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Sample records for anatolian fault turkey

  1. Aseismic slip behavior of the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakir, Ziyadin; Ergintav, Semih; Ozener, Haluk; Lasserre, Cecile; Rousset, Baptiste; Jolivet, Romain; Mencin, David; Bilham, Roger

    2016-04-01

    Although the creep along the Ismetpaşa section of the North Anatolian Fault was discovered over half a century ago, its spatiotemporal behavior has been poorly known. Measurements with GPS, InSAR and Total Station over the last two decades show a creep rate of 7±2 mm/yr. However, whether slip is steady state or episodic was not widely known. Creepmeter measurements between 1982 and 1990 by Aytun and Sav (1991) illustrate that creep was occurring episodically as bursts of events. Our recent InSAR observations with Cosmo-SkyMed data with short temporal baselines confirm that slip is indeed episodic. This behavior has also been confirmed by continuous creep measurements with creep meters we installed across the Ismetpaşa and Izmit faults in 2014. Both creepmeters shows episodic creep event with long intervals of quiescence. The newly installed creepmeters will be powerful tools to examine the creep behavior along the NAF and they will be used to validate the results of on-going INSAR (Sentinel and Terra-SAR) and recently install continuous GPS studies, along the NAF.

  2. BEHAVIOR OF THE NORTH ANATOLIAN FAULT, TURKEY, INSIGHTS FROM AN INTEGRATED PALEOSEISMIC DATASET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, J. G.; Vanneste, K.; Hubert-Ferrari, A.

    2009-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is a right-lateral strike-slip plate boundary fault that arcs across northern Turkey for ~1500km. Almost the entire fault progressively ruptured in the 20th century, its cascading style indicating that stress from one fault rupture triggers fault rupture of adjacent segments. Using published, and soon to be published, paleoseismic investigations this study integrates all of the existing information about the timing of earthquakes on the NAF using a standardised procedure. Paleoseismic investigation data is compiled into a database and by taking into account uncertainties we determine the timing of paleoearthquakes. The timing data, when considered in a spatial context, reveals the temporal pattern of surface-rupturing seismicity over the last few thousand years, within the limitations of uncertainty. Based on our observations the migrating 20th century sequence of earthquakes may have occurred in the past, but probably does not occur during every seismic cycle. Based on our interpretation, the clearest pattern in the earthquake timing model is, three types of fault behaviour that correspond to the tectonic provinces within the Anatolian plate. By relating the expected fault-normal stress variation between the 3 tectonic provinces, in terms of Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion (which relates normal and shear stresses), we explain the differences in fault behavior along the NAF. The Anatolian plate drifts west at around 21mm/yr and in doing so elastic strain is stored along the NAF creating, and over time accumulating, shear stress on the fault plane. But because the fault-normal stress is not constant along the fault, it causes different patterns of seismicity. In the west, shear stress along the NAF interplays with the tensile stress associated with the Aegean extensional province; we call this the western transtensional section of the NAF. The lower normal stress means that less shear stress is required to cause fault rupture

  3. The implication of gouge mineralogy evolution on fault creep: an example from The North Anatolian Fault, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaduri, M.; Gratier, J. P.; Renard, F.; Cakir, Z.; Lasserre, C.

    2015-12-01

    Aseismic creep is found along several sections of major active faults at shallow depth, such as the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey, the San Andreas Fault in California (USA), the Longitudinal Valley Fault in Taiwan, the Haiyuan fault in China and the El Pilar Fault in Venezuela. Identifying the mechanisms controlling creep and their evolution with time and space represents a major challenge for predicting the mechanical evolution of active faults, the interplay between creep and earthquakes, and the link between short-term observations from geodesy and the geological setting. Hence, studying the evolution of initial rock into damaged rock, then into gouge, is one of the key question for understanding the origin of fault creep. In order to address this question we collected samples from a dozen well-preserved fault outcrops along creeping and locked sections of the North Anatolian Fault. We used various methods such as microscopic and geological observations, EPMA, XRD analysis, combined with image processing, to characterize their mineralogy and strain. We conclude that (1) there is a clear correlation between creep localization and gouge composition. The locked sections of the fault are mostly composed of massive limestone. The creeping sections comprises clay gouges with 40-80% low friction minerals such as smectite, saponite, kaolinite, that facilitates the creeping. (2) The fault gouge shows two main structures that evolve with displacement: anastomosing cleavage develop during the first stage of displacement; amplifying displacement leads to layering development oblique or sub-parallel to the fault. (3) We demonstrate that the fault gouge result from a progressive evolution of initial volcanic rocks including dissolution of soluble species that move at least partially toward the damage zones and alteration transformations by fluid flow that weaken the gouge and strengthen the damage zone.

  4. Neotectonic Features and Kinematics of the North Anatolian Fault in Taşkesti (Bolu), Nw Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    İşbil, Duygu

    2016-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) has predominantly NW-SE orientation in eastern Turkey and is transformed into an E-W trending in vicinity of the Taşkesti (Bolu) area. The fault forms a border between two different tectonic units in the region, the Almacık Group and Abant Melange in the north and a continuous sedimentary sequence of Jurassic-Eocene in the south. Lacustrine Pliocene deposits unconformably overlie the southern sequence in places, and also, there are fluvial and colluvial deposits younger than the Pliocene. These deposits are controlled by geometry of faults in the North Anatolian Fault system. The depositional characteristics of these deposits demonstrate that the North Anatolian Fault is dominated by a transtensional regime through the Quaternary. Kinematic features collected in the late Neogen sediments are consistent with the fault segment near Taşkesti that became active during the 26 May 1957 Abant (M=7.1) and 22 July 1967 Akyazı-Adapazarı (M=6.8) earthquakes. Key words: North Anatolian Fault (NAF), Plio-Quaternary deposits, Earthquake, Transtension.

  5. Relative tectonic activity assessment along the East Anatolian strike-slip fault, Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalifa, Abdelrahman

    2016-04-01

    The East Anatolian transform fault is a morphologically distinct and seismically active left-lateral strike-slip fault that extends for ~ 500 km from Karlıova to the Maraş defining the boundary between the Anatolian Block and Syrian Foreland. Deformed landforms along the East Anatolian fault provide important insights into the nature of landscape development within an intra-continental strike-slip fault system. Geomorphic analysis of the East Anatolian fault using geomorphic indices including mountain front sinuosity, stream length-gradient index, drainage density, hypsometric integral, and the valley-width to valley height ratio helped differentiate the faulting into segments of differing degrees of the tectonic and geomorphic activity. Watershed maps for the East Anatolian fault showing the relative relief, incision, and maturity of basins along the fault zone help define segments of the higher seismic risk and help evaluate the regional seismic hazard. The results of the geomorphic indices show a high degree of activity, reveal each segment along the fault is active and represent a higher seismic hazard along the entire fault.

  6. The North Anatolian Fault in the Region of Iznik (Turkey) : Geomorphological Evolution and Archeoseismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjelloun, Y. N.; de Sigoyer, J.; Sahin, M.; Garambois, S.; Dessales, H.

    2015-12-01

    This work based on a pluridisciplinary approach coupling earth sciences and archaeology aims to study the recent tectonics along Iznik Lake, which follows the North Anatolian fault middle strand (NAFMS), south of the Marmara Sea in Turkey. Today this strand records a low seismicity and presents a lower slip rate (<5 mm/yr) than the northern strand . However, historical texts suggest a significant earthquake hazard over the last two millennia in this area. Data are needed to attest for the tectonic origin of the lake and the precise location of the faults. Long-term slip rates and stress accumulation on these faults zone are also unknown, which makes it difficult to estimate seismic hazard. The main goal of this work is to collect new data on the past activity of the NAFMS and to estimate slip rates at different time scales. For this, we observe geomorphic and archeological markers of past deformation. The main fault zones were identified using a high resolution DEM (<2m) derived from Pleiades images, and confirmed on the field. These faults intersect and deform geomorphic features, such as terraces, paleoshorelines, alluvial fans.... Terraces deposited by Iznik Lake during high stands, which were tilted and crossed by several faults, were sampled for dating in order to constrain the normal and strike-slip Quaternary slip rate of the faults and their influence on the lake formation. The valley of Kirandere river east of Iznik presents many deflected and offset rivers and ridges, that will be used to constrain a Holocene strike-slip rate. To document the historical activity of the NAFMS around Iznik, we have identified ancient buildings that underwent successive damages and repairs and characterized them through an archeoseismological approach. We particularly studied the roman aqueduct of Iznik which is cut and deformed by a small fault.

  7. Regional Geochemical Trends in Young Basalts Along the Central Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickard, M.; Furman, T.; Hanan, B. B.; Kurkcuoglu, B.; Sayit, K.

    2009-12-01

    The regional neotectonics and volcanism along the margins of the Anatolian microplate (Turkey) are broadly well-constrained. The African and Arabian plates currently push Anatolia against the relatively stable Eurasian plate and as a result, Anatolia has had a west-southwest movement for the last 12 Ma in what is called ‘escape tectonics’. The tectonic environments and their associated volcanism include slab rollback in Western Anatolia (post-Miocene alkaline basalts and basanites) and slab detachment in Eastern Anatolia (mid-Miocene calc-alkaline to Quaternary alkaline). However, the situation in Central Anatolia is less clear: extensional forces govern the neo-tectonic environment and Pliocene-Recent basalts through basaltic andesites and dacites form large stratovolcanoes in extensional basins as well as both small and large basalt fields. The geochemistry of these basalts requires contributions from a poorly-defined mantle source lithology that has been enriched by subduction processes. However, available plate reconstructions indicate that the leading edge of the subducted African plate did not reach Central Anatolia, suggesting that the subduction environment could be related to closure of the neo-Tethyan Ocean in Paleozoic time. Geochemical compositions of mafic lavas along the Central Anatolian Fault Zone (CAFZ) provide new clarity on the question of the extent of lithospheric melting and the influence of the subducting slab. Moving southward along the CAFZ, incompatible trace element compositions of Central Anatolian basalts increase systematically in La/Nb concentrations and other incompatible trace element indicators trend from MORB and OIB signatures to more enriched values. Small negative Nb and no Ta anomalies are present in basalts from the northern CAFZ, and increase to larger negative Nb anomalies and Ta anomalies in the north. The incompatible trace element variations along the CAFZ point to an increase in lithospheric or slab involvement

  8. Intraplate Deformation of the Anatolian Micro Plate on the Amasya Branch Fault in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, K.

    2010-12-01

    The discrepancy between geologic and geodetic slip rate along the North Anatolian fault has been more evident as solid incremental (Kondo et al. 2010) and cumulative (Kozaci et al. 2009, Okumura et al. 2010) slip rate data are accumulated. The strain transient effect (Kozaci et al. 2009) could be a plausible cause for the discrepancy. At the same time, the seismicity, crustal deformation, and active structures indicate significant amount of distributed tectonic strain far inside the Anatolian micro plate. The accumulation and release of the distributed strain may affect the seismic cycle of the plate boundary. However, there is almost no quantitative information on the earthquakes and faults in central Anatolia. Considering the magnitude of the discrepancy, it is important to understand the intra-plate tectonics and to prepare for the seismic hazard in less active intra-plate areas. For this purpose, the author carried out detailed survey of the Amasya fault. Amasya fault is the only major branch of the North Anatolian fault in Central Anatolia. While the main strand of the North Anatolian fault steps at the Niksar basin, the Amasya fault is the westward continuation of the North Anatolian fault along the Kerkit river valley in the east. The fault extends to southwest over 250 km into the Anatolian micro plate. In 1939 about 100 km long eastern portion of the Amasya fault ruptured together with the 200 km long main strand between Niksar and Erzincan. The location and slip distribution of the 1939 ruptures, as well as slip-rate and paleoseismicity on the Amasya fault have been studied very little. Preliminary fault mapping between 36° E and 37° E was done with Google-Earth satellite photos and 1939 rupture locations were confirmed on site by interviews to aged local people. Cumulative slip measurement and slip-rate estimation were conducted in east of Canbolat (37.6228° E) and east of Findicak (36.4572° E). At Canbolat, 11.4 m cumulative offset was measured on

  9. Landslide susceptibility mapping for a part of North Anatolian Fault Zone (Northeast Turkey) using logistic regression model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Gökhan; aytekin, mustafa; banu ikizler, sabriye; angın, zekai

    2013-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault is know as one of the most active and destructive fault zone which produced many earthquakes with high magnitudes. Along this fault zone, the morphology and the lithological features are prone to landsliding. However, many earthquake induced landslides were recorded by several studies along this fault zone, and these landslides caused both injuiries and live losts. Therefore, a detailed landslide susceptibility assessment for this area is indispancable. In this context, a landslide susceptibility assessment for the 1445 km2 area in the Kelkit River valley a part of North Anatolian Fault zone (Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey) was intended with this study, and the results of this study are summarized here. For this purpose, geographical information system (GIS) and a bivariate statistical model were used. Initially, Landslide inventory maps are prepared by using landslide data determined by field surveys and landslide data taken from General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration. The landslide conditioning factors are considered to be lithology, slope gradient, slope aspect, topographical elevation, distance to streams, distance to roads and distance to faults, drainage density and fault density. ArcGIS package was used to manipulate and analyze all the collected data Logistic regression method was applied to create a landslide susceptibility map. Landslide susceptibility maps were divided into five susceptibility regions such as very low, low, moderate, high and very high. The result of the analysis was verified using the inventoried landslide locations and compared with the produced probability model. For this purpose, Area Under Curvature (AUC) approach was applied, and a AUC value was obtained. Based on this AUC value, the obtained landslide susceptibility map was concluded as satisfactory. Keywords: North Anatolian Fault Zone, Landslide susceptibility map, Geographical Information Systems, Logistic Regression Analysis.

  10. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of Holocene alluvial fans, East Anatolian Fault System, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Tamer; Cetin, Hasan; Yegingil, Zehra; Topaksu, Mustafa; Yüksel, Mehmet; Duygun, Fırat; Nur, Necmettin; Yegingil, İlhami

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the optically stimulated luminescence dating technique was used to determine the time of deposition of alluvial sediment samples from the Türkoğlu-Antakya segment of the East Anatolian Fault System (EAFS) in Turkey. The double-single aliquot regenerative dose protocol on fine grain samples was used to estimate equivalent doses (De). Annual dose rate was computed using elemental concentration of uranium (U) and thorium (Th) determined by using thick-source alpha counting and potassium (K) concentrations using X-ray fluorescence and/or atomic absorption spectroscopy. The environmental dose was measured in situ using α-Al2O3:C chips inside plastic tubes for a year. The two different bulk sediment samples collected from the Islahiye trench yielded ages of 4.54 ± 0.28 and 2.91 ± 0.23 ka. We also obtained a 2.60 ± 0.18 ka age for the alluvial deposit in the Kıranyurdu trench and 2.31 ± 0.14 ka age for an excavation area called Malzeme Ocağı. These ages were consistent with the corresponding calibrated Carbon-14 (14C) ages of the region. The differences between the determined ages were insufficient to clearly distinguish the disturbance event from the effects of bioturbation, biological mixing, or other sources of De variation in the region. They provide a record of alluvial aggradation in the region and may determine undocumented historical earthquake events.

  11. Risk analysis of 222Rn gas received from East Anatolian Fault Zone in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Mucahit; Kulahci, Fatih

    2016-06-01

    In this study, risk analysis and probability distribution methodologies are applied for 222Rn gas data received from Sürgü (Malatya) station located on East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ). 222Rn data are recorded between 21.02.2007 and 06.06.2010 dates. For study are used total 1151 222Rn data. Changes in concentration of 222Rn are modeled as statistically.

  12. The first Paleoseismic and New Neotectonic Data from Eskişehir Fault, Major Anatolian Neotectonic Structure, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kürçer, Akın; Pekkan, Emrah; Tün, Muammer; Kahraman, Serkan

    2014-05-01

    With regard to seismicity, Turkey is one of the most important active deformation regions of the Eastern Mediterranean Region owing to its geotectonic setting. Neotectonic development of Turkey and its neighboring areas is closely associated with the intracontinental convergence developed due to the continental collision between the African-Arabian and Eurasian Plates and the subsequent geological events. The neotectonics of Turkey and its near vicinity is mainly controlled by the dextral North Anatolian Fault System (NAFS), the sinistral East Anatolian Fault System (EAFS), the Dead Sea Fault System (DSFS) and the Aegean-Cyprian subduction zone, which is an active subduction zone. Apart from these main structures, there are secondary fault systems or fault zones which divide Anatolia into smaller blocks or contribute to the development of the Anatolian Block. These are the sinistral Central Anatolian Fault System, the oblique slip Tuz Gölü Fault Zone, the Akşehir Fault Zone and the İnegöl-Eskişehir Fault System. The İnegöl-Eskişehir Fault System (İEFS) is an intracontinental active obligue fault system more than 350 km-long, with a general trend of WNW-ESE extends in between Tuz Gölü in the southeast and İnegöl in the northwest and consisted of several fault and/or fault zone. This fault system is a transition zone that separates strike-slip neotectonic regime to the northeast from the extensional neotectonic regime to the southwest. According to the Revised Active Fault Map of Turkey, these faults are called as Bursa fault, İnegöl fault zone, Oylat fault, Dodurga fault, Eskişehir fault, Kaymaz fault and Cihanbeyli fault, respectively from NW to SE. The Eskişehir Fault is consisted of several geometric fault segments, which are parallel or sub-parallel to each other, varying between 15 and 27.5 km. in length. Kanlıpınar segment, the easternmost segment of Eskişehir Fault, is located on the east of Eskişehir. This segment extends in the N 70

  13. The first Paleoseismic and New Neotectonic Data from Eskişehir Fault, Major Anatolian Neotectonic Structure, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kürçer, Akın; Pekkan, Emrah; Tün, Muammer; Kahraman, Serkan

    2014-05-01

    With regard to seismicity, Turkey is one of the most important active deformation regions of the Eastern Mediterranean Region owing to its geotectonic setting. Neotectonic development of Turkey and its neighboring areas is closely associated with the intracontinental convergence developed due to the continental collision between the African-Arabian and Eurasian Plates and the subsequent geological events. The neotectonics of Turkey and its near vicinity is mainly controlled by the dextral North Anatolian Fault System (NAFS), the sinistral East Anatolian Fault System (EAFS), the Dead Sea Fault System (DSFS) and the Aegean-Cyprian subduction zone, which is an active subduction zone. Apart from these main structures, there are secondary fault systems or fault zones which divide Anatolia into smaller blocks or contribute to the development of the Anatolian Block. These are the sinistral Central Anatolian Fault System, the oblique slip Tuz Gölü Fault Zone, the Akşehir Fault Zone and the İnegöl-Eskişehir Fault System. The İnegöl-Eskişehir Fault System (İEFS) is an intracontinental active obligue fault system more than 350 km-long, with a general trend of WNW-ESE extends in between Tuz Gölü in the southeast and İnegöl in the northwest and consisted of several fault and/or fault zone. This fault system is a transition zone that separates strike-slip neotectonic regime to the northeast from the extensional neotectonic regime to the southwest. According to the Revised Active Fault Map of Turkey, these faults are called as Bursa fault, İnegöl fault zone, Oylat fault, Dodurga fault, Eskişehir fault, Kaymaz fault and Cihanbeyli fault, respectively from NW to SE. The Eskişehir Fault is consisted of several geometric fault segments, which are parallel or sub-parallel to each other, varying between 15 and 27.5 km. in length. Kanlıpınar segment, the easternmost segment of Eskişehir Fault, is located on the east of Eskişehir. This segment extends in the N 70

  14. Understanding the intraplate deformation of the Anatolian Scholle: Insights from the study of the Ovacik Fault (Eastern Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabcı, Cengiz; Sançar, Taylan; Tikhomirov, Dmitry; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Vockenhuber, Christof; Yazıcı, Müge; Natal'in, Boris A.; Akyüz, H. Serdar; Akçar, Naki

    2015-04-01

    The tectonic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean is mainly defined by the interaction between three major plates, Eurasia, Africa, Arabia and the smaller Anatolian 'scholle'. The Anatolia is being extruded westward along two major tectonic structures, the North Anatolian (NASZ) and the East Anatolian (EASZ) shear zones, respectively forming its northern and eastern boundaries. Although there are many geologic and geodetic studies infer that the deformation is mainly concentrated along the NASZ and the EASZ, it is also well documented that the central 'ova' neotectonic province, which defines a region between the Aegean extensional regime in the west, the NASZ in the north and the EASZ in the east, is also deformed internally by a series of NW-striking dextral and NE-striking sinistral strike-slip faults. These active structures clearly fit to the passive-Prandtl cell model of an internally deforming body, which is originally suggested by Sengör (1979) to interpret the neotectonics of the central Anatolia. The Malatya-Ovacik Fault Zone (MOFZ) and it is northeastern member, the Ovacik Fault (OF), is one the sinistral faults of the 'ova' province, located close to its eastern boundary. In the framework of the TUBITAK project no. 114Y227, we started to study the (a) the geologic slip rate, (b) the palaeoseismology and (c) the cumulative displacement of the OF in order to understand not only the short and long term spatio-temporal behaviour of this 110 km-long strike slip fault, but also its role in the internal deformation of the Anatolian 'scholle'. The faulting is clearly observed along the well-preserved scarps and displaced fluvial landforms at the northern margin of the Ovacik Basin (Tunceli, Turkey), where the deformation is mainly localised along a single strand. The preliminary cosmogenic 36Cl dates of two independent terrace risers at a single site yield slip rates about 1.5 and 1.9 mm/yr (Zabci et al. 2014), which slightly exceed the GPS-based block model

  15. Paleoseismologic Studies of the North Anatolian Fault, Cukurcimen and Ulaslar, North-Central Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartleb, R. D.; Dolan, J. F.; Kozaci, O.; Seitz, G. G.; Akyuz, H. S.; Barka, A. A.

    2001-12-01

    The central North Anatolian fault (NAF) is a model opportunity to study long-term behavior of continental transforms because of its relative mechanical simplicity and long historic record of earthquakes. We excavated three trenches across the NAF at Cukurcimen, near Refahiye in north-central Turkey on the eastern part of the 1939 M7.9 surface rupture. Measurement of a nearby offset dirt road, together with interviews with residents, indicates that ~9 - 14 m of dextral slip occurred at the site during the 1939 event. Trench stratigraphy is superb, with alternating fine-scale alluvial and marsh deposits, including abundant, laterally-continuous peat horizons. These in-situ peat deposits provide excellent chronological control, which we are utilizing by strategic sampling and AMS 14C analysis. We identified evidence for at least two, and perhaps four, surface ruptures at Cukurcimen. Two distinct event horizons were recognized in trench 1 on the basis of upward fault terminations. The most recent event in trench 1 occurred shortly after deposition of a thin peat horizon (1332 - 1481 AD). We do not have an upper age limit for this event, but the event horizon lies ~75 cm below ground surface. We believe that this is the historical 1583 earthquake which razed Erzincan, and that the 1939 event is not recorded in trench 1. An older, clearly-defined event in trench 1 occurred shortly after deposition of another thin peat horizon (795 - 1022 AD), and before the 1583 (?) event. We suspect that this event is the historical 1045 earthquake. There is also equivocal evidence in trench 1 for an older event that occurred after deposition of a peat dated at BC 538 - 260, and before 795 - 1022 AD. Trench 2 revealed evidence for one event (1939?), peat dates are pending. Trench 3 revealed evidence for two events (probably 1939 and 1583). Additional excavations are planned at this site. We excavated two trenches across the NAF near Ulaslar, 12 km east of Gerede, on the 1944 M7

  16. Paleoseismic evidence of characteristic slip on the Western segment of the North Anatolian fault, Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klinger, Yann; Sieh, K.; Altunel, E.; Akoglu, A.; Barka, A.; Dawson, Tim; Gonzalez, Tania; Meltzner, A.; Rockwell, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    We have conducted a paleoseismic investigation of serial fault rupture at one site along the 110-km rupture of the North Anatolian fault that produced the Mw 7.4 earthquake of 17 August 1999. The benefit of using a recent rupture to compare serial ruptures lies in the fact that the location, magnitude, and slip vector of the most recent event are all very well documented. We wished to determine whether or not the previous few ruptures of the fault were similar to the recent one. We chose a site at a step-over between two major strike-slip traces, where the principal fault is a normal fault. Our two excavations across the 1999 rupture reveal fluvial sands and gravels with two colluvial wedges related to previous earthquakes. Each wedge is about 0.8 m thick. Considering the processes of collapse and subsequent diffusion that are responsible for the formation of a colluvial wedge, we suggest that the two paleoscarps were similar in height to the 1999 scarp. This similarity supports the concept of characteristic slip, at least for this location along the fault. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates of 16 charcoal samples are consistent with the interpretation that these two paleoscarps formed during large historical events in 1509 and 1719. If this is correct, the most recent three ruptures at the site have occurred at 210- and 280-year intervals.

  17. Microstructural study of the partition between seismic and aseismic deformation along the North Anatolian Fault zone, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaduri, M.; Gratier, J. P.; Renard, F.; Cakir, Z.; Lasserre, C.

    2014-12-01

    Along the North Anatolian Fault (Turkey), fault sliding is accommodated both by earthquakes and by aseismic creep. The creep processes develop either as transient (post-seismic or interseismic) sliding or as permanent sliding along zones localized on specific segments of the fault. Creep processes relax the stress and contribute to stress redistribution within the seismogenic zone. They participate to the deformation budget during the seismic cycle, sometimes delaying or on the contrary helping triggering the occurrence of large earthquakes. Identifying the mechanisms controlling creep and their evolution with time and space represents a major challenge for predicting the mechanical evolution of active faults. Our goal is to answer three main questions: How to identify at the outcrop scale permanent creep from transient creep? Is aseismic creep controlled by lithology? How does creep evolve before and after earthquakes? The challenge is to understand which key parameters control the shift from seismic to aseismic deformation, such as the effect of fabric, rock lithology, fault roughness, strain-rate, fluid pressure or stress.We collected samples from a dozen of fresh and well-preserved fault outcrops along creeping and locked segments of the North Anatolian Fault. We used various methods such as microscopic and geological observations, SEM, XRD analysis, strain measurements from image processing approaches in order to quantitatively characterize the amount of deformation and the mechanisms involved. Results show different relationships between lithology and mechanisms of deformation: (i) Along the locked segments of the North Anatolian Fault, in massive limestone, we found evidence of large earthquakes followed by pre- or post-seismic (i.e. afterslip) creep. (ii) Along some creeping segments, we observed gouges with weak clay (saponite) that could accommodate (or have accommodated in the past) large permanent creep. (iii) Along other creeping segments, we observed

  18. Microseismicity at the North Anatolian Fault in the Sea of Marmara offshore Istanbul, NW Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bulut, Fatih; Bohnhoff, Marco; Ellsworth, William L.; Aktar, Mustafa; Dresen, Georg

    2009-01-01

    The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) below the Sea of Marmara forms a “seismic gap” where a major earthquake is expected to occur in the near future. This segment of the fault lies between the 1912 Ganos and 1999 İzmit ruptures and is the only NAFZ segment that has not ruptured since 1766. To monitor the microseismic activity at the main fault branch offshore of Istanbul below the Çınarcık Basin, a permanent seismic array (PIRES) was installed on the two outermost Prince Islands, Yassiada and Sivriada, at a few kilometers distance to the fault. In addition, a temporary network of ocean bottom seismometers was deployed throughout the Çınarcık Basin. Slowness vectors are determined combining waveform cross correlation and P wave polarization. We jointly invert azimuth and traveltime observations for hypocenter determination and apply a bootstrap resampling technique to quantify the location precision. We observe seismicity rates of 20 events per month for M < 2.5 along the basin. The spatial distribution of hypocenters suggests that the two major fault branches bounding the depocenter below the Çınarcık Basin merge to one single master fault below ∼17 km depth. On the basis of a cross-correlation technique we group closely spaced earthquakes and determine composite focal mechanisms implementing recordings of surrounding permanent land stations. Fault plane solutions have a predominant right-lateral strike-slip mechanism, indicating that normal faulting along this part of the NAFZ plays a minor role. Toward the west we observe increasing components of thrust faulting. This supports the model of NW trending, dextral strike-slip motion along the northern and main branch of the NAFZ below the eastern Sea of Marmara.

  19. Flexible slip near the largest step-over along the North Anatolian fault system, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, H.; Kurcer, A.; Özalp, S.; Emre, O.

    2010-12-01

    Repeatability of surface slip distribution through earthquake cycles is basis to evaluate size and timing of future large earthquakes generated by active fault systems. In order to reveal surface slip history associated with paleoearthquakes on the North Anatolian fault system (NAFS), we have extensively performed 3D trenching survey on the 1942 Erbaa-Niksar earthquake (M 7.0) ruptures, to simultaneously reconstruct timing and surface slip associated with past large earthquakes. At Ayvaz site on the 1942 rupture, our 3D trench survey preliminary indicated that the penultimate earthquake, which can be correlated with the great Anatolian earthquake (M ~8.0) in 1668 AD, recorded larger surface slip of 6.0-8.0 m in comparison with the 1942 slip of 2.5 m. This result supports historical documents telling that the 1668 event ruptured for >600 km long on the central-eastern NAFS and it likely jumped across the 11-km-wide step-over that is the largest along the NAFS. In order to confirm this flexible slip history according to the magnitude of large earthquakes, we re-excavated 3D trenches to reconstruct longer slip history at the same site. The results are summarized as follows; 1) at the site, high-resolution alluvium exposed on the trench walls records six paleoearthquakes including the 1942 and 1668 events during the last ~2500 years, 2) we reconstructed five discrete slips during the individual events, 3) the amounts of paleo-slips are classified into two categories; the 1942-type smaller slips and the 1668-type larger slips. Thus, the repeatability of surface slip during large earthquakes is not constant like the assumption of the characteristic earthquake model, however, the amounts do not randomly vary from event to event on the assumption of the Gutenberg-Richter model.

  20. A Late Holocene Slip Rate Of The North Anatolian Fault, Hersek Peninsula, Izmit Bay, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozaci, O.; Altunel, E.; Clahan, K.; Yonlu, O.; Sundermann, S. T.; Lettis, W. R.; Turner, J.; Altekruse, J.; Gumus, I.; Lindvall, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    The Hersek Peninsula has been a strategic site for at least the last two millennia as a result of its location. It extends into Izmit Bay and creates a shortcut for the historical Bagdad Road, an important section of the spice route, between Istanbul (Constantinople) and Iznik (Nicaea). It also controls the entrance of Izmit Bay to Izmit (Nicomedia). Civilizations have been investing in this location by building harbors, fortifications, baths, roads, bridges, aqueducts, and temples. The remnants of these historical structures record evidence for past destruction of both anthropogenic and tectonic origin. From an active tectonics point of view, the Hersek Peninsula is a key locality for understanding seismic hazard in the Marmara Region. It is the last place that the North Anatolian fault can be studied on land before it enters the Marmara Sea and it has experienced strong ground shaking most recently during the M7.4 Izmit earthquake in 1999. Paleoseismic trenching as well as archeoseismologic investigations were recently performed on the Hersek Peninsula for regional and site specific seismic hazard characterization. Our paleoseismic trenches north of the Hersek Lagoon provided fault exposures confirming the location of the North Anatolian fault on the peninsula. Detailed mapping of a 6th century A.D. Byzantine aqueduct offset 14 ± 1 meters along the projection of this fault trace revealed a minimum late Holocene slip rate of 13.6 +1/-3.5 mm yr-1. Rapid fan deposition and subsidence on the delta plain across the Hersek Peninsula has resulted in the relatively recent deposition of several meters of relatively young alluvium and nearshore tidal deposits. Nearly 2 km of trench exposures revealed these deposits were continuous and contain only minor evidence of ground shaking in the form of secondary liquefaction deposits and ground fractures. The lack of primary ground surface rupture evidence in these approximately 300-year-old sediments strongly suggests that the

  1. Authigenic carbonate crusts and chimneys along the North Anatolian Fault in the Sea of Marmara, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldız, Güliz; Namık Çaǧatay, M.

    2016-04-01

    The Sea of Marmara is located on the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) fault zone that is a major continental transform plate boundary. It has ca. 1250 m-deep Tekirdag, Central and Cinarcik basins that are separated by two NE-SW trending Central and Western Highs. Extensive cold seeps occur along the active fault segments of the NAF in the deep basins and highs, which are associated with authigenic carbonate crusts, carbonate chimneys and mounds, black sulphidic sediments, and local gas hydrates and oil seepage. The cold seep sites were observed and sampled during the Nautile submersible and Victor 6000 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives carried out during MARNAUT and MARSITE cruises in 2007 and 2014, respectively. Here, we report the mineralogical and stable isotopic composition of the authigenic carbonates and discuss their environmental conditions and mechanisms of formation. The carbonate crusts range up to 5 cm in thickness and the chimneys and mounds are up to 2 m high. Some chimneys are active emitting fresh to brackish water at ambient bottom water temperatures (˜ 14° C). The carbonate crusts occur as a pavements, and are commonly covered with black sulphidic sediments and bacterial mats that accommodate a rich chemosynthetic community of bivalves, sea urchins and marine annelid worms (Polychaeta). The authigenic carbonates commonly consist mainly of aragonite, but in a few instances contain subequal amounts of aragonite and calcite. High Mg-calcite is usually a minor to trace component, except in one sample in which it is present as a cement of mudstone. In the active methane emission zones, the sulphate/methane boundary occurs at or close to the seafloor, whereas elsewhere in the Sea of Marmara, the same boundary is located at 2-5 m below the seafloor. This, together with very light stable carbon isotope values (δ13C=-29.8 to - 46.3 ‰ V-PDB), indicates that the anaerobic oxidation of high methane flux emitted from the active faults is the major process

  2. Authigenic carbonate crusts and chimneys along the North Anatolian Fault in the Sea of Marmara, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldız, Güliz; Namık Çaǧatay, M.

    2016-04-01

    The Sea of Marmara is located on the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) fault zone that is a major continental transform plate boundary. It has ca. 1250 m-deep Tekirdag, Central and Cinarcik basins that are separated by two NE-SW trending Central and Western Highs. Extensive cold seeps occur along the active fault segments of the NAF in the deep basins and highs, which are associated with authigenic carbonate crusts, carbonate chimneys and mounds, black sulphidic sediments, and local gas hydrates and oil seepage. The cold seep sites were observed and sampled during the Nautile submersible and Victor 6000 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives carried out during MARNAUT and MARSITE cruises in 2007 and 2014, respectively. Here, we report the mineralogical and stable isotopic composition of the authigenic carbonates and discuss their environmental conditions and mechanisms of formation. The carbonate crusts range up to 5 cm in thickness and the chimneys and mounds are up to 2 m high. Some chimneys are active emitting fresh to brackish water at ambient bottom water temperatures (˜ 14° C). The carbonate crusts occur as a pavements, and are commonly covered with black sulphidic sediments and bacterial mats that accommodate a rich chemosynthetic community of bivalves, sea urchins and marine annelid worms (Polychaeta). The authigenic carbonates commonly consist mainly of aragonite, but in a few instances contain subequal amounts of aragonite and calcite. High Mg-calcite is usually a minor to trace component, except in one sample in which it is present as a cement of mudstone. In the active methane emission zones, the sulphate/methane boundary occurs at or close to the seafloor, whereas elsewhere in the Sea of Marmara, the same boundary is located at 2-5 m below the seafloor. This, together with very light stable carbon isotope values (δ13C=-29.8 to - 46.3 ‰ V-PDB), indicates that the anaerobic oxidation of high methane flux emitted from the active faults is the major process

  3. Surface Creep Along the East Anatolian Fault (Turkey) Revealed by InSAR Time Series: Implications for Seismic Hazard and Mechanism of Creep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senturk, S.; Cakir, Z.; Ergintav, S.; Dogan, U.; Cetin, S.; Akoglu, A. M.; Meghraoui, M.; Karabulut, H.

    2015-12-01

    Forming the boundary between the Anatolian and Arabian plates in Turkey, the East Anatolian Fault (EAF) is a major tectonic structure in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Together with its conjugate, the North Anatolian Fault (NAF), it accommodates the westward motion of the Anatolian plate with respect to Eurasia. Although it has been associated only with small-to-moderate sized earthquakes in the instrumental period and relatively quiet compared to the North Anatolian Fault, the EAF produced devastating large (M > 7) earthquakes in the historical time (Ambraseys et al., 1998). Analysis of historical seismicity (Nalbant et al., 2001) suggests that a seismic gap exists between the Lake of Hazar and Bingöl, referred here as to Palu seismic gap (PSG) We estimate the interseismic velocity field along the BSG using the Persistent Scatterer InSAR technique (Hooper, 2008). ENVISAT ASAR data acquired between 2003 and 2010 on three adjacent descending and overlapping tracks (T035, T264 and T493) are use to map the interseismic strain accumulation. The results reveal that the 100-km-long section of the Palu segment is exhibiting aseismic creep at the surface. The creep rate varies along the fault reaching, at some places, to the far field GPS-based plate velocity (i.e., 10 ± 0.3 mm/y; Reilinger et al., 2006), implying that significant portion of the elastic strain has been released aseismically. Preliminary modelling with elastic dislocations suggests that some sections of the fault may be creeping from surface down to the entire seismogenic crust. Geology of the fault zone is dominated by ophiolitic and volcanic rocks characterized by weak phyllosilicate minerals, suggesting that aseismic slip is promoted by minerals with low frictional properties. Furthermore, to monitor the surface creep, a GPS network has been established along the Palu segment. One survey has so far been realized and we expect the reliable results in 2 years (supported by TUBITAK no: 114Y250 project).

  4. Earthquake imprints on a lacustrine deltaic system: the Kürk Delta along the East Anatolian Fault (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; El-Ouahabi, Meriam; Garcia-Moreno, David; Avsar, Ulas; Altinok, Sevgi; Schmidt, Sabine; Cagatay, Namik

    2016-04-01

    Delta contains a sedimentary record primarily indicative of water level changes, but particularly sensitive to earthquake shaking, which results generally in soft-sediment-deformation structures. The Kürk Delta adjacent to a major strike-slip fault displays this type of deformation (Hempton and Dewey, 1983) as well as other types of earthquake fingerprints that are specifically investigated. This lacustrine delta stands at the south-western extremity of the Hazar Lake and is bound by the East Anatolian Fault (EAF), which generated earthquakes of magnitude 7 in eastern Turkey. Water level changes and earthquake shaking affecting the Kurk Delta have been reevaluated combining geophysical data (seismic-reflection profiles and side-scan sonar), remote sensing images, historical data, onland outcrops and offshore coring. The history of water level changes provides a temporal framework regarding the sedimentological record. In addition to the commonly soft-sediment-deformation previously documented, the onland outcrops reveal a record of deformation (faults and clastic dykes) linked to large earthquake-induced liquefactions. The recurrent liquefaction structures can be used to obtain a paleoseismological record. Five event horizons were identified that could be linked to historical earthquakes occurring in the last 1000 years along the EAF. Sedimentary cores sampling the most recent subaqueous sedimentation revealed the occurrence of another type of earthquake fingerprint. Based on radionuclide dating (137Cs and 210Pb), two major sedimentary events were attributed to the 1874-1875 earthquake sequence along the EAF. Their sedimentological characteristics were inferred based X-ray imagery, XRD, LOI, grain-size distribution, geophysical measurements. The events are interpreted to be hyperpycnal deposits linked to post-seismic sediment reworking of earthquake-triggered landslides. A time constraint regarding this sediment remobilization process could be achieved thanks to

  5. A 3000-year record of ground-rupturing earthquakes along the central North Anatolian fault near Lake Ladik, Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fraser, J.; Pigati, J.S.; Hubert-Ferrari, A.; Vanneste, K.; Avsar, U.; Altinok, S.

    2009-01-01

    The North Anatolian fault (NAF) is a ???1500 km long, arcuate, dextral strike-slip fault zone in northern Turkey that extends from the Karliova triple junction to the Aegean Sea. East of Bolu, the fault zone exhibits evidence of a sequence of large (Mw >7) earthquakes that occurred during the twentieth century that displayed a migrating earthquake sequence from east to west. Prolonged human occupation in this region provides an extensive, but not exhaustive, historical record of large earthquakes prior to the twentieth century that covers much of the last 2000 yr. In this study, we extend our knowledge of rupture events in the region by evaluating the stratigraphy and chronology of sediments exposed in a paleoseismic trench across a splay of the NAF at Destek, ???6:5 km east of Lake Ladik (40.868?? N, 36.121?? E). The trenched fault strand forms an uphill-facing scarp and associated sediment trap below a small catchment area. The trench exposed a narrow fault zone that has juxtaposed a sequence of weakly defined paleosols interbedded with colluvium against highly fractured bedrock. We mapped magnetic susceptibility variations on the trench walls and found evidence for multiple visually unrecognized colluvial wedges. This technique was also used to constrain a predominantly dip-slip style of displacement on this fault splay. Sediments exposed in the trench were dated using both charcoal and terrestrial gastropod shells to constrain the timing of the earthquake events. While the gastropod shells consistently yielded 14 C ages that were too old (by ???900 yr), we obtained highly reliable 14 C ages from the charcoal by dating multiple components of the sample material. Our radiocarbon chronology constrains the timing of seven large earthquakes over the past 3000 yr prior to the 1943 Tosya earthquake, including event ages of (2?? error): A.D. 1437-1788, A.D. 1034-1321, A.D. 549-719, A.D. 17-585 (1-3 events), 35 B.C.-A.D. 28, 700-392 B.C., 912-596 B.C. Our results

  6. The deep structure of the North Anatolian Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, Andreas; Saygin, Erdinc; Taymaz, Tuncay; Cupillard, Paul; Capdeville, Yann; Trampert, Jeannot

    2013-07-01

    Multi-scale full waveform inversion of complete continental- and regional-scale seismograms reveals the crustal and upper-mantle signature of the North Anatolian Fault Zone which shapes the neotectonics of Turkey and the eastern Mediterranean. Within the crust, the fault zone is mostly bounded by several high-velocity blocks, suggesting that it developed along the edges of continental fragments with high rigidity. Below the crust, the surface expression of the eastern and central parts of the North Anatolian Fault Zone correlate with a pronounced low-velocity band that extends laterally over 600 km. Around 100 km depth, the low-velocity band merges into the shallow Anatolian asthenosphere, thereby providing a link to the Kırka-Afyon-Isparta Volcanic Field and the Central Anatolian Volcanics. We interpret the low-velocity band beneath the North Anatolian Fault Zone as the upper-mantle expression of the Tethyan sutures that formed 60-15 Ma ago as a result of Africa-Eurasian convergence. The structurally weak suture facilitated the formation of the younger (less than 10 Ma) crustal fault zone. In this sense, the North Anatolian Fault Zone is not only a crustal feature, but a narrow zone of weakness that extends into the upper mantle.

  7. Morphotectonic setting of the Gölpazari pull-apart basin: Implications on the region between the North Anatolian and Eskişehir fault zones, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Önde, E.; Gürbüz, A.

    2010-05-01

    The Gölpazarı basin is a rhomb-shaped pull-apart basin that situated on the region between the right-lateral North Anatolian and Eskişehir fault zones in NW Turkey at an altitude of ~500 m a.s.l. with a size of 12 km in length and 4.5 km in width. The main structural elements controlling the morphological features in and around the study area are the strike-slip motion of these fault zones. The North Anatolian fault zone is one of the best known faults in the world because of its remarkable high seismicity and importance for the tectonics of Eastern Mediterranean region. This fault zone seperates the Eurasian plate from the Anatolian plate and splays into two major strands to the north of the Gölpazarı basin.The Eskişehir fault zone that located to the south of the studied area is a WNW-ESE-trending strike-slip deformation area with a normal component that extends from Uludağ in the west to Sivrihisar in the east and separates the western Anatolia region from the central Anatolia. The morphotectonic framework of the study area was mainly set in the Quaternary period by the tectonics of these fault zones. The fault-generated mountain fronts are the most characteristic landforms. As a result of this the surrounding topography of the Gölpazarı basin being steeper along the boundaries where mountains rises steeply to over 700 m from the depression floor. The faults along the northern and southern sides of the depression, indicate mainly oblique normal faulting whereas the SE and NW margins indicate mainly strike-slip faulting. The gradient of the basin floor is towards west. There was a shallow lake in the west of the depression until 1963. There are several boreholes in the floor of the Gölpazarı basin that were drilled by General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works of Turkey that represents an alluvium thickness of ~300 m. In the Early Quaternary the Gölpazarı basin was a closed depression and then the openning of a strait in the south of the basin by

  8. Geomorphic Assessment of Activity Levels of the Three Strands of North Anatolian Fault Zone in NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürbüz, E.; Gurbuz, A.

    2014-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault Zone is a narrow zone along a length of ~900 km and width of 10 km between the Karlıova to the east and Dokurcun Valley to the west. The fault zone splays into three strands around the Dokurcun Valley and forms a wide zone with a length of 400 km and width of 100 km. From the Dokurcun Valley, while the northern strand follows a route along the Lake Sapanca, Izmit Gulf, Marmara Sea and Saroz Gulf and connects to the North Aegean Trough, the middle strand tracks Lake Iznik, Gemlik and Bandırma Bays and southern coasts of the Marmara Sea. Although there is not a consensus on where it branches from the main strand, it is generally accepted that it trails a definite route along the Yenişehir, Bursa, Manyas-Karacabey and Yenice basins, and continues towards the Edremit Gulf in the west. Given the slip rates and seismic activities of the last century, the ranking between these three strands show a decrease from north to south. Among these three strands, the northern one offers significant differences with high values compared to the middle and southern strands. The aim of this study is to compare the differences represented by slip rate and seismicity data with morphometric features of the three strands of North Anatolian Fault Zone that controlled by their activities during the Quaternary period. We have calculated the morphometric values for each of the fault strands in the Marmara Region according to geomorphic indices. Our study presents the middle strand, which has represented the lower activity during the instrumental period, has an important sense of activity.

  9. Flexible slip history on the 1942 Erbaa-Niksar earthquake rupture along the North Anatolian fault system, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Hisao; Kurçer, Akın.; Özalp, Selim; Emre, Ömer

    2010-05-01

    Repeatability of surface slip distribution through earthquake cycles is basis to evaluate size and timing of future large earthquakes generated by active fault systems. In order to reveal surface slip history associated with paleoearthquakes on the North Anatolian fault system (NAFS), we have extensively performed 3D trenching survey on the 1942 Erbaa-Niksar earthquake (M 7.0) ruptures, to simultaneously reconstruct timing and surface slip associated with past large earthquakes. At Ayvaz site on the 1942 rupture, our 3D trench survey preliminary indicated that the penultimate earthquake, which can be correlated with the great Anatolian earthquake (M ~8.0) in 1668 AD, recorded larger surface slip of 6.0-8.0 m in comparison with the 1942 slip of 2.5 m. This result paeloseismologically supports historical documents telling that the 1668 event ruptured for >600 km long on the central-eastern NAFS. In order to confirm this flexible slip history according to the magnitude of large earthquakes, we re-excavated 3D trenches to reconstruct longer slip history at the same site. The results are summarized as follows; 1) at the site, high-resolution alluvium exposed on the trench walls records six paleoearthquakes including the 1942 event during the last ~2500 years, 2) we reconstructed five discrete slips during the individual events, 3) the amounts of paleo-slips are classified into two categories, the 1942-type smaller slips and the 1668-type larger slips. Thus, the repeatability of surface slip during large earthquakes is not constant like the assumption of the characteristic earthquake model, however, the amounts do not randomly vary from event to event on the assumption of the Gutenberg-Richter model.

  10. Evidence for a minimum 52 ± 1 km of total offset along the northern branch of the North Anatolian Fault in northwest Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbayram, Kenan; Sorlien, Christopher C.; Okay, Aral I.

    2016-02-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) splits into two major branches in northwestern Turkey with most of the present strain accumulation and Holocene displacement being along the northern branch (NAF-N). Estimates of total offset along the NAF-N range between 4 km and 70 km in the Marmara Sea region. These different estimates lead to different interpretations on the formation of Marmara Sea basins. In this study, we use Cretaceous faults sub-perpendicular to the NAF-N as precise offset markers. Based on these faults, as well as the offset of the Middle Eocene volcanic belt, we report a minimum 52 ± 1 km cumulative dextral displacement along the NAF-N east of Marmara Sea near 31°E longitude. The displacement of the Middle Eocene volcanic belt shows that the offset is post-Middle Eocene. If we assume an additional 15 km dextral displacement on the second strand of the NAF-N (Düzce fault), the total offset along the NAF-N can be estimated as ~ 67 km in the Eastern Marmara region. Adding the published offsets that range from 16 to 26 km on the Southern Branch of the NAF give a total offset estimate of whole NAF zone as 88 ± 5 km in the eastern Marmara region. The GPS velocity estimate indicates ~ 23 mm yr- 1 of total plate motion across and near eastern Marmara Sea that would take 3.9 million years to accumulate 88 km of displacement on the NAF. Additionally, the Anatolian Plate would not have instantaneously accelerated to its modern rate of motion. Thus, initiation of transform displacement must somewhat pre-date 3.9 Ma.

  11. The deep structure of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, A.; Cupillard, P.; Saygin, E.; Trampert, J.; Taymaz, T.; Capdeville, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Multi-scale full waveform inversion of complete continental- and regional-scale seismograms reveals the crustal and upper-mantle signature of the North Anatolian Fault Zone which shapes the neotectonics of Turkey and the eastern Mediterranean. Within the crust, the fault zone is mostly bounded by several high-velocity blocks, suggesting that it developed along the edges of continental fragments with high rigidity. Below the crust, the surface expression of the eastern and central parts of the North Anatolian Fault Zone correlate with a pronounced low-velocity band that extends laterally over 600 km. Around 100 km depth, the low-velocity band merges into the shallow Anatolian asthenosphere, thereby providing a link to the Kirka-Afyon-Isparta Volcanic Field and the Central Anatolian Volcanics. We interpret the low-velocity band beneath the North Anatolian Fault Zone as the upper-mantle expression of the Tethyan sutures that formed 60-15 Ma ago as a result of Africa-Eurasian convergence. The structurally weak suture facilitated the formation of the younger (less than 10 Ma) crustal fault zone. In this sense, the North Anatolian Fault Zone is not only a crustal feature, but a narrow zone of weakness that extends into the upper mantle. Horizontal slices through the isotropic S velocity, vS, at 20 km (a) and 40 km (b) depth. Indicated are the surface expressions of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) marks the northern boundary of the NAFZ. Dashed rectangles mark regions that are amplified in the two leftmost panels of the figure. Dotted ellipses indicate thin (20-30 km) crust as inferred from receiver function analysis (Vanacore et al., GJI 2013). Key to marked features: ATB: Anatolide-Tauride Block, IZ: Istanbul Zone, KM: Krsehir Massif, SZ: Sakarya Zone. Horizontal slices through the isotropic S velocity, vs, at 70 km and 150 km depth beneath Europe and western Asia. The Anatolian region where shorter-period data have been

  12. Methane-derived authigenic carbonates along the North Anatolian fault system in the Sea of Marmara (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crémière, Antoine; Pierre, Catherine; Blanc-Valleron, Marie-Madeleine; Zitter, Tiphaine; Çağatay, M. Namik; Henry, Pierre

    2012-08-01

    The Marnaut cruise (May-June 2007) investigated the submerged part of the North Anatolian fault system, an active tectonic area in the Sea of Marmara. Already known and new fluid venting sites along the fault system were visited by submersible diving. Cold seeps present a considerable diversity of geochemical background associated with occurrences of authigenic carbonate crusts outcropping at the seafloor. Buried carbonate concretions were also recovered by coring within the sediments of the Tekirdağ Basin and of the Western-High ridge that separates the Tekirdağ and Central Basins. Interestingly, numerous of these early diagenetic carbonates were found within the transitional sediments from lacustrine to marine environment deposited after the late glacial maximum. The authigenic carbonates are mainly composed of aragonite, Mg-calcite and minor amounts of dolomite, and are often associated with pyrite and barite. The carbon isotopic compositions of carbonates present a wide range of values from -50.6‰ to +14.2‰ V-PDB indicating different diagenetic settings and complex mixtures of dissolved inorganic carbon from different sources. The low δ13C values of the seafloor crusts and of most buried concretions indicate that the carbon source was a mixture of microbial and thermogenic methane and possibly other hydrocarbons that were oxidized by anaerobic microbial processes. The positive δ13C values of a few buried concretions from the Western-High ridge reflect the mineralization of heavy CO2, which is thought to represent the residual by-product of oil biodegradation in a subsurface petroleum reservoir that migrated up with brines. Most of the oxygen isotopic compositions of seafloor carbonates are close to the isotopic equilibrium with the present-day bottom water conditions but a few values as low as -1.9‰ V-PDB indicate precipitation from brackish waters. In buried carbonate concretions, δ18O values as high as +4.9‰ V-PDB reflect the contribution of

  13. A Poisson method application to the assessment of the earthquake hazard in the North Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türker, Tuǧba; Bayrak, Yusuf

    2016-04-01

    North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is one from the most important strike-slip fault zones in the world and located among regions in the highest seismic activity. The NAFZ observed very large earthquakes from the past to present. The aim of this study; the important parameters of Gutenberg-Richter relationship (a and b values) estimated and this parameters taking into account, earthquakes were examined in the between years 1900-2015 for 10 different seismic source regions in the NAFZ. After that estimated occurrence probabilities and return periods of occurring earthquakes in fault zone in the next years, and is being assessed with Poisson method the earthquake hazard of the NAFZ. The Region 2 were observed the largest earthquakes for the only historical period and hasn't been observed large earthquake for the instrumental period in this region. Two historical earthquakes (1766, MS=7.3 and 1897, MS=7.0) are included for Region 2 (Marmara Region) where a large earthquake is expected in the next years. The 10 different seismic source regions are determined the relationships between the cumulative number-magnitude which estimated a and b parameters with the equation of LogN=a-bM in the Gutenberg-Richter. A homogenous earthquake catalog for MS magnitude which is equal or larger than 4.0 is used for the time period between 1900 and 2015. The database of catalog used in the study has been created from International Seismological Center (ISC) and Boǧazici University Kandilli observation and earthquake research institute (KOERI). The earthquake data were obtained until from 1900 to 1974 from KOERI and ISC until from 1974 to 2015 from KOERI. The probabilities of the earthquake occurring are estimated for the next 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 years in the 10 different seismic source regions. The highest earthquake occur probabilities in 10 different seismic source regions in the next years estimated that the region Tokat-Erzincan (Region 9) %99 with an earthquake

  14. Sedimentary record of coseismic subsidence in Hersek coastal lagoon (Izmit Bay, Turkey) and the late Holocene activity of the North Anatolian Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Sébastien; Doner, Lisa; Akçer Ön, Sena; Sancar, Ummuhan; Schudack, Ulla; Mischke, Steffen; Ćagatay, M. Namik; Leroy, Suzanne A. G.

    2011-06-01

    The late Holocene activity of a restraining bend of the northern strand of the North Anatolian Fault in Izmit Bay was investigated by a sedimentological, geochemical, and paleoecological analysis of sediment cores from Hersek coastal lagoon, NW Turkey. The sediment cores show a succession of sedimentary sequences composed of three units separated by gradual transitions. The first unit is composed of a thin layer of shell debris-rich sediment in abrupt contact with the underlying organic-rich deposits. This unit is overlain by a thick foraminifera-rich mud deposit, and the sequences are capped by an organic-rich mud unit. These sequences are interpreted as silting up, shallowing upward deposits, typical of a lagoon becoming isolated from the sea. We suggest that they represent the sedimentary signature of coseismic subsidence, which was caused by reverse slip at the Hersek bend, and tsunamis in Izmit Bay. Our radiocarbon-dated paleoseismological record indicates (1) the atypical collapse of the hanging wall during the 740 earthquake and (2) subsidence of the footwall during the 987, 1509, and 1719 earthquakes. This study contributes to the understanding of the dynamics of restraining bends, and it highlights the potential of coastal sediments for reconstructing past earthquakes and tsunamis in regions dominated by strike-slip deformations.

  15. A shallow fault-zone structure illuminated by trapped waves in the Karadere-Duzce branch of the North Anatolian Fault, western Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ben-Zion, Y.; Peng, Z.; Okaya, D.; Seeber, L.; Armbruster, J.G.; Ozer, N.; Michael, A.J.; Baris, S.; Aktar, M.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the subsurface structure of the Karadere-Duzce branch of the North Anatolian Fault based on analysis of a large seismic data set recorded by a local PASSCAL network in the 6 months following the Mw = 7.4 1999 Izmit earthquake. Seismograms observed at stations located in the immediate vicinity of the rupture zone show motion amplification and long-period oscillations in both P- and S-wave trains that do not exist in nearby off-fault stations. Examination of thousands of waveforms reveals that these characteristics are commonly generated by events that are well outside the fault zone. The anomalous features in fault-zone seismograms produced by events not necessarily in the fault may be referred to generally as fault-zone-related site effects. The oscillatory shear wave trains after the direct S arrival in these seismograms are analysed as trapped waves propagating in a low-velocity fault-zone layer. The time difference between the S arrival and trapped waves group does not grow systematically with increasing source-receiver separation along the fault. These observations imply that the trapping of seismic energy in the Karadere-Duzce rupture zone is generated by a shallow fault-zone layer. Traveltime analysis and synthetic waveform modelling indicate that the depth of the trapping structure is approximately 3-4 km. The synthetic waveform modelling indicates further that the shallow trapping structure has effective waveguide properties consisting of thickness of the order of 100 m, a velocity decrease relative to the surrounding rock of approximately 50 per cent and an S-wave quality factor of 10-15. The results are supported by large 2-D and 3-D parameter space studies and are compatible with recent analyses of trapped waves in a number of other faults and rupture zones. The inferred shallow trapping structure is likely to be a common structural element of fault zones and may correspond to the top part of a flower-type structure. The motion amplification

  16. Paleoseimic investigations along the Ganos fault and characteristics of the 9 August 1912 Ganos earthquake (Ms=7.3) - North Anatolian Fault / Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, M. E.; Meghraoui, M.; Ferry, M.; Ċakır, Z.; Akyüz, S.; Altunel, E.; Altın, M. U.

    2008-12-01

    The Ganos fault is the westernmost segment of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF), limited by the Marmara Sea and the Aegean Sea on both ends. Active deformation of the right-lateral strike-slip fault is clearly expressed by several small pull-aparts and sag ponds, pressure and shutter ridges and offset streams along the 45 km long onland section. The most recent destructive earthquake along this section is the Ms = 7.3 Mürefte earthquake of 9 August 1912. The 45-km-long co-seismic 1912 surface ruptures and related displacements have been investigated to document further the slip distribution. Right lateral offsets of roads, paths, streams, man-made buildings and field limits have been measured at 40 sites using differential GPS and total station. The offset distribution ranged from 2 to 5.5 m with a maximum of 5.5 m near Gaziköy. We conducted paleoseismic investigation on three sites along this part of the NAF. Seven trenches were excavated at the Güzelköy site, which provided evidence for three earthquakes since the 11th century with cumulative right-lateral offset of 12.5 m and 23.6 m on a paleo-channel. Radiocarbon dating of the paleo-channel implies a slip rate of 17.5 - 20 mm/year on this section of the fault. Comparison of dating results with historical earthquake catalogs point towards the 1343, 1659 or 1766 and 1912 earthquakes in the Ganos area. Preliminary results of the Yeniköy and Yörgüċ trench sites present evidence for three and two or three past earthquakes, respectively. Faulting related with the 1912 Mürefte earthquake are visible in both the Güzelköy and Yeniköy trenches. Other trenching studies provide further evidence of faulting next to the Saros bay. Field observations suggest that the entire on-land section of the Ganos Fault ruptured during the 1912 earthquake. Recent submarine earthquake studies propose an offshore fault continuation of 40 to 60 km to the east of Gaziköy, into the Marmara Sea basins. Paleoseismic studies, slip

  17. A relict sedimentary record of 7 earthquakes between 600AD and 2000BC on the central North Anatolian Fault at Elmacik, near Osmancik, Turkey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, J.; Vanneste, K.; Hubert-Ferrari, A.; Altinok, S.

    2009-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) traces from the Karilova Triple Junction in the east 1400km into the Aegean Sea in the west, forming a northwardly convex arch across northern Turkey. In the 20th century the NAF ruptured in an approximate east to west migrating sequence of large, destructive and deadly earthquakes. A primary question remains unclear: does the NAF always rupture in episodic bursts? A significant historical record of earthquakes exists in Turkey, but it is not large enough to address this question. To address this question we (the scientific community) need to compile long earthquake records at as many locations as possible. One of the largest gaps between existing paleoseismic investigations on the NAF is the central portion of the 1943 AD Tosya earthquake fault rupture. To extend the earthquake record in this area we opened 9 test-pits at prospective sites between the villages of Kargi and Tahtakopru (~45km apart) to find a trench with a long earthquake record. The most successful trench was located at a site called Elmacik, near the village of Karalaguney approximately 20km northeast of Osmacik (UTM 36T 659230 E 4552380 N). Locally the fault comprises a clear and relatively straight singular prominent trace. At the trench site the fault scarp is subtle and rounded forming a side-hill bench at an elevation of ~1140 m on the north facing side of valley wall that extends from approximately 1000 m to 1700 m elevation. Sediments derived from a small (~10 ha) steep (average slope >20°) catchment were deposited in a sediment trap formed by an up-slope facing scarp which is reflected in the geomorphology as a side-hill bench. The trench stratigraphy comprises a simple pattern of 8 fine over coarse grained packages south of a fault shear zone which is well developed up to the base of the plough zone. North of the shear zone is older, highly deformed and poorly sorted river gravel. We infer that intense ground shaking, associated with earthquake events

  18. Spatial slip behavior of large strike-slip fault belts: Implications for the Holocene slip rates of the eastern termination of the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabcı, Cengiz; Sançar, Taylan; Akyüz, H. Serdar; Kıyak, Nafiye Güneç

    2015-12-01

    We present new data on Holocene slip rates for the eastern end of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) by using the optically stimulated luminescence ages of the offset terrace deposits at two sites, where a total of four displaced landforms was studied. Each offset feature was analyzed independently, and three different assumptions were made for all the offsets, depending on whether the age of the upper tread (upper tread reconstruction), the lower tread (lower tread reconstruction), or all bounding surfaces (intermediate solution) were used in dating of the terrace risers. The deflected geometry of the risers strongly suggests the use of either the intermediate solution or the upper tread reconstruction. The joint slip rate distributions for the upper tread reconstructions and the intermediate solutions were modeled as 13.0 + 1.8 / -1.4 and 14.3 + 5.8 / -2.4 mm/yr (2σ), respectively. Although the intermediate solution covers the full range of ages for the measured displacements, the curved geometry of the terrace risers suggests that the initiations of the riser offsets are most probably close to the abandonment ages of the upper terrace treads. Therefore, we accepted the joint slip rate of the intermediate solution but suggested that the average rate for the main displacement zone of the eastern NAF should be close to its lower limits. This slower rate with respect to previous estimates suggests that the total deformation is not only accommodated on the main displacement zone but is also distributed along the secondary faults to the south of the easternmost segments of the NAF.

  19. Late Pleistocene intraplate extension of the Central Anatolian Plateau, Turkey: Inferences from cosmogenic exposure dating of alluvial fan, landslide and moraine surfaces along the Ecemiş Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, Cengiz; Akif Sarikaya, Mehmet; Ciner, Attila

    2016-04-01

    Late Pleistocene activity of the Ecemiş Fault Zone is integrally tied to ongoing intraplate crustal deformation in the Central Anatolian Plateau. Here we document the vertical displacement, slip rate, extension rate, and geochronology of normal faults within a narrow strip along the main strand of the fault zone. The Kartal, Cevizlik and Lorut faults are normal faults that have evident surface expression within the strip. Terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide geochronology reveals that the Kartal Fault deformed a 104.2 ± 16.5 ka alluvial fan surface and the Cevizlik Fault deformed 21.9 ± 1.8 ka glacial moraine and talus fan surfaces. The Cevizlik Fault delimits mountain front of the Aladaglar and forms >1 km relief. Our topographic surveys indicate 13.1 ± 1.4 m surface breaking vertical displacements along Cevizlik Faults, respectively. Accordingly, we suggest a 0.60 ± 0.08 mm a-1 slip rate and 0.35 ± 0.05 mm a-1 extension rate for the last 21.9 ± 1.8 ka on the Cevizlik Fault. Taken together with other structural observations in the region, we believe that the Cevizlik, Kartal ve Lorut faults are an integral part of intraplate crustal deformation in Central Anatolia. They imply that intraplate structures such as the Ecemiş Fault Zone may change their mode through time; presently, the Ecemiş Fault Zone has been deformed predominantly by normal faults. The presence of steep preserved fault scarps along the Kartal, Cevizlik and Lorut faults point to surface breaking normal faulting away from the main strand and particularly signify that these structures need to be taken into account for regional seismic hazard assessments. This project is supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK, Grant number: 112Y087).

  20. Monitoring Creep Movement with Terrestrial LIDAR on the Gerede - Bayramören Segment of the North Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altınok Erayık, Sevgi; Altunel, Erhan; Tunçel, Esra; Çaǧlar Yalçıner, Cahit

    2016-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) accommodates the westward motion of the Anatolian block relative to Eurasian plate with a slip rate of about 20 mm/yr. The Gerede - Bayramören Segment of the NAFZ ruptured during the 1944 Gerede (M:7.2) earthquake. In early 1970s, some deformations were realized on the Gerede - Bayramören Segment of the NAFZ and attributed to aseismic creep. Since then different techniques have been using to understand the nature of the creep. In order to understand the length of the creeping section and the relationship between seismic activity and creep rate, eight new stations were constructed along the Gerede - Bayramören Segment and were monitored by terrestrial LIDAR. Stations were monitored periodically since May 2013. Periodical measurements showed that the aseismic creep is going on between Gerede in west and Bayramören in east, for a distance of about 80 km. Present results showed that the creep rate changes between 2 - 6 ±1 mm/yr along the Gerede Bayramören segment of the NAFZ. Considering the slip rate on the NAFZ, this segment of the NAFZ is still capable of generating large earthquakes since at least 2/3 of the yearly slip still accumulates on the fault.

  1. Investigation of the Creep Along the Hazar - Palu Section of the East Anatolian Fault (Turkey) Using InSAR and GPS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetin, Seda; Ergintav, Semih; Dogan, Ugur; Cakir, Ziyadin; Senturk, Selver; Karabulut, Hayrullah; Saroglu, Fuat; Julaiti, Wumiti; Ozener, Haluk

    2016-04-01

    Investigation of surface creep along the East Anatolian Fault (EAF) is important to improve the existing earthquake hazard models in the region, which are related to the long-term behavior of EAF. To investigate the surface creep, interseismic velocity field along the Hazar - Palu section has been calculated using the permanent scatters approach of the InSAR method (PsInSAR) with the ENVISAT ASAR data between 2003 and 2010. The mean velocity fields obtained on three descending and neighboring tracks provide clear evidence for surface fault creep. The results indicate that a 100-km-long section of the Palu segment in the Elazıǧ - Bingöl seismic gap is exhibiting aseismic creep at rates reaching up to long term GPS velocity of the EAF (i.e., ~10 mm/yr). Preliminary analysis and modeling the velocity field and seismicity suggests that the fault may be creeping from surface all the way down to the bottom of the seismogenic crust. Thus, some section of the fault may be accumulated no strain at all and, therefore may not be capable of producing major earthquakes. In order to monitor and control the creep rate, a new GPS network was established in 2015 with 6 fault perpendicular profiles along the fault. GPS sites were selected in the area less than 2 km away from the EAF. Far field continuous GPS sites will also be used in determining the long-term slip rate and locking and creping depth along the EAF by combining the results of the near field data during the modeling studies. The first GPS measurements were carried out at 27 GPS sites in 8 - 13 September 2015. Together with the GPS the present day surface creep will be investigated with Sentinel 1 SAR data. For the first time, the earthquake hazard models will be improved with the multidisciplinary investigation of creeping characteristics along the EAF with this study (supported by TUBITAK no: 114Y250 project). KEYWORDS : East Anatolian Fault, creep, InSAR, GPS

  2. Tectonic controls of the North Anatolian Fault System (NAFS) on the geomorphic evolution of the alluvial fans and fan catchments in Erzincan pull-apart basin; Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarp, Gulcan

    2015-02-01

    The Erzincan pull-apart basin is located in the eastern section of the North Anatolian Fault System (NAFS). The tectonic evolution of this basin is mostly controlled by strike slip master faults of the NAFS. This study examines the topography-structure relationships in an effort to evaluate the tectonic signatures in the landscape, paying special attention to recent tectonic activity. In the study, the main focus is on the tectonic controls of the NAFS on the geomorphic evolution of alluvial fans and fan catchments in the Erzincan pull-apart basin. The observations of the amount of tilting of the alluvial fans (β) and its relation with morphometric (Asymmetry Factor (AF), Hypsometric Integral (HI), Fractal analysis of drainage networks (D)) properties of the fan catchments provide valuable information about the tectonic evolution of the basin area. The results of the analyses showed that the alluvial fan and fan catchment morphology in the pull-apart basin are mainly controlled by the ongoing tectonic activity of the NAFS. The fault system in the basin has controlled the accommodation space by causing differential subsidence of the basin, and aggradation processes by causing channel migration, channel incision and tilting the alluvial fans.

  3. Analysis of past earthquakes along the North Anatolian Fault in the Marmara Region (Turkey): Implications for the spatial distribution for surface ruptures in the last 1000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabcı, Cengiz; Altunel, Erhan; Akyüz, H. Serdar

    2016-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF), one of the major continental strike-slip faults of the World, extends for about 1500 km between the Karlıova triple junction to the east and the North Aegean Trough to the west. This tectonic structure showed a remarkable seismic activity between 1939 and 1999, when the westward migrating earthquake sequence created surface ruptures of more than 1000 km, leaving unbroken only the Yedisu Segment to the east, and the Marmara Segment to the west. The rich historical records include many past earthquakes that destroyed ancient settlements along the NAF. However, there are ambiguities for the spatial distribution of the surface ruptures of these palaeoevents, especially in the Marmara Region, where the fault bifurcates into two branches, the more active northern and the less active southern strands. In order to understand the spatial distribution of these historical earthquakes, we revised the available palaeoseismological studies, including trenches for the inland, and results of core analyses for the offshore segments, in the framework of the EU project "MARsite: New directions in seismic hazard assessment through focused Earth observation in the Marmara Supersite". First, we compiled a dataset of more than 50 trench and 20 coring sites, which are mostly located along the northern strand of the NAF. Then, all faults are simplified to show only the major geometric elements such as their generalized strikes and lengths. The integration of these temporal and spatial data enabled us to model the relationship between the individual palaeoseismic studies. Our preliminary results show that the migrating earthquake sequence is not characteristic only for the 20th century, but it also occurred in the past. Moreover, limited number of studies, revealing the co-seismic slip of palaeoevents, suggest 'non-characteristic behaviour' of NAF, especially at structurally complex segments.

  4. An aseismic slip transient on the North Anatolian Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousset, Baptiste; Jolivet, Romain; Simons, Mark; Lasserre, Cécile; Riel, Bryan; Milillo, Pietro; ćakir, Ziyadin; Renard, François

    2016-04-01

    Constellations of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellites with short repeat time acquisitions allow exploration of active faults behavior with unprecedented temporal resolution. Along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) in Turkey, an 80 km long section has been creeping at least since the 1944, Mw 7.3 earthquake near Ismetpasa, with a current Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR)-derived average creep rate of 8 ± 3 mm/yr (i.e., a third of the NAF long-term slip rate). We use a dense set of SAR images acquired by the COSMO-SkyMed constellation to quantify the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of creep over 1 year. We identify a major burst of aseismic slip spanning 31 days with a maximum slip of 2 cm, between the surface and 4 km depth. This result shows that fault creep along this section of the NAF does not occur at a steady rate as previously thought, highlighting a need to revise our understanding of the underlying fault mechanics.

  5. Geophysical investigations on the gravity and aeromagnetic anomalies of the region between Sapanca and Duzce, along the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tigli, Cigdem Sendur; Ates, Abdullah; Aydemir, Attila

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, it is aimed to model subsurface structures to the east of the Gulf of Izmit through Duzce by using the gravity and aeromagnetic anomaly data. 1/500.000 scaled gravity anomaly map of the area was taken from the General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) and it was digitized. The aeromagnetic anomaly data were obtained in the digital form. 3D and 2D models were constructed to reveal the subsurface structure in two different inset regions in the study area including most important negative and positive gravity anomalies. Seismic velocities obtained from the deep seismic recordings were converted to densities. In addition, density information from a previous research was also taken. These densities were used for construction of 3D and 2D gravity models where it was shown that there are narrow and long sedimentary basins and depressions with 0.5-3 km depths. These sedimentary basins with the shape of negative flower structures indicating pull-apart basins are controlled by the active fault segments of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF). Earthquake epicenter data were also correlated with the constructed models from the gravity anomalies. Positive gravity anomalies are also caused by very shallow (about 2 km) masses that are accepted as the crustal origin intrusions into the fractures of the NAF and, ophiolites and gabbro outcropping on the surface of the studied regions. These intrusives and remnants of the Tethys Ocean are located between the fault segments where the fault bifurcates and they also constitute barriers for straight extension of the NAF. Analytic signal method was applied to the aeromagnetic anomaly data to determine the locations and boundaries of the causative bodies. Those bodies are observed around Duzce, and to the E-SE of it, to the NW of Golyaka and a large mass between Adapazari and Sapanca. Shallow settlement of these magmatics was confirmed by the second vertical derivative of the aeromagnetic data. An anti

  6. Searching for Tectonic Tremor on the North Anatolian Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfohl, A.; Warren, L. M.; Sit, S. M.; Brudzinski, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    Tectonic tremor, a relatively newly-discovered seismologic phenomenon, has been helpful in increasing our understanding of fault evolution and slip. Tectonic tremor was first identified in subduction zones, such as Cascadia and Japan. More recently, tremor was discovered on a transform boundary, the San Andreas Fault (SAF) in California. The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) in Turkey is also a transform boundary and has a similar slip rate to the SAF but is younger. Because tremor has not previously been identified on the NAF, our search was designed to identify signals with characteristics similar to those of tremor found in previous studies. In our search for tremor, we analyzed data from the North Anatolian Fault Passive Seismic Experiment that was deployed along the NAF in central Turkey from 2005 to 2008. This experiment included 39 broadband stations, some of which were located within a few kilometers of the NAF or its major splays. In other regions, tremor has been triggered by the surface waves of large earthquakes so we first checked if this was also the case for the NAF. For the 22 earthquakes of M ≥ 5.5 in or around Turkey during the time period of the experiment, we filtered the seismograms between 2-8 Hz, the dominant tremor passband for other regions. We inspected the filtered records but did not see any tremor triggered by surface waves. We then focused on identifying ambient tremor along the NAF using a frequency ratio scanning method. Since different types of seismic signals have peak amplitudes in different frequency bands, time periods with increased tremor activity may be identified by an increase in amplitude in the appropriate frequency band. In this step of the analysis, data from all stations were filtered from 2-5 Hz, 10-15, and 0.02-0.1 Hz to differentiate tremor, local earthquakes, and surface waves, respectively, and the amplitude was computed for 5-minute-long windows for each passband. We more closely investigated time periods with

  7. Fault-Zone Maturity Defines Maximum Earthquake Magnitude: The case of the North Anatolian Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnhoff, Marco; Bulut, Fatih; Stierle, Eva; Martinez-Garzon, Patricia; Benzion, Yehuda

    2015-04-01

    Estimating the maximum likely magnitude of future earthquakes on transform faults near large metropolitan areas has fundamental consequences for the expected hazard. Here we show that the maximum earthquakes on different sections of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) scale with the duration of fault zone activity, cumulative offset and length of individual fault segments. The findings are based on a compiled catalogue of historical earthquakes in the region, using the extensive literary sources that exist due to the long civilization record. We find that the largest earthquakes (M~8) are exclusively observed along the well-developed part of the fault zone in the east. In contrast, the western part is still in a juvenile or transitional stage with historical earthquakes not exceeding M=7.4. This limits the current seismic hazard to NW Turkey and its largest regional population and economical center Istanbul. Our findings for the NAFZ are consistent with data from the two other major transform faults, the San Andreas fault in California and the Dead Sea Transform in the Middle East. The results indicate that maximum earthquake magnitudes generally scale with fault-zone evolution.

