed that the main ranging data with associated information, such as temperature of sea water and etc., can be recovered through an acoustic modem at any time visiting the site without disruption of the measurement and is continuously worked at least 5 years with sampling rate of 12 hours. Based on the high-sampling (30 min.) preliminary data for 24 hours just after the installation, we found that the temporal variation of bottom temperature is quite stable due to strong density stratification in the Marmara Sea. Because of such stable condition, we confirmed that the system can potentially resolve 2-3 mm of shortening or extension along the 1-km-baseline. Maximum displacement across the fault is expected to be 2

  4. Geodetic Network Design and Optimization on the Active Tuzla Fault (Izmir, Turkey) for Disaster Management

    PubMed Central

    Halicioglu, Kerem; Ozener, Haluk

    2008-01-01

    Both seismological and geodynamic research emphasize that the Aegean Region, which comprises the Hellenic Arc, the Greek mainland and Western Turkey is the most seismically active region in Western Eurasia. The convergence of the Eurasian and African lithospheric plates forces a westward motion on the Anatolian plate relative to the Eurasian one. Western Anatolia is a valuable laboratory for Earth Science research because of its complex geological structure. Izmir is a large city in Turkey with a population of about 2.5 million that is at great risk from big earthquakes. Unfortunately, previous geodynamics studies performed in this region are insufficient or cover large areas instead of specific faults. The Tuzla Fault, which is aligned trending NE–SW between the town of Menderes and Cape Doganbey, is an important fault in terms of seismic activity and its proximity to the city of Izmir. This study aims to perform a large scale investigation focusing on the Tuzla Fault and its vicinity for better understanding of the region's tectonics. In order to investigate the crustal deformation along the Tuzla Fault and Izmir Bay, a geodetic network has been designed and optimizations were performed. This paper suggests a schedule for a crustal deformation monitoring study which includes research on the tectonics of the region, network design and optimization strategies, theory and practice of processing. The study is also open for extension in terms of monitoring different types of fault characteristics. A one-dimensional fault model with two parameters – standard strike-slip model of dislocation theory in an elastic half-space – is formulated in order to determine which sites are suitable for the campaign based geodetic GPS measurements. Geodetic results can be used as a background data for disaster management systems. PMID:27873783

  5. Geodetic Network Design and Optimization on the Active Tuzla Fault (Izmir, Turkey) for Disaster Management.

    PubMed

    Halicioglu, Kerem; Ozener, Haluk

    2008-08-19

    Both seismological and geodynamic research emphasize that the Aegean Region, which comprises the Hellenic Arc, the Greek mainland and Western Turkey is the most seismically active region in Western Eurasia. The convergence of the Eurasian and African lithospheric plates forces a westward motion on the Anatolian plate relative to the Eurasian one. Western Anatolia is a valuable laboratory for Earth Science research because of its complex geological structure. Izmir is a large city in Turkey with a population of about 2.5 million that is at great risk from big earthquakes. Unfortunately, previous geodynamics studies performed in this region are insufficient or cover large areas instead of specific faults. The Tuzla Fault, which is aligned trending NE-SW between the town of Menderes and Cape Doganbey, is an important fault in terms of seismic activity and its proximity to the city of Izmir. This study aims to perform a large scale investigation focusing on the Tuzla Fault and its vicinity for better understanding of the region's tectonics. In order to investigate the crustal deformation along the Tuzla Fault and Izmir Bay, a geodetic network has been designed and optimizations were performed. This paper suggests a schedule for a crustal deformation monitoring study which includes research on the tectonics of the region, network design and optimization strategies, theory and practice of processing. The study is also open for extension in terms of monitoring different types of fault characteristics. A one-dimensional fault model with two parameters - standard strike-slip model of dislocation theory in an elastic half-space - is formulated in order to determine which sites are suitable for the campaign based geodetic GPS measurements. Geodetic results can be used as a background data for disaster management systems.

  6. The Interpretation of Crustal Dynamics Data in Terms of Plate Interactions and Active Tectonics of the Anatolian Plate and Surrounding Regions in the Middle East

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toksoz, M. Nafi; Reilinger, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    During the past 6 months, efforts were concentrated on the following areas: (1) Continued development of realistic, finite element modeling of plate interactions and associated deformation in the Eastern Mediterranean; (2) Neotectonic field investigations of seismic faulting along the active fault systems in Turkey with emphasis on identifying seismic gaps along the North Anatolian fault; and (3) Establishment of a GPS regional monitoring network in the zone of ongoing continental collision in eastern Turkey (supported in part by NSF).

  7. The contribution of Saharan dust in PM(10) concentration levels in Anatolian Peninsula of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kabatas, B; Unal, A; Pierce, R B; Kindap, T; Pozzoli, L

    2014-08-01

    Sahara-originated dust is the most significant natural source of particulate matter; however, this contribution is still unclear in the Eastern Mediterranean especially in Western Turkey, where significant industrial sources and metropolitan areas are located. The Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) is utilized to explore the possible effects of Saharan dust on high levels of PM10 measured in Turkey. RAQMS model is compared with 118-air quality stations distributed throughout Turkey (81 cities) for April 2008. MODIS aerosol product (MOD04 for Terra and MYD04 for Aqua) is used to see columnar aerosol loading of the atmosphere at 550 nm (Aerosol optical depth (AOD) values found to be between 0.6 and 0.8 during the episode). High-resolution vertical profiles of clouds and aerosols are provided from CALIOP, on board of CALISPO satellite. The results suggest a significant contribution of Sahara dust to high levels of PM10 in Turkey with RAQMS and in situ time series showing similar patterns. The two data sets are found to be in agreement with a correlation of 0.87.

  8. Genetic variation in Anatolian black pine (Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana. (Lamb.) Holmboe.) populations in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gülcü, Süleyman; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Nebi Bilir

    2016-03-01

    The present study was carried out in a progeny trial established by ten population of Anatolian black pine [Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe.] to estimate genetic variation, heritability, genetic gain and also genetic and phenotypic correlations among the characters based on 9th year results of tree height and branch characters in the trial. Average tree height was 112.7 cm in polled population, while average of branch characters were generally similar. The results of ANOVA showed statistically significant difference (0.05>p) among the population for characters. Family x population interaction was also found statistically significant. Variation among family was lower than that of within families for the characters. Family mean heritability (0.65 < h(f)²) was higher than individual heritability (0.42 < h(i)²) for the characters. Genetic variation among population showed low ratio in total variation, while it was very high among and within the families. It emphasized importance of individual selection in breeding programme. Phenotypic correlation was statistically significant between tree height and branch diameter only. It was also highest in genotypic correlation (r = 0.81).

  9. Imaging the conductivity anomalies at the vicinity of Ganos Fault, northwest Turkey by magnetotellurics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaş, Mustafa; Tank, Bülent; Özaydın, Sinan

    2016-04-01

    Audio-frequency magnetotelluric (AMT: 10400 Hz. - 1 Hz.) data were collected across Ganos Fault, near Mürefte, at the western part of North Anatolian Fault, Turkey. The twelve observation points were densely distributed to form a north - south aligned continuous profile that aims to reveal the electrical resisitivity structure to a depth of 1500 m. Ganos Fault is inactive since 1912 Mürefte Earthquake (Ms: 7.4) and acts as a locked segment with the potential to generate a significant event in the near future. Preliminary dimensionality analyses of the AMT data were performed by using three approaches; strike angle determination following Groom and Bailey decomposition (N70°E), phase tensor analyses (N70°E) and induction vectors (N60°E). All of these methods gave results that are in good agreement with present geological (N70°E) and seismological (N70°E) values. Following the dimensionality analyses, two- and three- dimensional numerical modeling routines were utilized to perform inverse modeling. The inversions were performed by different methods such as Rodi and Mackie, WinGLink, (2001) and Ogawa and Uchida, ABIC, (1996) for 2D and Siripunvaraporn et al., WSINV3DMT (2005) and Egbert and Kelbert, ModEM (2012) for 3D. All modeling attempts ended up with similar models suggesting that: (i) A significant low resistivity anomaly was detected just below the fault's trace representing the so-called "fault zone conductor" with 400 m width and 500 m depth, (ii) An asymmetric damage zone is present involving the fault's core concentrated to the south, (iii) A resistivity contrast between the two sides of the fault, representing a geological boundary between Eocene aged Keşan Formation in the north and Miocene aged Çengelli Formation in the south (iv) Opiholitic basement appears as a high resistivity block at a depth of 800 m.

  10. The crustal structure along the 1999 Izmit/Düzce rupture of the North-Anatolian Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastian, Rost; David, Cornwell; David, Thompson; Greg, Houseman; Metin, Kahraman; Ugur, Teoman; Selda, Altuncu-Poyraz; Niyazi, Turkelli; Andrew, Frederiksen; Stephane, Rondenay; Tim, Wright

    2015-04-01

    Deformation along continental strike-slip faults is localized onto narrow fault zones at the surface, which may slip suddenly and catastrophically in earthquakes. On the other hand, strain in the upper mantle is more broadly distributed and is thought to occur by continuous ductile creep. The transition between these two states is poorly understood although it controls the behaviour of the fault zone during the earthquake loading cycle. To understand the structure of and strain distribution across the North-Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) we deployed temporary seismic stations in the region of the 1999 Izmit (M7.5) and Düzce (M7.2) earthquakes. The rectangular array consisted of 66 seismic stations with a nominal station spacing of 7 km and seven additional stations forming a semi-circular ring towards the east (Dense Array for Northern Anatolia - DANA). Using this very dense seismic dataset and a combination of established (e.g. H-k stacking and common conversion point migration) and novel (scattering migration and scattering inversion) seismic processing techniques allows unprecedented resolution of the crustal structure in this region. This study resolves sharp changes in crustal structure across and along the surface expression of the two branches of the NAFZ at scale lengths less than 10 km at mid to lower-crustal depths. The results indicate that the northern NAFZ branch depth extent varies from the mid-crust to the upper mantle and it is likely to be less than 5 km wide throughout the crust. We furthermore resolve a high velocity lower crust and a region of crustal underthrusting that might add strength to a heterogeneous crust and may play a role in dictating the variation in faulting style and postseismic deformation in this region of the NAFZ. The results are consistent with a narrow fault zone accommodating postseismic deformation in the lower crust, as opposed to a broad ductile region below the seismogenic region of the fault.

  11. Mineralogical, textural, geochemical and thermometric characteristics of Central Anatolian fluorites (Turkey): Tracing the origin of post-magmatic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosanay, Pelin; Mutlu, Halim; Koc, Sükrü; Cevik, Nihal; Oztürk, Ceyda; Varol, Ece

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we investigate the spatial distribution of fluorite veins in Central Anatolia with emphasis on mineralogical, textural, geochemical and thermometric variations. The studied fluorite mineralizations (Kaman, Akçakent, Pöhrenk and Şefaatli mineralizations from west to east) are located on northern part of Kırşehir Massif which is a part of Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex that is bordered by the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone. The Kaman, Akçakent and Şefaatli fluorite deposits are formed in association with magmatic rocks such as syenite and monzonite / monzodiorite in composition which are of Upper Cretaceous age. Fluorite in these deposits occurs as purple- and green-colored stockwork veins and/or disseminations along fault/fracture systems and is accompanied by quartz and rare pyrite. The Pöhrenk ore, however, is precipitated as space filling-breccia type within karstic voids of Eocene limestones and marl levels. The silicification/carbonatization and barite occurrences are found as the main alteration and secondary products of mineralization. Thickness of fluorite veins is between 2 and 30 cm. ΣREE contents of host rocks and fluorite veins are in the range of 2-806 ppm and 20-390 ppm, respectively. In element variation diagrams constructed for both host rocks and fluorite mineralizations, LREE concentrations are found to be greater than HREEs. REE contents of green-colored fluorites are about 10-fold higher than those of purple-colored ones. Negative Ce and Eu anomalies indicate high oxygen fugacity for the mineralizing fluids. Fluid inclusion studies indicated three different types of inclusions: 1) two-phase (liquid-vapor) primary and secondary inclusions, 2) single-phase (liquid) primary and secondary inclusions and 3) two-phase (liquid-vapor) and single-phase (liquid) pseudo-secondary inclusions. Results of homogenization temperatures from a number of about 200 measurements chiefly on fluorite and less often quartz and barite

  12. Delineation of the North Anatolian Fault Within the Sapanca Lake and Correlation of Seismo-Turbidites With Major Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulen, L.; Demirbağ, E.; Cagatay, M. N.; Yıldırım, E.; Yalamaz, B.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic reflection studies have been carried out in the Sapanca Lake to delineate the geometry of the North Anatolian Fault. A total of 28 N-S and 2 E-W trending seismic profiles were obtained. The interpretation of seismic reflection profiles have revealed that the North Anatolian Fault Zone exhibits a pull-apart fault geometry within the Sapanca Lake and the active fault segments have been mapped. A bathymetry map of the Sapanca Lake is also generated and the maximum depth is determined to be 54 m. A systematic study of the sedimentological, physical and geochemical properties of three up to 75.7 cm long water-sediment interface cores located along depth transects ranging from 43 to 5.1.5 m water depth. The cores were analyzed using Geotek Multi Sensor Core Logger (MSCL) for physical properties, laser particle size analyzer for granulometry, TOC Analyzer for Total Organic Organic (TOC) and Total Inorganic carbon (TIC) analysis and Itrax-XRF Core Scanner for elemental analysis and digital X-RAY Radiography. The Sapanca Lake earthquake records are characterized by seismo-turbidites consisting of grey or dark grey coarse to fine sand and silty mud with a sharp basal and transitional upper boundaries. The units commonly show normal size grading with their basal parts showing high density and magnetic susceptibility and enrichment in one or more of elements, such as Si, Ca, Tİ, K, Rb, Zr and Fe, indicative of coarse detrial input. Based on radionuclide and radiocarbon analyses the seismo-turbidites are correlated with the 1999 İzmit and Düzce (Mw=7.4 and 7.2), 1967 Mudurnu (Mw= 6.8), and 1957 Abant (Mw= 7.1) Earthquakes. Additionally a prominent Cs137 peak was found in the Sapanca Lake sediment cores at a depth of 12 cm. indicating that a radioactive fallout occurred in the region as a result of the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in Ukraine.

  13. Seismicity and Crustal Anisotropy Beneath the Western Segment of the North Anatolian Fault: Results from a Dense Seismic Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkelli, N.; Teoman, U.; Altuncu Poyraz, S.; Cambaz, D.; Mutlu, A. K.; Kahraman, M.; Houseman, G. A.; Rost, S.; Thompson, D. A.; Cornwell, D. G.; Utkucu, M.; Gülen, L.

    2013-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is one of the major strike slip fault systems on Earth comparable to San Andreas Fault in some ways. Devastating earthquakes have occurred along this system causing major damage and casualties. In order to comprehensively investigate the shallow and deep crustal structure beneath the western segment of NAF, a temporary dense seismic network for North Anatolia (DANA) consisting of 73 broadband sensors was deployed in early May 2012 surrounding a rectangular grid of by 70 km and a nominal station spacing of 7 km with the aim of further enhancing the detection capability of this dense seismic array. This joint project involves researchers from University of Leeds, UK, Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI), and University of Sakarya and primarily focuses on upper crustal studies such as earthquake locations (especially micro-seismic activity), receiver functions, moment tensor inversions, shear wave splitting, and ambient noise correlations. To begin with, we obtained the hypocenter locations of local earthquakes that occured within the DANA network. The dense 2-D grid geometry considerably enhanced the earthquake detection capability which allowed us to precisely locate events with local magnitudes (Ml) less than 1.0. Accurate earthquake locations will eventually lead to high resolution images of the upper crustal structure beneath the northern and southern branches of NAF in Sakarya region. In order to put additional constraints on the active tectonics of the western part of NAF, we also determined fault plane solutions using Regional Moment Tensor Inversion (RMT) and P wave first motion methods. For the analysis of high quality fault plane solutions, data from KOERI and the DANA project were merged. Furthermore, with the aim of providing insights on crustal anisotropy, shear wave splitting parameters such as lag time and fast polarization direction were obtained for local events recorded

  14. Source parameters of the 2005-2008 Balâ-Sırapınar (central Turkey) earthquakes: Implications for the internal deformation of the Anatolian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çubuk, Yeşim; Yolsal-Çevikbilen, Seda; Taymaz, Tuncay

    2014-11-01

    Active tectonics of central Anatolia is mainly governed by the collision of the African, Arabian and Anatolian plates, which causes westward escape of Anatolia along the North and East Anatolian Fault zones, and the counterclockwise rotation of the Kırşehir block with insignificant internal deformation. The formation of the present-day tectonic processes in this region can be deduced from geophysical prospecting and seismological data. Although the seismicity in central Anatolia is distinctively lower than that in the northern and eastern parts of the Anatolian plate, small and moderate earthquakes (2.5 ≤ Mw ≤ 6.0) mostly occurred in the region in the past decades or so. For example, intense earthquake activity was observed in the Balâ-Afşar-Sırapınar (Ankara, central Anatolia) region in the period of 2005 to 2008 with destructive earthquakes of July 30, 2005 (Mw = 5.2); December 20, 2007 (Mw = 5.7) and December 26, 2007 (Mw = 5.6). Therefore, these earthquakes are crucial to analyze the shallow crustal deformation in the central Anatolian block. In the present study, we obtained source parameters of 2005-2008 earthquake sequence using the regional moment tensor (RMT) inversion method. We analyzed complete broad-band waveforms recorded at near-field distances (0.45° ≤ Δ ≤ 3.6°). Our results reveal NW-SE directed right-lateral strike-slip faulting and NE-SW directed left-lateral strike-slip faulting mechanisms, which are clearly correlated with the conjugate fault systems in the Balâ-Afşar-Sırapınar region. However, some earthquakes also have E-W directed normal faulting components. We suggest that the major characteristics of 2005-2006 and 2007-2008 earthquake activity could have been dominantly associated with left-lateral and right-lateral strike-slip faulting mechanisms, respectively. The seismogenic depth is found to be about 8-10 km. This result implies that earthquakes in the study region occurred mostly in the upper crust, which

  15. Surface uplift due to thermo-rheological changes in the crust: The case of the southern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau (S Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Blanco, David; Bertotti, Giovanni; Cassola, Teodoro; Willett, Sean

    2016-04-01

    Late Miocene uplift of the southern margin of the Central Anatolian orogenic plateau (SCAP) can be explained with our proposed surface uplift mechanism. This new model is based on the dynamic interactions between the growth of the Anatolian accretionary subduction margin and thermo-rheological changes at the base of its crust. Our thermo-rheological uplift mechanism fits newly obtained structural data, as well as compiled geological and geophysical data along a 550km-long arc-perpendicular transect. This transect runs between the Cyprian Arc trench and central Turkey through the area of the Anatolian upper-plate with larger uplift, i.e. central south Turkey. Observed deformation patterns and associated vertical motions along this transect indicate distributed shortening in relation to the subduction of the Cyprus slab, which still underlies this area. In the middle sectors of the transect a pre-Miocene basement gently dipping southward underwent regional subsidence since Early Miocene times. After ~8 Ma, surface uplift took place in the area of the future SCAP, as recorded by disruption of marine deposition and the onset of erosion, whereas subsidence persisted to the south of it, in the Cilicia Basin. Overall N-S shortening during this period developed regional contractional structures along the margin: the S-verging Kyrenia thrust system in N Cyprus, the S-dipping thrusts in the center of the Cilicia Basin, and the large-wavelength S-dipping monocline in S Turkey. We tested our proposed mechanism with 2D thermo-mechanically coupled finite elements models. The models demonstrate that sediment accretion and deposition in the central Cyprus accretionary forearc basin system led to crustal thickening of the Anatolian upper-plate, which in turn forced a sedimentary "blanketing" effect. This sedimentary "blanketing" effect controlled the temperature gradient in the crust, with decreased temperatures within the blanket and increased underneath it. Higher temperatures

  16. Investigaton of ÇINARCIK Basin and North Anatolian Fault Within the Sea of Marmara with Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atgın, O.; Çifçi, G.; Sorlien, C.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M.; Sillington, D.; Kurt, H.; Dondurur, D.; Okay, S.; Gürçay, S.; Sarıtaş, H.; Küçük, H. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Sea of Marmara is becoming a natural laboratory for structure, sedimentation, and fluid flow within the North Anatolian fault (NAF) system. Much marine geological and geophysical data has been collected there since the deadly 1999 M=7.2. Izmit earthquake. The Sea of Marmara occupies 3 major basins, with the study area located in the eastern Cinarcik basin near Istanbul. These basins are the results of an extensional component in releasing segments between bends in this right-lateral tranmsform. It is controversial whether the extensional component is taken up by partitioned normal slip on separate faults, or instead by oblique right-normal slip on the non-vertical main northern branch of the NAF. High resolution multichannel seismic reflection (MCS) and multibeam bathymetry data collected by R/V K.Piri Reis and R/V Le-Suroit as part of two different projects respectively entitled "SeisMarmara", "TAMAM" and "ESONET". 3000 km of multichannel seismic reflection profiles were collected in 2008 and 2010 using 72, 111, and 240 channels of streamer with a 6.25 m group interval. The generator-injector airgun was fired every 12.5 or 18.75 m and the resulting MCS data has 10-230 Hz frequency band. The aim of the study is to investigate continuation of North Anatolian Fault along the Sea of Marmara, in order to investigate migration of depo-centers past a fault bend. We also test and extend a recently-published age model, quantify extension across short normal faults, and investigate whether a major surface fault exists along the southern edge of Çınarcık Basin. MCS profiles indicate that main NAF strand is located at the northern boundary of Çınarcık Basin and has a large vertical component of slip. The geometry of the eastern (Tuzla) bend and estimated right-lateral slip rates from GPS data requires as much of ten mm/yr of extension across Çınarcık Basin. Based on the published age model, we calculate about 2 mm/yr of extension on short normal faults in the

  17. Geochemistry of uranium and thorium and natural radioactivity levels of the western Anatolian plutons, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Argyrios; Altunkaynak, Şafak; Koroneos, Antonios; Ünal, Alp; Kamaci, Ömer

    2017-01-01

    Seventy samples from major plutons (mainly granitic) of Western Anatolia (Turkey) have been analyzed by γ-ray spectrometry to determine the specific activities of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K (Bq/kg). Τhe natural radioactivity ranged up to 264 Bq/kg for 238U, 229.62 Bq/kg for 226Ra, up to 207.32 Bq/kg for 232Th and up to 2541.95 Bq/kg for 40K. Any possible relationship between the specific activities of 226Ra, 238U, 232Th and 40K and some characteristics of the studied samples (age, rock-type, colour, grain size, occurrence, chemical and mineralogical composition) was investigated. Age, major and trace element geochemistry, color, pluton location and mineralogical composition are likely to affect the concentrations of the measured radionuclides. The range of the Th/U ratio was large (0.003-11.374). The latter, along with 226Ra/238U radioactive secular disequilibrium, is also discussed and explained by magmatic processes during differentiation.

  18. Prevalence of hypertension among high school students in a middle Anatolian province of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Nur, Naim; Cetinkaya, Selma; Yilmaz, Abdülkerim; Ayvaz, Adnan; Bulut, Mustafa Orhan; Sümer, Haldun

    2008-03-01

    Hypertension may lead to irreversible damages in vital organs, such as heart, brain, and kidney, and may cause death in children if treatments are not given despite early diagnosis. This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted during 1 January-31 March 2004 to investigate the prevalence of hypertension among high school students. The study cohort included 1,041 students of six high schools, who were selected from among 14,789 students of 26 high schools in Sivas province of Turkey, using the cluster-sampling method. A questionnaire was used for collecting information from students on age, gender, smoking, and whether they or their families have any diseases. Blood pressure, height, and weight of the participitants were determined by the research group. Students whose repeated systolic or diastolic blood pressures were higher than the 95th percentile were considered to be hypertensive patients. Hypertension was prevalent among 4.4% (n=45) of the students. There was a significant correlation between prevalence of hypertension and body mass index. No significant correlation was found between prevalence of hypertension and other variables, such as smoking, age, gender, and family history of diabetes. The results suggest that hypertension is an important public-health problem among high school students. The results also showed that the body mass index was an important parameter in hypertension in such a study group. Researchers should consider overweight a causative risk factor for development of hypertension in early-onset groups.

  19. Age of the North Anatolian Fault Segments in the Yalova with U/Th Dating Method by Travertine Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selim, Haluk; Ömer Taş, K.

    2016-04-01

    Travertine occurrences developed along the segments of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) in the south of Yalova. Travertines outcrop approximately 1 km2 area. These are middle-thick bedded approximately 20-40 m and back-tilted southward or horizontally. Lithology of travertines deposited such as physolite, stalactites-stalagmites, cave pearls, sharp pebble carbonate nodules, spherical-roller-intricate shapes or laminated banded travertine. Geochemical analyses were performed on the six samples of the travertines. X-ray analysis indicates that all samples are entirely composed of low-Mg calcite. Banded travertines with some tubular structures formed by precipitation from rising hot water are best developed near the toes of the large, hanging-wall-derived alluvial fans, whereas phreatic cement preferentially exists in footwall-derived, alluvial-fan conglomerates. The unit developed clarity which is controlled by normal fault as the structural and morphological, relationship with active tectonics. The travertines are a range-front type. U/Th series age dating results indicate that the travertine deposition extends back to 155 ka and yields ages of 60.000 (± 3, 091) to 153.149 (±13,466) from the range-front type travertines.

  20. Multi-phased uplift of the southern margin of the Central Anatolian plateau, Turkey: A record of tectonic and upper mantle processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildgen, T. F.; Cosentino, D.; Bookhagen, B.; Niedermann, S.; Yıldırım, C.; Echtler, H.; Wittmann, H.; Strecker, M. R.

    2012-02-01

    Uplifted Neogene marine sediments and Quaternary fluvial terraces in the Mut Basin, southern Turkey, reveal a detailed history of surface uplift along the southern margin of the Central Anatolian plateau from the Late Miocene to the present. New surface exposure ages (10Be, 26Al, and 21Ne) of gravels capping fluvial strath terraces located between 28 and 135 m above the Göksu River in the Mut Basin yield ages ranging from ca. 25 to 130 ka, corresponding to an average incision rate of 0.52 to 0.67 mm/yr. Published biostratigraphic data combined with new interpretations of the fossil assemblages from uplifted marine sediments reveal average uplift rates of 0.25 to 0.37 mm/yr since Late Miocene time (starting between 8 and 5.45 Ma), and 0.72 to 0.74 mm/yr after 1.66 to 1.62 Ma. Together with the terrace abandonment ages, the data imply 0.6 to 0.7 mm/yr uplift rates from 1.6 Ma to the present. The different post-Late Miocene and post-1.6 Ma uplift rates can imply increasing uplift rates through time, or multi-phased uplift with slow uplift or subsidence in between. Longitudinal profiles of rivers in the upper catchment of the Mut and Ermenek basins show no apparent lithologic or fault control on some knickpoints that occur at 1.2 to 1.5 km elevation, implying a transient response to a change in uplift rates. Projections of graded upper relict channel segments to the modern outlet, together with constraints from uplifted marine sediments, show that a slower incision/uplift rate of 0.1 to 0.2 mm/yr preceded the 0.7 mm/yr uplift rate. The river morphology and profile projections therefore reflect multi-phased uplift of the plateau margin, rather than steadily increasing uplift rates. Multi-phased uplift can be explained by lithospheric slab break-off and possibly also the arrival of the Eratosthenes Seamount at the collision zone south of Cyprus.

  1. Human Cutaneous Anthrax, the East Anatolian Region of Turkey 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Parlak, Emine; Parlak, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. While anthrax is rare in developed countries, it is endemic in Turkey. The names of the different forms of the disease refer to the manner of entry of the spores into the body-cutaneous, gastrointestinal, inhalation, and injection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics, epidemiological history, treatment, and outcomes of patients with anthrax. Eighty-two cases of anthrax hospitalized at Atatürk University Faculty of Medicine Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology in 2008-2014 were examined retrospectively. Gender, age, occupation, year, history, clinical characteristics, character of lesions, length of hospitalization, and outcomes were recorded. Thirty (36.6%) patients were female and 52 (63.4%) patients were male; ages were 18-69 and mean age was 43.77 ± 13.05. The mean incubation period was 4.79 ± 3.76 days. Cases were largely identified in August (41.5%) and September (25.6%). Sixty-nine (84.1%) of the 82 patients had been given antibiotics before presentation. Lesions were most common on the fingers and arms. The most common occupational groups were housewives (36.6%) and people working in animal husbandry (31.7%). All patients had histories of contact with diseased animals and animal products. Penicillin-group antibiotics (78%) were most commonly used in treatment. One patient (1.2%) died from anthrax meningitis. The mean length of hospitalization was 8.30 ± 5.36 days. Anthrax is an endemic disease of economic and social significance for the region. Effective public health control measures, risk group education, vaccination of animals, and decontamination procedures will reduce the number of cases.

  2. Geology and seismotectonics of the North-Anatolian Fault in the Sea of Marmara: implications for seismic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperini, Luca; Cedro, Vincenzo; Polonia, Alina; Cruise Party, Marmara

    2016-04-01

    Based on high-resolution multibeam and seismic reflection data recently collected and analysed in the frame of Marsite (New Directions in Seismic Hazard Assessment through Focused Earth Observation in the Marmara Supersite) EC FP7 Project, in conjunction with a large set of geophysical and geological data collected starting from 1999, we compiled a new morphotectonic map of the submerged part of the North-Anatolian Fault system (NAF) in the Sea of Marmara. Data analysis allowed us to recognize active fault segments and their activity at the scale of 10 ka, taking as stratigraphic reference the base of the latest marine ingression, which constitutes a clear marker in the sedimentary sequence of the Sea of Marmara. This is mainly due to the fact the Sea of Marmara was a fresh water lake during the Last Glacial Maximum, and switched to a marine environment when the global sea level reached to the -85 m relative to present day and crossed the Dardanelles sill during the transgression. The passage from lacustrine to marine environment is marked by a typical unconformity in high-resolution seismic profiles, which can be correlated over the entire Marmara basin. According to the average recurrence time for major earthquake along the NAF, the time interval of 10 ka should include several earthquake cycle and is representative of the seismotectonic behavior of the fault at geological time scales. Given the relatively high deformation rates relative to in relative to sediment supply, most active tectonic structures have a morphological expression at the seafloor. This allowed us to correlate deformations from a seismic section to the adjacent. Fault strands not affecting the Holocene sequence were considered inactive. Three types of deformation patterns were observed and classified: almost purely E-W oriented strike-slip segments; NE-SW oriented trans-pressional structures; NW-SE trending trans-tensional features. Segmentation of the so-called Main Marmara Fault in the Sea

  3. No significant steady state surface creep along the North Anatolian Fault offshore Istanbul: Results of 6 months of seafloor acoustic ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakic, P.; Piété, H.; Ballu, V.; Royer, J.-Y.; Kopp, H.; Lange, D.; Petersen, F.; Özeren, M. S.; Ergintav, S.; Geli, L.; Henry, P.; Deschamps, A.

    2016-07-01

    The submarine Istanbul-Silivri fault segment, within 15 km of Istanbul, is the only portion of the North Anatolian Fault that has not ruptured in the last 250 years. We report first results of a seafloor acoustic ranging experiment to quantify current horizontal deformation along this segment and assess whether the segment is creeping aseismically or accumulating stress to be released in a future event. Ten transponders were installed to monitor length variations along 15 baselines. A joint least squares inversion for across-fault baseline changes, accounting for sound speed drift at each transponder, precludes fault displacement rates larger than a few millimeters per year during the 6 month observation period. Forward modeling shows that the data better fit a locked state or a very moderate surface creep—less than 6 mm/yr compared to a far-field slip rate of over 20 mm/yr—suggesting that the fault segment is currently accumulating stress.

  4. Deriving earthquake history of the Knidos Fault Zone, SW Turkey, using cosmogenic 36Cl surface exposure dating of the fault scarp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, Cengiz; Ersen Aksoy, Murat; Akif Sarikaya, Mehmet; Tuysuz, Okan; Genc, S. Can; Ertekin Doksanalti, Mustafa; Sahin, Sefa; Benedetti, Lucilla; Tesson, Jim; Aster Team

    2016-04-01

    Formation of bedrock fault scarps in extensional provinces is a result of large and successive earthquakes that ruptured the surface several times. Extraction of seismic history of such faults is critical to understand the recurrence intervals and the magnitude of paleo-earthquakes and to better constrain the regional seismic hazard. Knidos on the Datca Peninsula (SW Turkey) is one of the largest cities of the antique times and sits on a terraced hill slope formed by en-echelon W-SW oriented normal faults. The Datça Peninsula constitutes the southern boundary of the Gulf of Gökova, one of the largest grabens developed on the southernmost part of the Western Anatolian Extensional Province. Our investigation relies on cosmogenic 36Cl surface exposure dating of limestone faults scarps. This method is a powerful tool to reconstruct the seismic history of normal faults (e.g. Schlagenhauf et al 2010, Benedetti et al. 2013). We focus on one of the most prominent fault scarp (hereinafter Mezarlık Fault) of the Knidos fault zone cutting through the antique Knidos city. We collected 128 pieces of tablet size (10x20cm) 3-cm thick samples along the fault dip and opened 4 conventional paleoseismic trenches at the base of the fault scarp. Our 36Cl concentration profile indicates that 3 to 4 seismic events ruptured the Mezarlık Fault since Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The results from the paleoseismic trenching are also compatible with 36Cl results, indicating 3 or 4 seismic events that disturbed the colluvium deposited at the base of the scarp. Here we will present implications for the seismic history and the derived slip-rate of the Mezarlık Fault based on those results. This project is supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK, Grant number: 113Y436) and it was conducted with the Decision of the Council of Ministers with No. 2013/5387 on the date 30.09.2013 and was done with the permission of Knidos Presidency of excavation in

  5. The surface rupture and slip distribution of the 17 August 1999 Izmit earthquake (M 7.4), North Anatolian fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barka, A.; Akyuz, H.S.; Altunel, E.; Sunal, G.; Cakir, Z.; Dikbas, A.; Yerli, B.; Armijo, R.; Meyer, B.; De Chabalier, J. B.; Rockwell, Thomas; Dolan, J.R.; Hartleb, R.; Dawson, Tim; Christofferson, S.; Tucker, A.; Fumal, T.; Langridge, Rob; Stenner, H.; Lettis, William; Bachhuber, J.; Page, W.

    2002-01-01

    The 17 August 1999 İzmit earthquake occurred on the northern strand of the North Anatolian fault zone. The earthquake is associated with a 145-km-long surface rupture that extends from southwest of Düzce in the east to west of Hersek delta in the west. Detailed mapping of the surface rupture shows that it consists of five segments separated by releasing step-overs; herein named the Hersek, Karamürsel-Gölcük, İzmit-Sapanca Lake, Sapanca-Akyazi, and Karadere segments from west to east, respectively. The Hersek segment, which cuts the tip of a large delta plain in the western end of the rupture zone, has an orientation of N80°. The N70°-80°E-trending Karamürsel-Gölcük segment extends along the linear southern coasts of the İzmit Gulf between Karamürsel and Gölcük and produced the 470-cm maximum displacement in Gölcük. The northwest-southeast-striking Gölcük normal fault between the Karamürsel-Gölcük and İzmit-Sapanca segments has 2.3-m maximum vertical displacement. The maximum dextral offset along the İzmit-Sapanca Lake segment was measured to be about 3.5 m, and its trend varies between N80°E and east-west. The Sapanca-Akyazi segment trends N75°-85°W and expresses a maximum displacement of 5.2 m. The Karadere segment trends N65°E and produced up to 1.5-m maximum displacement. The Karadere and Sapanca-Akyazi segments form fan-shape or splaying ruptures near their eastern ends where the displacement also diminished.

  6. Uplift of the southern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau (Turkey): A record of tectonic and upper mantle processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildgen, T. F.; Cosentino, D.; Bookhagen, B.; Echtler, H.; Rojay, B.; Strecker, M. R.; Yildirim, C.

    2012-04-01

    Deciphering the geodynamic mechanisms of topographic development is often thwarted by low-resolution paleotopographic reconstructions, poor constraints on deep earth processes, and limited integration of other evidence for geodynamic processes such as modes of structural deformation. The Mediterranean Basin offers particular challenges, as the complex tectonic plate boundaries and lithospheric slab geometries have changed substantially throughout the Cenozoic. The southern margin of the Central Anatolian plateau fortunately provides a rich record of geomorphologic, stratigraphic, and structural evidence for the timing, pattern, and mode of surface uplift. Combined with recently published tomography, the plateau margin provides detailed evidence of how tectonic and lithopheric slab processes have contributed to topographic growth through time. We use detailed biostratigraphic analyses of uplifted marine sediments, interpretations of transient river profiles, and cosmogenic nuclide dating of fluvial strath terraces in the Mut Basin and adjacent areas to decipher the uplift history along the 2- to 3-km high southern margin of the plateau. Uplifted marine sediments reveal that surface uplift rates of 0.1 to 0.3 mm/yr throughout the plateau margin started between ~7 and 5.5 Ma, followed by a phase of faster uplift (0.7 mm/yr) in the Mut Basin starting at 1.6 Ma. These faster uplift rates may have continued to modern times, as average river incision rates of 0.52 to 0.66 mm/yr along the Göksu River in the Mut Basin have occurred from ca. 130 ka to today. Transient river profiles in the region support the onset of a sudden increase in uplift rates, with quantitative interpretations of the river profiles reflecting an uplift history that is broadly consistent with the constraints from the uplifted marine sediments. Interestingly, the onset of uplift is generally coeval with a change from contractional to extensional deformation throughout the region, which appears to rule

  7. Traditional Tar Production from the Anatolian Black Pine [Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe var. pallasiana] and its usages in Afyonkarahisar, Central Western Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tar is one example of a plant product used in folk medicine and it is obtained from Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe, which is very common in the West Anatolian Region. Old trees that are good for kindling and have thick trucks are preferred to obtain tar. Tar is used not only as traditional medicine but also for protection against both endoparasites and ectoparasites. The objective of this study was to record the traditional method of obtaining tar and its usages in Afyonkarahisar which is located in the Western Anatolian Region of Turkey. Methods In order to record the traditional methods of obtaining tar, we visited the villages of Doğlat, Kürtyurdu and Çatağıl in Afyonkarahisar (Turkey) June-July, 2012. Ethnobotanical data about the method of collection and traditional usages of tar were obtained through informal interviews with 26 participants (16 men and 10 women). Data concerning the method of tar collection and its traditional usages were recorded and photographed. Results The traditional method for obtaining tar from Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana by local people was recorded and the local usages (curing ear pain in children, osteomyelitis, wounds, ulcers, eczema, acne, alopecia, fungus, foot-and-mouth disease in animals, mouth sores in sheep and goats, protection against endo- and ectoparasites, repellent for snakes, mice, flies (Tabanus bovinus) and ticks, and the prevention of water leakage from roofs) of tar are described. Conclusion In this study, the traditional method for obtaining tar and the traditional usages of tar are explained. Documentation of the method of obtaining tar and its traditional usages may contribute to scientific research on the benefits and usages of tar in medicine, veterinary medicine, as well as other fields. PMID:24673846

  8. Neotectonic deformation in the Eurasia-Arabia collision zone, the East Anatolian Plateau, E Turkey: evidence from palaeomagnetic study of Neogene-Quaternary volcanic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisarlı, Z. Mümtaz; Çinku, Mualla Cengiz; Ustaömer, Timur; Keskin, Mehmet; Orbay, Naci

    2016-01-01

    Palaeomagnetic studies of the Neogene-Quaternary rocks of Anatolia have been mostly interpreted in the light of its westward escape as a result of the collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates along the Bitlis-Zağros suture during the Neotectonic period. However, within the collision zone, in East Anatolia, palaeomagnetic data are not available. In order to help understand the deformational history of Eastern Anatolia during the Neotectonic period, we have carried out a palaeomagnetic study of Miocene-Quaternary volcanic rocks from 100 sites, selected on the basis of their geographical position and known age. The results indicate that the study area can be divided into five principal tectonic blocks, based on earthquake activity and the rotation that the blocks underwent. These blocks are the Van Block (VB), the Kars Block (KB), the Anatolian Block (AB), the Pontide Block (PB), and the Arabian Block (ARB). The largest counterclockwise (CCW) tectonic rotations were encountered in the AB and PB, whereas the largest clockwise (CW) rotations were recorded in the VB. The sinistral East Anatolian Fault and the Erzurum Fault Zone form the present boundary of these two contrasting, CW and CCW-rotating domains. Both the AB and the PB exhibit similar amount of rotation until the Quaternary, during which the AB rotated 13° CCW while the PB remained stable. The Quaternary rotation of the AB is attributed to the activity of the North Anatolian Fault. The KB shows the smallest amount of CW rotation during all of the time intervals studied. All of the blocks studied indicate an acceleration in the amount of rotations during the Quaternary, which was preceded by a period of relative tectonic stability during the Late Pliocene. Following the collision of the Arabian Plate with the Eurasian Plate during the Mid-Miocene, the crust was initially thickened by thrusting and folding. This was followed by lateral extrusion and differential rotation of the crustal blocks during

  9. Undersea acoustic telemetry across the North Anatolian Fault, Marmara Sea: results from the first 6 months of monitoring of the fault displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, J. Y.; Deschamps, A.; Piete, H.; Sakic, P.; Ballu, V.; Apprioual, R.; Kopp, H.; Lange, D.; Ruffine, L.; Géli, L.

    2015-12-01

    Located in the Marmara Sea, the Istanbul-Silivri segment of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is known to be a seismic gap since 1766, although, in the last century, the NAF has caused major devastating earthquakes over most of its extent. This fault segment, void of seismicity, may be either creeping aseismically or blocked and accumulating enough strain to produce an earthquake of magnitude 7 or greater. This section of the NAF may thus represent a major seismic and tsunamigenic hazard for the Istanbul megalopolis, located only 40 km away. The objective of the MARSITE project, funded by the European Union and coordinated by the Observatory of the University of Kandilli (KOERI), is to determine the blocking state of the Istanbul-Silivri fault segment. In this context, an array of 10 acoustic transponders has been deployed on either sides of the fault, in the eastern part of the Kumburgaz Basin, to measure the displacements of the fault over a period of 3 to 5 years. The telemetric beacons (4 from the University of Brest and 6 from the GEOMAR Institute in Kiel) form two arrays fitted in one another. The principle of the experiment is to repeatedly measure the distance (ie two-way-travel time of acoustic pings) between pairs of beacons and thus to monitor the deformation of an array of 9 baselines, 500m to 3000m long, of which 5 cross obliquely the assumed fault trace. The French and German arrays are independent but ensure a redundancy of rangings along common baselines. Each acoustic transponder also monitors the temperature, pressure, sound-velocity and attitude (tiltmeters), every one or two hours. Data are stored in each beacon and can be downloaded from the surface using an acoustic modem. We present here the first 6 months of recording by the French array, from November 1st, 2014 to April 25, 2015. All acoustic transponders worked nominally for 6 months and appear to have remained stable on the seafloor. Recorded sea-bottom temperatures provide evidence for

  10. 3-D crustal structure along the North Anatolian Fault Zone in north-central Anatolia revealed by local earthquake tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yolsal-Ćevikbilen, Seda; Biryol, C. Berk; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George; Taymaz, Tuncay; Adıyaman, Hande E.; Özacar, A. Arda

    2012-03-01

    3-D P-wave velocity structure and Vp/Vs variations in the crust along the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in north-central Anatolia were investigated by the inversion of local P- and S-wave traveltimes, to gain a better understanding of the seismological characteristics of the region. The 3-D local earthquake tomography inversions included 5444 P- and 3200 S-wave readings obtained from 168 well-located earthquakes between 2006 January and 2008 May. Dense ray coverage yields good resolution, particularly in the central part of the study area. The 3-D Vp and Vp/Vs tomographic images reveal clear correlations with both the surface geology and significant tectonic units in the region. We observed the lower limit of the seismogenic zone for north-central Anatolia at 15 km depth. Final earthquake locations display a distributed pattern throughout the study area, with most of the earthquakes occurring on the major splays of the NAFZ, rather than its master strand. We identify three major high-velocity blocks in the mid-crust separated by the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture and interpret these blocks to be continental basement fragments that were accreted onto the margin following the closure of Neo-Tethyan Ocean. These basement blocks may have in part influenced the rupture propagations of the historical 1939, 1942 and 1943 earthquakes. In addition, large variations in the Vp/Vs ratio in the mid-crust were observed and have been correlated with the varying fluid contents of the existing lithologies and related tectonic structures.

  11. The Van Fault, Eastern Turkey: A Preliminary Geological Slip Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackenzie, D.; Elliott, J. R.; Altunel, E.; Kurban, Y.; Walker, R. T.; Parsons, B.

    2014-12-01

    We present a preliminary quaternary slip-rate study on the Van fault, the source of the 2011 Mw7.1 reverse-slip earthquake which caused heavy damage to the cities of Van and Ercis, eastern Turkey. From the InSAR solution, we see a strong depth cut-off at 10km depth, above which there was no slip on the fault. We have carried out an investigation of the geomorphological expression of the fault in quaternary material, to determine whether the fault reaches the surface and, if so, whether this upper section could fail in an earthquake. On the western segment of the Van fault, we observe quaternary scarps coincident with the surface projection of the fault segment identified by InSAR, which displace quaternary alluvial fan and lake-bed deposits. These are coincident with the observation of fault gouge in quaternary deposits at a road cutting, providing evidence for a fault reaching the surface and suggesting that the upper section is capable of rupturing seismically. We use structure-from-motion photogrammetry, differential GPS and terrestrial LiDAR to determine offsets on two generations of fault scarps, and the creep offsets from the period following the earthquake. Preliminary radiocarbon and OSL dates from two uplifted terrace surfaces allow us to estimate a late quaternary geological slip-rate for the fault. Following the GPS and InSAR solution of Dogan et al. 2014 (GRL v41,i7), we also present field evidence and satellite image observations confirming the presence of a splay fault within the northern suburbs of Van city, which experienced creep following the 2011 earthquake. This fault is observed to be particularly evident in the early high resolution satellite imagery from the declassified CORONA missions, highlighting the potential for these datasets in identifying faults in areas now covered by urban sprawl. It remains unclear whether this fault could fail seismically. The fault which failed in 2011 is a north dipping reverse fault, unmapped prior to the

  12. Investigation of Total Crustal Movements Using Terrestrial and GPS Measurements along the Western Part of North Anatolian Fault in the Marmara Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozener, H.; Akay, G.

    2007-12-01

    In order to monitor crustal movements along southern branch of North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ), Geodesy Department of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) initiated to establish microgeodetic networks around eastern Marmara Region. General Command of Mapping (GCM)-Istanbul Technical University (ITU) network was constituted of nine pillars, measured five times between 1941 and 2007 applying with respectively trialteration, triangulation and space geodetic methods. In years 2004 and 2007 GPS campaign processing was extended and re-evaluated by adding three new stations from Marmara Region Continuous GPS Observation (MAGNET) network. This study aimed to gather displacements of the GCM-ITU network and analyze the movements of the stations in order to monitor crustral deformation along the Iznik fault. By taking the stations located at the south of the fault as stabilized, the displacements of the remaining stations were evaluated. The movements of stations were found to be ranging between 19 cm to 2 mm according to the accuracy of observation method. The results demonstrated that the stations at both the south and the north of the fault have moved during the 1941-2007 period, and these movements were independent of the movement of the fault itself.

  13. The Assessment of Microclimate Change due to the Construction of a Small Dam in the Southern Anatolian Irrigation Project Region of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Elcin; Onol, Baris; Acar, Merve; Biyik, Gokay; Unal, Yurdanur S.

    2013-04-01

    The main purpose of this research is to provide information on the change of temperature and humidity fields after the development of a new reservoir in the southeastern part of Turkey. It is believed that pistachio and pomegranates production rate might decrease due to a change of the microclimate of the Southern Anatolian Irrigation Project Region (GAP) with an inclusion of a large water volume. Since temperature and humidity are the significant meteorological variables for growing of these products, their change with the inclusion of the reservoir is analyzed using the WRF model. Two summer years, 2000 and 2002, are studied to indicate the importance of warm and cold summer years, respectively. NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis dataset is used for setting up initial and boundary conditions for 27 km, 9km, 3km, and 1km nested domains. 1 km resolution run is performed using ndown option of the WRF Model for 4 months of these two years, from June to October. 5 different microphysics, atmospheric boundary layer, cumulus, and land use parameterization scheme combinations are analyzed to decide on the appropriate physics scheme combination in order to reduce the biases occurred due to steep topography of this domain of interest. After this decision, the WRF model is performed for both control case, i.e., without the inclusion of any water bodies; and wet case, i.e. with the inclusion of a water body. The preliminary results show that the difference between wet and control cases is about 1°C for 2m temperature; whereas 2m relative humidity change is about 3% from the monthly averages of the 4 months. Therefore, these results may indicate that the production of pistachio and pomegranates may not be affected from the inclusion of a reservoir to the southeastern part of Turkey.

  14. Dextral strike-slip along the Kapıdağ shear zone (NW Turkey): evidence for Eocene westward translation of the Anatolian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türkoğlu, Ercan; Zulauf, Gernold; Linckens, Jolien; Ustaömer, Timur

    2016-10-01

    The northern part of the Kapıdağ Peninsula (Marmara Sea, NW Turkey) is affected by the E-W trending Kapıdağ shear zone, which cuts through calc-alkaline granitoids of the Ocaklar pluton resulting in mylonitic orthogneiss. Macroscopic and microscopic shear-sense indicators, such as SC fabrics, shear bands, σ-clasts and mica fish, unequivocally suggest dextral strike-slip for the Kapıdağ shear zone. Based on petrographic data, deformation microfabrics of quartz and feldspar, and the slip systems in quartz, the dextral shearing should have been active at T = 500-300 °C and P < 5 kbar. Published K-Ar and 39Ar-40Ar cooling ages of hornblende and biotite suggest that cooling below 500-300 °C occurred during the Eocene (ca. 45-ca. 35 Ma), meaning that the Kapıdağ shear zone should have been active during Middle to Late Eocene times. The differential stress related to the shearing was <50 MPa as is indicated by the size of recrystallized quartz grains. Based on the new and published data, it is concluded that the westward movement of the Anatolian plate might have been active almost continuously from the Middle Eocene until recent times.

  15. Preliminary results on the tectonic activity of the Ovacık Fault (Malatya-Ovacık Fault Zone, Turkey): Implications of the morphometric analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazıcı, Müge; Zabci, Cengiz; Sançar, Taylan; Sunal, Gürsel; Natalin, Boris A.

    2016-04-01

    , are mostly seen at the NE part of the study region. We observe several knick points along the longitudinal channel profiles that mostly fits to the surface trace of the OF. The existence of multiple knick points along the same channel profiles on the southwestern sections of the fault are interpreted to be the result of multiple parallel/sub-parallel branches of the OF in this region. The integrated preliminary results of all applied methods indicate the evidence of a stronger deformation at the northeastern part of the OF, in addition to the OB section. The deformation significantly diffuses to the southwest of the OB, where the main fault bifurcates into several branches. In order to explain the distribution of the deformation style along the OF, we suggest three hypotheses: (a) the OF is confined within a very narrow zone in its most northeastern parts, and the total strain is distributed at its southwestern section (especially to the southwest of the OB), (b) The high asymmetric values, calculated at the northeastern OF, are mainly affected by another major tectonic structure, the North Anatolian Shear Zone, at this region or (c) the combined effect of these two settings. Our further studies, which will include the analyzing the lithological properties of drainage basins, detailed fault mapping, and understanding the cumulative horizontal slip by constructing and comparing the pseudo-palaeotopography at both sides of the fault, are going to provide more detailed information on the activity and the style of deformation along the OF. This study is supported by TÜBİTAK project no. 114Y227. References -AFAD, 2013, Son 48 saatte 48 deprem (48 earthquakes at the last 48 hours) http://www.afad.gov.tr/TR/HaberDetay.aspx?IcerikID=1511&ID=12, Volume 2013. -Aktuǧ, B., Dikmen, Ü., Doǧru, A., and Özener, H., 2013, Seismicity and strain accumulation around Karliova Triple Junction (Turkey): Journal of Geodynamics, v. 67, no. 0, p. 21-29. -Şengör, A. M. C., Görür, N

  16. Evaluation of water quality parameters for the Mamasin dam in Aksaray City in the central Anatolian part of Turkey by means of artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhatip, Hatim; Kömür, M. Aydin

    2008-01-01

    Sustaining the human ecological benefits of surface water requires carefully planned strategies for reducing the cumulative risks posed by diverse human activities. The municipality of Aksaray city plays a key role in developing solutions to surface water management and protection in the central Anatolian part of Turkey. The responsibility to provide drinking water and sewage works, regulate the use of private land and protect public health provides the mandate and authority to take action. The present approach discusses the main sources of contamination and the result of direct wastewater discharges into the Melendiz and Karasu rivers, which recharge the Mamasın dam sites by the use of artificial neural network (ANN) modeling techniques. The present study illustrates the ability to predict and/or approve the output values of previously measured water quality parameters of the recharge and discharge areas at the Mamasin dam site by means of ANN techniques. Using the ANN model is appreciated in such environmental research. Here, the ANN is used for estimating if the field parameters are agreeable to the results of this model or not. The present study simulates a situation in the past by means of ANN. But in case any field measurements of some relative parameters at the outlet point “discharge area” have been missed, it could be possible to predict the approximate output values from the detailed periodical water quality parameters. Because of the high variance and the inherent non-linear relationship of the water quality parameters in time series, it is difficult to produce a reliable model with conventional modeling approaches. In this paper, the ANN modeling technique is used to establish a model for evaluating the change in electrical conductivity (EC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) values in recharge (input) and discharge (output) areas of the dam water under pollution risks. A general ANN modeling scheme is also recommended for the water parameters. The modeling

  17. Evidence for latest Pleistocene to Holocene uplift at the southern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau (CAP), southern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosentino, Domenico; Öǧretmen, Nazik; Cipollari, Paola; Gliozzi, Elsa; Radeff, Giuditta; Yıldırım, Cengiz; Baykara, Oruc M.; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2016-04-01

    Along the Mediterranean coastal area of southern Anatolia, markers of ancient sea-level have been reported west of Alanya and east of the Göksu delta. In both areas, bioconstructed fossil rims, consisting mainly of calcareous algae, are situated 0.5 m above the live counterpart. The fossil rim to the west of Alanya has been dated between 2690 to 1545 yrs BP, evidencing late Holocene rock uplift at the CAP southern margin. More recently, based on beachrocks along the coastal area from Incekum to the south of Adana, authors showed that the shoreline was raised around 0.5 m after 19 BC-200 AD. Based on new field observations along the coast between Aydı ncı k and Ayaş (Mersin, southern Turkey), together with AMS 14C dating and high-resolution U-Th chronology, a more complex uplift history can be suggested. Along the coast of Yeşilovacı k, we observed up to seven uplifted marine notches, from 0.5 m to 6.10 m above sea level. Some of them show relationships with a travertine crust that yielded U-Th ages of 2727 ± 1559 years and 5236 ± 2255 years. In the same area, a calcareous algae fossil trottoir related to a marine notch 5.40 m above sea level yielded an AMS 14C 2σ age of 32700 to 31645 years cal BP. Considering that the global ocean was 60 m below the present sea level at 32 ka, the Yeşilovacı k coastal area has been uplifted at 2 mm/yr. Moving to the east, in a small embayment at Eǧribük, two distinct well cemented beach deposits containing Murex brandaris, Cerithium vulgatum, and Columbella rustica have been uplifted at 0.3 m and 0.7 m above the present sea level. Although it is difficult to reconstruct the paleodepth of those beach deposits, AMS 14C 2σ ages of 5575 to 5445 years cal BP and 2130 to 1965 years cal BP show late Holocene uplift. In the Narlı kuyu area, up to seven different uplifted markers of sea level were observed between 0.8 and 7.2 m above the present sea level. In addition, near Ayaş new insights for late Holocene uplift are

  18. Tectonic geomorphology of a large normal fault: Akşehir fault, SW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topal, Savaş; Keller, Edward; Bufe, Aaron; Koçyiğit, Ali

    2016-04-01

    In order to better understand the activity of the Akşehir normal fault in SW Turkey and the associated seismic hazard, we investigated the tectonic geomorphology of a 60-km stretch of the 100-km-long Akşehir fault block. The fault can be separated into seven geomorphic segments (1 to 7 from NW to SE) along the mountain front. Segment length varies from about 9 to 14 km, and relief of the horst block varies from about 0.6 km in the SE to 1.0 km in the NW. Analysis of the tectonic geomorphology of 32 drainage basins and mountain front facets using a combination of geomorphic indices reveals a general pattern of high slip rates in the northern and central segments and low slip rates in the southern, probably older, segments. We show that mountain front sinuosity varies from about 1.1 to 1.4 on segments S1-S6 to 2.4 on segment S7, suggesting that the six northern segments are more active than the southernmost segment. Similarly, χ analysis and slope-area analysis of streams reveal a pattern of steepest channels draining the central and northern segments of the horst. The ratio of valley floor width to valley height varies from 0.2 to 0.6, which are typical values for tectonically active mountain fronts; and alluvial fans along segments S1, S2, and S4 are back-tilted. Finally, we show that (1) shapes of the ~ 100-900m high mountain front facets are mostly triangular (~ 80%) and partly trapezoidal (~ 20%); (2) facet slopes range from 6 to 22°; (3) facets at the NW and SE segment ends are larger than the intervening facets; and (4) steepest facets occur along the central segments. Uplift rates estimated from the slope of mountain front facets range from about 0.06 m/ky on the southernmost fault segment (S7) to 0.23 m/ky on the more central S5 and 0.16 m/ky on the northern segment (S1). The estimated pattern of uplift is consistent with the pattern of geomorphic indices. The vertical relief of the facets suggests that uplift of the mountain front initiated in the late

  19. Late Cenozoic Extension in the Eastern Anatolian Corner: New Constraints on the Tectonic Escape Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhont, D.; Chorowicz, J.; Luxey, P.

