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Sample records for ancestros mapuches caso

  1. Renal transplantation in Mapuche people.

    PubMed

    Ardiles, R; Beltrán, R; Jerez, V; Droguett, M A; Mezzano, S; Ardiles, L

    2008-04-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated higher concentrations of some histocompatibility antigens in Mapuche people compared with non-Mapuche Chileans in the renal transplantation program. With the aim of evaluating whether those antigenic differences might induce differences in the outcomes of renal transplantation among patients belonging to that ethnic group, we reviewed HLA studies and at least 6 months follow-up of all patients with a first kidney transplant between 1980 and 2006. The 248 patients had a mean age of 37.6 years, 40% were females, and 48% had living related donors. The mean kidney follow-up was 90 months and patient follow-up was 106 months. Thirty-nine patients (16%) were classified as Mapuche, according to their surnames, including 16 women with overall mean age of 34.5 years, and 14 had been transplanted from a living related donor. Mapuche patients received organs with better HLA matching expressed as number of identities (3.4 +/- 0.1 versus 2.8 +/- 0.1 among non-Mapuche; P < .05), and the proportion receiving organs with > or = 3 compatibilities was significantly higher (Mapuche 38% versus non-Mapuche 22%; P < .05). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed nonsignificant differences in kidney survival: 86% at 5 years and 68% at 10 years in Mapuche; and 83% and 65%, respectively, for non-Mapuche. Patient survival rates were 97% at 5 years and 86% at 10 years in the Mapuche group versus 91% and 79%, respectively, in the non-Mapuche group; both results were not significantly different. Our results showed similar outcomes of kidney and patient survivals among Mapuche people even when they received organs with better HLA matches.

  2. Medicinal plants of the Mapuche.

    PubMed

    Houghton, P J; Manby, J

    1985-03-01

    A list of 136 plants used for medicinal purposes by the Mapuche Amerindians of Chile has been compiled. This is the first such list in English and is important due to the disappearance of Mapuche culture with increasing urbanisation. Some introduced plants have been incorporated into the traditional medicine of the Mapuche since the advent of European settlers but there is also a wealth of information about the uses of many indigenous species.

  3. Mapuche medicinal plants: Proposition in their propagation

    Treesearch

    Paz Ovalle; Zoia Neira; Patricio Nunez

    2002-01-01

    The Mapuche (native indians from Chile) population is one of the largest populations of native indians left in America (approximately 1 million). As many of the other Native communities, they continuously struggle to maintain their rituals and customs. One of the most valuable customs for the Mapuche is the use of medicinal plants. All these plants are native plants...

  4. Psychiatric disorders among the Mapuche in Chile.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Benjamin; Kohn, Robert; Rioseco, Pedro; Saldivia, Sandra; Torres, Silverio

    2005-06-01

    The Mapuche are the largest indigenous group in Chile; yet almost all data on the mental health of indigenous populations are from North America. The study examines the differential DSM-III-R prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders and service utilization among indigenous and non-indigenous community residence. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to a stratified random sample of 75 Mapuche and 434 non-Mapuche residents of the province of Cautín. Lifetime prevalence and 12-month prevalence rates were estimated. Approximately 28.4% of the Mapuche population had a lifetime, and 15.7% a 12-month, prevalent psychiatric disorder compared to 38.0% and 25.7%, respectively, of the non-Mapuche. Few significant differences were noted between the two groups; however, generalized anxiety disorder, simple phobia, and drug dependence were less prevalent among the Mapuche. Service utilization among the Mapuche with mental illness was low. This is a preliminary study based on a small sample size. Further research on the mental health of indigenous populations of South America is needed.

  5. [10 cases of psychosis in Mapuche indians].

    PubMed

    Biedermann, N; Barria, C; Maass, J; Steil, W

    1983-12-01

    Ten Mapuche indians have been studied with the purpose of observing the particularities of mental disorders in this ethnic group, composed of rural migrants. In each case a syndromatic and an etiological diagnosis has been made. Our cases correspond to six women and four men with an average age of 24.5 years. All are single with a low educational level. Our results show a great frequency of the acute oniroid psychotic syndrome. These results agree with a retrospective study made by Muñoz et al (1966) who found the same syndrome in 66.6% of their Mapuche patients against only 16.3% in non Mapuche chilean patients.

  6. [Evaluation of mental and communication functions in mapuche and non mapuche elderly subjects in rural communities in Southern Chile].

    PubMed

    Mella, Rebeca; Alvear, María; Carrillo, Berta; Caire, Victor

    2003-11-01

    The main predictors of functional impairment in the elderly are alterations in mental or communication functions. To study mental and communication functions in rural elderly subjects of Mapuche and non Mapuche origin. Elderly subjects coming from a rural Mapuche community and a non Mapuche community were studied. Subjects were interviewed at their homes. The communication and mental function assessments of the Functional Autonomy Measurement System were applied. Fifty one Mapuche and 49 non Mapuche subjects with a mean age of 71 +/- 7 and 74 +/- 8 years respectively, were studied. Fifty four percent were female and 31% were illiterate. Twenty six percent had impairment in mental functions. The item with the highest difficulty was memory. The visual function was the most severely impaired among communication items. Mapuche elderly subjects had significantly higher degrees of impairment in mental and communication functions. There is a higher degree of mental and communication impairment among rural Mapuche elderly subjects than in their non Mapuche counterparts.

  7. [COMPARISON OF THE RISKS IN EATING DISORDERS AND BODY IMAGE AMONG MAPUCHES AND NOT MAPUCHES STUDENTS].

    PubMed

    Rosas Muñoz, Marcelo; Delgado Floody, Pedro; Cea Leiva, Fredy; Alarcón Hormazábal, Manuel; Alvarez San Martín, Roberto; Quezada Gallego, Karen

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: existe escasa evidencia sobre los riesgos de trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA) y de la imagen corporal (TIC) en población adolecente y joven de etnia mapuche. Objetivo: el propósito del estudio fue establecer si existen diferencias en el riesgo de padecer TCA y TIC en estudiantes mapuches y no mapuches y asociar estas variables con el estado nutricional. Material y métodos: la muestra está constituida por 130 adolescentes entre 14 y 21 años; 95 de etnia mapuche y 35 no mapuche. En ambos grupos se midió; índice de masa corporal (IMC), riesgos de trastorno en la conducta alimentaria y en la imagen corporal. Resultados: no existieron diferencias en riesgos de TCA y TIC al comparar por etnia mapuche y no mapuche (p>0,05). En la comparación por género las mujeres presentaron valores superiores (p.

  8. [HTLV-1 in a Mapuche population].

    PubMed

    Inostroza, J; Díaz, P; Saunier, C

    1990-12-01

    The seroprevalence of HTLV-1 in 405 serum samples from South American Indians, Mapuches, from the IXth region of Chile was investigated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Six samples were positive and only 3 of them were also positive by western blot and radio immuno precipitation assay. This corresponds to a seroprevalence of 0.74% for HTLV-1 in healthy Mapuches, which differs from that observed in other populations throughout the world. Additional studies are necessary to evaluate the real magnitudes of HTLV-1 infection in Chile.

  9. HIV Issues and Mapuches in Chile.

    PubMed

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Matsumoto, Cristina; Miner, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Chile is a country with an incipient HIV epidemic. Just as in other countries, disadvantaged groups in Chile are contributing to the increased incidence of the disease. The Mapuche indigenous population is one such group that has been affected by the spread of HIV. However, no prevention programs are tailored to the culturally specific needs of this community. In recognition of this discrepancy, an academic-community partnership was formed to develop an HIV educational module for a Mapuche community. The module was developed for use as part of an already established health-related program. The aims of the module were to identify perceptions about HIV among Mapuches and present information specific to HIV and its prevention. Focus was placed on cultural sensitivity. A total of 16 Mapuches participated voluntarily and showed some knowledge regarding HIV, but they lacked an overall understanding as to how it is transmitted and why prevention strategies are effective. Continued collaboration between academia and affected communities as well as incorporating HIV information into established programs are effective strategies for delivering prevention information to disadvantaged populations and for further understanding their perceptions and health care needs.

  10. HIV ISSUES AND MAPUCHES IN CHILE

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Matsumoto, Cristina; Miner, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Chile is a country with an incipient HIV epidemic. Just as in other countries, disadvantaged groups in Chile are contributing to the increased incidence of the disease. The Mapuche indigenous population is one such group that has been affected by the spread of HIV. However, no prevention programs are tailored to the culturally specific needs of this community. In recognition of this discrepancy, an academic-community partnership was formed to develop an HIV educational module for a Mapuche community. The module was developed for use as part of an already established health-related program. The aims of the module were to identify perceptions about HIV among Mapuches and present information specific to HIV and its prevention. Focus was placed on cultural sensitivity. The module was carried out in connection with a first-aid course in an attempt to increase effectiveness of the intervention by working jointly with an established community program. Sixteen (16) Mapuches participated voluntarily and demonstrated some knowledge regarding HIV, but they lacked an overall understanding as to how it is transmitted and why prevention strategies are affective. Participants correctly identified sexual contact as a means of transmission, but when asked why, one person stated, “I just know it, I read it.” There were significant barriers to communication within the group, secondary to cultural practices related to age and gender. Major obstacles in controlling HIV are the lack of prevention strategies targeted to disadvantaged groups. The module developed for this intervention was the first effort of the Academic Community Partnership established between the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile and the Mapuche group around HIV prevention. Continued collaboration between academia and affected communities as well as incorporating HIV information into established programs are effective strategies for delivering prevention information to disadvantaged populations and for

  11. [Influence of Mapuche origin and socioeconomic conditions on adult height].

    PubMed

    Erazo B, Marcia; Amigo C, Hugo; Bustos M, Patricia

    2005-04-01

    Studies in Chilean adults of low socioeconomic level suggest that their low height is likely to be due to their indigenous background. However this group also has been marginalized from socioeconomic development. To determine the influence of Mapuche ethnic origin and socioeconomic factors on the height of adults. In a cross sectional design, the height of 1,293 adults (528 males and 765 females) of Mapuche and non Mapuche origin were studied in the Araucania Region (Southern Chile) and in the Metropolitan Region (Central Chile). Subjects with Mapuche surnames were considered as pertaining to this ethnic community and those with Spanish surnames were considered as non Mapuche. Linear regression models were done, stratifying by sex, considering ethnic origin, to live in counties of different social vulnerability, and the level of family poverty. Among males, the mean height was 166.6+/-7.3 cm and among females, the figure was 153.6+/-5.9 cm. Mapuche subjects were significantly shorter: -3.2 cm (95% Confidence Interval (CI) -4.0 to -2.3) among females and -4.8 cm (CI -6.0 to -3.6) among males (non adjusted models). This deficit increased to -4.5 and -7.6 cm among females and males, respectively when they lived in poverty and in areas with highest social vulnerability. These differences decreased significantly if Mapuche subjects lived in communities with low social vulnerability and less poverty (-0.59 and -1.14 cm among females and males respectively). The studied population had low height, being lower in Mapuche subjects. The differences decreased among subjects living in counties of less vulnerability and less family poverty.

  12. Becoming "Neuquino" in Mapuzugun: Teaching Mapuche Language and Culture in the Province of Neuquen, Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szulc, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the sense of belonging promoted by the current program of Educacion Intercultural Bilingue (EIB) of the province of Neuquen for Mapuche children, examining the design and implementation of this program. The analysis reveals how this program reinforces a hegemonic definition of Mapuche identity, which relegates Mapuche culture…

  13. Becoming "Neuquino" in Mapuzugun: Teaching Mapuche Language and Culture in the Province of Neuquen, Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szulc, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the sense of belonging promoted by the current program of Educacion Intercultural Bilingue (EIB) of the province of Neuquen for Mapuche children, examining the design and implementation of this program. The analysis reveals how this program reinforces a hegemonic definition of Mapuche identity, which relegates Mapuche culture…

  14. Mapuche Herbal Medicine Inhibits Blood Platelet Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Tarnow, Inge; Guzman, Alfonso; Mølgaard, Per; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2012-01-01

    12 plant species traditionally used by the Mapuche people in Chile to treat wounds and inflammations have been evaluated for their direct blood platelet inhibition. Seven of the 12 tested plant species showed platelet inhibitory effect in sheep blood, and four of these were also able to inhibit the ADP- (5.0 μM) and collagen- (2.0 μg/mL) induced aggregations in human blood. These four species in respective extracts (in brackets) were Blechnum chilense (MeOH), Luma apiculata (H2O), Amomyrtus luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1) and Cestrum parqui (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1). The platelet aggregating inhibitory effects of A. luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1), and L. apiculata (H2O) were substantial and confirmed by inhibition of platelet surface activation markers. PMID:22028732

  15. Mapuche herbal medicine inhibits blood platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Tarnow, Inge; Guzman, Alfonso; Mølgaard, Per; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2012-01-01

    12 plant species traditionally used by the Mapuche people in Chile to treat wounds and inflammations have been evaluated for their direct blood platelet inhibition. Seven of the 12 tested plant species showed platelet inhibitory effect in sheep blood, and four of these were also able to inhibit the ADP- (5.0 μM) and collagen- (2.0 μg/mL) induced aggregations in human blood. These four species in respective extracts (in brackets) were Blechnum chilense (MeOH), Luma apiculata (H(2)O), Amomyrtus luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1) and Cestrum parqui (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1). The platelet aggregating inhibitory effects of A. luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1), and L. apiculata (H(2)O) were substantial and confirmed by inhibition of platelet surface activation markers.

  16. Coping with stress: dream interpretation in the Mapuche family.

    PubMed

    Degarrod, L N

    1990-06-01

    Dreams are shared and interpreted daily within the family unit among the Mapuche Indians of Chile. This anthropological study examines the communicative aspect of dream sharing and interpreting among Mapuche families undergoing emotional and physical stress. Specifically, it investigates the ways in which the Mapuche dream interpretation system provides the family members with another means of interaction and a way of solving their problems. It also examines how individuals influence their attitudes towards one another by communally participating in the dream interpretation process, and in its narrative performance. The data used in this research consists of dreams and of their interpretations, collected in the natural setting, from two families with members suffering of witchcraft, and fear of death. This information was collected over a period of 17 months from October 1985 to March 1987 with a Fulbright-Hayes Doctoral Dissertation Grant.

  17. [Intercultural health care policy from the perspective of health care providers and Mapuche clients].

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Ana María; Astudillo, Paula; Barrios, Sara; Rivas, Edith

    2004-09-01

    Intercultural health is becoming an emergent topic in the design of health care programs for Mapuche people of Chile. This process faces important challenges such as the scarce theoretical support about the meaning of intercultural health and their practical consequences for providers and clients. To explore the perception in providers and Mapuche clients about intercultural health. A survey performed in 11 counties with the highest concentration of Mapuche people, of the IX region of Chile. The perception about the development of a new health policy specially designed for Mapuche patients was surveyed in 399 Mapuche patients and 64 providers of primary health care centers. Mapuche clients considered, as the main regional challenges, the indifference and discrimination of health care teams towards Mapuche patients, aggravated by the indifference of authorities. Providers considered that the main problem was a lack of knowledge about Mapuche culture and skills to deal with this ethnic group. Patients and providers agreed on the need to use Mapuche dialect in health care attentions, to coordinate actions with traditional healers and to accept ethnical therapeutic practices. There is scarce agreement between providers and Mapuche clients about the need for an special intercultural health policy, its contents, and the regional conditions for its implementation and development.

  18. Negotiating Neoliberal Multiculturalism: Mapuche Workers in the Chilean State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Yun-Joo; Richards, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    A central component of neoliberal multiculturalism in contemporary Latin America is an increase in indigenous individuals who work for the state, implementing indigenous policy at the municipal, regional and national levels. We explore the consequences of the inclusion of these individuals by analyzing the experiences of Mapuche state workers in…

  19. Cultural meanings of musculoskeletal diseases in Chile's Mapuche Population.

    PubMed

    Alarcon, Ana M; Vidal, Aldo; Castro, Marcela

    2013-10-01

    Eight out of 10 Mapuche indigenous women have a musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) and do not seek early medical aid. To study both the cultural meanings and implications of MSD from the Mapuche worldview. Ethnographic study carried out from 2008 to 2011 on indigenous reserves in southern Chile. Sixty-four Mapuches participated in comprehensive interviews, which were transcribed and analyzed by the research team. Five cultural domains: (a) foro kutran/bone disease is the general denomination of MSD; (b) Re-Rume Kutran/progressive and incurable course, refers to the course of the disease; (c) Kalül fücha mawiza/body is an old tree, describes internal manifestations such as worn bones, dry body, weak blood, and spiritual weakness; (d) witrür tripai foro/deformation is the external manifestation of MSD; and (e) Reñma ka lof kutran/family and community suffering refers to the impact of MSD. The explanation of MSD is consistent with the integrated body-nature-spirit worldview of the Mapuche. To provide cultural nursing health care so that patients receive prompt diagnosis and care.

  20. [High prevalence of osteoporosis in asymptomatic postmenopausal Mapuche women].

    PubMed

    Ponce, Lucía; Larenas, Gladys; Riedemann, Pablo

    2002-12-01

    Genetic and environmental factors are responsible for variations in the frequency of osteoporosis. Prevalence of osteoporosis in Mapuche women (native Chileans) is unknown. To assess the prevalence and risk factors for osteoporosis in Mapuche women. A random sample of 95 asymptomatic postmenopausal Mapuche females, stratified by age, was studied. Women with diseases or medications that could interfere with calcium metabolism were excluded. Spine and femoral neck bone mass density was determined using a Lunar DPX Alpha densitometer. Seventeen percent of women had normal bone mineral density in both spine and femoral neck. In the spine, 25.3% had a normal bone mineral density, 17.9% had osteopenia and 56.8% had osteoporosis. In the femoral neck, 34.7% had a normal bone mineral density, 57.9% had osteopenia, and 7.4% had osteoporosis. There was a positive correlation between bone mineral density and body mass index. Women with more than one hour per day of physical activity, had a significantly lower proportion of osteopenia or osteoporosis. No association between bone mineral density and parity or calcium intake, was observed. There is a high prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis among Mapuche women. Osteoporosis was associated with low body mass index.

  1. Maria Catrileo's Work in the Tagmemics of Mapuche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Frances

    The Mapuches, a tribe now numbering about 500,000 people in south central Chile are the descendants of the Araucanians of Spanish legend. Many still speak only their own idiom, which now shows much lexical influence of the surrounding Spanish. This paper is an exposition of Maria Catrileo Chiguailaf de Godo's research in her native language. It…

  2. Human leukocyte antigens in indigenous (mapuche) people in a regional renal transplantation program in chile.

    PubMed

    Droguett, M A; Oyarzún, M J; Alruiz, P; Jerez, V; Mezzano, S; Ardiles, L

    2005-10-01

    An active regional transplantation program established in the southern region of Chile has allowed the incorporation of ethnic minorities particularly Mapuche living in this geographic area in the development of a histocompatibility database. To identify possible differences in the human leukocyte (HLA) antigen distribution in Chilean Mapuche compared with non-Mapuche, we reviewed 442 HLA tissue-typing studies. Seventy-eight of 309 recipients (25%) and 18 of 133 donors (13%) were Mapuche. Among recipients, Mapuche people showed a significantly higher frequency of the HLA antigens, A28, B16, DR4, and DR8, and a lower one for A19, B15, and DR1 (P < .05) compared with non-Mapuche individuals. A particularly higher frequency of the haplotype A28, -B16, -DR4 was also evidenced in Mapuche. Besides, these recipients showed a higher frequency of the allele -DR4 when compared with Mapuche donors. A greater frequency of some histocompatibility antigens in patients with chronic renal disease might be attributed to allelic concentration due to a high index of endogamy, but a possible association with the development of progressive renal disease cannot be ignored, especially when a higher prevalence of DR4 was observed among Mapuche recipients.

  3. HLA genetic profile of Mapuche (Araucanian) Amerindians from Chile.

    PubMed

    Rey, Diego; Parga-Lozano, Carlos; Moscoso, Juan; Areces, Cristina; Enriquez-de-Salamanca, Mercedes; Fernández-Honrado, Mercedes; Abd-El-Fatah-Khalil, Sedeka; Alonso-Rubio, Javier; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2013-07-01

    Amerindian Mapuche (Araucanians) are now living in Chile and Argentina at both sides of Andean Mountains. They are anthropologically and genetically different from southernmost South America Patagonian Amerindians. Most of the HLA alleles found in our Mapuche sample are frequent or very frequent in North and South America Amerindians: (1) Class I: A*02:01, A*03:01, A*68:01, B*39:09, B*51:01, (2) Class II: DRB1*03:01, DRB1*04:03, DRB1*07:01, DRB1*08:02, DRB1*14:02, DRB1*16:02. One of the nine most frequent extended haplotypes seems to be from European origin, suggesting the existence of a degree of admixture with Europeans in our Mapuche sample. It has been calculated of about 11 % admixture. Three of the extended haplotypes are also found in other Amerindians and five of them are newly found in Mapuche Amerindians: A*68:01-B*39:09-DRB1*08:02-DQB1*04:02; A*68:01-B*51:01-DRB1*04:03-DQB1*03:02; A*29:01-B*08:01-DRB1*03:01-DQB1*02:01; A*02:01-B*15:01-DRB1*04:03-DQB1*03:02; A*33:01-B*14:02-DRB1*07:01-DQB1*03:03. The medical importance of calculating HLA profile is discussed on the diagnostic (HLA and disease) and therapeutical bases of HLA pharmacogenomics and on the construction of a virtual transplantation HLA list profile. Also, anthropological conclusions are drawn.

  4. Origins of the Discrimination Perceived by Mapuches in Chile Based on an Evaluation of Kimeltuwun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapiman, Daniel Quilaqueo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the origin of perceived discrimination as it appears in the discourse of Mapuches living in Temuco and Santiago, and how that discourse is related to the evaluation of "kimeltuwun" (educational knowledge). A qualitative design was used to survey Mapuche emigrants to these two urban centers, where…

  5. Origins of the Discrimination Perceived by Mapuches in Chile Based on an Evaluation of Kimeltuwun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapiman, Daniel Quilaqueo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the origin of perceived discrimination as it appears in the discourse of Mapuches living in Temuco and Santiago, and how that discourse is related to the evaluation of "kimeltuwun" (educational knowledge). A qualitative design was used to survey Mapuche emigrants to these two urban centers, where…

  6. Mapudungun According to Its Speakers: Mapuche Intellectuals and the Influence of Standard Language Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagos, Cristián; Espinoza, Marco; Rojas, Darío

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the cultural models (or folk theory of language) that the Mapuche intellectual elite have about Mapudungun, the native language of the Mapuche people still spoken today in Chile as the major minority language. Our theoretical frame is folk linguistics and studies of language ideology, but we have also taken an applied…

  7. Mapudungun According to Its Speakers: Mapuche Intellectuals and the Influence of Standard Language Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagos, Cristián; Espinoza, Marco; Rojas, Darío

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the cultural models (or folk theory of language) that the Mapuche intellectual elite have about Mapudungun, the native language of the Mapuche people still spoken today in Chile as the major minority language. Our theoretical frame is folk linguistics and studies of language ideology, but we have also taken an applied…

  8. [Food satisfaction in Mapuche persons in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile].

    PubMed

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Mora, Marcos; Lobos, Germán

    2011-06-01

    Although the study and measurement of satisfaction with life has generated great interest in the last 15 years, there are few works which address satisfaction with food-related life. In order to identify variables which have an influence on satisfaction with food-related life among Mapuche persons, a survey was applied to 400 Mapuche subjects in the Santiago Metropolitan Region, Chile. The scales evaluated in the questionnaire included: SWFL (Satisfaction with Food-related Life), lifestyles, food, and Mapuche acculturation. It was found that 41.0% were extremely satisfied, 40.5% satisfied, 17.2% somewhat satisfied and 1.2% dissatisfied with their food-related life. To identify variables which have an influence on satisfaction with food, an ordinal multinomial logit model was proposed, which was significant (p < 0.01) as a whole. The probability of high satisfaction with food-related life increases as there are fewer children in the household, the person's expenditure on food increases, the person consumes some Mapuche foods, is aged 55 or more, consumes red meat in moderation, consumes foods without additives, try to balance work and private life, does not read the labels of products, and if he/she had Mapuche friends at school. Thus satisfaction with food-related life in Mapuche persons in the Metropolitan Region is related to demographic variables, expenditure on food, consumption of Mapuche foods and life-style.

  9. Cutaneous fistula due to pulmonary actinomycosis in a Mapuche girl.

    PubMed

    Briceño, Gaston; Guzman, Pablo; Schafer, Fabiola

    2013-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria of the genus Actinomyces. Pulmonary actinomycosis is a rare infection in children, and its extension into the chest wall is infrequently reported. We report a case of pulmonary actinomycosis in a 14-year-old girl of Mapuche descent who presented with chronic respiratory symptoms and multiple discharging skin sinuses on her right lower chest wall. The diagnosis was made by skin biopsy, which showed sulfur granules with actinomyces colonies. She was successfully treated with intravenous ceftriaxone and penicillin G for 6 weeks, followed by oral amoxicillin for 6 months. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Genetic variants of serum butyrylcholinesterase in Chilean Mapuche Indians.

    PubMed

    Acuña, M; Eaton, L; Ramírez, N R; Cifuentes, L; Llop, E

    2003-05-01

    We estimated the frequencies of serum butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) alleles in three tribes of Mapuche Indians from southern Chile, using enzymatic methods, and we estimated the frequency of allele BCHE*K in one tribe using primer reduced restriction analysis (PCR-PIRA). The three tribes have different degrees of European admixture, which is reflected in the observed frequencies of the atypical allele BCHE*A: 1.11% in Huilliches, 0.89% in Cuncos, and 0% in Pehuenches. This result is evidence in favor of the hypothesis that BCHE*A is absent in native Amerindians. The frequencies of BCHE*F were higher than in most reported studies (3.89%, 5.78%, and 4.41%, respectively). These results are probably due to an overestimation of the frequency of allele BCHE*F, since none of the 20 BCHE UF individuals (by the enzymatic test) individuals analyzed showed either of the two DNA base substitutions associated with this allele. Although enzymatic methods rarely detect the presence of allele BCHE*K, PCR-PIRA found the allele in an appreciable frequency (5.76%), although lower than that found in other ethnic groups. Since observed frequencies of unusual alleles correspond to estimated percentages of European admixture, it is likely that none of these unusual alleles were present in Mapuche Indians before the arrival of Europeans. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. [Mucolipidoses type IV in a patient with mapuche ancestry].

    PubMed

    Hernández Ch, Marta; Méndez C, José Ignacio; Concha G, María José; Huete L, Isidro; González B, Sergio; Durán S, Gloria P

    2008-07-01

    We report a 7 year-old girl with mapuche ancestors, diagnosed as a cerebral palsy since infancy and on active rehabilitation. She acquired motor and cognitive skills at 3 years of age. At 5 years of age, a slow neurological deterioration started, associated to visual impairment. Optic atrophy was added to the typical neurological exam of ataxic cerebral palsy and the diagnosis was re-considered. Neuroimaging showed a slow and progressive atrophy of intracerebral structures and ultramicroscopy revealed intracytoplasmatic inclusions in conjunctiva and skin, compatible with mucolipidoses type IV (ML-IV). ML-IV must be included in the differential diagnosis of cerebral palsy associated with loss of acquired skills and progressive visual impairment. Electron microscopy of skin or conjunctiva is a useful diagnostic test. Suspicion of ML-IV must not be restricted to Ashkenazi Jewish population.

  12. Leptin levels distribution and ethnic background in two populations from Chile: Caucasian and Mapuche groups.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bravo, F; Albala, C; Santos, J L; Yañez, M; Carrasco, E

    1998-10-01

    Leptin, the product of the human ob gene is increased in obese individuals, suggesting resistance to its effect. We examined the relationship of serum leptin levels with respect to obesity, gender and insulin levels in two populations with different ethnic compositions in Chile. Leptin and insulin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and correlated with body mass index (BMI), gender and ethnic background. 79 Caucasian subjects from Santiago and 65 Mapuche natives from the Araucania region, Chile, were included in this study. Leptin concentrations in obese subjects were significantly increased in both ethnic groups in relation to lean status: Caucasian and Mapuche obese 19.3 +/- 11.6 and 10.1 +/- 5.8 (P < 0.001), respectively vs Caucasian and Mapuche lean 10.4 +/- 5.8 and 4.7 +/- 2.9 (P < 0.001, respectively). When we compared Mapuche and Caucasian groups, similar leptin levels were observed among the males of the two populations in both metabolic states (lean and obese). In contrast, the leptin level distributions between women showed a marked difference, having a minor value in the Mapuche women with a comparable value with the male group in this ethnic population. The leptin concentrations are associated with obesity in both ethnic groups in Chile. However, the leptin levels between the Mapuche natives were significantly decreased compared to the Caucasian group. The gender distribution does not seem to be important in the Mapuche natives. The ethnic composition seems to be important in the leptin distribution in the analysed populations.

  13. Indigenous Knowledge and Language: Decolonizing Culturally Relevant Pedagogy in a Mapuche Intercultural Bilingual Education Program in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Patricio R.

    2009-01-01

    This article illustrates how Mapuche Indigenous knowledge (Kimun) and language (Mapudungun) incorporated into an Intercultural Bilingual Education (IBE) program of a school within a Mapuche context in Chile creates decolonizing counter-hegemonic narratives as forms of culturally relevant pedagogy. Based on a six-month school ethnography, this…

  14. [Iron nutrition in Mapuche infants fed with human milk (2d phase)].

    PubMed

    Franco, E; Hertrampf, E; Rodríguez, E; Illanes, J C; Palacios, L; Llaguno, S; Lettelier, A

    1990-01-01

    Blood hemoglobin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and serum ferritin were measured in 140 healthy rural mapuche (southern Chile's indigenous ethnic group) infants aged 8 to 15 months: 90 had been exclusively breast fed for the first 5 or 6 months of life, then solid foods were introduced but cow's milk was never given to them. The remaining 50, which were all weaned at nearly 4 months of age and then given cow's milk and solid foods at the corresponding age, were designated as controls. Anemia was detected in 4.5% of breast fed infants and in 38% of controls. Evidence of iron deficient erythropoiesis was found in 5% and 81% of cases and controls, respectively. Human milk apparently protects this ethnic group from iron deficiency anemia and this protection seems to be better in mapuche infants than in other groups of chilean infants, because these late have shown 30% incidence of anemia around the first year of life in other studies. More studies on differences in iron nutritional state among mapuche and non mapuche are needed and are under way.

  15. [Is Mapuche ethnicity a risk factor for hip fracture in aged?].

    PubMed

    Sapunar, Jorge; Bravo, Paulina; Schneider, Hermann; Jiménez, Marcela

    2003-10-01

    Ethnic factors are involved in the risk for osteoporosis and hip fracture. To assess the effect of Mapuche ethnicity on the risk of hip fracture. A case control study. Cases were subjects over 55 years of age admitted, during one year, for hip fracture not associated to major trauma or tumors. Controls were randomly chosen from other hospital services and paired for age with cases. The magnitude of the association between ethnicity and hip fracture was expressed as odds ratio in a logistic regression model. In the study period, 156 cases with hip fracture were admitted. The proportion of subjects with Mapuche origin was significantly lower among cases than controls (11.8 and 26.5% respectively, p < 0.001). In the logistic regression model, Mapuche ethnicity was associated with hip fracture with an odds radio of 0.14 (p = 0.03, 95% CI 0.03-0.8). In this sample, Mapuche ethnicity is a protective factor for hip fracture.

  16. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity in rural Mapuche population from Chile.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bravo, F; Carrasco, E; Santos, J L; Calvillán, M; Larenas, G; Albala, C

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and obesity in the Mapuche natives from rural areas in Chile. This cross-sectional study involved men (n = 95) and women (n = 224) older than 20 y from an aboriginal ethnic group (Mapuches), residing in rural communities from the south of Chile. Prevalence of Type 2 diabetes and IGT was calculated according to the World Health Organization criteria. Data on age, degree of ancestral purity, obesity, and hypertension were also obtained. The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in rural Mapuche natives was estimated as 3.2% (95% CI: 0.7--9.0) in men and 4.5% (95% CI: 2.2--8.1) in women. The overall prevalence of obesity was 56.1% (95% CI: 50.5--61.6): 40.0% (95% CI: 30.1--40.8) in men and 62.9% (95% CI: 56.3--69.3) in women (P value < 0.001). These data suggest that the prevalence of obesity and Type 2 diabetes has been increasing during recent years in the Mapuche communities. The prevalence estimated in this study is higher than that reported 15 y ago. This suggests an important role of lifestyle changes as a possible explanation for epidemiologic transition.

  17. Categorisation of Mapuche Ways of Conceiving Time and Space: Educational Knowledge of the "Kimches"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quilaqueo, Daniel; Torres, Hector

    2013-01-01

    The object of this article is to present a categorisation of the ways in which time and space are conceived in the rationale of Mapuche family education. This approach considers knowledge of natural, social, and cultural elements that characterise the classification of time and space by "kimches" (sages) in the education of children and…

  18. Categorisation of Mapuche Ways of Conceiving Time and Space: Educational Knowledge of the "Kimches"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quilaqueo, Daniel; Torres, Hector

    2013-01-01

    The object of this article is to present a categorisation of the ways in which time and space are conceived in the rationale of Mapuche family education. This approach considers knowledge of natural, social, and cultural elements that characterise the classification of time and space by "kimches" (sages) in the education of children and…

  19. Lactase persistence and dairy intake in Mapuche and Mestizo populations from southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Catalina I; Flores, Sergio V

    2014-11-01

    Lactase persistence (LP) occurs at a very low frequency in indigenous populations from Latin America, offering an opportunity to understand the relationship between this genetic trait and patterns of dairy consumption. Here, the frequency of LP is analyzed from Mapuche and -an adjacent- mestizo population inhabiting the Araucanía region. In addition to genotyping for LP, participants were surveyed in relation to general perception and consumption habits of dairy products. Low LP frequency (10%) and very low dairy intake was found among the Mapuche population as compared with Mestizo populations inhabiting Chile. The survey reported that the main reasons for avoidance of dairy were the gastrointestinal symptoms after dairy intake and cultural dietary habits. The interaction between low LP genotype frequency, low dairy intake, and sociocultural determinants is here discussed in the light of their potential health outcomes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Putting the market in its place: food security in three Mapuche communities in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Clark, Timothy David

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of state policies since the 1970s on household food security in several Mapuche communities in the Araucanía region of Chile (Region IX). The author highlights key transformations in the national economy and food system and endeavors to link those to local phenomena, in particular the absorption of the local livelihood strategies and food systems into capitalist markets and the high incidences of food insecurity. The article concludes that a reconceptualization of macroeconomic and indigenous policies are required to rebuild the material and social foundations of rural Mapuche communities that provide the bases from which their inhabitants can reconstruct a mutually beneficial relationship with the broader Chilean society and avert the continued acceleration of tension and violence.

  1. [Healthcare mistreatment attributed to discrimination among mapuche patients and discontinuation of diabetes care].

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Manuel S; Baeza-Rivera, María José; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia; Flynn, Patricia; Betancourt, Héctor

    2016-10-01

    The negative impact of perceived discrimination on health outcomes is well established. However, less attention has been directed towards understanding the effect of perceived discrimination on health behaviors relevant for the treatment of diabetes in ethnic minorities. To examine the effects of healthcare mistreatment attributed to discrimination on the continuity of Type 2 Diabetes (DM2) care among mapuche patients in a southern region of Chile. A non-probabilistic sample of 85 mapuche DM2 patients were recruited from public and private health systems. Eligibility criteria included having experienced at least one incident of interpersonal healthcare mistreatment. All participants answered an instrument designed to measure healthcare mistreatment and continuity of diabetes care. Healthcare mistreatment attributed to ethnic discrimination was associated with the discontinuation of diabetes care. Healthcare mistreatment attributed to discrimination negatively impacted the continuity of diabetes care, a fact which may provide a better understanding of health disparities in ethnic minorities.

  2. [Rheumatoid arthritis among mapuche aborigines. A 16 years experience in the IX Region of the Chile].

    PubMed

    Kaliski, S; Bustos, L; Artigas, C; Alarcón, C; Vega, M A; Cárdenas, C

    2001-03-01

    Mapuche, Chilean natives, represent approximately 9.8% of Chilean population and in the IX region of the country, they account for 18.4% of population over 15 years old. They preserve some socio-cultural characteristics that make them different to the rest of the population. To describe the epidemiological characteristics rheumatoid arthritis among Mapuche natives. Retrospective review of patients of Mapuche origin with rheumatoid arthritis, seen at Temuco Hospital between 1980 and 1996. Among 308 cases gathered, only 106 (93 women, aged 55 +/- 10 years old) complied with 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for rheumatoid arthritis. The disease began between 29 and 52 years old in 73% of patients and the mean delay in diagnosis was 4.4 years. At diagnosis, 99% had symmetric poliarthritis, 28.3% had either fatigue, fever or weight loss, and 46.9% were in class III or in class IV of ACR-1991. Fifty three percent of patients developed Sicca syndrome, 36% developed nodules, 23% developed Raynaud phenomenon, 11% developed pulmonary involvement, 7% developed vasculitis, 5% developed neurological manifestations and 19% developed ophthalmologic involvement. Rheumatoid factor was positive in 78% and 73% had erosions. HLA DR4 was (+) in 60% of 30 patients. Thirty percent required 3 or more disease modifying drugs and prednisone over 10 mg/day. There was no correlation between functional capacity and several other features of the disease. Mapuche rheumatoid arthritis patients are detected late and have a poor functional capacity at the time of diagnosis. They also have a higher proportion of extraarticular manifestations, more erosions and require more aggressive treatments.

  3. Endogenous retrovirus EAV-HP linked to blue egg phenotype in Mapuche fowl.

    PubMed

    Wragg, David; Mwacharo, Joram M; Alcalde, José A; Wang, Chen; Han, Jian-Lin; Gongora, Jaime; Gourichon, David; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Hanotte, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Oocyan or blue/green eggshell colour is an autosomal dominant trait found in native chickens (Mapuche fowl) of Chile and in some of their descendants in European and North American modern breeds. We report here the identification of an endogenous avian retroviral (EAV-HP) insertion in oocyan Mapuche fowl and European breeds. Sequencing data reveals 100% retroviral identity between the Mapuche and European insertions. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of European oocyan chicken indicates over-expression of the SLCO1B3 gene (P<0.05) in the shell gland and oviduct. Predicted transcription factor binding sites in the long terminal repeats (LTR) indicate AhR/Ar, a modulator of oestrogen, as a possible promoter/enhancer leading to reproductive tissue-specific over-expression of the SLCO1B3 gene. Analysis of all jungle fowl species Gallus sp. supports the retroviral insertion to be a post-domestication event, while identical LTR sequences within domestic chickens are in agreement with a recent de novo mutation.

  4. Endogenous Retrovirus EAV-HP Linked to Blue Egg Phenotype in Mapuche Fowl

    PubMed Central

    Alcalde, José A.; Wang, Chen; Han, Jian-Lin; Gongora, Jaime; Gourichon, David; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Hanotte, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Oocyan or blue/green eggshell colour is an autosomal dominant trait found in native chickens (Mapuche fowl) of Chile and in some of their descendants in European and North American modern breeds. We report here the identification of an endogenous avian retroviral (EAV-HP) insertion in oocyan Mapuche fowl and European breeds. Sequencing data reveals 100% retroviral identity between the Mapuche and European insertions. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of European oocyan chicken indicates over-expression of the SLCO1B3 gene (P<0.05) in the shell gland and oviduct. Predicted transcription factor binding sites in the long terminal repeats (LTR) indicate AhR/Ar, a modulator of oestrogen, as a possible promoter/enhancer leading to reproductive tissue-specific over-expression of the SLCO1B3 gene. Analysis of all jungle fowl species Gallus sp. supports the retroviral insertion to be a post-domestication event, while identical LTR sequences within domestic chickens are in agreement with a recent de novo mutation. PMID:23990950

  5. HLA antigens and other genetic markers in the Mapuche Indians of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Haas, E J; Salzano, F M; Araujo, H A; Grossman, F; Barbetti, A; Weimer, T A; Franco, M H; Verruno, L; Nasif, O; Morales, V H

    1985-01-01

    A total of 107 Mapuche Indians living in western Argentina were studied with respect to 16 genetic systems. For HLA, there were a few differences in relation to previous studies; and considering the averages observed in 15 other South American tribes, Mapuche Indians showed low values for A2, A9 and C3, but high ones for A28 and B16. This is the first report of the presence (in low frequencies, 1-6%) of alleles C2, C6 and C7, as well as of DR antigens (most frequent alleles DR4 and DR2) in South American Indians. Some peculiar reactions shown by products of locus B suggest the presence of antigens that are characteristic of the Mapuche. As for the other systems, the frequencies of R1 (Rh) and PGM1(1) were lower but those for r (Rh), GLO1 and Hp1 were higher than the averages obtained considering previous studies of this ethnic group. Other salient findings were the variability observed in the PGM2 and C3 systems, and the low prevalence of Bfs.

  6. [Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Mapuche individuals living in urban and rural environment in Chile].

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Luis; Sanzana, Ruth; Salas, Carlos; Navarrete, Claudia; Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo; Rainqueo, Angélica; Jara, Tamara; Pérez-Bravo, Francisco; Ulloa, Natalia; Calvo, Carlos; Miquel, Juan F; Celis-Morales, Carlos

    2014-08-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MS) increases the risk of diabetes and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the prevalence of MS could differ by ethnicity and lifestyle factors. To determine the prevalence of MS in Mapuche individuals living in urban and rural environments in Chile and to investigate whether the prevalence and risk of MS in urban and rural environments differs by sex, age and nutritional status. A total of 1077 Mapuche participants were recruited from urban (MU = 288) and rural (MR = 789) settings. Body mass index, waist circumference and blood pressure were measured. A fasting blood sample was obtained to measure serum glucose, HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol. The prevalence of MS was determined using the unified IDF and ATP-III criteria. An environment and sex interaction was found for the prevalence of MS (p = 0.042). The prevalence was significantly lower in male MR (13%) compared to other groups (22, 23 and 25% among female MR, female MU and male MU respectively). Also, the prevalence of central obesity and low HDL-cholesterol were significantly lower in male MR. MU are at an increased risk of developing MS compared to MR, with an odds ratio of 1.59 (95% confidence intervals 1.1 to 2.2). This risk increases along with age or body mass index of the population. The adoption of an urbanized lifestyle increases the risk of developing MS in Mapuche individuals. This risk is enhanced by age and nutritional status.

  7. [Lithiasis of gallbladder in the IX region. Study of the autopsies in a zone with a high proportion of Mapuche population].

    PubMed

    Roa, I; Araya, J C; Wistuba, I; Villaseca, M; de Aretxabala, X

    1991-12-01

    The frequency of gallbladder stones in he IXth Region of Chile with a large indigenous population, was studied in forensic necropsies from 1980 to 1989. Among 2,505 autopsies, 85% were males and 15% females. At least 1 "mapuche" surname occurred in 27% of cases. Stones were found in 34% of females and 12.7% of males. No differences were found between "mapuche" and non mapuche cases. Cholecystectomy had been performed in 2.3% of males and 9.1% of males. These results do not differ from those reported from other regions in Chile.

  8. [Epidemiological study of oral health in a young adult Mapuche population].

    PubMed

    de la Maza, F J; Cueto, M V

    1989-04-01

    An epidemiological study on oral health was conducted on 200 mapuche natives, aged from 14 to 30 years in order to correlate their oral health level with their oral health habits, scholar level, age and sex. DMFT index and the simplified Oral Hygiene Index were evaluated in the sample of studied patients. It was found a 18.15 DMFT score, higher than the national level in our country, and the simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) was 1.7, showing deficient oral hygiene habits. A direct relationship between a low scholar level and a high caries index and a high OHI-S index was found.

  9. [Serum lipids and blood pressure levels in the +Mapuche population living in the Chilean region of Araucanía].

    PubMed

    Stockins, B; Larenas, G; Charles, M; Standen, D; Espinoza, O; Illesca, M; Opazo, J A; Carrasco, B; Lanas, F; Davis, M

    1998-11-01

    Chilean aboriginal populations (Mapuche) predominantly live in the region of Araucanía, in the southern part of the country. Their cardiovascular risk factors have not been systematically assessed. To study the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the Mapuche population. Blood pressure, weight, height, dietary habits, fasting serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides were measured in 1.948 adults living in 28 Mapuche communities. Thirteen percent of males and 16% of females had high blood pressure. Body mass index was 25.5 kg/m2 in males and 28.1 kg/m2 in females. Forty five percent of women and 24% of men were classified as obese. Mean serum total cholesterol was 186.7 +/- 9.6 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol was 58.7 +/- 30.7 mg/dl, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol was 3.4 +/- 2 and triglycerides were 155.2 +/- 91.2 mg/dl. Twenty eight percent of males and 9.6% of females smoked. Mapuche individuals have higher levels of HDL cholesterol a better total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio and lower frequency of smoking than non aboriginal Chileans subjects.

  10. Ethnic Discrimination against Mapuche Students in Urban High Schools in the Araucanía Region, Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becerra, Sandra; Merino, María Eugenia; Mellor, David

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic or racial discrimination towards children and adolescents at schools is of concern in many contexts around the world because it is associated with diverse psychosocial, behavioural, emotional, and identity problems. The purpose of this study was to identify the types of ethnic discrimination experienced by indigenous Mapuche adolescents in…

  11. Medicinal wild plant knowledge and gathering patterns in a Mapuche community from North-western Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Estomba, Diego; Ladio, Ana; Lozada, Mariana

    2006-01-03

    Medicinal plant use has persisted as a long standing tradition in the Mapuche communities of Southern Argentina and Chile. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in the rural Curruhuinca community located near the mountain city of San Martin de los Andes, Argentina. Semi-structured interviews were carried out on 22 families in order to examine the present use of medicinal plants and their reputed therapeutic effects. Ecological variables, such as distance to the gathering site and biogeographical origin were also analyzed. Our results showed that the Curruhuinca dwellers cited 89 plant species for medicinal purposes, both of native and exotic origin. They know about 47 native plants, of which they use 40, and they know of 42 exotic medicinal plants of which they use 34. A differential pattern was observed given that only native species, relevant for the traditional Mapuche medicine, were collected at more distant gathering sites. The interviewees mentioned 268 plant usages. Those most frequently reported had therapeutic value for treating digestive ailments (33%), as analgesic/anti-inflammatory (25%) and antitusive (13%). Native species were mainly cited as analgesics, and for gynecological, urinary and "cultural syndrome" effects, whereas exotic species were mainly cited for digestive ailments. The total number of medicinal plants known and used by the interviewees was positively correlated with people's age, indicating that this ancient knowledge tends to disappear in the younger generations.

  12. Gastroprotective effect of the Mapuche crude drug Araucaria araucana resin and its main constituents.

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Astudillo, Luis; Rodríguez, Jaime; Theoduloz, Cristina; Yáñez, Tania

    2005-10-03

    The resin from the tree Araucaria araucana (Araucariaceae) has been used since pre-columbian times by the Mapuche amerindians to treat ulcers. The gastroprotective effect of the resin was assessed in the ethanol-HCl-induced gastric ulcer in mice showing a dose-dependent gastroprotective activity at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg per os. The main three diterpene constituents of the resin, namely imbricatolic acid, 15-hydroxyimbricatolal and 15-acetoxyimbricatolic acid were isolated and evaluated for gastroprotective effect at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. A dose-related gastroprotective effect with highly significant activity (P<0.01) was observed at doses up to 200 mg/kg. At 100 mg/kg, the highest gastroprotective activity was provided by 15-hydroxyimbricatolal and 15-acetoxyimbricatolic acid, all of them being as active as the reference drug lansoprazole at 20 mg/kg. The cytotoxicity of the main diterpenes as well as lansoprazole was studied towards human lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) and determined by the MTT reduction assay. A concentration-dependent cell viability inhibition was found with IC50 values ranging from 125 up to 290 microM. Our results support the traditional use of the Araucaria araucana resin by the Mapuche culture.

  13. Genetic Background and Climatic Droplet Keratopathy Incidence in a Mapuche Population from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Schurr, Theodore G.; Dulik, Matthew C.; Cafaro, Thamara A.; Suarez, María F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether the incidence of and susceptibility to climatic droplet keratopathy (CDK), an acquired, often bilateral degenerative corneal disease, is influenced by the genetic background of the individuals who exhibit the disorder. Methods To determine whether the disease expression was influenced by the genetic ancestry of CDK cases in native Mapuche of the northwest area of Patagonia in Argentina, we examined mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome variation in 53 unrelated individuals. Twenty-nine of them were part of the CDK (patient) population, while 24 were part of the control group. The analysis revealed the maternal and paternal lineages that were present in the two study groups. Results This analysis demonstrated that nearly all persons had a Native American mtDNA background, whereas 50% of the CDK group and 37% of the control group had Native American paternal ancestry, respectively. There was no significant difference in the frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups between the CDK patient and control groups. Although the Y-chromosome data revealed differences in specific haplogroup frequencies between these two groups, there was no statistically significant relationship between individual paternal genetic backgrounds and the incidence or stage of disease. Conclusions These results indicate a lack of correlation between genetic ancestry as represented by haploid genetic systems and the incidence of CDK in Mapuche populations. In addition, the mtDNA appears to play less of a role in CDK expression than for other complex diseases linked to bioenergetic processes. However, further analysis of the mtDNA genome sequence and other genes involved in corneal function may reveal the more precise role that mitochondria play in the expression of CDK. PMID:24040292

  14. [Natural history of cholelithiasis and incidence of cholecystectomy in an urban and a Mapuche rural area].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ayuso, Rosa María; Hernández, Verónica; González, Berta; Carvacho, Claudia; Navarrete, Carlos; Alvarez, Manuel; González, Robinson; Marshall, Guillermo; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Nervi, Flavio

    2002-07-01

    Cholelithiasis is the second cause of hospital admissions in Chile. To study the prevalence of symptomatic gallstone disease and opportunity of cholecystectomy in La Florida, Santiago and among Mapuche Indians in Huapi Island. In the period 2000-2001, we contacted to 71% (1127 subjects) and to 61% (145 subjects) patients of La Florida and Huapi Island, respectively, that had previously participated in an epidemiological study on cholelithiasis in 1993. We defined symptomatic gallstone patients as those with a history of biliary colic. Each patient was subjected to gallbladder ultrasound. In 1993, 30-35% of gallstone patients were symptomatic (approximately 70% women). During the lapse 1993-2001, only 50% of subjects from La Florida and 25% of patients from Huapi Island were cholecystectomized (p < 0.05). Fifty percent of cholecystectomies were emergency operations. In 38 symptomatic Mapuche Indians from Huapi, cholecystectomy was indicated in 2001. After five months of the indication, only one of these subjects had been operated. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy represented 40% of all cholecystectomies performed in the National Health Service Hospitals. This study demonstrates an unacceptable high prevalence of symptomatic gallstone patients remaining non-operated in both the urban and rural communities. This reciprocally correlates with the high frequency of emergency cholecystectomies and the high incidence of gallbladder cancer among Chileans. This study contrasts negatively with the situation of Scotland, where 73.5% of cholecystectomies were laparoscopic in 1998-1999. To reach Scotland standards, the Chilean Public Health System should increase the number of cholecystectomies from 27,000 in 2001 to 57,510

  15. Genetic background and climatic droplet keratopathy incidence in a Mapuche population from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Schurr, Theodore G; Dulik, Matthew C; Cafaro, Thamara A; Suarez, María F; Urrets-Zavalia, Julio A; Serra, Horacio M

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether the incidence of and susceptibility to climatic droplet keratopathy (CDK), an acquired, often bilateral degenerative corneal disease, is influenced by the genetic background of the individuals who exhibit the disorder. To determine whether the disease expression was influenced by the genetic ancestry of CDK cases in native Mapuche of the northwest area of Patagonia in Argentina, we examined mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome variation in 53 unrelated individuals. Twenty-nine of them were part of the CDK (patient) population, while 24 were part of the control group. The analysis revealed the maternal and paternal lineages that were present in the two study groups. This analysis demonstrated that nearly all persons had a Native American mtDNA background, whereas 50% of the CDK group and 37% of the control group had Native American paternal ancestry, respectively. There was no significant difference in the frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups between the CDK patient and control groups. Although the Y-chromosome data revealed differences in specific haplogroup frequencies between these two groups, there was no statistically significant relationship between individual paternal genetic backgrounds and the incidence or stage of disease. These results indicate a lack of correlation between genetic ancestry as represented by haploid genetic systems and the incidence of CDK in Mapuche populations. In addition, the mtDNA appears to play less of a role in CDK expression than for other complex diseases linked to bioenergetic processes. However, further analysis of the mtDNA genome sequence and other genes involved in corneal function may reveal the more precise role that mitochondria play in the expression of CDK.

  16. Values, animal symbolism, and human-animal relationships associated to two threatened felids in Mapuche and Chilean local narratives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Chilean temperate rainforest has been subjected to dramatic fragmentation for agriculture and forestry exploitation. Carnivore species are particularly affected by fragmentation and the resulting resource use conflicts with humans. This study aimed at understanding values and human-animal relationships with negatively perceived threatened carnivores through the disclosure of local stories and Mapuche traditional folktales. Methods Our mixed approach comprised the qualitative analysis of 112 stories on the kodkod cat (Leopardus guigna) and the puma (Puma concolor) collected by students (9-14 years) from 28 schools in the Araucania region within their family contexts, 10 qualitative in-depth interviews with indigenous Mapuche people, 35 traditional Mapuche legends, and the significance of naming found in ethnographic collections. Results We revealed a quasi-extinction of traditional tales in the current knowledge pool about pumas and kodkods, local anecdotes, however, were present in significant numbers. Values associated to both felids were manifold, ranging from negativistic to positive values. While pumas played an important role in people’s spirituality, negative mythological connotations persisted in kodkod stories. Four prominent relationships were derived: (1) Both felids represent threats to livestock, pumas even to life, (2) both felids are symbols for upcoming negative events, (3) pumas are spiritual creatures, and (4) kodkods are threatened by humans. Recommendations are provided for stimulating new ways of perceiving unpopular and threatened carnivores among those who live in vicinity to them. PMID:23764186

  17. Values, animal symbolism, and human-animal relationships associated to two threatened felids in Mapuche and Chilean local narratives.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Thora M; Schüttler, Elke; Benavides, Pelayo; Gálvez, Nicolas; Söhn, Lisa; Palomo, Nadja

    2013-06-13

    The Chilean temperate rainforest has been subjected to dramatic fragmentation for agriculture and forestry exploitation. Carnivore species are particularly affected by fragmentation and the resulting resource use conflicts with humans. This study aimed at understanding values and human-animal relationships with negatively perceived threatened carnivores through the disclosure of local stories and Mapuche traditional folktales. Our mixed approach comprised the qualitative analysis of 112 stories on the kodkod cat (Leopardus guigna) and the puma (Puma concolor) collected by students (9-14 years) from 28 schools in the Araucania region within their family contexts, 10 qualitative in-depth interviews with indigenous Mapuche people, 35 traditional Mapuche legends, and the significance of naming found in ethnographic collections. We revealed a quasi-extinction of traditional tales in the current knowledge pool about pumas and kodkods, local anecdotes, however, were present in significant numbers. Values associated to both felids were manifold, ranging from negativistic to positive values. While pumas played an important role in people's spirituality, negative mythological connotations persisted in kodkod stories. Four prominent relationships were derived: (1) Both felids represent threats to livestock, pumas even to life, (2) both felids are symbols for upcoming negative events, (3) pumas are spiritual creatures, and (4) kodkods are threatened by humans. Recommendations are provided for stimulating new ways of perceiving unpopular and threatened carnivores among those who live in vicinity to them.