  8. Seismically-triggered organic-rich layers in recent sediments from Göllüköy Lake (North Anatolian Fault, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avşar, Ulaş; Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; De Batist, Marc; Lepoint, Gilles; Schmidt, Sabine; Fagel, Nathalie

    2014-11-01

    Multi-proxy analyses on the sedimentary sequence of Göllüköy Lake, which is located on the eastern North Anatolian Fault (NAF), reveals a complete and high-resolution paleoseismic record for the last 650 years. Six sedimentary events are detected in a 3.1 m-long piston core. They form distinct organic-rich intercalations within the background sedimentation, which are characterized by strong anomalies on the loss-on-ignition (LOI550) and total organic carbon (TOC) profiles, as well as by lighter colours on the X-ray radiographic images. Itrax micro-XRF core scanner data are also used to contribute to the detection and characterization of the event deposits. After the detection of the sedimentary events, their temporal correlation with the earthquakes in the historical seismicity catalogue of the NAF is tested. The youngest event is dated to 1940s by using 210Pb and 137Cs profiles in sediment, which coincides with the 1939 earthquake (Ms = 7.7) on the NAF. The ages of the older five events are determined based on radiocarbon dating and regional time-stratigraphic correlation. Radiocarbon dating on the bulk sediment samples does not provide reliable results due to hard-water effect. On the other hand, dating on charcoals, Ephippia of Daphnia and phragmite remains significantly improves the results and implies a mean sedimentation rate of 0.28 cm/yr. Based on this preliminary sedimentation rate, we show that organic matter content variations through our record correlate with the varve-based δ18O record of Nar Lake, which is located 350 km southwest of Göllüköy Lake. Accordingly, high-precipitation/low-evaporation climatic episodes detected in Nar Lake are represented by higher organic matter content in Göllüköy sediments. Fine-tuning the Göllüköy LOI550 record to the Nar δ18O record reveals that the ages of the sedimentary events in Göllüköy match with well-known historical earthquakes that occurred around the lake. Finally, the origin of the organic

  9. Continuous creep measurements on the North Anatolian Fault at Ismetpasa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozener, Haluk; Aytun, Alkut; Aktug, Bahadir; Dogru, Asli; Mencin, David; Ergintav, Semih; Bilham, Roger

    2016-04-01

    A graphite creep-meter was installed across the North Anatolian fault near a wall at Ismetpasa, Turkey, that has been offset by fault creep processes more than 51 cm since its construction in 1957. The creep-meter is 40-cm-deep, 16.5-m-long and crosses the fault at 30 degrees within a 2 cm diameter telescopic PVC conduit. The SW end of the 6-mm-diameter graphite rod is fastened to a buried stainless steel tripod, and motion of its free end relative to a similar tripod at its NE end is monitored by two sensors: an LVDT with 6 μm resolution and 13 mm range, and a Hall-effect rotary transducer with 30 μm resolution and 1.5 m range. The two sensors track each other to better than 1%. Data are sampled every 30 minutes and are publically available via the Iridium satellite with a delay of less than 1 hour. Since May 2014, for periods of months the surface fault has been inactive, followed by several weeks or months of slow slip at rates of ≈3 mm/yr and with cumulative slip amplitude less than 1 mm, terminated by a pair of distinct creep events with durations of up to 8 days and amplitudes of up to 2.3 mm, after which slip ceases until the next episode. Maximum slip rates on the surface fault are 0.54 mm/hour at the onset of a creep event. The decay time constant of the two pairs of creep events we have observed varies from 3 to 5 hours, similar to those observed by Altay and Sav, (1982) who operated a creepmeter here from 1980-1989. The decadal creep rate observed by these authors was 7.35±0.9 mm/yr, whereas our currently observed least-squares creep-rate is 5.4±1 mm/yr based on 19 months of data. Since most of the annual of the creep occurs in large creep events (80%), we anticipate that our rate will change with elapsed time, and our uncertainty will decrease accordingly. As expected, the 2014-2016 observed creep rate is somewhat lower than the regional creep on the fault deduced from Insar analysis and GPS observations (≈7-8 mm/yr), but both the amplitude of

  10. The analysis of historical earthquakes of the North Anatolian Fault in the Marmara Region, Turkey for the last 15 centuries based on intensity and continuous Coulomb scenarios: Implications for the fault geometry and the interaction of individual earthqua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaltırak, Cenk; Şahin, Murat

    2016-04-01

    In this study we evaluated the historical earthquakes of the Marmara Region totally in three-stages. In first stage, historical earthquakes were compiled from the available catalogues and classified according to their spatial distribution, whereas only the ones, related with the active northern branch of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) were selected. Then, the next phase of classification was made to relate historical data to the ancient and historical settlements, for which a kind of shake map was produced for each event. In the second stage, three different fault models, suggested for the geometry of the NAF in the Marmara Region, were integrated into a GIS database. Mw magnitudes were calculated for each fault segment by using lengths, seismogenic depths, and slip-rates of fault segments. In the third stage, the revised digital geological map of the Marmara Region were compiled based on 1:500k conventional maps and were used to estimate the Vs30 distribution within a grid of 750x750 m. Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) maps were produced for each earthquake scenario, depending on the geometry of different fault models, calculated model magnitudes and intensity distributions. Moreover, we tested the surface ruptures of each earthquake scenarios by using the Coulomb stress change model for historical data covering a time era between AD 478 and 2016 in assumption with a constant horizontal slip rate of 19 mma-1 for all fault segments. As conclusion, the horsetail-fault geometry (Yaltırak, 2002) among all 3 fault models yielded the best fit to the distribution of intensities and coulomb models.

  11. Detailed Northern Anatolian Fault Zone crustal structure from receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornwell, D. G.; Kahraman, M.; Thompson, D. A.; Houseman, G. A.; Rost, S.; Turkelli, N.; Teoman, U.; Altuncu Poyraz, S.; Gülen, L.; Utkucu, M.

    2013-12-01

    We present high resolution images derived from receiver functions of the continental crust in Northern Turkey that is dissected by two fault strands of the Northern Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). The NAFZ is a major continental strike-slip fault system that is comparable in length and slip rate to the San Andreas Fault Zone. Recent large earthquakes occurred towards the western end of the NAFZ in 1999 at Izmit (M7.5) and Düzce (M7.2). As part of the multi-disciplinary Faultlab project, we aim to develop a model of NAFZ crustal structure and locate deformation by constraining variations in seismic properties and anisotropy in the upper and lower crust. The crustal model will be an input to test deformation scenarios in order to match geodetic observations from different phases of the earthquake loading cycle. We calculated receiver functions from teleseismic earthquakes recorded by a rectangular seismometer array spanning the NAFZ with 66 stations at a nominal inter-station spacing of 7 km and 7 additional stations further afield. This Dense Array for North Anatolia (DANA) was deployed from May 2012 until September 2013 and we selected large events (Mw>5.5) from the high quality seismological dataset to analyze further. Receiver functions were calculated for different frequency bands then collected into regional stacks before being inverted for crustal S-wave velocity structure beneath the entire DANA array footprint. In addition, we applied common conversion point (CCP) migration using a regional velocity model to construct a migrated 3D volume of P-to-S converted and multiple energy in order to identify the major crustal features and layer boundaries. We also performed the CCP migration with transverse receiver functions in order to identify regions of anisotropy within the crustal layers. Our preliminary results show a heterogeneous crust above a flat Moho that is typically at a depth of 33 km. We do not observe a prominent step in the Moho beneath the surface

  12. Interseismic strain accumulation across the North Anatolian Fault measured using InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, R. J.; Parsons, B. E.; Wright, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is a major feature of Middle Eastern tectonics, facilitating the westwards 'escape' of the Anatolian block away from the Arabia-Eurasia continental collision. In order to understand the role that the NAF plays in regional tectonics it is important to accurately determine the slip rate across the fault. Many slip rate estimates for the NAF have been made over Quaternary and longer time-scales but few geodetic estimates currently exist, especially in eastern Turkey. Here we construct satellite radar interferograms using Envisat ASAR data to measure ground displacements around the NAF and hence estimate the slip rate across it. We make use of SAR data from two satellite tracks, one ascending and one descending, that overlap across the NAF, providing a check on the assumption of horizontal fault-parallel motion that has previously been used in interseismic modelling of the fault. We mitigate the effects of atmospheric errors by constructing multiple interferograms over the fault and summing them, effectively creating a longer timespan interferogram and improving the signal-to-noise ratio. We empirically correct for orbital errors by flattening the radar swaths on the Anatolian Plateau, an area with little expected deformation. Our measurements of rates of displacement are consistent with an interseismic model for the NAF where deformation occurs at depth on a narrow shear zone below a layer in which the fault is locked. We jointly invert data from both satellite tracks to solve for best fitting model parameters, estimating both the slip rate and the depth to which the fault is locked. Our best-fitting model gives a slip rate of 23 mm/yr and a locking depth of 19 km, which is in agreement with a previous estimate made from a single track of ERS SAR data (Wright et al., 2001, GRL 28, 2117-2120), and with existing GPS data. We also construct a velocity field using a combination of InSAR and GPS data for eastern Turkey.

  13. Kinematic study at the junction of the East Anatolian fault and the Dead Sea fault from GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Yasser; Masson, Frederic; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Cakir, Ziyadin; Alchalbi, Abdulmutaleb; Yavasoglu, Hakan; Yönlü, Onder; Daoud, Mohamed; Ergintav, Semih; Inan, Sedat

    2013-07-01

    The Hatay Triple Junction (HTJ) is a tectonically complex area located at the intersection between the left-lateral East Anatolian fault (EAF), the Cyprus subduction arc and the left-lateral Dead Sea fault (DSF) which is a transform boundary between the Arabian and Sinai plates as they converge toward Eurasia. Previous GPS studies indicate a left-lateral strike-slip rate across the DSF varying from 5 mm/yr (along the southern part) to 2 mm/yr (along the northern part) (Alchalbi et al., 2010; Gomez et al., 2007; Le Béon et al., 2008; Mahmoud et al., 2005; Al-Tarazi et al., 2011). In contrast, the EAF has a roughly constant velocity along strike estimated at 9.7 + 0.9 mm/yr (Reilinger et al., 2006). The HTJ contains several well-identified active fault segments (DSF, EAF, Osmaniye fault, Karasu fault, Latakia fault, Jisr-al-shuggur fault, Idleb fault and Afrin fault) (Meghraoui et al., 2011), the fault-slip rates for which are poorly constrained. In order to constrain better the slip rate on faults, we established a network of 57 GPS sites in NW Syria and in SE Turkey. The first campaign was carried out in September 2009; a second took place in September and November 2010 and a third (only in Turkey) in September 2011. Although the velocity field vectors computed from the 2009, 2010 and 2011 measurements appear consistent with other local studies, the results are hampered by large uncertainties due to the short observation period. However, preliminary interpretations are consistent with decreasing velocity along the DSF from south to north reported previously.

  14. Application of chaos analyses methods on East Anatolian Fault Zone fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamışlıoǧlu, Miraç; Külahcı, Fatih

    2016-06-01

    Nonlinear time series analysis techniques have large application areas on the geoscience and geophysics fields. Modern nonlinear methods are provided considerable evidence for explain seismicity phenomena. In this study nonlinear time series analysis, fractal analysis and spectral analysis have been carried out for researching the chaotic behaviors of release radon gas (222Rn) concentration occurring during seismic events. Nonlinear time series analysis methods (Lyapunov exponent, Hurst phenomenon, correlation dimension and false nearest neighbor) were applied for East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ) Turkey and its surroundings where there are about 35,136 the radon measurements for each region. In this paper were investigated of 222Rn behavior which it's used in earthquake prediction studies.

  15. Spatiotemporal earthquake clusters along the North Anatolian fault zone offshore Istanbul

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bulut, Fatih; Ellsworth, William L.; Bohnhoff, Marco; Aktar, Mustafa; Dresen, Georg

    2011-01-01

    We investigate earthquakes with similar waveforms in order to characterize spatiotemporal microseismicity clusters within the North Anatolian fault zone (NAFZ) in northwest Turkey along the transition between the 1999 ??zmit rupture zone and the Marmara Sea seismic gap. Earthquakes within distinct activity clusters are relocated with cross-correlation derived relative travel times using the double difference method. The spatiotemporal distribution of micro earthquakes within individual clusters is resolved with relative location accuracy comparable to or better than the source size. High-precision relative hypocenters define the geometry of individual fault patches, permitting a better understanding of fault kinematics and their role in local-scale seismotectonics along the region of interest. Temporal seismic sequences observed in the eastern Sea of Marmara region suggest progressive failure of mostly nonoverlapping areas on adjacent fault patches and systematic migration of microearthquakes within clusters during the progressive failure of neighboring fault patches. The temporal distributions of magnitudes as well as the number of events follow swarmlike behavior rather than a mainshock/aftershock pattern.

  16. Geodetically constrained models of viscoelastic stress transfer and earthquake triggering along the North Anatolian Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson DeVries, P.; Krastev, P. G.; Meade, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 80 years, 8 MW>6.7 strike-slip earthquakes west of 40º longitude have ruptured the North Anatolian fault (NAF), largely from east to west. The series began with the 1939 Erzincan earthquake in eastern Turkey, and the most recent 1999 MW=7.4 Izmit earthquake extended the pattern of ruptures into the Sea of Marmara in western Turkey. The mean time between seismic events in this westward progression is 8.5±11 years (67% confidence interval), much greater than the timescale of seismic wave propagation (seconds to minutes). The delayed triggering of these earthquakes may be explained by the propagation of earthquake-generated diffusive viscoelastic fronts within the upper mantle that slowly increase the Coulomb failure stress change (CFS) at adjacent hypocenters. Here we develop three-dimensional stress transfer models with an elastic upper crust coupled to a viscoelastic Burgers rheology mantle. Both the Maxwell (ηM=1018.6-19.0 Pa•s) and Kelvin (ηK=1018.0-19.0 Pa•s) viscosities are constrained by viscoelastic block models that simultaneously explain geodetic observations of deformation before and after the 1999 Izmit earthquake. We combine this geodetically constrained rheological model with the observed sequence of large earthquakes since 1939 to calculate the time-evolution of CFS changes along the North Anatolian Fault due to viscoelastic stress transfer. Critical values of mean CFS at which the earthquakes in the eight decade sequence occur between -0.007 to 2.946 MPa and may exceed the magnitude of static CFS values by as much as 180%. The variability of four orders of magnitude in critical triggering stress may reflect along strike variations in NAF strength. Based on the median and mean of these critical stress values, we infer that the NAF strand in the northern Marmara Sea near Istanbul, which previously ruptured in 1509, may reach a critical stress level between 2015 and 2032.

  17. Geodetically constrained models of viscoelastic stress transfer and earthquake triggering along the North Anatolian fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVries, Phoebe M. R.; Krastev, Plamen G.; Meade, Brendan J.

    2016-07-01

    Over the past 80 years, 8 MW > 6.7 strike-slip earthquakes west of 40° longitude have ruptured the North Anatolian fault (NAF) from east to west. The series began with the 1939 Erzincan earthquake in eastern Turkey, and the most recent 1999 MW = 7.4 Izmit earthquake extended the pattern of ruptures into the Sea of Marmara in western Turkey. The mean time between seismic events in this westward progression is 8.5 ± 11 years (67% confidence interval), much greater than the timescale of seismic wave propagation (seconds to minutes). The delayed triggering of these earthquakes may be explained by the propagation of earthquake-generated diffusive viscoelastic fronts within the upper mantle that slowly increase the Coulomb failure stress change (ΔCFS) at adjacent hypocenters. Here we develop three-dimensional stress transfer models with an elastic upper crust coupled to a viscoelastic Burgers rheology mantle. Both the Maxwell (ηM = 4 × 1018-1 × 1019 Pa s) and Kelvin (ηK = 1 × 1018-1 × 1019 Pa s) viscosities are constrained by studies of geodetic observations before and after the 1999 Izmit earthquake. We combine this geodetically constrained rheological model with the observed sequence of large earthquakes since 1939 to calculate the time evolution of ΔCFS changes along the North Anatolian fault due to viscoelastic stress transfer. Apparent threshold values of mean ΔCFS at which the earthquakes in the eight decade sequence occur are between ˜0.02 to ˜3.15 MPa and may exceed the magnitude of static ΔCFS values by as much as 177%. By 2023, we infer that the mean time-dependent stress change along the northern NAF strand in the Marmara Sea near Istanbul, which may have previously ruptured in 1766, may reach the mean apparent time-dependent stress thresholds of the previous NAF earthquakes.

  18. Shear wave velocity structure of the Anatolian Plate: anomalously slow crust in southwestern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delph, Jonathan R.; Biryol, C. Berk; Beck, Susan L.; Zandt, George; Ward, Kevin M.

    2015-07-01

    The Anatolian Plate is composed of different lithospheric blocks and ribbon continents amalgamated during the closure of the Paleotethys Ocean and Neotethys Ocean along a subduction margin. Using ambient noise tomography, we investigate the crustal and uppermost mantle shear wave velocity structure of the Anatolian Plate. A total of 215 broad-band seismic stations were used spanning 7 yr of recording to compute 13 778 cross-correlations and obtain Rayleigh wave dispersion measurements for periods between 8 and 40 s. We then perform a shear wave inversion to calculate the seismic velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle. Our results show that the overall crustal shear wave velocities of the Anatolian crust are low (˜3.4 km s-1), indicative of a felsic overall composition. We find that prominent lateral seismic velocity gradients correlate with Tethyan suture zones, supporting the idea that the neotectonic structures of Turkey are exploiting the lithospheric weaknesses associated with the amalgamation of Anatolia. Anomalously slow shear wave velocities (˜3.15 km s-1 at 25 km) are located in the western limb of the Isparta Angle in southwestern Turkey. In the upper crust, we find that these low shear wave velocities correlate well with the projected location of a carbonate platform unit (Bey Dağlari) beneath the Lycian Nappe complex. In the lower crust and upper mantle of this region, we propose that the anomalously slow velocities are due to the introduction of aqueous fluids related to the underplating of accretionary material from the underthrusting of a buoyant, attenuated continental fragment similar to the Eratosthenes seamount. We suggest that this fragment controlled the location of the formation of the Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator fault in the eastern Aegean Sea during rapid slab rollback of the Aegean Arc in early Miocene times. Lastly, we observe that the uppermost mantle beneath continental Anatolia is generally slow (˜4.2 km s-1

  19. Shallow Mantle Discontinuities Beneath the North Anatolian Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, D. P.; Fischer, K. M.; Hopper, E.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study is to better understand deformation in the mantle lithosphere beneath continental strike-slip plate boundaries through Sp receiver function analysis of mantle discontinuities beneath the North Anatolian Fault (NAF). This fault zone marks the boundary between the Anatolian and Eurasian plates. Sp receiver functions were calculated using waveforms filtered with a variety of bandpasses, and 33 s to 4 s was found to produce coherent images while reducing interference between phases from the Moho and shallow mantle discontinuities. Using common conversion point stacking, we calculated 3D images of scattering beneath the region for two different cases: migration with the S-wave and P-wave velocities from the waveform tomography model of Fichtner et al. (2013) and with the AK135 velocity model. In both cases, a clear Moho is observed and Moho depth does not systematically vary between sides of the NAF. In contrast, shallow mantle discontinuities show pronounced changes in depth that correlate with strong lateral variations in mantle velocity observed in the Fichtner et al. tomography model, and some of these discontinuity depth variations occur within 50 km horizontally of the surface expression of the NAF. Where the tomography contains a clear high velocity lithospheric mantle layer, the Sp stack contains a negative velocity gradient at depths comparable to the base of the high velocity layer that can be interpreted as the seismological LAB. Where the tomography shows low mantle velocities that persist to the crust, a feature that may represent either anomalously low velocity lithosphere or upwelling asthenosphere beneath thin lithosphere, mantle discontinuities differ significantly from surrounding regions. Mantle discontinuity depth variations beneath the NAF also occur when the data are migrated with the AK135 model. Hence, the presence of the discontinuity depth variations is not an artifact of the assumed velocity model, although depths differ

  20. Frictional strength of North Anatolian fault in eastern Marmara region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pınar, Ali; Coşkun, Zeynep; Mert, Aydın; Kalafat, Doğan

    2016-04-01

    Frequency distribution of azimuth and plunges of P- and T-axes of focal mechanisms is compared with the orientation of maximum compressive stress axis for investigating the frictional strength of three fault segments of North Anatolian fault (NAF) in eastern Marmara Sea, namely Princes' Islands, Yalova-Çınarcık and Yalova-Hersek fault segments. In this frame, we retrieved 25 CMT solutions of events in Çınarcık basin and derived a local stress tensor incorporating 30 focal mechanisms determined by other researches. As for the Yalova-Çınarcık and Yalova-Hersek fault segments, we constructed the frequency distribution of P- and T-axes utilizing 111 and 68 events, respectively, to correlate the geometry of the principle stress axes and fault orientations. The analysis yields low frictional strength for the Princes' Island fault segments and high frictional strength for Yalova-Çınarcık, Yalova-Hersek segments. The local stress tensor derived from the inversion of P- and T-axes of the fault plane solutions of Çınarcık basin events portrays nearly horizontal maximum compressive stress axis oriented N154E which is almost parallel to the peak of the frequency distribution of the azimuth of the P-axes. The fitting of the observed and calculated frequency distributions is attained for a low frictional coefficient which is about μ ≈ 0.1. Evidences on the weakness of NAF segments in eastern Marmara Sea region are revealed by other geophysical observations. Our results also show that the local stress field in Çınarcık basin is rotated ≈30° clockwise compared to the regional stress tensor in Marmara region derived from the large earthquakes, whereas the local stress tensor in Yalova-Çınarcık area is found to be rotated ≈30° counterclockwise. The rotation of the two local stress fields is derived in the area where NAF bifurcates into two branches overlaying large electrical conductor.

  1. Faunistic Composition, Ecological Properties and Zoogeographical Composition of the Family Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kabalak, Mahmut; Sert, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study was to understand the faunistic composition, ecological properties and zoogeographical composition of Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Central Anatolian region. 72 species belonging to seven subfamilies and 25 genera were identified. The major part of the Elateridae fauna of the Central Anatolian region is formed by the subfamilies Elaterinae and Cardiophorinae. The genus Cardiophorus was the most species-rich genus. The species composition of the Elateridae fauna of the Central Anatolian region is partially consistent with known Elateridae fauna of Turkey. The Central Anatolian region shares most species with the European part of the Western Palaearctic as does the Elateridae fauna of Turkey. Detailed localities of nine species are given for the first time for Turkey, with emphasis on the Central Anatolian region. PMID:21864150

  2. Focal mechanism determinations of earthquakes along the North Anatolian fault, beneath the Sea of Marmara and the Aegean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Masaru; Citak, Seckin; Kalafat, Doğan

    2015-09-01

    We determined the centroid moment tensor (CMT) solutions of earthquakes that occurred along the North Anatolian fault (NAF) beneath the Sea of Marmara and the Aegean Sea, using data obtained from Turkey's broad-band seismograph network. The CMT solution of the 2014 Aegean Sea earthquake ( Mw 6.9) represents a strike-slip fault, consistent with the geometry of the NAF, and the source-time function indicates that this event comprised several distinct subevents. Each subevent is considered to have ruptured a different fault segment. This observation indicates the existence of a mechanical barrier, namely a NAF segment boundary, at the hypocenter. CMT solutions of background seismicity beneath the Aegean Sea represent strike-slip or normal faulting along the NAF or its branch faults. The tensional axes of these events are oriented northeast-southwest, indicating a transtensional tectonic regime. Beneath the Sea of Marmara, the CMT solutions represent mostly strike-slip faulting, consistent with the motion of the NAF, but we identified a normal fault event with a tensional axis parallel to the strike of the NAF. This mechanism indicates that a pull-apart basin, marking a segment boundary of the NAF, is developing there. Because ruptures of a fault system and large earthquake magnitudes are strongly controlled by the fault system geometry and fault length, mapping fault segments along NAF can help to improve the accuracy of scenarios developed for future disastrous earthquakes in the Marmara region.

  3. Role of stress triggering in earthquake migration on the North Anatolian fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stein, R.S.; Dieterich, J.H.; Barka, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Ten M???6.7 earthquakes ruptured 1,000 km of the North Anatolian fault (Turkey) during 1939-92, providing an unsurpassed opportunity to study how one large shock sets up the next. Calculations of the change in Coulomb failure stress reveal that 9 out of 10 ruptures were brought closer to failure by the preceding shocks, typically by 5 bars, equivalent to 20 years of secular stressing. We translate the calculated stress changes into earthquake probabilities using an earthquake-nucleation constitutive relation, which includes both permanent and transient stress effects. For the typical 10-year period between triggering and subsequent rupturing shocks in the Anatolia sequence, the stress changes yield an average three-fold gain in the ensuing earthquake probability. Stress is now calculated to be high at several isolated sites along the fault. During the next 30 years, we estimate a 15% probability of a M???6.7 earthquake east of the major eastern center of Erzincan, and a 12% probability for a large event south of the major western port city of Izmit. Such stress-based probability calculations may thus be useful to assess and update earthquake hazards elsewhere. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  4. GPS measurements along the North Anatolian fault zone ont he Mid-Anatolia segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavasoglu, H.; Team

    2003-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is the most important tectonic feature in Turkey producing lots of earthquakes that cause deaths, wounds and loss of property in large scale. So, there are a lot of seismic, geodetic, geologic and geophysical researches through NAF. A new project, "Determination of Kinematics along the North Anatolian Fault Branch between Ladik and Ilgaz with GPS Measurements", founded by The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) and Istanbul Technical University (ITU) Research Fund is also started. The aim of the project is to determine the magnitude and direction of the block movements in the region by using GPS. Having the knowledge about the neotectonics of the region with the contributions of geology and seismology after the GPS campaigns will provide further information on the assessment of the earthquake potential. In this work, the planning stage of the network is examined. Also pre-results from the first and second surveying campaigns are presented. 1. INTRODUCTION The tectonic framework of the Eastern Mediterranean is dominated by the collision of the Arabian and African plates with the Eurasia. This collision created wide variety of tectonic processes such as folds and thrust belts, major continental strike-slip faults, opening of pull-apart basins etc. All these tectonic caused long-term destructive earthquakes in Anatolia Last earthquakes occurred at the end of the 20th Century, in 17th of August and 12 of November 1999, Golcuk and Duzce earthquakes, also focused the attention of international science community over the tectonics and kinematics of the NAF. A westward migrating earthquakes series starting from 1939 Erzincan earthquake, produced more than 1000 kilometers of ruptures between Erzincan and Sea of Marmara 2. GEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NAF The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is one of the longest active strike slip systems. Slip rate of the NAF was estimated from the GPS data as 24±1mm/yr. One of the important

  5. Structure of the North Anatolian Fault Zone from the Autocorrelation of Ambient Seismic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, George; Rost, Sebastian; Houseman, Gregory

    2016-04-01

    In recent years the technique of cross-correlating the ambient seismic noise wavefield at two seismometers to reconstruct empirical Green's Functions for the determination of Earth structure has been a powerful tool to study the Earth's interior without earthquakes or man-made sources. However, far less attention has been paid to using auto-correlations of seismic noise to reveal body wave reflections from interfaces in the subsurface. In principle, the Green's functions thus derived should be comparable to the Earth's impulse response to a co-located source and receiver. We use data from a dense seismic array (Dense Array for Northern Anatolia - DANA) deployed across the northern branch of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in the region of the 1999 magnitude 7.6 Izmit earthquake in western Turkey. The NAFZ is a major strike-slip system that extends ~1200 km across northern Turkey and continues to pose a high level of seismic hazard, in particular to the mega-city of Istanbul. We construct body wave images for the entire crust and the shallow upper mantle over the ~35 km by 70 km footprint of the 70-station DANA array. Using autocorrelations of the vertical component of ground motion, P-wave reflections can be retrieved from the wavefield to constrain crustal structure. We show that clear P-wave reflections from the crust-mantle boundary (Moho) can be retrieved using the autocorrelation technique, indicating topography on the Moho on horizontal scales of less than 10 km. Offsets in crustal structure can be identified that seem to be correlated with the surface expression of the northern branch of the fault zone, indicating that the NAFZ reaches the upper mantle as a narrow structure. The southern branch has a less clear effect on crustal structure. We also see evidence of several discontinuities in the mid-crust in addition to an upper mantle reflector that we interpret to represent the Hales discontinuity.

  6. Geodynamic and Magmatic Evolution of the Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskin, Mehmet

    2014-05-01

    The Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone represents a crucial site within the Tethyan domain where a subduction system involving a volcanic arc (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Pontide volcanic arc in the north) associated with a large subduction-accretion complex (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Eastern Anatolian Accretionary Complex i.e. "EAAC" in the south) turned later into a major continental collision zone that experienced a series of geodynamic events including lithospheric delamination, slab-steepening & breakoff, regional domal uplift, widespread volcanism and tectonic escape via strike slip fault systems. The region includes some of the largest volcanic centers (e.g. Karacadaǧ, Aǧırkaya caldera, Ararat, Nemrut, Tendürek and Süphan volcanoes) and plateaus (e.g. The Erzurum-Kars Plateau) as well as the largest transform fault zones in the Mediterranean region. A recent geodynamic modeling study (Faccenna et al., 2013) has suggested that both the closure of the Tethys Ocean and the resultant collision were driven by a large scale and northerly directed asthenospheric mantle flow named the "Tethyan convection cell". This convection cell initiated around 25 Ma by combined effects of mantle upwelling of the Afar super plume located in the south, around 3,000 km away from the collision zone and the slab-pull of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere beneath Anatolia in the north. The aforementioned mantle flow dragged Arabia to the north towards Eastern Anatolia with an average velocity of 2 cm/y for the last 20 My, twice as fast as the convergence of the African continent (i.e. 1 cm/y) with western and Central Turkey. This 1 cm/y difference resulted in the formation of the left lateral Dead Sea Strike Slip Fault between the African and Arabian plates. Not only did this mantle flow result in the formation of a positive dynamic topography in the west of Arabian block, but also created a dynamic tilting toward the Persian Gulf (Faccenna et al., 2013). Another

  7. The propagation processes of the North Anatolian Fault and the evolution of the Sea of Marmara pull-apart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armijo, R.; Meyer, B.; Navarro, S.; King, G.; Barka, A.

    2002-12-01

    Between 1939 and 1999 the North Anatolian fault (NAF) experienced a westward progression of eight large earthquakes over 800 km along its morphological trace. The 2000-km-long North Anatolian transform fault has also grown by westward propagation through continental lithosphere over a much longer time scale (~10 m.y.). As the Arabia/Europe collision progressed in eastern Turkey it caused Anatolia to move to the West and the North Anatolian Fault to propagate along the Pontides and into the northern Aegean. The early slow extension in the Aegean started to be modified about 5 Ma ago. At 1 Ma the process of propagation dramatically increased the activity of the Corinth Rift in Greece, where Pleistocene marine terraces have been rapidly uplifted. The Sea of Marmara is a large pull-apart which appears to have been a geometrical/mechanical obstacle encountered by the NAF during its westward propagation. New high-resolution data (bathymetry, side-scan sonar, seismics) provide a precise image of the structure and the evolution of the submarine fault system that forms a smaller pull-apart beneath the Northern Sea of Marmara, between two well-known strike-slip faults on land (Izmit and Ganos faults). The outstandingly clear submarine morphology shows a segmented fault system including pull-apart features at a range of scales, which indicate a dominant transtensional tectonic regime. There is no evidence for a single, throughgoing, purely strike-slip fault. This result is critical to our understanding of the seismic behaviour of this region of the NAF, close to Istanbul. There is morphological and geological evidence for a stable kinematics consistent both with the long-term displacement field determined for the past 5 m.y. and with the present-day Anatolia/Eurasia motion determined with GPS. However, within the Sea of Marmara region the fault kinematics involves asymmetric slip partitioning which appears to have extended throughout the evolution of the pull-apart. The

  8. The Propagation Processes of The North Anatolian Fault and The Evolution of The Sea of Marmara Pull-apart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armijo, R.; Meyer, B.; Navarro, S.; King, G.; Barka, A.

    Between 1939 and 1999 the North Anatolian fault (NAF) experienced a westward pro- gression of eight large earthquakes over 800 km along its morphological trace. The 2000-km-long North Anatolian transform fault has also grown by westward propa- gation through continental lithosphere over a much longer time scale (~10 m.y.). As the Arabia/Europe collision progressed in eastern Turkey it caused Anatolia to move to the West and the North Anatolian Fault to propagate along the Pontides and into the northern Aegean. The early slow extension in the Aegean started to be modi- fied about 5 Ma ago. At 1 Ma the process of propagation dramatically increased the activity of the Corinth Rift in Greece, where Pleistocene marine terraces have been rapidly uplifted. The Sea of Marmara is a large pull-apart which appears to have been a geometrical/mechanical obstacle encountered by the NAF during its westward prop- agation. New high-resolution data (bathymetry, side-scan sonar, seismics) provide a precise image of the structure and the evolution of the submarine fault system that forms a smaller pull-apart beneath the Northern Sea of Marmara, between two well- known strike-slip faults on land (Izmit and Ganos faults). The outstandingly clear submarine morphology shows a segmented fault system including pull-apart features at a range of scales, which indicate a dominant transtensional tectonic regime. There is no evidence for a single, throughgoing, purely strike-slip fault. This result is criti- cal to our understanding of the seismic behaviour of this region of the NAF, close to Istanbul. There is morphological and geological evidence for a stable kinematics con- sistent both with the long-term displacement field determined for the past 5 m.y. and with the present-day Anatolia/Eurasia motion determined with GPS. However, within the Sea of Marmara region the fault kinematics involves asymmetric slip partitioning which appears to have extended throughout the evolution of the pull

  9. Geodynamic and Magmatic Evolution of the Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskin, Mehmet

    2014-05-01

    The Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone represents a crucial site within the Tethyan domain where a subduction system involving a volcanic arc (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Pontide volcanic arc in the north) associated with a large subduction-accretion complex (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Eastern Anatolian Accretionary Complex i.e. "EAAC" in the south) turned later into a major continental collision zone that experienced a series of geodynamic events including lithospheric delamination, slab-steepening & breakoff, regional domal uplift, widespread volcanism and tectonic escape via strike slip fault systems. The region includes some of the largest volcanic centers (e.g. Karacadaǧ, Aǧırkaya caldera, Ararat, Nemrut, Tendürek and Süphan volcanoes) and plateaus (e.g. The Erzurum-Kars Plateau) as well as the largest transform fault zones in the Mediterranean region. A recent geodynamic modeling study (Faccenna et al., 2013) has suggested that both the closure of the Tethys Ocean and the resultant collision were driven by a large scale and northerly directed asthenospheric mantle flow named the "Tethyan convection cell". This convection cell initiated around 25 Ma by combined effects of mantle upwelling of the Afar super plume located in the south, around 3,000 km away from the collision zone and the slab-pull of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere beneath Anatolia in the north. The aforementioned mantle flow dragged Arabia to the north towards Eastern Anatolia with an average velocity of 2 cm/y for the last 20 My, twice as fast as the convergence of the African continent (i.e. 1 cm/y) with western and Central Turkey. This 1 cm/y difference resulted in the formation of the left lateral Dead Sea Strike Slip Fault between the African and Arabian plates. Not only did this mantle flow result in the formation of a positive dynamic topography in the west of Arabian block, but also created a dynamic tilting toward the Persian Gulf (Faccenna et al., 2013). Another

  10. Late Pleistocene intraplate extension of the Central Anatolian Plateau, Turkey: Inferences from cosmogenic exposure dating of alluvial fan, landslide, and moraine surfaces along the Ecemiş Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldırım, Cengiz; Sarıkaya, M. Akif; ćiner, Attila

    2016-06-01

    Here we documented the vertical displacement, slip rate, extension rate, and geochronology of normal faults within a narrow strip along the main strand of the Ecemiş Fault Zone. The Kartal, Cevizlik, and Lorut Faults are normal faults that have evident surface expression within the strip. Terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide geochronology revealed that the Kartal Fault deformed the 104.2 ± 16.5 ka aged alluvial fan surface and the Cevizlik Fault deformed the 21.9 ± 1.8 ka old moraine and talus fan surfaces. Our topographic surveys indicated 120 ± 10 m and 13.1 ± 1.4 m surface-breaking vertical displacements along the Kartal and Cevizlik Faults, respectively. Accordingly, we suggest a 1.15 ± 0.21 mm a-1 slip rate and 0.66 ± 0.12 mm a-1 extension rate for the last 104.2 ± 16.5 ka on the Kartal Fault, and a 0.60 ± 0.08 mm a-1 slip rate and 0.35 ± 0.05 mm a-1 extension rate for the last 21.9 ± 1.8 ka on the Cevizlik Fault. We believe that these structures are an integral part of intraplate crustal deformation in the Central Anatolia. They imply that intraplate structures such as the Ecemiş Fault Zone may change their mode through time; presently, the Ecemiş Fault Zone has been deformed predominantly by normal faults. The presence of steep preserved fault scarps along the Kartal, Cevizlik, and Lorut Faults point to surface-breaking normal faulting away from the main strand and particularly signify that these structures need to be taken into account for regional seismic hazard assessments.

  11. Moganite and quartz inclusions in the nano-structured Anatolian fire opals from Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatipoğlu, Murat

    2009-05-01

    Red, orange, yellow and colorless chick-pea shaped Anatolian fire opals with massive translucent zoned inclusions, from the Kütahya-Şaphane-Yeni Karamanca region in Turkey, investigated using optical microscopy (gemmoscope and polarizing), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetric spectroscopy (TGA), and thermoluminescent spectroscopy (TL). Hydrothermally deposited Anatolian fire opals are found as nodules within the shrinkage and dehydration cracks of rhyolitic lavas and siliceous cemented tuffs. Initially, the opal bearing zone and its surroundings were geologically mapped. Then, different colored fire opal samples were obtained from the field, and finally, tests were carried out on the representative samples to determine their texture, crystalline phases, crystallinity ratios, and the formation temperatures of the silica phases. The gemmoscope and polarizing microscope investigations show the presence of two different sized textures in Anatolian fire opals: a nano-sized matrix (opal-CT and opal-C) and micron-sized inclusions (moganite and quartz). The analyses of the XRD patterns of the Anatolian fire opals using a comparative matching technique show that there are two pseudo-crystalline and three crystalline silica phases in addition to the amorphous phase. The pseudo-crystalline phases are opal-CT and opal-C. The three crystalline phases are moganite, quartz, and also orthorhombic-silica inclusions. The analyses of the XRD patterns of Anatolian fire opals using the graphical modelling technique reveal that the crystallite sizes of the pseudo-crystalline phases are between 23 nm (red and colorless) and 27 nm (orange and yellow), and the crystallite sizes of the inclusions range between 125 and 600 nm (average 225 nm). Additionally, the amounts of tridymite present in the opal-CT are estimated to be 30-35% (for red), 45-50% (for orange and yellow), and 55-60% (for colorless). The SEM images

  12. Preliminary stratigraphic and paleomagnetic results from Neogene basins across the Anatolian Plateau (Turkey).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucifora, Stella; Cifelli, Francesca; Mazzini, Ilaria; Cosentino, Domenico; Mattei, Massimo; Cipollari, Paola; Gliozzi, Elsa; Palolo Cavinato, Gian

    2010-05-01

    An integrated paleomagnetic and stratigraphic study on Neogene basins across the Anatolian Plateau was carried out. This study is developed within the VAMP (Vertical Anatolian Movement Project), an interdisciplinary project aimed to the recent tectonic evolution of the central Anatolian Plateau. The studied areas are located in southern Turkey (Adana, Mut and Ermenek basins) and in northern Turkey (Kazan, Çankiri, Kastamonu, Boyabat and Sinop basins). For paleomagnetic analyses we sampled 1062 standard cylindrical samples from 13 stratigraphic sections, and 746 samples for paleontological analysis were taken from the same sections. AMS (Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility), magnetic mineralogy and paleomagnetic polarity data are presented together with the results of the integrated stratigraphic analyses. In the Southern Turkey basins preliminary results show the diffuse presence of authigenic iron sulphides, together with magnetite, as main magnetic carriers. In these sections the iron-sulphides Characteristic Natural Magnetization (ChRM) component is characterized by inconsistent polarity record, suggesting that iron-sulphides have a late diagenetic origin. Conversely, magnetite bearing sediments show more reliable results in term of magnetic polarity interpretations. Preliminary stratigraphic and paleomagnetic results from the southern margin of the plateau allow us both to refine the stratigraphy for the late Miocene of the Adana Basin and to better constrain the age of the youngest marine deposits of the Mut and Ermenek basins. In the late Miocene of the Adana Basin evidence of the Messinian salinity crisis led to a new stratigraphic framework specially for the Messinian-Pliocene interval. Thick fluvial conglomerates from the uppermost Messinian deposits of the Adana Basin, which could be linked to the activation of the southern margin of the plateau, allow us to constrain at about 5.4 Ma the uplift of the central Anatolian Plateau. On the other hand, the

  13. Natural hazards at the southern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau (CAP) (southern Turkey): Tsunami evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogretmen, Nazik; Cosentino, Domenico; Gliozzi, Elsa; Cipollari, Paola; Radeff, Giuditta; Yıldırım, Cengiz

    2016-04-01

    In regions that are located in steep, orogenic plateau margins, such as the coastal area of the Central Anatolian Plateau (CAP) southern margin, natural hazard studies related to active tectonics and events that are triggered by active tectonics (e.g., earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis) are very essential in the context of preventing possible damages. This work herein, represents some evidence of the tsunami hazard along the coast between Aydıncık and Narlıkuyu, in southern Turkey. The work is based on a study on out-of-place beachrock-slab boulder acummulation in Aydıncık district, which were transported onshore by sliding process, and on out-of-place more rounded boulders that were transported by saltation process in Narlıkuyu and Yeşilovacık districts. The presence of intertidal organisms (e.g., lithophaga boring, balanids, oysters, etc.) encrusting the boulders of both localities shows that those boulders were carried onland from a marine environment. According to their dimensions and weight, in agreement with out-of-place boulders from areas surely affected by tsunamis, those out-of-place boulders here are interpreted as due to tsunami waves. The tsunamites in the Aydıncık area are located on beachrock slabs. They are platty and some of those blocks are embricated and oriented perpendicular to the shoreline (NE-SW direction). Those boulders have been interpreted as transported by sliding process, in relation with the coastal morphology and the boulder geometry, which means that to move those boulders the energy of the tsunami not necessarily should have been as high as in saltation or rolling transport processes. On the contrary, in Narlıkuyu and Yeşilovacık localities, the boulders are well-rounded and ellipsoidal shaped, suggesting that they were transported by rolling and/or saltation mode rather than by sliding. To carry onland the tsunami boulders observed in the Narlıkuyu and Yeşilovacık districts, which in the Yeşilovacık area they are

  14. Maximum earthquake magnitudes along different sections of the North Anatolian fault zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnhoff, Marco; Martínez-Garzón, Patricia; Bulut, Fatih; Stierle, Eva; Ben-Zion, Yehuda

    2016-04-01

    Constraining the maximum likely magnitude of future earthquakes on continental transform faults has fundamental consequences for the expected seismic hazard. Since the recurrence time for those earthquakes is typically longer than a century, such estimates rely primarily on well-documented historical earthquake catalogs, when available. Here we discuss the maximum observed earthquake magnitudes along different sections of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in relation to the age of the fault activity, cumulative offset, slip rate and maximum length of coherent fault segments. The findings are based on a newly compiled catalog of historical earthquakes in the region, using the extensive literary sources that exist owing to the long civilization record. We find that the largest M7.8-8.0 earthquakes are exclusively observed along the older eastern part of the NAFZ that also has longer coherent fault segments. In contrast, the maximum observed events on the younger western part where the fault branches into two or more strands are smaller. No first-order relations between maximum magnitudes and fault offset or slip rates are found. The results suggest that the maximum expected earthquake magnitude in the densely populated Marmara-Istanbul region would probably not exceed M7.5. The findings are consistent with available knowledge for the San Andreas Fault and Dead Sea Transform, and can help in estimating hazard potential associated with different sections of large transform faults.

  15. Determining the Through-Going Active Fault Geometry of the Western North Anatolian Fault Through Stress Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, B.; McQuarrie, N.

    2015-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is a seismically active 1200 km long dextral strike-slip fault part of an east-west trending dextral shear zone (NAF system) between the Anatolian and Eurasian plates. This shear zone widens to the west, complicating potential earthquake rupture paths and highlighting the importance of understanding the geometry of active fault systems. West of the town of Bolu - the NAF bifurcates into the northern and southern strands, which converge and are linked through the Mudurnu Valley, then diverge to border the Marmara Sea. The westward continuation of these two fault traces is marked by further complexities in potential active fault geometry, particularly in the Marmara Sea (northern strand), and the Biga Peninsula (southern strand). We evaluate potential active fault geometries for both strands by comparing stress models of various fault geometries in these regions to a record of focal mechanisms and inferred paleostress from a lineament analysis. For the Marmara region, two of the three possible geometries matched the maximum horizontal stress (σH) orientations determined from a record of focal mechanisms; however, only one represented the northern and southern sidewalls associated with the principal zone of deformation of the developing Marmara basin. This suggests that it is the most likely representation of the active through-going fault geometry in the region. In the Biga Peninsula region, the active geometry of the southern strand has the southern component approaching and intersecting the northern component through a linking feature in a narrow topographic valley. This geometry was selected over two others as it overlaps the σH orientation determined from focal mechanism data and a lineament analysis. Additionally, this geometry does not develop a prominent mis-oriented NE-SW stress feature observed in the model results of the other two geometries, otherwise absent in the focal mechanism data or inferred from a lineament analysis.

  16. A change in stress regime along the Eskisehir Fault, central northwestern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozden, S.; Gundogdu, E.

    2009-04-01

    The Eskisehir Fault (EF) which is one of the active main faults in central northwestern Turkey elongated a 150 km long with the WNW-ENE to E-W trending between Bursa and SE Eskisehir. EF is representing a right lateral widespread intra-continental fault zone which has separated from central Anatolian block than Aegean extensional province. Kinematic evolution of this fault determined from inversion of both measured fault-slip vectors (by 209 fault-striae) and earthquake focal mechanism solutions (by 13 earthquakes). The inversion of slip vectors measured on fault planes indicate that a right lateral strike-slip stress regime is dominant having a consistent NW-trending Hmax(1) and NE-trending Hmin(3) axes. This stress regime changes old transpressional to young transtensional probably in Plio-Pleistocene time. Also, the earthquake focal mechanism inversions confirm that the regional transtensional stress regime continues into recent time. These stress states are characterized by NW and NE-trending 1 and 3 axes, respectively. However, local consistent NE-trending Hmin(3) extension directed normal faulting regime shows in relation with the development of the Eskisehir basins. Kinematic evolution and/or change in the stress regime probably resulted from (1) coeval influence of the forces due to subduction processes along the Cyprus and Hellenic arc in the south, (2) continental collision Anatolia/Arabian plate in the east, (3) anti-clockwise rotation and (4) westward escape and/or extrusion of the Anatolian Block.

  17. Preliminary results on the deformation rates of the Malatya Fault (Malatya-Ovacık Fault Zone, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sançar, Taylan; Zabcı, Cengiz; Akçar, Naki; Karabacak, Volkan; Yazıcı, Müge; Akyüz, Hüsnü Serdar; Öztüfekçi Önal, Ayten; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Christl, Marcus; Vockenhuber, Christof

    2016-04-01

    The complex tectonic architecture of the eastern Mediterranean is mainly shaped by the interaction between the Eurasian, African, Arabian plates and smaller Anatolian Scholle. Ongoing post-collisional convergence between Eurasian and Arabian plates causes; (1) the westward motion of the Anatolia and and (2) the formation of four neo-tectonic provinces in Turkey: (a) East Anatolian Province of Shortening (b) North Anatolian Province (c) Central Anatolian "Ova" Province (d) West Anatolian Extensional Province. The Central "Ova" Province, which defines a region between the Aegean extensional regime in the west, the North Anatolian Shear Zone (NASZ) in the north and the East Anatolian Shear Zone (EASZ) in the east, is deformed internally by a series of NW-striking dextral and NE-striking sinistral strike-slip faults. The Malatya-Ovacık Fault Zone (MOFZ) is one the sinistral faults of the "Ova" province, located close to its eastern boundary. In order to understand not only the spatio-temporal behaviour of the MOFZ, but also its role in the internal deformation of the Anatolian Scholle we started to study the southern section, the Malatya Fault (MF), of this strike-slip fault zone in the framework of the TÜBITAK project no. 114Y580. The scope of the study is to calculate (a) the horizontal geologic slip rate, (b) the uplift rate, and (c) the cumulative displacement of the Malatya Fault (MF) that constitute the southwest part of MOFZ. Offset streams between 20-1700 m, pressure ridges, hot springs and small pull-apart basin formations are clear geological and geomorphological evidences for fault geometry along the MF. Among them the ~1700 m offset of the Tohma River (TR) presents unique site to understand deformational characteristics of the MF. Three levels of strath terraces (T1 to T3) identified along the both flanks of the TR by analyses of aerial photos and the field observations. The spatial distribution of these terraces are well-constrained by using the high

  18. Crustal Structure at the vicinity of Nigde Massif and Central Anatolian Fault Zone from Magnetotelluric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tank, B.; Sandvol, E. A.; Karas, M.; Ozaydin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Three magnetotelluric (MT) profiles were constructed to examine the electrical resistivity strucuture of a metamorphic core complex renown as Niğde massif and a northeast - southwest aligned fault zone (Central Anatolian Fault Zone, CAFZ) bounding this massif on the east in Central Anatolia. Nigde massif is a crystalline dome close to Inner-Tauride suture at the southern part of Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex. The sinistral CAFZ (in the south it is called Ecemis fault) is a ~700 km long, 2 to 80 km wide zone with an offset of 60 to 80 km. Northwest-southeast aligned Tuz Gölü (Salt Lake) and Derinkuyu faults are other major features that shape up the study area. A three-dimensional numerical modeling routine based on data-space modeling (WSINV3DMT) was used to invert the MT data collected at 85 high quality soundings. A mesh with 76 x 74 x 40 (7 layers for air) cells was used during the inversions. The resulting models suggest that (i) there is a low conductivity dome-like anomaly that coincides with the Nigde massif (presumably matches with Uckapili granite). (ii) Beneath this low conductivity anomaly there is a deeper (>20 km) high conductivity zone caused by partial melting (iii) Ecemis fault near Pozanti appears as a low to high conductivity interface. (iv) Likewise, Tuz Gölü and Derinkuyu faults appear as a low to high conductivity interfaces representing barriers for fluid flow (v) Adana basin sediments show high conductivity values (vi) Mt. Hasan and Mt. Karaca and the volcanic complexes in between them show highly conductive features in their roots, but (vi) older Mt. Erciyes lacks such a deep conductor.

  19. Weak ductile shear zone beneath a major strike-slip fault: Inferences from earthquake cycle model constrained by geodetic observations of the western North Anatolian Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, Tadashi; Wright, Tim J.; Houseman, Gregory A.

    2014-04-01

    GPS data before and after the 1999 İzmit/Düzce earthquakes on the North Anatolian Fault Zone (Turkey) reveal a preseismic strain localization within about 25 km of the fault and a rapid postseismic transient. Using 3-D finite element calculations of the earthquake cycle in an idealized model of the crust, comprising elastic above Maxwell viscoelastic layers, we show that spatially varying viscosity in the crust can explain these observations. Depth-dependent viscosity without lateral variations can reproduce some of the observations but cannot explain the proximity to the fault of maximum postseismic velocities. A localized weak zone beneath the faulted elastic lid satisfactorily explains the observations if the weak zone extends down to midcrustal depths, and the ratio of relaxation time to earthquake repeat time ranges from ~0.005 to ~0.01 (for weak-zone widths of ~24 and 40 km, respectively) in the weakened domain and greater than ~1.0 elsewhere, corresponding to viscosities of ~1018 ± 0.3 Pa s and greater than ~1020 Pa s. Models with sharp weak-zone boundaries fit the data better than those with a smooth viscosity increase away from the fault, implying that the weak zone may be bounded by a relatively abrupt change in material properties. Such a change might result from lithological contrast, grain size reduction, fabric development, or water content, in addition to any effects from shear heating. Our models also imply that viscosities inferred from postseismic studies primarily reflect the rheology of the weak zone and should not be used to infer the mechanical properties of normal crust.

  20. L band InSAR sudy on the Ganos section of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Michele, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF), with a total length of about 1500 km, is one of the most active right-lateral strike-slip faults in the world. It defines the tectonic boundary between the Anatolian Plate and the Eurasian Plate in northern Turkey, accommodating ~14-30 mm/yr of relative plate motion between the two plates (fig. 1). The Gazikoy-Saros segment (the Ganos fault, GF) is the onshore segment of the northern strand of the NAF between the Marmara Sea and the Gulf of Saros. It was last ruptured in 1912 with a Ms=7.4 earthquake that broke the entire inland segment of the fault, a length of about 50 km, and produced a right-lateral strike-slip component of at least 3 m. Other large historical earthquakes that have been attributed to the Ganos fault occurred in A.D. 824, 1343, 1509 and 1766 (e. g. Reilinger et al., 2000; Meade et al., 2002; Motagh et al., 2007; Janssen et al., 2009; Megraoui et al., 2012 ; Ersen Aksoy et al., 2010). The GF forms a 45 km long linear fault system and represents the link between the northern strand of the NAFZ in the Sea of Marmara and the North Aegean Trough where slip partitioning results in branching of the fault zone. The present study aims at showing the results retrieved from L band Interferometric Syntethic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements for the monitoring of Crustal Deformation in the Anatolian Fault Zone in the frame of the MARMARA SUPERSITE PROJECT "MARSITE" on the Ganos section of the North Anatolian fault zone. We processed SAR data made available through the CAT-1 ESA (European Space Agency) archives, acquired by the L-band radar sensor ALOS PALSAR between 2007 and 2011. The aim of this exercise is to test L-band capabilities to map the spatial and temporal evolution of the present-day crustal deformation phenomena affecting the Ganos section of the NAFZ with high level of spatial details. The goal of this task is to assess whether InSAR L-Band data can be useful to evaluate the long-term behavior of active faults

  1. L band InSAR sudy on the Ganos section of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Michele, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF), with a total length of about 1500 km, is one of the most active right-lateral strike-slip faults in the world. It defines the tectonic boundary between the Anatolian Plate and the Eurasian Plate in northern Turkey, accommodating ~14-30 mm/yr of relative plate motion between the two plates (fig. 1). The Gazikoy-Saros segment (the Ganos fault, GF) is the onshore segment of the northern strand of the NAF between the Marmara Sea and the Gulf of Saros. It was last ruptured in 1912 with a Ms=7.4 earthquake that broke the entire inland segment of the fault, a length of about 50 km, and produced a right-lateral strike-slip component of at least 3 m. Other large historical earthquakes that have been attributed to the Ganos fault occurred in A.D. 824, 1343, 1509 and 1766 (e. g. Reilinger et al., 2000; Meade et al., 2002; Motagh et al., 2007; Janssen et al., 2009; Megraoui et al., 2012 ; Ersen Aksoy et al., 2010). The GF forms a 45 km long linear fault system and represents the link between the northern strand of the NAFZ in the Sea of Marmara and the North Aegean Trough where slip partitioning results in branching of the fault zone. The present study aims at showing the results retrieved from L band Interferometric Syntethic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements for the monitoring of Crustal Deformation in the Anatolian Fault Zone in the frame of the MARMARA SUPERSITE PROJECT "MARSITE" on the Ganos section of the North Anatolian fault zone. We processed SAR data made available through the CAT-1 ESA (European Space Agency) archives, acquired by the L-band radar sensor ALOS PALSAR between 2007 and 2011. The aim of this exercise is to test L-band capabilities to map the spatial and temporal evolution of the present-day crustal deformation phenomena affecting the Ganos section of the NAFZ with high level of spatial details. The goal of this task is to assess whether InSAR L-Band data can be useful to evaluate the long-term behavior of active faults

  2. Crustal anisotropy along the North Anatolian Fault Zone from receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licciardi, Andrea; Eken, Tuna; Taymaz, Tuncay; Piana Agostinetti, Nicola; Yolsal-Çevikbilen, Seda; Tilmann, Frederik

    2016-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) that is considered to be one of the largest plate-bounding transform faults separates the Anatolian Plate to the south from the Eurasian Plate to the north. A proper estimation of the crustal anisotropy in the area is a key point to understand the present and past tectonic processes associated with the plate boundary as well as for assessing its strength and stability. In this work we used data from the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) passive seismic experiment in order to retrieve the anisotropic properties of the crust by means of the receiver function (RF) method. This approach provides robust constraints on the location at depth of anisotropic bodies compared to other seismological tools like S-waves splitting observations where anisotropic parameters are obtained through a path-integrated measurement process over depth. We computed RFs from teleseismic events, for 39 stations with a recording period of nearly 2 years, providing an excellent azimuthal coverage. The observed azimuthal variations in amplitudes and delay times on the Radial and Transverse RF indicate the presence of anisotropy in the crust. Isotropic and anisotropic effects on the RFs are analyzed separately after harmonic decomposition of the RF dataset (Bianchi et al. 2010). Pseudo 2D profiles are built to observe both the seismic isotropic structure and the depth-dependent lateral variations of crustal anisotropy in the area, including orientation of the symmetry axis. Preliminary results show that the isotropic structure is characterized by a complex crustal setting above a nearly flat Moho at a depth of ~40 km in the central portion of the studied area. Strong anisotropy is present in the upper crust along some portions of the NAFZ and the Ezinepazari-Sungurlu Fault (ESF), with a strong correlation between the orientation of the symmetry axis of anisotropy and the strike of the main geological structures. More complex patterns of anisotropy are present in the

  3. Dynamic topography of the southern Central Anatolian Plateau, Turkey, and geodynamic driving mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildgen, T. F.; Cosentino, D.; Dudas, F. O.; Niedermann, S.; Strecker, M. R.; Echler, H.; Yildirim, C.

    2010-12-01

    Collision between Eurasia and Arabia and subsequent westward extrusion of the Anatolian microplate explains the development of major intracontinental fault systems in Anatolia that have remained active to the present-day. Concurrent, and probable episodic uplift of the Central and Eastern Anatolian plateaus (CAP and EAP), however, suggests that additional geodynamic mechanisms have contributed to the late Cenozoic morphologic development of the region. Sedimentary basins spanning the southern margin of the CAP provide insights on the timing and rates of different phases of surface uplift, giving constraints to test which geodynamic processes have contributed to surface uplift, orogenic plateau growth, and coupled landscape/climate evolution. Stratigraphic and geomorphic records of uplift and subsidence in the Mut Basin at the southern CAP margin and along the Göksu River record dynamic topographic development. Biostratigraphy and Sr isotope stratigraphy on the highest (ca. 2 km) uplifted marine sediments of the Mut basin furnish a maximum age of ca. 8 Ma for the onset of late Cenozoic uplift of the region. A Pliocene to early Pleistocene marine section, inset within the older stratigraphy at ca. 0.2 to 1.2 km elevation, reveals a history of subsidence and renewed uplift, following the initial uplift that occurred between ca. 8 Ma and Pliocene time. The most recent phase of uplift continued with possibly minor interruptions during the Quaternary, and is recorded by a series of fluvial terraces preserved between 30 and 143 m above the modern Göksu River. One terrace (143 m) reveals a 21Ne model exposure age of ca. 160 ka; ongoing exposure age determination will further constrain the uplift history. Different geodynamic mechanisms have likely contributed to surface uplift along the southern CAP margin. Initial uplift may have been associated with the predominantly sinistral Ecemis fault system that spans the southern and southeastern CAP margin. Neogene counter

  4. Malignant mesotheliomas in a small village in the Anatolian region of Turkey: an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Artvinli, M; Bariş, Y I

    1979-07-01

    An epidemiologic and cause-related study was done in Tuzköy, a small village in the city of Nevşehir, in the Anatolian region of Turkey. The neighboring village of Kizilböy was used as a control. People 25 years of age or older were studied: 312 persons (145 males and 167 females) from Tuzköy and 95 persons (45 males and 50 females) from the control village. The annual incidence of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) was found to be 6.5 cases (22 cases per 10,000 people) in Tuzköy. Several other respiratory disorders were detected as well. Although no type of asbestos could be found in Tuzköy and its vicinity, the asbestiform mineral zeolite was found in soil samples from the roads and fields of Tuzköy, in its building stones, and in lung tissues of the villagers. Chest X-rays revealed no cases of MPM or other respiratory abnormalities in the control group. No zeolite could be found in the control village. Therefore, zeolite was thought to be the cause of MPM and the other respiratory disorders in Tuzköy.

  5. Comparision of the different probability distributions for earthquake hazard assessment in the North Anatolian Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Şeyda; Bayrak, Erdem; Bayrak, Yusuf

    2016-04-01

    In this study we examined and compared the three different probabilistic distribution methods for determining the best suitable model in probabilistic assessment of earthquake hazards. We analyzed a reliable homogeneous earthquake catalogue between a time period 1900-2015 for magnitude M ≥ 6.0 and estimated the probabilistic seismic hazard in the North Anatolian Fault zone (39°-41° N 30°-40° E) using three distribution methods namely Weibull distribution, Frechet distribution and three-parameter Weibull distribution. The distribution parameters suitability was evaluated Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) goodness-of-fit test. We also compared the estimated cumulative probability and the conditional probabilities of occurrence of earthquakes for different elapsed time using these three distribution methods. We used Easyfit and Matlab software to calculate these distribution parameters and plotted the conditional probability curves. We concluded that the Weibull distribution method was the most suitable than other distribution methods in this region.

  6. Earthquake Records of North Anatolian Fault from Sapanca Lake Sediments, NW Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalamaz, Burak; Cagatay, Namık; Acar, Dursun; Demirbag, Emin; Gungor, Emin; Gungor, Nurdan; Gulen, Levent

    2014-05-01

    We determined earthquake records in sediment cores of Sapanca Lake which is a pull-apart basin located along the North Anatolian Fault zone in NW Anatolia. The lake has a maximum depth of 55 m, and a surface area of 46.8 km2, measuring 16 km in E-W and 5 km in N-S directions. A systematic study of the sedimentological, physical and geochemical properties of three water-sediment interface cores, up to 75.7 cm long, located along depth transects ranging from 43 to 51.5 m water depths. The cores were analyzed using Geotek Multi Sensor Core Logger (MSCL) for physical properties, laser particle size analyzer for granulometry, TOC Analyzer for Total Organic Content (TOC) and Total Inorganic Carbon (TIC) analysis, Itrax-XRF Core Scanner for elemental analysis and digital X-RAY Radiography. The geochronology was determined using AMS radiocarbon and radionuclide methods. The Sapanca Lake earthquake records are characterized by mass flow units consisting of grey or dark grey coarse to fine sand and silty mud with sharp basal and transional upper boundaries. The units commonly show normal size grading with their basal parts showing high density, and high magnetic susceptibility and enrichment in one or more elements, such as Si, Ca, Tİ, K, Rb, Zr and Fe, indicative of coarse detrial input. Based on radionuclide and radiocarbon analyses the mass flow units are correlated with 1999 İzmit and Düzce earthquakes (Mw=7.4 and 7.2, respectively) , 1967 Mudurnu earthquake (Mw= 6,8), and 1957 Abant (Mw= 7.1) earthquake. Keywords: Sapanca Lake, North Anatolian Fault, Earthquake, Grain size, Itrax-XRF, MSCL

  7. Weak ductile shear zone beneath the western North Anatolian Fault Zone: inferences from earthquake cycle model constrained by geodetic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, T.; Wright, T. J.; Houseman, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    After large earthquakes, rapid postseismic transient motions are commonly observed. Later in the loading cycle, strain is typically focused in narrow regions around the fault. In simple two-layer models of the loading cycle for strike-slip faults, rapid post-seismic transients require low viscosities beneath the elastic layer, but localized strain later in the cycle implies high viscosities in the crust. To explain this apparent paradox, complex transient rheologies have been invoked. Here we test an alternative hypothesis in which spatial variations in material properties of the crust can explain the geodetic observations. We use a 3D viscoelastic finite element code to examine two simple models of periodic fault slip: a stratified model in which crustal viscosity decreases exponentially with depth below an upper elastic layer, and a block model in which a low viscosity domain centered beneath the fault is embedded in a higher viscosity background representing normal crust. We test these models using GPS data acquired before and after the 1999 Izmit/Duzce earthquakes on the North Anatolian Fault Zone (Turkey). The model with depth-dependent viscosity can show both high postseismic velocities, and preseismic localization of the deformation, if the viscosity contrast from top to bottom of layer exceeds a factor of about 104. However, with no lateral variations in viscosity, this model cannot explain the proximity to the fault of maximum postseismic velocities. In contrast, the model which includes a localized weak zone beneath the faulted elastic lid can explain all the observations, if the weak zone extends down to mid-crustal levels and outward to 10 or 20 km from the fault. The non-dimensional ratio of relaxation time to earthquake repeat time, τ/Δt, is the critical parameter in controlling the observed deformation. In the weak-zone model, τ/Δt should be in the range 0.005 to 0.01 in the weak domain, and larger than ~ 1.0 elsewhere. This implies a viscosity

  8. Kinematics and Fault Interaction of the Marmara Segment of the North Anatolian Fault Zone from Fault-Plane Solutions Based on a Refined High Precision Hypocenter Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollin, C.; Bohnhoff, M.; Küpperkoch, L.

    2015-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) is separating the Eurasian and Anatolian plates representing a right-lateral transform plate boundary accommodating 20-30 mm annual slip. During the last seismic cycle the NAFZ has produced a series of large earthquakes that started in 1939 in Eastern Anatolia and has propagated westward towards the Istanbul-Marmara region. Here an up to 150 km long segment below the Sea of Marmara remains the only NAFZ segment that was not activated since 1766 representing a seismic gap hosting the potential for a magnitude up to 7.5 earthquake.Here we present a hypocenter catalogue for the Marmara section of the NAFZ which is a challenge since the fault is located offshore permitting no long-term on- or near fault stations. Using the Akaike Information Criterion applied on a characteristic function derived from higher order statistics as well as autoregressive forward prediction to automatically pick P- and S-onset times, we consistently analyze extensive waveform data provided by permanent seismic broadband stations of a combined regional seismic network with unprecedented station distribution.The quality of automatically determined travel times is carefully examined by comparing them to manual reference picks which were determined with a scheme emphasizing highest possible consistency and precision. The high accuracy obtained for the travel times results in an improved hypocenter catalog with fewer but well-located events that allow to image the major fault branches of the NAFZ below the Sea of Marmara.The large network aperture with lacking stations immediately above the seismicity along the fault and insufficient azimuthal station density prevents inversion for focal mechanisms of most single events. Therefore we form spatial seismicity clusters and calculate composite fault plane solutions. Resolving fault-zone geometry and kinematics allow to identify the currently active fault branches and to determine the currently ongoing processes

  9. Seafloor Geodetic Monitoring of the North Anatolian Fault in the Sea of Marmara: System Installation and its Initial Result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kido, M.

    2015-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) get across the mainland of Turkey is known as a quite active strike slip fault. The earthquake recurrence period for individual segment is estimated roughly 300 years based on historical records. The Marmara Segment is the major seismic gap since the last earthquake in 1766, while the Murefte earthquake occurred in 1912 at its west side and the Izmit earthquake in 1999 at its east side. The relative motion across the NAF is ~22 mm/yr based on the data from space geodesy. Investigating how much degree of this displacement is released by aseismic creep or accumulated by slip deficit in the Marmara Segment is crucial to know the total seismic risk in this region. Because the NAF is submerged in the Sea of Marmara and is inaccessible by space geodesy, we employed seafloor geodetic technique using extensometers, which acoustically monitor baseline length across a strain-localized zone, such as surface trace of a fault. In 2014, we installed five extensometers at the Western High crossing the NAF one after the other, where the surface trace of the NAF is prominent and gas emission from the seafloor is reported in. Totally four beselines of ~1 km range are successfully formed and quality of initial test data was promising. Based on the initial data, detectable level of the baseline change is estimated to be ~2mm, which owing to quite stable seawater near the bottom due to strong density stratification in the Sea of Marmara. The extensometers are designed that data can be recovered via acoustic modem without disrupt the monitoring. Since the installation, we have visited the site twice and have recovered the data for ten months in total. Temperature measured by thermistor equipped on each extensometer showed coherent change and gradual increase by 0.007 degree during the period. This reflects apparent beseline shortening due to the corresponding increase of the sound speed. In the preliminary temperature correction, difference of the change

  10. Assessment of Grazing Effect on Sheep Fescue (Festuca valesiaca)Dominated Steppe Rangelands in the semi-arid Central Anatolian Region of Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of increased grazing pressure over the last fifty years, vegetation of the steppe rangelands in the semi-arid Central Anatolian Region of Turkey has been severely degraded. In these pastures, Festuca valesiaca (a sod forming short-grass) and Thymus sipyleus ssp rosulans (a prostrate shrub) a...

  11. Magmatic evolution of the Early Pliocene Etrüsk stratovolcano, Eastern Anatolian Collision Zone, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyan, Vural; Keskin, Mehmet; Lebedev, Vladimir A.; Chugaev, Andrey V.; Sharkov, Evgenii V.

    2016-07-01

    The Pliocene Etrüsk stratovolcano, located in the northeast of Lake Van (Eastern Anatolia; Turkey), is one of the important volcanic centres in the Eastern Anatolian collision zone. Mt. Etrüsk overlies a widespread volcanic plateau, consisting of basaltic and hawaiitic lavas formed by fissure eruptions between 4.9-4.5 Ma. These basic lavas contain a phenocryst phase consisting of olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene. Trace element ratio diagrams imply that these basic magmas were generated from a mantle that contained a clear subduction component that is related to the subducted sediments rather than fluids or altered oceanic crust. Results of the melting models on the basaltic plateau lavas indicate that there was a marked variation both in the mantle source mineralogy (i.e. the ratio of garnet peridotite to spinel peridotite in the source varies between 60/40% and 40/60%) and the degree of melting (i.e. F between 0.8-4%). This can be explained by a model in which magmas were generated by partial melting of both metasomatised lithospheric and deeper asthenospheric mantle sources in an extensional setting in response to the partial delamination of the lithospheric mantle of Eastern Anatolia and then mixed with each other during Pliocene times. Central eruptions that formed the Etrüsk volcano lasted ~ 600 kyr between 4.3-3.7 Ma during Zanclean times. The estimated depth of the Etrüsk magma chamber is ~ 9-12 km. The volcano erupted lavas with a rather narrow compositional range from latite to rhyolite, which are either transitional or mildly alkaline in character. The Etrüsk lavas contain plagioclase, clino- and orthopyroxene, biotite, K-feldspar and rarely, minor amounts of olivine and amphibole in the phenocryst phase. A composite chemo-stratigraphic section of the volcano and petrological models indicate that the evolved lavas of the Etrüsk volcano differentiated from a parental magma composition, which is similar to that of the most primitive plateau

  12. Using a Geophysical Model to Estimate the Static Coefficient of Friction and Cohesion on a Central Portion of the North Anatolian Fault East of the Marmara Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, B.; McQuarrie, N.

    2012-12-01

    On August 17th, 1999, a magnitude 7.4 earthquake shook Kocaeli (Izmit), Turkey killing over 17,000 people. The epicenter was 100-km east of Turkey's largest city, Istanbul, along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) system. This 1600-km long, strike-slip boundary divides the Anatolian plate and the Eurasian plate. The NAF slips at an average rate of 2-3-cm/y, and has an estimated earthquake recurrence interval of approximately 300 years. To further understand the NAF system and its dynamics, a simplified 2-D mesh model was developed to evaluate the fault friction coefficient for various low cohesion values along an ~85-km stretch of the NAF system east of the Marmara Sea containing the Mudurnu valley between the cities of Izmit and Bolu (where the NAF splits). The NAF, in the region of interest, exhibits shorter recurrence intervals of 100-150 years over the last four centuries. In this region, two sets of faults within the NAF system converge and then diverge; one set diverges to the NW to bound the northern rim of the Marmara Sea, while the second set continues to the SW along the southern rim of the Marmara Sea. A 100 year seismic record of earthquakes between M3.0 and M9.0 supports the claim that the two sets of strike-slip faults near one another in the center of the region of interest, but do not intersect, thus defining three distinct geology provinces. A representational 2-D mesh separates the study area into three geologic provinces separated by these faults. The mesh was processed using PyLith, a finite element code tectonic deformation software. The PyLith software allows us to assign rock physics parameters of the surface geology, and relative plate motions as velocity boundary conditions. Surface geology was simplified into the three rock types, and rock physics parameters were assigned using general physical parameters for each rock type and extrapolating further data from the Canadian Rock Physics Database. An average value for density and P-wave velocity

  13. Geomorphological and Paleoseismological Studies of the Malatya Fault (Malatya-Ovacık Fault Zone, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sançar, Taylan; Zabcı, Cengiz; Karabacak, Volkan; Akyüz, Hüsnü Serdar

    2016-04-01

    The Malatya-Ovacık Fault Zone (MOFZ is about 240 km-long sinistral strike-slip tectonic structure within the Anatolian Scholle. Although the MOFZ is claimed to be an inactive structure since 3 Ma (Westaway and Arger, 2001), recent GPS measurements, morphotectonic studies and micro seismicity strongly suggest considerable amount of strain accumulation along this tectonic feature. The GPS-based elastic block model results yield horizontal slip rates of about 1.2 and 1.6 mm/a, for the northeastern and southwestern sections of this fault zone, respectively (Aktuǧ et al., 2013). In order to understand the seismic potential of the southwestern section, Malatya Fault (MF), of the MOFZ, we carried out paleoseismological trenching and morphometric analyses in the frame of the TÜBİTAK project no. 114Y580. The preliminary results of morphometric analyses, including the hypsometric curve and channel longitudinal profiles, suggest that the northernmost part of the MF accommodate more deformation than the southern part, where the fault zone bifurcates into several discrete segments. Relatively high values of hypsometric integral and the shape of hypsometric curves and the longitudinal channel profiles, indicate youthful topography at northern part of the MF. In the northern section of the MF, Kızık Basin is one of the most remarkable fault-related landforms, which is 9 km long and 2 km wide, and is directly controlled by the extensional step-over of the fault segments. On the northern parts of this relatively narrow depression, a linear scarp prolongs between Kızık and Ahlas villages for about 150 m. In summer 2015, we excavated a single trench on this straight lineament, where mostly braided river-related gravels and sands were exposed. Although we could not observe any evidence of surface faulting inside the erosional channel systems, the bedrock has very well-developed shear fabric at the toe of the observed scarp. We sampled the most bottom section of the undeformed

  14. Recent Earthquake Breaks At The Sea of Marmara Pull-apart (North Anatolian Fault)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucarkus, G.; Armijo, R.; Cakir, Z.; Schmidt, S.; Meyer, B.