    2006-12-01

    The general model of extrusion of a rigid lithospheric plate, formerly proposed for the Tibet, has been used by several authors to explain the tectonics of Anatolia. According to this model, the north-south collision between Arabia and Eurasia is accompanied by the lateral extrusion of Anatolia towards the Aegean back-arc basin. Anatolia is then considered as a rigid lithospheric plate, moving between two conjugate transform faults, the right-lateral North Anatolian Fault (NAF) in the north and the left-lateral East Anatolian Fault (EAF) in the southeast. In this process, compression forces are supposed to apply only at the front of the Arabian indenter, the Aegean back-arc basin being considered as the free boundary of the Anatolian undeformed block. Compression in Eastern Turkey and extension in the Aegean are the boundary conditions permitting the lateral mass transfer of Anatolia from a squeezed region to a stretched one. In contrast to common opinion, we argue that the major thickening of the Anatolian plateau did not occur during the late Cenozoic time as a consequence of the collision between Arabia and Eurasia. When examining the distribution of the late Cenozoic deformation in the eastern Anatolian corner, the main argument is that the region was subjected largely to extension and strike-slip tectonics from Pliocene onwards. Compression was limited to the narrow eastern Taurus belt and to a N-S strip comprising the Afsin and Gurun arcs and the Sivas basin. This is shown by a review from the literature and by complementary examination of radar imagery and structural observations made in the field. A second argument is that a major crustal thickening occurred prior to the late Cenozoic during a major collisional event which took place in the Eocene. Crustal thickening was followed by extensional collapse of Anatolia during the Neogene-Quaternary, after the opening of the Aegean basin free border during the Oligocene. Consequently, the escape of Anatolia

  20. Pore fluid chemistry of the North Anatolian Fault Zone in the Sea of Marmara: A diversity of sources and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tryon, M. D.; Henry, P.; ćAǧAtay, M. N.; Zitter, T. A. C.; GéLi, L.; Gasperini, L.; Burnard, P.; Bourlange, S.; Grall, C.

    2010-10-01

    As part of the 2007 Marnaut cruise in the Sea of Marmara, an investigation of the pore fluid chemistry of sites along the Main Marmara Fault zone was conducted. The goal was to define the spatial relationship between active faults and fluid outlets and to determine the sources and evolution of the fluids. Sites included basin bounding transtensional faults and strike-slip faults cutting through the topographic highs. The basin pore fluids are dominated by simple mixing of bottom water with a brackish, low-density Pleistocene Lake Marmara end-member that is advecting buoyantly and/or diffusing from a relatively shallow depth. This mix is overprinted by shallow redox reactions and carbonate precipitation. The ridge sites are more complex with evidence for deep-sourced fluids including thermogenic gas and evidence for both silicate and carbonate diagenetic processes. One site on the Western High displayed two mound structures that appear to be chemoherms atop a deep-seated fluid conduit. The fluids being expelled are brines of up to twice seawater salinity with an exotic fluid chemistry extremely high in Li, Sr, and Ba. Oil globules were observed both at the surface and in cores, and type II gas hydrates of thermogenic origin were recovered. Hydrate formation near the seafloor contributes to increase brine concentration but cannot explain their chemical composition, which appears to be influenced by diagenetic reactions at temperatures of 75°C-150°C. Hence, a potential source for fluids at this site is the water associated with the reservoir from which the gas and oil is seeping, which has been shown to be related to the Thrace Basin hydrocarbon system. Our work shows that submerged continental transform plate boundaries can be hydrologically active and exhibit a diversity of sources and processes.

  1. The origin of the magnetic fabric and the significance of AIRM in reconstructing the emplacement dynamics of ignimbrites: a case study from the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrò, A.; Zanella, E.; Le Pennec, J.; Temel, A.

    2012-12-01

    The investigation of the magnetic fabric is a very effective tool in the study of the emplacement and depositional processes of volcanic rocks. The analysis of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) has been increasingly applied to pyroclastic deposits with the main purpose of getting information about the petrofabric, understanding the flow dynamics, and inferring flow directions and vent position. One of the most crucial points, which prejudice the reliability of any volcanological reconstructions is understanding the meaning of the AMS, discriminating among primary and secondary fabric and identifying the carriers of the AMS signal. The AMS fabric of a volcanic rock is the complex result of various factors: contribution of the paramagnetic fraction, type of ferromagnetic grains (MD or SD), rheology of the flow, interaction of the flow with paleotopography and disturbances due to the intrinsic heterogeneities. In this study we investigate the magnetic fabric of the Late Miocene Kizilkaya ignimbrite (Central Anatolian Volcanic Province, Turkey) through measures of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), isothermal remanent magnetization (AIRM) and anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM). Sampling has been performed at seven localities at different stratigraphic heights (a total of 35 sites yielding about 600 specimens) within the ignimbrite's devitrified layer. Our measurements and observations reveal that the magnetic mineralogy is complex: the main magnetic carrier is represented by Ti-magnetite which occurs as free grains in the matrix and as inclusions in pumice and lithic clasts, as well as in glass shards; in certain levels it is also detected the presence of a more oxidized Ti-magnetite and haematite. The AMS fabric varies vertically along each section; based on the angle between the direction of the magnetic lineation k1 and that of the foliation plunge k3, three types of fabric are evidenced: normal, oblique and transverse. The anisotropy

  2. Slip Rates of Main Active Fault Zones Through Turkey Inferred From GPS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozener, H.; Aktug, B.; Dogru, A.; Tasci, L.; Acar, M.; Emre, O.; Yilmaz, O.; Turgut, B.; Halicioglu, K.; Sabuncu, A.; Bal, O.; Eraslan, A.

    2015-12-01

    Active Fault Map of Turkey was revised and published by General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration in 2012. This map reveals that there are about 500 faults can generate earthquakes.In order to understand the earthquake potential of these faults, it is needed to determine the slip rates. Although many regional and local studies were performed in the past, the slip rates of the active faults in Turkey have not been determined. In this study, the block modelling, which is the most common method to produce slip rates, will be done. GPS velocities required for block modeling is being compiled from the published studies and the raw data provided then velocity field is combined. To form a homogeneous velocity field, different stochastic models will be used and the optimal velocity field will be achieved. In literature, GPS site velocities, which are computed for different purposes and published, are combined globally and this combined velocity field are used in the analysis of strain accumulation. It is also aimed to develop optimal stochastic models to combine the velocity data. Real time, survey mode and published GPS observations is being combined in this study. We also perform new GPS observations. Furthermore, micro blocks and main fault zones from Active Fault Map Turkey will be determined and homogeneous velocity field will be used to infer slip rates of these active faults. Here, we present the result of first year of the study. This study is being supported by THE SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF TURKEY (TUBITAK)-CAYDAG with grant no. 113Y430.

  3. Modelling the earthquake intensities: A case study on the faults of the Marmara Region, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erturac, M. K.; Tuysuz, O.

    2003-04-01

    North Anatolian Fault Zone is the biggest neo-tectonic structure of the Asia Minor. 17 August 1999 M=7.4 Izmit earthquake was the seventh in a sequence of westward migrating earthquakes along this fault. The earthquake sequence which began with the 1939 Erzincan earthquake, caused rupture of 1000 km section of the fault with maximum displacement of 7.5 meters. The time interval between these earthquakes varied from 3 months to 32 years. Stress triggering has been invoked to explain the 60-year sequence of earthquakes rupturing toward the west, in which every event promoted the next. The Izmit earthquake increased the probability of future earthquake in the Sea of Marmara region. GPS, historical and instrumental earthquake data, and estimated stress triggering indicate a remarkable probability (62 % ±15) of a strong shaking in the Marmara Sea region during the next 30 years which threats the city of Istanbul. Active faults in the Sea of Marmara is mapped and published by different companies. By using these recent data, local geology, site conditions and attenuation relationships, it is possible to estimate the degree of shaking for a future earthquake. In this study we used geographical information systems as a tool for such a modeling. In the light of fault length, previous earthquake data and GPS measurements we attributed possible magnitudes for each segment. Then we used different attenuation relationships to obtain the distribution of possible peak ground accelerations. These data is correlated with the recorded attenuations. After choosing appropriate formula, the peak ground accelerations converted to intensity values. The model is also applied to data obtained during the 1999 Izmit (Mw 7.3) and Duzce (Mw 7.2) earthquakes to test the consistency of the results. In this presentation models for different fault segments will be presented.

  4. Comment on "207Pb-206Pb single-zircon evaporation ages of some granitoid rocks reveal continent-oceanic island arc collision during the Cretaceous geodynamic evolution of the Central Anatolian crust, Turkey" - Boztug, D., Tichomirowa, M. & Bombach, K., 2007, JAES 31, 71-86

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göncüoglu, M. Cemal

    A continent-oceanic island arc collision model was proposed as a new geodynamic scenario for the evolution of the Cretaceous Central Anatolian granitoids in the Central Anatolian crystalline complex (CACC) by Boztug et al. (2007b) [Boztug, D., Tichomirowa, M., Bombach, K., 2007b. 207Pb-206Pb single-zircon evaporation ages of some granitoid rocks reveal continent-oceanic island arc collision during the Cretaceous geodynamic evolution of the central Anatolian crust, Turkey. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 31, 71-86]. The key aspects of this model include an intra-oceanic subduction in the Neotethyan Izmir-Ankara Ocean, formation of an island arc and its subsequent collision with the northern margin of the Tauride-Anatolide Platform. The identical scenario was initially proposed by Göncüoglu et al. (1992) [Göncüoglu, M.C., Erler, A., Toprak, V., Yalınız, K., Olgun, E., Rojay, B., 1992. Geology of the western Central Anatolian Massif, Part II: Central Areas. TPAO Report No: 3155, 76 p] . Moreover, the weighted mean values of the reported 207Pb-206Pb single-zircon evaporation ages by Boztug et al. (2007b) [Boztug, D., Tichomirowa, M., Bombach, K., 2007b. 207Pb-206Pb single-zircon evaporation ages of some granitoid rocks reveal continent-oceanic island arc collision during the Cretaceous geodynamic evolution of the central Anatolian crust: Turkey. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 31, 71-86] from A-type granitoids in the CACC seem to be miscalculated and contrast with the field data.

  5. Late Quaternary alluvial fans of Emli Valley in the Ecemiş Fault Zone, south central Turkey: Insights from cosmogenic nuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akif Sarıkaya, M.; Yıldırım, Cengiz; Çiner, Attila

    2015-01-01

    Alluvial fans within the paraglacial Ecemiş River drainages on the Aladağlar Mountains in south central Turkey were studied using geomorphological, sedimentological, and chlorine-36 terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) surface exposure dating methods to examine the timing of alluvial fan abandonment/incision, and to understand the role of climatic and tectonic processes in the region. These alluvial fan complexes are among the best-preserved succession of alluvial fans in Turkey and they were offset by the major strike-slip Ecemiş Fault of the Central Anatolian Fault Zone. The alluvial fans are mostly composed of well-lithified limestone cobbles (5 to 25 cm in size), and comprise crudely stratified thick beds with a total thickness reaching up to about 80 m. TCN surface exposure dating indicates that the oldest alluvial fan surface (Yalak Fan) was likely formed and subsequently abandoned latest by 136.0 ± 23.4 ka ago, largely on the transition of the Penultimate Glaciation (Marine Isotope Stage 6, MIS 6) to the Last Interglacial (MIS 5) (i.e. Termination II). The second set of alluvial fan (Emli Fan) was possibly developed during the Last Interglacial (MIS 5), and incised twice by between roughly 97.0 ± 13.8 and 81.2 ± 13.2 ka ago. A younger alluvial fan deposit placed on relatively older erosional terraces of the Emli Fan suggests that it may have been produced during the Last Glacial Cycle (MIS 2). These events are similar to findings from other fluvial and lacustrine deposits throughout central Anatolia. The incision times of the Ecemiş alluvial fan surfaces largely coincide with major climatic shifts from the cooler glacial periods to warmer interglacial/interstadial conditions. This indicates that alluvial fans were produced by outwash sediments of paleoglaciers during cooler conditions, and, later, when glaciers started to retreat due to a major warming event, the excess water released from the glaciers incised the pre-existing fan surfaces. An

  6. Izmit, Turkey 1999 Earthquake Interferogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is an interferogram that was created using pairs of images taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The images, acquired at two different times, have been combined to measure surface deformation or changes that may have occurred during the time between data acquisition. The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-2) on 13 August 1999 and 17 September 1999 and were combined to produce these image maps of the apparent surface deformation, or changes, during and after the 17 August 1999 Izmit, Turkey earthquake. This magnitude 7.6 earthquake was the largest in 60 years in Turkey and caused extensive damage and loss of life. Each of the color contours of the interferogram represents 28 mm (1.1 inches) of motion towards the satellite, or about 70 mm (2.8 inches) of horizontal motion. White areas are outside the SAR image or water of seas and lakes. The North Anatolian Fault that broke during the Izmit earthquake moved more than 2.5 meters (8.1 feet) to produce the pattern measured by the interferogram. Thin red lines show the locations of fault breaks mapped on the surface. The SAR interferogram shows that the deformation and fault slip extended west of the surface faults, underneath the Gulf of Izmit. Thick black lines mark the fault rupture inferred from the SAR data. Scientists are using the SAR interferometry along with other data collected on the ground to estimate the pattern of slip that occurred during the Izmit earthquake. This then used to improve computer models that predict how this deformation transferred stress to other faults and to the continuation of the North Anatolian Fault, which extends to the west past the large city of Istanbul. These models show that the Izmit earthquake further increased the already high probability of a major earthquake near Istanbul.

  7. Seismicity along the Main Marmara Fault, Turkey: from space-time distribution to repeating events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmittbuhl, Jean; Karabulut, Hayrullah; Lengliné, Olivier; Bouchon, Michel

    2016-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) poses a significant hazard for the large cities surrounding the Marmara Sea region particularly the megalopolis of Istanbul. Indeed, the NAF is presently hosting a long unruptured segment below the Sea of Marmara. This seismic gap is approximately 150 km long and corresponds to the Main Marmara Fault (MMF). The seismicity along the Main Marmara Fault (MMF) below the Marmara Sea is analyzed here during the 2007-2012 period to provide insights on the recent evolution of this important regional seismic gap. High precision locations show that seismicity is strongly varying along strike and depth providing fine details of the fault behavior that are inaccessible from geodetic inversions. The activity strongly clusters at the regions of transition between basins. The Central basin shows significant seismicity located below the shallow locking depth inferred from GPS measurements. Its b-value is low and the average seismic slip is high. Interestingly we found also several long term repeating earthquakes in this domain. Using a template matching technique, we evidenced two new families of repeaters: a first family that typically belongs to aftershock sequences and a second family of long lasting repeaters with a multi-month recurrence period. All observations are consistent with a deep creep of this segment. On the contrary, the Kumburgaz basin at the center of the fault shows sparse seismicity with the hallmarks of a locked segment. In the eastern Marmara Sea, the seismicity distribution along the Princes Island segment in the Cinarcik basin, is consistent with the geodetic locking depth of 10km and a low contribution to the regional seismic energy release. The assessment of the locked segment areas provide an estimate of the magnitude of the main forthcoming event to be about 7.3 assuming that the rupture will not enter significantly within creeping domains.

  8. Central and eastern Anatolian crustal deformation rate and velocity fields derived from GPS and earthquake data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simão, N. M.; Nalbant, S. S.; Sunbul, F.; Komec Mutlu, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new strain-rate and associated kinematic model for the eastern and central parts of Turkey. In the east, a quasi N-S compressional tectonic regime dominates the deformation field and is partitioned through the two major structural elements of the region, which are the conjugate dextral strike-slip North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) and the sinistral strike slip East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ). The observed surface deformation is similar to that inferred by anisotropy studies which sampled the region of the mantle closer to the crust (i.e. the lithospheric mantle and the Moho), and is dependent on the presence or absence of a lithospheric mantle, and of the level of coupling between it and the overlaying crust. The areas of the central and eastern parts of Turkey which are deforming at elevated rates are situated above areas with strong gradients in crustal thickness. This seems to indicate that these transition zones, situated between thinner and thicker crusts, promote more deformation at the surface. The regions that reveal elevated strain-rate values are 1) the Elaziğ-Bingol segment of the EAFZ, 2) the region around the Karlıova triple-junction including the Yedisu segment and the Varto fault, 3) the section of the NAFZ that extends from the Erzincan province up to the NAFZ-Ezinepazarı fault junction, and 4) sections of the Tuz Gölü Fault Zone. Other regions like the Adana basin, a significant part of the Central Anatolian Fault Zone (CAFZ), the Aksaray and the Ankara provinces, are deforming at smaller but still considerable rates and therefore should be considered as areas well capable of producing damaging earthquakes (between M6 and 7). This study also reveals that the central part of Turkey is moving at a faster rate towards the west than the eastern part Turkey, and that the wedge region between the NAFZ and the EAFZ accounts for the majority of the counter clockwise rotation between the eastern and the central parts of Turkey. This

  9. The origin of vein-type copper-lead-zinc deposits Host in Palaeozoic metamorphic rocks at the Southeast Anatolian Orogenic Belt (Küplüce-Adıyaman, Southeastern Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyıldız, Mustafa; Yıldırım, Nail; Gören, Burcu; Yıldırım, Esra; Ilhan, Semiha

    2015-02-01

    The study area is located around the town of Küplüce between the Çelikhan and Sincik districts (Adıyaman, Turkey). Mineralisations are located at the Southeast Anatolian Orogenic Belt. Despite many differential units, especially in age and lithology, that coexist in the region, mineralisation and alteration are only developed in partly concordant/partly disconcordant veins/veinlets of quartz within chlorite schists, sericite schists, mica schists/mica gneisses, quartz schists and metadiabases of the Palaeozoic Pütürge metamorphics. Pyrite, chalcopyrite and sphalerite are dominant minerals in mineral paragenesis. Chalcocite, covellite and carollite are also found in trace amounts. Quartz, calcite, sericite and chlorite are the gang minerals. Silicification, sericitisation, chloritisation, epidotisation and limonitisation are widespread in limited areas around ore veins. The estimated Co/Ni (1.8-4.3) ratio in pyrites belonging to mineralisation deposits indicates that mineralisation in the region is related to magmatic hydrothermal deposits. In addition, REE (rare earth element) contents of mineralisation deposits in chondrite-normalised diagrams are enriched and show a similar trend to that of chondritic values. This indicates that metals that form mineralisation deposits are related to magmatic rocks. Values of δ34S estimated in the Küplüce region vary between 1.6‰ and 2.34‰. Values of δ34S close to 0 indicate that the sulphur forming the mineralisation is of magmatic origin. In addition, δ18O values vary between 8‰ and 10.8‰ and are consistent with magmatic water. Analyses of the fluid inclusions in quartz samples from mineralisation deposits were performed, and the homogenisation temperature was estimated to be between 90 and 150 °C. These temperature values can be explained by the mixing of a solution with surface water. It was determined that mineralisation deposits were vein-type hydrothermal deposits that had developed due to Middle Eocene

  10. Normal faulting in the Simav graben of western Turkey reassessed with calibrated earthquake relocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasözen, Ezgi; Nissen, Edwin; Bergman, Eric A.; Johnson, Kendra L.; Walters, Richard J.

    2016-06-01

    Western Turkey has a long history of large earthquakes, but the responsible faults are poorly characterized. Here we reassess the past half century of instrumental earthquakes in the Simav-Gediz region, starting with the 19 May 2011 Simav earthquake (Mw 5.9), which we image using interferometric synthetic aperture radar and regional and teleseismic waveforms. This event ruptured a steep, planar normal fault centered at 7-9 km depth but failed to break the surface. However, relocated main shock and aftershock hypocenters occurred beneath the main slip plane at 10-22 km depth, implying rupture initiation in areas of low coseismic slip. These calibrated modern earthquakes provide the impetus to relocate and reassess older instrumental events in the region. Aftershocks of the 1970 Gediz earthquake (Mw 7.1) form a narrow band, inconsistent with source models that invoke low-angle detachment faulting, and may include events triggered dynamically by the unilateral main shock rupture. Epicenters of the 1969 Demirci earthquakes (Mw 5.9, 6.0) are more consistent with slip on the south dipping Akdağ fault than the larger, north dipping Simav fault. A counterintuitive aspect of recent seismicity across our study area is that the largest event (Mw 7.1) occurred in an area of slower extension and indistinct surface faulting, yet ruptured the surface, while recent earthquakes in the well-defined and more rapidly extending Simav graben are smaller (Mw <6.0) and failed to produce surface breaks. Though our study area bounds a major metamorphic core complex, there is no evidence for involvement of low-angle normal faulting in any of the recent large earthquakes.

  11. Evaluation of soft sediment deformation structures along the Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone, SW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozcelik, Mehmet

    2016-03-01

    Burdur city is located on lacustrine sedimentary deposits at the northeastern end of the Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) in SW Turkey. Fault steps were formed in response to vertical displacement along normal fault zones in these deposits. Soft sediment deformation structures were identified at five sites in lacustrine sediments located on both sides of the FBFZ. The deformed sediments are composed of unconsolidated alternations of sands, silts and clay layers and show different morphological types. The soft sediment deformation structures include load structures, flame structures, slumps, dykes, neptunian dykes, drops and pseudonodules, intercalated layers, ball and pillow structures, minor faults and water escape structures of varying geometry and dimension. These structures are a direct response to fluid escape during liquefaction and fluidization mechanism. The driving forces inferred include gravitational instabilities and hydraulic processes. Geological, tectonic, mineralogical investigations and age analysis were carried out to identify the cause for these soft sediment deformations. OSL dating indicated an age ranging from 15161±744 to 17434±896 years for the soft sediment deformation structures. Geological investigations of the soft sediment deformation structures and tectonic history of the basin indicate that the main factor for deformation is past seismic activity.

  12. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for the two layer fault system of Antalya (SW Turkey) area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipova, Nihat; Cangir, Bülent

    2017-03-01

    Southwest Turkey, along Mediterranean coast, is prone to large earthquakes resulting from subduction of the African plate under the Eurasian plate and shallow crustal faults. Maximum observed magnitude of subduction earthquakes is Mw = 6.5 whereas that of crustal earthquakes is Mw = 6.6. Crustal earthquakes are sourced from faults which are related with Isparta Angle and Cyprus Arc tectonic structures. The primary goal of this study is to assess seismic hazard for Antalya area (SW Turkey) using a probabilistic approach. A new earthquake catalog for Antalya area, with unified moment magnitude scale, was prepared in the scope of the study. Seismicity of the area has been evaluated by the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence relationship. For hazard computation, CRISIS2007 software was used following the standard Cornell-McGuire methodology. Attenuation model developed by Youngs et al. Seismol Res Lett 68(1):58-73, (1997) was used for deep subduction earthquakes and Chiou and Youngs Earthq Spectra 24(1):173-215, (2008) model was used for shallow crustal earthquakes. A seismic hazard map was developed for peak ground acceleration and for rock ground with a hazard level of a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. Results of the study show that peak ground acceleration values on bedrock change between 0.215 and 0.23 g in the center of Antalya.

  13. Post-Miocene Tectonics from Black Sea to Mediterrenean Sea along Central Anatolian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojay, B.; Özsayın, E.; Çiner, A.

    2012-04-01

    The existences of the gross structures are crucial elements in the understanding of the Neogene evolution of the Anatolia. The structures, from north to south, are fairly documented extensional Black Sea coast structures, "N vergent tectonics" in Black Sea region, the cross cutting scar/shear zone -North Anatolian Fault- , S verging tectonics in central Anatolian overthrust belt (Cretaceous ophiolitic mélange belt), extensional Tuzgölü basin, basins like Cilicia, Mut situated to the back of the Cyprian arc and Cyprus locked subduction and accretionary tectonics (locked by approaching and colliding of the Eratosthenes and Hecatacus "seamount" obstacles). The closure of the northern Neotethys during post-Late Eocene- pre-Miocene end with the collision of the squeezed "Anatolian Block" from south with the Eurasian Continent. Consequently the linkage of the central Anatolian basins is lost with the Seas (Paratethys) in north by the evolution of Black Sea Mountains. However, the subduction in southern Neotethys continued with a complex array due to oblique subduction between "Anatolian Block" and downgoing African-Arabian plates. The growth of the accretionary wedge along southeast Anatolia resulted in retreat of the Miocene Seas towards Basra Bay (Iraq) and collision of the southeast Anatolian belt operated to the end of late Miocene where the marine realm in eastern Mediterrenean Sea continues. The rifting - sea-floor spreading in Red Sea, propagating of Dead Sea Transform to the north and oblique subduction in southern Tethys Ocean during different times in Miocene-Pliocene manifested a various different tectonic mechanism stories in the evolution of the Neogene basin in Anatolia. Consequently progressive closure of the Tethys Oceans resulted in the development Central Anatolian and Eastern Anatolian Plateaus. The growth of the Plateaus, in other words, the progressive shortening from north to south during Late Miocene, ended with the escape of the Anatolian Block

  14. Tectonic investigation of Central Anatolia, Turkey, using geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydemir, Attila

    2009-07-01

    Central Anatolia in Turkey includes a number of internal basins and quite complex geology, but only three major faults can be observed on the surface. There are limited amount of investigations on the tectonic development, structure and history of this area. In this study, tectonic model of the Central Anatolia was investigated using geophysical data and it was compared with recently suggested tectonic models. Existence of two strike-slip faults that have orientations similar to the North Anatolian and East Anatolian Faults in the triple-junction area around the Bingol-Karliova region (eastern Turkey), led some geoscientists to consider the probability of another tectonic escape model in Central Anatolia. Strike-slip characteristics and slip directions of the Sereflikochisar-Aksaray and Ecemis Faults, and the geographical proximity of them are main reasons to consider this model. In this study, the tectonic escape model was investigated and criticized in detail using regional aeromagnetic, gravity, seismic and seismological data. Tectonic developments, faults and their relevance in tectonic setting of the Tuzgolu Basin, together with the comparison of the tectonic escape, and most recent wrench tectonic issues are comprehensively discussed. According to results of this study, existence of tectonic escape between the Sereflikochisar-Aksaray and Ecemis Faults, and geological reasons behind the model are found contradictory requiring geological and geophysical proofs. Moreover, strike direction of the Sereflikochisar-Aksaray Fault is also controversial. Instead of this, a recent model, the regional wrench tectonics appears more reasonable for Central Anatolia that was also supported by the GPS measurements, previous paleomagnetic studies and some recent papers. Geophysical investigation results pointed out that the counter-clockwise rotational movement of the Kirsehir Block to the east of Tuzgolu Basin has been driven by the Kirikkale-Erbaa and Sereflikochisar

  15. A conjugate strike-slip fault system within the extensional tectonics of Western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktar, Mustafa; Karabulut, Hayrullah; Özalaybey, Serdar; Childs, Dean

    2007-12-01

    Three main shocks M-1, M-2 and M-3 (17 October 2005 at 05:45 UTC, Mw 5.4; 17 October at 09:46 UTC, Mw 5.8 and 20 October at 21:40 UTC, Mw 5.9) and their associated aftershocks within the Gulf of Siǧacik, 50 km southwest of Izmir, Turkey were studied in detail. A temporary seismic network deployed during the activity allowed the hypocentre of M-3 and subsequent aftershocks to be determined with high accuracy. A relative relocation technique was used to improve the epicentres of M-1 and M-2. All three main shocks have strike-slip mechanisms which agree with the linear trends of the aftershock locations. Two distinct zones were illuminated by the aftershock locations. The zones contain clear echelon patterns with slightly different orientations from the trend of the aftershock distribution. M-2 and M-3 ruptured along of the eastern rupture zone which aligns N45°E. However the strike direction of M-1 is not clearly identified. The alignment of the two rupture zones intersect at their southern terminus at an angle of 90°. The fault zones form conjugate pair system and static triggering is considered as a probable mechanism for the sequential west to east occurrence of M-1, M-2 and M-3. This earthquake sequence provides seismological evidence for conjugate strike-slip faulting co-existing within a region dominated by north-south extension and well-developed east-west trending normal faults.

  16. Reconstructing the paleoseismic history of the Priene-Sazli Fault using 36Cl cosmogenic nuclide dating method, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozafari Amiri, Nasim; Sümer, Ökmen; Tikhomirov, Dmitry; Özkaymak, Çaǧlar; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Uzel, Bora; Vockenhuber, Christof; Sözbilir, Hasan; Akçar, Naki

    2014-05-01

    The 300-km wide West Anatolian Extensional Province is one of the regions of intense seismic activity in the world within the Alpine-Himalayan belt. Deformation pattern in the area is controlled by three major E-W trending graben systems of Gediz, Küçük Menderes and Büyük Menderes which have been formed as a result of roughly N-S extensional tectonic regime since the early Miocene. These graben systems show evidences of surface faulting during the Pleistocene-Holocene and are geomorphologically characterized by well-exposed limestone normal fault scarps with a relief of tens of meters and well-preserved slickenlines. Since limestones are resistant to weathering, the limestone scarps can efficiently record several past earthquakes. Cosmogenic 36Cl is the only element to identify and date the rupture events. Each rupture causes exposure of previously buried section of the scarp to the surface. Accordingly, due to being well enough exposed to cosmic rays, accumulation of 36Cl accelerates during period of quiescence. Thus, distribution of measured 36Cl concentrations can be applied to investigate periods of seismic activity and inactivity and also to calculate the vertical displacement along the fault plane in association with each rupture. In this study, we focus on the Priene-Sazli Fault, located on the most western part of Büyük Menderes graben. Along the active fault zone, well exposed archaeological sites (e.g. Priene) have been discovered, where destructive historical earthquakes have left evidence of ancient damages in the historical period and during the 20th century. The Priene-Sazli Fault caused the July 16, 1955 Söke-Balat earthquake (M=6.8) with fault-plane solution indicating of normal southeast downthrow along with subsidiary dextral motion. We collected 117 samples from four continuous strips on the Priene-Sazli Fault to measure 36Cl concentrations. We used a new Matlab code to identify the significant ruptures and their timing. Our preliminary

  17. Ground Motion Simulations for Bursa Region (Turkey) Using Input Parameters derived from the Regional Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, B.; Askan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes are among the most destructive natural disasters in Turkey and it is important to assess seismicity in different regions with the use of seismic networks. Bursa is located in Marmara Region, Northwestern Turkey and to the south of the very active North Anatolian Fault Zone. With around three million inhabitants and key industrial facilities of the country, Bursa is the fourth largest city in Turkey. Since most of the focus is on North Anatolian Fault zone, despite its significant seismicity, Bursa area has not been investigated extensively until recently. For reliable seismic hazard estimations and seismic design of structures, assessment of potential ground motions in this region is essential using both recorded and simulated data. In this study, we employ stochastic finite-fault simulation with dynamic corner frequency approach to model previous events as well to assess potential earthquakes in Bursa. To ensure simulations with reliable synthetic ground motion outputs, the input parameters must be carefully derived from regional data. In this study, using strong motion data collected at 33 stations in the region, site-specific parameters such as near-surface high frequency attenuation parameter and amplifications are obtained. Similarly, source and path parameters are adopted from previous studies that as well employ regional data. Initially, major previous events in the region are verified by comparing the records with the corresponding synthetics. Then simulations of scenario events in the region are performed. We present the results in terms of spatial distribution of peak ground motion parameters and time histories at selected locations.

  18. Turkey.

    PubMed

    1988-03-01

    Focus in this discussion of Turkey is on the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; defense; and relations between the US and Turkey. In 1986, Turkey's population was estimated to be 51.8 million with an annual growth rate of 2.5%. The infant mortality rate is 12.3/1000 with a life expectancy of 62.7 years. Turkey is located partly in Europe and partly in Asia. Since 1950, urban areas have experienced tremendous growth, and squatter dwellings are evident around the cities' edges. About half of Turkey's population live in urban areas. Turkish culture is made up of both the modern and traditional, Ottoman and folkloric, elements. The Republic of Turkey was founded by Mustafa Kemal, subsequently named Ataturk, in 1982 after the collapse of the 600-year-old Ottoman empire. The new republic focused on modernizing and Westernizing the empire's Turkish core -- Anatolia and a small part of Thrace. The 1982 constitution preserves a democratic, secular, parliamentary form of government with a strengthened presidence. It provides for an independent judiciary along with the safeguarding of internationally recognized human rights. The legislative functions are carried out by the unicameral, 450-member GNA. The economy is developing structurally, yet the agricultural sector remains significant and produces cotton, tobacco, grains, fruits, and vegetables. Over half of the labor force are farmers, contributing over 1/5 of the gross domestic product. A significant portion of industry also is involved in processing agricultural products. The period from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s was the longest sustained period of economic growth and development in modern Turkish history, with annual growth rates of nearly 7%. Oil price increases after 1973 and the concomitant European recession slowed Turkish growth and also revealed major structural deficiencies. The economic crisis worsened in 1979 as oil prices doubled again. The Demirel

  19. Long term seismic observation using ocean bottom seismographs in Marmara Sea, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, N.; Pinar, A.; Kalafat, D.; Yamamoto, Y.; Citak, S.; Comoglu, M.; Çok, Ö.; Ogutcu, Z.; Suvarikli, M.; Tunc, S.; Gurbuz, C.; Ozel, N.; Kaneda, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault crosses the Marmara Sea with a direction of E-W. There are many large earthquakes repeatedly along the fault with a linkage each other. Due to recent large eastern Aegean earthquake with M6, the Marmara Sea is the "blank zone". Japan and Turkey have a SATREPS collaborative study to clarify the structural characters, construct fault models, simulate the strong motion and tsunami, evaluate these risks with hazard maps and educate disaster prevention for local governments and residents. Our activity is one of the most basic studies, and the objectives are to clarify hypocenter locations, monitor the move, and construct fault models referring seismic/magnetotelluric structures, geodetic nature and trenching works. The target area is from western Marmara Sea to the off Istanbul area along the north Anatolian Fault. We deployed ten Ocean Bottom Seismographs (OBSs) between the Tekirdag Basin and the Central Basin in September, 2014. Then, we added five Japanese OBSs and deployed them at the western end of the Marmara Sea and the eastern Central Basin to extend observed area in March, 2015. The OBS has a three-component velocity sensor with a natural frequency of 4.5 Hz and a hydrophone. Japanese team have clarified seismicity around Japan using the OBS. The magnitude of the detected events is 1.0-1.5. We retrieved all 15 OBSs in July, 2015 and deployed them again on the same locations after data copy and battery maintenance. We started OBS data analysis combined with land stations data. Now we detect events automatically using these data and succeeded detection of over one thousand around the north Anatolian Fault. The tentative results show heterogeneous seismicity. The western and central basins have relative high seismicity and the seismogenic zone becomes thicker rather than previous estimation. Then we will evaluate hypocenter locations with high resolution and discuss the shape of faults in each segment and their linkage.

  20. Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey Part2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Ozener, Haluk; Meral Özel, Nurcan

    2016-04-01

    Turkey is one of seismogenic countries with destructive earthquakes. In Turkey, the 1999 Izumit Earthquake as the destructive earthquake occurred along the North Anatolian fault. This fault is crossing the Marmara sea. In this SATREPS project, Marmara Sea should be focused on because of a seismic gap in the North Anatolian fault. Istanbul is located around the Marmara Sea, so, if next earthquake in the Marmara will occur near Istanbul, fatal damages will be generated as compound damages including Tsunami and liquefaction etc. The Japan and Turkey can share our own experiences during past damaging earthquakes and we can prepare for future large earthquakes in cooperation with each other. In earthquakes in Tokyo area and Istanbul area as the destructive earthquakes near high population cities, there are common disaster researches and measures in each country. For disaster mitigation, we are progressing multidisciplinary researches in this SATREPS project. Our goals of this SATREPS project are as follows, This project is composed of four research groups. 1) The first group is Marmara Earthquake Source region observationally research group. This group has 4 sub-themes such as Seismicity, Geodesy, Electromagnetics and Trench analyses. 2) The second group focuses on scenario researches of earthquake occurrence along the North Anatolia fault and precise tsunami simulation in the Marmara region. 3) Aims of the third group are improvements and constructions of seismic characterizations and damage predictions based on observation researches and precise simulations. 4) The fourth group is promoting disaster educations using research result visuals. In this SATREPS project, we will integrate these research results for disaster mitigation in Marmara region and disaster education in Turkey. Finally, these results and knowledges will be applied to Japanese disaster mitigation researches and disaster educations. We will have a presentation of the updated results of this SATREPS

  1. Intra-basinal water movements induced by faulting: The August 17, 1999, Golcuk (Izmit Bay) earthquake (M(W) = 7.4)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ozturk, H.; Koral, H.; Geist, E.L.

    2000-01-01

    A strong earthquake (M(w) = 7.4) occurred near the town of Golcuk, Izmit Bay, Western Turkey, at 00:01 GMT on August 17, 1999. Izmit Bay is a E-W trending pull-apart basin with a surface area of about 300 km2 along the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAF), in the eastern extension of the Sea of Marmara. The earthquake was caused by a westerly movement of the Anatolian plate along NAF and was accompanied by isolated, chaotic water movements along the northern and southern shores of the bay. At localities along the shoreline a sudden drop in sea level, and a subsequent rise was prominent. The mode of observed sea-level movements rules out the occurrence of a basin-wide tsunami, sensu stricto. Instead, the water movements are attributed to localized sudden dip-slip movements of fault blocks in this pull-apart basin. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  2. A single cause for uplift of the Central and Eastern Anatolian plateau?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartol, J.; Govers, R.

    2014-12-01

    Regional observations suggest that the Central Anatolian plateau (central Turkey) has risen by > 1 km since the Tortonian (~ 8 Ma) while significant crustal shortening did not occur. This uplift was preceded by the onset of widespread volcanism (~ 14-9 Ma). The lithospheric context of these events is however unknown. For the Eastern Anatolian plateau, similar events have been attributed to the late-stage evolution of the northern Neotethys slab, resulting in delamination and slab breakoff. Recent tomographic results indicate that this slab extended beneath both below the Eastern and Central Anatolian plateau just prior to delamination. We propose a new lithospheric scenario for the regional evolution in the Aegean-Anatolian-Near East region that combines a recent compilation of surface geology data with the structure of the upper mantle. Following the Cretaceous-Eocene closure of the northern Neotethys, Africa-Eurasia convergence was accommodated by horizontal subduction at a trench that was located south of Anatolia. Like before the closure, the northern Neotethys slab continued to sink into the deeper mantle beneath the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture. In the early Miocene (~ 20-15 Ma), the northern Neotethys slab started to retreat southward to the trench, resulting in delamination of the lithospheric mantle. The last part of this scenario is testable, whether delamination can explain the uplift of both the Central and Eastern Anatolian plateau. In the east, uplift due to collision of Arabia is included. We use a coupled thermal-flexural model of the lithosphere. The model results show that delamination can explain the average present-day long-wavelength topography of the Central Anatolian plateau. For the Eastern Anatolian plateau, delamination explains half the present-day elevation. We find that a single delamination event also accounts for the present-day surface heat flow and Curie-point depth in both plateaus. We therefore propose to refer to central and east

  3. Is there really an active fault (Cibyra Fault?) cutting the Stadion of the ancient city of Cibyra? (Burdur-Fethiye Fault Zone, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elitez, İrem; Yaltırak, Cenk

    2013-04-01

    The Cibyra segment of the Burdur-Fethiye Fault Zone (BFFZ) is in a tectonically very active region of southwestern Anatolia. The presence of the Cibyra Fault was firstly suggested by Akyüz and Altunel (1997, 2001). Researchers identified traces of historical earthquakes in Cibyra by taking into account the collapsed seat rows on the east side of the stadion as reference. They claimed that the NNE-SSW left lateral fault Cibyra Fault (related to Burdur-Fethiye Fault Zone) continues through Pliocene sediments on both eastern and western sides of the stadion of Cibyra. The questionable left-lateral fault had been examined in detail by ourselves during our 60-days accommodation in the ancient city of Cibyra excavations for the Burdur-Fethiye Fault Zone Project in 2008, 2009 and 2012. A left-lateral offset on the Stadion was firstly mentioned in a study whose aim is to find the traces of Burdur-Fethiye Fault (Akyüz and Altunel, 2001) and many researchers accepted this fault by reference (for example Alçiçek et al. 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006 and Karabacak, 2011). However as a result of the field observations it is understood that there is no fault cutting the Stadion. By the reason of the fact that there are a lot of faults in the region, however the fault that devastated the ancient city is unknown. The deformation traces on the ruins of the ancient city display a seismic movement occured in the region. It is strongly possible that this movement is related to the NE-SW left lateral oblique normal fault named as Cibyra Fault at the northwestern side of the city. Especially the ravages in the eastern part of the city indicate that the deformations are related to ground properties. If the rotation and overturn movement are considered and if both movements are the product of the same earthquake, the real Cibyra Fault is compatible with normal fault with left lateral compenent. After the 2011 excavations and 2012 field studies, the eastern wall of the Stadion showed that

  4. Geometry, slip distribution, and kinematics of surface rupture on the Sakarya fault segment during the 17 August 1999 İzmit, Turkey, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langridge, R.M.; Stenner, Heidi D.; Fumal, T.E.; Christofferson, S.A.; Rockwell, T.K.; Hartleb, R.D.; Bachhuber, J.; Barka, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Mw 7.4 17 August 1999 İzmit earthquake ruptured five major fault segments of the dextral North Anatolian Fault Zone. The 26-km-long, N86°W-trending Sakarya fault segment (SFS) extends from the Sapanca releasing step-over in the west to near the town of Akyazi in the east. The SFS emerges from Lake Sapanca as two distinct fault traces that rejoin to traverse the Adapazari Plain to Akyazi. Offsets were measured across 88 cultural and natural features that cross the fault, such as roads, cornfield rows, rows of trees, walls, rails, field margins, ditches, vehicle ruts, a dike, and ground cracks. The maximum displacement observed for the İzmit earthquake (∼5.1 m) was encountered on this segment. Dextral displacement for the SFS rises from less than 1 m at Lake Sapanca to greater than 5 m near Arifiye, only 3 km away. Average slip decreases uniformly to the east from Arifiye until the fault steps left from Sagir to Kazanci to the N75°W, 6-km-long Akyazi strand, where slip drops to less than 1 m. The Akyazi strand passes eastward into the Akyazi Bend, which consists of a high-angle bend (18°-29°) between the Sakarya and Karadere fault segments, a 6-km gap in surface rupture, and high aftershock energy release. Complex structural geometries exist between the İzmit, Düzce, and 1967 Mudurnu fault segments that have arrested surface ruptures on timescales ranging from 30 sec to 88 days to 32 yr. The largest of these step-overs may have acted as a rupture segmentation boundary in previous earthquake cycles.

  5. Offshore Seismic Observation in the Western Marmara Sea, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Takahashi, N.; Citak, S.; Kalafat, D.; Pinar, A.; Gurbuz, C.; Kaneda, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) extends 1600 km westward from a junction with the East Anatolian Fault at the Karliova Triple Junction in eastern Turkey, across northern Turkey and into the Aegean Sea, accommodating about 25 mm/yr of right-lateral motion between Anatolia and the Eurasian plate. Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured NAF westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk and the Duzce earthquakes in the Marmara region. Considering the fault segments ruptured by the May 24th, 2014 Northern Aegean earthquake, the only un-ruptured segments left behind NAF locate beneath the Marmara Sea and those segments keep their mystery due to their underwater location. To clarify the detailed fault geometry beneath the western Marmara Sea, we started to operate a series of ocean bottom seismographic (OBS) observations. As a first step, we deployed 3 pop-up type OBSs on 20th of March 2014 as a trial observation, and recovered them on 18thof June 2014. Although one of the OBSs worked only 6 days from the start of the observation, other two OBSs functioned properly during the whole 3-month observation period. Only 8 earthquakes were reported near the OBS network in 3 months periods according to the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute catalogue. Thus, we first searched for the microearthquakes missing by the land seismic network and estimated their precious location by using the initial 6 days data. We could identify about 50 earthquakes with more than 5 picking data of P and S first arrivals, and half of them located near the NAF. We also tested the hypocenter relocation by combining the land and OBS seismic data for the 8 earthquakes, and found that these earthquakes are located in between 12-24 km depths. Next, we are planning to deploy 10 OBSs from September 2014 to June 2015 as a second step for our observation. At the AGU fall meeting, we will be able to

  6. Imaging Fluid-Rich Zones by Magnetotelluric Method at South Marmara Region, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cengiz, Özlem; Bülent Tank, Sabri; Tolak Çiftçi, Elif; Kaya, Tülay; Ogawa, Yasuo; Honkura, Yoshimori; Kemal Tunçer, Mustafa; Matsushima, Masaki; Oshiman, Naoto; Çelik, Cengiz

    2013-04-01

    After the mainshock of 1999 İzmit (Turkey) earthquake, scientists have undertaken various kinds of observations in the Marmara region in order to increase understanding of crustal properties of North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). Most of these studies focused on the east Marmara region since the destructive earthquakes were occurring there. Considering the westward migration of significant earthquakes on the North Anatolian Fault (NAF), the next destructive earthquake is likely to occur beyond the westernmost part of 1999 İzmit earthquake epicenter, in or around Marmara Sea. For this reason, south of Marmara Sea was chosen as the survey area. Wide-band (320-0.0005 Hz) magnetotelluric (MT) data at sixteen sounding locations along two parallel profiles at south Marmara region were collected to improve the understanding of the crustal electrical conductivity structure. Both profiles are crossing several branches of North Anatolian Fault. The results were achieved by performing two-dimensional (2D) inversions of MT data with the transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes. These results show a relatively complex structure down to 4 km depth. The electrical resistivity pattern below this depth indicates a simpler structure with conductors (10 Ωm) beneath the northern ends of both profiles. While these deep conductive zones are attributed to partially melting in the crust, the highly resistive zones are associated with low fluid condition and high rigidity. In addition, the features characterized in geo-electric models correlate well with known faults in the survey area. The South Marmara Fault (SMF) possibly corresponds to a lateral resistive-conductive interface between Manyas-Karacabey basin and Bandirma-Karada uplift on the west (PW) and Uluabat uplift and Mudanya uplift on the east (PE) profiles.

  7. Tectonic Evolution of the Çayirhan Neogene Basin (Ankara), Central Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behzad, Bezhan; Koral, Hayrettin; İşb&idot; l, Duygu; Karaaǧa; ç, Serdal

    2016-04-01

    Çayırhan (Ankara) is located at crossroads of the Western Anatolian extensional region, analogous to the Basin and Range Province, and suture zone of the Neotethys-Ocean, which is locus of the North Anatolian Transform since the Late Miocene. To the north of Çayırhan (Ankara), a Neogene sedimentary basin comprises Lower-Middle Miocene and Upper Miocene age formations, characterized by swamp, fluvial and lacustrine settings respectively. This sequence is folded and transected by neotectonic faults. The Sekli thrust fault is older than the Lower-Middle Miocene age formations. The Davutoǧlan fault is younger than the Lower-Middle Miocene formations and is contemporaneous to the Upper Miocene formation. The Çatalkaya fault is younger than the Upper Miocene formation. The sedimentary and tectonic features provide information on mode, timing and evolution of this Neogene age sedimentary basin in Central Turkey. It is concluded that the region underwent a period of uplift and erosion under the influence of contractional tectonics prior to the Early-Middle Miocene, before becoming a semi-closed basin under influence of transtensional tectonics during the Early-Middle Miocene and under influence of predominantly extensional tectonics during the post-Late Miocene times. Keywords: Tectonics, Extension, Transtension, Stratigraphy, Neotectonic features.

  8. A single cause for uplift of the Central and Eastern Anatolian plateau?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govers, Rob; Bartol, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    Regional observations suggest that the Central Anatolian platearal (central Turkey) has risen by more than since the Tortonian (~8 Ma) while significant crustal shortening did not occur. This uplift was preceded by the onset of widespread volcanism (~14-9Ma). The lithospheric context of these events is however unknown. For the Eastern Anatolian plateau, similar events have been attributed to the late-stage evolution of the northern Neotethys slab, resulting in delamination and slab break-off. Recent tomographic results indicate that this slab extended beneath both below the Eastern and Central Anatolian plateau just prior to delamination. We propose a new lithospheric scenario for the regional evolution in the Aegean-Anatolia-Near East region that combines a recent compilation of surface geology data with the structure of the upper mantle. Following Cretaceous-Eocene closure of the northern Neotethys, Africa-Eurasia convergence was accommodated by horizontal subduction at a trench that was located south of Anatolia. Like before the closure, the northern Neotethys slab continued to sink into the deeper mantle beneath the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture. In the early Miocene (~20-15Ma), the northern Neotethys slab started to retreat southward to the trench, resulting in delamination of the lithospheric mantle. The last part of this scenario is testable, whether delamination can explain the uplift of both the Central and Eastern Anatolian plateau. In the east, uplift due to collision of Arabia is included. We use a coupled thermal-flexural model of the lithosphere. Delamination can explain the average present-day long-wavelength topography of the Central Anatolian plateau. For the Eastern Anatolian plateau, delamination explains half the present-day elevation: the other half resulted from crustal thickening. We therefore propose to refer to central and east Anatolia since the middle Miocene as "the Anatolian plateau".

  9. The Stress/Strain Analysis of Kinematic Structure at Gülbahçe Fault and Uzunkuyu Intrusive (İzmir, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çirmik, Ayça; Doğru, Fikret; Gönenç, Tolga; Pamukçu, Oya

    2017-03-01

    İzmir and its surroundings constitute an important tectonic region for the control of the Western Anatolian region. The study area is located in the western part of İzmir city and inside of Karaburun Peninsula. In the study area and its surroundings, a great amount of earthquakes occurred in both land and sea in recent years. Hence, the kinematic structures of Gülbahçe fault and Uzunkuyu intrusive were examined within this study. As a first step, the mechanism and the velocities of these faults were identified using the GNSS data. Then, a stress and strain analysis of the region was performed for different depths using Coulomb software. In this study, the strain changes on vertical direction were evaluated and compared with the changes of observed gravity anomalies for the first time for the study area as distinct from the previous studies. From this integrated analysis, we retrieved the kinematic parameters and movement mechanisms of Gülbahçe fault and Uzunkuyu intrusive and defined the regional stresses, the strain changes and the kinematic models of them.

  10. Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey (SATREPS Project: Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development by JICA-JST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2015-04-01

    Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey (SATREPS Project: Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development by JICA-JST) Yoshiyuki KANEDA Disaster mitigation center Nagoya University/ Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) Mustafa ELDIK Boğaziçi University, Kandilli Observatory and       Earthquake Researches Institute (KOERI) and Members of SATREPS Japan-Turkey project The target of this project is the Marmara Sea earthquake after the Izmit (Kocaeli) Earthquake 1999 along to the North Anatolian fault. According to occurrences of historical Earthquakes, epicenters have moved from East to West along to the North Anatolian Fault. There is a seismic gap in the Marmara Sea. In Marmara region, there is Istanbul with high populations such as Tokyo. Therefore, Japan and Turkey can share our own experiences during past damaging earthquakes and we can prepare for future large Earthquakes and Tsunamis in cooperation with each other in SATREPS project. This project is composed of Multidisciplinary research project including observation researches, simulation researches, educational researches, and goals are as follows, ① To develop disaster mitigation policy and strategies based on Multidisciplinary research activities. ② To provide decision makers with newly found knowledge for its implementation to the current regulations. ③ To organize disaster education programs in order to increase disaster awareness in Turkey. ④ To contribute the evaluation of active fault studies in Japan. In this SATREPS project, we will integrate Multidisciplinary research results for disaster mitigation in Marmara region and .disaster education in Turkey.

  11. Tectonic burial and exhumation cycles tracked by muscovite and K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology in a strike-slip fault zone, central Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idleman, Lauren; Cosca, Michael A.; Heizler, Matthew T.; Thomson, Stuart N.; Teyssier, Christian; Whitney, Donna L.

    2014-02-01

    Muscovite and K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar ages from the eastern margin of the Niğde massif in central Anatolia track the timing of initial exhumation, reburial, and final exhumation and cooling of metamorphic rocks deformed within a strike-slip fault zone. Although the ages of initial and final cooling were known from previous studies, our new results document the timing of the reheating/reburial event. Muscovite from four of eight gneiss samples have Late Cretaceous 40Ar/39Ar ages that date initial cooling at ~ 75 Ma. The remaining samples have perturbed spectra that climb to Late Cretaceous ages with increasing extraction temperatures during analysis. These perturbed samples are located beneath a faulted unconformity overlain by Paleogene sedimentary deposits that were derived in part from the metamorphic rocks, then buried, metamorphosed, and deformed under greenschist facies conditions. Samples close to the faulted unconformity are more perturbed than structurally deeper samples. The age of the thermal perturbation is determined at 30 ± 5 Ma using multi-diffusion domain modeling of K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar data from two gneiss samples, one located close to the unconformity and one at a structurally deeper level. Muscovite 40Ar/39Ar results and modeled K-feldspar temperature-time histories show that the eastern margin of the Niğde massif experienced a reheating event that peaked at ~ 30 Ma. The thermal pulse has been attributed to reburial associated with transpression in the Ecemiş segment of the Central Anatolian Fault Zone along the eastern margin of the Niğde massif. Activity of this fault zone may represent a far-field expression of the onset of collision of Arabia with Eurasia in SE Anatolia.