  18. Poverty determinants of acute respiratory infections among Mapuche indigenous peoples in Chile's Ninth Region of Araucania, using GIS and spatial statistics to identify health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Flavio

    2007-01-01

    Background This research concerns Araucanía, often called the Ninth Region, the poorest region of Chile where inequalities are most extreme. Araucanía hasn't enjoyed the economic success Chile achieved when the country returned to democracy in 1990. The Ninth Region also has the largest ethnic Mapuche population, located in rural areas and attached to small agricultural properties. Written and oral histories of diseases have been the most frequently used methods to explore the links between an ancestral population's perception of health conditions and their deprived environments. With census data and hospital records, it is now possible to incorporate statistical data about the links between poverty and disease among ethnic communities and compare results with non-Mapuche population. Data sources Hospital discharge records from Health Services North N = 24,126 patients, year 2003, and 7 hospitals), Health Services South (N = 81,780 patients and 25 hospitals); CAS-2/Family records (N = 527,539 individuals, 439 neighborhoods, 32 Comunas). Methods Given the over-dispersion of data and the clustered nature of observations, we used the global Moran's I and General G Gettis-Ord procedures to test spatial dependence. These tests confirmed the clusters of disease and the need to use spatial regression within a General Linear Mixed Model perspective. Results Health outcomes indicate significantly higher morbidity rates for the Mapuche compared to non-Mapuche in both age groups < 5 and 15–44, respectively; for the groups 70–79 and 80 + years of age, this trend is reversed. Mortality rates, however, are higher among Mapuches than non-Mapuches for the entire Ninth Region and for all age groups. Mortality caused by respiratory infections is higher among Mapuches than non-Mapuches in all age-groups. A major finding is the link between poverty and respiratory infections. Conclusion Poverty is significantly associated with respiratory infections in the population of Chile

  19. Poverty determinants of acute respiratory infections among Mapuche indigenous peoples in Chile's Ninth Region of Araucania, using GIS and spatial statistics to identify health disparities.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Flavio

    2007-07-02

    This research concerns Araucanía, often called the Ninth Region, the poorest region of Chile where inequalities are most extreme. Araucanía hasn't enjoyed the economic success Chile achieved when the country returned to democracy in 1990. The Ninth Region also has the largest ethnic Mapuche population, located in rural areas and attached to small agricultural properties. Written and oral histories of diseases have been the most frequently used methods to explore the links between an ancestral population's perception of health conditions and their deprived environments. With census data and hospital records, it is now possible to incorporate statistical data about the links between poverty and disease among ethnic communities and compare results with non-Mapuche population. Hospital discharge records from Health Services North N = 24,126 patients, year 2003, and 7 hospitals), Health Services South (N = 81,780 patients and 25 hospitals); CAS-2/Family records (N = 527,539 individuals, 439 neighborhoods, 32 Comunas). Given the over-dispersion of data and the clustered nature of observations, we used the global Moran's I and General G Gettis-Ord procedures to test spatial dependence. These tests confirmed the clusters of disease and the need to use spatial regression within a General Linear Mixed Model perspective. Health outcomes indicate significantly higher morbidity rates for the Mapuche compared to non-Mapuche in both age groups < 5 and 15-44, respectively; for the groups 70-79 and 80 + years of age, this trend is reversed. Mortality rates, however, are higher among Mapuches than non-Mapuches for the entire Ninth Region and for all age groups. Mortality caused by respiratory infections is higher among Mapuches than non-Mapuches in all age-groups. A major finding is the link between poverty and respiratory infections. Poverty is significantly associated with respiratory infections in the population of Chile's Ninth Region. High deprivation areas are associated

  20. The influence of Christian conversion in Mapuche traditional medicine in Temuco, Chile: toward a cultural syncretism or a form of ideological assimilation?

    PubMed

    Torri, Maria Costanza

    2013-12-01

    The Mapuche communities living in the urban areas of Chile have undergone radical cultural changes due to Christian conversion. This article analyzes the influence of these changes on the Mapuche ideas and practices of the traditional healers (machi) and patients in Temuco (IX Region), Chile, and the changes and adaptations in the perceptions of healing practices and rituals by the patients. The paper shows how, despite some evident challenges, the encounter with the religion of Christianity can create a process of cultural and spiritual syncretism and push traditional medicine toward an increased specialization in the therapeutic practices.

  1. Chemosensory perception and medicinal plants for digestive ailments in a Mapuche community in NW Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Molares, Soledad; Ladio, Ana

    2009-06-25

    To document the richness of plant species used in gastrointestinal disorders and to investigate about the criteria of aroma and flavor associated with its recognition, classification, selection and use. Ethnobotanical fieldwork consisted of interviews to 30 inhabitants living in a Mapuche community of Northwestern Patagonia; data collected was analyzed by means of non-parametric statistics. This work records 75 ethnospecies, pertaining to 40 botanic families. Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Chenopodiaceae were the most frequently mentioned and described in terms of smell and taste. Most of species (69%) have notable aroma and/or flavor characteristics. The species presenting highest consensus in the population are positively associated with a higher frequency of organoleptic descriptions. In addition, local people consider these perceptions to be potentially useful in the search for substitutes when species are scarce or disappear from a locality. It is possible to establish a preliminary system of classification of medicinal plants based on their organoleptic characteristics and relate this to their effects on health. Moreover the cultural interpretation of smell and taste is of great heuristic importance to ethnopharmacology, in that it indicates which plants are most likely to contain the main active ingredients sought.

  2. Ethnobotanical review of the Mapuche medicinal flora: use patterns on a regional scale.

    PubMed

    Molares, Soledad; Ladio, Ana

    2009-03-18

    This paper aimed to present a quantitative review of information on Mapuche ethnobotany published for Argentina and Chile in the period 1955-2007. Sixteen ethnobotanical articles were studied quantitatively by utilizing ethnobotanical indices, non-parametric and multivariate tests. A total of 505 medicinal species, 304 native (60%) and 196 exotic (39%) were registered. Ailments were treated with both native and exotic species, although native showed higher values of consensus (between studies) than exotic, and were more frequently used in all cases. The most common ailments were gastro-intestinal pains (26%). Most cures used herbs (56%). Native species were obtained mainly by gathering in forests and ecotones (40%), and exotics by gathering in anthropogenic environments (28%). Our results demonstrate the existence of a common, shared body of knowledge of the medicinal flora at a regional level, integrating ancestral knowledge with foreign knowledge accumulated over time. Finally, reflecting cultural erosion, modern articles cited significantly fewer native plants than older articles; a trend not found with exotic species. The information offered can be used as a guide for future work on promising species for health care, and as background information for the development of bio-cultural conservation strategies.

  3. Bile acid synthesis is increased in Chilean Hispanics with gallstones and in gallstone high-risk Mapuche Indians.

    PubMed

    Gälman, Cecilia; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Pérez, Rosa Maria; Einarsson, Curt; Ståhle, Lars; Marshall, Guillermo; Nervi, Flavio; Rudling, Mats

    2004-03-01

    Gallstone disease is an important, costly health-care problem in Western societies. It is still unclear whether hepatic lipid regulatory enzymes play primary or secondary roles in gallstone formation. In this study, the aim was to investigate whether the synthesis of bile acids and cholesterol is increased in gallstone disease and to test whether such a metabolic change, if present, might occur before gallstone formation. A total of 125 Chilean Hispanic women (80 without gallstones and 45 with gallstones) matched for age and body mass index were investigated, along with 40 Chilean Mapuche Indian women (20 without gallstones and 20 with gallstones), a population group in which the prevalence for gallstone disease is very high. Fasting blood plasma samples were assayed for 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and lathosterol, 2 strong indicators for hepatic bile acid and body cholesterol synthesis, respectively. Plasma 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one levels, corrected for plasma cholesterol, were significantly increased by 50% in Hispanic women with gallstones as compared with gallstone-free Hispanics (P < 0.006). As compared with Hispanic women without gallstones, plasma 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one levels were increased by > or =100% (P < 0.002) in Mapuche Indian women, independently of whether gallstones were present. Plasma lathosterol, corrected for plasma cholesterol, was significantly increased by 22% in Hispanic women with gallstones and in Mapuche Indian women compared with Hispanic women. The results indicate that the synthesis of bile acids and cholesterol is induced in gallstone disease and precedes gallstone development. These inductions presumably occur as a response to an increased intestinal loss of bile acids.

  4. [HLA genetic markers and auto-antibody profile in a Mapuche family with a case affected of type 1 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Asenjo, Sylvia; Gleisner, Andrea; Pérez, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (DM1) is caused by an autoimmune process that destroys beta cells of pancreas. Not all carriers of susceptible HLA genes and positive for autoantibodies develop the disease. Environmental factors play a role in triggering the autoimmune process. To analyze an exceptional case of DM1 in a Mapuche family in the context of genetic, immunological and environmental factors. A study of a family with an affected female child was carried out in a Mapuche community in Southern Chile (VIII region). This is an unique and sporadic DM1 case with Mapuche heritage. Nutritional and viral infections data were collected by interview and clinical records. A genetic analysis by PCR was done to detect class I and II HLA genes by reverse dot blot. The proband, her mother and sister had positive islet cell antibodies (ICA). Her father and brother were negative. All thefamily was positive for anti glutamic decarboxylase antibodies (GAD65). All subjects had HLA-DRB1 0407/0407 and HLA-DQB1 0302/0302 alleles. The index case and her father were homozygotes for the HLA-A1:A*68012/A*68012 allele. Mean breastfeeding lapse was 18 months in all children. No evidences for viral infections such as rubella, mumps or measles were found in this family. There was an altered profile of autoantibodies in the family of the index case. All genotypes were comparable with the European population where the diabetogenic combination DR4/DQB1*0302 is the most prevalent. No environmental factors could be incriminated as triggers of the disease.

  5. HLA non-class II genes may confer type I diabetes susceptibility in a Mapuche (Amerindian) affected family.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bravo, Francisco; Martinez-Laso, Jorge; Martin-Villa, Jose M; Moscoso, Juan; Moreno, Almudena; Serrano-Vela, Juan I; Zamora, Jorge; Asenjo, Silvia; Gleisner, Andrea; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    A rare case of type I diabetes is studied in an Amerindian (Mapuche) family from Chile, analyzing glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet-cell autoantibodies and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. The affected sib is the only one that has one specific HLA haplotype combination that differs from the other sibs only in the HLA class I genes. It is concluded that HLA diabetes susceptibility factors may be placed outside the class II region or even that susceptibility factors do not exist in the HLA region in this Amerindian family.

  6. Genetic variation among the Mapuche Indians from the Patagonian region of Argentina: mitochondrial DNA sequence variation and allele frequencies of several nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Ginther, C; Corach, D; Penacino, G A; Rey, J A; Carnese, F R; Hutz, M H; Anderson, A; Just, J; Salzano, F M; King, M C

    1993-01-01

    DNA samples from 60 Mapuche Indians, representing 39 maternal lineages, were genetically characterized for (1) nucleotide sequences of the mtDNA control region; (2) presence or absence of a nine base duplication in mtDNA region V; (3) HLA loci DRB1 and DQA1; (4) variation at three nuclear genes with short tandem repeats; and (5) variation at the polymorphic marker D2S44. The genetic profile of the Mapuche population was compared to other Amerinds and to worldwide populations. Two highly polymorphic portions of the mtDNA control region, comprising 650 nucleotides, were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and directly sequenced. The 39 maternal lineages were defined by two or three generation families identified by the Mapuches. These 39 lineages included 19 different mtDNA sequences that could be grouped into four classes. The same classes of sequences appear in other Amerinds from North, Central, and South American populations separated by thousands of miles, suggesting that the origin of the mtDNA patterns predates the migration to the Americas. The mtDNA sequence similarity between Amerind populations suggests that the migration throughout the Americas occurred rapidly relative to the mtDNA mutation rate. HLA DRB1 alleles 1602 and 1402 were frequent among the Mapuches. These alleles also occur at high frequency among other Amerinds in North and South America, but not among Spanish, Chinese or African-American populations. The high frequency of these alleles throughout the Americas, and their specificity to the Americas, supports the hypothesis that Mapuches and other Amerind groups are closely related.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. [Iron supplementation in Chilean Mapuche infants of the Cautin Province, Chile].

    PubMed

    Franco, E; Hertrampf, E; Hazbún, J; Segú, S; Illanes, J C; Palacios, L; Figueroa, G; Orellana, J

    1996-06-01

    A 1.8 ml iron supplementation of ferrous sulfate is administered for 90 days to 76 Mapuche infants, 12 months of age, male and female, from the rural area of the Cautin province of Chile. The iron nutrition is evaluated before and after the supplementation, through: hemoglobin, haematocrit, transferrin saturation and seric ferritin. Stools test are taken at the infant's home, to confirm the supplement intake and to measure the iron excreted. To study the contained of dietary Fe a Recordatory 24 hour Inquest (RI) is applied moreover a Proximal Chemical Analysis (PCHA) to meal test proceeding from the infant's homes. At 12 months before starting the supplementation, the anemia prevalence was of 28.3%, but it disappear as a result of the intervention. Also 65.3% of the infants showed and increase of 1 g or more on their hemoglobin, which indicates that they were anemic at the beginning of the iron supplementation. By means of this therapeutic test it was find 31% more of anemic infants, indicating more sensibility of this method. The high levels of anemia prevalence are due to the low iron intake, characteristic of the non lactious foods, which according results of the RI reaches an average of 2.8 +/- 1.2 mg of Fe/day, versus 4.8 +/- 4.0 mg of Fe/day according to PCHA. The observed difference between both test showed that there is a process of food environmental contamination, by the use of iron utensils and great soil contact. The high environmental contamination could also be proved by the high iron excretion stools (140 mg of Fe/100 g of stools). This method used to measure the Fe excretion of the supplement, would not be valid in rural population groups with similar characteristics to those of the studied group, because it does not discriminate between the intake and the extremely high environmental contamination. To prevent anemia due to iron absence in infants, it is absolutely necessary to have some iron fortified food starting at 6 months of age, as a

  8. [Polymorphisms of the multiple drug resistance gene (MDR1) in Mapuche, Mestizo and Maori populations in Chile].

    PubMed

    Wielandt, Ana María; Vollrath, Valeska; Chianale, José

    2004-09-01

    There are significant differences in drug responses among different ethnic groups. The multidrug transporter P-gp, encoded by the MDR1 gene, plays a key role in determining drug bioavailability, and an association between a polymorphism in exon 26 (C3435T) and lower P-gp expression has been found. The co-segregation of this polymorphism with the polymorphism in exon 12 (C1236T) and in exon 21 (G2677T/A) determines several MDR1 haplotypes in humans. To characterize the polymorphisms of exons 26, 21 and 12 of the MDR1 gene in different Chilean populations. Using a polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism technique, we studied the allelic frequencies and the distribution of MDR1 haplotypes in 3 Chilean populations: Mestizo (n=104), Mapuche (n=96, living in the National Reservation of the Huapi Island, Ranico Lake) and Maori (n=52, living in Eastern Island). The frequency of the normal MDR1*1 haplotype, without mutations, was lower in Mapuches than in Mestizos or Maoris (p<0.005) but similar to that reported in Asian population (p=0.739), probably due to the Asian origin of the Amerindian populations. In addition, the MDR1*l haplotype fequency hin Mestizos was similar to the frequency reported in Caucasians (p=0.49), in agreement with the origin of our population, with a strong influence of Caucasian genes from the Spanish conquerors. The MDR1*2 haplotype distribution, with the three polymoyphisms and probably lower multidrug transporter expression, was similar in the three Chilean populations studied (p>0.0.5), but lower than the frequencies reported in Caucasians or Asians (p<0.05). We found significant differences in the frequencies of genetic polymorphisms of the MDR1 gene in Chilean populations, related to the ethnic origins of our ancestors.

  9. Traditional Mapuche ecological knowledge in Patagonia, Argentina: fishes and other living beings inhabiting continental waters, as a reflection of processes of change.

    PubMed

    Aigo, Juana; Ladio, Ana

    2016-12-07

    Understanding how people interpret environmental change and develop practices in response to such change is essential to comprehend human resource use. In the cosmology of the American indigenous peoples, as among the Mapuche people, freshwater systems are considered a living entity, where animals have an enormous role to play in the universe of meaning. However, human adaptive responses to freshwater system dynamics are scarcely examined. In this work a survey is carried out in three Mapuche communities of Argentine Patagonia to assess their traditional knowledge of the fishes and other non-human living beings that inhabit lakes and rivers. Both material and symbolic aspects are included, as are the differences in knowledge and use of the fishes between past and present times. Our methods were based on a quali-quantitative fieldwork approach. In-depth interviews were carried out with 36 individuals from three rural Mapuche populations in Neuquén province (Patagonia, Argentina). Free listing was used for inquiring about fish knowledge and use. Fishes were identified scientifically and ethnotaxonomically. In-depth analysis of the discourses was conducted, documenting the recognition, perception, and cultural significance of fluvial environments and their inhabitants. Quantitative survey results were analyzed with categorical statistical methods. The body of knowledge of the communities studied reflects the socio-environmental changes experienced by Patagonian freshwater bodies. According to local perception, non-human beings live in these water bodies, guarding the environment, and they should not be disturbed. At present, five different fish species are identified, three of which are exotic, having been introduced at the beginning of the 20th century by the white man. These exotic trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salvelinus fontinalis) are considered ill omens, indicators of the white man's presence, and therefore their appearance presages negative events for the

  10. Subtypes of Native American ancestry and leading causes of death: Mapuche ancestry-specific associations with gallbladder cancer risk in Chile

    PubMed Central

    González Silos, Rosa; Marcelain, Katherine; Baez Benavides, Pablo; Barahona Ponce, Carol; Fischer, Christine; Peil, Barbara; Sinsheimer, Janet; Barajas, Olga; Gonzalez-Jose, Rolando; Cátira Bortolini, Maria; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Gallo, Carla; Ruiz Linares, Andres; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Latin Americans are highly heterogeneous regarding the type of Native American ancestry. Consideration of specific associations with common diseases may lead to substantial advances in unraveling of disease etiology and disease prevention. Here we investigate possible associations between the type of Native American ancestry and leading causes of death. After an aggregate-data study based on genome-wide genotype data from 1805 admixed Chileans and 639,789 deaths, we validate an identified association with gallbladder cancer relying on individual data from 64 gallbladder cancer patients, with and without a family history, and 170 healthy controls. Native American proportions were markedly underestimated when the two main types of Native American ancestry in Chile, originated from the Mapuche and Aymara indigenous peoples, were combined together. Consideration of the type of Native American ancestry was crucial to identify disease associations. Native American ancestry showed no association with gallbladder cancer mortality (P = 0.26). By contrast, each 1% increase in the Mapuche proportion represented a 3.7% increased mortality risk by gallbladder cancer (95%CI 3.1–4.3%, P = 6×10−27). Individual-data results and extensive sensitivity analyses confirmed the association between Mapuche ancestry and gallbladder cancer. Increasing Mapuche proportions were also associated with an increased mortality due to asthma and, interestingly, with a decreased mortality by diabetes. The mortality due to skin, bladder, larynx, bronchus and lung cancers increased with increasing Aymara proportions. Described methods should be considered in future studies on human population genetics and human health. Complementary individual-based studies are needed to apportion the genetic and non-genetic components of associations identified relying on aggregate-data. PMID:28542165

  11. Subtypes of Native American ancestry and leading causes of death: Mapuche ancestry-specific associations with gallbladder cancer risk in Chile.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo Bermejo, Justo; Boekstegers, Felix; González Silos, Rosa; Marcelain, Katherine; Baez Benavides, Pablo; Barahona Ponce, Carol; Müller, Bettina; Ferreccio, Catterina; Koshiol, Jill; Fischer, Christine; Peil, Barbara; Sinsheimer, Janet; Fuentes Guajardo, Macarena; Barajas, Olga; Gonzalez-Jose, Rolando; Bedoya, Gabriel; Cátira Bortolini, Maria; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Gallo, Carla; Ruiz Linares, Andres; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2017-05-01

    Latin Americans are highly heterogeneous regarding the type of Native American ancestry. Consideration of specific associations with common diseases may lead to substantial advances in unraveling of disease etiology and disease prevention. Here we investigate possible associations between the type of Native American ancestry and leading causes of death. After an aggregate-data study based on genome-wide genotype data from 1805 admixed Chileans and 639,789 deaths, we validate an identified association with gallbladder cancer relying on individual data from 64 gallbladder cancer patients, with and without a family history, and 170 healthy controls. Native American proportions were markedly underestimated when the two main types of Native American ancestry in Chile, originated from the Mapuche and Aymara indigenous peoples, were combined together. Consideration of the type of Native American ancestry was crucial to identify disease associations. Native American ancestry showed no association with gallbladder cancer mortality (P = 0.26). By contrast, each 1% increase in the Mapuche proportion represented a 3.7% increased mortality risk by gallbladder cancer (95%CI 3.1-4.3%, P = 6×10-27). Individual-data results and extensive sensitivity analyses confirmed the association between Mapuche ancestry and gallbladder cancer. Increasing Mapuche proportions were also associated with an increased mortality due to asthma and, interestingly, with a decreased mortality by diabetes. The mortality due to skin, bladder, larynx, bronchus and lung cancers increased with increasing Aymara proportions. Described methods should be considered in future studies on human population genetics and human health. Complementary individual-based studies are needed to apportion the genetic and non-genetic components of associations identified relying on aggregate-data.

  12. High Resolution UHPLC-MS Metabolomics and Sedative-Anxiolytic Effects of Latua pubiflora: A Mystic Plant used by Mapuche Amerindians

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Montoya, Eliana L.; Reyes, Marco A.; Pardo, Joel; Nuñez-Alarcón, Juana; Ortiz, José G.; Jorge, Juan C.; Bórquez, Jorge; Mocan, Andrei; Simirgiotis, Mario J.

    2017-01-01

    Latua pubiflora (Griseb) Phil. Is a native shrub of the Solanaceae family that grows freely in southern Chile and is employed among Mapuche aboriginals to induce sedative effects and hallucinations in religious or medicine rituals since prehispanic times. In this work, the pentobarbital-induced sleeping test and the elevated plus maze test were employed to test the behavioral effects of extracts of this plant in mice. The psychopharmacological evaluation of L. pubiflora extracts in mice determined that both alkaloid-enriched as well as the non-alkaloid extracts produced an increase of sleeping time and alteration of motor activity in mice at 150 mg/Kg. The alkaloid extract exhibited anxiolytic effects in the elevated plus maze test, which was counteracted by flumazenil. In addition, the alkaloid extract from L. pubiflora decreased [3H]-flunitrazepam binding on rat cortical membranes. In this study we have identified 18 tropane alkaloids (peaks 1–4, 8–13, 15–18, 21, 23, 24, and 28), 8 phenolic acids and related compounds (peaks 5–7, 14, 19, 20, 22, and 29) and 7 flavonoids (peaks 25–27 and 30–33) in extracts of L. pubiflora by UHPLC-PDA-MS which are responsible for the biological activity. This study assessed for the first time the sedative-anxiolytic effects of L. pubiflora in rats besides the high resolution metabolomics analysis including the finding of pharmacologically important tropane alkaloids and glycosylated flavonoids. PMID:28798689

  13. High Resolution UHPLC-MS Metabolomics and Sedative-Anxiolytic Effects of Latua pubiflora: A Mystic Plant used by Mapuche Amerindians.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Montoya, Eliana L; Reyes, Marco A; Pardo, Joel; Nuñez-Alarcón, Juana; Ortiz, José G; Jorge, Juan C; Bórquez, Jorge; Mocan, Andrei; Simirgiotis, Mario J

    2017-01-01

    Latua pubiflora (Griseb) Phil. Is a native shrub of the Solanaceae family that grows freely in southern Chile and is employed among Mapuche aboriginals to induce sedative effects and hallucinations in religious or medicine rituals since prehispanic times. In this work, the pentobarbital-induced sleeping test and the elevated plus maze test were employed to test the behavioral effects of extracts of this plant in mice. The psychopharmacological evaluation of L. pubiflora extracts in mice determined that both alkaloid-enriched as well as the non-alkaloid extracts produced an increase of sleeping time and alteration of motor activity in mice at 150 mg/Kg. The alkaloid extract exhibited anxiolytic effects in the elevated plus maze test, which was counteracted by flumazenil. In addition, the alkaloid extract from L. pubiflora decreased [(3)H]-flunitrazepam binding on rat cortical membranes. In this study we have identified 18 tropane alkaloids (peaks 1-4, 8-13, 15-18, 21, 23, 24, and 28), 8 phenolic acids and related compounds (peaks 5-7, 14, 19, 20, 22, and 29) and 7 flavonoids (peaks 25-27 and 30-33) in extracts of L. pubiflora by UHPLC-PDA-MS which are responsible for the biological activity. This study assessed for the first time the sedative-anxiolytic effects of L. pubiflora in rats besides the high resolution metabolomics analysis including the finding of pharmacologically important tropane alkaloids and glycosylated flavonoids.

  14. Phoenix : Complex Adaptive System of Systems (CASoS) engineering version 1.0.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Thomas W.; Quach, Tu-Thach; Detry, Richard Joseph; Conrad, Stephen Hamilton; Kelic, Andjelka; Starks, Shirley J.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brodsky, Nancy S.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Sunderland, Daniel J.; Mitchell, Michael David; Ames, Arlo Leroy; Maffitt, S. Louise; Finley, Patrick D.; Russell, Eric Dean; Zagonel, Aldo A.; Reedy, Geoffrey E.; Mitchell, Roger A.; Corbet, Thomas Frank, Jr.; Linebarger, John Michael

    2011-08-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex ecological, sociological, economic and/or technical systems which we must understand to design a secure future for the nation and the world. Perturbations/disruptions in CASoS have the potential for far-reaching effects due to pervasive interdependencies and attendant vulnerabilities to cascades in associated systems. Phoenix was initiated to address this high-impact problem space as engineers. Our overarching goals are maximizing security, maximizing health, and minimizing risk. We design interventions, or problem solutions, that influence CASoS to achieve specific aspirations. Through application to real-world problems, Phoenix is evolving the principles and discipline of CASoS Engineering while growing a community of practice and the CASoS engineers to populate it. Both grounded in reality and working to extend our understanding and control of that reality, Phoenix is at the same time a solution within a CASoS and a CASoS itself.

  15. Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems (CASoS) engineering and foundations for global design.

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Nancy S.; Finley, Patrick D.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brown, Theresa Jean; Linebarger, John Michael; Moore, Thomas W.; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Maffitt, S. Louise; Mitchell, Michael David; Ames, Arlo Leroy

    2012-01-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex ecological, sociological, economic and/or technical systems which must be recognized and reckoned with to design a secure future for the nation and the world. Design within CASoS requires the fostering of a new discipline, CASoS Engineering, and the building of capability to support it. Towards this primary objective, we created the Phoenix Pilot as a crucible from which systemization of the new discipline could emerge. Using a wide range of applications, Phoenix has begun building both theoretical foundations and capability for: the integration of Applications to continuously build common understanding and capability; a Framework for defining problems, designing and testing solutions, and actualizing these solutions within the CASoS of interest; and an engineering Environment required for 'the doing' of CASoS Engineering. In a secondary objective, we applied CASoS Engineering principles to begin to build a foundation for design in context of Global CASoS

  16. Complex Adaptive System of Systems (CASoS) Engineering Applications. Version 1.0.

    SciTech Connect

    Linebarger, John Michael; Maffitt, S. Louise; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brown, Theresa Jean; Ames, Arlo Leroy

    2011-10-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex eco-socio-economic-technical systems which we must understand to design a secure future for the nation and the world. Perturbations/disruptions in CASoS have the potential for far-reaching effects due to highly-saturated interdependencies and allied vulnerabilities to cascades in associated systems. The Phoenix initiative approaches this high-impact problem space as engineers, devising interventions (problem solutions) that influence CASoS to achieve specific aspirations. CASoS embody the world's biggest problems and greatest opportunities: applications to real world problems are the driving force of our effort. We are developing engineering theory and practice together to create a discipline that is grounded in reality, extends our understanding of how CASoS behave, and allows us to better control those behaviors. Through application to real-world problems, Phoenix is evolving CASoS Engineering principles while growing a community of practice and the CASoS engineers to populate it.

  17. Complex Adaptive Special Operations (CASO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    impeded by an organizational command and control superstructure designed to support a centralized decision making process. The four components of...and David. Organizational Survival in the New World: The Intelligent Complex Adaptive System (Burlington, MA: KMCI Press, 2004), 295. 2 Clay, Peter... Behavoir , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/flocking_%28behavior%29, accessed 2 December 2006. 54 Possible CASO rules may include: exposure – don’t get

  18. Medicinal plants in the cultural landscape of a Mapuche-Tehuelche community in arid Argentine Patagonia: an eco-sensorial approach.

    PubMed

    Molares, Soledad; Ladio, Ana

    2014-08-26

    The taste and smell of medicinal plants and their relation to the cultural landscape of a Mapuche-Tehuelche community in the Patagonian steppe was investigated. We assume that the landscapes as a source of therapeutic resources is perceived, classified and named according to different symbolic, ecological and utilitarian criteria which are influenced by chemosensorial appearance of medicinal plants which are valued by inhabitants. Information relating to the cultural landscape experienced by 18 inhabitants, all representing 85% of the families, in terms of medicinal plants, knowledge of species and their organoleptic perception was obtained through participant observation, interviews and free listing. The data were examined using cualitative and quantitative approach, including discourse analysis and non-parametric statistics. Informants use 121 medicinal species, obtained from both wild and non-wild environments, most of which (66%) present aroma and/or taste. It was found that the plants with highest use consensus used for digestive, respiratory, cardio-vascular, analgesic-anti-inflammatory, obstetric-gynaecological and genito-unrinary complaints, have the highest frequencies of cites reporting flavor; and those with the highest frequencies relating to digestive, analgesic-anti-inflammatory and cultural syndromes present the highest frequencies of aroma. Flavor and/or aroma are interpreted as strong or soft, and the strongest are associated with treatment of supernatural ailments. Also, taste is a distinctive trait for the most of the species collected in all natural units of the landscape, while aroma is more closely associated with species growing at higher altitudes. The local pharmacopeia is also enriched with plants that come from more distant phytogeographical environments, such as the Andean forest and the Patagonian Monte, which are obtained through barter with neighboring populations. Herbal products are also obtained in regional shop. The practices of

  19. Medicinal plants in the cultural landscape of a Mapuche-Tehuelche community in arid Argentine Patagonia: an eco-sensorial approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The taste and smell of medicinal plants and their relation to the cultural landscape of a Mapuche-Tehuelche community in the Patagonian steppe was investigated. We assume that the landscapes as a source of therapeutic resources is perceived, classified and named according to different symbolic, ecological and utilitarian criteria which are influenced by chemosensorial appearance of medicinal plants which are valued by inhabitants. Methods Information relating to the cultural landscape experienced by 18 inhabitants, all representing 85% of the families, in terms of medicinal plants, knowledge of species and their organoleptic perception was obtained through participant observation, interviews and free listing. The data were examined using cualitative and quantitative approach, including discourse analysis and non-parametric statistics. Results Informants use 121 medicinal species, obtained from both wild and non-wild environments, most of which (66%) present aroma and/or taste. It was found that the plants with highest use consensus used for digestive, respiratory, cardio-vascular, analgesic-anti-inflammatory, obstetric-gynaecological and genito-unrinary complaints, have the highest frequencies of cites reporting flavor; and those with the highest frequencies relating to digestive, analgesic-anti-inflammatory and cultural syndromes present the highest frequencies of aroma. Flavor and/or aroma are interpreted as strong or soft, and the strongest are associated with treatment of supernatural ailments. Also, taste is a distinctive trait for the most of the species collected in all natural units of the landscape, while aroma is more closely associated with species growing at higher altitudes. The local pharmacopeia is also enriched with plants that come from more distant phytogeographical environments, such as the Andean forest and the Patagonian Monte, which are obtained through barter with neighboring populations. Herbal products are also obtained in

  20. Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems (CASOS) engineering environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Detry, Richard Joseph; Linebarger, John Michael; Finley, Patrick D.; Maffitt, S. Louise; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Ames, Arlo Leroy

    2012-02-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex physical-socio-technical systems which we must understand to design a secure future for the nation. The Phoenix initiative implements CASoS Engineering principles combining the bottom up Complex Systems and Complex Adaptive Systems view with the top down Systems Engineering and System-of-Systems view. CASoS Engineering theory and practice must be conducted together to develop a discipline that is grounded in reality, extends our understanding of how CASoS behave and allows us to better control the outcomes. The pull of applications (real world problems) is critical to this effort, as is the articulation of a CASoS Engineering Framework that grounds an engineering approach in the theory of complex adaptive systems of systems. Successful application of the CASoS Engineering Framework requires modeling, simulation and analysis (MS and A) capabilities and the cultivation of a CASoS Engineering Community of Practice through knowledge sharing and facilitation. The CASoS Engineering Environment, itself a complex adaptive system of systems, constitutes the two platforms that provide these capabilities.

  1. Infrared spectroscopic method for analysis of Mg 2Ca(SO 4) 3 in mixtures with MgSO 4 and/or CaSO 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Duane H.; Seshadri, Kal S.

    1999-04-01

    Mg 2Ca(SO 4) 3 is prepared from, and may be found in, mixtures with MgSO 4 and CaSO 4. Such mixtures frequently occur in the ash produced by various types of coal combustion, especially in filter cakes from pressurized fluidized bed combustion with dolomite as a SO x sorbent. Previously, qualitative analyses could be performed for Mg 2Ca(SO 4) 3 in these mixtures, but no quantitative analytical method was available. An infrared spectroscopic method has been developed that provides reasonably quantitative results for Mg 2Ca(SO 4) 3, MgSO 4,and CaSO 4 in their mixtures.

  2. Thermally stimulated luminescence studies of undoped, Cu- and Mn-doped CaSO4 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manam, J.; Das, S.

    Thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) of undoped and doped CaSO4 with activators such as Cu and Mn has been investigated. The polycrystalline samples of undoped and doped CaSO4 are prepared by the melting method. The formation of CaSO4 compound is confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared studies. Scanning electron microscopic studies of CaSO4 are also carried out. The TSL glow curves of undoped CaSO4, Cu- and Mn-doped CaSO4 are studied. Comparison of the thermoluminescence (TL) intensity of the most intensive glow peak of Cu-doped CaSO4 compound with that of undoped CaSO4 shows that addition of Cu impurity in CaSO4 compound enhances the TL intensity by about four times. However, the addition of Mn impurity to undoped CaSO4 increases the TL intensity by about three times when compared with that of undoped CaSO4. The TL-dose dependence of all three samples was studied and was observed to be almost linear in the studied range of irradiation time. Among the samples studied, namely undoped CaSO4 and Cu- and Mn-doped CaSO4, Cu-doped CaSO4 is found to be the most sensitive. The trap parameters, namely order of kinetics (b), activation energy (E) and frequency factor (s) associated with the most intensive glow peaks of CaSO4:Mn, CaSO4:Cu and CaSO4 phosphors were determined using the glow curve shape (Chen's) method.

  3. Studying CaSO4:Eu as an OSL phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guckan, Veysi; Altunal, Volkan; Nur, Necmettin; Depci, Tolga; Ozdemir, Adnan; Kurt, Kasim; Yu, Yan; Yegingil, Ihami; Yegingil, Zehra

    2017-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the properties of the OSL signal from Eu-doped calcium sulfate (CaSO4:Eu) phosphor and study on its thermal behavior as a function of temperature under a series of luminescence experiments. The suitability of its usage as an optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter was also checked. CaSO4:Eu was synthesized using the precipitation method and prepared in pellet form. The dopant concentration value was performed as 0.1 mol%. The synthesized CaSO4:Eu was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method to confirm the product. To have an idea about the crystallography and microstructure morphology of the material, scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis were carried out. It was found that the OSL signal is a resultant signal having three components and exhibits thermal quenching above 150 °C. The excitation spectrum of CaSO4:Eu showed different peaks in the region 220-360 nm with the highest one at 269 nm. Thermoluminescence (TL) signals of CaSO4:Eu pellets were obtained and compared with the TL signals obtained after OSL measurements of the same pellets by blue light stimulation. The low temperature peak near 180 °C did not show any significant change in TL after OSL measurement whereas the high temperature peak at 240 °C was bleached with the blue light illumination and might be responsible for the observed OSL signal. The dosimetric properties such as dose response, minimum detectable dose, energy response, reusability, fading properties, thermal stability and effect of reading temperatures on OSL signals were examined. OSL signals of CaSO4:Eu pellets were decreased by approximately 8% at the end of the 24 h and by about 7% at the end of 28 days when compared with the first readout. The thermal stability of the ∼240 °C TL peak and OSL signal using isothermal decay measurements were used to determine the trap parameters. The CaSO4:Eu OSL dosimeter in accordance with the presented study allows a high

  4. Recombination luminescence of CaSO4:Tb3+ and CaSO4:Gd3+phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtseva, Irina; Lushchik, Aleksandr; Maaroos, Aarne; Azmaganbetova, Zhannur; Nurakhmetov, Turlybek; Salikhoja, Zhussupbek

    2012-08-01

    A comparative study of the excitation of luminescence by VUV radiation as well as of thermally and photostimulated luminescence has been carried out for CaSO4:Tb3+ and CaSO4:Gd3+ phosphors, where Na+ or F- ions are used for charge compensation. The distinction in hole processes for the phosphors with Na+ or F- compensators is determined by the differing thermal stability of the holes localized at/near Tb3+Na+ and Gd3+Na+ (up to 100-160 K) or at/near Tb3+F- V Ca and Gd3+F- V Ca centers involving also a cation vacancy (up to 400-550 K). Tunnel luminescence in the pairs of localized electrons and holes nearby Tb3+ or Gd3+ has been detected. The mechanisms of electron-hole, hole-electron and tunnel recombination luminescence as well as a subsequent released energy transfer to RE3+ ions are considered.

  5. The binary system K2SO4CaSO4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, J.J.; Morey, G.W.; Hansen, I.D.

    1965-01-01

    The binary system K2SO4CaSO4 was studied by means of heating-cooling curves, differential thermal analysis, high-temperature quenching technique and by means of a heating stage mounted on an X-ray diffractometer. Compositions and quench products were identified optically and by X-ray. Limited solid solution of CaSO4 in K2SO4 was found. There is a eutectic at 875??C and 34 wt. per cent CaSO4. Calcium langbeinite melts incongruently at 1011??C. The melting-point of CaSO4 (1462??C) was determined by the quenching technique using sealed platinum tubes. The only intermediate crystalline phase found in the system is K2SO4??2CaSO4 (calcium langbeinite). ?? 1965.

  6. ESR and TL mechanism in CaSO4 : Ag co-doped phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhabekar, Bhushan; Menon, Sanjeev; Alagu Raja, E.; Sanaye, S. S.; Gundu Rao, T. K.; Bhatt, B. C.; Kher, R. K.

    2006-06-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) studies have been carried out on CaSO4 : Mn, CaSO4 : Ag,Mn, CaSO4 : Ag,Nd, CaSO4 : Ag,Mn,Nd, CaSO4 : Ag,Zr and CaSO4 : Ag,Mn,Zr phosphors. It is found that TL at 360 °C in CaSO4 : Ag,Mn,Nd is about 40 times that of CaSO4 : Ag,Mn and about 170 times that of CaSO4 : Ag,Nd. This shows that the presence of an efficient luminescent centre (Mn2+) as well as a trivalent impurity (such as Nd3+ or Y3+) is important for enhancement of TL at 360 °C in the CaSO4 : Ag,Mn,Nd phosphor system. Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies show that the peak at 360 °C correlates with an Ag2+ centre formed due to γ-irradiation and observable only below -170 °C. The Ag2+ centre is characterized by an axial g-tensor with principal values g|| = 2.38 and gbottom = 2.41. ESR studies further indicate that the precursor to a centre observable at low temperature (-170 °C) appears to act as the recombination centre for the TL peak at 360 °C. The low temperature centre is characterized by the g-values g|| = 2.0023 and gbottom = 2.0038 and is assigned to the SO_{3}^{ - } radical.

  7. The ternary system K2SO4MgSO4CaSO4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, J.J.; Morey, G.W.; Silber, C.C.

    1967-01-01

    Melting and subsolidus relations in the system K2SO4MgSO4CaSO4 were studied using heating-cooling curves, differential thermal analysis, optics, X-ray diffraction at room and high temperatures and by quenching techniques. Previous investigators were unable to study the binary MgSO4CaSO4 system and the adjacent area in the ternary system because of the decomposition of MgSO4 and CaSO4 at high temperatures. This problem was partly overcome by a novel sealed-tube quenching method, by hydrothermal synthesis, and by long-time heating in the solidus. As a result of this study, we found: (1) a new compound, CaSO4??3MgSO4 (m.p. 1201??C) with a field extending into the ternary system; (2) a high temperature form of MgSO4 with a sluggishly reversible inversion. An X-ray diffraction pattern for this polymorphic form is given; (3) the inversion of ??-CaSO4 (anhydrite) to ??-CaSO4 at 1195??C, in agreement with grahmann; (1) (4) the melting point of MgSO4 is 1136??C and that of CaSO4 is 1462??C (using sealed tube methods to prevent decomposition of the sulphates); (5) calcium langbeinite (K2SO4??2CaSO4) is the only compound in the K2SO4CaSO4 binary system. This resolved discrepancies in the results of previous investigators; (6) a continuous solid solution series between congruently melting K2SOP4??2MgSO4 (langbeinite) and incongruently melting K2SO4??2CaSO4 (calcium langbeinite); (7) the liquidus in the ternary system consists of primary phase fields of K2SO4, MgSO4, CaSO4, langbeinite-calcium langbeinite solid solution, and CaSO4??3MgSO4. The CaSO4 field extends over a large portion of the system. Previously reported fields for the compounds (K2SO4??MgSO4??nCaSO4), K2SO4??3CaSO4 and K2SO4??CaSO4 were not found; (8) a minimum in the ternary system at: 740??C, 25% MgSO4, 6% CaSO4, 69% K2SO4; and ternary eutectics at 882??C, 49% MgSO4, 19% CaSO4, 32% K2SO4; and 880??, 67??5% MgSO4, 5% CaSO4, 27??5% K2SO4. ?? 1967.

  8. Feasibility study of CaSO4:Tb,Yb as a thermoluminescent dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junot, Danilo O.; Santos, Max A.; Chagas, Marcos A. P.; Couto dos Santos, Marcos A.; Nunes, Luiz A. O.; Souza, Divanizia N.

    2014-02-01

    A new composite based on CaSO4, using terbium as dopant and ytterbium as co-dopant (CaSO4:Tb,Yb), was developed for employment as a thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeter. The crystals used in this work were grown using a production route based on the Yamashita method (Yamashita et al., 1968). Crystal powder was calcined at 600 °C for 1 h. Pellets were made by adding commercial and colorless glass to improve physical resistance and sintered at 700 °C for 6 h. All samples were irradiated by a beta source (90Sr/90Y) and received doses from 1 Gy to 5 Gy. TL analyses have been performed and characteristics such as sensitivity, reproducibility, linearity, and fading have been studied. The CaSO4:Tb,Yb pellets glow curves presented two peaks, the first at around 115 °C, and the second at around 200 °C. The highest intensity was shown for CaSO4:Tb,Yb with a concentration of 0.1 mol% of Tb and Yb together. In all the samples the TL response was proportional to the absorbed dose. Therefore, the CaSO4:Tb,Yb has potential to be used as a thermoluminescent dosimeter.

  9. Reduction Kinetics of a CasO4 Based Oxygen Carrier for Chemical-Looping Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, R.; Song, Q. L.; Zheng, W. G.; Deng, Z. Y.; Shen, L. H.; Zhang, M. Y.

    The CaSO4 based oxygen carrier has been proposed as an alternative low cost oxygen carrier for Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) of coal. The reduction of CaSO4 to CaS is an important step for the cyclic process of reduction/oxidation in CLC of coal with CaSO4 based oxygen carrier. Thermodynamic analysis of CaSO4 oxygen carrier with CO based on the principle of Gibbs free energy minimization show that the essentially high purity of CO2 can be obtained, while the solid product is CaS instead of CaO. The intrinsic reduction kinetics of a CaSO4 based oxygen carrier with CO was investigated in a differential fixed bed reactor. The effects of gas partial pressure (20%-70%) and temperature (880-950°C) on the reduction were investigated. The reduction was described with shrinking unreacted core model. Experimental results of CO partial pressure on the solid conversion show that the reduction of fresh oxygen carriers is of first order with respect to the CO partial pressure. Both chemical reaction control and product layer diffusion control determine the reduction rate. The dependences of reaction rate constant and effective diffusivity with temperature were both obtained. The kinetic equation well predicted the experimental data.

  10. An Intercultural Education: Teaching Reading in a Mapuche Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández, María Elena Mellado; Hermosilla, Adriana del Carmen Huaiquimil

    2015-01-01

    In Chile, there are currently intercultural educational policies; national curricula that assume updated research development including investigational advances in reading and opportunities for improvement of teacher training. However, in La Araucania Region predominates for lagging behind in reading and it is necessary to explain this tendency…

  11. Impulsive excitation of mechanoluminescence in gamma-irradiated CaSO4:Eu phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kher, R. S.; Dhoble, S. J.; Pandey, R. K.; Upadhyay, A. K.; Khokhar, M. S. K.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanoluminescence (ML) and thermoluminescence (TL) of γ-irradiated CaSO4:Eu phosphor have been studied. CaSO4 samples having different concentrations of Eu were prepared by dissolving CaSO4.2H2O in sulphuric acid and evaporating the excess acid around 300 °C. ML was excited impulsively by dropping a load onto the sample. Three distinct peaks have been observed in the ML intensity versus time curve. The ML intensity increases with the increasing concentration of the dopant. The effect of temperature on the shape and peak of ML intensity was also recorded. Growth, saturation and broadening in an ML peak were observed. TL glow curves of CaSO4:Eu phosphors at different concentrations contain two TL peaks: the first peak was observed at around 110 °C and the other at 210 °C. Experimental results suggest that the ML excitation is related to the movement of dislocation with defect centres, the increase in ML with temperature is due to the enhancement in dislocation capture probability, and the reduction is due to the thermal bleaching of defect centres.

  12. Preparation of CaSO4:Dy by precipitation method to gamma radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Rivera, T; Roman, J; Azorín, J; Sosa, R; Guzmán, J; Serrano, A K; García, M; Alarcón, G

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the preparation and characterization of dysprosium-doped calcium sulfate (CaSO(4):Dy) phosphor, which was obtained by homogeneous precipitation from calcium acetate Ca(CH(3)COO(-))(2). Structural and morphological characteristics were studied using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The structure of all compounds was determined by X-ray diffraction method too. Thermoluminescence (TL) emission properties of CaSO(4):Dy under gamma radiation effects were studied. This phosphor powder presented a TL glow curve with two peaks (Tmax) centered at around of 180 and 300 degrees C, respectively. The TL response of CaSO(4):Dy as a function of gamma absorbed dose was linear in a wide range. Both emission and excitation spectra were also obtained. Results showed that this new preparation method of CaSO(4):Dy TL phosphor is less expensive, cleaner and safer than the conventional preparation method. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling the thermoluminescent response of CaSO4:Dy by the MCNPX method.

    PubMed

    Furetta, C; Roman, J; Rivera, T; Azorín, J; Azorín, C G; Vega-Carrillo, H R

    2010-01-01

    This work describes an algorithm for absorbed dose evaluation in the region of X-ray diagnostic energy based on the response of CaSO(4):Dy thermoluminescence powder detectors. The absorbed dose was calculated using Monte Carlo simulation code (MCSC) and then compared to the experimental TLD results for X-rays effective energies (60)Co gamma radiation. In order to study the photon interaction in the matter, a cylindrical model of 1 cm(3) was used. The gamma radiation source was placed at 100 cm to the object; the source is considered as an isotropic source of (60)Co. The energy deposited into the cylindrical model was determined by the Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNPX) method. Measurements of the TL phosphors were obtained by irradiating the powder by gamma radiation. TL glow curve of CaSO(4):Dy after gamma irradiated at a 1 Gy of absorbed dose was then obtained. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental Comparison of Calcium Sulfate (CaSO(4)) Scale Deposition on Coated Carbon Steel and Titanium Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Otaibi, Dhawi AbdulRahman

    Calcium Sulfate (CaSO4) deposit reduces heat exchange in heat transfer equipment which adversely affects the equipment performance and plant production. This experimental study was conducted by using the Rotating Cylinder Electrode (RCE) equipment available in the university's Center for Engineering Research (CER/RI) to study and compare the effect of solution hydrodynamics on Calcium Sulfate (CaSO4) scale deposition on coated carbon steel and titanium surfaces. In addition, the Scanning Electron Microscopic was used to examine the morphology and distribution of Calcium Sulfate (CaSO 4) crystals deposited on titanium metal surfaces. In this study, the rotational speed was varied from 100 to 2000 RPM to study the behavior of Calcium Sulfate (CaSO4) accumulation on both materials. Based on the experimental results, Calcium Sulfate (CaSO4) scale obtained in the present study was almost constant on coated carbon steel in which the rate of scale deposition is equal to the rate of scale removal. However, the deposition of Calcium Sulfate (CaSO4) observed on titanium material was increased as the speed increased.

  15. CaSO4:DY,Mn: A new and highly sensitive thermoluminescence phosphor for versatile dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahl, Shaila; Lochab, S. P.; Kumar, Pratik

    2016-02-01

    With the advent of newer techniques for dose reduction coupled with the development of more sensitive detectors, the radiation doses in radiological medical investigation are decreasing. Nevertheless, keeping the tenet in mind that all radiation doses could entail risk, there is a need to develop more sensitive dosimeters capable of measuring low doses. This paper gives the account of the development of a new and sensitive phosphor CaSO4:Dy,Mn and its characterization. The standard production procedure based on the recrystallization method was used to prepare CaSO4:Dy,Mn. The Thermoluminescence (TL) studies were carried out by exposing it with gamma radiation (Cs-137) from 10 μGy to 100 Gy. The theoretical studies to determine the number of peaks and kinetic parameters related to the TL glow peaks in CaSO4:Dy,Mn was performed using the Computerized Glow Curve Deconvolution (CGCD) method. Experiments were performed to determine optimum concentration of the dopants Dysprosium (Dy) and Mangnese (Mn) in the host CaSO4 so that maximum sensitivity of the phosphor may be achieved. The optimum dopant concentration turned out to be 0.1 mol%. As there were two dopants Dy and Mn their relative ratio were varied in steps of 0.025 keeping the concentration of total dopant (Dy and Mn) 0.1 mol% always. The maximum TL intensity was seen in the CaSO4:Dy(0.025),Mn(0.075) combination. The TL sensitivity of this phosphor was found to be about 2 and 1.8 times higher than that of popular phosphor CaSO4:Dy and LiF:Mg,Cu,P (TLD-700H) respectively. This new phosphor CaSO4:Dy,Mn showed fading of 11% which is similar to that of the standard phosphor CaSO4:Dy. The paper concludes that the new, highly sensitive TL phosphor CaSO4:Dy,Mn has shown higher sensitivity and hence the potential to replace commonly used CaSO4:Dy.

  16. Electron spin resonance and thermoluminescence studies in CaSO4: Dy,Ag phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhabekar, Bhushan; Menon, Sanjeev; Kumar, Rajesh; Gundu Rao, T. K.; Bhatt, B. C.; Lakshmanan, A. R.

    2005-09-01

    The defect centres formed in the thermoluminescence (TL) phosphor CaSO4 : Dy,Ag are studied using the technique of electron spin resonance (ESR). The Ag co-doped phosphor exhibits three glow peaks around 130°C, 220°C and 375°C, in contrast to the two glow peaks observed in the CaSO4 : Dy phosphor at 130°C and 220°C, at gamma ray dose of 1 Gy when the TL measurements were carried out in the spectral region 300-650 nm. ESR studies show that the additional peak at 375°C correlates with a Ag2+ centre formed owing to γ-irradiation and observable below -170°C. The Ag2+ centre is characterized by an axial g-tensor with principal values g|| = 2.38 and gbottom = 2.41. ESR studies further indicate that the precursor to a centre observable at low temperature (-170°C) appears to act as the recombination centre for the TL peak at 375°C; this radical is characterized by the g-values g|| = 2.0023 and gbottom = 2.0038 and is assigned to the SO_{3}^{-} radical. It is observed that there is more incorporation of Ag in the CaSO4 : Dy system as compared with that in the pure CaSO4 system. The variation of Ag2 + ESR intensity with Ag concentration as well as with dose in the range 0.3-120 kGy is studied. The Ag2 + ESR signal and TL saturate at 2 × 104 Gy, but the intensity of the SO_{3}^{-} radical continues to increase up to the studied dose of 1.2 × 105 Gy. The intensity of the SO_{3}^{-} radical decreases with Ag concentration in CaSO4 : Dy,Ag, in agreement with the TL model proposed in this work.

  17. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) study of CaSO 4:Dy phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Bakshi, A. K.; Ciatto, G.; Aquilanti, G.; Pradhan, A. S.; Pascarelli, S.

    2006-03-01

    Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements have been carried out on CaSO 4:Dy phosphors at the Dy L 3 edge with synchrotron radiation. The data have been analysed to find out the Dy-S and Dy-O bond lengths in the neighborhood of the Dy atoms. Measurements have been carried out over several samples thermally annealed for different cycles at 400 °C in air for 1 h and the change in bond lengths in samples with increasing number of annealing cycles have been studied by analyzing the EXAFS data.

  18. Room and low temperature luminescence properties of CaSO4: Dy , Tm codoped with Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Can, N.; Karalı, T.; Wang, Y.; Townsend, P. D.; Prokic, M.; Canimoglu, A.

    2009-08-01

    Rare earths, especially Dy or Tm doped CaSO4 phosphors are actively studied. They have high sensitivity, a large dynamic range, thermal stability and ease of preparation. Nevertheless, they can be enhanced by inclusion of lithium and this study reports some effects of lithium co-dopant on the TL and radioluminescence (RL) emissions of two TL phosphors. Addition of Li as a co-dopant ion was made either during chemical preparation of the phosphors, or as a binder component mixed with the basic phosphors matrix during the process of pressing and sintering the TLD pellets.

  19. Study of Residual TL of CaSO4:Dy-based Thermoluminescence Dosemeter.

    PubMed

    Sahai, Manish K; Pradhan, S M; Bakshi, A K; Datta, D

    2017-04-27

    Thermoluminescence (TL) signal obtained during second readout of a TL dosemeter disc previously exposed to ionising radiation is termed as residual TL. The origin of residual TL has not been discussed in detail so far in the literature. In this work, experimentally obtained residual TL signal and its origin is studied for CaSO4:Dy-based TL dosemeter through numerical simulation and role of deeper traps has been discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Thin CaSO4:Dy thermoluminescent dosimeters for calibration of 90Sr+90Y applicators.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Patrícia L; Oliveira, Mércia L; Caldas, Linda V E

    2012-04-01

    Clinical applicators are used in brachytherapy to treat superficial lesions of skin and eye. They should be periodically calibrated according to quality control programs and international recommendations. Thin CaSO(4):Dy thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to calibrate various applicators with a dermatological applicator as a reference. The obtained absorbed dose rates were compared with those quoted in their calibration certificates. Depth-dose curves were constructed for all the applicators. A mail dosimetry system was developed for calibration of clinical applicators. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of CaSO 4:Dy thermoluminescent phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakshi, A. K.; Jha, S. N.; Olivi, L.; Phase, D. M.; Kher, R. K.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2007-11-01

    Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements have been carried out on CaSO4:Dy phosphor samples at the Dy L3 edge with synchrotron radiation. Measurements were carried out on a set of samples which were subjected to post-preparation annealing at different temperatures and for different cycles. The EXAFS data have been analysed to find the Dy-S and Dy-O bond lengths in the neighbourhood of the Dy atoms in a CaSO4 matrix. The observations from EXAFS measurements were verified with XANES and XPS techniques. On the basis of these measurements, efforts were made to explain the loss of thermoluminescence sensitivity of CaSO4:Dy phosphors after repeated cycles of annealing at 400 °C in air for 1 h.