    2008-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) makes a major transtensional step-over in the west which forms the lithospheric scale Sea of Marmara pull-apart, between the strike-slip Ganos and Izmit faults. Smaller strike- slip segments and pull-apart basins alternate within the main step-over, combining strike-slip and normal faulting. During the MARMARASCARPS cruise clear morphologic evidence of recent faulting activity was found along several segments of the NAF in the Sea of Marmara. Sets of well-preserved earthquake scarps extend offshore from the Ganos and Izmit faults on land. Our observations from visual exploration and ultra- high resolution bathymetry data (microbathymetry) suggest that those scarps correspond to the submarine ruptures of the purely strike-slip 1999 Izmit (Mw 7.4) and the 1912 Ganos (Ms 7.4) earthquakes. One break extends offshore eastward of the Ganos fault and cuts continuously the Tekirdag basin and Western High up to the Central basin over 60 km. Scarps, here, are very well preserved and show fine-scale morphology typical of strike-slip faulting. The age of the last earthquake break is difficult to assess directly with dating approaches. However, recent sedimentation rates can provide information on the age of the sediment covering the scarps. With that purpose, ROV (remote operated vehicle) sampled interface cores (up to 35 cm) into the disturbed sediment in the immediate vicinity of those scarps. Our first geochronological analysis with 210Pb seems to confirm the connection of fresh fault scarps to the 1912 Ganos earthquake rupture. Sedimentation rates determined from 210Pb profiles (excluding disturbed layers) on cores show a narrow range between 0.1-0.2 cm/yr. Another very fresh break is seen where the Izmit fault enters westward into the Cinarcik Basin. It crosses the bottom of a submarine canyon at 180 m depth, 10 km west of the Hersek peninsula. Microbathymetry suggests the 1999 fault scarp is there 0.5 m high. The flat floor of the canyon

  15. InSAR time-series constraints on inter-seismic strain accumulation and creep distribution along North Anatolian and Chaman Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havazli, E.; Fattahi, H.; Amelung, F.

    2013-12-01

    In many aspects, the San Andreas and the North Anatolian fault zones show many similarities. They are similarly right-lateral, strike-slip faults, at the same time, are transforms. However, they vary in the maximum amount of lateral displacement and show different topographic features. The maximum offset is nearly 300 km along the San Andreas Fault whereas it is approximately 85-90 km along the North Anatolian Fault. In recent years, interseismic crustal velocities and strains have been determined for North Anatolian Fault Zone through repeated measurements using the Global Positioning System and satellite radar interferometry. The Chaman Fault in Pakistan and Afghanistan is the only major fault along the western India-Eurasia plate boundary zone and probably accommodates the entire relative plate motion of 30-35 mm/yr. Recent GPS and InSAR studies on the Chaman fault yield slip rates of 18 × 1 mm/yr. The inconsistency in geologic, geodetic and seismic slip rates along the Chaman Fault need investigations to better understand the geodynamic responses of the Indo-Asia collision along its western boundary. We use InSAR time-series analysis using archived and new SAR imagery to constrain strain accumulation across the North Anatolian Fault and Chaman Faults. We expect a relative accuracy of InSAR measurements better than 1 mm/yr over 100 km, made possible by recent advances in flattening residual, orbital error and atmospheric correction strategies [Fattahi & Amelung, 2013]. After validation of the technique in Southern San Andreas Fault, using GPS observations, we apply the same InSAR time-series approach to constrain strain accumulation across the North Anatolian and Chaman Faults. We will use the InSAR data to establish the first-order fault properties of the Chaman and North Anatolian Faults (creep distribution, locking depth) using analytical two-dimensional elastic strain accumulation models along different transects across the faults. Our preliminary results

  16. Palaeomagnetism and magnetic properties of the Cappadocian ignimbrite succession, central Turkey and Neogene tectonics of the Anatolian collage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piper, J. D. A.; Gürsoy, H.; Tatar, O.

    2002-10-01

    The Cappadocian ignimbrite succession of central-southern Anatolia comprises at least nine major and two minor calc-alkaline rhyolitic sheets emplaced at 1-2-Ma intervals between 11.2 and 1.1 Ma. It records the last phase of Neotethyan subduction during final emplacement of the Tauride orogen in southern Turkey. This study reports magnetostratigraphy and describes associated rock magnetic properties. Remanence resides in Ti-poor titanomagnetites. Haematisation is locally produced by post-emplacement oxidation but does not contribute significantly to the palaeomagnetic signature although secondary processes within the ignimbrite sheets have produced composite isothermal remanent magnetisation spectra and variable intensities of magnetisation. Weak anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility describes tensors with maximum axes close to bedding and minimum axes perpendicular to this plane. Directions of kmax with weak imbrication mostly suggest flow away from centres of eruption located by gravity and remote sensing. Older ignimbrites (Upper and Lower Göreme, Akdag-Zelve) from the Çardak Centre are all of normal polarity. Later ignimbrites, partly erupted from the Derinkuyu Centre, comprise the Sarımaden (R), Cemilköy (R), Tahar (R), Kızılkaya (R), Incesu (N) and Valibaba-Sofular (R) ignimbrites. The overall (reversed) group mean is D/ I=174/-51° ( N=10 units, R=9.84, α95=6.6°, k=55) and all magnetisation directions from the Upper Göreme (9.0 Ma) onwards are rotated anticlockwise with respect to Eurasian and African palaeofields. This sense of rotation characterises most of central Anatolia and averages 9±5° in this sector. The rotation rate from 8 to 1 Ma BP was ˜1.25°/Ma but it appears to have accelerated during the latter part of the Quaternary to about an order higher than rates determined from GPS. Rotation has resulted from extrusion of fault blocks during tectonic escape of the Anatolian collage to the southwest and followed crustal thickening as the

  17. Structure of the North Anatolian Fault Zone from the Auto-Correlation of Ambient Seismic Noise Recorded at a Dense Seismometer Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, D. G.; Rost, S.; Houseman, G.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years the technique of cross-correlating the ambient seismic noise wavefield at two seismometers to reconstruct empirical Green's Functions for the determination of Earth structure has been a powerful tool to study the Earth's interior without earthquake or man-made sources. However, far less attention has been paid to using auto-correlations of seismic noise to reveal body wave reflections from interfaces in the subsurface. In principle, the Green's functions thus derived should be comparable to the Earth's impulse response to a co-located source and receiver. We use data from a dense seismic array (Dense Array for Northern Anatolia - DANA) deployed across the northern branch of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in the region of the 1999 magnitude 7.6 Izmit earthquake in western Turkey. The NAFZ is a major strike-slip system that extends ~1200 km across northern Turkey and continues to pose a high level of seismic hazard, in particular to the mega-city of Istanbul. We construct reflection images for the entire crust and upper mantle over the ~35 km by 70 km footprint of the 70-station DANA array. Using auto-correlations of vertical and horizontal components of ground motion, both P- and S-wave velocity information can be retrieved from the wavefield to constrain crustal structure further to established methods. We show that clear P-wave reflections from the crust-mantle boundary (Moho) can be retrieved using the autocorrelation technique, indicating topography on the Moho on horizontal scales of less than 10 km. Offsets in crustal structure can be identified that seem to be correlated with the surface expression of the fault zone in the region. The combined analysis of auto-correlations using vertical and horizontal components will lead to further insight into the fault zone structure throughout the crust and upper mantle.

  18. The Rotation of the Fault Bounded Block "Almacık Mountain", in the Northwest Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    işseven, Turgay; Demir, Tunç; Genç, Can; Kayın, Sercan; Lom, Nalan

    2016-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is one of the major tectonic entities of Turkey and a dextral transform zone up to 100 km in width. There are several continental blocks delimited by strike-slip faults along the North Anatolian Shear Zone. Almacık Mountain is one of the largest of these blocks and surrounded by two main branches of the NAF. In this study Eocene volcanic rocks of the Almacık Mountain were sampled from 26 palaeomagnetic sites. Following alternating field and thermal demagnetization, and component analysis, a dual polarity axis is resolved which shows that the Almacık Block has rotated 37°±7.3° clockwise relative to the present field direction and 29.1°±6.7° clockwise relative to the predicted field direction at this location in Eocene times. This block rotation is interpreted in terms of dextral motion of a tectonic block bounded by two strands of the NAF. The mean inclination (58°±7.3°) data also indicate that the Eocene volcanics of the Almacık Mountain were emplaced at a palaeolatitude statistically identical to the present day and we conclude that northward movement of this sector of the Anatolides has been below the limits of palaeomagnetic detection since Eocene. Similar palaeomagnetic results had been found in the Eocene volcanics in the Armutlu Peninsula.

  19. Preliminary investigation on the deformation rates of the Nazimiye Fault (Eastern Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sançar, Taylan

    2016-04-01

    fault-bounded mountain fronts. In addition to that I also extracted hypsometric curves, hypsometric integrals and stream length gradient index to understand the relationship between characteristics of the drainage basins and tectonic activity. As preliminary results, I conclude that the southern segment of the NF is tectonically quiescent, whereas the deformation is mainly accommodated on the northern branch. References Emre, Ö., Duman, T.Y., Kondo, H., Olgun, Ş., Özalp, S., Elmacı, H., 2012. 1:250.000 Ölçekli Türkiye Diri Fay Haritası Serisi, Erzincan (NJ37-3) Paftası, Seri No:44, Maden Tetkik ve Arama Genel Müdürlüǧü, Ankara-Türkiye. Kara, K., Sançar, T., Zabci, C., 2013. Morphologic and Morphotectonic Characteristics of the Nazimiye Fault Zone, Eastern Turkey. EGU2013-8105, EGU General Assembly Vienna, Austria. Şengör, A.M.C., 1979. The North Anatolian transform fault; its age, offset and tectonic significance. Journal of the Geological Society of London 136, Part 3, 269-282.

  20. Onset and Mechanisms of Surface Creep on Strike Slip Faults: Clues from the North Anatolian Fault and Comparisons with the San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakir, Z.; Ergintav, S.; Akoglu, A. M.; Cetin, E.; Meghraoui, M.; Reilinger, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    Aseismic fault slip was first reported over forty years ago along some major strike slip faults including the San Andreas (SAF) and North Anatolian faults (NAF). Yet both their origin and timing on active faults and underlying physical processes remain subjects of debate. The presence of weak minerals and/or trapped fluid overpressures within fault zones have been proposed as mechanics for aseismic fault creep. Our InSAR observations together with GPS measurements and geology along the NAF provide new evidence for the mechanism, characteristics, and initiation of fault surface creep. We have used the persistent scatterer InSAR (PS-InSAR) technique to investigate both the creeping section of the NAF at Ismetpaşa that had ruptured during the 1944 and 1951 earthquakes, and the postseismic era of the 1999 İzmit Earthquake. The results reveal that the central segment of the 1999 Izmit Earthquake rupture has been creeping for over for the past 15 years since the event, becoming the longest lasting afterslip ever recorded. The slip pattern of ongoing surface creep on the İzmit rupture supports the idea that stable fault creep can be initiated as postseismic afterslip, a mechanism we proposed previously but could not have confirmed due to the lack of pre- and post-earthquake observations on creeping faults such as the Ismetpaşa segment of the NAF and the segments of the SAF in the San Francisco Bay area. Geological maps along the Ismetpaşa and Izmit creeping segments show that both fault zones run through ophiolitic and calcareous rocks with phyllosilicates that probably result in fault weakening. Earthquake rupture maps and PS-InSAR velocity fields for these regions also reveal that the creeping faults have simple geometry being fairly rectilinear and continuous along their strike. These common features suggest that following a large earthquake, a stable surface creep can be triggered on a section of a mature fault if it has evolved in to simple geometry and is

  1. Geodetic Network Design and Optimization on the Active Tuzla Fault (Izmir, Turkey) for Disaster Management

    PubMed Central

    Halicioglu, Kerem; Ozener, Haluk

    2008-01-01

    Both seismological and geodynamic research emphasize that the Aegean Region, which comprises the Hellenic Arc, the Greek mainland and Western Turkey is the most seismically active region in Western Eurasia. The convergence of the Eurasian and African lithospheric plates forces a westward motion on the Anatolian plate relative to the Eurasian one. Western Anatolia is a valuable laboratory for Earth Science research because of its complex geological structure. Izmir is a large city in Turkey with a population of about 2.5 million that is at great risk from big earthquakes. Unfortunately, previous geodynamics studies performed in this region are insufficient or cover large areas instead of specific faults. The Tuzla Fault, which is aligned trending NE–SW between the town of Menderes and Cape Doganbey, is an important fault in terms of seismic activity and its proximity to the city of Izmir. This study aims to perform a large scale investigation focusing on the Tuzla Fault and its vicinity for better understanding of the region's tectonics. In order to investigate the crustal deformation along the Tuzla Fault and Izmir Bay, a geodetic network has been designed and optimizations were performed. This paper suggests a schedule for a crustal deformation monitoring study which includes research on the tectonics of the region, network design and optimization strategies, theory and practice of processing. The study is also open for extension in terms of monitoring different types of fault characteristics. A one-dimensional fault model with two parameters – standard strike-slip model of dislocation theory in an elastic half-space – is formulated in order to determine which sites are suitable for the campaign based geodetic GPS measurements. Geodetic results can be used as a background data for disaster management systems.

  2. Estimation of successive coseismic vertical offsets using coeval sedimentary events - application to the southwestern limit of the Sea of Marmara's Central Basin (North Anatolian Fault)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, C.; Campos, C.; Eriş, K. K.; Çağatay, N.; Mercier de Lepinay, B.; Jouanne, F.

    2015-02-01

    In the deep part of the Sea of Marmara (Turkey), the sedimentation developing upon the North Anatolian Fault is strongly influenced by the associated seismic activity, through gravity reworking (fluidized landslides) and tsunamis. Specific layers (homogenites + turbidites, HmTu), representing individual sedimentary events, have been characterized along three giant piston cores retrieved from the Çinarcik and Central (or Orta) basins. Pre-Holocene, nonmarine sediments, were analyzed, representing the last 12-17 kyr BP (before present). For a 2 kyr long interval, 11 events could be precisely correlated on both sides of the Central Basin's southwestern scarp. For each of them, based on the specific depositional process, the thickness difference between the two sites was considered as a direct estimation of the vertical component of a coeval coseismic offset. The homogenite (upper) component accounts for the major part of the thickness difference (ranging from 36 to 144 cm). These offsets were considered as likely representing dominantly vertical throws, along the transtensional southwestern boundary of the inner, pull-apart Central Basin. In terms of natural hazards, further investigations on this local behavior should rather be directed to tsunami genesis.

  3. Estimation of successive co-seismic vertical offsets using coeval sedimentary events - application to the Sea of Marmara's Central Basin (North Anatolian Fault)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, C.; Campos, C.; Eriş, K.; Çağatay, N.; Mercier de Lepinay, B.; Jouanne, F.

    2014-06-01

    In the deep part of the Sea of Marmara (Turkey), the sedimentation developing upon the North Anatolian Fault is strongly influenced by the associated seismic activity. Specific layers (homogenites-turbidites), representing individual sedimentary events, have been characterized along three giant piston cores retrieved from Çinarcik and Central (or Orta) basins. Analyzed sediments represent the last 12 to 17 kyr BP. For a 2 kyr-lasting interval, 11 events could be precisely correlated on both sides of the Central Basin's southern scarp. For each of them, based on the specific depositional process, the thickness difference between the two sites was considered as a direct estimation of the vertical component of a coeval co-seismic offset. The homogenite (upper) term accounts for the major part of the thickness difference. The 6 most significant values range from 36 cm to 144 cm and are likely representing dominantly normal throws, with estimated paleomagnitudes (Mw) ranging from 5.9 to 6.6.

  4. The Interpretation of Crustal Dynamics Data in Terms of Plate Interactions and Active Tectonics of the Anatolian Plate and Surrounding Regions in the Middle East

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toksoz, M. Nafi; Reilinger, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    During the past 6 months, efforts were concentrated on the following areas: (1) Continued development of realistic, finite element modeling of plate interactions and associated deformation in the Eastern Mediterranean; (2) Neotectonic field investigations of seismic faulting along the active fault systems in Turkey with emphasis on identifying seismic gaps along the North Anatolian fault; and (3) Establishment of a GPS regional monitoring network in the zone of ongoing continental collision in eastern Turkey (supported in part by NSF).

  5. Structural and Morpho-Tectonic Features of the Golbasi-Turkoglu Segment of East Anatolian Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozsarac, V.; Tekin, B. M.; Kuterdem, N. K.

    2009-04-01

    East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ) is a 580km. long left lateral active strike slip fault and the width of deformation zone is approximately 30km. Six different fault segments with length varying between 50km to 145km. constitutes the EAFZ. Historical and instrumental earthquake data reveals that, Golbasi-Turoglu segment of EAFZ is seismically dormant since last 500 years and also this segment is accepted as a seismic gap on EAFZ which has a potential to pose a seismic risk on nearby settlement areas. This study aims to determine the main active faults in the study area and determination of fault associated land surfaces by using geographic information system tools (GIS), remote sensing analysis and field observations. The study is conducted in two phases. The initial phase can be defined as office work where extensive morphological analysis and data preparation were performed by using GIS software. The second and the last phase of the study consisted of extensive field surveys, data verification. In the first part of the study a 1/25.000 scaled digital elevation models and derived morphological maps and Landsat ETM and SPOT 5 PAN images were analyzed for the study area. Lineaments were also extracted from DEMs and satellite images and analyzed. Those analysis were correlated with field observations and Analgyph images of the fault zone. Main strike slip fault related landforms like alluvial fans, river offsets and landslides were determined from morphological analysis. As the result of this study The active faults of the study area were delineated and mapped. This data is also used in the site selection of trenches for paleoseismological studies. Further steps will be the paleoseismological studies which will put definite outcomes for the seismic hazard evaluation of this segment and nearby region. It is noteworthy that GIS and remote sensing applications in geology, especially in tectonics and geomorphology, proposes practical practical and valuable solutions in

  6. Imaging the conductivity anomalies at the vicinity of Ganos Fault, northwest Turkey by magnetotellurics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaş, Mustafa; Tank, Bülent; Özaydın, Sinan

    2016-04-01

    Audio-frequency magnetotelluric (AMT: 10400 Hz. - 1 Hz.) data were collected across Ganos Fault, near Mürefte, at the western part of North Anatolian Fault, Turkey. The twelve observation points were densely distributed to form a north - south aligned continuous profile that aims to reveal the electrical resisitivity structure to a depth of 1500 m. Ganos Fault is inactive since 1912 Mürefte Earthquake (Ms: 7.4) and acts as a locked segment with the potential to generate a significant event in the near future. Preliminary dimensionality analyses of the AMT data were performed by using three approaches; strike angle determination following Groom and Bailey decomposition (N70°E), phase tensor analyses (N70°E) and induction vectors (N60°E). All of these methods gave results that are in good agreement with present geological (N70°E) and seismological (N70°E) values. Following the dimensionality analyses, two- and three- dimensional numerical modeling routines were utilized to perform inverse modeling. The inversions were performed by different methods such as Rodi and Mackie, WinGLink, (2001) and Ogawa and Uchida, ABIC, (1996) for 2D and Siripunvaraporn et al., WSINV3DMT (2005) and Egbert and Kelbert, ModEM (2012) for 3D. All modeling attempts ended up with similar models suggesting that: (i) A significant low resistivity anomaly was detected just below the fault's trace representing the so-called "fault zone conductor" with 400 m width and 500 m depth, (ii) An asymmetric damage zone is present involving the fault's core concentrated to the south, (iii) A resistivity contrast between the two sides of the fault, representing a geological boundary between Eocene aged Keşan Formation in the north and Miocene aged Çengelli Formation in the south (iv) Opiholitic basement appears as a high resistivity block at a depth of 800 m.

  7. The contribution of Saharan dust in PM(10) concentration levels in Anatolian Peninsula of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kabatas, B; Unal, A; Pierce, R B; Kindap, T; Pozzoli, L

    2014-08-01

    Sahara-originated dust is the most significant natural source of particulate matter; however, this contribution is still unclear in the Eastern Mediterranean especially in Western Turkey, where significant industrial sources and metropolitan areas are located. The Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) is utilized to explore the possible effects of Saharan dust on high levels of PM10 measured in Turkey. RAQMS model is compared with 118-air quality stations distributed throughout Turkey (81 cities) for April 2008. MODIS aerosol product (MOD04 for Terra and MYD04 for Aqua) is used to see columnar aerosol loading of the atmosphere at 550 nm (Aerosol optical depth (AOD) values found to be between 0.6 and 0.8 during the episode). High-resolution vertical profiles of clouds and aerosols are provided from CALIOP, on board of CALISPO satellite. The results suggest a significant contribution of Sahara dust to high levels of PM10 in Turkey with RAQMS and in situ time series showing similar patterns. The two data sets are found to be in agreement with a correlation of 0.87.

  8. Understanding of the rheology of the structure on the NW-SE crosssection of the North Anatolian Fault Zone around İzmit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayın, Nurdan; Özer, Naşide; Ceylan, Savaş

    2016-04-01

    Anatolia is located on the Alp-Himalaya orogenic belt and consists of continental blocks which have historically different metamorphism and deformation. These blocks are separated by ophiolitic suture belts represented old oceanic crust and mantle. As a result of the continental collision of the Eurasian and African plates, the Anatolian plate is bounded by the dextral North Anatolian Fault Zone and the sinistral East Anatolian Fault Zone has been moving westward and simultaneously rotating counterclockwise since ~5 Ma. The North Anatolian Fault Zone splits into two branches bounding the different tectonic units of the Pontide, Armutlu-Ovacık and Sakarya Zones from north to south in the western part of 31E longitude of Northwestern Anatolia where is showing complex geological structures. The surface heat flow obtained from the temperature measurements in the shallow wells by different sources described to range from ~52 to ~60 mW m-2 , ~20 to ~36 mW m-2 and ~25 to ~35 mW m-2 in Istanbul-Zonguldak unit of Pontide Zone, Armutlu-Ovacık Zone and Sakarya Zone, respectively. The proportion of brittle to ductile behavior of the model is governed by the local crustal geotherm derived from surface heat flow measurements for these units. Temperature dependence of strain rate in the model is controlled by the creep equation.

  9. Genetic variation in Anatolian black pine (Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana. (Lamb.) Holmboe.) populations in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gülcü, Süleyman; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Nebi Bilir

    2016-03-01

    The present study was carried out in a progeny trial established by ten population of Anatolian black pine [Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe.] to estimate genetic variation, heritability, genetic gain and also genetic and phenotypic correlations among the characters based on 9th year results of tree height and branch characters in the trial. Average tree height was 112.7 cm in polled population, while average of branch characters were generally similar. The results of ANOVA showed statistically significant difference (0.05>p) among the population for characters. Family x population interaction was also found statistically significant. Variation among family was lower than that of within families for the characters. Family mean heritability (0.65 < h(f)²) was higher than individual heritability (0.42 < h(i)²) for the characters. Genetic variation among population showed low ratio in total variation, while it was very high among and within the families. It emphasized importance of individual selection in breeding programme. Phenotypic correlation was statistically significant between tree height and branch diameter only. It was also highest in genotypic correlation (r = 0.81).

  10. GPS-Constrained Microplate Kinematics and Plio-Pleistocene Tectonic Evolution of the North Anatolian Fault and North Aegean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatcher, W.

    2004-12-01

    Emerging evidence from Global Position System (GPS) survey measurements in the Aegean and elsewhere suggests that present-day active continental deformation occurs largely due to the relative motions of a small number of rigid blocks or microplates. However, it is not universally agreed whether the continental microplate description of the GPS data is superior to other proposed models, nor is it clear whether present-day movement patterns can be usefully extrapolated into the geologic past. Here I examine the known deformation history of the North Aegean over the past ~10 Ma and compare it with predictions based on the present-day microplate model. Agreement provides independent support for the GPS-based model and demonstrates its value in bettering our understanding of Aegean tectonics. If we knew nothing about late Cenozoic North Aegean tectonics and provisionally assumed the correctness of the Aegean microplate model of Nyst & Thatcher [2004 JGR], we would predict several features of the tectonic evolution that accord with geologic evidence. First, the North Aegean Sea would be created by extension due to SSW motion of the South Aegean and concomitant CW rotation of central Greece during the past 10 Ma. The same kinematic process would cause extension to be succeeded by strike-slip motion as the `ridge-transform-ridge' triple junction migrates WSW 24 km/Ma and the North Anatolian fault propagates into the region. The Plio-Pleistocene history of the North Aegean shows these same general features. Drilling and seismic imaging document the existence of young (< 10 Ma) and thick (up to 6 km) sedimentary sequences attributed to crustal extension by a factor of 3-4. Seismic profiling and bathymetric mapping show a mesh of roughly orthogonal faults with dip-slip offsets. Structural studies of sub-aerial exposures of these faults suggest an earlier episode of extension was followed by predominantly strike-slip motions. The plate kinematic reconstruction of late Cenozoic

  11. Investigating the Electrical Resistivity Structure at the Creeping Segment of the North Anatolian Fault near Ismetpasa by Wide-band Magnetotellurics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tank, Bülent; Kandemir, Özgür; Akbayram, Kenan; Kanar, Fatih; Öztay, Erkan; Rıza Kılıç, Ali; Bakar, Levent; Tok, Turgut; Çobankaya, Mehmet; Aylan, Eşref; Karabulut, Gamze; Paker, Ercan

    2016-04-01

    More than hundred wide-band (360 Hz - 2000 sec.) magnetotelluric (MT) observations were performed and were utilized to decipher the electrical resistivity structure in two- and three- dimensions along a 320 km, northwest - southeast aligned profile that cuts through the Gerede - Ismetpasa segment of the North Anatolian Fault. Even though Gerede - Ismetpasa region has accommodated 1944, Gerede (Mw=7.2) and 1951, Kursunlu (Mw=6.9) events, seismically, this segment is considered as a relatively quiet portion of the North Anatolian Fault and is well known with its creeping behavior (approx. 7.6 mm/yr). In this study the aim is to compare electrical resistivity structure with the creep information. Several modeling attempts targeting different depths and portions of the profile were made for imaging different problems. Preliminary three-dimensional models that were developed by WSINV3DMT suggest that; (i) There is significant and deep extending fault zone conductor that might be related with the creeping segment and (ii) In the deeper levels high and low conductivity interfaces are present in and around the fault region, which might be related to the North Anatolian Fault and seldom earthquake activity.

  12. Delineation of the North Anatolian Fault Within the Sapanca Lake and Correlation of Seismo-Turbidites With Major Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulen, L.; Demirbağ, E.; Cagatay, M. N.; Yıldırım, E.; Yalamaz, B.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic reflection studies have been carried out in the Sapanca Lake to delineate the geometry of the North Anatolian Fault. A total of 28 N-S and 2 E-W trending seismic profiles were obtained. The interpretation of seismic reflection profiles have revealed that the North Anatolian Fault Zone exhibits a pull-apart fault geometry within the Sapanca Lake and the active fault segments have been mapped. A bathymetry map of the Sapanca Lake is also generated and the maximum depth is determined to be 54 m. A systematic study of the sedimentological, physical and geochemical properties of three up to 75.7 cm long water-sediment interface cores located along depth transects ranging from 43 to 5.1.5 m water depth. The cores were analyzed using Geotek Multi Sensor Core Logger (MSCL) for physical properties, laser particle size analyzer for granulometry, TOC Analyzer for Total Organic Organic (TOC) and Total Inorganic carbon (TIC) analysis and Itrax-XRF Core Scanner for elemental analysis and digital X-RAY Radiography. The Sapanca Lake earthquake records are characterized by seismo-turbidites consisting of grey or dark grey coarse to fine sand and silty mud with a sharp basal and transitional upper boundaries. The units commonly show normal size grading with their basal parts showing high density and magnetic susceptibility and enrichment in one or more of elements, such as Si, Ca, Tİ, K, Rb, Zr and Fe, indicative of coarse detrial input. Based on radionuclide and radiocarbon analyses the seismo-turbidites are correlated with the 1999 İzmit and Düzce (Mw=7.4 and 7.2), 1967 Mudurnu (Mw= 6.8), and 1957 Abant (Mw= 7.1) Earthquakes. Additionally a prominent Cs137 peak was found in the Sapanca Lake sediment cores at a depth of 12 cm. indicating that a radioactive fallout occurred in the region as a result of the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in Ukraine.

  13. Seismicity and Crustal Anisotropy Beneath the Western Segment of the North Anatolian Fault: Results from a Dense Seismic Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkelli, N.; Teoman, U.; Altuncu Poyraz, S.; Cambaz, D.; Mutlu, A. K.; Kahraman, M.; Houseman, G. A.; Rost, S.; Thompson, D. A.; Cornwell, D. G.; Utkucu, M.; Gülen, L.

    2013-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is one of the major strike slip fault systems on Earth comparable to San Andreas Fault in some ways. Devastating earthquakes have occurred along this system causing major damage and casualties. In order to comprehensively investigate the shallow and deep crustal structure beneath the western segment of NAF, a temporary dense seismic network for North Anatolia (DANA) consisting of 73 broadband sensors was deployed in early May 2012 surrounding a rectangular grid of by 70 km and a nominal station spacing of 7 km with the aim of further enhancing the detection capability of this dense seismic array. This joint project involves researchers from University of Leeds, UK, Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI), and University of Sakarya and primarily focuses on upper crustal studies such as earthquake locations (especially micro-seismic activity), receiver functions, moment tensor inversions, shear wave splitting, and ambient noise correlations. To begin with, we obtained the hypocenter locations of local earthquakes that occured within the DANA network. The dense 2-D grid geometry considerably enhanced the earthquake detection capability which allowed us to precisely locate events with local magnitudes (Ml) less than 1.0. Accurate earthquake locations will eventually lead to high resolution images of the upper crustal structure beneath the northern and southern branches of NAF in Sakarya region. In order to put additional constraints on the active tectonics of the western part of NAF, we also determined fault plane solutions using Regional Moment Tensor Inversion (RMT) and P wave first motion methods. For the analysis of high quality fault plane solutions, data from KOERI and the DANA project were merged. Furthermore, with the aim of providing insights on crustal anisotropy, shear wave splitting parameters such as lag time and fast polarization direction were obtained for local events recorded

  14. Mineralogical, textural, geochemical and thermometric characteristics of Central Anatolian fluorites (Turkey): Tracing the origin of post-magmatic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosanay, Pelin; Mutlu, Halim; Koc, Sükrü; Cevik, Nihal; Oztürk, Ceyda; Varol, Ece

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we investigate the spatial distribution of fluorite veins in Central Anatolia with emphasis on mineralogical, textural, geochemical and thermometric variations. The studied fluorite mineralizations (Kaman, Akçakent, Pöhrenk and Şefaatli mineralizations from west to east) are located on northern part of Kırşehir Massif which is a part of Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex that is bordered by the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone. The Kaman, Akçakent and Şefaatli fluorite deposits are formed in association with magmatic rocks such as syenite and monzonite / monzodiorite in composition which are of Upper Cretaceous age. Fluorite in these deposits occurs as purple- and green-colored stockwork veins and/or disseminations along fault/fracture systems and is accompanied by quartz and rare pyrite. The Pöhrenk ore, however, is precipitated as space filling-breccia type within karstic voids of Eocene limestones and marl levels. The silicification/carbonatization and barite occurrences are found as the main alteration and secondary products of mineralization. Thickness of fluorite veins is between 2 and 30 cm. ΣREE contents of host rocks and fluorite veins are in the range of 2-806 ppm and 20-390 ppm, respectively. In element variation diagrams constructed for both host rocks and fluorite mineralizations, LREE concentrations are found to be greater than HREEs. REE contents of green-colored fluorites are about 10-fold higher than those of purple-colored ones. Negative Ce and Eu anomalies indicate high oxygen fugacity for the mineralizing fluids. Fluid inclusion studies indicated three different types of inclusions: 1) two-phase (liquid-vapor) primary and secondary inclusions, 2) single-phase (liquid) primary and secondary inclusions and 3) two-phase (liquid-vapor) and single-phase (liquid) pseudo-secondary inclusions. Results of homogenization temperatures from a number of about 200 measurements chiefly on fluorite and less often quartz and barite

  15. Petrology and geochemistry of late Cretaceous lamprophyric rocks from North Anatolian Ophiolitic Melange-Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülmez, Fatma; Genç, Can; Prelevic, Dejan

    2014-05-01

    The late Cretaceous lamprophyric rocks from Amasya and Kalecik region occur as dykes, stocks and lava flows intruding volcanoclastic sequence of North Anatolian Ophiolitic Melange. Their major and trace element compositions are very similar and it is not possible to discriminate them as two subgroups according to their geochemical features. The Al2O3 contents are variable, but relatively high (10.66-18.77 wt.%) typical for the ultrapotassic rocks from active orogenic belts. K2O contents (wt.% 1.22-8.39) are variable and Mg numbers (41-60) indicate that they were crystallized from evolved melts. LILE enrichments relative to HFSE, depletions of Nb-Ta and Ti elements are the characteristic features on N-MORB-normalized spider diagrams and this pattern represent the addition of subducted sediment/melt to the source area . The main mineralogic composition of samples from each two regions is clinopyroxene + mica ± feldspar ± olivine ± amphibole ± leucite + opaque minerals. The significant difference is the presence of plagioclase (An47-65) and K-feldspar as matrix in Amasya samples. Also some of the samples from Kalecik contain minor leucite. Based on the mineral paragenesis, Amasya lampropyres are classified as minette-vogesite and Kalecik samples are classified as kersantite-vogesite. Clinopyroxenes are mainly diopsite, salite and fassaitic in composition (Wo 45-50En 26-43 Fs 10-16) for the Kalecik region and displays diopsitic-salitic composition (Wo 44-48En 38-47 Fs 6-16) in Amasya region. The pressure-temperature calculations reveal significant differences for the lamprophyres from Amasya and Kalecik regions. The pressure conditions of the clinopyroxene crystallization for Amasya samples are between 16-24 kbar corresponds to 48-72 Km depth while the crystallization depth of the clinopyroxene from Kalecik lamprophyres is restricted between 12-36 Km. Although ultrapotassic rocks in Turkéy are the products of extension related volcanism in a post

  16. An epidemiological study in an Anatolian village in Turkey environmentally exposed to tremolite asbestos.

    PubMed

    Cöplü, L; Dumortier, P; Demir, A U; Selçuk, Z T; Kalyoncu, F; Kisacik, G; DeVuyst, P; Sahin, A A; Bariş, Y I

    1996-01-01

    After several cases of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) were detected in the village of Kureyşler in the Kütahya district of western Turkey, an epidemiological study was conducted. A questionnaire was completed by 124 villagers who were older than 20 years and standard posteroanterior chest X-rays were taken. The films were evaluated by three chest physicians. Samples of the white stucco that had been used by almost all villagers for indoor painting for many years were mineralogically examined. Chest X-rays showed that 23 (18%) had pleural plaques and calcifications compatible with asbestos exposure. Male sex and old age were associated with occurrence of pleural plaques. An analysis of white stucco samples revealed tremolite asbestos. In conclusion, tremolite fibers might be the cause of the high incidence of pleural plaques and MPM cases in the village of Kureyşler.

  17. Age of the North Anatolian Fault Segments in the Yalova with U/Th Dating Method by Travertine Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selim, Haluk; Ömer Taş, K.

    2016-04-01

    Travertine occurrences developed along the segments of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) in the south of Yalova. Travertines outcrop approximately 1 km2 area. These are middle-thick bedded approximately 20-40 m and back-tilted southward or horizontally. Lithology of travertines deposited such as physolite, stalactites-stalagmites, cave pearls, sharp pebble carbonate nodules, spherical-roller-intricate shapes or laminated banded travertine. Geochemical analyses were performed on the six samples of the travertines. X-ray analysis indicates that all samples are entirely composed of low-Mg calcite. Banded travertines with some tubular structures formed by precipitation from rising hot water are best developed near the toes of the large, hanging-wall-derived alluvial fans, whereas phreatic cement preferentially exists in footwall-derived, alluvial-fan conglomerates. The unit developed clarity which is controlled by normal fault as the structural and morphological, relationship with active tectonics. The travertines are a range-front type. U/Th series age dating results indicate that the travertine deposition extends back to 155 ka and yields ages of 60.000 (± 3, 091) to 153.149 (±13,466) from the range-front type travertines.

  18. Multi-phased uplift of the southern margin of the Central Anatolian plateau, Turkey: A record of tectonic and upper mantle processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildgen, T. F.; Cosentino, D.; Bookhagen, B.; Niedermann, S.; Yıldırım, C.; Echtler, H.; Wittmann, H.; Strecker, M. R.

    2012-02-01

    Uplifted Neogene marine sediments and Quaternary fluvial terraces in the Mut Basin, southern Turkey, reveal a detailed history of surface uplift along the southern margin of the Central Anatolian plateau from the Late Miocene to the present. New surface exposure ages (10Be, 26Al, and 21Ne) of gravels capping fluvial strath terraces located between 28 and 135 m above the Göksu River in the Mut Basin yield ages ranging from ca. 25 to 130 ka, corresponding to an average incision rate of 0.52 to 0.67 mm/yr. Published biostratigraphic data combined with new interpretations of the fossil assemblages from uplifted marine sediments reveal average uplift rates of 0.25 to 0.37 mm/yr since Late Miocene time (starting between 8 and 5.45 Ma), and 0.72 to 0.74 mm/yr after 1.66 to 1.62 Ma. Together with the terrace abandonment ages, the data imply 0.6 to 0.7 mm/yr uplift rates from 1.6 Ma to the present. The different post-Late Miocene and post-1.6 Ma uplift rates can imply increasing uplift rates through time, or multi-phased uplift with slow uplift or subsidence in between. Longitudinal profiles of rivers in the upper catchment of the Mut and Ermenek basins show no apparent lithologic or fault control on some knickpoints that occur at 1.2 to 1.5 km elevation, implying a transient response to a change in uplift rates. Projections of graded upper relict channel segments to the modern outlet, together with constraints from uplifted marine sediments, show that a slower incision/uplift rate of 0.1 to 0.2 mm/yr preceded the 0.7 mm/yr uplift rate. The river morphology and profile projections therefore reflect multi-phased uplift of the plateau margin, rather than steadily increasing uplift rates. Multi-phased uplift can be explained by lithospheric slab break-off and possibly also the arrival of the Eratosthenes Seamount at the collision zone south of Cyprus.

  19. Human Cutaneous Anthrax, the East Anatolian Region of Turkey 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Parlak, Emine; Parlak, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. While anthrax is rare in developed countries, it is endemic in Turkey. The names of the different forms of the disease refer to the manner of entry of the spores into the body-cutaneous, gastrointestinal, inhalation, and injection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics, epidemiological history, treatment, and outcomes of patients with anthrax. Eighty-two cases of anthrax hospitalized at Atatürk University Faculty of Medicine Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology in 2008-2014 were examined retrospectively. Gender, age, occupation, year, history, clinical characteristics, character of lesions, length of hospitalization, and outcomes were recorded. Thirty (36.6%) patients were female and 52 (63.4%) patients were male; ages were 18-69 and mean age was 43.77 ± 13.05. The mean incubation period was 4.79 ± 3.76 days. Cases were largely identified in August (41.5%) and September (25.6%). Sixty-nine (84.1%) of the 82 patients had been given antibiotics before presentation. Lesions were most common on the fingers and arms. The most common occupational groups were housewives (36.6%) and people working in animal husbandry (31.7%). All patients had histories of contact with diseased animals and animal products. Penicillin-group antibiotics (78%) were most commonly used in treatment. One patient (1.2%) died from anthrax meningitis. The mean length of hospitalization was 8.30 ± 5.36 days. Anthrax is an endemic disease of economic and social significance for the region. Effective public health control measures, risk group education, vaccination of animals, and decontamination procedures will reduce the number of cases. PMID:26720232

  20. Human Cutaneous Anthrax, the East Anatolian Region of Turkey 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Parlak, Emine; Parlak, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. While anthrax is rare in developed countries, it is endemic in Turkey. The names of the different forms of the disease refer to the manner of entry of the spores into the body-cutaneous, gastrointestinal, inhalation, and injection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics, epidemiological history, treatment, and outcomes of patients with anthrax. Eighty-two cases of anthrax hospitalized at Atatürk University Faculty of Medicine Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology in 2008-2014 were examined retrospectively. Gender, age, occupation, year, history, clinical characteristics, character of lesions, length of hospitalization, and outcomes were recorded. Thirty (36.6%) patients were female and 52 (63.4%) patients were male; ages were 18-69 and mean age was 43.77 ± 13.05. The mean incubation period was 4.79 ± 3.76 days. Cases were largely identified in August (41.5%) and September (25.6%). Sixty-nine (84.1%) of the 82 patients had been given antibiotics before presentation. Lesions were most common on the fingers and arms. The most common occupational groups were housewives (36.6%) and people working in animal husbandry (31.7%). All patients had histories of contact with diseased animals and animal products. Penicillin-group antibiotics (78%) were most commonly used in treatment. One patient (1.2%) died from anthrax meningitis. The mean length of hospitalization was 8.30 ± 5.36 days. Anthrax is an endemic disease of economic and social significance for the region. Effective public health control measures, risk group education, vaccination of animals, and decontamination procedures will reduce the number of cases.

  1. Geology and seismotectonics of the North-Anatolian Fault in the Sea of Marmara: implications for seismic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperini, Luca; Cedro, Vincenzo; Polonia, Alina; Cruise Party, Marmara

    2016-04-01

    Based on high-resolution multibeam and seismic reflection data recently collected and analysed in the frame of Marsite (New Directions in Seismic Hazard Assessment through Focused Earth Observation in the Marmara Supersite) EC FP7 Project, in conjunction with a large set of geophysical and geological data collected starting from 1999, we compiled a new morphotectonic map of the submerged part of the North-Anatolian Fault system (NAF) in the Sea of Marmara. Data analysis allowed us to recognize active fault segments and their activity at the scale of 10 ka, taking as stratigraphic reference the base of the latest marine ingression, which constitutes a clear marker in the sedimentary sequence of the Sea of Marmara. This is mainly due to the fact the Sea of Marmara was a fresh water lake during the Last Glacial Maximum, and switched to a marine environment when the global sea level reached to the -85 m relative to present day and crossed the Dardanelles sill during the transgression. The passage from lacustrine to marine environment is marked by a typical unconformity in high-resolution seismic profiles, which can be correlated over the entire Marmara basin. According to the average recurrence time for major earthquake along the NAF, the time interval of 10 ka should include several earthquake cycle and is representative of the seismotectonic behavior of the fault at geological time scales. Given the relatively high deformation rates relative to in relative to sediment supply, most active tectonic structures have a morphological expression at the seafloor. This allowed us to correlate deformations from a seismic section to the adjacent. Fault strands not affecting the Holocene sequence were considered inactive. Three types of deformation patterns were observed and classified: almost purely E-W oriented strike-slip segments; NE-SW oriented trans-pressional structures; NW-SE trending trans-tensional features. Segmentation of the so-called Main Marmara Fault in the Sea

  2. Deriving earthquake history of the Knidos Fault Zone, SW Turkey, using cosmogenic 36Cl surface exposure dating of the fault scarp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, Cengiz; Ersen Aksoy, Murat; Akif Sarikaya, Mehmet; Tuysuz, Okan; Genc, S. Can; Ertekin Doksanalti, Mustafa; Sahin, Sefa; Benedetti, Lucilla; Tesson, Jim; Aster Team

    2016-04-01

    Formation of bedrock fault scarps in extensional provinces is a result of large and successive earthquakes that ruptured the surface several times. Extraction of seismic history of such faults is critical to understand the recurrence intervals and the magnitude of paleo-earthquakes and to better constrain the regional seismic hazard. Knidos on the Datca Peninsula (SW Turkey) is one of the largest cities of the antique times and sits on a terraced hill slope formed by en-echelon W-SW oriented normal faults. The Datça Peninsula constitutes the southern boundary of the Gulf of Gökova, one of the largest grabens developed on the southernmost part of the Western Anatolian Extensional Province. Our investigation relies on cosmogenic 36Cl surface exposure dating of limestone faults scarps. This method is a powerful tool to reconstruct the seismic history of normal faults (e.g. Schlagenhauf et al 2010, Benedetti et al. 2013). We focus on one of the most prominent fault scarp (hereinafter Mezarlık Fault) of the Knidos fault zone cutting through the antique Knidos city. We collected 128 pieces of tablet size (10x20cm) 3-cm thick samples along the fault dip and opened 4 conventional paleoseismic trenches at the base of the fault scarp. Our 36Cl concentration profile indicates that 3 to 4 seismic events ruptured the Mezarlık Fault since Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The results from the paleoseismic trenching are also compatible with 36Cl results, indicating 3 or 4 seismic events that disturbed the colluvium deposited at the base of the scarp. Here we will present implications for the seismic history and the derived slip-rate of the Mezarlık Fault based on those results. This project is supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK, Grant number: 113Y436) and it was conducted with the Decision of the Council of Ministers with No. 2013/5387 on the date 30.09.2013 and was done with the permission of Knidos Presidency of excavation in

  3. No significant steady state surface creep along the North Anatolian Fault offshore Istanbul: Results of 6 months of seafloor acoustic ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakic, P.; Piété, H.; Ballu, V.; Royer, J.-Y.; Kopp, H.; Lange, D.; Petersen, F.; Özeren, M. S.; Ergintav, S.; Geli, L.; Henry, P.; Deschamps, A.

    2016-07-01

    The submarine Istanbul-Silivri fault segment, within 15 km of Istanbul, is the only portion of the North Anatolian Fault that has not ruptured in the last 250 years. We report first results of a seafloor acoustic ranging experiment to quantify current horizontal deformation along this segment and assess whether the segment is creeping aseismically or accumulating stress to be released in a future event. Ten transponders were installed to monitor length variations along 15 baselines. A joint least squares inversion for across-fault baseline changes, accounting for sound speed drift at each transponder, precludes fault displacement rates larger than a few millimeters per year during the 6 month observation period. Forward modeling shows that the data better fit a locked state or a very moderate surface creep—less than 6 mm/yr compared to a far-field slip rate of over 20 mm/yr—suggesting that the fault segment is currently accumulating stress.

  4. The surface rupture and slip distribution of the 17 August 1999 Izmit earthquake (M 7.4), North Anatolian fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barka, A.; Akyuz, H.S.; Altunel, E.; Sunal, G.; Cakir, Z.; Dikbas, A.; Yerli, B.; Armijo, R.; Meyer, B.; De Chabalier, J. B.; Rockwell, Thomas; Dolan, J.R.; Hartleb, R.; Dawson, Tim; Christofferson, S.; Tucker, A.; Fumal, T.; Langridge, Rob; Stenner, H.; Lettis, William; Bachhuber, J.; Page, W.

    2002-01-01

    The 17 August 1999 İzmit earthquake occurred on the northern strand of the North Anatolian fault zone. The earthquake is associated with a 145-km-long surface rupture that extends from southwest of Düzce in the east to west of Hersek delta in the west. Detailed mapping of the surface rupture shows that it consists of five segments separated by releasing step-overs; herein named the Hersek, Karamürsel-Gölcük, İzmit-Sapanca Lake, Sapanca-Akyazi, and Karadere segments from west to east, respectively. The Hersek segment, which cuts the tip of a large delta plain in the western end of the rupture zone, has an orientation of N80°. The N70°-80°E-trending Karamürsel-Gölcük segment extends along the linear southern coasts of the İzmit Gulf between Karamürsel and Gölcük and produced the 470-cm maximum displacement in Gölcük. The northwest-southeast-striking Gölcük normal fault between the Karamürsel-Gölcük and İzmit-Sapanca segments has 2.3-m maximum vertical displacement. The maximum dextral offset along the İzmit-Sapanca Lake segment was measured to be about 3.5 m, and its trend varies between N80°E and east-west. The Sapanca-Akyazi segment trends N75°-85°W and expresses a maximum displacement of 5.2 m. The Karadere segment trends N65°E and produced up to 1.5-m maximum displacement. The Karadere and Sapanca-Akyazi segments form fan-shape or splaying ruptures near their eastern ends where the displacement also diminished.

  5. PCR detection of Shiga toxins, enterohaemolysin and intimin virulence genes of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains isolated from faeces of Anatolian water buffaloes in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Seker, E; Kuyucuoğlu, Y; Sareyyüpoğlu, B; Yardımcı, H

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to detect Shiga toxins (stx1 and stx2), enterohaemolysin (EhlyA) and intimin (eaeA) virulence genes of 11 Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains isolated from faecal samples of 300 clinically healthy Anatolian water buffaloes by PCR. Multiplex PCR was used for the detection of stx1 and stx2, and singleplex PCRs were used for the detection of EhlyA and eaeA virulence genes respectively. A total of three (27.3%) strains were determined to harbour both of the stx1 and stx2 genes, of these, one (9.1%) only harboured these two genes alone, one (9.1%) also contained the EhlyA gene and one (9.1%) additionally contained the EhlyA and the eaeA genes. EhlyA gene was obtained from eight (72.7%) strains, six (54.5%) of these were alone. eaeA gene was positive in only one (9.1%) strain. Only one (9.1%) of the 11 E. coli O157:H7 strains harboured all the four virulence genes. Two (18.2%) of the isolates had none of the virulence genes. Enterohaemolysin was found to be the most common virulence factor. In conclusion, the virulence factors of E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from the faeces of Anatolian water buffaloes were investigated and detected for the first time in Turkey.

  6. Landslide displacement measurements from Optical Satellite Images: A Case Study on the North Anatolian Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turk, Tarik; Gorum, Tolga; Birdal, Anil Can; Tatar, Orhan

    2015-04-01

    Several geodetic and remote sensing methods are used to monitor the movements due to the tectonic and geomorphic processes and the assessment of associated hazards. Recent advances in image-correlation techniques and high resolution satellite imaging at meter resolution offer the possibility to measure surface displacements with sub-metric accuracy. Moreover, this methods enables an accurate mapping of the surface displacements, and vector visualization of the horizontal movements over a period through establishing correlation among the different dated satellite images belonging to the same area. This study analyzes the displacement pattern of the earth flows using sub-pixel image correlation techniques along the tectonic Kelkit Valley, Central Anatolia, Turkey. In this study, we used Co-Registration of Optically Sensed Images and Correlation (Cosi-Corr) to measure the horizontal surface displacement of landslides from SPOT-5 images. The significance of the horizontal displacement results was verified through fieldwork studies. The landslide displacement vectors obtained from SPOT 5 (2.5 meter resolution) optical satellite images on 11 August 2006 and 21 September 2011 indicate that many of the old landslides reactivated in the study area. It was determined that such reactivation occurred due to the secondary slides developed inside the main body of the old landslides, especially in their accumulation sections. The horizontal displacement values in the accumulation sections of the old landslides vary between 4.9 and -7.7 meters in the North-South direction and between 8.2 and -5 meters in the East-West direction. The maximum displacement values were observed in the eastern hill-slopes. The results show that the Cosi-Corr technique provides important contributions in the determination of the landslide movements especially with very slow, slow to moderate slip velocities and their deformation quantities and patterns. Acknowledgements This research was financially

  7. Undersea acoustic telemetry across the North Anatolian Fault, Marmara Sea: results from the first 6 months of monitoring of the fault displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, J. Y.; Deschamps, A.; Piete, H.; Sakic, P.; Ballu, V.; Apprioual, R.; Kopp, H.; Lange, D.; Ruffine, L.; Géli, L.

    2015-12-01

    Located in the Marmara Sea, the Istanbul-Silivri segment of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is known to be a seismic gap since 1766, although, in the last century, the NAF has caused major devastating earthquakes over most of its extent. This fault segment, void of seismicity, may be either creeping aseismically or blocked and accumulating enough strain to produce an earthquake of magnitude 7 or greater. This section of the NAF may thus represent a major seismic and tsunamigenic hazard for the Istanbul megalopolis, located only 40 km away. The objective of the MARSITE project, funded by the European Union and coordinated by the Observatory of the University of Kandilli (KOERI), is to determine the blocking state of the Istanbul-Silivri fault segment. In this context, an array of 10 acoustic transponders has been deployed on either sides of the fault, in the eastern part of the Kumburgaz Basin, to measure the displacements of the fault over a period of 3 to 5 years. The telemetric beacons (4 from the University of Brest and 6 from the GEOMAR Institute in Kiel) form two arrays fitted in one another. The principle of the experiment is to repeatedly measure the distance (ie two-way-travel time of acoustic pings) between pairs of beacons and thus to monitor the deformation of an array of 9 baselines, 500m to 3000m long, of which 5 cross obliquely the assumed fault trace. The French and German arrays are independent but ensure a redundancy of rangings along common baselines. Each acoustic transponder also monitors the temperature, pressure, sound-velocity and attitude (tiltmeters), every one or two hours. Data are stored in each beacon and can be downloaded from the surface using an acoustic modem. We present here the first 6 months of recording by the French array, from November 1st, 2014 to April 25, 2015. All acoustic transponders worked nominally for 6 months and appear to have remained stable on the seafloor. Recorded sea-bottom temperatures provide evidence for

  8. Uplift of the southern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau (Turkey): A record of tectonic and upper mantle processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildgen, T. F.; Cosentino, D.; Bookhagen, B.; Echtler, H.; Rojay, B.; Strecker, M. R.; Yildirim, C.

    2012-04-01

    Deciphering the geodynamic mechanisms of topographic development is often thwarted by low-resolution paleotopographic reconstructions, poor constraints on deep earth processes, and limited integration of other evidence for geodynamic processes such as modes of structural deformation. The Mediterranean Basin offers particular challenges, as the complex tectonic plate boundaries and lithospheric slab geometries have changed substantially throughout the Cenozoic. The southern margin of the Central Anatolian plateau fortunately provides a rich record of geomorphologic, stratigraphic, and structural evidence for the timing, pattern, and mode of surface uplift. Combined with recently published tomography, the plateau margin provides detailed evidence of how tectonic and lithopheric slab processes have contributed to topographic growth through time. We use detailed biostratigraphic analyses of uplifted marine sediments, interpretations of transient river profiles, and cosmogenic nuclide dating of fluvial strath terraces in the Mut Basin and adjacent areas to decipher the uplift history along the 2- to 3-km high southern margin of the plateau. Uplifted marine sediments reveal that surface uplift rates of 0.1 to 0.3 mm/yr throughout the plateau margin started between ~7 and 5.5 Ma, followed by a phase of faster uplift (0.7 mm/yr) in the Mut Basin starting at 1.6 Ma. These faster uplift rates may have continued to modern times, as average river incision rates of 0.52 to 0.66 mm/yr along the Göksu River in the Mut Basin have occurred from ca. 130 ka to today. Transient river profiles in the region support the onset of a sudden increase in uplift rates, with quantitative interpretations of the river profiles reflecting an uplift history that is broadly consistent with the constraints from the uplifted marine sediments. Interestingly, the onset of uplift is generally coeval with a change from contractional to extensional deformation throughout the region, which appears to rule

  9. The Van Fault, Eastern Turkey: A Preliminary Geological Slip Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackenzie, D.; Elliott, J. R.; Altunel, E.; Kurban, Y.; Walker, R. T.; Parsons, B.

    2014-12-01

    We present a preliminary quaternary slip-rate study on the Van fault, the source of the 2011 Mw7.1 reverse-slip earthquake which caused heavy damage to the cities of Van and Ercis, eastern Turkey. From the InSAR solution, we see a strong depth cut-off at 10km depth, above which there was no slip on the fault. We have carried out an investigation of the geomorphological expression of the fault in quaternary material, to determine whether the fault reaches the surface and, if so, whether this upper section could fail in an earthquake. On the western segment of the Van fault, we observe quaternary scarps coincident with the surface projection of the fault segment identified by InSAR, which displace quaternary alluvial fan and lake-bed deposits. These are coincident with the observation of fault gouge in quaternary deposits at a road cutting, providing evidence for a fault reaching the surface and suggesting that the upper section is capable of rupturing seismically. We use structure-from-motion photogrammetry, differential GPS and terrestrial LiDAR to determine offsets on two generations of fault scarps, and the creep offsets from the period following the earthquake. Preliminary radiocarbon and OSL dates from two uplifted terrace surfaces allow us to estimate a late quaternary geological slip-rate for the fault. Following the GPS and InSAR solution of Dogan et al. 2014 (GRL v41,i7), we also present field evidence and satellite image observations confirming the presence of a splay fault within the northern suburbs of Van city, which experienced creep following the 2011 earthquake. This fault is observed to be particularly evident in the early high resolution satellite imagery from the declassified CORONA missions, highlighting the potential for these datasets in identifying faults in areas now covered by urban sprawl. It remains unclear whether this fault could fail seismically. The fault which failed in 2011 is a north dipping reverse fault, unmapped prior to the

  10. Rupture History of the 1944 Bolu-Gerede Segment of the North Anatolian Fault: Gerede-Ardicli Trench Re-excavated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, K.; Awata, Y.; Duman, T. Y.; Tokay, F.; Kuscu, I.; Kondo, H.

    2002-12-01

    Though the intensive research on the North Anatolian fault after the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake brought a lot of information on the present and past activity of the fault, our knowledge about the rupture history and the past slips along the entire length of the North Anatolian fault is still very limited. More precise data on the timing and amount of past slips along the fault is indispensable to understand the fault behavior in the past and in the future. The Aridicli trench site, 15 km east of Gerede, is one of the most promising sites for this investigation, for abundant datable material and for ideal sedimentation history to record recent earthquakes. Okumura et al. (1990, 1993) opened a trench here in 1990 and concluded 8 earthquake events in 2000 years. However, the conclusion depended mostly on indirect evidence of coseismic deformation along the fault because few master fault strands repeatedly ruptured in pure strike-slip condition and dating was not enough. The Gerede 2002 trench was opened about 18 m east of the 1990 trench, cutting into a 10 m by 10 m light-toned area on an aerial photography. The light-toned area turned out to be a small pressure ridge or dome associated with an a-few-meter-wide restraining jog of the fault. The north side of the fault in the 3-metere-deep trench consists of an anticline of ca. 1000 B.P. to 2000 B.P. lacustrine deposits underlain by 1000 B.P. and younger flood and marsh deposits. Two distinct levels of overlap indicate the timing of events that accompanied the growth of the anticline. The south side of the faults consists of 0 to ca. 1000 B.P. flood and marsh deposits. A basement of a brick kiln is cutting into the deposits and tilted conformably with the dip of the sedimentary units. Steeply north dipping oblique-reverse faults bifurcates from vertical master fault zone. There are three discrete levels of upper terminations of these subsidiary faults, beside the flower structure at the top of the master fault. These four

  11. Traditional Tar Production from the Anatolian Black Pine [Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe var. pallasiana] and its usages in Afyonkarahisar, Central Western Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tar is one example of a plant product used in folk medicine and it is obtained from Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe, which is very common in the West Anatolian Region. Old trees that are good for kindling and have thick trucks are preferred to obtain tar. Tar is used not only as traditional medicine but also for protection against both endoparasites and ectoparasites. The objective of this study was to record the traditional method of obtaining tar and its usages in Afyonkarahisar which is located in the Western Anatolian Region of Turkey. Methods In order to record the traditional methods of obtaining tar, we visited the villages of Doğlat, Kürtyurdu and Çatağıl in Afyonkarahisar (Turkey) June-July, 2012. Ethnobotanical data about the method of collection and traditional usages of tar were obtained through informal interviews with 26 participants (16 men and 10 women). Data concerning the method of tar collection and its traditional usages were recorded and photographed. Results The traditional method for obtaining tar from Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana by local people was recorded and the local usages (curing ear pain in children, osteomyelitis, wounds, ulcers, eczema, acne, alopecia, fungus, foot-and-mouth disease in animals, mouth sores in sheep and goats, protection against endo- and ectoparasites, repellent for snakes, mice, flies (Tabanus bovinus) and ticks, and the prevention of water leakage from roofs) of tar are described. Conclusion In this study, the traditional method for obtaining tar and the traditional usages of tar are explained. Documentation of the method of obtaining tar and its traditional usages may contribute to scientific research on the benefits and usages of tar in medicine, veterinary medicine, as well as other fields. PMID:24673846

  12. The Sea of Marmara, within the submerged section of the North Anatolian Fault : an unique site to study the relations between fluid seepage and seismic activity using seafloor observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geli, L. B.; Henry, P.; Cagatay, M.; Tryon, M. D.; Gasperini, L.

    2009-12-01

    ) Several sites expel fluids originating from below the base of the syntectonic sediments. The fluid chemistry at these sites could be influenced by earthquakes and the earthquake cycle. The Sea of Marmara is thus an unique site to study the relations between fluid seepage and earthquake activity using seafloor observatories. REFERENCES Armijo R, et al (2005). Submarine fault scarps in the Sea of Marmara pull-apart (North Anatolian Fault): implicationsfor seismic hazard in Istanbul, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 6, 1-29. Bourry, C., et al, (2009). Free gas and gas hydrates from the Sea of Marmara, Turkey: Chemical and structural characterization. Chemical Geology, doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2009.03.007 Burnard, P., et al., 2008. Fluid Sources on the North Anatolian Fault in the Sea of Marmara From He Isotope Measurements, Eos Trans. AGU, 89(53), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract U53A-0069

  13. Preliminary results on the tectonic activity of the Ovacık Fault (Malatya-Ovacık Fault Zone, Turkey): Implications of the morphometric analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazıcı, Müge; Zabci, Cengiz; Sançar, Taylan; Sunal, Gürsel; Natalin, Boris A.

    2016-04-01

    , are mostly seen at the NE part of the study region. We observe several knick points along the longitudinal channel profiles that mostly fits to the surface trace of the OF. The existence of multiple knick points along the same channel profiles on the southwestern sections of the fault are interpreted to be the result of multiple parallel/sub-parallel branches of the OF in this region. The integrated preliminary results of all applied methods indicate the evidence of a stronger deformation at the northeastern part of the OF, in addition to the OB section. The deformation significantly diffuses to the southwest of the OB, where the main fault bifurcates into several branches. In order to explain the distribution of the deformation style along the OF, we suggest three hypotheses: (a) the OF is confined within a very narrow zone in its most northeastern parts, and the total strain is distributed at its southwestern section (especially to the southwest of the OB), (b) The high asymmetric values, calculated at the northeastern OF, are mainly affected by another major tectonic structure, the North Anatolian Shear Zone, at this region or (c) the combined effect of these two settings. Our further studies, which will include the analyzing the lithological properties of drainage basins, detailed fault mapping, and understanding the cumulative horizontal slip by constructing and comparing the pseudo-palaeotopography at both sides of the fault, are going to provide more detailed information on the activity and the style of deformation along the OF. This study is supported by TÜBİTAK project no. 114Y227. References -AFAD, 2013, Son 48 saatte 48 deprem (48 earthquakes at the last 48 hours) http://www.afad.gov.tr/TR/HaberDetay.aspx?IcerikID=1511&ID=12, Volume 2013. -Aktuǧ, B., Dikmen, Ü., Doǧru, A., and Özener, H., 2013, Seismicity and strain accumulation around Karliova Triple Junction (Turkey): Journal of Geodynamics, v. 67, no. 0, p. 21-29. -Şengör, A. M. C., Görür, N

  14. The Assessment of Microclimate Change due to the Construction of a Small Dam in the Southern Anatolian Irrigation Project Region of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Elcin; Onol, Baris; Acar, Merve; Biyik, Gokay; Unal, Yurdanur S.

    2013-04-01

    The main purpose of this research is to provide information on the change of temperature and humidity fields after the development of a new reservoir in the southeastern part of Turkey. It is believed that pistachio and pomegranates production rate might decrease due to a change of the microclimate of the Southern Anatolian Irrigation Project Region (GAP) with an inclusion of a large water volume. Since temperature and humidity are the significant meteorological variables for growing of these products, their change with the inclusion of the reservoir is analyzed using the WRF model. Two summer years, 2000 and 2002, are studied to indicate the importance of warm and cold summer years, respectively. NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis dataset is used for setting up initial and boundary conditions for 27 km, 9km, 3km, and 1km nested domains. 1 km resolution run is performed using ndown option of the WRF Model for 4 months of these two years, from June to October. 5 different microphysics, atmospheric boundary layer, cumulus, and land use parameterization scheme combinations are analyzed to decide on the appropriate physics scheme combination in order to reduce the biases occurred due to steep topography of this domain of interest. After this decision, the WRF model is performed for both control case, i.e., without the inclusion of any water bodies; and wet case, i.e. with the inclusion of a water body. The preliminary results show that the difference between wet and control cases is about 1°C for 2m temperature; whereas 2m relative humidity change is about 3% from the monthly averages of the 4 months. Therefore, these results may indicate that the production of pistachio and pomegranates may not be affected from the inclusion of a reservoir to the southeastern part of Turkey.

  15. Dextral strike-slip along the Kapıdağ shear zone (NW Turkey): evidence for Eocene westward translation of the Anatolian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türkoğlu, Ercan; Zulauf, Gernold; Linckens, Jolien; Ustaömer, Timur

    2016-07-01

    The northern part of the Kapıdağ Peninsula (Marmara Sea, NW Turkey) is affected by the E-W trending Kapıdağ shear zone, which cuts through calc-alkaline granitoids of the Ocaklar pluton resulting in mylonitic orthogneiss. Macroscopic and microscopic shear-sense indicators, such as SC fabrics, shear bands, σ-clasts and mica fish, unequivocally suggest dextral strike-slip for the Kapıdağ shear zone. Based on petrographic data, deformation microfabrics of quartz and feldspar, and the slip systems in quartz, the dextral shearing should have been active at T = 500-300 °C and P < 5 kbar. Published K-Ar and 39Ar-40Ar cooling ages of hornblende and biotite suggest that cooling below 500-300 °C occurred during the Eocene (ca. 45-ca. 35 Ma), meaning that the Kapıdağ shear zone should have been active during Middle to Late Eocene times. The differential stress related to the shearing was <50 MPa as is indicated by the size of recrystallized quartz grains. Based on the new and published data, it is concluded that the westward movement of the Anatolian plate might have been active almost continuously from the Middle Eocene until recent times.

  16. Dextral strike-slip along the Kapıdağ shear zone (NW Turkey): evidence for Eocene westward translation of the Anatolian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türkoğlu, Ercan; Zulauf, Gernold; Linckens, Jolien; Ustaömer, Timur

    2016-10-01

    The northern part of the Kapıdağ Peninsula (Marmara Sea, NW Turkey) is affected by the E-W trending Kapıdağ shear zone, which cuts through calc-alkaline granitoids of the Ocaklar pluton resulting in mylonitic orthogneiss. Macroscopic and microscopic shear-sense indicators, such as SC fabrics, shear bands, σ-clasts and mica fish, unequivocally suggest dextral strike-slip for the Kapıdağ shear zone. Based on petrographic data, deformation microfabrics of quartz and feldspar, and the slip systems in quartz, the dextral shearing should have been active at T = 500-300 °C and P < 5 kbar. Published K-Ar and 39Ar-40Ar cooling ages of hornblende and biotite suggest that cooling below 500-300 °C occurred during the Eocene (ca. 45-ca. 35 Ma), meaning that the Kapıdağ shear zone should have been active during Middle to Late Eocene times. The differential stress related to the shearing was <50 MPa as is indicated by the size of recrystallized quartz grains. Based on the new and published data, it is concluded that the westward movement of the Anatolian plate might have been active almost continuously from the Middle Eocene until recent times.

  17. Preliminary results on the tectonic activity of the Ovacık Fault (Malatya-Ovacık Fault Zone, Turkey): Implications of the morphometric analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazıcı, Müge; Zabci, Cengiz; Sançar, Taylan; Sunal, Gürsel; Natalin, Boris A.

    2016-04-01

    , are mostly seen at the NE part of the study region. We observe several knick points along the longitudinal channel profiles that mostly fits to the surface trace of the OF. The existence of multiple knick points along the same channel profiles on the southwestern sections of the fault are interpreted to be the result of multiple parallel/sub-parallel branches of the OF in this region. The integrated preliminary results of all applied methods indicate the evidence of a stronger deformation at the northeastern part of the OF, in addition to the OB section. The deformation significantly diffuses to the southwest of the OB, where the main fault bifurcates into several branches. In order to explain the distribution of the deformation style along the OF, we suggest three hypotheses: (a) the OF is confined within a very narrow zone in its most northeastern parts, and the total strain is distributed at its southwestern section (especially to the southwest of the OB), (b) The high asymmetric values, calculated at the northeastern OF, are mainly affected by another major tectonic structure, the North Anatolian Shear Zone, at this region or (c) the combined effect of these two settings. Our further studies, which will include the analyzing the lithological properties of drainage basins, detailed fault mapping, and understanding the cumulative horizontal slip by constructing and comparing the pseudo-palaeotopography at both sides of the fault, are going to provide more detailed information on the activity and the style of deformation along the OF. This study is supported by TÜBİTAK project no. 114Y227. References -AFAD, 2013, Son 48 saatte 48 deprem (48 earthquakes at the last 48 hours) http://www.afad.gov.tr/TR/HaberDetay.aspx?IcerikID=1511&ID=12, Volume 2013. -Aktuǧ, B., Dikmen, Ü., Doǧru, A., and Özener, H., 2013, Seismicity and strain accumulation around Karliova Triple Junction (Turkey): Journal of Geodynamics, v. 67, no. 0, p. 21-29. -Şengör, A. M. C., Görür, N

  18. Micro-seismicity of the submerged section of the North-Anatolian Fault within the Sea of Marmara : results from Ocean Bottom Seismometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tary, J.; Bardainne, T.; Geli, L.; Henry, P.; Yilmazer, M.; Tryon, M.; Natalin, B.; Cagatay, N.; Burnard, P.; Bourlange, S.

    2008-12-01

    Four Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) were deployed for 2,5 months in the Tekirdag Basin (eastern Sea of Marmara), within the submerged section of the North Anatolian Fault. Seismological data from land stations deployed onshore by the Kandilli Earthquake Observatory (KOERI) were also used to improve the determination of the earthquake characteristics. The OBS array was centered a cold seep site located within the fault zone, which was extensively explored with submersibles, ROV in 2002 and Nautile in 2007. Near the cold seep, one piezometer and 3 flowmeters were also deployed. During the 10-weeks long deployment, the OBSs recorded a total of about 150 events from below the basin and the immediately adjacent submarine areas, while only about 50 events were recorded by the land stations. The data thus confirm previous experiments in the Marmara Sea showing the efficiency of seabottom instruments to lower the detection threshold compared to land stations. The recorded events are distributed in two groups. The first is a cluster of events located below the Western Ridge, below a zone where gas and oil seeps originating from Thrace Basin source rocks where found at the seafloor. Events of the second group are located deep in the crust and aligned along a NNE direction crossing the northern escarpment of the Tekirdag Basin. Visual observations with Nautile show that gas emissions occur through NNE oriented tensile cracks nearthe base of this escarpment. The seismological data thus suggests these cracks are the surface expression of a deep seated active fault.

  19. Interactions between Eurasian/African and Arabian plates: Eskişehir Fault, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özden, Süha; Gündoğdu, Erdem; Bekler, Tolga

    2015-11-01

    The Eskişehir Fault is an active right-lateral widespread intra-continental deformation zone which separates central western Anatolia from the Aegean domain. The inversion of fault slip vectors along the Eskişehir Fault yields a strike-slip stress state with NW-trending σHmax (σ1) and NE-trending σHmin (σ3) axes since the Early Pliocene. A change in strike-slip faulting under a compressional stress regime: from old transpression to young transtension, probably occurred in the Quaternary. The inversion of the earthquake source mechanism indicates that the transtensional stress regime continues up to the present. The İnönü and Eskişehir Basins developed under the transtensional stress regime producing consistent and local normal faulting with a continuing NE-trending σHmin (σ3). The stress regime change resulted in a decrease in σHmax (σ1) and/or an increase in σHmin (σ3) stress magnitudes due to coeval influence of the superimposed plate forces and the interaction of three plates (Eurasian/African/Arabian): (1) continental collision of Eurasian/Arabian plates with Anatolian block in the east, (2) westward escape of the Anatolian block by anticlockwise rotation at the west-southwest border of the Eurasian and Arabian/African plates and (3) a complex subduction process between African and Eurasian plates along the Aegean (Hellenic) and the Cyprus arcs which favors western extrusion of the Anatolian block in the eastern Mediterranean region.

  20. West Anatolian Transfer Zone: 3D Model of Southwest Turkey Reveals Role of Slab Edge in Continental Extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessner, K.; Gallardo, L. A.; Markwitz, V.

    2011-12-01

    Western Anatolia and the Aegean Sea region share some of their geological history but also show significant variations. The Menderes Massif represents the deepest tectonic unit of the Tethyan orogen in western Turkey, an Eocene to Oligicene nappe stack including Precambrian and Phanerozoic tectonic units. At a similar tectonic position in the Aegean we find the External Hellenides, a Mesozoic meta-sedimetary sequence. This change in structural evolution along strike of the Alpine orogen requires the existence of a structure at depth that separates the Aegean and Anatolia. Here we present a three-dimensional structural model of southwest Turkey to show that a N-trending lithosphere discontinuity forced the formation of a sinistral wrench zone, and separated Anatolia from the Aegean since the Miocene. While this discontinuity does not represent an obvious feature in the crustal architecture, it can be inferred from gravity anomaly models, seismic tomography data, the distribution of Miocene to Recent hydrothermal fluid flow systems, the location of earthquakes, and the age and chemistry of igneous rocks. We argue that - following Alpine crustal shortening - the wrench zone stretched, exhumed, denuded and fragmented one of Earth's larest metamorphic core complexes, the Menderes Massif, in a kinematic framework that is consistent with an edge in the slab, and partial removal of the lithosphere. Our model addresses some of the open questions in the geology of the Eastern Mediterranean, and also provides a hypothesis on how lithosphere discontinuities that are not at the scale of plate boundaries can control structural evolution in the crust, particularly in backarcs.

  1. New Paleoseismological Finding on the Yenice Gönen Fault; Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kürçer, Akın; Özalp, Selim; Özdemir, Ersin; Sönmez, Özgül; Duman, Tamer Y.