  12. Neogene Sequence Along the Eskişehir Fault Zone (EFZ), NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apaydın Poşluk, Elif; Koral, Hayrettin

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to explore the stratigraphy and structural features of Neogene units located in the Bozüyük (Bilecik) and Oklubalı (Eskişehir) area in southern Marmara, which lies on the collision zone between the Sakarya and Tauride-Anatolide blocks. Pre-Mesozoic marbles, schists and granodiorites, Mesozoic marbles, schists, ophiolitic units and limestones are basement rocks. Cover units include Neogene age formations. From the bottom to top, they are named the Porsuk Formation and the Akpınar Limestone, the İnönü Volcanics and the Ilıca Formation. Paleontological data which could yield a geological age have not been observed in fluvial sediments of the Porsuk Formation and lacustrine deposits of the Akpınar Limestone. The 40K/40Ar dating analyses on trachy-andesite of the overlying İnönü Volcanics have yielded middle Miocene ages (15.0-15.5 Ma), suggesting the underlying sedimentary units namely the Porsuk Formation and the Akpınar Limestone to be lower-middle Miocene in age. Fossils have been discovered in the lacustrine limestone of the Ilıca Formation in Oklubalı (İnönü-Eskişehir) village, and the age is determined to be lower Pliocene. The Eskişehir Fault Zone (EFZ) transects the Neogene formations and Quaternary sediments along an E-W'ly orientation. The Ormangüzle, Bozalan, Kandilli and İnönü Faults are segments observed from the west to east inside the Eskişehir Fault Zone. Some of these faults have NW-SE and others WNW-ESE orientations. The faults in NW-SE directions were effective for the formation of the Neogene sequence based on NE, SE and SW-oriented paleo-flow orientations and abrupt facies changes. The faults with WNW-ESE orientations, as noted in the Çukurhisar earthquake of February 2, 1956 (M=6.4), still keep their seismic activity and have a potential of producing earthquakes. Keywords: Neogene sediments, 40K/40Ar dating, the Eskişehir Fault Zone, active fault, Çukurhisar earthquake

  13. The 1999 Izmit, Turkey, earthquake: A 3D dynamic stress transfer model of intraearthquake triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, R.A.; Dolan, J.F.; Hartleb, R.; Day, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Before the August 1999 Izmit (Kocaeli), Turkey, earthquake, theoretical studies of earthquake ruptures and geological observations had provided estimates of how far an earthquake might jump to get to a neighboring fault. Both numerical simulations and geological observations suggested that 5 km might be the upper limit if there were no transfer faults. The Izmit earthquake appears to have followed these expectations. It did not jump across any step-over wider than 5 km and was instead stopped by a narrower step-over at its eastern end and possibly by a stress shadow caused by a historic large earthquake at its western end. Our 3D spontaneous rupture simulations of the 1999 Izmit earthquake provide two new insights: (1) the west- to east-striking fault segments of this part of the North Anatolian fault are oriented so as to be low-stress faults and (2) the easternmost segment involved in the August 1999 rupture may be dipping. An interesting feature of the Izmit earthquake is that a 5-km-long gap in surface rupture and an adjacent 25° restraining bend in the fault zone did not stop the earthquake. The latter observation is a warning that significant fault bends in strike-slip faults may not arrest future earthquakes.

  14. Characterization of building materials from the aqueduct of Antioch-on-the-Orontes (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjelloun, Yacine; de Sigoyer, Julia; Carlut, Julie; Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; Dessales, Hélène; Pamir, Hatice; Karabacak, Volkan

    2015-07-01

    The Roman aqueduct of Antioch-on-the-Orontes (Turkey), a city located near the junction between the active Dead Sea fault and the East Anatolian fault, has been damaged several times due to historical earthquakes, as mentioned in ancient texts. The traces of repairs are studied in order to identify their potential seismic origin. The deformations of the structure were characterised thanks to a LIDAR scan. Several bricks were sampled on different parts of the city's aqueducts, on the original structure and on repaired parts. The bricks were characterized through a petrological approach. 14C and archaeomagnetism were tested on the bricks in order to constrain the age of their production. The synthesis of all the data showed a local origin for the bricks, and led to the identification of several manufacturing techniques and several types of production, thus, confirming the potentiality of this approach to date and characterise post-seismic repairs.

  15. Investigation into the regional wrench tectonics of inner East Anatolia (Turkey) using potential field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büyüksaraç, Aydın

    2007-01-01

    The residual aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies of inner East Anatolia, surveyed by the Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) of Turkey, display complexities. Some faults, which are known and new lineaments, are drawn from maxspot map derived from the location of the horizontal gradient of gravity anomalies. Tectonic lineaments of inner East Anatolia exhibit similarities to the direction of East Anatolian Fault Zone. Anticlockwise rotation, approximately -30°, defined from disorientations of aeromagnetic anomalies. The lineaments obtained from maxspots map produced from the gravity anomalies and disoriented aeromagnetic anomalies are in-line with the mobilistic system revealed by the palaeomagnetic data. These Alpine age continental rotations caused westward wrenching of the global lithosphere and led to significant tectonic reactivation and deformations. GPS measurements, current tectonic knowledge and the results of the evaluation of potential field data were combined in a base map to demonstrate similarities.

  16. Seismicity distribution and locking depth along the Main Marmara Fault, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmittbuhl, J.; Karabulut, H.; Lengliné, O.; Bouchon, M.

    2016-03-01

    The seismicity along the Main Marmara Fault (MMF) below the Marmara Sea is analyzed during the 2007-2012 period to provide insights on the recent evolution of this important regional seismic gap. High precision locations show that seismicity is strongly varying along strike and depth providing fine details of the fault behavior that are inaccessible from geodetic observations. The activity strongly clusters at the regions of transition between basins. The Central basin shows significant seismicity located below the shallow locking depth inferred from GPS measurements. Its b-value is low and the average seismic slip is high. All observations are consistent with a deep creep of this segment. On the contrary, the Kumburgaz basin at the center of the fault shows sparse seismicity with the hallmarks of a locked segment. In the eastern Marmara Sea, the seismicity distribution along the Princes Island segment in the Cinarcik basin, is consistent with the geodetic locking depth of 10 km and a low contribution to the regional seismic energy release. The assessment of the locked segment areas provide an estimate of the magnitude of the main forthcoming event to be about 7.3 assuming that the rupture will not enter significantly within creeping domains.

  17. M≥7 Earthquake rupture forecast and time-dependent probability for the Sea of Marmara region, Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murru, Maura; Akinci, Aybige; Falcone, Guiseppe; Pucci, Stefano; Console, Rodolfo; Parsons, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    We forecast time-independent and time-dependent earthquake ruptures in the Marmara region of Turkey for the next 30 years using a new fault-segmentation model. We also augment time-dependent Brownian Passage Time (BPT) probability with static Coulomb stress changes (ΔCFF) from interacting faults. We calculate Mw > 6.5 probability from 26 individual fault sources in the Marmara region. We also consider a multisegment rupture model that allows higher-magnitude ruptures over some segments of the Northern branch of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NNAF) beneath the Marmara Sea. A total of 10 different Mw=7.0 to Mw=8.0 multisegment ruptures are combined with the other regional faults at rates that balance the overall moment accumulation. We use Gaussian random distributions to treat parameter uncertainties (e.g., aperiodicity, maximum expected magnitude, slip rate, and consequently mean recurrence time) of the statistical distributions associated with each fault source. We then estimate uncertainties of the 30-year probability values for the next characteristic event obtained from three different models (Poisson, BPT, and BPT+ΔCFF) using a Monte Carlo procedure. The Gerede fault segment located at the eastern end of the Marmara region shows the highest 30-yr probability, with a Poisson value of 29%, and a time-dependent interaction probability of 48%. We find an aggregated 30-yr Poisson probability of M >7.3 earthquakes at Istanbul of 35%, which increases to 47% if time dependence and stress transfer are considered. We calculate a 2-fold probability gain (ratio time-dependent to time-independent) on the southern strands of the North Anatolian Fault Zone.

  18. Enhancement of the national strong-motion network in Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gulkan, Polat; Ceken, U.; Colakoglu, Z.; Ugras, T.; Kuru, T.; Apak, A.; Anderson, J.G.; Sucuoglu, H.; Celebi, M.; Akkar, D.S.; Yazgan, U.; Denizlioglu, A.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Two arrays comprising 20 strong-motion sensors were established in western Turkey. The 14 stations of BYTNet follow a N-S trending line about 65 km in length, normal to strands of the North Anatolian fault that runs between the cities of Bursa and Yalova. Here the dominant character of the potential fault movement is a right-lateral transform slip. The DATNet array, comprising a total of eight stations, is arranged along a 110-km-long E-W trending direction along the Menderes River valley between Denizli and Aydin. (Two stations in this array were incorporated from the existing Turkish national strong-motion network.) This is an extensional tectonic environment, and the network mornitors potential large normal-faulting earthquakes on the faults in the valley. The installation of the arrays was supported by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) under its Science for Peace Program. Maintenance and calibration is performed by the General Directorate of Disaster Affairs (GDDA) according to a protocol between Middle East Technical University (METU) and GDDA. Many young engineers and scientists have been trained in network operation and evaluation during the course of the project, and an international workshop dealing with strong-motion instrumentation has been organized as part of the project activities.

  19. Ticks threatening lineage of Anatolian wild sheep (Ovis gmelinii anatolica) and determination of their tick-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Orkun, Ömer; Emir, Hasan; Karaer, Zafer

    2016-09-15

    We aimed to determine the ticks of the Anatolian wild sheep and to define their tick-borne pathogens while molecularly studying their relationships with those of the domestic sheep. Furthermore, another aim of this study is to investigate tick paralysis resulting in the death of the Anatolian wild sheep. Ticks and blood samples were collected from the wild sheep whilst tick samples were also collected from hares, guinea fowls, chickens, and a turkey living in the Anatolian wild sheep breeding area. While PCR amplification was carried out for the detection of Babesia spp., Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in blood samples, CCHF virus was screened in the tick samples in addition to the above-mentioned pathogens. Theileria spp. was detected in blood samples of 45 wild sheep. A total of 3494 ticks were collected from 52 Anatolian wild sheep, 5 hares, 5 guinea fowls, 2 chickens, and 1 turkey whereas 98 ticks were collected from the ground. B. ovis and T. ovis were detected in tick pools (Rh. bursa and H. excavatum) that were collected from the wild sheep. The paralysis was diagnosed in both of the hind legs of the newborn lambs infested with a great number of ticks. We also report that the tick species (H. excavatum and Rh. bursa) are determined to cause tick paralysis and tick toxicosis, which are associated with mortality especially in lambs. T. ovis and B. ovis were detected and studied for the first time in Anatolian wild sheep and in their ticks. The results of phylogenetic analyses showed that T. ovis and B. ovis isolates are genetically very close to the isolates that were previously obtained from the domestic small ruminants. We show that the Anatolian wild sheep can play the role of a reservoir for T. ovis. The presence of the CCHF virus has also been clearly shown and it has been observed that this virus, which is very pathogenic for humans, is anywise circulating in the region.

  20. The interpretation of crustal dynamics data in terms of plate interactions and active tectonics of the Anatolian Plate and surrounding regions in the Middle East

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toksoz, M. Nafi

    1987-01-01

    The primary effort in this study during the past year has been directed along two separate lines: (1) expanding finite element models to include the entire Anatolian plate, the Aegean Sea and the Northeastern Mediterranean Sea, and (2) investigating the relationship between fault geometry and earthquake activity for the North Anatolian and similar strike-slip faults (e.g., San Andreas Fault). Both efforts are designed to provide an improved basis for interpreting the Crustal Dynamics measurements NASA has planned for this region. The initial phases of both investigations have been completed and the results are being prepared for publication. These investigations are described briefly.

  1. Kinematic Rupture Process Of Karakocan-Elazig Earthquake, Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekler, F. N.; Ozel, N. M.; Tanircan, G. B.

    2012-04-01

    An earthquake (Mw=5.9) hit Elazig in the eastern part of Turkey on March 8, 2010 at 02:32 (GMT). It is located midway between the provincial capital of Elazığ and Bingöl with coordinates reported as 38o48.42N and 40o5.99E by Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI). Source characterization and slip history were estimated the main and four moderate size earthquake almost at the same location. The earthquake occurred at one of the tectonically very active East Anatolian Fault zone starts at the Karlıova triple junction, where it meets the North Anatolian fault to the NE. Multi time-window linear waveform inversion technique (MTWIT) was applied to strong ground motion (SGM) data. Theoretical Green's functions between subfaults and stations were calculated by a Discrete Wave Number Method (DWNM) using 1-D velocity structure. Inversion technique used in this study yields a non unique solution. Therefore various rupture models have been tried until both observed and synthetic data were matched. Results show simple patterns in slip distributions. Maximum slip is 0.78 and seismic moment is 1.435E+25 dyne.cm from the kinematic rupture process of the strike slip faulting. In this study, we searched a stable 1-D crustal velocity model with low RMS misfit to construct the theoretical Green's function between each sub-fault and each station among the 4 different models. These are Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM; Dziewonski and Anderson, 1981), International Association of Seismology and the Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASP91) (Kennett and Engdahl, 1991), Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) earthquake location model, explosion model (Gurbuz, 2004). We have collected previous studies Rebollar et al., (2001), Ichinose et al., (1997), Abdel-Fattah (2002), Somerville et al., (1999), Wells and Coppersmith (1994) on source information of moderate size earthquakes occurred worldwide and compared with

  2. Seismotectonics and rupture process of the MW 7.1 2011 Van reverse-faulting earthquake, eastern Turkey, and implications for hazard in regions of distributed shortening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackenzie, D.; Elliott, J. R.; Altunel, E.; Walker, R. T.; Kurban, Y. C.; Schwenninger, J.-L.; Parsons, B.

    2016-07-01

    The 2011 October 23 MW 7.1 Van earthquake in eastern Turkey caused ˜600 deaths and caused widespread damage and economic loss. The seismogenic rupture was restricted to 10-25 km in depth, but aseismic surface creep, coincident with outcrop fault exposures, was observed in the hours to months after the earthquake. We combine observations from radar interferometry, seismology, geomorphology and Quaternary dating to investigate the geological slip rate and seismotectonic context of the Van earthquake, and assess the implications for continuing seismic hazard in the region. Transient post-seismic slip on the upper Van fault started immediately following the earthquake, and decayed over a period of weeks; it may not fully account for our long-term surface slip-rate estimate of ≥0.5 mm yr-1. Post-seismic slip on the Bostaniçi splay fault initiated several days to weeks after the main shock, and we infer that it may have followed the MW 5.9 aftershock on the 9th November. The Van earthquake shows that updip segmentation can be important in arresting seismic ruptures on dip-slip faults. Two large, shallow aftershocks show that the upper 10 km of crust can sustain significant earthquakes, and significant slip is observed to have reached the surface in the late Quaternary, so there may be a continuing seismic hazard from the upper Van fault and the associated splay. The wavelength of folding in the hanging wall of the Van fault is dominated by the structure in the upper 10 km of the crust, masking the effect of deeper seismogenic structures. Thus, models of subsurface faulting based solely on surface folding and faulting in regions of reverse faulting may underestimate the full depth extent of seismogenic structures in the region. In measuring the cumulative post-seismic offsets to anthropogenic structures, we show that Structure-from-Motion can be rapidly deployed to create snapshots of post-seismic displacement. We also demonstrate the utility of declassified Corona

  3. The Superimposed Paleocene-Miocene Tectonics of the middle part of the Nallihan Wedge (NW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Murat; Yaltirak, Cenk

    2015-04-01

    In the NW Turkey, the area between the suture zones of the Rhodope-Pontide Ocean and Izmir-Ankara Ocean, and North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) and Thrace-Eskişehir Fault Zone (TEFZ) is known as the Nallıhan Wedge. The shape of Nallıhan Wedge is a 90 degree counter-clockwise rotated isosceles triangle. The northwestern boundary is a part of NAFZ and the southwestern boundary is a part of TEFZ. The 160 km-long eastern boundary is located at around Beypazarı and western corner is on the Bursa Plain. Nallıhan is situated at the centre of this isosceles triangle. While all the thrusts and folds shrink towards to the west and show an imbricate-like structure, the characteristics of the folds turn into to the open folds. Thrusts faults are locally observed as blind and almost perpendicular thrusts at the fold limbs towards to the east. The rocks of the study area show different characteristics according to their types and basins of formation. On the other hand the structural properties of these rocks display the effects of the closure of the Intra-Pontide and Izmir-Ankara Oceans in between Paleocene and Early Oligocene. During Miocene, the thrust faults reactivated and a deformation formed the NEE-SWW left lateral strike-slip faults parallel to these thrust faults. Whereas the first events are related to the closure of the branches of Neo-Tethys, the Miocene deformation is probably based on the Miocene tectonics of the Western Anatolia by the reason of equivalent age of the TEFZ. In this framework, the deformation of the Nallıhan Wedge presents significant information about the period between the evolution of Paleotectonic and Neotectonic of Turkey.

  4. Earthquake Scenarios and Comparison with Historical Earthquakes, Hatay Region, SE Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uskuplu, S.; Tuysuz, O.

    2012-04-01

    Hatay Province (Antioch on Orontes) and its surroundings, SE Turkey, have been studied in this research. Tectonically, the East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ), Dead Sea Fault Zone (DAFZ) and Cyprus Arc juxtapose in this region and form a triple junction. Historical records, which extend back to 300 BC, indicate that repeated destructive earthquakes affected this historical region for many times. It is still a matter of debate in this region that which fault produced these earthquakes. It is indisputable for this region that the probability of occurrence of future big and destructive earthquakes are quite high. For that purpose, the damage distributions of the historical earthquakes of this region, which are compiled from various catalogues, have been investigated in this study. The active faults in the region are determined by field studies and the maximum magnitudes of the earthquakes that can be produced by those faults are calculated by using empirical formulas. In the next step we produced synthetic earthquake scenarios by using Geographical Information System (GIS) analysis techniques to estimate the damage distribution of earthquakes that would possibly be produced by different fault segments. In the last step we compared results of damage distribution of synthetic earthquake scenarios with the damage distribution from historical records. Based on these results we tried to estimate which fault segment produced which historical earthquake. Results of our study indicate that the historical earthquakes in the Hatay Province were mainly produced by different segments of the Dead Sea Fault, and the Antakya-Samandag Fault. Keywords; Earthquake scenarios, GIS, historical earthquakes, Hatay, intensity

  5. Slip deficit and location of seismic gaps along the Dead Sea Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha; Toussaint, Renaud; Ferry, Matthieu; Nguema-Edzang, Parfait

    2015-04-01

    The Dead Sea Fault (DSF), a ~ 1000-km-long North-South trending transform fault presents structural discontinuities and includes segments that experienced large earthquakes (Mw>7) in historical times. The Wadi Araba and Jordan Valley, the Lebanese restraining bend, the Missyaf and Ghab fault segments in Syria and the Ziyaret Fault segment in Turkey display geometrical complexities made of step overs, restraining and releasing bends that may constitute major obstacles to earthquake rupture propagation. Using active tectonics, GPS measurements and paleoseismology we investigate the kinematics and long-term/short-term slip rates along the Dead Sea fault. Tectonic geomorphology with paleoseismic trenching and archeoseismic investigations indicate repeated faulting events and left-lateral slip rate ranging from 4 mm/yr in the southern fault section to 6 mm/yr in the northern fault section. Except for the northernmost DSF section, these long-term estimates of fault slip rate are consistent with GPS measurements that show 4 to 5 mm/yr deformation rate across the plate boundary. Indeed, recent GPS results showing 3 +-0.5 mm/yr velocity rate of the northern DSF appear to be in contradiction with the ~6 mm/yr paleoseismic slip rate. The kinematic modeling that combines GPS and seismotectonic results implies a complex geodynamic pattern with the DSF transforms the Cyprus arc subduction zone into transpressive tectonics on the East Anatolian fault. The timing of past earthquake ruptures shows the occurrence of seismic sequences and a southward migration of large earthquakes, with the existence of major seismic gaps along strike. In this contribution, we present the calculated seismic slip deficit along the fault segments and discuss the identification of seismic gaps and the implication for the seismic hazard assessment.

  6. Insurance Applications of Active Fault Maps Showing Epistemic Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, G.

    2005-12-01

    high deductible is in force, this requires estimation of the epistemic uncertainty on fault geometry and activity. Transport infrastructure insurance is of practical interest in seismic countries. On the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey, there is uncertainty over an unbroken segment between the eastern end of the Dazce Fault and Bolu. This may have ruptured during the 1944 earthquake. Existing hazard maps may simply use a question mark to flag uncertainty. However, a far more informative type of hazard map might express spatial variations in the confidence level associated with a fault map. Through such visual guidance, an insurance risk analyst would be better placed to price earthquake cover, allowing for epistemic uncertainty.

  7. A new approach to obtaining a 3D shear wave velocity model of the crust and upper mantle: An application to eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delph, Jonathan R.; Zandt, George; Beck, Susan L.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new approach to the joint inversion of surface wave dispersion data and receiver functions by utilizing Common Conversion Point (CCP) stacking to reconcile the different sampling domains of the two datasets. Utilizing CCP stacking allows us to suppress noise in the data by waveform stacking, and correct for backazimuthal variations and complex crustal structure by mapping receiver functions back to their theoretical location. When applied to eastern Turkey, this approach leads to a higher resolution image of the subsurface and clearly delineates different tectonic features in eastern Turkey that were not apparent using other approaches. We observe that the slow seismic velocities near the Karliova Triple Junction correlate to moderate strain rates and high heat flow, which leads to a rheologically weak crust that has allowed for the upward propagation of Miocene and younger volcanics near the triple junction. We find seismically fast, presumably rigid blocks located in the southeastern Anatolian Plate and Arabian Plate are separated by a band of low shear wave velocities that correspond to the East Anatolian Fault Zone, which is consistent with the presence of fluids in the fault zone. We observe that the Arabian Plate has underthrust the Eurasian Plate as far as the northern boundary of the Bitlis Massif, which can explain the high exhumation rates in the Bitlis Massif as a result of slab break-off of the Arabian oceanic lithosphere. We also find a shallow ( 33 km) anomaly beneath eastern Turkey that we interpret as a localized wedge of mantle that was underthrust by a crustal fragment during the collision of Arabia and Eurasia. These observations are possible because of the high-resolution images obtained by combining common conversion point receiver function stacks with ambient noise dispersion data to create a data-driven three-dimensional shear wave velocity model.

  8. Soil liquefaction potential in Eskişehir, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosun, H.; Seyrek, E.; Orhan, A.; Savaş, H.; Türköz, M.

    2011-04-01

    Liquefaction is one of the critical problems in geotechnical engineering. High ground water levels and alluvial soils have a high potential risk for damage due to liquefaction, especially in seismically active regions. Eskişehir urban area, studied in this article, is situated within the second degree earthquake region on the seismic hazard zonation map of Turkey and is surrounded by Eskişehir, North Anatolian, Kütahya and Simav Fault Zones. Geotechnical investigations are carried out in two stages: field and laboratory. In the first stage, 232 boreholes in different locations were drilled and Standard Penetration Test (SPT) was performed. Test pits at 106 different locations were also excavated to support geotechnical data obtained from field tests. In the second stage, experimental studies were performed to determine the Atterberg limits and physical properties of soils. Liquefaction potential was investigated by a simplified method based on SPT. A scenario earthquake of magnitude M=6.4, produced by Eskişehir Fault Zone, was used in the calculations. Analyses were carried out for PGA levels at 0.19, 0.30 and 0.47 g. The results of the analyses indicate that presence of high ground water level and alluvial soil increase the liquefaction potential with the seismic features of the region. Following the analyses, liquefaction potential maps were produced for different depth intervals and can be used effectively for development plans and risk management practices in Eskişehir.

  9. Installation and Initial Results of Borehole Strainmeters around the Marmara Sea in Turkey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencin, David; Bohnhoff, Marco; Ozener, Haluk; Mattioli, Glen; Bilham, Roger; Johnson, Wade; Gottlieb, Mike; Van Boskirk, Elizabeth; Aracel, Digdem; Bulut, Fatih; Bal, Osman

    2016-04-01

    Twice in the past 1000 years a sequence of damaging earthquakes has propagated during the course of a few decades along the North Anatolian fault (NAF) in Turkey towards Istanbul, with the final earthquake in the sequence catastrophically destroying the city. This occurred most recently in 1509 when the population was only about 200,000 yet ten thousand people died. The population of greater Istanbul is now 20 million, building stock more fragile, and the last earthquake of the current westward propagating sequence is considered geologically imminent. An opportunity to enhance the detection capability of a suite of deep seismometers installed near Istanbul has arisen, that will permit us to observe, characterize, and possibly predict the moment of imminent failure along the NAF, as well as monitor the tectonic processes leading to this failure. As an augmentation of the Geophysical Observatory at the North Anatolian Fault (GONAF), UNAVCO installed two continuous creepmeters and six borehole strainmeters between July 2014 and October 2015 into boreholes provided by the several international sponsors, including NSF, GFZ, AFAD and Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory. The entire geophysical sensor network is collectively referred to as GeoGONAF. The borehole strainmeters enhance the ability of the scientific instrumentation to monitor ultra-slow process near the probable source zone of the Mw>7 earthquake that is soon expected beneath the Marmara Sea. The strainmeters and creepmeters allow us to make geodetic observations of this segment of the fault before, during and after a large earthquake, which combined with the seismic data from GONAF will provide valuable data for understanding earthquake processes. Installed instruments have already recorded both local and teleseismic events and observed creep events on the on-shore segments of the NAF to the East of the Marmara. In addition we have seen typical hydrological loading signals associated with normal modes of

  10. Turkey-U.S. Defense Cooperation: Prospects and Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-08

    exercise Reliant Mermaid , both of which had featured U.S.-Turkey-Israel cooperation in previous years, did not feature either the United States or Israel...in late 2010. Anatolian Eagle took place with different participants, and Reliant Mermaid was canceled. It also is unclear to what extent divergent

  11. Integrated geophysical investigations in a fault zone located on southwestern part of İzmir city, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drahor, Mahmut G.; Berge, Meriç A.

    2017-01-01

    Integrated geophysical investigations consisting of joint application of various geophysical techniques have become a major tool of active tectonic investigations. The choice of integrated techniques depends on geological features, tectonic and fault characteristics of the study area, required resolution and penetration depth of used techniques and also financial supports. Therefore, fault geometry and offsets, sediment thickness and properties, features of folded strata and tectonic characteristics of near-surface sections of the subsurface could be thoroughly determined using integrated geophysical approaches. Although Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Seismic Refraction Tomography (SRT) methods are commonly used in active tectonic investigations, other geophysical techniques will also contribute in obtaining of different properties in the complex geological environments of tectonically active sites. In this study, six different geophysical methods used to define faulting locations and characterizations around the study area. These are GPR, ERT, SRT, Very Low Frequency electromagnetic (VLF), magnetics and self-potential (SP). Overall integrated geophysical approaches used in this study gave us commonly important results about the near surface geological properties and faulting characteristics in the investigation area. After integrated interpretations of geophysical surveys, we determined an optimal trench location for paleoseismological studies. The main geological properties associated with faulting process obtained after trenching studies. In addition, geophysical results pointed out some indications concerning the active faulting mechanism in the area investigated. Consequently, the trenching studies indicate that the integrated approach of geophysical techniques applied on the fault problem reveals very useful and interpretative results in description of various properties of faulting zone in the investigation site.

  12. Neogene-Quaternary evolution of the Tefenni basin on the Fethiye-Burdur fault zone, SW Anatolia-Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, Rahmi; Aksarı, Süleyman

    2016-06-01

    The Fethiye-Burdur fault zone (FBFZ) is a complex belt of major break in the southwestern Anatolia. A number of basins occur within the FBFZ. The Tefenni basin is one of the NE-SW trending basins located in the central part of the FBFZ. The basin is 10-20 km wide and 60 km long. It contains two infills of fluvial, lacustrine and alluvial fan deposits from late Miocene to Recent. The older and folded infill rests on the pre-middle Miocene basement rocks with an angular unconformity and consists of fluvial and lacustrine sediments. The younger and undeformed Plio-Quaternary basin fill unconformably overlies the older basin fill and is composed predominantly of conglomerate, mudstone, silt, clay and recent basin floor sediments. The Tefenni basin is controlled by a series of NE-SW trending left lateral oblique-slip normal faults along its margins. The Tefenni and Mürseller faults bound the northwestern margin of the basin and the Kemer fault bounds the southeastern margin of the basin. The basin is also cut by NE-SW striking major and NW-SE, N-S and E-W striking small scale normal faults. Structural analyses in the basin show that NE-SW-trending contraction stress regime ended by Pliocene and was followed by NE-SW-trending extension from Pliocene onward.

  13. Offshore seismicity in the western Marmara Sea, Turkey, revealed by ocean bottom observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yojiro; Takahashi, Narumi; Citak, Seckin; Kalafat, Doǧan; Pinar, Ali; Gürbüz, Cemil; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2015-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) extends 1600 km westward from a junction with the East Anatolian Fault at the Karliova Triple Junction in eastern Turkey, across northern Turkey and into the Aegean Sea, accommodating about 25 mm/yr of right-lateral motion between Anatolia and the Eurasian plate. Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured NAF westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.9) at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk (Ms=7.7) and the Duzce (Ms=7.4) earthquakes in the Marmara region. Considering the fault segments ruptured by the May 24th, 2014 Northern Aegean earthquake (Mw=6.9), the only un-ruptured segments left behind the 1600 km long NAF locate beneath the Marmara Sea and those segments keep their mystery due to their underwater location. To consider the earthquake hazard and disaster mitigation, the detailed information about fault geometry and its stick-slip behavior beneath the western Marmara Sea is very important. Thus, we started to operate a series of ocean bottom seismographic (OBS) observations to estimate the fault geometry from microearthquake distribution. As a first step, we deployed 3 pop-up type OBSs on 20th of March 2014 as a trial observation, and recovered them on 18th of June 2014. Although one of the OBSs worked only 6 days from the start of the observation, other two OBSs functioned properly during the whole 3-month observation period. We first searched for the microearthquakes missing by the land seismic network and estimated their precious location by using the initial 6 days data, i.e., using all the temporary OBS stations. Although there are only 3 earthquakes listed on the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) catalogue, we could identify 41 earthquakes with more than 5 picking data of P and S first arrivals, and two-third of them located within the OBS network. We found the earthquake cluster along the main NAF and whose depth interval is 12

  14. Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey. (SATREPS Project: Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development by JICA-JST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Y.; Erdik, M. O.; Takahashi, N.; Meral Ozel, N.; Hori, T.; Hori, M.; Kumamoto, K.; Kalafat, D.; Pinar, A.; Ozel, A. O.; Yalciner, A. C.; Nurlu, M.; Tanircan, G.; Citak, S.; Ariyoshi, K.; Necmioglu, O.

    2014-12-01

    Since 1900, around 90,000 people have lost their lives in 76 earthquakes occurred in Turkey, with a total affected population of ~7 million and direct estimated losses of ~25 billion USD. About half the lives lost were due to two earthquakes associated with the North Anatolian Fault in 1939 and 1999. During this time, seven large westward-migrating earthquakes created a 900-km-long continuous surface rupture along the fault zone from Erzincan to the Marmara Sea, stopping just short of Istanbul. Based on a time-dependent model that includes coseismic and postseismic effects of the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) = 7.4, Parsons concluded that the probability of an earthquake with Mw >7 in the Sea of Marmara near Istanbul is 35% to 70% in the next 30 years. This high probability is shared by Tokyo and San Francisco; however, the earthquake fragility of the pre-2000 building stock in Turkey is much higher than that of California or Japan. (Erdik, 2013). All of the arguments described above provide a sound basis for a Japanese-Turkish partnership enabling each partner to share experiences gained from past destructive earthquakes and prepare for expected large earthquakes. The SATREPS project aims to address this need, also focusing on the tsunami hazard. The project's main objectives are i) to develop disaster mitigation policies and strategies based on multidisciplinary research activities; ii) to provide decision makers with newly found knowledge for its implementation to the current regulations; iii) to organize disaster education programs in order to increase disaster awareness in Turkey; iv) to contribute the evaluation of active fault studies in Japan. To achieve successfully these objectives, 4 research groups have been set specializing on observations, simulations, civil engineering and disaster education and the results will be integrated for disaster mitigation in the Marmara region and disaster education in Turkey.

  15. Deriving strain from crystallographic preferred orientation for a ductile shear zone in north western Turkey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, K.; Lloyd, G. E. E.; Wallis, D.; Phillips, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the behaviour of active continental-scale fault zones at depth, and in particular how displacements observed at the Earth's surface are accommodated through the crust, is crucial to improving understanding of the earthquake cycle. This behaviour can be inferred by study of exhumed portions of ductile shear zones using methods such as recording strain profile(s) across the fault zone. However, due to the nature of mid-crustal rocks, strain markers tend to be rare and/or discontinuously distributed. The intensity (I) of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of deformed minerals provides a proxy for strain that is continuous across fault zones. CPO are collected via electron back scattered diffraction in the scanning electron microscope. The strength of the CPO can be quantified using eigenvalue-based intensity parameters. Calibration of intensity with strain is achieved via comparison with visco-plastic self-consistency models of CPO evolution, although the temperature-dependent critical resolved shear stresses of potential crystal slip systems must be known. As an example, we consider the dextral strike-slip Eskişehir shear zone, NW Turkey, which was active during the Oligocene and accommodated ~100km of displacement, including a component of late oblique-normal slip. An exhumed mid-crustal section of this fault zone is exposed in the Uludağ Massif, comprising of high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Uludağ Group, intruded by the Central and South Uludağ granites. Sample transects focussed on the pure calcic marbles that dominate the stratigraphy. Fortunately, the availability of experimental data for calcite crystal slip behaviour at different temperatures makes the application of the CPO intensity strain proxy method relatively straightforward. The Uludağ Massif and Eskişehir shear zone provide a field based analogue for the ductile shear zone beneath the currently active North Anatolian Fault. The results of our CPO intensity-based strain

  16. Constraining seismic velocity features combining short and long period signals: Test ground is Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulut, Fatih; Eken, Tuna; Yolsal-Çevikbilen, Seda; Taymaz, Tuncay

    2015-04-01

    Verifying the seismic velocity models requires combining different techniques to obtain more reliable basement for further steps, e.g., earthquake location, moment tensor analysis etc. Especially, 2D/3D heterogeneities and velocity contrasts are the key unknowns to be addressed in order to achieve the best-possible setup for further analysis. In that frame, short and long period signals are combined to better constrain the unusual velocity features. Our approach employs P-wave particle motions and receiver functions to discriminate the velocity structure of different crustal blocks. P-wave particle motions are basically used to differentiate direction of incoming waves, which is an indirect measure of potential velocity contrast/heterogeneity in horizontal axis. In the meanwhile, P-wave receiver functions are used to estimate frequency dependent S-wave velocities at different crustal spots. Turkey, seismically the most active region in Europe, is selected to be the test ground for joint analysis scheme. The region has been continuously monitored by AFAD (Prime Ministry, Ankara) and Kandilli Observatory (Boğaziçi Üniversity, Istanbul). Furthermore, some particular regions have been densely monitored for a couple of years by temporary seismic networks, e.g., the IRIS network deployed in the frame of the North Anatolian Fault experiment. We integrated all available data to reach to the highest possible coverage for selected test sites. The results are jointly interpreted to refine existing crustal models in Turkey.

  17. Prediction of earthquake hazard by hidden Markov model (around Bilecik, NW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Can, Ceren Eda; Ergun, Gul; Gokceoglu, Candan

    2014-09-01

    Earthquakes are one of the most important natural hazards to be evaluated carefully in engineering projects, due to the severely damaging effects on human-life and human-made structures. The hazard of an earthquake is defined by several approaches and consequently earthquake parameters such as peak ground acceleration occurring on the focused area can be determined. In an earthquake prone area, the identification of the seismicity patterns is an important task to assess the seismic activities and evaluate the risk of damage and loss along with an earthquake occurrence. As a powerful and flexible framework to characterize the temporal seismicity changes and reveal unexpected patterns, Poisson hidden Markov model provides a better understanding of the nature of earthquakes. In this paper, Poisson hidden Markov model is used to predict the earthquake hazard in Bilecik (NW Turkey) as a result of its important geographic location. Bilecik is in close proximity to the North Anatolian Fault Zone and situated between Ankara and Istanbul, the two biggest cites of Turkey. Consequently, there are major highways, railroads and many engineering structures are being constructed in this area. The annual frequencies of earthquakes occurred within a radius of 100 km area centered on Bilecik, from January 1900 to December 2012, with magnitudes ( M) at least 4.0 are modeled by using Poisson-HMM. The hazards for the next 35 years from 2013 to 2047 around the area are obtained from the model by forecasting the annual frequencies of M ≥ 4 earthquakes.

  18. Prediction of earthquake hazard by hidden Markov model (around Bilecik, NW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Can, Ceren; Ergun, Gul; Gokceoglu, Candan

    2014-09-01

    Earthquakes are one of the most important natural hazards to be evaluated carefully in engineering projects, due to the severely damaging effects on human-life and human-made structures. The hazard of an earthquake is defined by several approaches and consequently earthquake parameters such as peak ground acceleration occurring on the focused area can be determined. In an earthquake prone area, the identification of the seismicity patterns is an important task to assess the seismic activities and evaluate the risk of damage and loss along with an earthquake occurrence. As a powerful and flexible framework to characterize the temporal seismicity changes and reveal unexpected patterns, Poisson hidden Markov model provides a better understanding of the nature of earthquakes. In this paper, Poisson hidden Markov model is used to predict the earthquake hazard in Bilecik (NW Turkey) as a result of its important geographic location. Bilecik is in close proximity to the North Anatolian Fault Zone and situated between Ankara and Istanbul, the two biggest cites of Turkey. Consequently, there are major highways, railroads and many engineering structures are being constructed in this area. The annual frequencies of earthquakes occurred within a radius of 100 km area centered on Bilecik, from January 1900 to December 2012, with magnitudes (M) at least 4.0 are modeled by using Poisson-HMM. The hazards for the next 35 years from 2013 to 2047 around the area are obtained from the model by forecasting the annual frequencies of M ≥ 4 earthquakes.

  19. Near Real-Time Earthquake Exposure and Damage Assessment: An Example from Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamer, Yavor; Çomoǧlu, Mustafa; Erdik, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    Confined by infamous strike-slip North Anatolian Fault from the north and by the Hellenic subduction trench from the south Turkey is one of the most seismically active countries in Europe. Due this increased exposure and the fragility of the building stock Turkey is among the top countries exposed to earthquake hazard in terms of mortality and economic losses. In this study we focus recent and ongoing efforts to mitigate the earthquake risk in near real-time. We present actual results of recent earthquakes, such as the M6 event off-shore Antalya which occurred on 28 December 2013. Starting at the moment of detection, we obtain a preliminary ground motion intensity distribution based on epicenter and magnitude. Our real-time application is further enhanced by the integration of the SeisComp3 ground motion parameter estimation tool with the Earthquake Loss Estimation Routine (ELER). SeisComp3 provides the online station parameters which are then automatically incorporated into the ShakeMaps produced by ELER. The resulting ground motion distributions are used together with the building inventory to calculate expected number of buildings in various damage states. All these analysis are conducted in an automated fashion and are communicated within a few minutes of a triggering event. In our efforts to disseminate earthquake information to the general public we make extensive use of social networks such as Tweeter and collaborate with mobile phone operators.

  20. Basins and thrust belts in western Turkey: Tectonic history and hydrocarbons potential

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, P.R.; Johns, C.C.; Clark-Lowes, D.D. )

    1990-05-01

    Western Turkey consists of a number of tectonic terranes joined together by a network of suture zones. The terranes originated as microcontinental plates that rifted away from the continental margins forming the northern and southern boundaries of the Tethyan sea. These micro-continents were united by a series of collisions beginning in the Late Triassic and ending in the Miocene, with the final closure of the Tethyan sea. The sedimentary cover of the microcontinents consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic passive margin and rift basin sequences containing numerous potential source and reservoir intervals. Most of these sequences show affinities with Gondwanaland, with the notable exception of the Istanbul nappe, which is strongly Laurasian in character. Forearc basin sequences were also deposited on the margins of the microcontinents during early Tertiary plate convergence. Ensuing continental collisions resulted in compressional deformation of sedimentary cover sequences. The intensity of deformation ranged from basin inversion producing numerous potential hydrocarbon traps, to large-scale overthrusting. Following continental suturing, continued compression in eastern Turkey has been accommodated since the Miocene by westward escape of continental lithosphere between the North and South Anatolian transform faults. Neotectonic pull-apart basins formed in response to these movements, accumulating large thicknesses of Miocene-Pliocene carbonates and clastic sediments. Potential reservoirs in the Neotectonic basins may be sourced either in situ or from underlying Paleozoic and Mesozoic source rocks that remain within the hydrocarbon generating window today.

  1. Satellite Geodetic Constraints On Earthquake Processes: Implications of the 1999 Turkish Earthquakes for Fault Mechanics and Seismic Hazards on the San Andreas Fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilinger, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Our principal activities during the initial phase of this project include: 1) Continued monitoring of postseismic deformation for the 1999 Izmit and Duzce, Turkey earthquakes from repeated GPS survey measurements and expansion of the Marmara Continuous GPS Network (MAGNET), 2) Establishing three North Anatolian fault crossing profiles (10 sitedprofile) at locations that experienced major surface-fault earthquakes at different times in the past to examine strain accumulation as a function of time in the earthquake cycle (2004), 3) Repeat observations of selected sites in the fault-crossing profiles (2005), 4) Repeat surveys of the Marmara GPS network to continue to monitor postseismic deformation, 5) Refining block models for the Marmara Sea seismic gap area to better understand earthquake hazards in the Greater Istanbul area, 6) Continuing development of models for afterslip and distributed viscoelastic deformation for the earthquake cycle. We are keeping close contact with MIT colleagues (Brad Hager, and Eric Hetland) who are developing models for S. California and for the earthquake cycle in general (Hetland, 2006). In addition, our Turkish partners at the Marmara Research Center have undertaken repeat, micro-gravity measurements at the MAGNET sites and have provided us estimates of gravity change during the period 2003 - 2005.

  2. Variable behaviour of the Dead Sea Fault along the southern Arava segment from GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Frédéric; Hamiel, Yariv; Agnon, Amotz; Klinger, Yann; Deprez, Aline

    2014-05-01

    Tectonic deformation in the Levant is primarily related to the Dead Sea Fault (DSF), about 1000 km long continental transform fault forming the tectonic boundary between the Arabian plate and the Sinai sub-plate in the eastern Mediterranean region. The DSF is generally divided into 3 sections: the southern section spanning from the Gulf of Aqaba to the Jordan Valley, the central section that includes the Mount Lebanon and Anti Lebanon ranges, and the northern section that goes parallel to the eastern side of the Syrian Coastal Mountains and joins with the East Anatolian Fault in southern Turkey. The main movement along the DSF is left-lateral. The velocity is varying from a rate of ~5 mm/year along the southern and central segments to a rate of ~2 mm/yr along the northern segment (north of 35°N). An average locking depth of 11 ± 9 km is proposed along the southernmost segment (Le Béon et al., 2008; al Tarazi et al., 2011; Sadeh et al., 2012) while this locking depth is very difficult to estimate along the northernmost segment (Alchalbi et al., 2010). In this study we focus on the Wadi Arava fault, which is located in the southern section of the DSF, between the Gulf of Aqaba and the Dead Sea. We propose a reassessment of the slip rate and locking depth along the southern DSF from the Dead Sea to the Aqaba Gulf. Thanks to a third measurement of a geodetic network installed in 1999 and covering both sides of the fault, we are able to propose a finer velocity description than proposed in the previous studies which points out some complexities along the Wadi Arava fault not previously taken into account. Moreover our geodetic velocity field allows for the first time an unambiguous determination of the locking depth of the fault.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of Anatolian indigenous domestic goats.

    PubMed

    Akis, I; Oztabak, K; Mengi, A; Un, C

    2014-12-01

    Anatolia has been an important region for civilizations and agricultural revolution as a major domestication centre for livestock species. Goats (Capra hircus) were among the earliest domesticated animals in this region. In this study, genetic diversity of Anatolian goat breeds was characterized by comparison of mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region 1. A total of 295 individuals, including 99 Anatolian Black goats, 96 Angora goats and 100 Kilis goats, were used. Haplogroup A was found to be the dominant haplogroup in all three breeds. The highest haplogroup diversity, including haplogroups A, B2, C and G, was observed in the Anatolian Black breed. Haplogroup D was only observed in Kilis and Angora goats. Haplogroup G was found in Angora and Anatolian Black breeds. The Anatolian goat breeds had high genetic diversity values and a weak phylogeographical structure. The nucleotide diversity values were found to be higher than those in previously studied goat breeds. The fact that Anatolia is a domestication centre and its geographical position as a junction of trade routes may have caused the higher genetic diversity of Anatolian goat breeds.

  4. Central Anatolian Seismic Network: Initial Analysis of the Seismicity and Earth Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arda Özacar, A.; Abgarmi, Bizhan; Delph, Jonathan; Beck, Susan L.; Sandvol, Eric; Türkelli, Niyazi; Kalafat, Doğan; Kahraman, Metin; Teoman, Uğur

    2015-04-01

    Anatolian Microplate provides many of the clues to understand the geodynamic processes leading to continental collision, plateau formation, slab tearing / break-off and development of escape tectonics. During last decades, the tectonic evolution and dynamics of Anatolia has been the prime target of numerous research efforts employing wide spectrum of disciplines. However the Anatolian interior which is characterized by large magnitude lateral and vertical displacements, widespread Neogene volcanism and a complex tectonic history, is still under much debate and require a joint multidisciplinary approach to investigate the mantle-to-surface dynamics. In order to identify the crust and mantle structure beneath Central Anatolia and related seismicity, a dense seismic array that consists of 70 broadband seismic stations was deployed temporarily in 2013 as a part of the Central Anatolian Tectonics (CAT) project on continental dynamics. A year of seismic record has been processed and part of it was analyzed using various seismic methods. Distribution of preliminary earthquake locations supports the presence of seismic activity partly localized along major tectonic structures across the region. According ambient noise tomography results, upper crustal seismic velocity variations correlate well with surface geology while slow shear wave velocities dominate the lower crust indicating a weaker crustal rheology at the bottom. Furthermore, analysis of teleseismic P wave receiver functions revealed the presence of crustal low velocity zones associated to Neogene volcanism and sharp Moho variations near tectonic sutures and faults. By combining this new dataset with seismic data recorded by previous seismic deployments and national networks, we will have a complete seismic coverage for the entire region allowing researchers to image beneath Anatolia from mantle to surface with high resolution.

  5. Interseismic accumulation across the Khoy fault from InSAR measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohseni Aref, Mohammad; Çakir, Ziyadin; Karimzadeh, Sadra

    2016-04-01

    The Khoy fault is part of a long right lateral strike slip fault that runs in NW-SE direction between Çaldıran in eastern Turkey and Tabriz in northwest of Iran within the Turkish-Iranian plateau that accommodates the plate convergence between Eurasia and Arabia. It connects the North Tabriz Fault (NTF) with the Gailatu-Siah Chesmeh and Çaldiran faults, and thus is named here the Çaldiran-Tabriz fault (CTF). The CTF, unlike the North and East Anatolian faults to the west, does not have a clear morphological expression in the topography along much of it length. Active fault maps show a distributed deformation zone. Nevertheless, it has produced several devastating large earthquakes both recently (e.g., Ms 7.3, 1976 Çaldiran earthquake), and historical times (e.g., Ms > 7, 1721 and 1780 Tabriz earthquakes).The recent double earthquakes (Mw 6.5 and 6.2) of August 11th, 2012 in Ahar-Varzaghan area 40-45 km north of the NTF manifest the seismic activity of the region. Recent geodetic studies using GPS InSAR suggest 9±2 mm/yr of slip rate for the NTF, which is significantly higher than geologically determined slip rates (e.g., 2-4 mm/yr). In this study, we use InSAR data acquired from 2003 and 2010 on a descending orbit track of ENVISAT satellite, across the Khoy fault zone, which is the north-western continuation of the NTF north of the Urmia Lake. We use the Stanford method of persistent scatter interferometry (StaMPS) technique to overcome the decorelation problem with time and over large areas. The line of sight velocity field we obtained clearly delineates the shear zone that trends NW-SW aligning with the NTF. We project the mean line of sigh velocity field derived by InSAR time series onto fault parallel horizontal velocity field, assumed that vertical offset rate of the Khoy fault is negligible. Single screw dislocation models in elastic half-space model were applied along the fault zone to estimate slip rate, locking depth and fault location within 95

  6. Complex Crustal Structure Beneath Western Turkey Revealed by 3D Seismic Full Waveform Inversion (FWI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubuk-Sabuncu, Yesim; Taymaz, Tuncay; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    We present a 3D radially anisotropic velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle structure beneath the Sea of Marmara and surroundings based on the full waveform inversion method. The intense seismic activity and crustal deformation are observed in the Northwest Turkey due to transition tectonics between the strike-slip North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and the extensional Aegean region. We have selected and simulated complete waveforms of 62 earthquakes (Mw > 4.0) occurred during 2007-2015, and recorded at (Δ < 10°) distances. Three component earthquake data is obtained from broadband seismic stations of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Center (KOERI, Turkey), Hellenic Unified Seismic Network (HUSN, Greece) and Earthquake Research Center of Turkey (AFAD-DAD). The spectral-element solver of the wave equation, SES3D algorithm, is used to simulate seismic wave propagation in 3D spherical coordinates (Fichtner, 2009). The Large Scale Seismic Inversion Framework (LASIF) workflow tool is also used to perform full seismic waveform inversion (Krischer et al., 2015). The initial 3D Earth model is implemented from the multi-scale seismic tomography study of Fichtner et al. (2013). Discrepancies between the observed and simulated synthetic waveforms are determined using the time-frequency misfits which allows a separation between phase and amplitude information (Fichtner et al., 2008). The conjugate gradient optimization method is used to iteratively update the initial Earth model when minimizing the misfit. The inversion is terminated after 19 iterations since no further advances are observed in updated models. Our analysis revealed shear wave velocity variations of the shallow and deeper crustal structure beneath western Turkey down to depths of ~35-40 km. Low shear wave velocity anomalies are observed in the upper and mid crustal depths beneath major fault zones located in the study region. Low velocity zones also tend to mark the outline of young volcanic

  7. The stunt nematode Sauertylenchus maximus in pastures of Bingol Province, Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The province of Bingol, a very mountainous area located in the eastern Anatolian region of Turkey, has limited agricultural land but large intermountain pastures supporting the main economic resource of the region, livestock production. The stunt nematode Sauertylenchus maximus was recovered from a ...

  8. Shear wave velocity structure of the Anatolian Plate and surrounding regions using Ambient Noise Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delph, J. R.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Biryol, C. B.; Ward, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Anatolian Plate consists of various lithospheric terranes amalgamated during the closure of the Tethys Ocean, and is currently extruding to the west in response to a combination of the collision of the Arabian plate in the east and the roll back of the Aegean subduction zone in the west. We used Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) at periods <= 40s to investigate the crust and uppermost mantle structure of the Anatolian Plate. We computed a total of 13,779 unique cross-correlations using one sample-per-second vertical component broadband seismic data from 215 stations from 8 different networks over a period of 7 years to compute fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave dispersion curves following the method of Benson et al. (2007). We then inverted the dispersion data to calculate phase velocity maps for 11 periods from 8 s - 40 s throughout Anatolia and the Aegean regions (Barmin et al. 2001). Using smoothed Moho values derived from Vanacore et al. (2013) in our starting models, we inverted our dispersion curves using a linear least-squares iterative inversion scheme (Herrmann & Ammon 2004) to produce a 3-D shear-wave velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle throughout Anatolia and the Aegean. We find a good correlation between our seismic shear wave velocities and paleostructures (suture zones) and modern deformation (basin formation and fault deformation). The most prominent crustal velocity contrasts occur across intercontinental sutures zones, resulting from the juxtaposition of the compositionally different basements of the amalgamated terranes. At shallow depths, seismic velocity contrasts correspond closely with surficial features. The Thrace, Cankiri and Tuz Golu basins, and accretionary complexes related to the closure of the Neotethys are characterized by slow shear wave velocities, while the Menderes and Kirsehir Massifs, Pontides, and Istanbul Zone are characterized by fast velocities. We find that the East Anatolia Plateau has slow shear-wave velocities

  9. Failure and flow development of a collapse induced complex landslide: the 2005 Kuzulu (Koyulhisar, Turkey) landslide hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Işık; Ekemen, Tülay; Yildirim, Mustafa; Keskin, Inan; Özdemir, Gül

    2006-01-01

    Koyulhisar located in a slope of hilly region and constructed in the side of a mountain along the North Anatolian Fault Zone is frequently subject to landslides. A catastrophic landslide occurred on the morning of 17 March 2005 in the North of the Kuzulu district of Koyulhisar (Sivas, Turkey). This landslide caused widespread loss of life, and damage to buildings, and lifelines. Fifteen people were dead and five were injured, 21 houses and a minaret were covered and damaged severely. The case study presented in this paper describes and analyses the results of the detailed surveys of an interesting landslide in Kuzulu district of Koyulhisar (Sivas, Turkey), based on field and laboratory measurements and monitoring of the slide area. Landslide initiated as a collapse, and developed into debris avalanches in the valley. This phenomenon caused a disaster in the Kuzulu district. The importance of this landslide in particular has been recognized both in terms of its consequence for the people and structures and in terms of its role in allowing an understanding of process and properties of landslide triggered by a collapse in limestone karst. In view of the potential for such events to occur again in this area and environs, understanding of the failure mechanism is very crucial.

  10. Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey Part2 Yoshiyuki KANEDA Nagoya University Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) Haluk OZENER Boğaziçi University, Earthquake Researches Institute (KOERI) and Members of SATREPS Japan-Turkey project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Y.; Ozener, H.

    2015-12-01

    The 1999 Izumit Earthquake as the destructive earthquake occurred near the Marmara Sea. The Marmara Sea should be focused on because of a seismic gap in the North Anatolian fault. Istanbul is located around the Marmara Sea, so, if next earthquake will occur near Istanbul, fatal damages will be generated. The Japan and Turkey can share our own experiences during past damaging earthquakes and we can prepare for future large earthquakes in cooperation with each other. In earthquakes in Tokyo area and Istanbul area as the destructive earthquakes near high population cities, there are common disaster researches and measures. For disaster mitigation, we are progressing multidisciplinary researches. Our goals of this SATREPS project are as follows, To develop disaster mitigation policy and strategies based on multidisciplinary research activities. To provide decision makers with newly found knowledge for its implementation to the current regulations. To organize disaster education programs in order to increase disaster awareness in Turkey. To contribute the evaluation of active fault studies in Japan. This project is composed of four research groups. The first group is Marmara Earthquake Source region observationally research group. This group has 4 sub-themes such as Seismicity, Geodesy, Electromagnetics and Trench analyses. The second group focuses on scenario researches of earthquake occurrence along the North Anatolia fault and precise tsunami simulation in the Marmara region. Aims of the third group are improvements and constructions of seismic characterizations and damage predictions based on observation researches and precise simulations. The fourth group is promoting disaster educations using research result visuals. In this SATREPS project, we will integrate these research results for disaster mitigation in Marmara region and .disaster education in Turkey. We will have a presentation of the updated results of this SATREPS project.