  2. PTFE Additive and Re-annealing Effect on Thermoluminescence Response of CaSO4:Dy Derived from Co-precipitation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuraeni, Nunung; Dwi Septianto, Ricky; Iskandar, Ferry; Haryanto, Freddy; Waris, Abdul; Hiswara, Eri

    2017-07-01

    Effect of re-annealing treatment in thermoluminescence response of thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) CaSO4:Dy and CaSO4:Dy with PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene) addition was investigated. CaSO4:Dy was prepared by a co-precipitation method. The PTFE was added before re-annealing treatment which the mass ratio of CaSO4:Dy and PTFE was fixed to 2:3. The re-annealing treatments of the samples were done at temperature 700 °C for 1 hr. The obtained samples were characterized using a Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to observe the molecule bonding in sample and crystal properties, respectively. From the experimental results, it was observed that the thermoluminescence intensity of CaSO4:Dy, CaSO4:Dy re-annealed at 700 °C, and CaSO4:Dy + PTFE re-annealed at 700 °C are 57.03, 75.15, and 1191.11 nC, respectively. The intensity of 700 °C-re-annealed CaSO4:Dy increased significantly after PTFE addition.

  3. Thermoluminesence of gamma rays irradiated CaSO4 nanorods doped with different elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salah, Numan

    2015-01-01

    Nanorods of calcium sulfate (CaSO4) activated by Ag, Cu, Dy, Eu and Tb were synthesized by the co-precipitation technique. They were irradiated by γ-rays in a wide range of exposures and studied for their thermoluminesence (TL) properties. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra. SEM images show that the samples doped with rare earths elements (i.e. Dy, Eu and Tb) have thinner nanorods than the other samples, while XRD pattern shows a complete crystalline structures in a monoclinic phase. The TL glow curves of these samples show two components. The first one include low temperature glow peaks at around 125 °C, while the second component shows high temperature peaks in the range 230-270 °C. These glow peaks diver from sample to sample by their TL intensity. The TL results are promising, particularly that of Tb and Eu. Tb doped sample is found to be a highly TL sensitive with a prominent glow peak at around 270 °C, while Eu has created very active, high dense electron traps. The later shows quite linear response in the whole studied exposures i.e. 10 Gy-10 kGy. These results show that Eu or Tb doped CaSO4 nanorods might be proper candidates as dosimeters for high doses of ionizing radiations used in irradiation of foods and seeds.

  4. Electronic excitations and self-trapping of electrons and holes in CaSO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtseva, I.; Klopov, M.; Lushchik, A.; Lushchik, Ch; Maaroos, A.; Pishtshev, A.

    2014-04-01

    A first-principles study of the electronic properties of a CaSO4 anhydrite structural phase has been performed. A theoretical estimation for the fundamental band gap (p → s transitions) is Eg = 9.6 eV and a proper threshold for p → d transitions is Epd = 10.8 eV. These values agree with the data obtained for a set of CaSO4 doped with Gd3+, Dy3+, Tm3+ and Tb3+ ions using the methods of low-temperature highly sensitive luminescence and thermoactivation spectroscopy. The results are consistent with theoretical predictions of a possible low-temperature self-trapping of oxygen p-holes. The hopping diffusion of hole polarons starts above ˜40 K and is accompanied by a ˜50-60 K peak of thermally stimulated luminescence of RE3+ ions caused due to the recombination of hole polarons with the electrons localized at RE3+. There is no direct evidence of the self-trapping of heavy d-electrons, however, one can argue that their motion rather differs from that of conduction s-electrons.

  5. Complex terbium luminescence centers in spectral transformers based on CaSO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtseva, I.; Lushchik, A.; Lushchik, Ch.; Maaroos, A.; Nagirnyi, V.; Pazylbek, S.; Tussupbekova, A.; Vasil'chenko, E.

    2015-11-01

    The blue and green terbium luminescence excitation spectra (5-15 eV) at a temperature of 9 or 300 K have been measured for a set of CaSO4 : Tb3+ phosphors with calcium and terbium ions characterized by fundamental features, which were synthesized by the solid-state reaction method with variations in the composition of the raw material, the type of terbium compounds, and the concentration of introduced terbium. A comprehensive analysis of these data, emission spectra, and decay kinetics (with the rising stage) of the terbium luminescence has revealed that the main luminescence centers in an efficient phosphor with 4 at % Tb3+ each contain four closely spaced Tb3+ ions in calcium positions, as well as Na+ ions and hydrogen-containing radicals. In such complex luminescence centers, cooperative nonradiative resonant transitions in neighboring terbium ions leads to a nearly complete concentration of the terbium luminescence in the green spectral region (5 D 4 → 7 F J ). The quantum yield of the green luminescence in CaSO4 : Tb3+ (4 at %) exceeds unity, QY > 1, in the region of direct excitation of Tb3+ into the 5 d state (~5.9 eV) or excitation of oxyanions near the terbium ions (~8.1 eV).

  6. The Bagni di Lucca thermal waters (Tuscany, Italy): an example of Ca-SO 4 waters with high Na/Cl and low Ca/SO 4 ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschetti, Tiziano; Venturelli, Giampiero; Toscani, Lorenzo; Barbieri, Maurizio; Mucchino, Claudio

    2005-06-01

    The Bagni di Lucca thermal waters (Lucca province, Tuscany, Italy) have been well known since the Middle Age for their alleged curative properties. In the present work, the waters have been analysed for major and trace components and for O, H, S and Sr isotopes. The δ 2H and δ 18O values indicate a meteoric origin of the waters and the tritium content suggests long-term (more than 40 years) circulation at depth. The δ 34S values in dissolved sulphate of the warmest waters (Doccione, Paolina, Bernabò, Demidoff, Cova) indicate interaction with Triassic evaporites; however, the δ 34S values as well as the 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios in the waters appear to be a little higher (on average 17.6±0.4‰ and 0.70834±0.00006, respectively) than in Triassic sulphate minerals from the Northern Apennines (16.0±0.5‰ and 0.70778±0.00011). The waters are Ca-sulphate and characterised by high Na/Cl (≌2) and low Ca/SO 4 (≌0.7) mole ratios, high Sr (≤12 mg/L), F (≤4.2 mg/L), As (≤80 μg/L), Cs (≤70 μg/L), Rb (≤107 μg/L) and salinity (up to 3087 mg/L of total dissolved solids), low alkalinity, and pH in the range 6.3-7.5. Assuming equilibrium of the waters with anhydrite and chalcedony, the evaluated temperature and pressure are about 70-75 °C and 200-300 bar; considering the pressure as hydrostatic, the evaluated depth of equilibration approaches that of the metamorphic basement (about 3.0-3.8 km) underlying the carbonate-evaporite formations occurring in the area. Thermodynamic computations indicate that the high Na/Cl ratio and the low Ca/SO 4 ratio in the waters may be due to progressive dissolution of albite, anhydrite, dolomite and carbon dioxide accompanied by calcite precipitation. The linear correlations between the major and trace components, including 2H and 18O, demonstrate that thermal springs undergo dilution by low-salinity shallow waters which are recharged at low elevation.

  7. Phase relation of CaSO4 at high pressure and temperature up to 90 GPa and 2300 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Taku; Ohfuji, Hiroaki; Inoue, Toru

    2016-05-01

    Calcium sulfate (CaSO4), one of the major sulfate minerals in the Earth's crust, is expected to play a major role in sulfur recycling into the deep mantle. Here, we investigated the crystal structure and phase relation of CaSO4 up to ~90 GPa and 2300 K through a series of high-pressure experiments combined with in situ X-ray diffraction. CaSO4 forms three thermodynamically stable polymorphs: anhydrite (stable below 3 GPa), monazite-type phase (stable between 3 and ~13 GPa) and barite-type phase (stable up to at least 93 GPa). Anhydrite to monazite-type phase transition is induced by pressure even at room temperature, while monazite- to barite-type transition requires heating at least to 1500 K at ~20 GPa. The barite-type phase cannot always be quenched from high temperature and is distorted to metastable AgMnO4-type structure or another modified barite structure depending on pressure. We obtained the pressure-volume data and density of anhydrite, monazite- and barite-type phases and found that their densities are lower than those calculated from the PREM model in the studied P-T conditions. This suggests that CaSO4 is gravitationally unstable in the mantle and fluid/melt phase into which sulfur dissolves and/or sulfate-sulfide speciation may play a major role in the sulfur recycling into the deep Earth.

  8. Hemangioblastomas de fosa posterior: Reporte de 16 casos y revisión de la literatura

    PubMed Central

    Campero, Alvaro; Ajler, Pablo; Fernandez, Julio; Isolan, Gustavo; Paiz, Martin; Rivadeneira, Conrado

    2016-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo: El propósito del presente trabajo es presentar los resultados de 16 pacientes con diagnóstico de hemangioblastoma de fosa posterior (HBFP), operados con técnicas microquirúrgicas. Método: Desde junio de 2005 a diciembre de 2015, 16 pacientes con diagnóstico de HBFP fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente. Se evaluó: sexo, edad, tipo de lesión (quística con nódulo, quística sin nódulo, sólida y sólida-quística), sintomatología y resultados postoperatorios. Resultados: De los 16 pacientes intervenidos, 11 fueron varones y 5 mujeres. La edad promedio fue de 44 años. La forma más frecuente fue quística con nódulo (57%), seguida por forma sólida (31%). Un solo caso presentó la forma quística sin nódulo (6%), y uno solo la forma sólido-quística (6%). La sintomatología más frecuente fue cefalea acompañada de síndrome cerebeloso (43%), seguido de síndrome de hipertensión endocraneana (25%). En todos los casos la resección fue completa, siendo necesario en un caso una embolización previa. Como complicaciones postoperatorias, 2 pacientes presentaron ataxia (mejoró al cabo de 3 meses), y 1 paciente presentó una fístula de LCR (se solucionó con un drenaje espinal externo). Se registró un óbito por complicaciones postoperatorias. Conclusión: Lo más frecuente de ver en pacientes con HBFP es la forma quística con nódulo, siendo su sintomatología predominante la cefalea acompañada de síndrome cerebeloso. La resección quirúrgica completa es posible, con una baja tasa de morbimortalidad. PMID:27999708

  9. Thermoluminescence and photoluminescence of cerium doped CaSO 4 nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedifar, M.; Mehrabi, M.

    2010-12-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) and photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of CaSO 4:Ce nanocrystalline prepared by hydrothermal method has been studied. Its TL glow curve contains three overlapping glow peaks at around 490, 505 and 521 K. Emission spectra band at 303 and 324 nm were observed for the orthorhombic phase of nanosheets. TL response of the prepared nanocrystalline to β and γ radiation was studied and the sensitivity of the nanosheets was found much more than that of analogous microcrystalline and is around 10 times higher than the well known high sensitive TL dosimeter LiF:Mg, Cu, P (GR-200) hot-pressed chips. TL kinetic parameters of this nanocrystalline are also presented.

  10. Preliminary Studies of Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) CaSO4:Dy Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuraeni, N.; Iskandar, F.; Waris, A.; Haryanto, F.

    2017-07-01

    Thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) CaSO4:Dy was synthesised by coprecipitation. The TLD was observed after radiation exposure to Strontium-90. The thermoluminescence intensity was read using a TLD Reader Harshaw 3500. The thermoluminescent response obtained was 59.29 nC. Then re-annealing was conducted with the temperature varied at 700, 800 and 900 °C. The thermoluminescent intensity obtained at temperatures of 700 °C, 800 °C and 900 °C was 66.12 nC, 169.45 nC, and 552.37 nC respectively. The sensitivity of the TLD increased in response to the re-annealing temperature rise. In addition to observing the thermoluminescence properties, a comparison was made between the TLD obtained from this experiment with an existing TLD in the market. Finally, also the glow-curve characteristics of the TLD were observed.

  11. Carbon ions irradiation on nano- and microcrystalline CaSO4 : Dy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salah, Numan

    2008-08-01

    Nanoparticles of CaSO4 : Dy phosphor with a particle size of around 30 nm have been prepared by the chemical co-precipitation technique. Pellet samples of the nanomaterials were irradiated by a 75 MeV C6+ ion beam at the fluence range 1 × 109-1 × 1013 ions cm-2. Thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves of the irradiated samples were recorded and studied. The microcrystalline form of this sample is also included in the study with the aim of reporting a comparative measurement. The TL analysis shows that the glow curve of the nanomaterial has two peaks at around 166 and 210 °C. These peaks are similar to those induced in the microcrystalline sample with a slight difference in their TL response. The second peak is more prominent in the case of the microcrystalline sample at low fluences, while the first one dominates in the nanostructured sample mainly at higher fluences. The TRIM code based on Monte Carlo simulation was also used for calculating some ion beam parameters. Dosimetric properties of the carbon ion beam irradiated materials show that the nanostructure material has excellent features such as a simple glow curve structure and a linear TL response over a wider range than the corresponding microcrystalline sample. These results show that the nanostructure form of CaSO4 : Dy might be useful for detecting the high doses of carbon ions used in radiotherapy. Thermal analysis of the prepared nano- and microcrystalline materials was also done in the range 50-500 °C using thermogravimetry analysis and differential thermal analysis. No phase transitions within this range of heating for both the materials are observed.

  12. La implantacion del enfoque constructivista en el aula de ciencia: Estudio de caso multiple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo Betancourt, Luz I.

    Esta investigacion estudia la implantacion del enfoque constructivista en tres aulas de ciencia del contexto puertorriqueno. Se auscultaron las practicas educativas que utilizan maestras consideradas constructivistas y la correspondencia de sus practicas educativas con los elementos esenciales de la didactica que proponen los teoricos de los planteamientos constructivistas. Se ausculto, ademas, a que vision del enfoque constructivista responden las expresiones de las maestras acerca de su practica educativa y como compara con su quehacer, a la luz de los elementos esenciales de las visiones constructivistas piagetiana, social y radical. Se utilizo el diseno de estudio descriptivo de caso multiple. El estudio se baso en entrevistas a profundidad, revision de documentos y observacion no participativa a la sala de clases. El contexto fueron tres escuelas publicas de la Region Educativa de San Juan, una elemental, una intermedia y una superior. Los resultados confirmaron que la transicion hacia el enfoque constructivista es un proceso que toma tiempo, dedicacion y la participacion en adiestramientos y readiestramientos acerca del nuevo enfoque. Las maestras coinciden en la mayoria de las practicas educativas que utilizan para implantar el enfoque constructivista de ensenanza y difieren en algunas debido, probablemente, a que han tenido que adaptarlas a los correspondientes niveles de ensenanza: elemental, intermedio y superior. Dos de las maestras planifican por conceptos generadores, mientras que una de ellas planifica siguiendo la guia que recibe del Departamento de Educacion. Difieren ademas, en el enfasis que confieren al inquirir cientifico. Con relacion a la correspondencia entre la vision manifestada por las maestras a la luz de las visiones piagetiana, social y radical, aparentemente, las preguntas del protocolo de entrevistas no lograron evocar la informacion con suficiente profundidad, por lo que la investigadora tuvo que inferir las visiones de las

  13. Thermoluminescence (TL) properties and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of high purity CaSO4:Dy TL material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarudin, Nadira; Abdullah, Wan Saffiey Wan; Hamid, Muhammad Azmi Abdul; Dollah, Mohd Taufik

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the characterization and TL properties of dysprosium (Dy) doped calcium sulfate (CaSO4) TL material produced by co-precipitation technique with 0.5mol% concentration of dopant. The morphology of the produced TL material was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the micrograph shows that rectangular parallelepiped shaped crystal with the average of 150 μm in length were produced. The crystallinity of the produced powder was studied using x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The XRD spectra show that the TL material produced is high purity anhydrite CaSO4 with average crystallite size of 74 nm with orthorhombic crystal system. The TL behavior of produced CaSO4:Dy was studied using a TLD reader after exposure to gamma ray by Co60 source with the doses of 1,5 and 10 Gy. The glow curve shows linear response with glow peak around 230°C which is desired development in the field of radiation dosimetry.

  14. Operational experience of electronic active personal dosemeter and comparison with CaSo4:Dy TL dosemeter in Indian PHWR.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Managanvi, S S; Bihari, R R; Bhat, H R

    2013-01-01

    Direct reading dosemeter has been used for day-to-day radiation exposure control and management for last four decades in Indian nuclear power plants (NPPs). Recently new real time, alarm and pre-alarm on equivalent dose/dose rate, storage of dose/dose rate and maximum dose rate, user-friendly electronic active personal dosemeter (APD) has been implemented into practice for the first time at Kaiga Atomic Power Station-3&4,  of Indian NPPs. The dosemeter showed tolerance level (L) 0.1085±0.0450 compared with 0.1869±0.0729 (average±SD) for CaSO4:Dy, TL dosemeter, having narrow range trumpet curve, nil electromagnetic interference. Records of >29 000 for APD and TL dosemeter were analysed for comparasion of the measurement of the individual dose. APD followed general acceptance rule of ±25 % for dose >1 mSv. Monthly Station collective dose by TL dosemeters and APD for normal reactor operation as well as outage are found in good agreement. Operational experiences and statistical analysis support that an APD dosemeter is reasonably equivalent to CaSO4:Dy TL dosemeter. The accuracy, reproducibility and repeatability of the measurement of radiation for (137)Cs are comparable with CaSO4:Dy, TL dosemeter. Operational experience of APD during the normal operation as well as outage showed as one of the best ALARA tool for occupational dose monitoring, control, management and future outage planning.

  15. Nano-fibrin stabilized CaSO4 crystals incorporated injectable chitin composite hydrogel for enhanced angiogenesis & osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Arun Kumar, R; Sivashanmugam, A; Deepthi, S; Bumgardner, Joel D; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2016-04-20

    Calcium sulfate (CaSO4), an excellent biodegradable bone forming agent that is an ideal choice as additive in gels, however, its disadvantage being poor gel rheology and angiogenesis. Here, we have synthesized chitin-CaSO4-nano-fibrin based injectable gel system which shows improved rheology and angiogenic potential. Rheological studies showed that the composite gel was a shear thinning gel with elastic modulus of 15.4±0.275kPa; a 1.67 fold increase over chitin control. SEM and XRD analyses revealed the effect of nano-fibrin (nFibrin) in transforming CaSO4 crystal shape from needle to hexagonal. It also masked the retarding effect of CaSO4 towards in vitro early cell attachment and angiogenesis using rabbit adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (rASCs) and HUVECs, respectively. rASCs osteogenesis was confirmed by spectrophotometric endpoint assay, which showed 6-fold early increase in alkaline phosphatase levels and immuno-cytochemistry analysis. These in vitro results highlight the potential of injectable chitin-CaSO4-nFibrin gel for osteo-regeneration via enhanced angiogenesis.

  16. Investigation of the Crystal Structure of γ-CaSO 4, CaSO 4 · 0.5 H 2O, and CaSO 4 · 0.6 H 2O by Powder Diffraction Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezou, C.; Nonat, A.; Mutin, J.-C.; Christensen, A. Nørlund; Lehmann, M. S.

    1995-06-01

    The crystal structures of soluble anhydrite, γ-CaSO4, and the two calcium sulfate subhydrates, CaSO4 · 0.5 H2O and CaSO4 · 0.6 H2O, were investigated by powder diffraction methods; using synchrotron X ray radiation and neutron powder diffraction, and the positions of the water molecules in the structure were determined. γ-CaSO4 is orthorhombic, space group C222 (N°21) with a = 12.0777(7), b = 6.9723(4), c = 6.3040(2) Å (from the neutron diffraction data), and Z = 6. The structure contains two different chains of CaO8 coordination polyhedra (mean Ca-O = 2,460 Å) held together by SO2-4 ions. CaSO4 · 0.5 H2O (SH1) is monoclinic, space group I121 (No. 5) with a = 12.0317(4), b = 6.9269(2), c = 12.6712(3) Å, β = 90.27(1)° (from the neutron diffraction data), and Z = 12. The structure contains chains of alternating CoO8 and CaO9 coordination polyhedra held together by the SO2-4 ions. The average Ca-O distances in the CoO8 and in the CaO9 coordination polyhedra are 2.469 and 2.500 Å, respectively. A monoclinic structure is proposed for CaSO4 · 0.6 H2O (SH2), space group I121 (No. 5) with a = 11.9845(4), b = 6.9292(2), c = 12.7505(3) Å, β = 90° (from the neutron diffraction data), and Z = 12. The structure contains chains of CaO8 and chains of CaO9 coordination polyhedra, both held together by the SO2-4 ions. The average Ca-O distances in the CoO8 and in the CaO9 coordination polyhedra are 2.538 and 2.494 Å, respectively. All of the three structures have channels where the water molecules associated with the CoO9 polyhedra are located in the case of subhydrates. In the case of the hemihydrate, the water molecules form hydrogen bonds with oxygen atoms of the sulfate tetrahedra of 2.85-3,03 Å. In the case of CaSO4 · 0.6 H2O, two adjacent water molecules in the channels are linked by a strong hydrogen bond (O-H = 1.9 Å).

  17. Raman spectra of the different phases in the CaSO4-H2O system.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Taboada, Nagore; Gómez-Laserna, Olivia; Martínez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; Olazabal, María Ángeles; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2014-10-21

    Although it is known that the CaSO4/H2O system is formed by at least five different phases, this fact is not correctly documented in Raman spectroscopy studies. The main problem detected in the literature was the incorrect definition of the anhydrite, which produced the assignation of different spectra for a single compound. In this sense, two different spectra were clearly identified from the bibliography, which showed different main Raman bands at 1017 or 1025 cm(-1), although anhydrite could be present even as three different polymorphous species with different structures. A better understanding of the whole system obtained from a review of the literature allowed new conclusions to be established. Thanks to that revision and the development of different thermodynamical experiments by Raman spectroscopy, the Raman spectra of each phase were successfully identified for the first time. In this way, the main Raman bands of gypsum, bassanite, anhydrite III, anhydrite II and anhydrite I were identified at 1008, 1015, 1025, 1017 and 1017 cm(-1), respectively. To conclude this work, the contradictions found in literature were critically summarized.

  18. CaSO4 Scale Inhibition by a Trace Amount of Zinc Ion in Piping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangestiyono, W.; Sutrisno

    2017-05-01

    Usually, a small steam generator is not complemented by equipment such as demineralization and chlorination process apparatus since the economic aspect was a precedence. Such phenomenon was uncovered in a case study of green tea industrial process in which the boiler capacity was not more than 1 ton/hour. The operation of the small boiler affected the scaling process in its piping system. In a year operation, there was already a large scale of calcium attached to the inner surface of the pipe. Such large scale formed a layer and decreased the overall heat transfer coefficient, prolonged the process time and decreased the production. The aim of the current research was to solve the problem through a laboratory research to inhibit the CaSO4 scale formation by the addition of trace amounts of zinc ion. This research was conducted through a built in-house experimental rig which consisted of a dosing pump for controlling the flow rate and a thermocouple to control the temperature. Synthesis solution was prepared with 3,500 ppm concentration of CaCl2 and Na2SO4. The concentration of zinc was set at 0.00; 5.00 and 10.00 ppm. The data found were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyze crystal polymorph as the influence of zinc ion addition. The induction time was also investigated to analyze the nucleation time, and it was found on the 9th, 13th, and 19th minute of the zinc ion addition of 0.00, 5.00 and 10.00 ppm. After running for a four-hour duration, the scale grow-rate was found to be 5.799; 5.501 and 4.950 × 10-3 gr/min for 0.00; 5.00 and 10.00 ppm of zinc addition at 50 °C.

  19. Elucidation of the annealing process required in the preparation of the thermoluminescence phosphor of CaSO4:Tm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinsho, Kiyomitsu; Watanabe, Eiji; Urushiyama, Akio

    2006-11-01

    The thermoluminescence phosphor of CaSO4:Tm was subjected to physicochemical studies. Careful thermo mass spectrometry and thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis studies for a solid sample prepared by 200°C evaporation of a sulfuric acid medium without annealing by an extremely slow speed of temperature elevation were carried out. The data revealed, along with an initial weight loss corresponding to a small, nonstoichiometric amount of crystal water at 200°C, evidence for reaction with H2O vapor in air between 300 and 500°C and a 550°C and a subsequent release of SOx at higher temperatures until the beginning of bursting decomposition of CaSO4 bulk above 700°C. H1 NMR study revealed a broad signal at 9.9ppm, which was easily assigned to the crystal water involved. This initial solid has no thermostimulated luminescence (TL) efficiency. The first signal at 9.9ppm disappeared at 200°C. A new signal appeared at 13.1ppm by annealing from 300°C and increased significantly in intensity during annealing up to 600°C, which could be assigned to the intermediate produced by the reaction with H2O vapor in air. The intensity of this signal in turn was reduced by annealing at temperatures higher than 600°C and almost disappeared at 800°C. The solid by annealing at 700°C has the best TL efficiency. Several lines of the present physicochemical evidence suggest that the energy trap on irradiation of ionizing radiation is related to the concentration of O2- produced by the decomposition of SO42- during the annealing process in the course of the preparation of CaSO4:RE.

  20. Luminescence properties of pure and doped CaSO4 nanorods irradiated by 15 MeV e-beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salah, Numan; Alharbi, Najlaa D.; Enani, Mohammad A.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium sulfate (CaSO4) doped with proper activators is a highly sensitive phosphor used in different fields mainly for radiation dosimetry, lighting and display applications. In this work pure and doped nanorods of CaSO4 were produced by the co-precipitation technique. Samples from this material doped with Ag, Cu, Dy, Eu and Tb were exposed to different doses of 15 MeV e-beam and studied for their thermoluminesence (TL) and photoluminescence (PL) properties. Color center formation leading to PL emissions were investigated before and after e-beam irradiation. The samples doped with rare earths elements (i.e. Dy, Eu and Tb) were observed to have thinner nanorods than the other samples and have higher absorption in the UV region. The Ag and Tb doped samples have poor TL response to e-beam, while those activated by Cu, Dy and Eu have strong glow peaks at around 123 °C. Quite linear response curves in the whole studied exposures i.e. 0.1-100 Gy were also observed in Cu and Dy doped samples. The PL results show that pure CaSO4 nanorods have active color centers without irradiation, which could be enriched/modified by these impurities mainly rare earths and further enhanced by e-beam irradiation. Eu3+ → Eu2+ conversion is clearly observed in Eu doped sample after e-beam irradiation. These results show that these nanorods might be useful in lighting and display devices development.

  1. Thermoluminescence of nanocrystalline CaSO4: Dy for gamma dosimetry and calculation of trapping parameters using deconvolution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandlik, Nandkumar; Patil, B. J.; Bhoraskar, V. N.; Sahare, P. D.; Dhole, S. D.

    2014-04-01

    Nanorods of CaSO4: Dy having diameter 20 nm and length 200 nm have been synthesized by the chemical coprecipitation method. These samples were irradiated with gamma radiation for the dose varying from 0.1 Gy to 50 kGy and their TL characteristics have been studied. TL dose response shows a linear behavior up to 5 kGy and further saturates with increase in the dose. A Computerized Glow Curve Deconvolution (CGCD) program was used for the analysis of TL glow curves. Trapping parameters for various peaks have been calculated by using CGCD program.

  2. Hydration of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CaSO 4· {1}/{2}H 2O) into gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O). The influence of the sodium poly(acrylate)/surface interaction and molecular weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Jean-Philippe; Domenech, Marc; Foissy, Alain; Persello, Jacques; Mutin, Jean-Claude

    2000-12-01

    The retarding influence of sodium poly(acrylate) (PANa) on the hydration of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CaSO 4· {1}/{2}H 2O) was investigated. This study reports the influence of sodium poly(acrylate) on hemihydrate dissolution, on homogenous and heterogeneous gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O) nucleation as well as on gypsum growth. It is shown that adsorption of PANa does not hinder the dissolution of hemihydrate in the present experimental conditions. The specific interaction of PANa with gypsum can explain the oriented growth of gypsum crystal. The gypsum growth is slowed down but cannot be blocked by the adsorption of PANa. On the other hand, PANa can block the heterogeneous and homogenous gypsum nucleation. As soon as a critical surface density of PANa onto the hemihydrate surface is reached, the heterogeneous gypsum nucleation is prevented and hemihydrate hydration is indefinitely blocked. The interaction between PANa and the hemihydrate surface is of prime importance to control hydration. Also, the influence of the molecular weight of PANa on homogenous nucleation has been investigated. The precipitation of calcium polyacrylate can explain the differences between the two molecular weights used (2100 and 20 000). This work leads to the conclusion that heterogeneous nucleation is the key process that controls hydration of a system in which hemihydrate dissolution, gypsum nucleation and growth are all occurring at the same time in a continuous manner.

  3. Soluble minerals in chemical evolution. I - Adsorption of 5-prime-AMP on CaSO4 - A model system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orenberg, J. B.; Chan, S.; Calderon, J.; Lahav, N.

    1985-01-01

    The adsorption of 5-prime-AMP onto solid CaSO4-2H2O was studied in a saturated suspension as a function of pH and electrolyte concentration. The adsorption is pH-dependent and is directly correlated with the charge on the 5-prime-AMP molecule which is determined by the state of protonation of the N-1 nitrogen of the purine ring and the phosphate oxygens. It is proposed that the binding that occurs between the nucleotide and the salt is electrostatic in nature. The adsorption decreases with increasing ionic strength of the solution which means that in a fluctuating environment of wetting and drying cycles, a biomolecule similar to 5-prime-AMP could be expected to desorb during the drying phase. The results indicate that CaSO4-2H2O can serve as a concentrating surface for biomolecules. The significance of this is discussed with regard to the possible role of soluble minerals and their surfaces in a geochemical model consistent with the evolution of the earth and the origin of life.

  4. [Malattia di Marchiafava-Bignami con coinvolgimento della corteccia frontale e insorgenza tardiva di sintomi psichiatrici resistenti: un caso clinico].

    PubMed

    Gramaglia, Carla; Feggi, Alessandro; Vecchi, Camilla; Di Marco, Sarah; Venesia, Alessandra; Delicato, Claudia; Chieppa, Nunzia; De Marchi, Fabiola; Cantello, Roberto; Zeppegno, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Descrivere il management di un paziente con malattia di Marchiafava-Bignami (MBD) associata a lesioni frontali corticali, senza sintomi specifici al primo accesso in Pronto Soccorso, e insorgenza tardiva di sintomi psichiatrici atipici. Metodi. Descriviamo il caso di un paziente di 44 anni con storia di abuso cronico di alcol, a cui è stata diagnosticata la MBD. Risultati. La risonanza magnetica ha evidenziato lesioni nello splenio e corpo del corpo calloso e lesioni bilaterali della corteccia frontale. Il paziente ha sviluppato sintomi psichiatrici atipici a insorgenza tardiva, che sono risultati essere resistenti alle terapie farmacologiche impostate. Discussione. Il caso che descriviamo sembra supportare le attuali, ma ancora scarse evidenze che descrivono il coinvolgimento corticale nella MBD, suggerendone l'associazione con una prognosi peggiore. I sintomi psichiatrici possono risultare difficili da trattare a causa della resistenza alle terapie. Conclusione. Il coinvolgimento di psichiatri, radiologi e neurologi secondo un approccio di consultazione-liaison si è dimostrato di fondamentale importanza per la diagnosi e l'impostazione della terapia adeguata al paziente.

  5. Solubility of Anhydrite (CaSO4) in NaCl-H2O Fluids at High T and P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, R. C.; Manning, C. E.

    2003-12-01

    Weight losses of single crystals of a very pure natural anhydrite exposed to NaCl solutions of 0-0.3 mol fraction were measured at 600-800 \\deg C and 6-14 kbar. Experimental charges were contained in welded Pt capsules in 1.91 cm-diameter piston-cylinder apparatus with NaCl pressure medium for 5-72 hr. Measurements in initially pure H2O were made with HM, NNO, and MnO2 buffers, as well as without buffering. At 800 \\deg C and 10 kbar, CaSO4 molalities are: MnO2, 0.014 mol/kg H2O; HM, 0.017; NNO, 0.148; and unbuffered, 0.026. Variation in oxygen fugacity thus has a large effect on CaSO4 solubility, increasing with H2S/SO2 in the fluid. Unbuffered (self-buffered) charges gave solubilities much closer to HM than NNO. Melting occurred in the NNO experiment at this P and T. NaCl increases CaSO4 solubility enormously, with m(CaSO4) reaching 5.4, or 23.5 wt. %, at 800 \\deg C, 10 kbar and X(NaCl)=0.3. There is also a very large increase with temperature. Regression of all the data give: log(m-mo) = -1.533 + 0.00291T + (1.441 + 0.00016T)logX(NaCl) + 0.0413(P-10) where mo is molality in pure H2O, P is in kbar, and T is in Kelvins. The very large carrying capacity for sulfate in even mildly saline fluids at high P and T, together with the high oxygen potential generated when these solutions react with FeO in rocks to yield pyrrhotite, indicates that such fluids should be considered as principal agents in S-rich, highly oxidizing processes such as Pinatubo-type volcanic eruptions, certain deep-crustal granulite facies metamorphism, as in Bamble, Norway and Shevaroy Hills, S. India, and the anhydrite-related, oxidized Au ore deposits like Abitibi, Ontario, and Kalgoorlie, Australia.

  6. Pneumatocele selar a tensión: Reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura

    PubMed Central

    Campero, Álvaro; Ajler, Pablo; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Bendersky, Damián; Campero, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: El neumoencéfalo a tensión luego de la cirugía transesfenoidal es poco común. En la literatura existen pocos casos reportados en los cuales el aire se encuentra localizado exclusivamente en las regiones selar y supraselar, constituyendo un pneumatocele selar. En este artículo se describe un caso inusual de pneumatocele selar a tensión de presentación tardía. Descripción del caso: Una mujer de 57 años consultó por hemianopsia bitemporal. Previamente, ya se le había realizado una cirugía transnasal por un adenoma hipofisario y se le había colocado una derivación lumbo-peritoneal por la presencia de una fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo. Además, se le había realizado una resección transcraneal de un componente intracavernoso del tumor y radiocirugía debido a la agresividad del mismo. Se llevó a cabo una resonancia magnética que demostró un pneumatocele selar y supraselar. Intervención: Se realizó un abordaje transciliar. La región selar estaba encapsulada por tejido cicatrizal debido a los procedimientos previos. Se abrió la cicatriz y el aire fue evacuado. Posteriormente, el piso selar fue cerrado con grasa y cola de fibrina. Despuós del procedimiento, su campo visual retornó a la normalidad. Un año después de su última cirugía, continua asintomática. Conclusión: El pneumatocele selar y supraselar a tensión es un hallazgo extremadamente raro luego de una cirugía transesfenoidal. Su manifestaciónw clínica sería la alteración visual debida a la compresión inferior de la vía óptica. El pneumatocele selar a tensión debe ser evacuado en un corto plazo. PMID:23596554

  7. Indigenous Schooling Grants in Chile: The Impacts of an Integrationist Affirmative Action Policy among Mapuche Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This article assesses the extent to which indigenous grants administered to school pupils and university students in Chile can be considered affirmative action towards social justice. Drawing on Fraser's framework for parity of participation, I question whether the grants are able to provide both redistribution and recognition for indigenous…

  8. Indigenous Schooling Grants in Chile: The Impacts of an Integrationist Affirmative Action Policy among Mapuche Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This article assesses the extent to which indigenous grants administered to school pupils and university students in Chile can be considered affirmative action towards social justice. Drawing on Fraser's framework for parity of participation, I question whether the grants are able to provide both redistribution and recognition for indigenous…

  9. An Investigation of the Adsorption Characteristics of 5'ATP and 5'AMP onto the Surface of Caso4 x 2H2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calderon, J.; Sweeney, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    A model has been proposed in which solid surfaces can act as a site for cataletic activity of condensation reactions for certain biomolecules. From this model, the adsorption characteristics of 5'ATP and 5'AMP onto the surface of CaSO4.2H2O was chosen for study. It has been proven that 5'ATP and 5'AMP do adsorb onto the surface of CaSO4. Studies were then made to determine the dependence of absorption versus time, concentration, ionic strength and pH. It was found that the adsorption of the nucleotides is highly pH dependent, primarily determined by the phosphate acid groups of the nucleic acid molecule. From this investigation, the data obtained is discussed in relation to the model for the prebiotic earth.

  10. Descompresión microvascular en espasmo hemifacial: Reporte de 13 casos y revisión de la literatura

    PubMed Central

    Campero, Alvaro; Herreros, Isabel Cuervo-Arango; Barrenechea, Ignacio; Andjel, Germán; Ajler, Pablo; Rhoton, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: El propósito del presente trabajo es presentar los resultados de 13 pacientes con diagnóstico de espasmo hemifacial (EHF), en los cuales se realizó una descompresión microvascular (DMV). Material y Método: Desde Junio de 2005 a Mayo de 2014, 13 pacientes con diagnóstico de EHF fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente, realizando una DMV. Se evaluó: edad, sexo, tiempo de evolución de la sintomatología, hallazgos intraoperatorios y resultados postoperatorios. Resultados: De los 13 pacientes intervenidos, 7 fueron mujeres y 6 varones. La media de edad fue de 53 años. El tiempo medio entre el inicio de la sintomatología y la intervención quirúrgica osciló entre 3 y 9 años. En todos los casos el EHF era típico, uno de ellos con neuralgia trigeminal concomitante, observándose en todos compresión neurovascular intraoperatoria. Por orden decreciente de frecuencia la causa de la compresión fue arteria cerebelosa anteroinferior, arteria cerebelosa posteroinferior, arteria dolicomega basilar y arteria dolicomega vertebral. El seguimiento postoperatorio fue en promedio de 24 meses. El 62% presentó desaparición postquirúrgica inmediata de la sintomatología preoperatoria, el 30% desaparición tras un período de 3 semanas a 2 meses (8% con mejoría parcial), y en el 8% no hubo mejoría. En cuanto a las complicaciones postoperatorias: 3 pacientes presentaron paresia facial II-III en la escala de House-Brackman (se recuperaron en un período de 6 meses), y 1 paciente presentó fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo. Ninguno de los pacientes de la serie presentaron hipoacusia transitorio o permanente. Conclusión: La DMV como tratamiento del EHF es un procedimiento efectivo y seguro, que permite la resolución completa de la patología en la mayoría de los casos. PMID:27127708

  11. Interpretation of the microwave effect on induction time during CaSO4 primary nucleation by a cluster coagulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhichao; Li, Liye; Han, Wenxiang; Li, Jiawei; Wang, Baodong; Xiao, Yongfeng

    2017-10-01

    The effects of microwave on the induction time of CaSO4 are studied experimentally and theoretically. In the experiments, calcium sulfate is precipitated by mixing aqueous CaCl2 solution and Na2SO4 solution. The induction time is measured by recording the change of turbidity in solution. Various energy inputs are used to investigate the effect of energy input on nucleation. The results show that the induction time decreases with increasing supersaturation and increasing energy input. Employing the classical nucleation theory, the interfacial tension is estimated. In addition, the microwave effects on nucleation order (n) and nucleation coefficient (kN) are also investigated, and the corresponding values of homogeneous nucleation are compared with the values of heterogeneous nucleation in the microwave field. A cluster coagulation model, which brings together the classic nucleation models and the theories describing the behavior of colloidal suspension, was applied to estimate the induction time under various energy inputs. It is found that when nucleation is prominently homogeneous, the microwave energy input does not change the number of monomers in dominating clusters. And when nucleation is prominently heterogeneous, although the dominating cluster size increases with supersaturation increasing, at the same supersaturation level, the dominating cluster size remains constant in the microwave field.

  12. Performance of thin CaSO4:Dy pellets for calibration of a Sr90+Y90 source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, M. L.; Caldas, L. V. E.

    2007-09-01

    Because of the radionuclide long half-life, Sr90+Y90, plane or concave sources, utilized in brachytherapy, have to be calibrated initially by the manufacturer and then routinely while they are utilized. Plane applicators can be calibrated against a conventional extrapolation chamber, but concave sources, because of their geometry, should be calibrated using relative dosimeters, as thermoluminescent (TL) materials. Thin CaSO4:Dy pellets are produced at IPEN specially for beta radiation detection. Previous works showed the feasibility of this material in the dosimetry of Sr90+Y90 sources in a wide range of absorbed dose in air. The aim of this work was to study the usefulness of these pellets for the calibration of a Sr90+Y90 concave applicator. To reach this objective, a special phantom was designed and manufactured in PTFE with semi spherical geometry. Because of the dependence of the TL response on the mass of the pellet, the response of each pellet was normalized by its mass in order to reduce the dispersion on TL response. Important characteristics of this material were obtained in reference of a standard Sr90+Y90 source, and the pellets were calibrated against a plane applicator; then they were utilized to calibrate the concave applicator.

  13. Síndrome antifosfolípidos catastrófico. Reporte de caso y revisión bibliográfica.

    PubMed

    Orantes, Luis Del Carpio; Martínez, Chantall Citlally Anaya; Casas, Elías Bonilla

    2017-01-01

    Se reporta un caso de una condición clínica sumamente rara, la cual cursa con falla multiorgánica aguda posterior a una tormenta trombótica relacionada con anticuerpos antifosfolípidos, el denominado síndrome antifosfolípidos (SAF) catastrófico, el cual comenzó como un cuadro recurrente de trombosis mesentérica, con antecedentes de insuficiencia venosa y úlceras distales probablemente asociadas a un SAF no identificado, ameritando manejo en terapia intensiva y la consulta por el experto mundial Dr. Ricard Cervera, quien confirmó el diagnóstico y recomendó tratar como tal. La evolución del paciente fue satisfactoria hasta el momento. Se hacen recomendaciones finales de diagnóstico y se comentan las opciones de tratamiento actuales, como rituximab o eculizumab. El presente caso fue agregado al registro internacional de SAF catastrófico (International CAPS Registry), que actualmente alberga alrededor de 500 casos en todo el mundo. The present document is the report of a case of a very rare clinical entity, which presents with acute multiorganic failure after a thrombotic storm related to antiphospholipid antibodies, the so-called catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome, which began as a recurrent picture of mesenteric thrombosis, with a previous history of venous insufficiency and distal ulcers probably associated with an unidentified antiphospholipid; deserving management in intensive care and the consultation by the world expert, Dr. Ricard Cervera who confirmed the diagnosis and recommend treating as such entity, the patient's evolution was satisfactory so far. Final recommendations for diagnosis and current treatment options such as rituximab or eculizumab are made. The present case was added to the international registry that currently houses around 500 cases worldwide (International CAPS Registry).

  14. Intensity variation study of the radiation field in a mammographic system using thermoluminescent dosimeters TLD-900 (CaSO4:Dy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, E. L.; Silva, J. O.; Vivolo, V.; Potiens, M. P. A.; Daros, K. A. C.; Medeiros, R. B.

    2014-02-01

    This study presents the results of the intensity variation of the radiation field in a mammographic system using the thermoluminescent dosimeter TLD-900 (CaSO4:Dy). These TLDs were calibrated and characterized in an industrial X-ray system used for instruments calibration, in the energy range used in mammography. They were distributed in a matrix of 19 lines and five columns, covering an area of 18 cm×8 cm in the center of the radiation field on the clinical equipment. The results showed a variation of the intensity probably explained by the non-uniformity of the field due to the heel effect.

  15. Thermoluminescence Response of CaF2:Mn, CaFz:Dy and CaSO4:Tm to Protons and Alpha-Particles,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    linear energy tranfer (LET), which is the average stopping power over the ion range, is also shown as it is expected that the response ratio may be LET...were used for the CaSO4 :Tm and CaF 2 :Mn powders, respectively. Small samples of the powders were spread over the heating planchet to avoid self...absorption during reading. A different procedure was required for the alphas. A relatively thick layer of powder was packed onto the heating planchet

  16. ESR dosimetry using inorganic materials: a case study of Li2CO3 and CaSO4:Dy as prospective dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Murali, S; Natarajan, V; Venkataramani, R; Pushparaja; Sastry, M D

    2001-08-01

    The CO2- radical ion, detected by ESR technique in bones and teeth enamel, was proved to be invaluable in high level and retrospective dosimetry. In these matrices, impurity carbonate (at phosphate sites) was the precursor to CO2-. With a view to investigate the possibility of using inorganic materials such as lithium carbonate as ESR dosimeters, studies were carried out on gamma-irradiated Li2CO3. The intensity of radiation-induced ESR signals of Li2CO3 at g = 2.0036 (CO3-) and g = 2.0006 (CO2-) was followed as a function of gamma dose in the low dose range of 1-1350 Gy. It was observed that the intensity of the ESR signal at g = 2.0036 (CO3-) was in a linear relation with the radiation dose in the dose range 10-800 Gy and the signal at g = 2.0006 (CO2-) showed linear response in the dose range 5-800 Gy. The lowest dose that could be detected in the present studies using the signal of CO2- in Li2CO3 powder samples (approximately 50 mg) is 3.2 Gy. ESR studies were also carried out on the widely used TL dosimetric material CaSO4:Dy and in pure CaSO4 after gamma irradiation. The TL materials were used in powder as well as pellet forms. The linearity of ESR response with dose for powder and pellet forms of CaSO4: Dy was also studied using the signals at g = 2.0030 (SO3-) and at g = 2.0139 (SO4-). It was observed that the range of linearity of dose response extended between 20 and 1200 Gy, for SO3- signals. The results of dosimetric study indicate that the ESR-Li2CO3 system could be used in dosimetric applications in radiotherapy. However, for the actual applications further advancement is needed to lower the detection limit. The TL phosphor, CaSO4:Dy in powder and pellet forms, could be used as ESR dosimeter in the dose range 20-600 Gy.

  17. Solubility in the ternary system CaSO4 + Na2SO4 + H2O at 298.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popović, D.; Stupar, G.; Miladinović, J.; Todorović, M.; Zrilić, M.

    2011-12-01

    The solubility in the ternary system, aqueous mixture of CaSO4 and Na2SO4, at T = 298.15 K comprises five different salts: calcium sulfate dihydrate, mirabilite, thenardite, glauberite and labile salt. Using the Extended Pitzer's Ion Interaction model for pure and mixed electrolyte solutions and criteria of phase equilibria, predicted solubility behavior of salts was compared with experimental results from literature. The agreement between calculated and experimental solubilities was excellent in the ionic strength range up to 10.9062 mol kg-1.

  18. Effect of ultrasound on the morphology of the CaCO3 precipitated from CaSO4-NH3-CO2-H2O system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Huaigang; Wang, Xin; Wang, Bo; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Yong; Cheng, Fangqin

    2017-07-01

    Micron-grade calcium carbonate (CaCO3) crystals are by-products in the preparation of (NH4)2SO4 fertilizer using CaSO4·2H2O, NH3, and CO2. Since ultrasound can make crystals smaller and their morphology quite complex, the morphological change rules need to be studied to make meaningful use of them. In the present work, the morphologies of CaCO3 crystals precipitated from the ultrasound CaSO4-NH3-CO2-H2O system were analyzed in different conditions. It was found that ultrasound can make the crystals smaller in nucleation or the early growth stage, or it can make the shapes diversified and dispersed by influencing the solution property and in the aging process. In an ultrasound environment, crystals may be square, spheroidal, ellipsoidal, pisciform (spindle), hexagonal, carambola-like, or scattered particles. High-concentrations of NH3 and CO2 facilitate CaCO3 crystals becoming smooth balls, while high-intensity ultrasound and a high-concentration of foreign Na+ ions help to turn CaCO3 into tiny square particles or a clustered aggregate of tiny particles with rough surfaces.

  19. Antiscaling efficacy of CaCO3 and CaSO4 on polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified reverse osmosis membranes in the presence of humic acid: interplay of membrane surface properties and water chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ray, Jessica R; Wong, Whitney; Jun, Young-Shin

    2017-02-15

    Mineral scaling persists in many water treatment processes. More specifically, it can significantly reduce the efficacy of aromatic polyamide (PA) membranes during reverse osmosis (RO) water treatment. Previous studies have integrated hydrophilic materials, such as polyethylene glycol (PEG), onto RO membranes to combat scaling from generally hydrophobic feed water constituents; however, there are still outstanding knowledge gaps regarding the interplay of the modified membrane surface chemistry and the water chemistry in complex RO feed waters. In this work, we have investigated the mechanisms of hydrophilic PEG-grafted PA membranes in reducing mineral scaling from calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and calcium sulfate (CaSO4) in the presence of humic acid (HA). Based on surface and solution analyses, we found that colloidal formation was significantly reduced on PA-PEG surfaces in systems without HA. When HA was introduced, CaCO3 scaling was reduced on both virgin and PA-PEG membrane surfaces; while, interestingly, synergistic PEG-HA-CaSO4 interactions increased CaSO4 colloidal formation on PA-PEG membranes. Promoted CaSO4 formation results from a high negative surface charge near the PEG-modified membrane surface when HA and SO4(2-) are present, attracting more Ca(2+) to form CaSO4. The results of this work provide new information about colloidal formation at water-membrane interfaces for designing better PEG and PEG-based scale-resistant desalination membranes.

  20. The influence of high-energy 7Li ions on the TL response and glow curve structure of CaSO4 : Dy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salah, Numan; Sahare, P. D.

    2006-07-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) of CaSO4 : Dy phosphor, irradiated by 48 MeV 7Li ions with different fluences in the range 1 × 109-5 × 1011 ions cm-2 has been studied. The samples from the same batch were also exposed to γ-rays from a Co60 source for comparative studies. The TL glow curve of the material, irradiated with the ion beam has a simple structure with a prominent peak at around 494 K along with three small shoulders at around 424, 592 and 662 K. The TL saturation has been observed at around the fluence 1 × 1011 ions cm-2. As the fluence is increased from 1 × 109 to 5 × 1011 ions cm-2, a shift in the peak positions towards the lower temperature side, by around 7 K was observed. However, with increasing fluence, the TL glow curve structure remains invariant with no change in the relative intensities between the 494 and 424 K peaks, while in the case of γ-irradiated samples, in contrast, the intensity ratios of these peaks increase exponentially with exposures. Theoretical analysis of the glow curves of the ion beam and γ-irradiated samples was done by the glow curve deconvolution method. The efficiency of CaSO4 : Dy to 48 MeV 7Li ions has been measured relative to γ-rays of Co60 and found to be 0.81. This result, along with the observed good linearity over a large span of fluences, shows that this phosphor is quite suitable as a dosimeter for heavy charged particles.

  1. Experimental Determination of Sr partitioning and Ca Isotope Fractionation in the CaSO4-NaCl-H2O system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, S. T.; DePaolo, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    Anhydrite and gypsum are important, retrograde soluble minerals in geologic environments including mid ocean ridge hydrothermal systems and saline aquifers. Precipitation and/or dissolution of Ca-sulfate phases may control the distribution of stable Ca isotopes and Sr concentrations between fluids and minerals. Considerable research in the CaCO3-H2O system suggests that stable isotope fractionation of Ca between the dissolve pool and precipitating mineral are primarily controlled by the mineral growth rates. The partitioning of Sr appears to be growth rate dependent as well. We designed a series of hydrothermal precipitation experiments to test the idea that similar rate dependent isotope and trace metal fractionation occurs in the CaSO4-H2O system. Experiments were conducted between 110-160C using a titanium Parr mini bench top reactor. Mixtures of CaCl2, SrCl2 and Na2SO4 were dissolved in water and loaded into a Teflon lined vessel. Sealed experiments were purged with nitrogen gas for approximately 20 minutes to create a CO2-free environment. Experiments were rapidly charged to approximately 250 psi and heated to the desired run temperature. Experiment duration was between 36 and 360 hours. Completed experiments were depressurized and solid run products were recovered by filtration. Fluid samples from the beginning and end of each experiment were preserved for elemental and isotopic measurements. Preliminary results for experiments with CaSO4 supersaturation ~10 have thin needle-like crystals of mixed gypsum-bassanite-anhydrite based on SEM and XRD analysis. Sr distribution coefficients range between 0.48-0.74, greater than published equilibrium values, while D44Ca = 0.7-1.1 per mil, similar to low temperature carbonates.

  2. Ethnic Prejudice against the Mapuche in Chilean Society as a Reflection of the Racist Ideology of the Spanish Conquistadors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merino, Maria E.; Quilaqueo, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    The conquest of Chile and of America in general constituted an encounter between different and mutually unknown civilizations that discovered the existence of an "extreme otherness" which European civilization would generically call "Indians." The Spanish encounter with the aboriginals was both violent and subtle. The…

  3. Ethnic Prejudice against the Mapuche in Chilean Society as a Reflection of the Racist Ideology of the Spanish Conquistadors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merino, Maria E.; Quilaqueo, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    The conquest of Chile and of America in general constituted an encounter between different and mutually unknown civilizations that discovered the existence of an "extreme otherness" which European civilization would generically call "Indians." The Spanish encounter with the aboriginals was both violent and subtle. The…

  4. An investigation of the adsorption characteristics of 5 prime ATP and 5 prime AMP onto the surface of CaSO sub 4 x 2H sub 2 O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calderon, J.; Sweeney, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    A model has been proposed (Lahev and Chans, 1982) in which solid surfaces can act as a site for catalytic activity of condensation reactions for certain biomolecules. From this model, the adsorption characteristics of 5'ATP and 5'AMP onto the surface of CaSO4 2H2O was chosen for study. It has been proven that 5'ATP and 5'AMP do adsorb onto the surface of CaSO4. Studies were then made to determine the dependence of adsorption versus time, concentration, ionic strength and pH. It was found that the adsorption of the nucleotides is highly pH dependent, primarily determined by the phosphate acid groups of the nucleic acid molecule. From this investigation, the data obtained are discussed in relation to the model for the prebiotic earth.

  5. Aspergilosis cervical con diseminación al sistema nervioso central. Presentación de un caso y revisión de bibliografía

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Guillermo Enrique; Roura, Natalia; del Castillo, Marcelo; Mora, Andrea; Alcorta, Santiago Condomi; Mormandi, Rubén; Cervio, Andrés; Salvat, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la Aspergilosis Invasiva (AI) del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC) es infrecuente y ocurre generalmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Puede presentarse con cuadros de meningitis, aneurismas micóticos, infartos o abscesos. Es una infección con pronóstico reservado y puede afectar el SNC de forma primaria o secundaria a partir de un foco que se disemina por vía hematógena. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con AI con invasión primaria a nivel óseo y diseminación posterior al cerebro. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 25 años con diagnóstico de leucemia linfática aguda en tratamiento quimioterápico que presentó neumonitis por metotrexate por lo que inicia tratamiento con corticoides. Posteriormente agregó cervicalgia y con el diagnóstico de osteomielitis cervical se realiza punción bajo tomografía computada (TC) sin aislarse gérmenes. Se colocó Halo Vest e inició tratamiento antibiótico empírico. Posteriormente presentó afasia de expresión secundaria a lesión frontal izquierda. Se realizó evacuación de absceso cerebral aislando A. fumigatus. El tratamiento antibiótico específico posterior permitió una buena respuesta clínica y radiológica. Conclusión: La presencia de lesiones en el SNC de pacientes inmunocomprometidos debe incluir a las micosis como diagnóstico diferencial. La evacuación quirúrgica permite llegar rápidamente al diagnóstico mejorando la respuesta posterior al tratamiento antibiótico. Para evaluar la respuesta terapéutica y posibles recaídas se debe realizar un seguimiento periódico clínico radiológico. Palabras clave: Aspergilosis cerebral; Aspergilosis cervical; Aspergilosis invasiva; Voriconazol. PMID:26600985

  6. Determination of self attenuation coefficient and relative TL efficiency of CaSO 4 :Dy, LiF:Mg,Cu,P and LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs - An alternate approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakshi, A. K.; Chatterjee, S.; Palani Selvam, T.; Joshi, V. J.; Chougaonkar, M. P.