    2014-05-01

    The North Anatolian Fault System (NAFS) is one of the major intra-continental transform faults in the Eastern Mediterranean region. It is an active dextral strike-slip fault zone extends more than 1500 km-long forming northern boundary of the Anatolian microplate. East of Marmara Sea it divides into the northern and southern strands running towards the northern Aegean sea. The southern strand of the NAFS is consists of several fault segments, which trend NE-SW in the Biga Peninsula. Yenice-Gönen Fault (YGF) is one of the main fault segment of the NAFS in Biga Peninsula. It is about 70 km long and generated destructive earthquake (Mw=7.2) of 18th March, 1953. In this study, paleoseismological investigations were performed on the YGF. It is composed of fault sections separated from each other by releasing and/or restraining bends or step-overs. The lengths of the fault sections vary from 5 to 19 km. The whole length of the YGF ruptured with maximum dextral slip of 4.0 m measured on the surface rupture nearby Yenice Town. The amount of slips decrees both NE and SW from Yenice town indicating bilateral rupture propagation. There is no clear consistency between the previously suggested epicentre location and the slip distributions. According to the slip observations, the epicentre of the 1953 event locates to the near east of the Yenice. In order to understand paleoseismic history of the YGF, three cross trenches were excavated on the 1953 surface rupture. Two of them are on the distal part of an alluvial fan at Seyvan village and one of them is on the flood plain of the Yenice River at Çakır village. 1953 surface rupture is characterized by an evident of linear fresh fault scarp around Seyvan. Fault scarps are obvious with an uplifted of 1.2 m southern block. Dextral slip of 2.5 meter associated with the last event was measured along the rupture near the Seyvan trench site. Although active river erosion, the rupture trace can be easily followed in the field at the

  2. Deformation history of the Ballik travertine (Denizli, SW Turkey): a matter of normal faulting and fault reactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Noten, Koen; Topal, Savaş; Oruç Baykara, M.; Özkul, Mehmet; Swennen, Rudy

    2015-04-01

    The Ballık travertine mass is the largest Pleistocene travertine precipitation site in the world. It developed along the basin margin faults of the eastern part of the NW-SE oriented Denizli Graben-Horst System (DGHS), one of the large extensional basins in SW Turkey. Travertine formed from hot basinal carbonate-precipitating fluids that resurfaced along an already existing fault-fracture network affecting the uplifted margin. Analysis of faults affecting a 2 km-long, complex travertine domal structure at the base of this margin revealed that many of the normal faults affecting the travertine are reactivated as sinistral strike-slip faults during the Pleistocene. Remarkably, except for the Ballık area, Quaternary strike-slip faulting has nowhere else been observed in the Denizli Basin and is rather exceptional in extensional basins. With the aim of understanding the consistency of fault reactivation, we present a new tectonic analysis of the NE Denizli margin flank to derive a new reactivation kinematic model. Fault-slip data and paleostress inversion shows that a WNW-ESE oriented, graben-facing fault network was installed during a long-lived phase of NNE-SSW extension in the Pleistocene. Normal faulting was hereby accompanied by blocktilting, backtilting of the hanging walls, fault infill, secondary cement infill and extensional fracturing. Whereas the travertine in the upper part of the margin is only affected by extension, normal faults in the middle and lower parts of the margin show numerous overprinting strike-slip reactivation kinematics. Inversion of fault-slip data suggests that after the initiation of the normal fault network, reactivation was related to NW-SE extension, i.e. an opening direction oriented more or less perpendicular to the opening of this part of the Denizli Basin. This extension is related to the activity of nearby NE-SW-trending basin-bounding margin faults adjacent to the Ballık travertine. The travertine fault network in the middle

  3. Tectonic geomorphology of a large normal fault: Akşehir fault, SW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topal, Savaş; Keller, Edward; Bufe, Aaron; Koçyiğit, Ali

    2016-04-01

    In order to better understand the activity of the Akşehir normal fault in SW Turkey and the associated seismic hazard, we investigated the tectonic geomorphology of a 60-km stretch of the 100-km-long Akşehir fault block. The fault can be separated into seven geomorphic segments (1 to 7 from NW to SE) along the mountain front. Segment length varies from about 9 to 14 km, and relief of the horst block varies from about 0.6 km in the SE to 1.0 km in the NW. Analysis of the tectonic geomorphology of 32 drainage basins and mountain front facets using a combination of geomorphic indices reveals a general pattern of high slip rates in the northern and central segments and low slip rates in the southern, probably older, segments. We show that mountain front sinuosity varies from about 1.1 to 1.4 on segments S1-S6 to 2.4 on segment S7, suggesting that the six northern segments are more active than the southernmost segment. Similarly, χ analysis and slope-area analysis of streams reveal a pattern of steepest channels draining the central and northern segments of the horst. The ratio of valley floor width to valley height varies from 0.2 to 0.6, which are typical values for tectonically active mountain fronts; and alluvial fans along segments S1, S2, and S4 are back-tilted. Finally, we show that (1) shapes of the ~ 100-900m high mountain front facets are mostly triangular (~ 80%) and partly trapezoidal (~ 20%); (2) facet slopes range from 6 to 22°; (3) facets at the NW and SE segment ends are larger than the intervening facets; and (4) steepest facets occur along the central segments. Uplift rates estimated from the slope of mountain front facets range from about 0.06 m/ky on the southernmost fault segment (S7) to 0.23 m/ky on the more central S5 and 0.16 m/ky on the northern segment (S1). The estimated pattern of uplift is consistent with the pattern of geomorphic indices. The vertical relief of the facets suggests that uplift of the mountain front initiated in the late

  4. Evidence for latest Pleistocene to Holocene uplift at the southern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau (CAP), southern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosentino, Domenico; Öǧretmen, Nazik; Cipollari, Paola; Gliozzi, Elsa; Radeff, Giuditta; Yıldırım, Cengiz; Baykara, Oruc M.; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2016-04-01

    Along the Mediterranean coastal area of southern Anatolia, markers of ancient sea-level have been reported west of Alanya and east of the Göksu delta. In both areas, bioconstructed fossil rims, consisting mainly of calcareous algae, are situated 0.5 m above the live counterpart. The fossil rim to the west of Alanya has been dated between 2690 to 1545 yrs BP, evidencing late Holocene rock uplift at the CAP southern margin. More recently, based on beachrocks along the coastal area from Incekum to the south of Adana, authors showed that the shoreline was raised around 0.5 m after 19 BC-200 AD. Based on new field observations along the coast between Aydı ncı k and Ayaş (Mersin, southern Turkey), together with AMS 14C dating and high-resolution U-Th chronology, a more complex uplift history can be suggested. Along the coast of Yeşilovacı k, we observed up to seven uplifted marine notches, from 0.5 m to 6.10 m above sea level. Some of them show relationships with a travertine crust that yielded U-Th ages of 2727 ± 1559 years and 5236 ± 2255 years. In the same area, a calcareous algae fossil trottoir related to a marine notch 5.40 m above sea level yielded an AMS 14C 2σ age of 32700 to 31645 years cal BP. Considering that the global ocean was 60 m below the present sea level at 32 ka, the Yeşilovacı k coastal area has been uplifted at 2 mm/yr. Moving to the east, in a small embayment at Eǧribük, two distinct well cemented beach deposits containing Murex brandaris, Cerithium vulgatum, and Columbella rustica have been uplifted at 0.3 m and 0.7 m above the present sea level. Although it is difficult to reconstruct the paleodepth of those beach deposits, AMS 14C 2σ ages of 5575 to 5445 years cal BP and 2130 to 1965 years cal BP show late Holocene uplift. In the Narlı kuyu area, up to seven different uplifted markers of sea level were observed between 0.8 and 7.2 m above the present sea level. In addition, near Ayaş new insights for late Holocene uplift are

  5. Slip Rates of Main Active Fault Zones Through Turkey Inferred From GPS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozener, H.; Aktug, B.; Dogru, A.; Tasci, L.; Acar, M.; Emre, O.; Yilmaz, O.; Turgut, B.; Halicioglu, K.; Sabuncu, A.; Bal, O.; Eraslan, A.

    2015-12-01

    Active Fault Map of Turkey was revised and published by General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration in 2012. This map reveals that there are about 500 faults can generate earthquakes.In order to understand the earthquake potential of these faults, it is needed to determine the slip rates. Although many regional and local studies were performed in the past, the slip rates of the active faults in Turkey have not been determined. In this study, the block modelling, which is the most common method to produce slip rates, will be done. GPS velocities required for block modeling is being compiled from the published studies and the raw data provided then velocity field is combined. To form a homogeneous velocity field, different stochastic models will be used and the optimal velocity field will be achieved. In literature, GPS site velocities, which are computed for different purposes and published, are combined globally and this combined velocity field are used in the analysis of strain accumulation. It is also aimed to develop optimal stochastic models to combine the velocity data. Real time, survey mode and published GPS observations is being combined in this study. We also perform new GPS observations. Furthermore, micro blocks and main fault zones from Active Fault Map Turkey will be determined and homogeneous velocity field will be used to infer slip rates of these active faults. Here, we present the result of first year of the study. This study is being supported by THE SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF TURKEY (TUBITAK)-CAYDAG with grant no. 113Y430.

  6. Active faulting and natural hazards in Armenia, eastern Turkey and northwestern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakhanian, Arkady S.; Trifonov, Vladimir G.; Philip, Herve; Avagyan, Ara; Hessami, Khaled; Jamali, Farshad; Salih Bayraktutan, M.; Bagdassarian, H.; Arakelian, S.; Davtian, V.; Adilkhanyan, A.

    2004-03-01

    Active fault zones of Armenia, SE Turkey and NW Iran present a diverse set of interrelated natural hazards. Three regional case studies in this cross-border zone are examined to show how earthquakes interact with other hazards to increase the risk of natural disaster. In northern Armenia, a combination of several natural and man-made phenomena (earthquakes, landslides and unstable dams with toxic wastes) along the Pambak-Sevan-Sunik fault (PSSF) zone lowers from 0.4 to 0.2-0.3 g the maximum permissible level (MPL) of seismic hazard that may induce disastrous destruction and loss of life in the adjacent Vanadzor depression. In the Ararat depression, a large active fault-bounded pull-apart basin at the junction of borders of Armenia, Turkey, Iran and Azerbaijan, an earthquake in 1840 was accompanied by an eruption of Ararat Volcano, lahars, landslides, floods, soil subsidence and liquefaction. The case study demonstrates that natural hazards that are secondary with respect to earthquakes may considerably increase the damage and the casualties and increase the risk associated with the seismic impact. The North Tabriz-Gailatu fault system poses a high seismic hazard to the border areas of NW Iran, eastern Turkey, Nakhichevan (Azerbaijan) and southern Armenia. Right-lateral strike-slip motions along the North Tabriz fault have given rise to strong earthquakes, which threaten the city of Tabriz with its population of 1.2 million. The examples illustrate how the concentration of natural hazards in active fault zones increases the risk associated with strong earthquakes in Armenia, eastern Turkey and NW Iran. This generally occurs across the junctions of international borders. Hence, the transboundary character of active faults requires transboundary cooperation in the study and mitigation of the natural risk.

  7. The origin of the magnetic fabric and the significance of AIRM in reconstructing the emplacement dynamics of ignimbrites: a case study from the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrò, A.; Zanella, E.; Le Pennec, J.; Temel, A.

    2012-12-01

    The investigation of the magnetic fabric is a very effective tool in the study of the emplacement and depositional processes of volcanic rocks. The analysis of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) has been increasingly applied to pyroclastic deposits with the main purpose of getting information about the petrofabric, understanding the flow dynamics, and inferring flow directions and vent position. One of the most crucial points, which prejudice the reliability of any volcanological reconstructions is understanding the meaning of the AMS, discriminating among primary and secondary fabric and identifying the carriers of the AMS signal. The AMS fabric of a volcanic rock is the complex result of various factors: contribution of the paramagnetic fraction, type of ferromagnetic grains (MD or SD), rheology of the flow, interaction of the flow with paleotopography and disturbances due to the intrinsic heterogeneities. In this study we investigate the magnetic fabric of the Late Miocene Kizilkaya ignimbrite (Central Anatolian Volcanic Province, Turkey) through measures of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), isothermal remanent magnetization (AIRM) and anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM). Sampling has been performed at seven localities at different stratigraphic heights (a total of 35 sites yielding about 600 specimens) within the ignimbrite's devitrified layer. Our measurements and observations reveal that the magnetic mineralogy is complex: the main magnetic carrier is represented by Ti-magnetite which occurs as free grains in the matrix and as inclusions in pumice and lithic clasts, as well as in glass shards; in certain levels it is also detected the presence of a more oxidized Ti-magnetite and haematite. The AMS fabric varies vertically along each section; based on the angle between the direction of the magnetic lineation k1 and that of the foliation plunge k3, three types of fabric are evidenced: normal, oblique and transverse. The anisotropy

  8. Preliminary results about the Quaternary activiy of the Ovacik Fault, Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabcı, Cengiz; Sançar, Taylan; Aktaǧ, Alican

    2013-04-01

    The Erzincan Basin and the surrounding region have a complex structure, which is formed by the interaction of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF), the Northeast Anatolian Fault (NEAF), the Pülümür Fault (PF), and the Ovacık Fault (OF). The region has been shaked many times by devastating earthquakes throughout both the instrumental and the historical periods. The infamous 26 December 1939 Erzincan Earthquake (M~7.9) is the largest event, which was instrumentally recorded along the NAF. Moreover, the eastern continuation of the surface rupture of this earthquake, "the Yedisu Segment", is known as one of the two seismic gaps on this dextral shear zone. We started multi-disciplinary studies on the OF, which has relatively very limited data. Even though some researches think about this tectonic feature as a non-active fault, recent GPS measurements point strain accumulation along it. In addition to that 1992 Erzincan and 2003 Pülümür earthquakes loaded additional stress on the neighboring faults, including the OF. The OF elongate between the SE Erzincan Basin and Kemaliye (Erzincan) about 110 km with a general strike of N60E. The clear morphological expression of the fault is especially observed around Ovacık, Tunceli. The OF delimits the Jurassic aged Munzur limestone in the north and the Miocene volcanoclastics and Permo-Carboniferous schist in the south in this vicinity. We identified many offset features, such as wash plains, moraines, alluvial fans and inset terraces in our preliminary morphological maps. The measured displacements change from 20 to 350 m, which may play a critical role in the calculation of the geological slip-rate. Moreover, we used morphological indices, such as topographic profiling, hypsometric integral, basin asymmetry, and the mountain front sinuosity to quantify the activity of the OF. Our preliminary results clearly point out the necessity of future studies, which may help to understand the earthquake potential of this poorly known

  9. Multi-parameter analysis of seismoturbidites in the Kumburgaz Basin of Sea of Marmara: Implications for creeping versus locked Central High segment of the North Anatolian Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakupoǧlu, Nurettin; Uçarkuş, Gülsen; Eriş, K. Kadir; Çaǧatay, M. Namık; Henry, Pierre; Yalamaz, Burak; Sabuncu, Asen; Acar, Dursun

    2016-04-01

    Sediment sequences deposited in active transform basins provide valuable archives of earthquake-triggered co-seismic sedimentation. A better understanding of the relationship between offshore fault ruptures and Seismoturbidites would have direct implications for earthquake hazard assessment. Submerged section of the North Anatolian Fault in the northern Sea of Marmara basin, which experienced more than 55 (Ms>6.8) earthquakes in the last 2000 years, poses a unique laboratory to study such kind of sync-tectonic history. Following the devastating 1999 Izmit and Duzce earthquakes (Mw = 7.4/7.2 respectively), a major seismic gap is now along the offshore branch of the NAF in the Sea of Marmara. The segments that control the Cinarcik and Kumburgaz basins in the Sea of Marmara have not ruptured during the 20th century. This study focusses on the Kumburgaz basin, which is located along the central segment of the NAF, and its less-known linkage to historical earthquakes, particularly to Ms>7 1509 and 1766 earthquakes. The main objective of this study is to test the two alternative hypotheses of a creeping versus locked central High segment by determining the frequency and timing of earthquake triggered turbidite units in the Kumburgaz basin. A 21-m-long piston core recovered in Kumburgaz basin during the Marsite cruise in 2014 is analysed at high resolution in order to identify the discrete turbidite-homogenite units (T-H units). The piston core reveals 22 T-H units where several packages consist of a sharp basal contact and multiple fining upward beds of sand to coarse silt as characteristically seen in most Seismoturbidite units. We initiated a systematic study of T-H units with the objectives of establishing criteria for identification of Seismoturbidites by analysing the physical, mineralogical and chemical composition of the piston core. The density and magnetic susceptibility changes along the core are analysed by Multi-Sensor Core Logger (MSCL). High detrital input

  10. Seismicity along the Main Marmara Fault, Turkey: from space-time distribution to repeating events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmittbuhl, Jean; Karabulut, Hayrullah; Lengliné, Olivier; Bouchon, Michel

    2016-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) poses a significant hazard for the large cities surrounding the Marmara Sea region particularly the megalopolis of Istanbul. Indeed, the NAF is presently hosting a long unruptured segment below the Sea of Marmara. This seismic gap is approximately 150 km long and corresponds to the Main Marmara Fault (MMF). The seismicity along the Main Marmara Fault (MMF) below the Marmara Sea is analyzed here during the 2007-2012 period to provide insights on the recent evolution of this important regional seismic gap. High precision locations show that seismicity is strongly varying along strike and depth providing fine details of the fault behavior that are inaccessible from geodetic inversions. The activity strongly clusters at the regions of transition between basins. The Central basin shows significant seismicity located below the shallow locking depth inferred from GPS measurements. Its b-value is low and the average seismic slip is high. Interestingly we found also several long term repeating earthquakes in this domain. Using a template matching technique, we evidenced two new families of repeaters: a first family that typically belongs to aftershock sequences and a second family of long lasting repeaters with a multi-month recurrence period. All observations are consistent with a deep creep of this segment. On the contrary, the Kumburgaz basin at the center of the fault shows sparse seismicity with the hallmarks of a locked segment. In the eastern Marmara Sea, the seismicity distribution along the Princes Island segment in the Cinarcik basin, is consistent with the geodetic locking depth of 10km and a low contribution to the regional seismic energy release. The assessment of the locked segment areas provide an estimate of the magnitude of the main forthcoming event to be about 7.3 assuming that the rupture will not enter significantly within creeping domains.

  11. Izmit, Turkey 1999 Earthquake Interferogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is an interferogram that was created using pairs of images taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The images, acquired at two different times, have been combined to measure surface deformation or changes that may have occurred during the time between data acquisition. The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-2) on 13 August 1999 and 17 September 1999 and were combined to produce these image maps of the apparent surface deformation, or changes, during and after the 17 August 1999 Izmit, Turkey earthquake. This magnitude 7.6 earthquake was the largest in 60 years in Turkey and caused extensive damage and loss of life. Each of the color contours of the interferogram represents 28 mm (1.1 inches) of motion towards the satellite, or about 70 mm (2.8 inches) of horizontal motion. White areas are outside the SAR image or water of seas and lakes. The North Anatolian Fault that broke during the Izmit earthquake moved more than 2.5 meters (8.1 feet) to produce the pattern measured by the interferogram. Thin red lines show the locations of fault breaks mapped on the surface. The SAR interferogram shows that the deformation and fault slip extended west of the surface faults, underneath the Gulf of Izmit. Thick black lines mark the fault rupture inferred from the SAR data. Scientists are using the SAR interferometry along with other data collected on the ground to estimate the pattern of slip that occurred during the Izmit earthquake. This then used to improve computer models that predict how this deformation transferred stress to other faults and to the continuation of the North Anatolian Fault, which extends to the west past the large city of Istanbul. These models show that the Izmit earthquake further increased the already high probability of a major earthquake near Istanbul.

  12. Fault Characterization in the Sea of Marmara (Turkey) Using OBS and Land Seismic Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinar, Ali; Yamamoto, Yojiro; Comoglu, Mustafa; Polat, Remzi; Turhan, Fatih; Takahashi, Narumi; Kalafat, Dogan; Citak, Seckin

    2016-04-01

    The fault segments of the North Anatolian fault (NAF) occurring between Tekirdag basin and Kumburgaz basin are investigated using 15 Ocean Bottom Seismic (OBS) stations. The OBS stations were deployed closely around the fault trace of NAF. During the observation period from September, 2014 until July, 2015 more than one thousand microearthquakes were determined. No uniform seismicity pattern was observed along strike and along dip of the fault segments in an area spanning 100 km from East to West of Marmara Sea. The western fault segments exhibit relatively higher and deeper seismic activity while the eastern segment show shallower and relatively lower seismic activity. Integrating the first motion polarity data from the land based stations of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) with the polarity data acquired from the OBS stations the focal mechanisms of 173 micro-earthquakes were determined. Most of the fault plane solutions indicate predominantly strike-slip mechanism. Several clusters of events are identified along the E-W extending NAF. We derive a focal mechanism for the individual events whenever the number of the polarities are sufficient. In addition, simultaneous inversion of the polarities in a cluster are done to retrieve a stress tensor along with focal mechanisms of the individual events in a cluster. A unique cluster of focal mechanisms was obtained from the events taking place in Western High (WH) region located between Tekirdag Basin (TB) and Central Basin (CB). Several features of this cluster are noticeable; 1) the site is the most seismically active part in Marmara Sea, 2) the site is the locus of the deepest events in the Sea of Marmara, 3) the shallower part of this segment is seismically less active, 4) two subgroups of P-axes of focal mechanisms exist; one oriented NW-SE and other oriented in N-S direction despite the proximity of the location of the events giving clues on the faulting dynamics. The N-S oriented P

  13. The origin of vein-type copper-lead-zinc deposits Host in Palaeozoic metamorphic rocks at the Southeast Anatolian Orogenic Belt (Küplüce-Adıyaman, Southeastern Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyıldız, Mustafa; Yıldırım, Nail; Gören, Burcu; Yıldırım, Esra; Ilhan, Semiha

    2015-02-01

    The study area is located around the town of Küplüce between the Çelikhan and Sincik districts (Adıyaman, Turkey). Mineralisations are located at the Southeast Anatolian Orogenic Belt. Despite many differential units, especially in age and lithology, that coexist in the region, mineralisation and alteration are only developed in partly concordant/partly disconcordant veins/veinlets of quartz within chlorite schists, sericite schists, mica schists/mica gneisses, quartz schists and metadiabases of the Palaeozoic Pütürge metamorphics. Pyrite, chalcopyrite and sphalerite are dominant minerals in mineral paragenesis. Chalcocite, covellite and carollite are also found in trace amounts. Quartz, calcite, sericite and chlorite are the gang minerals. Silicification, sericitisation, chloritisation, epidotisation and limonitisation are widespread in limited areas around ore veins. The estimated Co/Ni (1.8-4.3) ratio in pyrites belonging to mineralisation deposits indicates that mineralisation in the region is related to magmatic hydrothermal deposits. In addition, REE (rare earth element) contents of mineralisation deposits in chondrite-normalised diagrams are enriched and show a similar trend to that of chondritic values. This indicates that metals that form mineralisation deposits are related to magmatic rocks. Values of δ34S estimated in the Küplüce region vary between 1.6‰ and 2.34‰. Values of δ34S close to 0 indicate that the sulphur forming the mineralisation is of magmatic origin. In addition, δ18O values vary between 8‰ and 10.8‰ and are consistent with magmatic water. Analyses of the fluid inclusions in quartz samples from mineralisation deposits were performed, and the homogenisation temperature was estimated to be between 90 and 150 °C. These temperature values can be explained by the mixing of a solution with surface water. It was determined that mineralisation deposits were vein-type hydrothermal deposits that had developed due to Middle Eocene

  14. Normal faulting in the Simav graben of western Turkey reassessed with calibrated earthquake relocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasözen, Ezgi; Nissen, Edwin; Bergman, Eric A.; Johnson, Kendra L.; Walters, Richard J.

    2016-06-01

    Western Turkey has a long history of large earthquakes, but the responsible faults are poorly characterized. Here we reassess the past half century of instrumental earthquakes in the Simav-Gediz region, starting with the 19 May 2011 Simav earthquake (Mw 5.9), which we image using interferometric synthetic aperture radar and regional and teleseismic waveforms. This event ruptured a steep, planar normal fault centered at 7-9 km depth but failed to break the surface. However, relocated main shock and aftershock hypocenters occurred beneath the main slip plane at 10-22 km depth, implying rupture initiation in areas of low coseismic slip. These calibrated modern earthquakes provide the impetus to relocate and reassess older instrumental events in the region. Aftershocks of the 1970 Gediz earthquake (Mw 7.1) form a narrow band, inconsistent with source models that invoke low-angle detachment faulting, and may include events triggered dynamically by the unilateral main shock rupture. Epicenters of the 1969 Demirci earthquakes (Mw 5.9, 6.0) are more consistent with slip on the south dipping Akdağ fault than the larger, north dipping Simav fault. A counterintuitive aspect of recent seismicity across our study area is that the largest event (Mw 7.1) occurred in an area of slower extension and indistinct surface faulting, yet ruptured the surface, while recent earthquakes in the well-defined and more rapidly extending Simav graben are smaller (Mw <6.0) and failed to produce surface breaks. Though our study area bounds a major metamorphic core complex, there is no evidence for involvement of low-angle normal faulting in any of the recent large earthquakes.

  15. First isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from faecal and milk specimens from anatolian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalus) in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Seker, E; Yardimci, H

    2008-12-01

    Three hundred rectal faecal samples and 213 raw milk samples obtained from the tanks and containers were examined using standard cultural methods. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was isolated from 11 (3.7%) of 300 faecal samples and 3 (1.4%) of 213 raw milk samples. It was determined that 8 (73%) of E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from faecal samples originated from water buffaloes younger than 2 years of age and 3 (27%) from 2-year-old and older water buffaloes. This is the 1st isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from faecal and milk samples of water buffaloes in Turkey.

  16. A re-evaluation of the Eskişehir Fault Zone as a recent extensional structure in NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocakoğlu, Faruk

    2007-10-01

    The Eskişehir Fault Zone (EFZ), one of the major active structures within the Anatolian platelet, is investigated in a 100 km long sector between Bozüyük and Alpu, in vicinity of Eskişehir. The morphotectonic observations indicate that throughout the studied area the EFZ extends WNWwards as a ca. 15 km wide belt, and is composed of some 21 fault segments, 5-25 km long. These segments form a north-dipping southern set and two south-dipping northern sets, all together working both sides of the Eskişehir graben. The faults are dominantly normal in character with a slight right-lateral component in the westernmost areas. The estimated total vertical displacement on certain northern and southern fault segments exceeds 450 m. In order to estimate the initiation age of the EFZ a brief stratigraphic review is given. The generally horizontal Pliocene terrestrial deposits are separated from the Miocene succession by a low-angular unconformity, and are cut in turn by the EFZ. Sedimentological data show that neither the distribution of the Pliocene depositional environments and their paleocurrent directions, nor the preserved Pliocene basal unconformity surface have a genetic relation to the EFZ. These data strongly suggest that the EFZ is a younger post-Pliocene active normal fault zone with low rates of deformation.

  17. Constraining deformation history and recent activity along the Tuz Gölü fault zone, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krystopowicz, N. J.; Schoenbohm, L. M.; Cosca, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    The 200 km long, dextral, transtensive Tuz Gölü fault zone is a prominent northwest-striking feature in Central Anatolia. It is one of the most significant structures in Central Anatolia in that it lies within the transition zone between the Western Anatolian Extensional Province and the Eastern Anatolian Contractional Province; its study therefore offers valuable insight into how Central Anatolia is affected by lateral extrusion related to collision in the east, and gravitational pull forces associated with subduction in the west. Proposals for the initiation of the Tuz Gölü fault zone range from Cretaceous to Neogene times, and the amount of recent activity along this fault system remains poorly constrained. Furthermore, potential basinward migration of deformation into the Tuz Gölü basin poses the question as to whether or not this fault system is active in the Holocene. Previous work suggests that migration of deformation towards the basin interior may be related to lithospheric-scale processes such as plateau development, microplate extrusion, or the onset of crustal thinning associated with slab-tear propagation in subducting African lithosphere. In this study, we use a combination of paleostress and morpho-tectonic analysis to further delineate the segmentation and present activity of the Tuz Gölü fault zone. Paleostress analysis offers insight into the deformation history of the region as well as the modern-day stress regime. We conducted a morphometric analysis of over 300 drainage basins along the range-front, which reveal variations that characterize the unique development of numerous fault strands in the region. Statistical analysis of hypsometric curves, systematic variation in basin morphology and orientation, as well as changes in mountain-front sinuosity reveal fault segmentation. Additionally, field mapping and Ar-Ar dating of offset lava flows from the Hasan Dag Volcano quantitatively constrain slip-rates in the southeastern portion of the

  18. Highlights of the 13 March 1992 Erzincan (Turkey) earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, Mehmet

    1992-01-01

    The March 13, 1992 Ms = 6.8 Erzincan earthquake in Turkey is highlighted here. The epicenter of this earthquake was located 7.7 km from the eastern end of the North Anatolian fault. The strong motions recorded in Erzincan had peak ground accelerations of approximately 0.5 g, accompanied by a pulse of 2 seconds. The duration of the earthquake was 7 seconds. This earthquake caused collapse of about 150 buildings--mainly to 4-5-story reinforced, concrete-framed buildings with infill walls. This damage, which is discussed, can be attributed to non-compliance with seismic codes.

  19. Post-Miocene Tectonics from Black Sea to Mediterrenean Sea along Central Anatolian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojay, B.; Özsayın, E.; Çiner, A.

    2012-04-01

    The existences of the gross structures are crucial elements in the understanding of the Neogene evolution of the Anatolia. The structures, from north to south, are fairly documented extensional Black Sea coast structures, "N vergent tectonics" in Black Sea region, the cross cutting scar/shear zone -North Anatolian Fault- , S verging tectonics in central Anatolian overthrust belt (Cretaceous ophiolitic mélange belt), extensional Tuzgölü basin, basins like Cilicia, Mut situated to the back of the Cyprian arc and Cyprus locked subduction and accretionary tectonics (locked by approaching and colliding of the Eratosthenes and Hecatacus "seamount" obstacles). The closure of the northern Neotethys during post-Late Eocene- pre-Miocene end with the collision of the squeezed "Anatolian Block" from south with the Eurasian Continent. Consequently the linkage of the central Anatolian basins is lost with the Seas (Paratethys) in north by the evolution of Black Sea Mountains. However, the subduction in southern Neotethys continued with a complex array due to oblique subduction between "Anatolian Block" and downgoing African-Arabian plates. The growth of the accretionary wedge along southeast Anatolia resulted in retreat of the Miocene Seas towards Basra Bay (Iraq) and collision of the southeast Anatolian belt operated to the end of late Miocene where the marine realm in eastern Mediterrenean Sea continues. The rifting - sea-floor spreading in Red Sea, propagating of Dead Sea Transform to the north and oblique subduction in southern Tethys Ocean during different times in Miocene-Pliocene manifested a various different tectonic mechanism stories in the evolution of the Neogene basin in Anatolia. Consequently progressive closure of the Tethys Oceans resulted in the development Central Anatolian and Eastern Anatolian Plateaus. The growth of the Plateaus, in other words, the progressive shortening from north to south during Late Miocene, ended with the escape of the Anatolian Block

  20. Imaging the Fault Geometry From the Multi-Channel Seismic Reflection Data in the Marmara Sea, Tekirdag Basin, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanbur, Z.; Alptekin, O.

    2002-05-01

    Determination of the fault geometry in the Marmara Sea has been a major problem for the researchers after the occurence of 17 August 1999 ?zmit (M=7.4) and 12 Novenber 1999 D\\x81zce (M=7.2) earthquakes. We used Pre-Stack Kirchhoff Depth Migration Technique to ivestigate the fault geometry in the Tekirda? Basin in western Marmara Sea by using the multi-channel seismic reflection data collected by Mineral Research Institute of Turkey ( MTA). Our results show that using the Kirchhoff technique the geometry of the fault plane can be imaged better comparing to the convensional technique. Our image of the Ganos fault indicates transpressive character in the west and transtensional character in the south margin of the Tekirda? basin. Imaging technique make the trust component visible in the migration section and show that the Ganos fault has multiple fault plane. These fault planes are imaged through the depth of 2750 m in the west of Tekirda? Basin. The major plane of Ganos fault dips 33 degrees toward south at 1750 m depth. The dip of the fault gradually decreases to 18 degrees till 2750 m. Another image cutting the basin in NS direction shows that the character of the Ganos fault is changed to transtensional and the whole section is like a flower structure. The fault plane dips 70 degrees toward north . The images obtained in this study not only confirm the preliminary results determined from conventional processing techniques but also provides significant additional information on the faults in the Marmara Sea.

  1. Turkey.

    PubMed

    1988-03-01

    Focus in this discussion of Turkey is on the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; defense; and relations between the US and Turkey. In 1986, Turkey's population was estimated to be 51.8 million with an annual growth rate of 2.5%. The infant mortality rate is 12.3/1000 with a life expectancy of 62.7 years. Turkey is located partly in Europe and partly in Asia. Since 1950, urban areas have experienced tremendous growth, and squatter dwellings are evident around the cities' edges. About half of Turkey's population live in urban areas. Turkish culture is made up of both the modern and traditional, Ottoman and folkloric, elements. The Republic of Turkey was founded by Mustafa Kemal, subsequently named Ataturk, in 1982 after the collapse of the 600-year-old Ottoman empire. The new republic focused on modernizing and Westernizing the empire's Turkish core -- Anatolia and a small part of Thrace. The 1982 constitution preserves a democratic, secular, parliamentary form of government with a strengthened presidence. It provides for an independent judiciary along with the safeguarding of internationally recognized human rights. The legislative functions are carried out by the unicameral, 450-member GNA. The economy is developing structurally, yet the agricultural sector remains significant and produces cotton, tobacco, grains, fruits, and vegetables. Over half of the labor force are farmers, contributing over 1/5 of the gross domestic product. A significant portion of industry also is involved in processing agricultural products. The period from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s was the longest sustained period of economic growth and development in modern Turkish history, with annual growth rates of nearly 7%. Oil price increases after 1973 and the concomitant European recession slowed Turkish growth and also revealed major structural deficiencies. The economic crisis worsened in 1979 as oil prices doubled again. The Demirel

  2. No surface breaking on the Ecemiş Fault, central Turkey, since Late Pleistocene (~ 64.5 ka); new geomorphic and geochronologic data from cosmogenic dating of offset alluvial fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarıkaya, M. A.; Yıldırım, C.; Çiner, A.

    2015-05-01

    The Ecemiş Fault Zone (EF) has been recognized as a major left lateral strike-slip fault in the Central Anatolian Fault Zone (CAFZ) of Turkey. However, its Quaternary slip-rate has been challenging to determine due to the difficulty of dating offset markers. Using high-precision offset measurements and 36Cl cosmogenic nuclide dating, we present the first geochronologically determined Late Quaternary slip-rate for the EF. Our study focuses on the excellent exposures of offset alluvial fan surfaces, originating from the Aladağlar, a Late Quaternary glaciated mountain. Analysis of airborne orthophotogrametry and GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) surveys indicates 168 ± 2 m left lateral and 31 ± 1 m vertical displacements. In-situ terrestrial cosmogenic 36Cl geochronology obtained from eleven surface boulders provides a minimum abandonment/incision age of 104.2 ± 16.5 ka for the oldest offset alluvial fan surface. Our geomorphic observations together with Self-potential geophysical surveys revealed the presence of an unfaulted alluvial fan terrace, which allows us to constrain the timing of deformation. The abandonment/incision age of this fan is 64.5 ± 5.6 ka based on thirteen 36Cl depth profile samples. Accordingly, we obtained a geologic fault slip-rate of 4.2 ± 1.9 mm a- 1 horizontally and 0.8 ± 0.3 mm a- 1 vertically for the time frame between 104.2 ± 16.5 ka and 64.5 ± 5.6 ka. Our analysis indicates that the EF has not been producing a major surface breaking earthquake on the main strand at least since 64.5 ± 5.6 ka (mid-Late Pleistocene). This could be the result of abandonment of the main strand and accommodation of deformation by other faults within the EF. Nevertheless, a recently occurred (30 September 2011) low magnitude (ML: 4.3) left lateral strike-slip earthquake indicates recent seismic activity of the EF. Comparison of the recent GPS velocity field with the longer slip history along the CAFZ indicates a constant but low strain

  3. Strike-slip tectonics, related basin formation, and sedimentology in zones of continental escape: Turkey as a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Sengor, A.M.C.; Gorur, N.

    1984-04-01

    Since the Tortonian (11 Ma), the tectonics of Turkey has been dominated by its escape westward from the east Anatolian collision zone onto the oceanic lithosphere of the eastern Mediterranean, mainly along the north and east Anatolian transform faults (NAT and EAT), and at least two other southeast-concave strike-slip faults that branch off the NAT near Erzincan and Resadiye. The Aegean graben system is a broad shear zone between the latter of these and the Grecian shear zone. At triple junctions involving the NAT/EAT and EAT/Dead Sea transform fault, space problems arise, giving rise to the Karliova and Adana/Cilicia basins, respectively. In Thrace, where the NAT takes a southwesterly bend, part of the resulting constraint is released by rifting in a northwest orientation that formed the Ergene basin. In addition, various pull-apart structures and leaky strike-slip faults contribute to the richness of strike-slip-related negative structures in Turkey. Some of these are of lithospheric dimensions and contain thousands of meters of sediment, whereas others formed within thinner crustal flakes above decollement horizons. Because escape tectonics necessarily involves subduction, arc-related strike-slip deformation may interfere with that indigenous to collision tectonics, as in south Turkey. Continental convergence eventually eliminates all subductable areas along the collision front and the structures generated by escape regimes may fall prey to compressional obliteration. In zones of complex and multiple continental collision such as Turkey, several episodes of escape tectonics may alternate with intracontinental compressional deformation, whereby the products of the older escape regimes would be very difficult to recognize. The present tectonics of Turkey constitutes an excellent guide to earlier episodes of escape tectonics in and around Turkey.

  4. Morphotectonics and paleoseismicity of the Gemlik fault zone, middle strand of the NAFZ in Marmara region, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucarkus, G.; Akyüz, S.; Barka, A.; Tari, U.

    2003-04-01

    The North Anatolian fault zone splays into three strands in the eastern Marmara region. The northern strand crosses the Sapanca lake and extends through north of Armutlu peninsula, northern Marmara Sea and Saros Bay. The middle strand splays from Mudurnu valley in SW direction and extends through Geyve, Iznik, Gemlik, Bandirma and Bayramic. The southern strand is located at Yenisehir, Bursa, Manyas, Gönen, Pazarköy and ends by the Gulf of Edremit on land. GPS measurements and recent earthquakes indicate that the dominant motion along these strands is strike-slip. GPS measurements also suggests that the northern strand of the fault zone is more active than other two strands. The GPS rate for the middle strand is 1-2 mm/yr while it is 16-17 mm/yr on the northern strand. Although some sections of each strand has ruptured during the last century earthquakes, seismicity patterns of the Marmara Region do not illustrate a clear picture of strands accept the northern strand. Based on the historical records, the middle strand is not known to have experienced any large earthquakes in at least the last 200 years. Gemlik fault zone, the survey area of this study, lies in the western extend of middle strand consisting of several segments between Iznik Lake and Gulf of Gemlik. While the morphologic features along the eastern middle strand indicate a clear right lateral strike-slip movement, the fault expressions by the south of Iznik lake going through Gemlik bay are strike-slip with some amount of vertical component of north-side down. The fault borders the northern slope of the Gemiç Mountains representing an én-echelon geometry in the SW of Iznik Lake. Normal component of this fault is traceable in the field. E-W trending scarplets, which can be related with a fault rupture, are exposed on the flat alluvial fan in front of the Gemiç Mountains. To the west, fault follows the high topography at the south of Karsak pass and reaches to the Gulf of Gemlik. Another fault

  5. Long term seismic observation using ocean bottom seismographs in Marmara Sea, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, N.; Pinar, A.; Kalafat, D.; Yamamoto, Y.; Citak, S.; Comoglu, M.; Çok, Ö.; Ogutcu, Z.; Suvarikli, M.; Tunc, S.; Gurbuz, C.; Ozel, N.; Kaneda, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault crosses the Marmara Sea with a direction of E-W. There are many large earthquakes repeatedly along the fault with a linkage each other. Due to recent large eastern Aegean earthquake with M6, the Marmara Sea is the "blank zone". Japan and Turkey have a SATREPS collaborative study to clarify the structural characters, construct fault models, simulate the strong motion and tsunami, evaluate these risks with hazard maps and educate disaster prevention for local governments and residents. Our activity is one of the most basic studies, and the objectives are to clarify hypocenter locations, monitor the move, and construct fault models referring seismic/magnetotelluric structures, geodetic nature and trenching works. The target area is from western Marmara Sea to the off Istanbul area along the north Anatolian Fault. We deployed ten Ocean Bottom Seismographs (OBSs) between the Tekirdag Basin and the Central Basin in September, 2014. Then, we added five Japanese OBSs and deployed them at the western end of the Marmara Sea and the eastern Central Basin to extend observed area in March, 2015. The OBS has a three-component velocity sensor with a natural frequency of 4.5 Hz and a hydrophone. Japanese team have clarified seismicity around Japan using the OBS. The magnitude of the detected events is 1.0-1.5. We retrieved all 15 OBSs in July, 2015 and deployed them again on the same locations after data copy and battery maintenance. We started OBS data analysis combined with land stations data. Now we detect events automatically using these data and succeeded detection of over one thousand around the north Anatolian Fault. The tentative results show heterogeneous seismicity. The western and central basins have relative high seismicity and the seismogenic zone becomes thicker rather than previous estimation. Then we will evaluate hypocenter locations with high resolution and discuss the shape of faults in each segment and their linkage.

  6. Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey Part2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Ozener, Haluk; Meral Özel, Nurcan

    2016-04-01

    Turkey is one of seismogenic countries with destructive earthquakes. In Turkey, the 1999 Izumit Earthquake as the destructive earthquake occurred along the North Anatolian fault. This fault is crossing the Marmara sea. In this SATREPS project, Marmara Sea should be focused on because of a seismic gap in the North Anatolian fault. Istanbul is located around the Marmara Sea, so, if next earthquake in the Marmara will occur near Istanbul, fatal damages will be generated as compound damages including Tsunami and liquefaction etc. The Japan and Turkey can share our own experiences during past damaging earthquakes and we can prepare for future large earthquakes in cooperation with each other. In earthquakes in Tokyo area and Istanbul area as the destructive earthquakes near high population cities, there are common disaster researches and measures in each country. For disaster mitigation, we are progressing multidisciplinary researches in this SATREPS project. Our goals of this SATREPS project are as follows, This project is composed of four research groups. 1) The first group is Marmara Earthquake Source region observationally research group. This group has 4 sub-themes such as Seismicity, Geodesy, Electromagnetics and Trench analyses. 2) The second group focuses on scenario researches of earthquake occurrence along the North Anatolia fault and precise tsunami simulation in the Marmara region. 3) Aims of the third group are improvements and constructions of seismic characterizations and damage predictions based on observation researches and precise simulations. 4) The fourth group is promoting disaster educations using research result visuals. In this SATREPS project, we will integrate these research results for disaster mitigation in Marmara region and disaster education in Turkey. Finally, these results and knowledges will be applied to Japanese disaster mitigation researches and disaster educations. We will have a presentation of the updated results of this SATREPS

  7. Intra-basinal water movements induced by faulting: The August 17, 1999, Golcuk (Izmit Bay) earthquake (M(W) = 7.4)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ozturk, H.; Koral, H.; Geist, E.L.

    2000-01-01

    A strong earthquake (M(w) = 7.4) occurred near the town of Golcuk, Izmit Bay, Western Turkey, at 00:01 GMT on August 17, 1999. Izmit Bay is a E-W trending pull-apart basin with a surface area of about 300 km2 along the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAF), in the eastern extension of the Sea of Marmara. The earthquake was caused by a westerly movement of the Anatolian plate along NAF and was accompanied by isolated, chaotic water movements along the northern and southern shores of the bay. At localities along the shoreline a sudden drop in sea level, and a subsequent rise was prominent. The mode of observed sea-level movements rules out the occurrence of a basin-wide tsunami, sensu stricto. Instead, the water movements are attributed to localized sudden dip-slip movements of fault blocks in this pull-apart basin. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  8. Slip History of the 1944 Rupture Segment on North Anatolia Fault Near Gerede, Turkey: Constraints on Earthquake Recurrence Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, K.; Rockwell, T. K.; Akciz, S. O.; Wechsler, N.; Aksoy, E. M.; Ishimura, D.

    2009-12-01

    Completeness of historic earthquake catalogs must be examined by geologic records, though the geologic records are not always more complete and precise than historic records. The historic records on large earthquakes from the North Anatolian fault are tested in trenches on the 1944 segment. Previous results indicated 3 historic and 1 geologic events in past 1000 years with characteristic ~ 5 m slip and quasi-periodic recurrence every 200-280 years. The one geologic event without historic information is critical to know the recurrence behavior of the fault and catalog evaluation. We excavated seven new trenches at the Ardicli paleoseismic site, located about 15 km east of Gerede, to resolve displacement on a Byzantine-aged channel and the timing of the offsets. The channel appears to have been excavated to drain the site and allow mining of clay for making bricks and tiles: a kiln was found adjacent to the channel. The V-shaped channel thalweg is offset 13.5+1.5 m, and based on many cross-fault trenches, represents slip in the past three surface ruptures. Dating of the channel is on pine cones, wood and charcoal that are incorporated into the channel deposits and in the stratified sediments into which the channel is cut: current dating suggests that this channel dates to the 9th-11th century AD. If confirmed with additional dates, the surface rupture that initially offset the channel likely corresponds to the historically-reported earthquake in AD 1035. The surface geomorphology records displacement from two more recent events. The 1944 surface rupture in this region produced 4-5 m of slip based on offset field boundaries and small channels. Older fluvial channels and rills in this area show about 10 m of displacement. We dated the fill from a 10 m offset channel, and place the penultimate event as younger than about AD 1650, which must correspond to the well-documented earthquake in 1668. From our previously reported work, we resolved 22-26 m of displacement for

  9. Surface expression of Eastern Mediterranean slab dynamics: Uplift at the SW margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildgen, T. F.; Cosentino, D.; Caruso, A.; Yildirim, C.; Echtler, H.; Strecker, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Central Anatolian plateau in Turkey borders one of the most complex tectonic regions on Earth, where collision of the Arabian plate with Eurasia in Eastern Anatolia transitions to a cryptic pattern of subduction of the African beneath the Eurasian plate, with concurrent westward extrusion of the Anatolian microplate. Topographic growth of the southern margin of the Central Anatolian plateau has proceeded in discrete stages that can be distinguished based on the outcrop pattern and ages of uplifted marine sediments. These marine units, together with older basement rocks and younger continental sedimentary fills, also record an evolving nature of crustal deformation and uplift patterns that can be used to test the viability of different uplift mechanisms that have contributed to generate the world's third-largest orogenic plateau. Late Miocene marine sediments outcrop along the SW plateau margin at 1.5 km elevation, while they blanket the S and SE margins at up to more than 2 km elevation. Our new biostratigraphic data limit the age of 1.5-km-high marine sediments along the SW plateau margin to < 7.17 Ma, while regional lithostratigraphic correlations imply that the age is < 6.7 Ma. After reconstructing the post-Late Miocene surface uplift pattern from elevations of uplifted marine sediments and geomorphic reference surfaces, it is clear that regional surface uplift reaches maximum values along the modern plateau margin, with the SW margin experiencing less cumulative uplift compared to the S and SE margins. Our structural measurements and inversion modeling of faults within the uplifted region agree with previous findings in surrounding regions, with early contraction followed by strike-slip and extensional deformation. Shallow earthquake focal mechanisms show that the extensional phase has continued to the present. Broad similarities in the onset of surface uplift (after 7 Ma) and a change in the kinematic evolution of the plateau margin (after 8 Ma) suggest

  10. Geometry, slip distribution, and kinematics of surface rupture on the Sakarya fault segment during the 17 August 1999 İzmit, Turkey, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langridge, R.M.; Stenner, H.D.; Fumal, T.E.; Christofferson, S.A.; Rockwell, T.K.; Hartleb, R.D.; Bachhuber, J.; Barka, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Mw 7.4 17 August 1999 İzmit earthquake ruptured five major fault segments of the dextral North Anatolian Fault Zone. The 26-km-long, N86°W-trending Sakarya fault segment (SFS) extends from the Sapanca releasing step-over in the west to near the town of Akyazi in the east. The SFS emerges from Lake Sapanca as two distinct fault traces that rejoin to traverse the Adapazari Plain to Akyazi. Offsets were measured across 88 cultural and natural features that cross the fault, such as roads, cornfield rows, rows of trees, walls, rails, field margins, ditches, vehicle ruts, a dike, and ground cracks. The maximum displacement observed for the İzmit earthquake (∼5.1 m) was encountered on this segment. Dextral displacement for the SFS rises from less than 1 m at Lake Sapanca to greater than 5 m near Arifiye, only 3 km away. Average slip decreases uniformly to the east from Arifiye until the fault steps left from Sagir to Kazanci to the N75°W, 6-km-long Akyazi strand, where slip drops to less than 1 m. The Akyazi strand passes eastward into the Akyazi Bend, which consists of a high-angle bend (18°-29°) between the Sakarya and Karadere fault segments, a 6-km gap in surface rupture, and high aftershock energy release. Complex structural geometries exist between the İzmit, Düzce, and 1967 Mudurnu fault segments that have arrested surface ruptures on timescales ranging from 30 sec to 88 days to 32 yr. The largest of these step-overs may have acted as a rupture segmentation boundary in previous earthquake cycles.

  11. From palaeotectonics to neotectonics in the Neotethys realm: The importance of kinematic decoupling and inherited structural grain in SW Anatolia (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ten Veen, J. H.; Boulton, S. J.; Alçiçek, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    In order to asses young, i.e. "neotectonic" fault kinematics and the relation with plate-tectonic processes in SW Turkey we focused on the questions: 1) what produced the structural grain, i.e. how and when are faults generated, 2) what was/is the kinematic behaviour of these faults and 3) during which period(s) were these faults active? Firstly, the distribution of faults has been investigated using a lineament analysis performed on satellite imagery and digital elevation models. We define five main tectonic domains in SW Turkey: 1 and 2) the Northern and Southern Western Anatolian extensional provinces; 3) the eastern Hellenic arc (including Rhodes Island and the submarine Anaximander mountains); 4) The Lycian Taurides and 5) the western limb of the Isparta Angle. Lineament analysis reveals dominance of three lineament groups, i.e. NNE-, ENE-, and WNW-trending, in all identified domains. Variations in the relative importance of lineament groups exist and are attributed to the specific tectonic evolution of each domain. A synthesis of recently published field data shows that the onset of activity of related fault groups is neither synchronous, nor uniform. The "structural grain" for the neotectonic deformation in SW Turkey is formed during the last stage of palaeotectonic deformation (stage 1), which is dominated by the onset of the Menderes Massif exhumation along a top-N major detachment, the Datça break-away fault [Seyitoğlu, G., Işık, V., and Çemen, İ., 2004. Complete Tertiary exhumation history of the Menderes massif, western Turkey: an alternative working hypothesis. Terra Nova, 16, 358-364.], and related SE-ward sliding of the Lycian Nappes in the footwall of this fault. This stage is characterized by spatially variable types of deformation that are delineated by, from NW to SE, the Datça Fault around the Menderes-Lycian contact zone and the Lycian frontal thrust zone, respectively. The kinematic decoupling along these structures explains the co

  12. A map of strain rate for Eastern Turkey, from InSAR and GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, R. J.; Parsons, B.; Wright, T. J.

    2013-12-01

    Tectonic deformation in Eastern Turkey is dominated by strain localisation on two major strike-slip faults; the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and the East Anatolian Fault (EAF). Here we use Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) to map interseismic strain across the Eurasian-Arabian plate boundary zone in Eastern Turkey, covering both the NAF and the EAF. Most previous InSAR interseismic studies of the NAF have used only descending track data, and in these studies it was therefore necessary to assume purely horizontal, fault-parallel motion in modelling deformation. The slip rate of the EAF has been the focus of only a few geological and geodetic studies, and InSAR has not previously been used to measure interseismic strain accumulation across this fault. We construct ~400 Envisat interferograms on three descending and two ascending tracks in Eastern Turkey, covering both the NAF and EAF. We use these data to generate five line-of-sight velocity maps (ratemaps) using the PiRATE software package (Wang et al., GRL, 2009), which implements a multi-interferogram network approach in order to maximise spatial coverage and correct for orbital errors. We find that the five InSAR ratemaps agree best in overlapping regions when all interferograms are first corrected for atmospheric effects using model outputs from the ERA-Interim global atmospheric model (Jolivet et al., GRL, 2011). From these five overlapping ratemaps, we model elastic strain accumulation for both the NAF and EAF, and calculate slip rates of 20×3 mm/yr and 10×2 mm/yr respectively, with associated locking depths of 16×9 km and 13×4 km. We then use the ratemaps, together with a compilation of GPS data in the area, to calculate a velocity field for Eastern Turkey. We find that the velocity field derived from InSAR and GPS data significantly reduces the uncertainty of east-west velocities when compared with the velocity field derived from GPS data alone, and shows that strain is mainly localised

  13. Surprisingly young Rb/Sr ages from the Simav extensional detachment fault zone, northern Menderes Massif, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkurt, Erdin; Satır, Muharrem; Buğdaycıoğlu, Çağrı

    2011-12-01

    The present paper demonstrates that exposed semi-brittle-brittle detachment fault zones, in addition to footwall mylonites and syn-extensional granitoids, can be used to date the timing of faulting and constrain the history and evolution of metamorphic core complexes. We employed Rb-Sr geochronology on micas, sampled directly from a part of the Simav detachment fault (SDF) zone in the northern Menderes Massif (western Turkey). The exposed part of the fault zone is marked by ˜3-m thick zone of low-grade mylonites/foliated cataclasites, in which mylonitic fabrics in orthogneisses are overprinted by fabrics of semi-brittle deformation. The low-grade mylonites/foliated cataclasites are characterized by coexistence of brown and green biotites. Rb-Sr ages on muscovite and brown and green biotite from the low-grade mylonites/foliated cataclasites are ca. 30 Ma, 17-13 Ma and 12-10 Ma, respectively; green biotite ages are interpreted as dating fluid-assisted deformation-induced dynamic recrystallization and suggest that a part of the SDF was active during a 12-10 Ma interval. The ca. 30 Ma muscovite ages date dynamic crystallization and probably beginning of extensional exhumation of the northern Menderes Massif. The coexistence of brown and green biotites in the same sample indicates retrogressive processes associated within a detachment faulting during which green biotites have recrystallized from primary brown biotites with an age of 19 ± 2 Ma in this area. This further means that the isotopic system became opened during faulting and that the green biotite ages therefore record the activity of the SDF. We have also dated an orthogneiss sample exposed well away from the detachment fault zone (devoid of any retrogressive processes); muscovites and biotites from this sample yield Rb-Sr ages of 45.7 ± 0.6 and 18.17 ± 0.18 Ma, respectively. The biotite age is in accord with regional biotite ages (19 ± 2 Ma) and record cooling of the footwall rocks of the detachment fault

  14. Tectonic Evolution of the Çayirhan Neogene Basin (Ankara), Central Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behzad, Bezhan; Koral, Hayrettin; İşb&idot; l, Duygu; Karaaǧa; ç, Serdal

    2016-04-01

    Çayırhan (Ankara) is located at crossroads of the Western Anatolian extensional region, analogous to the Basin and Range Province, and suture zone of the Neotethys-Ocean, which is locus of the North Anatolian Transform since the Late Miocene. To the north of Çayırhan (Ankara), a Neogene sedimentary basin comprises Lower-Middle Miocene and Upper Miocene age formations, characterized by swamp, fluvial and lacustrine settings respectively. This sequence is folded and transected by neotectonic faults. The Sekli thrust fault is older than the Lower-Middle Miocene age formations. The Davutoǧlan fault is younger than the Lower-Middle Miocene formations and is contemporaneous to the Upper Miocene formation. The Çatalkaya fault is younger than the Upper Miocene formation. The sedimentary and tectonic features provide information on mode, timing and evolution of this Neogene age sedimentary basin in Central Turkey. It is concluded that the region underwent a period of uplift and erosion under the influence of contractional tectonics prior to the Early-Middle Miocene, before becoming a semi-closed basin under influence of transtensional tectonics during the Early-Middle Miocene and under influence of predominantly extensional tectonics during the post-Late Miocene times. Keywords: Tectonics, Extension, Transtension, Stratigraphy, Neotectonic features.

  15. Fault-Zone Maturity Defines Maximum Earthquake Magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnhoff, M.; Bulut, F.; Stierle, E.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Estimating the maximum likely magnitude of future earthquakes on transform faults near large metropolitan areas has fundamental consequences for the expected hazard. Here we show that the maximum earthquakes on different sections of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) scale with the duration of fault zone activity, cumulative offset and length of individual fault segments. The findings are based on a compiled catalogue of historical earthquakes in the region, using the extensive literary sources that exist due to the long civilization record. We find that the largest earthquakes (M~8) are exclusively observed along the well-developed part of the fault zone in the east. In contrast, the western part is still in a juvenile or transitional stage with historical earthquakes not exceeding M=7.4. This limits the current seismic hazard to NW Turkey and its largest regional population and economical center Istanbul. Our findings for the NAFZ are consistent with data from the two other major transform faults, the San Andreas fault in California and the Dead Sea Transform in the Middle East. The results indicate that maximum earthquake magnitudes generally scale with fault-zone evolution.

  16. Polarization Anisotropy Along the Anatolian African Plate Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandvol, E.; Polat, G.; Lough, A.; Sahin, S.; Turkelli, N.

    2006-12-01

    This study focuses on mantle flow beneath and around the Anatolian plate using measurements of seismic anisotropy. Observations of shear wave splitting across the Anatolian plate have a NE-SW fast direction and lag time similar to that observed from temporary broadband stations within the plate, indicating that the anisotropic fabric may be relatively uniform throughout the upper mantle beneath the Anatolian plate. The extensive young basaltic volcanism, regional travel time tomography, and regional phase attenuation tomography all indicate that the lithospheric mantle beneath most of the Anatolian plate has largely been removed or is very thin. Unless exceptionally high anisotropy exists in the thinned lithosphere, the main contribution to the observed delay times (of order 1 s) must therefore be asthenospheric and thus reflect recent asthenospheric flow patterns. One exception appears to be a change in the fast direction across a region of concentrated extension in western Anatolia. We observe a change in the orientation of the splitting that is consistent with the direction of crustal extension. The African-Anatolian plate boundary is made up of two very different convergent margins: the Hellenic arc to the west and the Cyprian arc to the east. There is substantial evidence that the Hellenic arc is retreating and the Cyprian arc is relatively stationary. Furthermore, both earthquake hypocenters and tomographic models indicate that the Cyprian angle of subduction is much less steep than the subduction occurring along the Hellenic arc. This substantial geometric difference implies that there is a tear or gap in the subduction of African oceanic lithosphere beneath the Anatolian plate along what is called the Isparta Angle. We are investigating mantle dynamics and mantle flow around and through this possible tear in the lithosphere. We will use a combination of seismic tomographic methods (surface wave, body wave, and attenuation) as well as neotectonics studies to

  17. Neogene Sequence Along the Eskişehir Fault Zone (EFZ), NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apaydın Poşluk, Elif; Koral, Hayrettin

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to explore the stratigraphy and structural features of Neogene units located in the Bozüyük (Bilecik) and Oklubalı (Eskişehir) area in southern Marmara, which lies on the collision zone between the Sakarya and Tauride-Anatolide blocks. Pre-Mesozoic marbles, schists and granodiorites, Mesozoic marbles, schists, ophiolitic units and limestones are basement rocks. Cover units include Neogene age formations. From the bottom to top, they are named the Porsuk Formation and the Akpınar Limestone, the İnönü Volcanics and the Ilıca Formation. Paleontological data which could yield a geological age have not been observed in fluvial sediments of the Porsuk Formation and lacustrine deposits of the Akpınar Limestone. The 40K/40Ar dating analyses on trachy-andesite of the overlying İnönü Volcanics have yielded middle Miocene ages (15.0-15.5 Ma), suggesting the underlying sedimentary units namely the Porsuk Formation and the Akpınar Limestone to be lower-middle Miocene in age. Fossils have been discovered in the lacustrine limestone of the Ilıca Formation in Oklubalı (İnönü-Eskişehir) village, and the age is determined to be lower Pliocene. The Eskişehir Fault Zone (EFZ) transects the Neogene formations and Quaternary sediments along an E-W'ly orientation. The Ormangüzle, Bozalan, Kandilli and İnönü Faults are segments observed from the west to east inside the Eskişehir Fault Zone. Some of these faults have NW-SE and others WNW-ESE orientations. The faults in NW-SE directions were effective for the formation of the Neogene sequence based on NE, SE and SW-oriented paleo-flow orientations and abrupt facies changes. The faults with WNW-ESE orientations, as noted in the Çukurhisar earthquake of February 2, 1956 (M=6.4), still keep their seismic activity and have a potential of producing earthquakes. Keywords: Neogene sediments, 40K/40Ar dating, the Eskişehir Fault Zone, active fault, Çukurhisar earthquake

  18. The 1999 Izmit, Turkey, earthquake: A 3D dynamic stress transfer model of intraearthquake triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, R.A.; Dolan, J.F.; Hartleb, R.; Day, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Before the August 1999 Izmit (Kocaeli), Turkey, earthquake, theoretical studies of earthquake ruptures and geological observations had provided estimates of how far an earthquake might jump to get to a neighboring fault. Both numerical simulations and geological observations suggested that 5 km might be the upper limit if there were no transfer faults. The Izmit earthquake appears to have followed these expectations. It did not jump across any step-over wider than 5 km and was instead stopped by a narrower step-over at its eastern end and possibly by a stress shadow caused by a historic large earthquake at its western end. Our 3D spontaneous rupture simulations of the 1999 Izmit earthquake provide two new insights: (1) the west- to east-striking fault segments of this part of the North Anatolian fault are oriented so as to be low-stress faults and (2) the easternmost segment involved in the August 1999 rupture may be dipping. An interesting feature of the Izmit earthquake is that a 5-km-long gap in surface rupture and an adjacent 25° restraining bend in the fault zone did not stop the earthquake. The latter observation is a warning that significant fault bends in strike-slip faults may not arrest future earthquakes.

  19. Seismicity distribution and locking depth along the Main Marmara Fault, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmittbuhl, J.; Karabulut, H.; Lengliné, O.; Bouchon, M.

    2016-03-01

    The seismicity along the Main Marmara Fault (MMF) below the Marmara Sea is analyzed during the 2007-2012 period to provide insights on the recent evolution of this important regional seismic gap. High precision locations show that seismicity is strongly varying along strike and depth providing fine details of the fault behavior that are inaccessible from geodetic observations. The activity strongly clusters at the regions of transition between basins. The Central basin shows significant seismicity located below the shallow locking depth inferred from GPS measurements. Its b-value is low and the average seismic slip is high. All observations are consistent with a deep creep of this segment. On the contrary, the Kumburgaz basin at the center of the fault shows sparse seismicity with the hallmarks of a locked segment. In the eastern Marmara Sea, the seismicity distribution along the Princes Island segment in the Cinarcik basin, is consistent with the geodetic locking depth of 10 km and a low contribution to the regional seismic energy release. The assessment of the locked segment areas provide an estimate of the magnitude of the main forthcoming event to be about 7.3 assuming that the rupture will not enter significantly within creeping domains.

  20. Characterization of building materials from the aqueduct of Antioch-on-the-Orontes (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjelloun, Yacine; de Sigoyer, Julia; Carlut, Julie; Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; Dessales, Hélène; Pamir, Hatice; Karabacak, Volkan

    2015-07-01

    The Roman aqueduct of Antioch-on-the-Orontes (Turkey), a city located near the junction between the active Dead Sea fault and the East Anatolian fault, has been damaged several times due to historical earthquakes, as mentioned in ancient texts. The traces of repairs are studied in order to identify their potential seismic origin. The deformations of the structure were characterised thanks to a LIDAR scan. Several bricks were sampled on different parts of the city's aqueducts, on the original structure and on repaired parts. The bricks were characterized through a petrological approach. 14C and archaeomagnetism were tested on the bricks in order to constrain the age of their production. The synthesis of all the data showed a local origin for the bricks, and led to the identification of several manufacturing techniques and several types of production, thus, confirming the potentiality of this approach to date and characterise post-seismic repairs.

  1. M≥7 Earthquake rupture forecast and time-dependent probability for the Sea of Marmara region, Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murru, Maura; Akinci, Aybige; Falcone, Guiseppe; Pucci, Stefano; Console, Rodolfo; Parsons, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    We forecast time-independent and time-dependent earthquake ruptures in the Marmara region of Turkey for the next 30 years using a new fault-segmentation model. We also augment time-dependent Brownian Passage Time (BPT) probability with static Coulomb stress changes (ΔCFF) from interacting faults. We calculate Mw > 6.5 probability from 26 individual fault sources in the Marmara region. We also consider a multisegment rupture model that allows higher-magnitude ruptures over some segments of the Northern branch of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NNAF) beneath the Marmara Sea. A total of 10 different Mw=7.0 to Mw=8.0 multisegment ruptures are combined with the other regional faults at rates that balance the overall moment accumulation. We use Gaussian random distributions to treat parameter uncertainties (e.g., aperiodicity, maximum expected magnitude, slip rate, and consequently mean recurrence time) of the statistical distributions associated with each fault source. We then estimate uncertainties of the 30-year probability values for the next characteristic event obtained from three different models (Poisson, BPT, and BPT+ΔCFF) using a Monte Carlo procedure. The Gerede fault segment located at the eastern end of the Marmara region shows the highest 30-yr probability, with a Poisson value of 29%, and a time-dependent interaction probability of 48%. We find an aggregated 30-yr Poisson probability of M >7.3 earthquakes at Istanbul of 35%, which increases to 47% if time dependence and stress transfer are considered. We calculate a 2-fold probability gain (ratio time-dependent to time-independent) on the southern strands of the North Anatolian Fault Zone.

  2. A possible cause of the Miocene uplift and volcanism in the central Anatolian plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartol, J.; Govers, R. M.; Wortel, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    During the middle and late Miocene (13-5Ma) several seemingly unrelated events occurred in central Anatolia, Turkey; (1) a new epoch of widespread volcanic activity with a mantle signature, (2) sudden uplift and disruption of a Oligocene-lower Miocene palaeo drainage system in the Western Taurus (southwest Turkey) and (3) a regional regression across southern Turkey (Antalya, Adana, Mut) coeval with volcanic activity. These observations suggest an uplift (>1000 meters) of the central Anatolian plateau by a mechanism which also triggered widespread volcanic activity. In eastern Anatolia, similar events are attributed to delamination of the lithospheric mantle [e.g. Keskin et al., 2003]. Results from tomography [W.Spakman, pers. com]) suggest that the (deeper) Bitlis slab was laterally continuous below the eastern and central Anatolian plateau. We therefore propose that the scenario developed for eastern Anatolian plateau also applies to the central Anatolian plateau. In this scenario, delamination started along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone and was possibly induced by remnants of a northern Neotethys slab or continental collision between Arabia and Eurasia. As the lithospheric mantle separated from the crust it sank into the asthenosphere and was replaced by hot mantle material. If true, delamination is expected to have had a thermal and isostatic imprint. Using a three-dimensional thermal-flexural model and taking changes of the effective elastic thickness due to thermal perturbation into account, we aim to quantify the possible imprints in the geological record of the central and eastern Anatolian plateau. Our model results show that delamination of the lithospheric mantle can explain the present day elevation (1500 m) of the central Anatolian plateau. For the eastern Anatolian plateau, however, delamination of the lithospheric mantle alone can only explain half (1000 m) of the present day elevation. Thickening of the eastern Anatolia crust by 1-5 km (β=1

  3. Enhancement of the national strong-motion network in Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gulkan, Polat; Ceken, U.; Colakoglu, Z.; Ugras, T.; Kuru, T.; Apak, A.; Anderson, J.G.; Sucuoglu, H.; Celebi, M.; Akkar, D.S.; Yazgan, U.; Denizlioglu, A.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Two arrays comprising 20 strong-motion sensors were established in western Turkey. The 14 stations of BYTNet follow a N-S trending line about 65 km in length, normal to strands of the North Anatolian fault that runs between the cities of Bursa and Yalova. Here the dominant character of the potential fault movement is a right-lateral transform slip. The DATNet array, comprising a total of eight stations, is arranged along a 110-km-long E-W trending direction along the Menderes River valley between Denizli and Aydin. (Two stations in this array were incorporated from the existing Turkish national strong-motion network.) This is an extensional tectonic environment, and the network mornitors potential large normal-faulting earthquakes on the faults in the valley. The installation of the arrays was supported by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) under its Science for Peace Program. Maintenance and calibration is performed by the General Directorate of Disaster Affairs (GDDA) according to a protocol between Middle East Technical University (METU) and GDDA. Many young engineers and scientists have been trained in network operation and evaluation during the course of the project, and an international workshop dealing with strong-motion instrumentation has been organized as part of the project activities.

  4. Geodynamics of the Dead Sea Fault: Do active faulting and past earthquakes determine the seismic gaps?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2014-05-01

    The ~1000-km-long North-South trending Dead Sea transform fault (DSF) presents structural discontinuities and includes segments that experienced large earthquakes (Mw>7) in historical times. The Wadi Araba and Jordan Valley, the Lebanese restraining bend, the Missyaf and Ghab fault segments in Syria and the Ziyaret Fault segment in Turkey display geometrical complexities made of step overs, restraining and releasing bends that may constitute major obstacles to earthquake rupture propagation. Using active tectonics, GPS measurements and paleoseismology we investigate the kinematics and long-term/short term slip rates along the DSF. Tectonic geomorphology with paleoseismic trenching and archeoseismic investigations indicate repeated faulting events and left-lateral slip rate ranging from 4 mm/yr in the southern fault section to 6 mm/yr in the northern fault section. Except for the northernmost DSF section, these estimates of fault slip rate are consistent with GPS measurements that show 4 to 5 mm/yr deformation rate across the plate boundary. However, recent GPS results showing ~2.5 mm/yr velocity rate of the northern DSF appears to be quite different than the ~6 mm/yr paleoseismic slip rate. The kinematic modeling that combines GPS and seismotectonic results implies a complex geodynamic pattern where the DSF transforms the Cyprus arc subduction zone into transpressive tectonics on the East Anatolian fault. The timing of past earthquake ruptures shows the occurrence of seismic sequences and a southward migration of large earthquakes, with the existence of major seismic gaps along strike. In this paper, we discuss the role of the DSF in the regional geodynamics and its implication on the identification of seismic gaps.

  5. Soft-sediment deformation structures in the late Miocene Şelmo Formation around Adıyaman area, Southeastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koç Taşgın, Calibe; Orhan, Hükmü; Türkmen, İbrahim; Aksoy, Ercan

    2011-04-01

    The Şelmo Formation was deposited in the basins associated with the Southeastern Anatolian Thrust Belt and East Anatolian Fault Zone in SE Turkey. These structures developed as a result of compressional stresses created by the movement of the Arabian plate to the north and the Eurasian plate to the west from early Miocene to late Pliocene. The outcrops of the Şelmo Formation in the Adýyaman area (SE Turkey) comprise braided river deposits (lower alluvial unit) at the base, lacustrine and deltaic deposits in the middle (lacustrine unit) and low sinuousity river and alluvial deposits at the top (upper alluvial unit). Soft-sediment deformation structures were developed in sandstone, siltstone and marl of the deltaic and lacustrine unit of the Şelmo Formation. These are slumps, recumbent folds, load casts, ball-and-pillow structures, flame structures, neptunian dykes, chaotically associated structures and synsedimentary faults. The tectonic setting of the basin, the lateral extent of the soft-sediment deformation structures over tens of kilometers, their similarities to deformation structures interpreted as being induced seismically in other regions worldwide or in a laboratory setting, and being confined by undeformed layers suggest that the main trigger system was related to seismic activity in the area.

  6. The interpretation of crustal dynamics data in terms of plate interactions and active tectonics of the Anatolian Plate and surrounding regions in the Middle East

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toksoz, M. Nafi

    1987-01-01

    The primary effort in this study during the past year has been directed along two separate lines: (1) expanding finite element models to include the entire Anatolian plate, the Aegean Sea and the Northeastern Mediterranean Sea, and (2) investigating the relationship between fault geometry and earthquake activity for the North Anatolian and similar strike-slip faults (e.g., San Andreas Fault). Both efforts are designed to provide an improved basis for interpreting the Crustal Dynamics measurements NASA has planned for this region. The initial phases of both investigations have been completed and the results are being prepared for publication. These investigations are described briefly.

  7. Source Mechanisms of Recent Earthquakes occurred in the Fethiye-Rhodes Basin and Anaximander Seamounts (SW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yolsal-Çevikbilen, Seda; Taymaz, Tuncay

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the active tectonics of southern Turkey involves integrating earthquake source parameters with the regional tectonics. In this respect, seismological studies have played important roles in deciphering tectonic deformations and existing stress accumulations in the region. This study is concerned with the source mechanism parameters and spatio-temporal finite-fault slip distributions of recent earthquakes occurred along the Pliny-Strabo Trench (PST), which constitutes the eastern part of the Hellenic subduction zone in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea Region, and along the Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone (SW Turkey). The study area is located at the junction of the Hellenic and Cyprus arcs along which the African plate plunges northwards beneath the Aegean Sea and the Anatolian block. Bathymetry and topography including large-scale tectonic structures such as the Rhodes Basin, Anaximander Seamounts, the Florence Rise, the Isparta Angle, the Taurus Mountains, and Kyrenia Range also reflect the tectonic complexities in the region. In this study, we performed point-source inversions by using teleseismic long-period P- and SH- and broad-band P-waveforms recorded by the Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN) and the Global Digital Seismograph Network (GDSN) stations. We obtained source mechanism parameters and finite-fault slip distributions of recent Fethiye-Rhodes earthquakes (Mw ≥ 5.0) by comparing the shapes and amplitudes of long period P- and SH-waveforms, recorded in the distance range of 30 - 90 degrees, with synthetic waveforms. We further obtained rupture histories of the earthquakes to determine the fault area (fault length and width), maximum displacement, rupture duration and stress drop. Inversion results exhibit that recent earthquakes show left-lateral strike-slip faulting mechanisms with relatively deeper focal depths (h > 40 km) consistent with tectonic characteristics of the region, for example, the June 10, 2012 Fethiye earthquake (Mw

  8. Late Cenozoic stress field distribution in Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozden, S.; Bekler, T.; Tutkun, S. Z.; Kurcer, A.; Ates, O.; Bekler, F. N.; Kalafat, D.

    2009-04-01

    Biga Peninsula is a seismically active region both in instrumental and historical period in NW Turkey. In this part, middle and southern branches of North Anatolian Fault are represented by Etili, Can-Biga, Yenice-Gonen, Manyas-Danisment, Lapseki, Sinekci, Terzialan, Dogruca, Uluabat, Edincik, Pazarkoy-Hamdibey-Kalkim, Edremit, Yigitler, Sarikoy-Inova, Troia and Karabiga Faults. All of these faults are responsible of the seismic activity in Biga Peninsula. Historical earthquakes happened in 29, 155, 170, 543, 620, 1440, 1737, 1855, 1865 and 1875. Furthermore, as for instrumental period, Saros Gulf-Murefte earthquakes (M:7.3 and M:6.3) in 1912, Erdek Gulf (M:6.4) and Can-Biga (M:6.3) in 1935, Edremit Gulf-Ayvaci k (M:6.8) in 1944, Yenice-Gonen (M:7.2) in 1953, Gonen (M:5.8) in 1964, Edremit-Baki rcay (M:5.5) in 1971, Biga (M:5.8) in 1983, Kusgolu-Manyas (M:5.2) and Bandirma (M:5.0) in 2006. In this study, we determined the Late Cenozoic stress field distribution and present-day tectonic regimes both fault-slip data (by 253 fault planes) and earthquake focal mechanism solutions (by 58 earthquakes) were investigated by the inversion methods. The results indicate that a transtensional stress regime is dominant with a NW-SE to WNW-ESE directed compression (1) and NE-SW to ENE-WSW directed extension (3), which yielded a NE-SW, ENE-WSW and also E-W trending strike-slip faulting faults with a normal component. While a transtensional tectonic regime has an active component in Biga Peninsula, a local and consistent transpressional tectonic regime were determined along an E-W trending narrow zone in the northern part of the Biga Peninsula also. The tectonic regime and stress field is resulted from interactions both continental collision of Eurasian/Anatolian/Arabian plate in the east and subduction processes (roll back and/or slab-pull) of the African plate along the Cyprus and Hellenic arc in the Mediterranean region.

  9. Uplift of the southern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau (CAP): age constraints from the youngest marine deposits capping the central Tauride Units in the Gülnar district (Mersin, southern Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogretmen, Nazik; Cipollari, Paola; Frezza, Virgilio; Faranda, Costanza; Gliozzi, Elsa; Yıldırım, Cengiz; Radeff, Giuditta; Cosentino, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    In the Gülnar district (Mersin, southern Turkey), Neogene marine deposits unconformably overlie the basement units of the Central Taurides. The age of these marine deposits was classically used to constrain the uplift of the CAP southern margin and, according to the age of the marine deposits cropping out in the Ermenek Basin (Başyayla section), a post-Tortonian age was recently suggested for this event. Indeed, the stratigraphy of the subsiding Adana-Cilicia Basin, to the south of the uplifted CAP southern margin, provides evidence of even younger age (end of the Messinian, ca. 5.45 Ma). Moreover, the stratigraphical architecture of the marine deposits capping the CAP southern margin, which shows an unconformity surface within the late Neogene marine succession, was recently used for defining a multi-phased uplift of the CAP southern margin, with a second uplift phase in the early Calabrian (ca. 1.6 Ma). In the Gülnar area, we sampled the highest marine deposits of the upper Neogene succession that unconformably overlie the basement units of the Central Taurides (Gülnar E section). Biostratigraphical investigations carried out on calcareous nannofossils, benthic and planktonic foraminifera, and ostracods reveal that the Gülnar E section represents the youngest marine deposits, as far known, preserved on top of the uplifted CAP southern margin. These deposits, which unconformably overlie the shallow-water limestones of the Mut Formation (middle-late Miocene), consist mainly of clays and calcareous beds showing a shallowing-upward trend. Five sapropel layers characterize the grey clays of the lowermost part of the section, with an additional possible anoxic event between the second and third sapropel. A spectacular thick slumped-horizon qualifies the uppermost portion of the study section. The Calabrian age of the Gülnar E section is well constrained by the occurrence of different marker species from both calcareous nannofossils and foraminifera. The

  10. Seismotectonic Investigation of Karliova Triple Junction (KTJ) and the Surrounding Area : Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalafat, D.; Kekovali, K.; Suvarikli, M.; Samut, M. D.; Altuncu Poyraz, S.; Tunc, B.; Yilmazer, M.; Gorgun, E.; Koseoglu Kusmezer, A.; Ogutcu, Z.; Gunes, Y.; Kara, M.; Kilic, K.; Comoglu, M.; Deniz, P.; Polat, R.; Kepekci, D.; Tunc, S.; Cok, O.; Gul, M.; Ozer, M.; Horasan, G.; Gulen, L.; Ocal, M. F.