  11. Structural Geology and Exhumation of the Paleogene Southern Sivas Fold and Thrust Belt, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darin, M. H.; Umhoefer, P. J.; Lefebvre, C.; Thomson, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Anatolian plate (Turkey) was formed during the late Miocene-Pliocene transition from contractional strain in central and eastern Anatolia (collision) to localized strike-slip faulting along inherited collisional structures (escape tectonics). Structural inheritance undoubtedly played a role in this major plate boundary reorganization, although its significance is not well understood. Considerable uncertainty also exists regarding the timing and kinematics of Tauride-Eurasia collision, initial Arabia-Eurasia collision, and the terminal closure of the Neotethys Ocean. The Sivas Basin is a ~E-W-elongate collisional forearc basin located between the Tauride micro-continent in the south and the Pontide Arc along the southern Eurasian margin in the north. Well-exposed contractional structures in Paleocene-Eocene marine strata of the Southern Sivas fold and thrust belt (SSFTB) provide an excellent opportunity to investigate the timing and kinematics of both Tauride and Arabian collisions and their potential roles in localizing strain and facilitating tectonic escape. We use detailed geologic mapping, structural analysis and detrital geo/thermochronology to investigate the magnitude, style, and timing of collision-related crustal shortening across the SSFTB. The structural geology of the SSFTB is characterized by ENE- to ESE-trending, gently plunging fault propagation folds with slight asymmetry towards the north. Vergence on thrust faults is mainly towards the north, although a few previously unmapped faults are south-vergent. Detrital apatite fission track data from Paleocene-Eocene strata reveal a single phase of rapid exhumation ca. ~36-31 Ma, which may be related to either Tauride or initial Arabian collision. We propose that structural growth of the SSFTB at this time played a major role in marine basin isolation and early Oligocene evaporite deposition. In the central and northern Sivas Basin where salt was likely thickest, salt tectonics was initiated by

  12. Molecular phylogeny and historical biogeography of the Anatolian lizard Apathya (Squamata, Lacertidae).

    PubMed

    Kapli, Paschalia; Botoni, Dimitra; Ilgaz, Cetin; Kumlutaş, Yusuf; Avcı, Aziz; Rastegar-Pouyani, Nasrullah; Fathinia, Behzad; Lymberakis, Petros; Ahmadzadeh, Faraham; Poulakakis, Nikos

    2013-03-01

    Apathya is a lacertid genus occurring mainly in south-east Turkey and its adjacent regions (part of Iran and Iraq). So far two morphological species have been attributed to the genus; A. cappadocica (with five subspecies, A. c.cappadocica, A. c.muhtari, A. c.schmidtlerorum, A. c. urmiana and A. c.wolteri) and A.yassujica. The first species occupies most of the genus' distribution range, while A. yassujica is endemic of the Zagros Mountains. Here, we explored Apathya's taxonomy and investigated the evolutionary history of the species by employing phylogenetic and phylogeographic approaches and using both mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear markers. The phylogenetic relationships and the genetic distances retrieved, revealed that Apathya is a highly variable genus, which parallels its high morphological variation. Such levels of morphological and genetic differentiation often exceed those between species of other Lacertini genera that are already treated as full species, suggesting the necessity for a taxonomic revision of Apathya. The phylogeographical scenario emerging from the genetic data suggests that the present distribution of the genus was determined by a combination of dispersal and vicariance events between Anatolia and Southwest Asia dating back to the Miocene and continuing up to the Pleistocene. Key geological events for the understanding of the phylogeography of the genus are the movement of the Arabian plate that led to the configuration of Middle East (orogenesis of the mountain ranges of Turkey and Iran) and the formation of Anatolian Diagonal.

  13. Moment tensor inversion of recent local moderate sized Van Earthquakes: seismicity and active tectonics of the Van region : Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalafat, D.; Suvarikli, M.; Ogutcu, Z.; Kekovali, K.; Ocal, M. F.; Gunes, Y.; Pinar, A.

    2013-12-01

    The study area of the present research, the Van Region is located at the norththern end of the collision zone between the Anatolia and Arabian plates. Therefore, the southeast border of the Anatolian plate collides with the Arabian plate along the Bitlis Suture Zone. This zone is formed by collision of Arabian and in large scale Eurasian plates at mid-Miocen age. This type of thrust generation as a result of compressional regime extends east-west. The largest recorded earthquakes have all taken place along Southern Turkey (e.g. Lice, 1971; Varto, 1966; Caldiran, 1976). On the 23th of October 2011, an earthquake shook the Van Lake, Eastern Turkey, following a seismic sequence of more than three months in an unprecedented episode for this region characterized by null or low seismicity. The October 23, 2011 Van-Ercis Earthquake (Mw=7.1) was the most devastating resulting in loss of life and destruction. In order to study the aftershocks' activity of this main event, we installed and kept a seismic network of 10 broad-band (BB) stations in the area for an interval of nearly fifteen months. We characterized the seismogenic structure of the zone by calculating a minimum 1-D local velocity model and obtaining precise hypocentre locations. We also calculated fault plane solutions for more than 200 moderate sized earthquakes based on first motion polarities and commonly Moment Tensor Inversion Methods. The seismogenic zone would be localized at aproximately 10 km depth. Generally, the distribution of the important moderate earthquakes and the aftershock distribution shows that the E-W and NE-SW oriented fault segments cause the earthquake activities. Aftershock events are located along the eastern border of Lake Van and mainly between 5 and 10 km depth and disposed in two alignments: a ~E-W-trending alignment that matches with the trace of the Van Trust fault Zone and a NE-trending which could correspond to an structure not previously seen. Selected focal mechanisms show a

  14. An Analysis of Teacher Candidates' Usage Level of Metacognitive Learning Strategies: Sample of a University in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yesilyurt, Etem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the level metacognitive learning strategies are used by teacher candidates. The study was designed as a descriptive research. Study group of present research consists of 291 teacher candidates studying in the Faculty of Education within the body of a Western Anatolian university in Turkey. Research…

  15. OBS development for long term observation in the Marmara Sea, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Narumi; Shimizu, Satoshi; Maekawa, Takuya; Kalafat, Dogan; Pinar, Ali; Citak, Seckin; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2015-04-01

    We have carried out a collaboration study between Japan and Turkey since 2013, which is one of SATREPS projects, "Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey". The main objective of this project is to reduce risk brought by earthquakes and tsunamis. In particular, the North Anatolian Fault system runs through the Marmara sea and it is expected that the seismic gap exists there according to past seismic studies. The details of seismicity distribution in the Marmara Sea is, however, still insufficient to construct fault model along the active faults. Therefore, we prepare ten ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) to realize long term observation. We aim to identify size and depth of seismogenic zones using micro seismicity. In addition, we need to cover relative broad area from off-shore Istanbul city to the western end of the Marmara Sea. To clear these conditions, OBS specifications we need are high dynamic range and low instrument noise to observe micro seismicity, low electrical consumption to realize long term observation of over one year, high cost performance to cover the broad area for OBS installation, low cost implementation, and good operability to treat by relatively small number of persons. All items, which are three components velocity sensor, batteries, a recorder, a GPS receiver, a transponder and its transducer to control OBS retrieval, a flasher and a beacon, are installed in the 17 inches glass sphere. The natural frequency of the velocity sensor is 4.5 Hz and the frequency range of our OBS is from 4.5 Hz to 250 Hz. Data sampling is selectable among 100 Hz, 250 Hz and 500 Hz. Because our OBS is deployed by free fall, accuracy of the OBS clock is essentially one of important factors, and it is less than 0.1 ppm. And the resolution of A/D conversion performed on the recorder is 24 bit and we keep the dynamic range of over 135 dB. These data is stored on a semiconductor memory and the capacity is over

  16. Geology of the Çaldıran Fault, Eastern Turkey: Age, slip rate and implications on the characteristic slip behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selçuk, Azad Sağlam; Erturaç, M. Korhan; Nomade, Sebastien

    2016-06-01

    The Çaldıran Fault is a strike slip fault with a dextral slip in East Anatolia. The activity on this fault was marked by the November, 24 1976 earthquake (Mw: 7.1) which produced an ~ 50 km long surface rupture and caused 3840 fatalities, which was close to half of the population living along the fault at that time. Together with the North Tabriz Fault in Iran, it is regarded as the southern boundary of the Caucasus Block. The fault has an average annual slip rate of 8.1 from 10.8 mm yr- 1, as derived from elastic block modelling. We present results from a detailed morphotectonic survey along the fault. The Çaldıran Fault is comprised of three segments, each of which is eparated by bend structures that bend towards the SW with a total change in strike of 20° from east to west. The offsets of lithological contact markers show that the long-term geological slip rate for the Çaldıran fault is approximately 3.27 ± 0.17 mm yr- 1for a duration of approximately 290 ka. The cumulative offset of the fault was determined from an analysis of a dome-shaped rhyolitic volcano which constrained the age of the fault to the Middle-Late Pleistocene. An analysis of small-scale morphological offset markers indicates a characteristic slip behaviour of the Çaldıran Fault for the last 3 events with an average offset of 2.6 m.

  17. Portrait of a Consortium: ANKOS (Anatolian University Libraries Consortium)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Phyllis; Karasozen, Bulent

    2009-01-01

    The Anatolian University Libraries Consortium (ANKOS) was created in 2001 with only a few members subscribed to nine e-journal collections and bibliographic databases. This Turkish library consortium had developed from one state and three private universities joining together for the purchase of two databases in 1999. Over time, the numbers of…

  18. Probe Drilling Ahead of Two TBMs in Difficult Ground Conditions in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgin, Nuh; Ates, Ugur

    2016-07-01

    This paper summarizes the results of probe drilling carried out ahead of TBMs in two difficult tunneling projects in Turkey. The tunnels have completely different geological characteristics which necessitated two different methods of data analysis. Melen Water Tunnel was excavated under Istanbul Bosphorus within sedimentary rocks which are cut frequently by andesitic dykes, fracturing the surrounding rocks and creating a potential risk for water ingress into the tunnel. At the beginning of Melen Project, pioneering probe drillings with petrographic analysis and strength tests were performed on samples collected from TBM muck. This analysis allowed identifying some critical normalized probe drilling rate values for predicting potential weak zones created by andesitic dykes. These studies gave a sound basis for further interpretation of TBM and geologic data for the same tunnel. The second set of probe drilling analysis was from Kargi Tunnel. The North Anatolian Fault highly affected the tunnel excavation by fractured rock formations. Although the change in normalized probe drilling data was a good indicator of fractured zones, the diversity of rock formations made it difficult to interpret the data.

  19. Downhole geophysical observatories: best installation practices and a case history from Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prevedel, Bernhard; Bulut, Fatih; Bohnhoff, Marco; Raub, Christina; Kartal, Recai F.; Alver, Fatih; Malin, Peter E.

    2015-09-01

    Downhole sensors of different types and in various environments provide substantial benefit to signal quality. They also add the depth dimension to measurements performed at the Earths' surface. Sensor types that particularly benefit from downhole installation due to the absence of near-surface noise include piezometers, seismometers, strainmeters, thermometers, and tiltmeters. Likewise, geochemical and environmental measurements in a borehole help eliminate near-surface weathering and cultural effects. Installations from a few hundred meter deep to a few kilometer deep dramatically reduce surface noise levels—the latter noticeably also reduces the hypocentral distance for shallow microearthquakes. The laying out of a borehole network is always a compromise of local boundary conditions and the involved drilling costs. The installation depth and procedure for a long-term downhole observatory can range from time limited installations, with a retrieval option, to permanently cemented sensors. Permanently cemented sensors have proven to be long-term stable with non-deteriorating coupling and borehole integrity. However, each type needs to be carefully selected and planned according to the research aims. A convenient case study is provided by a new installation of downhole seismometers along the shoreline of the eastern Marmara Sea in Turkey. These stations are being integrated into the regional net for monitoring the North Anatolian Fault Zone. Here we discuss its design, installation, and first results. We conclude that, despite the logistical challenges and installation costs, the superior quality of downhole data puts this technique at the forefront of applied and fundamental research.

  20. DInSAR techniques for studying the October 23, 2011, Van earthquake (Turkey), and its relationship with neighboring structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bignami, C.; Brunori, C. A.; Chini, M.; Kyriakopoulos, C.; Melini, D.; Moro, M.; Picchiani, M.; Saroli, M.; Stramondo, S.

    2012-04-01

    We have investigated the possible causal relationship between three earthquakes occurred in Turkey. In particular the Mw 7.2 October 23, 2011 earthquakes occurred in the Van province, located in the Eastern Turkey near Lake Van, its aftershock occurred the November 9 few kilometers southward, and another major event (Ms = 7.3) occurred north of Van in East Anatolia on 24 November 1976 along the Caldiran fault. The Mw 7.2 Van event took place along a previously unrecognized east-west thrust fault. The largest aftershock has hit Van Province has a magnitude 5.5 at 4.3 km of depth very close to Van. For the Van earthquake and its aftershock we used DInSAR measures for retrieving the faults parameters. A couple of COSMO-SkyMed images has been used to measure the coseismic deformation of the first event, while two TerraSAR-X interferometric images have been used for the second one. For both the topography contribution has been removed using the SRTM digital elevation model. Based on DInSAR outcomes we have then inverted the coseismic displacement field using the a novel approach [1], based on the Okada model and Neural Networks (NNs), to investigate the fault geometry of the two latest earthquakes. One of the advantages of this method is that it rapidly achieves a determination of the rupture plane. Concerning the earthquake occurred on 1976 the fault plane has been deduced using surface ruptures from ground survey [2]. Once defined the geometries of the three seismogenic fault planes we have investigated the role of the Caldiran earthquake in promoting the Van rupture, and the latter in promoting its aftershock, by evaluating the Coulomb Failure Function. [1] Stramondo, S., Del Frate, F., Picchiani, M. & Schiavon, G. Seismic Source Quantitative Parameters Retrieval from InSAR Data and Neural Networks. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 49, 96-104 (2011). [2] M. NAFI TOKSÖZ*, ESEN ARPAT† & FUAT ŞARO&GLU, "East Anatolian earthquake of 24 November 1976

  1. Reassessment of 50 years of seismicity in Simav-Gediz grabens (Western Turkey), based on earthquake relocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasozen, E.; Nissen, E.; Bergman, E. A.; Walters, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    Western Turkey is a rapidly deforming region with a long history of high-magnitude normal faulting earthquakes. However, the locations and slip rates of the responsible faults are poorly constrained. Here, we reassess a series of large instrumental earthquakes in the Simav-Gediz region, an area exhibiting a strong E-W gradient in N-S extension rates, from low rates bordering the Anatolian Plateau to much higher rates in the west. We start with investigating a recent Mw 5.9 earthquake at Simav (19 May 2011) using InSAR, teleseismic body-wave modeling and field observations. Next, we exploit the small but clear InSAR signal to relocate a series of older, larger earthquakes, using a calibrated earthquake relocation method which is based on the hypocentroidial decomposition (HDC) method for multiple event relocation. These improved locations in turn provide an opportunity to reassess the regional style of deformation. One interesting aspect of these earthquakes is that the largest (the Mw 7.2 Gediz earthquake, March 1970) occurred in an area of slow extension and indistinct surface faulting, whilst the well-defined and more rapidly extending Simav graben has ruptured in several smaller, Mw 6 events. However, our relocations highlight the existence of a significant gap in instrumental earthquakes along the central Simav graben, which, if it ruptured in a single event, could equal ~Mw 7. We were unable to identify fault scarps along this section due to dense vegetation and human modification, and we suggest that acquiring LiDAR data in this area should be a high priority in order to properly investigate earthquake hazard in the Simav graben.

  2. Biological ancestries, kinship connections, and projected identities in four central Anatolian settlements: insights from culturally contextualized genetic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Gokcumen, Ömer; Gultekin, Timur; Alakoc, Yesim Dogan; Tug, Aysim; Gulec, Erksin; Schurr, Theodore G

    2011-01-01

    Previous population genetics studies in Turkey failed to delineate recent historical and social factors that shaped Anatolian cultural and genetic diversity at the local level. To address this shortcoming, we conducted focused ethnohistorical fieldwork and screened biological samples collected from the Yuksekyer region for mitochondrial, Y chromosome, and autosomal markers and then analyzed the data within an ethnohistorical context. Our results revealed that, at the village level, paternal genetic diversity is structured among settlements, whereas maternal genetic diversity is distributed more homogenously, reflecting the strong patrilineal cultural traditions that transcend larger ethnic and religious structures. Local ancestries and origin myths, rather than ethnic or religious affiliations, delineate the social boundaries and projected identities among the villages. Therefore, we conclude that broad, ethnicity-based sampling is inadequate to capture the genetic signatures of recent social and historical dynamics, which have had a profound influence on contemporary genetic and cultural regional diversity.

  3. Scaling Tendency of Geothermal Waters Armutlu Peninsula, Northwestern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertekin, Can

    2015-04-01

    Prediction of scaling tendencies from geothermal waters is important for taking necessary precautions to prevent or control the scale formation. This study contains scaling tendency of geothermal outlets occurring through Armutlu Peninsula in Northwestern Turkey. The E-W trending region stretches into the Marmara Sea (ca. 117 km E-W by 45 km N-S) and is bounded to the north and the south by North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). The two branches of NAFZ traversing the peninsula control not only active seismicity but also geothermal discharges of the region. Widespread basement rocks across the peninsula including metamorphic assemblage of granitic and volcanic rocks host geothermal fluids. The two distinctive geothermal discharges (Armutlu and Yalova) take place through lineaments appurtenant to the northern branch of NAFZ. Their discharge temperatures of 65 ° C (Yalova) and 70 ° C (Armutlu) are the highest of the region. According to their water chemical results, scaling tendency were computed by using WATCH for different temperature steps under the assumptions of single-stage adiabatic boiling and equilibrium degassing. To evaluate their scaling tendencies, mean geothermal reservoir temperatures were computed by using chemical geothermometers. Scaling tendencies were plotted for calcite, amorphous silica and quartz minerals for different temperature values including reservoir temperatures. Their scaling behavior reveals that oversaturation with calcite and quartz minerals are rapidly attained for the geothermal fluids (Yalova and Armutlu) at relatively lower temperatures. Regarding amorphous silica, they are completely undersaturated. Besides, Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) and Ryznar Stability Index (RSI) were calculated. Their results depict scale formation due to being positive LSI and less than 6.0 of RSI values.

  4. Shaded Relief and Radar Image with Color as Height, Bosporus Strait and Istanbul, Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Bosporus (also spelled Bosphorus) is a strait that connects the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara in the center of this view of northwest Turkey, taken during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The water of the Black Sea at the top of the image and Sea of Marmara below the center are colored blue in this image, along with several large lakes. The largest lake, to the lower right of the Sea of Marmara, is Iznik Lake. The Bosporus (Turkish Bogazici) Strait is considered to be the boundary between Europe and Asia, and the large city of Istanbul, Turkey is located on both sides of the southern end of the strait, visible as a brighter (light green to white) area on the image due to its stronger reflection of radar. Istanbul is the modern name for a city with along history, previously called Constantinople and Byzantium. It was rebuilt as the capital of the Roman Empire in 330 A.D. by Constantine on the site of an earlier Greek city, and it was later the capital of the Byzantine and Ottoman empires until 1922.

    The Gulf of Izmit is the narrow gulf extending to the east (right) from the Sea of Marmara. The city of Izmit at the end of the gulf was heavily damaged by a large magnitude 7.4 earthquake on August 17,1999, often called the Izmit earthquake (also known as the Kocaeli, Turkey, earthquake), that killed at least 17,000 people. A previous earthquake under the Gulf of Izmit in 1754 killed at least 2,000people. The Izmit earthquake ruptured a long section of the North Anatolian Fault system from off the right side of this image continuing under the Gulf of Izmit. Another strand of the North Anatolian Fault system is visible as a sharp linear feature in the topography south of Iznik Lake. Bathymetric surveys show that the north Anatolian Fault system extends beneath and has formed the Sea of Marmara, in addition to the Gulf of Izmit and Iznik Lake. Scientists are studying the North Anatolian Fault system to determine the risk of a large earthquake on the

  5. Numerical modelling of triple-junction tectonics at Karlıova, Eastern Turkey, with implications for regional magma transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoğlu, Özgür; Browning, John; Bazargan, Mohsen; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2016-10-01

    Few places on Earth are as tectonically active as the Karlıova region of eastern Turkey. In this region, complex interactions between the Arabian, Eurasian and Anatolian plates occur at the Karlıova Triple Junction (KTJ). The relationship between tectonics and magma propagation in triple-junction tectonic settings is poorly understood. Here we present new field and numerical results on the mechanism of magma propagation at the KTJ. We explore the effects of crustal heterogeneity and anisotropy, in particular the geometry and mechanical properties of many faults and layers, on magma propagation paths under a variety of tectonic loadings. We propose that two major volcanic centres in the area, the Turnadağ volcano and the Varto caldera, are both fed by comparatively shallow magma chambers at depths of about 8 km, which, in turn, are fed by a single, much larger and deeper reservoir at about 15-18 km depth. By contrast, the nearby Özenç volcanic area is fed directly by the deeper reservoir. We present a series of two-dimensional and three-dimensional numerical models showing that the present tectonic stresses encourage magma-chamber rupture and dyke injection. The results show that inversion tectonics encourages the formation of magma paths as potential feeder dykes. Our three-dimensional models allow us to explore the local stresses induced by complex loading conditions at the Karlıova triple junction, using an approach that can in future be applied to other similar tectonic regions. The numerical results indicate a great complexity in the potential magma (dyke) paths, resulting from local stresses generated by interaction between mechanical layers, major faults, and magma chambers. In particular, the results suggest three main controls on magma path formation and eventual eruptions at KTJ: (1) the geometry and attitude of the associated faults; (2) the heterogeneity and anisotropy of the crust; and (3) mechanical (stress) interactions between deep and shallow

  6. Multidisciplinary approach for the characterization of a new Late Cretaceous continental arc in the Central Pontides (Northern Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellero, Alessandro; Ottria, Giuseppe; Sayit, Kaan; Catanzariti, Rita; Frassi, Chiara; Cemal Göncüoǧlu, M.; Marroni, Michele; Pandolfi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    In the Central Pontides (Northern Turkey), south of Tosya, a tectonic unit consisting of not-metamorphic volcanic rocks and overlying sedimentary succession is exposed inside a fault-bounded elongated block. It is restrained within a wide shear zone, where the Intra-Pontide suture zone, the Sakarya terrane and the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone are juxtaposed as result of strike-slip activity of the North Anatolian shear zone. The volcanic rocks are mainly basalts and basaltic andesites (with their pyroclastic equivalents) associated with a volcaniclastic formation made up of breccias and sandstones that are stratigraphically overlain by a Marly-calcareous turbidite formation. The calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy points to a late Santonian-middle Campanian age (CC17-CC21 Zones) for the sedimentary succession. The geochemistry of the volcanic rocks reveals an active continental margin setting as evidenced by the enrichment in Th and LREE over HFSE, and the Nb-enriched nature of these lavas relative to N-MORB. As highlighted by the performed arenite petrography, the occurrence of continent-derived clastics in the sedimentary succession supports the hypothesis of a continental arc-derived volcanic succession. Alternative geodynamic reconstructions are proposed, where this tectonic unit could represent a slice derived from the northern continental margin of the Intra- Pontide or Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan oceanic basins.

  7. Liquefaction-induced settlement, site effects and damage in the vicinity of Yalova City during the 1999 Izmit earthquake, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozcep, Ferhat; Karabulut, Savaş; Özel, Oguz; Ozcep, Tazegul; Imre, Nazire; Zarif, Halil

    2014-02-01

    Yalova City (Turkey) is in a tectonically active location that is particularly affected by the northern branch of the North Anatolian Fault Zone. Magnitudes 7.4 and 7.2 earthquakes in 1999 caused great destruction in Yalova. The heavy damage to buildings and other civil engineering structures was mainly due to liquefaction-induced settlement and site effects such as resonance and amplification. In the first phase of this study, the soil liquefaction potential index ( PL) and the induced soil settlement were estimated. In the second phase, the effects on sites in Yalova soil were investigated using microtremor and earthquake data. The fundamental periods and amplification in soft soil were compared with microtremor data and strong ground motion records obtained by a local array of eight accelerograph stations deployed in Yalova. Thirty-seven `single site' ambient noise measurements were taken in a dense grid of points covering the centre of the city. A comparison between fundamental periods obtained from strong ground motion records and from microtremor measurements showed similarities, in the 0.1-5 Hz range. Finally, soil liquefaction and amplification (or resonance) were divided into regions according to the extent of damage and the geotechnical/geophysical results.

  8. Detailed spatial distribution of microearthquakes beneath the Marmara Sea, Turkey, deduced from long-term ocean bottom observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yojiro; Takahashi, Narumi; Pinar, Ali; Kalafat, Doǧan; Citak, Seckin; Comoglu, Mustafa; Polat, Remzi; Çok, Özkan; Ogutcu, Zafer; Suvariklı, Murat; Tunc, Suleyman; Gürbüz, Cemil; Turhan, Fatih; Ozel, Nurcan; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2016-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) crosses the Marmara Sea in E-W direction, accommodating about 25 mm/yr of right-lateral motion between Anatolia and the Eurasian plate. There are many large earthquakes along the 1500 km long NAF repeatedly occurred and interacted each other. The recent large northern Aegean earthquake with Mw=6.9 filled one of the last two seismic gaps on NAF that experienced extraordinary seismic moment release cycle during the last century and confirmed a remained blank zone in the Marmara Sea. However, this segment keeps its mystery due to its underwater location. Earthquake hazard and disaster mitigation studies in Marmara region are sensitive to detailed information on fault geometry and its stick-slip behavior beneath the western Marmara Sea. We have started ocean bottom seismographic observations to obtain the detailed information about fault geometry and its stick-slip behavior beneath the western Marmara Sea, as a part of the SATREPS collaborative project between Japan and Turkey namely "Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey". The target area spans from western Marmara Sea to offshore Istanbul along the NAF. In the beginning of the project, we deployed ten Ocean Bottom Seismographs (OBSs) between the Tekirdag Basin and the Central Basin (CB) in September 2014. Then, we added five Japanese OBSs and deployed them in the western end of the Marmara Sea and in the eastern CB to extend the observed area in March 2015. We retrieved all 15 OBSs in July 2015 and deployed them again in the same locations after data retrieve and battery maintenance. From continuous OBS records, we could detect more than 700 events near the seafloor trace of NAF during 10 months observation period whereas land-seismic network could detect less than 200 events. We estimated the micro-earthquake location using manual-picking arrival times incorporating station corrections. The tentative results show

  9. Ophiolite suture in Central Anatolia: New insights from the Sivas Basin (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeay, Etienne; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Mohn, Geoffroy; Kergaravat, Charlie; Callot, Jean-Paul

    2015-04-01

    The closure of the Neotethys is classically associated with the obduction of ophiolitic rocks, defining successive suture zones. Theses Alpine-Himalayan ophiolites reflect a complex and still poorly understood paleogeographic framework. In Turkey, various types of ophiolite have been described, involving supra subduction zone and ophiolitic melanges as well. Hence reconstructions of the Anatolian continent assumed the amalgamation of one or more continental fragments during the Mesozoic-Early Cenozoic time. The Sivas Basin is located in a key position at the junction of three crustal domains: the Pontides to the North, the Anatolide - Tauride platforms to the South, and the Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex to the West. These blocks are separated to the North by the Izmir-Ankara-Erzican suture zone (IAESZ), and by the Inner Tauride suture zone (ITSZ) to the South. Ophiolitic outcrops are common in this area, mainly on the basin borders, and sometimes within the central part. These green rocks have been previously related to the ophiolitic melange from the IAESZ in Northern part and to the ITSZ for the southern parts. Recent fieldwork on the southern edge of the Sivas Basin allows a proper description of the ophiolitic complex, including from bottom to top: (1) a large volume of intensely serpentinized peridotites, strongly veined with chrysotile, with minor gabbroic intrusions; (2) upward, serpentinized mantle rocks affected by a cataclastic deformation associated with tectonic breccias and ophicalcites ; and eventually, (3) on the top of the mantle, silicates deposits similar to radiolarian cherts cover by sedimentary breccias with mantle clasts. New geochemical analysis and subsurface data confirm the existence of a southward obducted slice of ophiolite over more than 100km from North to South, forming the basement of the Sivas Basin since the Campanian. This southward obduction related to the IAESZ appears similar to slow spreading ridge or hyper

  10. Late Cenozoic stress state distributions at the intersection of the Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs, SW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Över, Semir; Özden, Süha; Pınar, Ali; Yılmaz, Hüseyin; Kamacı, Züheyr; Ünlügenç, Ulvi Can

    2016-12-01

    The history of the Late Cenozoic stress regime was determined for an area between the gulfs of Fethiye and Antalya. Fault kinematic analysis and inversion of focal mechanisms of shallow earthquakes reveal significant evolution of the regional stress regime in SW Anatolia, i.e., the area of interaction between the Hellenic and Cyprus arcs, from the Mio-Pliocene to the present time. Fault kinematic analysis yields two different normal faulting stress regimes along the southwestern part of Fethiye-Burdur Fault zone, e.g., in and around Çameli Basin (Zone A1) and two different strike-slip to normal faulting stress regimes characterized by a roughly orthogonal set of extensional axes between Fethiye and Demre (Zone B) with an older NW-SE σ3 axis for Mio-Pliocene and a younger NE-SW σ3 axis for Plio-Quaternary time. Inversion of focal mechanisms of the earthquakes occurring in Zone A1 provides an extensional stress state with approximately N-S σ3 axis. Inversion of those occurring in Zone B, south of Zone A1, yields a dominantly strike-slip stress state with a NE-SW σ3 axis and a NW-SE σ1 axis respectively. The inversion slip vectors from fault planes yield a consistent normal faulting stress regime in Burdur Basin and its surroundings (i.e., along the northeastern part of Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone, (Zone A2)) during Plio-Quaternary, continuing into recent time as indicated by earthquake focal mechanism inversions. Both states have a consistent NW-SE σ3 axis. Fault kinematic analysis indicates NW-SE extension acting in Zone C (subarea between Demre and Antalya), south of Zone A2, during Mio-Pliocene time. The inversion of focal mechanisms yields normal faulting also characterized by a consistent NW-SE σ3 axis. The nearly orthogonal extensional stress regimes (NW-SE and NE-SW) obtained by inversion of both measured and seismic faults seem to have been acting contemporaneously with each other at different intensities from the Mio-Pliocene onwards in SW Turkey. This

  11. Determination of Bedrock Variations and S-wave Velocity Structure in the NW part of Turkey for Earthquake Hazard Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozel, A. O.; Arslan, M. S.; Aksahin, B. B.; Genc, T.; Isseven, T.; Tuncer, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Tekirdag region (NW Turkey) is quite close to the North Anatolian Fault which is capable of producing a large earthquake. Therefore, earthquake hazard mitigation studies are important for the urban areas close to the major faults. From this point of view, integration of different geophysical methods has important role for the study of seismic hazard problems including seismotectonic zoning. On the other hand, geological mapping and determining the subsurface structure, which is a key to assist management of new developed areas, conversion of current urban areas or assessment of urban geological hazards can be performed by integrated geophysical methods. This study has been performed in the frame of a national project, which is a complimentary project of the cooperative project between Turkey and Japan (JICA&JST), named as "Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education". With this principal aim, this study is focused on Tekirdag and its surrounding region (NW of Turkey) where some uncertainties in subsurface knowledge (maps of bedrock depth, thickness of quaternary sediments, basin geometry and seismic velocity structure,) need to be resolved. Several geophysical methods (microgravity, magnetic and single station and array microtremor measurements) are applied and the results are evaluated to characterize lithological changes in the region. Array microtremor measurements with several radiuses are taken in 30 locations and 1D-velocity structures of S-waves are determined by the inversion of phase velocities of surface waves, and the results of 1D structures are verified by theoretical Rayleigh wave modelling. Following the array measurements, single-station microtremor measurements are implemented at 75 locations to determine the predominant frequency distribution. The predominant frequencies in the region range from 0.5 Hz to 8 Hz in study area. On the other hand, microgravity and magnetic measurements are performed on

  12. Submarine slides, slumps and turbidites in relation to various tectonic and sedimentary processes in the Çinarcik Basin of the eastern Marmara Sea (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergin, Mustafa; Sakitas, Alper; Sarikavak, Kerim; Keskin, Seref

    2013-04-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine and understand the impacts of the climatic changes, active tectonism, slope instability and sediment mass movements in the eastern Marmara Sea (Turkey) during the Holocene. Of these, sea level changes, earth quakes, slides, slumps and turbidites were considered to be the major causes to shape the seafloor in the region. With this in mind and within a framework of a larger Project (TÜBİTAK-YDABAG 101Y071), after the major earthquake of 17 August 1999 in Kocaeli-Turkey, both sediment samples and seismic reflection profiles were obtained during the August 2000 Cruise of the Research Vessel "MTA "SİSMİK 1" at water depths between 58 and 1249 meters in the Çınarcık Basin of the eastern Marmara Sea (NW Turkey). Offshore studies covered shelf, slope and basin-floor subenvironments. Onboard, airgun and multichannel seismic reflection system was used along 7 tracklines aligned to N-S and E-W directions. At 15 sites gravity cores were deployed and from 53 to 367 cm thick core sediments were obtained. Grain size analysis, visual core descriptions, and conventional radicarbon datings were also made. To interpret seismic profiles, well-known seismic facies analysis and stratigraphic methods were applied. Fine-grained and grayish-green colored siliciclastic mud was the dominant sediment type (also called "homogenite") deposited on the floor. The coarser-grained intervals and laminations would likely suggest effects of not only turbidites from active tectonism but they can also be related to the wind-driven offshore storm deposits and river floods after heavy rain-falls. Active normal faults on the shelves, fault scarps along the slopes and negative flower structure of syntectonic sedimentation in the deep basin floor observed on the seismic profiles all must indicate the consequences of westerly extension of the North Anatolian Fault Zone in the Marmara Sea. Seismic profiles displayed sediment structures of underwater

  13. Precursory Anomaly in VLF/LF Recordings Prior to the Çaglayan (Erzincan-Turkey) Earthquake on July 30th, 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büyüksaraç, Aydin; Pinar, Ali; Koşaroǧlu, Sinan

    2015-06-01

    An international project network consisting of six receivers for sampling LF and VLF radio signals has been going on to record the data in Europe from different transmission stations around the World. One of them was established in Resadiye, Turkey, located just on the North Anatolian Fault Zone. The receiver works in VLF and LF bands monitoring ten frequencies (16.4, 21.75, 37.5, 45.9, 153, 180, 183, 216 and 270 kHz) with one minute sampling interval. An earthquake of Mw = 4.9 took place 225 km away from the VLF/LF station at the eastern tip of the Erzincan basin at 4 km depth on July 30, 2009. We observed some anomalies on the radio signals (37.5 and 153 kHz) that initiated about 7 days before the earthquake and disappeared soon after the earthquake. We attribute this anomaly to the Mw=4.9 earthquake as a seismo-electromagnetic precursor. The radio anomaly that appeared 7 days before the occurrence of the 2009 Caglayan (Erzincan) earthquake is in good agreement with other results indicating precursory anomalies in the project network mostly observed in seismically active countries such as Italy and Greece.

  14. The prevalence of nutritional anemia in pregnancy in an east Anatolian province, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anemia is considered a severe public health problem by World Health Organization when anemia prevalence is equal to or greater than 40% in the population. The purpose of this study was to determine the anemia prevalence with the associated factors in pregnant women and to determine the serum iron, folate and B12 vitamin status in anaemic pregnants in Malatya province. Methods This is a cross-sectional survey. A multi-sage stratified probability-proportional-to-size cluster sampling methodology was used. A total of 823 pregnant women from sixty clusters were studied. Women were administered a questionnaire related with the subject and blood samples were drawn. Total blood count was performed within four hours and serum iron, folate and B12 vitamin were studied after storing sera at -20 C for six months. Results Anemia prevalence was 27.1% (Hb < 11.0 gr/dl). Having four or more living children (OR = 2.2), being at the third trimester (OR = 2.3) and having a low family income (OR = 1.6) were determined as the independent predictors of anemia in pregnancy. Anemia was also associated with soil eating (PICA) in the univariate analysis (p < 0.05). Of anaemic women, 50.0% had a transferrin saturation less than 10% indicating iron deficiency, 34.5% were deficient in B12 vitamin and 71.7% were deficient in folate. Most of the anemias were normocytic-normochromic (56.5%) indicating mixed anemia. Conclusions In Malatya, for pregnant women anemia was a moderate public health problem. Coexisting of iron, folate and B vitamin deficiencies was observed among anaemics. To continue anemia control strategies with reasonable care and diligence was recommended. PMID:20537176

  15. High Resolution Velocity Structure in Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, M. E.; Gok, R.; Zor, E.; Walter, W. R.

    2004-12-01

    We investigate the crust and upper mantle structure of eastern Turkey where the Anatolian, Arabian and Eurasian Plates meet, forming a complex tectonic regime. The Bitlis suture is a continental collision zone between the Anatolian plateau and the Arabian plate. Broadband data available through the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE) provide a unique opportunity for studying the high resolution velocity structure of the region. Zor et al. (2003) found an average 46 km thick crust in the Anatolian plateau using a six-layered grid search inversion of the ETSE receiver functions. Receiver functions are sensitive to the velocity contrast of interfaces and the relative travel time of converted and reverberated waves between those interfaces. The interpretation of receiver functions alone, however, may result in an apparent depth-velocity trade-off [Ammon et al., 1990]. In order to improve upon this velocity model, we have combined the receiver functions with surface wave data using the joint inversion method of Julia et al. (2000). In this technique, the two sets of observations are combined into a single algebraic equation and each data set is weighted by an estimate of the uncertainty in the observations. The receiver functions are calculated using an iterative time-domain deconvolution technique. We also consider azimuthal changes in the receiver functions and have stacked them into different groups accordingly. We are improving our surface wave model by making Love and Rayleigh dispersion measurements at the ETSE stations and incorporating them into a regional group velocity model for periods between 10 and 100 seconds. Preliminary results indicate a strong trend in the long period group velocities toward the northeast, indicating slow upper mantle velocities in the area consistent with Pn, Sn and receiver function results. Starting models used for the joint inversions include both a 1-D model from a 12-ton dam shot recorded by ETSE [Gurbuz et al., 2004] and

  16. High Resolution Velocity Structure in Eastern Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M; Gok, R; Zor, E; Walter, W

    2004-09-03

    We investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure of eastern Turkey where the Anatolian, Arabian and Eurasian Plates meet and form a complex tectonic structure. The Bitlis suture is a continental collision zone between the Anatolian plateau and the Arabian plate. Broadband data available through the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE) provided a unique opportunity for studying the high resolution velocity structure. Zor et al. found an average 46 km thick crust in Anatolian plateau using six-layered grid search inversion of the ETSE receiver functions. Receiver functions are sensitive to the velocity contrast of interfaces and the relative travel time of converted and reverberated waves between those interfaces. The interpretation of receiver function alone with many-layered parameterization may result in an apparent depth-velocity tradeoff. In order to improve previous velocity model, we employed the joint inversion method with many layered parameterization of Julia et al. (2000) to the ETSE receiver functions. In this technique, the receiver function and surface-wave observations are combined into a single algebraic equation and each data set is weighted by an estimate of the uncertainty in the observations. We consider azimuthal changes of receiver functions and have stacked them into different groups. We calculated the receiver functions using iterative time-domain deconvolution technique and surface wave group velocity dispersion curves between 10-100 sec. We are making surface wave dispersion measurements at the ETSE stations and have incorporated them into a regional group velocity model. Preliminary results indicate a strong trend in the long period group velocity in the northeast. This indicates slow upper mantle velocities in the region consistent with Pn, Sn and receiver function results. We started with both the 1-D model that is obtained with the 12 tones dam explosion shot data recorded by ETSE network and the existing receiver function

  17. Chemical and stable-radiogenic isotope compositions of Polatlı-Haymana thermal waters (Ankara, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akilli, Hafize; Mutlu, Halim

    2016-04-01

    Complex tectono-magmatic evolution of the Anatolian land resulted in development of numerous geothermal areas through Turkey. The Ankara region in central Anatolia is surrounded by several basins which are filled with upper Cretaceous-Tertiary sediments. Overlying Miocene volcanics and step faulting along the margins of these basins played a significant role in formation of a number of low-enthalpy thermal waters. In this study, chemical and isotopic compositions of Polatlı and Haymana geothermal waters in the Ankara region are investigated. The Polatlı-Haymana waters with a temperature range of 24 to 43 °C are represented by Ca-(Na)-HCO3 composition implying derivation from carbonate type reservoir rocks. Oxygen-hydrogen isotope values of the waters are conformable with the Global Meteoric Water Line and point to a meteoric origin. The carbon isotopic composition in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of the studied waters is between -21.8 and -1.34 permil (vs. VPDB). Marine carbonates and organic rocks are the main sources of carbon. There is a high correlation between oxygen (3.7 to 15.0 permil; VSMOW) and sulfur (-9.2 to 19.5 permil; VCDT) isotope compositions of sulfate in waters. The mixing of sulfate from dissolution of marine carbonates and terrestrial evaporite units is the chief process behind the observed sulfate isotope systematics of the samples. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of waters varying from 0.705883 to 0.707827 are consistent with those of reservoir rocks. The temperatures calculated by SO4-H2O isotope geothermometry are between 81 and 138 °C nearly doubling the estimates from chemical geothermometers.

  18. Determination of the relationship between radon anomalies and earthquakes in well waters on the Akşehir-Simav Fault System in Afyonkarahisar province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ali Yalım, Hüseyin; Sandıkcıoğlu, Ayla; Ertuğrul, Oğuz; Yıldız, Ahmet

    2012-08-01

    Radon concentrations were measured in water of 4 wells on the Akşehir-Simav Fault System (ASFS) in Afyonkarahisar province from August 2009 to September 2010 and the relationship between radon anomalies and earthquake magnitudes was examined. Anomalous decreases in radon concentrations in the wells were observed to precede the earthquakes of magnitudes ranging from 2.6 M to 3.9 M. The correlation coefficients (R(2)) were 0.79, 0.93, 0.98 and 0.90 for the wells from 1 to 4, respectively, indicating that radon minima and earthquake magnitude were well correlated and suggesting that the groundwater radon, when observed at suitable sites, can be a sensitive tracer for strain changes in crust associated with earthquake occurrences. The relationship between the two parameters can be further improved as additional radon anomalies precursor to possible large earthquakes are recorded in the wells located on the ASFS in the future. This study strongly suggests that the continuous observations of radon concentrations in well water, especially at well 3, should be carried forward.

  19. Bilateral elongated mandibular coronoid process in an Anatolian skull

    PubMed Central

    Çorumlu, Ufuk; Demir, Mehmet Tevfik; Pirzirenli, Mennan Ece

    2016-01-01

    Elongation or hyperplasia of coronoid process of mandible is rare condition characterized by abnormal bone development which cause malocclusion and the limited mouth opening. In this study, in an Anatolian skull, a case of bilateral elongation of mandibular coronoid process was presented. Levandoski panographic analysis was performed on the panoramic radiographie to determine the hyperplasia of the coronoid process. The right condylar process was exactly hyperplastic. The measurements of Kr-Go/Cd-Go were 95.10 mm/79.03 mm on right side and 97.53 mm/87.80 mm on left side. The ratio of Kr-Go/Cd-Go on the right side was 1.20. Elongated coronoid process is one of the factors cause mandibular hypomobility, it as reported here might lead to limited mouth opening. The knowledge of this variation or abnormality can be useful for the radiologist and surgeons and prevent misdiagnosis. PMID:27722017

  20. The changes of T-PAH levels and health status of mussels in Izmit bay (Turkey) after Marmara earthquake and subsequent refinery fire.

    PubMed

    Okay, O S; Tolun, L; Telli-Karakoç, F; Tüfekçi, V; Tüfekçi, H; Olgun, A; Morkoç, E

    2003-03-01

    As is well known, a powerful earthquake along the North Anatolian Fault struck the eastern part of the Marmara region on August 17, 1999. Izmit Bay, which is known as one of the most polluted sites of Turkey, was also affected by the quake and the subsequent refinery fire. The measurements performed just before and after the earthquake showed that T-PAH levels increased significantly after the event [Okay OS, Tolun L, Telli-Karakoç F, Tüfekçi V, Tüfekçi H, Morkoç E. Izmit Bay (Turkey) ecosystem after Marmara earthquake and subsequent refinery fire: the long-term data. Marine Pollution Bulletin 2001;42:361-9]. In the framework of ecotoxicological studies, the Bay ecosystem was continuously monitored for T-PAH levels in seawater, sediments and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) to find out whether change occurred during the 2-year period following the earthquake. For that purpose, after the earthquake, the samples were collected six times between the period of September 1999 and March 2001 at coastal stations of the Bay situated away from the mouth of main discharges. The responses of the mussels were also measured by means of the lysosomal stability of the blood cells and feeding rate biomarker techniques at two different sites of the bay. Although the T-PAH levels in all matrices generally showed a decreasing trend, they were found to be still high especially at stations near the refinery. Both biomarker results showed that the health status of the mussels is very poor in the Bay ecosystem, based on the results obtained from the two sites monitored.

  1. Microzonation Studies In District of Dikili, Izmir (Turkey) In The Context of Social Responsibility by Using GIS Tecniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabulut, Savas; Cinku, Mualla; Tezel, Okan; Hisarli, Mumtaz; Ozcep, Ferhat; Tun, Muammer; Avdan, Ugur; Ozel, Oguz; Acikca, Ahmet; Aygordu, Ozan; Benli, Aral; Kesisyan, Arda; Yilmaz, Hakan; Varici, Cagri; Ozturkan, Hasan; Ozcan, Cuneyt; Kivrak, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Social Responsibility Projects (SRP) are important tools in contributing to the development of communities and applied educational science. Researchers dealing with engineering studies generally focus on technical specifications. However, when the subject depends on earthquake, engineers should be consider also social and educational components, besides the technical aspects. If scientific projects collaborated with municipalities of cities, it should be known that it will reach a wide range of people. Turkey is one of the most active region that experienced destructive earthquakes. The 1999 Marmara earthquake was responsible for the loose of more than 18.000 people. The destructive damage occurred on buildings that made on problematic soils. This however, is still the one of most important issues in Turkey which needs to be solved. Inspite of large earthquakes that occurred along the major segments of the North and East Anatolian Fault Zones due to the northwards excursion of Anatolia, the extensional regime in the Aegean region is also characterized by earthquakes that occurred with the movement of a number of strike slip and normal faults. The Dikili village within the Eastern Aegean extensional region experienced a large earthquake in 1939 (M: 6.8). The seismic activity is still characterised by high level and being detected. A lot of areas like the Kabakum village have been moved to its present location during this earthquake. The probability of an earthquake hazard in Dikili is considerably high level, today. Therefore, it is very important to predict the soil behaviour and engineering problems by using Geographic Information System (GIS) tools in this area. For this purpose we conducted a project with the collaboration of the Dikili Municipality in İzmir (Turkey) to determine the following issues: a) Possible disaster mitigation as a result of earthquake-soil-structure interaction, b) Geo-enginnering problems (i.e: soil liquefaction, soil settlement, soil

  2. Structural Evolution of the Tuzgölü Basin in Central Anatolia, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Çemen; Göncüoglu; Dirik

    1999-11-01

    The Central Anatolian segment of the Alpine-Himalayan orogen contains "interior" basins, the largest of which is the Tuzgölü (Salt Lake) basin (>20,000 km2). It is bounded on the east by the Tuzgölü (Salt Lake) fault zone and on the west by the Yeniceoba and Cihanbeyli fault zones. Structural, stratigraphic, and sedimentologic evidence suggests that the Tuzgölü basin started as a fault-controlled basin during late Maastrichtian tectonism when the present-day northwest-trending faults that bound the basin were initiated. These faults may have been formed as normal faults suggesting extension or strike-slip faults with a normal component of movement indicating a large transtension at the time of their initiation. The late Maastrichtian faults were reactivated as strike-slip faults in response to late Eocene compression in the region that produced the Central Anatolian thrust belt to the north and the late Eocene south-dipping thrust faults of the Ulukisla basin to the south. This reactivation is suggested by structurally repeated and missing Paleocene-Eocene deposits in some of the basin's wildcat wells. The late Eocene regression in the Tuzgölü basin was caused by the combined effects of Eocene shortening and a large environmental change. Late Eocene evaporites suggest that the basin was dry before the start of the Neotectonic period, while during the Neotectonic itself the Tuzgölü fault zone was reactivated again, predominantly as a normal fault with a right-lateral strike-slip component. This is evidenced by (1) a major unconformity between the post-Eocene Koçhisar Formation of the Tuzgölü basin and the underlying Eocene rock units; (2) a well-developed rollover anticline observed on seismic reflection profiles; and (3) a right-step along the Tuzgölü fault zone seen in the field.

  3. Domestic livestock resources of Turkey: water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Wilson, Richard Trevor

    2012-04-01

    Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage.

  4. Giant rhinoceros Paraceratherium and other vertebrates from Oligocene and middle Miocene deposits of the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin, Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Sevket; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Varol, Baki; Ayyildiz, Turhan; Sözeri, Koray

    2011-05-01

    A recent fieldwork in the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin in northeastern Turkey led us to the discovery of three vertebrate localities which yielded some limb bones of the giant rhino Paraceratherium, a crocodile tooth, and some small mammals, respectively. These discoveries allowed, for the first time to date some parts of the sedimentary units of this basin. This study also shows that the dispersal area of Paraceratherium is wider than it was known before. Eastern Turkey has several Cenozoic sedimentary basins formed during the collision of the Arabian and Eurasian plates. They are poorly documented for vertebrate paleontology. Consequently, the timing of tectonic activities, which led to the formation of the East Anatolian accretionary complex, is not constrained enough with a solid chronological framework. This study provides the first biostratigraphic evidences for the infill under the control of the compressive tectonic regime, which built the East Anatolian Plateau.

  5. Imaging the Lishosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary Structure of the Central Anatolian Plateau: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erduran, Murat; Vinnik, Lev; Oreshin, Sergey; Arif Kutlu, Yusuf; Kosarev, Grigoriy; Çakır, Özcan; Kiselev, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    To obtain an image of the deep structure of the Central Anatolian plateau, we have inverted P and S receiver functions jointly for almost 8 broad-band seismograph stations. The inversion is performed using a simulated annealing technique to image the structure in terms of seismic velocity discontinuities, including Moho and the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary beneath the region. This technique provide estimates of the absolute P and S velocities and of the Vp/Vs ratio up to a depth of ~300 km. The crust with a thickness close to 35 km is underlain by the mantle lid with the bottom (LAB) at a depth around 60 km. P and S velocities in the lid are not more than 7.5 km/s and 4.5 km/s, respectively, and their ratio is close to 1.7 or 6% less than in standard models (IASP91, PREM). This low ratio is indicative of rocks with a high percentage of orthopyroxene. Below the lid, the S velocity is 4.0 - 4.1 km/s, whilst the Vp/Vs ratio is close to the standard value (1.8). A sharp transition from the lid to the LVL is indicative of a change in composition and partial melting. P410s phase (converted from P to S at the global 410-km discontinuity) cannot be detected in P receiver functions at most stations, although the Ps phase from the 660-km discontinuity is well recorded. The 410-km discontinuity is related with the olivine-spinel phase transformation, and the reason for its disappearance may lie in a low percentage of olivine and a high percentage of eclogite. This anomaly can be related with a large volume of oceanic crust which was subducted during the closure of the Tethys. This research is supported by Joint Research Project of the Scientific and Research Council of Turkey (TUBİTAK- Grant number 111Y190) and the Russian Federation for Basic Research (RFBR).

  6. Surface wave phase velocities from 2-D surface wave tomography studies in the Anatolian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif Kutlu, Yusuf; Erduran, Murat; Çakır, Özcan; Vinnik, Lev; Kosarev, Grigoriy; Oreshin, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    We study the Rayleigh and Love surface wave fundamental mode propagation beneath the Anatolian plate. To examine the inter-station phase velocities a two-station method is used along with the Multiple Filter Technique (MFT) in the Computer Programs in Seismology (Herrmann and Ammon, 2004). The near-station waveform is deconvolved from the far-station waveform removing the propagation effects between the source and the station. This method requires that the near and far stations are aligned with the epicentre on a great circle path. The azimuthal difference of the earthquake to the two-stations and the azimuthal difference between the earthquake and the station are restricted to be smaller than 5o. We selected 3378 teleseismic events (Mw >= 5.7) recorded by 394 broadband local stations with high signal-to-noise ratio within the years 1999-2013. Corrected for the instrument response suitable seismogram pairs are analyzed with the two-station method yielding a collection of phase velocity curves in various period ranges (mainly in the range 25-185 sec). Diffraction from lateral heterogeneities, multipathing, interference of Rayleigh and Love waves can alter the dispersion measurements. In order to obtain quality measurements, we select only smooth portions of the phase velocity curves, remove outliers and average over many measurements. We discard these average phase velocity curves suspected of suffering from phase wrapping errors by comparing them with a reference Earth model (IASP91 by Kennett and Engdahl, 1991). The outlined analysis procedure yields 3035 Rayleigh and 1637 Love individual phase velocity curves. To obtain Rayleigh and Love wave travel times for a given region we performed 2-D tomographic inversion for which the Fast Marching Surface Tomography (FMST) code developed by N. Rawlinson at the Australian National University was utilized. This software package is based on the multistage fast marching method by Rawlinson and Sambridge (2004a, 2004b). The

  7. Turkey`s nuclear power effort

    SciTech Connect

    Aybers, N.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the expected role of nuclear energy in the production of electric power to serve the growing needs of Turkey, examining past activities and recent developments. The paper also reviews Turkey`s plans with respect to nuclear energy and the challenges that the country faces along the way.

  8. Characterising the Alpine Fault Damage Zone using Fault Zone Guided Waves, South Westland, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eccles, J. D.; Gulley, A.; Boese, C. M.; Malin, P. E.; Townend, J.; Thurber, C. H.; Guo, B.; Sutherland, R.

    2015-12-01

    Fault Zone Guided Waves (FZGWs) are observed within New Zealand's transpressional continental plate boundary, the Alpine Fault, which is late in its typical seismic cycle. Distinctive dispersive seismic coda waves (~7-35 Hz), trapped within the low-velocity fault damage zone, have been recorded on three component 2 Hz borehole seismometers installed within 20 m of the principal slip zone in the shallow (< 150 m deep) DFDP-1 boreholes. Near the central Alpine Fault, known for low background seismicity, FZGW-generating microseismic events are located beyond the catchment-scale strike-slip and thrust segment partitioning of the fault indicating lateral connectivity of the low-velocity zone immediately below the near-surface segmentation. Double-difference earthquake relocation of events using the dense SAMBA and WIZARD seismometer arrays allows spatio-temporal patterns of 2013 events to be analysed and the segmentation and low velocity zone depth extent further explored. Three layer, dispersion modeling of the low-velocity zone indicates a waveguide width of 60-200 m with a 10-40% reduction in S-wave velocity, similar to that inferred for the fault core of other mature plate boundary faults such as the San Andreas and North Anatolian Faults.

  9. Randomised field trial to evaluate serological response after foot-and-mouth disease vaccination in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Bulut, A N; Gubbins, S; Stärk, K D C; Pfeiffer, D U; Sumption, K J; Paton, D J

    2015-02-04

    Despite years of biannual mass vaccination of cattle, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains uncontrolled in Anatolian Turkey. To evaluate protection after mass vaccination we measured post-vaccination antibodies in a cohort of cattle (serotypes O, A and Asia-1). To obtain results reflecting typical field protection, participants were randomly sampled from across Central and Western Turkey after routine vaccination. Giving two-doses one month apart is recommended when cattle are first vaccinated against FMD. However, due to cost and logistics, this is not routinely performed in Turkey, and elsewhere. Nested within the cohort, we conducted a randomised trial comparing post-vaccination antibodies after a single-dose versus a two-dose primary vaccination course. Four to five months after vaccination, only a third of single-vaccinated cattle had antibody levels above a threshold associated with protection. A third never reached this threshold, even at peak response one month after vaccination. It was not until animals had received three vaccine doses in their lifetime, vaccinating every six months, that most (64% to 86% depending on serotype) maintained antibody levels above this threshold. By this time cattle would be >20 months old with almost half the population below this age. Consequently, many vaccinated animals will be unprotected for much of the year. Compared to a single-dose, a primary vaccination course of two-doses greatly improved the level and duration of immunity. We concluded that the FMD vaccination programme in Anatolian Turkey did not produce the high levels of immunity required. Higher potency vaccines are now used throughout Turkey, with a two-dose primary course in certain areas. Monitoring post-vaccination serology is an important component of evaluation for FMD vaccination programmes. However, consideration must be given to which antigens are present in the test, the vaccine and the field virus. Differences between these antigens affect the

  10. Interacting faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, D. C. P.; Nixon, C. W.; Rotevatn, A.; Sanderson, D. J.; Zuluaga, L. F.