    2011-10-01

    Self attenuation of TL and relative TL efficiency of polytetra fluoro ethylene (PTFE) embedded CaSO 4:Dy disc, LiF:Mg,Ti (MTS) disc and LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP-N) chip were determined in the present study for photons of energy 10-34 keV. The relative TL efficiency was determined using an alternative approach in which ratio of experimental response and corrected theoretical response was used instead of measuring the absolute TL emission in photon counting mode. For CaSO 4:Dy disc, it was found that with increasing the proportion of CaSO 4:Dy phosphor in the disc, the light attenuation coefficient increases. The light attenuation coefficient of MTS disc and MCP-N chip was found to be 23.4 and 45.5 cm -1, respectively. The relative TL efficiency in the photon energy range of 10-34 keV for MTS discs and MCP-N chips, evaluated in the present study matches well with the reported values in the literature.

  7. Thermoluminescence, ESR and x-ray diffraction studies of CaSO4 : Dy phosphor subjected to post preparation high temperature thermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakshi, A. K.; Patwe, S. J.; Bhide, M. K.; Sanyal, B.; Natarajan, V.; Tyagi, A. K.; Kher, R. K.

    2008-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL), electron spin resonance (ESR) and x ray diffraction studies of CaSO4 : Dy phosphor subjected to post preparation high temperature treatment were carried out. Analysis of the TL glow curve indicated that the dosimetric glow peak at 240 °C reduces, whereas the low temperature satellite peak increases with the increase in the annealing temperature in the range 650-1000 °C. The influence of the annealing atmosphere on the TL glow curve structure was also observed. Reduction of the photoluminescence intensity of the annealed phosphor indicated that the environment of Dy3+ ions might have undergone some change due to high temperature treatment. Reduction in the ESR signal intensity corresponding to O_{3}^{-} and SO_{3}^{-} radicals was observed initially with the increase in the annealing temperaure; subsequently their intensity increased with temperature. Signals due to the SO_{4}^{-} radical vanished, when the phosphor was annealed beyond 800 °C. A signal corresponding to SH2- radicals was also observed in the ESR spectra for samples subjected to annealing in the temperature regime 800-1000 °C. XRD of the in situ annealed phosphor showed a change in the unit cell parameters. An endothermic peak at 860 °C in the DTA spectrum was observed.

  8. Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) Scaling on Polybenzimidazole and Cellulose Acetate Hollow Fiber Membranes under Forward Osmosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Si Cong; Su, Jincai; Fu, Feng-Jiang; Mi, Baoxia; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2013-01-01

    We have examined the gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) scaling phenomena on membranes with different physicochemical properties in forward osmosis (FO) processes. Three hollow fiber membranes made of (1) cellulose acetate (CA), (2) polybenzimidazole (PBI)/polyethersulfone (PES) and (3) PBI-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were studied. For the first time in FO processes, we have found that surface ionic interactions dominate gypsum scaling on the membrane surface. A 70% flux reduction was observed on negatively charged CA and PBI membrane surfaces, due to strong attractive forces. The PBI membrane surface also showed a slightly positive charge at a low pH value of 3 and exhibited a 30% flux reduction. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) force measurements confirmed a strong repulsive force between gypsum and PBI at a pH value of 3. The newly developed PBI-POSS/PAN membrane had ridge morphology and a contact angle of 51.42° ± 14.85° after the addition of hydrophilic POSS nanoparticles and 3 min thermal treatment at 95 °C. Minimal scaling and an only 1.3% flux reduction were observed at a pH value of 3. Such a ridge structure may reduce scaling by not providing a locally flat surface to the crystallite at a pH value of 3; thus, gypsum would be easily washed away from the surface. PMID:24957062

  9. Effects of the size and content of protein aggregates on the rheological and structural properties of soy protein isolate emulsion gels induced by CaSO4.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xufeng; He, Zhiyong; Zeng, Maomao; Qin, Fang; Adhikari, Benu; Chen, Jie

    2017-04-15

    The effects of the size and content of soy protein isolate (SPI) aggregates on the rheological and textural properties of CaSO4-induced SPI emulsion gels were investigated. Considerable differences in the rheological, water-holding, and micro-structural properties were observed. The gels with larger and/or more SPI aggregates showed substantial increase in the elastic modulus and had lower gelation temperatures. Creep data suggested that the size of the SPI aggregates contributed more to the elastic modulus, whereas the increase of aggregate content enhanced the elastic modulus and viscous component of the gels. The water-holding capacity was markedly enhanced (p<0.05) with the increase in both the size and content of SPI aggregates. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that larger and/or more SPI aggregates resulted in more homogeneous networks with smaller oil droplets. These insights provide important information for the product development in relation to soy protein-stabilized emulsions and emulsion gels. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Descompresión microvascular en neuralgia del trigémino: Reporte de 36 casos y revisión de la literatura

    PubMed Central

    Campero, Alvaro; Ajler, Pablo; Campero, Abraham Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: El propósito del presente trabajo es presentar los resultados de 36 pacientes con diagnóstico de neuralgia del trigémino (NT), en los cuales se realizó una descompresión microvascular (DMV). Material y Método: Desde junio de 2005 a mayo de 2012, 36 pacientes con diagnóstico de NT fueron operados por el primer autor (AC), realizando una DMV. Se evaluó: Edad, sexo, tiempo de sintomatología previo a la cirugía, hallazgos intraoperatorios (a través de los videos quirúrgicos), y resultados postoperatorios. Resultados: De los 36 pacientes operados, 25 fueron mujeres y 11 varones. El promedio de edad fue de 48 años. El seguimiento postoperatorio fue en promedio de 38 meses. De los 36 pacientes, 32 (88%) evolucionaron sin dolor hasta la fecha. De los 4 casos con recurrencia de dolor, en dos pacientes se observó como hallazgo intraoperatorio un conflicto venoso. Conclusión: La DMV como tratamiento de la NT es un procedimiento efectivo y seguro. El hallazgo intraoperatorio de una “compresión” venosa podría indicar una evolución postoperatoria desfavorable. PMID:25379343

  11. Shock induced reaction in Chicxulub target materials (CaSO4 and SiO2) and their relation to extinctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guangqing; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1993-03-01

    The global platinum element rich layer, the presence of shocked quartz grains (in some cases with stishovite), and the observation of a tektite-rich layer, precisely at the K-T boundary, are the three major arguments for the extinction bolide impact hypothesis of Alvarez et al. Tektites (spherules) from Beloc in Haiti and Mimbral in Mexico received particular interest because of their geological proximity to the Chicxulub impact structure, which is a leading candidate for at least one of the K-T impact craters. Although in most localities the original glass has weathered to clay minerals, some shock-induced glass is found in outcrops and drill cores which is used for Ar-38/Ar-39 dating. The glassy tektites were found to be chemically similar and coeval at 65.0 Ma with Chicxulub melt rock. Two kinds of K-T spherules were discovered: (1) a silic black glass; and (2) a yellow glass, enriched in Ca, Mg, and S. The high sulfur content of the glass and the abundance of anhydrite (CaSO4) in the carbonate-evaporite sequence observed in Drill Holes Y-1 and Y-2 at Chicxulub prompted studies of calcium sulfate devolatization. Further discussion of our experiments is presented.

  12. Shock induced reaction in Chicxulub target materials (CaSO4 and SiO2) and their relation to extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Guangqing; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    The global platinum element rich layer, the presence of shocked quartz grains (in some cases with stishovite), and the observation of a tektite-rich layer, precisely at the K-T boundary, are the three major arguments for the extinction bolide impact hypothesis of Alvarez et al. Tektites (spherules) from Beloc in Haiti and Mimbral in Mexico received particular interest because of their geological proximity to the Chicxulub impact structure, which is a leading candidate for at least one of the K-T impact craters. Although in most localities the original glass has weathered to clay minerals, some shock-induced glass is found in outcrops and drill cores which is used for Ar-38/Ar-39 dating. The glassy tektites were found to be chemically similar and coeval at 65.0 Ma with Chicxulub melt rock. Two kinds of K-T spherules were discovered: (1) a silic black glass; and (2) a yellow glass, enriched in Ca, Mg, and S. The high sulfur content of the glass and the abundance of anhydrite (CaSO4) in the carbonate-evaporite sequence observed in Drill Holes Y-1 and Y-2 at Chicxulub prompted studies of calcium sulfate devolatization. Further discussion of our experiments is presented.

  13. Microwave-promoted pure host phase for red emission CaS:Eu2+ phosphor from single CaSO4 precursor and the photoluminescence property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jian; Lu, Qi-Fei; Wang, Yan-Ze; Lu, Zhi-Juan; Sun, Liang; Dong, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Da-Jian

    2014-08-01

    We report a novel approach to obtaining a classical blue-green excitable CaS:Eu2+ phosphor with desired red emission by microwave (MW) firing procedure in the absence of adding elemental sulphur. The disturbing effect of MW electromagnetic field on decomposition of CaSO4 into CaS activated by europium is distinctly observed to give pure host phase without adding any elemental sulphur and carbon. The host phase evolution is observed to be highly dependent on the variation of applied MW power from X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and the corresponding photoluminescence (PL), and a maximum PL intensity at 1100 W of MW power is acquired for the obtained purer host phase. The non-thermal and non-equilibrium effects by MW are revealed to correlate with the interaction between polar structure of the host and applied electromagnetic field. The results demonstrate an optional procedure to prepare this red-emitting phosphor in an effective, environment-friendly and scalable approach for phosphor production in the application of bio-illumination for plant cultivation and artificial photosynthesis.

  14. On the use of overtone and combination bands for the analysis of the CaSO4-H2O system by mid-infrared reflection spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rosi, Francesca; Daveri, Alessia; Doherty, Brenda; Nazzareni, Sabrina; Brunetti, Brunetto G; Sgamellotti, Antonio; Miliani, Costanza

    2010-08-01

    With the aim of characterizing ground preparations of paintings by infrared reflection spectroscopy, the CaSO(4)-H(2)O system (gypsum/bassanite/anhydrite) has been re-investigated, evaluating and assigning the SO(4)(2-) and OH overtone and combination bands, respectively, in the ranges 1900-2700 cm(-1) and 5000-6000 cm(-1) resulting from reflection and high concentration transmission spectra. The second-order modes have been proven to be highly specific, reliable, and less affected by overlap with bands of organic binders and can hence be exploited for the identification of the sulfate hydration phase using infrared (IR) reflection spectroscopy. Subsequently, the characterization and identification of hydration phases in unknown sulfate-based ground preparations on authentic artworks have been carried out noninvasively by fiber-optic reflection IR spectroscopy and on cross-sections by infrared reflection micro-spectroscopy. The spectroscopic data collected both on standards and artworks have been cross-validated by X-ray diffraction.

  15. Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) Scaling on Polybenzimidazole and Cellulose Acetate Hollow Fiber Membranes under Forward Osmosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si Cong; Su, Jincai; Fu, Feng-Jiang; Mi, Baoxia; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2013-11-08

    We have examined the gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) scaling phenomena on membranes with different physicochemical properties in forward osmosis (FO) processes. Three hollow fiber membranes made of (1) cellulose acetate (CA), (2) polybenzimidazole (PBI)/polyethersulfone (PES) and (3) PBI-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were studied. For the first time in FO processes, we have found that surface ionic interactions dominate gypsum scaling on the membrane surface. A 70% flux reduction was observed on negatively charged CA and PBI membrane surfaces, due to strong attractive forces. The PBI membrane surface also showed a slightly positive charge at a low pH value of 3 and exhibited a 30% flux reduction. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) force measurements confirmed a strong repulsive force between gypsum and PBI at a pH value of 3. The newly developed PBI-POSS/PAN membrane had ridge morphology and a contact angle of 51.42° ± 14.85° after the addition of hydrophilic POSS nanoparticles and 3 min thermal treatment at 95 °C. Minimal scaling and an only 1.3% flux reduction were observed at a pH value of 3. Such a ridge structure may reduce scaling by not providing a locally flat surface to the crystallite at a pH value of 3; thus, gypsum would be easily washed away from the surface.

  16. Development of a technique for improving coefficient of variation of CaSO4:Dy teflon-based TLD personnel monitoring system in low-dose region.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, S M; Sneha, C; Sahai, M K; Chougaonkar, M P; Babu, D A R

    2015-12-01

    In view of the importance of zero-dose background (null signal) in influencing the coefficient of variation in low-dose region, a technique for the estimation of the same from composite (gross) signal is developed for CaSO4:Dy-based personnel monitoring system being used in India. The technique is based on simple analysis of glow curves (GCs) of unexposed and exposed dosemeters, evolution of trend/model for the zero-dose curves, generation of simulation protocol for individual zero-dose curves, establishment of characteristics of GCs of exposed dosemeters and finally preparation of an algorithm to segregate the components from composite signal. The technique offers the separation of real-time background and gives superior results over other method of approximation of the background. The results also prove efficiency of the empirical trending and simulation protocol of background GCs. The proposed technique can be implemented in routine monitoring without any extra man hours and reader time.

  17. Corrosion study on high power feeding of telecomunication copper cable in 5 wt.% CaSO4.2H2O solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsudin, Shaiful Rizam; Hashim, Nabihah; Ibrahim, Mohd Saiful Bahri; Rahman, Muhammad Sayuzi Abdul; Idrus, Muhammad Amin; Hassan, Mohd Rezadzudin; Abdullah, Wan Razli Wan

    2016-07-01

    The studies were carried out to find out the best powering scheme over the copper telephone line. It was expected that the application of the higher power feeding could increase the data transfer and capable of providing the customer's satisfaction. To realize the application of higher remote power feeding, the potential of corrosion problem on Cu cables was studied. The natural corrosion behaviour of copper cable in the 0.5% CaSO4.2H2O solution was studied in term of open circuit potential for 30 days. The corrosion behaviour of higher power feeding was studied by the immersion and the planned interval test to determine the corrosion rate as well as the effect of voltage magnitudes and the current scheme i.e. positive direct (DC+) and alternating current (AC) at about 0.40 ± 0.01 mA/ cm2 current density. In the immersion test, both DC+ and AC scheme showed the increasing of feeding voltage magnitude has increased the corrosion rate of Cu samples starting from 60 to 100 volts. It was then reduced at about 100 - 120 volts which may due to the passive and transpassive mechanism. The corrosion rate was slowly reduced further from 120 to 200 volts. Visually, the positively charged of Cu cable was seems susceptible to severe corrosion, while AC scheme exhibited a slight corrosion reaction on the surface. However, the planned interval test and XRD results showed the corrosion activity of the copper cable in the studied solution was a relatively slow process and considered not to be corroded as a partially protective scale of copper oxide formed on the surface.

  18. Variabilidade óptica de longo período e precessão de jato: o caso de BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caproni, A.; Abraham, Z.

    2003-08-01

    Variabilidade é tipicamente uma característica de AGNs, sendo observada em toda a faixa eletromagnética. Em relação às escalas de tempo, variações desde horas até de algumas décadas foram encontradas por vários autores. Em alguns casos, análises temporais de curvas de luz mostram a existência de periodicidade nas variações observadas. Um exemplo de objeto que preenche as características mencionadas acima é BL Lacertae, o protótipo da classe BL Lac dos AGNs. Neste trabalho, nós interpretamos a variabilidade periódica de longo período detectada na curva de luz na banda B (~7,5 anos) como o resultado da periodicidade na amplificação da radiação oriunda do jato relativístico. Neste cenário, a amplificação periódica seria induzida pela precessão, que muda o ângulo entre o jato e a linha de visada. Com esta abordagem e vínculos adicionais fornecidos por observações em altas energias, nós podemos impor limites para os parâmetros do modelo de precessão, tais como o fator de Lorentz associado ao movimento global do jato, o ângulo de abertura do cone de precessão e o ângulo entre o eixo do cone e a linha de visada.

  19. Constraints on the distribution of CaSO4·nH2O phases on Mars and implications for their contribution to the hydrological cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Kevin; Bish, David

    2013-03-01

    The stability of minerals in the CaSO4·nH2O system was investigated using a Bruker D8 X-ray powder diffractometer equipped with an environmental cell interfaced to a heating stage, low-temperature chiller, and relative humidity (RH) generator. This in situ analysis procedure allowed for precise monitoring of dehydration/hydration reactions over a range of PH2O values from 4 to 15,000 Pa. The formation of bassanite from gypsum was sluggish below 323 K and is unlikely to occur under current martian conditions over a diurnal/seasonal cycle from desiccation alone. Dehydration is possible on a localized scale in association with volcanic/impact events although temperatures of dehydration and rates of reaction depend on PH2O, particle size, sample thickness and heating rate. Analysis of anhydrite rehydration at 258 K suggests that if gypsum dehydration were to occur, bassanite would be observed on the martian surface under present low PH2O conditions. In addition, a stable bassanite phase could potentially cycle between n = 0.5 and n = 0.67 as a function of relative humidity (1-80%), resulting in a small flux of H2O between the atmosphere and the regolith over a diurnal cycle. Rehydration of bassanite to gypsum occurs only under conditions of 100%RH; therefore the presence of a bassanite phase on the surface of Mars can be used to help constrain paleoclimates. Low-temperature (258 K) XRD hydration experiments of bassanite resulted in the formation of gypsum in the presence of ice, suggesting that bassanite will not be present in association with H2O ice. This behavior could simulate a potential hydration mechanism on the martian surface at higher latitudes as well as at depth in association with subsurface ice at lower latitudes.

  20. Investigation of the hydration process in 3CaO.Al(2)O(3)-CaSO(4) . 2H(2)O-plasticizer-H(2)O systems by X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Carazeanu, Ionela; Chirila, Elisabeta; Georgescu, Maria

    2002-06-10

    The development of the hydration process in 3CaO.Al(2)O(3)-CaSO(4) . 2H(2)O-H(2)O system is studied by X-ray diffraction in the presence of varying contents of new plasticizer admixtures belonging to the lignosulphonates class (calcium lignosuphonate-LSC) and condensates melamine formaldehyde sulfonated class-MSF (VIMC-11). The plasticizer admixtures were added in proportion of 0.1-1% solid substance. The influence of the plasticizer admixtures on the hydration process with increasing time is observed and it is shown to depend on the nature and content of the admixtures and the reaction time. The strong adsorption of admixtures on the surfaces on the anhydrous or partially hydrated particles of the system can explain the influence of the admixtures upon the kinetics of the hydration process retardation or acceleration. These plasticizer admixtures influence also the evolution of the hydrated compounds and forming of the hardening structure in the 3CaO.Al(2)O(3)-CaSO(4) . 2H(2)O-H(2)O system; their proportion in the system and the considered length of hardening are correlated. In the 3CaO.Al(2)O(3)-CaSO(4) . 2H(2)O-H(2)O system there are two different influences of the plasticizer admixtures upon the hydration process. One is a delaying action, as a result of plasticizer adsorption on the surface of the anhydrous and hydrated compound particles and another one is the intensifying action due to the stronger dispersion of the particles in aqueous medium.

  1. Chile Informed Question Paper - Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    superior military strength and regional economic integration. Internally, Chile also faces little threat; however, militants from the Mapuche ...considered a significant threat.11 The most significant internal security concern is the ongoing campaign by Mapuche indigenous community militants to

  2. Arsenic speciation in synthetic gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O): A synchrotron XAS, single-crystal EPR, and pulsed ENDOR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jinru; Chen, Ning; Nilges, Mark J.; Pan, Yuanming

    2013-04-01

    Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) is a major by-product of mining and milling processes of borate, phosphate and uranium deposits worldwide and, therefore, potentially plays an important role in the stability and bioavailability of heavy metalloids, including As, in tailings and surrounding areas. Gypsum containing 1900 and 185 ppm As, synthesized with Na2HAsO4·7H2O and NaAsO2 in the starting materials, respectively, have been investigated by synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), single-crystal electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), and pulsed electron nuclear double resonance spectroscopy (ENDOR). Quantitative analyses of As K edge XANES and EXAFS spectra show that arsenic occurs in both +3 and +5 oxidation states and the As3+/As5+ value varies from 0.35 to 0.79. Single-crystal EPR spectra of gamma-ray-irradiated gypsum reveal two types of arsenic-associated oxyradicals: [AsO3]2- and an [AsO2]2-. The [AsO3]2- center is characterized by principal 75As hyperfine coupling constants of A1 = 1952.0(2) MHz, A2 = 1492.6(2) MHz and A3 = 1488.7(2) MHz, with the unique A axis along the S-O1 bond direction, and contains complex 1H superhyperfine structures that have been determined by pulsed ENDOR. These results suggest that the [AsO3]2- center formed from electron trapping on the central As5+ ion of a substitutional (AsO4)3- group after removal of an O1 atom. The [AsO2]2- center is characterized by its unique A(75As) axis approximately perpendicular to the O1-S-O2 plane and the A2 axis along the S-O2 bond direction, consistent with electron trapping on the central As3+ ion of a substitutional (AsO3)3- group after removal of an O2 atom. These results confirm lattice-bound As5+ and As3+ in gypsum and point to potential application of this mineral for immobilization and removal of arsenic pollution.

  3. Food insecurity and health status in deprived populations, 2014: a multicentre survey in seven of the social and medical healthcare centres (CASOs) run by Doctors of the World, France.

    PubMed

    Laurence, S; Durand, E; Thomas, E; Chappuis, M; Corty, J F

    2017-02-01

    To document eating practices and socio-economic profiles of patients seen in the social and medical healthcare centres (CASOs in its French acronym) run by Doctors of the World (Médecins du Monde, MdM) in France and evaluate their nutritional and health status. The survey was carried out between April and May 2014 in seven CASOs in France. All the patients attending MdM clinics were given a nutrition and health questionnaire. Their anthropometric measurements were taken on site. 77.7% of the households surveyed were food insecure due to constrained resources. On average, the patients interviewed declared spending €2.5 per person per day on food. A total of 46.3% of adults declared not having eaten for a whole day at least once in the month preceding the survey. One third of the patients declared having lost weight over the last two weeks. A chronic pathology was diagnosed in more than one in two patients; 19% were obese and 34% were overweight. Constrained resources lead people living in very precarious conditions to eat without adequate nutrition, which could have consequences for their health, such as diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Asociación de la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea al inicio del embarazo y riesgo de gastrosquisis en la descendencia: un estudio de casos-controles

    PubMed Central

    Cánovas-Conesa, A.; Gomariz-Peñalver, V.; Sánchez-Sauco, M.F.; Vega, D.C. Jaimes; Ortega-García, J.A.; García, M.J. Aranda; Marín, J.L. Delgado; Ascanio, A. Trujillo; Hernández, F. López; Jimenez, J.I. Ruiz; de Paco Matallana, C.; Soldin, O.P.; Solís, M. Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Resumen Objetivos El objetivo de este estudio fue estudiar la asociación de la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea materna al inicio del embarazo y el riesgo de gastrosquisis en la descendencia. Métodos Estudio de casos-control. 11 casos incidentes de gastrosquisis en la Región de Murcia de 2007 a 2012 y 34 controles concurrentes. Cuestionario validado de Frecuencia Alimentaria (CFA) sobre la dieta periconcepcional de 98 ítems realizado ‘cara a cara’ en el momento del diagnóstico. Factores confundidores: tabaquismo, expositión a cannabis/marihuana, edad materna y paterna, índice de masa corporal, ingresos económicos y nivel de estudios. Estudio descriptivo y regresión logística multivariable. Resultados Las madres de niños con gastrosquisis son más jóvenes (20,8 años; IC 95% 17,3–24,2) y su dieta tiene un menor aporte calórico, de grasas saturadas y monoinsaturadas y de proteínas que los controles. Odds Ratio (OR) en el modelo multivariable controlado por los factores confundidores: edad materna (años) 0,70 (IC95% 0,51–0,96); ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (oleico, g) 0,79 (IC95% 0,65–0,97) y consumo de vegetales (raciones/semana) 0,70 (IC95% 0,48–1,00). Conclusiones Una dieta materna rica en ácido oleico y productos vegetales podría contribuir a prevenir el riesgo de oclusión vascular de las arterias onfalomesentéricas, disminuyendo el riesgo de gastrosquisis. PMID:23833926

  5. Ethnic differences in HLA antigens in Chilean donors and recipients: data from the National Renal Transplantation Program.

    PubMed

    Droguett, M A; Beltran, R; Ardiles, R; Raddatz, N; Labraña, C; Arenas, A; Flores, J; Alruiz, P; Mezzano, S; Ardiles, L

    2008-11-01

    To describe HLA antigen distribution, looking for possible markers of renal disease in Mapuche and non-Mapuche people in the renal transplantation program, we reviewed data from 1297 histocompatibility studies of the Chilean national renal transplantation program (421 donors and 876 recipients), performed between 2000 and 2005. Mapuche people were classified according to their family surnames. The most frequent antigens found among the total Chilean population were A2 (48%), A19 (33%), B16 (33%), B35 (26%), DR4 (38%), and DR6 (28%), without significant differences between donors and recipients. Among the 114 individuals (9%) classified as Mapuche, the most frequent antigens were A28 (49%), A2 (44%), B16 (63%), B35 (24%), DR4 (48%), and DR8 (30%), with A28/B16/DR4 as the most common haplotype. In contrast, A28, B16, DR4, and DR8 were significantly more frequent in Mapuche compared with non-Mapuche people. B8 was significantly more frequent in Mapuche recipients than in non-Mapuche recipients and Mapuche donors. The higher frequency of some HLA antigens in Mapuche people was confirmed, possibly corresponding to ethnic markers. The special concentration of B8 among Mapuche recipients might represent a genetic factor predisposing to chronic renal disease in this human group.

  6. [Prevalence of obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia in rural aboriginal groups in Chile].

    PubMed

    Pérez, F; Carrasco, E; Santos, J L; Calvillán, M; Albala, C

    1999-10-01

    Chilean aboriginal ethnic groups (mapuche and aymaras) have a very low prevalence rate of type 2 diabetes. The investigation of a possible relationship between this low prevalence of diabetes and obesity, hypertension and serum lipid profiles in both groups is worthwhile. To study the prevalence of obesity, hypertension and lipid profile in two Chilean aboriginal communities. The prevalence of obesity, hypertension, fasting serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, leptin and oral glucose tolerance test were measured in 345 mapuche (106 male) and 247 aymara (100 male) individuals. Sixty three percent of mapuche women, 37.9% of mapuche men, 39.7% of the aymara women and 27.0% of aymara men had a body mass index over 27 kg/m2. Twenty percent of mapuche men, 18.0% of mapuche women, 9.0% of aymara men and 4.8% of the aymara women had high blood pressure values. Serum HDL cholesterol was below 35 mg/dl in 16% of mapuche women, 14% of mapuche men, 25% of the aymara women and 27% of aymara men. No differences in total cholesterol levels were observed between mapuches and aymaras. Mapuche women have higher prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure than aymara women. Low serum HDL cholesterol has a higher prevalence among aymara individuals.

  7. Precise and accurate isotope fractionation factors (α17O, α18O and αD) for water and CaSO4·2H2O (gypsum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gázquez, Fernando; Evans, Nicholas P.; Hodell, David A.

    2017-02-01

    Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) is a hydrated mineral containing crystallization water, also known as gypsum hydration water (GHW). We determined isotope fractionation factors (α17O, α18O and αD) between GHW and free water of the mother solution in the temperature range from 3 °C to 55 °C at different salinities and precipitation rates. The hydrogen isotope fractionation factor (αDgypsum-water) increases by 0.0001 units per °C between 3 °C and 55 °C and salinities <150 g/L of NaCl. The αDgypsum-water is 0.9812 ± 0.0007 at 20 °C, which is in good agreement with previous estimates of 0.981 ± 0.001 at the same temperature. The α18Ogypsum-water slightly decreases with temperature by 0.00001 per °C, which is not significant over much of the temperature range considered for paleoclimate applications. Between 3 °C and 55 °C, α18Ogypsum-water averages 1.0035 ± 0.0002. This value is more precise than that reported previously (e.g. 1.0041 ± 0.0004 at 25 °C) and lower than the commonly accepted value of 1.004. We found that NaCl concentrations below 150 g/L do not significantly affect α18Ogypsum-water, but αDgypsum-water increases linearly with NaCl concentrations even at relatively low salinities, suggesting a salt correction is necessary for gypsum formed from brines. Unlike oxygen isotopes, the αDgypsum-water is affected by kinetic effects that increase with gypsum precipitation rate. As expected, the relationship of the fractionation factors for 17O and 18O follows the theoretical mass-dependent fractionation on Earth (θ = 0.529 ± 0.001). We provide specific examples of the importance of using the revised fractionation factors when calculating the isotopic composition of the fluids.

  8. El rol de Ia colaboracion y el Modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) mediante el lente de la Teoria de Actividad (CHAT): un estudio de caso con estudiantes de 9no grado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Isabel C.

    Los modelos de eensenanza y aprendizaje constructivistas conceptualizan el aprendizaje como un proceso activo. El modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) se distingue por una serie de componentes, entre los cuales se destaca el aspecto colaborativo y cooperativo como un reto al momento de su implantacion. Son pocas las investigaciones que se concentran en este aspecto del modelo. En este estudio, se analizaron las diversas interacciones que surgen durante la implantacion de una unidad curricular sobre el tema de Geologia de Puerto Rico, la cual se diseno con el modelo ABPr cuyo enfoque es orientacion a proyectos. Particularmente, se examinaron las interacciones sociales que surgen entre los pares y entre pares y docente durante el proceso de planificacion y desarrollo de los productos finales, al igual que las interacciones entre los estudiantes y el material didactico en estas etapas del modelo. La investigacion es de tipo cualitativo e incorpora como diseno el estudio de caso. Las diversas interacciones constituyen la unidad de analisis. En el estudio participaron 19 estudiantes de 9no grado, a quienes se organizaron en 5 grupos colaborativos por temas de interes (Pangea, Placas tectonicas, Volcanes, Tsunamis y Terremotos). Las tecnicas que se utilizaron para recopilar los datos fueron: observaciones participativas, grupos focales y analisis de documentos (cuadernos reflexivos y respuestas de los estudiantes a la pregunta central del proyecto). Para el analisis de los datos se aplico la teoria de actividad (CHAT) que concentra la unidad de analisis en la actividad humana en un contexto particular. Los resultados del estudio senalan que las interacciones entre pares, entre pares y docente, asi como entre estudiantes y material didactico son fundamentales en el proceso de aprendizaje. Una mayor interaccion entre pares durante las etapas de planificar y desarrollar los productos finales de la unidad, promueve una mejor comprension de los conceptos de la

  9. The stability of Cl-CO3-scapolite relative to plagioclase + CaCO3 + CaSO4 in the presence of NaCl brines as a function of P-T-XNaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlov, D. E.; Budzyn, B.

    2008-12-01

    Cl-CO3-scapolite [(Na,Ca)4[Al3 (Al,Si) 3 Si3 O24](Cl, CO3 , SO4 )] occurs as a common partial to total alteration of plagioclase in deep-crustal xenoliths, skarns, marbles, gabbros, metabasites, calc-silicate gneisses, as well as in quartzofeldspathic granulite-facies rocks in general (Moecher and Essene, 1990, J Petrol 31, 997). Alteration of plagioclase to Cl-CO3-scapolite is presumed due to metasomatism by CO2-NaCl-H2O fluids (Satish-Kumar and Santosh, 1998, Geol Mag 135, 27). Previous experimental work on CO3-scapolite has focused on reversing the equilibrium 3 CaAl2 Si2 O8 + CaCO3 = Ca4 Al6 Si6 O24 CO3 in either pure CO2 (Goldschmidt and Newton, 1977, Am Mineral 62, 1063) or in CO2-H2O (Huckenholz and Seiberl, 1989 Abs IGC 28, 2.79). These experiments have determined that the anorthite- calcite-scapolite equilibrium is nearly pressure-invariant in P-T space (200 to 1500 MPa) occurring at approximately 790 to 820 °C (Huckenholz and Seiberl, 1989). In this study, a series of experiments, involving the equilibrium 3 Plagioclase(An60) + 0.5 CaCO3 + 0.5 CaSO4 = [(Na,Ca)4[Al3 (Al,Si)3 Si3 O24](Cl, CO3, SO4 )] plus an NaCl brine (10/90, 20/80, 30/70, and 50/50 molar NaCl/H2O) have been done at 500, 1000, and 1500 MPa and 600 to 900 °C. Natural plagioclase and scapolite, along with synthetic calcite and anhydrite, were lightly ground together in equi-molar amounts in ethanol. The mineral mix (10 mg) + NaCl brine (5 mg), or pure H2O (1.5 mg), were loaded into 3 mm diameter/1.3 mm long Pt capsules which were arc-welded shut, folded, and placed horizontally in a CaF2 setup (with graphite oven), such that the thermocouple tip touched the Pt capsule, or placed in a hydrothermal autoclave (600 and 700 °C; 500 MPa) with an internal thermocouple. A series of duplicate experiments for the same mineral mix, at the same P-T conditions, were done utilizing pure H2O as the flux. The H2O-only experiments duplicated the P-T reversals of Huckenholz and Seiberl (1989). In contrast

  10. A Classroom on the Mall: Indigenous Women and the Culture of Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmelo, Martha

    1995-01-01

    When rural women do not participate in relevant decision making, development projects risk diminished effectiveness and may increase already onerous workloads. Consisting of 139 Mapuche women textile artisans in Chile, the Casa de la Mujer Mapuche provides its members with income, role models, and a platform to express women's needs and…

  11. [Obesity and leptin association in three Chilean aboriginal populations].

    PubMed

    Pérez, F; Santos, J L; Albala, C; Calvillán, M; Carrasco, E

    2000-01-01

    Although there is a clear relationship between body mass index and leptin levels, few authors have addressed the possible influence of ethnic factors on these levels. To measure serum leptin in three different Chilean aboriginal populations. Fasting serum leptin and insulin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 345 rural mapuche individuals, 247 rural aymara subjects and 162 urban mapuche subjects. A body mass index of 27.5 kg/m2 was used as cutoff point to classify study subjects. Among the three ethnic groups, women had serum leptin levels three times higher than men. In all three ethnic groups, there was a significant association between leptin levels, body mass index and gender (r2 = 0.32 and 0.5 p < 0.001, in rural mapuche, r2 = 0.32 and 0.5 p < 0.001, in aymara and r2 = 0.24 and 0.49, p < 0.001 in urban mapuche populations). No differences in leptin levels were observed for the interaction between age and insulin. The increments per quartile in leptin levels were lower among mapuche than aymara individuals. Rural mapuche individuals have a high frequency of obesity. However their leptin levels are lower than those of aymara or urban mapuche populations. The higher leptin levels observed in urban mapuche subjects could be due to environmental influences.

  12. [Medical systems which coexist in the Novena region of Chile: a general description].

    PubMed

    Oyarce, A M

    1988-09-01

    3 distinct systems of ideas about health and illness, types of persons dedicated to curing, and treatments and remedies are recognized to coexist in Chile. In the 9th region, the Mapuche traditional indigenous system operates alongside the traditional popular system which resulted from the blending of prehispanic and medieval European medical beliefs and practices and the western, official, scientific medical system. Relations between the western and the 2 traditional systems have been characterized by distrust, lack of esteem, and rejection, both because the western system belongs to the dominant social sectors and because it lacks a frame of reference for understanding medical practices different from its own. The Mapuche medical system is one of the aspects of Mapuche culture that has best withstood cultural change, perhaps because its magicoreligious basis expresses the central core of Mapuche culture. It is transmitted by oral tradition and formal teaching to young Mapuche who receive signs of their vocation. The Mapuche medical system is practiced predominantly in the 9th health region. It is a personalistic system, in which recognized causes of illness are generally attributed to 3rd parties. Illnesses are produced by 3 types of agents including malicious spirits or forces which assume different human, animal, or natural forms and persons with evil powers or those contracting with them. Illnesses may also result from the failure to satisfy a norm, duty, or divine calling. Even in cases in which a disease or injury is recognized to be due to natural causes, a magicoreligious type of cause is believed to originate the condition. A field study conducted in 1987 in a Mapuche community produced evidence within the community of 2 women working in the traditional Mapuche system and 3 in the traditional popular system. Members of the community also consulted at least 6 traditional Mapuche and 5 traditional popular medical specialists in nearby communities, as well

  13. Growth in Indigenous and Nonindigenous Chilean Schoolchildren From 3 Poverty Strata

    PubMed Central

    Bustos, Patricia; Amigo, Hugo; Muñoz, Sergio R.; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. This study sought to determine whether the short stature of Mapuche children, an indigenous group in Chile, reflects poverty or genetic heritage and whether the international reference population, derived from studies of US children of mostly European origin, is appropriate for assessing growth failure in indigenous peoples of the Americas. Methods. The study assessed 768 schoolchildren of Mapuche and non-Mapuche ancestry, aged 6 to 9 years, living under conditions of extreme, medium, and low poverty. Results. Growth retardation was strongly related to poverty in both ethnic groups. Within poverty levels, there were no significant differences in stature between ethnic groups, and in low-poverty areas in Santiago, the capital city, mean stature was only slightly less than in the reference population. Conclusions. Poverty, not ancestry, explains the short stature of Mapuche children, and use of the international reference to assess growth in this population is appropriate. PMID:11574328

  14. Ethnic Identity Development and Acculturation Preferences Among Minority and Majority Youth: Norms and Contact.

    PubMed

    González, Roberto; Lickel, Brian; Gupta, Manisha; Tropp, Linda R; Luengo Kanacri, Bernadette P; Mora, Eduardo; De Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo; Berger, Christian; Valdenegro, Daniel; Cayul, Oscar; Miranda, Daniel; Saavedra, Patricio; Bernardino, Michelle

    2017-05-01

    This article tests a longitudinal model of the antecedents and consequences of changes in identification with indigenous (Mapuche) among indigenous and nonindigenous youth in Chilean school contexts over a 6-month period (633 nonindigenous and 270 Mapuche students, Mages  = 12.47 and 12.80 years, respectively). Results revealed that in-group norms supporting contact and quality of intergroup contact at Time 1 predicted student's changes in Mapuche identification at Time 2, which in turn predicted changes in support for adoption of Chilean culture and maintenance of Mapuche culture at Time 2; some of the relationships between these variables were found to be moderated by age and ethnicity. Conceptual and policy implications are addressed in the Discussion. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. Growth in indigenous and nonindigenous Chilean schoolchildren from 3 poverty strata.

    PubMed

    Bustos, P; Amigo, H; Muñoz, S R; Martorell, R

    2001-10-01

    This study sought to determine whether the short stature of Mapuche children, an indigenous group in Chile, reflects poverty or genetic heritage and whether the international reference population, derived from studies of US children of mostly European origin, is appropriate for assessing growth failure in indigenous peoples of the Americas. The study assessed 768 schoolchildren of Mapuche and non-Mapuche ancestry, aged 6 to 9 years, living under conditions of extreme, medium, and low poverty. Growth retardation was strongly related to poverty in both ethnic groups. Within poverty levels, there were no significant differences in stature between ethnic groups, and in low-poverty areas in Santiago, the capital city, mean stature was only slightly less than in the reference population. Poverty, not ancestry, explains the short stature of Mapuche children, and use of the international reference to assess growth in this population is appropriate.

  16. Insulin resistance in Chileans of European and indigenous descent: evidence for an ethnicity x environment interaction.

    PubMed

    Celis-Morales, Carlos A; Perez-Bravo, Francisco; Ibañes, Luis; Sanzana, Ruth; Hormazabal, Edison; Ulloa, Natalia; Calvo, Carlos; Bailey, Mark E S; Gill, Jason M R

    2011-01-01

    Effects of urbanisation on diabetes risk appear to be greater in indigenous populations worldwide than in populations of European origin, but the reasons are unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine whether the effects of environment (Rural vs. Urban), adiposity, fitness and lifestyle variables on insulin resistance differed between individuals of indigenous Mapuche origin compared to those of European origin in Chile. 123 Rural Mapuche, 124 Urban Mapuche, 91 Rural European and 134 Urban European Chilean adults had blood taken for determination of HOMA-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) and underwent assessment of physical activity/sedentary behaviour (using accelerometry), cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary intake and body composition. General linear models were used to determine interactions with ethnicity for key variables. There was a significant "ethnicity x environment" interaction for HOMA(IR) (Mean±SD; Rural Mapuche: 1.65±2.03, Urban Mapuche: 4.90±3.05, Rural European: 0.82±0.61, Urban European: 1.55±1.34, p((interaction)) = 0.0003), such that the effect of urbanisation on HOMA(IR) was greater in Mapuches than Europeans. In addition, there were significant interactions (all p<0.004) with ethnicity for effects of adiposity, sedentary time and physical activity on HOMA(IR,) with greater effects seen in Mapuches compared to Europeans, an observation that persisted after adjustment for potential confounders. Urbanisation, adiposity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour influence insulin resistance to a greater extent in Chilean Mapuches than Chileans of European descent. These findings have implications for the design and implementation of lifestyle strategies to reduce metabolic risk in different ethnic groups, and for understanding of the mechanisms underpinning human insulin resistance.

  17. Insulin Resistance in Chileans of European and Indigenous Descent: Evidence for an Ethnicity x Environment Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Celis-Morales, Carlos A.; Perez-Bravo, Francisco; Ibañes, Luis; Sanzana, Ruth; Hormazabal, Edison; Ulloa, Natalia; Calvo, Carlos; Bailey, Mark E. S.; Gill, Jason M. R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Effects of urbanisation on diabetes risk appear to be greater in indigenous populations worldwide than in populations of European origin, but the reasons are unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine whether the effects of environment (Rural vs. Urban), adiposity, fitness and lifestyle variables on insulin resistance differed between individuals of indigenous Mapuche origin compared to those of European origin in Chile. Methodology/Principal Findings 123 Rural Mapuche, 124 Urban Mapuche, 91 Rural European and 134 Urban European Chilean adults had blood taken for determination of HOMA-estimated insulin resistance (HOMAIR) and underwent assessment of physical activity/sedentary behaviour (using accelerometry), cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary intake and body composition. General linear models were used to determine interactions with ethnicity for key variables. There was a significant “ethnicity x environment” interaction for HOMAIR (Mean±SD; Rural Mapuche: 1.65±2.03, Urban Mapuche: 4.90±3.05, Rural European: 0.82±0.61, Urban European: 1.55±1.34, p(interaction) = 0.0003), such that the effect of urbanisation on HOMAIR was greater in Mapuches than Europeans. In addition, there were significant interactions (all p<0.004) with ethnicity for effects of adiposity, sedentary time and physical activity on HOMAIR, with greater effects seen in Mapuches compared to Europeans, an observation that persisted after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusions/Significance Urbanisation, adiposity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour influence insulin resistance to a greater extent in Chilean Mapuches than Chileans of European descent. These findings have implications for the design and implementation of lifestyle strategies to reduce metabolic risk in different ethnic groups, and for understanding of the mechanisms underpinning human insulin resistance. PMID:21931814

  18. Early Full-Time Day Care, Mother-Child Attachment, and Quality of the Home Environment in Chile: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cárcamo, Rodrigo A.; Vermeer, Harriet J.; van der Veer, René; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Two longitudinal studies are reported examining the effects of full-time day care in Mapuche and non-Mapuche families in Chile. First, the Magellan-Leiden Childcare Study (MLCS) used a sample of 95 mothers with children younger than 1 year old (n = 36 in day care). Second, we partially cross-validated our results in a large and…

  19. Early Full-Time Day Care, Mother-Child Attachment, and Quality of the Home Environment in Chile: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cárcamo, Rodrigo A.; Vermeer, Harriet J.; van der Veer, René; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Two longitudinal studies are reported examining the effects of full-time day care in Mapuche and non-Mapuche families in Chile. First, the Magellan-Leiden Childcare Study (MLCS) used a sample of 95 mothers with children younger than 1 year old (n = 36 in day care). Second, we partially cross-validated our results in a large and…

  20. [Prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity in two Chilean aboriginal populations living in urban zones].

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Elena P; Pérez, Francisco B; Angel, Bárbara B; Albala, Cecilia B; Santos, J Luis M; Larenas, Gladys Y; Montalvo, Domingo V

    2004-10-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is increasing in aboriginal populations in Chile. To study the prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes and serum lipids in two aboriginal populations, Mapuche and Aymara, that were transferred from a rural to a urban environment. Two groups of subjects over 20 years were analyzed, Mapuche and Aymara. The Mapuche group was formed by 42 men and 105 women, living in four urban communities of Santiago, and an Aymara group formed by 42 men and 118 women, living in Arica, in Northern Chile. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, lipid profile, oral glucose tolerance test, fasting insulin and serum leptin were determined. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 6.9% in Aymara and 8.2% in Mapuche subjects. The frequency of glucose intolerance was similar in both groups, but greater among men. A total blood cholesterol over 200 mg/dl was observed in 43.1% of Aymara and 27.9% of Mapuche subjects (p <0.008). Serum triglycerides over 150 mg/dl were observed in 16.9 and 23.1% of Aymara and Mapuche individuals, respectively (p= NS). The prevalence of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia in turban aboriginal populations is higher than that of their rural counterparts. A possible explanation for these results are changes in lifestyles that come along with urbanization, characterized by a high consumption of saturated fat and refined sugars and a low level of physical activity.

  1. [Differences in food consumption associated with ethnic group and acculturation in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile].

    PubMed

    Schnettler, Berta; Huaiquiñir, Valeska; Mora, Marcos; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela

    2009-12-01

    In order to identify differences in the food consumption and expenditure habits of Mapuches according to their ethnic group as consumers as well as their degree of acculturation, a personal survey was conducted on 400 people stratified by ethnic group in four districts of the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile. The empirical results showed that habits regarding the consumption of food groups included in the Family Budget Survey did not present any significant differences depending on the consumer's ethnic group, although the monthly expenditure on food is lower in Mapuche households. The ethnic origin and degree of acculturation in Mapuches are only significantly associated with the consumption of mate (herbal infusion) and food in restaurants. Mapuches maintain both food practices belonging to their traditional culture as well as foods incorporated more recently, such as mate. The degree of acculturation is significantly associated with the consumption of these foods; bi-cultural Mapuches present a higher probability of consuming a greater range of traditional foods than accultured Mapuches.

  2. [Facilitators and barriers to implementation of intercultural health policy in Chile].

    PubMed

    Pérez, Camila; Nazar, Gabriela; Cova, Félix

    2016-02-01

    Objective To identify elements that either facilitate or hinder implementation of Chile's intercultural health policy. Methods A descriptive study was conducted with the participation of health services users from the Mapuche ethnic group, biomedical health professionals, intercultural facilitators, and key informants in two health facilities serving towns with a high density of Mapuche population. The information was obtained through semi-structured interviews that were analyzed thematically. Results Factors identified as facilitating the implementation of this policy include laws and regulations pertaining to the rights of indigenous peoples, the empowerment of users around their rights, the formation of implementation teams, the presence of professionals of Mapuche origin in health facilities, and the existence of processes for systematization of the work carried out. The asymmetric relationship between the Mapuche people and the state, and between the Mapuche health system and the biomedical model, constitutes a fundamental barrier. Other obstacles include the lack of theoretical and practical clarity around the concept of intercultural health and a lack of resources. Conclusions Despite the facilitators identified and the achievements to date, meaningful progress in implementation of an intercultural health policy is limited by barriers that are hard to change. These include the usual forms of government planning and the hegemony of the biomedical model.

  3. Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-10

    Reconstruction of the Mapuche Nation,” Center for International Policy, November 13, 2009. 21 “ Conflicto Mapuche Preocupa Pero No Hay Una ‘Guerra Civil...An October 2009 poll from a well-respected Chilean polling firm, the Centro de Estudios Politicos (CEP),43 found 36% support for Piñera, 26% for...Asegura Analista,” EFE News Service, September 30, 2009. 43 The Centro de Estudios Politicos is considered the best polling firm in Chile because it

  4. Evolution of the nutritional situation of indigenous and non-indigenous Chilean schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Patricia; Muñoz, Sergio; Vargas, Claudio; Amigo, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    Latin American countries show accelerated but ethnically or socially differentiated changes in their epidemiological profiles. The present study examined the evolution of the nutritional situation (1997-2005) in Chilean schoolchildren as related to ethnical origin (Mapuche). Using official databases, stunting (height/age or=95 percentile) were ascribed in first-grade schoolchildren. Ethnic groups were assigned by native parents' surnames (none, one and two). Based on 1 757 155 children (average age: 76.3 months), in 1997 stunting reached 8.4%, 4.8% and 3.1% in children with two, one and no Mapuche surnames, respectively. In 2005 it fell to 3.7%, 3.1% and 2.6% - a marked decrease in those with two Mapuche surnames (p<0.001). Obesity in 1997 was 11.8%, 12.8% and 13.3%, whilst in 2005 it changed to 17.5, 18.5 and 18.6%, respectively, demonstrating a similar trend to obesity in all groups (p=0.153). Undernutrition was rare (<1.1%) and stable. Poverty decreased clearly among the Mapuche population in this period. The marked decrease in stunting in children with a strong indigenous background seems related to a decrease in poverty over the period. Yet, the increase of obesity in all groups deserves further analysis.

  5. The Chilean strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis): Over 1000 years of domestication

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cultivated strawberry of South America, Fragaria chiloensis, has a long history. At least two native peoples, the Mapuche and the Picunche began the domestication process. While white- and red-fruited forms were domesticated, the white form was preferred as the red-fruited types are not mention...

  6. Rule of Repression in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This report on the current condition of the Mapuche Indians of Chile is edited from a document on the "Situation of Human Rights in Chile" and details the repressive and inhumane treatment of the largest indigenous ethnic minority in the country. (Author/RTS)

  7. Analysis of admixture and genetic structure of two Native American groups of Southern Argentinean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Sala, Andrea; Corach, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Argentinean Patagonia is inhabited by people that live principally in urban areas and by small isolated groups of individuals that belong to indigenous aboriginal groups; this territory exhibits the lowest population density of the country. Mapuche and Tehuelche (Mapudungun linguistic branch), are the only extant Native American groups that inhabit the Argentinean Patagonian provinces of Río Negro and Chubut. Fifteen autosomal STRs, 17 Y-STRs, mtDNA full length control region sequence and two sets of Y and mtDNA-coding region SNPs were analyzed in a set of 434 unrelated individuals. The sample set included two aboriginal groups, a group of individuals whose family name included Native American linguistic root and urban samples from Chubut, Río Negro and Buenos Aires provinces of Argentina. Specific Y Amerindian haplogroup Q1 was found in 87.5% in Mapuche and 58.82% in Tehuelche, while the Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups were present in all the aboriginal sample contributors investigated. Admixture analysis performed by means of autosomal and Y-STRs showed the highest degree of admixture in individuals carrying Mapuche surnames, followed by urban populations, and finally by isolated Native American populations as less degree of admixture. The study provided novel genetic information about the Mapuche and Tehuelche people and allowed us to establish a genetic correlation among individuals with Mapudungun surnames that demonstrates not only a linguistic but also a genetic relationship to the isolated aboriginal communities, representing a suitable proxy indicator for assessing genealogical background.

  8. The Araucanian Indian in Chile. IWGIA Document 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdichewsky, Bernardo

    One of the larger of the native peoples of South America, the Araucanians include different ethnic subgroups, some of which are now extinct. Once geographically spread extensively over the southern cone of South America, at present they are reduced to only two closely related groups: (1) the Mapuche of southern Chile, the largest one; and (2) the…

  9. Materials Data on CaSO4 (SG:14) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  10. Materials Data on CaSO4 (SG:62) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  11. Etologia aplicada al manejo de especies amenazadas: el caso del turon de patas negras (Mustela nigripes)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vargas, A.; Biggins, D.; Miller, B.

    1999-01-01

    de esta especie de un modo más eficaz y rentable. Black-footed ferrets are considered one of the world's most endangered mammals. The last wild population was discovered in 1981 in Meteetsee, Wyoming, and, in 1985 it collapsed due to an epizootic of canine distemper in combination with sylvatic plague. Prior to the extinction of the last remnant population, 18 wild black-footed ferrets were captured to initiate captive propagation efforts. Captive breeding has been successful and, during the last 11 years, more than 2600 black-footed ferrets have been born in captive breeding centers. Since 1991, approximately 870 ferrets have been reintroduced in 5 areas located within the ferret's original geographic distribution, including sites in Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Arizona. Scientific research has been, and continues to be, a critical tool to direct recovery efforts. Studies in applied ethology conducted on captive and reintroduced ferret populations have demonstrated that a naturalistic captive environment, particularly during early developmental periods, enhances the expression of behaviors necessary for survival in nature. Ferrets raised in a naturalistic environment develop better predatory skills, are able to recognize prairie dog burrows as a home and shelter from predators, and are more physically fit. Results from these studies have been adapted into management strategies to help implement a more cost-effective road to black-footed ferret recovery.

  12. Cúmulos globulares en galaxias elípticas aisladas: el peculiar caso de NGC7507

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caso, J. P.; Richtler, T.; Bassino, L.

    We present results of the study of the glolular cluster system of NGC7507. The number of members of the system is calculated; and compared with other elliptical galaxies from literature. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF CASO4 FORMED BY REACTION OF CAO AND SO2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The injection of calcium-based sorbents into coal-fired boilers for reaction with, and reduction in the levels of, sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the flue gas has undergone considerable research and development. Significant effort has also been made in developing models for the overall ...

  14. Influencias socioculturales en conceptos astronómicos: el caso del horizonte en la reforma copernicana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szapiro, A.

    2017-10-01

    I analyze the meaning given by Ptolemy to the concept of horizon; especially how it allowed him to prove, through astronomical observations, the central position of the Earth in the Universe. I review the ways in which Copernicus and Galileo gave heliocentric answers to the Ptolemaic proof. I show that Galilean solution entailed a radical conceptual change, which brought with it a new sense to the concept of horizon. I state that this change was the product of sociocultural influences of the period.

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF CASO4 FORMED BY REACTION OF CAO AND SO2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The injection of calcium-based sorbents into coal-fired boilers for reaction with, and reduction in the levels of, sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the flue gas has undergone considerable research and development. Significant effort has also been made in developing models for the overall ...

  16. Acentos, Tildes, Casas, Cosas, Casos, Cosos? (Accents, Tildes, [Punctuation, and Spelling Accuracy]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabri Diaz, Victor

    1972-01-01

    Correct spelling, punctuation marks, and spelling accents must be taught in the beginning Spanish course. Accent marks make a difference in the interpretation of the written word. Rules govern the placing of exclamation and question marks and make up an integral part of written Spanish. Teachers have a duty and a responsibility to teach these…

  17. Materials Data on CaSO4 (SG:63) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Cristian; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Vallejos-Rojas, Andrea; Jaramillo-Gallardo, Javiera; Salas Bravo, Carlos; Cano-Montoya, Johnattan; Celis-Morales, Carlos

    2016-03-25

     Introducción: obesidad e inactividad física son importantes factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de hipertensión en adultos. No obstante, hay poca evidencia sobre el efecto de estos factores de riesgo en el desarrollo de hipertensión en población infantil. Objetivo: investigar la asociación del estado nutricional, niveles de actividad física y etnicidad con niveles de hipertensión en escolares entre 6 y 13 años de edad. Métodos: un total de 418 escolares de ascendencia étnica europea (n = 311) y mapuche (n = 107) fueron participantes de este estudio transversal. Se midió el peso, talla, índice de masa corporal (IMC) y presión arterial, utilizando protocolos estandarizados. Resultados: no se encontraron diferencias significativas en IMC, estado nutricional y presión arterial entre niños con ascendencia europea y mapuche. No obstante, la prevalencia de prehipertensión (21,3% vs. 11,1%) e hipertensión (28,9% vs. 18,6%) fue significativamente mayor en escolares mapuches en comparación con europeos, respectivamente. Escolares con ascendencia mapuche tienen un mayor riesgo de desarrollar prehipertensión o hipertensión que escolares con ascendencia europea (OR: 1,92 [1,19 a 3,06], p < 0,01). La prevalencia de hipertensión aumenta significativamente en ambos grupos étnicos con el incremento de IMC y bajos niveles de actividad física. Conclusiones: el riesgo de desarrollar prehipertensión o hipertensión es mayor en población infantil ascendiente de mapuches que ascendiente de europeos y este riesgo se ve acentuado con el incremento de obesidad y bajos niveles de actividad física.