    2011-12-01

    Eastern Turkey is the most tectonically active region in Turkey. This region contains the East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ) that is one of the most active tectonic zone and it has a long history of devastating earthquakes. At the same time EAFZ is the southeastern boundary of the Anatolian Block. EAFZ is a left-lateral strike-slip fault that extends between Karliova and Hazar Lake, in Eastern Turkey. The Karliova region is located between North-Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) and EAFZ, and it shows high seismicity due to the active fault systems. The Karliova triple Junction (KTJ) where the NAFZ intersects the EAFZ is the most tectonically active region in Turkey. We do not have enough information about the seismic and seismotectonic features of the KTJ region. The lack of dense instrumental network have created difficulties in delineation of seismic sources. Previous scientific studies have suggested that the Yedisu Segment is a seismic gap, but it has not been characterized by detail studies. The Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) has increased the number of the seismic stations in the region since 2005. We are in the process of installing 7 more broad band (BB) seismic stations at the Karliova junction region where the two major fault zones intersect. Thus, the physical caharacteristics of the earthquake sources will be better characterized and their relations with the very complex active fault network in the region will be investigated in detail. Particularly, by analyzing focal mechanisms/MT solutions of the earthquakes with a magnitude of M>4.5, the deformation characteristics, earthquake occurrence patterns and the seismic gaps of the region will be revealed. Our study will include: The ongoing active deformation will be monitored in real-time, Different fault segment properties and their geometries will be characterized,Fault plane- MT solutions-Source parameters will be obtained,Monitoring of foreschock-afterschock activities of

  11. Kinematic Rupture Process Of Karakocan-Elazig Earthquake, Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekler, F. N.; Ozel, N. M.; Tanircan, G. B.

    2012-04-01

    An earthquake (Mw=5.9) hit Elazig in the eastern part of Turkey on March 8, 2010 at 02:32 (GMT). It is located midway between the provincial capital of Elazığ and Bingöl with coordinates reported as 38o48.42N and 40o5.99E by Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI). Source characterization and slip history were estimated the main and four moderate size earthquake almost at the same location. The earthquake occurred at one of the tectonically very active East Anatolian Fault zone starts at the Karlıova triple junction, where it meets the North Anatolian fault to the NE. Multi time-window linear waveform inversion technique (MTWIT) was applied to strong ground motion (SGM) data. Theoretical Green's functions between subfaults and stations were calculated by a Discrete Wave Number Method (DWNM) using 1-D velocity structure. Inversion technique used in this study yields a non unique solution. Therefore various rupture models have been tried until both observed and synthetic data were matched. Results show simple patterns in slip distributions. Maximum slip is 0.78 and seismic moment is 1.435E+25 dyne.cm from the kinematic rupture process of the strike slip faulting. In this study, we searched a stable 1-D crustal velocity model with low RMS misfit to construct the theoretical Green's function between each sub-fault and each station among the 4 different models. These are Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM; Dziewonski and Anderson, 1981), International Association of Seismology and the Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASP91) (Kennett and Engdahl, 1991), Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) earthquake location model, explosion model (Gurbuz, 2004). We have collected previous studies Rebollar et al., (2001), Ichinose et al., (1997), Abdel-Fattah (2002), Somerville et al., (1999), Wells and Coppersmith (1994) on source information of moderate size earthquakes occurred worldwide and compared with

  12. Seismotectonics and rupture process of the MW 7.1 2011 Van reverse-faulting earthquake, eastern Turkey, and implications for hazard in regions of distributed shortening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackenzie, D.; Elliott, J. R.; Altunel, E.; Walker, R. T.; Kurban, Y. C.; Schwenninger, J.-L.; Parsons, B.

    2016-07-01

    The 2011 October 23 MW 7.1 Van earthquake in eastern Turkey caused ˜600 deaths and caused widespread damage and economic loss. The seismogenic rupture was restricted to 10-25 km in depth, but aseismic surface creep, coincident with outcrop fault exposures, was observed in the hours to months after the earthquake. We combine observations from radar interferometry, seismology, geomorphology and Quaternary dating to investigate the geological slip rate and seismotectonic context of the Van earthquake, and assess the implications for continuing seismic hazard in the region. Transient post-seismic slip on the upper Van fault started immediately following the earthquake, and decayed over a period of weeks; it may not fully account for our long-term surface slip-rate estimate of ≥0.5 mm yr-1. Post-seismic slip on the Bostaniçi splay fault initiated several days to weeks after the main shock, and we infer that it may have followed the MW 5.9 aftershock on the 9th November. The Van earthquake shows that updip segmentation can be important in arresting seismic ruptures on dip-slip faults. Two large, shallow aftershocks show that the upper 10 km of crust can sustain significant earthquakes, and significant slip is observed to have reached the surface in the late Quaternary, so there may be a continuing seismic hazard from the upper Van fault and the associated splay. The wavelength of folding in the hanging wall of the Van fault is dominated by the structure in the upper 10 km of the crust, masking the effect of deeper seismogenic structures. Thus, models of subsurface faulting based solely on surface folding and faulting in regions of reverse faulting may underestimate the full depth extent of seismogenic structures in the region. In measuring the cumulative post-seismic offsets to anthropogenic structures, we show that Structure-from-Motion can be rapidly deployed to create snapshots of post-seismic displacement. We also demonstrate the utility of declassified Corona

  13. The stress state of the region around Inönü-Eskişehir. Active Fault System; interpretations derived from kinematic analysis accompanied with the TUTGA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SaäžLam Selćuk, Azad; Gökten, Ergun; Aktuäž, Bahadır.

    2010-05-01

    The Central parts of the Anatolian block plays role of stress transferring zone between East Anatolian contractional province and Aegean extensional region in the west during its driven towards west along North and East Anatolian Fault systems. Because of this, various stress regimes characterize and control the different subregions of the Central Anatolia and this situation is reflected by the seismicity of subregions. However the much of the subregions are characterized by strike-slip faultings, the orientations and the trends of the stess tensors are apart from each other. The northwestern part of the Central Anatolia is experienced by İnönü-Eskişehir Fault System which creates a complex stress region with the interactions of the North Anatolian Fault System situated in close north. The İnönü-Eskişehir Fault System is a WNW-ESE striking right-lateral strike-slip deformational area with a normal component that extends from Uludağ in the west to Sivrihisar in the east and separates the western Anatolia extensional region from the central Anatolia to the northeast. This fault system consists of E-W- and NW-SE-trending fault sets and segments which have potential to produce earthquakes in a wide range of magnitutes. Different aged and typed strike-slip basins appear around the Inonu-Eskisehir fault system. One of them is Mahmudiye-Cifteler-Emirdag basin. The Mahmudiye-Cifteler-Emirdag basin is a fault-controlled pull-apart basin in 85 km length and 25 km average width, extending in northwest-southeast trend from Yürükkaracaören village in the North to Emirdag in the South. Because of the recorded GPS data are inadequate for determining characters of the the low velocity deformation in the studied area, the strain rates are computed by using the velocity vectors from TUTGA data. TUTGA network has been established between 1997 and 1999 as covering the Anatolian block, and considering the deformation acquired by means of active tectonic movements of Turkey

  14. Aftershock Triggering and Estimation of the Coulomb Stress Changes with Approach of Optimally Oriented Fault Planes: Examples of Some Contemporary Earthquakes in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirci, Alper

    2013-04-01

    The Coulomb Stress changes due to the some moderate and large earthquakes are shaped according to the orientations of reciever faults or weakness zones along the corresponding seismogenic zones. In some cases, the determination of the fault plane parameters (e.g. length, width, strike, dip) of the receiver faults are more difficult due to the tectonical complexity of the region. Therefore, in order to understand the aftershock distrubition in such areas Coulomb stress changes can be calculated under the assumption of optimally oriented fault planes which increases the spatial correlation between stress changes and aftershock distribution. In the scope of the present sutdy, aftershock distrubiton of some contemporary earthquakes in Turkey (Simav (Mw 5.8), May 2011; Van (Mw 7.0), Oct 2011 and Gulf of Fethiye (Mw 6.1), June 2012) and their coulomb stress changes were correlated. Fault plane parameters of these earthquakes which suggest three different types of focal mechanism were calculated using moment tensor inversion technique and aftershock location data in a period of 30 days for each corresponding events were taken from Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) catalog. The focal mechanisms of the selected earthquakes represent normal, strike slip and thrust faulting for the earthquakes of Simav, Gulf of Fethite and Van, respectively. Coulomb Stress Changes were calculated using the open source Matlab based (Coulomb 3.3) codes. The calculations were performed by assuming Poisson's ratio and apparent friction coefficient to be 0.25 and 0.4, respectively. The coulomb stress variations were calculated at fixed depths for each event and aftershocks were selected as ±4 km for corresponding depths. Keeping in mind that the increase of static stress more than 0.5 bar can cause the triggered events in an area, the accordance rates of Coulomb stress changes and aftershock distribution under different tectonic regimes were disscussed. The accordance

  15. Neotectonic deformation in the western sector of tectonic escape in Anatolia: palaeomagnetic study of the Afyon region, central Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürsoy, H.; Piper, J. D. A.; Tatar, O.

    2003-10-01

    Following final closure of the Neotethyan Ocean during the late Miocene, deformation in central Turkey has led to crustal thickening and uplift to produce the Anatolian Plateau followed by westward extrusion of terranes by strike-slip. Widespread volcanism has accompanied this latter (neotectonic) phase, and palaeomagnetic study of the volcanism shows a coherent record of differential block rotations, indicating that the Anatolian region is not a plate (or 'platelet') sensu stricto but is undergoing distributed internal deformation. To evaluate the scale of neotectonic rotations in the transition zone near the western limit of tectonic escape and the border of the extensional domain in central-west Turkey, we have studied the palaeomagnetism at 82 sites in volcanic suites distributed along a ˜140-km lineament with north-south trend and ranging in age from 18 to 8 Ma. Comparable deflection of magnetic remanence from the present field direction is identified along the full length of the lineament. A mean clockwise rotation of 12.3±4.2° is determined for this western sector of the Anatolian strike-slip province. Since similar rotations are observed in the youngest and oldest units, this cumulative rotation occurred after the late Miocene. When interpreted together with results elsewhere in Anatolia, it is inferred that the rotation is later than crustal thickening and uplift of the Anatolian Plateau and entirely a facet of the tectonic escape. Inclinations are mostly ˜10° shallower than the predicted Miocene field and are considered to reflect the presence of a persistent inclination anomaly in the Mediterranean region. Larger rotations departing from the regional trend are also observed within the study region, but are confined to the vicinity of major faults, notably those bounding the Afyon-Akşehir Graben. The pattern of neotectonic declinations across Anatolia identifies strong anticlockwise rotation in the east near the Arabian pincer with progressive

  16. The Superimposed Paleocene-Miocene Tectonics of the middle part of the Nallihan Wedge (NW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Murat; Yaltirak, Cenk

    2015-04-01

    In the NW Turkey, the area between the suture zones of the Rhodope-Pontide Ocean and Izmir-Ankara Ocean, and North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) and Thrace-Eskişehir Fault Zone (TEFZ) is known as the Nallıhan Wedge. The shape of Nallıhan Wedge is a 90 degree counter-clockwise rotated isosceles triangle. The northwestern boundary is a part of NAFZ and the southwestern boundary is a part of TEFZ. The 160 km-long eastern boundary is located at around Beypazarı and western corner is on the Bursa Plain. Nallıhan is situated at the centre of this isosceles triangle. While all the thrusts and folds shrink towards to the west and show an imbricate-like structure, the characteristics of the folds turn into to the open folds. Thrusts faults are locally observed as blind and almost perpendicular thrusts at the fold limbs towards to the east. The rocks of the study area show different characteristics according to their types and basins of formation. On the other hand the structural properties of these rocks display the effects of the closure of the Intra-Pontide and Izmir-Ankara Oceans in between Paleocene and Early Oligocene. During Miocene, the thrust faults reactivated and a deformation formed the NEE-SWW left lateral strike-slip faults parallel to these thrust faults. Whereas the first events are related to the closure of the branches of Neo-Tethys, the Miocene deformation is probably based on the Miocene tectonics of the Western Anatolia by the reason of equivalent age of the TEFZ. In this framework, the deformation of the Nallıhan Wedge presents significant information about the period between the evolution of Paleotectonic and Neotectonic of Turkey.

  17. Slip deficit and location of seismic gaps along the Dead Sea Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha; Toussaint, Renaud; Ferry, Matthieu; Nguema-Edzang, Parfait

    2015-04-01

    The Dead Sea Fault (DSF), a ~ 1000-km-long North-South trending transform fault presents structural discontinuities and includes segments that experienced large earthquakes (Mw>7) in historical times. The Wadi Araba and Jordan Valley, the Lebanese restraining bend, the Missyaf and Ghab fault segments in Syria and the Ziyaret Fault segment in Turkey display geometrical complexities made of step overs, restraining and releasing bends that may constitute major obstacles to earthquake rupture propagation. Using active tectonics, GPS measurements and paleoseismology we investigate the kinematics and long-term/short-term slip rates along the Dead Sea fault. Tectonic geomorphology with paleoseismic trenching and archeoseismic investigations indicate repeated faulting events and left-lateral slip rate ranging from 4 mm/yr in the southern fault section to 6 mm/yr in the northern fault section. Except for the northernmost DSF section, these long-term estimates of fault slip rate are consistent with GPS measurements that show 4 to 5 mm/yr deformation rate across the plate boundary. Indeed, recent GPS results showing 3 +-0.5 mm/yr velocity rate of the northern DSF appear to be in contradiction with the ~6 mm/yr paleoseismic slip rate. The kinematic modeling that combines GPS and seismotectonic results implies a complex geodynamic pattern with the DSF transforms the Cyprus arc subduction zone into transpressive tectonics on the East Anatolian fault. The timing of past earthquake ruptures shows the occurrence of seismic sequences and a southward migration of large earthquakes, with the existence of major seismic gaps along strike. In this contribution, we present the calculated seismic slip deficit along the fault segments and discuss the identification of seismic gaps and the implication for the seismic hazard assessment.

  18. Insurance Applications of Active Fault Maps Showing Epistemic Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, G.

    2005-12-01

    high deductible is in force, this requires estimation of the epistemic uncertainty on fault geometry and activity. Transport infrastructure insurance is of practical interest in seismic countries. On the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey, there is uncertainty over an unbroken segment between the eastern end of the Dazce Fault and Bolu. This may have ruptured during the 1944 earthquake. Existing hazard maps may simply use a question mark to flag uncertainty. However, a far more informative type of hazard map might express spatial variations in the confidence level associated with a fault map. Through such visual guidance, an insurance risk analyst would be better placed to price earthquake cover, allowing for epistemic uncertainty.

  19. Earthquake Swarm in Armutlu Peninsula, Eastern Marmara Region, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, Evrim; Çaka, Deniz; Tunç, Berna; Serkan Irmak, T.; Woith, Heiko; Cesca, Simone; Lühr, Birger-Gottfried; Barış, Şerif

    2015-04-01

    The most active fault system of Turkey is North Anatolian Fault Zone and caused two large earthquakes in 1999. These two earthquakes affected the eastern Marmara region destructively. Unbroken part of the North Anatolian Fault Zone crosses north of Armutlu Peninsula on east-west direction. This branch has been also located quite close to Istanbul known as a megacity with its high population, economic and social aspects. A new cluster of microseismic activity occurred in the direct vicinity southeastern of the Yalova Termal area. Activity started on August 2, 2014 with a series of micro events, and then on August 3, 2014 a local magnitude is 4.1 event occurred, more than 1000 in the followed until August 31, 2014. Thus we call this tentatively a swarm-like activity. Therefore, investigation of the micro-earthquake activity of the Armutlu Peninsula has become important to understand the relationship between the occurrence of micro-earthquakes and the tectonic structure of the region. For these reasons, Armutlu Network (ARNET), installed end of 2005 and equipped with currently 27 active seismic stations operating by Kocaeli University Earth and Space Sciences Research Center (ESSRC) and Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ), is a very dense network tool able to record even micro-earthquakes in this region. In the 30 days period of August 02 to 31, 2014 Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) announced 120 local earthquakes ranging magnitudes between 0.7 and 4.1, but ARNET provided more than 1000 earthquakes for analyzes at the same time period. In this study, earthquakes of the swarm area and vicinity regions determined by ARNET were investigated. The focal mechanism of the August 03, 2014 22:22:42 (GMT) earthquake with local magnitude (Ml) 4.0 is obtained by the moment tensor solution. According to the solution, it discriminates a normal faulting with dextral component. The obtained focal mechanism solution is

  20. Soil liquefaction potential in Eskişehir, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosun, H.; Seyrek, E.; Orhan, A.; Savaş, H.; Türköz, M.

    2011-04-01

    Liquefaction is one of the critical problems in geotechnical engineering. High ground water levels and alluvial soils have a high potential risk for damage due to liquefaction, especially in seismically active regions. Eskişehir urban area, studied in this article, is situated within the second degree earthquake region on the seismic hazard zonation map of Turkey and is surrounded by Eskişehir, North Anatolian, Kütahya and Simav Fault Zones. Geotechnical investigations are carried out in two stages: field and laboratory. In the first stage, 232 boreholes in different locations were drilled and Standard Penetration Test (SPT) was performed. Test pits at 106 different locations were also excavated to support geotechnical data obtained from field tests. In the second stage, experimental studies were performed to determine the Atterberg limits and physical properties of soils. Liquefaction potential was investigated by a simplified method based on SPT. A scenario earthquake of magnitude M=6.4, produced by Eskişehir Fault Zone, was used in the calculations. Analyses were carried out for PGA levels at 0.19, 0.30 and 0.47 g. The results of the analyses indicate that presence of high ground water level and alluvial soil increase the liquefaction potential with the seismic features of the region. Following the analyses, liquefaction potential maps were produced for different depth intervals and can be used effectively for development plans and risk management practices in Eskişehir.

  1. Installation of EarthScope Borehole Strainmeters in Turkey to complement GONAF.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W.; Gottlieb, M. H.; Mencin, D.; Van Boskirk, E.; Ozener, H.; Bohnhoff, M.; Bulut, F.; Bal, O.; Acarel, D.; Aydin, H.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Twice in the past 1000 years a sequence of damaging earthquakes has propagated over a period of a few decades along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) in Turkey towards Istanbul, with the final earthquake in the sequence catastrophically damaging the city. This occurred most recently in 1509, causing 10,000 casualties in a population of about 200,000. The population is now 20 million, the building stock more fragile, and the last earthquake of the current sequence is considered imminent. Since July 2014, UNAVCO has installed 2 EarthScope borehole geophysical instrument strings, which include Gladwin Tensor strainmeters and passive, short-period 3-component seismometers, into boreholes provided by internationally supported Geophysical Observatory at the North Anatolian Fault (GONAF) and Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory. Funding for instruments and staff participation was provided by NSF. If the project remains on schedule, we anticipate that 4 additional BSM strings will be installed by the fall 2015. Our joint international project gives an opportunity to enhance the detection capability of a suite of deep seismometers (GONAF) installed near Istanbul and will permit us to image dynamic rupture along the NAF and to monitor and better understand the tectonic processes leading to failure. The tectonic and geodynamic environment of the NAF near Istanbul in many ways resembles the San Andreas Fault setting of San Francisco; these instruments will enhance the ability to monitor ultra-slow process near the probable source zone of the Mw>7 earthquake beneath the Marmara Sea on the NAF This project has provided UNAVCO an opportunity to gain experience in strainmeters installations outside of North America. The techniques developed to adapt to the challenges of installing borehole strainmeters on islands and other remote locations with limited resources will greatly enhance our ability to install these BSM instruments in similar locations in the future.

  2. Installation and Initial Results of Borehole Strainmeters around the Marmara Sea in Turkey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencin, David; Bohnhoff, Marco; Ozener, Haluk; Mattioli, Glen; Bilham, Roger; Johnson, Wade; Gottlieb, Mike; Van Boskirk, Elizabeth; Aracel, Digdem; Bulut, Fatih; Bal, Osman

    2016-04-01

    Twice in the past 1000 years a sequence of damaging earthquakes has propagated during the course of a few decades along the North Anatolian fault (NAF) in Turkey towards Istanbul, with the final earthquake in the sequence catastrophically destroying the city. This occurred most recently in 1509 when the population was only about 200,000 yet ten thousand people died. The population of greater Istanbul is now 20 million, building stock more fragile, and the last earthquake of the current westward propagating sequence is considered geologically imminent. An opportunity to enhance the detection capability of a suite of deep seismometers installed near Istanbul has arisen, that will permit us to observe, characterize, and possibly predict the moment of imminent failure along the NAF, as well as monitor the tectonic processes leading to this failure. As an augmentation of the Geophysical Observatory at the North Anatolian Fault (GONAF), UNAVCO installed two continuous creepmeters and six borehole strainmeters between July 2014 and October 2015 into boreholes provided by the several international sponsors, including NSF, GFZ, AFAD and Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory. The entire geophysical sensor network is collectively referred to as GeoGONAF. The borehole strainmeters enhance the ability of the scientific instrumentation to monitor ultra-slow process near the probable source zone of the Mw>7 earthquake that is soon expected beneath the Marmara Sea. The strainmeters and creepmeters allow us to make geodetic observations of this segment of the fault before, during and after a large earthquake, which combined with the seismic data from GONAF will provide valuable data for understanding earthquake processes. Installed instruments have already recorded both local and teleseismic events and observed creep events on the on-shore segments of the NAF to the East of the Marmara. In addition we have seen typical hydrological loading signals associated with normal modes of

  3. Investigating P- and S-wave velocity structure beneath the Marmara region (Turkey) and the surrounding area from local earthquake tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polat, Gulten; Özel, Nurcan Meral; Koulakov, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the crustal structure beneath the Marmara region and the surrounding area in the western part of the North Anatolian fault zone. These areas have high seismicity and are of critical significance to earthquake hazards. The study was based on travel-time tomography using local moderate and micro-earthquakes occurring in the study area recorded by the Multi-Disciplinary Earthquake Research in High Risk Regions of Turkey project and Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute. We selected 2131 earthquakes and a total of 92,858 arrival times, consisting of 50,044 P-wave and 42,814 S-wave arrival times. We present detailed crustal structure down to 50 km depth beneath the Marmara region for P- and S-wave velocities using the LOTOS code based on iterative inversion. We used the distributions of the resulting seismic parameters ( Vp, Vs) to pick out significant geodynamical features. The high-velocity anomalies correlate well with fracturing segments of the North Anatolian fault. High seismicity is mostly concentrated in these segments. In particular, low velocities were observed beneath the central Marmara Sea at 5 km depth.

  4. Neogene-Quaternary evolution of the Tefenni basin on the Fethiye-Burdur fault zone, SW Anatolia-Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, Rahmi; Aksarı, Süleyman

    2016-06-01

    The Fethiye-Burdur fault zone (FBFZ) is a complex belt of major break in the southwestern Anatolia. A number of basins occur within the FBFZ. The Tefenni basin is one of the NE-SW trending basins located in the central part of the FBFZ. The basin is 10-20 km wide and 60 km long. It contains two infills of fluvial, lacustrine and alluvial fan deposits from late Miocene to Recent. The older and folded infill rests on the pre-middle Miocene basement rocks with an angular unconformity and consists of fluvial and lacustrine sediments. The younger and undeformed Plio-Quaternary basin fill unconformably overlies the older basin fill and is composed predominantly of conglomerate, mudstone, silt, clay and recent basin floor sediments. The Tefenni basin is controlled by a series of NE-SW trending left lateral oblique-slip normal faults along its margins. The Tefenni and Mürseller faults bound the northwestern margin of the basin and the Kemer fault bounds the southeastern margin of the basin. The basin is also cut by NE-SW striking major and NW-SE, N-S and E-W striking small scale normal faults. Structural analyses in the basin show that NE-SW-trending contraction stress regime ended by Pliocene and was followed by NE-SW-trending extension from Pliocene onward.

  5. ESR studies of Anatolian gypsum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulusoy, Ülkü

    2004-05-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) was used to date the formation and most recent recrystallization of three types of gypsum samples (massive, bedded and fracture filling gypsum) from the Sakarya Formation at Eskişehir in the middle of Turkey. The ESR spectra had the signals of Fe 3+ and Mn 2+ in addition to those of the G1 and G2 sensitive centers ( g=2.002 and 2.008) to artificial γ-irradiation. ESR intensities of G1 and G2 were enhanced by γ-ray irradiation to give equivalent doses DE for each sample. The ESR ages derived from the annual doses of 238U, 232Th and 40K contents of the samples determined by thermal neutron activation analysis (TNAA) were between 43±18 ka (massive gypsum) and 1100±466 ka (bedded gypsum) as minimal and maximal values. The ages fall into the upper Miocene-Pliocene Epoch of the geological time scale, which agreed with the stratigraphy.

  6. Coseismic and Postseismic Fault Slip for the 17 August 1999, M = 7.5, Izmit, Turkey Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Reilinger; Ergintav; Bürgmann; McClusky; Lenk; Barka; Gurkan; Hearn; Feigl; Cakmak; Aktug; Ozener; Töksoz

    2000-09-01

    We use Global Positioning System (GPS) observations and elastic half-space models to estimate the distribution of coseismic and postseismic slip along the Izmit earthquake rupture. Our results indicate that large coseismic slip (reaching 5.7 meters) is confined to the upper 10 kilometers of the crust, correlates with structurally distinct fault segments, and is relatively low near the hypocenter. Continued surface deformation during the first 75 days after the earthquake indicates an aseismic fault slip of as much as 0.43 meters on and below the coseismic rupture. These observations are consistent with a transition from unstable (episodic large earthquakes) to stable (fault creep) sliding at the base of the seismogenic zone. PMID:10968782

  7. Chemical and isotopic compositions of thermal waters in Anatolia, Turkey: A link to fluid-mineral equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutlu, Halim; Gülec, Nilgün; Hilton, David R.

    2015-04-01

    The complex magmato-tectonic setting of Turkey has resulted in the occurrence of numerous geothermal fields with distinct chemical and isotopic fluid compositions. We evaluate the data on these fluids in terms of water-rock interaction, mineral equilibrium conditions and reservoir temperatures of each geothermal field. The Ca-HCO3 rich nature of most waters is ascribed to derivation from carbonate-type reservoir rocks. SO4-type waters are found in areas where the reservoir is partly comprised of evaporite units. Na-Cl type waters are characteristic for the coastal areas of west Anatolia. Chemical geothermometer applications estimate average reservoir temperatures of 180 °C for the western Anatolian region, 120 °C for the Balıkesir region, 130 °C for the eastern Anatolian region, 140 °C for the North Anatolian Fault Zone and 70 °C for the Eskişehir region. For most of the waters, chalcedony controls the silica solubility and the majority of waters are equilibrated with calcite and chalcedony minerals. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions (-13.5 to -4 permil (VSMOW) and -95.4 to -23 permil (VSMOW), respectively) are generally conformable with Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL); however, stable isotope systematics of geothermal waters close to the coast are consistent with the Mediterranean Meteoric Water Line (MMWL). Carbon and sulfur isotope compositions (δ13C (VPDB): -17.7 to +5.6 permil and δ34S (VCDT): -5.5 to +45.7 permil) suggest marine carbonates and terrestrial evaporite units as the main source of dissolved carbon and sulfate in the waters.

  8. Geochemical evaluation and conceptual modeling of the Edremit geothermal field (NW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avşar, Özgür; Güleç, Nilgün; Parlaktuna, Mahmut

    2013-04-01

    The Edremit geothermal field is located in the Edremit Graben, which forms an integral part of the Western Anatolian Graben System in Turkey. In the field, the geothermal energy is currently used in heating 5000 houses. A total of 21 wells were sampled in this study for the purpose of hydrogeochemical conceptual modeling. Chemical analyses results indicate that the waters belong to three different types of hydrogeochemical facies, namely Na+K - SO4, Ca - SO4 and Ca - HCO3 type. According to the stable isotope results, all hot and cold waters are meteoric in origin. Radiocarbon dating revealed a positive correlation between the wellhead temperatures and the residence times of waters. "Mixing" and "water rock interaction" are the main subsurface processes that are affecting the water chemistry. By detailed investigation of well logs, two intersecting buried faults are detected in the field. The geothermal system is highly affected by these faults. The groundwater is fed by precipitations on highlands, percolated towards the deeper parts of the crust through deep seated, graben forming step faults, and heated at depth. During its ascent towards surface, geothermal water invades two superimposed aquifers, lower confined and upper unconfined. Mixing between hot and cold waters takes place in the aquifers.

  9. Examples of Subaqueous Paleoseismological Techniques from Turkey and Iceland: With Special Emphasis on the Importance of Constructing Precise Sediment Chronologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avsar, U.; Hubert-Ferrari, A.; Jonsson, S.; De Batist, M. A. O.; Fagel, N.; Geirsdottir, A.; Thordarson, T.; Miller, G. H.

    2014-12-01

    Subaqueous paleoseismological techniques have proved their potential to contribute to the paleoseismological investigations. Sedimentary records of past earthquakes have been mostly represented in lacustrine environments by multi-location coeval mass-wasting deposits and/or soft-sediment deformations. More recently, records of increased sediment influx due to seismically-triggered landslides in lake catchments have been explored by several researchers as well. The most commonly used argument in subaqueous paleoseismology is the temporal correlation between observed sedimentary events and historical earthquakes in the region. This requires precise and robust sediment chronologies, especially if the target is to evaluate earthquake recurrence. Here, we present lacustrine paleoseismological examples from the North Anatolian Fault (NAF, Turkey) and the Húsavík-Flatey Fault (HFF, Iceland). The examples from Turkey illustrate the application of regional time-stratigraphic correlations between proxy records to improve sediment chronologies. The sedimentary records of the lakes along the NAF were successfully correlated with the precisely dated cave deposits and varved lake sediments, which significantly improved the sediment chronologies. On the other hand, the investigations in Iceland benefit from the well-established tephrochronology in the region. Precise sediment chronologies do not only allow us to evaluate the long-term seismic behavior in a region (i.e., earthquake recurrence), but also to improve our understanding of the consequences of earthquakes on lacustrine sedimentation.

  10. Dynamic rupture process of the great 1668 Anatolian earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kase, Yuko; Kondo, Hisao; Emre, Ömer

    2010-05-01

    The North Anatolian fault system (NAFS) gives us the well-preserved evidences of multi-segment earthquakes. During the 1939 Erzincan earthquake, surface ruptures extended along the Resadiye segment. The surface ruptures during the 1942 earthquake appeared on two segments, the eastern Niksar and the western Erbaa segments which are to the west of the Resadiye segment. On the other hand, paleoseismological evidences show that the 1668 earthquake was a single multi-segment earthquake including the Resadiye, Niksar, and Erbaa segments (Kondo et al., 2009). The fault geometry, however, does not make us imagine a single multi-segment occurring. The distance along strike and step-over width between the Resadiye and Niksar segments is 17 and 11 km, respectively. This fault discontinuity is much larger than the previously-known threshold of a multi-segment rupture, 5 km, shown in observations of historical earthquakes (Matsuda, 1990; Wesnousky, 2006) and numerical studies (Harris and Day, 1999; Kase and Kuge, 2001). In this study, we construct dynamic rupture models for the North Anatolian earthquakes based on seismological data of the 1939 and 1942 earthquakes and the present stress condition, and then we investigate possibility of a single multi-segment earthquake in agreement with the paleoseismological data of the 1668 earthquake. A fault model is assumed, based on the surface traces, hypocenter distribution and source mechanisms of the 20th century earthquakes on the NAFS. Using the source mechanism of the 1939 earthquake (McKenzie, 1972) and the stress inversion results along the NAFS (Bellier et al., 1997; Fuenzalida et al., 1997), we adopt a regional stress field that is resolved onto all fault segments. We perform preliminary simulations to determine a hydrostatic stress condition and coefficient of friction producing surface slip distribution consistent with the observed surface slips during the 1939 and 1942 earthquakes (Barka, 1996; Emre et al., 2009; Kondo et

  11. Quantitative geomorphology of the eastern Marmara region, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tari, U.; Tuysuz, O.

    2003-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault, one of the longest and most active strike-slip faults of the world, is an important feature controlling the recent tectonic and morphological development of the northern part of Asia Minor. Along this 1500 km-long active dextral zone, best examples of pull-apart basins, push-up structures, and other strike-slip fault-related morphological features developed under the control of geometric and structural orientation of fault segments. The North Anatolian Fault splays into three main branches in the Northwestern Anatolia. According to GPS measurements, the northern branch is the most active one among the others. The Sea of Marmara and the Gulf of Izmit forming its eastern tip, were developed as pull-apart basins on this branch from Late Pliocene onward. The morphology and bathymetry of the region bear traces of the fault and fault-controlled morphological features. The morphometry of a landscape can be described as a function of the changes in elevation. Digital elevation models, and recently developed computer programs allow detailed analysis. In this study we evaluated morphometric analysis of an area between Gulf of Izmit and Adapazari pull-apart basin on the northern branch of the North Anatolian Fault. The area contains three east-west trending belts. The northern belt, the Kocaeli Peninsula, developed as a peneplain during the Late Miocene. The average height of this peneplain is about 150-200 m. The peneplain surface is delimited to the south by a degraded fault surface trending parallel to the recently active branch of the North Anatolian Fault. The peneplain has an asymmetric nature indicating a northward tilting, most probably due to the development of this fault. The valleys facing to the Gulf of Izmit are mainly short and immature, and degraded the fault surfaces. In contrast, the valleys facing to the Black Sea to the north are long, asymmetric and deeply incised into the peneplain. The southern belt, the Samanli Mountains which

  12. Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey. (SATREPS Project: Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development by JICA-JST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Y.; Erdik, M. O.; Takahashi, N.; Meral Ozel, N.; Hori, T.; Hori, M.; Kumamoto, K.; Kalafat, D.; Pinar, A.; Ozel, A. O.; Yalciner, A. C.; Nurlu, M.; Tanircan, G.; Citak, S.; Ariyoshi, K.; Necmioglu, O.

    2014-12-01

    Since 1900, around 90,000 people have lost their lives in 76 earthquakes occurred in Turkey, with a total affected population of ~7 million and direct estimated losses of ~25 billion USD. About half the lives lost were due to two earthquakes associated with the North Anatolian Fault in 1939 and 1999. During this time, seven large westward-migrating earthquakes created a 900-km-long continuous surface rupture along the fault zone from Erzincan to the Marmara Sea, stopping just short of Istanbul. Based on a time-dependent model that includes coseismic and postseismic effects of the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) = 7.4, Parsons concluded that the probability of an earthquake with Mw >7 in the Sea of Marmara near Istanbul is 35% to 70% in the next 30 years. This high probability is shared by Tokyo and San Francisco; however, the earthquake fragility of the pre-2000 building stock in Turkey is much higher than that of California or Japan. (Erdik, 2013). All of the arguments described above provide a sound basis for a Japanese-Turkish partnership enabling each partner to share experiences gained from past destructive earthquakes and prepare for expected large earthquakes. The SATREPS project aims to address this need, also focusing on the tsunami hazard. The project's main objectives are i) to develop disaster mitigation policies and strategies based on multidisciplinary research activities; ii) to provide decision makers with newly found knowledge for its implementation to the current regulations; iii) to organize disaster education programs in order to increase disaster awareness in Turkey; iv) to contribute the evaluation of active fault studies in Japan. To achieve successfully these objectives, 4 research groups have been set specializing on observations, simulations, civil engineering and disaster education and the results will be integrated for disaster mitigation in the Marmara region and disaster education in Turkey.

  13. Correlation Between Radon Outgassing and Seismic Activity Along the Hayward Fault Near Berkeley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtmann-Rice, D.; Cuff, K.

    2003-12-01

    Results from previous studies indicate that radon concentration values are significantly higher over selected sections of the Hayward fault than adjacent areas. This phenomenon is believed to be attributed to the presence of abundant fractures in rock associated with the fault, which act as pathways for radon as it migrates from depth towards the earth?s surface. In an attempt to determine whether or not a relationship exists between seismicity along the fault, the production of microfractures, and emanation of radon, a radon outgassing monitoring study was conducted along an active section of the Hayward fault in Berkeley, California. The study was carried out by using an alphaMETER 611, which is a device capable of accurately measuring radon concentrations every 15 minutes. The alphaMETER was placed at the bottom of a sealed one meter deep well, in close proximity to a section of the Hayward fault located along the northwestern face of the Berkeley Hills. Once per week for several months data collected by the alphaMETER was downloaded into a laptop computer. Data from the alphaMETER was then compared with seismic data recorded by local seismometers to see if any correlation existed. A general correlation between variation in radon concentration and the occurrence of small earthquakes was found. Significant peaks in radon concentration were observed within an approximately one week period before the occurrence of small earthquakes. Concentration values then decreased dramatically just prior to and during periods when the earthquakes occurred. Such correlation is very similar to that recently observed in association with a magnitude five earthquake along the Anatolian Fault, reported by geoscientists working in Turkey using similar instrumentation (Inan, 2003, personal communication). The most plausible explanation for the observed correlation is as follows: 1) prior to a given earthquake, stress build up within a particular fault region leads to the formation of

  14. Deriving strain from crystallographic preferred orientation for a ductile shear zone in north western Turkey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, K.; Lloyd, G. E. E.; Wallis, D.; Phillips, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the behaviour of active continental-scale fault zones at depth, and in particular how displacements observed at the Earth's surface are accommodated through the crust, is crucial to improving understanding of the earthquake cycle. This behaviour can be inferred by study of exhumed portions of ductile shear zones using methods such as recording strain profile(s) across the fault zone. However, due to the nature of mid-crustal rocks, strain markers tend to be rare and/or discontinuously distributed. The intensity (I) of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of deformed minerals provides a proxy for strain that is continuous across fault zones. CPO are collected via electron back scattered diffraction in the scanning electron microscope. The strength of the CPO can be quantified using eigenvalue-based intensity parameters. Calibration of intensity with strain is achieved via comparison with visco-plastic self-consistency models of CPO evolution, although the temperature-dependent critical resolved shear stresses of potential crystal slip systems must be known. As an example, we consider the dextral strike-slip Eskişehir shear zone, NW Turkey, which was active during the Oligocene and accommodated ~100km of displacement, including a component of late oblique-normal slip. An exhumed mid-crustal section of this fault zone is exposed in the Uludağ Massif, comprising of high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Uludağ Group, intruded by the Central and South Uludağ granites. Sample transects focussed on the pure calcic marbles that dominate the stratigraphy. Fortunately, the availability of experimental data for calcite crystal slip behaviour at different temperatures makes the application of the CPO intensity strain proxy method relatively straightforward. The Uludağ Massif and Eskişehir shear zone provide a field based analogue for the ductile shear zone beneath the currently active North Anatolian Fault. The results of our CPO intensity-based strain

  15. Satellite Geodetic Constraints On Earthquake Processes: Implications of the 1999 Turkish Earthquakes for Fault Mechanics and Seismic Hazards on the San Andreas Fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilinger, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Our principal activities during the initial phase of this project include: 1) Continued monitoring of postseismic deformation for the 1999 Izmit and Duzce, Turkey earthquakes from repeated GPS survey measurements and expansion of the Marmara Continuous GPS Network (MAGNET), 2) Establishing three North Anatolian fault crossing profiles (10 sitedprofile) at locations that experienced major surface-fault earthquakes at different times in the past to examine strain accumulation as a function of time in the earthquake cycle (2004), 3) Repeat observations of selected sites in the fault-crossing profiles (2005), 4) Repeat surveys of the Marmara GPS network to continue to monitor postseismic deformation, 5) Refining block models for the Marmara Sea seismic gap area to better understand earthquake hazards in the Greater Istanbul area, 6) Continuing development of models for afterslip and distributed viscoelastic deformation for the earthquake cycle. We are keeping close contact with MIT colleagues (Brad Hager, and Eric Hetland) who are developing models for S. California and for the earthquake cycle in general (Hetland, 2006). In addition, our Turkish partners at the Marmara Research Center have undertaken repeat, micro-gravity measurements at the MAGNET sites and have provided us estimates of gravity change during the period 2003 - 2005.

  16. Calibration of Regional Seismic Stations in the Middle East with Shots in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Toksoz, M N; Kuleli, S; Gurbuz, C; Kalafat, D; Nekler, T; Zor, K; Yilmazer, M; Ogutcu, Z; Schultz, C A; Harris, D B

    2003-07-21

    The objective of this project is to calibrate regional travel-times and propagation characteristics of seismic waves in Turkey and surrounding areas in the Middle East in order to enhance detection and location capabilities in the region. Important data for the project will be obtained by large calibration shots in central and eastern Turkey. The first, a two-ton shot, was fired in boreholes near Keskin in central Anatolia on 23 November 2002. The explosives were placed in 14 holes, each 80 m deep, arranged in concentric circular arrays. Ninety temporary seismic stations were deployed within a 300 km radius around the shot. The permanent stations of the Turkish National Seismic Network provided a good azimuthal coverage as well as three radial traverses. Most stations within a radius of 200 km recorded the shot. Travel-time data have been analyzed to obtain a detailed crustal model under the shot and along the profiles. The model gives a 35 km thick crust, characterized by two layers with velocities of 5.0 and 6.4 km/s. The P{sub n} velocity was found to be 7.8 km/s. The crustal thickness decreases to the north where the profile crosses the North Anatolian fault. There is a slight increase in crustal velocities, but no change in crustal thickness to the west. Data analysis effort is continuing to refine the regional velocity models and to obtain station corrections.

  17. Basins and thrust belts in western Turkey: Tectonic history and hydrocarbons potential

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, P.R.; Johns, C.C.; Clark-Lowes, D.D. )

    1990-05-01

    Western Turkey consists of a number of tectonic terranes joined together by a network of suture zones. The terranes originated as microcontinental plates that rifted away from the continental margins forming the northern and southern boundaries of the Tethyan sea. These micro-continents were united by a series of collisions beginning in the Late Triassic and ending in the Miocene, with the final closure of the Tethyan sea. The sedimentary cover of the microcontinents consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic passive margin and rift basin sequences containing numerous potential source and reservoir intervals. Most of these sequences show affinities with Gondwanaland, with the notable exception of the Istanbul nappe, which is strongly Laurasian in character. Forearc basin sequences were also deposited on the margins of the microcontinents during early Tertiary plate convergence. Ensuing continental collisions resulted in compressional deformation of sedimentary cover sequences. The intensity of deformation ranged from basin inversion producing numerous potential hydrocarbon traps, to large-scale overthrusting. Following continental suturing, continued compression in eastern Turkey has been accommodated since the Miocene by westward escape of continental lithosphere between the North and South Anatolian transform faults. Neotectonic pull-apart basins formed in response to these movements, accumulating large thicknesses of Miocene-Pliocene carbonates and clastic sediments. Potential reservoirs in the Neotectonic basins may be sourced either in situ or from underlying Paleozoic and Mesozoic source rocks that remain within the hydrocarbon generating window today.

  18. Near Real-Time Earthquake Exposure and Damage Assessment: An Example from Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamer, Yavor; Çomoǧlu, Mustafa; Erdik, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    Confined by infamous strike-slip North Anatolian Fault from the north and by the Hellenic subduction trench from the south Turkey is one of the most seismically active countries in Europe. Due this increased exposure and the fragility of the building stock Turkey is among the top countries exposed to earthquake hazard in terms of mortality and economic losses. In this study we focus recent and ongoing efforts to mitigate the earthquake risk in near real-time. We present actual results of recent earthquakes, such as the M6 event off-shore Antalya which occurred on 28 December 2013. Starting at the moment of detection, we obtain a preliminary ground motion intensity distribution based on epicenter and magnitude. Our real-time application is further enhanced by the integration of the SeisComp3 ground motion parameter estimation tool with the Earthquake Loss Estimation Routine (ELER). SeisComp3 provides the online station parameters which are then automatically incorporated into the ShakeMaps produced by ELER. The resulting ground motion distributions are used together with the building inventory to calculate expected number of buildings in various damage states. All these analysis are conducted in an automated fashion and are communicated within a few minutes of a triggering event. In our efforts to disseminate earthquake information to the general public we make extensive use of social networks such as Tweeter and collaborate with mobile phone operators.

  19. Effect of gender on slaughter and carcass traits in Anatolian water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Akdağ, F; Celik, R

    2006-09-01

    This study determined the effect of gender on slaughter and carcass traits in Anatolian water buffalos reared under free range conditions in Turkey. Sixteen four-years-old Anatolian water buffalo were divided into two groups of eight males in one group and eight females in the other. The slaughter and carcass traits, carcass measurement, amount of worthy meat from each animal and phenotypic correlations among some carcass traits were determined. Chilling loss, slaughter weight and hot and cold carcass weights were 5.27%, 496.44 kg, 234.60 kg and 222.16 kg, respectively in males and 5.43%, 515.34 kg, 236.08 kg and 223.00 kg, respectively for females (P > 0.05). The ratio of skin and four leg weights (P < 0.05) and skin, head and the legs weights to the live-weight (P < 0.01) were found significantly higher in males than in female buffalos. In addition, from worthy meat, short loin was higher in males compared to females (P < 0.05). In this study, it is concluded that, generally carcass yield and amount of worthy meat in carcass tends to be higher in male water buffalo compared to females. PMID:17009811

  20. Effect of gender on slaughter and carcass traits in Anatolian water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Akdağ, F; Celik, R

    2006-09-01

    This study determined the effect of gender on slaughter and carcass traits in Anatolian water buffalos reared under free range conditions in Turkey. Sixteen four-years-old Anatolian water buffalo were divided into two groups of eight males in one group and eight females in the other. The slaughter and carcass traits, carcass measurement, amount of worthy meat from each animal and phenotypic correlations among some carcass traits were determined. Chilling loss, slaughter weight and hot and cold carcass weights were 5.27%, 496.44 kg, 234.60 kg and 222.16 kg, respectively in males and 5.43%, 515.34 kg, 236.08 kg and 223.00 kg, respectively for females (P > 0.05). The ratio of skin and four leg weights (P < 0.05) and skin, head and the legs weights to the live-weight (P < 0.01) were found significantly higher in males than in female buffalos. In addition, from worthy meat, short loin was higher in males compared to females (P < 0.05). In this study, it is concluded that, generally carcass yield and amount of worthy meat in carcass tends to be higher in male water buffalo compared to females.

  1. Complex Crustal Structure Beneath Western Turkey Revealed by 3D Seismic Full Waveform Inversion (FWI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubuk-Sabuncu, Yesim; Taymaz, Tuncay; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    We present a 3D radially anisotropic velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle structure beneath the Sea of Marmara and surroundings based on the full waveform inversion method. The intense seismic activity and crustal deformation are observed in the Northwest Turkey due to transition tectonics between the strike-slip North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and the extensional Aegean region. We have selected and simulated complete waveforms of 62 earthquakes (Mw > 4.0) occurred during 2007-2015, and recorded at (Δ < 10°) distances. Three component earthquake data is obtained from broadband seismic stations of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Center (KOERI, Turkey), Hellenic Unified Seismic Network (HUSN, Greece) and Earthquake Research Center of Turkey (AFAD-DAD). The spectral-element solver of the wave equation, SES3D algorithm, is used to simulate seismic wave propagation in 3D spherical coordinates (Fichtner, 2009). The Large Scale Seismic Inversion Framework (LASIF) workflow tool is also used to perform full seismic waveform inversion (Krischer et al., 2015). The initial 3D Earth model is implemented from the multi-scale seismic tomography study of Fichtner et al. (2013). Discrepancies between the observed and simulated synthetic waveforms are determined using the time-frequency misfits which allows a separation between phase and amplitude information (Fichtner et al., 2008). The conjugate gradient optimization method is used to iteratively update the initial Earth model when minimizing the misfit. The inversion is terminated after 19 iterations since no further advances are observed in updated models. Our analysis revealed shear wave velocity variations of the shallow and deeper crustal structure beneath western Turkey down to depths of ~35-40 km. Low shear wave velocity anomalies are observed in the upper and mid crustal depths beneath major fault zones located in the study region. Low velocity zones also tend to mark the outline of young volcanic

  2. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of Anatolian indigenous domestic goats.

    PubMed

    Akis, I; Oztabak, K; Mengi, A; Un, C

    2014-12-01

    Anatolia has been an important region for civilizations and agricultural revolution as a major domestication centre for livestock species. Goats (Capra hircus) were among the earliest domesticated animals in this region. In this study, genetic diversity of Anatolian goat breeds was characterized by comparison of mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region 1. A total of 295 individuals, including 99 Anatolian Black goats, 96 Angora goats and 100 Kilis goats, were used. Haplogroup A was found to be the dominant haplogroup in all three breeds. The highest haplogroup diversity, including haplogroups A, B2, C and G, was observed in the Anatolian Black breed. Haplogroup D was only observed in Kilis and Angora goats. Haplogroup G was found in Angora and Anatolian Black breeds. The Anatolian goat breeds had high genetic diversity values and a weak phylogeographical structure. The nucleotide diversity values were found to be higher than those in previously studied goat breeds. The fact that Anatolia is a domestication centre and its geographical position as a junction of trade routes may have caused the higher genetic diversity of Anatolian goat breeds.

  3. Neogene Topography And Precipitation Patterns Of The Central Anatolian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulch, A.; Mikes, T.; Schemmel, F.; Rojay, B.

    2010-12-01

    Long-term stable isotope records of terrestrial environments represent increasingly important tools for tectonic, paleoaltimetric, and paleoclimatic reconstructions within continental interiors. A rapidly growing number of studies within the Earth’s major mountain ranges demonstrates that the growth of topography and orogenic plateaus profoundly influences local, regional, and hemispheric climate and hence precipitation patterns while regional surface uplift patterns are intimately linked to plate-scale geodynamic processes. In contrast, such records are almost absent for the Near East and the Turkish-Iranian plateau, an important topographic element in the Alpine-Himalayan chain and an area most likely to be strongly affected by future climate change and water scarcity. Our objective is to assess the role of orographic factors that have governed the distribution (and isotopic composition) of precipitation across the central Anatolian plateau (CAP, Turkey) from the Neogene to recent. Such data are fundamental for our understanding of the geodynamic and sedimentary history of orogenic plateaus in general and for the role of surface uplift along the plateau margins in the Pontide and Tauride mountains. We present oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen isotope data from Neogene-to-recent fluvio-lacustrine and pedogenic environments, stream and lake waters of the CAP with the ultimate aim of reconstructing past precipitation changes, plateau aridification and ideally Neogene surface uplift histories. Our approach is to cross-calibrate modern patterns of isotopes (oxygen and hydrogen) in precipitation with pedogenic carbonate oxygen and carbon isotope data across topographic barriers that today strongly control the distribution of rainfall along the plateau margins and within the plateau interior. We then compare these patterns with Miocene-to-Pleistocene lacustrine and pedogenic records to assess a) the role of late Neogene (ca. 8-0 Ma) surface uplift in the Taurus mountains

  4. Shear wave velocity structure of the Anatolian Plate and surrounding regions using Ambient Noise Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delph, J. R.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Biryol, C. B.; Ward, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Anatolian Plate consists of various lithospheric terranes amalgamated during the closure of the Tethys Ocean, and is currently extruding to the west in response to a combination of the collision of the Arabian plate in the east and the roll back of the Aegean subduction zone in the west. We used Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) at periods <= 40s to investigate the crust and uppermost mantle structure of the Anatolian Plate. We computed a total of 13,779 unique cross-correlations using one sample-per-second vertical component broadband seismic data from 215 stations from 8 different networks over a period of 7 years to compute fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave dispersion curves following the method of Benson et al. (2007). We then inverted the dispersion data to calculate phase velocity maps for 11 periods from 8 s - 40 s throughout Anatolia and the Aegean regions (Barmin et al. 2001). Using smoothed Moho values derived from Vanacore et al. (2013) in our starting models, we inverted our dispersion curves using a linear least-squares iterative inversion scheme (Herrmann & Ammon 2004) to produce a 3-D shear-wave velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle throughout Anatolia and the Aegean. We find a good correlation between our seismic shear wave velocities and paleostructures (suture zones) and modern deformation (basin formation and fault deformation). The most prominent crustal velocity contrasts occur across intercontinental sutures zones, resulting from the juxtaposition of the compositionally different basements of the amalgamated terranes. At shallow depths, seismic velocity contrasts correspond closely with surficial features. The Thrace, Cankiri and Tuz Golu basins, and accretionary complexes related to the closure of the Neotethys are characterized by slow shear wave velocities, while the Menderes and Kirsehir Massifs, Pontides, and Istanbul Zone are characterized by fast velocities. We find that the East Anatolia Plateau has slow shear-wave velocities

  5. Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey Part2 Yoshiyuki KANEDA Nagoya University Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) Haluk OZENER Boğaziçi University, Earthquake Researches Institute (KOERI) and Members of SATREPS Japan-Turkey project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Y.; Ozener, H.

    2015-12-01

    The 1999 Izumit Earthquake as the destructive earthquake occurred near the Marmara Sea. The Marmara Sea should be focused on because of a seismic gap in the North Anatolian fault. Istanbul is located around the Marmara Sea, so, if next earthquake will occur near Istanbul, fatal damages will be generated. The Japan and Turkey can share our own experiences during past damaging earthquakes and we can prepare for future large earthquakes in cooperation with each other. In earthquakes in Tokyo area and Istanbul area as the destructive earthquakes near high population cities, there are common disaster researches and measures. For disaster mitigation, we are progressing multidisciplinary researches. Our goals of this SATREPS project are as follows, To develop disaster mitigation policy and strategies based on multidisciplinary research activities. To provide decision makers with newly found knowledge for its implementation to the current regulations. To organize disaster education programs in order to increase disaster awareness in Turkey. To contribute the evaluation of active fault studies in Japan. This project is composed of four research groups. The first group is Marmara Earthquake Source region observationally research group. This group has 4 sub-themes such as Seismicity, Geodesy, Electromagnetics and Trench analyses. The second group focuses on scenario researches of earthquake occurrence along the North Anatolia fault and precise tsunami simulation in the Marmara region. Aims of the third group are improvements and constructions of seismic characterizations and damage predictions based on observation researches and precise simulations. The fourth group is promoting disaster educations using research result visuals. In this SATREPS project, we will integrate these research results for disaster mitigation in Marmara region and .disaster education in Turkey. We will have a presentation of the updated results of this SATREPS project.

  6. Structural Geology and Exhumation of the Paleogene Southern Sivas Fold and Thrust Belt, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darin, M. H.; Umhoefer, P. J.; Lefebvre, C.; Thomson, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Anatolian plate (Turkey) was formed during the late Miocene-Pliocene transition from contractional strain in central and eastern Anatolia (collision) to localized strike-slip faulting along inherited collisional structures (escape tectonics). Structural inheritance undoubtedly played a role in this major plate boundary reorganization, although its significance is not well understood. Considerable uncertainty also exists regarding the timing and kinematics of Tauride-Eurasia collision, initial Arabia-Eurasia collision, and the terminal closure of the Neotethys Ocean. The Sivas Basin is a ~E-W-elongate collisional forearc basin located between the Tauride micro-continent in the south and the Pontide Arc along the southern Eurasian margin in the north. Well-exposed contractional structures in Paleocene-Eocene marine strata of the Southern Sivas fold and thrust belt (SSFTB) provide an excellent opportunity to investigate the timing and kinematics of both Tauride and Arabian collisions and their potential roles in localizing strain and facilitating tectonic escape. We use detailed geologic mapping, structural analysis and detrital geo/thermochronology to investigate the magnitude, style, and timing of collision-related crustal shortening across the SSFTB. The structural geology of the SSFTB is characterized by ENE- to ESE-trending, gently plunging fault propagation folds with slight asymmetry towards the north. Vergence on thrust faults is mainly towards the north, although a few previously unmapped faults are south-vergent. Detrital apatite fission track data from Paleocene-Eocene strata reveal a single phase of rapid exhumation ca. ~36-31 Ma, which may be related to either Tauride or initial Arabian collision. We propose that structural growth of the SSFTB at this time played a major role in marine basin isolation and early Oligocene evaporite deposition. In the central and northern Sivas Basin where salt was likely thickest, salt tectonics was initiated by

  7. Linking Slab Break-Off, Hellenic Trench Retreat, and Uplift of the Central and Eastern Anatolian Plateaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildgen, T. F.; Yildirim, C.; Cosentino, D.; Strecker, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Central and Eastern Anatolian plateaus are integral parts of the world's third largest orogenic plateau. Geophysical surveys that have provided insights into the crust, lithosphere, and mantle beneath Eastern Anatolia are now accompanied by recent work in Central Anatolia constraining uplift along its northern and southern margins. Together with predictions from geodynamic models, the observations can be integrated to identify probable mechanisms of plateau growth. A changeover from shortening to extension along the southern margin of Central Anatolia coeval with the start of uplift in the latest Miocene is likely associated with oceanic slab break-off following Arabia-Eurasia collision. This interpretation is supported by tomography, seismicity, and the pattern of uplift. Based on geological observations and model predictions, slab break-off likely occurred first beneath Eastern Anatolia in middle Miocene time and propagated westward toward Cyprus by the latest Miocene. Uplift at the northern margin of Central Anatolia appears to result from crustal shortening starting in the late Miocene, which has been linked to the broad restraining bend of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF). The uplift history of the Central Anatolian interior is unclear, although shortening was superseded by extension in the late Miocene. This change in the deformation style coincides with faster retreat of the Hellenic trench as well as uplift of the northern and southern margins of Central Anatolia. These different events may be linked, as faster retreat of the Hellenic trench has been predicted to occur after slab break-off, which could have induced extension of Central Anatolia and helped to form the NAF through accelerated westward escape of Anatolia. Overall, geochronologic evidence supports the hypothesis that tectonic and geodynamic plateau-forming activity throughout the Aegean-Anatolian domain in the Miocene defines a series of events that may all be linked to slab break-off.

  8. Oligocene dextral strike-slip faulting in Anatolia: an early escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okay, A. I.; Satir, M.; Zattin, M.; Cavazza, W.; Topuz, G.

    2011-12-01

    The Early Eocene collision between the Eurasian and Anatolian plates in Turkey was followed by regional contraction, uplift, erosion and strike-slip faulting, which spanned the Late Eocene-Oligocene interval. This period ended abruptly in western Turkey in the Early Miocene by regional north-south extension and calc-alkaline magmatism. There are few rock records of the Late Eocene - Oligocene in western Anatolia, however, a major structure, active in this period between contraction and extension, was the NW-SE trending, right-lateral strike-slip Paleo-Eskisehir Fault with a length of over 225 km and a cumulative displacement of ca. 100 km. The ductile lower sections of the Paleo-Eskisehir Fault are exposed in the Uludag Massif, a NW-SE trending fault-bounded mountain range in northwest Turkey consisting of gneiss, amphibolite and marble. The Uludag Massif is characterized by NW-SE striking subvertical foliation and subhorizontal mineral stretching lineation with a dextral shear sense. The Rb/Sr muscovite and biotite ages from the Uludag Massif are Eocene (ca. 49 Ma) and Oligocene (36-30 Ma), respectively. The metamorphic rocks are intruded by a tectonically foliated subvertical Oligocene (ca. 33 Ma) granitic dyke, 17 km long and only 1.5 km wide, with subhorizontal mineral stretching lineation. A 27 Ma post-kinematic granite marks the termination of the shear zone activity. The apatite fission track (AFT) ages from the crystalline rocks are Early Miocene (ca. 20 Ma). Large gneiss clasts derived from the Uludag Massif are found in the adjacent Miocene basin. The 14 Ma AFT age from a gneiss clast from the Miocene basin show that the Uludag Massif was on the surface by the Middle Miocene. These data constrain the strike-slip faulting along the Paleo-Eskisehir Fault to the Late Eocene-Oligocene (38-27 Ma). The exhumation of the Uludag Massif occurred in the Early Miocene and post-dates the strike-slip activity. Although the Paleo-Eskisehir Fault is comparable in length

  9. Seismic Hazard Evaluation in Western Turkey as Revealed by Stress Transfer and Time-dependent Probability Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradisopoulou, P. M.; Papadimitriou, E. E.; Karakostas, V. G.; Taymaz, T.; Kilias, A.; Yolsal, S.

    2010-08-01

    Western Turkey has a long history of destructive earthquakes that are responsible for the death of thousands of people and which caused devastating damage to the existing infrastructures, and cultural and historical monuments. The recent earthquakes of Izmit (Kocaeli) on 17 August, 1999 ( M w = 7.4) and Düzce ( M w = 7.2) on 12 November, 1999, which occurred in the neighboring fault segments along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF), were catastrophic ones for the Marmara region and surroundings in NW Turkey. Stress transfer between the two adjacent fault segments successfully explained the temporal proximity of these events. Similar evidence is also provided from recent studies dealing with successive strong events occurrence along the NAF and parts of the Aegean Sea; in that changes in the stress field due to the coseismic displacement of the stronger events influence the occurrence of the next events of comparable size by advancing their occurrence time and delimiting their occurrence place. In the present study the evolution of the stress field since the beginning of the twentieth century in the territory of the eastern Aegean Sea and western Turkey is examined, in an attempt to test whether the history of cumulative changes in stress can explain the spatial and temporal occurrence patterns of large earthquakes in this area. Coulomb stress changes are calculated assuming that earthquakes can be modeled as static dislocations in elastic half space, taking into account both the coseismic slip in large ( M ≥ 6.5) earthquakes and the slow tectonic stress buildup along the major fault segments. The stress change calculations were performed for strike-slip and normal faults. In each stage of the evolutionary model the stress field is calculated according to the strike, dip, and rake angles of the next large event, whose triggering is inspected, and the possible sites for future strong earthquakes can be assessed. A new insight on the evaluation of future seismic

  10. Moment tensor inversion of recent local moderate sized Van Earthquakes: seismicity and active tectonics of the Van region : Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalafat, D.; Suvarikli, M.; Ogutcu, Z.; Kekovali, K.; Ocal, M. F.; Gunes, Y.; Pinar, A.

    2013-12-01

    The study area of the present research, the Van Region is located at the norththern end of the collision zone between the Anatolia and Arabian plates. Therefore, the southeast border of the Anatolian plate collides with the Arabian plate along the Bitlis Suture Zone. This zone is formed by collision of Arabian and in large scale Eurasian plates at mid-Miocen age. This type of thrust generation as a result of compressional regime extends east-west. The largest recorded earthquakes have all taken place along Southern Turkey (e.g. Lice, 1971; Varto, 1966; Caldiran, 1976). On the 23th of October 2011, an earthquake shook the Van Lake, Eastern Turkey, following a seismic sequence of more than three months in an unprecedented episode for this region characterized by null or low seismicity. The October 23, 2011 Van-Ercis Earthquake (Mw=7.1) was the most devastating resulting in loss of life and destruction. In order to study the aftershocks' activity of this main event, we installed and kept a seismic network of 10 broad-band (BB) stations in the area for an interval of nearly fifteen months. We characterized the seismogenic structure of the zone by calculating a minimum 1-D local velocity model and obtaining precise hypocentre locations. We also calculated fault plane solutions for more than 200 moderate sized earthquakes based on first motion polarities and commonly Moment Tensor Inversion Methods. The seismogenic zone would be localized at aproximately 10 km depth. Generally, the distribution of the important moderate earthquakes and the aftershock distribution shows that the E-W and NE-SW oriented fault segments cause the earthquake activities. Aftershock events are located along the eastern border of Lake Van and mainly between 5 and 10 km depth and disposed in two alignments: a ~E-W-trending alignment that matches with the trace of the Van Trust fault Zone and a NE-trending which could correspond to an structure not previously seen. Selected focal mechanisms show a

  11. Geology of the Çaldıran Fault, Eastern Turkey: Age, slip rate and implications on the characteristic slip behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selçuk, Azad Sağlam; Erturaç, M. Korhan; Nomade, Sebastien

    2016-06-01

    The Çaldıran Fault is a strike slip fault with a dextral slip in East Anatolia. The activity on this fault was marked by the November, 24 1976 earthquake (Mw: 7.1) which produced an ~ 50 km long surface rupture and caused 3840 fatalities, which was close to half of the population living along the fault at that time. Together with the North Tabriz Fault in Iran, it is regarded as the southern boundary of the Caucasus Block. The fault has an average annual slip rate of 8.1 from 10.8 mm yr- 1, as derived from elastic block modelling. We present results from a detailed morphotectonic survey along the fault. The Çaldıran Fault is comprised of three segments, each of which is eparated by bend structures that bend towards the SW with a total change in strike of 20° from east to west. The offsets of lithological contact markers show that the long-term geological slip rate for the Çaldıran fault is approximately 3.27 ± 0.17 mm yr- 1for a duration of approximately 290 ka. The cumulative offset of the fault was determined from an analysis of a dome-shaped rhyolitic volcano which constrained the age of the fault to the Middle-Late Pleistocene. An analysis of small-scale morphological offset markers indicates a characteristic slip behaviour of the Çaldıran Fault for the last 3 events with an average offset of 2.6 m.

  12. InSAR analysis of the 2000 - 2002 earthquake sequence along the Sultan Dag front in the Isparta Angle (southern Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjunath, D. V.; Gomez, F. G.; Brooks, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Sultan Dag range of southern Turkey is a fault-block mountain range that has developed within or at the edge of the Isparta Angle - a region of the Anatolian plate situated near a tear in the subducting slab of the African plate. The mountain range is bounded on the northeast by the Sultandagi-Aksehir fault and the Aksehir-Afyon graben. A sequence of moderate earthquakes that occurred between 2000 and 2002 provides insight into the incremental growth of the mountain front through individual seismic events. The earthquake sequence consists of three moderate size events: a Mw 5.1 and a Mw 6.0 earthquake (December 15, 2000) and a Mw 6.5 earthquake (February 3, 2002). Surface deformations corresponding with the individual earthquakes were imaged using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). The resulting displacement maps were used with elastic dislocation models to estimate faulting parameters associated with each earthquake (fault orientation and slip). These fault models were subsequently used to estimate static coulomb stress changes resulting from the earthquakes. The findings suggest that the two events of December 15, 2000, were not directly related to one another in terms of stress triggering. However, both events from 2000 appear to influence the extent of the 2002 earthquake. The larger event increased the stress on the segment ruptured in 2002, whereas the stress shadow from smaller event, which occurred on an antithetic fault, appears to have unloaded the stress at the termination of the 2002 rupture. Furthermore, the uplift and subsidence patterns associated with the earthquakes closely mimic overall geologic structure and general topography. Hence, these results permit exploring the extrapolation of coseismic displacements to understand the long-term growth of the mountain front.

  13. OBS development for long term observation in the Marmara Sea, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Narumi; Shimizu, Satoshi; Maekawa, Takuya; Kalafat, Dogan; Pinar, Ali; Citak, Seckin; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2015-04-01

    We have carried out a collaboration study between Japan and Turkey since 2013, which is one of SATREPS projects, "Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey". The main objective of this project is to reduce risk brought by earthquakes and tsunamis. In particular, the North Anatolian Fault system runs through the Marmara sea and it is expected that the seismic gap exists there according to past seismic studies. The details of seismicity distribution in the Marmara Sea is, however, still insufficient to construct fault model along the active faults. Therefore, we prepare ten ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) to realize long term observation. We aim to identify size and depth of seismogenic zones using micro seismicity. In addition, we need to cover relative broad area from off-shore Istanbul city to the western end of the Marmara Sea. To clear these conditions, OBS specifications we need are high dynamic range and low instrument noise to observe micro seismicity, low electrical consumption to realize long term observation of over one year, high cost performance to cover the broad area for OBS installation, low cost implementation, and good operability to treat by relatively small number of persons. All items, which are three components velocity sensor, batteries, a recorder, a GPS receiver, a transponder and its transducer to control OBS retrieval, a flasher and a beacon, are installed in the 17 inches glass sphere. The natural frequency of the velocity sensor is 4.5 Hz and the frequency range of our OBS is from 4.5 Hz to 250 Hz. Data sampling is selectable among 100 Hz, 250 Hz and 500 Hz. Because our OBS is deployed by free fall, accuracy of the OBS clock is essentially one of important factors, and it is less than 0.1 ppm. And the resolution of A/D conversion performed on the recorder is 24 bit and we keep the dynamic range of over 135 dB. These data is stored on a semiconductor memory and the capacity is over

  14. Post-Miocene Deformation in Central Anatolia and its link to Horst and Graben System of Western Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojay, B.

    2009-04-01

    The western Anatolian multi-directional extensional terrain developed as a result of the anti-clockwise westward migration of the Anatolian Block onto African Plate along the Mediterranean Ridge in between the North Anatolian Fault in north and East Anatolian-Dead Sea Fault in south-southeast. The multi-directed horst-graben system of the western Anatolian neotectonic domain is bisected by NW-SE to WNW-ESE extending faults. To understand the deformational pattern in the western Anatolia, five tectonic domains are differentiated in the area between Central Anatolian in the northeast and Kucuk Menderes sector in the southwest; i. central Anatolian domain (S of Galatian Volcanic province and Kazan Basin), ii. Eskişehir-Cihanbeyli Fault Zone, iii. Kütahya Fault and Simav-Afyon-Akşehir Fault Zone, iv. Gediz-Alaşehir Graben and v. Kücük Menderes basin. The results of the slip data analysis for the post-Late Miocene to Quaternary period from the northeastern sector (central Anatolia) to southwestern sector (K. Menderes) of the five domains are indicate that the style and tectonic setting of deformation phases are similar. In central Anatolia, the deformation is expressed by three distinct stages as (i) post-Late Miocene - pre-Pliocene NW-SE to N-S compression, (ii) Pliocene almost E-W extension and (iii) NNE-SSW to NW-SE multi-directed extension since the Pliocene. Similarly, the history of deformation in the Kucuk Menderes area is expressed by three distinct episodes as: (i) post-Late Miocene-pre-Pliocene N-S compression, (ii) ENE-WSW extension during Plio-Quaternary and (iii) NE-SW extension since the Quaternary. The fault-slip analyses from the five domains are consistent with continuum of continental extension since Pliocene which follows the post-Late Miocene - pre-Pliocene compression. The s1 - s3 relationship manifests a rotation of principal stress s1 axes from either NE-SW to NNE-SSW extension or converse, in multi directed extensional system. In western

  15. An Analysis of Teacher Candidates' Usage Level of Metacognitive Learning Strategies: Sample of a University in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yesilyurt, Etem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the level metacognitive learning strategies are used by teacher candidates. The study was designed as a descriptive research. Study group of present research consists of 291 teacher candidates studying in the Faculty of Education within the body of a Western Anatolian university in Turkey. Research…

  16. Pre-collisional accretionary growth of the southern Laurasian active margin, Central Pontides, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygül, Mesut; Okay, Aral I.; Oberhänsli, Roland; Sudo, Masafumi

    2016-03-01

    Cretaceous subduction-accretionary complexes crop out over wide areas in the central part of the Pontides, northern Turkey. To the north, the wedge consists of a low-grade metaflysch sequence with blocks of marble, Na-amphibole-bearing metabasite (PT = 7-12 kbar; 400 ± 70 °C) and serpentinite. 40Ar/39Ar phengite ages from the phyllites of the metaflysch are ca. 100 Ma. The metaflysch sequence is underlain by oceanic crust-derived HP/LT metabasites and micaschists along a major detachment fault. The metabasites are epidote-blueschists consisting of glaucophane, epidote, titanite, and phengite locally with garnet. Fresh lawsonite-blueschists are exposed as blocks along the detachment fault. Peak metamorphic conditions of a garnet-blueschist are constrained to 17 ± 1 kbar and 500 ± 40 °C and of a lawsonite-blueschist to 14 ± 2 kbar and 370-440 °C. 40Ar/39Ar phengite dating on the micaschists constrains the HP/LT metamorphism as 101-92 Ma, younging southward. Middle Jurassic (ca. 160 Ma) accretionary complexes consisting of blueschist to lower greenschist facies metabasites, marble and volcanogenic metasediment intercalations are exposed at the southern part of the Cretaceous wedge. In the studied area, the North Anatolian Fault forms the contact between Cretaceous and Middle Jurassic HP/LT metamorphic rocks. Wide distribution of Cretaceous subduction-accretionary complexes implies accretionary tectonic continental growth along the Laurasian active margin. High amount of clastic sediment flux into the trench has a major effect on enlarging the wedge during the Albian. Tectonic thickening of the oceanic HP/LT metamorphic sequence, however, was possibly achieved by propagation of the décollement along the retreating slab which can create the space necessary for progressive deep level basal underplating and extension of the wedge for subsequent syn-subduction exhumation.

  17. Monitoring of earthquake precursors by multi-parameter stations in Eskisehir region (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuce, G.; Ugurluoglu, D. Y.; Adar, N.; Yalcin, T.; Yaltirak, C.; Streil, T.; Oeserd, V. O.

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the geochemical and hydrogeological effects of earthquakes on fluids in aquifers, particularly in a seismically active area such as Eskisehir (Turkey) where the Thrace-Eskisehir Fault Zone stretches over the region. The study area is also close to the North Anatolian Fault Zone generating devastating earthquakes such as the ones experienced in 1999, reactivating the Thrace-Eskisehir Fault. In the studied area, Rn and CO2 gas concentrations, redox potential, electrical conductivity, pH, water level, water temperature, and the climatic parameters were continuously measured in five stations for about a year. Based on the gathered data from the stations, some ambiguous anomalies in geochemical parameters and Rn concentration of groundwater were observed as precursors several days prior to an earthquake. According to the mid-term observations of this study, well-water level changes were found to be a good indicator for seismic estimations in the area, as it comprises naturally filtered anomalies reflecting only the changes due to earthquakes. Also, the results obtained from this study suggest that both the changes in well-water level and gas-water chemistry need to be interpretated together for more accurate estimations. Valid for the studied area, it can be said that shallow earthquakes with epicentral distances of <30 km from the observation stations have more influence on hydrochemical parameters of groundwater and well-water level changes. Although some hydrochemical anomalies were observed in the area, it requires further observations in order to be able to identify them as precursors.

  18. Two-stage Uplift of Granite-Gneiss-Migmatite Complex (GGMC) of Çataldaǧ Core Complex (Western Anatolia, Turkey): the role of detachment faults on uplift processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaci, Omer; Altunkaynak, Safak

    2016-04-01

    The most recently identified core complex of western Anatolia (Turkey), the Çataldaǧ Core Complex (ÇCC) consists of a granite-gneiss-migmatite complex (GGMC) representing deep crustal rocks of NW Turkey and a shallow level granodioritic body (ÇG: Çataldaǧ granodiorite). The GGMC is Latest Eocene-Early Oligocene and ÇG is Early Miocene in age, and both were exhumed in the footwall of the Çataldaǧ Detachment Fault Zone (ÇDFZ) in the Early Miocene. On the basis of correlation of age data and the closure temperatures of zircon, monazite, muscovite, biotite and K-feldspar, the T-time history of GGMC reveals that GGMC has experienced at least two stages of cooling and uplift, from 33.8 to 30.1 Ma and 21.3 to 20.7 Ma. In stage I, from 33.8 to 30.1 Ma, the cooling rate of GGMC was relatively slow (35°C/my) however cooling rate increase dramatically to ≥500°C/my in stage II between 21.3 and 20.7 Ma. T-time history also indicate that GGMC was elevated to the final location in at least 8-13 My according to the monazite and zircon and mica ages obtained from the same rock. Rapid slab rollback at the Hellenic trench at ca. 23 Ma may have increased extension rates leading to the development of detachment faults (i.e. ÇDFZ), core complexes and associated syn-extensional granitoids in Western Anatolia and the Aegean extensional province.