    2017-04-01

    The way that faults interact with each other controls fault geometries, displacements and strains. Faults rarely occur individually but as sets or networks, with the arrangement of these faults producing a variety of different fault interactions. Fault interactions are characterised in terms of the following: 1) Geometry - the spatial arrangement of the faults. Interacting faults may or may not be geometrically linked (i.e. physically connected), when fault planes share an intersection line. 2) Kinematics - the displacement distributions of the interacting faults and whether the displacement directions are parallel, perpendicular or oblique to the intersection line. Interacting faults may or may not be kinematically linked, where the displacements, stresses and strains of one fault influences those of the other. 3) Displacement and strain in the interaction zone - whether the faults have the same or opposite displacement directions, and if extension or contraction dominates in the acute bisector between the faults. 4) Chronology - the relative ages of the faults. This characterisation scheme is used to suggest a classification for interacting faults. Different types of interaction are illustrated using metre-scale faults from the Mesozoic rocks of Somerset and examples from the literature.

  11. A survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodida) infesting some wild animals from Sivas, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bursali, Ahmet; Keskin, Adem; Şimşek, Eray; Keskin, Aysun; Tekin, Saban

    2015-06-01

    In order to determine the species composition of infesting ticks, between 2011 and 2012 a total of 1118 wild animals were captured from various regions of Zara, Sivas province, Turkey. A total of 138 ticks were obtained from the 58 host animals. Ticks were identified as Dermacentor marginatus (Sulzer), Haemaphysalis erinacei taurica Pospelova-Shtrom, Haemaphysalis parva (Neumann), Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini and Fanzago, Haemaphysalis sulcata Canestrini and Fanzago, Hyalomma marginatum Koch, Ixodes laguri Olenev, Ixodes ricinus (L.), Ixodes vespertilionis Koch and Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantzev. To the best of our knowledge, there are several new host records for D. marginatus, H. e. taurica and I. laguri. In addition, I. vespertilionis was recorded for the first time in the Central Anatolian Region in Turkey, whereas I. laguri and H. e. taurica are firstly reported in Sivas.

  12. Results from the latest SN-4 multi-parametric benthic observatory experiment (MARsite EU project) in the Gulf of Izmit, Turkey: oceanographic, chemical and seismic monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Embriaco, Davide; Marinaro, Giuditta; Frugoni, Francesco; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Monna, Stephen; Etiope, Giuseppe; Gasperini, Luca; Çağatay, Namık; Favali, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    An autonomous and long-term multiparametric benthic observatory (SN-4) was designed to study gas seepage and seismic energy release along the submerged segment of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF). Episodic gas seepage occurs at the seafloor in the Gulf of Izmit (Sea of Marmara, NW Turkey) along this submerged segment of the NAF, which ruptured during the 1999 Mw7.4 Izmit earthquake. The SN-4 observatory already operated in the Gulf of Izmit at the western end of the 1999 Izmit earthquake rupture for about one-year at 166 m water depth during the 2009-2010 experiment (EGU2014-13412-1, EGU General Assembly 2014). SN-4 was re-deployed in the same site for a new long term mission (September 2013 - April 2014) in the framework of MARsite (New Directions in Seismic Hazard assessment through Focused Earth Observation in the Marmara Supersite, http://marsite.eu/ ) EC project, which aims at evaluating seismic risk and managing of long-term monitoring activities in the Marmara Sea. A main scientific objective of the SN-4 experiment is to investigate the possible correlations between seafloor methane seepage and release of seismic energy. We used the same site of the 2009-2010 campaign to verify both the occurrence of previously observed phenomena and the reliability of results obtained in the previous experiment (Embriaco et al., 2014, doi:10.1093/gji/ggt436). In particular, we are interested in the detection of gas release at the seafloor, in the role played by oceanographic phenomena in this detection, and in the association of gas and seismic energy release. The scientific payload included, among other instruments, a three-component broad-band seismometer, and gas and oceanographic sensors. We present a technical description of the observatory, including the data acquisition and control system, results from the preliminary analysis of this new multidisciplinary data set, and a comparison with the previous experiment.

  13. Istanbul, Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This June 16, 2000 image of Istanbul, Turkey show a full 60 by 60 km ASTER scene in the visible and infrared channels. Vegetation appears red, and urban areas blue-green. Bustling Istanbul, with its magnificent historical heritage, has spanned the divide between Europe and Asia for more than 2,500 years. Originally called Byzantium, the city was founded in the 7th century BC on the Golden Horn, an arm of the narrow Bosporus (also spelled Bosphorus) Strait, which connects the Sea of Marmara to the south, with the Black Sea to the north. Constantine I made it his capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in AD 330. As Constantinople, the strategically located city arose as the preeminent cultural, religious, and political center of the Western world. It reached the height of its wealth and glory in the early 5th century. After centuries of decline, the city entered another period of tremendous growth and prosperity when, as Istanbul, it became the capital of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1457. Although Turkey moved its capital to Ankara in 1923, Istanbul remains the nation's largest city with a population of over 8 million, its commercial center, and a major port. Two bridges spanning the Bosporus, and ships in the busy channel can be seen on the enlargement. On the image, the water areas have been replaced with a thermal image: colder waters are displayed in dark blue, warmer areas in light blue. Note the dark lines showing boat wakes, and the cold water entering the Sea of Marmara from deeper waters of the Bosporus.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U

  14. The interpretation of crustal dynamics data in terms of plate interactions and active tectonics of the Anatolian plate and surrounding regions in the Middle East

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toksoz, M. Nafi; Reilinger, Robert

    1992-01-01

    A detailed study was made of the consequences of the Arabian plate convergence against Eurasia and its effects on the tectonics of Anatolia and surrounding regions of the eastern Mediterranean. A primary source of information is time rates of change of baseline lengths and relative heights determined by repeated SLR measurements. These SLR observations are augmented by a network of GPS stations in Anatolia, Aegea, and Greece, established and twice surveyed since 1988. The existing SLR and GPS networks provide the spatial resolution necessary to reveal the details of ongoing tectonic processes in this area of continental collision. The effort has involved examining the state of stress in the lithosphere and relative plate motions as revealed by these space based geodetic measurements, seismicity, and earthquake mechanisms as well as the aseismic deformations of the plates from conventional geodetic data and geological evidence. These observations are used to constrain theoretical calculations of the relative effects of: (1) the push of the Arabian plate; (2) high topography of Eastern Anatolia; (3) the geometry and properties of African-Eurasian plate boundary; (4) subduction under the Hellenic Arc and southwestern Turkey; and (5) internal deformation and rotation of the Anatolian plate.

  15. Gastroesophageal junction of Anatolian shepherd dog; a study by topographic anatomy, scanning electron and light microscopy.

    PubMed

    Alsafy, M A M; El-Gendy, S A A

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to cast a spotlight on the topography and to point out the clinical importance of the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) in Anatolian Shepherd dogs. Nine Anatolian Shepherd dogs were used to study the morphology of the GEJ. The esophagus was appeared has a portion within the thoracic cavity while no portion of the esophagus presented within the abdominal cavity that documented the absence of the intra-abdominal portion in all studied dogs. The topographic anatomy, scanning electron and light microscopic examinations revealed that the gastroesophageal junction was located at the level of the phrenico-esophageal ligament (PEL) inside the esophageal hiatus. Our results were distinguished the morphology of the esophageal and gastric cardiac mucosa at the level of the gastroesophageal junction by the scanning electron micrographs. The light microscopical examination was explained the PEL attached to the esophageal side in one dog and to the gastric cardiac side in three dogs.

  16. Daily rhythmicity and hibernation in the Anatolian ground squirrel under natural and laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Kart Gür, Mutlu; Refinetti, Roberto; Gür, Hakan

    2009-02-01

    We studied daily rhythmicity of body temperature (T(b)) before and during hibernation in Anatolian ground squirrels (Spermophilus xanthoprymnus) under natural and laboratory conditions using surgically implanted temperature loggers. Under both conditions, robust daily T(b) rhythmicity with parameters comparable to those of other ground squirrel species was observed before but not during hibernation. Euthermic animals had robust daily T(b) rhythms with a mean of 37.0 degrees C and a range of excursion of approximately 4 degrees C. No T(b) rhythm was detected during torpor bouts, either because T(b) rhythmicity was absent or because the daily range of excursion was smaller than 0.2 degrees C. The general patterns of hibernation that we observed in Anatolian ground squirrels were similar to those previously observed by other investigators in other species of ground squirrels.

  17. Fault finder

    DOEpatents

    Bunch, Richard H.

    1986-01-01

    A fault finder for locating faults along a high voltage electrical transmission line. Real time monitoring of background noise and improved filtering of input signals is used to identify the occurrence of a fault. A fault is detected at both a master and remote unit spaced along the line. A master clock synchronizes operation of a similar clock at the remote unit. Both units include modulator and demodulator circuits for transmission of clock signals and data. All data is received at the master unit for processing to determine an accurate fault distance calculation.

  18. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of four different Anatolian propolis samples.

    PubMed

    Uzel, Ataç; Sorkun, Kadriye; Onçağ, Ozant; Cogŭlu, Dilşah; Gençay, Omür; Salih, Bekir

    2005-01-01

    Propolis means a gum that is gathered by bees from various plants. It is known for its biological properties, having antibacterial, antifungal and healing properties. The aims of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of four different Anatolian propolis samples on different groups of microorganisms including some oral pathogens and comparison between their chemical compositions. Ethanol extracts of propolis (EEP) were prepared from four different Anatolian propolis samples and examined whether EEP inhibit the growth of the test microorganisms or not. For the antimicrobial activity assays, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by using macrodilution method. The MIC values of the most effective propolis (TB) were 2 microg/ml for Streptococcus sobrinus and Enterococcus faecalis, 4 microg/ml for Micrococcus luteus, Candida albicans and C. krusei, 8 microg/ml for Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterobacter aerogenes, 16 microg/ml for Escherichia coli and C. tropicalis and 32 microg/ml for Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The chemical compositions of EEP's were determined by high-temperature high-resolution gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The main compounds of four Anatolian propolis samples were flavonoids such as pinocembrin, pinostropin, isalpinin, pinobanksin, quercetin, naringenin, galangine and chrysin. Although propolis samples were collected from different regions of Anatolia all showed significant antimicrobial activity against the Gram positive bacteria and yeasts. Propolis can prevent dental caries since it demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms such as Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus and C. albicans, which involves in oral diseases.

  19. Crustal structure of the Eratosthenes Seamount, Cyprus and S. Turkey from an amphibian wide-angle seismic profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feld, C.; Mechie, J.; Huebscher, C. P.; Gurbuz, C.; Nicolaides, S.; Weber, M. H.; Hall, J.; Louden, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    In March 2010, the project CoCoCo (incipient COntinent-COntinent COllision) recorded a 650 km long amphibian N-S wide-angle seismic profile, extending from the Eratosthenes Seamount (ESM) across Cyprus and southern Turkey to the Anatolian plateau. The aim of the project is to reveal the impact of the transition from subduction to continent-continent collision of the African plate with the Cyprus-Anatolian plate. A visual quality check, frequency analysis and filtering were applied to the seismic data and reveal a good data quality. Subsequent first break picking, finite-differences ray tracing and inversion of the offshore wide-angle data leads to a first-arrival tomographic model. This model reveals (1) P-wave velocities lower than 6.5 km/s in the crust, (2) a crustal thickness of about 25-30 km and (3) an upper crustal reflection at 5 km depth beneath the ESM. Two landshots on Turkey, also recorded on Cyprus, air gun shots south of Cyprus and geological (Mackenzie et al., 2006) and previous seismic information provide the data to derive a layered velocity model beneath the Anatolian plateau and for the ophiolite complex on Cyprus. Reflections provide evidence for a north-dipping plate subducting beneath Cyprus. The main features of this model are (1) an upper and lower crust with large lateral changes in velocity structure and thickness, (2) a Moho depth of about 45-50 km beneath the Anatolian plateau, (3) a shallow north-dipping subducting plate below Cyprus with an increasing dip and (4) a typical ophiolite sequence on Cyprus with a total thickness of about 14km. The offshore-onshore seismic data complete and improve the information about the velocity structure beneath Cyprus and the deeper part of the offshore tomographic model. Thus, the wide-angle seismic data provide detailed insights into the 2D-geometry and velocity structures of the uplifted and overriding Cyprus-Anatolian plate. Subsequent gravity modeling will be used to check and improve the velocity

  20. Lithospheric Response of the Anatolian Plateau in the Realm of the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergun, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East make up the southern boundary of the Tethys Ocean for the last 200 Ma by the disintegration of the Pangaea and closure of the Tethys Ocean. It covers the structures: Hellenic and Cyprus arcs; Eastern Anatolian Fault Zone; Bitlis Suture Zone and Zagros Mountains. The northern boundary of the Tethys Ocean is made up the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, and it extends up to Po valley towards the west (Pontides, Caucasus). Between these two zones the Alp-Himalayan orogenic belt is situated where the Balkan, Anatolia and the Iran plateaus are placed as the remnants of the lost Ocean of the Tethys. The active tectonics of the eastern Mediterranean is the consequences of the convergence between the Africa, Arabian plates in the south and the Eurasian plate in the north. These plates act as converging jaws of vise forming a crustal mosaic in between. The active crustal deformation pattern reveals two N-S trending maximum compression or crustal shortening syntaxes': (i) the eastern Black Sea and the Arabian plate, (ii) the western Black Sea and the Isparta Angle. The transition in young mountain belts, from ocean crust through the agglomeration of arc systems with long histories of oceanic closures, to a continental hinterland is well exemplified by the plate margin in the eastern Mediterranean. The boundary between the African plate and the Aegean/Anatolian microplate is in the process of transition from subduction to collision along the Cyprus Arc. Since the Black Sea has oceanic lithosphere, it is actually a separate plate. However it can be considered as a block, because the Black Sea is a trapped oceanic basin that cannot move freely within the Eurasian Plate. Lying towards the northern margin of orogenic belts related to the closure of the Tethys Ocean, it is generally considered to be a result of back-arc extension associated with the northward subduction of the Tethyan plate to the south. Interface oceanic lithosphere at

  1. Turkey: Thwarted Ambition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    policy makers were dramatic, challenging, and worrying. At a stroke, the strategic center of gravity moved from Germany to Turkey, but the extinction of...with Arab neighbors, and the Sevres- phobia of an assault on Turkey’s territorial integrity were all accusations thrown at the government as these

  2. Magmatism and Geodynamics of Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskin, Mehmet; Oyan, Vural; Sharkov, Evgenii V.; Chugaev, Andrey V.; Genç, Ş. Can; Ünal, Esin; Aysal, Namık; Duru, Olgun; Kavak, Orhan

    2013-04-01

    Eastern Turkey has been an active collision zone for the last 15 My between the Arabian Plate and Eurasian continent. The collision initiated after the closure of the southern branch of the Neotethys Ocean by northward subduction beneath E Anatolia at ~15 Ma. The collision-related volcanism started immediately after the closure of the ocean (again at around 15 Ma) in the north of the present day Lake Van with the eruption of mostly intermediate to acid lavas displaying distinct subduction characteristics. Both continental collision and the magmatism are still active, because the Arabian plate still converges to Anatolia with a velocity of ~2.5 cm/y. The overriding Anatolian block experienced a major uplift event around 10 Ma. The region once resided below the sea level merged as a widespread plateau ~2 km above the sea level as part of a regional dome structure with ~1000 km diameter, extending from Central Anatolia in the West to Azerbaijan in the East. The first alkaline lavas derived from a relatively more enriched source erupted to the surface in the N of Lake Van coeval with the initiation of the uplift at around 10 Ma. The underthrusting Arabian platform, on the other hand, was deformed as a result of both crustal-scale east-west folds adjacent to the major thrust zone and extensional deformations perpendicular to the suture zone. Alkaline within-plate lavas with no subduction component erupted through these extension zones. This intraplate volcanism focused on the Karacadaǧ volcanic complex that covers an area of ~10,000 km2. Early Stage volcanism of Karacadaǧ was dominated by magmas derived from a shallower metasomatized (litospheric) mantle source, while magmas of the later stages were derived from deeper (asthenospheric) sources. The Karacadaǧ volcanic area of SE Anatolia was sourced by a garnet bearing, deep asthenospheric mantle which is similar to that of Afar in terms of its Pb isotopic ratios. This brings into question whether the mantle material

  3. Fault Branching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmowska, R.; Rice, J. R.; Poliakov, A. N.

    2001-12-01

    Theoretical stress analysis for a propagating shear rupture suggests that the propensity of the rupture path to branch is determined by rupture speed and by the preexisting stress state. See Poliakov, Dmowska and Rice (JGR, submitted April 2001, URL below). Deviatoric stresses near a mode II rupture tip are found to be much higher to both sides of the fault plane than directly ahead, when rupture speed becomes close to the Rayleigh speed. However, the actual pattern of predicted Coulomb failure on secondary faults is strongly dependent on the angle between the fault and the direction of maximum compression Smax in the pre-stress field. Steep Smax angles lead to more extensive failure on the extensional side, whereas shallow angles give comparable failure regions on both. Here we test such concepts against natural examples. For crustal thrust faults we may assume that Smax is horizontal. Thus nucleation on a steeply dipping plane, like the 53 ° dip for the 1971 San Fernando earthquake, is consistent with rupture path kinking to the extensional side, as inferred. Nucleation on a shallow dip, like for the 12 ° -18 ° of the 1985 Kettleman Hills event, should activate both sides, as seems consistent with aftershock patterns. Similarly, in a strike slip example, Smax is inferred to be at approximately 60 ° with the Johnson Valley fault where it branched to the extensional side onto the Landers-Kickapoo fault in the 1992 event, and this too is consistent. Further, geological examination of the activation of secondary fault features along the Johnson Valley fault and the Homestead Valley fault consistently shows that most activity occurs on the extensional side. Another strike-slip example is the Imperial Valley 1979 earthquake. The approximate Smax direction is north-south, at around 35 ° with the main fault, where it branched, on the extensional side, onto Brawley fault, again interpretable with the concepts developed.

  4. Observations and stochastic modelling of strong ground motions for the 2011 October 23 Mw 7.1 Van, Turkey, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinci, Aybige; Antonioli, Andrea

    2013-03-01

    empirical ground motion equations, both at moderate and larger distance; this feature is captured by the AC10 model that is derived from Turkish earthquake database. Faster attenuation of ground motion due to the high attenuation of seismic waves in the Eastern Anatolian plateau is in agreement with our stochastic simulations of strong ground motions of the 2011 October 23 Van earthquake. This highlights the importance of retrieving specific regional seismic parameters for the ground motion predictive equations. The stress redistribution computation indicates that the October sequence had an active role in promoting the November aftershocks, being the Coulomb stress variation positive in the entire region of interest. Furthermore, the Van events enhanced the stress level on the Caldiran fault.

  5. Lithospheric velocity structure of the Anatolian plateau-Caucasus-Caspian region

    SciTech Connect

    Gök, R.; Mellors, R. J.; Sandvol, E.; Pasyanos, M.; Hauk, T.; Takedatsu, R.; Yetirmishli, G.; Teoman, U.; Turkelli, N.; Godoladze, T.; Javakishvirli, Z.

    2011-05-07

    The Anatolian plateau-Caucasus-Caspian region is an area of complex lithospheric structure accompanied by large variations in seismic wave velocities. Despite the complexity of the region, little is known about the detailed lithospheric structure. Using data from 31 new, permanent broadband seismic stations along with results from a previous 29 temporary seismic stations and 3 existing global seismic stations in the region, a 3-D velocity model is developed using joint inversion of teleseismic receiver functions and surface waves. Both group and phase dispersion curves (Love and Rayleigh) were derived from regional and teleseismic events. Additional Rayleigh wave group dispersion curves were determined using ambient noise correlation. Receiver functions were calculated using P arrivals from 789 teleseismic (30°–90°) earthquakes. The stacked receiver functions and surface wave dispersion curves were jointly inverted to yield the absolute shear wave velocity to a depth of 100 km at each station. The depths of major discontinuities (sediment-basement, crust-mantle, and lithosphere-asthenosphere) were inferred from the velocity-depth profiles at the location of each station. Distinct spatial variations in crustal and upper mantle shear velocities were observed. The Kura basin showed slow (~2.7–2.9 km/s) upper crustal (0–11 km) velocities but elevated (~3.8–3.9 km/s) velocities in the lower crust. The Anatolian plateau varied from ~3.1–3.2 in the upper crust to ~3.5–3.7 in the lower crust, while velocities in the Arabian plate (south of the Bitlis suture) were slightly faster (upper crust between 3.3 and 3.4 km/s and lower crust between 3.8 and 3.9 km/s). The depth of the Moho, which was estimated from the shear velocity profiles, was 35 km in the Arabian plate and increased northward to 54 km at the southern edge of the Greater Caucasus. Moho depths in the Kura and at the edge of the Caspian showed more spatial variability but ranged between 35 and 45 km

  6. Lithospheric velocity structure of the Anatolian plateau-Caucasus-Caspian region

    DOE PAGES

    Gök, R.; Mellors, R. J.; Sandvol, E.; ...

    2011-05-07

    The Anatolian plateau-Caucasus-Caspian region is an area of complex lithospheric structure accompanied by large variations in seismic wave velocities. Despite the complexity of the region, little is known about the detailed lithospheric structure. Using data from 31 new, permanent broadband seismic stations along with results from a previous 29 temporary seismic stations and 3 existing global seismic stations in the region, a 3-D velocity model is developed using joint inversion of teleseismic receiver functions and surface waves. Both group and phase dispersion curves (Love and Rayleigh) were derived from regional and teleseismic events. Additional Rayleigh wave group dispersion curves weremore » determined using ambient noise correlation. Receiver functions were calculated using P arrivals from 789 teleseismic (30°–90°) earthquakes. The stacked receiver functions and surface wave dispersion curves were jointly inverted to yield the absolute shear wave velocity to a depth of 100 km at each station. The depths of major discontinuities (sediment-basement, crust-mantle, and lithosphere-asthenosphere) were inferred from the velocity-depth profiles at the location of each station. Distinct spatial variations in crustal and upper mantle shear velocities were observed. The Kura basin showed slow (~2.7–2.9 km/s) upper crustal (0–11 km) velocities but elevated (~3.8–3.9 km/s) velocities in the lower crust. The Anatolian plateau varied from ~3.1–3.2 in the upper crust to ~3.5–3.7 in the lower crust, while velocities in the Arabian plate (south of the Bitlis suture) were slightly faster (upper crust between 3.3 and 3.4 km/s and lower crust between 3.8 and 3.9 km/s). The depth of the Moho, which was estimated from the shear velocity profiles, was 35 km in the Arabian plate and increased northward to 54 km at the southern edge of the Greater Caucasus. Moho depths in the Kura and at the edge of the Caspian showed more spatial variability but ranged between 35

  7. ­Crustal Structure of the Western Anatolian Extensional Province: Evidence for a ductile lower crust through the joint inversion of Receiver Functions and Dispersion Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delph, J. R.; Kahraman, M.; Zandt, G.; Beck, S. L.; Ozacar, A. A.; Turkelli, N.

    2014-12-01

    Western Anatolia is one of the most seismically active regions in the world, undergoing broad N-S extension associated with the rollback of the Aegean slab in the south. This region is characterized by high heat-flow, recent volcanism, and core-complex formation. We use >3500 receiver functions from a dense array of 47 stations located in western Turkey and dispersion data from a recent regional-scale, ambient noise tomography study to invert for shear-wave velocity as a function of depth. Using this technique, we obtain an unprecedented three-dimensional shear-wave velocity model that characterizes the crust of western Turkey. We find a sharp Moho transition beneath much of western Anatolia, with crustal thickness varying from ~25 km near the Aegean Sea to ~35 km beneath the Fethiye Lobe correlating with the topography in western Turkey. The lower crust exhibits a relatively continuous ~10-15 km thick low shear-wave velocity layer (LVL) beneath most of western Anatolia, reaching velocities below 3.0 km/s in some places. The top of this LVL marks the lower boundary of crustal seismicity. These characteristics suggest that the lower crust in western Anatolia is behaving as a ductile solid, as seismic velocities in this range at lower crustal depths are indicative of the presence of fluids (possibly partial melts when considering the high heat-flow in the region). We propose that the lower crust in this region may be undergoing local crustal flow due to the N-S dominated stress regime, which led to the formation of the sharp, low-relief Moho observed in western Turkey. Across the Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone, we see the slowest S-wave velocities in the lower crust, reaching ~2.8 km/s. Unlike elsewhere in western Turkey, this region has relatively low surficial heat-flow and no recent volcanism. Therefore, the anomaly in the Fethiye Lobe is likely due to a different mechanism than western Turkey. We also observe a very slow uppermost mantle beneath this region, with

  8. Microbial Community Diversity in Fault-Associated and Ophiolite-Hosted Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Cardace, D.; Uzunlar, N.; Gulecal, Y.; Yargicoglu, E. N.; Carbone, J. N.

    2010-12-01

    Deep biosphere habitats and hydrothermal systems are ideal candidates for analog ecosystems to life on Early Earth and Astrobiological targets. They also likely harbor vast repositories of novel biological and genetic diversity. This study compares the biological and genetic diversity of microbial communities in terrestrial hydrothermal and cool fluid seeps and springs, occuring in both ophiolite-hosted and non-ophiolite sequences. Fluids and solids (biofilms and sediment) with variable fractions of ultramafic-sourced and serpentinizing reaction fluids and mineral fragments were collected from surface seeps and deeply-sourced springs associated with the Northern Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ, Turkey) and the Anita Shear Zone (ASZ, New Zealand). Comparisons are drawn between three regimes: 1) cool fluid systems in ophiolite-hosted sequences in NAFZ vs. ASZ, 2) cool fluid vs. hydrothermal fluid systems in the NAFZ, and 3) hydrothermal systems in NAFZ ophiolite-hosted vs. non-ophiolite sequences. These comparisons help differentiate microbial community structure and metabolic strategies between hydrothermal and serpentinizing input to these ecosystems. The integration of geobiological data from these sites clarifies how microbial systems respond to even subtle shifts in geochemistry of the water-rock system, and our consideration of mafic/ultramafic rocks as habitable formations brings new astrobiological relevance to this work. Microbial communities were examined using a suite of culture-dependant and independent methods, co-registered with a network of geochemical contextual samples. Geochemical datasets allow prediction of available sources of energy in these nutrient-limited ecosystems. Sample locations varied in temperature 30-90C and pH 6.5-9.0 Potential sources of energy and carbon include dissolved organic carbon, CO2, sulfide, sulfate, and ferrous iron, depending on the sample location. Enrichments were obtained using a variety of carbon and energy sources, in

  9. Fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to

  10. Informatics in Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cakir, Serhat

    1994-01-01

    In the last twenty years the rapid change in the informatics sector has had economic and social impact on private and government activities. The Supreme Council for Science and Technology of Turkey assigned highest priority to the informatics in its meeting in February 1993. With this advice TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey) intends to give a strong impulse to development of a research policy in this field.

  11. Energy Security and Turkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Russia - Ukraine Gas Crisis,” Center for Eurasian Strategis Studies ( ASAM ), Ankara, Turkey, April 21, 2008, www.asam.org.tr/temp/temp111.doc...Necdet Pamir. “Energy in Security and the Most Recent Lesson: The Russia - Ukraine Gas Crisis,” Center for Eurasian Strategis Studies ( ASAM ), Ankara...Crisis,” Center for Eurasian Strategis Studies ( ASAM ), Ankara, Turkey, April 21, 2008, www.asam.org.tr/temp/temp111.doc (accessed May 21, 2008). 53

  12. Remote sensing of thermal state of volcanoes in Turkey and neighbouring countries using ASTER nighttime images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulusoy, İnan; Diker, Caner

    2016-04-01

    Ongoing studies are increasingly revealing that Holocene and historical activity has been reported for many of the Anatolian volcanoes. So far, hydrothermal activity have been observed on Nemrut, Tendürek, Aǧrı (Ararat), Hasan daǧ and Kula. Fumaroles, steam vents, steam/gas emission and zones of hot grounds have been reported. Thermal state of Anatolian volcanoes have been investigated using ASTER nighttime satellite imagery. We have analyzed the nighttime thermal images of Aǧrı, Akça, Çandarlı, Erciyes, Gölcük, Göllüdaǧ, Hasandaǧ, Kula, Meydan, Nemrut, Süphan and Tendürek volcanoes in Turkey and Demavand and Nisyros volcanoes in the neighboring countries. In order to quantify the current thermal state of the volcanos studied, we have used ASTER Thermal Infrared spectra. Several ASTER nighttime images have been used to calculate land surface temperature, surface thermal anomaly and relative radiative heat flux on the volcanoes. Following the atmospheric correction of thermal images, temperature and emissivity have been separated and then land surface temperature have been calculated from 5 thermal bands. Surface temperature images have been topographically corrected. Relative radiative heat flux have been calculated using corrected surface temperature data, emissivity, vapor pressure and height-dependent air temperature values. These values have been correlated with ongoing activity observed on active Indonesian volcanoes Sinabung, Semeru and Bromo Tengger. (This study have been financially supported by TUBITAK project no: 113Y032).

  13. Plate tectonics and biogeographical patterns of the Pseudophoxinus (Pisces: Cypriniformes) species complex of central Anatolia, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hrbek, Tomas; Stölting, Kai N; Bardakci, Fevzi; Küçük, Fahrettin; Wildekamp, Rudolf H; Meyer, Axel

    2004-07-01

    We investigated the phylogenetic relationships of Pseudophoxinus (Cyprinidae: Leuciscinae) species from central Anatolia, Turkey to test the hypothesis of geographic speciation driven by early Pliocene orogenic events. We analyzed 1141 aligned base pairs of the complete cytochrome b mitochondrial gene. Phylogenetic relationships reconstructed by maximum likelihood, Bayesian likelihood, and maximum parsimony methods are identical, and generally well supported. Species and clades are restricted to geologically well-defined units, and are deeply divergent from each other. The basal diversification of central Anatolian Pseudophoxinus is estimated to have occurred approximately 15 million years ago. Our results are in agreement with a previous study of the Anatolian fish genus Aphanius that also shows a diversification pattern driven by the Pliocene orogenic events. The distribution of clades of Aphanius and Pseudophoxinus overlap, and areas of distribution comprise the same geological units. The geological history of Anatolia is likely to have had a major impact on the diversification history of many taxa occupying central Anatolia; many of these taxa are likely to be still unrecognized as distinct.

  14. Pediatric oncology in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kebudi, Rejin

    2012-03-01

    The survival of children with cancer has increased dramatically in the last decades, as a result of advances in diagnosis, treatment and supportive care. Each year in Turkey, 2500-3000 new childhood cancer cases are expected. According to the Turkish Pediatric Oncology Group and Turkish Pediatric Hematology Societies Registry, about 2000 new pediatric cancer cases are reported each year. The population in Turkey is relatively young. One fourth of the population is younger than 15 years of age. According to childhood mortality, cancer is the fourth cause of death (7.2%) after infections, cardiac deaths and accidents. The major cancers in children in Turkey are leukemia (31%), lymphoma (19%), central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms (13%), neuroblastomas (7%), bone tumors (6.1%), soft tissue sarcomas (6%), followed by renal tumors, germ cell tumors, retinoblastoma, carcinomas-epithelial neoplasms, hepatic tumors and others. Lymphomas rank second in frequency as in many developing countries in contrast to West Europe or USA, where CNS neoplasms rank second in frequency. The seven-year survival rate in children with malignancies in Turkey is 65.8%. The history of modern Pediatric Oncology in Turkey dates back to the 1970's. Pediatric Oncology has been accepted as a subspecialty in Turkey since 1983. Pediatric Oncologists are all well trained and dedicated. All costs for the diagnosis and treatment of children with cancer is covered by the government. Education and infrastructure for palliative care needs improvement.

  15. Fault mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Segall, P. )

    1991-01-01

    Recent observational, experimental, and theoretical modeling studies of fault mechanics are discussed in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics examined include interseismic strain accumulation, coseismic deformation, postseismic deformation, and the earthquake cycle; long-term deformation; fault friction and the instability mechanism; pore pressure and normal stress effects; instability models; strain measurements prior to earthquakes; stochastic modeling of earthquakes; and deep-focus earthquakes. Maps, graphs, and a comprehensive bibliography are provided. 220 refs.

  16. Space-time kriging of precipitation variability in Turkey for the period 1976-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Nussaïbah B.; Aydin, Olgu; Türkoğlu, Necla; Çiçek, Ihsan

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to revaluate the changing spatial and temporal trends of precipitation in Turkey. Turkey is located in one of the regions at greatest risk from the potential effects of climate change. Since the 1970s, a decreasing trend in annual precipitation has been observed, in addition to an increasing number of precipitation-related natural hazards such as floods, extreme precipitation, and droughts. An understanding of the temporal and spatial characteristics of precipitation is therefore crucial to hazard management as well as planning and managing water resources, which depend heavily on precipitation. The ordinary kriging method was employed to interpolate precipitation estimates using precipitation records from 228 meteorological stations across the country for the period 1976-2010. A decreasing trend was observed across the Central Anatolian region, except for 1996-2000 which saw an increase in precipitation. However, this same period is identified as the driest year in Eastern and South Eastern Anatolia. The Eastern Black Sea region has the highest precipitation in the country; after 1996, an increase in annual precipitation in this region is observed. An overall reduction is also seen in southwest Turkey, with less variation in precipitation.

  17. Van, Turkey earthquake of 23 october 2011, mw 7.2; an overview on disaster management.

    PubMed

    Zaré, Mehdi; Nazmazar, Behnaz

    2013-01-01

    An earthquake was happened on 23 October 2011 in Van, Turkey (Mw7.2) at the eastern most area of Anatolian plateau and in the neighborhood of Iranian border (West Azerbaijan Province). The study was performed based on field and office observations and has been focused on the process of disaster management in Turkey after the 23 October 2011 earthquake. We surveyed the quake from the view point of disaster management, and study the relief process during and after the catastrophe. The day-to-day disaster management procedure in seventeen days after the event has been scrutinized as well. The number of victims and extent of damage in Van earthquake was relatively limited according to the national experiences and recent modernization of infrastructures in Turkey. The Van earthquake caused 644 deaths and demolishing of several buildings in the cities of Van and Erciş in Van Province. The performance of the government organizations is however criticized based on their response to the event.

  18. Van, Turkey Earthquake of 23 October 2011, Mw 7.2; An Overview on Disaster Management

    PubMed Central

    ZARÉ, Mehdi; NAZMAZAR, Behnaz

    2013-01-01

    An earthquake was happened on 23 October 2011 in Van, Turkey (Mw7.2) at the eastern most area of Anatolian plateau and in the neighborhood of Iranian border (West Azerbaijan Province). The study was performed based on field and office observations and has been focused on the process of disaster management in Turkey after the 23 October 2011 earthquake. We surveyed the quake from the view point of disaster management, and study the relief process during and after the catastrophe. The day-to-day disaster management procedure in seventeen days after the event has been scrutinized as well. The number of victims and extent of damage in Van earthquake was relatively limited according to the national experiences and recent modernization of infrastructures in Turkey. The Van earthquake caused 644 deaths and demolishing of several buildings in the cities of Van and Erciş in Van Province. The performance of the government organizations is however criticized based on their response to the event. PMID:23515082

  19. A new subspecies of Seseli gummiferum (Apiaceae) from Ilgaz Mountain National Park, northern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Çetin, Özlem; Şeker, Meryem Öztürk; Duran, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new subspecies Seseli gummiferum Pall. ex Sm. subsp. ilgazense A.Duran, Ö.Çetin & M.Öztürk, subsp. nov. (Apiaceae) is described from Kastamonu province, Turkey. It was collected from the open Pinus sylvestris L. and Abies nordmanniana (Steven) É.Spach. mixed forest in the northern Anatolian region. An endemic apparently confined to the Ilgaz Mountain National Park, the new taxon is closely related to Seseli gummiferum subsp. gummiferum. Diagnostic morphological characters for closely similar taxa are discussed, and a key to the subspecies of Seseli gummiferum is presented. ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) region of the nuclear ribozomal DNA of closely related Seseli L. taxa and Pimpinella is used to constract phylogenetic tree by using BioEdit and Seaview Programme. PMID:26491389

  20. Low prevalence of allergy to cockroach and latex in asthmatic patients in Eskisehir (Anatolia), Turkey.

    PubMed

    Harmanci, E; Metintas, M; Alatas, F; Erginel, S; Mutlu, S

    2000-01-01

    Allergy to cockroach and latex are said to be causes of asthma particularly in some groups. We studied allergy to cockroach and latex in asthmatic patients from Eskisehir (Anatolia), Turkey in order to determine whether these allergens play an important role in the Anatolian region. A total of 216 asthmatic patients (mean age 43.7+/-11.0 years) were skin tested with common aeroallergens, Blatella germanica and latex. Sixty-three patients were allergic (29.1%) and 153 were nonallergic (70.8%) according to skin test results. Sensitization to pollens (57%) and mites (55.5%) was most common among allergic patients. We found a low sensitization to cockroach (4.7%) and latex (1.4%). We suggested that cockroach sensitization plays a small role in sensitization in our geographic area and that latex sensitization is low in allergic asthmatic patients who were referred for reasons other than latex-related symptoms.

  1. Kaletepe Deresi 3 (Turkey): archaeological evidence for early human settlement in Central Anatolia.

    PubMed

    Slimak, Ludovic; Kuhn, Steven L; Roche, Hélène; Mouralis, Damase; Buitenhuis, Hijlke; Balkan-Atli, Nur; Binder, Didier; Kuzucuoğlu, Catherine; Guillou, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    Located in the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province, Kaletepe Deresi 3 was discovered in the summer of 2000 and has been under investigation since that time. Volcanic activity in the region generated a number of obsidian intrusions that have attracted humans to the area throughout prehistory. The stratigraphic sequence at Kaletepe Deresi 3, more than 7 m in depth, presents a series of archaeological horizons representing the Lower and Middle Paleolithic. The site contains the longest open-air Paleolithic sequence excavated in Turkey, as well as the first in situ Acheulean industry documented in Anatolia. Tephras in the upper Middle Paleolithic horizons and the rhyolithic bedrock bracket the timespan represented at Kaletepe Deresi 3. The lithic industry at the site illustrates a wide range of technological behaviors and documents changes in raw-material exploitation and artifact manufacture through the Lower and Middle Paleolithic.

  2. Beronaphaenops paphlagonicus, a new anophthalmous genus and species of Trechini (Coleoptera, Carabidae) from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Guéorguiev, Borislav V.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Beronaphaenops gen. n. paphlagonicus sp. n., a new remarkable, eyeless species of Trechini is described from Asian Turkey (type locality: cave Eşek Çukuru Mağarası 2, Milli Park Küre Dağlari, Pinarbasi District, Kastamonu Province). This specialized, troglobite species is characterized by a very peculiar combination of features, including several autapotypic features: mentum tooth large, long and porrect, at distal position reaching or slightly exceeding the level of epilobes, rather slanting ventrally, deeply bifid at the tip; short and fragile paraglossae, hardly surpassing the anterior margin of ligula; absence of posterolateral setae of the pronotum; absence of posterior discal pore in elytral stria 3; apical stylomere shortened, with basal part unusually broadened. The systematic position of the genus amongst the trechine beetles from the peri-Pontic area is discussed. A key to the Anatolian genera of the tribe is prepared. PMID:23459597

  3. Malignant pleural mesothelioma due to environmental mineral fiber exposure in Turkey. Analysis of 135 cases

    SciTech Connect

    Selcuk, Z.T.; Coeplue, L.Em.; Emri, S.; Kalyoncu, A.F.; Sahin, A.A.; Baris, Y.I. )

    1992-09-01

    We reviewed data from 135 patients with environment-associated malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) from the Central Anatolian region of Turkey. The most significant factors suggesting the diagnosis of MPM were the village where the patient resided and the typical presenting symptoms and signs of unilateral exudative pleural effusion associated with nonpleuritic chest pain. Computed tomography and ultrasonography were very useful for evaluating the extension of the tumor in the thoracic and abdominal cavities and chest wall. The tissue diagnosis was established by either thoracoscopy (39 percent) or pleural biopsy (39 percent) in the majority of the cases. The median survival after diagnosis was 13.52 months for erionite-associated MPM and 21.56 months for asbestos-associated MPM. The actuarial survival curves for the fibrous minerals were significantly different for survival computed both from onset of the symptoms and after diagnosis. Medical or surgical treatment or both did not change the outcome of the disease.

  4. Creeping and locked segments along the Main Marmara Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmittbuhl, Jean; Karabulut, Hayrullah; Lengliné, Olivier; Bouchon, Michel

    2014-05-01

    It is known since the last 1999 Izmit earthquake that the North Anatolian Fault is hosting a final important seismic gap along a 150 km region that corresponds to the Main Marmara Fault (MMF) below the Sea of Marmara. The gap is owing to a major locking zone where slip along the fault is blocked despite a significant remote plate boundary loading (23 mm/yr). After about 250 years of quiescence the fault is now very close to failure. Unfortunately any attempt of prediction which relies on a very fine monitoring of the fault behavior, is strongly limited by the sea coverage. Direct observations in particular from geodetic measurements are indeed very difficult. However, local seismicity along the MMF provides crucial indirect evidences. The present work is based on this approach and includes precise geographical and depth locations from a large compilation of seismic stations around the Sea of Marmara. We aim at interpreting micro-earthquake spatial distribution in terms of regional geodynamical information and compare it to other approaches like geodesy. From the geographical and depth distribution of micro-seismicity between 2007 and 2012, three domains can be defined along the Main Marmara Fault (MMF) : the West Marama (WM) zone which includes the Tekidag and Central Basins where seismicity is abundant and well distributed in depth (from surface to 17 km) including several vertically extended clusters, the Kumburgaz basin (KB) in the center zone of the Marmara Sea where seismicity is very spare, and the Cinarcik basin (CB) where seismicity is uniformly distributed along the MMF but mostly at depth along a narrow zone (except at both ends of this basin where vertically extended swarms also exist). We evidence three different behaviors. The western Marmara segment is mostly creeping on the contrary to the central Kumburgaz Basin fault zone which is entirely locked as well as possible upper sub-regions of the Princess Island fault and/or the Tekirdag basin

  5. Transplantation in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Haberal, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The cornerstone events of transplantation history in Turkey are summarized herein. In 1975, we performed the first living-related renal transplant in Turkey. We followed this in 1978 with the first deceased donor kidney transplantation, using an organ supplied by Eurotransplant. In 1979, the law on harvesting, storage, grafting, and transplantation of organs and tissues was enacted; later that year, the first local deceased donor kidney transplantation was performed by our team. In 1988, another groundbreaking event in Turkey was successfully achieved: the first cadaveric liver transplantation. In 1990, the first pediatric living-related segmental liver transplantation in Turkey, the region, and Europe was performed by our team. One month later, an adult-to-adult living-related liver transplantation was successfully performed. In May 1992, we performed the first combined liver-kidney transplantation from a living-related donor, which was the first operation of its kind. To date, we have performed 2,084 kidney and, since 1988, 439 liver transplantations. During 29 years of solid organ transplantation history in Turkey, 20,794 kidney transplants have been performed nationwide in 62 different centers, as well as 6,565 liver, 621 heart, and 168 pancreas transplants. In 2001, the Ministry of Health established the National Coordination Center as an umbrella organization to promote transplantation activities, especially for deceased donor organ procurement. Transplantation activities are accelerating daily throughout the country, but deceased donors are still far below the desired rates.

  6. High Resolution Imaging of Fault Zone Structures With Seismic Fault Zone Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Zion, Y.; Zhigang, P.; Lewis, M. A.; McGuire, J.

    2006-12-01

    Large fault zone (FZ) structures with damaged rocks and material discontinuity interfaces can generate several indicative wave propagation signals. High crack density may produce prominent scattering and non-linear effects. A preferred crack orientation can lead to shear wave splitting. A lithology contrast can produce FZ head waves that propagate along the material interface with the velocity and motion polarity of the faster medium. A coherent low velocity layer may generate FZ trapped waves. These signals can be used to obtain high resolution imaging of the subsurface structure of fault zones, and to track possible temporal evolution of FZ material properties. Several results have emerged from recent systematic analyses of such signals. The trapped waves are generated typically by ~100 m wide layers that extend only to ~3-4 km depth and are characterized by 30-50% velocity reduction and strong attenuation. The trapping structures are surrounded by broader anisotropic and scattering zones limited primarily also to the shallow crust. Results associated with anisotropy and scattering around the North Anatolian fault using repeating earthquake clusters do not show precursory temporal evolution. The anisotropy results show small co-seismic changes, while the scattering results show larger co-seismic changes and post-seismic logarithmic recovery. The temporal changes probably reflect damage evolution in the top few hundred m of the crust. Systematic analyses of head waves along several sections of the San Andreas fault reveal material interfaces that extend to the bottom of the seismogenic zone. Joint arrival time inversions of direct and FZ head waves imply velocity contrasts of 20% or more in the top 3 km and lower contrasts of 5-15% in the deeper section. In several places, analyses of trapped and head waves indicate that the shallow damaged layers are asymmetric across the fault. The observed damage asymmetry may reflect preferred propagation direction of

  7. Extensive glaciations in Anatolian Mountains during the global Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akçar, Naki; Yavuz, Vural; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Yeşilyurt, Serdar; Reber, Regina; Tikhomirov, Dmitry; Kubik, Peter; Vockenhuber, Christof; Schlüchter, Christian

    2014-05-01

    As a response to the changes in the atmospheric circulation at the beginning of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), equilibrium line altitude commenced to decrease and, thus, also Anatolian glaciers started to expand. Depending on the altitude of the mountains and size of the accumulation area, the advance began earlier in the eastern Black Sea Mountains prior to 27 ka. In the Kavron, Verçenik, Başyayla and Çoruh valleys, glaciers terminated at an altitude of 1600 m with a length of > 10 km. In eastern Anatolia, 15 km-long glaciers descended to 1400 m from the extensive ice-fields of the Munzır Mountains. In central and western Anatolia, glaciers were smaller (ca. 6 km-long) except for Dedegöl Mountains. There, a glacier length of around 9 km and an advance down to 1450 m were mapped. At Mount Erciyes glaciers began to advance down to 2150 m prior to 25 ka. In southwestern Anatolia, beginning of the LGM advance was documented at ca. 22 ka at Mount Sandıras, where a 1.5 km-long cirque glacier terminated at an altitude of 1900 m. Meanwhile, valley glaciers descended to 2050 m at Mount Akdaǧ, 6 km down from the peak. In northwestern Anatolia, one paleoglacier commenced to grow prior to ca. 25 ka at Uludaǧ and it reached a length of 5 km and an altitude 1600 m. In brief, Anatolian glaciers reached their maximum extent between 27 and 21 ka during the global LGM. The LGM deglaciation resulted in the collapse of Anatolian glaciers. The deglaciation was almost synchronous in all mountains. Climatic fluctuations at the end of LGM have produced only small glaciers, which are much more sensitive to temperature and/or precipitation changes than larger glaciers. Our recent study at Uludaǧ revealed that the glaciers re-advanced at least three times until 19 ka after their maximum extent at around 21 ka. We explain this dynamic behaviour as a response mechanism to different phases of the winter indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation, which resulted in an enhanced

  8. The stress shadow effect: a mechanical analysis of the evenly-spaced parallel strike-slip faults in the San Andreas fault system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuza, A. V.; Yin, A.; Lin, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Parallel evenly-spaced strike-slip faults are prominent in the southern San Andreas fault system, as well as other settings along plate boundaries (e.g., the Alpine fault) and within continental interiors (e.g., the North Anatolian, central Asian, and northern Tibetan faults). In southern California, the parallel San Jacinto, Elsinore, Rose Canyon, and San Clemente faults to the west of the San Andreas are regularly spaced at ~40 km. In the Eastern California Shear Zone, east of the San Andreas, faults are spaced at ~15 km. These characteristic spacings provide unique mechanical constraints on how the faults interact. Despite the common occurrence of parallel strike-slip faults, the fundamental questions of how and why these fault systems form remain unanswered. We address this issue by using the stress shadow concept of Lachenbruch (1961)—developed to explain extensional joints by using the stress-free condition on the crack surface—to present a mechanical analysis of the formation of parallel strike-slip faults that relates fault spacing and brittle-crust thickness to fault strength, crustal strength, and the crustal stress state. We discuss three independent models: (1) a fracture mechanics model, (2) an empirical stress-rise function model embedded in a plastic medium, and (3) an elastic-plate model. The assumptions and predictions of these models are quantitatively tested using scaled analogue sandbox experiments that show that strike-slip fault spacing is linearly related to the brittle-crust thickness. We derive constraints on the mechanical properties of the southern San Andreas strike-slip faults and fault-bounded crust (e.g., local fault strength and crustal/regional stress) given the observed fault spacing and brittle-crust thickness, which is obtained by defining the base of the seismogenic zone with high-resolution earthquake data. Our models allow direct comparison of the parallel faults in the southern San Andreas system with other similar strike

  9. Rain shadow development and paleoenvironmental change in the southern Central Anatolian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijers, Maud J. M.; Mulch, Andreas; Brocard, Gilles Y.; Whitney, Donna L.

    2015-04-01

    Ongoing Arabia-Eurasia convergence in the eastern Mediterranean region has led to the westward escape of the Anatolian microplate and the formation of the Central Anatolian Plateau (CAP). The US-NSF CD-CAT (Continental Dynamics-Central Anatolian Tectonics) project aims at understanding the surface-to-mantle coupling during the transition from collision to escape tectonics and plateau formation in Anatolia. Within the CD-CAT project, this study aims at determining the paleoenvironmental conditions and the age of plateau (margin) uplift by integrating stable isotope geochemistry and absolute dating techniques (40Ar/39Ar geochronology and magnetostratigraphy) on middle Miocene to Pliocene lacustrine sedimentary rocks. The low-relief CAP (~1.5 km average elevation) is characterized by high-relief mountain ranges at its southern and northern margins. The Tauride mountain belt forms the southern plateau margin of the CAP with a relief of up to 3 km. Uplift of Tortonian marine sediments in the central Taurides to modern elevations of up to 2 km constrain the onset of surface uplift of the southern plateau margin to ~8 Ma (Schildgen et al. 2012a,b). Proxy records of oxygen isotopes (δ18O) in precipitation allow to reconstruct the development of the present-day Tauride rain shadow and hence the surface elevation history of the southern plateau margin. Here we evaluate δ18O and δ13C records of seven lacustrine basins situated along a SW-NE swath in the lee of the modern Tauride mountains in order to track the development of a Tauride rain shadow and changes in open to closed lake conditions through the late Miocene to Pliocene. We focus on lacustrine sections with available mammal ages and integrate these with 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of widespread volcanics of the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province and magnetostratigraphy where possible. Our results from seven sections of ~12-4 Ma in lacustrine deposits and pedogenic soil carbonates of ~3-2.5 Ma show a decrease of δ18O

  10. Upper mantle shear wave velocity structure of the east Anatolian-Caucasus region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skobeltsyn, Gleb Anatolyevich

    The Eastern Anatolian-Caucasus region is a relatively young part of the Alpine- Himalayan orogenic belt and has been formed as the result of the ongoing continental collision of Arabia and Eurasia. In spite of a number of geological studies that have been conducted in this area, there is still no consensus within the geoscience community about the regional tectonic settings and a model for the late Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Anatolian Plateau. Knowledge of the upper mantle velocity structure in this region can provide the geological community with important constraints that are crucial for developing an understanding of the regional geology and the processes associated with early stages of mountain building. In the present dissertation, I describe two studies of the regional upper mantle S wave velocity structure. In order to derive the absolute velocity structure of the upper mantle, I have applied surface wave tomography to model Rayleigh wave phase velocities as a function of period. Then I inverted the Rayleigh phase velocities to obtain S wave velocities as a function of depth. The resulted high-resolution 3-D S wave velocity model of the regional upper mantle is characterized by a better depth resolution than any preexisting tomographic models. I also conducted an S wave splitting analysis using traditional methods and developed a two-layer grid search algorithm in order to infer the upper mantle anisotropic structure. The results of the S wave splitting analysis for the stations located in Azerbaijan are the first in the region. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  11. Identification of Necessary Conditions for Super-shear Wave Rupture Speeds: The San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S.

    2007-12-01

    The 2001 Kunlun, Tibet earthquake taught us that the portion of a strike-slip fault most likely to propagate at super-shear speeds are the long straight portions. This is only a necessary (but not sufficient) condition. That is, once a fault accelerates to the maximum permissible speed, it can continue at this speed provided it is straight and there are no obstacles along the way, and provided the fault friction is low. For the Tibet earthquake, the 100 km region of highest rupture speed also had the highest slip rate, the highest slip and the highest stress drop (Robinson et al., JGR, 2006). Off-fault cracks due to the passage of the Mach cone exists in only that portion of the fault identified as travelling at super-shear speed and not in other places along the fault (Bhat et al., JGR, 2007). Re-examination of earlier reports of super-shear rupture speeds on the North Anatolian fault and the Denali fault show that such speeds did occur on the straight section of these faults. Of course all straight portions of faults will not reach super-shear speeds. So what can the Tibet earthquake teach us about the San Andreas fault? Both the 1906 and the 1857 have long, straight portions, the former having been identified by Song et al. (EOS, 2005) as having reached super-shear speeds to the north of San Francisco, the region of highest slip. If the repeat of the 1857 starts in the central valley, as it is believed to have done in 1857, it has the potential to propagate at super-shear speeds through the long, straight portion of the San Andread fault in the Carrizo Plain, the region believed to have had the largest displacement in 1857 based on paleoseismic studies. The resulting shock waves would strike the highly populated regions of Santa Barbara and the Los Angeles Basin (Das, Science, 2007).

  12. A pollen-based environmental reconstruction in Lake Hazar (Eastern Turkey) during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene: Example for the Eastern Mediterranean Realm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biltekin, Demet; Kadir Eris, Kürsad; Namik Cagatay, Memet; Nagihan Arslan, Tugce; Akcer On, Sena; Acar, Dursun

    2016-04-01

    Eastern Mediterranean realm historically is a melting area for ancient civilisations. This region has been therefore anthropogenically influenced since the Late Pleistocene. The understanding the processes between vegetation and climate, pollen analysis is a significant proxy in the investigation of past climate, vegetation records and the human influence on the environment. In this research, we carried out the environmental changes during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene using multi-proxy analysis (palynology, XRF core scanner, magnetic susceptibility and TOC) in the sediment core obtained from 54.39 m depth on the northern shelf of Lake Hazar using a percussion piston corer. Lake Hazar (38° 31' N-39° 25' E) is located at ca. 1255 m above sea level, 22 km south-east of Elazıǧ city in eastern Turkey in the south-east Taurus Mountains. It is an oligotrophic, alkaline soda and a tectonic lake being situated on East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ). The chronology of the sediment core has been determined using AMS radiocarbon method. We present the first pollen record from the core sediments in Lake Hazar, providing insight into multi-millennial scale climatic changes over the last ~15 14C ka BP. In the piston core, the Bølling/Allerød period is associated by the presence of Pistacia reflecting milder winter conditions with high biological productivity. Onset of the Younger Dryas (YD) period is marked by increase in herbaceous plants and lake level lowering that can also be documented by high magnetic susceptibility and Ca/Ti ratio. The spread of deciduous Quercus at the beginning of Holocene can be attributed to significant forestation due to a high humidity that was presumably sufficient for the establishment of oak forest. An increase in Quercus continued in most of the early and middle Holocene. The 3rd millenium crisis is strongly characterized by an increase in herbal elements, and a decline in Quercus, pointing to dry climatic conditions. The most striking

  13. Osteomyelitis in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) is a condition in which apparently healthy, usually male birds have infections that are hidden in their bones, joints, and muscles. Some of these birds have a green liver, which provides a method for detecting these carcasses in the processing plant. Our research h...