  19. Intercultural health practices: towards an equal recognition between indigenous medicine and biomedicine? A case study from Chile.

    PubMed

    Torri, Maria Costanza

    2012-03-01

    Over the past few years, intercultural health has become an emerging issue in health policy. Intercultural health is an approach in health that aims at reducing the gap between indigenous and western health systems, on the basis of mutual respect and equal recognition of these knowledge systems. This article questions the applicability of such a concept in the context of Chile. Here, conflicting interests between the Mapuche and the Chilean state are related to aspects of economic development, modernity processes, integration, intercultural relations, and indigenous rights and are deeply reflected also in projects for an intercultural health system. By analysing the experience of the intercultural practice of Makewe Hospital, this article argues that effective and equitable intercultural health practices will not take place unless there will be an integral valorisation of the Mapuche culture from a broader perspective.

  20. Heat capacities and entropies from 8 to 1000 K of langbeinite (K2Mg2(SO4)3), anhydrite (CaSO4) and of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, Richard A.; Russell-Robinson, Susan; Hemingway, Bruce S.

    1989-01-01

    Although Bond (Bell Sys. Tech. J., 22 (1943) 145) reported that langbeinite was piezoelectric at room temperature, we found no evidence in our Cpo measurements for a Curie temperature above which langbeinite would no longer be piezoelectric.

  1. Dietary Adherence, Glycemic Control, and Psychological Factors Associated with Binge Eating Among Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Chileans with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Herbozo, Sylvia; Flynn, Patricia M; Stevens, Serena D; Betancourt, Hector

    2015-12-01

    Despite the strong association between obesity and binge eating, limited research has examined the implications of binge eating on dietary adherence and psychological factors in ethnically diverse type 2 diabetes patients. This study investigated the prevalence of binge eating and its association with dietary adherence, glycemic control, and psychological factors among indigenous and non-indigenous type 2 diabetes patients in Chile. Participants were 387 indigenous (Mapuche) and non-indigenous (non-Mapuche) adults with type 2 diabetes. Self-report measures of binge eating, dietary adherence, diet self-efficacy, body image dissatisfaction, and psychological well-being were administered. Participants' weight, height, and glycemic control (HbA(1c)) were also obtained. Approximately 8 % of the type 2 diabetes patients reported binge eating. The prevalence among Mapuche patients was 4.9 %, and among non-Mapuche patients, it was 9.9 %. Compared to non-binge eaters, binge eating diabetes patients had greater body mass index values, consumed more high-fat foods, were less likely to adhere to their eating plan, and reported poorer body image and emotional well-being. Results of this study extend previous research by examining the co-occurrence of binge eating and type 2 diabetes as well as the associated dietary behaviors, glycemic control, and psychological factors among indigenous and non-indigenous patients in Chile. These findings may increase our understanding of the health challenges faced by indigenous populations from other countries and highlight the need for additional research that may inform interventions addressing binge eating in diverse patients with type 2 diabetes.

  2. To know you is to love you: Effects of intergroup contact and knowledge on intergroup anxiety and prejudice among indigenous Chileans.

    PubMed

    Zagefka, Hanna; González, Roberto; Brown, Rupert; Lay, Siugmin; Manzi, Jorge; Didier, Nicolás

    2017-08-01

    Two surveys were conducted in Chile with indigenous Mapuche participants (N study 1: 573; N study 2: 198). In line with previous theorising, it was predicted that intergroup contact with the non-indigenous majority reduces prejudice. It was expected that this effect would be because of contact leading to more knowledge about the outgroup, which would then lead to less intergroup anxiety. The two studies yielded converging support for these predictions. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  3. Aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphism in North American, South American, and Mexican Indian populations.

    PubMed Central

    Goedde, H W; Agarwal, D P; Harada, S; Rothhammer, F; Whittaker, J O; Lisker, R

    1986-01-01

    While about 40% of the South American Indian populations (Atacameños, Mapuche, Shuara) were found to be deficient in aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme I (ALDH2 or E2), preliminary investigations showed very low incidence of isozyme deficiency among North American natives (Sioux, Navajo) and Mexican Indians (mestizo). Possible implications of such trait differences on cross-cultural behavioral response to alcohol drinking are discussed. PMID:3953578

  4. Aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphism in North American, South American, and Mexican Indian populations.

    PubMed

    Goedde, H W; Agarwal, D P; Harada, S; Rothhammer, F; Whittaker, J O; Lisker, R

    1986-03-01

    While about 40% of the South American Indian populations (Atacameños, Mapuche, Shuara) were found to be deficient in aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme I (ALDH2 or E2), preliminary investigations showed very low incidence of isozyme deficiency among North American natives (Sioux, Navajo) and Mexican Indians (mestizo). Possible implications of such trait differences on cross-cultural behavioral response to alcohol drinking are discussed.

  5. How School Norms, Peer Norms, and Discrimination Predict Interethnic Experiences among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tropp, Linda R.; O'Brien, Thomas C.; González Gutierrez, Roberto; Valdenegro, Daniel; Migacheva, Katya; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo; Berger, Christian; Cayul, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    This research tests how perceived school and peer norms predict interethnic experiences among ethnic minority and majority youth. With studies in Chile (654 nonindigenous and 244 Mapuche students, M = 11.20 and 11.31 years) and the United States (468 non-Hispanic White and 126 Latino students, M = 11.66 and 11.68 years), cross-sectional results…

  6. How School Norms, Peer Norms, and Discrimination Predict Interethnic Experiences among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tropp, Linda R.; O'Brien, Thomas C.; González Gutierrez, Roberto; Valdenegro, Daniel; Migacheva, Katya; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo; Berger, Christian; Cayul, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    This research tests how perceived school and peer norms predict interethnic experiences among ethnic minority and majority youth. With studies in Chile (654 nonindigenous and 244 Mapuche students, M = 11.20 and 11.31 years) and the United States (468 non-Hispanic White and 126 Latino students, M = 11.66 and 11.68 years), cross-sectional results…

  7. Prevalence of cognitive impairment in Spain: The Gómez de Caso study in health sentinel networks.

    PubMed

    Vega Alonso, T; Miralles Espí, M; Mangas Reina, J M; Castrillejo Pérez, D; Rivas Pérez, A I; Gil Costa, M; López Maside, A; Arrieta Antón, E; Lozano Alonso, J E; Fragua Gil, M

    2016-12-08

    Cognitive impairment, a clinical entity causing complete or partial intellectual dysfunction, is a major public health concern that poses a challenge for health and social services. The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of this disorder in people aged 65 and older visiting the primary care physician in 5 health sentinel networks. A sample of patients visiting their primary care doctor on 4 randomly selected days completed the Mini-Cog screening test. Diagnosis of cognitive impairment was confirmed with the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Alzheimer's Questionnaire. We estimated raw and adjusted rates using demographic and social variables. We included 4,624 patients from 5 autonomous communities and representing a population of 1,723,216 inhabitants. The adjusted prevalence rate was 18.5% (95% CI 17.3-19.7], with differences between sentinel networks. Women showed higher adjusted rates than men: 18.5 vs. 14.3%. The highest prevalence rate was observed in people aged 85 and older (45.3%); prevalence rates vary depending on education level and marital status. Cognitive impairment is a frequent reason for consultations in primary care. Its prevalence is higher in women and increases exponentially with age. A number of sensitive, validated tools have been proven useful in screening for and confirming cognitive impairment. Using these tools in primary care settings enables early treatment of these patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Las experiencias clinicas de los estudiantes de enfermeria: Estudio de caso hacia la integracion de la mentoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera Rodriguez, Ivelisse

    Clinical experiences are an essential part of the training of future nursing professionals. The period of clinical experience aims to develop in the student the necessary skills to practice as a nursing professional, when the academic program ends. This case study aimed to understand the opinion and explore the perception of faculty, clinical instructors, and nursing students on the meaning, contributions and challenges presented during clinical experiences. Among the themes explored in the focus groups were the meaning and importance to learning about the profession of clinical experiences, teaching strategies used during the practice scenarios, didactic relationships developed among students, clinical instructors, and teachers. The goal was to learn from all participants about what they do, their expectations, and the challenges presented during the clinical experiences. A qualitative, descriptive and contextual research design was followed, which required conducting six focus groups to collect the information from the perspective of all the participants. Faculty, clinical instructors, and nursing students participated each in two focus groups. Collected data were transcribed, coded and analyzed in order to organize it under themes related to the research framework. The qualitative analysis of the focus groups revealed that nursing faculty and clinical instructors perceived clinical experiences as a very important element in the training of nursing students, but that coordination between the academy and practice scenarios is disconnected and needs improvement. They also expressed that they use various learning strategies during the clinical experiences, however, they recognize it needs more structure and suggested mentoring as a strategy to consider. They affirmed that mentoring could contribute positively to enhance the teaching-learning process. Clinical instructors understand they perform mentoring roles, but they would like to have a more defined role and structured process. Nursing students, also, recognized the importance of clinical experiences in their professional training. They expressed the need to improve the communication between the academy and the practice scenarios in order to reduce the levels of anxiety they experience when entering the clinical experiences. Nursing students also expressed the need to consider the use of different teaching strategies, such as mentoring, to improve clinical experiences.

  9. Weather resistance of CaSO4 ṡ 1/2H2O-based sand-fixation material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Tie, Shengnian

    2017-07-01

    Searching for an economical and effective sand-fixing material and technology is of great importance in Northwest China. This paper described the use of a semihydrated gypsum-(CaSO4 ṡ 1/2H2O-)based composite as a sand-fixing material. Its morphology and composition were characterized by SEM, and its water resistance, freezing-thawing resistance and wind erosion resistance were tested in the field. The results indicated that semihydrated gypsum-(CaSO4 ṡ 1/2H2O-)based sand-fixing composite has good water resistance and water-holding capacity. Its strength is maintained at 1.42 MPa after 50 freezing and thawing cycles, and its wind erosion increases with increasing wind speed and slope. Its compressive strength starts to decrease after nine months of field tests with no change in appearance, but it still satisfies the requirements of fixation technology. This sand-fixing material should have wide application owing to its good weather resistance.

  10. POBREZA Y VULNERABILIDAD EN MÉXICO: EL CASO DE LOS JÓVENES QUE NO ESTUDIAN NI TRABAJAN*

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Emma; Mejía, Nelly; Pérez, Francisco; Rivera, Alfonso; Ramírez, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    La situación de los jóvenes que no estudian ni trabajan (ninis) se ha vuelto evidente en los últimos años debido a los riesgos que enfrenta dicha población. Este artículo contribuye a la literatura al analizar las características económicas y laborales de los ninis, explora la situación laboral de sus parejas y provee proyecciones al año 2030. Asimismo, propone una clasificación de ninis para focalizar el diseño de políticas públicas, que identifica una tendencia a la baja de éstos debido a las mujeres que acceden al sistema educativo y al mercado laboral y que una mayor proporción de esta población estará compuesta por desempleados. PMID:25918452

  11. Lack of association between the fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) polymorphism with obesity and insulin resistance in two aboriginal populations from Chile.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bravo, F; Fuentes, M; Angel, B; Sanchez, H; Carrasco, E; Santos, J L; Lera, L; Albala, C

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) Ala54Thr genetic polymorphism and to evaluate its association with obesity and insulin resistance in Chilean aboriginal populations. A sample of 96 urban Aymara and 111 urban Mapuche subjects aged 20-80 years were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Glucose, insulin and lipid profile were measured in fasting plasma samples. Insulin resistance was estimated through the HOMA-IR model. FABP2 Ala54Thr genotypes were determined by PCR followed by RFLP analysis. The allele frequency of Thr54 variant was estimated as 18.2% in Aymara subjects, which is one of the lowest reported to date. The corresponding frequency in Mapuche subjects was 31.9% (p<0.002). Regarding genotype-phenotype associations, no significant differences were found in any of the anthropometric or metabolic variables according to Ala54Thr genotypes. After adjustment by BMI and metabolic variables through a logistic regression analysis, the association of the FABP2 polymorphism with ethnic group persisted (Mapuche group: OR=2.37, 95% CI 1.319-4.277, p=0.004) It is unlikely that Ala54Thr polymorphism of the FABP2 gene plays a relevant role in obesity and insulin resistance in Chilean ethnic groups.

  12. Contribution of ethnic group and socioeconomic status to degree of disability in rheumatoid arthritis in Chilean patients.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Ana M; Muñoz, Sergio; Kaufman, Jay S; Martínez, Carlos; Riedemann, Pablo; Kaliski, Sonia

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the contributions of ethnic group and socioeconomic status as social determinants related to disability and disease activity in Chilean Mapuche and non-Mapuche patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Descriptive cross-sectional study with a stratified hospital-based sample of 189 patients in treatment with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. We assessed disability as categorical variable with the Health Assessment Questionnaire, disease activity with the Disease Activity Score instrument, and socioeconomic status with a standard questionnaire used by the Chilean government. Measures of association, stratified analyses and a multiple logistic regression model were used to analyze the data using the Stata 12.1 software package. Low socioeconomic status (annual income below US$ 7,200) is associated with disability (OR 3.87 CI 1.68-9.20) and Mapuche ethnic identity also contributes to disability (OR 2.48, CI 1.09-5.89). Relevant but not statistically significant in multivariable models were variables such as age, gender and place of residence. RA patients with a low socioeconomic status have almost three times the odds of having a moderate to high disability, independent of their ethnic group, gender or place of residence. Therefore, healthcare efforts should be aimed at promoting early diagnosis and prompt treatment among populations with high levels of poverty, which in the region of the Araucanía means primarily indigenous rural areas.

  13. Incidence and prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in Chile.

    PubMed

    González, Robinson; Soza, Alejandro; Hernández, Verónica; Pérez, Rosa M; Alvarez, Manuel; Morales, Arturo; Arellano, Marco; Riquelme, Arnoldo; Viviani, Paola; Covarrubias, Carmen; Arrese, Marco; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Nervi, Flavio

    2005-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Epidemiological data regarding this infection in developing countries is scanty. Prevalence of hepatitis C (HCV) infection was investigated in a random sample of Chilean general adult population older than 20 years of age. Additionally, frequency of HCV infection was assessed in group of native Chilean Amerindians (Mapuche Indians) living in an isolated locality of the Southern Chile. Incidence of HCV infection was estimated using serum samples separated by 7 years (1993-2000). Among 959 subjects, prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies was 1.15% (95% CI 0.48-1.82%) and 0.83% when only RIBA-confirmed cases were considered. Among these subjects, 62.5% had detectable HCV RNA in serum and 40% of them had a history of blood transfusion. Age distribution of cases showed a steadily increasing prevalence with age. Estimated incidence of new HCV infections was 15 per 100,000 subjects per year in the period 1993-2000. No cases were detected among the 145 Mapuche subjects studied. HCV infection is a prevalent disease in the Hispanic population of Chile with a low incidence in the last decade, whereas it was not detected in an isolated Mapuche Indian community. Age distribution of prevalence suggests that the peak of infection in Chile occurred 30 to 50 years ago.

  14. Gallbladder cancer: incidence and survival in a high-risk area of Chile.

    PubMed

    Bertran, Enriqueta; Heise, Katy; Andia, Marcelo E; Ferreccio, Catterina

    2010-11-15

    We assessed population incidence rates 1998-2002 and 5-year survival rates of 317 primary gallbladder cancer (GBC) entered in the population-based cancer registry in Valdivia. We analyzed GBC incidence (Poisson regression) and GBC survival (Cox regression). Cases were identified by histology (69.4%), clinical work-up (21.8%), or death certificate only (8.8%). Main symptoms were abdominal pain (82.8%), jaundice (53.6%) nausea (42.6%), and weight loss (38.2%); at diagnosis, 64% had Stage TNM IV. In the period, 4% of histopathological studies from presumptively benign cholecystectomies presented GBC. GBC cases were mainly females (76.0%), urban residents (70.3%), Hispanic (83.7%) of low schooling <4 years (64.0%). GBC standardized incidence rate per 100,000 (SIR) were all 17.5 (95%CI: 15.5-19.4), women 24.3, and men 8.6 (p < 0.00001); Mapuche 25.0, Hispanic 16.2 (p = 0.09). The highest SIRs were in Mapuche (269.2) and Hispanic women (199.6) with <4 years of schooling. Lowest SIRs were among Hispanic men (19.8) and women (21.9) with >8 years of schooling. Low schooling, female and urban residence were independent risk factors. By December 31, 2007, 6 (1.9%) cases were living, 280 (88.3%) died from GBC, 32 (10.1%) were lost of follow-up. Kaplan Meier Global 5-year survival was: 10.3%, 85% at stage I and 1.9% at stage IV; median survival: 3.4 months. Independent poor prognostic factors were TNM IV, jaundice and nonincidental diagnoses. Our results suggest that women of Mapuche ancestry with low schooling (>50 years) are at the highest risk of presenting and dying from GBC and should be the target for early detection programs.

  15. Comparison of allele frequencies of eight STR loci from Argentinian Amerindian and European populations.

    PubMed

    Sala, A; Penacino, G; Corach, D

    1998-10-01

    Eight STR systems (THO1, FABP, VWA, FES/FPS, HPRTB, F13A1, CSF1PO, and D6S366) were investigated in different ethnic groups of Argentina. Allele and genotype frequencies, power of exclusion, and discriminative power were investigated. Hardy-Weinberg expectations were calculated from heterozygosity levels. FST and G tests demonstrated that significant differences exist among the investigated populations for some of the eight STRs markers. The Wichi Indians are clearly separated from the Mapuche and Tehuelche, who in turn are closer to the European population, suggesting non-Amerindian admixture.

  16. Experiencias de Vida de la Mujer Adulta: Estudio de Caso de Lideres en Desarrollo del Programa de Administracion y Supervision Educativa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales-Roman, Gildrette M.

    2012-01-01

    Since the twentieth century to present, the role of women in society has undergone fundamental changes. Women, today, has assumed many different task and new roles, becoming part of professional workforce and increasing level of education by aspiring a higher education gaining access to leadership positions. The purpose of this qualitative…

  17. La Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios: El caso de Chile y sus perspectivas para Trabajo Social

    PubMed Central

    Sanhueza, Guillermo E.; Delva, Jorge; Andrade, Fernando H.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    El estudio acerca de las características de los vecindarios y sus efectos sobre las personas ha llegado a ser un área de creciente atención por parte de investigadores de diversas disciplinas en países desarrollados. Aunque actualmente existen diversas metodologías para estudiar efectos del vecindario, una de las más utilizadas es la Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios –Systematic Social Observation SSO, en inglés—porque permite recolectar información acerca de diversas características del entorno físico, social, ambiental y económico de los vecindarios donde se aplica. El objetivo de este artículo es (i) dar a conocer sumariamente algunas investigaciones influyentes sobre efectos del vecindario en Estados Unidos, ii) describir cómo se diseñó e implementó la Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios en la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, iii) señalar algunos facilitadores y obstaculizadores de la implementación del proyecto y, finalmente iv) enunciar posibles contribuciones y limitaciones que esta metodología ofrecería al trabajo social en Chile. PMID:24791060

  18. Comunicación y empoderamiento ciudadano en salud: un caso de investigación-acción en la Venezuela polarizada

    PubMed Central

    NAHÓN SERFATY, Isaac; EID, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    En el marco de un proyecto de investigación-acción que se implementó en Venezuela de 2009 a 2013 se buscó empoderar (empower) a activistas sociales y pacientes en la lucha contra el cáncer de mama (CM). Este proyecto se puso en marcha en un contexto de alta polarización política y social en el marco de la llamada «Revolución bolivariana». A partir de una perspectiva ecológica de la comunicación y el activismo en salud, que integra los niveles interpersonal, grupal y social, se celebraron una serie de actividades orientadas a desarrollar las habilidades de vocería de ciudadanos, especialmente de mujeres, y ampliar las redes de cooperación entre diversos sectores, al mismo tiempo que se perfiló una visión consensuada entre actores sociales e institucionales sobre una respuesta nacional contra el CM. Una comunicación horizontal y participativa permitió que se escuchara la voz de actores usualmente marginalizados en las políticas sanitarias. PMID:27867911

  19. Educacion Fundamental Integral #2: Teoria y Aplicacion en el Caso de ACPO. (Fundamental Integral Education #2: Theory and Application in the Case of ACPO.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alarcon, Hernando Bernal

    Educacion Fundamental Integral (EFI) is an educational process which aims to help Colombia's rural population to improve their living conditions. EFI adapts to the concrete circumstances of the person in his own environment. Objectives of EFI are to make the rural people: responsible for the work necessary for their own development; work together;…

  20. A preliminary report on the usage of an intracorporal antibiotic cast with synthetic high purity CaSO4 for the treatment of infected penile implant.

    PubMed

    Swords, Kelly; Martinez, Daniel R; Lockhart, Jorge L; Carrion, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    Currently, the surgical treatment of infected penile prostheses is complete removal and either immediate salvage procedure, which carries a significant infection risk, or delayed implantation. With delayed implantation the risk of infection is lower, but the patient loses penile length and width due to corporal fibrosis. We present our experience with the use of a novel temporary synthetic high purity calcium sulfate (SHPCaSO4) component that acts as a "spacer" at the time of removal of an infected prosthesis while providing constant delivery of local antibiotic elution to the infected area. Demonstrate that the use of a novel material, SHPCaSO4, can be an innovative way to bridge the gap between removal of an infected penile implant and delayed reimplantation. Two patients (Patient A and B) presented with pain and erythema and were found to have infected malleable penile prosthesis. Both underwent removal of all infected components, and sent for tissue culture. The SHPCaSO4 was mixed with vancomycin and tobramycin, allowed to set up for 5 minutes, and then injected into the corporal space followed by closure with 2-0 Vicryl sutures. The injected SHPCaSO4 was palpable in the penile shaft both proximally and distally, as an "intracorporal casts." Patients denied pain postoperatively. Delayed implantation occurred at 6 weeks for patient A. This went uneventful and a new three-piece inflatable implant was inserted. Patient B underwent salvage placement of right malleable implant at 15 weeks, and here significant corporal fibrosis was encountered. Patients have had no infection since their delayed implantation (mean follow-up 4 months). Data in reference to SHPCaSO4 shows that this product dissolves in approximately 4-6 weeks. This may account for the difference in the ease of delayed implantation between the two patients. Further investigation is warranted. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  1. A method of identification of abnormal glow curves in individual monitoring using CaSO4:Dy teflon TLD and hot gas reader.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, S M; Sneha, C; Adtani, M M

    2011-03-01

    In the present study, a method of identifying abnormal glow curves to electronically screen the glow curves of TL readout is presented. The method is based on the fact that the shape of an abnormal glow curve differs from the shape of a normal one. A few criteria for defining the normal shape of glow curves are arrived at by analysing the glow curves of dosemeters exposed to various doses in laboratory conditions and read at different elapsed time post irradiation. About 300 glow curves of dosemeters used for monthly monitoring were analysed as per these criteria and the effectiveness of the method is observed for total counts as low as 150 µSv equivalent.

  2. Experiencias, Sentido y Significado de la Consejeria en Justicia Social a Nivel Universitario: Estudio de Caso Cualitativo Mediante Tres Narrativas De Consejeros Profesionales en Educacion Superior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago Tosado, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to understand and profoundly describe the nature of social justice practice, as is comes up from the experience of three professional counselors whose working settings are the academic arena. Detailed descriptions are presented concerning the meanings and sense of counseling for social justice, as the interviews…

  3. Catalysts for Change: Three Case Studies of Quality Education Worldwide = Catalizadores del Cambio: Tres Casos de Estudio sobre la Educacion de Calidad en el Mundo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puriefoy, Wendy D.

    2007-01-01

    Public education is the cornerstone of democracy and is absolutely fundamental to a democratic, civil and prosperous society. Beyond the boundaries of the United States, other countries are working to provide quality education to their children through civil society institutions. In particular, there are three extraordinary organizations in Peru,…

  4. Educacion Fundamental Integral #2: Teoria y Aplicacion en el Caso de ACPO. (Fundamental Integral Education #2: Theory and Application in the Case of ACPO.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alarcon, Hernando Bernal

    Educacion Fundamental Integral (EFI) is an educational process which aims to help Colombia's rural population to improve their living conditions. EFI adapts to the concrete circumstances of the person in his own environment. Objectives of EFI are to make the rural people: responsible for the work necessary for their own development; work together;…

  5. Experiencias de Vida de la Mujer Adulta: Estudio de Caso de Lideres en Desarrollo del Programa de Administracion y Supervision Educativa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales-Roman, Gildrette M.

    2012-01-01

    Since the twentieth century to present, the role of women in society has undergone fundamental changes. Women, today, has assumed many different task and new roles, becoming part of professional workforce and increasing level of education by aspiring a higher education gaining access to leadership positions. The purpose of this qualitative…

  6. Reforma Ortografica, Planejamento e Difusao Linguistica: O Caso da Lingua Portuguesa (Orthographic Reform, Planning, and Linguistic Diffusion: The Case of Portuguese).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, John Robert

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that the Luso-Brazilian Accord is a strategy to spread the Portuguese language in Africa, particularly in the former colonies of Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, and Sao Tome e Principe, and to construct and solidify a community of lusophone nations in geopolitical terms in world affairs. Language planning in these countries…

  7. Evidence for micro-biological induction of {101} montmartre twinning of gypsum (CaSO 4 ⋯ 2H 2O)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, A. M.; Cody, R. D.

    1989-12-01

    Natural gypsum crystals twinned on d{101} have been found almost exclusively in deposits from saline lakes and secondary mine alterations. The presence of α-amylase, an enzyme excreted into soils and water by bacteria, fungi, algae, and plant roots, was found to induce d{101} twinning of gypsum crystals formed by diffusion in laboratory growth experiments. From this evidence, extensive deposits of d{101} twinned crystals such as those of the Paris Basin are proposed to form in the α-amylase concentrations that results from certain microbial blooms.

  8. Protegiendo a su familia de los terremotos-Los siete pasos a la seguridad para prepararse en caso de un terremoto (en espa?ol y en ingles)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Desarrollado por American Red Cross, Asian Pacific Fund

    2007-01-01

    Les escribimos esta carta para comunicarle un mensaje sumamente importante sobre las preparaciones de emergencia. Historicamente, hemos sufrido terremotos aqui en el Area de la Bahia de San Francisco que han causado graves privaciones para los residentes de la comunidad y da?os increibles a nuestras ciudades. Es probable que suframos un terremoto de gran magnitud en los proximos 30 a?os. Muchos de nosotros venimos de otros paises donde hemos pasado por terremotos y por eso creemos entenderlos. Sin embargo, la manera que nos preparamos para terremotos en nuestros paises de origen puede ser distinta a la que empleamos aca en los Estados Unidos. Muy pocas personas mueren a causa de los derrumbes de los edificios en el Area de la Bahia porque la mayoria de los edificios son construidos para resistir el sacudimiento de la tierra. Pero es muy probable que su familia no tenga atencion medica, alimentos o que esten separados del uno al otro por dias o semanas. Finalmente depende de usted mantener a su familia a salvo hasta que llegue asistencia, por eso les pedimos que nos unamos para aprender a cuidar a su familia antes, durante, y despues de un terremoto. El primer paso es leer este libro. Cada uno de su familia, ni?os y adultos, pueden aprender como prepararse para un terremoto. Haga participar e incluya sus ni?os; pueden ayudarle a prepararse. Aproveche las clases ofrecidas en su comunidad sobre las preparaciones de terremotos por la Cruz Roja Estadounidense (American Red Cross). Estos cursos de preparacion son gratis y disponibles en espa?ol para todos en la comunidad sin tomar en cuenta la historia de la familia, estado legal, genero o edad. Les recomendamos que tome ventaja de estas clases gratuitas. Para mas informacion consulte la ultima pagina de este libro. Recuerde que un terremoto puede ocurrir sin aviso y la unica manera de reducir el da?o de terremotos es estar preparados. !Preparese!

  9. Reforma Ortografica, Planejamento e Difusao Linguistica: O Caso da Lingua Portuguesa (Orthographic Reform, Planning, and Linguistic Diffusion: The Case of Portuguese).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, John Robert

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that the Luso-Brazilian Accord is a strategy to spread the Portuguese language in Africa, particularly in the former colonies of Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, and Sao Tome e Principe, and to construct and solidify a community of lusophone nations in geopolitical terms in world affairs. Language planning in these countries…

  10. Experiencias, Sentido y Significado de la Consejeria en Justicia Social a Nivel Universitario: Estudio de Caso Cualitativo Mediante Tres Narrativas De Consejeros Profesionales en Educacion Superior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago Tosado, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to understand and profoundly describe the nature of social justice practice, as is comes up from the experience of three professional counselors whose working settings are the academic arena. Detailed descriptions are presented concerning the meanings and sense of counseling for social justice, as the interviews…

  11. [Radiological percutaneous gastrostomy (GRP), 17 años de experiencia, serie de casos del hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío].

    PubMed

    Navarro Falcón, Magnolia Del Carmen; Parejo Campos, Juana; Pereira Cunill, José Luis; García Luna, Pedro Pablo

    2014-10-25

    When assessing a patient nutritional support the state of the gastrointestinal tract is the most important point to consider, whenever possible we should choose the enteral nutrition (EN) over parenteral nutrition (PN) and recognized by its various advantages. The percutaneous gastrostomy (GRP) were introduced in clinical practice as an alternative to surgical gastrostomy (GQ). The speed, simplicity, low cost, low morbidity and low mortality of these techniques has allowed its rapid development.The feeding tubes types used were the balloon-retained devices catheter, the pig tail and the ballon-retained with gastropexia (gastropexia). It is a retrospective study of all patients who were placed GPR in the Virgen del Rocío University Hospital, Sevilla, between September 1996 and September 2013, which aims to study is to describe the characteristics of patients and the complications presented for different types of enteral feeding tubes used. GPR 186 were performed in 176 patients (135 males (76.70%), with an average duration of 303.6 days, the most frequent diseases were cancers of the head and neck 49.46%. The types of feeding tubes used were pigtail 118 (63.44%), balloon-retained devices 22 (11.83%), and gastropexia 46 (24.73%). The most common early complications in the pigtail group were early purulent exudate and early bleeding (2.5 and 3.4% respectively), while in the balloon catheter group the initial output of the probe was most frequent early complication (13.7%), none of these complications were observed in the group of gastropexy. The most common late complication was obstruction probe. The GPR is a safe technique with lower mortality of 1%; Low frequently of early and late complications. A better understanding of this technique can reduce the frequency of complications.

  12. Angiomatosis dérmica difusa de la mama: aportación de un nuevo caso en paciente no fumadora.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Marquez, Ana Maria; Gargallo-Moneva, Vanessa; Rodriguez-Peralto, Jose Luis; Lopez-Gomez, Sara

    2016-04-18

    Diffuse cutaneous angiomatosis is one of the reactive angiomatoses. Historically, it is associated with lesions located in the lower extremities. Breast localization is uncommon, but may be under-reported. We report a non-smoking woman who exhibited this vascular condition of both breasts.

  13. HLA-DRB1 alleles in four Amerindian populations from Argentina and Paraguay

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is one of the biological systems of major polymorphisms. The study of HLA class II variability has allowed the identification of several alleles that are characteristic to Amerindian populations, and it is an excellent tool to define the relations and biological affinities among them. In this work, we analyzed the allelic distribution of the HLA-DRB1 class II locus in four Amerindian populations: Mapuche (n = 34) and Tehuelche (n = 23) from the Patagonian region of Argentina, and Wichi SV (n = 24) and Lengua (n = 17) from the Argentinean and Paraguayan Chaco regions, respectively. In all of these groups, relatively high frequencies of Amerindian HLA-DRB1 alleles were observed (DRB1*0403, DRB1*0407, DRB1*0411, DRB1*0417, DRB1*0802, DRB1*0901, DRB1*1402, DRB1*1406 and DRB1*1602). However, we also detected the presence of non-Amerindian variants in Mapuche (35%) and Tehuelche (22%). We compared our data with those obtained in six indigenous groups of the Argentinean Chaco region and in a sample from Buenos Aires City. The genetic distance dendrogram showed a clear-cut division between the Patagonian and Chaco populations, which formed two different clusters. In spite of their linguistic differences, it can be inferred that the biological affinities observed are in concordance with the geographic distributions and interethnic relations established among the groups studied. PMID:21637670

  14. Y-chromosome lineages in native South American population.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Verea, A; Jaime, J C; Brión, M; Carracedo, A

    2010-04-01

    The present work tries to investigate the population structure and variation of the Amerindian indigenous populations living in Argentina. A total of 134 individuals from three ethnic groups (Kolla, Mapuche and Diaguitas) living in four different regions were collected and analysed for 26 Y-SNPs and 11 Y-STRs. Intra-population variability was analysed, looking for population substructure and neighbour populations were considered for genetic comparative analysis, in order to estimate the contribution of the Amerindian and the European pool, to the current population. We observe a high frequency of R1b1 and Q1a3a* Y-chromosome haplogroups, in the ethnic groups Mapuche, Diaguita and Kolla, characteristic of European and Native American populations, respectively. When we compare our native Argentinean population with other from the South America we also observe that frequency values for Amerindian lineages are relatively lower in our population. These results show a clear Amerindian genetic component but we observe a predominant European influence too, suggesting that typically European male lineages have given rise to the displacement of genuinely Amerindian male lineages in our South American population. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Gene geography of Chile: regional distribution of American, European and African genetic contributions].

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Macarena; Pulgar, Iván; Gallo, Carla; Bortolini, María-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Bedoya, Gabriel; González-José, Rolando; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    The geographical distribution of genes plays a key role in genetic epidemiology. The Chilean population has three major stem groups (Native American, European and African). To estimate the regional rate of American, European and African admixture of the Chilean population. Forty single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP´s) which exhibit substantially different frequencies between Amerindian populations (ancestry-informative markers or AIM´s), were genotyped in a sample of 923 Chilean participants to estimate individual genetic ancestry. The American, European and African individual average admixture estimates for the 15 Chilean Regions were relatively homogeneous and not statistically different. However, higher American components were found in northern and southern Chile and higher European components were found in central Chile. A negative correlation between African admixture and latitude was observed. On the average, American and European genetic contributions were similar and significantly higher than the African contribution. Weighted mean American, European and African genetic contributions of 44.34% ± 3 9%, 51.85% ± 5.44% and 3.81% ± 0.45%, were estimated. Fifty two percent of subjects harbor African genes. Individuals with Aymara and Mapuche surnames have an American admixture of 58.64% and 68.33%, respectively. Half of the Chilean population harbors African genes. Participants with Aymara and Mapuche surnames had a higher American genetic contribution than the general Chilean population. These results confirm the usefulness of surnames as a first approximation to determine genetic ancestry.

  16. [Eating characteristics of Chilean indigenous and non-indigenous adolescent girls].

    PubMed

    Araneda, Jacqueline; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    During childhood and adolescence, eating habits become established which are instrumental in determining eating behavior later in life. Various authors have described the acculturation of the Mapuche people toward Western culture. The objective of this study was to analyze the eating characteristics of indigenous and non-indigenous adolescent girls in the Araucania Region of Chile. A cross-sectional design was used with a probabilistic sample of 281 adolescents comprised of 139 indigenous and 142 non-indigenous girls attending 168 elementary schools. A modified food frequency questionnaire was applied, designed to obtain information about eating habits and consumption of Mapuche foods. The eating schedules are similar in both ethnic groups, with dinner being the meal that is least consumed. Total snack consumption per week has a mean of 7 with an interquartile range (IQR) of 5 to 10 without any differences between ethnic groups; of these snacks, only 2 were healthy (IQR = 1 to 3). The indigenous girls had a higher probability of consumption of native foods including mote (boiled wheat) (OR = 2.00; IC = 0.93-4.29), muday (fermented cereal alcohol) (OR = 3.45; IC = 1.90-6.27), and yuyo (field mustard) (OR = 4.40; IC = 2.06-9.39). The study's conclusion is that the the eating habits and behavior of indigenous adolescents are similar to those of non-indigenous girls, though the former still consume more indigenous foods.

  17. Screening and Characterization of Potentially Suppressive Soils against Gaeumannomyces graminis under Extensive Wheat Cropping by Chilean Indigenous Communities.

    PubMed

    Durán, Paola; Jorquera, Milko; Viscardi, Sharon; Carrion, Victor J; Mora, María de la Luz; Pozo, María J

    2017-01-01

    Wheat production around the world is severely compromised by the occurrence of "take-all" disease, which is caused by the soil-borne pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt). In this context, suppressive soils are those environments in which plants comparatively suffer less soil-borne pathogen diseases than expected, owing to native soil microorganism activities. In southern Chile, where 85% of the national cereal production takes place, several studies have suggested the existence of suppressive soils under extensive wheat cropping. Thus, this study aimed to screen Ggt-suppressive soil occurrence in 16 locations managed by indigenous "Mapuche" communities, using extensive wheat cropping for more than 10 years. Ggt growth inhibition in vitro screenings allowed the identification of nine putative suppressive soils. Six of these soils, including Andisols and Ultisols, were confirmed to be suppressive, since they reduced take-all disease in wheat plants growing under greenhouse conditions. Suppressiveness was lost upon soil sterilization, and recovered by adding 1% of the natural soil, hence confirming that suppressiveness was closely associated to the soil microbiome community composition. Our results demonstrate that long-term extensive wheat cropping, established by small Mapuche communities, can generate suppressive soils that can be used as effective microorganism sources for take-all disease biocontrol. Accordingly, suppressive soil identification and characterization are key steps for the development of environmentally-friendly and efficient biotechnological applications for soil-borne disease control.

  18. 76 FR 67792 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ..., Mexico; Calle Antonio Caso No. 500, Colonia Aurora, Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico; Calle Amapola No. 12... AUTODROMO CULIACAN, Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico; Calle Antonio Caso No. 500, Colonia Aurora, Culiacan, Sinaloa...

  19. Phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

    PubMed

    Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise

    2015-07-28

    Predatory phytoseiid mites have been intensively studied and surveyed in the last decades because of their economic importance as biocontrol agents of agricultural pests. However, many regions of the world remain unexplored and the diversity of the family worldwide is still fragmentary. Up to date no phytoseiid species have been collected in the southernmost part of the Earth down to latitude 45º S. In this study Phytoseiidae were sampled from native vegetation in southern Argentina and Chile in the regions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego Island. Thirteen species were collected, five of which were previously described and eight, Chileseius australis n. sp., Neoseiulus mapuche n. sp., Typhlodromips valdivianus n. sp., T. fissuratus n. sp., Amblyseius grandiporus n. sp., A. caliginosus n. sp., Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) anomalos n. sp. and Metaseiulus parabrevicollis n. sp. are proposed as new to science and are described and diagnosed.

  20. Cancer of the gallbladder—Chilean statistics

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Luis Villanueva

    2016-01-01

    Chile has the world’s highest rate of incidence as well as death from cancer of the gallbladder and biliary ducts. The problem is most acute in the southern provinces. These areas constitute the low average income associated with low educational attainment and a high rate of obesity compared with the rest of Chile. We could also include genetic factors related to processes of lithogenesis to these elements which are more common among the Mapuche. This population sub-group could benefit from special government programmes for early diagnosis and treatment of lithiasic disease and for the management of risk factors such as obesity. In this way, we could reduce the mortality rate of gallbladder cancer. PMID:28105075

  1. Preschoolers' vocabulary acquisition in Chile: the roles of socioeconomic status and quality of home environment.

    PubMed

    Lohndorf, Regina T; Vermeer, Harriet J; Cárcamo, Rodrigo A; Mesman, Judi

    2017-09-21

    Preschoolers' vocabulary acquisition sets the stage for later reading ability and school achievement. This study examined the role of socioeconomic status (SES) and the quality of the home environment of seventy-seven Chilean majority and Mapuche minority families from low and lower-middle-class backgrounds in explaining individual differences in vocabulary acquisition of their three-and-a-half-year-old children. Additionally, we investigated whether the relation between SES and receptive and expressive vocabulary was mediated by the quality of the home environment as the Family Investment Model suggests. The quality of the home environment significantly predicted receptive and expressive vocabulary above and beyond ethnicity, SES, parental caregiver status, and quantity of daycare. Furthermore, the quality of the home environment mediated the relation between SES and expressive and receptive vocabulary acquisition.

  2. Nuestra culpa: collective guilt and shame as predictors of reparation for historical wrongdoing.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rupert; González, Roberto; Zagefka, Hanna; Manzi, Jorge; Cehajic, Sabina

    2008-01-01

    Three studies examined the hypothesis that collective guilt and shame have different consequences for reparation. In 2 longitudinal studies, the ingroup was nonindigenous Chileans (Study 1: N = 124/120, lag = 8 weeks; Study 2: N = 247/137, lag = 6 months), and the outgroup was Chile's largest indigenous group, the Mapuche. In both studies, it was found that collective guilt predicted reparation attitudes longitudinally. Collective shame had only cross-sectional associations with reparation and no direct longitudinal effects. In Study 2, collective shame moderated the longitudinal effects of collective guilt such that the effects of guilt were stronger for low-shame respondents. In Study 3 (N = 193 nonindigenous Chileans), the cross-sectional relationships among guilt, shame, and reparation attitudes were replicated. The relationship between shame and reparation attitudes was mediated by a desire to improve the ingroup's reputation.

  3. Cancer of the gallbladder-Chilean statistics.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Chile has the world's highest rate of incidence as well as death from cancer of the gallbladder and biliary ducts. The problem is most acute in the southern provinces. These areas constitute the low average income associated with low educational attainment and a high rate of obesity compared with the rest of Chile. We could also include genetic factors related to processes of lithogenesis to these elements which are more common among the Mapuche. This population sub-group could benefit from special government programmes for early diagnosis and treatment of lithiasic disease and for the management of risk factors such as obesity. In this way, we could reduce the mortality rate of gallbladder cancer.

  4. Multicultural social policy and community participation in health: new opportunities and challenges for indigenous people.

    PubMed

    Torri, Maria Costanza

    2012-01-01

    Community participation in local health has assumed a central role in the reforms of public healthcare, being increasingly associated with the issue of decentralization of the health system. The aim of this paper is to raise questions regarding the structural approaches to multicultural social policy in Chile and to analyze the results of its implementation. The article analyzes the case study of Makewe Hospital, one of the pioneering experiences of intercultural health initiative in Chile. The Makewe Hospital, which involves the indigenous community of the Mapuche, provides interesting insights to understand the dynamics of multicultural social policy and presents an example of a successful initiative that has succeeded in involving local communities in multicultural health policy. This case study discusses the effectiveness of grassroots participation in multicultural healthcare provision and presents the main strengths and challenges for the replicability of this experience in other settings.

  5. "Processing Instruction": un tipo di grammatica comunicativa per la classe di lingua straniera. Il caso del futuro italiano. (Processing Instruction: One Type of Communicative Grammar for the Foreign Language Classroom. The Case of the Italian Future Tense).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benati, Alessandro

    2000-01-01

    Examines the theoretical and practical rationale for processing instruction as a method of incorporating grammar instruction in a communicative foreign language approach. Presents results of a study on the role of processing instruction on the learning of the Italian future indicative tense by a group of English-speaking students. Results…

  6. Algunos Criterios para Evaluar Programas de Educacion Superior a Nivel de Posgrado: El Caso Particular de la Administracion Publica (Some Criteria to Evaluate Higher Education Programs at the Graduate Level: The Special Case of Public Administration).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    Intended as a contribution to a workshop discussion on program evaluation in higher education, the paper covers five major evaluation issues. First, it deals with evaluation concepts, explaining the purposes of evaluation; pertinent terms; and the sources of evaluation in public health procedures, the scientific method, the systems approach, and…

  7. On ambiente de binárias de pequena massa em formação: o caso do glóbulo cometário CG30 e IRAS08076-3556

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickel, G. R.; Vilas-Boas, J. W. S.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho, combinamos observações de polarização linear no óptico (banda R), dados no infravermelho distante (IRAS) e observações de transições moleculares em radiofreqüências (CO e espécies isotópicas, HCN e HCO+) para analisar o glóbulo cometário (GC) CG30 (na região da IRAS Vela Shell), que apresenta objetos Herbig-Haro e ejeções de matéria, além de uma fonte pontual IRAS em seu interior. Os objetivos deste estudo são: determinar a eficiência de formação estelar nos glóbulos cometários, através da relação entre a massa total do GC e da massa das estrelas em formação; determinar como o campo magnético influencia na formação de estrelas no interior destes objetos; e analisar as modificações que ejeções de matéria de estrelas em formação causam no gás e no campo magnético dos GCs. Combinando nossos dados com trabalhos já publicados, mostramos que CG30 tem uma eficiência de formação estelar em torno de 3%; que o campo magnético é importante na manutenção da estrutura global do GC e demonstra sinais de torção e compressão; e que a ejeção bipolar de matéria das estrelas do par formam uma ejeção quadripolar, a qual influencia na densidade e temperatura do gás e no grau de polarização dos grãos de poeira associados ao gás do GC.

  8. Ranching and conservation in the Santa Cruz River Region, Sonora: Milpillas Case Study (Ganaderia y Conservacion en la Region del Rio Santa Cruz, Sonora: El Caso del Grupo Milpillas)

    Treesearch

    Joaquin Murrieta-Saldivar

    2006-01-01

    The Sonoran Institute (SI) is a non-profit organization working with people toward common conservation goals. Two objectives guide the work of the Sonoran Institute in the Santa Cruz River Region in Sonora, Mexico: to establish projects with community participation that can result in tangible and long-lasting benefits to the environment, and to ensure success by...

  9. "Processing Instruction": un tipo di grammatica comunicativa per la classe di lingua straniera. Il caso del futuro italiano. (Processing Instruction: One Type of Communicative Grammar for the Foreign Language Classroom. The Case of the Italian Future Tense).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benati, Alessandro

    2000-01-01

    Examines the theoretical and practical rationale for processing instruction as a method of incorporating grammar instruction in a communicative foreign language approach. Presents results of a study on the role of processing instruction on the learning of the Italian future indicative tense by a group of English-speaking students. Results…

  10. Planificacion linguistica y constitucion de un bloque regional: El caso del Mercosur (Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uraguay) y de Chile (Language Planning and the Constitution of a Regional Bloc: The Case of Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay) and Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chareille, Samantha

    2003-01-01

    The common market of the South is a new linguistic and cultural area. The resurgence of innermost identities within member states proves that Mercosur identity can neither be universal nor specific. The outcome of this quest for identity will depend on the ability to carefully handle an area of cultural diversity and a place of common allegiance…

  11. Research Culture in Higher Education: The Case of a Foreign Language Department in Mexico (Cultura de la investigación: el caso de un Departamento de Lenguas Extranjeras en México)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández Méndez, Edith; Reyes Cruz, María del Rosario

    2014-01-01

    In the case of Mexico, until recently, many universities focused mainly on teaching, but recent changes have led to new appointments in research, administration, and community service. There now seems to be, however, a view of the predominance of research in the academic environment. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to examine and…

  12. In Situ Raman Spectroscopic Study of Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) and Epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O) Dehydration Utilizing an Ultrasonic Levitator.

    PubMed

    Brotton, Stephen J; Kaiser, Ralf I

    2013-02-21

    We present an original apparatus combining an acoustic levitator and a pressure-compatible process chamber. To characterize in situ the chemical and physical modifications of a levitated, single particle while heated to well-defined temperatures using a carbon dioxide laser, the chamber is interfaced to a Raman spectroscopic probe. As a proof-of-concept study, by gradually increasing the heating temperature, we observed the variations in the Raman spectra as 150 μg of crystals of gypsum and epsomite were dehydrated in anhydrous nitrogen gas. We display spectra showing the decreasing intensities of the ν1 symmetric and ν3 asymmetric stretching modes of water with time and the simultaneous shift of the ν1(SO4(2-)) symmetric stretch mode to higher wavenumbers. Our results demonstrate that the new apparatus is well suited to study the dehydration of levitated species such as minerals and offers potential advantages compared with previous experiments on bulk samples.

  13. Planificacion linguistica y constitucion de un bloque regional: El caso del Mercosur (Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uraguay) y de Chile (Language Planning and the Constitution of a Regional Bloc: The Case of Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay) and Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chareille, Samantha

    2003-01-01

    The common market of the South is a new linguistic and cultural area. The resurgence of innermost identities within member states proves that Mercosur identity can neither be universal nor specific. The outcome of this quest for identity will depend on the ability to carefully handle an area of cultural diversity and a place of common allegiance…

  14. Current use of wild plants with edible underground storage organs in a rural population of Patagonia: between tradition and change.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Juan José; Ladio, Ana Haydee

    2015-09-25

    Edible plants with underground storage organs (USOs) are neglected resources. We studied the local ecological knowledge edible plants with (USOs) in rural populations of North-Patagonia in order to establish how people are utilizing these plants. Some aspect of corpus-praxis-cosmos complex associated to the local ecological knowledge was documented and discussed. In addition, variation in this ecological knowledge due to age, gender, family structure, ethnic self-determination was also evaluated. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 51 inhabitants in order to study the relationship between the current use of plants with USOs and the age, sex, family group composition and ethnic self-identification of interviewees. In addition, the Cultural Importance Index for each species was calculated. The current richness of known species in these populations is a total of 9 plants. Plants with USOs tend to be used more frequently as the age of the interviewee increases. Women and men showed no differences in the average richness of species cited. The interviewees who share their homes with other generations use these plants more frequently than those who live alone. Our results indicate that the interviewees who identified themselves as belonging to the Mapuche people use these plants more frequently. For the Mapuche people, wild plants have constituted material and symbolic resources of great importance in their historical subsistence. In addition, they are currently being redefined as elements which present a connection with ancestral practices, produce a strong relationship with the 'land', and become markers which identify the 'natural' (historical) ways of their people; these are key elements in the current political processes of identity revaluation. This research is valuable to stimulate cultural revival and health promotion programs in the communities with their own local, cultural food.

  15. Lactase non-persistence and general patterns of dairy intake in indigenous and mestizo chilean populations.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Catalina I; Montalva, Nicolás; Arias, Macarena; Hevia, Macarena; Moraga, Mauricio L; Flores, Sergio V

    2016-01-01

    Lactase persistence (LP) is a genetic trait that has been studied among different countries and ethnic groups. In Latin America, the frequencies of this trait have been shown to vary according to the degree of admixture of the populations. The objective of this study is to better understand the relationship between this genetic trait and dairy intake in a multiethnic context through a synthesis of studies conducted in four regions of Chile. Genotypes frequencies for the SNP LCT-13910C>T (rs4988235) and frequency of dairy consumption were obtained from four populations: Polynesians from Easter Island (Rapanui); Amerindians (Mapuche) and Mestizos from the Araucanía region; urban Mestizos from Santiago; and rural Mestizos from the Coquimbo region. Genetic differentiation and association between milk consumption and genotype frequencies were estimated. Genetic differentiation between Native and Mestizo populations was significant; the LP frequency in Mapuche and Rapanui was 10% and 25%, respectively, whereas among the Mestizos, LP frequency was near 40%. Dairy intake was below the nutritional recommendations for the four groups, and extremely below recommendations among the indigenous populations. Association between milk intake and LP was found in Santiago and Rapanui populations. Although the frequency of LP varies among the populations according to their degree of admixture, dairy consumption was very low across the populations. Given that the association between milk consumption and expected phenotype was found only in two of the populations analyzed, it seems that lactase non-persistence (LNP) is not the only cause for dairy avoidance. Thus, it is suggested that SES and cultural preferences are likely affecting dairy consumption. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. mtDNA microevolution in Southern Chile's archipelagos.

    PubMed

    García, Federico; Moraga, Mauricio; Vera, Soledad; Henríquez, Hugo; Llop, Elena; Aspillaga, Eugenio; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2006-03-01

    The genetic variability of four predominantly Indian populations of southern Chile's archipelagos was examined by determining the frequencies of four mitochondrial DNA haplogroups that characterize the American Indian populations. Over 90% of the individuals analyzed presented Native American mtDNA haplogroups. By means of an unweighted group pair method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram, a principal component analysis (PCA) derived from a distance matrix of mtDNA, and the exact test of population differentiation, we are able to prove the existence of a North-South cline. The populations in the northern part of the archipelagos are genetically similar to the Huilliche tribe, while the groups from the South are most closely related to the Fueguino tribe from the extreme South of Chile, and secondarily to the Pehuenche and Mapuche, who are found to the North and East of Chiloé archipelago. These results are consistent with a colonization of the southern archipelagos from Tierra del Fuego. We evaluate the evolutionary relationships of the population of the Chiloé area to groups from other geographic areas of Chile, using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Three Amerindian clusters are identified: one formed by the Aymará and Atacameño, a second by the Huilliche, and a third including the Mapuche, Pehuenche, and Fueguino tribes, and the population inhabiting the South of the Chiloé arcipelago. These groups exhibit a North-South gradient in the frequency of haplogroup B, confirmed by F(ST) tests. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. [Risk factors for metabolic syndrome in a case control study in Temuco, Chile].

    PubMed

    Philco L, Patricia; Serón S, Pamela; Muñoz N, Sergio; Navia B, Pilar; Lanas Z, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is becoming an important public health problem in affluent societies. To identify factors associated to metabolic syndrome in a Southern Chilean city. Using a case control design, 200 participants, aged 35 to 70 years with at least three criteria for metabolic syndrome according to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP_ATPIII) and 200 subjects with less than three criteria, were studied. Both groups were compared in terms of ethnic background, educational level, family history of diabetes and coronary artery disease, menopausal status, smoking, stress and depression, physical activity, changes in body mass index in the last five years and diet. Among subjects aged more than 54 years, among males and among overweight individuals, having a Mapuche origin was a risk factor with odds ratios (OR) of 7.2; 88 and 3.9 respectively. Among subjects aged more than 54 years, among women and among overweight individuals, a family history of diabetes was a risk factor with OR of 17.7; 3.2 and 3.9 respectively. Among subjects aged more than 54 years and among women a change in body mass index of more than three points was a risk factor with OR of 12.5 and 7.4, respectively. Depression also was a risk factor among subjects aged more than 54 years (OR 3.3). Regular consumption of wine was a protective factor among participants of more than 54 years, with an OR of 0.17. The risk factors for metabolic syndrome detected in this group of participants, were having a Mapuche origin, a family history of diabetes mellitus and depression. Wine consumption was associated with a lower risk.

  18. [Variability in the clinical presentation of Pompe disease: development following enzyme replacement therapy].