  19. Probe Drilling Ahead of Two TBMs in Difficult Ground Conditions in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgin, Nuh; Ates, Ugur

    2016-07-01

    This paper summarizes the results of probe drilling carried out ahead of TBMs in two difficult tunneling projects in Turkey. The tunnels have completely different geological characteristics which necessitated two different methods of data analysis. Melen Water Tunnel was excavated under Istanbul Bosphorus within sedimentary rocks which are cut frequently by andesitic dykes, fracturing the surrounding rocks and creating a potential risk for water ingress into the tunnel. At the beginning of Melen Project, pioneering probe drillings with petrographic analysis and strength tests were performed on samples collected from TBM muck. This analysis allowed identifying some critical normalized probe drilling rate values for predicting potential weak zones created by andesitic dykes. These studies gave a sound basis for further interpretation of TBM and geologic data for the same tunnel. The second set of probe drilling analysis was from Kargi Tunnel. The North Anatolian Fault highly affected the tunnel excavation by fractured rock formations. Although the change in normalized probe drilling data was a good indicator of fractured zones, the diversity of rock formations made it difficult to interpret the data.

  20. Downhole geophysical observatories: best installation practices and a case history from Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prevedel, Bernhard; Bulut, Fatih; Bohnhoff, Marco; Raub, Christina; Kartal, Recai F.; Alver, Fatih; Malin, Peter E.

    2015-09-01

    Downhole sensors of different types and in various environments provide substantial benefit to signal quality. They also add the depth dimension to measurements performed at the Earths' surface. Sensor types that particularly benefit from downhole installation due to the absence of near-surface noise include piezometers, seismometers, strainmeters, thermometers, and tiltmeters. Likewise, geochemical and environmental measurements in a borehole help eliminate near-surface weathering and cultural effects. Installations from a few hundred meter deep to a few kilometer deep dramatically reduce surface noise levels—the latter noticeably also reduces the hypocentral distance for shallow microearthquakes. The laying out of a borehole network is always a compromise of local boundary conditions and the involved drilling costs. The installation depth and procedure for a long-term downhole observatory can range from time limited installations, with a retrieval option, to permanently cemented sensors. Permanently cemented sensors have proven to be long-term stable with non-deteriorating coupling and borehole integrity. However, each type needs to be carefully selected and planned according to the research aims. A convenient case study is provided by a new installation of downhole seismometers along the shoreline of the eastern Marmara Sea in Turkey. These stations are being integrated into the regional net for monitoring the North Anatolian Fault Zone. Here we discuss its design, installation, and first results. We conclude that, despite the logistical challenges and installation costs, the superior quality of downhole data puts this technique at the forefront of applied and fundamental research.

  1. Portrait of a Consortium: ANKOS (Anatolian University Libraries Consortium)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Phyllis; Karasozen, Bulent

    2009-01-01

    The Anatolian University Libraries Consortium (ANKOS) was created in 2001 with only a few members subscribed to nine e-journal collections and bibliographic databases. This Turkish library consortium had developed from one state and three private universities joining together for the purchase of two databases in 1999. Over time, the numbers of…

  2. The role of oroclinal bending in the structural evolution of the Central Anatolian Plateau: evidence of a regional changeover from shortening to extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özsayin, Erman; Dirik, Kadir

    2011-08-01

    The NW-SE striking extensional Inönü-Eskişehir Fault System is one of the most important active shear zones in Central Anatolia. This shear zone is comprised of semi-independent fault segments that constitute an integral array of crustal-scale faults that transverse the interior of the Anatolian plateau region. The WNW striking Eskişehir Fault Zone constitutes the western to central part of the system. Toward the southeast, this system splays into three fault zones. The NW striking Ilıca Fault Zone defines the northern branch of this splay. The middle and southern branches are the Yeniceoba and Cihanbeyli Fault Zones, which also constitute the western boundary of the tectonically active extensional Tuzgölü Basin. The Sultanhanı Fault Zone is the southeastern part of the system and also controls the southewestern margin of the Tuzgölü Basin. Structural observations and kinematic analysis of mesoscale faults in the Yeniceoba and Cihanbeyli Fault Zones clearly indicate a two-stage deformation history and kinematic changeover from contraction to extension. N-S compression was responsible for the development of the dextral Yeniceoba Fault Zone. Activity along this structure was superseded by normal faulting driven by NNE-SSW oriented tension that was accompanied by the reactivation of the Yeniceoba Fault Zone and the formation of the Cihanbeyli Fault Zone. The branching of the Inönü-Eskişehir Fault System into three fault zones (aligned with the apex of the Isparta Angle) and the formation of graben and halfgraben in the southeastern part of this system suggest ongoing asymmetric extension in the Anatolian Plateau. This extension is compatible with a clockwise rotation of the area, which may be associated with the eastern sector of the Isparta Angle, an oroclinal structure in the western central part of the plateau. As the initiation of extension in the central to southeastern part of the Inönü-Eskişehir Fault System has similarities with structures

  3. Shaded Relief and Radar Image with Color as Height, Bosporus Strait and Istanbul, Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Bosporus (also spelled Bosphorus) is a strait that connects the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara in the center of this view of northwest Turkey, taken during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The water of the Black Sea at the top of the image and Sea of Marmara below the center are colored blue in this image, along with several large lakes. The largest lake, to the lower right of the Sea of Marmara, is Iznik Lake. The Bosporus (Turkish Bogazici) Strait is considered to be the boundary between Europe and Asia, and the large city of Istanbul, Turkey is located on both sides of the southern end of the strait, visible as a brighter (light green to white) area on the image due to its stronger reflection of radar. Istanbul is the modern name for a city with along history, previously called Constantinople and Byzantium. It was rebuilt as the capital of the Roman Empire in 330 A.D. by Constantine on the site of an earlier Greek city, and it was later the capital of the Byzantine and Ottoman empires until 1922.

    The Gulf of Izmit is the narrow gulf extending to the east (right) from the Sea of Marmara. The city of Izmit at the end of the gulf was heavily damaged by a large magnitude 7.4 earthquake on August 17,1999, often called the Izmit earthquake (also known as the Kocaeli, Turkey, earthquake), that killed at least 17,000 people. A previous earthquake under the Gulf of Izmit in 1754 killed at least 2,000people. The Izmit earthquake ruptured a long section of the North Anatolian Fault system from off the right side of this image continuing under the Gulf of Izmit. Another strand of the North Anatolian Fault system is visible as a sharp linear feature in the topography south of Iznik Lake. Bathymetric surveys show that the north Anatolian Fault system extends beneath and has formed the Sea of Marmara, in addition to the Gulf of Izmit and Iznik Lake. Scientists are studying the North Anatolian Fault system to determine the risk of a large earthquake on the

  4. Biological ancestries, kinship connections, and projected identities in four central Anatolian settlements: insights from culturally contextualized genetic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Gokcumen, Ömer; Gultekin, Timur; Alakoc, Yesim Dogan; Tug, Aysim; Gulec, Erksin; Schurr, Theodore G

    2011-01-01

    Previous population genetics studies in Turkey failed to delineate recent historical and social factors that shaped Anatolian cultural and genetic diversity at the local level. To address this shortcoming, we conducted focused ethnohistorical fieldwork and screened biological samples collected from the Yuksekyer region for mitochondrial, Y chromosome, and autosomal markers and then analyzed the data within an ethnohistorical context. Our results revealed that, at the village level, paternal genetic diversity is structured among settlements, whereas maternal genetic diversity is distributed more homogenously, reflecting the strong patrilineal cultural traditions that transcend larger ethnic and religious structures. Local ancestries and origin myths, rather than ethnic or religious affiliations, delineate the social boundaries and projected identities among the villages. Therefore, we conclude that broad, ethnicity-based sampling is inadequate to capture the genetic signatures of recent social and historical dynamics, which have had a profound influence on contemporary genetic and cultural regional diversity.

  5. Active deformation in Western Turkey: new GPS observations and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocquet, J.; Aktug, B.; Parsons, B.; Cingoz, A.; England, P.; Erkan, Y.; Soyer, N.; Akdeniz, H.; Kilicoglu, A.

    2007-12-01

    How the continents deform remains a matter of debate. One view postulates that continental deforming zones are comprised of a limited numbers of rigid (elastic) microplates. If true, the surface motion can then be described by the relative rotation of blocks, and strain should be localized along the major faults separating the blocks. An alternative view is that the deformation at depth is distributed over wide areas, can be modelled by a viscous flow responding to boundary conditions applied on it and gravitational potential energy gradients related to variations in topography, and the surface strain simply reflects this deformation. Western Turkey is a region of crustal extension, part of the Nubia/Eurasia plate boundary. Its kinematics is often modelled by the relative motion of a small number of rigid blocks (Nyst & Thatcher, 2005, Reilinger et al., 2006). However, until now, the limited number of GPS velocity vectors available has prevented a detailed examination of which is the more appropriate description. We present a new geodetic velocity field including ~100 sites from the longitude the Central Anatolian plateau to the Aegean coast, derived from a combination of campaigns carried out between 1997 and 2006, and continuous GPS operating since 2003, which we use to test the different models. While the kinematics of the area can be correctly modelled by a block model, a good fit to the velocity field requires blocks with sizes smaller than 100 km and still fails to adequately predict the strain rate observed within blocks . Alternatively, we test an approach where the lithosphere is modelled as a thin viscous sheet, responding to the gravitational potentiel energy contrast between the high plateau of eastern Turkey to the east and the subduction along the Hellenic trench in the southwest. The simplistic model has only one free parameter (the force applied by the subducting oceanic lithosphere on the Aegean ), but provides a good agreement with the observed

  6. Numerical modelling of triple-junction tectonics at Karlıova, Eastern Turkey, with implications for regional magma transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoğlu, Özgür; Browning, John; Bazargan, Mohsen; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2016-10-01

    Few places on Earth are as tectonically active as the Karlıova region of eastern Turkey. In this region, complex interactions between the Arabian, Eurasian and Anatolian plates occur at the Karlıova Triple Junction (KTJ). The relationship between tectonics and magma propagation in triple-junction tectonic settings is poorly understood. Here we present new field and numerical results on the mechanism of magma propagation at the KTJ. We explore the effects of crustal heterogeneity and anisotropy, in particular the geometry and mechanical properties of many faults and layers, on magma propagation paths under a variety of tectonic loadings. We propose that two major volcanic centres in the area, the Turnadağ volcano and the Varto caldera, are both fed by comparatively shallow magma chambers at depths of about 8 km, which, in turn, are fed by a single, much larger and deeper reservoir at about 15-18 km depth. By contrast, the nearby Özenç volcanic area is fed directly by the deeper reservoir. We present a series of two-dimensional and three-dimensional numerical models showing that the present tectonic stresses encourage magma-chamber rupture and dyke injection. The results show that inversion tectonics encourages the formation of magma paths as potential feeder dykes. Our three-dimensional models allow us to explore the local stresses induced by complex loading conditions at the Karlıova triple junction, using an approach that can in future be applied to other similar tectonic regions. The numerical results indicate a great complexity in the potential magma (dyke) paths, resulting from local stresses generated by interaction between mechanical layers, major faults, and magma chambers. In particular, the results suggest three main controls on magma path formation and eventual eruptions at KTJ: (1) the geometry and attitude of the associated faults; (2) the heterogeneity and anisotropy of the crust; and (3) mechanical (stress) interactions between deep and shallow

  7. Reprocessing and Interpretation of the High Resolution Seismic Data from Northern Marmara Continental Shelf, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasif, Aslıhan; Dondurur, Derman; Ergintav, Semih; Cifci, Gunay

    2015-04-01

    The Marmara Sea is an inland sea located in the NW of Turkey with a maximum depth of 1270 m, and consists of a 3 major sub-basins. The active dextral North Anatolian Fault (NAF) passes through the basins, which shapes the general morphology and forms the tectonic settlement of the Marmara Sea. The investigations for the Marmara Sea are now important since İstanbul city, which is the most populous and economically the most important city of Turkey, is located just north of the Marmara Sea, quite close to the NAF. In order to define the morphology and structural state of the northern continental shelf of the Marmara Sea, we collected 224 km of multichannel high resolution seismic and 338 km of Chirp subbottom profiler data along the shallow shelf in 2007. A 600 m long, 96 channel digital seismic streamer, and a Generator-Injector (GI) gun was used to obtain high resolution seismic data. The Chirp data was collected a 2.75-6.75 kHz over-the-side-mount transducer system. The data have been processed using a conventional data processing flow. The scope of the present study is to re-process and to interpret the seismic and Chirp data between Silivri and Sarayburnu on the northern Marmara shelf up to 100 m water depth. The active tectonic characteristics of the area, especially its geological connection with the terrestrial area, are investigated using acoustic data. In addition, offshore continuity of the of the Çatalca Fault zone is investigated. The Çatalca Fault enters the shelf along the B. Çekmece Lake and can be tracked in the SSE direction on the seismic data. The seismic data is tied to North Marmara-1 well located on the central part of the shelf area, and distributions and thicknesses of the pre-Miocene sediments are mapped using a jump-correlation to the well information. The seismic data located at the southernmost part of the shelf along the shelf break also indicate the presence of active sediment erosion. Behind the shelf break, the slope inclination

  8. Multidisciplinary approach for the characterization of a new Late Cretaceous continental arc in the Central Pontides (Northern Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellero, Alessandro; Ottria, Giuseppe; Sayit, Kaan; Catanzariti, Rita; Frassi, Chiara; Cemal Göncüoǧlu, M.; Marroni, Michele; Pandolfi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    In the Central Pontides (Northern Turkey), south of Tosya, a tectonic unit consisting of not-metamorphic volcanic rocks and overlying sedimentary succession is exposed inside a fault-bounded elongated block. It is restrained within a wide shear zone, where the Intra-Pontide suture zone, the Sakarya terrane and the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone are juxtaposed as result of strike-slip activity of the North Anatolian shear zone. The volcanic rocks are mainly basalts and basaltic andesites (with their pyroclastic equivalents) associated with a volcaniclastic formation made up of breccias and sandstones that are stratigraphically overlain by a Marly-calcareous turbidite formation. The calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy points to a late Santonian-middle Campanian age (CC17-CC21 Zones) for the sedimentary succession. The geochemistry of the volcanic rocks reveals an active continental margin setting as evidenced by the enrichment in Th and LREE over HFSE, and the Nb-enriched nature of these lavas relative to N-MORB. As highlighted by the performed arenite petrography, the occurrence of continent-derived clastics in the sedimentary succession supports the hypothesis of a continental arc-derived volcanic succession. Alternative geodynamic reconstructions are proposed, where this tectonic unit could represent a slice derived from the northern continental margin of the Intra- Pontide or Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan oceanic basins.

  9. Detailed spatial distribution of microearthquakes beneath the Marmara Sea, Turkey, deduced from long-term ocean bottom observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yojiro; Takahashi, Narumi; Pinar, Ali; Kalafat, Doǧan; Citak, Seckin; Comoglu, Mustafa; Polat, Remzi; Çok, Özkan; Ogutcu, Zafer; Suvariklı, Murat; Tunc, Suleyman; Gürbüz, Cemil; Turhan, Fatih; Ozel, Nurcan; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2016-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) crosses the Marmara Sea in E-W direction, accommodating about 25 mm/yr of right-lateral motion between Anatolia and the Eurasian plate. There are many large earthquakes along the 1500 km long NAF repeatedly occurred and interacted each other. The recent large northern Aegean earthquake with Mw=6.9 filled one of the last two seismic gaps on NAF that experienced extraordinary seismic moment release cycle during the last century and confirmed a remained blank zone in the Marmara Sea. However, this segment keeps its mystery due to its underwater location. Earthquake hazard and disaster mitigation studies in Marmara region are sensitive to detailed information on fault geometry and its stick-slip behavior beneath the western Marmara Sea. We have started ocean bottom seismographic observations to obtain the detailed information about fault geometry and its stick-slip behavior beneath the western Marmara Sea, as a part of the SATREPS collaborative project between Japan and Turkey namely "Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey". The target area spans from western Marmara Sea to offshore Istanbul along the NAF. In the beginning of the project, we deployed ten Ocean Bottom Seismographs (OBSs) between the Tekirdag Basin and the Central Basin (CB) in September 2014. Then, we added five Japanese OBSs and deployed them in the western end of the Marmara Sea and in the eastern CB to extend the observed area in March 2015. We retrieved all 15 OBSs in July 2015 and deployed them again in the same locations after data retrieve and battery maintenance. From continuous OBS records, we could detect more than 700 events near the seafloor trace of NAF during 10 months observation period whereas land-seismic network could detect less than 200 events. We estimated the micro-earthquake location using manual-picking arrival times incorporating station corrections. The tentative results show

  10. 3D Full Seismic Waveform Tomography of NW Turkey and Surroundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubuk, Yesim; Fichtner, Andreas; Taymaz, Tuncay

    2015-04-01

    Northward collision of the Arabian plate with the Eurasian plate, and interaction of the motion between dynamic processes originated from the subduction of the African plate beneath the Aegean generated very complex tectonic structures in the study region. Western Turkey is among one of the most active extensional regions in the world and the study area is mainly located where the extensional Aegean and the right-lateral strike-slip North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) intersects. Therefore, the tectonic framework of the NW Turkey and the Marmara region is mainly characterized by the transition between the strike-slip tectonics to the extensional tectonics. The Sea of Marmara region has been subjected to several active and passive seismic investigations, nevertheless the accurate knowledge on the heterogeneity in the crust and upper mantle beneath the study area still remains enigmatic. On small-scale tomography problems, seismograms strongly reflect the effects of heterogeneities and the scattering properties of the Earth. Thus, the knowledge of high-resolution seismic imaging with an improved 3D radially anisotropic crustal model of the NW Turkey will enable better localization of earthquakes, identification of faults as well as the improvement of the seismic hazard assessment. For this purpose, we aim to develop 3D radially anisotropic subsurface structure of the Sea of Marmara and NW Turkey crust based on full waveform adjoint tomography method. The earthquake data were principally obtained from the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) and Earthquake Research Center (AFAD-DAD) database. In addition to this, some of the seismic waveform data extracted from the Hellenic Unified Seismic Network (HUSN) stations that are located within our study region were also used in this study. We have selected and simulated waveforms of earthquakes with magnitudes 4.0 ≤ Mw ≤ 6.7 occurred in the period between 2007-2014 to determine the 3D velocity

  11. Ophiolite suture in Central Anatolia: New insights from the Sivas Basin (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeay, Etienne; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Mohn, Geoffroy; Kergaravat, Charlie; Callot, Jean-Paul

    2015-04-01

    The closure of the Neotethys is classically associated with the obduction of ophiolitic rocks, defining successive suture zones. Theses Alpine-Himalayan ophiolites reflect a complex and still poorly understood paleogeographic framework. In Turkey, various types of ophiolite have been described, involving supra subduction zone and ophiolitic melanges as well. Hence reconstructions of the Anatolian continent assumed the amalgamation of one or more continental fragments during the Mesozoic-Early Cenozoic time. The Sivas Basin is located in a key position at the junction of three crustal domains: the Pontides to the North, the Anatolide - Tauride platforms to the South, and the Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex to the West. These blocks are separated to the North by the Izmir-Ankara-Erzican suture zone (IAESZ), and by the Inner Tauride suture zone (ITSZ) to the South. Ophiolitic outcrops are common in this area, mainly on the basin borders, and sometimes within the central part. These green rocks have been previously related to the ophiolitic melange from the IAESZ in Northern part and to the ITSZ for the southern parts. Recent fieldwork on the southern edge of the Sivas Basin allows a proper description of the ophiolitic complex, including from bottom to top: (1) a large volume of intensely serpentinized peridotites, strongly veined with chrysotile, with minor gabbroic intrusions; (2) upward, serpentinized mantle rocks affected by a cataclastic deformation associated with tectonic breccias and ophicalcites ; and eventually, (3) on the top of the mantle, silicates deposits similar to radiolarian cherts cover by sedimentary breccias with mantle clasts. New geochemical analysis and subsurface data confirm the existence of a southward obducted slice of ophiolite over more than 100km from North to South, forming the basement of the Sivas Basin since the Campanian. This southward obduction related to the IAESZ appears similar to slow spreading ridge or hyper

  12. Determination of Bedrock Variations and S-wave Velocity Structure in the NW part of Turkey for Earthquake Hazard Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozel, A. O.; Arslan, M. S.; Aksahin, B. B.; Genc, T.; Isseven, T.; Tuncer, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Tekirdag region (NW Turkey) is quite close to the North Anatolian Fault which is capable of producing a large earthquake. Therefore, earthquake hazard mitigation studies are important for the urban areas close to the major faults. From this point of view, integration of different geophysical methods has important role for the study of seismic hazard problems including seismotectonic zoning. On the other hand, geological mapping and determining the subsurface structure, which is a key to assist management of new developed areas, conversion of current urban areas or assessment of urban geological hazards can be performed by integrated geophysical methods. This study has been performed in the frame of a national project, which is a complimentary project of the cooperative project between Turkey and Japan (JICA&JST), named as "Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education". With this principal aim, this study is focused on Tekirdag and its surrounding region (NW of Turkey) where some uncertainties in subsurface knowledge (maps of bedrock depth, thickness of quaternary sediments, basin geometry and seismic velocity structure,) need to be resolved. Several geophysical methods (microgravity, magnetic and single station and array microtremor measurements) are applied and the results are evaluated to characterize lithological changes in the region. Array microtremor measurements with several radiuses are taken in 30 locations and 1D-velocity structures of S-waves are determined by the inversion of phase velocities of surface waves, and the results of 1D structures are verified by theoretical Rayleigh wave modelling. Following the array measurements, single-station microtremor measurements are implemented at 75 locations to determine the predominant frequency distribution. The predominant frequencies in the region range from 0.5 Hz to 8 Hz in study area. On the other hand, microgravity and magnetic measurements are performed on

  13. Effect of the stage of estrous cycle on follicular population, oocyte yield and quality, and biochemical composition of serum and follicular fluid in Anatolian water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Baki Acar, Duygu; Birdane, Muhammed Kursad; Dogan, Nurhan; Gurler, Hande

    2013-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects that the different stages of the estrous cycle had on the number of surface ovarian follicles and oocyte yield and quality of Anatolian water buffalo during peak breeding season. Assessments were made on the basis of ovarian morphology, serum and follicular fluid concentrations of variety of biochemical parameters. Following slaughter, blood samples were collected from each animal. The stage of estrous cycle was classified as either the luteal or follicular phase, and surface ovarian follicles were classified as small, medium, or large. The follicular fluid was aspirated, and oocytes were evaluated microscopically for classification into four categories. No statistical differences (p>0.05) were observed regarding the total number of follicles or quality of oocytes relative to the stage of the estrous cycle. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and progesterone (P4) concentrations were significantly higher in the luteal phase than in the follicular phase (P<0.05). Significant correlations were observed in the luteal phase between the total number of oocytes and cholesterol (Cho), HDL, sodium (Na), chloride (Cl); A-quality oocytes and Na, Cl, Mg; C-quality oocytes and Cho, HDL, and Mg in follicular fluid. These results offer new information concerning Anatolian water buffalo reproductive physiology, which may be useful for improving oocyte quality in buffalo. This is the first study to describe the number of ovarian follicles, oocyte yield and quality, and a variety of biochemical parameters in the serum and follicular fluid of Anatolian water buffalo during peak breeding season in Turkey.

  14. Environmental Radioactivity Measurements in Harran Plain of Sanliurfa, Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Bozkurt, A.; Yorulmaz, N.; Kam, E.

    2007-04-23

    This study aims to assess the environmental radioactivity levels of Harran Plain located within the boundaries of the south-eastern province of Sanliurfa, Turkey. In addition to being at the center of Turkey's major irrigation and development project (South Eastern Anatolian Project, GAP), this 1500 km2 region is famous for its historic attractions. The outdoor gamma dose rates were measured at selected points of the study area using a plastic scintillator. The activity concentrations in the soil samples collected from the study area were determined by gamma spectrometry for the natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K and the fission product 137Cs. The gross alpha and beta activities in the water samples collected from the region was measured using a low-level gamma spectrometry device. A comparison of the measurement results obtained in this study with those of national and world averages are presented in graphical and tabular forms.

  15. Chemical and stable-radiogenic isotope compositions of Polatlı-Haymana thermal waters (Ankara, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akilli, Hafize; Mutlu, Halim

    2016-04-01

    Complex tectono-magmatic evolution of the Anatolian land resulted in development of numerous geothermal areas through Turkey. The Ankara region in central Anatolia is surrounded by several basins which are filled with upper Cretaceous-Tertiary sediments. Overlying Miocene volcanics and step faulting along the margins of these basins played a significant role in formation of a number of low-enthalpy thermal waters. In this study, chemical and isotopic compositions of Polatlı and Haymana geothermal waters in the Ankara region are investigated. The Polatlı-Haymana waters with a temperature range of 24 to 43 °C are represented by Ca-(Na)-HCO3 composition implying derivation from carbonate type reservoir rocks. Oxygen-hydrogen isotope values of the waters are conformable with the Global Meteoric Water Line and point to a meteoric origin. The carbon isotopic composition in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of the studied waters is between -21.8 and -1.34 permil (vs. VPDB). Marine carbonates and organic rocks are the main sources of carbon. There is a high correlation between oxygen (3.7 to 15.0 permil; VSMOW) and sulfur (-9.2 to 19.5 permil; VCDT) isotope compositions of sulfate in waters. The mixing of sulfate from dissolution of marine carbonates and terrestrial evaporite units is the chief process behind the observed sulfate isotope systematics of the samples. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of waters varying from 0.705883 to 0.707827 are consistent with those of reservoir rocks. The temperatures calculated by SO4-H2O isotope geothermometry are between 81 and 138 °C nearly doubling the estimates from chemical geothermometers.

  16. Site characterisation in north-western Turkey based on SPAC and HVSR analysis of microtremor noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asten, Michael W. 16Askan, Aysegul 2Ekincioglu, E. Ezgi 34Sisman, F. Nurten 2Ugurhan, Beliz

    2014-02-01

    The geology of the north-western Anatolia (Turkey) ranges from hard Mesozoic bedrock in mountainous areas to large sediment-filled, pull-apart basins formed by the North Anatolian Fault zone system. Düzce and Bolu city centres are located in major alluvial basins in the region, and both suffered from severe building damage during the 12 November 1999 Düzce earthquake (Mw = 7.2). In this study, a team consisting of geophysicists and civil engineers collected and interpreted passive array-based microtremor data in the cities of Bolu and Düzce, both of which are localities of urban development located on topographically flat, geologically young alluvial basins of Miocene age. Interpretation of the microtremor data under an assumption of dominant fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave noise allowed derivation of the shear-wave velocity (Vs) profile. The depth of investigation was ~100 m from spatially-averaged coherency (SPAC) data alone. High-frequency microtremor array data to 25 Hz allows resolution of a surface layer with Vs < 200 m/s and thickness 5 m (Bolu) and 6 m (Düzce). Subsequent inclusion of spectral ratios between horizontal and vertical components of microtremor data (HVSR) in the curve fitting process extends useful frequencies up to a decade lower than those for SPAC alone. This allows resolution of two interfaces of moderate Vs contrasts in soft Miocene and Eocene sediments, first, at a depth in the range 136-209 m, and second, at a depth in the range 2000 to 2200 m.

  17. High Resolution Velocity Structure in Eastern Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M; Gok, R; Zor, E; Walter, W

    2004-09-03

    We investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure of eastern Turkey where the Anatolian, Arabian and Eurasian Plates meet and form a complex tectonic structure. The Bitlis suture is a continental collision zone between the Anatolian plateau and the Arabian plate. Broadband data available through the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE) provided a unique opportunity for studying the high resolution velocity structure. Zor et al. found an average 46 km thick crust in Anatolian plateau using six-layered grid search inversion of the ETSE receiver functions. Receiver functions are sensitive to the velocity contrast of interfaces and the relative travel time of converted and reverberated waves between those interfaces. The interpretation of receiver function alone with many-layered parameterization may result in an apparent depth-velocity tradeoff. In order to improve previous velocity model, we employed the joint inversion method with many layered parameterization of Julia et al. (2000) to the ETSE receiver functions. In this technique, the receiver function and surface-wave observations are combined into a single algebraic equation and each data set is weighted by an estimate of the uncertainty in the observations. We consider azimuthal changes of receiver functions and have stacked them into different groups. We calculated the receiver functions using iterative time-domain deconvolution technique and surface wave group velocity dispersion curves between 10-100 sec. We are making surface wave dispersion measurements at the ETSE stations and have incorporated them into a regional group velocity model. Preliminary results indicate a strong trend in the long period group velocity in the northeast. This indicates slow upper mantle velocities in the region consistent with Pn, Sn and receiver function results. We started with both the 1-D model that is obtained with the 12 tones dam explosion shot data recorded by ETSE network and the existing receiver function

  18. Bilateral elongated mandibular coronoid process in an Anatolian skull

    PubMed Central

    Çorumlu, Ufuk; Demir, Mehmet Tevfik; Pirzirenli, Mennan Ece

    2016-01-01

    Elongation or hyperplasia of coronoid process of mandible is rare condition characterized by abnormal bone development which cause malocclusion and the limited mouth opening. In this study, in an Anatolian skull, a case of bilateral elongation of mandibular coronoid process was presented. Levandoski panographic analysis was performed on the panoramic radiographie to determine the hyperplasia of the coronoid process. The right condylar process was exactly hyperplastic. The measurements of Kr-Go/Cd-Go were 95.10 mm/79.03 mm on right side and 97.53 mm/87.80 mm on left side. The ratio of Kr-Go/Cd-Go on the right side was 1.20. Elongated coronoid process is one of the factors cause mandibular hypomobility, it as reported here might lead to limited mouth opening. The knowledge of this variation or abnormality can be useful for the radiologist and surgeons and prevent misdiagnosis. PMID:27722017

  19. Microzonation Studies In District of Dikili, Izmir (Turkey) In The Context of Social Responsibility by Using GIS Tecniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabulut, Savas; Cinku, Mualla; Tezel, Okan; Hisarli, Mumtaz; Ozcep, Ferhat; Tun, Muammer; Avdan, Ugur; Ozel, Oguz; Acikca, Ahmet; Aygordu, Ozan; Benli, Aral; Kesisyan, Arda; Yilmaz, Hakan; Varici, Cagri; Ozturkan, Hasan; Ozcan, Cuneyt; Kivrak, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Social Responsibility Projects (SRP) are important tools in contributing to the development of communities and applied educational science. Researchers dealing with engineering studies generally focus on technical specifications. However, when the subject depends on earthquake, engineers should be consider also social and educational components, besides the technical aspects. If scientific projects collaborated with municipalities of cities, it should be known that it will reach a wide range of people. Turkey is one of the most active region that experienced destructive earthquakes. The 1999 Marmara earthquake was responsible for the loose of more than 18.000 people. The destructive damage occurred on buildings that made on problematic soils. This however, is still the one of most important issues in Turkey which needs to be solved. Inspite of large earthquakes that occurred along the major segments of the North and East Anatolian Fault Zones due to the northwards excursion of Anatolia, the extensional regime in the Aegean region is also characterized by earthquakes that occurred with the movement of a number of strike slip and normal faults. The Dikili village within the Eastern Aegean extensional region experienced a large earthquake in 1939 (M: 6.8). The seismic activity is still characterised by high level and being detected. A lot of areas like the Kabakum village have been moved to its present location during this earthquake. The probability of an earthquake hazard in Dikili is considerably high level, today. Therefore, it is very important to predict the soil behaviour and engineering problems by using Geographic Information System (GIS) tools in this area. For this purpose we conducted a project with the collaboration of the Dikili Municipality in İzmir (Turkey) to determine the following issues: a) Possible disaster mitigation as a result of earthquake-soil-structure interaction, b) Geo-enginnering problems (i.e: soil liquefaction, soil settlement, soil

  20. Structural Evolution of the Tuzgölü Basin in Central Anatolia, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Çemen; Göncüoglu; Dirik

    1999-11-01

    The Central Anatolian segment of the Alpine-Himalayan orogen contains "interior" basins, the largest of which is the Tuzgölü (Salt Lake) basin (>20,000 km2). It is bounded on the east by the Tuzgölü (Salt Lake) fault zone and on the west by the Yeniceoba and Cihanbeyli fault zones. Structural, stratigraphic, and sedimentologic evidence suggests that the Tuzgölü basin started as a fault-controlled basin during late Maastrichtian tectonism when the present-day northwest-trending faults that bound the basin were initiated. These faults may have been formed as normal faults suggesting extension or strike-slip faults with a normal component of movement indicating a large transtension at the time of their initiation. The late Maastrichtian faults were reactivated as strike-slip faults in response to late Eocene compression in the region that produced the Central Anatolian thrust belt to the north and the late Eocene south-dipping thrust faults of the Ulukisla basin to the south. This reactivation is suggested by structurally repeated and missing Paleocene-Eocene deposits in some of the basin's wildcat wells. The late Eocene regression in the Tuzgölü basin was caused by the combined effects of Eocene shortening and a large environmental change. Late Eocene evaporites suggest that the basin was dry before the start of the Neotectonic period, while during the Neotectonic itself the Tuzgölü fault zone was reactivated again, predominantly as a normal fault with a right-lateral strike-slip component. This is evidenced by (1) a major unconformity between the post-Eocene Koçhisar Formation of the Tuzgölü basin and the underlying Eocene rock units; (2) a well-developed rollover anticline observed on seismic reflection profiles; and (3) a right-step along the Tuzgölü fault zone seen in the field.

  1. Plio-Quaternary kinematic development and paleostress pattern of the Edremit Basin, western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürer, Ömer Feyzi; Sangu, Ercan; Özburan, Muzaffer; Gürbüz, Alper; Gürer, Aysan; Sinir, Hasan

    2016-06-01

    The Edremit Basin and Kazdağ High are the most prominent morphological features of the Biga Peninsula in northwest Anatolia. There is still no consensus on the formation of Edremit Basin and debates are on whether the basin evolved through a normal, a right-lateral or a left-lateral strike-slip faulting. In this study, the geometric, structural and kinematic characteristics of the Edremit Basin are investigated to make an analytical approach to this problem. The structural and kinematic features of the faults in the region are described according to field observations. These fault-slip data derived from the fault planes were analyzed to determine the paleostress pattern of faulting in the region. According to the performed analysis, the southern end of the Biga Peninsula is under the influence of the ENE-WSW-trending faults of the region, such as the Yenice-Gönen, the Edremit, the Pazarköy and the Havran-Balıkesir Fault Zones. The right step-over geometry and related extension caused to the development of the Edremit Basin as a transtensional pull-apart basin between the Havran-Balıkesir Fault Zone and the Edremit Fault Zone. Field observations showed that the Plio-Quaternary faults at the Edremit Gulf and adjacent areas are prominently right-lateral strike-slip faults. Our paleostress analyses suggest a dominant NE-SW extension in the study area, as well as NW-SE direction. This pattern indicates the major effects of the North Anatolian Fault System and the component of Aegean Extensional System in the region. However, our kinematic analysis represents the dominant signature of the North Anatolian Fault System in basin bounding faults. The field observations and kinematic findings of this study are also consistent with the regional GPS, paleomagnetic and seismological data. This study concludes that the North Anatolian Fault System is the prominent structure in the current morphotectonic framework of the Edremit Gulf and adjacent areas.

  2. Domestic livestock resources of Turkey: water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Wilson, Richard Trevor

    2012-04-01

    Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage.

  3. Domestic livestock resources of Turkey: water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Wilson, Richard Trevor

    2012-04-01

    Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage. PMID:21870064

  4. Characterising the Alpine Fault Damage Zone using Fault Zone Guided Waves, South Westland, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eccles, J. D.; Gulley, A.; Boese, C. M.; Malin, P. E.; Townend, J.; Thurber, C. H.; Guo, B.; Sutherland, R.

    2015-12-01

    Fault Zone Guided Waves (FZGWs) are observed within New Zealand's transpressional continental plate boundary, the Alpine Fault, which is late in its typical seismic cycle. Distinctive dispersive seismic coda waves (~7-35 Hz), trapped within the low-velocity fault damage zone, have been recorded on three component 2 Hz borehole seismometers installed within 20 m of the principal slip zone in the shallow (< 150 m deep) DFDP-1 boreholes. Near the central Alpine Fault, known for low background seismicity, FZGW-generating microseismic events are located beyond the catchment-scale strike-slip and thrust segment partitioning of the fault indicating lateral connectivity of the low-velocity zone immediately below the near-surface segmentation. Double-difference earthquake relocation of events using the dense SAMBA and WIZARD seismometer arrays allows spatio-temporal patterns of 2013 events to be analysed and the segmentation and low velocity zone depth extent further explored. Three layer, dispersion modeling of the low-velocity zone indicates a waveguide width of 60-200 m with a 10-40% reduction in S-wave velocity, similar to that inferred for the fault core of other mature plate boundary faults such as the San Andreas and North Anatolian Faults.

  5. Giant rhinoceros Paraceratherium and other vertebrates from Oligocene and middle Miocene deposits of the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin, Eastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sevket; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Varol, Baki; Ayyildiz, Turhan; Sözeri, Koray

    2011-05-01

    A recent fieldwork in the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin in northeastern Turkey led us to the discovery of three vertebrate localities which yielded some limb bones of the giant rhino Paraceratherium, a crocodile tooth, and some small mammals, respectively. These discoveries allowed, for the first time to date some parts of the sedimentary units of this basin. This study also shows that the dispersal area of Paraceratherium is wider than it was known before. Eastern Turkey has several Cenozoic sedimentary basins formed during the collision of the Arabian and Eurasian plates. They are poorly documented for vertebrate paleontology. Consequently, the timing of tectonic activities, which led to the formation of the East Anatolian accretionary complex, is not constrained enough with a solid chronological framework. This study provides the first biostratigraphic evidences for the infill under the control of the compressive tectonic regime, which built the East Anatolian Plateau.

  6. Giant rhinoceros Paraceratherium and other vertebrates from Oligocene and middle Miocene deposits of the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin, Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Sevket; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Varol, Baki; Ayyildiz, Turhan; Sözeri, Koray

    2011-05-01

    A recent fieldwork in the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin in northeastern Turkey led us to the discovery of three vertebrate localities which yielded some limb bones of the giant rhino Paraceratherium, a crocodile tooth, and some small mammals, respectively. These discoveries allowed, for the first time to date some parts of the sedimentary units of this basin. This study also shows that the dispersal area of Paraceratherium is wider than it was known before. Eastern Turkey has several Cenozoic sedimentary basins formed during the collision of the Arabian and Eurasian plates. They are poorly documented for vertebrate paleontology. Consequently, the timing of tectonic activities, which led to the formation of the East Anatolian accretionary complex, is not constrained enough with a solid chronological framework. This study provides the first biostratigraphic evidences for the infill under the control of the compressive tectonic regime, which built the East Anatolian Plateau.

  7. Giant rhinoceros Paraceratherium and other vertebrates from Oligocene and middle Miocene deposits of the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin, Eastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sevket; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Varol, Baki; Ayyildiz, Turhan; Sözeri, Koray

    2011-05-01

    A recent fieldwork in the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin in northeastern Turkey led us to the discovery of three vertebrate localities which yielded some limb bones of the giant rhino Paraceratherium, a crocodile tooth, and some small mammals, respectively. These discoveries allowed, for the first time to date some parts of the sedimentary units of this basin. This study also shows that the dispersal area of Paraceratherium is wider than it was known before. Eastern Turkey has several Cenozoic sedimentary basins formed during the collision of the Arabian and Eurasian plates. They are poorly documented for vertebrate paleontology. Consequently, the timing of tectonic activities, which led to the formation of the East Anatolian accretionary complex, is not constrained enough with a solid chronological framework. This study provides the first biostratigraphic evidences for the infill under the control of the compressive tectonic regime, which built the East Anatolian Plateau. PMID:21465174

  8. Turkey`s nuclear power effort

    SciTech Connect

    Aybers, N.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the expected role of nuclear energy in the production of electric power to serve the growing needs of Turkey, examining past activities and recent developments. The paper also reviews Turkey`s plans with respect to nuclear energy and the challenges that the country faces along the way.

  9. Surface wave phase velocities from 2-D surface wave tomography studies in the Anatolian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif Kutlu, Yusuf; Erduran, Murat; Çakır, Özcan; Vinnik, Lev; Kosarev, Grigoriy; Oreshin, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    We study the Rayleigh and Love surface wave fundamental mode propagation beneath the Anatolian plate. To examine the inter-station phase velocities a two-station method is used along with the Multiple Filter Technique (MFT) in the Computer Programs in Seismology (Herrmann and Ammon, 2004). The near-station waveform is deconvolved from the far-station waveform removing the propagation effects between the source and the station. This method requires that the near and far stations are aligned with the epicentre on a great circle path. The azimuthal difference of the earthquake to the two-stations and the azimuthal difference between the earthquake and the station are restricted to be smaller than 5o. We selected 3378 teleseismic events (Mw >= 5.7) recorded by 394 broadband local stations with high signal-to-noise ratio within the years 1999-2013. Corrected for the instrument response suitable seismogram pairs are analyzed with the two-station method yielding a collection of phase velocity curves in various period ranges (mainly in the range 25-185 sec). Diffraction from lateral heterogeneities, multipathing, interference of Rayleigh and Love waves can alter the dispersion measurements. In order to obtain quality measurements, we select only smooth portions of the phase velocity curves, remove outliers and average over many measurements. We discard these average phase velocity curves suspected of suffering from phase wrapping errors by comparing them with a reference Earth model (IASP91 by Kennett and Engdahl, 1991). The outlined analysis procedure yields 3035 Rayleigh and 1637 Love individual phase velocity curves. To obtain Rayleigh and Love wave travel times for a given region we performed 2-D tomographic inversion for which the Fast Marching Surface Tomography (FMST) code developed by N. Rawlinson at the Australian National University was utilized. This software package is based on the multistage fast marching method by Rawlinson and Sambridge (2004a, 2004b). The

  10. Characterization of Anatolian traditional quince cultivars, based on microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, C; Mutaf, F; Demirtaş, İ; Öztürk, G; Pektaş, M; Ergül, A

    2013-01-01

    We conducted simple sequence repeat (SSR) analyses of 15 traditional quince (Cydonia oblonga) cultivars from Anatolian gene sources for molecular characterization and investigation of genetic relationships. Three pear and two apple cultivars were used as references for SSR locus data analysis and to determine allele profiles between species. Eight SSR loci that were developed from apple and pear were used, and a total of 44 alleles were found among quince cultivars. The CH01F02 locus was found to have the highest identification probability, while the CH04E03 locus had the lowest identification probability. Analysis of similarity ratios between quince cultivars showed that the lowest similarity ratio was 18% (Eşme-Bardacık ± k), while the highest similarity ratio was 87% (Bursa-Osmancık ± k and Osmancık ± k-Viranyadevi). In the phylogenetic dendrogram, Eşme quince showed separate branching from other quince cultivars, and no synonymous accessions were found. These results suggest that SSR markers from pear and apple could be used to determine genetic variation among quince cultivars. These findings can be used to guide future quince breeding and management studies.

  11. PSHA for Strong Ground-Motion Hazards in Marmara Region, Turkey with Physically-based Ground Motion Prediction Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mert, A.; Fahjan, Y.; Hutchings, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    We perform a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for strong ground motion within the Marmara region, Turkey, from potential earthquakes along the North Anatolian fault segments in and around Marmara Sea. Because of the increasing awareness of earthquake threat in the Marmara Region, the need for seismic hazard studies has become progressively more important for planning risk reduction actions. We perform the PSHA utilizing empirical Green's functions (EGFs) along with models of finite rupture in place of standard "attenuation relations". The important aspect of this study is that we combined the basic PSHA with ground motion simulations and obtained hazard analysis for all significant magnitude earthquakes, and provide the necessary full-waveform simulated ground motions to calculate building response, and thus risk. Recordings of small earthquakes from a local seismic array operated by Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) were used as EGFs. Over the past 50 years, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) has been based upon estimating annual frequency of exceedance for a ground-motion parameter at a particular site (i.e., a hazard curve, Cornell, 1968). In the present study, we estimated the seismic hazard in Marmara Region and we expand and utilize the "physically based" approach proposed by Hutchings et al. (2007), Scognamiglio and Hutchings (2009). This approach replaces the aleatory uncertainty that current PSHA studies estimate by regression of empirical parameters with epistemic uncertainty that is expressed by the variability in the physical parameters of earthquake rupture. Epistemic uncertainty can be reduced by further research. By 'physically based' we refer to ground motion synthesized with quasi-dynamic rupture models derived from physics and an understanding of earthquake process. This methodology provides source- and site-specific calculations of full-waveform ground motion time histories, which is important

  12. Lithospheric Response of the Anatolian Plateau in the Realm of the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergun, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East make up the southern boundary of the Tethys Ocean for the last 200 Ma by the disintegration of the Pangaea and closure of the Tethys Ocean. It covers the structures: Hellenic and Cyprus arcs; Eastern Anatolian Fault Zone; Bitlis Suture Zone and Zagros Mountains. The northern boundary of the Tethys Ocean is made up the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, and it extends up to Po valley towards the west (Pontides, Caucasus). Between these two zones the Alp-Himalayan orogenic belt is situated where the Balkan, Anatolia and the Iran plateaus are placed as the remnants of the lost Ocean of the Tethys. The active tectonics of the eastern Mediterranean is the consequences of the convergence between the Africa, Arabian plates in the south and the Eurasian plate in the north. These plates act as converging jaws of vise forming a crustal mosaic in between. The active crustal deformation pattern reveals two N-S trending maximum compression or crustal shortening syntaxes': (i) the eastern Black Sea and the Arabian plate, (ii) the western Black Sea and the Isparta Angle. The transition in young mountain belts, from ocean crust through the agglomeration of arc systems with long histories of oceanic closures, to a continental hinterland is well exemplified by the plate margin in the eastern Mediterranean. The boundary between the African plate and the Aegean/Anatolian microplate is in the process of transition from subduction to collision along the Cyprus Arc. Since the Black Sea has oceanic lithosphere, it is actually a separate plate. However it can be considered as a block, because the Black Sea is a trapped oceanic basin that cannot move freely within the Eurasian Plate. Lying towards the northern margin of orogenic belts related to the closure of the Tethys Ocean, it is generally considered to be a result of back-arc extension associated with the northward subduction of the Tethyan plate to the south. Interface oceanic lithosphere at

  13. A Miocene onset of the modern extensional regime in the Isparta Angle: constraints from the Yalvaç Basin (southwest Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koç, Ayten; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Vissers, Reinoud L. M.

    2016-01-01

    The pre-Neogene Tauride fold-and-thrust belt, comprising Cretaceous ophiolites and metamorphic rocks and non-metamorphic carbonate thrust slices in southern Turkey, is flanked and overlain by Neogene sedimentary basins. These include poorly studied intra-montane basins including the Yalvaç Basin. In this paper, we study the stratigraphy, sedimentology and structure of the Yalvaç Basin, which has a Middle Miocene and younger stratigraphy. Our results show that the basin formed as a result of multi-directional extension, with NE-SW to E-W extension dominating over subordinate NW-SE to N-S extension. We show that faults bounding the modern basin also governed basin formation, with proximal facies close to the basin margins grading upwards and basinwards into lacustrine deposits representing the local depocentre. The Yalvac Basin was a local basin, but a similar, contemporaneous history recently reconstructed from the Altınapa Basin, ~100 km to the south, shows that multi-directional extension dominated by E-W extension was a regional phenomenon. Extension is still active today, and we conclude that this tectonic regime in the study area has prevailed since Middle Miocene times. Previously documented E-W shortening in the Isparta Angle along the Aksu Thrust, ~100 km to the southwest of our study area, is synchronous with the extensional history documented here, and E-W extension to its east shows that Anatolian westwards push is likely not the cause. Synchronous E-W shortening in the heart and E-W extension in the east of the Isparta Angle may be explained by an eastwards-dipping subduction zone previously documented with seismic tomography and earthquake hypocentres. We suggest that this slab surfaces along the Aksu thrust and creates E-W overriding plate extension in the east of the Isparta Angle. Neogene and modern Anatolian geodynamics may thus have been driven by an Aegean, Antalya and Cyprus slab segment that each had their own specific evolution.

  14. Randomised field trial to evaluate serological response after foot-and-mouth disease vaccination in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Bulut, A N; Gubbins, S; Stärk, K D C; Pfeiffer, D U; Sumption, K J; Paton, D J

    2015-02-01

    Despite years of biannual mass vaccination of cattle, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains uncontrolled in Anatolian Turkey. To evaluate protection after mass vaccination we measured post-vaccination antibodies in a cohort of cattle (serotypes O, A and Asia-1). To obtain results reflecting typical field protection, participants were randomly sampled from across Central and Western Turkey after routine vaccination. Giving two-doses one month apart is recommended when cattle are first vaccinated against FMD. However, due to cost and logistics, this is not routinely performed in Turkey, and elsewhere. Nested within the cohort, we conducted a randomised trial comparing post-vaccination antibodies after a single-dose versus a two-dose primary vaccination course. Four to five months after vaccination, only a third of single-vaccinated cattle had antibody levels above a threshold associated with protection. A third never reached this threshold, even at peak response one month after vaccination. It was not until animals had received three vaccine doses in their lifetime, vaccinating every six months, that most (64% to 86% depending on serotype) maintained antibody levels above this threshold. By this time cattle would be >20 months old with almost half the population below this age. Consequently, many vaccinated animals will be unprotected for much of the year. Compared to a single-dose, a primary vaccination course of two-doses greatly improved the level and duration of immunity. We concluded that the FMD vaccination programme in Anatolian Turkey did not produce the high levels of immunity required. Higher potency vaccines are now used throughout Turkey, with a two-dose primary course in certain areas. Monitoring post-vaccination serology is an important component of evaluation for FMD vaccination programmes. However, consideration must be given to which antigens are present in the test, the vaccine and the field virus. Differences between these antigens affect the

  15. Aftershock Activity Triggered By the 2014 Earthquake (Mw=6.5), and Its Implications for the Future Seismic Risk in the Marmara Sea, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polat, O.; Kilic, T.; Turkoglu, M.; Kaplan, M.; Kilicarslan, O.; Özer, Ç.; Gok, E.

    2014-12-01

    We have performed aftershocks analysis triggered by 24.05.2014 (Mw=6.5) Gokceada Island (GI) earthquake where occurred at the W of North Anatolian Fault zone. Mainshock was widely felt in Aegean and Marmara regions of Turkey. Major damage in 228 homes was reported. Other 49 residences suffered moderate or light damage. We have well located 699 events over 1041 by at least 5 stations for one month period after the mainshock. Double difference relocation algorithm allowed us to minimize rms values less than 0.39. Initial results show clear unilateral rupture towards Gallipoli Peninsula at the W of Marmara Sea region. Aftershocks show linearity with an extension of ~110 km length, ~25 km width. Largest aftershock (Mw=5.3) was at the NE end of activation zone. Depths are mainly confined from 5 to 25 km ranges. Two locking depths are detected beneath 8 km in Lemnos Basin and Saros Trough. We also constructed focal mechanisms from regional moment tensor solutions. Digital waveform data obtained from AFAD (Turkey) and HT-AUTH (Greece). Focal mechanisms reflect complex tectonic settings. Nevertheless numerous mechanisms show dominant dextral strike-slip motions aligned NE-SW direction with minor reverse component. State of stress before the mainshock was pure shear regime. But two principal stress axes are observed as oblique for the aftershocks showing ambiguity between compression and shear. It is likely that the mean stress regime has changed after the GI earthquake. If this is so, we may expect that the strike-slip component would slowly increase later in order to recover the conditions existing before. Coulomb stress values rise at the edges of the fault segment due to accumulation of slip. We observed strong spatial correlation between the static stress change after 2014 GI earthquake and the segment that ruptured during the 1912 Murefte-Ganos (Mw=7.4) earthquake. The analysis showed that the areas of positive static stress changes reach to seismic gap in the Marmara

  16. Survey of Turkey's endemic amphibians for chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Erismis, Ugur Cengiz; Konuk, Muhsin; Yoldas, Taner; Agyar, Pinar; Yumuk, Dilay; Korcan, Safiye Elif

    2014-09-30

    We report a new survey for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in Turkey. We swabbed 228 individuals of 7 amphibian species (from 5 families) living in 2 locations (26-August National Park and the Turkish Lakes District) in the southwestern Anatolian region. The infection intensity of all the samples was determined using quantitative PCR. All 4 amphibian breeding sites and 4 amphibian species in 26-August National Park were infected by Bd, with the prevalence at each site ranging from 8 to 29%. Only 1 species was sampled from Beysehir Lake near the conservation area Beysehir Natural Park, but these samples were notable for their high detection rates (prevalence of 32.11%). This study reports the first records of Bd infecting wild Pelophylax ridibundus, Hyla orientalis, Pseudepidalea variabilis, and endemic Beysehir frogs Pelophylax caralitanus.

  17. ESR dating marine terraces along the Mediterranean coast of the Antakya Graben, SE Turkey: Sea level change and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tari, Ufuk; Tüysüz, Okan; Blackwell, Bonnie; Genç, Ş. Can; İmren, Caner; Florentin, Jonathan A.; Skinner, Anne

    2015-04-01

    In southeastern Turkey, NE-trending Antakya Graben forms an asymmetric depression filled by Pliocene marine siliciclastic sediment, Pleistocene to Recent fluvial terrace sediment and alluvium. A multi-segmented, dominantly sinistral fault lying along the graben possibly connects the Cyprus Arc in the west to the Amik Triple Junction on the Dead Sea Fault (DSF) in the east. Normal faults, bounding the southeastern margin caused the graben to tilt southeastward and these faults are younger than the sinistral ones. Westward escape of the continental İskenderun Block along the sinistral faults belonging to the DSF in the east and to the Eastern Anatolian Fault in the north caused Antakya Graben to open since Pliocene. In the later stages of this opening, normal faults developed along the southeastern of the graben, leading to differential uplift of the Mediterranean coastal terraces. Tectonic uplift coupled with sea level fluctuations has produced several stacked marine terraces at elevations ranging from 0.25 m to 180 m above current sea level along the Mediterranean coast. In this study we dated these terrace deposits by using electron spin resonance (ESR) method. In the NW part of the graben, terraces at 30 m above mean sea level (amsl) yield 63±8 ka and correlate with Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 4. Older units dating to MIS 7 and 5 likely were being eroded to supply some fossils found in this terrace. On the 45 m amsl terrace dates to 114±7 ka, which is the MIS 5d/5e boundary. Terrace deposits at 105 m amsl belong to MIS 5c boundary at 91±13 ka. At Samandağ site at 39 m amsl, molluscs deposited in a large tidal channel indicate MIS 5d/5e boundary at 116 ± 5 ka. Contemporary sediments are seen in different elevations in the SE part of the graben. The youngest samples suggest an age 14±1 ka in the late MIS 2 for the slump topping the 8 m amsl terrace. At the 50 m amsl terrace dates to 89±5 ka and correlate with MIS 5a/5c. Here 180 m amsl terrace gave a

  18. The Difference and Relationship between the SSEE and UEE-1 Scores of Anatolian Vocational High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahar, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Vocational High School students enter schools either with GPA or with Secondary School Entrance Exam (SSEE). In this research, the difference between the percentages of standard scores of 6190 students at four kinds of Anatolian Vocational High Schools in SSEE and UEE 1 exams, and their regression analyses have been studied. Moreover, one-way…

  19. A survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodida) infesting some wild animals from Sivas, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bursali, Ahmet; Keskin, Adem; Şimşek, Eray; Keskin, Aysun; Tekin, Saban

    2015-06-01

    In order to determine the species composition of infesting ticks, between 2011 and 2012 a total of 1118 wild animals were captured from various regions of Zara, Sivas province, Turkey. A total of 138 ticks were obtained from the 58 host animals. Ticks were identified as Dermacentor marginatus (Sulzer), Haemaphysalis erinacei taurica Pospelova-Shtrom, Haemaphysalis parva (Neumann), Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini and Fanzago, Haemaphysalis sulcata Canestrini and Fanzago, Hyalomma marginatum Koch, Ixodes laguri Olenev, Ixodes ricinus (L.), Ixodes vespertilionis Koch and Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantzev. To the best of our knowledge, there are several new host records for D. marginatus, H. e. taurica and I. laguri. In addition, I. vespertilionis was recorded for the first time in the Central Anatolian Region in Turkey, whereas I. laguri and H. e. taurica are firstly reported in Sivas.

  20. Fault finder

    DOEpatents

    Bunch, Richard H.

    1986-01-01

    A fault finder for locating faults along a high voltage electrical transmission line. Real time monitoring of background noise and improved filtering of input signals is used to identify the occurrence of a fault. A fault is detected at both a master and remote unit spaced along the line. A master clock synchronizes operation of a similar clock at the remote unit. Both units include modulator and demodulator circuits for transmission of clock signals and data. All data is received at the master unit for processing to determine an accurate fault distance calculation.

  1. Istanbul, Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This June 16, 2000 image of Istanbul, Turkey show a full 60 by 60 km ASTER scene in the visible and infrared channels. Vegetation appears red, and urban areas blue-green. Bustling Istanbul, with its magnificent historical heritage, has spanned the divide between Europe and Asia for more than 2,500 years. Originally called Byzantium, the city was founded in the 7th century BC on the Golden Horn, an arm of the narrow Bosporus (also spelled Bosphorus) Strait, which connects the Sea of Marmara to the south, with the Black Sea to the north. Constantine I made it his capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in AD 330. As Constantinople, the strategically located city arose as the preeminent cultural, religious, and political center of the Western world. It reached the height of its wealth and glory in the early 5th century. After centuries of decline, the city entered another period of tremendous growth and prosperity when, as Istanbul, it became the capital of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1457. Although Turkey moved its capital to Ankara in 1923, Istanbul remains the nation's largest city with a population of over 8 million, its commercial center, and a major port. Two bridges spanning the Bosporus, and ships in the busy channel can be seen on the enlargement. On the image, the water areas have been replaced with a thermal image: colder waters are displayed in dark blue, warmer areas in light blue. Note the dark lines showing boat wakes, and the cold water entering the Sea of Marmara from deeper waters of the Bosporus.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U

  2. Characteristics and age of an uplift signal in the Biga Peninsula (NW Turkey) from a mix of geomorphic indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demoulin, Alain; Bayer Altin, Turkan; Beckers, Arnaud

    2013-04-01

    Situated in the area where the western end of the North Anatolian Fault Zone meets the extensional domain of the North Aegean Sea, the Kazdag Mountain range (Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey) is known to have undergone Plio-Quaternary uplift. However, no detailed chronology of this presumably ongoing uplift phase was so far available. In order to obtain a first-order estimate of the time of the last tectonic perturbation (uplift rate change) in the region, we performed a morphometric study of the fluvial landscape at the scale of the Biga Peninsula, coupling the recently developed R/SR analysis of the drainage network with concavity and steepness measures of a set of 29 rivers of all sizes. Defined as the ratio of two-by-two differences between hypsometric integrals describing respectively a catchment's topography, its drainage network "composite profile" and the trunk stream profile, the R metric is a measure of the catchment's incision response to a relative base level lowering. The SR index is then simply the slope of the regional relation R = f(ln A), a feature characteristic of the time elapsed since uplift caused an erosion wave to propagate in the drainage system. We obtained a SR value of 0.324±0.035 that, according to the t = f(SR) relation established by Demoulin (2012), yields an age range of 0.54-1.29 Ma and a most probable value of 0.82 Ma for the time of the last uplift signal in the Biga Peninsula. We also carried out an analysis of knickpoint migration in a subset of rivers, modelling their propagation by the stream power law under different assumed ages so as to compare the obtained values of the K coefficient with values mentioned in the literature. The positive results of this analysis, yielding realistic K values for ages around 0.8 Ma, lend independent support to our morphometric estimate of the uplift time, moreover corroborated by published observations suggesting basin inversion of the Bayramiç and Çanakkale depressions at the same epoch. We

  3. Elastic rebound following the Kocaeli earthquake, Turkey, recorded using synthetic aperture radar interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayer, Larry; Lu, Zhong

    2001-01-01

    A basic model incorporating satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry of the fault rupture zone that formed during the Kocaeli earthquake of August 17, 1999, documents the elastic rebound that resulted from the concomitant elastic strain release along the North Anatolian fault. For pure strike-slip faults, the elastic rebound function derived from SAR interferometry is directly invertible from the distribution of elastic strain on the fault at criticality, just before the critical shear stress was exceeded and the fault ruptured. The Kocaeli earthquake, which was accompanied by as much as ∼5 m of surface displacement, distributed strain ∼110 km around the fault prior to faulting, although most of it was concentrated in a narrower and asymmetric 10-km-wide zone on either side of the fault. The use of SAR interferometry to document the distribution of elastic strain at the critical condition for faulting is clearly a valuable tool, both for scientific investigation and for the effective management of earthquake hazard.

  4. New U-Pb and Rb-Sr ages from northwest Turkey; Early Cretaceous continental collision in the western Pontides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbayram, K.; Okay, A.; Satır, M.; Topuz, G.

    2009-04-01

    Keywords: Intra-Pontide suture, Ä°stanbul Zone, Sakarya Zone, U-Pb zircon ages, Rb-Sr mica ages We provide new isotopic data from the Intra-Pontide Suture Zone, which indicate Early Cretaceous collision between the Sakarya and Ä°stanbul terranes following the consumption of the Intra-Pontide Ocean. The study area is located south of Sapanca Lake between the Ä°stanbul and Sakarya terranes in northwest Turkey. These two terranes show different geological histories, as reflected in their stratigraphic record, and are juxtaposed along the Intra-Pontide suture. The new U/Pb zircon and Rb/Sr mica ages come from south of the Sapanca Lake, south of the North Anatolian Fault in northwest Turkey. The Ä°stanbul terrane has a late Proterozoic basement (Chen et al., 2002; 570 Ma) overlain by a sedimentary sequence of Ordovician to Carboniferous age. The Sakarya terrane is characterized by Carboniferous (330-310 Ma) high temperature metamorphism (Okay et al., 2006), Paleozoic granitic plutonism (Topuz et al., 2007) and by the presence of Palaeo-Tethyan subduction-accretion units. South of the Sapanca Lake, three main tectonostratigraphic units have been differentiated forming a northeastward dipping thrust stack. At the top of the thrust stack is an amphibolite-facies metamorphic unit consisting of an intercalation of amphibolite, metaperidotite, metapyroxenite and gneiss representing a Proterozoic metaophiolite in the basement of the Istanbul Zone. This old metaophiolite is underlain by a Cretaceous accretionary complex of metabasite, metachert, slate and serpentinite. The lowermost tectonic unit in the thrust stack is a metasandstone, slate, phyllite and marble unit metamorphosed in greenschist facies. Our U/Pb geochronological data comes from the basement gneisses and the metasedimentary unit. The age of deposition and metamorphism of this metasedimentary unit were not constrained. The U/Pb ages of the clastic zircons from metasandstones are between 500-317 Ma. These

  5. Malaria in Turkey: successful control and strategies for achieving elimination.

    PubMed

    Özbilgina, Ahmet; Topluoglu, Seher; Es, Saffet; Islek, Elif; Mollahaliloglu, Salih; Erkoc, Yasin

    2011-01-01

    Turkey is located in the middle of Asia, Africa and Europe, close to Caucasia, Balkans and Middle East in subtropical climate zone. Malaria has been known since the early ages of human history and it was one of the leading diseases in Anatolian history, as well. Today, chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium vivax is the only agent of autochthonous malaria cases in Turkey. The other Plasmodium species identified are isolated from imported cases of malaria. The most common vector of malaria in Turkey is Anopheles sacharovi followed by An. superpictus, An. maculipennis and An. subalpinus. In 2009, pre-elimination stage of Malaria Program was started due to dramatic decline in the number of malaria cases in Turkey (Total, 84; 38 autochthonous cases only in 26 foci in south-eastern Anatolia, and 46 imported cases; incidence: 0.1/100,000). As there were no detected cases of new autochthonous malaria in the first 8 months of 2010, elimination stage was started. The role of the persistent policies and successful applications of the Ministry of Health, such as the strict control of the patients using anti-malarial drugs especially chloroquine, avoidance of resistant insecticides, facilitation of access to patients via Health Transformation Program (HTP), establishment of close contact with the patients' families, and improvement of reporting and surveillance system, was essential. In addition, improvement maintained in the motivations and professional rights of malaria workers, as well in the coordination of field studies and maintenance of a decline or termination in vector-to-person transmission were all achieved with the insistent policies of the Ministry of Health. Other factors that probably contributed to elimination studies include lessening of military operations in south-eastern Anatolia and the lowering of malaria cases in neighbouring countries in recent years. Free access to health services concerning malaria is still successfully conducted throughout the country

  6. The interpretation of crustal dynamics data in terms of plate interactions and active tectonics of the Anatolian plate and surrounding regions in the Middle East

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toksoz, M. Nafi; Reilinger, Robert

    1992-01-01

    A detailed study was made of the consequences of the Arabian plate convergence against Eurasia and its effects on the tectonics of Anatolia and surrounding regions of the eastern Mediterranean. A primary source of information is time rates of change of baseline lengths and relative heights determined by repeated SLR measurements. These SLR observations are augmented by a network of GPS stations in Anatolia, Aegea, and Greece, established and twice surveyed since 1988. The existing SLR and GPS networks provide the spatial resolution necessary to reveal the details of ongoing tectonic processes in this area of continental collision. The effort has involved examining the state of stress in the lithosphere and relative plate motions as revealed by these space based geodetic measurements, seismicity, and earthquake mechanisms as well as the aseismic deformations of the plates from conventional geodetic data and geological evidence. These observations are used to constrain theoretical calculations of the relative effects of: (1) the push of the Arabian plate; (2) high topography of Eastern Anatolia; (3) the geometry and properties of African-Eurasian plate boundary; (4) subduction under the Hellenic Arc and southwestern Turkey; and (5) internal deformation and rotation of the Anatolian plate.

  7. Fault strength in Marmara region inferred from the geometry of the principle stress axes and fault orientations: A case study for the Prince's Islands fault segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinar, Ali; Coskun, Zeynep; Mert, Aydin; Kalafat, Dogan

    2015-04-01

    The general consensus based on historical earthquake data point out that the last major moment release on the Prince's islands fault was in 1766 which in turn signals an increased seismic risk for Istanbul Metropolitan area considering the fact that most of the 20 mm/yr GPS derived slip rate for the region is accommodated mostly by that fault segment. The orientation of the Prince's islands fault segment overlaps with the NW-SE direction of the maximum principle stress axis derived from the focal mechanism solutions of the large and moderate sized earthquakes occurred in the Marmara region. As such, the NW-SE trending fault segment translates the motion between the two E-W trending branches of the North Anatolian fault zone; one extending from the Gulf of Izmit towards Çınarcık basin and the other extending between offshore Bakırköy and Silivri. The basic relation between the orientation of the maximum and minimum principal stress axes, the shear and normal stresses, and the orientation of a fault provides clue on the strength of a fault, i.e., its frictional coefficient. Here, the angle between the fault normal and maximum compressive stress axis is a key parameter where fault normal and fault parallel maximum compressive stress might be a necessary and sufficient condition for a creeping event. That relation also implies that when the trend of the sigma-1 axis is close to the strike of the fault the shear stress acting on the fault plane approaches zero. On the other hand, the ratio between the shear and normal stresses acting on a fault plane is proportional to the coefficient of frictional coefficient of the fault. Accordingly, the geometry between the Prince's islands fault segment and a maximum principal stress axis matches a weak fault model. In the frame of the presentation we analyze seismological data acquired in Marmara region and interpret the results in conjuction with the above mentioned weak fault model.

  8. Daily rhythmicity and hibernation in the Anatolian ground squirrel under natural and laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Kart Gür, Mutlu; Refinetti, Roberto; Gür, Hakan

    2009-02-01

    We studied daily rhythmicity of body temperature (T(b)) before and during hibernation in Anatolian ground squirrels (Spermophilus xanthoprymnus) under natural and laboratory conditions using surgically implanted temperature loggers. Under both conditions, robust daily T(b) rhythmicity with parameters comparable to those of other ground squirrel species was observed before but not during hibernation. Euthermic animals had robust daily T(b) rhythms with a mean of 37.0 degrees C and a range of excursion of approximately 4 degrees C. No T(b) rhythm was detected during torpor bouts, either because T(b) rhythmicity was absent or because the daily range of excursion was smaller than 0.2 degrees C. The general patterns of hibernation that we observed in Anatolian ground squirrels were similar to those previously observed by other investigators in other species of ground squirrels.

  9. Water-Level Changes in Shallow Wells Before and After the 1999 Ýzmit and Düzce Earthquakes and Comparison with Long-Term Water-Level Observations (1999-2004), NW Turkey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaltirak, Cenk; Yalçin, Tolga; Yüce, Galiip; Bozkurtoǧlu, Erkan

    2005-12-01

    It is well known that earthquakes cause hydrological changes, such as drying or flooding of water wells, fluctuations in ground-water levels in wells, changes in water quality, and formation of new springs. Significant drops in ground-water levels in wells were recorded during recent earthquakes in NW Turkey on August 17, 1999 in Ýzmit and on November 12, 1999 in Düzce. The Ýzmit earthquake (Ms 7.4) caused pre-seismic water-level changes in wells at Eskisehir, located 118-216 km away from the epicentre. Well-level changes in the Eskisehir, Sakarya, Bursa, Yalova, Yenisehir and Ýnegöl basins were recorded prior to and after the Düzce earthquake (Ms 7.2) as well. These changes are due to strain on the southern Marmara segments of the Thrace-Eskisehir Fault Zone (TEFZ), which is affected by deformation of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). Ground-water-level changes in wells prior to and after the earthquake away from the epicentre and the position of Eastern Marmara-Eskisehir region indicate a possible connection between well-level changes that respond to compressive and tensile stresses and shear strain away from active strike-slip faults. The wells, located in basins having an angular connection with the earthquake-producing main faults, completely activate only during major earthquakes. The wells showing anomalies prior to earthquakes are generally found near epicentres or in basins having an angular connection as stated above. The data collected after the 1999 anomalies up to September 2004 indicate that the 1999 anomalies are unique to that year. It was not difficult to separate the seasonal fluctuations of the water levels from the earthquake anomalies. In this context, it is concluded that the 1999 water level anomalies prior to the earthquake were the fast- and short-period signature of slow but long-term deformations that occurred over a large area.

  10. Structural Evolution of the Tuzgölü Basin in Central Anatolia, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Çemen; Göncüoglu; Dirik

    1999-11-01

    The Central Anatolian segment of the Alpine-Himalayan orogen contains "interior" basins, the largest of which is the Tuzgölü (Salt Lake) basin (>20,000 km2). It is bounded on the east by the Tuzgölü (Salt Lake) fault zone and on the west by the Yeniceoba and Cihanbeyli fault zones. Structural, stratigraphic, and sedimentologic evidence suggests that the Tuzgölü basin started as a fault-controlled basin during late Maastrichtian tectonism when the present-day northwest-trending faults that bound the basin were initiated. These faults may have been formed as normal faults suggesting extension or strike-slip faults with a normal component of movement indicating a large transtension at the time of their initiation. The late Maastrichtian faults were reactivated as strike-slip faults in response to late Eocene compression in the region that produced the Central Anatolian thrust belt to the north and the late Eocene south-dipping thrust faults of the Ulukisla basin to the south. This reactivation is suggested by structurally repeated and missing Paleocene-Eocene deposits in some of the basin's wildcat wells. The late Eocene regression in the Tuzgölü basin was caused by the combined effects of Eocene shortening and a large environmental change. Late Eocene evaporites suggest that the basin was dry before the start of the Neotectonic period, while during the Neotectonic itself the Tuzgölü fault zone was reactivated again, predominantly as a normal fault with a right-lateral strike-slip component. This is evidenced by (1) a major unconformity between the post-Eocene Koçhisar Formation of the Tuzgölü basin and the underlying Eocene rock units; (2) a well-developed rollover anticline observed on seismic reflection profiles; and (3) a right-step along the Tuzgölü fault zone seen in the field. PMID:10517884

  11. Earthquake focal parameters and lithospheric structure of the anatolian plateau from complete regional waveform modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A

    2000-12-28

    This is an informal report on preliminary efforts to investigate earthquake focal mechanisms and earth structure in the Anatolian (Turkish) Plateau. Seismic velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle and earthquake focal parameters for event in the Anatolian Plateau are estimated from complete regional waveforms. Focal mechanisms, depths and seismic moments of moderately large crustal events are inferred from long-period (40-100 seconds) waveforms and compared with focal parameters derived from global teleseismic data. Using shorter periods (10-100 seconds) we estimate the shear and compressional velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle. Results are broadly consistent with previous studies and imply relatively little crustal thickening beneath the central Anatolian Plateau. Crustal thickness is about 35 km in western Anatolia and greater than 40 km in eastern Anatolia, however the long regional paths require considerable averaging and limit resolution. Crustal velocities are lower than typical continental averages, and even lower than typical active orogens. The mantle P-wave velocity was fixed to 7.9 km/s, in accord with tomographic models. A high sub-Moho Poisson's Ratio of 0.29 was required to fit the Sn-Pn differential times. This is suggestive of high sub-Moho temperatures, high shear wave attenuation and possibly partial melt. The combination of relatively thin crust in a region of high topography and high mantle temperatures suggests that the mantle plays a substantial role in maintaining the elevation.

  12. Effect of seasonal conditions on oestrus occurrence and postpartum period in Anatolian water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, M; Kaya, A; Uçar, M; Lehimcioglu, N; Tekeli, T

    2002-09-01

    Oestrus and calving records of Anatolian buffaloes were analyzed to investigate influence of climatic conditions on oestrus occurrence and postpartum period. Oestrus records showed a seasonal pattern concentrated between July and September which is the warmest period of the year. Likewise, more than half (52.7%) of the total calvings occurred between May and August. Month of calving significantly influenced the length of calving to first oestrus interval and open period (P < 0.01). The average length of open period was significantly shorter in autumn and summer calvers compared to those calved in spring and winter (P < 0.05) during long days. The humidity rate was negatively correlated with both calving to first oestrus interval and open period (P < 0.05). In conclusion, exposure to high environmental temperatures around 20 degrees C exerted no suppressive influence on ovarian activity in Anatolian buffaloes. Although humidity rate (P < 0.05) and ambient temperature (P < 0.01) was found to be correlated with the duration of postpartum period, day length might be the main factor regulating reproductive biorhythm and postpartum events in Anatolian buffalo cows.

  13. Antibodies to Schmallenberg virus in domestic livestock in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Azkur, Ahmet Kursat; Albayrak, Harun; Risvanli, Ali; Pestil, Zuleyha; Ozan, Emre; Yılmaz, Oktay; Tonbak, Sukru; Cavunt, Abdullah; Kadı, Hamza; Macun, Hasan Ceyhun; Acar, Duygu; Özenç, Erhan; Alparslan, Sidal; Bulut, Hakan

    2013-11-01

    This, partly retrospective study, was designed to determine the seroprevalence of Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a new Orthobunyavirus first reported in Germany in late 2011, in domestic ruminants from the Middle Black Sea, West, and Southeast regions of Turkey. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to screen serum samples collected from slaughterhouse animals between 2006 and 2013. The overall seroprevalence was 335/1,362 (24.5 %) with 325/816 (39.8 %), 5/307 (1.6 %), 3/109 (2.8 %), and 2/130 (1.5 %) recorded in cattle, sheep, goats, and Anatolian water buffalo, respectively. This is the first study to demonstrate the presence of antibodies to SBV in Turkish ruminants; it indicates that cattle are more susceptible to infection than sheep, goats, or buffalo and that exposure of domestic ruminants to SBV in Turkey may have occurred up to 5 years prior to the first recorded outbreak of the disease in 2011.