  14. On Turkey Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libbee, Kristin Sheridan; Libbee, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Human relations skills are more widely taught and used, and inevitably misused. This aritcle is intended as a brief self-defense course identifying those who undergo this usually temporary, metamorphosis into "turkeys." It provides a rough categorization of subspecies with their identifying characteristics and a proposal for return to personhood.…

  15. Wind energy and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

    2012-03-01

    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future.

  16. Cloning Creationism in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edis, Taner

    1999-01-01

    Defines how political balances and changes in Turkey effect creation-evolution relation. Describes the influences of Bilim Arastirma Vakfi (BAV) on these changes, which are directly targeted to public education, and discusses the content of creationism. Questions why Islamic creationism is a copy of that of the Institute for Creation Research…

  17. Educational Institutions: Terminology. Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    Prepared from interviews with personnel of the Turkish Ministry of National Education, and other educational administrators in that country, this publication provides a guide to the terminology used to name the types of public educational institutions found in Turkey. Private educational institutions, military schools, higher schools attached to…

  18. Axiom turkey genotyping array

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Axiom®Turkey Genotyping Array interrogates 643,845 probesets on the array, covering 643,845 SNPs. The array development was led by Dr. Julie Long of the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center under a public-private partnership with Hendrix Genetics, Aviagen, and Affymetrix. The Turk...

  19. Educational Reform in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksit, Necmi

    2007-01-01

    There are a number of reform initiatives underway in Turkey but some of these, which are concerned with curricular and structural changes, have encountered serious difficulties. This paper begins with a brief summary of school effectiveness and school improvement research guiding many educational reforms. It then gives some information about…

  20. Inferences of Integrated Lithospheric Strength from Plate-Scale Analyses of Deformation Observed in the Aegean-Anatolian Region and the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houseman, Gregory

    2016-04-01

    with a flow field that is driven by gradients of gravitational potential energy, and the rates of deformation are now well-constrained by extensive geodetic measurements. In the second case the rates are significantly smaller in magnitude, but the locations and mechanisms of broadly distributed intra-plate seismicity, together with structural interpretations of near-surface faulting allow us to constrain the distribution of a strain-rate field whose integrated effect is accurately defined by global tectonic models like MORVEL. Predictably, the resistance of Indian Ocean lithosphere to deformation is much greater than that of Anatolian lithosphere. We also infer a more strongly non-linear constitutive law for the oceanic example, but in both cases the magnitudes of depth-averaged stress difference appear significantly less than one would infer from the classic rheological profiles as summarized by Burov. These differences may indicate a significant role for pore fluids reducing stress-differences across faults in the crust and/or upper mantle, for grain-size reduction in shear zones, or for dislocation glide playing an important role in the deformation of the uppermost mantle.

  1. Numerical simulation of the impact of Anatolian and Caucasus Mountains on the precipitation distribution over the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafarian, P.; Azadi, M.; Meshkatee, A. H.; Farahani, M. M.

    2012-03-01

    An attempt is made to examine the role of Anatolian and Caucasus mountain ranges in the precipitation distribution over the Black Sea region and to clarify the dynamical and physical mechanisms responsible for precipitation distribution over the region. Existence of a complex topography in the southern and eastern part of the Black Sea region makes it an important region for cyclogenesis. In this study the effect of Anatolian and Caucasus Mountains on the precipitating synoptic systems forming over the Black Sea are investigated. To this end, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at 15-km horizontal grid spacing has been used to evaluate the lifetime of a low pressure system that was accompanied with heavy precipitation on 14 March 2009 over the coastal region of the Black Sea. Two experiments were conducted. In the control experiment (CTL), the topographical features of the region were retained. In the sensitivity experiment (EXP), the Anatolian and Caucasus mountain ranges were removed. It is found that in the EXP, some fields including vertical motion, relative vorticity, humidity, geopotential height in low level, cloud water content and precipitation distribution in the region undergo significant changes. As such, in the EXP, the vorticity, and the cut-off low system over the Black Sea intensified. It is also seen that, under favorable conditions for precipitation occurrence, the precipitation intensity in the south and east coasts of the Black Sea decreased and the region of maximum precipitation shifted toward the "Sea of Azov" region, in the direction of the surface southerly winds.

  2. Evaluation of the relative tectonic activity in the eastern Lake Van basin, East Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sağlam Selçuk, Azad

    2016-10-01

    The eastern part of the Lake Van basin (Van region, Turkey) is controlled by reverse faults, such as the Gürpınar, Everek and Alaköy faults. These represent the major tectonic structures within the Van region and have caused many devastating earthquakes. Based on quantitative analyses, the Quaternary activity and topographic relief control of each of these faults was investigated. The Gürpınar, Everek and Alaköy faults are restricted to the southern slopes of the Güzelsu, Everek, and Karasu basins, respectively. Analyses of the mountain front sinuosity (Smf) and valley floor width-to-height ratio (Vf) suggest high activity along the Gürpınar fault, the Everek fault, and the western part of the Alaköy fault. Furthermore, based on the integration between Smf and Vf, the estimated uplift rates were observed to increase from north to south. The Gürpınar and Everek hanging-wall blocks are characterized by uplift rates of > 0.5 mm yr- 1, whereas the Alaköy fault exhibited a rate of 0.05 to 0.5 mm yr- 1. These faults produce knickpoints or knickzones, complex basin hypsometric curves, and high values of the stream length-gradient index. Based on these geomorphic analyses, it was established that the tectonic activity of both the Gürpınar and Everek faults is greater than that of the Alaköy fault.

  3. Bodrum Strong Motion Network, Mugla, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcik, H. A.; Tanircan, G.; Korkmaz, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf of Gökova is located in southwestern Turkey near the Aegean Sea and surrounded by Datça Peninsula to the south, the island of Kos to the west and Bodrum Peninsula to the north. The Bodrum peninsula with a population of one million in summer season is one of the most populated touristic centers of Turkey. This region is also surrounded by numerous active seismic entities such as Ula-Ören Fault Zone, Gökova Graben etc.. and demonstrates high seismic hazard. In the past, many destructive earthquakes have occurred in southwestern Turkey. One of the destructive historical earthquakes is 1493 Kos event (Mw=6.9) caused heavy damage in Bodrum. In the instrumental period seismic activity in the Gökova region includes the Ms>6.0 earthquakes of 23 April 1933 (Ms=6.4), 23 May 1941 (Ms=6.0), 13 December 1941 (Ms=6.5) events. Intense earthquake activity (Mw5+) occurred in Gulf of Gökova in August 2004 and January 2005. Considering the high seismicity and population of this region, a strong ground motion monitoring system stationed in dense settlements in the Bodrum Peninsula: Bodrum, Turgutreis, Yalıkavak, Çiftlik and Ortakent was deployed on June 2015. The network consists of 5 strong motion recorders, has been set up with the aim of monitoring of regional earthquakes, collecting accurate and reliable data for engineering and scientific research purposes, in particular to provide input for future earthquake rapid reporting and early warning implementation projects on urban environments in the Bodrum peninsula and the surrounding areas. In this poster presentation, we briefly introduce the Bodrum Network and discuss our future plans for further developments.

  4. Faunistic Composition, Ecological Properties, and Zoogeographical Composition of the Elateridae (Coleoptera) Family in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kabalak, Mahmut; Sert, Osman

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to understand the faunistic composition, ecological properties, and zoogeographical composition of the family Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Western Black Sea region of Turkey. As a result, 44 species belonging to 5 subfamilies and 19 genera were identified. After adding species reported in the literature to the analysis, the fauna in the research area consists of 6 subfamilies, 23 genera and 72 species. Most of the Elateridae fauna of the Western Black Sea region were classified in the subfamilies Elaterinae and Dendrometrinae. The genus Athous was the most species-rich genus. The species composition of the Elateridae fauna of the Western Black Sea region partially overlaps with the known Elateridae fauna of Turkey. The Western Black Sea region shares the most species with the European part of the Western Palaearctic region, including many of those in the Elateridae family, compared to other regions. Comparisons of the three geographical regions of Turkey show that fauna composition, ecological properties, and zoogeographical compositions of the Middle and Western Black Sea regions are more similar to each other than to those of the Central Anatolian region. PMID:24787627

  5. Family practice in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozsahin, Akatli Kursad

    2014-03-01

    The national project 'Transformation in Health' was started in 2005 to provide expert primary care by family physicians, and decrease expenses in Turkey. The number of family physicians was far below the need, so public physicians were promoted to family physician status after a 10-day intensive course. The government declared some satisfactory results, but privately paid family physicians were not accepted into the system. Furthermore, the government stopped paying for their services from private settings. Some family physicians became unemployed as the major payer for all forms of medical care in Turkey denied their services. The process showed it's value in time. Nevertheless, family physicians should be the core of this transformation as family medicine is an academic and a scientific discipline and a primary care-oriented specialty with its own specific educational content, research and base of evidence, which cannot be achieved through standard medical education.

  6. Nursing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Steven L

    2006-10-01

    The current discussion on the nursing shortage needs to focus as much on nursing job satisfaction and retention as on nursing recruitment and education. Selected aspects of the motivational psychology of Abraham Maslow, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, and Frederick Hertzberg are here discussed in light of the challenges-opportunities of nursing in Turkey and elsewhere. Also discussed is an innovative program to support the application of nursing theory and professional development in Toronto, Canada.

  7. "Poppies are democracy!" A critical geopolitics of opium eradication and reintroduction in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Evered, Kyle T

    2011-01-01

    Historical scholarship in traditional geopolitics often relied on documents authored by states and by other influential actors. Although much work in the subfield of critical geopolitics thus far has addressed imbalances constructed in official, academic, and popular media due to a privileging of such narratives, priority might also be given to unearthing and bringing to light alternative geopolitical perspectives from otherwise marginalized populations. Utilizing the early-1970s case of the United States' first “war on drugs,” this article examines the geopolitics of opium-poppy eradication and its consequences within Turkey. Employing not only archival and secondary sources but also oral histories from now-retired poppy farmers, this study examines the diffusion of U.S. antinarcotics policies into the Anatolian countryside and the enduring impressions that the United States and Turkish government created. In doing so, this research gives voice to those farmers targeted by eradication policies and speaks more broadly to matters of narcotics control, sentiments of anti-Americanism, and notions of democracy in Turkey and the region, past and present.

  8. Spatial analysis of climate factors used to determine suitability of greenhouse production in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cemek, Bilal; Güler, Mustafa; Arslan, Hakan

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to identify the most suitable growing periods for greenhouse production in Turkey in order to make valuable contribution to economic viability. Data collected from the meteorological databases of 81 provinces was used to determine periodic climatological requirements of greenhouses in terms of cooling, heating, natural ventilation, and lighting. Spatial distributions of mean daily outside temperatures and greenhouse heating requirements were derived using ordinary co-kriging (OCK) supported by Geographical Information System (GIS). Mean monthly temperatures throughout the country were found to decrease below 12 °C in January, February, March, and December, indicating heating requirements, whereas temperatures in 94.46 % of the country rose above 22 °C in July, indicating cooling requirements. Artificial lighting is not a requirement in Turkey except for November, December, and January. The Mediterranean, Aegean, Marmara, and Black Sea Regions are more advantageous than the Central, East, and Southeast Anatolia Regions in terms of greenhouse production because the Mediterranean and Aegean Regions are more advantageous in terms of heating, and the Black Sea Region is more advantageous in terms of cooling. Results of our study indicated that greenhouse cultivation of winter vegetables is possible in certain areas in the north of the country. Moreover, greenhouses could alternatively be used for drying fruits and vegetables during the summer period which requires uneconomical cooling systems due to high temperatures in the Mediterranean and Southeastern Anatolian Regions.

  9. Investigating Land Surface Temperature Changes Using Landsat Data in Konya, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orhan, O.; Yakar, M.

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate multi-temporal land surface temperature (LST) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) changes of Konya in Turkey using remotely sensed data. Konya is located in the semi-arid central Anatolian region of Turkey and hosts many important wetland sites including Salt Lake. Six images taken by Landsat-5 TM and Landsat 8- OLI satellites were used as the basic data source. These raw images were taken in 1984, 2011 and 2014 intended as long-term and short-term. Firstly, those raw images was corrected radiometric and geometrically within the scope of project. Three mosaic images were obtained by using the full-frame images of Landsat-5 TM / 8- OLI which had been already transformed comparison each other. Then, Land Surface Temperature (LST), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps have been produced to determine the dimension of the drought. The obtained results showed that surface temperature rates in the basin increased about 5°C between 1984 and 2014 as long periods, increased about 2-3°C between 2011and 2014 as short periods. Meteorological data supports the increase in temperature.

  10. Variation in cone and seed characteristics in a clonal seed orchard of Anatolian black pine [Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe].

    PubMed

    Sivacioglu, A; Ayan, S

    2010-01-01

    Cone and seed characteristics of Anatolian black pine were investigated in a clonal seed orchard for two years, 2002 and 2006. The orchard, originated from Kastamonu-Karadere seed stand was established in 1993 by using 1 year-old grafts in an area of 13 ha, at Hanönü-Günlüburun, northern Turkey and includes 30 clones. The results showed that, significant variation exists among clones for 14 of cone and seed traits for 2006. The clones had cone wet weight in range of 16.92 to 38.51 g, whereas this value varied in range of 11.16 to 24.06 g for cone dry weight. Cone length varied from 55.19 to 74.43 mm, while cone width varied in range of 26.66 to 36 57 mm. The range of scale number and fertile scale number varied from 80.02 to 110.64 and 38.03 to 56.20, respectively. Among the clones, the seed and filled seed number were 6.70-24.97 and 5.79-21.12, respectively. The 1000 seed weight varied in range of 20.36 to 29.73 g. The respective values of average seed length and width were 6.29 mm and 3.57 mm, while wing length and width were 19.59 mm and 7.21 mm. The average seed efficiency was 13.5%. Coefficients of variation among grafts (CV(G)) were mostly bigger than among clones (CV(c)), indicating high variation within the population. Year to year correlation coefficients for seed and cone characteristics were varied from moderate (0.58) to strong (0.83). The respective broad sense heritability values of clone mean basis (H2) for cone dry weight, cone width, 1000 seed weight were 0.77, 0.83 and 0.76. The seed efficiency had a H2 value of 0.43.

  11. [Stranger in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Dorhout Mees, E J

    1997-12-20

    The author, a professor of nephrology, reports some impressions of his 7-year stay in Turkey. He worked at the Ege University in Izmir, traditionally one of the most 'western' cities. He and his wife, who gave unpaid assistance to dialysis patients, attempted to integrate into Turkish society as fully as possible. They traversed the country in weekends and holidays and introduced as many Dutch guests as they could to the unique archeological treasures, the magnificent nature and the extremely friendly population. Work at the university focused increasingly on cultivating a critical attitude with regard to the self, society and the trends and commercialization of medicine in Turkey and in the rest of the world. Self-reliance, also, had to be strengthened. Although this contravened the authority-based Turkish educational system, the efforts were clearly appreciated and even stirred enthusiasm in many of the younger people. There is no doubt that a foreign worker is regarded much more favourable in Turkey than in the Netherlands.

  12. Greece and Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer is in full swing in this stunning true-color image of the southeastern European countries and Turkey captured by MODIS on June 29, 2002. Clockwise from left, the mountains of Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and Turkey are swathed in brilliant greens and shades of golden brown; meanwhile (counterclockwise from left) the Ionian, Mediterranean, Aegean, and Black Seas are beautifully blue and green.Running diagonally across the image from the bottom middle to the top right is a gray streak that is caused by the angle of reflection of the sun on the water (called sun glint). The darker areas within this gray swath denote calmer water, and make visible currents that would not otherwise be noticeable.Surprisingly few fires were burning hot enough to be detectable by MODIS when this image was acquired during the height of the summer dry season. A single fire is visible burning in mainland Greece, six are visible in northwestern Turkey, and one burns on the western coast (marked with red outlines). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  13. Late Cretaceous - recent lithosphere scale evolution of Turkey: linking the crustal surface evolution to the structure of the mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartol, J.; Govers, R. M. A.; Wortel, M. J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Central Anatolia (Central Turkey) possesses all the characteristics of a plateau. It experienced a period of rapid and substantial uplift (late Miocene, ˜8 Ma) while significant crustal shortening did not occur. Similar to other plateaus, the presence of volcanic ash and tuff within the sediments suggest that uplift was preceded by widespread volcanism (˜14-9Ma). The lithospheric context of these events is, however, unknown. For the Eastern Anatolian plateau, similar events have been attributed to southward retread followed by slab break-off of the northern Neotethys slab. Recent tomographic results indicate that this northern Neotethys slab extended beneath both the Eastern and Central Anatolian plateau prior to late Miocene delamination and possibly even beneath western Anatolia prior to the Eocene (?). We propose a new lithospheric scenario for the regional evolution for the Aegean-Anatolia-Near East region that combines a recent compilation of surface geology data with the structure of the upper mantle imaged with tomography. In our new scenario for the evolution of the Aegean-Anatolia-Near East region, a single continuous subduction zone south of the Pontides (Izmir - Ankara - Erzincan crustal suture zone) accommodated the Africa - Eurasia convergence until the end of the late Cretaceous. In the Late Cretaceous - Eocene the northern Neotethys Ocean closed followed by Anatolide - Taurides (south) and Pontides (north) continental collision along the Izmir - Ankara - Erzincan crustal suture zone. While the trench jumped to the south of Anatolide - Taurides terrane, subduction continued beneath the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture where the northern Neotethys slab continued to sink into the deeper mantle. In the early Miocene (˜20-15Ma), the northern Neotethys slab started to retreat southward towards the trench, resulting in delamination of the lithospheric mantle. The last part of (early Miocene - recent) our scenario is testable. We use a coupled thermal

  14. Crustal structure of the Eratosthenes Seamount, Cyprus and S. Turkey from an amphibian wide-angle seismic profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feld, Christian; Mechie, James; Hübscher, Christian; Hall, Jeremy; Nicolaides, Stelios; Gurbuz, Cemil; Bauer, Klaus; Louden, Keith; Weber, Michael

    2017-03-01

    In 2010, project CoCoCo (incipient COntinent-COntinent COllision) recorded a 650 km long amphibian N-S wide-angle seismic profile, extending from the Anatolian plateau across southern Turkey and Cyprus to just south of the Eratosthenes Seamount (ESM). The aim of the project is to reveal the impact of the transition from subduction to continent-continent collision of Africa with Anatolia. Arrival picking, finite-differences ray-tracing and inversion of the offshore and on-offshore data produced a tomographic model across southern Cyprus, the accretionary wedge and the ESM. The main features of this model are (1) crustal P-velocities predominantly lower than 6.5 km/s beneath the ESM, (2) crustal thickness between 28 and 37 km, (3) an upper crustal reflection at 5 km depth beneath the ESM, (4) the likely presence of oceanic crust south of the ESM and a transform margin north of it and (5) a 12 km thick ophiolite sequence on Cyprus. Land shots on Turkey, also recorded on Cyprus, gravity data and geological and previous seismic investigations allow to derive a layered velocity model beneath Anatolia and the northern part of Cyprus. The main features of this model are (1) Moho depths of 38-45 km beneath the Anatolian plateau, (2) an upper and lower crust with large lateral changes in velocity and thickness, (3) a north-dipping subducting plate below Cyprus with a steepening of the dip-angle of the plate at about 45 km depth. Thus, the wide-angle seismic and gravity data provide detailed insights into the 2-D geometry and velocity structures associated with the Cyprus Arc collision zone. Finally, integrated analysis of the geophysics and geology allows a comprehensive interpretation of the crustal structure related to the collision process.

  15. Erosive rhinitis resembling granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis) in an Anatolian shepherd dog.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Marlies; Basson, Sandra

    2015-04-21

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis) is one of the idiopathicimmune-mediated small-vessel vasculitides described in humans which are characterised by the presence of circulating antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. It most commonly involves capillaries, venules and arterioles of the ear, nose and throat, lungs and glomeruli. A case of destructive haemopurulent rhinitis associated with relapsing periods of pyrexia, lethargy and stiffness as well as generalised pulmonary infiltrates in a young Anatolian shepherd dog is presented that closely resembles granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) as reported in humans. Perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA) were detected in the dog's serum. Signs resolved promptly and completely once immunosuppressive doses of prednisone were administered, and have not recurred. This is the first report onthe use of pANCA to investigate rhinitis in dogs. It is also, to the authors' knowledge, the first description of a relapsing haemopurulent lytic rhinitis in this species. The concurrent manifestations of erosive haemopurulent rhinitis, ground-glass opacities on pulmonary computed tomography, pyrexia and listlessness resemble GPA as described in humans.

  16. Drastic underestimation of amphipod biodiversity in the endangered Irano-Anatolian and Caucasus biodiversity hotspots.

    PubMed

    Katouzian, Ahmad-Reza; Sari, Alireza; Macher, Jan N; Weiss, Martina; Saboori, Alireza; Leese, Florian; Weigand, Alexander M

    2016-03-01

    Biodiversity hotspots are centers of biological diversity and particularly threatened by anthropogenic activities. Their true magnitude of species diversity and endemism, however, is still largely unknown as species diversity is traditionally assessed using morphological descriptions only, thereby ignoring cryptic species. This directly limits evidence-based monitoring and management strategies. Here we used molecular species delimitation methods to quantify cryptic diversity of the montane amphipods in the Irano-Anatolian and Caucasus biodiversity hotspots. Amphipods are ecosystem engineers in rivers and lakes. Species diversity was assessed by analysing two genetic markers (mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28S rDNA), compared with morphological assignments. Our results unambiguously demonstrate that species diversity and endemism is dramatically underestimated, with 42 genetically identified freshwater species in only five reported morphospecies. Over 90% of the newly recovered species cluster inside Gammarus komareki and G. lacustris; 69% of the recovered species comprise narrow range endemics. Amphipod biodiversity is drastically underestimated for the studied regions. Thus, the risk of biodiversity loss is significantly greater than currently inferred as most endangered species remain unrecognized and/or are only found locally. Integrative application of genetic assessments in monitoring programs will help to understand the true magnitude of biodiversity and accurately evaluate its threat status.

  17. Variations of midline facial soft tissue thicknesses among three skeletal classes in Central Anatolian adults.

    PubMed

    Gungor, Kahraman; Bulut, Ozgur; Hizliol, Ismail; Hekimoglu, Baki; Gurcan, Safa

    2015-11-01

    Facial reconstruction is a technique employed in a forensic investigation as a last resort to recreate an individual's facial appearance from his/her skull. Forensic anthropologists or artists use facial soft tissue thickness (FSTT) measurements as a guide in facial reconstructions. The aim of this study was to develop FSTT values for Central Anatolian adults, taking into consideration sex and skeletal classes; first, to achieve better results obtaining the likenesses of deceased individuals in two or three-dimensional forensic facial reconstructions and, second, to compare these values to existing databases. Lateral cephalograms were used to determine FSTT values at 10 midline facial landmarks of 167 adults. Descriptive statistics were calculated for these facial soft tissue thickness values, and these values were compared to those reported in two other comparable databases. The majority of the landmarks showed sex-based differences. Males were found to have significantly larger landmark values than female subjects. These results point not only to the necessity to present data in accordance with sexual dimorphism, but also the need to consider that individuals from different geographical areas have unique facial features and that, as a result, geographical population-specific FSTT values are required.

  18. Drastic underestimation of amphipod biodiversity in the endangered Irano-Anatolian and Caucasus biodiversity hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Katouzian, Ahmad-Reza; Sari, Alireza; Macher, Jan N.; Weiss, Martina; Saboori, Alireza; Leese, Florian; Weigand, Alexander M.

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity hotspots are centers of biological diversity and particularly threatened by anthropogenic activities. Their true magnitude of species diversity and endemism, however, is still largely unknown as species diversity is traditionally assessed using morphological descriptions only, thereby ignoring cryptic species. This directly limits evidence-based monitoring and management strategies. Here we used molecular species delimitation methods to quantify cryptic diversity of the montane amphipods in the Irano-Anatolian and Caucasus biodiversity hotspots. Amphipods are ecosystem engineers in rivers and lakes. Species diversity was assessed by analysing two genetic markers (mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28S rDNA), compared with morphological assignments. Our results unambiguously demonstrate that species diversity and endemism is dramatically underestimated, with 42 genetically identified freshwater species in only five reported morphospecies. Over 90% of the newly recovered species cluster inside Gammarus komareki and G. lacustris; 69% of the recovered species comprise narrow range endemics. Amphipod biodiversity is drastically underestimated for the studied regions. Thus, the risk of biodiversity loss is significantly greater than currently inferred as most endangered species remain unrecognized and/or are only found locally. Integrative application of genetic assessments in monitoring programs will help to understand the true magnitude of biodiversity and accurately evaluate its threat status. PMID:26928527

  19. Long-lasting seismic repeaters in the Central Basin of the Main Marmara Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmittbuhl, J.; Karabulut, H.; Lengliné, O.; Bouchon, M.

    2016-09-01

    The Main Marmara Fault which crosses the whole Marmara Sea is a significant seismic gap along the North Anatolian Fault. Here we show that nine long-lasting strike-slip seismic repeaters exist below the Central Basin within the seismogenic zone, in a 10 km region where deep creep was previously suggested from the analysis of the local seismicity. The typical recurrence time was 8 months during the 2008-2015 period. The cumulative slip of the repeating sequence appears to be compatible with the regional geodetic slip rate if they are assumed to be part of a large single asperity (10 km). The repeaters also exhibit short-term crises and are possibly related to bursts of creep.

  20. Turkey's energy demand and supply

    SciTech Connect

    Balat, M.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present article is to investigate Turkey's energy demand and the contribution of domestic energy sources to energy consumption. Turkey, the 17th largest economy in the world, is an emerging country with a buoyant economy challenged by a growing demand for energy. Turkey's energy consumption has grown and will continue to grow along with its economy. Turkey's energy consumption is high, but its domestic primary energy sources are oil and natural gas reserves and their production is low. Total primary energy production met about 27% of the total primary energy demand in 2005. Oil has the biggest share in total primary energy consumption. Lignite has the biggest share in Turkey's primary energy production at 45%. Domestic production should be to be nearly doubled by 2010, mainly in coal (lignite), which, at present, accounts for almost half of the total energy production. The hydropower should also increase two-fold over the same period.

  1. Revisiting the 1912 Murefet, Turkey earthquake and tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, M.; Aksoy, M. M.; Ferreira, H.; Ucarkus, G.; Meghraoui, M.; Çakir, Z.

    2012-12-01

    The 9 August 1912 Mürefte Earthquake M 7.4 is one of the largest destructive earthquakes of the 20th century, in the Balkan region. The tremor struck at 03:30 a.m. and was felt in a wide region including Greece and Bulgaria. The damage was localized in the western part of the Sea of Marmara, between Tekirdag and Çanakkale with maximum intenstiy IX-X MSK near the Mürefte village. The damage killed 2800 and injured 7000 people. It totally destroyed 12600 houses, damaged 12100 beyond repair and caused serious damage to another 15,400. The earthquake occurred on the westernmost segment of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF), limited by the Marmara Sea and the Aegean Sea on both ends. The event was accompanied with major surface faulting and co-seismic slip all along the on land and offshore sections. Up to date several faulting scenarios were proposed for this event claiming surface ruptures ranging from 50- 150 km. The tsunami reports of this event are scarce Contemporary accounts reported several onshore and offshore natural events that can be related to a tsunami caused by submarine surface faulting. Receding of the sea and inundations were observed along the northern shores of the Sea of Marmara. Besides, most of the coastal area of the Strait of the Dardanelles (Çanakkale) experienced flooding. Strong sea waves hit the northern coasts of Hayirsiz Ada and at Yesilköy (near Istanbul) a rowing-boat has been lifted up to a height of 2.7 m. In this study we present a summary of the tsunami observations and perform tsunami numerical simulations using a nonlinear shallow water code (NSLW7) that uses an explicit leap-frog finite difference scheme to solve the non-linear shallow water equations and high resolution DEM (Digital Earth Model) including bathymetry and topography in order to compute inundation. The initial condition of the tsunami propagation model is the static vertical displacement of the ocean floor due to the submarine earthquake that is computed Mansinha

  2. Seismotectonics of the Armutlu peninsula (Marmara Sea, NW Turkey) from geological field observation and regional moment tensor inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinscher, J.; Krüger, F.; Woith, H.; Lühr, B. G.; Hintersberger, E.; Irmak, T. S.; Baris, S.

    2013-11-01

    stresses as transtensional faulting is consistent with the southwest directed far field deformation of the Anatolian plate.

  3. Terrorism Effects on Turkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-05

    1980’ s many changes took place among these countries; however, there are many indications that the IsB still controls these countries’ intelligence ...for opm Zblkadom vote TERRORISM EFFECTS ON TURKEY BY COLONEL TURAN OLCAY Turkish Army ~Is~RI~~tO S EMHT A’: A~pproved for publ~c 03. RMYWARCOLLG...Distribution is unlimited. 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) S . MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) Ga. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b

  4. Detection and molecular characterization of avian Plasmodium from mosquitoes in central Turkey.

    PubMed

    Inci, A; Yildirim, A; Njabo, K Y; Duzlu, O; Biskin, Z; Ciloglu, A

    2012-08-13

    Assessing vector-parasite relationship is important in understanding the emergence of vector-borne diseases and the evolution of parasite diversity. This study investigates avian Plasmodium parasites in mosquitoes collected from Kayseri province in Central Anatolian, Turkey and determines the haemosporidian parasite lineages from these mosquito species. A total of 6153 female mosquitos from 6 species were collected from 46 sites during June-August of 2008 and 2009. Each mosquito's head-thorax and abdomen were separated, categorized with respect to species and collection area and pooled for DNA extraction. A total of 1198 genomic DNA pools (599 thorax-head, 599 abdomen) were constituted of which 128 pools (59 thorax-head, 69 abdomen) were positive for avian haemosporidian parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) by Nested-PCR analysis. Culex pipens, Aedes vexans, Culex theileri and Culiseta annulata were positive with minimum infection rates (MIRs) of 16.22 and 18.15, 4.72 and 5.98, 5.18 and 10.36, 10.64 and 10.64 in their thorax-head and abdomen parts, respectively. No avian haemosporidian DNA was detected from Culex hortensis and Anopheles maculipennis. Phylogenetic analyses of the partial cytb gene of avian haemosporidian mt-DNA from 13 positive pools revealed that 11 lineages in four phylogenic groups were Plasmodium and the other two were Haemoproteus. Our results suggest that Cx. pipiens could probably be the major vector of avian Plasmodium in Central Turkey. This is the first report of molecular detection and characterization of avian Plasmodium lineages from mosquitoes in Turkey.

  5. Flight elements: Fault detection and fault management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, H.; Patterson-Hine, A.; Edge, J. T.; Lawler, D.

    1990-01-01

    Fault management for an intelligent computational system must be developed using a top down integrated engineering approach. An approach proposed includes integrating the overall environment involving sensors and their associated data; design knowledge capture; operations; fault detection, identification, and reconfiguration; testability; causal models including digraph matrix analysis; and overall performance impacts on the hardware and software architecture. Implementation of the concept to achieve a real time intelligent fault detection and management system will be accomplished via the implementation of several objectives, which are: Development of fault tolerant/FDIR requirement and specification from a systems level which will carry through from conceptual design through implementation and mission operations; Implementation of monitoring, diagnosis, and reconfiguration at all system levels providing fault isolation and system integration; Optimize system operations to manage degraded system performance through system integration; and Lower development and operations costs through the implementation of an intelligent real time fault detection and fault management system and an information management system.

  6. Holocene semi-arid oak woodlands in the Irano-Anatolian region of Southwest Asia: natural or anthropogenic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asouti, Eleni; Kabukcu, Ceren

    2014-04-01

    It is commonly accepted that, following the end of the Pleistocene, semi-arid deciduous oak woodlands did not spread in the Irano-Anatolian region of Southwest Asia as quickly as they did in the Levantine Mediterranean littoral, despite the fact that climatic improvement occurred broadly at the same time in both regions. Prehistoric impacts on woodland vegetation (such as woodcutting, burning and clearance for cultivation), the harsh continental climate of inland Southwest Asia and its distance from late Pleistocene arboreal refugia have all been discussed in the literature as likely causes of the delay. In this paper we argue that semi-arid deciduous oak woodlands should not be viewed as part of the “natural” vegetation of the Irano-Anatolian region that has been progressively destroyed by millennia of human activities since the Neolithic. They represent instead one of the earliest anthropogenic vegetation types in Southwest Asia, one that owes its very existence to prehistoric landscape practices other scholars commonly label as “destructive”. Drawing on anthracological, pollen and modern vegetation data from central Anatolia we describe how the post-Pleistocene species-rich and structurally diverse temperate semi-arid savanna grasslands were gradually substituted by low-diversity, even-aged Quercus-dominated parklands and wood pastures in the course of the early Holocene. Economic strategies that encouraged the establishment and spread of deciduous oaks included sheep herding that impacted on grass and forb vegetation, the controlling of competing arboreal vegetation through woodcutting, and woodland management practices such as coppicing, pollarding and shredding that enhanced Quercus vegetative propagation, crown and stem growth. Understanding the origin and evolution of the Irano-Anatolian semi-arid oak woodlands of Southwest Asia is of critical importance for reconstructing the changing ecologies and geographical distributions of the progenitors of

  7. Operational EEW Networks in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfikar, Can; Pinar, Ali

    2016-04-01

    There are several EEW networks and algorithms under operation in Turkey. The first EEW system was deployed in Istanbul in 2002 after the 1999 Mw7.4 Kocaeli and Mw7.1 Duzce earthquake events. The system consisted of 10 strong motion stations located as close as possible to the main Marmara Fault line. The system was upgraded by 5 OBS (Ocean Bottom Seismometer) in 2012 located in Marmara Sea. The system works in threshold based algorithm. The alert is given according to exceedance of certain threshold levels of amplitude of ground motion acceleration in certain time interval at least in 3 stations. Currently, there are two end-users of EEW system in Istanbul. The critical facilities of Istanbul Gas Distribution Company (IGDAS) and Marmaray Tube tunnel receives the EEW information in order to activate their automatic shut-off mechanisms. The IGDAS has their own strong motion network located at their district regulators. After receiving the EEW signal if the threshold values of ground motion parameters are exceeded the gas-flow is cut automatically at the district regulators. The IGDAS has 750 district regulators distributed in Istanbul. At the moment, the 110 of them are instrumented with strong motion accelerometers. As a 2nd stage of the on-going project, the IGDAS company proposes to install strong motion accelerometers to all remaining district regulators. The Marmaray railway tube tunnel is the world's deepest immersed tube tunnel with 60m undersea depth. The tunnel has 1.4km length with 13 segments. The tunnel is monitored with 2 strong motion accelerometers in each segment, 26 in total. Once the EEW signal is received, the monitoring system is activated and the recording ground motion parameters are calculated in real-time. Depending on the exceedance of threshold levels, further actions are taken such as reducing the train speed, stopping the train before entering the tunnel etc. In Istanbul, there are also on-site EEW system applied in several high

  8. Exploring the Curriculum Dimensions of Theories-Based Adult Education--A Sample Course of Southeast Anatolian Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ultanir, Y. Gurcan; Ultanir, Emel

    2010-01-01

    As a result of social change over the past 20 years, there has been an economy-induced population movement in Turkey from eastern locales and rural areas to western regions and city centres. The effects of this domestic migration exemplify the problems of "integration faced by a migrating population". In Turkey the role of Public…

  9. Molecular analysis of East Anatolian traditional plum and cherry accessions using SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Öz, M H; Vurgun, H; Bakir, M; Büyük, İ; Yüksel, C; Ünlü, H M; Çukadar, K; Karadoğan, B; Köse, Ö; Ergül, A

    2013-11-07

    We conducted SSR analyses of 59 accessions, including 29 traditional plum (Prunus domestica), 24 sweet cherry (Prunus avium), and 1 sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) selected from East Anatolian gene sources and 3 plum and 2 cherry reference accessions for molecular characterization and investigation of genetic relationships. Eight SSR loci [1 developed from the apricot (UDAp-404), 4 from the peach (UDP96-010, UDP96-001, UDP96-019, Pchgms1) and 3 from the cherry (UCD-CH13, UCD-CH17, UCD-CH31) genome] for plum accessions and 9 SSR loci [5 developed from the cherry (PS12A02, UCD-CH13, UCD-CH17, UCD-CH31, UCD-CH21), 3 from the peach (Pchgms1, UDP96-001, UDP96-005) and 1 from the plum (CPSCT010) genome] for cherry accessions were used for genetic identification. A total of 66 and 65 alleles were obtained in the genetic analyses of 31 plum and 28 cherry accessions, respectively. The number of alleles revealed by SSR analysis ranged from 4 to 14 alleles per locus, with a mean value of 8.25 in plum accessions, and from 5 to 10 alleles per locus with a mean value of 7.2 in cherry accessions. Only one case of synonym was identified among the cherry accessions, while no case of synonym was observed among the plum accessions. Genomic SSR markers used in discrimination of plum and cherry accessions showed high cross-species transferability in the Prunus genus. Because of their appreciable polymorphism and cross species transferability, the SSR markers that we evaluated in this study will be useful for studies involving fingerprinting of cherry and plum cultivars.

  10. Fault slip source models for the 2014 Mw 6.9 Samothraki-Gökçeada earthquake (North Aegean Trough) combining geodetic and seismological observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltogianni, Vasso; Gianniou, Michail; Taymaz, Tuncay; Yolsal-ćevikbilen, Seda; Stiros, Stathis

    2015-12-01

    The 24 May 2014, Mw 6.9, Samothraki-Gökçeada shallow (depth: 11 km) earthquake along the North Aegean Trough (NAT), at the westward extension of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ), is investigated using constraints from seismological and geodetic data. A point source solution based on teleseismic long-period P and SH waveforms suggests an essentially strike-slip faulting mechanism consisting of two subevents, while from a finite fault inversion of broadband data the rupture area and slip history were estimated. Analysis of data from 11 permanent GPS stations indicated significant coseismic horizontal displacement but no significant vertical or postseismic slip. Okada-type inversion of horizontal slip vectors, using the new TOPological INVersion algorithm, allowed precise modeling of the fault rupture both as single and preferably as double strike-slip faulting reaching the surface. Variable slip models were also computed. The independent seismological and geodetic fault rupture models are broadly consistent with each other and with structural and seismological data and indicate reactivation of two adjacent fault segments separated by a bend of the NAT. The 2014 earthquake was associated with remote clusters of low-magnitude aftershocks, produced low accelerations, and filled a gap in seismicity along the NAT in the last 50 years; faulting in the NAT seems not directly related to the sequence of recent faulting farther east, along the NAFZ and the seismic gap in the Marmara Sea near Istanbul.

  11. [Nuclear families in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Unalan, T

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the household or family types in Turkey in 1983, especially nuclear families. Nuclear families constitute 61.6% of all households in Turkey, and the majority of them are in the West and the Central regions. The highest % of nuclear families was found in the Mediterranean regions, and the lowest in the Black Sea region. Among all nuclear families, 87% of them consist of husband, wife and children, whereas 13% of them have only husband and wife. Nuclear families without children are common in urban areas and in the West while nuclear families with children are mostly found in rural areas and in the East and the Black Sea regions. Nuclear families with 3 or more children constitute 32% of all nuclear households in the West. On the other hand, the corresponding % is 73 for the Eastern region. As a result, it is concluded that nuclear families have significant regional and residential differentiations and households with the same formation in a developed and a less developed region should have different social, economic, and cultural characteristics.

  12. Phosphate Solubilization Potentials of Rhizosphere Isolates from Central Anatolia (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogut, M.; Er, F.

    2009-04-01

    Plant available-phosphorus (P) is usually low in Anatolian soils due mainly to the precipitation as calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) phosphates in alkaline conditions. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) can enhance plant P-availability by dissolving the hardly soluble-P within the rhizosphere, which is the zone that surrounds the plant roots. PSM's can be used as seed- or soil-inocula to increase plant P-uptake and the overall growth. A total of 162 PSM's were isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat plants excavated from different fields located along a 75 km part of a highway in Turkey. The mean, the standart deviation, and the median for solubilized-P (ppm) in a 24 h culture in a tricalcium phosphate broth were 681, 427, and 400 for glucose; 358, 266, and 236 for sucrose; and 102, 117, and 50 for starch, respectively. There was not a linear relationship between the phosphate solubilized in the liquid cultures and the solubilization index obtained in the Pikovskaya's agar. Nine isolates representing both weak and strong solubilizers [Bacillus megaterium (5), Bacillus pumilis (1), Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica (1), Pseudomonas fluorescens (1), Arthrobacter aurescens (1) as determined by the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis] were further studied in a five day incubation. Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica solubilized statistically (P<0.05) higher phosphate (409 ppm) than all the other strains did. There was not a statistically significant (P<0.05) difference in solubilized-P among the Bacillus strains. The pH of the medium fell to the levels between 4 and 5 from the initial neutrality. The phosphate solubilizing strains variably produced gluconic, 2-keto-D-gluconic, glycolic, acetic and butyric acids. The organic acids produced by these microorganisms seem to be the major source of phosphate solubilization in vitro.

  13. The history of sign language and deaf education in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kemaloğlu, Yusuf Kemal; Kemaloğlu, Pınar Yaprak

    2012-01-01

    Sign language is the natural language of the prelingually deaf people particularly without hearing-speech rehabilitation. Otorhinolaryngologists, regarding health as complete physical, mental and psychosocial well-being, aim hearing by diagnosing deafness as deviance from normality. However, it's obvious that the perception conflicted with the behavior which does not meet the mental and social well-being of the individual also contradicts with the definition mentioned above. This article aims to investigate the effects of hearing-speech target ignoring the sign language in Turkish population and its consistency with the history through statistical data, scientific publications and historical documents and to support critical perspective on this issue. The study results showed that maximum 50% of the deaf benefited from hearing-speech program for last 60 years before hearing screening programs; however, systems including sign language in education were not generated. In the light of these data, it is clear that the approach ignoring sign language particularly before the development of screening programs is not reasonable. In addition, considering sign language being part of the Anatolian history from Hittites to Ottomans, it is a question to be answered that why evaluation, habilitation and education systems excluding sign language are still the only choice for deaf individuals in Turkey. Despite legislative amendments in the last 6-7 years, the primary cause of failure to come into force is probably because of inadequate conception of the issue content and importance, as well as limited effort to offer solutions by academicians and authorized politicians. Within this context, this paper aims to make a positive effect on this issue offering a review for the medical staff, particularly otorhinolaryngologists and audiologists.

  14. Progressive failure during the 1596 Keicho earthquakes on the Median Tectonic Line active fault zone, southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, M.; Toda, S.; Nishizaka, N.; Onishi, K.; Suzuki, S.

    2015-12-01

    Rupture patterns of a long fault system are controlled by spatial heterogeneity of fault strength and stress associated with geometrical characteristics and stress perturbation history. Mechanical process for sequential ruptures and multiple simultaneous ruptures, one of the characteristics of a long fault such as the North Anatolian fault, governs the size and frequency of large earthquakes. Here we introduce one of the cases in southwest Japan and explore what controls rupture initiation, sequential ruptures and fault branching on a long fault system. The Median Tectonic Line active fault zone (hereinafter MTL) is the longest and most active fault in Japan. Based on historical accounts, a series of M ≥ 7 earthquakes occurred on at least a 300-km-long portion of the MTL in 1596. On September 1, the first event occurred on the Kawakami fault segment, in Central Shikoku, and the subsequent events occurred further west. Then on September 5, another rupture initiated from the Central to East Shikoku and then propagated toward the Rokko-Awaji fault zone to Kobe, a northern branch of the MTL, instead of the eastern main extent of the MTL. Another rupture eventually extended to near Kyoto. To reproduce this progressive failure, we applied two numerical models: one is a coulomb stress transfer; the other is a slip-tendency analysis under the tectonic stress. We found that Coulomb stress imparted from historical ruptures have triggered the subsequent ruptures nearby. However, stress transfer does not explain beginning of the sequence and rupture directivities. Instead, calculated slip-tendency values show highly variable along the MTL: high and low seismic potential in West and East Shikoku. The initiation point of the 1596 progressive failure locates near the boundary in the slip-tendency values. Furthermore, the slip-tendency on the Rokko-Awaji fault zone is far higher than that of the MTL in Wakayama, which may explain the rupture directivity toward Kobe-Kyoto.

  15. Magnetic properties of tephras from Lake Van (Eastern Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makaroglu, Ozlem; Caǧatay, Namık; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Orbay, Naci

    2013-04-01

    Here we present magnetic properties of tephra layers in the cores taken from Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Lake Van is the fourth largest terminal Lake in the world by volume (607 km3). It is 460 m deep and has a salinity of 21.4 per mil and a pH of 9.81. It is located on the East Anatolian Plateau with present day water level of 1648 m.a.s.l., and surrounded by large stratovolcanoes Nemrut, Suphan, Tendurek, and Ararat to the west and north. It has accumulated varved-sediments with tephra units, which all provide important paleoenvironmental records. After a seismic survey, four different locations were selected for coring in Lake Van, with water depths varying between 60 m and 90 m. Four cores having between 3 and 4.8 m length were analyzed for for element geochemistry using XRF Core Scanner analysis. The sub-samples were taken into plastic boxes with a volume of 6.4 cm3 for mineral magnetic analysis. The mineral magnetic measurements included magnetic susceptibility (χ), anhysteretic remanent magnetisation (ARM), isothermal remanent magnetisation (IRM), hysteresis properties and thermomagnetic analyses. According to the mineral magnetic measurements and geochemical analysis, we identified the five tephra layers (T1-T5). These tephra units were correlated with the previously varve-dated units of Landmann et al. (2011). The varve ages of the tephra layers were used to obtain the age-depth model for the cores. According to the age models the cores extend back to 9500 ka BP (varve years). Down-core profiles of all the magnetic properties are highly correlatable between different cores, suggesting that the magnetic records are of regional character. ARM values are found to be more convenient than χ values for correlating the tephra layers. The hysteresis parameters of samples taken from these layers indicate that they are within Pseudo Single Domain range. IRM curves show that low coersivity magnetic minerals are dominated in all tephra layers. Measurements

  16. Variations in rn and CO2 Soil Gas Concentrations in Karabayir Eskisehir-Turkey and Their Correlations with Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasin, Didem; Hilmi Gülbay, Ahmet; Yüce, Galip; Durgut, Aykut; Oruç, Cemal

    2016-04-01

    Variations in radon and CO2 gas concentrations of soil relations to earthquakes take attention of many researchers. The aim of this study is to monitor changes in soil radon and CO2 gas concentrations and to search possible anomalies originated from the seismicity in the vicinity of Eskisehir. Eskisehir is located between Aegean-Western Anatolian block where the extensional regime is present and the snistrial strike-slip fault zone, with a normal component, belonging to Central Anatolian Block on which the compressional forces are effective. Radon and CO2 gas concentrations in soil were daily measured for about 3 months in 2015. Meteorological parameters (barometric pressure, temperature, rain and humidity) and all soil gasdata were correlated with the seismicity occured in 17-110 km distance from the soil gas measurement location during the same period. According to the first results, generally concentrations of Rn and CO2 began to decrease before earthquakes and CO2 and radon concentrations are linear which means. CO2 can be considered as acarrier gas for radon. Keywords: radon, CO2, Eskisehir, earthquake, soil

  17. Cenozoic extensional tectonics in western and central Anatolia, Turkey: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çemen, İbrahim; Helvacı, Cahit; Ersoy, E. Yalçın

    2014-11-01

    It is our great pleasure to present this special issue of Tectonophysics on Cenozoic extensional tectonics in western and central Anatolia, Turkey (Fig. 1). The Cenozoic extension followed a series of continental collisions from the Late Cretaceous to the Eocene that led to the formation of the Vardar-İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan and Tauride suture zones as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan belt in Turkey and surrounding regions (Fig. 1). This type of post-collisional large-scale extensional tectonic may be "normal" for parts of collisional mountain belts due to gravitational collapse of over-thickened crust, or, alternatively, extension may be driven by other tectonic forces such as lateral extrusion or subducting slab roll-back. Many extensional features in western Anatolia continue into the Aegean Sea where they are more difficult to study as the access to outcrops is limited to a few islands. However, extensional structures and the rock units affected by them (Fig. 1) are well exposed in western and central Anatolia, Turkey, providing a natural laboratory to study the dynamics and consequences of crustal extension. The effects of post-collisional Cenozoic extension die out on the eastern part of central Anatolia to the east of the Ecemiş Fault Zone (Fig. 1).

  18. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Gürel, Mehmet Salih; Yeşilova, Yavuz; Olgen, M Kirami; Ozbel, Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania protozoon parasites is a disease which is characterized by long-term nodulo-ulcerative lesions healing spontaneously with scarring. The disease has been well-known in Anatolia for centuries and has different names such as; Urfa boil, Antep boil, year boil, Halep boil, oriental sore and beauty scar. The causative agents are Leishmania tropica and Leishmania tropica/Leishmania infantum in Southeastern Anatolia and East Mediterranean, respectively. CL is a notifiable disease in Turkey and, according to the Ministry of Health official records, 46.003 new cases were reported between 1990 and 2010. Among those cases, 96% of them were reported from the Şanlıurfa, Adana, Osmaniye, Hatay, Diyarbakır, İçel and Kahramanmaraş provinces. Although 45% of cases were notified from Şanlıurfa in the past 20 years, its ratio is currently decreasing while other regions' ratios have been showing an increasing trend. Easier transportation between cities, increased travel migration of the population from rural areas to the peripheral suburbs with inadequate infrastructure and unhealthy housing are thought to be the main factors for spreading the disease from Southeastern Anatolia to other regions of Turkey. Lack of treatment of patients as reservoir hosts because of different reasons and ineffective and inadequate use of insecticides against vector sand flies have also played an important role in spreading the disease. Neglect of this disease by patients and health institutions can also be considered as other factors for the spreading. We believe that, after the strategic plan for leishmaniasis prepared by the Turkish Ministry of Health with the contribution of scientists in 2011 is put into practice, the control of the disease will be more effective.

  19. The Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone: A component of upper plate extension of the subduction transform edge propagator fault linking Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs, Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J.; Aksu, A. E.; Elitez, I.; Yaltırak, C.; Çifçi, G.

    2014-11-01

    The Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs, that mark the convergent boundary of the African and Aegean-Anatolian plates, are offset along a subduction transform edge propagator ('STEP') fault running NE-SW along the Pliny and Strabo Trenches. The continuation of the fault to the northeast through the Rhodes Basin and into SW Anatolia is assessed. Seismic reflection profiles show that the structural architecture of the northern sector of the Rhodes Basin includes a large crustal-scale fold-thrust belt which is overprinted by numerous faults with small extensional stratigraphic separations. A protracted episode of convergence in the Miocene resulted in the development of a prominent NE-SW-striking and NW-verging fold-thrust belt in the Rhodes Basin. The absence of evaporites in the Rhodes Basin and several seaward prograded vertically stacked Quaternary delta successions resting at 2500-3500 m water depth collectively suggest that the Rhodes Basin must have remained above the depositional base of marine evaporite environment during the Messinian and that the region must have subsided very rapidly during the Pliocene-Quaternary. During the Pliocene-Quaternary, a NE-SW-trending belt developed across the Rhodes Basin: while the structural framework of this belt was characterised by reactivated thrusts in the central portion of the basin, a prominent zone of NE-SW-striking and NW- and SE-dipping faults with extensional separations developed in the northern portion of the basin. Two seismic profiles running parallel to the present-day coastline provide the much needed linkage between the Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone onland and the reactivated thrusts in central Rhodes Basin, and show that the Pliocene-Quaternary zone of high-angle faults with extensional separations clearly link with the similarly trending and dipping strike-slip faults onland in the Eşen Valley, thus providing the continuity between the Pliny-Strabo Trenches in the southwest and the Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone in the

  20. The localization and morphology of pterion in adult West Anatolian skulls.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Funda; Akyer, Sahika Pınar; Kale, Ayşin; Geylan, Serdar; Gayretli, Ozcan

    2014-07-01

    The pterion is an important skull landmark because it is located where the frontal, the great wing of sphenoid, parietal, and squamous parts of the temporal bone junction. The objectives of this study were to determine the localization and the shape of pterion on skulls and to find out the distances between the pterion and some certain anatomic landmarks on neighboring structures. The study was performed on the skulls of 128 (256 sides) adult West Anatolian people. All of the morphometric measurements of the distances between the pterion and the anatomic landmarks were performed using a Vernier caliper with an accuracy of 0.1 mm. The pterion was classified into 4 types: the sphenoparietal, frontotemporal, stellate, or epipteric types. The incidences of types of pterion in the skulls were also found as the sphenoparietal type (85.2%), the epipteric type (8.2%), the stellate type (5.5%), and the frontotemporal type (1.1%). The mean (SD) distances from the center of the pterion to the zygomatic arch were measured as 40.02 (4.06) mm and 39.88 (4.01) mm; to the frontozygomatic suture, 31.80 (4.51) mm and 31.44 (4.73) mm; to the zygomatic angle, 41.54 (4.95) mm and 41.35 (5.14) mm; to the mastoid process, 82.48 (5.45) mm and 81.81 (5.50) mm; and to the external acoustic meatus, 53.29 (4.55) mm and 56.22 (4.60) mm, on the right and left sides, respectively. The mean (SD) distances between the foremost point of pterion and the anterior edge of the lateral wall of the orbit were 31.02 (5.78) mm and 32.31 (5.79) mm on the right and left sides, respectively. The localization and the shape of pterion are of importance because it is an anatomic landmark and should be of use in surgical approaches and interventions via the pterion.

  1. The 2011 Mw 7.1 Van (Eastern Turkey) earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliot, John R.; Copley, Alex C.; Holley, R.; Scharer, Katherine M.; Parsons, Barry

    2013-01-01

    We use interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), body wave seismology, satellite imagery, and field observations to constrain the fault parameters of the Mw 7.1 2011 Van (Eastern Turkey) reverse-slip earthquake, in the Turkish-Iranian plateau. Distributed slip models from elastic dislocation modeling of the InSAR surface displacements from ENVISAT and COSMO-SkyMed interferograms indicate up to 9 m of reverse and oblique slip on a pair of en echelon NW 40 °–54 ° dipping fault planes which have surface extensions projecting to just 10 km north of the city of Van. The slip remained buried and is relatively deep, with a centroid depth of 14 km, and the rupture reaching only within 8–9 km of the surface, consistent with the lack of significant ground rupture. The up-dip extension of this modeled WSW striking fault plane coincides with field observations of weak ground deformation seen on the western of the two fault segments and has a dip consistent with that seen at the surface in fault gouge exposed in Quaternary sediments. No significant coseismic slip is found in the upper 8 km of the crust above the main slip patches, except for a small region on the eastern segment potentially resulting from the Mw 5.9 aftershock on the same day. We perform extensive resolution tests on the data to confirm the robustness of the observed slip deficit in the shallow crust. We resolve a steep gradient in displacement at the point where the planes of the two fault segments ends are inferred to abut at depth, possibly exerting some structural control on rupture extent.

  2. Surface Creep Along the 1999 Izmit Earthquake's Rupture (Turkey) from InSAR, GPS and Terrestrial LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakir, Z.; Aslan, G.; Dogan, U.; Kaya, S.; Ergintav, S.; Oz, D.; Celik, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies based on InSAR and GPS observations have shown that the Izmit-Akyazı segment of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) began slipping aseismically following the August 17, 1999 Izmit earthquake and continue for more than 13 years. To monitor this long-lasting afterslip, we use new SAR data, GPS and terrestrial LIDAR measurements along the fault. InSAR time series are calculated using 32 TerraSAR-X radar images acquired between 2011 and 2015 with the small baseline InSAR (SBAS) approach using the Supersites Istanbul archive provided by the German Aerospace Center, DLR (project HAZ2584_Marmara) (Hooper, 2008). The results show that the Izmit fault still creeps, but in an episodic manner. Two creep events are detected in the beginning and at end of 2013, each with an offset of ~20 mm between Izmit and Lake Sapanca. Campaign GPS measurements on a recently established network with 35 benchmarks and LIDAR measurements on three sites confirm the ongoing aseismic activity along the fault (TÜBİTAK project no: 113Y102).