    PubMed

    Ley-Martos, Myriam; Salado-Reyes, María J; Espinosa-Rosso, Raúl; Solera-García, Jesús; Jiménez-Jiménez, Luis

    2015-11-01

    Introduccion. La enfermedad de Pompe es un trastorno generalizado progresivo producido por el deficit de la enzima alfa-glucosidasa acida (AGA) de los lisosomas. Se presentan tres casos manifestados de forma muy diferente y tratados con terapia enzimatica sustitutiva (TES), con evolucion favorable. Casos clinicos. Caso 1: varon de 3 meses, con debilidad y rechazo de la alimentacion, hepatomegalia leve, ligera macroglosia e hipotonia, y aumento de las enzimas musculares. Caso 2: varon de 5 meses, con retraso del desarrollo motor, sordera neurosensorial grave, trastornos respiratorios de repeticion de evolucion torpida, hipotonia y leve elevacion de la creatincinasa. Caso 3: varon de 22 años con disnea progresiva, con antecedentes de elevacion de la creatincinasa y las transaminasas, e hipercolesterolemia. Sufrio insuficiencia respiratoria grave que preciso intubacion endotraqueal. La biopsia muscular presento depositos de glucogeno sugestivos de la enfermedad. En los tres casos, el estudio electromiografico dio un patron caracteristico, con descargas pseudomiotonicas, y se confirmo el deficit de AGA en los linfocitos. Se encontro una mutacion en un caso y dos mutaciones en los otros dos. Todos recibieron TES con evolucion favorable: desaparicion de las alteraciones cardiacas en el caso 1, mejoria en los hitos motores en los dos casos infantiles y retirada del respirador en el caso 3. Conclusion. La enfermedad de Pompe tiene una amplia variabilidad en la expresion clinica. La TES consigue una buena respuesta, especialmente en las formas infantiles. La supervivencia a largo plazo de las formas infantiles tratadas permitira conocer mas aspectos del curso de la enfermedad.

  19. An Analysis of the Effects on the Proposed Coast Guard User Fee on the Oceangoing U.S. Merchant Marine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    researchers. Lykes’ views had been presented to the Council of American Flag Ship Operators ( CASO ). The CASO view of the user fee was Lykes’ view of the...Group Company Official) VLCC = Very Large Crude Carrier; OBO - Oil, Bulk, Ore Carrier TABLE XLIV Berger Group Accrued Operating-Differential...user fee has much chance of becoming law. K. COUNCIL OF AMERICAN-FLAG SHIP OPERATORS The Council of American-Flag Ship Operators or CASO is a trade

  20. Immunotherapeutic Strategies in Breast Cancer: Preclinical and Clinical Trials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    INGREDIENT PURITY - 95 % IN=6 99.4 % IN=6 (mean of N vials, HPLCIUV) STERILITY (thioglycollate & CASO , No evidence of EP/USP membrane filtration method...pooled - Media used: Thioglycolat and CASO - Test systems used: TTHA DV (Millipore) - Incubation time: 14 days - Special procedures: Dissolving and...HPLC/UV) STERILITY (thioglycollate & CASO , No evidence of EP/USP membrane filtration method) microbial growth complies PYROGENS (body temperature in

  1. Computational Modeling of Cultural Dimensions in Adversary Organizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Systems (CMU/ CASOS ) Task 3: Conduct computational experiments to address the set of research hypotheses. Task 4: Develop and transition theory-based...University (Appendix E) and SORASCS developed by CASOS at Carnegie Mellon University. Both have been used and developed further in this project...and SORASCS developed by CASOS at Carnegie Mellon University (Appendix F). Both have been used and developed further in this project. Once the

  2. 300 Cities - An Exploration in Characterizing US Cities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Computational Analysis of Social and Organizational Systems CASOS technical report. This work was supported by the IRS...Cities CMU-ISR-08-122 - 1 - CASOS Report Overview The goal of the 300-Cities Project is to identify canonical city types, which can subsequently...person. 300 Cities CMU-ISR-08-122 - 2 - CASOS Report the agent-class analysis, followed by similar descriptions of the city-match analysis. A

  3. Geographic variation of gallbladder cancer mortality and risk factors in Chile: a population-based ecologic study

    PubMed Central

    Andia, Marcelo E.; Hsing, Ann W.; Andreotti, Gabriella; Ferreccio, Catterina

    2010-01-01

    Chile’s gallbladder cancer rates are among the highest in the world, being the first cancer killer among Chilean women. To provide insights into the etiology of gallbladder cancer, we conducted an ecologic study examining the geographical variation of gallbladder cancer and several putative risk factors. The relative risk of dying from gallbladder cancer (relative to the national average mortality rate) between 1985 and 2003 was estimated for each of the 333 Chilean counties, using a hierarchical Poisson regression model, adjusting for age, sex, and geographical location. The risk of gallbladder cancer mortality was analyzed in relation to region (costal, inland, northern, and southern), poverty, Amerindian (Mapuche) population, typhoid fever, and access to cholecystectomy, using logistic regression analysis. There were 27,183 gallbladder cancer deaths, age-sex-adjusted county mortality rates ranging from 8.2 to 12.4 per 100,000 inhabitants, being higher in inland and southern regions; compare to the north-coastal, the northern-inland region had a 10-fold risk odds ratio (OR) (95% of confidence interval (95% CI): 2.4–42.2) and the southern-inland region had a 26-fold risk (OR 95%CI: 6.0–114.2). Independent risk factors for gallbladder cancer were: ethnicity (Mapuche) OR:3.9 (95%CI 1.8–8.7), typhoid fever OR:2.9 (95%CI 1.2–6.9), poverty OR:5.1 (95%CI 1.6–15.9), low access to cholecystectomy OR:3.9 (95%CI 1.5–10.1), low access to hospital care OR:14.2 (95%CI 4.2–48.7) and high urbanization OR:8.0 (95%CI 3.4–18.7). Our results suggest that gallbladder cancer in Chile may be related to both genetic factors and poor living conditions. Future analytic studies are needed to further clarify the role of these factors in gallbladder cancer etiology. PMID:18566990

  4. Effect of sulfation on the surface activity of CaO for N2O decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lingnan; Hu, Xiaoying; Qin, Wu; Dong, Changqing; Yang, Yongping

    2015-12-01

    Limestone addition to circulating fluidized bed boilers for sulfur removal affects nitrous oxide (N2O) emission at the same time, but mechanism of how sulfation process influences the surface activity of CaO for N2O decomposition remains unclear. In this paper, we investigated the effect of sulfation on the surface properties and catalytic activity of CaO for N2O decomposition using density functional theory calculations. Sulfation of CaO (1 0 0) surface by the adsorption of a single gaseous SO2 or SO3 molecule forms stable local CaSO3 or CaSO4 on the CaO (1 0 0) surface with strong hybridization between the S atom of SOx and the surface O anion. The formed local CaSO3 increases the barrier energy of N2O decomposition from 0.989 eV (on the CaO (1 0 0) surface) to 1.340 eV, and further sulfation into local CaSO4 remarkably increases the barrier energy to 2.967 eV. Sulfation from CaSO3 into CaSO4 is therefore the crucial step for deactivating the surface activity for N2O decomposition. Completely sulfated CaSO4 (0 0 1) and (0 1 0) surfaces further validate the negligible catalytic ability of CaSO4 for N2O decomposition.

  5. [Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: two paediatric cases].

    PubMed

    González-Toro, M Cristina; Jadraque-Rodríguez, Rocío; Sempere-Pérez, Ángela; Martínez-Pastor, Pedro; Jover-Cerdá, Jenaro; Gómez-Gosálvez, Francisco

    2013-12-01

    Introduccion. La encefalitis asociada a anticuerpos antirreceptores de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una patologia neurologica autoinmune documentada en la poblacion pediatrica de manera creciente en los ultimos años. Se presentan dos casos de nuestra experiencia con clinica similar. Casos clinicos. Caso 1: niña de 5 años que inicia un cuadro de convulsiones y alteracion de conciencia, asociando trastornos del movimiento y regresion de habilidades previamente adquiridas que evoluciona a autismo. Caso 2: niña de 13 años que presenta hemiparesia izquierda, movimientos anomalos, trastorno de conducta y disautonomia. En ambos casos se obtienen anticuerpos antirreceptores de NMDA positivos en el liquido cefalorraquideo y se diagnostican de encefalitis antirreceptor de NMDA. En el primer caso se inicia el tratamiento con perfusion intravenosa de corticoides e inmunoglobulinas y es necesario asociar rituximab. En el segundo, corticoides e inmunoglobulinas. La evolucion fue favorable en ambas pacientes, con una leve alteracion del lenguaje como secuela en el primer caso y una recaida en el segundo caso, con resolucion completa. Conclusion. La encefalitis antirreceptor de NMDA es un trastorno tratable y es importante el diagnostico y tratamiento precoz, ya que mejora el pronostico y disminuye las recaidas.

  6. The Semi-Submersible Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    Marquetalia Self-Defense Movement and led by Pedro Antonio Marin, also known as “Tirofijo,” operated deliberately to address grievances of landless...2012), 37. 99 Palantir, “About,” n.d., http://www.palantir.com/about/. 100 Casos , “*ORA,” n.d., http://www.casos.cs.cmu.edu/projects/ora/; UCINET

  7. Evaluation of two sources of calcium sulfate for a local drug delivery system: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Parker, Ashley C; Smith, J Keaton; Courtney, Harry S; Haggard, Warren O

    2011-11-01

    Local drug delivery has substantial potential to prevent infections compared with systemic delivery. Although calcium sulfate (CaSO(4)) has been studied for local drug delivery and two types are commercially available, it is unknown whether they differentially release antibiotics. We determined the differences between two sources of CaSO(4) and the K(2)SO(4) catalyst's presence on the degradation, daptomycin elution, and activity against Staphylococcus aureus. We formed pellets from synthetic and naturally sourced (from gypsum) CaSO(4) and loaded with 5% daptomycin and 3% or 0% K(2)SO(4). We used in vitro experiments to determine the daptomycin concentration and degradation profiles over 10 days. Turbidity assays were used to evaluate the activity of the daptomycin eluates against S. aureus. All pellets exhibited a bolus release with the highest daptomycin concentration on Day 1 with the sourced CaSO(4) pellets. The synthetic CaSO(4) pellets with 3% K(2)SO(4) exhibited a slower drug release compared with the synthetic CaSO(4) pellets with 0% K(2)SO(4), which degraded and eluted daptomycin too quickly to inhibit S. aureus. Turbidity assays demonstrated that all CaSO(4) pellets inhibit S. aureus for expected lengths of time. Our preliminary in vitro data suggest differences in the degradation, elution, and activity properties between sourced and synthetic CaSO(4) pellets. The addition of K(2)SO(4) appeared beneficial when using synthetic CaSO(4). Synthetic CaSO(4) may be effective when slow degradation and longer elution times are needed. Local delivery of eluted daptomycin can be tailored through material selection and K(2)SO(4) addition.

  8. Two new Liolaemus lizards from the Andean highlands of Southern Chile (Squamata, Iguania, Liolaemidae).

    PubMed

    Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Diaz, Hugo A; Puas, German I; Riveros-Riffo, Edvin; Elorza, Alvaro A

    2016-01-01

    Liolaemus is a diverse genus of lizards, subdivided into two subgenera: Liolaemus (sensu stricto) and Eulaemus, distributed mainly in Chile and Argentina. The Liolaemus elongatus-kriegi complex is the most diverse group within Liolaemus (sensu stricto), especially the species closely related to Liolaemus elongatus, which form a clade currently comprising nine species. Several Chilean species of this group have been recently described, mainly from volcanoes and poorly explored mountains. Here molecular and morphological evidence are provided for a new species of the Liolaemus elongatus clade, which is characterized by its small size and lack of dorsal pattern, unusual features for the species of this group of lizards. Additionally, the lack of precloacal pores in males of Liolaemus (sensu stricto) is a trait found in few species, which do not constitute a monophyletic group. A second new southern Chilean species is also described, without precloacal pores and supported by molecular phylogenetics to be related to Liolaemus villaricensis. Both new species were found in the same locality, near a lake located in a pre-Andean zone with Araucaria and Nothofagus forest. The two species are dedicated to prominent Lonkos (tribal chiefs) of the Mapuche and Pehuenche people: Janequeo and Leftraru. Additionally, the phylogenetic results suggest that Liolaemus lonquimayensis is a synonym of Liolaemus elongatus.

  9. Screening and Characterization of Potentially Suppressive Soils against Gaeumannomyces graminis under Extensive Wheat Cropping by Chilean Indigenous Communities

    PubMed Central

    Durán, Paola; Jorquera, Milko; Viscardi, Sharon; Carrion, Victor J.; Mora, María de la Luz; Pozo, María J.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat production around the world is severely compromised by the occurrence of “take-all” disease, which is caused by the soil-borne pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt). In this context, suppressive soils are those environments in which plants comparatively suffer less soil-borne pathogen diseases than expected, owing to native soil microorganism activities. In southern Chile, where 85% of the national cereal production takes place, several studies have suggested the existence of suppressive soils under extensive wheat cropping. Thus, this study aimed to screen Ggt-suppressive soil occurrence in 16 locations managed by indigenous “Mapuche” communities, using extensive wheat cropping for more than 10 years. Ggt growth inhibition in vitro screenings allowed the identification of nine putative suppressive soils. Six of these soils, including Andisols and Ultisols, were confirmed to be suppressive, since they reduced take-all disease in wheat plants growing under greenhouse conditions. Suppressiveness was lost upon soil sterilization, and recovered by adding 1% of the natural soil, hence confirming that suppressiveness was closely associated to the soil microbiome community composition. Our results demonstrate that long-term extensive wheat cropping, established by small Mapuche communities, can generate suppressive soils that can be used as effective microorganism sources for take-all disease biocontrol. Accordingly, suppressive soil identification and characterization are key steps for the development of environmentally-friendly and efficient biotechnological applications for soil-borne disease control. PMID:28861064

  10. Two new Liolaemus lizards from the Andean highlands of Southern Chile (Squamata, Iguania, Liolaemidae)

    PubMed Central

    Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Diaz, Hugo A.; Puas, German I.; Riveros-Riffo, Edvin; Elorza, Alvaro A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Liolaemus is a diverse genus of lizards, subdivided into two subgenera: Liolaemus (sensu stricto) and Eulaemus, distributed mainly in Chile and Argentina. The Liolaemus elongatus-kriegi complex is the most diverse group within Liolaemus (sensu stricto), especially the species closely related to Liolaemus elongatus, which form a clade currently comprising nine species. Several Chilean species of this group have been recently described, mainly from volcanoes and poorly explored mountains. Here molecular and morphological evidence are provided for a new species of the Liolaemus elongatus clade, which is characterized by its small size and lack of dorsal pattern, unusual features for the species of this group of lizards. Additionally, the lack of precloacal pores in males of Liolaemus (sensu stricto) is a trait found in few species, which do not constitute a monophyletic group. A second new southern Chilean species is also described, without precloacal pores and supported by molecular phylogenetics to be related to Liolaemus villaricensis. Both new species were found in the same locality, near a lake located in a pre-Andean zone with Araucaria and Nothofagus forest. The two species are dedicated to prominent Lonkos (tribal chiefs) of the Mapuche and Pehuenche people: Janequeo and Leftraru. Additionally, the phylogenetic results suggest that Liolaemus lonquimayensis is a synonym of Liolaemus elongatus. PMID:27920609

  11. [Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a rural Aymara population from northern Chile].

    PubMed

    Vargas M, Pablo; Saavedra P, Stephanie; Araya A, María Virginia; Loyola A, Khanty; Huerta G, Patricio; Silva A, Mariana; Araya C, Scarlett; Saavedra A, Willybaldo; Portales P, Pilar; Saavedra P, Willybaldo

    2016-09-01

    Some rural non-Caucasian ethnic groups have genetic protective factors for the development of chronic non-communicable diseases. Studies performed in Mapuche and Aymara ethnic groups in Chile, found significantly lower prevalence rates. Aymaras are the second most common ethnic population in Chile. To determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a native Aymara ethnic population. We studied 276 native Aymara people with a median age of 53 years (63% women), registered in the rural clinics of Camiña and Putre. The frequency of hypertension, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2), dyslipidemia, overweight, obesity and smoking were determined. The frequency of overweight and obesity was 38% and 38.4% respectively. The prevalence of hypertension and DM2 were 18.5% and 6.9% respectively. Thirty-five percent had elevated total cholesterol, 21% had high LDL cholesterol, 48% had low HDL cholesterol and 45.7% had high triglyceride levels. Two percent smoked. In this group of Aymara individuals, we found a markedly lower prevalence of hypertension and DM2, despite the high prevalence of obesity and dyslipidemia.

  12. [Chronic pancreatitis: Retrospective review of 121 cases].

    PubMed

    Berger F, Zoltán; Mancilla A, Carla

    2016-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a rare disease in Chile, without a clear explanation for this low prevalence. To analyze the characteristics of our patients with pancreatitis. Retrospective analysis of a database of patients with pancreatitis of a clinical hospital. Morphological proof of diagnosis (calcifications/calculi, alterations of ducts, local complication or histology) was obtained for every patient. History of acute pancreatitis was recorded and exocrine-endocrine function was assessed. We retrieved information of 121 patients with pancreatitis (86 males) in a period of 20 years. The number of cases increased markedly every five years. The calculated incidence and prevalence was 0.8/100,000/year and 6/100,000, respectively. Pancreatic calcifications were initially observed in 93 patients and became evident during the follow-up in another six patients. Severe pain or local complications occurred in 27 patients, requiring surgery in 10 or endoscopic treatment in 15. During the years of follow-up, 55 patients were free of symptoms. Exocrine and endocrine insufficiency was demonstrated and treated in 81 and 67 patients, respectively. Alcoholic etiology was evident in 40% of patients. In 29% no etiology was identified. Mapuche origin was exceptional. Late diagnosis of CP is common, since most of our patients presented with advanced stages. Even though CP is increasingly diagnosed in our hospitals, the number of cases is still far fewer when compared to other countries. Underdiagnosis alone cannot explain this difference and genetic factors might be of importance.

  13. HTLV type I and HTLV type II infection among Indians and natives from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bouzas, M B; Zapiola, I; Quiruelas, S; Gorvein, D; Panzita, A; Rey, J; Carnese, F P; Corral, R; Perez, C; Zala, C

    1994-11-01

    Endemic foci for HTLV-II infection have been identified in several Amerindian populations. To determine HTLV-I and/or HTLV-II infection among Amerindians living in Argentina we studied 454 sera or plasmas from Indians and natives from different areas of our country. All samples were tested by the particle agglutination technique, and positive reactions were confirmed by the immunofluorescence assay (IFA). IFA titration was used to differentiate HTLV-I and HTLV-II antibodies. Twenty-three of 222 samples (10.4%) were found positive among the Tobas Indians; 22 samples were typed as HTLV-II and 1 as HTLV-I. Antibodies for HTLV-I were found in the serum and CSF of three natives from Salta with a TSP diagnosis. No positive samples were found among 96 Mapuche Indians and 133 natives from San Luis. Our results indicate that HTLV-II is endemic among the Tobas Indians. In this study, infection by these retroviruses in Argentinian Amerindians seems to have a marked geographic distribution.

  14. A review of Chilean chiggers (Acari: Trombiculidae), with the description of a new genus and ten new species.

    PubMed

    Stekolnikov, Alexandr A; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2015-05-29

    A new genus and species of chigger mites, Diaguitacarus choapensis gen. et sp. nov., is described from four lizard species of the genus Liolaemus in Choapa Province of Chile. Eight new chigger species are described from lizards of the genera Liolaemus, Phymaturus (Squamata: Liolaemidae), and Microlophus (Squamata: Tropiduridae), in Arica and Parinacota, Atacama, Coquimbo, Valparaíso, and Biobío Regions: Eutrombicula nerudai sp. nov., Eutrombicula mistrali sp. nov., Eutrombicula picunche sp. nov., Microtrombicula mapuche sp. nov., Parasecia molini sp. nov., Paratrombicula philippii sp. nov., Morelacarus jorgei sp. nov., and Morelacarus camanchaca sp. nov. A new species Proschoengastia antarctica sp. nov., which is described from American mink Neovison vison on Navarino Island (Region of Magallanes and Antártica Chilena), is the most southerly chigger species, found at the distance of about 1000 km from the continent of Antarctica. Whartonacarus chaetosus (Brennan and Jones, 1961) comb. nov., which was described from Peru, is for the first time recorded in Chile (Atacama Region) and on Microlophus atacamensis. A new combination Proschoengastia macrochaeta (Brennan and Jones, 1961) comb. nov. is established. The genus Morelacarus Vercammen-Grandjean, 1973 previously known from Mexico and southwestern USA is for the first time recorded in Chile. A review of all previously described Chilean chiggers and a key to Eutrombicula species from Chile are provided. In all, 22 species from 13 genera were recorded in Chile, of which only one species (Whartonacarus chaetosus) is known outside the country.

  15. Reference database of hypervariable genetic markers of Argentina: application for molecular anthropology and forensic casework.

    PubMed

    Sala, A; Penacino, G; Carnese, R; Corach, D

    1999-06-01

    The population of Argentina is mostly composed of people of European ancestry. Aboriginal communities are at present very reduced in number and restricted to small geographically isolated patches. Three aboriginal communities, the Mapuche, Tehuelche and Wichi, were selected for short tandem repeat (STR) investigation. The metropolitan population of the city of Buenos Aires was analyzed, with both micro- and minisatellites. The minisatellite loci D1S7, D2S44, D4S139, D5S110, D8S358, D10S28, and D17S26 were typed on HaeIII-digested DNA obtained from unrelated individuals. D1S80 was typed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The autosomal STRs THO1, FABP, D6S366, CSF1PO, TPOX, F13A1, FES/FPS, vWA, MBPA/B, D16S539, D7S820, D13S317, and RENA4 and the sex chromosome STRs HPRTB, DYS385, DYS3891, DYS38911, DYS19, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393 and YCAII were also investigated. As a by-product of our investigations, a reference database was created that is routinely used in forensic casework and paternity testing. STR allele frequency distributions are characterized by significant differences within and also between different populations. In contrast, the minisatellite bin distribution of the metropolitan population is not significantly different from other Caucasian populations.

  16. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of leptocarpin, a plant-derived sesquiterpene lactone, on human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bosio, Claudia; Tomasoni, Giacomo; Martínez, Rolando; Olea, Andrés F; Carrasco, Héctor; Villena, Joan

    2015-12-05

    Sesquiterpene lactones have attracted much attention in drug research because they present a series of biological activities such as anticancer, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant. Leptocarpin (LTC) is a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from a native Chilean plant, Leptocarpha rivularis, which has been widely used in traditional medicine by Mapuche people. Previous work has demonstrated that LTC decreases cell viability of cancer cell lines. In this contribution, we analyze the mechanism of LTC cytotoxicity on different cancer cell lines. The results show that in all cases LTC induces an apoptotic process and inhibition of NF-κB. Apoptosis has been confirmed by observing condensation of chromatin, nuclear fragmentation, release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, and increasing of caspase-3 activity. It has also been found that LTC is an effective inhibitor of NF-κB, which suggests that leptocarpin-induced cytotoxicity involves in some degree the inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway. The concentration at which LTC inhibits NF-κB activity to the control level is similar or even lower than that found for parthenolide and others sesquiterpene lactones. These results indicate that leptocarpine is a very interesting molecule that could be considered as therapeutic agent for cancer treatment.

  17. Saccharomyces uvarum is responsible for the traditional fermentation of apple chicha in Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Maria E; Pérez-Través, Laura; Sangorrín, Marcela P; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo; Lopes, Christian A

    2017-01-01

    Apple chicha is a fresh low alcoholic beverage elaborated by aboriginal communities of Andean Patagonia (Argentina and Chile). In the present work, we identified the yeast microbiota associated with this fermentation, and characterized genetically those belonging to the genus Saccharomyces. Both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. uvarum were found in the analyzed fermentations. Phylogenetic and population structure analyses based on genes sequence analysis were carried out for both S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum strains obtained in this study and a set of additional strains from diverse origins. The results demonstrate that S. cerevisiae strains from apple chicha belong to the big group of wine/European strains of this species, while S. uvarum strains were included in the Holartic population of this species. Additionally, some S. uvarum strains from chichas evidenced as an admixture of both pure Holartic and pure South American populations. Our results suggest that Holartic strains could have been introduced in South America together with the domestication of apple trees by Mapuche communities. This Holartic population suffered admixis with the naturally present South American population of this species, originating strains bearing genetic features from the two populations, detectable in both chichas and natural habitats.

  18. Saccharomyces eubayanus and Saccharomyces uvarum associated with the fermentation of Araucaria araucana seeds in Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M Eugenia; Pérez-Través, Laura; Sangorrín, Marcela P; Barrio, Eladio; Lopes, Christian A

    2014-09-01

    Mudai is a traditional fermented beverage, made from the seeds of the Araucaria araucana tree by Mapuche communities. The main goal of the present study was to identify and characterize the yeast microbiota responsible of Mudai fermentation as well as from A. araucana seeds and bark from different locations in Northern Patagonia. Only Hanseniaspora uvarum and a commercial bakery strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated from Mudai and all Saccharomyces isolates recovered from A. araucana seed and bark samples belonged to the cryotolerant species Saccharomyces eubayanus and Saccharomyces uvarum. These two species were already reported in Nothofagus trees from Patagonia; however, this is the first time that they were isolated from A. araucana, which extends their ecological distribution. The presence of these species in A. araucana seeds and bark samples, led us to postulate a potential role for them as the original yeasts responsible for the elaboration of Mudai before the introduction of commercial S. cerevisiae cultures. The molecular and genetic characterization of the S. uvarum and S. eubayanus isolates and their comparison with European S. uvarum strains and S. eubayanus hybrids (S. bayanus and S. pastorianus), allowed their ecology and evolution us to be examined.

  19. Reduced Mtdna Diversity in the Ngobe Amerinds of Panama

    PubMed Central

    Kolman, C. J.; Bermingham, E.; Cooke, R.; Ward, R. H.; Arias, T. D.; Guionneau-Sinclair, F.

    1995-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype diversity was determined for 46 Ngobe Amerinds sampled widely across their geographic range in western Panama. The Ngobe data were compared with mtDNA control region I sequences from two additional Amerind groups located at the northern and southern extremes of Amerind distribution, the Nuu-Chah-Nulth of the Pacific Northwest and the Chilean Mapuche and from one Na-Dene group, the Haida of the Pacific Northwest. The Ngobe exhibit the lowest mtDNA control region sequence diversity yet reported for an Amerind group. Moreover, they carry only two of the four Amerind founding lineages first described by Wallace and coworkers. We posit that the Ngobe passed through a population bottleneck caused by ethnogenesis from a small founding population and/or European conquest and colonization. Dating of the Ngobe population expansion using the HARPENDING et al. approach to the analysis of pairwise genetic differences indicates a Ngobe expansion at roughly 6800 years before present (range: 1850-14,000 years before present), a date more consistent with a bottleneck at Chibcha ethnogenesis than a conquest-based event. PMID:7635293

  20. Effects of Strategy Instruction in an EFL Reading Comprehension Course: A Case Study (Efectos de la instrucción de estrategias en un curso de comprensión de lectura en inglés como lengua extranjera: un estudio de caso)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopera Medina, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Strategy instruction is useful in teaching contexts. This paper examines the effects of strategy instruction in an EFL reading comprehension course carried out with 26 undergraduate students at a Colombian university. As a research method, a case study was implemented. There were three instruments with which to collect data: reading comprehension…

  1. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el movimiento de la Luna, el movimiento aparente del Sol sobre la esfera celeste, los eclipses, las dimensiones y las distancias en el Universo, el brillo de las estrellas y su observación de la Tierra. Si bien ha habido un pequeño progreso en la proporción de respuestas aceptables científicamente cuando se cotejó el octavo grado de la enseñanza primaria con el quinto, y el último año de la enseñanza secundaria con el primero, se observó un predominio de las concepciones alternativas en relación a la mayoría de los temas explorados, que continuó hasta los últimos años de la educación básica. Una comparación con los datos encontrados en investigaciones realizadas en otros contextos socioculturales revelaron, en muchos aspectos, conceptos y dificultades similares expresadas por los estudiantes. Apresentam-se os resultados de uma investigação sobre a compreensão de conceitos astronômicos básicos, da qual participaram 561 estudantes da quinta série do Ensino Fundamental ao terceiro ano do Ensino Médio de uma escola pública da cidade de Foz do Iguaçu. Um teste com 20 questões de múltipla escolha foi aplicado para identificar as concepções mais comuns expressadas pelos alunos. Esse instrumento de coleta de dados foi elaborado com base na literatura sobre concepções alternativas e abordou os seguintes temas: o ciclo dia-noite; os fusos horários; as estações do ano; as fases da Lua; o movimento da Lua; o movimento aparente do Sol na esfera celeste; os eclipses; as dimensões e distâncias no Universo; o brilho das estrelas e sua observação da Terra. Embora se tenha verificado um pequeno progresso na proporção de respostas cientificamente aceitáveis ao se cotejar a oitava série do Ensino Fundamental com a quinta, e a terceira série do Ensino Médio com a primeira, houve o predomínio de concepções alternativas em relação à maior parte dos temas explorados, as quais persistiram até o último ano da Educação Básica. A comparação com dados encontrados em investigações realizadas em outros contextos socioculturais revelaram, em muitos aspectos, noções e dificuldades similares manifestadas pelos estudantes.

  2. Using Case Study Methodology to Approach the Views of Teachers of English on Classroom Disciplinary Strategies (Uso de la metodología de estudio de casos para aproximarse a las concepciones de profesores de inglés sobre las estrategias disciplinarias en el aula)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Díaz Larenas, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study aims at identifying the disciplinary strategies claimed to be used by a group of five secondary classroom teachers of English in public or semi-public schools in Chile. To conduct this research, a semi-structured interview was applied to participants. The data were analyzed using the principles of semantic content analysis…

  3. Global Professional Identity in Deterretorialized Spaces: A Case Study of a Critical Dialogue between Expert and Novice Nonnative English Speaker Teachers (Identidad profesional global en espacios desterritorializados: un estudio de caso de los diálogos críticos entre profesores de inglés no nativos)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero Nieto, Carmen Helena; Meadows, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the online, peer-peer dialogue between two groups of nonnative English-speaking teachers who are attending graduate programs in Colombia and the United States. Framed by the theoretical concepts of critical pedagogy and global professional identity, a qualitative analysis of the data shows that their expert vs. novice roles…

  4. HISTOPATHOLOGY OF THE DUODENAL-JEJUNAL MUCOSA OBTAINED BY CROSBY BIOPSY IN A CASE OF NUTRITIONAL MEGALOBLASTIC ANEMIA FOLIC ACID-RESPONSIVE (ISTOPATOLOGIA DELLA MUCOSA DUODENODIGIUNALE OTTENUTA CON BIOPSIA ALLA CROSBY IN UN CASO DI ANEMIA MEGALOBLASTICA NUTRIZIONALE FOLICO-RESPONSIVA),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    In a nutritional megaloblastic anemia case, responsive to folic acid, partial or subtotal atrophy of the villi was observed in the duodenal-jejunal... villous tunica and of the pericryptic area, the presence of pseudocrypts, alterations of the glandular acini, and hyperplasia of the interstitial

  5. EFL Teachers' Perceptions of Continuing Professional Development: A Case of Iranian High School Teachers (La percepción de docentes de inglés como lengua extranjera acerca del desarrollo profesional continuado: el caso de profesores iraníes de bachillerato)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alibakhshi, Goudarz; Dehvari, Najibeh

    2015-01-01

    English, particularly regarding a foreign language teachers' professional development, has been studied in depth. However, it is not known how Iranian English as a foreign language teachers perceive continuing professional development. This study explored the perceptions of Iranian English as a foreign language teachers of continuing professional…

  6. [Phenotypic variations in Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome caused by RNASEH2B gene mutations: report of two new cases].

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Madinaveitia, Saturnino; Conejo-Moreno, David; López-Pisón, Javier; Peña-Segura, José Luis; Serrano-Madrid, M Luisa; Durán-Palacios, Ingrid C; Peláez-Cabo, Pilar

    2016-02-16

    Introduccion. El sindrome de Aicardi-Goutieres es un trastorno inmunitario raro debido a mutaciones en siete genes que codifican proteinas llamadas TREX1, el complejo ribonucleasa H2, SAMHD1, ADAR e IFIH1 (MAD5), las cuales estan implicadas en el metabolismo de los acidos nucleicos. A continuacion se presentan dos nuevos casos por mutacion en el gen RNASEH2B, uno de los cuales presenta una mutacion no descrita hasta la fecha. Casos clinicos. Caso 1: varon que consulto porque desde los 5 meses, coincidiendo con cuadros febriles de repeticion, presentaba perdida de los items madurativos adquiridos hasta la fecha. Caso 2: niño de 4 meses que desde los 2 meses mostraba gran irritabilidad con dificultades en la alimentacion, asociado a un grave retraso psicomotor. En ambos casos se constato un aumento de las pterinas en el liquido cefalorraquideo, principalmente de la neopterina, con calcificaciones en los ganglios basales. El diagnostico se confirmo mediante secuenciacion del gen RNASEH2B; el caso 2 presentaba una mutacion no descrita en la literatura medica. Conclusiones. Los casos corresponden a la descripcion clasica realizada por Aicardi-Goutieres. Debe tenerse en cuenta este sindrome ante un paciente con un cuadro de encefalopatia subaguda de comienzo en el primer año de vida, distonia/espasticidad en grado variable e importante afectacion/regresion del desarrollo psicomotor, especialmente si asocia aumento de las pterinas (neopterina) en el liquido cefalorraquideo y calcificaciones en los ganglios basales.

  7. [Intragenic deletions of NRXN1: three new case reports and a review of the phenotype].

    PubMed

    Galán-Sánchez, Francisco; Esteban-Cantó, Vanessa; Blaya-Fernández, Pedro; Jadraque-Rodríguez, Rocío; Manchón-Trives, Irene; Alcaraz-Más, Luis

    2015-03-01

    Objetivo. Aportar datos sobre el fenotipo determinado por las microdeleciones de los exones alfa del gen NRXN1. Casos clinicos. Se estudian tres casos neuropediatricos con microdeleciones intragenicas NRXN1 alfa. El fenotipo en estos tres casos es inespecifico, con retraso mental leve-moderado, trastornos de comportamiento y escasos rasgos dismorficos o malformaciones. Conclusion. El fenotipo encontrado en las microdeleciones de los exones alfa del gen NRXN1 es claramente distinguible del fenotipo encontrado en las microdeleciones de los exones beta, con macrocefalia, epilepsia y retraso mental.

  8. [Rescue treatment in acute thrombosis of intracranial stents].

    PubMed

    Pumar, José M; Banguero, Alexandra; Arias-Rivas, Susana; Blanco, Miguel; Rodríguez-Yáñez, Manuel; Sucasas, Paula; Blanco, Miguel; Castiñeira-Mourenza, José A; Vázquez-Herrero, Fernando

    2014-02-01

    Introduccion. La trombosis aguda intrastent es una complicacion potencialmente grave en el stenting intracraneal. Es primordial determinar cual es la terapia mas adecuada en las trombosis intrastent. Caso clinico. Mujer de 58 años, el primer caso de trombosis aguda de un stent intracraneal, que fue tratada con exito mediante fibrinolisis tras la implantacion de un dispositivo diversificador de flujo (Silk) en un aneurisma basilar fusiforme. Conclusion. La administracion de abciximab como tratamiento de rescate parece segura en los casos de formaciones de trombos agudos intrastent.

  9. Mumps Cases and Outbreaks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Articles Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Mumps Cases and Outbreaks Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... Professionals Español: Casos y brotes de paperas Mumps Cases From January 1 to March 25 2017, ...

  10. [Appraisal of the formation of afterimages by means of a new computer application in patients with demyelinating optic neuropathies].

    PubMed

    Fernandez Jimenez-Ortiz, H; Reche-Sainz, J A; Villarrubia-Torcal, B; Toledano-Fernandez, N; Perucho-Martinez, S

    2016-10-16

    Introduccion. En las neuritis opticas se afecta, entre otras funciones visuales, la percepcion del color. La mayoria de las pruebas existentes para evaluar discromatopsias se basa en evaluar el matiz, pero no se ha estudiado clinicamente la formacion de postimagenes en la retina en estos pacientes. Objetivo. Evaluar la discromatopsia adquirida en las neuritis opticas desmielinizantes mediante la formacion de postimagenes en la retina. Sujetos y metodos. Estudio observacional, transversal, de casos y controles. Los casos son pacientes con al menos un episodio de neuritis optica y esclerosis multiple confirmada. Se selecciono un control sano por cada caso, emparejado por edad y sexo. La variable principal es la capacidad de ver postimagenes tras saturar los fotorreceptores retinianos. Para evaluar dicho fenomeno se desarrollo una aplicacion informatica especifica. Resultados. La muestra comprende 30 casos y 30 controles (63% mujeres; edad media: 33 años; rango: 18-48 años). Los casos mostraron menor probabilidad de ver la postimagen (el 36,6% de los casos y ningun control no veian postimagen) y, en caso de verla, una menor permanencia de ella. La curva ROC muestra una sensibilidad del 86,3% y una especificidad del 83,3%. La odds ratio era de 5 (intervalo de confianza al 95%: 2,21-11,3) para la probabilidad de ver la postimagen en los controles frente a los casos. Conclusiones. Los pacientes con al menos un episodio de neuritis optica presentan una menor capacidad de observar postimagenes, por lo que la prueba es util para la evaluacion y el seguimiento del daño funcional en neuropatias opticas desmielinizantes.

  11. Sulfur oxides control technology series: Flue-gas desulfurization. Dual alkali process. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The report describes a dual alkali (or double alkali) flue gas desulfurization (FGD), which is a throwaway process in which sulfur dioxide (SO2) is removed from the flue gas by a soluble sodium-based scrubbing liquor. The collected SO2 is precipitated as calcium sulfite (CaSO3), calcium sulfate (CaSO4), or a mixed crystal of both salts, and is purged from the system.

  12. Cross-Cultural Awareness. Concept

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    Observando el Islam. Barcelona: Paidós, 1994 GELLNER, Ernest. Muslim Society. Cambridge University Press, 1981 GONZÁLEZ ALCANTUD, José Antonio . “Estudio...preliminar”. In Bandidismo en el Islam. Estudios de caso en Marruecos, Argelia y la frontera noroeste de Pakistán. Barcelona: Anthropos, 2006...UNCLASSIFIED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE ------ Bandidismo en el Islam. Estudios de caso en Marruecos, Argelia y la frontera noroeste de Pakistán. Barcelona

  13. Predicting Argentine Jet Fuel Prices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Federico Sturzenegger. La Privatización de Reservas en el Sector Hidrocarburifero. El caso de Argentina. Torcuato Di Tella University. Buenos Aires...for Business and Economics (9th Edition). New Jersey. Pearson, 2005. Mercuri Pablo Antonio . “Asimetrías en la respuesta de los precios de los...combustibles líquidos a cambios en el precio del crudo: El caso argentino.” Political Economy Asociation., XXXIV Annual Meeting, 2001. 14 August 2006

  14. Fabrication of calcite blocks from gypsum blocks by compositional transformation based on dissolution-precipitation reactions in sodium carbonate solution.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Kunio; Kawachi, Giichiro; Tsuru, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Ayami

    2017-03-01

    Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) has been used as a bone substitute, and is a precursor for carbonate apatite, which is also a promising bone substitute. However, limited studies have been reported on the fabrication of artificial calcite blocks. In the present study, cylindrical calcite blocks (ϕ6×3mm) were fabricated by compositional transformation based on dissolution-precipitation reactions using different calcium sulfate blocks as a precursor. In the dissolution-precipitation reactions, both CaSO4·2H2O and CaSO4 transformed into calcite, a polymorph of CaCO3, while maintaining their macroscopic structure when immersed in 1mol/L Na2CO3 solution at 80°C for 1week. The diametral tensile strengths of the calcite blocks formed using CaSO4·2H2O and CaSO4 were 1.0±0.3 and 2.3±0.7MPa, respectively. The fabrication of calcite blocks using CaSO4·2H2O and CaSO4 proposed in this investigation may be a useful method to produce calcite blocks because of the self-setting ability and high temperature stability of gypsum precursors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Age of menarche and nutritional status of indigenous and non-indigenous adolescents in the Araucanía Region of Chile.

    PubMed

    Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Muzzo, Santiago; Alarcón, Ana María; Muñoz, Sergio

    2010-08-01

    Early onset of menarche has been linked to prevalence of obesity; however, this may differ for indigenous females. To analyse the relationship between age of menarche and nutritional status among indigenous and non-indigenous girls. The design of this study was cross-sectional. Date of menarche was determined through interviews, and all responses were confirmed by the girls' mothers. A total of 8504 adolescents were screened for recent menarche. One hundred and thirty-one girls of Mapuche (indigenous) and 143 girls of Chilean-Spanish background were identified and evaluated by anthropometric measurements. Median age of menarche was 150 months, interquartile range (IR) 143-157 in indigenous, and 145.5 months, IR 139-153 in non-indigenous girls (p = 0.04). The indigenous females showed a higher prevalence of overweight (36.4% vs 23.1%), although the frequency of obesity was similar (16.8% vs 16.3%). For indigenous girls, age of menarche was delayed by 2.69 months (confidence intervals (CI) -0.38 to 5.77). It was observed that girls with overweight experienced age of menarche 7.59 months earlier than those with normal weight, CI -10.78 to -4.41. In the analysis of obesity, the effect on age of menarche was similar, with onset 7.53 months earlier than for the normal weight, CI -11.34 to -3.72. Age of menarche is younger than has been previously reported and occurs earlier in girls with overweight and obesity, while being indigenous was not related.

  16. Volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds and in vitro bioactive properties of Chilean Ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia Cav.) honey.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Francisca; Torres, Paulina; Oomah, B Dave; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Massarioli, Adna Prado; Martín-Venegas, Raquel; Albarral-Ávila, Vicenta; Burgos-Díaz, César; Ferrer, Ruth; Rubilar, Mónica

    2017-04-01

    Ulmo honey originating from Eucryphia cordifolia tree, known locally in the Araucania region as the Ulmo tree is a natural product with valuable nutritional and medicinal qualities. It has been used in the Mapuche culture to treat infections. This study aimed to identify the volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds of Ulmo honey and elucidate its in vitro biological properties by evaluating its antioxidant, antibacterial, antiproliferative and hemolytic properties and cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. Headspace volatiles of Ulmo honey were isolated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME); non-volatiles/semi-volatiles were obtained by removing all saccharides with acidified water and the compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis. Ulmo honey volatiles consisted of 50 compounds predominated by 20 flavor components. Two of the volatile compounds, lyrame and anethol have never been reported before as honey compounds. The non-volatile/semi-volatile components of Ulmo honey comprised 27 compounds including 13 benzene derivatives accounting 75% of the total peak area. Ulmo honey exhibited weak antioxidant activity but strong antibacterial activity particularly against gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the main strain involved in wounds and skin infections. At concentrations >0.5%, Ulmo honey reduced Caco-2 cell viability, released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a dose dependent manner in the presence of foetal bovine serum (FBS). The wide array of volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile constituents of Ulmo honey rich in benzene derivatives may partly account for its strong antibacterial and antiproliferative properties important for its therapeutic use. Our results indicate that Ulmo honey can potentially inhibit cancer growth at least partly by modulating oxidative stress.

  17. Long-term effect of carbohydrate reserves on growth and reproduction of Prosopis denudans (Fabaceae): implications for conservation of woody perennials

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Alejandra E.; Agüero, Paola R.; Ravetta, Damián; González-Paleo, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    Prosopis denudans, an extreme xerophyte shrub, is consumed by ungulates and threatened by firewood gathering, because it is one of the preferred species used by Mapuche indigenous people of Patagonia. In a scenario of uncontrolled use of vegetation, it is very difficult to develop a conservation plan that jointly protects natural resources and its users. We performed a field experiment to assess the impact of defoliation on growth, reproduction and stores of a wild population of P. denudans. We imposed four levels of defoliation (removal of 100, 66, 33 and 0% of leaves) and evaluated the short- and long-term (3 years) effects of this disturbance. Seasonal changes in shoot carbohydrates suggested that they support leaf-flush and blooming. Severely defoliated individuals also used root reserves to support growth and leaf-flush after clipping. Vegetative growth was not affected by defoliation history. Leaf mass area increased after the initial clipping, suggesting the development of structural defenses. The depletion of root reserves at the end of the first year affected inflorescence production the following spring. We conclude that P. denudans shrubs could lose up to one-third of their green tissues without affecting growth or inflorescence production. The removal of a higher proportion of leaves will diminish stores, which in turn, will reduce or completely prevent blooming and, therefore, fruit production the following seasons. Very few studies integrate conservation and plant physiology, and we are not aware, so far, of any work dealing with long-term plant carbon economy of a long-lived perennial shrub as an applied tool in conservation. These results might help the development of management strategies that consider both the use and the conservation of wild populations of P. denudans. PMID:27293747

  18. Frequency of Cholelithiasis and Biliary Pathology in the Easter Island Rapanui and Non-Rapanui Populations.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Eduardo; Contardo, Jorge; Cea, Jerson

    2016-01-01

    Chile is one of the countries with the highest prevalence of cholelithiasis worldwide, considering the Mapuche ethnicity as a risk factor for developing this pathology. Moreover, cholelithiasis is the main risk factor for developing gallbladder cancer, being the fifth cause of cancer death in Chile. The purpose of this study was to compare the frequency of cholelithiasis and biliary pathology among the population belonging to Rapanui ethnicity and non-Rapanui population living on Easter Island. In this retrospective case-control study, a total of 609 abdominal ultrasonographs performed consecutively in Hanga Roa Hospital during the period August 2012 to January 2015 were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of cholelithiasis and biliary pathology, adjusting for age, gender and referral diagnostic hypothesis. In the Rapanui population the frequency for cholelithiasis and biliary pathology was 6.4% and 13%, meanwhile for the non-Rapanui population it was 13% and 22% respectively. Compared to the non-Rapanui Chilean population, the Rapanui ethnicity presented an OR of 0.53 (95% CI: 0.29-0.95) for cholelithiasis and OR of 0.52 (95% CI: 0.33-0.82) for biliary pathology. We found statistically significant ethnic differences in the frequency of cholelithiasis and biliary disease among the population of Rapanui and non-Rapanui ethnicity, so that this could be a protective factor for the development of biliary pathology, given the Chilean population context. Other studies including community population to determine the real prevalence of cholelithiasis and analyze the protective role of Rapanui ethnicity on this disease are necessary.

  19. Absence of disparities in anthropometric measures among Chilean indigenous and non-indigenous newborns

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies throughout North America and Europe have documented adverse perinatal outcomes for racial/ethnic minorities. Nonetheless, the contrast in newborn characteristics between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Latin America has been poorly characterized. This is due to many challenges, including a lack of vital registration information on ethnicity. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in anthropometric measures at birth in Chilean indigenous (Mapuche) and non-indigenous children over a 5-year period. Methods We examined weight and length at birth using information available through a national data base of all birth records for the years 2000 through 2004 (n = 1,166.513). Newborns were classified ethnically according to the origins of the parents' last names. Result The average birthweight was stable over the 5 year period with variations of less than 20 g in each group, and with mean values trivially higher in indigenous newborns. The proportion weighing less than 2500 g at birth increased modestly from 5.2% to 5.6% in non-indigenous newborns whereas the indigenous births remained constant at 5.2%. In multiple regression analyses, adjusting flexibly for gestational age and maternal characteristics, the occurrence of an indigenous surname added only 14 g to an average infant's birthweight while holding other factors constant. Results for length at birth were similar, and adjusted time trend variation in both outcomes was trivially small after adjustment. Anthropometric indexes at birth in Chile are quite favorable by international standards. Conclusion There is only a trivial degree of ethnic disparity in these values, in contrast to conditions for ethnic minorities in other countries. Moreover, these values remained roughly constant over the 5 years of observation in this study. PMID:20598150

  20. Wildfires in Chile: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Úbeda, Xavier; Sarricolea, Pablo

    2016-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature examining the wildfire phenomenon in Chile. Since ancient times, Chile's wildfires have shaped the country's landscape, but today, as in many other parts of the world, the fire regime - pattern, frequency and intensity - has grown at an alarming rate. In 2014, > 8000 fires were responsible for burning c. 130,000 ha, making it the worst year in Chile's recent history. The reasons for this increase appear to be the increment in the area planted with flammable species; the rejection of these landscape modifications on the part of local communities that target these plantations in arson attacks; and, the adoption of intensive forest management practices resulting in the accumulation of a high fuel load. These trends have left many native species in a precarious situation and forest plantation companies under considerable financial pressure. An additional problem is posed by fires at the wildland urban interface (WUI), threatening those inhabitants that live in Chile's most heavily populated cities. The prevalence of natural fires in Chile; the relationship between certain plant species and fire in terms of seed germination strategies and plant adaptation; the relationship between fire and invasive species; and, the need for fire prevention systems and territorial plans that include fire risk assessments are some of the key aspects discussed in this article. Several of the questions raised will require further research, including just how fire-dependent the ecosystems in Chile are, how the forest at the WUI can be better managed to prevent human and material damage, and how best to address the social controversy that pits the Mapuche population against the timber companies.

  1. The burden of stomach cancer in indigenous populations: a systematic review and global assessment.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Melina; Moore, Suzanne P; Hassler, Sven; Ellison-Loschmann, Lis; Forman, David; Bray, Freddie

    2014-01-01

    Stomach cancer is a leading cause of cancer death, especially in developing countries. Incidence has been associated with poverty and is also reported to disproportionately affect indigenous peoples, many of whom live in poor socioeconomic circumstances and experience lower standards of health. In this comprehensive assessment, we explore the burden of stomach cancer among indigenous peoples globally. The literature was searched systematically for studies on stomach cancer incidence, mortality and survival in indigenous populations, including Indigenous Australians, Maori in New Zealand, indigenous peoples from the circumpolar region, native Americans and Alaska natives in the USA, and the Mapuche peoples in Chile. Data from the New Zealand Health Information Service and the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program were used to estimate trends in incidence. Elevated rates of stomach cancer incidence and mortality were found in almost all indigenous peoples relative to corresponding non-indigenous populations in the same regions or countries. This was particularly evident among Inuit residing in the circumpolar region (standardised incidence ratios (SIR) males: 3.9, females: 3.6) and in Maori (SIR males: 2.2, females: 3.2). Increasing trends in incidence were found for some groups. We found a higher burden of stomach cancer in indigenous populations globally, and rising incidence in some indigenous groups, in stark contrast to the decreasing global trends. This is of major public health concern requiring close surveillance and further research of potential risk factors. Given evidence that improving nutrition and housing sanitation, and Helicobacter pylori eradication programmes could reduce stomach cancer rates, policies which address these initiatives could reduce inequalities in stomach cancer burden for indigenous peoples.

  2. Long-term effect of carbohydrate reserves on growth and reproduction of Prosopis denudans (Fabaceae): implications for conservation of woody perennials.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Alejandra E; Agüero, Paola R; Ravetta, Damián; González-Paleo, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    Prosopis denudans, an extreme xerophyte shrub, is consumed by ungulates and threatened by firewood gathering, because it is one of the preferred species used by Mapuche indigenous people of Patagonia. In a scenario of uncontrolled use of vegetation, it is very difficult to develop a conservation plan that jointly protects natural resources and its users. We performed a field experiment to assess the impact of defoliation on growth, reproduction and stores of a wild population of P. denudans. We imposed four levels of defoliation (removal of 100, 66, 33 and 0% of leaves) and evaluated the short- and long-term (3 years) effects of this disturbance. Seasonal changes in shoot carbohydrates suggested that they support leaf-flush and blooming. Severely defoliated individuals also used root reserves to support growth and leaf-flush after clipping. Vegetative growth was not affected by defoliation history. Leaf mass area increased after the initial clipping, suggesting the development of structural defenses. The depletion of root reserves at the end of the first year affected inflorescence production the following spring. We conclude that P. denudans shrubs could lose up to one-third of their green tissues without affecting growth or inflorescence production. The removal of a higher proportion of leaves will diminish stores, which in turn, will reduce or completely prevent blooming and, therefore, fruit production the following seasons. Very few studies integrate conservation and plant physiology, and we are not aware, so far, of any work dealing with long-term plant carbon economy of a long-lived perennial shrub as an applied tool in conservation. These results might help the development of management strategies that consider both the use and the conservation of wild populations of P. denudans.

  3. Interprétation géologique de couvertures multiples d'images satellite: un cas d'étude de zones sélectionnées en PologneInterpretación geológica de coberturas múltiples de imágenes satelitárias: un estudio de caso a partir de áreas escogidas en Polonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnkowski, Pawel H.; Ozimkowski, Wojciech

    This paper presents the multi-coverage geological interpretation of satellite imagery of areas in southern Poland, where different genetic, petrologic and morphologic units occur. These areas are also discussed in detail in the geological literature and have been thoroughly mapped. The variance between individual geological interpretations of satellite imagery makes analysis of such large areas very subjective. It is often difficult to recognise the relationships between real elements of geological data and lineaments interpreted from satellite images. Present usage of satellite imagery by geologists is limited. Geological interpretations of small-scale satellite imagery are scarce and this subject is almost absent in scientific papers. We believe that the procedure's objectivity, simplicity and low cost, as well as its quick data elaboration, make it useful in geological sciences. Computer graphic applications are very helpful in the preparation and treatment of data in this procedure. Data obtained from the multi-coverage geological interpretation of satellite imagery are objective and they enable a statistical evaluation of relationships between different geological and geomorphologic phenomena.

  4. [Hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Contribution of two new cases to a recently reported entity].

    PubMed

    Tomás-Vila, Miguel; Menor, Francisco; Ley-Martos, Myriam; Jumillas-Luján, M José; Marco-Hernández, Ana V; Barbero, Pedro

    2014-02-16

    Introduccion. La hipomielinizacion con atrofia de ganglios basales y de cerebelo (H-ABC) es una rara entidad descrita recientemente. Se presentan dos nuevos casos pertenecientes a una misma familia. Casos clinicos. Caso 1: niño de 17 meses con retraso grave en todas las areas, ausencia de lenguaje y de contacto visual. En la exploracion destacaba una microcefalia con tetraparesia espastica. En la resonancia magnetica cerebral se apreciaba atrofia cerebelosa de predominio vermiano con perdida de volumen de ambos nucleos del putamen y la cabeza del caudado, y patron de hipomielinizacion de la sustancia blanca. En la electromiografia se objetivo un patron de polineuropatia cronica de predominio motor. Presento un descenso de los valores de acido homovalinico y de acido 5-hidroxindolacetico. El tratamiento con levodopa/carbidopa no fue efectivo. Caso 2: niña de 11 meses, hermana del caso anterior. Presentaba un retraso grave en todas las areas y en la exploracion clinica se detecto una microcefalia con tetraparesia espastica. La resonancia magnetica cerebral mostro hallazgos superponibles a los del hermano, con hipomielinizacion, atrofia cerebelosa y afectacion putaminal y de ambos caudados; en la electromiografia, hallazgos compatibles con polineuropatia motora de caracter desmielinizante. Presento un descenso de los valores de acido homovalinico y acido 5-hidroxindolacetico en el liquido cefalorraquideo. El tratamiento con levodopa/carbidopa resulto ineficaz. Conclusiones. Estos dos nuevos casos ayudan a caracterizar mejor esta entidad y refuerzan la hipotesis del origen genetico del sindrome, dado que se trata de dos casos pertenecientes a una misma familia.

  5. [The relationship between placental lesions and early hemorrhagic-ischemic cerebral injury in very low birth weight infants].