  14. Crustal structure of the Eratosthenes Seamount, Cyprus and S. Turkey from an amphibian wide-angle seismic profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feld, C.; Mechie, J.; Huebscher, C. P.; Gurbuz, C.; Nicolaides, S.; Weber, M. H.; Hall, J.; Louden, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    In March 2010, the project CoCoCo (incipient COntinent-COntinent COllision) recorded a 650 km long amphibian N-S wide-angle seismic profile, extending from the Eratosthenes Seamount (ESM) across Cyprus and southern Turkey to the Anatolian plateau. The aim of the project is to reveal the impact of the transition from subduction to continent-continent collision of the African plate with the Cyprus-Anatolian plate. A visual quality check, frequency analysis and filtering were applied to the seismic data and reveal a good data quality. Subsequent first break picking, finite-differences ray tracing and inversion of the offshore wide-angle data leads to a first-arrival tomographic model. This model reveals (1) P-wave velocities lower than 6.5 km/s in the crust, (2) a crustal thickness of about 25-30 km and (3) an upper crustal reflection at 5 km depth beneath the ESM. Two landshots on Turkey, also recorded on Cyprus, air gun shots south of Cyprus and geological (Mackenzie et al., 2006) and previous seismic information provide the data to derive a layered velocity model beneath the Anatolian plateau and for the ophiolite complex on Cyprus. Reflections provide evidence for a north-dipping plate subducting beneath Cyprus. The main features of this model are (1) an upper and lower crust with large lateral changes in velocity structure and thickness, (2) a Moho depth of about 45-50 km beneath the Anatolian plateau, (3) a shallow north-dipping subducting plate below Cyprus with an increasing dip and (4) a typical ophiolite sequence on Cyprus with a total thickness of about 14km. The offshore-onshore seismic data complete and improve the information about the velocity structure beneath Cyprus and the deeper part of the offshore tomographic model. Thus, the wide-angle seismic data provide detailed insights into the 2D-geometry and velocity structures of the uplifted and overriding Cyprus-Anatolian plate. Subsequent gravity modeling will be used to check and improve the velocity

  15. Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone (Eastern Mediterranean, SW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elitez, İrem; Yaltırak, Cenk

    2014-05-01

    Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone (BFSZ), which was named as Burdur-Fethiye Fault Zone (BFFZ) in the previous studies, is located in the southwestern Anatolia between the eastern Aegean extensional province, the Hellenic Arc and the Isparta Angle. This tectonic line is characterized by Middle Miocene-Quaternary NE-SW-trending faults and basins and its length is about 310 km from north to south while its width ranges from about 15 km in the west of Afyon-Çay to about 90 km in between Patara and Dalaman-İztuzu. The Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone (BFSZ) has been affected by three-phase tectonic evolution since Miocene. The uplift of the region began with a compressional regime in the Early Miocene and the alluvial fan sediments settled in the subsidence area between the mountains formed as a result of this uplift. During Middle-Late Miocene, the compression of the region inverted to a left-lateral oblique shear associated with the Isparta Angle and the fluvial sedimentation started in the inner part of the basins. In Late Miocene, the fluvial sedimentation gave way to lacustrine sedimentation. These lacustrine environments disappeared during Messinian salinity crisis. In the Pliocene, the erosion regime dominated the region and the uplifted Miocene-aged series started to erode. The red fluvial and alluvial fan deposits sedimented in the valleys and in front of the faults during this period. At the same period, the fault system inverted to a still-continuing left-lateral extensional shear system associated with the Hellenic Arc. The mechanism of the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone can be explained by the relative movement of the blocks formed by several parallel faults. The width of the BFSZ is approximately 50 km. In consideration of the counterclockwise rotation of the structures along this zone and the effects of shear tectonism, it is seen that this is a wide fault zone being controlled by normal faults in a wide region instead of a narrow region like North Anatolian and East

  16. Modern Turkey Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Bernard

    1990-01-01

    Traces the history of Turkey from the Cold War to the present and focuses on Turkey's adoption of a capitalist democratic pro-Western state. Delineates the tensions between pro-Western factions and more traditionally minded Turks. Examines Turkish relations with other Islamic countries, the Arab world, and the Third World. (RW)

  17. Adult Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

  18. Fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to

  19. Lithospheric Response of the Anatolian Plateau in the Realm of the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergun, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East make up the southern boundary of the Tethys Ocean for the last 200 Ma by the disintegration of the Pangaea and closure of the Tethys Ocean. It covers the structures: Hellenic and Cyprus arcs; Eastern Anatolian Fault Zone; Bitlis Suture Zone and Zagros Mountains. The northern boundary of the Tethys Ocean is made up the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, and it extends up to Po valley towards the west (Pontides, Caucasus). Between these two zones the Alp-Himalayan orogenic belt is situated where the Balkan, Anatolia and the Iran plateaus are placed as the remnants of the lost Ocean of the Tethys. The active tectonics of the eastern Mediterranean is the consequences of the convergence between the Africa, Arabian plates in the south and the Eurasian plate in the north. These plates act as converging jaws of vise forming a crustal mosaic in between. The active crustal deformation pattern reveals two N-S trending maximum compression or crustal shortening syntaxes': (i) the eastern Black Sea and the Arabian plate, (ii) the western Black Sea and the Isparta Angle. The transition in young mountain belts, from ocean crust through the agglomeration of arc systems with long histories of oceanic closures, to a continental hinterland is well exemplified by the plate margin in the eastern Mediterranean. The boundary between the African plate and the Aegean/Anatolian microplate is in the process of transition from subduction to collision along the Cyprus Arc. Since the Black Sea has oceanic lithosphere, it is actually a separate plate. However it can be considered as a block, because the Black Sea is a trapped oceanic basin that cannot move freely within the Eurasian Plate. Lying towards the northern margin of orogenic belts related to the closure of the Tethys Ocean, it is generally considered to be a result of back-arc extension associated with the northward subduction of the Tethyan plate to the south. Interface oceanic lithosphere at

  20. Fault mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Segall, P. )

    1991-01-01

    Recent observational, experimental, and theoretical modeling studies of fault mechanics are discussed in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics examined include interseismic strain accumulation, coseismic deformation, postseismic deformation, and the earthquake cycle; long-term deformation; fault friction and the instability mechanism; pore pressure and normal stress effects; instability models; strain measurements prior to earthquakes; stochastic modeling of earthquakes; and deep-focus earthquakes. Maps, graphs, and a comprehensive bibliography are provided. 220 refs.

  1. Microbial Community Diversity in Fault-Associated and Ophiolite-Hosted Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Cardace, D.; Uzunlar, N.; Gulecal, Y.; Yargicoglu, E. N.; Carbone, J. N.

    2010-12-01

    Deep biosphere habitats and hydrothermal systems are ideal candidates for analog ecosystems to life on Early Earth and Astrobiological targets. They also likely harbor vast repositories of novel biological and genetic diversity. This study compares the biological and genetic diversity of microbial communities in terrestrial hydrothermal and cool fluid seeps and springs, occuring in both ophiolite-hosted and non-ophiolite sequences. Fluids and solids (biofilms and sediment) with variable fractions of ultramafic-sourced and serpentinizing reaction fluids and mineral fragments were collected from surface seeps and deeply-sourced springs associated with the Northern Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ, Turkey) and the Anita Shear Zone (ASZ, New Zealand). Comparisons are drawn between three regimes: 1) cool fluid systems in ophiolite-hosted sequences in NAFZ vs. ASZ, 2) cool fluid vs. hydrothermal fluid systems in the NAFZ, and 3) hydrothermal systems in NAFZ ophiolite-hosted vs. non-ophiolite sequences. These comparisons help differentiate microbial community structure and metabolic strategies between hydrothermal and serpentinizing input to these ecosystems. The integration of geobiological data from these sites clarifies how microbial systems respond to even subtle shifts in geochemistry of the water-rock system, and our consideration of mafic/ultramafic rocks as habitable formations brings new astrobiological relevance to this work. Microbial communities were examined using a suite of culture-dependant and independent methods, co-registered with a network of geochemical contextual samples. Geochemical datasets allow prediction of available sources of energy in these nutrient-limited ecosystems. Sample locations varied in temperature 30-90C and pH 6.5-9.0 Potential sources of energy and carbon include dissolved organic carbon, CO2, sulfide, sulfate, and ferrous iron, depending on the sample location. Enrichments were obtained using a variety of carbon and energy sources, in

  2. Fault models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayah, H. R.; Buehler, M. G.

    1985-06-01

    A major problem in the qualification of integrated circuit cells and in the development of adequate tests for the circuits is to lack of information on the nature and density of fault models. Some of this information is being obtained from the test structures. In particular, the Pinhole Array Capacitor is providing values for the resistance of gate oxide shorts, and the Addressable Inverter Matrix is providing values for parameter distributions such as noise margins. Another CMOS fault mode, that of the open-gated transistor, is examined and the state of the transistors assessed. Preliminary results are described for a number of open-gated structures such as transistors, inverters, and NAND gates. Resistor faults are applied to various CMOS gates and the time responses are noted. The critical value for the resistive short to upset the gate response was determined.

  3. Informatics in Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cakir, Serhat

    1994-01-01

    In the last twenty years the rapid change in the informatics sector has had economic and social impact on private and government activities. The Supreme Council for Science and Technology of Turkey assigned highest priority to the informatics in its meeting in February 1993. With this advice TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey) intends to give a strong impulse to development of a research policy in this field.

  4. Pediatric oncology in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kebudi, Rejin

    2012-03-01

    The survival of children with cancer has increased dramatically in the last decades, as a result of advances in diagnosis, treatment and supportive care. Each year in Turkey, 2500-3000 new childhood cancer cases are expected. According to the Turkish Pediatric Oncology Group and Turkish Pediatric Hematology Societies Registry, about 2000 new pediatric cancer cases are reported each year. The population in Turkey is relatively young. One fourth of the population is younger than 15 years of age. According to childhood mortality, cancer is the fourth cause of death (7.2%) after infections, cardiac deaths and accidents. The major cancers in children in Turkey are leukemia (31%), lymphoma (19%), central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms (13%), neuroblastomas (7%), bone tumors (6.1%), soft tissue sarcomas (6%), followed by renal tumors, germ cell tumors, retinoblastoma, carcinomas-epithelial neoplasms, hepatic tumors and others. Lymphomas rank second in frequency as in many developing countries in contrast to West Europe or USA, where CNS neoplasms rank second in frequency. The seven-year survival rate in children with malignancies in Turkey is 65.8%. The history of modern Pediatric Oncology in Turkey dates back to the 1970's. Pediatric Oncology has been accepted as a subspecialty in Turkey since 1983. Pediatric Oncologists are all well trained and dedicated. All costs for the diagnosis and treatment of children with cancer is covered by the government. Education and infrastructure for palliative care needs improvement.

  5. Remote sensing of thermal state of volcanoes in Turkey and neighbouring countries using ASTER nighttime images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulusoy, İnan; Diker, Caner

    2016-04-01

    Ongoing studies are increasingly revealing that Holocene and historical activity has been reported for many of the Anatolian volcanoes. So far, hydrothermal activity have been observed on Nemrut, Tendürek, Aǧrı (Ararat), Hasan daǧ and Kula. Fumaroles, steam vents, steam/gas emission and zones of hot grounds have been reported. Thermal state of Anatolian volcanoes have been investigated using ASTER nighttime satellite imagery. We have analyzed the nighttime thermal images of Aǧrı, Akça, Çandarlı, Erciyes, Gölcük, Göllüdaǧ, Hasandaǧ, Kula, Meydan, Nemrut, Süphan and Tendürek volcanoes in Turkey and Demavand and Nisyros volcanoes in the neighboring countries. In order to quantify the current thermal state of the volcanos studied, we have used ASTER Thermal Infrared spectra. Several ASTER nighttime images have been used to calculate land surface temperature, surface thermal anomaly and relative radiative heat flux on the volcanoes. Following the atmospheric correction of thermal images, temperature and emissivity have been separated and then land surface temperature have been calculated from 5 thermal bands. Surface temperature images have been topographically corrected. Relative radiative heat flux have been calculated using corrected surface temperature data, emissivity, vapor pressure and height-dependent air temperature values. These values have been correlated with ongoing activity observed on active Indonesian volcanoes Sinabung, Semeru and Bromo Tengger. (This study have been financially supported by TUBITAK project no: 113Y032).

  6. Plate tectonics and biogeographical patterns of the Pseudophoxinus (Pisces: Cypriniformes) species complex of central Anatolia, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hrbek, Tomas; Stölting, Kai N; Bardakci, Fevzi; Küçük, Fahrettin; Wildekamp, Rudolf H; Meyer, Axel

    2004-07-01

    We investigated the phylogenetic relationships of Pseudophoxinus (Cyprinidae: Leuciscinae) species from central Anatolia, Turkey to test the hypothesis of geographic speciation driven by early Pliocene orogenic events. We analyzed 1141 aligned base pairs of the complete cytochrome b mitochondrial gene. Phylogenetic relationships reconstructed by maximum likelihood, Bayesian likelihood, and maximum parsimony methods are identical, and generally well supported. Species and clades are restricted to geologically well-defined units, and are deeply divergent from each other. The basal diversification of central Anatolian Pseudophoxinus is estimated to have occurred approximately 15 million years ago. Our results are in agreement with a previous study of the Anatolian fish genus Aphanius that also shows a diversification pattern driven by the Pliocene orogenic events. The distribution of clades of Aphanius and Pseudophoxinus overlap, and areas of distribution comprise the same geological units. The geological history of Anatolia is likely to have had a major impact on the diversification history of many taxa occupying central Anatolia; many of these taxa are likely to be still unrecognized as distinct.

  7. A Member of Complementary Medicinal Food: Anatolian Royal Jellies, Their Chemical Compositions, and Antioxidant Properties.

    PubMed

    Kolayli, Sevgi; Sahin, Huseyin; Can, Zehra; Yildiz, Oktay; Malkoc, Meltem; Asadov, Alsever

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated various chemical and antioxidant properties of Anatolian royal jelly samples. Moisture, pH, total protein, 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) and sugars were analyzed from 18 samples. Total phenolic contents, ferric reducing antioxidant capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity were measured as antioxidant determinants. 10-HDA contents and total protein content of fresh weight ranged between 1.0% and 3.9%, and 11.4% and 15.8%, respectively. The main sugars detected were glucose and fructose. Maltose, trehalose, and melibiose were detected at less than 1.0% in all samples. Lactose, a milk sugar, was detected in only 3 samples, at values between 0.8% and 1.4%. Total henolic content ranged from 91.0 to 301.0 mg gallic acid equivalents/kg fresh weight. Antioxidant activity is due to both to the total phenolic content, proteins and fatty acids of royal jelly. Anatolian royal jelly samples were not different from other royal jelly samples from across the world. PMID:26620573

  8. A Member of Complementary Medicinal Food: Anatolian Royal Jellies, Their Chemical Compositions, and Antioxidant Properties.

    PubMed

    Kolayli, Sevgi; Sahin, Huseyin; Can, Zehra; Yildiz, Oktay; Malkoc, Meltem; Asadov, Alsever

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated various chemical and antioxidant properties of Anatolian royal jelly samples. Moisture, pH, total protein, 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) and sugars were analyzed from 18 samples. Total phenolic contents, ferric reducing antioxidant capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity were measured as antioxidant determinants. 10-HDA contents and total protein content of fresh weight ranged between 1.0% and 3.9%, and 11.4% and 15.8%, respectively. The main sugars detected were glucose and fructose. Maltose, trehalose, and melibiose were detected at less than 1.0% in all samples. Lactose, a milk sugar, was detected in only 3 samples, at values between 0.8% and 1.4%. Total henolic content ranged from 91.0 to 301.0 mg gallic acid equivalents/kg fresh weight. Antioxidant activity is due to both to the total phenolic content, proteins and fatty acids of royal jelly. Anatolian royal jelly samples were not different from other royal jelly samples from across the world.

  9. Detection of prion gene promoter and intron1 indel polymorphisms in Anatolian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Oztabak, K; Ozkan, E; Soysal, I; Paya, I; Un, C

    2009-12-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal disease caused by miss folded prion protein. Studies in the cattle, comparing genetic data from BSE diseased and healthy animals have shown that indel polymorphisms in the promoter and intron 1 of PRNP gene were associated with disease susceptibility. Several studies were conducted to find out allele and genotypic frequencies of indel polymorphisms in promoter and intron 1 of the cattle PRNP gene. Unlike domestic cattle and bison, no indel polymorphisms of the PRNP promoter and intron 1 were examined in any population of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Aim of this study was to analyse frequencies of allele, genotype, and haplotype of the indel polymorphisms (23 bp indel in promoter and 12 bp indel in intron 1) in prion protein coding gene (PRNP) of water buffalo. Therefore a PCR based procedure, previously used in cattle to detect indel polymorphisms of PRNP promoter and intron 1 locus, was applied to 106 Anatolian water buffalo DNAs. Our results have revealed high frequency of in variants and in23/in12 haplotype for PRNP promoter and intron 1 indel polymorphisms in water buffalo. The results of the study have demonstrated that frequencies of allele, genotype, and haplotype of the indel polymorphisms in PRNP gene of the Anatolian water buffalo are significantly different those from cattle and bison PRNP indel polymorphisms.

  10. Van, Turkey earthquake of 23 october 2011, mw 7.2; an overview on disaster management.

    PubMed

    Zaré, Mehdi; Nazmazar, Behnaz

    2013-01-01

    An earthquake was happened on 23 October 2011 in Van, Turkey (Mw7.2) at the eastern most area of Anatolian plateau and in the neighborhood of Iranian border (West Azerbaijan Province). The study was performed based on field and office observations and has been focused on the process of disaster management in Turkey after the 23 October 2011 earthquake. We surveyed the quake from the view point of disaster management, and study the relief process during and after the catastrophe. The day-to-day disaster management procedure in seventeen days after the event has been scrutinized as well. The number of victims and extent of damage in Van earthquake was relatively limited according to the national experiences and recent modernization of infrastructures in Turkey. The Van earthquake caused 644 deaths and demolishing of several buildings in the cities of Van and Erciş in Van Province. The performance of the government organizations is however criticized based on their response to the event. PMID:23515082

  11. Van, Turkey Earthquake of 23 October 2011, Mw 7.2; An Overview on Disaster Management

    PubMed Central

    ZARÉ, Mehdi; NAZMAZAR, Behnaz

    2013-01-01

    An earthquake was happened on 23 October 2011 in Van, Turkey (Mw7.2) at the eastern most area of Anatolian plateau and in the neighborhood of Iranian border (West Azerbaijan Province). The study was performed based on field and office observations and has been focused on the process of disaster management in Turkey after the 23 October 2011 earthquake. We surveyed the quake from the view point of disaster management, and study the relief process during and after the catastrophe. The day-to-day disaster management procedure in seventeen days after the event has been scrutinized as well. The number of victims and extent of damage in Van earthquake was relatively limited according to the national experiences and recent modernization of infrastructures in Turkey. The Van earthquake caused 644 deaths and demolishing of several buildings in the cities of Van and Erciş in Van Province. The performance of the government organizations is however criticized based on their response to the event. PMID:23515082

  12. A new subspecies of Seseli gummiferum (Apiaceae) from Ilgaz Mountain National Park, northern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Çetin, Özlem; Şeker, Meryem Öztürk; Duran, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    A new subspecies Seseli gummiferum Pall. ex Sm. subsp. ilgazense A.Duran, Ö.Çetin & M.Öztürk, subsp. nov. (Apiaceae) is described from Kastamonu province, Turkey. It was collected from the open Pinus sylvestris L. and Abies nordmanniana (Steven) É.Spach. mixed forest in the northern Anatolian region. An endemic apparently confined to the Ilgaz Mountain National Park, the new taxon is closely related to Seseli gummiferum subsp. gummiferum. Diagnostic morphological characters for closely similar taxa are discussed, and a key to the subspecies of Seseli gummiferum is presented. ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) region of the nuclear ribozomal DNA of closely related Seseli L. taxa and Pimpinella is used to constract phylogenetic tree by using BioEdit and Seaview Programme. PMID:26491389

  13. Kaletepe Deresi 3 (Turkey): archaeological evidence for early human settlement in Central Anatolia.

    PubMed

    Slimak, Ludovic; Kuhn, Steven L; Roche, Hélène; Mouralis, Damase; Buitenhuis, Hijlke; Balkan-Atli, Nur; Binder, Didier; Kuzucuoğlu, Catherine; Guillou, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    Located in the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province, Kaletepe Deresi 3 was discovered in the summer of 2000 and has been under investigation since that time. Volcanic activity in the region generated a number of obsidian intrusions that have attracted humans to the area throughout prehistory. The stratigraphic sequence at Kaletepe Deresi 3, more than 7 m in depth, presents a series of archaeological horizons representing the Lower and Middle Paleolithic. The site contains the longest open-air Paleolithic sequence excavated in Turkey, as well as the first in situ Acheulean industry documented in Anatolia. Tephras in the upper Middle Paleolithic horizons and the rhyolithic bedrock bracket the timespan represented at Kaletepe Deresi 3. The lithic industry at the site illustrates a wide range of technological behaviors and documents changes in raw-material exploitation and artifact manufacture through the Lower and Middle Paleolithic. PMID:17825358

  14. Malignant pleural mesothelioma due to environmental mineral fiber exposure in Turkey. Analysis of 135 cases.

    PubMed

    Selçuk, Z T; Cöplü, L; Emri, S; Kalyoncu, A F; Sahin, A A; Bariş, Y I

    1992-09-01

    We reviewed data from 135 patients with environment-associated malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) from the Central Anatolian region of Turkey. The most significant factors suggesting the diagnosis of MPM were the village where the patient resided and the typical presenting symptoms and signs of unilateral exudative pleural effusion associated with nonpleuritic chest pain. Computed tomography and ultrasonography were very useful for evaluating the extension of the tumor in the thoracic and abdominal cavities and chest wall. The tissue diagnosis was established by either thoracoscopy (39 percent) or pleural biopsy (39 percent) in the majority of the cases. The median survival after diagnosis was 13.52 months for erionite-associated MPM and 21.56 months for asbestos-associated MPM. The actuarial survival curves for the fibrous minerals were significantly different for survival computed both from onset of the symptoms and after diagnosis. Medical or surgical treatment or both did not change the outcome of the disease.

  15. Malignant pleural mesothelioma due to environmental mineral fiber exposure in Turkey. Analysis of 135 cases

    SciTech Connect

    Selcuk, Z.T.; Coeplue, L.Em.; Emri, S.; Kalyoncu, A.F.; Sahin, A.A.; Baris, Y.I. )

    1992-09-01

    We reviewed data from 135 patients with environment-associated malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) from the Central Anatolian region of Turkey. The most significant factors suggesting the diagnosis of MPM were the village where the patient resided and the typical presenting symptoms and signs of unilateral exudative pleural effusion associated with nonpleuritic chest pain. Computed tomography and ultrasonography were very useful for evaluating the extension of the tumor in the thoracic and abdominal cavities and chest wall. The tissue diagnosis was established by either thoracoscopy (39 percent) or pleural biopsy (39 percent) in the majority of the cases. The median survival after diagnosis was 13.52 months for erionite-associated MPM and 21.56 months for asbestos-associated MPM. The actuarial survival curves for the fibrous minerals were significantly different for survival computed both from onset of the symptoms and after diagnosis. Medical or surgical treatment or both did not change the outcome of the disease.

  16. Kaletepe Deresi 3 (Turkey): archaeological evidence for early human settlement in Central Anatolia.

    PubMed

    Slimak, Ludovic; Kuhn, Steven L; Roche, Hélène; Mouralis, Damase; Buitenhuis, Hijlke; Balkan-Atli, Nur; Binder, Didier; Kuzucuoğlu, Catherine; Guillou, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    Located in the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province, Kaletepe Deresi 3 was discovered in the summer of 2000 and has been under investigation since that time. Volcanic activity in the region generated a number of obsidian intrusions that have attracted humans to the area throughout prehistory. The stratigraphic sequence at Kaletepe Deresi 3, more than 7 m in depth, presents a series of archaeological horizons representing the Lower and Middle Paleolithic. The site contains the longest open-air Paleolithic sequence excavated in Turkey, as well as the first in situ Acheulean industry documented in Anatolia. Tephras in the upper Middle Paleolithic horizons and the rhyolithic bedrock bracket the timespan represented at Kaletepe Deresi 3. The lithic industry at the site illustrates a wide range of technological behaviors and documents changes in raw-material exploitation and artifact manufacture through the Lower and Middle Paleolithic.

  17. The stress shadow effect: a mechanical analysis of the evenly-spaced parallel strike-slip faults in the San Andreas fault system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuza, A. V.; Yin, A.; Lin, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Parallel evenly-spaced strike-slip faults are prominent in the southern San Andreas fault system, as well as other settings along plate boundaries (e.g., the Alpine fault) and within continental interiors (e.g., the North Anatolian, central Asian, and northern Tibetan faults). In southern California, the parallel San Jacinto, Elsinore, Rose Canyon, and San Clemente faults to the west of the San Andreas are regularly spaced at ~40 km. In the Eastern California Shear Zone, east of the San Andreas, faults are spaced at ~15 km. These characteristic spacings provide unique mechanical constraints on how the faults interact. Despite the common occurrence of parallel strike-slip faults, the fundamental questions of how and why these fault systems form remain unanswered. We address this issue by using the stress shadow concept of Lachenbruch (1961)—developed to explain extensional joints by using the stress-free condition on the crack surface—to present a mechanical analysis of the formation of parallel strike-slip faults that relates fault spacing and brittle-crust thickness to fault strength, crustal strength, and the crustal stress state. We discuss three independent models: (1) a fracture mechanics model, (2) an empirical stress-rise function model embedded in a plastic medium, and (3) an elastic-plate model. The assumptions and predictions of these models are quantitatively tested using scaled analogue sandbox experiments that show that strike-slip fault spacing is linearly related to the brittle-crust thickness. We derive constraints on the mechanical properties of the southern San Andreas strike-slip faults and fault-bounded crust (e.g., local fault strength and crustal/regional stress) given the observed fault spacing and brittle-crust thickness, which is obtained by defining the base of the seismogenic zone with high-resolution earthquake data. Our models allow direct comparison of the parallel faults in the southern San Andreas system with other similar strike

  18. Fattening performance, carcass traits and meat quality characteristics of calves sired by Charolais, Simmental and Eastern Anatolian Red sires mated to Eastern Anatolian Red dams.

    PubMed

    Ozlütürk, Abdülkadir; Tüzemen, Naci; Yanar, Mete; Esenbuga, Nurinisa; Dursun, Ensar

    2004-07-01

    Comparisons were made among calves sired by Charolais (C), Simmental (S) and Eastern Anatolian Red (EAR) breeds of bulls for fattening, carcass and meat quality traits when mated to EAR dams. C- and S-sired calves had 43.1% and 36.4% higher daily weight gain, 44.5% and 43.9% heavier final weight in fattening, respectively. Calves produced by C sires had best feed efficiency value (6.51 vs. 7.44 and 7.22) compared to the S and EAR sire breed groups. Carcasses of C- and S-sired calves had heavier weight, higher dressing percentage and greater Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle area than those of EAR-sired calves. USDA yield grades were lower (P<0.01) for carcasses from C and S sires, and highest for carcasses from EAR calves. C-sired calves received higher (P<0.01) ratings for panel tenderness score, lower shear force value and number of chews before swallow than S- and EAR-sired progeny. Overall results of the study suggested that fattening performance, carcass and meat quality characteristics might be considerably improved by using C sires in the crossbreeding program as sire breed. PMID:22061521

  19. Fattening performance, carcass traits and meat quality characteristics of calves sired by Charolais, Simmental and Eastern Anatolian Red sires mated to Eastern Anatolian Red dams.

    PubMed

    Ozlütürk, Abdülkadir; Tüzemen, Naci; Yanar, Mete; Esenbuga, Nurinisa; Dursun, Ensar

    2004-07-01

    Comparisons were made among calves sired by Charolais (C), Simmental (S) and Eastern Anatolian Red (EAR) breeds of bulls for fattening, carcass and meat quality traits when mated to EAR dams. C- and S-sired calves had 43.1% and 36.4% higher daily weight gain, 44.5% and 43.9% heavier final weight in fattening, respectively. Calves produced by C sires had best feed efficiency value (6.51 vs. 7.44 and 7.22) compared to the S and EAR sire breed groups. Carcasses of C- and S-sired calves had heavier weight, higher dressing percentage and greater Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle area than those of EAR-sired calves. USDA yield grades were lower (P<0.01) for carcasses from C and S sires, and highest for carcasses from EAR calves. C-sired calves received higher (P<0.01) ratings for panel tenderness score, lower shear force value and number of chews before swallow than S- and EAR-sired progeny. Overall results of the study suggested that fattening performance, carcass and meat quality characteristics might be considerably improved by using C sires in the crossbreeding program as sire breed.

  20. Anatolian tree rings and a new chronology for the east Mediterranean Bronze-Iron Ages.

    PubMed

    Manning, S W; Kromer, B; Kuniholm, P I; Newton, M W

    2001-12-21

    We report an extensive program of high-precision radiocarbon dating to establish the best date for a floating 1599-year Anatolian tree ring chronology that spans the later third millennium B.C. through the earlier first millennium B.C. This chronology is directly associated with a number of key sites and ancient personages. A previously suggested dating is withdrawn and is replaced by a robust new date fix 22 (+4 or -7) years earlier. These new radiocarbon wiggle-matched dates offer a unique independent resource for establishing the precise chronology of the ancient Near East and Aegean and help resolve, among others, a long-standing debate in favor of the so-called Middle Mesopotamian chronology.

  1. Rain shadow development and paleoenvironmental change in the southern Central Anatolian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijers, Maud J. M.; Mulch, Andreas; Brocard, Gilles Y.; Whitney, Donna L.

    2015-04-01

    Ongoing Arabia-Eurasia convergence in the eastern Mediterranean region has led to the westward escape of the Anatolian microplate and the formation of the Central Anatolian Plateau (CAP). The US-NSF CD-CAT (Continental Dynamics-Central Anatolian Tectonics) project aims at understanding the surface-to-mantle coupling during the transition from collision to escape tectonics and plateau formation in Anatolia. Within the CD-CAT project, this study aims at determining the paleoenvironmental conditions and the age of plateau (margin) uplift by integrating stable isotope geochemistry and absolute dating techniques (40Ar/39Ar geochronology and magnetostratigraphy) on middle Miocene to Pliocene lacustrine sedimentary rocks. The low-relief CAP (~1.5 km average elevation) is characterized by high-relief mountain ranges at its southern and northern margins. The Tauride mountain belt forms the southern plateau margin of the CAP with a relief of up to 3 km. Uplift of Tortonian marine sediments in the central Taurides to modern elevations of up to 2 km constrain the onset of surface uplift of the southern plateau margin to ~8 Ma (Schildgen et al. 2012a,b). Proxy records of oxygen isotopes (δ18O) in precipitation allow to reconstruct the development of the present-day Tauride rain shadow and hence the surface elevation history of the southern plateau margin. Here we evaluate δ18O and δ13C records of seven lacustrine basins situated along a SW-NE swath in the lee of the modern Tauride mountains in order to track the development of a Tauride rain shadow and changes in open to closed lake conditions through the late Miocene to Pliocene. We focus on lacustrine sections with available mammal ages and integrate these with 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of widespread volcanics of the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province and magnetostratigraphy where possible. Our results from seven sections of ~12-4 Ma in lacustrine deposits and pedogenic soil carbonates of ~3-2.5 Ma show a decrease of δ18O

  2. The Electrical Resistivity Structure of the Eastern Anatolian Collision Zone, Northeastern Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cengiz, Özlem; Tuǧrul Başokur, Ahmet; Tolak Çiftçi, Elif

    2016-04-01

    The Northeastern Anatolia is located at the intensely deformed Eastern Anatolian Collision Zone (EACZ), and its tectonic framework is characterized by the collision of the Arabian plate with Eurasian. Although extensive attention is given to understand the crustal and upper mantle processes at this convergent boundary, there is still an ongoing debate over the geodynamic processes of the region. In this study, we were specifically interested in the geoelectric properties and thus geodynamics of the crust beneath the EACZ. Magnetotelluric (MT) measurements were made on two profiles across the north of the EACZ in 1998 as part of a national project undertaken by the Turkish Petroleum Corporation (TPAO). MT data in the frequency range of 300-0.001 Hz were collected from 168 stations located along 78 km north to south and 47 km west to east profiles where direct convergence occurs between Arabian and Eurasian plates. Two and three-dimensional inversion algorithms were used to obtain resistivity models of the study area. According to these models, the upper crust consists of low resistivity sedimentary rocks (<30 Ωm) that are underlain by highly resistive (~500-1000 Ωm) crystalline basement rocks of the Eastern Anatolian Accretionary Complex and Pontides. While the upper and lower crustal resistivity at the northern part of the study area shows a layered structure, significant horizontal and vertical variations for the rest of the EACZ exists on resistivity models. The broad low resistivity zones (<50 Ωm) observed at mid and lower crustal levels throughout the EACZ. These fluid-rich regions along with high temperatures could indicate weak zones representing the locations of active deformation induced by continent-continent collision and correlate with volcanic centers in the region. The variation in the resistivity structure supports the southward subduction model with the resistive continental block and the deep conductive zones presumably corresponding to the

  3. Bedrock Geology of the Turkey Creek Drainage Basin, Jefferson County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Char, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    This geospatial data set describes bedrock geology of the Turkey Creek drainage basin in Jefferson County, Colorado. It was digitized from maps of fault locations and geologic map units based on age and lithology. Created for use in the Jefferson County Mountain Ground-Water Resources Study, it is to be used at a scale no more detailed than 1:50,000.

  4. A pollen-based environmental reconstruction in Lake Hazar (Eastern Turkey) during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene: Example for the Eastern Mediterranean Realm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biltekin, Demet; Kadir Eris, Kürsad; Namik Cagatay, Memet; Nagihan Arslan, Tugce; Akcer On, Sena; Acar, Dursun

    2016-04-01

    Eastern Mediterranean realm historically is a melting area for ancient civilisations. This region has been therefore anthropogenically influenced since the Late Pleistocene. The understanding the processes between vegetation and climate, pollen analysis is a significant proxy in the investigation of past climate, vegetation records and the human influence on the environment. In this research, we carried out the environmental changes during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene using multi-proxy analysis (palynology, XRF core scanner, magnetic susceptibility and TOC) in the sediment core obtained from 54.39 m depth on the northern shelf of Lake Hazar using a percussion piston corer. Lake Hazar (38° 31' N-39° 25' E) is located at ca. 1255 m above sea level, 22 km south-east of Elazıǧ city in eastern Turkey in the south-east Taurus Mountains. It is an oligotrophic, alkaline soda and a tectonic lake being situated on East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ). The chronology of the sediment core has been determined using AMS radiocarbon method. We present the first pollen record from the core sediments in Lake Hazar, providing insight into multi-millennial scale climatic changes over the last ~15 14C ka BP. In the piston core, the Bølling/Allerød period is associated by the presence of Pistacia reflecting milder winter conditions with high biological productivity. Onset of the Younger Dryas (YD) period is marked by increase in herbaceous plants and lake level lowering that can also be documented by high magnetic susceptibility and Ca/Ti ratio. The spread of deciduous Quercus at the beginning of Holocene can be attributed to significant forestation due to a high humidity that was presumably sufficient for the establishment of oak forest. An increase in Quercus continued in most of the early and middle Holocene. The 3rd millenium crisis is strongly characterized by an increase in herbal elements, and a decline in Quercus, pointing to dry climatic conditions. The most striking

  5. Wind energy and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

    2012-03-01

    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future. PMID:21479556

  6. Cloning Creationism in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edis, Taner

    1999-01-01

    Defines how political balances and changes in Turkey effect creation-evolution relation. Describes the influences of Bilim Arastirma Vakfi (BAV) on these changes, which are directly targeted to public education, and discusses the content of creationism. Questions why Islamic creationism is a copy of that of the Institute for Creation Research…

  7. Special Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eres, Figen

    2010-01-01

    The quality and the prevalence of education are the major indicators of the development of a society. It is a kind of human right to every person living in the society to be educated in a sufficient way. The education of the disabled people, a social reality in Turkey, is not sufficiently carried out. This paper aims at the education of the…

  8. Feather the Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Presents a cut-and-paste turkey puzzle for students to use that combines the use of card or automated catalog records with the Thanksgiving theme. Students are given Thanksgiving topics and asked to find subjects, titles, authors, or keywords in order to assemble the puzzle. (LRW)

  9. Axiom turkey genotyping array

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Axiom®Turkey Genotyping Array interrogates 643,845 probesets on the array, covering 643,845 SNPs. The array development was led by Dr. Julie Long of the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center under a public-private partnership with Hendrix Genetics, Aviagen, and Affymetrix. The Turk...

  10. Osteomyelitis in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) is a condition in which apparently healthy, usually male birds have infections that are hidden in their bones, joints, and muscles. Some of these birds have a green liver, which provides a method for detecting these carcasses in the processing plant. Our research h...

  11. Wind energy and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

    2012-03-01

    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future.

  12. Country Profiles, Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lewis S.

    A profile of Turkey is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  13. English Teaching Profile: Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A profile of the state of English and English instruction in Turkey covers the following topics: a description of the role and status of English language use in industry and commerce, government, and education; the role of English at all levels of the educational system; the availability, characteristics, and training of teachers of English; the…

  14. Inferences of Integrated Lithospheric Strength from Plate-Scale Analyses of Deformation Observed in the Aegean-Anatolian Region and the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houseman, Gregory

    2016-04-01

    with a flow field that is driven by gradients of gravitational potential energy, and the rates of deformation are now well-constrained by extensive geodetic measurements. In the second case the rates are significantly smaller in magnitude, but the locations and mechanisms of broadly distributed intra-plate seismicity, together with structural interpretations of near-surface faulting allow us to constrain the distribution of a strain-rate field whose integrated effect is accurately defined by global tectonic models like MORVEL. Predictably, the resistance of Indian Ocean lithosphere to deformation is much greater than that of Anatolian lithosphere. We also infer a more strongly non-linear constitutive law for the oceanic example, but in both cases the magnitudes of depth-averaged stress difference appear significantly less than one would infer from the classic rheological profiles as summarized by Burov. These differences may indicate a significant role for pore fluids reducing stress-differences across faults in the crust and/or upper mantle, for grain-size reduction in shear zones, or for dislocation glide playing an important role in the deformation of the uppermost mantle.

  15. Evaluation of the relative tectonic activity in the eastern Lake Van basin, East Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sağlam Selçuk, Azad

    2016-10-01

    The eastern part of the Lake Van basin (Van region, Turkey) is controlled by reverse faults, such as the Gürpınar, Everek and Alaköy faults. These represent the major tectonic structures within the Van region and have caused many devastating earthquakes. Based on quantitative analyses, the Quaternary activity and topographic relief control of each of these faults was investigated. The Gürpınar, Everek and Alaköy faults are restricted to the southern slopes of the Güzelsu, Everek, and Karasu basins, respectively. Analyses of the mountain front sinuosity (Smf) and valley floor width-to-height ratio (Vf) suggest high activity along the Gürpınar fault, the Everek fault, and the western part of the Alaköy fault. Furthermore, based on the integration between Smf and Vf, the estimated uplift rates were observed to increase from north to south. The Gürpınar and Everek hanging-wall blocks are characterized by uplift rates of > 0.5 mm yr- 1, whereas the Alaköy fault exhibited a rate of 0.05 to 0.5 mm yr- 1. These faults produce knickpoints or knickzones, complex basin hypsometric curves, and high values of the stream length-gradient index. Based on these geomorphic analyses, it was established that the tectonic activity of both the Gürpınar and Everek faults is greater than that of the Alaköy fault.

  16. Active faults in the Kashmir Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, A.

    2012-04-01

    The risk of earthquake is ever increasing in mountains along with rapid growth of population and urbanization. Over half a million people died in the last decade due to earthquakes. The devastations of Sumatra and Thai coasts in 2004, of Kashmir and New Orleans in 2005, of SW Java in 2006, of Sumatra again in 2007, W Sichuan and Myanmar in 2008, of Haiti in 2010, Japan, New Zealand and Turkey in 2011, brought enormous damage. The primary step in this regard could be to establish an earthquake risk model. The Kashmir valley is a NW-SE trending oval-shaped inter-mountain basin. A number of low magnitude earthquakes have recently been reported from the border and few inside the Kashmir valley. A number of active reverse faults were identified in this valley using remote sensing images and active geomorphic features. NE dipping reverse faults uplifted the young alluvial fan at the SW side. An active tectonic environment has been created by these reverse faults; sediment filled streams at NE, and uplifted quaternary deposits at SW. These resulted in an overall tilting of the entire Kashmir valley towards NE. Dating of displaced deposits is required to estimate the total convergence along these faults. Broadly, these faults are because of the convergence of Indian plate beneath the Eurasian plate.

  17. Bodrum Strong Motion Network, Mugla, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcik, H. A.; Tanircan, G.; Korkmaz, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf of Gökova is located in southwestern Turkey near the Aegean Sea and surrounded by Datça Peninsula to the south, the island of Kos to the west and Bodrum Peninsula to the north. The Bodrum peninsula with a population of one million in summer season is one of the most populated touristic centers of Turkey. This region is also surrounded by numerous active seismic entities such as Ula-Ören Fault Zone, Gökova Graben etc.. and demonstrates high seismic hazard. In the past, many destructive earthquakes have occurred in southwestern Turkey. One of the destructive historical earthquakes is 1493 Kos event (Mw=6.9) caused heavy damage in Bodrum. In the instrumental period seismic activity in the Gökova region includes the Ms>6.0 earthquakes of 23 April 1933 (Ms=6.4), 23 May 1941 (Ms=6.0), 13 December 1941 (Ms=6.5) events. Intense earthquake activity (Mw5+) occurred in Gulf of Gökova in August 2004 and January 2005. Considering the high seismicity and population of this region, a strong ground motion monitoring system stationed in dense settlements in the Bodrum Peninsula: Bodrum, Turgutreis, Yalıkavak, Çiftlik and Ortakent was deployed on June 2015. The network consists of 5 strong motion recorders, has been set up with the aim of monitoring of regional earthquakes, collecting accurate and reliable data for engineering and scientific research purposes, in particular to provide input for future earthquake rapid reporting and early warning implementation projects on urban environments in the Bodrum peninsula and the surrounding areas. In this poster presentation, we briefly introduce the Bodrum Network and discuss our future plans for further developments.

  18. Technical NoteEarthquake dates and water level changes in wells in the Eskisehir region, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuce, G.; Ugurluoglu, D.

    Although satisfactory results have yet to be obtained in earthquake prediction, one of the most common indicators of an anomalous precursor is a change in groundwater level in existing wells. Further wells should thus be drilled in unconfined aquifers since these are more susceptible to seismic waves. The Eskisehir region lies in the transition zone between the Aegean extensional domain and the compressible northern Anatolian block. Limnigraphs, installed in 19 exploration wells in the Eskisehir region, recorded pre-seismic, co-seismic and post-seismic level changes during the earthquakes of 17 August Izmit (Mw= 7.4) and 12 November Duzce (Mw= 7.2) 1999 that occurred along the North Anatolian Fault Zone. The Izmit and Duzce earthquakes affected groundwater levels, especially in confined aquifers. The aquifer characteristics before and after the earthquakes were unchanged so the aquifer is elastic in its behaviour. Further detailed geo-mechanical investigation of the confined aquifer in the Eskisehir region may improve understanding of earthquake prediction.

  19. Detectability of slow slip beneath the seismogenic zone of strike-slip faults using borehole tiltmeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chery, J.

    2015-12-01

    During the last decades, geodetic tools like C-GPS allowed the detection of slow slip events associated with transient motion below the seismogenic zone. This new class of fault motion lead us to revise the standard version of the seismic cycle simply including coseismic, postseismic and interseismic phases. Most of these discoveries occurred on subduction margins in various places like Japan, Cascadia, Chile and Indonesia. By contrast, GPS and strainmeters have provided little evidence of slow slip beneath the seismogenic zone of large continental faults like the San Andreas fault or the North Anatolian fault. Because the detectability of such motions is mostly tributary from instrumental precision, we examine the theoretical capability of tiltmeter arrays for detecting horizontal motion of a buried vertical fault. We define the slipping part of the strike-slip fault like a buried rectangular patch submitted to horizontal motion. This motion provides horizontal and vertical surface deformation as a function of both patch geometry (length, width, depth) and motion amplitude. Using a dislocation buried at 15km depth, we compute the maximum motion and tilt as a function of seismic moment. Assuming yields of detectability of 1mm for GPS horizontal motion and 10 nrad for a tiltmeter, we show that small slip events could be better detected using high resolution and stability tiltmeters. We then examine how tiltmeters arrays could be used for such a purpose. In particular, we discuss how to deal with usual problems often plaguing tiltmeters data like instrumental drift, borehole coupling and hydrological strain.

  20. Long-lasting seismic repeaters in the Central Basin of the Main Marmara Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmittbuhl, J.; Karabulut, H.; Lengliné, O.; Bouchon, M.

    2016-09-01

    The Main Marmara Fault which crosses the whole Marmara Sea is a significant seismic gap along the North Anatolian Fault. Here we show that nine long-lasting strike-slip seismic repeaters exist below the Central Basin within the seismogenic zone, in a 10 km region where deep creep was previously suggested from the analysis of the local seismicity. The typical recurrence time was 8 months during the 2008-2015 period. The cumulative slip of the repeating sequence appears to be compatible with the regional geodetic slip rate if they are assumed to be part of a large single asperity (10 km). The repeaters also exhibit short-term crises and are possibly related to bursts of creep.

  1. Faunistic Composition, Ecological Properties, and Zoogeographical Composition of the Elateridae (Coleoptera) Family in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kabalak, Mahmut; Sert, Osman

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to understand the faunistic composition, ecological properties, and zoogeographical composition of the family Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Western Black Sea region of Turkey. As a result, 44 species belonging to 5 subfamilies and 19 genera were identified. After adding species reported in the literature to the analysis, the fauna in the research area consists of 6 subfamilies, 23 genera and 72 species. Most of the Elateridae fauna of the Western Black Sea region were classified in the subfamilies Elaterinae and Dendrometrinae. The genus Athous was the most species-rich genus. The species composition of the Elateridae fauna of the Western Black Sea region partially overlaps with the known Elateridae fauna of Turkey. The Western Black Sea region shares the most species with the European part of the Western Palaearctic region, including many of those in the Elateridae family, compared to other regions. Comparisons of the three geographical regions of Turkey show that fauna composition, ecological properties, and zoogeographical compositions of the Middle and Western Black Sea regions are more similar to each other than to those of the Central Anatolian region. PMID:24787627

  2. Nursing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Steven L

    2006-10-01

    The current discussion on the nursing shortage needs to focus as much on nursing job satisfaction and retention as on nursing recruitment and education. Selected aspects of the motivational psychology of Abraham Maslow, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, and Frederick Hertzberg are here discussed in light of the challenges-opportunities of nursing in Turkey and elsewhere. Also discussed is an innovative program to support the application of nursing theory and professional development in Toronto, Canada. PMID:16982724

  3. [Stranger in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Dorhout Mees, E J

    1997-12-20

    The author, a professor of nephrology, reports some impressions of his 7-year stay in Turkey. He worked at the Ege University in Izmir, traditionally one of the most 'western' cities. He and his wife, who gave unpaid assistance to dialysis patients, attempted to integrate into Turkish society as fully as possible. They traversed the country in weekends and holidays and introduced as many Dutch guests as they could to the unique archeological treasures, the magnificent nature and the extremely friendly population. Work at the university focused increasingly on cultivating a critical attitude with regard to the self, society and the trends and commercialization of medicine in Turkey and in the rest of the world. Self-reliance, also, had to be strengthened. Although this contravened the authority-based Turkish educational system, the efforts were clearly appreciated and even stirred enthusiasm in many of the younger people. There is no doubt that a foreign worker is regarded much more favourable in Turkey than in the Netherlands.

  4. "Poppies are democracy!" A critical geopolitics of opium eradication and reintroduction in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Evered, Kyle T

    2011-01-01

    Historical scholarship in traditional geopolitics often relied on documents authored by states and by other influential actors. Although much work in the subfield of critical geopolitics thus far has addressed imbalances constructed in official, academic, and popular media due to a privileging of such narratives, priority might also be given to unearthing and bringing to light alternative geopolitical perspectives from otherwise marginalized populations. Utilizing the early-1970s case of the United States' first “war on drugs,” this article examines the geopolitics of opium-poppy eradication and its consequences within Turkey. Employing not only archival and secondary sources but also oral histories from now-retired poppy farmers, this study examines the diffusion of U.S. antinarcotics policies into the Anatolian countryside and the enduring impressions that the United States and Turkish government created. In doing so, this research gives voice to those farmers targeted by eradication policies and speaks more broadly to matters of narcotics control, sentiments of anti-Americanism, and notions of democracy in Turkey and the region, past and present. PMID:22164875

  5. "Poppies are democracy!" A critical geopolitics of opium eradication and reintroduction in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Evered, Kyle T

    2011-01-01

    Historical scholarship in traditional geopolitics often relied on documents authored by states and by other influential actors. Although much work in the subfield of critical geopolitics thus far has addressed imbalances constructed in official, academic, and popular media due to a privileging of such narratives, priority might also be given to unearthing and bringing to light alternative geopolitical perspectives from otherwise marginalized populations. Utilizing the early-1970s case of the United States' first “war on drugs,” this article examines the geopolitics of opium-poppy eradication and its consequences within Turkey. Employing not only archival and secondary sources but also oral histories from now-retired poppy farmers, this study examines the diffusion of U.S. antinarcotics policies into the Anatolian countryside and the enduring impressions that the United States and Turkish government created. In doing so, this research gives voice to those farmers targeted by eradication policies and speaks more broadly to matters of narcotics control, sentiments of anti-Americanism, and notions of democracy in Turkey and the region, past and present.

  6. Investigating Land Surface Temperature Changes Using Landsat Data in Konya, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orhan, O.; Yakar, M.

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate multi-temporal land surface temperature (LST) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) changes of Konya in Turkey using remotely sensed data. Konya is located in the semi-arid central Anatolian region of Turkey and hosts many important wetland sites including Salt Lake. Six images taken by Landsat-5 TM and Landsat 8- OLI satellites were used as the basic data source. These raw images were taken in 1984, 2011 and 2014 intended as long-term and short-term. Firstly, those raw images was corrected radiometric and geometrically within the scope of project. Three mosaic images were obtained by using the full-frame images of Landsat-5 TM / 8- OLI which had been already transformed comparison each other. Then, Land Surface Temperature (LST), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps have been produced to determine the dimension of the drought. The obtained results showed that surface temperature rates in the basin increased about 5°C between 1984 and 2014 as long periods, increased about 2-3°C between 2011and 2014 as short periods. Meteorological data supports the increase in temperature.

  7. Spatial analysis of climate factors used to determine suitability of greenhouse production in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cemek, Bilal; Güler, Mustafa; Arslan, Hakan

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to identify the most suitable growing periods for greenhouse production in Turkey in order to make valuable contribution to economic viability. Data collected from the meteorological databases of 81 provinces was used to determine periodic climatological requirements of greenhouses in terms of cooling, heating, natural ventilation, and lighting. Spatial distributions of mean daily outside temperatures and greenhouse heating requirements were derived using ordinary co-kriging (OCK) supported by Geographical Information System (GIS). Mean monthly temperatures throughout the country were found to decrease below 12 °C in January, February, March, and December, indicating heating requirements, whereas temperatures in 94.46 % of the country rose above 22 °C in July, indicating cooling requirements. Artificial lighting is not a requirement in Turkey except for November, December, and January. The Mediterranean, Aegean, Marmara, and Black Sea Regions are more advantageous than the Central, East, and Southeast Anatolia Regions in terms of greenhouse production because the Mediterranean and Aegean Regions are more advantageous in terms of heating, and the Black Sea Region is more advantageous in terms of cooling. Results of our study indicated that greenhouse cultivation of winter vegetables is possible in certain areas in the north of the country. Moreover, greenhouses could alternatively be used for drying fruits and vegetables during the summer period which requires uneconomical cooling systems due to high temperatures in the Mediterranean and Southeastern Anatolian Regions.

  8. Geology of the Konakpinar--Sarica area, Sivas Province, Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barosh, Patrick James; Sermin, Salim; Gencel, Ilker; Sengun, Metin; Ekren, Frank

    1972-01-01

    The junction of several major structures and stratigraphic sequences is in the Konakpinar-Sarica area of central Turkey. Most of the area is underlain by Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous limeston and siltstone, early Tertiary sedimentary rock, and remnants of younger volcanic rocks and lacustrine deposits. The northeastern part of the area, however, is formed of serpentinite, of possible Cretaceous age, unconformably overlain by Upper Cretaceous conglomerate and siltstone that crop out extensively east of the area. The regional structure changes direction in the area. Folds and faults change across a northerly striking hinge line from northeast trends on the west to northwest trends on the east. A north-trending regional fault zone is a little east of the hinge line. The northern part of this fault zone and a northwest-striking fault, a possible thrust, east of it form the boundary between the two stratigraphic provinces. The area northeast of this boundary is cut by a series of vertical northwest-trending faults that are downdropped on the southwest. A large northeast-trending fault that is part of a broad fault zone that extends from the Mediterranean Sea northeastward to Divrigi is in the northwest corner of the area. Some thrust faults cut the Cretaceous rocks in the western part of the area; the Upper Jurassic limestone may be allochthonous. The only economic deposit known in the area is at the Otlukilise Iron Mine where iron is present in a sedimentary filling of sinkholesand as secondary replacement deposits in limestone at their borders. Minor deposits of chrome, copper, and coal also occur in the area.

  9. Late Cretaceous - recent lithosphere scale evolution of Turkey: linking the crustal surface evolution to the structure of the mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartol, J.; Govers, R. M. A.; Wortel, M. J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Central Anatolia (Central Turkey) possesses all the characteristics of a plateau. It experienced a period of rapid and substantial uplift (late Miocene, ˜8 Ma) while significant crustal shortening did not occur. Similar to other plateaus, the presence of volcanic ash and tuff within the sediments suggest that uplift was preceded by widespread volcanism (˜14-9Ma). The lithospheric context of these events is, however, unknown. For the Eastern Anatolian plateau, similar events have been attributed to southward retread followed by slab break-off of the northern Neotethys slab. Recent tomographic results indicate that this northern Neotethys slab extended beneath both the Eastern and Central Anatolian plateau prior to late Miocene delamination and possibly even beneath western Anatolia prior to the Eocene (?). We propose a new lithospheric scenario for the regional evolution for the Aegean-Anatolia-Near East region that combines a recent compilation of surface geology data with the structure of the upper mantle imaged with tomography. In our new scenario for the evolution of the Aegean-Anatolia-Near East region, a single continuous subduction zone south of the Pontides (Izmir - Ankara - Erzincan crustal suture zone) accommodated the Africa - Eurasia convergence until the end of the late Cretaceous. In the Late Cretaceous - Eocene the northern Neotethys Ocean closed followed by Anatolide - Taurides (south) and Pontides (north) continental collision along the Izmir - Ankara - Erzincan crustal suture zone. While the trench jumped to the south of Anatolide - Taurides terrane, subduction continued beneath the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture where the northern Neotethys slab continued to sink into the deeper mantle. In the early Miocene (˜20-15Ma), the northern Neotethys slab started to retreat southward towards the trench, resulting in delamination of the lithospheric mantle. The last part of (early Miocene - recent) our scenario is testable. We use a coupled thermal

  10. English Language Teaching Profile: Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The role of English in Turkey is discussed, with attention directed to: (1) education within the educational system, (2) English teachers, (3) teaching materials, (4) English outside the educational system, and (5) British and American support for the teaching of English. Although English is not used as a means of social communication in Turkey,…

  11. Drastic underestimation of amphipod biodiversity in the endangered Irano-Anatolian and Caucasus biodiversity hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Katouzian, Ahmad-Reza; Sari, Alireza; Macher, Jan N.; Weiss, Martina; Saboori, Alireza; Leese, Florian; Weigand, Alexander M.

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity hotspots are centers of biological diversity and particularly threatened by anthropogenic activities. Their true magnitude of species diversity and endemism, however, is still largely unknown as species diversity is traditionally assessed using morphological descriptions only, thereby ignoring cryptic species. This directly limits evidence-based monitoring and management strategies. Here we used molecular species delimitation methods to quantify cryptic diversity of the montane amphipods in the Irano-Anatolian and Caucasus biodiversity hotspots. Amphipods are ecosystem engineers in rivers and lakes. Species diversity was assessed by analysing two genetic markers (mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28S rDNA), compared with morphological assignments. Our results unambiguously demonstrate that species diversity and endemism is dramatically underestimated, with 42 genetically identified freshwater species in only five reported morphospecies. Over 90% of the newly recovered species cluster inside Gammarus komareki and G. lacustris; 69% of the recovered species comprise narrow range endemics. Amphipod biodiversity is drastically underestimated for the studied regions. Thus, the risk of biodiversity loss is significantly greater than currently inferred as most endangered species remain unrecognized and/or are only found locally. Integrative application of genetic assessments in monitoring programs will help to understand the true magnitude of biodiversity and accurately evaluate its threat status. PMID:26928527

  12. Drastic underestimation of amphipod biodiversity in the endangered Irano-Anatolian and Caucasus biodiversity hotspots.

    PubMed

    Katouzian, Ahmad-Reza; Sari, Alireza; Macher, Jan N; Weiss, Martina; Saboori, Alireza; Leese, Florian; Weigand, Alexander M

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity hotspots are centers of biological diversity and particularly threatened by anthropogenic activities. Their true magnitude of species diversity and endemism, however, is still largely unknown as species diversity is traditionally assessed using morphological descriptions only, thereby ignoring cryptic species. This directly limits evidence-based monitoring and management strategies. Here we used molecular species delimitation methods to quantify cryptic diversity of the montane amphipods in the Irano-Anatolian and Caucasus biodiversity hotspots. Amphipods are ecosystem engineers in rivers and lakes. Species diversity was assessed by analysing two genetic markers (mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28S rDNA), compared with morphological assignments. Our results unambiguously demonstrate that species diversity and endemism is dramatically underestimated, with 42 genetically identified freshwater species in only five reported morphospecies. Over 90% of the newly recovered species cluster inside Gammarus komareki and G. lacustris; 69% of the recovered species comprise narrow range endemics. Amphipod biodiversity is drastically underestimated for the studied regions. Thus, the risk of biodiversity loss is significantly greater than currently inferred as most endangered species remain unrecognized and/or are only found locally. Integrative application of genetic assessments in monitoring programs will help to understand the true magnitude of biodiversity and accurately evaluate its threat status.

  13. New Field Observations About 19 August 1966 Varto earthquake, Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurboga, S.

    2013-12-01

    Some destructive earthquakes in the past and even in the recent have several mysteries. For example, magnitude, epicenter location, faulting type and source fault of an earthquake have not been detected yet. One of these mysteries events is 19 August 1966 Varto earthquake in Turkey. 19 August 1966 Varto earthquake (Ms = 6.8) was an extra ordinary event at the 40 km east of junction between NAFS and EAFS which are two seismogenic system and active structures shaping the tectonics of Turkey. This earthquake sourced from Varto fault zone which are approximately 4 km width and 43 km length. It consists of faults which have parallel to sub-parallel, closely-spaced, north and south-dipping up to 85°-88° dip amount. Although this event has 6.8 (Ms) magnitude that is big enough to create a surface rupture, there was no clear surface deformation had been detected. This creates the controversial issue about the source fault and the mechanism of the earthquake. According to Wallace (1968) the type of faulting is right-lateral. On the other hand, McKenzie (1972) proposed right-lateral movement with thrust component by using the focal mechanism solution. The recent work done by Sançar et al. (2011) claimed that type of faulting is pure right-lateral strike-slip and there is no any surface rupture during the earthquake. Furthermore, they suggested that Varto segment in the Varto Fault Zone was most probably not broken in 1966 earthquake. This study is purely focused on the field geology and trenching survey for the investigation of 1966 Varto earthquake. Four fault segments have been mapped along the Varto fault zone: Varto, Sazlica, Leylekdağ and Çayçati segments. Because of the thick volcanic cover on the area around Varto, surface rupture has only been detected by trenching survey. Two trenching survey have been applied along the Yayikli and Ağaçalti faults in the Varto fault zone. Consequently, detailed geological work in the field and trenching survey indicate that

  14. Seismotectonics of the Armutlu peninsula (Marmara Sea, NW Turkey) from geological field observation and regional moment tensor inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinscher, J.; Krüger, F.; Woith, H.; Lühr, B. G.; Hintersberger, E.; Irmak, T. S.; Baris, S.

    2013-11-01

    stresses as transtensional faulting is consistent with the southwest directed far field deformation of the Anatolian plate.

  15. Measurements of radon concentrations in Spa waters in Amasya, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yigitoglu, I.; Oner, F.; Yalim, H. A.; Ucar, B.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the radon concentrations in thermal waters in the Amasya basin in Turkey and to explore the relationship between radon anomalies and active geological faults. The radon concentration measurements were performed in four thermal Spas around Amasya basin. The water samples were collected from tap waters in thermal water sources. The obtained radon concentrations ranged from 0.15 ± 0.12 to 0.71 ± 0.32 BqL-1 for Spa waters. The relationship between the radon concentration anomalies and earthquakes that occurred in the sampling period are discussed.

  16. Thrace basin: An extensional Tertiary sedimentary basin in an area of major plate convergences, northwest Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Turgut, S.; Atalik, E.

    1988-08-01

    The Thrace basin forms one of the largest Tertiary basins in Turkey. Paleontological and sedimentological evidence suggests sedimentation and basin formation commenced by a major transgression from the southwest in the middle to late middle Eocene. The basin formed over an extremely deformed crustal block. It straddles an Upper Cretaceous suture zone which later became a major mobile belt in Turkey. Syndepositional fault patterns and sedimentary thickness indicate the basin was evolved tectonically by north-south extension. Large listric normal faults and east-west depositional axis are evidence of this extension. Early marine sedimentation in the basin was accompanied by an intense volcanism which poured large quantities of ash into the depositional environment. Normal basement faults were active and great thicknesses of clastic sediments accumulated along faults. Reefal to shallow marine carbonates were deposited on shelves and over intrabasinal paleohighs. Sedimentation became regressive in the early Oligocene. Alternation of marine and nonmarine clastic deposition continued without interruption until the end of the Oligocene. By the late Oligocene to early Miocene, the whole basin was subjected to intense tectonism that caused uplift and faulting. Seismic reflection profiles reveal a very complex tectonic style in the basin. Fault-related inversion and flowage structures involving shale diapirism are quite common. Eocene and Oligocene shales are mature enough to generate economical quantities of hydrocarbons. Their source quality is fair to poor. Sand bodies in the Eocene-Oligocene series and reefal carbonates form the reservoir facies, and they are targets for exploration.

  17. Operational EEW Networks in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfikar, Can; Pinar, Ali

    2016-04-01

    There are several EEW networks and algorithms under operation in Turkey. The first EEW system was deployed in Istanbul in 2002 after the 1999 Mw7.4 Kocaeli and Mw7.1 Duzce earthquake events. The system consisted of 10 strong motion stations located as close as possible to the main Marmara Fault line. The system was upgraded by 5 OBS (Ocean Bottom Seismometer) in 2012 located in Marmara Sea. The system works in threshold based algorithm. The alert is given according to exceedance of certain threshold levels of amplitude of ground motion acceleration in certain time interval at least in 3 stations. Currently, there are two end-users of EEW system in Istanbul. The critical facilities of Istanbul Gas Distribution Company (IGDAS) and Marmaray Tube tunnel receives the EEW information in order to activate their automatic shut-off mechanisms. The IGDAS has their own strong motion network located at their district regulators. After receiving the EEW signal if the threshold values of ground motion parameters are exceeded the gas-flow is cut automatically at the district regulators. The IGDAS has 750 district regulators distributed in Istanbul. At the moment, the 110 of them are instrumented with strong motion accelerometers. As a 2nd stage of the on-going project, the IGDAS company proposes to install strong motion accelerometers to all remaining district regulators. The Marmaray railway tube tunnel is the world's deepest immersed tube tunnel with 60m undersea depth. The tunnel has 1.4km length with 13 segments. The tunnel is monitored with 2 strong motion accelerometers in each segment, 26 in total. Once the EEW signal is received, the monitoring system is activated and the recording ground motion parameters are calculated in real-time. Depending on the exceedance of threshold levels, further actions are taken such as reducing the train speed, stopping the train before entering the tunnel etc. In Istanbul, there are also on-site EEW system applied in several high

  18. Paleoseismological Findings on the Eastern Limb of the Manyas Bend, NW Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmacı, Hasan; Yiǧit Duman, Tamer; Kara, Meryem; Özaksoy, Volkan; Kop, Alican; Özalp, Selim; Yurtseven, Eylem; Emre, Ömer

    2016-04-01

    Different tectonic regimes have been developed during the neotectonics of Turkey and the surroundings. Southern Marmara Region is a transition zone between strike slip and extensional tectonic deformations. Current deformations at this region accommodated by strike slip faults with reverse and normal component. Fault zone and segments at this region form structure that large bend concave geometry to the south. This structure is called as Manyas Bend. The bend structure is formed by Manyas fault (40-km) at apex, Yenice-Gönen fault (70-km) at west limb, Mustafakemalpaşa (47-km) and Orhaneli (30-km) faults at east limb. Total length of Mustafakemalpaşa and Orhaneli fault have 87 km length and NW-SE direction. These two fault segments that form east limb of the bend in a zone of 11 km width. In this zone 4-5 km length right lateral strike slip faults separated from each other with en-echelon structures. This fault systems are the source of the instrumental and historical earthquakes in this region. When analyzed the instrumental and historical earthquakes, it is observed that seismic activity is quite intense in this region. Paleoseismological trench surveys were carried out on these fault segments to investigate seismic activity of the faults of the eastern limb of the bend. Three earthquake that accompanied with surface rupture at each two fault segments were dated as a Holocene. Some of the earthquakes that determined at trenches can be correlated with known historical earthquake in this region. Findings obtained from this study contribute to paleoseismological behavior of the faults of the Manyas Bends of eastern limb and regional-scale seismic hazard studies.

  19. Vertical Anatolian Movements Project (VAMP): a collaborative research project of the TopoEurope initiative of ESF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strecker, M.; Bertotti, G.; Echtler, H.; Ciner, A.; Dirik, E. Aydar (4), K.; Rojay, B.; Mulch, A.; Kováčová, M.; Govers, R.; Gliozzi, E.; Simpson, G.; Aksu, A.

    2009-04-01

    Miocene to Quaternary continental sediments has created low local relief, where large shallow lakes occur. However, several basins have been captured by headward erosion and major rivers (Göksu River in the S and Kızılırmak River in the N) now expose basin-fill sediments and drain large areas of the CAP and form deeply incised gorges along the northern and southern margins, respectively. Miocene marine sediments, locally up to 2 km thick and deposited in a basin stretching, at least, from Antalya to Adana unconformably overlie rocks of the Taurus orogen in S Turkey. Northward, these units grade into a partly preserved erosional surface. To the south, correlative Miocene marine sediments are found in the Cilicia offshore basin and in the N Cyprus thrust-belt. These sediments provide a topographic datum for the beginning of plateau development. In addition these units provide information on the behavior of the Anatolian crust during subsidence. The end of marine sedimentation (~Tortonian) provides a maximum age for the onset of CAP uplift. Thereafter, uplift was coeval with, and tectonically linked to subsidence in the offshore basins. Interestingly, other important events occurred at this time as well. This includes the Messinian salinity crisis and the onset of fragmentation of the Tethyan slab. In our study, an interdisciplinary approach with a wide range of temporal and spatial scales of is adopted to (1) better constrain the kinematics of plateau (de)formation; (2) the timing of associated climatic changes; (3) to quantify patterns of sediment routing and deposition; and to (4) reconstruct the (deep) geometry of Anatolia and surrounding sedimentary basins. We furthermore assess the importance of crustal shortening, magmatic underplating and possible lithospheric segmentation and delamination with respect to plateau uplift and analyze the nature of the interactions between tectonic forcing and changing climate. We will perform structural, geomorphological and

  20. Holocene semi-arid oak woodlands in the Irano-Anatolian region of Southwest Asia: natural or anthropogenic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asouti, Eleni; Kabukcu, Ceren

    2014-04-01

    It is commonly accepted that, following the end of the Pleistocene, semi-arid deciduous oak woodlands did not spread in the Irano-Anatolian region of Southwest Asia as quickly as they did in the Levantine Mediterranean littoral, despite the fact that climatic improvement occurred broadly at the same time in both regions. Prehistoric impacts on woodland vegetation (such as woodcutting, burning and clearance for cultivation), the harsh continental climate of inland Southwest Asia and its distance from late Pleistocene arboreal refugia have all been discussed in the literature as likely causes of the delay. In this paper we argue that semi-arid deciduous oak woodlands should not be viewed as part of the “natural” vegetation of the Irano-Anatolian region that has been progressively destroyed by millennia of human activities since the Neolithic. They represent instead one of the earliest anthropogenic vegetation types in Southwest Asia, one that owes its very existence to prehistoric landscape practices other scholars commonly label as “destructive”. Drawing on anthracological, pollen and modern vegetation data from central Anatolia we describe how the post-Pleistocene species-rich and structurally diverse temperate semi-arid savanna grasslands were gradually substituted by low-diversity, even-aged Quercus-dominated parklands and wood pastures in the course of the early Holocene. Economic strategies that encouraged the establishment and spread of deciduous oaks included sheep herding that impacted on grass and forb vegetation, the controlling of competing arboreal vegetation through woodcutting, and woodland management practices such as coppicing, pollarding and shredding that enhanced Quercus vegetative propagation, crown and stem growth. Understanding the origin and evolution of the Irano-Anatolian semi-arid oak woodlands of Southwest Asia is of critical importance for reconstructing the changing ecologies and geographical distributions of the progenitors of

  1. Fault locking near Istanbul: indication of earthquake potential from InSAR and GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, Faqi; Walter, Thomas R.; Solaro, Giuseppe; Wang, Rongjiang; Bonano, Manuela; Manzo, Mariarosaria; Ergintav, Semih; Zheng, Yong; Xiong, Xiong; Lanari, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    A sequence of large earthquakes occurred along the North Anatolian fault in the 20th century. These earthquakes, including the 1999 İzmit/Düzce earthquakes, generally propagated westward towards the Marmara Sea, defining the Main Marmara fault as a potential seismic gap. It is important to conduct a detailed assessment of the seismic hazards along the main Marmara fault because the megacity Istanbul lies only approximately 10 km north of the eastern segment of the Main Marmara fault, which is referred to as the Princes' Islands Fault segment (PIF). Here, we study the locking status of this fault segment to evaluate the seismic hazard potential. For the first time, combined ascending and descending Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar and Global Positioning System observations were used to investigate the crustal deformation associated with the PIF. After careful corrections of the estimated ground velocity, a deformation pattern relating to fault locking near the Princes' Islands was identified. The modeling results revealed that the slip rate and locking depth of the fault segment show a clear trade-off, which were estimated as 18.9 ± 7.2 mm yr-1 and 12.1 ± 7.0 km, respectively. With a moment accumulation rate of 1.7 ± 0.4 × 1017 Nm yr-1 (proportional to the product of slip rate and locking depth), our results imply a build-up of a geodetic moment on the PIF and therefore a potential for earthquake hazards in the vicinity of the Istanbul megacity.

  2. Phosphate Solubilization Potentials of Rhizosphere Isolates from Central Anatolia (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogut, M.; Er, F.

    2009-04-01

    Plant available-phosphorus (P) is usually low in Anatolian soils due mainly to the precipitation as calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) phosphates in alkaline conditions. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) can enhance plant P-availability by dissolving the hardly soluble-P within the rhizosphere, which is the zone that surrounds the plant roots. PSM's can be used as seed- or soil-inocula to increase plant P-uptake and the overall growth. A total of 162 PSM's were isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat plants excavated from different fields located along a 75 km part of a highway in Turkey. The mean, the standart deviation, and the median for solubilized-P (ppm) in a 24 h culture in a tricalcium phosphate broth were 681, 427, and 400 for glucose; 358, 266, and 236 for sucrose; and 102, 117, and 50 for starch, respectively. There was not a linear relationship between the phosphate solubilized in the liquid cultures and the solubilization index obtained in the Pikovskaya's agar. Nine isolates representing both weak and strong solubilizers [Bacillus megaterium (5), Bacillus pumilis (1), Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica (1), Pseudomonas fluorescens (1), Arthrobacter aurescens (1) as determined by the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis] were further studied in a five day incubation. Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica solubilized statistically (P<0.05) higher phosphate (409 ppm) than all the other strains did. There was not a statistically significant (P<0.05) difference in solubilized-P among the Bacillus strains. The pH of the medium fell to the levels between 4 and 5 from the initial neutrality. The phosphate solubilizing strains variably produced gluconic, 2-keto-D-gluconic, glycolic, acetic and butyric acids. The organic acids produced by these microorganisms seem to be the major source of phosphate solubilization in vitro.

  3. The history of sign language and deaf education in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kemaloğlu, Yusuf Kemal; Kemaloğlu, Pınar Yaprak

    2012-01-01

    Sign language is the natural language of the prelingually deaf people particularly without hearing-speech rehabilitation. Otorhinolaryngologists, regarding health as complete physical, mental and psychosocial well-being, aim hearing by diagnosing deafness as deviance from normality. However, it's obvious that the perception conflicted with the behavior which does not meet the mental and social well-being of the individual also contradicts with the definition mentioned above. This article aims to investigate the effects of hearing-speech target ignoring the sign language in Turkish population and its consistency with the history through statistical data, scientific publications and historical documents and to support critical perspective on this issue. The study results showed that maximum 50% of the deaf benefited from hearing-speech program for last 60 years before hearing screening programs; however, systems including sign language in education were not generated. In the light of these data, it is clear that the approach ignoring sign language particularly before the development of screening programs is not reasonable. In addition, considering sign language being part of the Anatolian history from Hittites to Ottomans, it is a question to be answered that why evaluation, habilitation and education systems excluding sign language are still the only choice for deaf individuals in Turkey. Despite legislative amendments in the last 6-7 years, the primary cause of failure to come into force is probably because of inadequate conception of the issue content and importance, as well as limited effort to offer solutions by academicians and authorized politicians. Within this context, this paper aims to make a positive effect on this issue offering a review for the medical staff, particularly otorhinolaryngologists and audiologists.