  3. Fault zone hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (< 1 km) introduces permeability heterogeneity and anisotropy, which has an important impact on processes such as regional groundwater flow, hydrocarbon migration, and hydrothermal fluid circulation. Fault zones have the capacity to be hydraulic conduits connecting shallow and deep geological environments, but simultaneously the fault cores of many faults often form effective barriers to flow. The direct evaluation of the impact of faults to fluid flow patterns remains a challenge and requires a multidisciplinary research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and

  4. The San Andreas Fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulz, Sandra S.; Wallace, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of the San Andreas fault was brought dramatically to world attention on April 18, 1906, when sudden displacement along the fault produced the great San Francisco earthquake and fire. This earthquake, however, was but one of many that have resulted from episodic displacement along the fault throughout its life of about 15-20 million years.

  5. Influences of wastewater discharges on the water quality of Mamasın dam watershed in Aksaray, Central Anatolian part of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhatip, Hatim; Güllü, Özlem

    2005-10-01

    Sustaining the human ecological benefits of surface water requires carefully planned strategies for reducing the cumulative risks posed by diverse human activities. Municipal governments in Aksaray City play a key role in developing solutions to surface water management and protection problems. The responsibility to provide drinking water and sewage works, regulate the use of private land, and protect public health provides the mandate and authority to take action. A large part of Aksaray City uses Mamasın dam water as its primary source for drinking water. Several point sources of contamination may result from direct wastewater discharges from Melendiz and Karasu rivers, which recharge the Mamasın dam watershed. Relevant studies were carried out for monitoring the eutrophication process, which usually occurs in the static water mass of the Mamasın dam lake. This process may be caused by the continual increase in nutrients and decrease of O2 levels, causing anaerobic conditions. Stimulated algae growth in these water bodies consequently reduces water quality. Hydrochemical parameters were evaluated to estimate the types of pollution sources, the level of pollution, and its environmental impacts on the Mamasın dam drinking water reservoir.

  6. Time's Up, Turkey--Pop-Up Thermometers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Meat thermometers can be awkward to use in terms of placement and avoidance of bones. Because of these problems, each year 30 million Thanksgiving turkeys have a built-in thermometer that pops up when the turkey is properly cooked. Turkey timers are an example of how engineering solved a common, everyday problem. The following 5E learning cycle…

  7. Turkey Masquerade. An Idea Worth Trying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wales, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance of planning for art projects by first producing sketches and then selecting the best sketch. Illustrates this by describing an activity used with fifth-grade students in which they make cut-paper collage turkeys and turkey disguises. Lists possible turkey disguises. (CMK)

  8. Life Satisfaction and Happiness in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selim, Sibel

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to investigate life satisfaction and happiness in Turkey. It extends the previous researches on subjective well-being (SWB) for Turkey by considering both happiness and life satisfaction. The previous researches for Turkey are local studies, and their findings cannot be generalized to the population of Turkish society. Given…

  9. Fault-Tree Compiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1993-01-01

    Fault-Tree Compiler (FTC) program, is software tool used to calculate probability of top event in fault tree. Gates of five different types allowed in fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. High-level input language easy to understand and use. In addition, program supports hierarchical fault-tree definition feature, which simplifies tree-description process and reduces execution time. Set of programs created forming basis for reliability-analysis workstation: SURE, ASSIST, PAWS/STEM, and FTC fault-tree tool (LAR-14586). Written in PASCAL, ANSI-compliant C language, and FORTRAN 77. Other versions available upon request.

  10. Trishear for curved faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenburg, J. P.

    2013-08-01

    Fault-propagation folds form an important trapping element in both onshore and offshore fold-thrust belts, and as such benefit from reliable interpretation. Building an accurate geologic interpretation of such structures requires palinspastic restorations, which are made more challenging by the interplay between folding and faulting. Trishear (Erslev, 1991; Allmendinger, 1998) is a useful tool to unravel this relationship kinematically, but is limited by a restriction to planar fault geometries, or at least planar fault segments. Here, new methods are presented for trishear along continuously curved reverse faults defining a flat-ramp transition. In these methods, rotation of the hanging wall above a curved fault is coupled to translation along a horizontal detachment. Including hanging wall rotation allows for investigation of structures with progressive backlimb rotation. Application of the new algorithms are shown for two fault-propagation fold structures: the Turner Valley Anticline in Southwestern Alberta, and the Alpha Structure in the Niger Delta.

  11. Differentiation of Anatolian honey samples from different botanical origins by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy using multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Gok, Seher; Severcan, Mete; Goormaghtigh, Erik; Kandemir, Irfan; Severcan, Feride

    2015-03-01

    Botanical origin of the nectar predominantly affects the chemical composition of honey. Analytical techniques used for reliable honey authentication are mostly time consuming and expensive. Additionally, they cannot provide 100% efficiency in accurate authentication. Therefore, alternatives for the determination of floral origin of honey need to be developed. This study aims to discriminate characteristic Anatolian honey samples from different botanical origins based on the differences in their molecular content, rather than giving numerical information about the constituents of samples. Another scope of the study is to differentiate inauthentic honey samples from the natural ones precisely. All samples were tested via unsupervised pattern recognition procedures like hierarchical clustering and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Discrimination of sample groups was achieved successfully with hierarchical clustering over the spectral range of 1800-750 cm(-1) which suggests a good predictive capability of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and chemometry for the determination of honey floral source.

  12. Morphometric age estimate of the last phase of accelerated uplift in the Kazdag area (Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demoulin, A.; Altin, T. Bayer; Beckers, A.

    2013-11-01

    While the Plio-Quaternary uplift of the Kazdag mountain range (Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey) is generally acknowledged, little is known about its detailed timing. Partly because of this lack of data, the cause of this uplift phase is also debated, being associated either to back-arc extension in the rear of the Hellenic subduction zone, to transpression along the northern edge of the west-moving Anatolian microplate, or to extension driven by gravitational collapse. Here, we perform a morphometric study of the fluvial landscape at the scale of the Biga Peninsula, coupling the recently developed R/SR analysis of the drainage network with concavity and steepness measures of a set of 29 rivers of all sizes. While the dependence of profile concavity on basin size confirms that the landscape of the peninsula is still in a transient state, the spatial distribution of profile steepness values characterized by higher values for streams flowing down from the Kazdag massif shows that the latter undergoes higher uplift rates than the rest of the peninsula. We obtain a SR value of 0.324 ± 0.035 that, according to the relation established by Demoulin (2012), yields an age range of 0.5-1.3 Ma and a most probable value of 0.8 Ma for the time of the last tectonic perturbation in the region. In agreement with the analysis of knickpoint migration in a subset of rivers, this suggests that a pulse of uplift occurred at that time and, corroborated by sparse published observations in the Bayramiç and Çanakkale depressions, that the peninsula was uplifted as a whole from that time. This uplift pulse might have been caused by transient compressive conditions in the Anatolian plate when the Eratosthenes seamount came to subduct beneath the Cyprus arc around the early-to-mid Pleistocene transition (Schattner, 2010).

  13. FTAPE: A fault injection tool to measure fault tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1994-01-01

    The paper introduces FTAPE (Fault Tolerance And Performance Evaluator), a tool that can be used to compare fault-tolerant computers. The tool combines system-wide fault injection with a controllable workload. A workload generator is used to create high stress conditions for the machine. Faults are injected based on this workload activity in order to ensure a high level of fault propagation. The errors/fault ratio and performance degradation are presented as measures of fault tolerance.

  14. FTAPE: A fault injection tool to measure fault tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1995-01-01

    The paper introduces FTAPE (Fault Tolerance And Performance Evaluator), a tool that can be used to compare fault-tolerant computers. The tool combines system-wide fault injection with a controllable workload. A workload generator is used to create high stress conditions for the machine. Faults are injected based on this workload activity in order to ensure a high level of fault propagation. The errors/fault ratio and performance degradation are presented as measures of fault tolerance.

  15. S1 satellite DNA repetitive units display identical structure and overall variability in all Anatolian brown frog taxa.

    PubMed

    Picariello, Orfeo; Feliciello, Isidoro; Chinali, Gianni

    2016-02-01

    S1 satellite DNA from Palearctic brown frogs has a species-specific structure in all European species. We characterized S1 satellite DNA from the Anatolian brown frogs Rana macrocnemis, R. camerani, and R. holtzi in order to define their taxonomic rank and the structure of this satellite in this frog lineage. Southern blots of genomic DNA digested with KpnI, EcoRV, NdeI, NheI, or StuI produced the same pattern of satellite DNA bands. Moreover, quantitative dot blots showed that this satellite DNA accounts for 0.1 % of the genome in all taxa. Analysis of the overall genomic variability of the S1a repeat sequence in specimens from various populations demonstrated that this repetitive unit also has the same size (476 bp), the same most common sequence (MCS) and the same overall variability in all three taxa, and also in R. macrocnemis tavasensis. The S1a repetitive unit presents three deletions of 9, 8 and 1 bp compared to the 494-bp S1a repeat from European frogs. The S1a MCS has three variable positions (sequence WWTK in positions 183-186), due to the presence of two repeat subpopulations with motifs AATG and WWTT in all taxa. Unlike previously analyzed mitochondrial and nuclear sequences that show considerable variations among these taxa, no difference could be detected in the structure and variability of the S1 satellite repetitive units. This suggests that these taxa should belong to a single species. Our results indicate that this satellite DNA variety probably formed when the Anatolian lineage radiated from common ancestor about 4 mya, and since then has maintained its structure in all four taxa examined.

  16. "Chemical fingerprints" of pumice from Cappadocia (Turkey) and Kos (Greece) for archaeological applications.

    PubMed

    Steinhauser, Georg; Sterba, Johannes H; Bichler, Max

    2007-05-01

    Pumice has been used as a serviceable abrasive or religious artefact since antiquity and has therefore been an object of trade. It can be found in excavations of ancient workshops all over the Mediterranean. Pumice lumps from the major pumice-bearing rhyolitic tephra units in Cappadocia-the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province, Turkey (in particular the ignimbrites Kavak, Cemilköy, Tahar, Gördeles, and the volcanic complexes of Acigöl and Hasan Daği), were sampled and analyzed for major and trace element concentrations using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Elements determined were Na, K, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Rb, Zr, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th, and U. Since the distribution of those elements is characteristic of the products of a certain eruption, this "chemical fingerprint" can be used to establish the origin of an unknown pumice sample by comparison with samples of known origin. In the course of this study, it could be shown that one pumice finding from the excavation in Miletos (Turkey) probably originates from the Hasan Daği volcanic complex in Cappadocia. Since it is known that the population in Miletos focused their trade connections on the Mediterranean, this result is somewhat surprising. Two other samples from Miletos show a very high similarity to the chemical fingerprint of pumice from the Kos Plateau Tuff (KPT; Greece): In one case, the identification is doubtless, in the other case identification as KPT seems quite probable.

  17. Holocene environmental change in southwest Turkey: a palaeoecological record of lake and catchment-related changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastwood, W. J.; Roberts, N.; Lamb, H. F.; Tibby, J. C.

    1999-04-01

    Percentage, concentration and accumulation pollen data together with diatom and non-siliceous microfossil data are presented for the site of Gölhisar Gölü (37°8'N, 29°36'E; elevation 930 m), a small intramontane lake in Burdur Province, southwest Turkey. Microfossil assemblages from the longest sediment core (GHA: 813 cm) record changes in local and regional vegetation and lake productivity over the last ˜9500 years. Pollen spectra indicate that vegetation progressed from an open landscape with an increase in arboreal pollen occurring ˜8500 BP to mixed forest comprising oak, pine and juniper until around 3000 BP (Cal ˜1240 BC) when a human occupation phase becomes discernible from the pollen spectra. This occurs shortly after the deposition of a volcanic tephra layer which originated from the Minoan eruption of Santorini (Thera) and radiocarbon dated to 3330±70 yr BP (Cal ˜1600 BC). This human occupation phase is comparable to the Beyşehir Occupation phase recorded at other sites in southwest Turkey and involved forest clearance and the cultivation of fruit trees such as Olea, Juglans, Castanea and Vitis together with arable cereal growing and pastoralism. The presence of pollen types associated with the Beyşehir Occupation phase in deposits above the Santorini tephra layer confirms a Late Bronze Age/early Anatolian Dark Age date for its commencement. Since ˜3000 BP notable changes in aquatic ecology associated with tephra deposition and subsequent nutrient and sediment flux from the lake catchment are recorded. The Beyşehir Occupation phase at Gölhisar Gölü came to an end around 1300 BP (Cla AD ˜700) when pine appears to have become the dominant forest tree.

  18. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

  19. Survey report: Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kent, M

    1987-06-01

    The 1983 Turkish Population and Health Survey, involving 5398 ever-married women under 50 years of age, revealed that the demand for family planning services in Turkey exceeds current availability. Although almost 3/4 of survey respondents indicated they wanted only 2-3 children, actual fertility rates in the 1978-83 period averaged 4.2 births/woman. The percent of currently married women under 50 years of age using birth control increased from 50% in 1978 to 62% in 1983, but half of this increase was attributable to a greater reliance on withdrawal. Withdrawal was the contraceptive method used by 49% of family planning acceptors in 1983; only 27% reported use of a modern method. Inadequate supplies was the main reason cited for the low use of modern methods, especially in the more rural eastern regions of the country. The prevalence of traditional methods, and an increasing abortion ratio (25.6/100 live births in 1983), indicates a high unmet need for family planning. 78% of the women surveyed in 1983 asserted that they did not want any more children. The 1983 survey also reported an infant mortality rate of 112/1000 live births. Most Turkish women breastfeed their infants for the 1st year of life, but other traditional practices such as reliance on untrained attendants for childbirth and packing earth into the swaddling cloth with the infant have been linked to higher infant mortality. The survey report concluded that improvements in the education and status of women would enhance their acceptance of family planning and contribute to life-styles more promotive of infant survival.

  20. Isolability of faults in sensor fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, Reza; Langari, Reza

    2011-10-01

    A major concern with fault detection and isolation (FDI) methods is their robustness with respect to noise and modeling uncertainties. With this in mind, several approaches have been proposed to minimize the vulnerability of FDI methods to these uncertainties. But, apart from the algorithm used, there is a theoretical limit on the minimum effect of noise on detectability and isolability. This limit has been quantified in this paper for the problem of sensor fault diagnosis based on direct redundancies. In this study, first a geometric approach to sensor fault detection is proposed. The sensor fault is isolated based on the direction of residuals found from a residual generator. This residual generator can be constructed from an input-output or a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based model. The simplicity of this technique, compared to the existing methods of sensor fault diagnosis, allows for more rational formulation of the isolability concepts in linear systems. Using this residual generator and the assumption of Gaussian noise, the effect of noise on isolability is studied, and the minimum magnitude of isolable fault in each sensor is found based on the distribution of noise in the measurement system. Finally, some numerical examples are presented to clarify this approach.

  1. Focal mechanisms and stress variations in the Caucasus and Northeast Turkey from constraints of regional waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Tai-Lin; Hsu, Hsin-Chih; Jian, Pei-Ru; Huang, Bor-Shouh; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Chung, Sun-Lin

    2016-11-01

    The continental collision between Arabia and Eurasia created large strike-slip faults in Turkey as well as mountains in the Caucasus and the volcanic plateau between them. In this study, we use regional waveforms of a new seismic array deployed between 2008 and 2012 to constrain the focal mechanisms and depths of small to moderate sized earthquakes occurring in the western part of the Central Caucasus and northeast Turkey. The distribution of aftershocks and the twelve focal mechanisms involved in the sequence of the 2009 earthquake in Racha are clearly a reactivation of a deeper segment of the 1991 M7 Racha rupture zone. The deeper segment is not well connected to the shallower décollement separating the basement and sedimentary basin. The earthquakes we determined in northeastern Turkey and southern Georgia are related to the strike-slip fault system. We further combined all of the reliably determined focal mechanisms over the last 30 years to investigate the current stress status of the crust in three areas: Racha in the western Greater Caucasus, Javakheti near the Lesser Caucasus and in Northeast Turkey. Our results show that the directions of maximum compressional stress consistently fall within - 2 to 14°N throughout the entire study region. This appears to be controlled by the continental collision. Nonetheless, the minimum compression switches from vertical (in the Greater Caucasus) to the east-west direction (in northeastern Turkey), due to the westward extrusion of the Anatolia block, which is driven partly by the Hellenic subduction. The transition of the stress field is close to the Javakheti volcanic plateau in the Lesser Caucasus, where the relative magnitude between the principal stresses appears to be strongly variable.

  2. Short Period Surface Wave Dispersion Across the Mediterranean Region: Improvements Using Regional Seismic Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Italy, the North Sea Basin, the Silesian Basin in northern Germany and Poland, the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic Basins surrounding Italy, and the...Turkey and Northern Anatolian Fault (ANF) experiments in Turkey, as well as other temporary deployments such as the Mid- Sea Experiment and the...goal is to improve data coverage in the Mediterranean Sea , North Africa, and parts of the Middle East.We plan to continue to improve the data set in

  3. Statistical Evaluation of Turkey Earthquake Cataloque: A Case study (1900-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalafat, Dogan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, Turkey earthquake catalog of the events within the time period of 1900-2015 prepared by Boǧaziçi University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute is analyzed. The catalog consists of earthquakes occurred in Turkey and surrounding area (32o-45oN/23o-48oE). The current earthquake catalog data has been checked in two aspects; the time dependent variation and compliance for different regions. Specifically the data set prior to 1976 was found deficient. In total, 7 regions were evaluated according to the tectonic specifications and data set. In this study for every region original data were used without any change; b- values, a- values, Magnitude of completeness (Mc) were calculated. For the calculation of b- values focal depth was selected as h= 0-50 km. One of the important complications for the seismic catalogs is discriminating real (natural) seismic events from artificial (unnatural) seismic events. Therefore within the original current catalog events especially artificial quarry blasts and mine blasts have been separated by declustering and dequarry methods. Declustering process eliminates induced earthquakes especially occurred in thermal regions, large water basins, mine regions from the original catalogs. Current moment tensor catalog prepared by Kalafat, 2015 the faulting type map of the region was prepared. As a result, for each region it is examined if there is a relation between fault type and b- values. In this study, the hypothesis of the relation between previously evaluated and currently ongoing extensional, compression, strike-slip fault regimes in Turkey and b- values are tested one more time. This study was supported by the Department of Science Fellowship and Grant programs (2014-2219) of TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technological Research Councilof Turkey). It also encourages the conduct of the study and support the constructive contributionthat Prof.Dr. Nafi TOKSÖZ to offer my eternal gratitude.

  4. Industrial apiculture in the Jordan valley during Biblical times with Anatolian honeybees.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Guy; Francoy, Tiago M; Wachtel, Ido; Panitz-Cohen, Nava; Fuchs, Stefan; Mazar, Amihai

    2010-06-22

    Although texts and wall paintings suggest that bees were kept in the Ancient Near East for the production of precious wax and honey, archaeological evidence for beekeeping has never been found. The Biblical term "honey" commonly was interpreted as the sweet product of fruits, such as dates and figs. The recent discovery of unfired clay cylinders similar to traditional hives still used in the Near East at the site of Tel Re ov in the Jordan valley in northern Israel suggests that a large-scale apiary was located inside the town, dating to the 10th-early 9th centuries B.C.E. This paper reports the discovery of remains of honeybee workers, drones, pupae, and larvae inside these hives. The exceptional preservation of these remains provides unequivocal identification of the clay cylinders as the most ancient beehives yet found. Morphometric analyses indicate that these bees differ from the local subspecies Apis mellifera syriaca and from all subspecies other than A. m. anatoliaca, which presently resides in parts of Turkey. This finding suggests either that the Western honeybee subspecies distribution has undergone rapid change during the last 3,000 years or that the ancient inhabitants of Tel Re ov imported bees superior to the local bees in terms of their milder temper and improved honey yield.

  5. ESR and TL studies of irradiated Anatolian laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepe Çam, Semra; Aydaş, Canan; Engin, Birol; Rabia Yüce, Ülkü; Aydın, Talat; Polat, Mustafa

    2012-06-01

    Laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L.) samples that originated from Turkey were analyzed by electron spin resonance (ESR) and thermoluminescence (TL) techniques before and after γ-irradiation. Unirradiated (control) laurel leaf samples exhibit a weak ESR singlet centered at g=2.0020. Besides this central signal were two weak satellite signals situated about 3 mT left and right to it in radiation-induced spectra. The dose-response curve of the radiation-induced ESR signal at g=2.0187 (the left satellite signal) was found to be described well by a power function. Variation of the left satellite ESR signal intensity of irradiated samples at room temperature with time in a long term showed that cellulosic free radicals responsible for the ESR spectrum of laurel leaves were not stable but detectable even after 100 days. Annealing studies at four different temperatures were used to determine the kinetic behavior and activation energy of the radiation-induced cellulosic free radicals responsible from the left satellite signal (g=2.0187) in laurel leaves. TL measurements of the polymineral dust isolated from the laurel leaf samples allowed distinguishing between irradiated and unirradiated samples.

  6. Industrial apiculture in the Jordan valley during Biblical times with Anatolian honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Guy; Francoy, Tiago M.; Wachtel, Ido; Panitz-Cohen, Nava; Fuchs, Stefan; Mazar, Amihai

    2010-01-01

    Although texts and wall paintings suggest that bees were kept in the Ancient Near East for the production of precious wax and honey, archaeological evidence for beekeeping has never been found. The Biblical term “honey” commonly was interpreted as the sweet product of fruits, such as dates and figs. The recent discovery of unfired clay cylinders similar to traditional hives still used in the Near East at the site of Tel Reov in the Jordan valley in northern Israel suggests that a large-scale apiary was located inside the town, dating to the 10th–early 9th centuries B.C.E. This paper reports the discovery of remains of honeybee workers, drones, pupae, and larvae inside these hives. The exceptional preservation of these remains provides unequivocal identification of the clay cylinders as the most ancient beehives yet found. Morphometric analyses indicate that these bees differ from the local subspecies Apis mellifera syriaca and from all subspecies other than A. m. anatoliaca, which presently resides in parts of Turkey. This finding suggests either that the Western honeybee subspecies distribution has undergone rapid change during the last 3,000 years or that the ancient inhabitants of Tel Reov imported bees superior to the local bees in terms of their milder temper and improved honey yield. PMID:20534519

  7. Early Childhood Inclusion in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Rakap, Salih; Diken, Ozlem; Tomris, Gozde; Celik, Secil

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of young children with disabilities into regular preschool classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for several decades in industrialized nations around the world, and many developing countries including Turkey have been developing and implementing laws, regulation, and services to support inclusion and teaching in…

  8. Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Canatan, Duran

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies are a serious health problem in Turkey. There is a 70-year history of thalassemia in Turkey. The first patient with β-thalassemia major (β-TM) was reported in 1941. The first clinical and hematological studies were published by Aksoy in 1958. The overall incidence of β-thalassemia (β-thal) was reported by Çavdar and Arcasoy to be 2.1% in 1971. Important steps such as written regulations, education and prevention campaigns, have been taken to prevent thalassemia in Turkey by the Ministry of Health (MOH), the Turkish National Hemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC) and the Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT) since 2000. A national hemoglobinopathy prevention program was started in provinces with a high prevalence by the MOH in 2003. While the percentage of premarital screening test was 30.0% of all couples in 2003, it reached 86.0% in 2013. While the number of newborn with thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies was 272 in 2002, it had dropped to 25 in 2010. There has been a 90.0% reduction of affected births in the last 10 years.

  9. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  10. How Faults Shape the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bykerk-Kauffman, Ann

    1992-01-01

    Presents fault activity with an emphasis on earthquakes and changes in continent shapes. Identifies three types of fault movement: normal, reverse, and strike faults. Discusses the seismic gap theory, plate tectonics, and the principle of superposition. Vignettes portray fault movement, and the locations of the San Andreas fault and epicenters of…

  11. Fault detection and fault tolerance in robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visinsky, Monica; Walker, Ian D.; Cavallaro, Joseph R.

    1992-01-01

    Robots are used in inaccessible or hazardous environments in order to alleviate some of the time, cost and risk involved in preparing men to endure these conditions. In order to perform their expected tasks, the robots are often quite complex, thus increasing their potential for failures. If men must be sent into these environments to repair each component failure in the robot, the advantages of using the robot are quickly lost. Fault tolerant robots are needed which can effectively cope with failures and continue their tasks until repairs can be realistically scheduled. Before fault tolerant capabilities can be created, methods of detecting and pinpointing failures must be perfected. This paper develops a basic fault tree analysis of a robot in order to obtain a better understanding of where failures can occur and how they contribute to other failures in the robot. The resulting failure flow chart can also be used to analyze the resiliency of the robot in the presence of specific faults. By simulating robot failures and fault detection schemes, the problems involved in detecting failures for robots are explored in more depth.

  12. Active faults in Lebanon : kinematics and interseismic behavior measured from radar interferometry (InSAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasserre, C.; Pinel-Puysségur, B.; Vergnolle, M.; Klinger, Y.; Pathier, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Levant fault system, more than 1000 km-long, marks the limit between the Arabian and Sinaï tectonic plates, extending from the Aqaba gulf in the Red Sea to Turkey. Mostly left-lateral, it forms a transpression zone in Lebanon, associating strike-slip faults such as the Yammouneh fault and thrust faults such as the Mount Lebanon thrust. This fault system in Lebanon is at the origin of large historical earthquakes during the past two thousand years (551 AD on the thrust offshore and 1837 along the Roum fault inland, 1759 along the Rashaia and Sergaya faults). We aim at characterizing the present-day behavior of active faults in Lebanon, in particular the Yammouneh fault which did not break since 1202, to contribute to a better assessment of the seismic hazard in this region. Space geodesy techniques (GPS, InSAR) allow to quantify the present-day displacements across faults (a few mm/yr during the interseismic period), and to model stress loading and relaxation processes during the seismic cycle, at the fault scale and at the regional scale. GPS campaign measurements have been made along profiles perpendicular to the Yammouneh fault. In addition, an important archive of radar images covering Lebanon (acquired by the ERS and Envisat satellites, along descending and ascending orbits) is also available. We process ERS and Envisat radar data to obtain the average interseismic velocity field across faults over the past 15-20 years. Techniques of interferograms networks processing (MuLSAR), atmospheric phase delays correction from global atmospherical models, DEM correction and time series inversion (NSBAS) are used to overcome the main remaining limitations in the measurements accuracy (low coherence, strong atmospheric delays, long wavelength deformation signal). The final goal is to propose a modelling of the surface displacement field to quantify the present-day kinematics of active fauts in Lebanon, taking into account GPS data as well as tectonic and

  13. Large and small scale structural evolution of salt controlled minibasin in a fold and thrust belt setting: the case of the Sivas Basin, Turkey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kergaravat, Charlie; Ribes, Charlotte; Legeay, Etienne; Callot, Jean-Paul; Aubourg, Charles; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude

    2016-04-01

    The Sivas Basin in the Central Anatolian Plateau (Turkey) is a foreland fold-and-thrust belt, showing a core composed by a typical wall and basin structure (WABS), where the quality of reservoir rocks is governed primarily by the fracture and matrix damage, in relation to the macroscopic structure. Based on extensive fieldwork including detailed mapping of minibasins contacts, along with interpretation of a 2D regional seismic line, provide evidence for the development of a canopy separating two generations of MBs. The quality of reservoir rocks in these minibasins framed by evaporites is studied through (1) the characterization of the fracture network in two mini-basins, where 40 sites have been acquired, and (2) the magnetic fabric of 135 samples from sandstones to siltstones rocks from both Emirhan and Karayun mini-basins. The Late Eocene-early Oligocene evaporite level was remobilized during the northward migration of the sedimentary load during propagation of the foreland FTB. Evaporites occur at the base of several MBs, overlain by formations younger than those filling the initial generation of MBs. This support a second generation of MBs developped over an allochthonous evaporite level. The wavelength of tectonic structures increases away from the WABS domain and suggests a deepening of the decollement level. The polygonal pattern of the WABS influences the growing FTB system during the late stage of secondary MBs development, acting as a transfer zone between a forelandward thrust sheet propagating to the west and a triangular zone with hinterlandward thrusts to the east. The shortening is accommodated within the WABS by squeezed walls and diapirs, and by the translation/rotation of MBs, recorded by strike-slip fault zones. Considering the reservoir scale damage, both mini-basins display similar fracture network of pre-tilt fractures. In both mini-basins, we observed an early N-S fracture network, bed-perpendicular and parallel to the shortening. It is

  14. A palynostratigraphic approach to the SW Anatolian molasse basin: Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgün, Funda; Sözbilir, Hasan

    The study, explains stratigraphy of the Oligo-Miocene molasse around the Denizli province (SW Anatolia), based on the palynology which is also supported by the detailed mapping and correlation of the measured sections from the coal-bearing sequences of the molasse deposits. For this purpose, two huge depressions named as the Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse basins were examined. The Kale-Tavas molasse deposits has a basal unconformity with the underlying pre-Oligocene basement and begins with the Chattian Karadere and Mortuma formations which are covered unconformably by the Aquitanian Yenidere formation. An angular unconformity between the Chattian and the Burdigalian is only observed in the middle part of the basin, around Kale. In the Tavas section, the Aquitanian and the Burdigalian are absent. The Denizli molasse is characterized by Chattian-Aquitanian sequence consisting of distinctive sedimentary facies, alluvial fan and deltaic-shallow marine deposits with carbonate patch reefs. Palynostratigraphic studies, which have given the Chattian age, have been carried out from the coal lenses of alluvial fan and delta plain deposits. In addition to the palynological determinations, coral and foraminiferal content of the carbonate patch reefs which rest conformably on the coal-bearing sequences have yielded the Chattian-Aquitanian age. Two different palynomorph associations have been determined from the molasse deposits. The first palynomorph association which is established in the samples from the Sağdere and Mortuma formations, corresponds to the Chattian age, whilst the second is of the Aquitanian age. The Late Oligocene-Early Miocene which is claimed as the time of N-S-extensional tectonics in western Turkey, is related to the depositional time of the molasse sequences in the study area. Thus, the molasse is older than the basal deposits of the Gediz and Büyük Menderes grabens.

  15. Electron spin resonance study of γ-irradiated Anatolian chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayda, Canan; Engin, B. I. R. O. L.; Polat, Mustafa; Aydin, Talat

    In this study, an electron spin resonance (ESR) investigation on γ-irradiated chickpea cultivated in Turkey is reported in detail. ESR spectra of unirradiated (control) chickpea were composed of an equally spaced sextet originating from the presence of Mn2+ ions and a single weak resonance signal both centered at gD2.0054±0.0006. Although irradiation was found to have no effect on the Mn2+ signals, it caused a noteworthy increase in free radical signal intensity of chickpea in the studied dose range of (0.1-4.5 kGy). In addition, the ESR spectrum of irradiated chickpea recorded at low scan range (10 mT) showed that there were more than one radical species, having different spectral features, contributing to the central resonance signal. From this point of view, we focussed on the free radical signal in the present study. The area under the ESR absorption curve which is related to the free radical concentration was determined from the experimental spectra recorded throughout the study, and its variation with microwave power, radiation dose, storage time and temperature was investigated in detail. Free radical concentration was observed to decay very fast within the first 15 days after the irradiation cessation and little thereafter. At the end of the storage period (60 days), the free radical concentration is still higher than that of the control (unirradiated) sample. The decay of free radical concentration at room and high temperatures were described well by the sum of three second-order decay functions representing three different radical species (A, B and C). The activation energies of these radicals, evaluated by Arrhenius analysis, are in the order EC>EB>EA. Simulation calculations have shown that three radical species (A, B and C) of different spectral parameters were found to best explain the experimental values.

  16. Municipal solid waste management strategies in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Turan, N Gamze; Coruh, Semra; Akdemir, Andaç; Ergun, Osman Nuri

    2009-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major environmental problem in Turkey, as in many developing countries. Problems associated with municipal solid waste are difficult to address, but efforts towards more efficient collection and transportation and environmentally acceptable waste disposal continue in Turkey. Although strict regulations on the management of solid waste are in place, primitive disposal methods such as open dumping and discharge into surface water have been used in various parts of Turkey. This study presents a brief history of the legislative trends in Turkey for MSW management. The study also presents the MSW responsibility and management structure together with the present situation of generation, composition, recycling, and treatment. The results show that approximately 25 million ton of MSW are generated annually in Turkey. About 77% of the population receives MSW services. In spite of efforts to change open dumping areas into sanitary landfills and to build modern recycling and composting facilities, Turkey still has over 2000 open dumps.

  17. Turkey knockdown in successive flocks.

    PubMed

    Evans, R D; Edson, R K; Watkins, K L; Robertson, J L; Meldrum, J B; Novilla, M N

    2000-01-01

    Turkey knockdown was diagnosed in three of five flocks of hen turkeys on a single farm within a 12-mo period. The age of birds in the flocks affected ranged from 6 wk 2 days to 7 wk 4 days. The attack rate ranged from 0.02% to 0.30% with a case fatality rate in affected birds ranging from 0 to 74%. The diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical signs and histopathologic lesions associated with knockdown. The feed in all flocks contained bacitracin methylene disalicylate and monensin (Coban). Affected birds were recumbent, demonstrated paresis, and were unable to vocalize. Postmortem examination revealed few significant lesions although pallor of the adductor muscles and petechiation in adductor and gastrocnemius muscles were noted. Birds that had been recumbent for extended periods were severely dehydrated. Consistent microscopic lesions included degeneration, necrosis, and regeneration of adductor, gastrocnemius, and abdominal muscles. No lesion in cardiac tissue was noted. Results of our investigation indicated that changes in water consumption, vitamin E status, and brooder to finisher movement correlated with the occurrence of knockdown. Turkey knockdown was defined in 1993 as any condition identified in a turkey flock that has affected the neuromuscular system to a degree that a turkey is unable to walk or stand. This definition was later modified to...neuromuscular or skeletal systems to a degree that a turkey is unable to walk or stand properly. Knockdown may be associated with numerous feed, management, or disease factors alone or in combination. Dosage of monensin, feed restriction/gorging, water restriction, heat stress, copper, mycotoxins, sodium chloride in feed, and sulfa drugs have all been suggested as contributing factors; however, laboratory studies to duplicate this have not been successful. This report presents observations from a single farm at which three of five hen flocks in a single year experienced knockdown. When a flock was reported as

  18. Characterization of leaky faults

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, Chao

    1990-05-01

    Leaky faults provide a flow path for fluids to move underground. It is very important to characterize such faults in various engineering projects. The purpose of this work is to develop mathematical solutions for this characterization. The flow of water in an aquifer system and the flow of air in the unsaturated fault-rock system were studied. If the leaky fault cuts through two aquifers, characterization of the fault can be achieved by pumping water from one of the aquifers, which are assumed to be horizontal and of uniform thickness. Analytical solutions have been developed for two cases of either a negligibly small or a significantly large drawdown in the unpumped aquifer. Some practical methods for using these solutions are presented. 45 refs., 72 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Solar system fault detection

    DOEpatents

    Farrington, Robert B.; Pruett, Jr., James C.

    1986-01-01

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  20. Solar system fault detection

    DOEpatents

    Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

    1984-05-14

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  1. Recalculated probability of M ≥ 7 earthquakes beneath the Sea of Marmara, Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.

    2004-01-01

    New earthquake probability calculations are made for the Sea of Marmara region and the city of Istanbul, providing a revised forecast and an evaluation of time-dependent interaction techniques. Calculations incorporate newly obtained bathymetric images of the North Anatolian fault beneath the Sea of Marmara [Le Pichon et al., 2001; Armijo et al., 2002]. Newly interpreted fault segmentation enables an improved regional A.D. 1500-2000 earthquake catalog and interevent model, which form the basis for time-dependent probability estimates. Calculations presented here also employ detailed models of coseismic and postseismic slip associated with the 17 August 1999 M = 7.4 Izmit earthquake to investigate effects of stress transfer on seismic hazard. Probability changes caused by the 1999 shock depend on Marmara Sea fault-stressing rates, which are calculated with a new finite element model. The combined 2004-2034 regional Poisson probability of M≥7 earthquakes is ~38%, the regional time-dependent probability is 44 ± 18%, and incorporation of stress transfer raises it to 53 ± 18%. The most important effect of adding time dependence and stress transfer to the calculations is an increase in the 30 year probability of a M ??? 7 earthquake affecting Istanbul. The 30 year Poisson probability at Istanbul is 21%, and the addition of time dependence and stress transfer raises it to 41 ± 14%. The ranges given on probability values are sensitivities of the calculations to input parameters determined by Monte Carlo analysis; 1000 calculations are made using parameters drawn at random from distributions. Sensitivities are large relative to mean probability values and enhancements caused by stress transfer, reflecting a poor understanding of large-earthquake aperiodicity.

  2. Rough faults, distributed weakening, and off-fault deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, W. Ashley; Nielsen, Stefan; di Toro, Giulio; Smith, Steven A. F.

    2010-08-01

    We report systematic spatial variations in fault rocks along nonplanar strike-slip faults cross-cutting the Lake Edison Granodiorite, Sierra Nevada, California (Sierran wavy fault) and Lobbia outcrops of the Adamello Batholith in the Italian Alps (Lobbia wavy fault). In the case of the Sierran fault, pseudotachylyte formed at contractional fault bends, where it is found as thin (1-2 mm) fault-parallel veins. Epidote and chlorite developed in the same seismic context as the pseudotachylyte and are especially abundant in extensional fault bends. We argue that the presence of fluids, as illustrated by this example, does not necessarily preclude the development of frictional melt. In the case of the Lobbia fault, pseudotachylyte thickness varies along the length of the fault, but the pseudotachylyte veins thicken and pool in extensional bends. We conduct a quantitative analysis of fault roughness, microcrack distribution, stress, and friction along the Lobbia fault. Numerical modeling results show that opening in extensional bends and localized thermal weakening in contractional bends counteract resistance encountered by fault waviness, resulting in an overall weaker fault than suggested by the corresponding static friction coefficient. The models also predict static stress redistribution around bends in the faults which is consistent with distribution of microcracks, indicating significant elastic and inelastic strain energy is dissipated into the wall rocks due to nonplanar fault geometry. Together these observations suggest that damage and energy dissipation occurs along the entire nonplanar fault during slip, rather than being confined to the region close to the dynamically propagating crack tip.

  3. Women and leprosy in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cakiner, T; Yüksel, A; Soydan, M; Saylan, T; Bahçeci, E

    1993-01-01

    Women in Turkey have many social, cultural and economical problems. Women with leprosy have problems in common with other women as well as those related to physical and social consequences of leprosy. There are 2,414 patients with leprosy in Turkey, registered to Istanbul Leprosy Hospital and 829 of them are females. The mean age and duration of disease of our female leprosy patients are high. Most women with leprosy were born in eastern part of Turkey where prevalence of leprosy is higher and most have moved to western regions. The proportion of women who have some kind of social security is very low. Their economic status is also not good and 79% of patients had stigma about their disease. Three fourths of these cases have been hospitalized some time, for different reasons. Most of them (97.2%) have inactive disease at present. Disability degrees of patients are high. Patients with disability degrees over one constitute 54% of total for eyes, 55% for hands and 51% for feet. High percentage of multibacillary form and long duration of disease, delayed diagnosis, insufficient self-care of patients due to low socio-economic and cultural status and failure of health personnel to control patients periodically may be among the reasons for such high ratios of moderate and severe disabilities. In the light of the data obtained in our study, some measures to alleviate the problems of patients resulting from their socio-economic, cultural and social status have been suggested.

  4. Deep crustal structure of northwestern part of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Cemal

    2010-06-01

    The deep crustal structure of the Polatlı-Nallıhan-Karasu (NW Turkey) area was investigated by Magnetotelluric and Transient Electromagnetic measurements. All measurements were acquired as part of a national project called Crustal Structures of Turkey undertaken by the General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration of Turkey (MTA). Magnetotelluric data were collected from 44 stations located along a 250 km northwest to southeast profile crossing in succession the İstanbul Zone, Intra-Pontid Suture, Sakarya Continent, İzmir-Ankara Suture, Tavşanlı Zone (the Tauride-Anatolide Belt), Intra-Pontid Suture and Sakarya Continent. After decompositional analysis and strike direction estimation, static shift is corrected by using transient electromagnetic data from MT apparent resistivity data. The processed MT data were inverted to derive a two-dimensional geoelectrical model. The estimated model is interpreted with the help of gravity data observed along the MT lines and using earthquake epicenter which occurred around MT measurement lines. Four layers with distinctive resistivity values dominate the geoelectrical section. The uppermost layer, having resistivity values of 5-35 ohm m can be interpreted as the sedimentary fill. This layer reaches down to about 10 km depth in Haymana Basin. The second layer has resistivity values higher than 110 ohm m and reaches 27 km depth. The first and second layers can be inferred as constituting the upper crust in the general model of the Earth's lithosphere. The third layer underlying the upper crust has resistivity values of 10-30 ohm m corresponding to the lower crust. The fourth layer having high resistivity values (> 225 ohm m) can be considered as the upper mantle. The depth of the boundary separating the crust from the upper mantle (Moho) varies between 20 and 40 km. High conductive zones between the İstanbul Zone and Sakarya Continent, Sakarya Continent and Tavşanlı Zone coincide with high Bouguer gravity

  5. Fault Management Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stephen B.; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Haste, Deepak; Moore, Craig

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the theory and considerations in the application of metrics to measure the effectiveness of fault management. Fault management refers here to the operational aspect of system health management, and as such is considered as a meta-control loop that operates to preserve or maximize the system's ability to achieve its goals in the face of current or prospective failure. As a suite of control loops, the metrics to estimate and measure the effectiveness of fault management are similar to those of classical control loops in being divided into two major classes: state estimation, and state control. State estimation metrics can be classified into lower-level subdivisions for detection coverage, detection effectiveness, fault isolation and fault identification (diagnostics), and failure prognosis. State control metrics can be classified into response determination effectiveness and response effectiveness. These metrics are applied to each and every fault management control loop in the system, for each failure to which they apply, and probabilistically summed to determine the effectiveness of these fault management control loops to preserve the relevant system goals that they are intended to protect.

  6. Late Pleistocene and Holocene uplift history of Cyprus: implications for active tectonics along the southern margin of the Anatolian microplate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, R.W.; Tsiolakis, E.; Stone, B.D.; Lord, A.; McGeehin, J.P.; Mahan, S.A.; Chirico, P.

    2013-01-01

    The nature of the southern margin of the Anatolian microplate during the Neogene is complex, controversial and fundamental in understanding active plate-margin tectonics and natural hazards in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Our investigation provides new insights into the Late Pleistocene uplift history of Cyprus and the Troodos Ophiolite. We provide isotopic (14C) and radiogenic (luminescence) dates of outcropping marine sediments in eastern Cyprus that identify periods of deposition during marine isotope stages (MIS) 3, 4, 5 and 6. Past sea-levels indicated by these deposits are c. 95±25 m higher in elevation than estimates of worldwide eustatic sea-level. An uplift rate of c. 1.8 mm/year and possibly as much as c. 4.1 mm/year in the past c. 26–40 ka is indicated. Holocene marine deposits also occur at elevations higher than those expected for past SL and suggest uplift rates of c. 1.2–2.1 mm/year. MIS-3 marine deposits that crop out in southern and western Cyprus indicate uniform island-wide uplift. We propose a model of tectonic wedging at a plate-bounding restraining bend as a mechanism for Late Pleistocene to Holocene uplift of Cyprus; uplift is accommodated by deformation and seismicity along the margins of the Troodos Ophiolite and re-activation of its low-angle, basal shear zone.

  7. Malocclusion prevalence and orthodontic treatment need in central Anatolian adolescents compared to European and other nations' adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bilgic, Fundagul; Gelgor, Ibrahim Erhan; Celebi, Ahmet Arif

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in a large sample of Central Anatolian adolescents and compare them with European-other nations' adolescents. Methods: The sample included 1125 boys and 1204 girls aged between 12 and 16 years with no previous orthodontic treatment history. Occlusal variables examined were molar relationship, overjet, overbite, crowding, midline diastema, posterior crossbite, and scissors bite. The dental health (DHC) and aesthetic components (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) were used as an assessment measure of the need for orthodontic treatment for the total sample. Results: The results indicated a high prevalence of Class I (34.9%) and Class II, Division 1 malocclusions (40.0%). Moreover, increased (18%) and reduced bites (14.%), and increased (25.1%) and reversed overjet (10.%) were present in the sample. Conclusion: Using the DHC of the IOTN, the proportion of subjects estimated to have great and very great treatment need (grades 4 and 5) was 28.%. However, only 16.7% of individuals were in need (grades 8-10) of orthodontic treatment according to the AC. PMID:26691973

  8. Measuring fault tolerance with the FTAPE fault injection tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes FTAPE (Fault Tolerance And Performance Evaluator), a tool that can be used to compare fault-tolerant computers. The major parts of the tool include a system-wide fault-injector, a workload generator, and a workload activity measurement tool. The workload creates high stress conditions on the machine. Using stress-based injection, the fault injector is able to utilize knowledge of the workload activity to ensure a high level of fault propagation. The errors/fault ratio, performance degradation, and number of system crashes are presented as measures of fault tolerance.

  9. Fault detection and isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernath, Greg

    1993-01-01

    Erroneous measurements in multisensor navigation systems must be detected and isolated. A recursive estimator can find fast growing errors; a least squares batch estimator can find slow growing errors. This process is called fault detection. A protection radius can be calculated as a function of time for a given location. This protection radius can be used to guarantee the integrity of the navigation data. Fault isolation can be accomplished using either a snapshot method or by examining the history of the fault detection statistics.

  10. Fault detection and isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernath, Greg

    1994-01-01

    In order for a current satellite-based navigation system (such as the Global Positioning System, GPS) to meet integrity requirements, there must be a way of detecting erroneous measurements, without help from outside the system. This process is called Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI). Fault detection requires at least one redundant measurement, and can be done with a parity space algorithm. The best way around the fault isolation problem is not necessarily isolating the bad measurement, but finding a new combination of measurements which excludes it.

  11. An evaluation of the strong ground motion recorded during the May 1, 2003 Bingol Turkey, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akkar, Sinan; Boore, David M.; Gulkan, Polat

    2005-01-01

    An important record of ground motion from a M6.4 earthquake occurring on May 1, 2003, at epicentral and fault distances of about 12 and 9 km, respectively, was obtained at a station near the city of Bingöl, Turkey. The maximum peak ground values of 0.55g and 36 cm/s are among the largest ground-motion amplitudes recorded in Turkey. From simulations and comparisons with ground motions from other earthquakes of comparable magnitude, we conclude that the ground motion over a range of frequencies is unusually high. Site response may be responsible for the elevated ground motion, as suggested from analysis of numerous aftershock recordings from the same station. The mainshock motions have some interesting seismological features, including ramps between the P- and S-wave that are probably due to near- and intermediate-field elastic motions and strong polarisation oriented at about 39 degrees to the fault (and therefore not in the fault-normal direction). Simulations of motions from an extended rupture explain these features. The N10E component shows a high-amplitude spectral acceleration at a period of 0.15 seconds resulting in a site specific design spectrum that significantly overestimates the actual strength and displacement demands of the record. The pulse signal in the N10E component affects the inelastic spectral displacement and increases the inelastic displacement demand with respect to elastic demand for very long periods.

  12. Procedure of evaluating parameters of inland earthquakes caused by long strike-slip faults for ground motion prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Dianshu; Dan, Kazuo; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki; Morikawa, Nobuyuki

    2016-04-01

    We proposed a procedure of evaluating fault parameters of asperity models for predicting strong ground motions from inland earthquakes caused by long strike-slip faults. In order to obtain averaged dynamic stress drops, we adopted the formula obtained by dynamic fault rupturing simulations for surface faults of the length from 15 to 100 km, because the formula of the averaged static stress drops for circular cracks, commonly adopted in existing procedures, cannot be applied to surface faults or long faults. The averaged dynamic stress drops were estimated to be 3.4 MPa over the entire fault and 12.2 MPa on the asperities, from the data of 10 earthquakes in Japan and 13 earthquakes in other countries. The procedure has a significant feature that the average slip on the seismic faults longer than about 80 km is constant, about 300 cm. In order to validate our proposed procedure, we made a model for a 141 km long strike-slip fault by our proposed procedure for strike-slip faults, predicted ground motions, and showed that the resultant motions agreed well with the records of the 1999 Kocaeli, Turkey, earthquake (Mw 7.6) and with the peak ground accelerations and peak ground velocities by the GMPE of Si and Midorikawa (1999).

  13. Fault zone structure of the Wildcat fault in Berkeley, California - Field survey and fault model test -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueta, K.; Onishi, C. T.; Karasaki, K.; Tanaka, S.; Hamada, T.; Sasaki, T.; Ito, H.; Tsukuda, K.; Ichikawa, K.; Goto, J.; Moriya, T.

    2010-12-01

    In order to develop hydrologic characterization technology of fault zones, it is desirable to clarify the relationship between the geologic structure and hydrologic properties of fault zones. To this end, we are performing surface-based geologic and trench investigations, geophysical surveys and borehole-based hydrologic investigations along the Wildcat fault in Berkeley,California to investigate the effect of fault zone structure on regional hydrology. The present paper outlines the fault zone structure of the Wildcat fault in Berkeley on the basis of results from trench excavation surveys. The approximately 20 - 25 km long Wildcat fault is located within the Berkeley Hills and extends northwest-southeast from Richmond to Oakland, subparallel to the Hayward fault. The Wildcat fault, which is a predominantly right-lateral strike-slip fault, steps right in a releasing bend at the Berkeley Hills region. A total of five trenches have been excavated across the fault to investigate the deformation structure of the fault zone in the bedrock. Along the Wildcat fault, multiple fault surfaces are branched, bent, paralleled, forming a complicated shear zone. The shear zone is ~ 300 m in width, and the fault surfaces may be classified under the following two groups: 1) Fault surfaces offsetting middle Miocene Claremont Chert on the east against late Miocene Orinda formation and/or San Pablo Group on the west. These NNW-SSE trending fault surfaces dip 50 - 60° to the southwest. Along the fault surfaces, fault gouge of up to 1 cm wide and foliated cataclasite of up to 60 cm wide can be observed. S-C fabrics of the fault gouge and foliated cataclasite show normal right-slip shear sense. 2) Fault surfaces forming a positive flower structure in Claremont Chert. These NW-SE trending fault surfaces are sub-vertical or steeply dipping. Along the fault surfaces, fault gouge of up to 3 cm wide and foliated cataclasite of up to 200 cm wide can be observed. S-C fabrics of the fault

  14. Citizenship Education in Turkey: Inclusive or Exclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ince, Basak

    2012-01-01

    This paper scrutinises citizenship education in Turkey from the foundation of the Turkish Republic (1923) to the present and explores the extent to which it encourages inclusive or exclusive concepts of national identity and citizenship. In Turkey, where there are citizens belonging to ethnic and religious minorities, civic education plays a…

  15. Characteristics of Inclusive Classrooms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inclusive classrooms in Turkey are described in terms of the characteristics of both classroom teachers and students with special needs. Participants of this study consisted of 54 teachers working in inclusive classrooms and 54 students with mild intellectual disabilities in those classrooms in Turkey. Data for this study were…

  16. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  17. Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara

    2008-01-01

    Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…

  18. Government Publications and Gray Literature in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anameric, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates bibliographic control of government publications and gray literature in Turkey, in order to determine what further measures are needed to support researchers in both Turkey and abroad. It reports the circumstances surrounding the creation of "The Bibliography of Government Publications" prepared in 1971, and…

  19. OpenStudio - Fault Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Stephen; Robertson, Joseph; Cheung, Howard; Horsey, Henry

    2014-09-19

    This software record documents the OpenStudio fault model development portion of the Fault Detection and Diagnostics LDRD project.The software provides a suite of OpenStudio measures (scripts) for modeling typical HVAC system faults in commercial buildings and also included supporting materials: example projects and OpenStudio measures for reporting fault costs and energy impacts.

  20. Hayward Fault, California Interferogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of California's Hayward fault is an interferogram created using a pair of images taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar(SAR) combined to measure changes in the surface that may have occurred between the time the two images were taken.

    The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellites ERS-1 and ERS-2 in June 1992 and September 1997 over the central San Francisco Bay in California.

    The radar image data are shown as a gray-scale image, with the interferometric measurements that show the changes rendered in color. Only the urbanized area could be mapped with these data. The color changes from orange tones to blue tones across the Hayward fault (marked by a thin red line) show about 2-3centimeters (0.8-1.1 inches) of gradual displacement or movement of the southwest side of the fault. The block west of the fault moved horizontally toward the northwest during the 63 months between the acquisition of the two SAR images. This fault movement is called a seismic creep because the fault moved slowly without generating an earthquake.

    Scientists are using the SAR interferometry along with other data collected on the ground to monitor this fault motion in an attempt to estimate the probability of earthquake on the Hayward fault, which last had a major earthquake of magnitude 7 in 1868. This analysis indicates that the northern part of the Hayward fault is creeping all the way from the surface to a depth of 12 kilometers (7.5 miles). This suggests that the potential for a large earthquake on the northern Hayward fault might be less than previously thought. The blue area to the west (lower left) of the fault near the center of the image seemed to move upward relative to the yellow and orange areas nearby by about 2 centimeters (0.8 inches). The cause of this apparent motion is not yet confirmed, but the rise of groundwater levels during the time between the images may have caused the reversal of a small portion of the subsidence that

  1. Using Facilities And Potential Of Geothermal Resources In The Canakkale Province - NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniz, Ozan; Acar Deniz, Zahide

    2016-04-01

    Turkey, due to its geological location, has a rich potential in point of geothermal resources. Çanakkale province is located northwestern (NW) part of Turkey and it has important geothermal fields in terms of geothermal energy potential. Geothermal resources reach to the surface both effects of past volcanic activity and extensions of fault zones associated with complex tectonic systems in the region. The aim of this study is to summarize hydrogeochemical characteristics, using facilities and potential of hot springs and spas located in the Çanakkale province. There are 13 geothermal fields in the region and the surface temperatures of hot springs are ranging between 28 centigrade degree and 175 centigrade degree. Hydrogeochemical compositions of thermal water display variable chemical compositions. Na, Ca, SO4, HCO3 and Cl are the dominant ions in these waters. Thermal waters of Tuzla and Kestanbol geothermal fields which is located the near coastal area can be noted NaCl type. Because these two geothermal waters have high TDS values, scaling problems are seen around the hot springs and pipelines. Geothermal waters in the province are meteoric origin according to oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium isotopes data. Long underground residence times of these waters and its temperatures have caused both more water - rock interaction and low tritium values. Geothermal energy is utilized in many areas in Turkey today. It is generally used for space heating, balneotherapy and electricity generation. Explorations of geothermal resources and investments in geothermal energy sector have risen rapidly in the recent years particularly in western Turkey. High-temperature geothermal fields are generally located in this region related to the Aegean Graben System and the North Anotalian Fault Zone. All geothermal power plants in Turkey are located in this region. Considering the Çanakkale province, most geothermal fields are suitable for multipurpose usage but many of them have

  2. Fault tolerant magnetic bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Maslen, E.H.; Sortore, C.K.; Gillies, G.T.; Williams, R.D.; Fedigan, S.J.; Aimone, R.J.

    1999-07-01

    A fault tolerant magnetic bearing system was developed and demonstrated on a large flexible-rotor test rig. The bearing system comprises a high speed, fault tolerant digital controller, three high capacity radial magnetic bearings, one thrust bearing, conventional variable reluctance position sensors, and an array of commercial switching amplifiers. Controller fault tolerance is achieved through a very high speed voting mechanism which implements triple modular redundancy with a powered spare CPU, thereby permitting failure of up to three CPU modules without system failure. Amplifier/cabling/coil fault tolerance is achieved by using a separate power amplifier for each bearing coil and permitting amplifier reconfiguration by the controller upon detection of faults. This allows hot replacement of failed amplifiers without any system degradation and without providing any excess amplifier kVA capacity over the nominal system requirement. Implemented on a large (2440 mm in length) flexible rotor, the system shows excellent rejection of faults including the failure of three CPUs as well as failure of two adjacent amplifiers (or cabling) controlling an entire stator quadrant.