    PubMed

    Vaihinger, Mara; Mazzitelli, Nancy; Balanian, Nora; Grandi, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El examen histopatológico de la placenta es trascendente para evidenciar desordenes relacionados con el embarazo que se asocian a lesiones isquémico hemorrágicas cerebrales (LIHC) en recién nacidos prematuros (RNPT). Objetivo: Estudiar la asociación entre lesiones placentarias y LIHC precoces detectadas con ecografía en RNPT ≤ 1500 g y 32 semanas. Material y Métodos: diseño caso – control. Criterios de inclusión: RNPT ≥ 24 y ≤ 32 semanas, ≥ 500 y ≤ 1500 g, nacidos en la Maternidad Sardá entre años 2006 y 2012. Criterios de exclusión: RNPT gemelares, con malformaciones o infecciones intrauterinas específicas y los fallecidos antes de las 24 horas de vida. Resultados: fueron incluidos 198 RNPT, 49 con LIHC (casos) y 149 sin LIHC (controles). No se encontraron diferencias en las lesiones histopatológicas placentarias entre los dos grupos, aunque se apreció una clara tendencia de lesiones inflamatorias en los casos (67.3%) en comparación con los controles (48 %, p = 0.018). La ruptura prematura de las membranas (p = 0.027) y la corioamnionitis clínica fueron más frecuentes en los casos. Complicaciones fuertemente asociadas a prematurez fueron estadísticamente más evidentes entre los casos. La hemorragia intraventricular fue la lesión cerebral más hallada. El 50% de los casos persistieron con LIHC a las 36-40 semanas, mientras que a mayor edad gestacional el riesgo de LIHC fue menor . Conclusiones: las lesiones histopatológicas placentarias no estuvieron asociadas independientemente a mayor riesgo de LIHC, aunque se observó un predominio de lesiones inflamatorias en los casos.

  6. Sulfur Fertilization Changes the Community Structure of Rice Root-, and Soil- Associated Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Sachiko; Bao, Zhihua; Okubo, Takashi; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Ikeda, Seishi; Shinoda, Ryo; Anda, Mizue; Kondo, Ryuji; Mori, Yumi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2016-01-01

    Under paddy field conditions, biological sulfur oxidation occurs in the oxidized surface soil layer and rhizosphere, in which oxygen leaks from the aerenchyma system of rice plants. In the present study, we examined community shifts in sulfur-oxidizing bacteria associated with the oxidized surface soil layer and rice roots under different sulfur fertilization conditions based on the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene in order to explore the existence of oligotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in the paddy rice ecosystem. Rice plants were grown in pots with no fertilization (control) or CaCO3 or CaSO4 fertilization. A principal-coordinates analysis (PCoA) showed that CaSO4 fertilization markedly affected bacterial communities associated with rice roots and soil, whereas no significant differences were observed in plant growth among the fertilizer treatments examined. In rice roots, the relative abundance of Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and TM7 was significantly higher in CaSO4-fertilized pots than in control pots. Alphaproteobacteria, Bradyrhizobiaceae, and Methylocystaceae members were significantly more abundant in CaSO4-fertilized roots than in control roots. On the other hand, the abundance of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria was lower in CaSO4-fertilized soil than in control soil. These results indicate that the bacteria associated with rice roots and soil responded to the sulfur amendment, suggesting that more diverse bacteria are involved in sulfur oxidation in the rice paddy ecosystem than previously considered. PMID:26947443

  7. [The role of additives in bio-mass coal briquette on sulfur retention enhancement].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongqi; Xu, Kangfu; Ma, Yongliang; Wei, Tiejun; Hao, Jiming

    2002-01-30

    The research first conducted the sulfur-fixing experiment of bio-mass coal briquette in a tubular furnace. The impacts of three additives Al2O3, Fe2O3 and MnO2 on the sulfur retention by calcium-based sorbent in briquette were investigated, and only Al2O3 displayed the enhancement of sulfur retention. The TGA experiment was further carried out, and proved that the high-temperature decomposition of CaSO4 in the deoxidization atmosphere was effectively inhibited with the addition of Al2O3. The XPS and XRD analyses of briquette ash showed that due to the interaction among Al2O3, CaSO4 and CaO, the composite CaSO4.3CaO.3Al2O3 which has more thermal stability was formed. With its wrapping or binding onto the surface of CaSO4 crystal, the decomposition of CaSO4 was mitigated.

  8. Sulfur Fertilization Changes the Community Structure of Rice Root-, and Soil- Associated Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Sachiko; Bao, Zhihua; Okubo, Takashi; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Ikeda, Seishi; Shinoda, Ryo; Anda, Mizue; Kondo, Ryuji; Mori, Yumi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2016-01-01

    Under paddy field conditions, biological sulfur oxidation occurs in the oxidized surface soil layer and rhizosphere, in which oxygen leaks from the aerenchyma system of rice plants. In the present study, we examined community shifts in sulfur-oxidizing bacteria associated with the oxidized surface soil layer and rice roots under different sulfur fertilization conditions based on the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene in order to explore the existence of oligotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in the paddy rice ecosystem. Rice plants were grown in pots with no fertilization (control) or CaCO3 or CaSO4 fertilization. A principal-coordinates analysis (PCoA) showed that CaSO4 fertilization markedly affected bacterial communities associated with rice roots and soil, whereas no significant differences were observed in plant growth among the fertilizer treatments examined. In rice roots, the relative abundance of Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and TM7 was significantly higher in CaSO4-fertilized pots than in control pots. Alphaproteobacteria, Bradyrhizobiaceae, and Methylocystaceae members were significantly more abundant in CaSO4-fertilized roots than in control roots. On the other hand, the abundance of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria was lower in CaSO4-fertilized soil than in control soil. These results indicate that the bacteria associated with rice roots and soil responded to the sulfur amendment, suggesting that more diverse bacteria are involved in sulfur oxidation in the rice paddy ecosystem than previously considered.

  9. [Optic neuritis in childhood. A pediatric series, literature review and treatment approach].

    PubMed

    Lopez-Martin, D; Martinez-Anton, J

    2016-08-01

    Introduccion. En la edad pediatrica, la forma mas frecuente de neuritis optica se presenta generalmente despues de un cuadro infeccioso, con edema de papila, que suele ser bilateral y tiene buen pronostico. La conversion a esclerosis multiple es infrecuente. Objetivo. Presentar las caracteristicas clinicas y de laboratorio de una serie pediatrica de neuritis optica. Pacientes y metodos. Se analiza una serie de 17 casos de neuritis optica en niños y jovenes de 4 a 14 años, referidos entre los años 2000 y 2015. Resultados. La edad mediana de la serie fue de 11 años. Predominaron los pacientes de sexo femenino y el antecedente infeccioso fue poco frecuente; en cinco pacientes, la afectacion fue bilateral, y cuatro casos se presentaron como neuritis optica retrobulbar. La resonancia magnetica mostro hiperintensidad en T2 en los nervios opticos afectados en cinco pacientes. El estudio del liquido cefalorraquideo y bandas oligoclonales fue normal en todos los casos. Los pacientes, tratados con metilprednisolona intravenosa, tuvieron buena recuperacion. Solo en tres casos se comprobo una evolucion posterior a esclerosis multiple. Conclusiones. En esta serie, los casos que evolucionaron a esclerosis multiple no mostraron diferencias clinicas, aunque si presentaron mayor cantidad de lesiones hiperintensas en la resonancia magnetica. Este hecho, descrito en trabajos previos, apoya nuestro esquema diagnostico y terapeutico en un intento por acercarnos al manejo optimo de esta patologia.

  10. Molecular Dynamics Simulation on Scale Inhibition Mechanism of Polyepoxysuccinic Acid to Calcium Sulphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jian-ping; Wang, Feng-he; Zhou, Chen; Gong, Xue-dong

    2012-04-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation has been performed to simulate the interaction between PESA and the (001) face of anhydrite crystal CaSO4 at different temperatures with the presence of various number of H2O molecules. The results show that PESA can effectively prevent the growth of CaSO4 scale at 323-343 K. At the same temperature, the binding energy between PESA and the (001) face of CaSO4 for systems with various number of H2O has the order of Ebind(0H2O) > Ebind(200-400H2O) > Ebind(100H2O). For the same system at different temperatures the binding energies are close and are mainly contributed from the Coulomb interaction, including ionic bonds. The bonds are formed between the calcium atoms of anhydrite scale crystal and the oxygen atoms of the carboxyl group of PESA. Hydrogen bonds are formed between the O atoms of the carboxyl group of PESA and the H atoms of H2O. van der Waals interaction is conducive to the stability of the system of PESA, H2O, and CaSO4. The radial distribution functions of O(carbonyl of PESA)-H(H2O), O(CaSO4)-H(H2O), and O(CaSO4)-H(PESA) imply that solvents have effects on the anti-scale performance of PESA to CaSO4.

  11. PubMed

    De Quintana Sancho, A; Piris García, X; Valle García, J N; Hierro Cámara, M

    2016-12-30

    La alopecia frontal fibrosante (AFF) es un tipo de alopecia cicatricial cuya incidencia está aumentando de forma significativa en nuestro país. Se caracteriza por un retroceso en la línea de implantación del pelo a nivel frontotemporal que afecta mayoritariamente a mujeres postmenopaúsicas, con un impacto negativo en su calidad de vida. Se asocia a menopausia precoz en un 14% de los casos y a hipotiroidismo en un 15%. Con respecto al tratamiento, son los inhibidores de la 5α-reductasa, los fármacos que han demostrado mejoría de la enfermedad en un mayor número de casos. Presentamos un caso de AFF en una mujer de 77 años tratada con éxito con finasteride a dosis de 2,5mg/día.

  12. [Presacral tumor as a differential diagnosis of recurrent pilonidal sinus].

    PubMed

    Mengual-Ballester, Mónica; Pellicer-Franco, Enrique; Valero-Navarro, Graciela; Alcaraz-Mateos, Eduardo; Soria-Aledo, Victoriano; Aguayo-Albasini, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: durante el desarrollo embriológico, el espacio retrorrectal o presacro está ocupado por células pluripotenciales y, por tanto, puede contener un grupo heterogéneo de tumores. Caso clínico: se comunica el caso de un paciente masculino de 22 años de edad, intervenido de sinus pilonidal recidivado. Con estudios de tomografía computada de pelvis y resonancia magnética nuclear se sospechó la existencia de un tumor quístico presacro compatible con tumor germinal; la lesión se extirpó quirúrgicamente por vía abdominal y se estableció el diagnóstico definitivo de teratoma quístico. Conclusiones: los tumores retrorrectales son lesiones poco habituales que es necesario descartar en caso de sinus recidivantes.

  13. Pharmacological Prevention and Reversion of Erectile Dysfunction After Radical Prostatectomy, by Modulation of Nitric Oxide/cGMP Pathways

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    arteriogénica, así como en otras fibrosis. Lleva a la síntesis exagerada de colágeno y matriz extracelular y, en el caso de la CVOD y ED, a la pérdida...por otro, por la calcificación u osificación, observable en un 15-20% de los casos . Este último proceso es debido a la generación de osteoblastos a...continua de GMP cíclico (cGMP). Tanto el óxido nítrico como el cGMP actúan como un mecanismo de defensa antifibrótico; y, en el caso del óxido

  14. [Frequency of invasive fungal infections in a Mexican High-Specialty Hospital. Experience of 21 years].

    PubMed

    Méndez-Tovar, Luis Javier; Mejía-Mercado, Jessica Aline; Manzano-Gayosso, Patricia; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca; López-Martínez, Rubén; Silva-González, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: Factores como el cáncer, la infección por VIH, así como el uso de esteroides y antibióticos, incrementan el número de micosis invasivas (MI). Métodos: Para conocer la frecuencia y algunos aspectos epidemiológicos de las MI en un hospital del IMSS, se revisaron los casos probados diagnosticados en los últimos 21 años (1993-2013) en el Laboratorio de Micología Médica. Resultados: Se identificaron 472 casos, distribuidos en: 261 candidosis, 82 mucormicosis, 60 criptococosis, 43 aspergilosis y 16 histoplasmosis. La candidosis disminuyó de 74 casos en los primeros 6 años, a 48 en los cinco últimos. La localización principal fue pulmonar y el principal agente fue C. albicans. La criptococosis también disminuyó de 24 a 10 casos, principalmente fue causada por C. neoformans, aunque hubo dos casos de C. laurentii, uno de C. terreus y uno de C. unigutulatus. La mucormicosis se mantuvo constante, pero la aspergilosis se incrementó pasando de 2 casos en el primer periodo a 23 en el último. Conclusiones: Es importante que los hospitales de alta especialidad, cuenten con laboratorios de micología médica para realizar el diagnóstico de MI. Se sugiere crear un Centro Nacional de Referencia de Micosis donde se concentren los datos de estas infecciones y contribuya en la elaboración de planes de educación para la salud, prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento de las mismas.

  15. [Emergency obstetric causes and Immediate Response Team in a secondary hospital].

    PubMed

    López-Ocaña, Luis Rafael; Hernández-Pineda, Norma Angélica; Cruz-Cruz, Polita Rocío; Ramiro-H, Manuel; Pérez Del Valle-Ibarra, Víctor Octavio

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: el objetivo es describir las causas de emergencia obstétrica que motivaron la activación del Equipo de Respuesta Inmediata en un hospital de segundo nivel del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social que no tiene Unidad de CuidadosIntensivos del Adulto. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo y observacional de las causas de emergencia obstétrica que se presentaron en los dominios de Admisión, Hospitalización, Labor, Expulsión, Quirófano y Recuperación del Hospital General de Zona No. 53 del IMSS, durante los años 2014 y 2015. Resultados: en 2014 se atendieron por causa obstétrica 3915 mujeres, de esta población, hubo 75 casos de emergencia obstétrica y 3276 nacidos vivos. En 2015, fueron 4390 mujeres y 80 casos de emergencia obstétrica con 3842 nacidos vivos. Los principales dominios en donde actuó el Equipo de Respuesta Inmediata en 2014 y 2015, fueron: Labor, Admisión y Recuperación. En 2014, la preeclampsia-eclampsia-Hellp ocupó el primer lugar como causa de emergencia obstétrica con 42 casos, mientras que en 2015 se presentaron 36 casos; la hemorragia obstétrica se presentó en 28 casos en 2014 y 34 casos en 2015. En 2014, hubo una muerte materna por preeclampsia severa y rotura hepática extensa. Conclusiones: la consolidación del Equipo de Respuesta Inmediata, de acuerdo al entorno sanitario, es fundamental, sobre todo, en la acepción otorgada por los integrantes del mismo.

  16. TENDENCIA DE LA TUBERCULOSIS EN LA REGIÓN SANITARIA V DE LA PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES, AÑOS 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    CHIRICO, CRISTINA; SANJURJO, MYRIAM; IRIBARREN, SARAH; APPENDINO, ANDREA; ZERBINI, ELSA; ETCHEVARRIA, MIRTA

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar la situación epidemiológica de la tuberculosis (TB) en la Región Sanitaria V (RSV), provincia de Buenos Aires. El estudio de tendencia permitió conocer un valor promedio de las variaciones de la tasa de incidencia (TI), calculadas por regresión lineal simple y expresadas como variación anual promedio (VAP). Se analizaron el número de casos notificados y TI por 100 000 habitantes de todas las formas de TB, los casos de TB pulmonar (TBP) y TBP confirmados por bacteriología, total casos por grupos de edad: 0 – 14; 15 – 29 y mayores de 64 años, entre el 1° de enero de 2000 al 31 de diciembre de 2011. La declinación de la TI fue menor al 5% para todas las formas de TB e inferior en las TBP confirmadas bacteriológicamente. Los casos de TBP y TI más elevadas, se concentraron en el grupo de 15 a 29 años, con tendencia estable o ligeramente ascendente de la TI en la TBP bacilífera. El mismo comportamiento presentaron los casos de TBP infantil con confirmación bacteriológica. La mayor velocidad de descenso en la TI de la TBP se produjo en este grupo de edad, mientras que en mayores de 64 años, el descenso fue sostenido en el tiempo. La TB persiste como un riesgo de salud en la RSV, con casos en edades jóvenes, por lo que sigue siendo necesario fortalecer el control de la TB en esta región. PMID:26117604

  17. [Risk factors related to nosocomial pneumonia in pediatric patients undergoing heart surgery].

    PubMed

    Fortanelli-Rodríguez, Rocío Elvira; Gómez-Delgado, Alejandro; Vera-Canelo, José Manuel; Alvarado-Diez, Miguel Ángel; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe; Furuya, María Elena Yuriko; Solórzano-Santos, Fortino; Vázquez-Rosales, José Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la procalcitonina (PCT) sirve para discriminar entre infección y complicaciones no infecciosas en cirugías cardiacas. Se busca describir el riesgo de neumonía nosocomial y la utilidad de la PCT en el diagnóstico de pacientes pediátricos sometidos a cirugía cardiovascular. Métodos: estudio de casos y controles anidados en una cohorte. Durante un año a todos los pacientes sometidos a cirugía cardiovascular se les hizo seguimiento diario de sus condiciones clínicas y determinación de PCT a las 48 horas de haber sido intervenidos quirúrgicamente. Se tomaron exclusivamente los pacientes sometidos a circulación extracorpórea: los casos desarrollaron neumonía según los criterios del CDC; los controles, no. Resultados: se intervinieron 188 pacientes. Desarrolló neumonía el 15 %. Fueron sometidos a circulación extracorpórea 97 pacientes, quedando 24 casos y 73 controles. El 78 % de los casos desarrolló proceso neumónico entre el segundo y el quinto día postquirúrgico. La media del tiempo quirúrgico (TQ), circulación extracorpórea (TCE), pinzamiento aórtico (TPA) y ventilación mecánica fueron mayores en los casos (p < 0.001). La frecuencia de esternotomía abierta, reintubación e infección de herida quirúrgica fue más alta en el grupo de casos (p < 0.001). Conclusiones: algunos eventos del proceso quirúrgico cardiovascular y su posterior manejo están significativamente asociados al desarrollo de neumonía nosocomial en niños.

  18. [Effects of a 'theory of mind' cognitive development pilot programme in three children with autism: emotional component].

    PubMed

    Villanueva-Bonilla, Cristian; Bonilla-Santos, Jasmín; Arana-Guzmán, Fernanda; Ninco-Cuenca, Ingrid; Quintero-Lozano, Andrea

    2016-03-16

    Introduccion. La teoria de la mente se define como la capacidad para predecir, comprender y actuar frente a la conducta de otras personas, sus conocimientos, sus intenciones, sus emociones y sus creencias. Se plantea como una alternativa viable para establecer un programa adaptado a las caracteristicas de los niños diagnosticados con trastorno del espectro autista. Casos clinicos. Se describe el efecto de un programa piloto de desarrollo cognitivo 'teoria de la mente' en las habilidades emocionales de tres niños con trastorno del espectro autista. Caso 1: niño de 9 años, con escasa identificacion y expresion emocional, asi como dificultades para mantener conversaciones fluidas y coherentes. Caso 2: niño de 10 años, con lenguaje mecanico, poco fluido, y dificultades para iniciar y mantener una conversacion. Caso 3: niña de 8 años que presenta deficits en las conductas comunicativas no verbales usadas en la interaccion social y dificultades para adaptarse a situaciones no cotidianas. En los tres casos se presenta mejoria de las capacidades emocionales posterior a la implementacion del programa; ademas, los padres, docentes o terapeutas percibieron cambios positivos en las habilidades adaptativas de los niños. Conclusiones. Los aspectos metodologicos y estructurales del programa de desarrollo cognitivo fueron adecuados para los niños con autismo participantes de la investigacion. Debido al caracter preliminar del estudio, se sugiere para futuras investigaciones una muestra mayor y un diseño doble ciego con aleatorizacion caso/control que permitan la generalizacion de los resultados.

  19. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  20. [Esophageal perforation in children: a review of one pediatric surgery institution's experience (16 years)].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Elizabete; Cabral, Maria João; Gonçalves, Mroslava

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: O estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a experiência do nosso Serviço no tratamento das perfurações esofágicas. Material e Métodos: Análise retrospetiva de nove casos ocorridos entre 1 de Janeiro de 1996 e 31 de Dezembro de 2011. Destes casos, sete ocorreram após ingestão acidental de corpos estranhos e em dois tratou-se de lesões iatrogénicas após dilatação esofágica: por estenose péptica num caso e no outro por estenose da anastomose esofágica término-terminal de uma criança operada por atrésia do esófago. Resultados: Em 78% dos casos a abordagem inicial foi médica, com encerramento comprovado da perfuração em média ao fim de 20 dias; 22% dos doentes (dois casos) foram submetidos a cirurgia sem sucesso, acabando um deles por curar sem sequelas com pausa alimentar e terapêutica médica; no outro caso verificou-se necessidade de realizar posteriormente uma esofagocoloplastia. Na nossa série não se registou mortalidade. Discussão: A perfuração esofágica é uma das lesões mais graves do trato alimentar, continuando a ser devastadora, e, de difícil diagnóstico e tratamento. O reconhecimento desta complicação é fundamental para o seu tratamento com sucesso. Conclusões: O atraso do diagnóstico está associado a uma mortalidade que pode oscilar entre os 20 e 40%.

  1. Planificación Neuroquirúrgica con Software Osirix

    PubMed Central

    Jaimovich, Sebastián Gastón; Guevara, Martin; Pampin, Sergio; Jaimovich, Roberto; Gardella, Javier Luis

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La individualidad anatómica es clave para reducir el trauma quirúrgico y obtener un mejor resultado. Actualmente, el avance en las neuroimágenes ha permitido objetivar esa individualidad anatómica, permitiendo planificar la intervención quirúrgica. Con este objetivo, presentamos nuestra experiencia con el software Osirix. Descripción de la técnica: Se presentan 3 casos ejemplificadores de 40 realizados. Caso 1: Paciente con meningioma de la convexidad parasagital izquierda en área premotora; Caso 2: Paciente con macroadenoma hipofisario, operada previamente por vía transeptoesfenoidal en otra institución con una resección parcial; Caso 3: Paciente con lesiones en pedúnculo cerebeloso medio bilateral. Se realizó la planificación prequirúrgica con el software OsiriX, fusionando y reconstruyendo en 3D las imágenes de TC e IRM, para analizar relaciones anatómicas, medir distancias, coordenadas y trayectorias, entre otras funciones. Discusión: El software OsiriX de acceso libre y gratuito permite al cirujano, mediante la fusión y reconstrucción en 3D de imágenes, analizar la anatomía individual del paciente y planificar de forma rápida, simple, segura y económica cirugías de alta complejidad. En el Caso 1 se pudo analizar las relaciones del tumor con las estructuras adyacentes para minimizar el abordaje. En el Caso 2 permitió comprender la anatomía post-operatoria previa del paciente, para determinar la trayectoria del abordaje transnasal endoscópico y la necesidad de ampliar su exposición, logrando la resección tumoral completa. En el Caso 3 permitió obtener las coordenadas estereotáxicas y trayectoria de una lesión sin representación tomográfica. Conclusión: En casos de no contar con costosos sistemas de neuronavegación o estereotáxia el software OsiriX es una alternativa a la hora de planificar la cirugía, con el objetivo de disminuir el trauma y la morbilidad operatoria. PMID:25165617

  2. [Microdeletion 12p12 involving SOX5 gene: a new syndrome with developmental delay].

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Carrera, Ignacio; de Zaldívar-Tristancho, M Solo; Martín-Fernández, Rebeca; Hernández-Martín, Raquel; López-Lafuente, Amparo; Rodríguez-Revenga, Laia

    2015-05-16

    Introduccion. El gen SOX5 codifica un factor de transcripcion implicado en la regulacion de la condrogenia y el desarrollo del sistema nervioso. Caso clinico. Niña de 10 anos con discapacidad intelectual, alteracion conductual y malformaciones menores de este nuevo sindrome con alteracion en el neurodesarrollo, con una delecion 12p12 que incluye el gen SOX5. Conclusiones. Se revisan los casos publicados tanto de deleciones intragenicas de SOX5 como de deleciones mas grandes que incluyen este gen, y se analizan las correlaciones genotipo-fenotipo y los genes implicados en esta paciente.

  3. Right hepatic artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Astrid Del Pilar Ardila; Loures, Paulo; Calle, Juan Cristóbal Ospina; Cunha, Beatriz; Córdoba, Juan Camilo

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of an aneurysm of the right hepatic artery and its multidisciplinary management by general surgery, endoscopy and radiology services. Being a case of extremely low incidence, it is important to show its diagnostic and therapeutic approach. RESUMO Relatamos um caso de aneurisma da artéria hepática direita conduzido de forma multidisciplinar pelos Serviços de Cirurgia Geral, Endoscopia e Radiologia. Em se tratando de caso de incidência baixíssima, é importante mostrar o enfoque diagnóstico e terapêutico usado em seu manejo.

  4. Displacive Transformation in Ceramics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-28

    Situ TEM Study of Hillebrandite (Ca2SiO4* H2O ) Decomposition," Y. J. Kim and W. M. Kriven, Proc. 13th Int. Congr. on Electron Microscopy to be held in...The use of different oxygen partial pressures CaSO4 . The resistance was recorded every 30-60 s also allowed for the estimation of equilibrium defect...respectively. A scrubbing column containing CaO and CaSO4 was used to remove water vapor and CO2 from the gas. & Results and Discussion 3.1. IN

  5. Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division Technical Digest. Advanced Materials Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    Institute. San Antonio . TX. 1981i. by 1. Caplan). pp. 287-291. 10. V’ernon. S. N.. The Universal Impedance Diagram of the Ferrite Pot Core Eddy Current...glow curve 4. Upon observing this pattern in the optical The TL glow curves of sintered CaSO 4:Tm absorption spectra, we conclude that the heat...UV region of about light. Shinde et al." observed that yradiation 6 eV. Our further study of x-ray photoelectron of CaSO 4:Dv produces TL peaks as high

  6. Risky Invasions: Decisions Made by the Argentine Junta Regarding Disputed Islands, 1978-1982

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Estratégica: El caso de Chile y Argentina.” Pensamiento Propio, Issue 14 (July–December 2001), 69–70. 48 Waisman, Reversal of Development, 282. 49...personal representative Cardinal Antonio Samoré to meet with them.97 This gave Argentina the off-ramp that they needed in order to call off the...Editorial Nueva Sociedad, (my translation). Aravena, Francisco Rojas. “La construcción de una Alianza Estratégica: El caso de Chile y Argentina

  7. Civil-Military Relations in Post Cold War Central America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-07

    civil o militar; en caso de ser militar deberá llenar los requisitos establecidos en la Ley Constitutiva del Ejército. http://www.georgetown.edu/pdba...Constitutions/Guate/reforms99.html 38 COL Robert Zayas, USDAO San Salvador El Salvador, interview by author, 19 Nov 02 39 Rene Antonio León Rodríguez...Asamblea Legislativa, la cual podrá, en cualquier momento, disponer el cese de tales medidas excepcionales. En todo caso , dentro de los quince días

  8. Identification of Calcium Sulphoaluminate Formation between Alunite and Limestone

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung-Seok; Han, Gi-Chun; Ahn, Ji-Whan; Cho, Kye-Hong; Cho, Hee-Chan

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out to identify the conditions of formation of calcium sulphoaluminate (3CaO·3Al2O3·CaSO4) by the sintering of a limestone (CaCO3) and alunite [K2SO4·Al2(SO4)3·4Al(OH)3] mixture with the following reagents: K2SO4, CaCO3, Al(OH)3, CaSO4·2H2O, and SiO2. When K2SO4, CaCO3, Al(OH)3, CaSO4·2H2O were mixed in molar ratios of 1:3:6:3 and sintered at 1,200∼1,300 °C, only 3CaO·3Al2O3·CaSO4 and calcium langbeinite (2CaSO4·K2SO4) were generated. With an amount of CaO that is less than the stoichiometric molar ratio, 3CaO·3Al2O3·CaSO4 was formed and anhydrite (CaSO4) did not react and remained behind. With the amount of CaSO4 that is less than the stoichiometric molar ratio, the amounts of 3CaO·3Al2O3·CaSO4 and 2CaSO4·K2SO4 decreased, and that of CaO·Al2O3 increased. In the K2SO4-CaO-Al2O3-CaSO4-SiO2 system, to stabilize the formation of 3CaO·3Al2O3·CaSO4, 2CaSO4·K2SO4, and β-2CaO·SiO2, the molar ratios of CaO: Al2O3: CaSO4 must be kept at 3:3:1 and that of CaO/SiO2, over 2.0; otherwise, the generated amount of 3CaO·3Al2O3·CaSO4 decreased and that of gehlenite (2CaO·Al2O3·SiO2) with no hydration increased quantitatively. Therefore, if all SO3(g) generated by the thermal decomposition of alunite reacts with CaCO3 (or CaO, the thermal decomposition product of limestone) to form CaSO4 in an alunite- limestone system, 1 mol of pure alunite reacts with 6 mol of limestone to form 1 mol of 3CaO·3Al2O3·CaSO4 and 1 mol of 2CaSO4·K2SO4. PMID:22346687

  9. Multiproxy approach revealing climate and cultural changes during the last 26kyrs in south-central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzua, Ana M.; Jarpa, Leonora; Martel, Alejandra; Vega, Rodrigo; Pino, Mario

    2010-05-01

    Multiproxy approach from Purén Lumaco Valley (38°S) describes the paleonvironmental history during the Last Maximum Glacial (LGM) in south-central Chile. Three sediment cores and severals AMS 14C dates were used to perform a complete pollen, diatoms, chironomids, and sedimentological records demonstrating the existence of a large and non profundal paleolake, between 25 and 20kyr BP. Some of these evidence are laminated silty-clay sediments (lacustrine rhythmites), associated with the presence of siderite mineral (FeCO3), besides biological proxies like Fragilaria construens and Stauroforma inermes (planctonic diatoms), and Dicrotendipes sp. and Tanytarsini tribe (littoral chironomids). The pollen ensemble reveals the first glacial refuge of Araucaria araucana forests in the low lands during the LGM. The lake was drained abruptly into a swamp/bog at 12kyr BP and colonized by Myrtaceae wet forest. This evidence suggest the dry/warm climate period of early Holocene in south-central Chile. Later, the sediments indicate variable lacustrine levels, and increase of charcoal particles, associated to current climatic conditions. The pollen spectrum dominated by Myrtaceae and Nothofagus contrasts with a strongly disturb current landscape. Actually, Purén-Lumaco valley constitutes a complex peat-bog system dominated by exotic grasses and forest species (Tritricum aestivum, Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus spp.). Some archaeological antecedents in the area document the human development at ca. 7yrs BP. The greatest archaeological characteristic present in the valley is the kuel, a Mapuche earth accumulation. The presence and extension of almost 300 kuel in the valley reflect the social/economic development, and partly explains why the region was the major resistance area for Spanish colonizer during XVI-XVII centuries. Also the archaeological findings reveal the presence of maize pollen (Zea mays) within their food consumption. The influence of climate and human impact in

  10. Cultural energy grassroots and development.

    PubMed

    Kleymeyer, C D

    1992-01-01

    The importance of culture in economic development is discussed based on 10 years of case reports in the publication, Grassroots Development. Cultural energy is considered important for the launching, sustainment, and expansion of programs; yet, only 10% of IAF Foundation grants over 20 years have focused on cultural energy as a tool for development. By the late 1960s development theorists blamed the lack of progress on "backward looking traditional cultures." In Latin America culture was seen as an obstacle to be overcome rather than an opportunity. The debt and environmental crisis of the 1980s has opened the doors to new methods. A recent study of the Aymara and Mapuche in Chile found that uprooting local culture meant loss of land, cultural roots, and social relationships, as well as loss of stewardship of the environment. The Kuna is Panama were seen as successful in combining traditional ways with Western ideas in formation of an ecological park; this was accomplished through self-confidence and self-will in grassroots development. However, the Kuna have also undergone changes and the ancestral view of nature and humanity's place in it is being undermined. The acculturation of the young may leave an emptiness that is neither Panamanian nor Kuna. The Chimborazo Indians in the highlands of Ecuador have only achieved moderate success in eliminating poverty in spite of international efforts which imposed development schemes onto the community. The Feria Educativa (Educational Fair) was formed among indigenous volunteers working with the Serviceo Ecuatoriano de Voluntarios-Chimborazo to promote culture and self-help. Members enter the community only when invited; the program uses puppets and sociodramas to portray common problems such as illiteracy and stimulate group participation. Their efforts have been successful in establishing literacy, reforestation, and economic activity programs. The Kuna shopped among Western ideas to chose ones appropriate to their

  11. Mode of Action of Shigella Toxin: Effects on Ribosome Structure and Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    1974. Sindrome hemolitico uremico: reporte de 60 casos asociados a una epidemia de enterocolitis hemorragica. Revista Colombiana de Ped. Puericult. 28...syndrome following shigellosis. Clin. Nephrol. ZJ:126-133. 38. Jaffe, E.A., R.L. Nachman, C.G. Becker and C.R. Minick. 1973. Culture of human

  12. Report on possible routes to breakdown products of mustard gas

    SciTech Connect

    Luman, F.M.

    1983-10-18

    This paper suggests possible routes to the formation of decontamination and breakdown products of the chemical agent Mustard Gas (HD). The terminal decontamination products, CaSO4 and CO2, are harmless to the environment. Oxathiane is formed by hydrolysis and dehydration reactions. Dithiane is formed with the application of heat in a low oxygen or nitrogen environment. (Author).

  13. An In Vitro Comparison of PMMA and Calcium Sulfate as Carriers for the Local Delivery of Gallium(III) Nitrate to Staphylococcal Infected Surgical Sites

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Rebecca A.; Tennent, David J.; Chang, David; Wenke, Joseph C.; Sanchez, Carlos J.

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic-loaded bone cements, including poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and calcium sulfate (CaSO4), are often used for treatment of orthopaedic infections involving Staphylococcus spp., although the effectiveness of this treatment modality may be limited due to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance and/or the development of biofilms within surgical sites. Gallium(III) is an iron analog capable of inhibiting essential iron-dependent pathways, exerting broad antimicrobial activity against multiple microorganisms, including Staphylococcus spp. Herein, we evaluated PMMA and CaSO4 as carriers for delivery of gallium(III) nitrate (Ga(NO3)3) to infected surgical sites by assessing the release kinetics subsequent to incorporation and antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. PMMA and to a lesser extent CaSO4 were observed to be compatible as carriers for Ga(NO3)3, eluting concentrations with antimicrobial activity against planktonic bacteria, inhibiting bacterial growth, and preventing bacterial colonization of beads, and effective against established bacterial biofilms of S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Collectively, our in vitro results indicate that PMMA is a more suitable carrier compared to CaSO4 for delivery of Ga(NO3)3; moreover they provide evidence for the potential use of Ga(NO3)3 with PMMA as a strategy for the prevention and/or treatment for orthopaedic infections. PMID:26885514

  14. [Therapeutic options for portal hypertensive biliopathy: case series and literature review].

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Olivos, Nancy Edith; de León-Monterroso, José Luis; Avila-Escobedo, Lourdes; López-Méndez, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la biliopatía por hipertensión portal es poco diagnosticada debido a que sólo algunos pacientes experimentan síntomas. Las manifestaciones clínicas más importantes son la colestasis y la colangitis. Objetivo: comunicar una serie de casos evaluados, tratados y seguidos en una institución pública de tercer nivel. Casos clínicos: cuatro pacientes con biliopatía por hipertensión portal se expusieron a diferentes métodos para tratar la hipertensión portal y la descompresión de la vía biliar. Se realizó seguimiento durante casi cinco años. Tres casos mostraron adecuada evolución, con remisión de los síntomas; un paciente falleció al intentar dilatarle la vía biliar. Finalmente, se revisa la bibliografía en relación con la terapéutica de la biliopatía por hipertensión portal. Conclusiones: no existe consenso para el tratamiento óptimo de este padecimiento, aunque el objetivo es descomprimir la vía biliar; cada caso plantea particularidades que guían el tratamiento.

  15. [Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy. A rare cause of ischaemic stroke].

    PubMed

    del Saz-Saucedo, Pablo; Alfaya-Muñoz, Laura Blanca; Recio-Bermejo, Marta; Lara-Medina, Francisco Javier; García-Chiclano, Amalia; Ortega-León, Teresa; Rueda-Medina, Ignacio; Domínguez-Fernández, María José; Madrid-Muñiz, Carmen; Franco-Huerta, María

    2013-06-01

    Introduccion. La epiteliopatia pigmentaria placoide multifocal posterior aguda (EPPMPA) es una enfermedad inflamatoria rara, generalmente de etiologia indeterminada, de la coriocapilar, el epitelio pigmentario y la retina externa. Afecta predominantemente a pacientes jovenes y en algunos casos puede involucrar al sistema nervioso central en forma de ictus o de meningoencefalitis. Presentamos el caso clinico de una mujer joven con EPPMPA complicada con ictus e hipertension intracraneal. Caso clinico. Mujer de 16 anos que comienza con cefalea intensa sugestiva de hipertension intracraneal, asi como con un deficit agudo hemisferico izquierdo. La resonancia magnetica craneal ponia de manifiesto lesiones embolicas o vasculiticas en diferentes territorios. No se evidenciaron datos de meningoencefalitis en el estudio del liquido cefalorraquideo, pero si de hipertension intracraneal asociada. La presencia de lesiones muy especificas en el polo ocular posterior permitio el diagnostico de EPPMPA complicada con ictus isquemico, probablemente por mecanismo vasculitico. Un amplio estudio etiologico fue negativo para identificar un factor desencadenante claro del proceso. Se inicio tratamiento corticoideo con buena evolucion clinica y radiologica. Conclusiones. La EPPMPA es una entidad rara que generalmente entrana buen pronostico; sin embargo, en algunos casos puede complicarse con afectacion del sistema nervioso central, y el ictus isquemico secundario a vasculitis es la complicacion mas grave. Ante un paciente joven con ictus que presente sintomatologia visual y lesiones coriorretinianas, debe considerarse la EPPMPA en su diagnostico etiologico.

  16. Application of gypsum to control P runoff from poultry litter fertilization of pasture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper will discuss the utilization of gypsum (CaSO4 .2H2O) to reduce P losses from surface runoff when poultry litter is used as a fertilizer source in agriculture. Utilization of poultry litter as a fertilizer source is common in regions with intense poultry production. While poultry litter ...

  17. The Position of Museum and Gallery Educators in Spain: Some Paradoxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amengual-Quevedo, Irene

    2017-01-01

    This article presents some of the reflections articulated in the author's doctoral thesis: "Saberes y aprendizajes en la construcción de la identidad y la subjetividad de una educadora de museos: El caso del proyecto Cartografiem-nos en el museo Es Baluard". (Knowledge and learning in the construction of the identity and the subjectivity…

  18. Enhanced Stability of Calcium Sulfate Scaffolds with 45S5 Bioglass for Bone Repair

    PubMed Central

    Shuai, Cijun; Zhou, Jianhua; Wu, Ping; Gao, Chengde; Feng, Pei; Xiao, Tao; Deng, Youwen; Peng, Shuping

    2015-01-01

    Calcium sulfate (CaSO4), as a promising tissue repair material, has been applied widely due to its outstanding bioabsorbability and osteoconduction. However, fast disintegration, insufficient mechanical strength and poor bioactivity have limited its further application. In the study, CaSO4 scaffolds fabricated by using selective laser sintering were improved by adding 45S5 bioglass. The 45S5 bioglass enhanced stability significantly due to the bond effect of glassy phase between the CaSO4 grains. After immersing for four days in simulated body fluid (SBF), the specimens with 45S5 bioglass could still retain its original shape compared as opposed to specimens without 45S5 bioglass who experienced disintegration. Meanwhile, its compressive strength and fracture toughness increased by 80% and 37%, respectively. Furthermore, the apatite layer was formed on the CaSO4 scaffolds with 45S5 bioglass in SBF, indicating good bioactivity of the scaffolds. In addition, the scaffolds showed good ability to support the osteoblast-like cell adhesion and proliferation. PMID:28793652

  19. The Index of Refraction of Seawater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    waters. It 6-2 is aninexpensive instrument to be used for crude determinations and Is certainly inadequate to meet the requirements exposed above. SPECIFIC...slopes over sompe interval, namely, 10 nm for An/AX, 20C for An/AT, 50 kg/cm2 for An/Ap. In the caso of salinity the interval is immaterial since the

  20. The ATCRBS Mode of DABS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-31

    current sweep. Figure 4-14 summarizes iii flowchart form the actions taken in each update caso . 4.7 Raw Target Report Formation After all the replies...one. This process thus implements a very crude turn detection mechanism. The first report in a turn is treated with suspicion, but once the turn is

  1. Development of Test Unit for Production of Oxygen by a Regenerative Chemical

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-05-31

    inspect the unit so it was decided to cancel the plans for building the two more casos . Dec. 19W - Feb. 19»5 On December 26, 194*, I reached the Ü. S...again, another crude experiment, was carried out to determine how the humidity of the oxygen which was produced compared with cylinder oxygen. The

  2. Toward a Mathematical Theory of Counterterrorism (Proteus USA, Volume 1, Issue 2, December 2007)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    is too crude a measure; Paris’s Troy may have been sacked, but not Petain’s Paris.�� One could declare a battle won if the terrorist cell has not...Press, 2002). Matthew J. Dombroski and Kathleen M. Carley, “NETEST: Estimating a Terrorist Network’s Structure—Graduate Student Best Paper Award, CASOS

  3. Gypsum's influence on corn yield and p loss from an eroded southern piedmont soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gypsum (CaSO4) has been shown to reduce dissolved P in surface water runoff from pastures fertilized with poultry litter (PL). However, limited research has evaluated gypsum’s influence on P loss under row crops. Moreover, can gypsum effectively reduce P loss when applied only to grass buffer strips...

  4. Potential adherence of gypsum to forage as a consideration for excessive ingestion by ruminates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gypsum (calcium sulfate dihydrate, CaSO4•2H2O) has long been used in agriculture to improve soils and crop production and its use has recently been encouraged by the USDA NRCS for soil conservation through a new National Conservation Practice Standard: Code 333. However, there is concern regarding ...

  5. Gypsum adherence to forage: consideration for excessive ingestion by ruminates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gypsum (calcium sulfate dihydrate, CaSO4•2H2O) has long been used as a soil amendment to improve soil conditions and its use has recently been encouraged by the USDA-NRCS for soil conservation through a new National Conservation Practice Standard: Code 333. However, there is concern regarding the e...

  6. Potential adherence of flue gas desulfurization gypsum to forage as a consideration for excessive ingestion by ruminants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gypsum (calcium sulfate dihydrate, CaSO4·2H2O) has long been used to improve soils and crop production, and its use has recently been encouraged by the USDA-NRCS for soil conservation through a new Conservation Practice Standard: Code 333. However, there is concern regarding adverse effects of exce...

  7. [Amyand's hernia: a report of two cases and review of the bibliography].

    PubMed

    Manzanares-Campillo, Maria del Carmen; Muñoz-Atienza, Virginia; Sánchez-García, Susana; García-Santos, Esther; Ruescas-García, Francisco; Martín-Fernández, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: encontrar el apéndice vermiforme en un saco herniario inguinal es un hallazgo infrecuente (1%), excepcionalmente raro si está inflamado (0.13%). Clínicamente simula una hernia inguinal incarcerada y el diagnóstico preoperatorio adecuado se establece en contadas excepciones. Se reportan dos casos excepcionales de hernias de Amyand y se revisa la bibliografía. Casos clínicos: 1. Paciente masculino de 78 años con una hernia inguinal derecha, incarcerada, en el que el diagnóstico de hernia de Amyand se estableció antes de la cirugía mediante tomografía computada abdominal. Caso clínico 2. Paciente femenina de 82 años de edad, con clínica de hernia crural derecha incarcerada con una hernia de Amyand a través de una hernia inguinal derecha. Conclusiones: la hernia de Amyand es una rara enfermedad cuyo diagnóstico preoperatorio es infrecuente y que siempre debe considerarse en el diagnóstico diferencial en los casos con signos clínicos de hernia inguinal derecha incarcerada.

  8. Student Teams in the Engineering Classroom and Beyond: Setting up Students for Success. CRLT Occasional Paper No. 29

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finelli, Cynthia J.; Bergom, Inger; Mesa, Vilma

    2011-01-01

    There is wide demand for engineering graduates to be capable of working well in teams. The engineering accreditation body (ABET, www.abet.org) has responded to this need by requiring engineering programs to demonstrate that their graduates have "an ability to function on multidisciplinary teams" (Haag, Froyd, Coleman, & Caso, n.d.),…

  9. Analysis of Layered Social Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Graduate student best paper award, CASOS 2002 conference. Compu- tational & Mathematical Organization Theory, 8:235–241, 2002. P. Domingos and M...evaluations. During his second assignment, a B-2 survivability analyst, he completed a Master of Science Degree in Industrial Engineering at New Mexico

  10. Calcium Sulfate in Atacama Desert Basalt: A Possible Analog for Bright Material in Adirondack Basalt, Gusev Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, B.; Golden, D. C.; Amundson, R.; Chong-Diaz, G.; Ming, D. W.

    2007-01-01

    The Atacama Desert in northern Chile is one of the driest deserts on Earth (< 2mm/y). The hyper-arid conditions allow extraordinary accumulations of sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates in Atacama soils. Examining salt accumulations in the Atacama may assist understanding salt accumulations on Mars. Recent work examining sulfate soils on basalt parent material observed white material in the interior vesicles of surface basalt. This is strikingly similar to the bright-white material present in veins and vesicles of the Adirondack basalt rocks at Gusev Crater which are presumed to consist of S, Cl, and/or Br. The abundance of soil gypsum/anhydrite in the area of the Atacama basalt suggested that the white material consisted of calcium sulfate (Ca-SO4) which was later confirmed by SEM/EDS analysis. This work examines the Ca-SO4 of Atacama basalt in an effort to provide insight into the possible nature of the bright material in the Adirondack basalt of Gusev Crater. The objectives of this work are to (i) discuss variations in Ca-SO4 crystal morphology in the vesicles and (ii) examine the Ca-SO4 interaction(s) with the basalt interior.

  11. Lista dei caratteri macroscopici per l’identificazione dei legni

    Treesearch

    Flavio Ruffinatto; Alan Crivellaro; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2016-01-01

    L’identificazione dei legni costituisce il primo passo per ottenere conoscenze indispensabili in molti ambiti di studio. Ad esempio, prima di eseguire il restauro di un manufatto di interesse culturale è indispensabile conoscere il nome dei legni che lo compongono. Oppure, nel caso in cui si sospetti che un legno protetto da convenzioni internazionali sia stato...

  12. Constitutions and Democratic Consolidation: Brazil in Comparative Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-31

    Sistema Eleitoral no Brasil (Sao Paulo: Simbolo, 1980). A more recent analysis of this and broader themes of the parties is Glaucio Dillon Soares...assembly. On the flexibility of the parties see Bolivar Lamounier and Rachel Meneguello, " Partidos politicos e consolidacao democratica: 0 caso Brasileiro

  13. Soluble calcium amendment: Co-Application with poultry litter to reduce P loss following surface application

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper will discuss the utilization of gypsum (CaSO4 .2H2O) to reduce P losses from surface runoff when poultry litter is used as a fertilizer source in agriculture. Utilization of poultry litter as a fertilizer source is common in regions with intense poultry production. While poultry litter ha...

  14. [Chorea due to TITF1/NKX2-1 mutation: phenotypical description and therapeutic response in a family].

    PubMed

    Salvado, Maria; Boronat-Guerrero, Susanna; Hernández-Vara, Jorge; Álvarez-Sabin, José

    2013-05-16

    Introduccion. El corea por mutacion en el gen TITF1, tambien denominado corea hereditario benigno, es un trastorno autosomico dominante que suele iniciarse antes de los 5 anos. En la mayoria de casos, el corea tiende a mejorar con la edad. Puede asociar hipotiroidismo y problemas respiratorios, como el sindrome de distres respiratorio alveolar neonatal o la enfermedad pulmonar intersticial, ya que TITF1 es un factor de transcripcion esencial para el desarrollo del cerebro, tiroides y pulmon. Casos clinicos. Presentamos el fenotipo clinico de una familia con corea, en la cual dos hermanas presentan hipotiroidismo congenito, y una de ellas, sindrome de distres respiratorio alveolar. En ambas se identifico una mutacion en TITF1 (c.825delC) y se observo mejoria clinica en respuesta al tratamiento con levodopa-carbidopa en dosis bajas. Conclusiones. El corea por mutacion de TITF1 es una causa infradiagnosticada de corea en ninos. Debido a la posibilidad de realizar diagnostico genetico, creemos indicado realizarlo siempre en casos familiares dominantes, teniendo en cuenta la penetrancia variable, asi como en pacientes que presenten afectacion concomitante de pulmon o hipotiroidismo. En casos esporadicos, puede ser recomendable en coreas de causa no filiada, lo que nos permitira evitar otras pruebas, dar un pronostico no degenerativo, permitir un consejo genetico, y hacer ensayos terapeuticos mas dirigidos y eficaces. Por el momento, la levodopa parece el tratamiento sintomatico de eleccion.

  15. [Diffuse superficial siderosis of the central nervous system: four case reports and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Calvo, Marta; de Miguel, Cristina; Pinel, Ana; Ortega, José M; Aladro, Yolanda

    2014-10-16

    Introduccion. La siderosis superficial difusa del sistema nervioso central (SNC) es una rara condicion debida a depositos de hemosiderina en las capas subpiales del cerebro y la medula espinal. La fuente de sangrado cronico o recurrente en el espacio subaracnoideo se detecta solo en un 50% de los casos. Los sintomas mas caracteristicos son ataxia cerebelosa e hipoacusia neurosensorial. Las secuencias eco de gradiente potenciadas en T2 de resonancia magnetica constituyen el metodo diagnostico de eleccion. Casos clinicos. Presentamos cuatro pacientes con siderosis superficial difusa del SNC relacionada con angiopatia amiloide, anticoagulacion oral, schwannoma del VIII par craneal y sin fuente de sangrado conocida en un caso. Dos pacientes desarrollaron ataxia cerebelosa; tres de ellos, episodios recurrentes de alteracion focal neurologica; uno, demencia; y el cuarto es un hallazgo radiologico. No se objetivo progresion clinica durante el seguimiento (2-11 años) en tres de ellos. El paciente con angiopatia amiloide evoluciono a demencia. Conclusiones. Los episodios recurrentes de alteracion focal neurologica son los sintomas mas frecuentes en nuestros casos de siderosis superficial difusa del SNC. La evolucion natural de esta condicion no se conoce bien y puede constituir un hallazgo radiologico.

  16. Spanish Navy Up to Date Data in DCS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    therapeutic measures. Final results are similar to another world navies diving centres Bibliography: 1.- Pujante, A.; Inoriza, J; Viqueira, A. Estudio de 121... casos de enfermedad descompresiva Medicina Clinica, vol . 94, n` 7, 1990 2.- Rivera, J.C. Decompression sickness among divers: An analysis of 935

  17. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CaSO4·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10101-41-4), also known as plaster of Paris, anhydrite, and gypsum, occurs... prepared by complete dehydration of gypsum, below 300 °C, in an electric oven. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  18. Mineralization and Potential for Fossilization of an Extremotolerant Bacterium Isolated from a Past Mars Analog Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaboyer, F.; Bohmeier, M.; Foucher, F.; Le Milbeau, C.; Gautret, P.; Richard, A.; Sauldubois, A.; Guegan, R.; Westall, F.

    2016-05-01

    To better characterize the preservation of biomarkers during microbial fossilization, we mineralized a bacterial strain isolated from a cold-acidic-oligotrophic lake in SiO2 and CaSO4 and studied it using SEM, TEM, FT-IR, Raman, GC-MS or Rock-Eval.

  19. [Acute otitis media: could it be a sentinel indicator of health care?].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Gaytán, David Alejandro; Valle-Alvarado, Gabriel; Krug-Llamas, Ernesto; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la otitis media aguda es la enfermedad bacteriana más frecuente en los niños menores de cinco años, por lo que constituye una de las causas más comunes de consulta médica pediátrica. El objetivo de esta investigación fue conocer el panorama epidemiológico de la otitis media aguda, con la finalidad de determinar la factibilidad de considerarla un indicador centinela de la atención médica. MÉTODOS: se recolectaron y analizaron todos los casos nuevos de otitis media aguda que se presentaron entre 2008 y 2011. Se determinaron proporciones, razones y tasas de incidencia, y se calcularon los límites para proporciones por prueba exacta de P-media. Resultados: en los niños menores de cinco años de edad se observó 20 % de los casos de otitis media no supurativa y 17 % de los casos de otitis media supurativa. En ese grupo de edad, aumentó la razón de casos de infecciones respiratorias agudas en relación con los de otitis media: 87:1 en 2008 a 53:1 en 2011.

  20. Slip casting and nitridation of silicon powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiko, Y.

    1985-03-01

    Powdered Silicon was slip-cast with a CaSO4 x 0.5H2O mold and nitrided in a N atm. containing 0 or 5 vol. % H at 1000 to 1420 deg. To remove the castings, the modeling faces were coated successively with an aq. salt soap and powdered cellulose containing Na alginate, and thus prevented the sticking problem.

  1. Slip casting and nitridation of silicon powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiko, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Powdered Silicon was slip-cast with a CaSO4 x 0.5H2O mold and nitrided in a N atm. containing 0 or 5 vol. % H at 1000 to 1420 deg. To remove the castings, the modeling faces were coated successively with an aq. salt soap and powdered cellulose containing Na alginate, and thus prevented the sticking problem.

  2. Evaporation of Topopah Spring tuff pore water

    SciTech Connect

    Dibley, M J; Knauss, K G; Rosenberg, N D

    1999-09-10

    We report on the results to date for experiments on the evaporative chemical evolution of a CaSO, rich water representative of Topopah Spring Tuff porewater from Yucca Mountain. Data include anion and cation analysis and qualitative mineral identification for a series of open system experiments, with and without crushed tuff present, conducted at sub-boiling temperatures.

  3. [Gastrocolic fistula as a complication of percutaneous feeding gastrostomy, description of three cases and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Varo, Ignacio; Gros Herguido, Noelia; Parejo Campos, Juana; Tatay Domínguez, Dolores; Pereira Cunill, José Luis; Serrano Aguayo, Pilar; Socas Macías, María; García-Luna, Pedro Pablo

    2014-02-01

    Introducción: La gastrostomía percutánea es el procedimiento de elección para proporcionar acceso enteral en pacientes que requieren soporte nutricional por esta vía a largo plazo, relegando a la gastrostomía quirúrgica. Material y métodos: Presentamos tres pacientes con indicación de gastrostomía percutánea para soporte nutricional. En dos casos se realizó la gastrostomía mediante endoscopia y en otro mediante radiología intervencionista. Resultados: Durante la realización de las gastrostomías no se detectaron incidencias clínicas, pero al intentar recambio de las sondas de gastrostomía, se evidenció la presencia de fístula gastrocólica que, ocasionaba imposibilidad del recambio en un caso, o cuadro de dolor abdominal y diarrea en los otros dos casos. Discusión: Pese a ser una técnica segura, la gastrostomía percutánea debe realizarse con una correcta selección de los pacientes para minimizar posibles complicaciones que puedan acontecer, como fístula gastrocólica, recomendando en casos dudosos la realización de prueba de imagen tipo TC (tomografía computerizada).

  4. The Link Probability Model: A Network Simulation Alternative to the Exponential Random Graph Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    This research is part of the Dynamics Networks project in CASOS (Center for Computational Analysis of Social and Organizational Systems, http...Technology, •ARL Telecordia: Communications and Networks Technology Collaborative Alliances, •Additional support on measures was provided by the

  5. Process for desulfurizing combustion exhaust gases

    SciTech Connect

    Kumagai, T.; Matsuda, S.; Mori, T.; Nishimura, T.; Nishimura, Y.