  4. Molecular analysis of East Anatolian traditional plum and cherry accessions using SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Öz, M H; Vurgun, H; Bakir, M; Büyük, İ; Yüksel, C; Ünlü, H M; Çukadar, K; Karadoğan, B; Köse, Ö; Ergül, A

    2013-11-07

    We conducted SSR analyses of 59 accessions, including 29 traditional plum (Prunus domestica), 24 sweet cherry (Prunus avium), and 1 sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) selected from East Anatolian gene sources and 3 plum and 2 cherry reference accessions for molecular characterization and investigation of genetic relationships. Eight SSR loci [1 developed from the apricot (UDAp-404), 4 from the peach (UDP96-010, UDP96-001, UDP96-019, Pchgms1) and 3 from the cherry (UCD-CH13, UCD-CH17, UCD-CH31) genome] for plum accessions and 9 SSR loci [5 developed from the cherry (PS12A02, UCD-CH13, UCD-CH17, UCD-CH31, UCD-CH21), 3 from the peach (Pchgms1, UDP96-001, UDP96-005) and 1 from the plum (CPSCT010) genome] for cherry accessions were used for genetic identification. A total of 66 and 65 alleles were obtained in the genetic analyses of 31 plum and 28 cherry accessions, respectively. The number of alleles revealed by SSR analysis ranged from 4 to 14 alleles per locus, with a mean value of 8.25 in plum accessions, and from 5 to 10 alleles per locus with a mean value of 7.2 in cherry accessions. Only one case of synonym was identified among the cherry accessions, while no case of synonym was observed among the plum accessions. Genomic SSR markers used in discrimination of plum and cherry accessions showed high cross-species transferability in the Prunus genus. Because of their appreciable polymorphism and cross species transferability, the SSR markers that we evaluated in this study will be useful for studies involving fingerprinting of cherry and plum cultivars.

  5. Molecular analysis of East Anatolian traditional plum and cherry accessions using SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Öz, M H; Vurgun, H; Bakir, M; Büyük, İ; Yüksel, C; Ünlü, H M; Çukadar, K; Karadoğan, B; Köse, Ö; Ergül, A

    2013-01-01

    We conducted SSR analyses of 59 accessions, including 29 traditional plum (Prunus domestica), 24 sweet cherry (Prunus avium), and 1 sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) selected from East Anatolian gene sources and 3 plum and 2 cherry reference accessions for molecular characterization and investigation of genetic relationships. Eight SSR loci [1 developed from the apricot (UDAp-404), 4 from the peach (UDP96-010, UDP96-001, UDP96-019, Pchgms1) and 3 from the cherry (UCD-CH13, UCD-CH17, UCD-CH31) genome] for plum accessions and 9 SSR loci [5 developed from the cherry (PS12A02, UCD-CH13, UCD-CH17, UCD-CH31, UCD-CH21), 3 from the peach (Pchgms1, UDP96-001, UDP96-005) and 1 from the plum (CPSCT010) genome] for cherry accessions were used for genetic identification. A total of 66 and 65 alleles were obtained in the genetic analyses of 31 plum and 28 cherry accessions, respectively. The number of alleles revealed by SSR analysis ranged from 4 to 14 alleles per locus, with a mean value of 8.25 in plum accessions, and from 5 to 10 alleles per locus with a mean value of 7.2 in cherry accessions. Only one case of synonym was identified among the cherry accessions, while no case of synonym was observed among the plum accessions. Genomic SSR markers used in discrimination of plum and cherry accessions showed high cross-species transferability in the Prunus genus. Because of their appreciable polymorphism and cross species transferability, the SSR markers that we evaluated in this study will be useful for studies involving fingerprinting of cherry and plum cultivars. PMID:24301792

  6. Environmental fiber-induced pleuro-pulmonary diseases in an Anatolian village: an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Artvinli, M; Baris, Y I

    1982-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the prevalence of pleural mesothelioma and other malignancies in the Anatolian village of Tuzköy, where neither asbestos nor any environmental carcinogen has been detected. Another village (Kizilköy) located 12 km from Tuzköy was selected as a control. Three hundred twelve subjects from Tuzköy who were at least 25 yr of age and 95 subjects from Kizilköy were studied. Analysis of X-rays of the Tuzköy group revealed that subjects had calcified pleural plaques (17%), pleural thickening (10.5%), obscured costophrenic angles (15%), and diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (12.1%). Sixty-seven deaths were records in Tuzköy during the previous 3 yr, 41 of which resulted from malignant diseases. There were no X-ray abnormalities or deaths resulting from malignancies in the control group. Because of the high incidence of mesothelioma and lung cancer which usually results from asbestos exposure, the presence of asbestos in Tuzköy was investigated, but none was detected in spite to Tuzköy's volcanic location. Nevertheless, zeolite, an asbestiform mineral, was detected in the stones of buildings and in the village soil, as well as in the lung and pleura of the patients during biopsy. Thus, this mineral was considered to be responsible for the fiber-induced pleuro-pulmonary diseases in Tuzköy. No zeolite was found in the soil and stones of the control village.

  7. Geodetic observations of postseismic creep in the decade after the 1999 Izmit earthquake, Turkey: Implications for a shallow slip deficit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Ekbal; Wright, Tim J.; Walters, Richard J.; Bekaert, David; Hooper, Andrew; Houseman, Gregory A.

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between aseismic slip and tectonic loading is important for understanding both the pattern of strain accumulation along a fault and its ability to generate large earthquakes. We investigate the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of aseismic creep on the western North Anatolian Fault (NAF) using time series analysis of Envisat interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data, covering the full extent of the 1999 Izmit and Düzce earthquake ruptures and spanning 2002-2010. Discontinuities in the line-of-sight velocity across the fault imply that fault creep reaches the Earth's surface at an average fault-parallel rate of ˜5 mm/yr along an ˜80 km section of the NAF. By combining InSAR and published GPS velocities, we are able to extract the vertical and east-west components of motion and show that the Adapazari basin is subsiding at a rate of ˜6 mm/yr. Vertical motions have biased previous estimates of creep in this region. The displacement time series close to the fault is consistent with an afterslip model based on rate-and-state friction, which predicts a rapid deceleration in fault creep rate after the Izmit earthquake to a near-steady state ˜5 mm/yr after 5 years. Projecting our model 200 years into the future we find that the cumulative displacement of 1-1.3 m is insufficient to account for the shallow coseismic slip deficit observed in previous studies. Distributed off-fault deformation in the shallow crust or transient episodes of faster slip are likely required to release some of the long-term strain during the earthquake cycle.

  8. Characterization of Appalachian faults

    SciTech Connect

    Hatcher, R.D. Jr.; Odom, A.L.; Engelder, T.; Dunn, D.E.; Wise, D.U.; Geiser, P.A.; Schamel, S.; Kish, S.A.

    1988-02-01

    This study presents a classification/characterization of Appalachian faults. Characterization factors include timing of movement relative to folding, metamorphism, and plutonism; tectonic position in the orogen; relations to existing anisotropies in the rock masses; involvement of particular rock units and their ages, as well as the standard Andersonian distinctions. Categories include faults with demonstrable Cenozoic activity, wildflysch-associated thrusts, foreland bedding-plane thrusts, premetamorphic to synmetamorphic thrusts in medium- to high-grade terranes, postmetamorphic thrusts in medium- to high-grade terranes, thrusts rooted in Precambrian basement, reverse faults, strike-slip faults, normal (block) faults, compound faults, structural lineaments, faults associated with local centers of disturbance, and geomorphic (nontectonic) faults.

  9. The Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone: A component of upper plate extension of the subduction transform edge propagator fault linking Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs, Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J.; Aksu, A. E.; Elitez, I.; Yaltırak, C.; Çifçi, G.

    2014-11-01

    The Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs, that mark the convergent boundary of the African and Aegean-Anatolian plates, are offset along a subduction transform edge propagator ('STEP') fault running NE-SW along the Pliny and Strabo Trenches. The continuation of the fault to the northeast through the Rhodes Basin and into SW Anatolia is assessed. Seismic reflection profiles show that the structural architecture of the northern sector of the Rhodes Basin includes a large crustal-scale fold-thrust belt which is overprinted by numerous faults with small extensional stratigraphic separations. A protracted episode of convergence in the Miocene resulted in the development of a prominent NE-SW-striking and NW-verging fold-thrust belt in the Rhodes Basin. The absence of evaporites in the Rhodes Basin and several seaward prograded vertically stacked Quaternary delta successions resting at 2500-3500 m water depth collectively suggest that the Rhodes Basin must have remained above the depositional base of marine evaporite environment during the Messinian and that the region must have subsided very rapidly during the Pliocene-Quaternary. During the Pliocene-Quaternary, a NE-SW-trending belt developed across the Rhodes Basin: while the structural framework of this belt was characterised by reactivated thrusts in the central portion of the basin, a prominent zone of NE-SW-striking and NW- and SE-dipping faults with extensional separations developed in the northern portion of the basin. Two seismic profiles running parallel to the present-day coastline provide the much needed linkage between the Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone onland and the reactivated thrusts in central Rhodes Basin, and show that the Pliocene-Quaternary zone of high-angle faults with extensional separations clearly link with the similarly trending and dipping strike-slip faults onland in the Eşen Valley, thus providing the continuity between the Pliny-Strabo Trenches in the southwest and the Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone in the

  10. Fault zone hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (< 1 km) introduces permeability heterogeneity and anisotropy, which has an important impact on processes such as regional groundwater flow, hydrocarbon migration, and hydrothermal fluid circulation. Fault zones have the capacity to be hydraulic conduits connecting shallow and deep geological environments, but simultaneously the fault cores of many faults often form effective barriers to flow. The direct evaluation of the impact of faults to fluid flow patterns remains a challenge and requires a multidisciplinary research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and

  11. Fault recovery characteristics of the fault tolerant multi-processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padilla, Peter A.

    1990-01-01

    The fault handling performance of the fault tolerant multiprocessor (FTMP) was investigated. Fault handling errors detected during fault injection experiments were characterized. In these fault injection experiments, the FTMP disabled a working unit instead of the faulted unit once every 500 faults, on the average. System design weaknesses allow active faults to exercise a part of the fault management software that handles byzantine or lying faults. It is pointed out that these weak areas in the FTMP's design increase the probability that, for any hardware fault, a good LRU (line replaceable unit) is mistakenly disabled by the fault management software. It is concluded that fault injection can help detect and analyze the behavior of a system in the ultra-reliable regime. Although fault injection testing cannot be exhaustive, it has been demonstrated that it provides a unique capability to unmask problems and to characterize the behavior of a fault-tolerant system.

  12. Organophosphate toxicity in wild turkeys.

    PubMed

    Nettles, V F

    1976-10-01

    An accidental poisoning of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) by O,O-Diethyl O-[p-(methylsulfinyl) phenyl] phosphorothioate is reported. Diagnosis was achieved by history, clinical observations, postmortem lesions, diagnostic therapy and pesticide analysis.

  13. Relationships between subduction and extension in the Aegean region: evidence from granite plutons of the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, K. N.; Catlos, E. J.; Oyman, T.; Demirbilek, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Biga Peninsula is a tectonically complex region in western Turkey characterized by Tethyan sutures overprinted by extensional grabens, active fault strands of the North Anatolian Shear Zone, and numerous granitoid plutons. Two end-member models for the initiation of extension in the Biga region have been proposed, both of which focus on the role of igneous assemblages. The first model involves the emplacement of a hot mantle plume that thins and weakens crust and isostatic doming drives extension. The second has regional tensional stresses as the driving force, and magmatism is a consequence of decompression. Here we focus on understanding the timing and geochemical evolution of three granitoid plutons located in and just south of the Biga Peninsula to understand which end-member model could be applicable to the Aegean region. The Kestanbolu pluton is located north of the proposed Vardar Suture Zone, whereas the Eybek and Kozak plutons are north of the Izmir-Ankara Suture Zone. These sutures may mark regions of the closure of branches of the NeoTethyan Ocean. To better understand their sources and tectonic evolution, we acquired geochemical and geochronological data, and cathodoluminescence (CL) images of the rocks. Previously reported ages of the plutons range from Late Eocene to Middle Miocene. Here we acquired in situ (in thin section) ion microprobe U-Pb ages of zircon grains found in a range of textural relationships. Ages from the Kozak pluton range from 37.8±5.4 Ma to 10.3±2.4 Ma (238U/206Pb, ±1σ) with two ages from a single grain of 287±26 Ma and 257±18 Ma. We also found Oligocene to Late Miocene zircon grains in the Kestanbolu pluton, whereas zircons from the Eybek pluton range from 34.3±4.8 Ma to 21.2±1.7 Ma. Samples collected from the Kozak and Eybek plutons are magnesian, calc-alkalic, and metaluminous, whereas the Kestanbolu rocks are magnesian, alkali-calcic, and metaluminous with one ferroan sample and one peraluminous sample. Trace

  14. Variations in rn and CO2 Soil Gas Concentrations in Karabayir Eskisehir-Turkey and Their Correlations with Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasin, Didem; Hilmi Gülbay, Ahmet; Yüce, Galip; Durgut, Aykut; Oruç, Cemal

    2016-04-01

    Variations in radon and CO2 gas concentrations of soil relations to earthquakes take attention of many researchers. The aim of this study is to monitor changes in soil radon and CO2 gas concentrations and to search possible anomalies originated from the seismicity in the vicinity of Eskisehir. Eskisehir is located between Aegean-Western Anatolian block where the extensional regime is present and the snistrial strike-slip fault zone, with a normal component, belonging to Central Anatolian Block on which the compressional forces are effective. Radon and CO2 gas concentrations in soil were daily measured for about 3 months in 2015. Meteorological parameters (barometric pressure, temperature, rain and humidity) and all soil gasdata were correlated with the seismicity occured in 17-110 km distance from the soil gas measurement location during the same period. According to the first results, generally concentrations of Rn and CO2 began to decrease before earthquakes and CO2 and radon concentrations are linear which means. CO2 can be considered as acarrier gas for radon. Keywords: radon, CO2, Eskisehir, earthquake, soil

  15. Equine glanders in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Arun, S; Neubauer, H; Gürel, A; Ayyildiz, G; Kusçu, B; Yesildere, T; Meyer, H; Hermanns, W

    1999-03-01

    In the course of an epidemiological study of glanders on a number of Turkish islands in the Sea of Marmara, 1128 horses were examined by using the intracutaneous mallein test. Thirty-five (3-1 per cent) developed an increase in rectal temperature and a swelling at the point of injection. Ten of these horses were killed and glanders was confirmed in five cases by the presence of lesions and by the immunohistological demonstration of the causative agent, Burkholderia mallei. Clinical and pathological findings indicated that in all cases the infection was restricted to the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity with its parasinus, the nostrils and the upper lips. It was confirmed that equine glanders is endemic in Turkey.

  16. A stable isotopic perspective on orographic precipitation and continental evaporation in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schemmel, F.; Mikes, T.; Mulch, A.; Rojay, B.

    2011-12-01

    One of the major tasks in terrestrial paleoclimate research is the reconstruction of continental precipitation changes and its effect on vegetation patterns as well as animal and human environments. Stable isotopes in precipitation have become increasingly important for characterizing various effects of surface uplift-related climate change and therefore allow us to investigate the relationship between climate and faunal and floral biodiversity over geological timescales. The central Anatolian plateau (Turkey) today -like its larger counterparts in Tibet and the Andes- creates a distinct rainfall pattern and reconstructing such patterns through geologic time is one of the major challenges for terrestrial paleoclimate research. With modern peak elevations of more than 3,000m the southern plateau margin (Taurus Mountains) must have played a pivotal role during surface uplift in controlling precipitation patterns within the plateau interior. Orographic precipitation along the plateau flanks subsequently impacts atmospheric moisture transport to regions further East including the near East and Central Asia. Here we present the first large-scale characterization of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in precipitation and near-surface groundwaters including both, the northern (Pontide) and southern (Taurus mountains) plateau margins. The aim of this study is to quantify the modern effect of orographic rainout of the Taurus and Pontide Mountains on both δD and δ18O values as well as to provide insight into the combined effects of orographic rain out along the plateau margins and (evapo-)transpiration within the plateau interior. Two δD and δ18O sampling transects on the southern flank of the Taurus Mountains show similar trends with a systematic decrease of δD (-18 %/km) and δ18O (-2.7 %/km) with increasing elevation. Samples taken north of the Taurus range have significantly lower δD and δ18O values compared to samples along the Mediterranean coast. However, increasing

  17. Fault-Tree Compiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1993-01-01

    Fault-Tree Compiler (FTC) program, is software tool used to calculate probability of top event in fault tree. Gates of five different types allowed in fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. High-level input language easy to understand and use. In addition, program supports hierarchical fault-tree definition feature, which simplifies tree-description process and reduces execution time. Set of programs created forming basis for reliability-analysis workstation: SURE, ASSIST, PAWS/STEM, and FTC fault-tree tool (LAR-14586). Written in PASCAL, ANSI-compliant C language, and FORTRAN 77. Other versions available upon request.

  18. The 2011 Mw 7.1 Van (Eastern Turkey) earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliot, John R.; Copley, Alex C.; Holley, R.; Scharer, Katherine M.; Parsons, Barry

    2013-01-01

    We use interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), body wave seismology, satellite imagery, and field observations to constrain the fault parameters of the Mw 7.1 2011 Van (Eastern Turkey) reverse-slip earthquake, in the Turkish-Iranian plateau. Distributed slip models from elastic dislocation modeling of the InSAR surface displacements from ENVISAT and COSMO-SkyMed interferograms indicate up to 9 m of reverse and oblique slip on a pair of en echelon NW 40 °–54 ° dipping fault planes which have surface extensions projecting to just 10 km north of the city of Van. The slip remained buried and is relatively deep, with a centroid depth of 14 km, and the rupture reaching only within 8–9 km of the surface, consistent with the lack of significant ground rupture. The up-dip extension of this modeled WSW striking fault plane coincides with field observations of weak ground deformation seen on the western of the two fault segments and has a dip consistent with that seen at the surface in fault gouge exposed in Quaternary sediments. No significant coseismic slip is found in the upper 8 km of the crust above the main slip patches, except for a small region on the eastern segment potentially resulting from the Mw 5.9 aftershock on the same day. We perform extensive resolution tests on the data to confirm the robustness of the observed slip deficit in the shallow crust. We resolve a steep gradient in displacement at the point where the planes of the two fault segments ends are inferred to abut at depth, possibly exerting some structural control on rupture extent.

  19. Trishear for curved faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenburg, J. P.

    2013-08-01

    Fault-propagation folds form an important trapping element in both onshore and offshore fold-thrust belts, and as such benefit from reliable interpretation. Building an accurate geologic interpretation of such structures requires palinspastic restorations, which are made more challenging by the interplay between folding and faulting. Trishear (Erslev, 1991; Allmendinger, 1998) is a useful tool to unravel this relationship kinematically, but is limited by a restriction to planar fault geometries, or at least planar fault segments. Here, new methods are presented for trishear along continuously curved reverse faults defining a flat-ramp transition. In these methods, rotation of the hanging wall above a curved fault is coupled to translation along a horizontal detachment. Including hanging wall rotation allows for investigation of structures with progressive backlimb rotation. Application of the new algorithms are shown for two fault-propagation fold structures: the Turner Valley Anticline in Southwestern Alberta, and the Alpha Structure in the Niger Delta.

  20. FTAPE: A fault injection tool to measure fault tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1994-01-01

    The paper introduces FTAPE (Fault Tolerance And Performance Evaluator), a tool that can be used to compare fault-tolerant computers. The tool combines system-wide fault injection with a controllable workload. A workload generator is used to create high stress conditions for the machine. Faults are injected based on this workload activity in order to ensure a high level of fault propagation. The errors/fault ratio and performance degradation are presented as measures of fault tolerance.

  1. FTAPE: A fault injection tool to measure fault tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1995-01-01

    The paper introduces FTAPE (Fault Tolerance And Performance Evaluator), a tool that can be used to compare fault-tolerant computers. The tool combines system-wide fault injection with a controllable workload. A workload generator is used to create high stress conditions for the machine. Faults are injected based on this workload activity in order to ensure a high level of fault propagation. The errors/fault ratio and performance degradation are presented as measures of fault tolerance.

  2. FTAPE: A fault injection tool to measure fault tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1994-07-01

    The paper introduces FTAPE (Fault Tolerance And Performance Evaluator), a tool that can be used to compare fault-tolerant computers. The tool combines system-wide fault injection with a controllable workload. A workload generator is used to create high stress conditions for the machine. Faults are injected based on this workload activity in order to ensure a high level of fault propagation. The errors/fault ratio and performance degradation are presented as measures of fault tolerance.

  3. Surface Creep Along the 1999 Izmit Earthquake's Rupture (Turkey) from InSAR, GPS and Terrestrial LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakir, Z.; Aslan, G.; Dogan, U.; Kaya, S.; Ergintav, S.; Oz, D.; Celik, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies based on InSAR and GPS observations have shown that the Izmit-Akyazı segment of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) began slipping aseismically following the August 17, 1999 Izmit earthquake and continue for more than 13 years. To monitor this long-lasting afterslip, we use new SAR data, GPS and terrestrial LIDAR measurements along the fault. InSAR time series are calculated using 32 TerraSAR-X radar images acquired between 2011 and 2015 with the small baseline InSAR (SBAS) approach using the Supersites Istanbul archive provided by the German Aerospace Center, DLR (project HAZ2584_Marmara) (Hooper, 2008). The results show that the Izmit fault still creeps, but in an episodic manner. Two creep events are detected in the beginning and at end of 2013, each with an offset of ~20 mm between Izmit and Lake Sapanca. Campaign GPS measurements on a recently established network with 35 benchmarks and LIDAR measurements on three sites confirm the ongoing aseismic activity along the fault (TÜBİTAK project no: 113Y102).

  4. Contamination of seismicity catalogs by quarry blasts: An example from İstanbul and its vicinity, northwestern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horasan, Gündüz; Boztepe Güney, Aysun; Küsmezer, Ayşegül; Bekler, Feyza; Öğütçü, Zafer; Musaoğlu, Nebiye

    2009-01-01

    Scientists have proposed two fault systems of different ages in the Sea of Marmara: the Thrace-Eskişehir Fault Zone of Early Miocene-Early Pliocene age and the North Anatolian Fault Zone of Late Pliocene-Recent age. Different seismicity rates and extensions of these faults onto land near İstanbul have been suggested. One of the reasons for these differences is the contamination of seismicity catalogs by seismic events from quarries operated in İstanbul and its vicinity, including Gaziosmanpaşa (Cebeci and Kemerburgaz), Çatalca, Ömerli, Gebze, and Hereke. In this study, we investigated waveforms of 179 seismic events (1.8 < Md < 3.0) from the KOERI, NEMC digital database. We determined differences between earthquakes and quarry blasts based on time- and frequency-domain analyses of their seismograms (amplitude peak ratio, power ratio, and spectral amplitude ratio) and used these differences as discriminants. The results of this study indicate that 15% and 85% of the investigated seismic events are earthquakes and quarry blasts, respectively.

  5. The localization and morphology of pterion in adult West Anatolian skulls.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Funda; Akyer, Sahika Pınar; Kale, Ayşin; Geylan, Serdar; Gayretli, Ozcan

    2014-07-01

    The pterion is an important skull landmark because it is located where the frontal, the great wing of sphenoid, parietal, and squamous parts of the temporal bone junction. The objectives of this study were to determine the localization and the shape of pterion on skulls and to find out the distances between the pterion and some certain anatomic landmarks on neighboring structures. The study was performed on the skulls of 128 (256 sides) adult West Anatolian people. All of the morphometric measurements of the distances between the pterion and the anatomic landmarks were performed using a Vernier caliper with an accuracy of 0.1 mm. The pterion was classified into 4 types: the sphenoparietal, frontotemporal, stellate, or epipteric types. The incidences of types of pterion in the skulls were also found as the sphenoparietal type (85.2%), the epipteric type (8.2%), the stellate type (5.5%), and the frontotemporal type (1.1%). The mean (SD) distances from the center of the pterion to the zygomatic arch were measured as 40.02 (4.06) mm and 39.88 (4.01) mm; to the frontozygomatic suture, 31.80 (4.51) mm and 31.44 (4.73) mm; to the zygomatic angle, 41.54 (4.95) mm and 41.35 (5.14) mm; to the mastoid process, 82.48 (5.45) mm and 81.81 (5.50) mm; and to the external acoustic meatus, 53.29 (4.55) mm and 56.22 (4.60) mm, on the right and left sides, respectively. The mean (SD) distances between the foremost point of pterion and the anterior edge of the lateral wall of the orbit were 31.02 (5.78) mm and 32.31 (5.79) mm on the right and left sides, respectively. The localization and the shape of pterion are of importance because it is an anatomic landmark and should be of use in surgical approaches and interventions via the pterion.

  6. Isolability of faults in sensor fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, Reza; Langari, Reza

    2011-10-01

    A major concern with fault detection and isolation (FDI) methods is their robustness with respect to noise and modeling uncertainties. With this in mind, several approaches have been proposed to minimize the vulnerability of FDI methods to these uncertainties. But, apart from the algorithm used, there is a theoretical limit on the minimum effect of noise on detectability and isolability. This limit has been quantified in this paper for the problem of sensor fault diagnosis based on direct redundancies. In this study, first a geometric approach to sensor fault detection is proposed. The sensor fault is isolated based on the direction of residuals found from a residual generator. This residual generator can be constructed from an input-output or a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based model. The simplicity of this technique, compared to the existing methods of sensor fault diagnosis, allows for more rational formulation of the isolability concepts in linear systems. Using this residual generator and the assumption of Gaussian noise, the effect of noise on isolability is studied, and the minimum magnitude of isolable fault in each sensor is found based on the distribution of noise in the measurement system. Finally, some numerical examples are presented to clarify this approach.

  7. Histomoniasis in wild turkeys in Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Hurst, G A

    1980-07-01

    Blackhead (histomoniasis, enterohepatitis) was diagnosed as the cause of death for three wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) found in widely separated areas in Mississippi. The turkeys came from areas with high turkey population densities and supplemental feeding programs. Finding three sick and/or dead wild turkeys in a year's period suggests that the disease is more prevalent than generally believed. Recommendations for management programs are presented.

  8. Turkey. Health system review.

    PubMed

    Tatar, Mehtap; Mollahaliloğlu, Salih; Sahin, Bayram; Aydin, Sabahattin; Maresso, Anna; Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Turkey has accomplished remarkable improvements in terms of health status in the last three decades, particularly after the implementation of the Health Transformation Program (HTP (Saglikta Donus, um Programi)). Average life expectancy reached 71.8 for men and 76.8 for women in 2010. The infant mortality rate (IMR) decreased to 10.1 per 1000 live births in 2010, down from 117.5 in 1980. Despite these achievements, there are still discrepancies in terms of infant mortality between rural and urban areas and different parts of the country, although these have been diminishing over the years. The higher infant mortality rates in rural areas can be attributed to low socioeconomic conditions, low female education levels and the prevalence of infectious diseases. The main causes of death are diseases of the circulatory system followed by malignant neoplasms. Turkeys health care system has been undergoing a far-reaching reform process (HTP) since 2003 and radical changes have occurred both in the provision and the financing of health care services. Health services are now financed through a social security scheme covering the majority of the population, the General Health Insurance Scheme (GHIS (Genel Saglik Sigortasi)), and services are provided both by public and private sector facilities. The Social Security Institution (SSI (Sosyal Guvenlik Kurumu)), financed through payments by employers and employees and government contributions in cases of budget deficit, has become a monopsonic (single buyer) power on the purchasing side of health care services. On the provision side, the Ministry of Health (Saglik Bakenligi) is the main actor and provides primary, secondary and tertiary care through its facilities across the country. Universities are also major providers of tertiary care. The private sector has increased its range over recent years, particularly after arrangements paved the way for private sector provision of services to the SSI. The most important reforms since

  9. Turkey: Reviews of National Policies for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The first of three parts of this review of Turkey's educational system and national educational policies, the examiner's report, begins by singling out essential features of modern Turkey that affect the provision of education and to which the system is having to respond. These include Turkey's unique geographic situation, its continuing devotion…

  10. Time's Up, Turkey--Pop-Up Thermometers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Meat thermometers can be awkward to use in terms of placement and avoidance of bones. Because of these problems, each year 30 million Thanksgiving turkeys have a built-in thermometer that pops up when the turkey is properly cooked. Turkey timers are an example of how engineering solved a common, everyday problem. The following 5E learning cycle…

  11. Life Satisfaction and Happiness in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selim, Sibel

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to investigate life satisfaction and happiness in Turkey. It extends the previous researches on subjective well-being (SWB) for Turkey by considering both happiness and life satisfaction. The previous researches for Turkey are local studies, and their findings cannot be generalized to the population of Turkish society. Given…

  12. Clinical characteristics and molecular genetic analysis of 22 patients with neonatal diabetes from the South-Eastern region of Turkey: predominance of non-KATP channel mutations

    PubMed Central

    Demirbilek, Huseyin; Arya, Ved Bhushan; Ozbek, Mehmet Nuri; Houghton, Jayne A L; Baran, Riza Taner; Akar, Melek; Tekes, Selahattin; Tuzun, Heybet; Mackay, Deborah J; Flanagan, Sarah E; Hattersley, Andrew T; Ellard, Sian; Hussain, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Background Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a rare form of monogenic diabetes and usually presents in the first 6 months of life. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and molecular genetics of a large Turkish cohort of NDM patients from a single centre and estimate an annual incidence rate of NDM in South-Eastern Anatolian region of Turkey. Design and methods NDM patients presenting to Diyarbakir Children State Hospital between 2010 and 2013, and patients under follow-up with presumed type 1 diabetes mellitus, with onset before 6 months of age were recruited. Molecular genetic analysis was performed. Results Twenty-two patients (59% males) were diagnosed with NDM (TNDM-5; PNDM-17). Molecular genetic analysis identified a mutation in 20 (95%) patients who had undergone a mutation analysis. In transient neonatal diabetes (TNDM) patients, the genetic cause included chromosome 6q24 abnormalities (n=3), ABCC8 (n=1) and homozygous INS (n=1). In permanent neonatal diabetes (PNDM) patients, homozygous GCK (n=6), EIF2AK3 (n=3), PTF1A (n=3), and INS (n=1) and heterozygous KCNJ11 (n=2) mutations were identified. Pancreatic exocrine dysfunction was observed in patients with mutations in the distal PTF1A enhancer. Both patients with a KCNJ11 mutation responded to oral sulphonylurea. A variable phenotype was associated with the homozygous c.-331C>A INS mutation, which was identified in both a PNDM and TNDM patient. The annual incidence of PNDM in South-East Anatolian region of Turkey was one in 48 000 live births. Conclusions Homozygous mutations in GCK, EIF2AK3 and the distal enhancer region of PTF1A were the commonest causes of NDM in our cohort. The high rate of detection of a mutation likely reflects the contribution of new genetic techniques (targeted next-generation sequencing) and increased consanguinity within our cohort. PMID:25755231

  13. Maternal filicide in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Eke, Salih Murat; Basoglu, Saba; Bakar, Bulent; Oral, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Filicide occurs in every socioeconomic stratum around the world. This study was conducted to evaluate motives, psychopathological aspects, and socio-demographic factors of 74 filicide cases of women in Turkey. Mean age of mothers, most of whom committed infanticide, was 26 years, and breakdown of criminal offenses are as follows: "to get rid of unwanted babies" (24.3%), "acute psychotic-type filicide" (21.6%), "fatal child abuse and neglect" (17.6%), "to get revenge" (12.2%), "protect the lonely child from the harm and badness after suicide" (10.8%), and "pity" (9.5%) motives. Results showed that maternal filicide cannot be reduced to only mental instability or environmental factors and indicates deficiencies in the capacity of the mothers' role in connecting with their child and with parenting skills. Finally, with regard to defendants' motives, similar factors that contribute to committing maternal filicide should be considered while making an assessment of the data and determining employee risk groups. PMID:25066272

  14. Maternal filicide in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Eke, Salih Murat; Basoglu, Saba; Bakar, Bulent; Oral, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Filicide occurs in every socioeconomic stratum around the world. This study was conducted to evaluate motives, psychopathological aspects, and socio-demographic factors of 74 filicide cases of women in Turkey. Mean age of mothers, most of whom committed infanticide, was 26 years, and breakdown of criminal offenses are as follows: "to get rid of unwanted babies" (24.3%), "acute psychotic-type filicide" (21.6%), "fatal child abuse and neglect" (17.6%), "to get revenge" (12.2%), "protect the lonely child from the harm and badness after suicide" (10.8%), and "pity" (9.5%) motives. Results showed that maternal filicide cannot be reduced to only mental instability or environmental factors and indicates deficiencies in the capacity of the mothers' role in connecting with their child and with parenting skills. Finally, with regard to defendants' motives, similar factors that contribute to committing maternal filicide should be considered while making an assessment of the data and determining employee risk groups.

  15. How Faults Shape the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bykerk-Kauffman, Ann

    1992-01-01

    Presents fault activity with an emphasis on earthquakes and changes in continent shapes. Identifies three types of fault movement: normal, reverse, and strike faults. Discusses the seismic gap theory, plate tectonics, and the principle of superposition. Vignettes portray fault movement, and the locations of the San Andreas fault and epicenters of…

  16. Cross-sectional anatomy and geodynamic evolution of the Central Pontide orogenic belt (northern Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippolyte, J.-C.; Espurt, N.; Kaymakci, N.; Sangu, E.; Müller, C.

    2016-01-01

    Geophysical data allowed the construction of a ~250-km-long lithospheric-scale balanced cross section of the southern Black Sea margin (Espurt et al. in Lithosphere 6:26-34, 2014). In this paper, we combine structural field data, stratigraphic data, and fault kinematics analyses with the 70-km-long onshore part of the section to reconstruct the geodynamic evolution of the Central Pontide orogen. These data reveal new aspects of the structural evolution of the Pontides since the Early Cretaceous. The Central Pontides is a doubly vergent orogenic wedge that results from the inversion of normal faults. Extensional subsidence occurred with an ENE-trend from Aptian to Paleocene. We infer that the Black Sea back-arc basin also opened during this period, which was also the period of subduction of the Tethys Ocean below the Pontides. As in the Western Pontides, the Cretaceous-Paleocene subsidence was interrupted from Latest Albian to Coniacian time by uplift and erosion that was probably related to a block collision and accretion in the subduction zone. The restoration of the section to its pre-shortening state (Paleocene) shows that fault-related subsidence locally reached 3600 m within the forearc basin. Structural inversion occurred from Early Eocene to Mid-Miocene as a result of collision and indentation of the Pontides by the Kırşehir continental block to the south, with 27.5 km (~28 %) shortening along the section studied. The inversion was characterized by NNE-trending shortening that predated the Late Neogene dextral escape of Anatolia along the North Anatolian Fault and the modern stress field characterized by NW-trending compression within the Eocene Boyabat basin.

  17. Morphometric age estimate of the last phase of accelerated uplift in the Kazdag area (Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demoulin, A.; Altin, T. Bayer; Beckers, A.

    2013-11-01

    While the Plio-Quaternary uplift of the Kazdag mountain range (Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey) is generally acknowledged, little is known about its detailed timing. Partly because of this lack of data, the cause of this uplift phase is also debated, being associated either to back-arc extension in the rear of the Hellenic subduction zone, to transpression along the northern edge of the west-moving Anatolian microplate, or to extension driven by gravitational collapse. Here, we perform a morphometric study of the fluvial landscape at the scale of the Biga Peninsula, coupling the recently developed R/SR analysis of the drainage network with concavity and steepness measures of a set of 29 rivers of all sizes. While the dependence of profile concavity on basin size confirms that the landscape of the peninsula is still in a transient state, the spatial distribution of profile steepness values characterized by higher values for streams flowing down from the Kazdag massif shows that the latter undergoes higher uplift rates than the rest of the peninsula. We obtain a SR value of 0.324 ± 0.035 that, according to the relation established by Demoulin (2012), yields an age range of 0.5-1.3 Ma and a most probable value of 0.8 Ma for the time of the last tectonic perturbation in the region. In agreement with the analysis of knickpoint migration in a subset of rivers, this suggests that a pulse of uplift occurred at that time and, corroborated by sparse published observations in the Bayramiç and Çanakkale depressions, that the peninsula was uplifted as a whole from that time. This uplift pulse might have been caused by transient compressive conditions in the Anatolian plate when the Eratosthenes seamount came to subduct beneath the Cyprus arc around the early-to-mid Pleistocene transition (Schattner, 2010).

  18. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

  19. Coal preparation practice in turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Ozbayoglu, G.

    1980-02-01

    Currently, there are six preparation plants operating in Turkey; four treat all the country's run-of-mine (ROM) bituminous coal, and the two remaining plants treat about 15% of the country's total production of lignite. In order to improve the quality of Turkey's ROM coals, various preparation techniques are used. The preparation plant flowsheets include jigs or dense-media separators for cleaning coarse coals; feldspar jigs, concentrating tables, or dense-media cyclones for treating fine coal; and froth flotation for slimes.

  20. Earthquake-related chemical and radioactivity changes of thermal water in Kuzuluk-Adapazan, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Belin, B; Yaçin, T; Suner, F; Bozkurtoğlu, E; Gelir, A; Güven, H

    2002-01-01

    The movements of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) caused two devastating earthquakes within an 87-day interval, epicentered on Gölcük-Izmit (17 August, 1999) and Düzce-Bolu (12 November, 1999). The Kuzuluk geothermal area (KGA) is located in the middle of the epicenters and the distance between the geothermal area and the fault zone is less than 5 km. Hot water samples were collected from two thermal boreholes that supply hot water to the Kuzuluk thermal complex. The water samples taken prior to and after earthquakes were analysed by Neutron Activation and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Particularly, increase in total a and total beta activities, in the content of Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu and decrease in the content of Fe, Zn, Cd, Mn, and Co are significant. The highest values are 75, 35, 12 and 65 ppb for Pb, Cr, Ni and Cu, respectively. The lowest values are 45, 55, 15, 135 and 6 ppb for Fe, Zn, Cd, Mn and Co, respectively.

  1. "Chemical fingerprints" of pumice from Cappadocia (Turkey) and Kos (Greece) for archaeological applications.

    PubMed

    Steinhauser, Georg; Sterba, Johannes H; Bichler, Max

    2007-05-01

    Pumice has been used as a serviceable abrasive or religious artefact since antiquity and has therefore been an object of trade. It can be found in excavations of ancient workshops all over the Mediterranean. Pumice lumps from the major pumice-bearing rhyolitic tephra units in Cappadocia-the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province, Turkey (in particular the ignimbrites Kavak, Cemilköy, Tahar, Gördeles, and the volcanic complexes of Acigöl and Hasan Daği), were sampled and analyzed for major and trace element concentrations using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Elements determined were Na, K, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Rb, Zr, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th, and U. Since the distribution of those elements is characteristic of the products of a certain eruption, this "chemical fingerprint" can be used to establish the origin of an unknown pumice sample by comparison with samples of known origin. In the course of this study, it could be shown that one pumice finding from the excavation in Miletos (Turkey) probably originates from the Hasan Daği volcanic complex in Cappadocia. Since it is known that the population in Miletos focused their trade connections on the Mediterranean, this result is somewhat surprising. Two other samples from Miletos show a very high similarity to the chemical fingerprint of pumice from the Kos Plateau Tuff (KPT; Greece): In one case, the identification is doubtless, in the other case identification as KPT seems quite probable.

  2. Holocene environmental change in southwest Turkey: a palaeoecological record of lake and catchment-related changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastwood, W. J.; Roberts, N.; Lamb, H. F.; Tibby, J. C.

    1999-04-01

    Percentage, concentration and accumulation pollen data together with diatom and non-siliceous microfossil data are presented for the site of Gölhisar Gölü (37°8'N, 29°36'E; elevation 930 m), a small intramontane lake in Burdur Province, southwest Turkey. Microfossil assemblages from the longest sediment core (GHA: 813 cm) record changes in local and regional vegetation and lake productivity over the last ˜9500 years. Pollen spectra indicate that vegetation progressed from an open landscape with an increase in arboreal pollen occurring ˜8500 BP to mixed forest comprising oak, pine and juniper until around 3000 BP (Cal ˜1240 BC) when a human occupation phase becomes discernible from the pollen spectra. This occurs shortly after the deposition of a volcanic tephra layer which originated from the Minoan eruption of Santorini (Thera) and radiocarbon dated to 3330±70 yr BP (Cal ˜1600 BC). This human occupation phase is comparable to the Beyşehir Occupation phase recorded at other sites in southwest Turkey and involved forest clearance and the cultivation of fruit trees such as Olea, Juglans, Castanea and Vitis together with arable cereal growing and pastoralism. The presence of pollen types associated with the Beyşehir Occupation phase in deposits above the Santorini tephra layer confirms a Late Bronze Age/early Anatolian Dark Age date for its commencement. Since ˜3000 BP notable changes in aquatic ecology associated with tephra deposition and subsequent nutrient and sediment flux from the lake catchment are recorded. The Beyşehir Occupation phase at Gölhisar Gölü came to an end around 1300 BP (Cla AD ˜700) when pine appears to have become the dominant forest tree.

  3. Differentiation of Anatolian honey samples from different botanical origins by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy using multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Gok, Seher; Severcan, Mete; Goormaghtigh, Erik; Kandemir, Irfan; Severcan, Feride

    2015-03-01

    Botanical origin of the nectar predominantly affects the chemical composition of honey. Analytical techniques used for reliable honey authentication are mostly time consuming and expensive. Additionally, they cannot provide 100% efficiency in accurate authentication. Therefore, alternatives for the determination of floral origin of honey need to be developed. This study aims to discriminate characteristic Anatolian honey samples from different botanical origins based on the differences in their molecular content, rather than giving numerical information about the constituents of samples. Another scope of the study is to differentiate inauthentic honey samples from the natural ones precisely. All samples were tested via unsupervised pattern recognition procedures like hierarchical clustering and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Discrimination of sample groups was achieved successfully with hierarchical clustering over the spectral range of 1800-750 cm(-1) which suggests a good predictive capability of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and chemometry for the determination of honey floral source.

  4. S1 satellite DNA repetitive units display identical structure and overall variability in all Anatolian brown frog taxa.

    PubMed

    Picariello, Orfeo; Feliciello, Isidoro; Chinali, Gianni

    2016-02-01

    S1 satellite DNA from Palearctic brown frogs has a species-specific structure in all European species. We characterized S1 satellite DNA from the Anatolian brown frogs Rana macrocnemis, R. camerani, and R. holtzi in order to define their taxonomic rank and the structure of this satellite in this frog lineage. Southern blots of genomic DNA digested with KpnI, EcoRV, NdeI, NheI, or StuI produced the same pattern of satellite DNA bands. Moreover, quantitative dot blots showed that this satellite DNA accounts for 0.1 % of the genome in all taxa. Analysis of the overall genomic variability of the S1a repeat sequence in specimens from various populations demonstrated that this repetitive unit also has the same size (476 bp), the same most common sequence (MCS) and the same overall variability in all three taxa, and also in R. macrocnemis tavasensis. The S1a repetitive unit presents three deletions of 9, 8 and 1 bp compared to the 494-bp S1a repeat from European frogs. The S1a MCS has three variable positions (sequence WWTK in positions 183-186), due to the presence of two repeat subpopulations with motifs AATG and WWTT in all taxa. Unlike previously analyzed mitochondrial and nuclear sequences that show considerable variations among these taxa, no difference could be detected in the structure and variability of the S1 satellite repetitive units. This suggests that these taxa should belong to a single species. Our results indicate that this satellite DNA variety probably formed when the Anatolian lineage radiated from common ancestor about 4 mya, and since then has maintained its structure in all four taxa examined.

  5. GPS constraints on active deformation in the Isparta Angle region of SW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiryakioğlu, İbrahim; Floyd, Michael; Erdoğan, Saffet; Gülal, Engin; Ergintav, Semih; McClusky, Simon; Reilinger, Robert

    2013-12-01

    We use survey and continuous GPS observations during the period 1997-2010 to investigate active deformation in the Isparta Angle region of SW Anatolia, Turkey. This region, bordered by the Fethiye Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) in the west and the SE extension of the Aksehir Simav Fault Zone (AKSFZ) in the east, accommodates a part of the active deformation of W Turkey. Our results show that the Isparta Angle region rotates counter-clockwise (CCW) with respect to Anatolia. Both the FBFZ and the AKSFZ are predominantly transtensional boundaries that accommodate southward motion of the Isparta region with respect to Anatolia. The FBFZ has left-lateral strike-slip behaviour along its SW segment that changes to right-lateral strike-slip along its NE extension. This change in the sense of strike-slip motion is accommodated by extension on a NW-SE striking normal fault system that is associated with the Menderes Graben system. Transtensional fault systems along the boundaries of the Isparta Angle with Anatolia are inconsistent with extrusion models for present-day southward motion. An increase in motion rates towards the Hellenic and Cyprus arc subduction systems, and CCW of the Isparta region, supports dynamic models involving active rollback of the subducting African Plate, toroidal mantle flow around the eastern edge of the subducting African slab near the Hellenic arc/Florence Rise junction, and/or gravitational collapse of the overriding Anatolia Plate.

  6. Statistical Evaluation of Turkey Earthquake Cataloque: A Case study (1900-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalafat, Dogan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, Turkey earthquake catalog of the events within the time period of 1900-2015 prepared by Boǧaziçi University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute is analyzed. The catalog consists of earthquakes occurred in Turkey and surrounding area (32o-45oN/23o-48oE). The current earthquake catalog data has been checked in two aspects; the time dependent variation and compliance for different regions. Specifically the data set prior to 1976 was found deficient. In total, 7 regions were evaluated according to the tectonic specifications and data set. In this study for every region original data were used without any change; b- values, a- values, Magnitude of completeness (Mc) were calculated. For the calculation of b- values focal depth was selected as h= 0-50 km. One of the important complications for the seismic catalogs is discriminating real (natural) seismic events from artificial (unnatural) seismic events. Therefore within the original current catalog events especially artificial quarry blasts and mine blasts have been separated by declustering and dequarry methods. Declustering process eliminates induced earthquakes especially occurred in thermal regions, large water basins, mine regions from the original catalogs. Current moment tensor catalog prepared by Kalafat, 2015 the faulting type map of the region was prepared. As a result, for each region it is examined if there is a relation between fault type and b- values. In this study, the hypothesis of the relation between previously evaluated and currently ongoing extensional, compression, strike-slip fault regimes in Turkey and b- values are tested one more time. This study was supported by the Department of Science Fellowship and Grant programs (2014-2219) of TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technological Research Councilof Turkey). It also encourages the conduct of the study and support the constructive contributionthat Prof.Dr. Nafi TOKSÖZ to offer my eternal gratitude.

  7. Solar system fault detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrington, R. B.; Pruett, J. C., Jr.

    1984-05-01

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combing the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  8. Solar system fault detection

    DOEpatents

    Farrington, Robert B.; Pruett, Jr., James C.

    1986-01-01

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  9. Solar system fault detection

    DOEpatents

    Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

    1984-05-14

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  10. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  11. Human Metapneumovirus in Turkey Poults

    PubMed Central

    Velayudhan, Binu T.; Nagaraja, Kakambi V.; Thachil, Anil J.; Shaw, Daniel P.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to reexamine the hypothesis that human metapneumovirus (hMPV) will not infect turkeys. Six groups of 2-week-old turkeys (20 per group) were inoculated oculonasally with 1 of the following: noninfected cell suspension; hMPV genotype A1, A2, B1, or B2; or avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype C. Poults inoculated with hMPV showed nasal discharge days 4–9 postexposure. Specific viral RNA and antigen were detected by reverse-transcription PCR and immunohistochemical evaluation, respectively, in nasal turbinates of birds exposed to hMPV. Nasal turbinates of hMPV-infected turkeys showed inflammatory changes and mucus accumulation. Each of the 4 hMPV genotypes caused a transient infection in turkeys as evidenced by clinical signs, detection of hMPV in turbinates, and histopathologic examination. Detailed investigation of cross-species pathogenicity of hMPV and aMPV and its importance for human and animal health is needed. PMID:17235379

  12. Capillariasis in penned wild turkeys.

    PubMed

    Hurst, G A; Turner, L W; Tucker, F S

    1979-07-01

    Capillariasis caused by Capillaria annulata was associated with dilated crops, emaciation and mortality of 23 juvenile wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) in a captive flock. Gross lesions in the crops ranged from slithtly-thickened lining folds to a thick necrotic diphtheritic membrane covering the entire inside surface. The parasites were in the squamous epithelium. Hygromycin controlled the outbreak.

  13. Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Canatan, Duran

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies are a serious health problem in Turkey. There is a 70-year history of thalassemia in Turkey. The first patient with β-thalassemia major (β-TM) was reported in 1941. The first clinical and hematological studies were published by Aksoy in 1958. The overall incidence of β-thalassemia (β-thal) was reported by Çavdar and Arcasoy to be 2.1% in 1971. Important steps such as written regulations, education and prevention campaigns, have been taken to prevent thalassemia in Turkey by the Ministry of Health (MOH), the Turkish National Hemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC) and the Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT) since 2000. A national hemoglobinopathy prevention program was started in provinces with a high prevalence by the MOH in 2003. While the percentage of premarital screening test was 30.0% of all couples in 2003, it reached 86.0% in 2013. While the number of newborn with thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies was 272 in 2002, it had dropped to 25 in 2010. There has been a 90.0% reduction of affected births in the last 10 years.

  14. Early Childhood Inclusion in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Rakap, Salih; Diken, Ozlem; Tomris, Gozde; Celik, Secil

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of young children with disabilities into regular preschool classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for several decades in industrialized nations around the world, and many developing countries including Turkey have been developing and implementing laws, regulation, and services to support inclusion and teaching in…

  15. Enteric viruses in turkey enteritis.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Naresh; Mor, Sunil K; Goyal, Sagar M

    2014-01-01

    Gut health is very important to get maximum returns in terms of weight gain and egg production. Enteric diseases such as poult enteritis complex (PEC) in turkeys do not allow their production potential to be achieved to its maximum. A number of viruses, bacteria, and protozoa have been implicated but the primary etiology has not been definitively established. Previously, electron microscopy was used to detect the presence of enteric viruses, which were identified solely on the basis of their morphology. With the advent of rapid molecular diagnostic methods and next generation nucleic acid sequencing, researchers have made long strides in identification and characterization of viruses associated with PEC. The molecular techniques have also helped us in identification of pathogens which were previously not known. Regional and national surveys have revealed the presence of several different enteric viruses in PEC including rotavirus, astrovirus, reovirus and coronavirus either alone or in combination. There may still be unknown pathogens that may directly or indirectly play a role in enteritis in turkeys. This review will focus on the role of turkey coronavirus, rotavirus, reovirus, and astrovirus in turkey enteritis. PMID:25674583

  16. Industrial apiculture in the Jordan valley during Biblical times with Anatolian honeybees.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Guy; Francoy, Tiago M; Wachtel, Ido; Panitz-Cohen, Nava; Fuchs, Stefan; Mazar, Amihai

    2010-06-22

    Although texts and wall paintings suggest that bees were kept in the Ancient Near East for the production of precious wax and honey, archaeological evidence for beekeeping has never been found. The Biblical term "honey" commonly was interpreted as the sweet product of fruits, such as dates and figs. The recent discovery of unfired clay cylinders similar to traditional hives still used in the Near East at the site of Tel Re ov in the Jordan valley in northern Israel suggests that a large-scale apiary was located inside the town, dating to the 10th-early 9th centuries B.C.E. This paper reports the discovery of remains of honeybee workers, drones, pupae, and larvae inside these hives. The exceptional preservation of these remains provides unequivocal identification of the clay cylinders as the most ancient beehives yet found. Morphometric analyses indicate that these bees differ from the local subspecies Apis mellifera syriaca and from all subspecies other than A. m. anatoliaca, which presently resides in parts of Turkey. This finding suggests either that the Western honeybee subspecies distribution has undergone rapid change during the last 3,000 years or that the ancient inhabitants of Tel Re ov imported bees superior to the local bees in terms of their milder temper and improved honey yield.

  17. Industrial apiculture in the Jordan valley during Biblical times with Anatolian honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Guy; Francoy, Tiago M.; Wachtel, Ido; Panitz-Cohen, Nava; Fuchs, Stefan; Mazar, Amihai

    2010-01-01

    Although texts and wall paintings suggest that bees were kept in the Ancient Near East for the production of precious wax and honey, archaeological evidence for beekeeping has never been found. The Biblical term “honey” commonly was interpreted as the sweet product of fruits, such as dates and figs. The recent discovery of unfired clay cylinders similar to traditional hives still used in the Near East at the site of Tel Reov in the Jordan valley in northern Israel suggests that a large-scale apiary was located inside the town, dating to the 10th–early 9th centuries B.C.E. This paper reports the discovery of remains of honeybee workers, drones, pupae, and larvae inside these hives. The exceptional preservation of these remains provides unequivocal identification of the clay cylinders as the most ancient beehives yet found. Morphometric analyses indicate that these bees differ from the local subspecies Apis mellifera syriaca and from all subspecies other than A. m. anatoliaca, which presently resides in parts of Turkey. This finding suggests either that the Western honeybee subspecies distribution has undergone rapid change during the last 3,000 years or that the ancient inhabitants of Tel Reov imported bees superior to the local bees in terms of their milder temper and improved honey yield. PMID:20534519

  18. Measuring fault tolerance with the FTAPE fault injection tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes FTAPE (Fault Tolerance And Performance Evaluator), a tool that can be used to compare fault-tolerant computers. The major parts of the tool include a system-wide fault-injector, a workload generator, and a workload activity measurement tool. The workload creates high stress conditions on the machine. Using stress-based injection, the fault injector is able to utilize knowledge of the workload activity to ensure a high level of fault propagation. The errors/fault ratio, performance degradation, and number of system crashes are presented as measures of fault tolerance.

  19. Measuring fault tolerance with the FTAPE fault injection tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes FTAPE (Fault Tolerance And Performance Evaluator), a tool that can be used to compare fault-tolerant computers. The major parts of the tool include a system-wide fault-injector, a workload generator, and a workload activity measurement tool. The workload creates high stress conditions on the machine. Using stress-based injection, the fault injector is able to utilize knowledge of the workload activity to ensure a high level of fault propagation. The errors/fault ratio, performance degradation, and number of system crashes are presented as measures of fault tolerance.

  20. Large and small scale structural evolution of salt controlled minibasin in a fold and thrust belt setting: the case of the Sivas Basin, Turkey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kergaravat, Charlie; Ribes, Charlotte; Legeay, Etienne; Callot, Jean-Paul; Aubourg, Charles; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude

    2016-04-01

    The Sivas Basin in the Central Anatolian Plateau (Turkey) is a foreland fold-and-thrust belt, showing a core composed by a typical wall and basin structure (WABS), where the quality of reservoir rocks is governed primarily by the fracture and matrix damage, in relation to the macroscopic structure. Based on extensive fieldwork including detailed mapping of minibasins contacts, along with interpretation of a 2D regional seismic line, provide evidence for the development of a canopy separating two generations of MBs. The quality of reservoir rocks in these minibasins framed by evaporites is studied through (1) the characterization of the fracture network in two mini-basins, where 40 sites have been acquired, and (2) the magnetic fabric of 135 samples from sandstones to siltstones rocks from both Emirhan and Karayun mini-basins. The Late Eocene-early Oligocene evaporite level was remobilized during the northward migration of the sedimentary load during propagation of the foreland FTB. Evaporites occur at the base of several MBs, overlain by formations younger than those filling the initial generation of MBs. This support a second generation of MBs developped over an allochthonous evaporite level. The wavelength of tectonic structures increases away from the WABS domain and suggests a deepening of the decollement level. The polygonal pattern of the WABS influences the growing FTB system during the late stage of secondary MBs development, acting as a transfer zone between a forelandward thrust sheet propagating to the west and a triangular zone with hinterlandward thrusts to the east. The shortening is accommodated within the WABS by squeezed walls and diapirs, and by the translation/rotation of MBs, recorded by strike-slip fault zones. Considering the reservoir scale damage, both mini-basins display similar fracture network of pre-tilt fractures. In both mini-basins, we observed an early N-S fracture network, bed-perpendicular and parallel to the shortening. It is

  1. Municipal solid waste management strategies in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Turan, N Gamze; Coruh, Semra; Akdemir, Andaç; Ergun, Osman Nuri

    2009-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major environmental problem in Turkey, as in many developing countries. Problems associated with municipal solid waste are difficult to address, but efforts towards more efficient collection and transportation and environmentally acceptable waste disposal continue in Turkey. Although strict regulations on the management of solid waste are in place, primitive disposal methods such as open dumping and discharge into surface water have been used in various parts of Turkey. This study presents a brief history of the legislative trends in Turkey for MSW management. The study also presents the MSW responsibility and management structure together with the present situation of generation, composition, recycling, and treatment. The results show that approximately 25 million ton of MSW are generated annually in Turkey. About 77% of the population receives MSW services. In spite of efforts to change open dumping areas into sanitary landfills and to build modern recycling and composting facilities, Turkey still has over 2000 open dumps.

  2. OpenStudio - Fault Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Stephen; Robertson, Joseph; Cheung, Howard; Horsey, Henry

    2014-09-19

    This software record documents the OpenStudio fault model development portion of the Fault Detection and Diagnostics LDRD project.The software provides a suite of OpenStudio measures (scripts) for modeling typical HVAC system faults in commercial buildings and also included supporting materials: example projects and OpenStudio measures for reporting fault costs and energy impacts.

  3. Electron spin resonance study of γ-irradiated Anatolian chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayda, Canan; Engin, B. I. R. O. L.; Polat, Mustafa; Aydin, Talat

    In this study, an electron spin resonance (ESR) investigation on γ-irradiated chickpea cultivated in Turkey is reported in detail. ESR spectra of unirradiated (control) chickpea were composed of an equally spaced sextet originating from the presence of Mn2+ ions and a single weak resonance signal both centered at gD2.0054±0.0006. Although irradiation was found to have no effect on the Mn2+ signals, it caused a noteworthy increase in free radical signal intensity of chickpea in the studied dose range of (0.1-4.5 kGy). In addition, the ESR spectrum of irradiated chickpea recorded at low scan range (10 mT) showed that there were more than one radical species, having different spectral features, contributing to the central resonance signal. From this point of view, we focussed on the free radical signal in the present study. The area under the ESR absorption curve which is related to the free radical concentration was determined from the experimental spectra recorded throughout the study, and its variation with microwave power, radiation dose, storage time and temperature was investigated in detail. Free radical concentration was observed to decay very fast within the first 15 days after the irradiation cessation and little thereafter. At the end of the storage period (60 days), the free radical concentration is still higher than that of the control (unirradiated) sample. The decay of free radical concentration at room and high temperatures were described well by the sum of three second-order decay functions representing three different radical species (A, B and C). The activation energies of these radicals, evaluated by Arrhenius analysis, are in the order EC>EB>EA. Simulation calculations have shown that three radical species (A, B and C) of different spectral parameters were found to best explain the experimental values.

  4. A palynostratigraphic approach to the SW Anatolian molasse basin: Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgün, Funda; Sözbilir, Hasan

    The study, explains stratigraphy of the Oligo-Miocene molasse around the Denizli province (SW Anatolia), based on the palynology which is also supported by the detailed mapping and correlation of the measured sections from the coal-bearing sequences of the molasse deposits. For this purpose, two huge depressions named as the Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse basins were examined. The Kale-Tavas molasse deposits has a basal unconformity with the underlying pre-Oligocene basement and begins with the Chattian Karadere and Mortuma formations which are covered unconformably by the Aquitanian Yenidere formation. An angular unconformity between the Chattian and the Burdigalian is only observed in the middle part of the basin, around Kale. In the Tavas section, the Aquitanian and the Burdigalian are absent. The Denizli molasse is characterized by Chattian-Aquitanian sequence consisting of distinctive sedimentary facies, alluvial fan and deltaic-shallow marine deposits with carbonate patch reefs. Palynostratigraphic studies, which have given the Chattian age, have been carried out from the coal lenses of alluvial fan and delta plain deposits. In addition to the palynological determinations, coral and foraminiferal content of the carbonate patch reefs which rest conformably on the coal-bearing sequences have yielded the Chattian-Aquitanian age. Two different palynomorph associations have been determined from the molasse deposits. The first palynomorph association which is established in the samples from the Sağdere and Mortuma formations, corresponds to the Chattian age, whilst the second is of the Aquitanian age. The Late Oligocene-Early Miocene which is claimed as the time of N-S-extensional tectonics in western Turkey, is related to the depositional time of the molasse sequences in the study area. Thus, the molasse is older than the basal deposits of the Gediz and Büyük Menderes grabens.

  5. Hayward Fault, California Interferogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of California's Hayward fault is an interferogram created using a pair of images taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar(SAR) combined to measure changes in the surface that may have occurred between the time the two images were taken.

    The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellites ERS-1 and ERS-2 in June 1992 and September 1997 over the central San Francisco Bay in California.

    The radar image data are shown as a gray-scale image, with the interferometric measurements that show the changes rendered in color. Only the urbanized area could be mapped with these data. The color changes from orange tones to blue tones across the Hayward fault (marked by a thin red line) show about 2-3centimeters (0.8-1.1 inches) of gradual displacement or movement of the southwest side of the fault. The block west of the fault moved horizontally toward the northwest during the 63 months between the acquisition of the two SAR images. This fault movement is called a seismic creep because the fault moved slowly without generating an earthquake.

    Scientists are using the SAR interferometry along with other data collected on the ground to monitor this fault motion in an attempt to estimate the probability of earthquake on the Hayward fault, which last had a major earthquake of magnitude 7 in 1868. This analysis indicates that the northern part of the Hayward fault is creeping all the way from the surface to a depth of 12 kilometers (7.5 miles). This suggests that the potential for a large earthquake on the northern Hayward fault might be less than previously thought. The blue area to the west (lower left) of the fault near the center of the image seemed to move upward relative to the yellow and orange areas nearby by about 2 centimeters (0.8 inches). The cause of this apparent motion is not yet confirmed, but the rise of groundwater levels during the time between the images may have caused the reversal of a small portion of the subsidence that

  6. Cable-fault locator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cason, R. L.; Mcstay, J. J.; Heymann, A. P., Sr.

    1979-01-01

    Inexpensive system automatically indicates location of short-circuited section of power cable. Monitor does not require that cable be disconnected from its power source or that test signals be applied. Instead, ground-current sensors are installed in manholes or at other selected locations along cable run. When fault occurs, sensors transmit information about fault location to control center. Repair crew can be sent to location and cable can be returned to service with minimum of downtime.

  7. Recalculated probability of M ≥ 7 earthquakes beneath the Sea of Marmara, Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.

    2004-01-01

    New earthquake probability calculations are made for the Sea of Marmara region and the city of Istanbul, providing a revised forecast and an evaluation of time-dependent interaction techniques. Calculations incorporate newly obtained bathymetric images of the North Anatolian fault beneath the Sea of Marmara [Le Pichon et al., 2001; Armijo et al., 2002]. Newly interpreted fault segmentation enables an improved regional A.D. 1500-2000 earthquake catalog and interevent model, which form the basis for time-dependent probability estimates. Calculations presented here also employ detailed models of coseismic and postseismic slip associated with the 17 August 1999 M = 7.4 Izmit earthquake to investigate effects of stress transfer on seismic hazard. Probability changes caused by the 1999 shock depend on Marmara Sea fault-stressing rates, which are calculated with a new finite element model. The combined 2004-2034 regional Poisson probability of M≥7 earthquakes is ~38%, the regional time-dependent probability is 44 ± 18%, and incorporation of stress transfer raises it to 53 ± 18%. The most important effect of adding time dependence and stress transfer to the calculations is an increase in the 30 year probability of a M ??? 7 earthquake affecting Istanbul. The 30 year Poisson probability at Istanbul is 21%, and the addition of time dependence and stress transfer raises it to 41 ± 14%. The ranges given on probability values are sensitivities of the calculations to input parameters determined by Monte Carlo analysis; 1000 calculations are made using parameters drawn at random from distributions. Sensitivities are large relative to mean probability values and enhancements caused by stress transfer, reflecting a poor understanding of large-earthquake aperiodicity.

  8. Susceptibility of convalescent turkeys to pulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Kunkle, R A; Sacco, R E

    1998-01-01

    Pulmonary lesions resulting from Aspergillus fumigatus inoculation were assessed in convalescent turkeys and compared with those in previously noninoculated (control) turkeys. In addition, lesions observed in small Beltsville white (SBW) turkeys were compared with those in broad-breasted white (BBW) turkeys challenged with the same inoculum. Turkeys were challenged by unilateral posterior thoracic air sac (PTAS) inoculation, rechallenged via the contralateral air sac after 5 wk, and then necropsied 1 wk later. Pulmonary lesions induced by the initial challenge had resolved in 6 of 10 SBW and 9 of 10 BBW turkeys. However, convalescence did not protect against pulmonary aspergillosis subsequent to rechallenge; 10 of 10 SBW and 9 of 10 BBW developed granulomatous pulmonary lesions on the side of reexposure. A greater proportion of control SBW turkeys developed pneumonia and airsacculitis following challenge as compared with the BBW breed. Lesions were limited to the lower respiratory tract in all turkeys and were confined to the ipsilateral lung and PTAS in the singly inoculated control turkeys. This study demonstrates that convalescence from pulmonary aspergillosis does not confer protection against rechallenge but may, instead, decrease resistance to subsequent infection. PMID:9876849

  9. Susceptibility of convalescent turkeys to pulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Kunkle, R A; Sacco, R E

    1998-01-01

    Pulmonary lesions resulting from Aspergillus fumigatus inoculation were assessed in convalescent turkeys and compared with those in previously noninoculated (control) turkeys. In addition, lesions observed in small Beltsville white (SBW) turkeys were compared with those in broad-breasted white (BBW) turkeys challenged with the same inoculum. Turkeys were challenged by unilateral posterior thoracic air sac (PTAS) inoculation, rechallenged via the contralateral air sac after 5 wk, and then necropsied 1 wk later. Pulmonary lesions induced by the initial challenge had resolved in 6 of 10 SBW and 9 of 10 BBW turkeys. However, convalescence did not protect against pulmonary aspergillosis subsequent to rechallenge; 10 of 10 SBW and 9 of 10 BBW developed granulomatous pulmonary lesions on the side of reexposure. A greater proportion of control SBW turkeys developed pneumonia and airsacculitis following challenge as compared with the BBW breed. Lesions were limited to the lower respiratory tract in all turkeys and were confined to the ipsilateral lung and PTAS in the singly inoculated control turkeys. This study demonstrates that convalescence from pulmonary aspergillosis does not confer protection against rechallenge but may, instead, decrease resistance to subsequent infection.

  10. Pen Branch Fault Program

    SciTech Connect

    Price, V.; Stieve, A.L.; Aadland, R.

    1990-09-28

    Evidence from subsurface mapping and seismic reflection surveys at Savannah River Site (SRS) suggests the presence of a fault which displaces Cretaceous through Tertiary (90--35 million years ago) sediments. This feature has been described and named the Pen Branch fault (PBF) in a recent Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) paper (DP-MS-88-219). Because the fault is located near operating nuclear facilities, public perception and federal regulations require a thorough investigation of the fault to determine whether any seismic hazard exists. A phased program with various elements has been established to investigate the PBF to address the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory guidelines represented in 10 CFR 100 Appendix A. The objective of the PBF program is to fully characterize the nature of the PBF (ESS-SRL-89-395). This report briefly presents current understanding of the Pen Branch fault based on shallow drilling activities completed the fall of 1989 (PBF well series) and subsequent core analyses (SRL-ESS-90-145). The results are preliminary and ongoing: however, investigations indicate that the fault is not capable. In conjunction with the shallow drilling, other activities are planned or in progress. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Parasites of the Christmas turkey.

    PubMed

    Long, P L; Current, W L; Noblet, G P

    1987-12-01

    In the temperate West, the turkey remains popular fare for festive feasts. It is a large bird, amenable to intensive rearing, and now represents one of the cheapest forms of poultry meat available (Box 1). In the USA alone, nearly 100 million birds are raised annually - mainly in Minnesota and North Carolina. But intensive rearing can incur risks of epizootic parasitic diseases, often responsible for severe economic losses. Improved management and medication have reduced the impact of some, such as 'gapezvorm disease', histomoniasis and intestinal coccidiosis; leucocytozoonosis now presents less of a threat than in the past, but some 'newer' diseases such as cryptosporidiosis may yet present severe problems. In this article, Peter Long, William Current and Gayle Noblet review the main parasite challenges faced by the commercial turkey industry.

  12. Packaged Fault Model for Geometric Segmentation of Active Faults Into Earthquake Source Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, T.; Kumamoto, T.

    2004-12-01

    In Japan, the empirical formula proposed by Matsuda (1975) mainly based on the length of the historical surface fault ruptures and magnitude, is generally applied to estimate the size of future earthquakes from the extent of existing active faults for seismic hazard assessment. Therefore validity of the active fault length and defining individual segment boundaries where propagating ruptures terminate are essential and crucial to the reliability for the accurate assessments. It is, however, not likely for us to clearly identify the behavioral earthquake segments from observation of surface faulting during the historical period, because most of the active faults have longer recurrence intervals than 1000 years in Japan. Besides uncertainties of the datasets obtained mainly from fault trenching studies are quite large for fault grouping/segmentation. This is why new methods or criteria should be applied for active fault grouping/segmentation, and one of the candidates may be geometric criterion of active faults. Matsuda (1990) used _gfive kilometer_h as a critical distance for grouping and separation of neighboring active faults. On the other hand, Nakata and Goto (1998) proposed the geometric criteria such as (1) branching features of active fault traces and (2) characteristic pattern of vertical-slip distribution along the fault traces as tools to predict rupture length of future earthquakes. The branching during the fault rupture propagation is regarded as an effective energy dissipation process and could result in final rupture termination. With respect to the characteristic pattern of vertical-slip distribution, especially with strike-slip components, the up-thrown sides along the faults are, in general, located on the fault blocks in the direction of relative strike-slip. Applying these new geometric criteria to the high-resolution active fault distribution maps, the fault grouping/segmentation could be more practically conducted. We tested this model

  13. Geo-engineering Evaluation with Prime Consideration to Liquefaction Potential for Eskisehir City (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyuncu, N. Pínar; Ulusay, Resat

    In Turkey, cities are growing in importance and urban areas are expanding rapidly. Eskisehir is one of the highly urbanized and industrialized cities of Turkey. In this study, the city is selected for geo-engineering assessments to be considered in future urban planning due to its ground and seismotectonic conditions. Seismic hazard analyses indicated that magnitude of a probable earthquake and PGA associated with the closest fault may be about 6.4 and 300 gal, respectively. Liquefaction assessments suggest that shallow-seated sand layers, particularly near to the meanders of a river flowing through the city have moderate-to-high liquefaction susceptibility. In addition, GIS-aided engineering geological map of the city center are constructed and some recommendations are presented.

  14. Determination of paleoseismic activity over a large time-scale: Fault scarp dating with 36Cl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozafari Amiri, Nasim; Tikhomirov, Dmitry; Sümer, Ökmen; Özkaymak, Çaǧlar; Uzel, Bora; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Vockenhuber, Christof; Sözbilir, Hasan; Akçar, Naki

    2016-04-01

    Bedrock fault scarps are the most direct evidence of past earthquakes to reconstruct seismic activity in a large time-scale using cosmogenic 36Cl dating if built in carbonates. For this method, a surface along the fault scarp with a minimum amount of erosion is required to be chosen as an ideal target point. The section of the fault selected for sampling should cover at least two meters of the fault surface from the lower part of the scarp, where intersects with colluvium wedge. Ideally, sampling should be performed on a continuous strip along the direction of the fault slip direction. First, samples of 10 cm high and 15 cm wide are marked on the fault surface. Then, they are collected using cutters, hammer and chisel in a thickness of 3 cm. The main geometrical factors of scarp dip, scarp height, top surface dip and colluvium dip are also measured. Topographic shielding in the sampling spot is important to be estimated as well. Moreover, density of the fault scarp and colluvium are calculated. The physical and chemical preparations are carried in laboratory for AMS and chemical analysis of the samples. A Matlab® code is used for modelling of seismically active periods based on increasing production rate of 36Cl following each rupture, when a buried section of a fault is exposed. Therefore, by measuring the amount of cosmogenic 36Cl versus height, the timing of major ruptures and their offsets are determined. In our study, Manastır, Mugırtepe and Rahmiye faults in Gediz graben, Priene-Sazlı, Kalafat and Yavansu faults in Büyük Menderes graben and Ören fault in Gökava half-graben have been examined in the seismically active region of Western Turkey. Our results reconstruct at least five periods of high seismic activity during the Holocene time, three of which reveal seismic ruptures beyond the historical pre-existing data.

  15. Surface Wave Phase Speed Models of the Crustal and Upper Mantle Beneath Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakirci, Taciser; Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Fırat Özer, Mithat

    2010-05-01

    the conjugate strike slip fault system (EAFZ) and Bitlis thrust zone as well as partially molten litospheric mantle which can be inferred from the wide spread of young volcanism (< 2Ma). The previous local geological (i.e., heat flow, volcanism and tectonics) and seismological (i.e., Pn waves speed distribution, Sn waves attenuation) studies strongly support our results. In order to make more detailed investigations of the crustal and mantle structure of Turkey, three-dimensional tomographic inversion will be performed to construct a 3-D shear wave speed model of Turkey using the same or extended data set in the future.

  16. An evaluation of the strong ground motion recorded during the May 1, 2003 Bingol Turkey, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akkar, Sinan; Boore, David M.; Gulkan, Polat

    2005-01-01

    An important record of ground motion from a M6.4 earthquake occurring on May 1, 2003, at epicentral and fault distances of about 12 and 9 km, respectively, was obtained at a station near the city of Bingöl, Turkey. The maximum peak ground values of 0.55g and 36 cm/s are among the largest ground-motion amplitudes recorded in Turkey. From simulations and comparisons with ground motions from other earthquakes of comparable magnitude, we conclude that the ground motion over a range of frequencies is unusually high. Site response may be responsible for the elevated ground motion, as suggested from analysis of numerous aftershock recordings from the same station. The mainshock motions have some interesting seismological features, including ramps between the P- and S-wave that are probably due to near- and intermediate-field elastic motions and strong polarisation oriented at about 39 degrees to the fault (and therefore not in the fault-normal direction). Simulations of motions from an extended rupture explain these features. The N10E component shows a high-amplitude spectral acceleration at a period of 0.15 seconds resulting in a site specific design spectrum that significantly overestimates the actual strength and displacement demands of the record. The pulse signal in the N10E component affects the inelastic spectral displacement and increases the inelastic displacement demand with respect to elastic demand for very long periods.

  17. Salmonella Levels in Turkey Neck Skins, Drumstick Bones, and Spleens in Relation to Ground Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yue; Guran, Husnu S; Harrison, Mark A; Hofacre, Charles L; Alali, Walid Q

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella levels (presence and numbers) in turkey drumstick bone, spleen, and neck skin samples in relation to Salmonella contamination levels in ground turkey at the flock level. Over a 10-month period, a total of 300 samples of each turkey part (i.e., neck skin, spleen, and drumstick) from 20 flocks were collected at a commercial turkey processing plant after the evisceration step. Turkey flocks included in this study were classified as "targeted" and "nontargeted" based on the company's historical ground turkey contamination data. A flock that originated from a turkey farm that had previously produced one or more flocks with ≥20% Salmonella prevalence in ground turkey was labeled as a targeted flock (n = 13). The remaining seven flocks with <20% prevalence were labeled as nontargeted. All samples collected were tested for Salmonella presence and numbers by using most-probable-number and selective enrichment methods. Further genotypic analysis (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) of the isolates was performed. Ground turkey samples were collected and analyzed for Salmonella levels by the cooperating turkey company. The outside surface of bone and spleen were sterilized prior to Salmonella analysis. The overall Salmonella prevalence in neck skin, drumstick bone, spleen, and ground turkey samples was 42.0, 9.3, 6.7, and 14.5%, respectively. Salmonella prevalence in neck skin, spleen, drumstick bone, and ground turkey from the targeted flocks was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those from nontargeted flocks. There was a significant relationship between Salmonella presence in neck skin (when most probable numbers were ≥2 log) and Salmonella-positive ground turkey lot. Based on our findings, Salmonella was detected internally in drumstick bones and spleens at low levels, whereas Salmonella presence at higher levels in neck skin may indicate a flock with greater potential for Salmonella contamination of ground turkey.

  18. Salmonella Levels in Turkey Neck Skins, Drumstick Bones, and Spleens in Relation to Ground Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yue; Guran, Husnu S; Harrison, Mark A; Hofacre, Charles L; Alali, Walid Q

    2