  3. Pen Branch Fault Program

    SciTech Connect

    Price, V.; Stieve, A.L.; Aadland, R.

    1990-09-28

    Evidence from subsurface mapping and seismic reflection surveys at Savannah River Site (SRS) suggests the presence of a fault which displaces Cretaceous through Tertiary (90--35 million years ago) sediments. This feature has been described and named the Pen Branch fault (PBF) in a recent Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) paper (DP-MS-88-219). Because the fault is located near operating nuclear facilities, public perception and federal regulations require a thorough investigation of the fault to determine whether any seismic hazard exists. A phased program with various elements has been established to investigate the PBF to address the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory guidelines represented in 10 CFR 100 Appendix A. The objective of the PBF program is to fully characterize the nature of the PBF (ESS-SRL-89-395). This report briefly presents current understanding of the Pen Branch fault based on shallow drilling activities completed the fall of 1989 (PBF well series) and subsequent core analyses (SRL-ESS-90-145). The results are preliminary and ongoing: however, investigations indicate that the fault is not capable. In conjunction with the shallow drilling, other activities are planned or in progress. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  4. The history of liver transplantation in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Moray, Gökhan; Arslan, Gülnaz; Haberal, Mehmet

    2014-03-01

    Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment for end-stage liver diseases. The first successful liver transplant was performed in the United States by Thomas Starzl in 1967. The first successful solid organ transplant in Turkey was a living-related kidney transplant performed by Dr. Haberal in 1975. After much effort by Dr. Haberal, the Turkish parliament enacted a law about organ transplantation in 1979. After clinical and experimental studies, the first liver transplant in Turkey was performed by Dr. Haberal in 1988. The first successful partial living-donor liver transplant in children in Turkey was performed by the same team on March 15, 1990. On April 24, 1990, the first living-donor liver transplant was performed on a child in Turkey using a left lateral segment by Dr. Haberal and coworkers. On May 16, 1992, Dr. Haberal performed a simultaneous living-donor liver and kidney transplantation to an adult from the same donor. There currently are 30 liver transplantation centers in Turkey. According to data from the Ministry of Health, there presently are 2065 patients in Turkey who are waiting for a liver transplantation. From January 2002 to June 2013, there were 6091 liver transplants performed in Turkey (4020 living-donor [66% ] and 2071 deceased donor liver transplants [34% ]). From January 2011 to June 2013, there were 2514 patients who had liver transplants in Turkey, and 437 patients (17%) died. The number of liver transplants per year in Turkey reached 1000 transplants in 2012 and more than 1150 transplants in 2013 (15.1/million/y). Therefore, Turkey has one of the highest volumes of liver transplantation per population worldwide, with 90% survival within 1 year after transplantation.

  5. An improved earthquake catalogue in the Marmara Sea region, Turkey, using massive template matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrullo, Emanuela; Lengliné, Olivier; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Karabulut, Hayrullah; Bouchon, Michel

    2016-04-01

    After the 1999 Izmit earthquake, the Main Marmara Fault (MMF) represents a 150 km unruptured segment of the North Anatolian Fault located below the Marmara Sea. One of the principal issue for seismic hazard assessment in the region is to know if the MMF is totally or partially locked and where the nucleation of the major forthcoming event is going to take place. The area is actually one of the best-instrumented fault systems in Europe. Since year 2007, various seismic networks both broadband, short period and OBS stations were deployed in order to monitor continuously the seismicity along the MMF and the related fault systems. A recent analysis of the seismicity recorded during the 2007-2012 period has provided new insights on the recent evolution of this important regional seismic gap. This analysis was based on events detected with STA/LTA procedure and manually picked P and S wave arrivals times (Schmittbuhl et al., 2015). In order to extend the level of details and to fully take advantage of the dense seismic network we improved the seismic catalog using an automatic earthquake detection technique based on a template matching approach. This approach uses known earthquake seismic signals in order to detect newer events similar to the tested one from waveform cross-correlation. To set-up the methodology and verify the accuracy and the robustness of the results, we initially focused in the eastern part of the Marmara Sea (Cinarcik basin) and compared new detection with those manually identified. Through the massive analysis of cross-correlation based on the template scanning of the continuous recordings, we construct a refined catalog of earthquakes for the Marmara Sea in 2007-2014 period. Our improved earthquake catalog will provide an effective tool to improve the catalog completeness, to monitor and study the fine details of the time-space distribution of events, to characterize the repeating earthquake source processes and to understand the mechanical state of

  6. Determination of paleoseismic activity over a large time-scale: Fault scarp dating with 36Cl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozafari Amiri, Nasim; Tikhomirov, Dmitry; Sümer, Ökmen; Özkaymak, Çaǧlar; Uzel, Bora; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Vockenhuber, Christof; Sözbilir, Hasan; Akçar, Naki

    2016-04-01

    Bedrock fault scarps are the most direct evidence of past earthquakes to reconstruct seismic activity in a large time-scale using cosmogenic 36Cl dating if built in carbonates. For this method, a surface along the fault scarp with a minimum amount of erosion is required to be chosen as an ideal target point. The section of the fault selected for sampling should cover at least two meters of the fault surface from the lower part of the scarp, where intersects with colluvium wedge. Ideally, sampling should be performed on a continuous strip along the direction of the fault slip direction. First, samples of 10 cm high and 15 cm wide are marked on the fault surface. Then, they are collected using cutters, hammer and chisel in a thickness of 3 cm. The main geometrical factors of scarp dip, scarp height, top surface dip and colluvium dip are also measured. Topographic shielding in the sampling spot is important to be estimated as well. Moreover, density of the fault scarp and colluvium are calculated. The physical and chemical preparations are carried in laboratory for AMS and chemical analysis of the samples. A Matlab® code is used for modelling of seismically active periods based on increasing production rate of 36Cl following each rupture, when a buried section of a fault is exposed. Therefore, by measuring the amount of cosmogenic 36Cl versus height, the timing of major ruptures and their offsets are determined. In our study, Manastır, Mugırtepe and Rahmiye faults in Gediz graben, Priene-Sazlı, Kalafat and Yavansu faults in Büyük Menderes graben and Ören fault in Gökava half-graben have been examined in the seismically active region of Western Turkey. Our results reconstruct at least five periods of high seismic activity during the Holocene time, three of which reveal seismic ruptures beyond the historical pre-existing data.

  7. Offshore seismicity in the western Marmara Sea, Turkey, revealed by ocean bottom observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yojiro; Takahashi, Narumi; Citak, Seckin; Kalafat, Doğan; Pinar, Ali; Gurbuz, Cemil; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2015-09-01

    The faults' geometry and their seismic activity beneath the Marmara Sea have been under debate for a couple of decades. We used data recorded by three ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) over a period of 3 months in 2014 to investigate the relationship of fault geometry to microseismicity under the western Marmara Sea in Turkey. We detected a seismic swarm at 13 to 20 km depth beneath the main Marmara fault (MMF), and the maximum depth of seismogenic zone was 25 km within the OBS observation area. These results provided evidence that the dip of the MMF is almost vertical and that the seismogenic zone in this region extends into the lower crust. Our analysis of past seismicity indicated that the seismic swarm we recorded is the most recent of an episodic series of seismic activity with an average recurrence interval of 2-3 years. The repetitive seismicity indicates that the MMF beneath the western Marmara Sea is coupled and that some of the accumulated strain is released every 2 to 3 years. Our study shows that OBS data can provide useful information about seismicity along the MMF, but more extensive studies using more OBSs deployed over a wider area are needed to fully understand the fault geometry and stick-slip behavior of faults under the Marmara Sea.

  8. Application of Space Geodetic Techniques and GIS for Crustal Deformation Monitoring in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozener, H.; Garagon Dogru, A.; Turgut, B.; Sabuncu, A.

    2011-12-01

    There are number of geodetic techniques for detecting crustal movements. Space-based InSAR technique measures the phase change between two phase measurements of the same ground pixel of the Earth's surface and provides a method to determine crustal deformation. The results are verified by ground-based data obtained from GPS and other seismological studies. The North Anatolian Fault (NAF), particularly western segment of it, has been investigated over two decades by means of GPS technique. It is one of the most seismically active structures in the eastern Mediterranean with a slip rate of 22 mm/year. In this study, current displacement rates obtained from sparse micro-geodetic networks at western part of NAF are presented and then we investigate the potential of InSAR to monitor crustal movements at our study regions. GPS results validate the information coming from InSAR observations. On the other hand,we have some errors due to discrepancy between the GPS and interferometric observations since they are not defining crustal deformation at the same time intervals. After quality control and processing, all datasets integrated into GIS for mapping and analysis.

  9. Multimedia and children in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tuncer, A M; Yalçin, S S

    1999-01-01

    Multimedia will be regarded as essential tools for children to create their new world. The effects of television on young children's life have been well studied. Television differs, however, from other media, including the movies, in its pervasive impact on children. Children spend more time watching television than any other activity except sleeping. Overall 31% of children spent at least 4 hours a day watching television during weekday and 71.7% during weekend in Turkey. Television's influence on children is a function of the length of time they spend watching and the cumulative effect of what they see. Television may be a cause as well as a solution for many serious childhood problems. Excessive viewing of television has also been linked to aggressive behavior, violence, childhood obesity. On the other hand, television may act as a socializing agent and as a learning tool if the recommendations of American Academy of Pediatrics is learned by pediatricians, parents and broadcasters. The use of home personal computers in urban residence increased from 3.2% in 1993 to 6.5% by January 1998 in Turkey. Around 20% of computer households reported owing a modem. Internet has been using only for 5 years in Turkey. Nearly 40% of computer households also used CD-ROM equipment. The percentage of schools that have a computer laboratory is only 2.64%. On the other hand, multimedia allows students to move away from a uniform education for everyone to assert individual identity, liberalize education and management. It seems likely that, within the next few years, most of the countries with substantial internet infrastructure will use the internet as the major medium for disseminating information, including information on children. To prepare students for such a world demands that educational systems make the best possible use of all knowledge and technologies currently available.

  10. Mineral chemistry and petrology of mantle peridotites from the Guleman ophiolite (SE Anatolia, Turkey): Evidence of a forearc setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizeli, Mustafa Eren; Beyarslan, Melahat; Wang, Kuo-Lung; Bingöl, A. Feyzi

    2016-11-01

    The mantle section of Guleman ophiolite, southeast (SE) Turkey consists mainly of harzburgites and dunite lenses and large chromitite pods. The average Cr ratio = [100 × Cr/(Cr + Al) atomic ratio] of Cr-spinels in harzburgites and dunites is remarkably high (>63). The forsterite (Fo) content of olivine is between 90.9 and 92.3 in harzburgites and dunites. These features indicate that the harzburgites and dunites resulted from >35% of partial melting of a depleted mantle source. Discriminant geochemical diagrams based on the mineral chemistry of harzburgites indicate a supra-subduction zone (SSZ) origin. Orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene from the Guleman harzburgites have low CaO, Al2O3 and TiO2 contents, resembling those of depleted harzburgites from modern forearcs and contrasting with moderately depleted abyssal peridotites. Consequently, we propose that the Guleman peridotites formed in a forearc setting during the subduction initiation that developed as a result of northward subduction of the southern branch of the Neo-Tethys in response to the convergence between the Arabian and Anatolian plates.

  11. [Evaluation of epidemiological data of malaria between 2001-2011 in Sanliurfa, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Yentür Doni, Nebiye; Yıldız Zeyrek, Fadile; Seyrek, Adnan; Şimşek, Zeynep; Gürses, Gülcan; Topluoğlu, Seher

    2016-04-01

    Although Plasmodium vivax is the only cause of malaria cases detected in Turkey, an increase number of imported P.falciparum cases have begun to be observed recently. Sanliurfa is a province located at Southeastern region of Turkey where malaria is endemic and also one of the two largest malaria epidemics of Turkey was experienced with 84.345 cases in 1994. As this region has borders with countries like Iraq, Iran and Syria, cross border migration caused an increase in imported cases. In addition, climate change, alteration in temperature and humidity due to the Southeastern Anatolian Irrigation Project have led an increase in suitable breeding grounds for mosquitoes. Since new indigenous malaria cases, except imported ones are not detected in Sanliurfa nowadays, there is not enough data on the malaria epidemiology in this region including recent years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological data in connection with malaria cases observed in Sanliurfa which is a critical region for this infection for a 11-year-period, between the years of 2001 to 2011, retrospectively. Data obtained from the Malaria Control Unit of the Communicable Diseases Division of Sanliurfa Provincial Health Directorate were analized in terms of frequency of the cases, distribution of the cases in years and months, demographical characteristics, the source and species distribution of the parasite and the locations of the disease. A total of 1.149.196 blood smear samples have been examined during 11-year-period as part of surveillance programme and 4394 (0.4%) of them were positive for Plasmodium spp. The agent was P.vivax in 99.9% (4391/4394) of the cases, while in three cases (0.07%) who were diagnosed after 2010, it was P.falciparum. Of the patients 2351 (53.5%) were male and 2043 (46.5%) were female (p> 0.05), whose age ranging from 3 months to 80 years (mean age: 19.21 ± 16.12 years). The frequencies of the cases according to the age groups 0-11 months, 1-4 years, 5

  12. Geochemical Constraints on Collision-related Intrusive Rocks in Central, Northwestern and Western Anatolia (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilbeyli, Nurdane

    2010-05-01

    The intrusive rocks in Anatolia occupy a broad petrological range from I- to A- type granitoids. Thus, Turkey is a natural laboratory to study collision-related magmatism, its geochemical characteristic, source region and also tectono-magmatic evolution. The central, northwestern and western Anatolian magmatic provinces are defined by a large number of Late Mesozoic to Late Cenozoic collision-related granitoids (Ilbeyli and Kibici 2009). Calc-alkaline, subalkaline and alkaline intrusive rocks in central Anatolia are mainly metaluminous, high-K and I- to A-types. They cover a petrological range from monzodiorite through quartz monzonite to granite/syenite. All these intrusive rocks are enriched in LILE and are also radiogenic in terms of Sr, and unradiogenic in terms of Nd, isotope ratios. Their geochemical characteristics show that the intrusive rocks originated from a mantle source containing large subduction components, and have experienced crustal assimilation and fractional crystallization. Delamination of a thermal boundary layer, and/or slab breakoff is the likely mechanisms for the initiation of the diverse magmatism in the complex (Ilbeyli et al. 2009). Calc-alkaline plutonic rocks in northwestern Anatolia are mainly metaluminous, medium- to high-K and I-types. They are monzonite to granite, and all are enriched in LILE and depleted in HFSE, showing features of arc-related intrusive rocks. Geochemical data reveal that these plutons were derived from partial melting of mafic lower crustal sources. These rocks are related to subduction of the northern branch of the Neo-Tethyan ocean beneath the Sakarya microcontinent during Cretaceous-Paleocene times (Kibici et al. 2008). Calc-alkaline intrusive rocks in western Anatolia are metaluminous, high-K and I-types. They have a compositional range from granodiorite to granite, and are enriched in LILE and depleted in HFSE. Geochemical characteristics of these intrusive rocks indicate that they could have originated

  13. Fault Roughness Records Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, E. E.; Candela, T.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Fault roughness is commonly ~0.1-1% at the outcrop exposure scale. More mature faults are smoother than less mature ones, but the overall range of roughness is surprisingly limited which suggests dynamic control. In addition, the power spectra of many exposed fault surfaces follow a single power law over scales from millimeters to 10's of meters. This is another surprising observation as distinct structures such as slickenlines and mullions are clearly visible on the same surfaces at well-defined scales. We can reconcile both observations by suggesting that the roughness of fault surfaces is controlled by the maximum strain that can be supported elastically in the wallrock. If the fault surface topography requires more than 0.1-1% strain, it fails. Invoking wallrock strength explains two additional observations on the Corona Heights fault for which we have extensive roughness data. Firstly, the surface is isotropic below a scale of 30 microns and has grooves at larger scales. Samples from at least three other faults (Dixie Valley, Mount St. Helens and San Andreas) also are isotropic at scales below 10's of microns. If grooves can only persist when the walls of the grooves have a sufficiently low slope to maintain the shape, this scale of isotropy can be predicted based on the measured slip perpendicular roughness data. The observed 30 micron scale at Corona Heights is consistent with an elastic strain of 0.01 estimated from the observed slip perpendicular roughness with a Hurst exponent of 0.8. The second observation at Corona Heights is that slickenlines are not deflected around meter-scale mullions. Yielding of these mullions at centimeter to meter scale is predicted from the slip parallel roughness as measured here. The success of the strain criterion for Corona Heights supports it as the appropriate control on fault roughness. Micromechanically, the criterion implies that failure of the fault surface is a continual process during slip. Macroscopically, the

  14. Rough Faults, Distributed Weakening, and Off-Fault Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, W. A.; Nielsen, S. B.; di Toro, G.; Smith, S. A.; Niemeijer, A. R.

    2009-12-01

    We report systematic spatial variations of fault rocks along non-planar strike-slip faults cross-cutting the Lake Edison Granodiorite, Sierra Nevada, California (Sierran Wavy Fault) and the Lobbia outcrops of the Adamello Batholith in the Italian Alps (Lobbia Wavy Fault). In the case of the Sierran fault, pseudotachylyte formed at contractional fault bends, where it is found as thin (1-2 mm) fault-parallel veins. Epidote and chlorite developed in the same seismic context as the pseudotachylyte and are especially abundant in extensional fault bends. We argue that the presence of fluids, as illustrated by this example, does not necessarily preclude the development of frictional melt. In the case of the Lobbia fault, pseudotachylyte is present in variable thickness along the length of the fault, but the pseudotachylyte veins thicken and pool in extensional bends. The Lobbia fault surface is self-affine, and we conduct a quantitative analysis of microcrack distribution, stress, and friction along the fault. Numerical modeling results show that opening in extensional bends and localized thermal weakening in contractional bends counteract resistance encountered by fault waviness, resulting in an overall weaker fault than suggested by the corresponding static friction coefficient. Models also predict stress redistribution around bends in the faults which mirror microcrack distributions, indicating significant elastic and anelastic strain energy is dissipated into the wall rocks due to non-planar fault geometry. Together these observations suggest that, along non-planar faults, damage and energy dissipation occurs along the entire fault during slip, rather than being confined to the region close to the crack tip as predicted by classical fracture mechanics.

  15. Receiver-Function Stacking Methods to Infer Crustal Anisotropic Structure with Application to the Turkish-Anatolian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviani, A.; Rumpker, G.

    2015-12-01

    To account for the presence of seismic anisotropy within the crust and to estimate the relevant parameters, we first discuss a robust technique for the analysis of shear-wave splitting in layered anisotropic media by using converted shear phases. We use a combined approach that involves time-shifting and stacking of radial receiver functions and energy-minimization of transverse receiver functions to constrain the splitting parameters (i.e. the fast-polarization direction and the delay time) for an anisotropic layer. In multi-layered anisotropic media, the splitting parameters for the individual layers can be inferred by a layer-stripping approach, where the splitting effects due to shallower layers on converted phases from deeper discontinuities are successively corrected. The effect of anisotropy on the estimates of crustal thickness and average bulk Vp/Vs ratio can be significant. Recently, we extended the approach of Zhu & Kanamori (2000) to include P-to-S converted waves and their crustal reverberations generated in the anisotropic case. The anisotropic parameters of the medium are first estimated using the splitting analysis of the Ps-phase as described above. Then, a grid-search is performed over layer thickness and Vp/Vs ratio, while accounting for all relevant arrivals (up to 20 phases) in the anisotropic medium. We apply these techniques to receiver-function data from seismological stations across the Turkish-Anatolian Plateau to study seismic anisotropy in the crust and its relationship to crustal tectonics. Preliminary results reveal significant crustal anisotropy and indicate that the strength and direction of the anisotropy vary across the main tectonic boundaries. We also improve the estimates of the crustal thickness and the bulk Vp/Vs ratio by accounting for the presence of crustal anisotropy beneath the station. ReferenceZhu, L. & H. Kanamori (2000), Moho depth variation in southern California from teleseismic receiver functions, J. Geophys. Res

  16. The thickness and the lengths of the anterior wall of adult maxilla of the West Anatolian Turkish people.

    PubMed

    Arman, Candan; Ergür, Ipek; Atabey, Atay; Güvencer, Mustafa; Kiray, Amac; Korman, Esin; Tetik, Suleyman

    2006-12-01

    The maxilla is the key structure on facial formation and stability. The knowledge about maxillary thickness and dimensions is crucial during facial reconstruction including this bone. In this study, anthropometric measurements of anterior wall of the maxilla on the dry human skulls were aimed. Sixty maxillae of 30 adult dry skulls of West Anatolian people were evaluated. Four vertical lines were drawn between the piriform aperture and lateral border of the bone and six horizontal lines between the infra-orbital margin and the inferior border of the piriform aperture. After establishing the lines, maxillary thicknesses on the intersection points of the vertical and horizontal lines and the lengths of the vertical lines from the infra-orbital margin to alveolar arch were measured by using a fine caliper. It was found that the thickest point of the anterior wall of the maxillae is on the lateral of the infra-orbital margin (5.17 +/- 2.27 mm), and thinnest one is on the inferior of the infra-orbital foramen (0.92 +/- 1.06 mm). The length of the vertical line tangent to piriform aperture (47.66 +/- 3.61 mm) is the longest. The corresponding data of the left and right maxillae were compared by Student's t test. There was no significant difference between both sides. After collecting the data, a thickness map of anterior wall of the maxilla was drawn. This data may be helpful in clinic during osteotomies, bone reconstructions, screw, or other reconstruction apparatus applications on the maxilla.

  17. Diagnosable systems for intermittent faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallela, S.; Masson, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    The fault diagnosis capabilities of systems composed of interconnected units capable of testing each other are studied for the case of systems with intermittent faults. A central role is played by the concept of t(i)-fault diagnosability. A system is said to be t(i)-fault diagnosable when it is such that if no more than t(i) units are intermittently faulty then a fault-free unit will never be diagnosed as faulty and the diagnosis at any time is at worst incomplete. Necessary and sufficient conditions for t(i)-fault diagnosability are proved, and bounds for t(i) are established. The conditions are in general more restrictive than those for permanent-fault diagnosability. For intermittent faults there is only one testing strategy (repetitive testing), and consequently only one type of intermittent-fault diagnosable system.

  18. The Mechanisms and Spatiotemporal Behavior of the 2011 Mw7.1 Van, Eastern Turkey Earthquake Aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezgi Guvercin Isik, Sezim; Ozgun Konca, A.; Karabulut, Hayrullah

    2016-04-01

    We studied the mechanisms and spatiotemporal distribution of the aftershocks of the Mw7.1 Van Earthquake, in Eastern Turkey. The 2011 Van Earthquake occurred on a E-W trending blind thrust fault in Eastern Turkey which is under N-S compression due to convergence of the Arabian plate toward the Eurasia. In this study, we relocated and studied the mechanisms of the M3.5-5.5 aftershocks from regional Pnl and surface waves using the "Cut and Paste" algorithm of Zhu and Helmberger (1996). Our results reveal that the aftershocks in the first day following the mainshock are in the vicinity of the co-seismic slip and have mostly thrust mechanism consistent with the mainshock. In the following day, a second cluster of activity at the northeast termination of the fault ( North of Lake Erçek) has started. These aftershocks have approximately N-S lineation and left lateral source mechanisms. The aftershocks surrounding the mainshock rupture are deeper (>20 km) than the aftershocks triggered on the north (<15km). We also observe strike slip earthquakes on the south of the mainshock. Both of delayed activities (north of the mainshock and south of the mainshock) are consistent with the Coulomb stress increase due to slip on the mainshock. We propose that the Van Fault is truncated by two strike-slip faults at each end, which has determined the along-strike rupture extent of the 2011 mainshock.

  19. Understanding Urban Regeneration in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candas, E.; Flacke, J.; Yomralioglu, T.

    2016-06-01

    In Turkey, rapid population growth, informal settlements, and buildings and infrastructures vulnerable to natural hazards are seen as the most important problems of cities. Particularly disaster risk cannot be disregarded, as large parts of various cities are facing risks from earthquakes, floods and landslides and have experienced loss of lives in the recent past. Urban regeneration is an important planning tool implemented by local and central governments in order to reduce to disaster risk and to design livable environments for the citizens. The Law on the Regeneration of Areas under Disaster Risk, commonly known as the Urban Regeneration Law, was enacted in 2012 (Law No.6306, May 2012). The regulation on Implementation of Law No. 6306 explains the fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process. The relevant institutions furnished with various authorities such as expropriation, confiscation and changing the type and place of your property which makes urban regeneration projects very important in terms of property rights. Therefore, urban regeneration projects have to be transparent, comprehensible and acceptable for all actors in the projects. In order to understand the urban regeneration process, the legislation and projects of different municipalities in Istanbul have been analyzed. While some steps of it are spatial data demanding, others relate to land values. In this paper an overview of the urban regeneration history and activities in Turkey is given. Fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process are defined, and particularly spatial-data demanding steps are identified.

  20. Creeping Faults and Seismicity: Lessons From The Hayward Fault, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malservisi, R.; Furlong, K. P.; Gans, C.

    While faults remain mostly locked between large strain releasing events, they can dissipate some of the accumulating elastic strain through creep. One such fault that releases a significant fraction of accumulating strain by creep is the Hayward fault in the San Francisco Bay region of California. The seismic risk associated with creeping faults such as the Hayward fault will depend in part on the net rate of moment accu- mulation (slip deficit) on the fault. Using a visco-elastic finite-element model driven by far field plate motions, we have investigated how the specific geometry of locked and free portions of the fault, and the interactions between the fault zone and the sur- rounding lithosphere influence creep on the fault plane and thus the seismic risk. In contrast to previous studies of the effects of the geometry of locked patches on the surface creep rate that specified rates on those patches, we specify only "creepable" regions and allow the system to adjust the creep rate. With our approach, we can infer fault zone geometries and physical properties that can produce the observed surface creep on the Hayward fault letting the rheology, geometry, and mechanics of sys- tem determine patterns of creep on the fault plane. Our results show that the creep rate decreases smoothly moving toward the locked patches. This leads to "creepable" (low friction) areas that accumulate a high slip deficit as compared to other low fric- tion segments of the fault. A comparison of the creep pattern from our results with Hayward fault micro-seismicity indicates that events cluster in the "creepable" re- gions with a creeping-velocity gradient that leads to a significant strain accumulation rate in the elastic material surrounding the creeping fault. This correlation provides an additional tool to map deformation patterns and strain accumulation on the fault. Micro-seismicity, surface deformation, and geodynamic modeling combine to allow us to refine our estimation of net

  1. Changes in fault length distributions due to fault linkage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shunshan; Nieto-Samaniego, A. F.; Alaniz-Álvarez, S. A.; Velasquillo-Martínez, L. G.; Grajales-Nishimura, J. M.; García-Hernández, J.; Murillo-Muñetón, G.

    2010-01-01

    Fault linkage plays an important role in the growth of faults. In this paper we analyze a published synthetic model to simulate fault linkage. The results of the simulation indicate that fault linkage is the cause of the shallower local slopes on the length-frequency plots. The shallower local slopes lead to two effects. First, the curves of log cumulative number against log length exhibit fluctuating shapes as reported in literature. Second, for a given fault population, the power-law exponents after linkage are negatively related to the linked length scales. Also, we present datasets of fault length measured from four structural maps at the Cantarell oilfield in the southern Gulf of Mexico (offshore Campeche). The results demonstrate that the fault length data, corrected by seismic resolution at the tip fault zone, also exhibit fluctuating curves of log cumulative frequency vs. log length. The steps (shallower slopes) on the curves imply the scale positions of fault linkage. We conclude that fault linkage is the main reason for the fluctuating shapes of log cumulative frequency vs. log length. On the other hand, our data show that the two-tip faults are better for linear analysis between maximum displacement ( D) and length ( L). Evidently, two-tip faults underwent fewer fault linkages and interactions.

  2. Age and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of partially remagnetized lacustrine sedimentary rocks (Oligocene Aktoprak basin, central Anatolia, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijers, Maud J. M.; Strauss, Becky E.; Özkaptan, Murat; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Mulch, Andreas; Whitney, Donna L.; Kaymakçı, Nuretdin

    2016-03-01

    The age and paleoenvironmental record of lacustrine deposits in the Aktoprak basin of south-central Turkey provides information about the evolution of topography, including the timing of development of an orographic rain shadow caused by uplift of the mountain ranges fringing the Central Anatolian Plateau. New magnetostratigraphy-based age estimates, in combination with existing biostratigraphic ages, suggest that the partially remagnetized Kurtulmuş Tepe section of the basin is Chattian (Upper Oligocene). The mean carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios (δ18O= 24.6 ± 2.0 ‰, δ13C= -4.9 ± 1.1‰) are largely constant through the section and indicative of a subtropical, open freshwater lake. These isotopic values are also similar to those of the Chattian Mut basin to the south, on the Mediterranean side of the modern orographic barrier (Tauride Mountains), and indicate absence of an orographic barrier during Late Oligocene basin deposition. Post-depositional partial remagnetization occurred after tilting of the basin sequence and was mineralogically controlled, affecting grey, carbonate-rich rocks (average %CaCO3= 82), whereas interlayered pink carbonate-poor rocks (average %CaCO3= 38) carry a primary, pretilt magnetization. The pink rocks are rich in clay minerals that may have reduced the permeability of these rocks that carry a primary magnetization, concentrating basinal fluid flow in the carbonate-rich grey layers and leading to the removal and reprecipitation of magnetic minerals. The normal and reverse polarities recorded by the remagnetized rocks suggest that remagnetization occurred over a protracted period of time.

  3. Fault terminations, Seminoe Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Dominic, J.B.; McConnell, D.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Two basement-involved faults terminate in folds in the Seminoe Mountains. Mesoscopic and macroscopic structures in sedimentary rocks provide clues to the interrelationship of faults and folds in this region, and on the linkage between faulting and folding in general. The Hurt Creek fault trends 320[degree] and has maximum separation of 1.5 km measured at the basement/cover contact. Separation on the fault decreases upsection to zero within the Jurassic Sundance Formation. Unfaulted rock units form an anticline around the fault tip. The complementary syncline is angular with planar limbs and a narrow hinge zone. The syncline axial trace intersects the fault in the footwall at the basement/cover cut-off. Map patterns are interpreted to show thickening of Mesozoic units adjacent to the syncline hinge. In contrast, extensional structures are common in the faulted anticline within the Permian Goose Egg and Triassic Chugwater Formations. A hanging wall splay fault loses separation into the Goose Egg formation which is thinned by 50% at the fault tip. Mesoscopic normal faults are oriented 320--340[degree] and have an average inclination of 75[degree] SW. Megaboudins of Chugwater are present in the footwall of the Hurt Creek fault, immediately adjacent to the fault trace. The Black Canyon fault transported Precambrian-Pennsylvanian rocks over Pennsylvanian Tensleep sandstone. This fault is layer-parallel at the top of the Tensleep and loses separation along strike into an unfaulted syncline in the Goose Egg Formation. Shortening in the pre-Permian units is accommodated by slip on the basement-involved Black Canyon fault. Equivalent shortening in Permian-Cretaceous units occurs on a system of thin-skinned'' thrust faults.

  4. Fault displacement hazard for strike-slip faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.D.; Dawson, T.E.; Chen, R.; Cao, T.; Wills, C.J.; Schwartz, D.P.; Frankel, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology, data, and regression equations for calculating the fault rupture hazard at sites near steeply dipping, strike-slip faults. We collected and digitized on-fault and off-fault displacement data for 9 global strikeslip earthquakes ranging from moment magnitude M 6.5 to M 7.6 and supplemented these with displacements from 13 global earthquakes compiled byWesnousky (2008), who considers events up to M 7.9. Displacements on the primary fault fall off at the rupture ends and are often measured in meters, while displacements on secondary (offfault) or distributed faults may measure a few centimeters up to more than a meter and decay with distance from the rupture. Probability of earthquake rupture is less than 15% for cells 200 m??200 m and is less than 2% for 25 m??25 m cells at distances greater than 200mfrom the primary-fault rupture. Therefore, the hazard for off-fault ruptures is much lower than the hazard near the fault. Our data indicate that rupture displacements up to 35cm can be triggered on adjacent faults at distances out to 10kmor more from the primary-fault rupture. An example calculation shows that, for an active fault which has repeated large earthquakes every few hundred years, fault rupture hazard analysis should be an important consideration in the design of structures or lifelines that are located near the principal fault, within about 150 m of well-mapped active faults with a simple trace and within 300 m of faults with poorly defined or complex traces.

  5. A Paleomagnetic Study of Late Cretaceous Ophiolites in SE Turkey: implications for palaeolatitudes of S Neotethyan spreading centers and emplacement-related tectonic rotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mualla, Cinku; Timur, Ustaömer; Osman, Parlak; Mumtaz, Hisarli

    2016-04-01

    to the sheeded dykes of the Göksun ophiolite emplaced in the SE Anatolian with clockwise rotation of 90° and a paleolatitude of 22° . The relative movement of the ophiolitic series show their emplacement in the different zones. This study was financially supported by the project of the Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) with Project number 114R024.

  6. DIFFERENTIAL FAULT SENSING CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, J.H.

    1961-09-01

    A differential fault sensing circuit is designed for detecting arcing in high-voltage vacuum tubes arranged in parallel. A circuit is provided which senses differences in voltages appearing between corresponding elements likely to fault. Sensitivity of the circuit is adjusted to some level above which arcing will cause detectable differences in voltage. For particular corresponding elements, a group of pulse transformers are connected in parallel with diodes connected across the secondaries thereof so that only voltage excursions are transmitted to a thyratron which is biased to the sensitivity level mentioned.

  7. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    DOEpatents

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  8. Computer hardware fault administration

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  9. Fault tree models for fault tolerant hypercube multiprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Mark A.; Tuazon, Jezus O.

    1991-01-01

    Three candidate fault tolerant hypercube architectures are modeled, their reliability analyses are compared, and the resulting implications of these methods of incorporating fault tolerance into hypercube multiprocessors are discussed. In the course of performing the reliability analyses, the use of HARP and fault trees in modeling sequence dependent system behaviors is demonstrated.

  10. Geochemical and isotopic features of geothermal fluids around the Sea of Marmara, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Italiano, Francesco; Woith, Heiko; Seyis, Cemil; Pizzino, Luca; Sciarra, Alessandra

    2016-04-01

    Earthquake processes provoke modifications of the crust affecting the fluid regime with changes in water level in wells, in temperature and/or chemical composition of groundwaters, in the flow-rate of gas discharges and in their chemical and isotopic composition. In the frame of MARsite (MARsite has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No 308417) the relationship between fluids and seismogenesis has been approached collecting geochemical data of local significance and evaluating them in geochemical interpretative models of fluids circulation and interactions as well as defining their behaviour over a seismic-prone area. During three fluid sampling campaigns in 2013, 2014, and 2015 a suite of 120 gas samples were collected from 72 thermal and mineral water springs/wells in the wider Marmara region along the Northern and Southern branches of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). Bubbling gases were collected if available, in all other cases the gas phase was extracted from water samples collected on that purpose. Gas samples were analyzed for the main chemical composition as well as their isotopic composition (He and C). The results highlight that the vented gases are a binary mixture of two end-members having nitrogen and carbon dioxide as main components. The geochemical features of the gas phase are the result of several processes that have modified their pristine composition. Atmospheric and deep-originated volatiles mix at variable extents and interact with cold and hot groundwaters. CO2 is normally the main gas species. But it's concentration may decrease due to gas-water interactions (GWI) increasing the relative concentration of N2 and other less soluble gases. A high CO2 content indicates minor interactions. Thus, the easier and faster the pathways are from the deep layers toward the Earth's surface, the lower are the interactions. The volatiles keep

  11. Q Estimates using the Coda of Local Earthquakes in Western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyol, Nihal

    2015-04-01

    The regional extension in the central west Turkey has been associated to different deformation processes, such as: spreading and thinning of over-thickened crust following the latest collision across the Neotethys, Arabia-Eurasia convergence resulting in westward extrusion of the Anatolian Plate and Africa-Eurasia convergence forming regional tectonics in the back-arc extensional area. Utilizing single isotropic scattering model, the Coda quality factor (Qc) at five frequency bands (1.5, 3, 5, 7, 10 Hz) and for eight window lengths (25-60 s, in steps of 5 s) were estimated in the region. The data comes from 228 earthquakes with local magnitudes and depths range from 2.9 - 4.9 and 2.2 - 27.0 km, respectively. The source to receiver distance of the records changes between 11 and 72 km. Spatial differences of attenuation characteristics were examined by dividing the region into four subregions. The frequency dependence of Qc values between 1.5 and 10 Hz has been inferred utilizing Qc = Q0fn relationship. Q0 values change between 32.7 and 82.1, while n values changes between 0.91 and 0.79 for the main- and four sub-regions, respectively. Obtained frequency dependence of Qc values for a lapse time of 40 s in the main region is Qc(f) = 49.6±1.0f0.85±0.02. The obtained low Q0 values show that the central west Turkey region is characterized by a high seismic attenuation, in general. Strong frequency and lapse time dependencies of Qc values for the main- and four sub-region imply tectonic complexity in the region. The attenuation and its frequency dependency values versus the lapse time for the easternmost subregion, confirm the slab tear inferred from previous studies. The highest frequency dependency values, at all lapse times, in the westernmost subregion imply high degree of heterogeneity supported by severe anti-clockwise rotation in this area. Lapse time dependencies of attenuation and its frequency dependencies were examined for two different ranges of event depth

  12. A recent example of continent-continent collision : October 23, 2011 Van Earthquake (Mw=7.2) : Southeastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalafat, D.; Suvarikli, M.; Ogutcu, Z.; Kekovali, K.; Yilmazer, M.; Ocal, M. F.; Gunes, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern Anatolia region is one of the best examples of a continental collision zone in the world. The tectonics of the Lake Van region is dominated by the active convergence of the Arabian and Eurasian plates.The southeast border of the Anatolian plate with the Arabian plate is Bitlis Suture Zone. This zone is formed by collision of Arabian-and in large scale Eurasian plates at mid-Miocen age. This type of thrust generation as a result of compressional regime extends east-west. On 23 October 2011 at 13:41(local time) a strong earthquake (Mw=7.2) occurred in east of Lake Van. The earthquake destroyed the regions especially between the cities of Van and Ercis, and East of Lake Van-Lake Ercek region. It caused deaths of 600 people and more than 4150 people were injured with tens of thousands rendered homeless. In addition, 40 people died in the earthquake of September 9, 2011 Edremit-Van (Mw=5.7). The initial rapid fault solution shows that the rupture started at 43.41(deg.) North -38.72 (deg.) East coordinates. The fault that caused the Van earthquake is a reverse fault with a northward dipping fault plane. After the main shock 11 important earthquakes (5.0≤M≤6.0) were occurred in the region which have hypocentral distances of 8-38 km. from the main shock location. These earthquakes have shallow epicenters and they have less than 16 km depth. In general, the distribution of the aftershocks show high activity along the east-northeast of Lake Van and the northern part of the Van city. The distribution of the important earthquakes and the aftershock distribution shows that the E-W and NE-SW oriented fault segments cause the earthquake activities. Stress increase and related triggered seismic activity were observed at NE-SW and NW-SE oriented directions of the east-west trending fault that was broken during Van Earthquake. Indeed, November 9, 2011 Edremit-Van Earthquake (Mw=5.7) is considered to be triggered by the mainshock. Stress change and breakage of the

  13. Counseling in Turkey: An Evolving Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockton, Rex; Guneri, Oya Yerin

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of counseling and addresses the current issues and future trends of counseling in Turkey. Special emphasis is placed on the factors that impede the development of school counseling as a discipline.

  14. Applied andrology in chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theories and practices of applied andrology in commercial poultry species (turkey, layer chicken and broiler chicken) are reviewed. Poultry male reproductive biology, including reproductive anatomy and spermatogenesis, is compared with mammalian livestock species. A detailed description of pou...

  15. Fault diagnosis of analog circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandler, J. W.; Salama, A. E.

    1985-08-01

    Theory and algorithms associated with four main categories of modern techniques used to locate faults in analog circuits are presented. These four general approaches are: the fault dictionary (FDA), the parameter identification (PIA), the fault verification (FVA), and the approximation (AA) approaches. The preliminaries and problems associated with the FDA, such as fault dictionary construction, the methods of optimum measurement selection, fault isolation criteria, and efficient methods of fault simulation, are discussed. The PIA techniques that utilize either linear or nonlinear systems of equations for identification of network elements are examined. Description of the FVA includes node-fault diagnosis, branch-fault diagnosis, subnetwork testability conditions, as well as combinatorial techniques, the failure-bound technique, and the network decomposition technique. In the AA, probabilistic methods and optimization-based methods are considered. In addition, the artificial intelligence technique and the different measures of testability are presented. A series of block diagrams is included.

  16. Active Faults and Seismic Sources of the Middle East Region: Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulen, L.; EMME WP2 Team*

    2011-12-01

    The Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project is a regional project of the GEM (Global Earthquake Model) project (http://www.emme-gem.org/). The EMME project covers Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Both EMME and SHARE projects overlap and Turkey becomes a bridge connecting the two projects. The Middle East region is tectonically and seismically very active part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. Many major earthquakes have occurred in this region over the years causing casualties in the millions. The EMME project consists of three main modules: hazard, risk, and socio-economic modules. The EMME project uses PSHA approach for earthquake hazard and the existing source models have been revised or modified by the incorporation of newly acquired data. The most distinguishing aspect of the EMME project from the previous ones is its dynamic character. This very important characteristic is accomplished by the design of a flexible and scalable database that permits continuous update, refinement, and analysis. An up-to-date earthquake catalog of the Middle East region has been prepared and declustered by the WP1 team. EMME WP2 team has prepared a digital active fault map of the Middle East region in ArcGIS format. We have constructed a database of fault parameters for active faults that are capable of generating earthquakes above a threshold magnitude of Mw≥5.5. The EMME project database includes information on the geometry and rates of movement of faults in a "Fault Section Database", which contains 36 entries for each fault section. The "Fault Section" concept has a physical significance, in that if one or more fault parameters change, a new fault section is defined along a fault zone. So far 6,991 Fault Sections have been defined and 83,402 km of faults are fully parameterized in the Middle East region. A separate "Paleo-Sites Database" includes information on the timing and amounts of fault

  17. Nutrition and gastric cancer in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, Suayib

    2009-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains to be one of leading causes of cancer deaths despite worldwide decreasing incidence. In Turkey gastric cancer incidence is 9.6/100,000 in men and 5.7/100,000 in females. Gastric cancer is also one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in Turkey with a crude death rate of 5.84/100,000 in men, 3.7/100,000 in women. The mean age of patients diagnosed with gastric cancer is 56 years in Turkey. The relatively high rate of gastric cancer in Turkey is mainly due to dietary factors. The traditional food preservation such as salt curing or smoking and lack of refrigeration of food play a significant role in gastric cancer development in the country. There are etiological and epidemiological differences among geographical regions in Turkey. Gastric cancer is seen much more often in the central, northeastern, and eastern part of Turkey. Increased HP pylori infection is also another important reason for increased incidence of gastric cancer in some parts of the country.

  18. Dynamic Fault Detection Chassis

    SciTech Connect

    Mize, Jeffery J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The high frequency switching megawatt-class High Voltage Converter Modulator (HVCM) developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is now in operation. One of the major problems with the modulator systems is shoot-thru conditions that can occur in a IGBTs H-bridge topology resulting in large fault currents and device failure in a few microseconds. The Dynamic Fault Detection Chassis (DFDC) is a fault monitoring system; it monitors transformer flux saturation using a window comparator and dV/dt events on the cathode voltage caused by any abnormality such as capacitor breakdown, transformer primary turns shorts, or dielectric breakdown between the transformer primary and secondary. If faults are detected, the DFDC will inhibit the IGBT gate drives and shut the system down, significantly reducing the possibility of a shoot-thru condition or other equipment damaging events. In this paper, we will present system integration considerations, performance characteristics of the DFDC, and discuss its ability to significantly reduce costly down time for the entire facility.

  19. Fault-Mechanism Simulator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyton, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    An inexpensive, simple mechanical model of a fault can be produced to simulate the effects leading to an earthquake. This model has been used successfully with students from elementary to college levels and can be demonstrated to classes as large as thirty students. (DF)

  20. Row fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2010-02-23

    An apparatus and program product check for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  1. Row fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2008-10-14

    An apparatus, program product and method checks for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  2. Row fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN

    2012-02-07

    An apparatus, program product and method check for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  3. Turkey vulture and California condor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pattee, O.H.; Wilbur, S.R.; Pendleton, Beth Giron

    1989-01-01

    Populations of turkey vultures in the western states appear stable, with no evidence of recent significant changes in distribution. Turkey vultures occupy a variety of habitats, nest in diverse situations and utilize a wide variety of carrion. Consequently, no particular limiting factor is likely to have a major effect on the total population. California condor numbers, in contrast, have continued to decline. With the capture of the last wild bird in 1987, the species has been extirpated from the wild. Reestablishment will depend on production and introduction of captive-reared birds, hopefully within the next 10 years. In the 18th century, condors inhabited areas along the Pacific coast from British Columbia to Baja California. Since 1950, the range has been restricted to a six county area adjacent to the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Within this area, there appears to be no shortage of suitable nest sites; all recently used nest sites are within federally-controlled lands. Suitable foraging grounds have continued to diminish and are now largely limited to private rangelands and some Bureau of Land Management rangelands within the foothills of the San Joaquin Valley. Only these areas continue to supply the large mammal carcasses that the California condor needs for survival. The habitat of the condor is subject to a variety of land use practices and development pressures. Excessive mortality, coupled with low reproductive potential, continues to threaten the recovery of the species. Development of management practices to reduce mortality, particularly those that are contaminant-related, and of a preserve design to insure adequate habitat for the reintroduced population are still necessary for eventual recovery of the species.

  4. Fault-Related Sanctuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccardi, L.

    2001-12-01

    Beyond the study of historical surface faulting events, this work investigates the possibility, in specific cases, of identifying pre-historical events whose memory survives in myths and legends. The myths of many famous sacred places of the ancient world contain relevant telluric references: "sacred" earthquakes, openings to the Underworld and/or chthonic dragons. Given the strong correspondence with local geological evidence, these myths may be considered as describing natural phenomena. It has been possible in this way to shed light on the geologic origin of famous myths (Piccardi, 1999, 2000 and 2001). Interdisciplinary researches reveal that the origin of several ancient sanctuaries may be linked in particular to peculiar geological phenomena observed on local active faults (like ground shaking and coseismic surface ruptures, gas and flames emissions, strong underground rumours). In many of these sanctuaries the sacred area is laid directly above the active fault. In a few cases, faulting has affected also the archaeological relics, right through the main temple (e.g. Delphi, Cnidus, Hierapolis of Phrygia). As such, the arrangement of the cult site and content of relative myths suggest that specific points along the trace of active faults have been noticed in the past and worshiped as special `sacred' places, most likely interpreted as Hades' Doors. The mythological stratification of most of these sanctuaries dates back to prehistory, and points to a common derivation from the cult of the Mother Goddess (the Lady of the Doors), which was largely widespread since at least 25000 BC. The cult itself was later reconverted into various different divinities, while the `sacred doors' of the Great Goddess and/or the dragons (offspring of Mother Earth and generally regarded as Keepers of the Doors) persisted in more recent mythologies. Piccardi L., 1999: The "Footprints" of the Archangel: Evidence of Early-Medieval Surface Faulting at Monte Sant'Angelo (Gargano, Italy

  5. Quantifying Anderson's fault types

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Anderson [1905] explained three basic types of faulting (normal, strike-slip, and reverse) in terms of the shape of the causative stress tensor and its orientation relative to the Earth's surface. Quantitative parameters can be defined which contain information about both shape and orientation [Ce??le??rier, 1995], thereby offering a way to distinguish fault-type domains on plots of regional stress fields and to quantify, for example, the degree of normal-faulting tendencies within strike-slip domains. This paper offers a geometrically motivated generalization of Angelier's [1979, 1984, 1990] shape parameters ?? and ?? to new quantities named A?? and A??. In their simple forms, A?? varies from 0 to 1 for normal, 1 to 2 for strike-slip, and 2 to 3 for reverse faulting, and A?? ranges from 0?? to 60??, 60?? to 120??, and 120?? to 180??, respectively. After scaling, A?? and A?? agree to within 2% (or 1??), a difference of little practical significance, although A?? has smoother analytical properties. A formulation distinguishing horizontal axes as well as the vertical axis is also possible, yielding an A?? ranging from -3 to +3 and A?? from -180?? to +180??. The geometrically motivated derivation in three-dimensional stress space presented here may aid intuition and offers a natural link with traditional ways of plotting yield and failure criteria. Examples are given, based on models of Bird [1996] and Bird and Kong [1994], of the use of Anderson fault parameters A?? and A?? for visualizing tectonic regimes defined by regional stress fields. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Earthquakes and fault creep on the northern San Andreas fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nason, R.

    1979-01-01

    At present there is an absence of both fault creep and small earthquakes on the northern San Andreas fault, which had a magnitude 8 earthquake with 5 m of slip in 1906. The fault has apparently been dormant after the 1906 earthquake. One possibility is that the fault is 'locked' in some way and only produces great earthquakes. An alternative possibility, presented here, is that the lack of current activity on the northern San Andreas fault is because of a lack of sufficient elastic strain after the 1906 earthquake. This is indicated by geodetic measurements at Fort Ross in 1874, 1906 (post-earthquake), and 1969, which show that the strain accumulation in 1969 (69 ?? 10-6 engineering strain) was only about one-third of the strain release (rebound) in the 1906 earthquake (200 ?? 10-6 engineering strain). The large difference in seismicity before and after 1906, with many strong local earthquakes from 1836 to 1906, but only a few strong earthquakes from 1906 to 1976, also indicates a difference of elastic strain. The geologic characteristics (serpentine, fault straightness) of most of the northern San Andreas fault are very similar to the characteristics of the fault south of Hollister, where fault creep is occurring. Thus, the current absence of fault creep on the northern fault segment is probably due to a lack of sufficient elastic strain at the present time. ?? 1979.

  7. Policy Options for Turkey: A Critique of the Interpretation and Utilization of PISA Results in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur, Bekir S.; Celik, Zafer; Ozoglu, Murat

    2012-01-01

    In this article we provide a critique of the interpretation and utilization of Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) results by the National Education Authorities in Turkey. First, we define and explain what OECD's PISA is. Second, we make an overview of the media coverage in Turkey of the PISA 2003 and 2006 results. Third, we…

  8. Factors Influencing International Students' Choice to Study in Turkey and Challenges They Experience in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özoglu, Murat; Gür, Bekir S.; Coskun, Ipek

    2015-01-01

    Turkey is increasingly becoming a regional hub for international students. The number of international students in Turkish universities has grown by almost 300% in the last decade. The current internationalization efforts of the Turkish government and universities have the potential to make Turkey an even more attractive destination for…

  9. The 3-D strain patterns in Turkey using geodetic velocity fields from the RTK-CORS (TR) network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutoglu, Hakan Senol; Toker, Mustafa; Mekik, Cetin

    2016-03-01

    This study presents our use of GPS data to obtain and quantify the full continuous strain tensor using a 3-D velocity field in Turkey. In this study, GPS velocities improve the estimation of short-term strain tensor fields for determining the seismic hazard of Turkey. The tensorial analysis presents different aspects of deformation, such as the normal and shear strains, including their directions, the compressional and extensional strains. This analysis is appropriate for the characterizing the state of the current seismic deformation. GPS velocity data from continuous measurements (2009-2012) to estimate deformations were processed using the GAMIT/GLOBK software. Using high-rate GPS data from permanent 146 GNSS stations (RTK-CORS-TR network), the strain distribution was determined and interpolated using a biharmonic spline technique. We show the strain field patterns within axial and plane form at several critical locations, and discuss these results within the context of the seismic and tectonic deformation of Turkey. We conclude that the knowledge of the crustal strain patterns provides important information on the location of the main faults and strain accumulation for the hazard assessment. The results show an agreement between the seismic and tectonic strains confirming that there are active crustal deformations in Turkey.

  10. Scaling earthquake ground motions in western Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinci, Aybige; D'Amico, Sebastiano; Malagnini, Luca; Mercuri, Alessia

    In this study, we provide a complete description of the ground-motion characteristics of the western Anatolia region of Turkey. The attenuation of ground motions with distance and the variability in excitation with magnitude are parameterized using three-component 0.25-10.0 Hz earthquake ground motions at distances of 15-250 km. The data set is comprised of more than 11,600 three-component seismograms from 902 regional earthquakes of local magnitude (ML) 2.5-5.8, recorded during the Western Anatolia Seismic Recording Experiment (WASRE) between November 2002 and October 2003. We used regression analysis to relate the logarithm of measured ground motion to the excitation, site, and propagation effects. Instead of trying to reproduce the details of the high-frequency ground motion in the time domain, we use a source model and a regional scaling law to predict the spectral shape and amplitudes of ground motion at various source-receiver distances. We fit a regression to the peak values of narrow bandpass filtered ground velocity time histories, and root mean square and RMS-average Fourier spectral amplitudes for a range of frequencies to define regional attenuation functions characterized by piece-wise linear geometric spreading (in log-log space) and a frequency-dependent crustal Q(f). An excitation function is also determined, which contains the competing effects of an effective stress parameter Δσ and a high-frequency attenuation term exp(-πκf). The anelastic attenuation coefficient for the entire region is given by Q(f) = 180f0.55. The duration of motion for each record is defined as the value that yields the observed relationship between time-domain and spectral-domain amplitudes, according to random process theory. Anatolian excitation spectra are calibrated for our empirical results by using a Brune model with a stress drop of 10 MPa for the largest event in our data set (Mw 5.8) and a near-surface attenuation parameter of κ = 0.045 s. These quantities

  11. Effect of surrounding fault on distributed fault of blind reverse fault in sedimentary basin - Uemachi Faults, Osaka Basin, Southwest Japan -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, N.

    2012-12-01

    Several large cities and metropolitan areas, such as Osaka and Kobe are located in the Osaka basin, which has been filled by the Pleistocene Osaka group and the later sediments. The basin is surrounded by E-W trending strike slip faults and N-S trending reverse faults. The N-S trending 42-km-long Uemachi faults traverse in the central part of the Osaka city. The various geological, geophysical surveys, such as seismic reflection, micro tremor, gravity surveys and deep boreholes, revealed the complex basement configuration along the Uemachi faults. The depth of the basement is shallow in the central part of the Osaka plain. The Uemachi faults are locates on the western side of the basement upland. In the central part of the Uemachi faults, the displacement decreases. The fault model of the Uemachi faults consists of the two parts, the north and south parts. The NE-SW trending branch faults, Suminoe and Sakuragawa flexures, are also recognized based on various surveys around the central part. Kusumoto et al. (2001) reported that surrounding faults enable to form the basement configuration without the Uemachi faults model based on a dislocation model. Inoue et al. (2011) performed various parameter studies for dislocation model and gravity changes based on simplified faults model, which were designed based on the distribution of the real faults. The model was consisted of 7 faults including the Uemachi faults. In this study, the Osaka-wan fault was considered for the dislocation model. The results show the basement configuration including NE-SW branch faults. The basement configuration differs from the subsurface structure derived from the investigation of abundance geotechnical borehole data around the central part of the Uemachi faults. The tectonic developing process including the erosion and sea level change are require to understanding the structure from the basement to the surface of the Uemachi Fault Zone. This research is partly funded by the Comprehensive