    1982-05-04

    An improved process for desulfurizing combustion exhaust gases of mainly coal containing sulfur oxides, Hf and dust containing Al is provided, which process consists of four steps; a first step of contacting the gases with calcium carbonate or hydroxide in the form of slurry to convert the sulfur oxides into caso3; a second step of contacting O2 with the resulting slurry to convert CaSo3 into caso4; a third step of separating caso4 and mother liquor from the resulting slurry; and a fourth step of preparing a slurry of calcium carbonate or hydroxide to be employed in the first step, from the mother liquor, the pHs of the slurry and the mother liquor in the first and fourth steps being adjusted to 5 or higher by adding alkali such as sodium carbonate. According to the present process, it is possible to prevent hindrance of hf and al contained in dust to the reaction of so2absorbent (CaCO3 or Ca(OH)2) with SO2 gas, and thereby improve percentage desulfurization and also obtain a high quality gypsum.

  6. Sintering and sulfation of calcium silicate: Calcium aluminate

    SciTech Connect

    Borgwardt, R.H.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of sintering on the reactivity of solids at high temperature was studied. The nature of the interaction was studied with calcium silicate-aluminate reacting with SO2 between 665 and 800 C. The kinetics of the sintering and sulfation processes were measured independently in terms of the common variables, temperature and specific surface area. Surface reduction parameters were evaluated by the German-Munir sinter model, modified to account for a strong catalytic effect of H2O vapor. Sulfation parameters were determined from a series of conversion vs. time measurements at various temperatures using calcined solids of known surface area. These show product layer diffusion through CaSO4 to be the probable controlling process above 670 C and diffusion through a mixture of CaSO3 and CaSO4 controlling below that temperature. Like sintering, sulfation was enhanced by the presence of H2O in the feed gas. With 7% H2O vapor, the enhancement factor for sulfation was 1.5 at 665 C and estimated to be 5.0 at higher temperatures where only CaSO4 is formed. A combined sinter/sulfation model, based on the parameters evaluated for the independent processes, is compared to sulfation rates measured for the uncalcined solid when sintering is occurring simultaneously.

  7. [Recurring pseudo-urolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Egger, G; Joost, J

    1983-05-31

    We report about a case with simulated recurrent urolithiasis. The patient introduced foreign bodies (gypsum) into the bladder. Often the stones had to be removed from the bladder and the right refluxing ureter. The diagnosis of the foreign bodies was made after 2 years of malingering by X-ray diffraction (analysis: gypsum = CaSO4 . 2 H2O).

  8. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 2001: Numbers 23-45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document consists of articles 23-45 published in the electronic journal "Education Policy Analysis Archives" for the year 2001: (23) "La Participacion de las Minorias Nacionales dentro de Sistemas Educativas Pre-Modernos: El Caso de los Garifunas de Guatemala" (Carlos R. Ruano); (24) "'Alexander v. Sandoval': A…

  9. [Cognitive assessment in children who presented gastroschisis: a case-control study].

    PubMed

    Villasenor-Cabrera, Teresita; Pacheco-Sanchez, Ilude; Rizo-Curiel, Genoveva; Nuno-Romero, Ricardo; Garcia-Estrada, Joaquín

    2016-04-16

    Introduccion. La gastrosquisis es una malformacion de la pared abdominal que se corrige mediante cirugia y requiere cuidados hospitalarios especiales, como inmovilizacion, restriccion alimenticia y separacion de la madre durante tiempo variable, entre otros; para analizar las posibles repercusiones cognitivas se aplico la prueba de Bayley III a 14 niños. Sujetos y metodos. Siete casos (nacidos con gastrosquisis) y siete controles, en los hospitales civiles de Guadalajara, en el periodo enero-abril de 2013. Resultados. Los casos no evidenciaron retraso en las evaluaciones relacionadas con la cognicion, el lenguaje y la conducta motora, en tanto que en las asociadas a la conducta socioemocional y adaptativa las puntuaciones favorecieron al grupo control, lo que refleja que poseen mejores estrategias de adaptacion e interaccion respecto al grupo de casos. Conclusiones. La gastrosquisis no afectara el neurodesarrollo ulterior, por lo menos en este grupo que presento esta unica anormalidad y deficits explicables por sus circunstancias perinatales, sin que este pronostico pueda generalizarse a otros casos con un cuadro clinico mas grave, mayor duracion de la estancia hospitalaria y comorbilidad asociada. De cualquier forma, es importante informar a los padres desde la etapa prenatal respecto a las consecuencias esperadas de esta patologia.

  10. CTC Sentinel. Volume 6, Issue 11-12, November 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Court af- firmed the decision. See personal interviews, Brescia prosecutor Antonio Chiappani and El Abboubi’s lawyer, Nicola Mannatrizio, Brescia...yihadista son compatibles?: una reflexión sobre el caso de Mohamed Jarmoune en Brescia,” Real Instituto Elcano, April 17, 2012. 41 Since an early age

  11. Development of Intraductal Technique for Breast Cancer Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment (97 Breast)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    Chou J, Offodile R, Alpaugh M, Grosser S, Pesicka D. Presented at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, December 9-12, 1999 (2) Identification of...Alpaugh PhC Stella Grosser PhD Susan Caso Dawanda Pesicka 49 DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY US ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH AND MATERIEL COMMAND 504 SCOTT STREET

  12. Engineering Design Handbook: Environmental Series. Part Three. Induced Environmental Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-20

    dioxide and sulfur trioxide to form calcium sulfate (CaSOJ and gypsum ( CaSO , -2H2 0),both of which are partially soluble in water. Also, carbon...Activities, Southwest Re- search Institute, San Antonio , Tex., 1968 (AD-665 439). 5. David Askin, Report on Working Group No. 7 of IES/TC 50, on

  13. Argentina: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-05

    Kirchner, Chávez Strike Mutual Pose,” Miami Herald, March 16, 2007. 32 “EEUU Aclara a Argentina Que Caso de Antonini Wilson en Miami No Es Político...foreign national wanted in the case – Antonio Jose Canchica Gomez, reportedly a Venezuelan intelligence official – remains at large. U.S. federal

  14. Italian Foreign Policy: Trends for the Twenty-First Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    bound Jewish American, 43 89 Antonio Cassese, Terrorism, Politics, and the Law: The Achille Lauro...examination of the case, Antonio Cassese points out that despite an initial effort of Reagan and Craxi’s governments to coordinate action against the...Ansaldo, Marco. Top Secret: il caso Ocalan, (Rome, Gamberetti, 2002). Attina, Fulvio. “La Partnership Euro-Mediterranea: Politica e Sicurezza

  15. Gold Plated Lead-Clinched Lead Solder Joint Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    20362 San Antonio ALC (SFRM) Commandant of the Marine Corps Kelly Air Force Base, Texas 78241 Headquarters Marine Corps (Code LMO-1) 1 Washington, DC...20380 AFLC CASO /LODS Federal Center Commandant, US Coast Guard (G-FSL-3) 1 Battle Creek, Michigan 49016 Washington, DC 20590 Commander Commanding

  16. The Guyana-Venezuela Border Dispute: An Analysis of the Reasons Behind Venezuela’s Continuing Demands for Abrogation of the 1899 Anglo-Venezuelan Arbitral Treaty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    offices had been established in Cucuta in Colombia and in San Antonio de Tachira in Venezuela to regularize the flow of migrants (Parra Pena, U 1982: 211...1q91: 4. Mosonyi. Fsteban E. El Caso Nuevas Tribus. Caracas: Editorial Atenoo de Caracas, 1981. Oxford-Lopez, Eduardo. Guayana y Sus Problemas

  17. A Summary of the Naval Postgraduate School Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-30

    definitive conclusions can be reached. Publications: "Constituicao: 0 Caso de Portugal," Lua Nova (Sao Paulo), March 1987. Ŕ Papel da Igreja na Transicao...Susceptibility in Ai r-to-Air Cmbat, Naval Air Systems Command, July 1987. Theses Directed: D. D. Antonio , "A Missile Flyout Model for ISEAS," M.S., Dec

  18. Why Has Peace Not Been Achieved in Colombia?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-15

    Catalina Turbay Jiménez, El Estatuto de Seguridad : un Estudio de Caso, congresocienciapolitica.uniandes.edu.co (Accessed November 28, 2011). 23...Serafino, Colombia: Current Issues and Historical Background, 229. 24 David E. Spencer, Colombia Camino a la Recuperación: Seguridad y Gobernabilidad 1982

  19. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum agricultural network alabama (cotton)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is an excellent source of gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O) that can be beneficially used in agriculture. Research was conducted as part of the Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute in collaboration wi...

  20. Utilization of FGD gypsum in agriculture for environmental benefits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper will discuss the utilization of FGD gypsum in agriculture for environmental benefits. Gypsum (CaSO4 .2H2O) has been used as an agricultural soil amendment for over 250 years. It is a soluble source of calcium and sulfur for crops and has been shown to improve soil physical and chemical pr...

  1. Impact of FGD gypsum soil amendment applications on soil and environmental quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper will discuss the utilization of FGD gypsum in agriculture for improving soil quality and other environmental benefits. Gypsum (CaSO4 .2H2O) has been used as an agricultural soil amendment for over 250 years. It is a soluble source of calcium and sulfur- for crops and has been shown to i...

  2. A proposed NRCS conservation practice standard: Amending soil properties with gypsiferous products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper will discuss the proposed new NRCS conservation practice standard regarding the use of gypsiferous products in agriculture. Gypsiferous products include gypsum (CaSO4 .2H2O), has been used as an agricultural soil amendment for over 250 years as a soluble source of calcium and sulfur for ...

  3. Transmembrane Electropotential in Barley Roots as Related to Cell Type, Cell Location, and Cutting and Aging Effects 12

    PubMed Central

    Mertz, Stuart M.; Higinbotham, Noe

    1976-01-01

    Transmembrane electropotential difference (PD) was measured in whole roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cvs. Compana and Himalaya). Seedlings were grown 4 to 5 days in aerated 0.5 mm CaSO4 or a nutrient solution. Measurements of PD were made with roots bathed in CaSO4, KCl + CaSO4, or the nutrient solution. The following results were found. (a) There was a radial PD gradient with epidermal cells being 10 to 58 millivolts less negative than cells in the third layer of the cortex (outside to inside). There was no longitudinal PD gradient in the region 0.5 to 4 cm from the root tip, nor was there any difference between the PD of young root hairs and other epidermal cells. (b) Cell PD in excised whole roots was not detectably different from that found in roots attached to the shoot, and was unchanged for 2 hours from excision. (c) In 1-centimeter sections of root, cell PD at the freshly cut surface was depolarized by 90 millivolts from that in the intact root; cells farther than 1 millimeter from the cut surface were not depolarized. The PD of cells at the cut surface became more negative upon aging the segment in 0.5 mm CaSO4, eventually becoming greater by -25 millivolts than that in cells of intact roots. Cells in segments to which the root tips were attached had less negative PDs after aging than those in subapical segments, indicating a possible hormonal effect. PDs in aged, excised segments are not equivalent to those in intact roots. (d) Creeping of cytoplasm over electrode tips inserted into the vacuole gave measurements of vacuole-to-cytoplasm PD of + 9 millivolts in 0.5 mm CaSO4 and + 35 millivolts in 1 mm KCl + 0.5 mm CaSO4. Most of the cell PD was across the plasmalemma. (e) The reducing sugar content of roots in CaSO4 solution was greater than that of roots in the nutrient solution in which ion uptake, particularly K+ occurred. PMID:16659435

  4. Differences in the clinical-epidemiological profile between new cases of tuberculosis and retreatment cases after default.

    PubMed

    Belchior, Aylana de Souza; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre; Mainbourg, Evelyne Marie Therese

    2016-01-01

    To identify the socioeconomic and clinical-epidemiological factors related to tuberculosis in new cases and retreatment cases. Comparative study with 126 patients, of which 42 were retreatment cases after default attended in a reference center, and 84 were new cases completing the first treatment and treated in Basic Health Units. The collection of primary data was through interview, and of secondary data by records of the Notifiable Diseases Information System. Comparative analysis between the two groups. The new cases differ from retreatment cases regarding educational level. The clinical-epidemiological profile shows a significant difference in relation to performance of the tuberculin skin test, and the HIV test result (positive) in favor of new cases. In relation to performance of sputum culture and the result (positive) of the first sputum smear of the first and second samples, in favor of retreatment cases. The two groups are significantly different in clinical and epidemiological characteristics that show the access to exams. Identificar fatores socioeconômicos e clínico-epidemiológicos associados à tuberculose em casos novos e em casos em retratamento. Estudo comparativo de 126 pacientes, sendo 42 casos em retratamento por abandono atendidos num Centro de Referência e 84 casos novos concluindo o primeiro tratamento, atendidos em Unidades Básicas de Saúde. Levantamento de dados primários por entrevista e dados secundários pela Ficha de Informação de Agravos de Notificação. Análise comparativa entre os dois grupos. Os casos novos diferem dos em retratamento quanto à escolaridade. O perfil clínico-epidemiológico mostra que há diferença significativa quanto à realização do teste tuberculínico e o resultado do teste HIV (positivo) a favor dos casos novos. Quanto à realização da cultura de escarro e o resultado (positivo) da baciloscopia de escarro da primeira e da segunda amostras, a favor dos casos em retratamento. Os dois grupos

  5. [Clinical features of patients with influenza-like illness who went to a third level center in the winter of 2013-2014].

    PubMed

    Albarrán-Sánchez, Alejandra; Ramírez-Rentería, Claudia; Huerta-Montiel, Fernando; Martínez-Jerónimo, Angélica; Herrera-Landero, Alejandro; García-Álvarez, José Luis; Ortiz-Rodríguez, Elia; Palmas-Pineda, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el Centro para el Control y Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC, por sus siglas en inglés) registró, entre octubre de 2013 y abril de 2014, el pico más alto de casos relacionados con la influenza AH1N1. No todos los casos sospechosos de influenza resultan positivos, pero todos les generan costos a las instituciones. Nuestro objetivo fue describir las características de la población que acude con sospecha de influenza al Hospital de Especialidades del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI durante una nueva epidemia. Métodos: estudio transversal de casos admitidos al servicio de Urgencias del hospital mencionado por sospecha de influenza de acuerdo con las guías de práctica clínica. Con base en estas se analizaron los factores asociados a la severidad de la infección. Resultados: se registraron 109 pacientes con promedio de 44 años edad; el 78 % de ellos tenía menos de 60 años; el 62 % fueron mujeres; 75 % tenía por lo menos un factor de riesgo como obesidad (26 %) o hipertensión (27 %). Solo 65 pacientes tuvieron prueba confirmatoria, 33.8 % fueron diagnóstico positivo y 21 % de ellos fallecieron. Conclusiones: la frecuencia de casos confirmados de influenza es baja. Los factores asociados a mortalidad en los casos confirmados son la presencia de hipertensión, de leucocitosis y la presentación clínica de insuficiencia respiratoria aguda grave (IRAG).

  6. [Influence of serum levels of vitamin D on IgE response in schoolchildren with asthma in poor communities].

    PubMed

    Egea, Eduardo; Garavito, Gloria; Fang, Luis; Mendoza, Dary Luz; Escamilla, José Miguel; De Los Ríos, Elsie; Dennis, Rodolfo; Sánchez-Borges, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Antecedentes: El asma es una enfermedad frecuente en el mundo y la vitamina D (Vit-D) se ha asociado con la presencia y severidad de esta enfermedad. Objetivo: Establecer la asociación entre los niveles de Vit-D y la respuesta IgE en escolares con asma residentes de cuatro ciudades colombiananas. Métodos: Estudio de casos y controles en 1340 escolares (687 asmáticos y 653 controles) de comunidades en extrema pobreza de Barranquilla, Cartagena, Santa Marta y Montería. Se midieron las concentraciones séricas de Vit-D, IgE total e IgE específica anti Dermatofagoides farinae, Periplaneta americana y Ascaris lumbricoides (AL). Resultados: Los controles reportaron concentraciones mayores de Vit-D [61.9 ± 28.4 ng/mL] que los casos [53 ± 23.3 ng/mL] (p<0.05). La IgE total fue mayor en los casos (p<0.05). Solo IgE anti-AL mostró una diferencia clara: controles, densidad óptica 0.27 ± 0.25; casos 0.22 ± 0.24 (p<0.05). La Vit-D presentó diferencias entre casos y controles en cada población. Conclusiones: No se pudo demostrar la asociación entre deficiencia de Vit-D y asma, dado que la IgE total estuvo elevada en los pacientes y en los controles. Los resultados sugieren que la Vit-D influye en la respuesta IgE específica en niños asmáticos pobres en zonas endémicas para helmintiasis.

  7. [Variability in the clinical presentation of Pompe disease in infancy: two case reports and response to treatment with human recombinant enzyme].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Medinilla, Esther; Berzosa-López, Raquel; Mora-Ramírez, M Dolores; Blasco-Alonso, Javier; Martínez-Antón, Jacinto

    2014-12-01

    Introduccion. La enfermedad de Pompe o glucogenosis tipo II es un error innato del metabolismo, de herencia autosomica recesiva, causado por un deficit de la enzima lisosomal alfa-glucosidasa acida (GAA), que ocasiona un acumulo multisistemico de glucogeno. Describimos dos casos de inicio temprano (infantil) con diferentes formas de presentacion. Casos clinicos. El primer caso se trata de un neonato que presento una bradicardia mantenida desde el nacimiento, lo que motivo el estudio cardiologico, en el que se evidencio una hipertrofia biventricular grave. El segundo caso se trata de un niño de 14 meses con retraso motor e hipotonia con arreflexia. En la analitica destacaban una creatincinasa, lactato deshidrogenasa, transaminasa glutamico oxalacetica y transaminasa glutamico piruvica elevadas. El electromiograma mostro signos de afectacion miopatica, y la biopsia muscular, una miopatia vacuolar con deposito de glucogeno. En ambos, la actividad de la GAA estaba disminuida y el analisis genetico del gen GAA evidencio que eran portadores heterocigotos de mutaciones descritas en la enfermedad de Pompe. Iniciaron tratamiento con enzima recombinante humana al mes y a los 18 meses de vida, respectivamente, con mejoria evidente de la miocardiopatia hipertrofica, aunque mas limitada a nivel motor. En la actualidad tienen, respectivamente, 9 meses y 5 años, y este ultimo presenta un nivel III de la escala GMFM (Gross Motor Function Measure). Conclusion. La GAA recombinante humana es la unica opcion terapeutica autorizada para estos pacientes. Los efectos que hemos observado son similares a los descritos en otros casos, con una excelente evolucion de la miocardiopatia hipertrofica y un efecto variable sobre la musculatura esqueletica.

  8. Tetracycline nanoparticles loaded calcium sulfate composite beads for periodontal management.

    PubMed

    Sindhura Reddy, N; Sowmya, S; Bumgardner, Joel D; Chennazhi, K P; Biswas, Raja; Jayakumar, R

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to fabricate, characterize and evaluate in vitro, an injectable calcium sulfate bone cement beads loaded with an antibiotic nanoformulation, capable of delivering antibiotic locally for the treatment of periodontal disease. Tetracycline nanoparticles (Tet NPs) were prepared using an ionic gelation method and characterized using DLS, SEM, and FTIR to determine size, morphology, stability and chemical interaction of the drug with the polymer. Further, calcium sulfate (CaSO4) control and CaSO4-Tet NP composite beads were prepared and characterized using SEM, FTIR and XRD. The drug release pattern, material properties and antibacterial activity were evaluated. In addition, protein adsorption, cytocompatibility and alkaline phosphatase activity of the CaSO4-Tet NP composite beads in comparison to the CaSO4 control were analyzed. Tet NPs showed a size range of 130±20nm and the entrapment efficiency calculated was 89%. The composite beads showed sustained drug release pattern. Further the drug release data was fitted into various kinetic models wherein the Higuchi model showed higher correlation value (R(2)=0.9279) as compared to other kinetic models. The composite beads showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The presence of Tet NPs in the composite bead didn't alter its cytocompatibility. In addition, the composite beads enhanced the ALP activity of hPDL cells. The antibacterial and cytocompatible CaSO4-Tet NP composite beads could be beneficial in periodontal management to reduce the bacterial load at the infection site. Tet NPs would deliver antibiotic locally at the infection site and the calcium sulfate cement, would itself facilitate tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Laparoscopic resection of tailgut cysts: the size is not the issue.

    PubMed

    Dalmonte, Giorgio; Tartamella, Francesco; Mita, Maria Teresa; De Sario, Giuseppina; Roncoroni, Luigi; Marchesi, Federico

    2016-11-03

    Gli amartomi cistici retrorettali (Tailgut cysts) sono rare lesioni dello spazio presacrale che avendo rischio intrinseco di trasformazione maligna e recidiva sono normalmente trattate mediante asportazione chirurgica anche nel caso in cui siano asintomatiche. Negli ultimi vent’anni si sta affermando il trattamento mediante accesso addominale laparoscopico per la sua migliore esposizione delle strutture della pelvi e la sua minore invasività. In questo caso clinico presentiamo il trattamento del più grande amartoma cistico retrorettale asportato laparoscopicamente fino ad ora riportato in letteratura. Essendo nella maggior parte dei casi asintomatici, la diagnosi degli amartomi cistici retrorettali è spesso incidentale durante una visita medica di routine. Nel successivo studio è particolarmente indicata la RM per orientare la scelta dell’approccio chirurgico data la sua maggiore risoluzione nei tessuti molli e nella determinazione dell’invasività locale. La trasformazione maligna di queste lesioni si stima possa avvenire nel 14,1% dei casi, per questo l’exeresi chirurgica è la terapia di scelta. Tra i differenti approcci la tecnica transaddominale laparoscopica, se eseguita da chirurghi esperti nella chirurgia pelvica laparoscopica, garantisce la migliore visualizzazione degli organi pelvici e una minore morbidità. A causa del rischio di rottura e insemenzamento l’approccio laparoscopico non dovrebbe essere utilizzato in caso di sospetta malignità della lesione cistica. Il nostro caso corrobora la validità del trattamento laparoscopico degli amartomi cistici retrorettali, anche quando possiedono dimensioni considerevoli. Lo studio preo-peratorio è quindi cruciale per determinare la possibile malignità della lesione ed eseguire in tal caso un approccio laparotomico.

  10. [Sigmoid diverticulitis in adolescent. Case report].

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Salazar, Carlos; Orozco-Tapia, Luis Manuel; de la Concha Blankenagel, Erika; Gallardo-Ramírez, Mario Alberto; Blas-Franco, Miguel; Cárdenas-Lailson, Luis Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: la enfermedad diverticular colónica en niños y adolescentes es poco frecuente y sólo existen reportes de casos aislados en la bibliografía. La mayoría de los casos reportados se asocian con divertículos verdaderos congénitos y enfermedades genéticas de producción de la colágena. Caso clínico: paciente femenina de 13 años de edad, que ingresó a la División de Cirugía General y Endoscópica con diagnóstico de apendicitis aguda complicada. En la laparotomía se encontró enfermedad diverticular complicada de colon sigmoides. Se le practicó sigmoidectomía y colorrecto-anastomosis. El reporte histopatológico evidenció perforación de pseudodivertículo de colon sigmoides y peritonitis. La paciente fue dada de alta del hospital 72 horas posteriores a la cirugía, sin complicaciones. Conclusión: existen sólo reportes de casos aislados de niños y adolescentes con diverticulitis colónica, y su etiología no ha sido aún debidamente establecida. Esta paciente tuvo diverticulitis de sigmoides, similar a la enfermedad en adultos, sin padecimientos genéticos concomitantes. El caso es una excepción a lo reportado en la bibliografía de las diverticulitis en niños y adolescentes.

  11. [Molecular identification of Hemoglobin D Punjab in cases detected in two families].

    PubMed

    Bouchán-Valencia, Patricia; Coeto-Barona, Georgina; Rosenfeld-Mann, Fany; Trueba-Gómez, Rocío; Baptista-González, Héctor; Rivera-Echegoyén, Mariano; Rodríguez-Terán, Gerardo; Martínez-Villegas, Octavio

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la hemoglobina D Punjab (HbD Punjab) es la variante mundial más frecuente de hemoglobina D. En México se tienen reportes de casos aislados. El objetivo es presentar el diagnóstico molecular de dos familias con HbD Punjab y sus características clínicas. Casos clínicos: familia 1: neonato cuya madre era portadora de HbS. El padre y la hermana tenían variante natural para las mutaciones evaluadas, madre, hermano y caso índice heterocigotos para HbD Punjab. Familia 2: neonato con tamiz neonatal positivo para la detección de hemoglobinas anormales. Madre y caso índice fueron heterocigotos para HbD Punjab, homocigotos para HFE H63, y heterocigotos para síndrome de Gilbert UGT1A1*28. Padre, heterocigoto para HFE H63D, y hermana homocigoto para dicha mutación. El estudio de las dos familias para HbD Punjab, HbS, beta-talasemia, HFE y síndrome de Gilbert se hizo mediante PCR en tiempo real. Conclusión: la identificación molecular de la HbD Punjab es una propuesta metodológica accesible y permite diferenciar adecuadamente a los portadores. A través de esta metodología se identificaron dos casos adicionales en nuestro país, uno de ellos identificado inicialmente como HbS.

  12. Spatial distribution of tuberculosis in a municipality in the interior of São Paulo, 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Alcione Pereira Biffi; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre; Yamamura, Mellina; Palha, Pedro Fredemir; Reis, Amanda Alessandra Dos; Alecrim, Tatiana Ferraz de Araújo; Protti, Simone Teresinha

    2017-06-05

    to describe the epidemiological clinical profile of tuberculosis and analyze the spatial distribution of cases in a municipality in the state of São Paulo. descriptive and ecological study of cases of tuberculosis through the records in an information system. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate central tendency (mean) and chi-square test, with Yates correction or Fisher exact test, when necessary. The Kernel technique was also used to calculate the occurrence densities of tuberculosis cases, using a radius of 1000 meters. Type I error was set at 5%. 299 cases of tuberculosis were identified, with 290 (96.98%) being geocoded. The majority of these were male (n = 212; 70.91%), median age 40 years, and the pulmonary clinical form was predominant (n = 244, 81.60%). The distribution occurred in a non-random manner, observing important areas of the municipality with a higher density of cases of the disease. the study evidenced an epidemiological profile of tuberculosis cases similar to those in the literature; however, their distribution does not occur in a random manner, pointing to specific population groups that require greater management and planning of health services for the control of tuberculosis. caracterizar o perfil clínico epidemiológico da tuberculose (TB) e analisar a distribuição espacial dos casos em município paulista. estudo descritivo e ecológico dos casos de tuberculose registrados em um sistema de informação. Recorreu-se à estatística descritiva com cálculo de medidas de tendência central (média) e aplicação do teste qui-quadrado, com correção de Yates ou teste exato de Fisher, quando necessários. Aplicou-se ainda a técnica de Kernel para o cálculo das densidades de ocorrência dos casos da TB, utilizando um raio de 1000 metros. Fixou-se o erro tipo I em 5%. identificou-se 299 casos de TB, sendo geocodificados 290 (96,98%). A maioria destes foi do sexo masculino (n=212; 70,91%), idade mediana 40 anos, sendo a forma cl

  13. [METHODOLOGY REVIEW FOR WRITING AND PUBLISHING CASE REPORT: APPLICATIONS ON THE NUTRITION FIELD].

    PubMed

    Martínez Martínez, Gerardo; Noreña, Ana Lucia; Martínez Sanz, José Miguel; Ortiz Moncada, Rocío

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: en la actualidad, los casos clínicos suponen una importante herramienta docente con aplicaciones prácticas y contribuyen a la expansión del conocimiento de los profesionales de la salud. Objetivos: revisar la metodología de elaboración de casos clínicos, mostrando las similitudes y diferencias en los criterios de formato y contenido que son solicitados para que los reportes de casos sean publicados. Metodología: revisión bibliográfica en PubMed y Scielo entre 2005-2015, y rastreo manual de aquellas referencias más relevantes de los artículos seleccionados. Criterios de inclusión: artículos originales/revisiones bibliográficas en inglés/español/portugués publicados en cualquier país y que incluyan guías o recomendaciones sobre la redacción de casos clínicos. Resultados: se encontraron 131 artículos, de ellos, 20 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión, añadiendo cinco artículos por rastreo manual. Las variables descritas fueron: objetivo, recomendaciones y conclusiones, presentadas en tres tablas: 1. Publicaciones referentes internacionales; 2. Revistas internacionales y 3. Revistas latinoamericanas. Discusión: existen referentes internacionales que proporcionan directrices muy concretas cuando se precisa escribir y publicar un caso clínico. Tanto los referentes internacionales como las recomendaciones analizadas son coincidentes en su utilidad, aunque no existe una estandarización en su metodología. Son muy pocas las directrices que mencionan incluir el tratamiento dietético, el seguimiento y la evolución del mismo durante la situación clínica. Conclusiones: se recomienda a los autores interesados en describir un caso clínico cuyo tratamiento sea principalmente nutricional, seguir una guía ajustada a la situación clínica a presentar, siendo la guía CARE una buena opción.

  14. Omental infarction: a reappraisal of conservative management in children.

    PubMed

    Estevão-Costa, José; Alvarenga, Ana Sofia; Fragoso, Ana Catarina; Garcia, Maria; Campos, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A melhoria da acuidade diagnóstica do enfarte do omento resultou num incremento da atitude conservadora no seu tratamento. Com o objectivo de avaliar a eficácia e segurança da abordagem não-operatória, analisámos os casos de enfarte do omento tratados num hospital terciário. Material e Métodos: Incluímos os casos de enfarte do omento primários tratados entre 2004 e 2011. Os enfartes do omento diagnosticados por imagiologia foram submetidos a tratamento conservador que constou de analgésicos e antibioterapia intravenosa. Avaliámos os dados demográficos, apresentação clínica, dados laboratoriais, imagiologia e resultado. Resultados: Ocorreram nove casos de enfarte do omento. Oito pacientes (4 rapazes), com uma idade mediana de 8,5 anos, apresentaram- se na fase inicial da doença por dor abdominal à direita; a contagem leucocitária era normal ou ligeiramente elevada. Seis casos, diagnosticados por TC após ecografia suspeita de enfarte do omento em quatro, foram trados conservadoramente sem complicações, tendo alta ao terceiro dia (mediana). Dois doentes foram apenas diagnosticados durante a intervenção cirúrgica por suposta apendicite. O nono caso apresentou-se com uma obstrução intestinal devida a hérnia interna que foi resolvida por laparoscopia. Discussão: A imagiologia foi diagnóstica na maioria dos casos de enfarte do omento, permitindo a adoção de uma abordagem conservadora. O tratamento não-operatório foi eficaz e sem complicações em todos os doentes que se apresentaram na fase inicial da doença. Um doente apresentou-se com uma complicação grave que requereu intervenção cirúrgica. Conclusão: Na ausência de um tratamento consensual para o enfarte do omento, a abordagem não-operatória é uma alternativa não invasiva e eficaz, mas requer uma vigilância clínica ativa.

  15. [Mirizzi syndrome: experience at Spanish Hospital of Veracruz].

    PubMed

    Roesch-Dietlen, Federico; Pérez-Morales, Alfonso Gerardo; Martínez-Fernández, Silvia; Remes-Troche, José María; Jiménez-García, Victoria Alejandra; Romero-Sierra, Graciela

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: el síndrome de Mirizzi es una complicación de la litiasis vesicular por cálculos impactados en la bolsa de Hartmann o conducto cístico que comprimen la vía biliar principal; el diagnóstico se establece mediante estudios de imagen, aunque la mayor parte son hallazgos transoperatorios; su tratamiento es la colecistectomía con restauración de la vía biliar. Objetivo: analizar una serie de casos de síndrome de Mirizzi y comparar los resultados con lo publicado en la bibliografía mundial. Casos clínicos: se comunican cuatro casos con síndrome de Mirizzi de una cohorte de 1,034 casos con enfermedad litiásica vesicular del Hospital Español de Veracruz, en 21 años. La frecuencia en esta muestra es de 0.38%, con edad promedio de 32.1 ± 58.4 años; 50% son hombres y 25% tuvo ictericia y coluria con perfil hepático demostrativo. En un caso el ultrasonido sugirió síndrome de Mirizzi; el diagnóstico se corroboró por colangiografía percutánea y tomografía computada. A todos los pacientes se les realizó colecistectomía laparoscópica, y en dos se efectuó colangiografía transcística. Un caso correspondió al tipo I-A y 3 al tipo I-B según la Clasificación de Beltrán y Csendes. La evolución postoperatoria fue satisfactoria y no hubo mortalidad. Conclusiones: el síndrome de Mirizzi debe sospecharse en pacientes con litiasis vesicular con ictericia obstructiva. El cirujano debe extremar las precauciones para evitar lesionar la vía biliar.

  16. Environmental monitoring in interventional radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Sol, S.; Garcia, R.; Sánchez, D.; Ramirez, G.; Chavarin, E. U.; Rivera, T.

    2017-01-01

    The procedures in Interventional Radiology involve long times of exposure and high number of radiographic images that bring higher radiation doses to patients, staff and environmental than those received in conventional Radiology. Currently for monitoring the dose, the thermoluminescent dosimetry use is recommended. The aim of this work was to carry out the monitoring of the environmental scattered radiation inside the IR room using two types of thermoluminescent dosimeters, TLD-100 (reference dosimeter), CaSO4:Dy (synthesized in our laboratory). The results indicate that the TLD-100 is not effective for the environmental monitoring of low-energy Rx rooms. The CaSO4:Dy presented good behaviour over the 6 months of study. The results will be specific to each room so it is recommended such studies as part of the program of quality control of each Rx room.

  17. First-principles study of anhydrite, polyhalite and carnallite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weck, Philippe F.; Kim, Eunja; Jové-Colón, Carlos F.; Sassani, David C.

    2014-02-01

    We report density functional calculations of the structures and properties of anhydrite (CaSO4), polyhalite (K2SO4·MgSO4·2CaSO4·2H2O) and carnallite (KCl·MgCl2·6H2O). Densities of states are systematically investigated and phonon analysis using density functional perturbation theory is performed at constant equilibrium volume for anhydrite and polyhalite in order to derive their isochoric thermal properties. Thermal properties at constant atmospheric pressure are also calculated using the quasi-harmonic approximation. The computed molar entropy and isobaric heat capacity for anhydrite reproduce experimental data up to 800 K to within 3% and 10%, respectively, while further experimental work is needed to assess our theoretical predictions for polyhalite.

  18. Criptococosis cutánea primaria en paciente inmunocompetente.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Osorio, Igor; García-Rodiño, Sara; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Marta; Labandeira, Javier; Suárez-Peñaranda, José Manuel; Sánchez-Aguilar, MDolores; Vázquez-Veiga, Hugo

    2016-05-15

    La criptococosis cutánea es una micosis propia de pacientes inmunodeprimidos, sobre todo aquellos con infección por el virusde la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). Sin embargo, existen casos infrecuentes de criptococosis cutánea en pacientes inmunocompetentes, que suelen simular otras dermatosis, lo que retrasa su diagnóstico y tratamiento. Presentamos el caso de un varón pluripatológico de 79 años, con úlceras dolorosas en dorso de mano derecha que no respondían a tratamientos tópicos. A través del estudio histopatológico y micológico se alcanzó el diagnóstico de criptococosis cutánea primaria, lográndose la remisión de las lesiones tras 6 meses de tratamiento con fluconazol.

  19. A complexity science-based framework for global joint operations analysis to support force projection: LDRD Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    The military is undergoing a significant transformation as it modernizes for the information age and adapts to address an emerging asymmetric threat beyond traditional cold war era adversaries. Techniques such as traditional large-scale, joint services war gaming analysis are no longer adequate to support program evaluation activities and mission planning analysis at the enterprise level because the operating environment is evolving too quickly. New analytical capabilities are necessary to address modernization of the Department of Defense (DoD) enterprise. This presents significant opportunity to Sandia in supporting the nation at this transformational enterprise scale. Although Sandia has significant experience with engineering system of systems (SoS) and Complex Adaptive System of Systems (CASoS), significant fundamental research is required to develop modeling, simulation and analysis capabilities at the enterprise scale. This report documents an enterprise modeling framework which will enable senior level decision makers to better understand their enterprise and required future investments.

  20. The chemistry of Saudi Arabian sand - A deposition problem on helicopter turbine airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smialek, James L.; Archer, Frances A.; Garlick, Ralph G.

    Operations in the Persian Gulf have exposed military helicopter turbines to excessive amounts of ingested sand. Fine particles, less than 10 microns, are able to bypass the particle separators and enter the cooling and combustion systems. The initial sand chemistry varies by location, but is made up of a calcium aluminum silicate glass, SiO2 low quartz, (Ca,Mg)CO3 dolomite, CaCO3 calcite, and occasionally NaCl rocksalt. The sand reacts in the hot combustion gases and deposits onto the turbine vanes as CaSO4, glass, and various crystalline silicates. Deposits up to 5 mm thick have been collected. Although cooling hole plugging is a considerable problem, excessive corrosion is not commonly observed due to the high melting point of CaSO4.

  1. Fenómenos solares que afectan la atmósfera terrestre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovira, M.

    Se describen los principales fenómenos solares como fulguraciones, prominencias eruptivas, viento solar y eyecciones de masa coronal (CME) que tienen consecuencias en la atmósfera terrestre. En algunos casos el material es eyectado a velocidades superiores a los 900 km/seg y tarda menos de 48 horas en llegar a la Tierra. En general, estos CME no son peligrosos ya que el campo magnético terrestre actúa como protector siendo un aislante efectivo. Si el viento solar es muy intenso puede comprimir la magnetósfera y producir una tormenta geomagnética. En casos extremos, puede interferir la transmisión de potencia eléctrica, perturbar los satélites y producir auroras polares.

  2. [Oropharyngeal dysphagia associated with Chiari I malformation and syringomyelia J].

    PubMed

    Cortés-Medina, Julio César; Cárdenas-Lara, Armando; Guerrero-Rascón, Carlos Alberto; Rodríguez-Bautista, Heber

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la disfagia con afección neurológica constituye un dato clínico significativo en el diagnóstico de lesiones que justifiquen la compresión del tronco cerebral y los nervios craneales bajos. Objetivo: destacar la importancia del estudio de la disfagia en una paciente con malformación de Chiari tipo I y siringomielia, sin síntomas gastroenterológicos primarios. Caso clínico: se comunica el caso de una mujer de 62 años de edad con disfagia orofaríngea de seis años de evolución, cervicobraquialgia, ptosis palpebral y diplejía facial. Conclusiones: el estudio por resonancia magnética constituye un elemento fundamental para establecer el diagnóstico causal de la disfagia neurogénica.

  3. [Endovascular treatment of critical basilar stenosis with a Solitaire® stent device: a first experience in our centre].

    PubMed

    Mulero, Patricia; Cortijo-García, Elisa; Ruiz-Piñero, Marina; Pérez-Fernández, Santiago; Arenillas-Lara, Juan F; Martínez-Galdámez, Mario

    2014-08-01

    Introduccion. Aunque la arterioesclerosis intracraneal es una causa importante de ictus, la actitud terapeutica no esta claramente establecida. En este sentido, el estudio SAMMPRIS comparo el tratamiento medico intensivo con la angioplastia y colocacion de stent, con resultados favorables al tratamiento farmacologico. Estos resultados podrian, en parte, deberse al dispositivo utilizado (stent Wingspan ®). Caso clinico. Varon de 71 años con una estenosis grave de la arteria basilar, en quien se repetian episodios de focalidad neurologica transitoria a pesar del tratamiento con doble antiagregacion y estatinas. En estas circunstancias se decidio realizar una arteriografia terapeutica con angioplastia y colocacion de un stent Solitaire ® para optimizar resultados y se logro una estenosis residual del 40%. La evolucion fue favorable y los controles posteriores muestran una minima progresion. Conclusion. Segun nuestro conocimiento, este es el primer caso publicado de tratamiento de una estenosis critica de la arteria basilar mediante la colocacion de un stent Solitaire ®.

  4. The role and implications of bassanite as a stable precursor phase to gypsum precipitation.

    PubMed

    Van Driessche, A E S; Benning, L G; Rodriguez-Blanco, J D; Ossorio, M; Bots, P; García-Ruiz, J M

    2012-04-06

    Calcium sulfate minerals such as gypsum play important roles in natural and industrial processes, but their precipitation mechanisms remain largely unexplored. We used time-resolved sample quenching and high-resolution microscopy to demonstrate that gypsum forms via a three-stage process: (i) homogeneous precipitation of nanocrystalline hemihydrate bassanite below its predicted solubility, (ii) self-assembly of bassanite into elongated aggregates co-oriented along their c axis, and (iii) transformation into dihydrate gypsum. These findings indicate that a stable nanocrystalline precursor phase can form below its bulk solubility and that in the CaSO(4) system, the self-assembly of nanoparticles plays a crucial role. Understanding why bassanite forms prior to gypsum can lead to more efficient anti-scaling strategies for water desalination and may help to explain the persistence of CaSO(4) phases in regions of low water activity on Mars.

  5. Infratentorial congenital glioblastoma multiforme. A rare tumour with a still unknown biology.

    PubMed

    Salas, S; Agut, T; Rovira, C; Canizo, D; Lavarino, C; Garcia-Alix, A

    2016-11-01

    Introduccion. El glioblastoma multiforme congenito representa solo el 3% de los tumores congenitos del sistema nervioso central, y su ubicacion infrantentorial es excepcional. Caso clinico. Recien nacido con un glioblastoma multiforme congenito sin mutacion en el gen TP53 ni inmunorreactividad nuclear p53, que infiltraba practicamente todo el tronco cerebral e invadia tambien estructuras supratentoriales. Conclusiones. Hasta donde sabemos, solo se han referido previamente cuatro casos de localizacion infratentorial, tres en el cerebelo y uno en el tronco del encefalo. La biologia del glioblastoma multiforme congenito no se conoce bien y, a diferencia del glioblastoma multiforme en la edad adulta, las mutaciones en el gen TP53 son poco frecuentes, sin que eso parezca implicar un mejor pronostico. Estas observaciones sugieren que el glioblastoma multiforme con origen en la vida fetal tiene una biologia diferente del que se presenta en otras etapas de la vida.

  6. [Bilateral cerebellopontine arachnoid cyst].

    PubMed

    Gelabert-Gonzalez, M; Aran-Echabe, E; Pita-Buezas, L

    2016-06-16

    Introduccion. Los quistes aracnoideos bilaterales del angulo pontocerebeloso son excepcionales, y unicamente existen tres casos publicados en la bibliografia. Caso clinico. Niña de 14 años, previamente sana, que acude a consultas por presentar cefalea bifrontal de seis semanas de evolucion. La exploracion clinica era normal y la resonancia magnetica craneal mostraba dos lesiones extraaxiales localizadas en ambos angulos pontocerebelosos, siendo ligeramente mayor la izquierda. Las lesiones se comportaban como homogeneamente intensas en T1 e hiperintensas en T2, no captaban contraste y no existia restriccion en las secuencias de difusion. No se indico tratamiento quirurgico. Conclusiones. Los quistes aracnoideos bilaterales situados en el angulo pontocerebeloso son excepcionales. La principal indicacion para el tratamiento quirurgico es la presencia de sintomas o signos neurologicos coincidentes con la localizacion de los quistes.

  7. Consideraciones acerca del método de los arcos de reducción de datos VLBI astrométricos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Biasi, M. S.; Arias, E. F.

    Con el propósito de construir un marco de referencia cuasi-inercial, desarrollamos un sistema de coordenadas inercial introduciendo un nuevo observable: el arco entre un par de radiofuentes. Este método proveerá una mejor herramienta para el análisis y reducción de observaciones VLBI. También conducirá a una solución en donde se determinarán independientemente los parámetros astrométricos y geodésicos. En este trabajo analizamos el caso ideal de observaciones simultáneas de un par de radiofuentes y el caso más realista de observaciones cuasisimultáneas.

  8. [Idiopathic scrotal elephantiasis. A case report].

    PubMed

    López-Caballero, Ignacio; Sánchez-Ruvalcaba, Itzel; Sánchez-Martinez, Luis Carlos; Hernández-Ordoñez, Octavio; Gómez-Lara, Miguel; Flores-Carrillo, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: el linfedema penoescrotal (también conocido como elefantiasis penoescrotal) es una condición que históricamente se ha descrito en áreas en las que la filariasis es endémica. Caso clínico: presentamos el caso de un hombre de 45 años de edad con linfedema escrotal. Después de descartar las causas adquiridas de linfedema, el paciente fue sometido a escrotectomía, prepuciectomía y reconstrucción escrotal y peneana. Actualmente el paciente se encuentra en seguimiento, sin datos de recidiva. Conclusión: el linfedema penoescrotal puede causar síntomas de debilidad e inmovilidad, así como problemas psicológicos. La cirugía otorga resultados cosméticos y funcionales aceptables.

  9. Primeros resultados sobre el estudio de oscilaciones no radiales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córsico, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    En el Observatorio de La Plata se ha comenzado a elaborar un código de pulsaciones el cual resuelve el problema de las oscilaciones no radiales en el caso adiabático. Dicho código está basado en la técnica de diferencias finitas ampliamente usado en cálculos de estructura y evolución estelar. En este trabajo se presentan los primeros resultados encontrados aplicando el código mencionado al caso de una polítropa de índice n=3. Se presentan los valores de las autofrecuencias y las autofunciones para diferentes modos de pulsación de dicha configuración politrópica. En un futuro próximo, se aplicará este programa al estudio de las pulsaciones no radiales de estrellas enanas blancas.

  10. Petroleum Sludge as gypsum replacement in cement plants: Its Impact on Cement Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benlamoudi, Ali; Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Khodja, Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    Due to high cost of cement manufacturing and the huge amount of resources exhaustion, companies are trying to incorporate alternative raw materials or by-products into cement production so as to produce alternative sustainable cement. Petroleum sludge is a dangerous waste that poses serious imparts on soil and groundwater. Given that this sludge contains a high percentage of anhydrite (CaSO4), which is the main component of gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), it may play the same gypsum role in strength development. In this research, a total replacement of gypsum (100%) has been substituted by petroleum sludge in cement production and has led to an increase of 28.8% in UCS values after 28 curing days. Nevertheless, the burning of this waste has emitted a considerable amount of carbon monoxide (CO) gas that needs to be carefully considered prior to use petroleum sludge within cement plants.

  11. Effect of calcium sulphate nanorods on mechanical properties of chitosan-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) copolymer nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Bari, Sarang S; Mishra, Satyendra

    2017-02-10

    Copolymers of chitosan and hydroxyetheyl methacrylate (HEMA) were successfully synthesized using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as an initiator, via in situ polymerization method, followed by efficacious preparation of their nanocomposites by incorporating calcium sulphate nanorods via solution blending process. Hydrophilicity studies confirmed that grafting of HEMA in the backbone of the hydrophobic chitosan chains induced the improvement in hydrophilicity of chitosan, while mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were also enhanced significantly up to 20%, due to availability of enlarged surface area and higher aspect ratio of CaSO4 nanorods. This was supported by FE-SEM and XRD analysis in terms of proper distribution of nanofiller through the copolymer matrix and corresponding rise in percentage crystallanity respectively. Results obtained from biodegradation studies proved the efficiency of CaSO4 nanofillers to improve biomechanical strength of chitosan nanocomposites, without affecting their normal degradation profile that renders the products to be applicable for biomedical applications.

  12. [LONG-TERM FULMINANT HEPATIC FAILURE IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING GASTRIC BYPASS FOR MORBID OBESITY].

    PubMed

    Mayo Ossorio, M Angeles; Pacheco Garcia, José Manuel; Pérez Gomar, Daniel; Bazán Hinojo, M Del Carmen; Vilchez Lopez, Francisco Javier; Aguilar Diosdad, Manuel; Fernández Serrano, José Luis

    2015-07-01

    La obesidad mórbida es un factor de riesgo para numerosas enfermedades, incluidas las enfermedades hepáticas, siendo la incidencia de esteatosis hepática de un 70 a 80%. Aunque el tratamiento quirúrgico es eficaz en la reducción del peso, sus efectos sobre el hígado no se han establecido convincentemente. Presentamos dos casos de pacientes intervenidas de cirugía bariátrica y que presentaron un fallo hepático fulminante con resultado de muerte. Material y método: caso clínico n.º 1: mujer de 36 años intervenida de obesidad en 1995 con gastroplastia vertical anillada con IMC 52,5 que tras reganancia ponderal posterior se realiza cirugía de revisión en 2009, realizándose by-pass gástrico distal. Caso clínico n.º2: mujer de 42 años intervenida de obesidad en 2009 mediante by-pass gástrico distal con IMC de 51 y colocación de malla profiláctica de composix kugel midline. A los tres años con buena pérdida ponderal presenta absceso de pared por fístula enterocutánea y se interviene quirúrgicamente, extrayendo malla, identificándose dos fístulas en asa alimentaria y común que se extirpan y se realizá nueva anastomosis. Resultados: caso clínico n.º1: a los dos meses de la cirugía de revisión inicia cuadro de vómitos secundarios a estenosis de anastomosis gastroyeyunal que se trata mediante dilatación, y cuadro de ictericia progresiva, ascitis y encefalopatía por fallo hepático fulminante con resultado de muerte. Caso clínico n.º2: en el postoperatorio inmediato inicia incremento del debito del drenaje, así como ascenso de enzimas de citolisis hepática y coagulopatía. Se reinterviene por sospecha de fuga anastomótica y sepsis abdominal, desarrollando fallo hepático fulminante con coagulopatía y encefalopatía que se trata mediante sistema MARS, falleciendo a las cuatro horas de la instauración de la terapia. Conclusiones: si bien las técnicas quirúrgicas actuales de cirugía bariátrica se consideran bastante seguras, se

  13. Soil Amendments to Reduce Bioavailability of Metals in Soils: Experimental Studies and Spectroscopic Verification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    constitutes part of the loss on ignition and perhaps some of the H2O loss. 31 Bulk Powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Analysis Bulk powder...Sample S3a (Figure 46) contains quartz (SiO2), goethite (α-FeOOH), and a poorly crystalline phase. Sample S4a (Figure 46) contains gypsum ( CaSO4 •2H2O...amounts of goethite (α-FeOOH) and gypsum ( CaSO4 •2H2O). Wustite (FeO) and either birnessite [(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4•1.5H2O] or kaolinite [Al2Si2O5(OH)4

  14. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Vales Montero, Marta; Chavarría Cano, Beatriz; Martínez Ginés, María Luisa; Díaz Otero, Fernando; Velázquez Pérez, José Miguel; Cuerda Compes, María Cristina; Bretón Lesmes, Irene

    2016-07-19

    La deficiencia de vitamina A es infrecuente en los países desarrollados. La cirugía bariátrica constituye un factor de riesgo de deficiencia de esta vitamina. Se han descrito varios casos en pacientes sometidos a técnicas con un importante componente malabsortivo, como la derivación biliopancreática. En este artículo se describe un caso de deficiencia clínica de vitamina A con manifestaciones oculares y cutáneas tras bypass gástrico y se revisan las publicaciones sobre este tema y las recomendaciones para la prevención de esta importante complicación.

  15. All Prime Contract Awards by State or Country, Place, and Contractor, FY83, Part 8 (Oologah, Oklahoma-Lone Star, Texas).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    A 3 6 J 1015 6 B J 1 D 131 3 I OFFO 6577 F410-8-:- CASOS B C A 5 2 2 2640 BTD AlS GAS TURBINES AND JET ENGINES S A 3 5 J 1015 5 B J 1 I 43 3 0 OFF30...A 6 3 0 0000 0 J 1 I 48 1 0 CASO ? 3997 DAAS07-82-CI166 B C A 5 2 2 a620 OPT A7 RADIO TV EQUIPMENT EXCEPT Al 8 A 8 3 J 0000 0 J 1 C 658 1 L OAB07 3293...108 IOC 11 DESCRIPTION OF CMDTY/SRVC 2 3 4 5 6 1717 S 9 A 0 1 3 24 9*SSSSS(00) SAN ANTONIO CITY OF FORT SAM HOUSTON TEXAS 756656 2830 44 3 K OJAE7 0140

  16. Encyclopedia of Explosives and Related Items. Volume 7. H2 to Lysol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    88.0(g) " nitrate, Ba(N0 3 )2 98.8 97.7 - - Calcium chloride, CaC12 .6H 2 0 38.0 32.3 - nitrate, Ca(N0 3 ) 2 .4H 20 66 56 51 46 sulfate, CaSO 4 .5H...A12 (S0 4 ) 3 .18H 2 0 See also Refs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 & 7 for further with 48.81% H20, CaSO 4 .2H 2 0 with 20.92% details H2 0 etc, are characteristic...always *8) Sorlini Ing. Antonio , Factory in Ghedi, been considered of very good quality. With the near Brescia (Shell Loading, Compression of exception of

  17. Estructura orbital en el Problema Restringido Rectilíneo Isósceles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, R. B.

    Para definir problemas en Mecánica Celeste se utilizan diferentes parámetros. El conocimiento de la dinámica del problema para valores particulares de estos parámetros nos permite entender el comportamiento en casos más generales. El Problema Restringido Rectilíneo Isósceles puede ser considerado como el caso límite del Problema de Sitnikov cuando la excentricidad tiende a uno o como el Problema Isósceles cuando la masa central tiende a cero. Se ha compactificado el espacio de fases y analizado la dinámica en el límite. Esto ha permitido separar el espacio de fases en diferentes regiones dependiendo de las clases de órbitas.

  18. The Chemistry of Saudi Arabian Sand - A Deposition Problem on Helicopter Turbine Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Archer, Frances A.; Garlick, Ralph G.

    1992-01-01

    Operations in the Persian Gulf have exposed military helicopter turbines to excessive amounts of ingested sand. Fine particles, less than 10 microns, are able to bypass the particle separators and enter the cooling and combustion systems. The initial sand chemistry varies by location, but is made up of a calcium aluminum silicate glass, SiO2 low quartz, (Ca,Mg)CO3 dolomite, CaCO3 calcite, and occasionally NaCl rocksalt. The sand reacts in the hot combustion gases and deposits onto the turbine vanes as CaSO4, glass, and various crystalline silicates. Deposits up to 5 mm thick have been collected. Although cooling hole plugging is a considerable problem, excessive corrosion is not commonly observed due to the high melting point of CaSO4.

  19. Calculating carbon mass balance from unsaturated soil columns treated with CaSO₄₋minerals: test of soil carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Han, Young-Soo; Tokunaga, Tetsu K

    2014-12-01

    Renewed interest in managing C balance in soils is motivated by increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and consequent climate change. Here, experiments were conducted in soil columns to determine C mass balances with and without addition of CaSO4-minerals (anhydrite and gypsum), which were hypothesized to promote soil organic carbon (SOC) retention and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) precipitation as calcite under slightly alkaline conditions. Changes in C contents in three phases (gas, liquid and solid) were measured in unsaturated soil columns tested for one year and comprehensive C mass balances were determined. The tested soil columns had no C inputs, and only C utilization by microbial activity and C transformations were assumed in the C chemistry. The measurements showed that changes in C inventories occurred through two processes, SOC loss and SIC gain. However, the measured SOC losses in the treated columns were lower than their corresponding control columns, indicating that the amendments promoted SOC retention. The SOC losses resulted mostly from microbial respiration and loss of CO2 to the atmosphere rather than from chemical leaching. Microbial oxidation of SOC appears to have been suppressed by increased Ca(2+) and SO4(2)(-) from dissolution of CaSO4 minerals. For the conditions tested, SIC accumulation per m(2) soil area under CaSO4-treatment ranged from 130 to 260 g C m(-1) infiltrated water (20-120 g C m(-1) infiltrated water as net C benefit). These results demonstrate the potential for increasing C sequestration in slightly alkaline soils via CaSO4-treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [CLIPPERS syndrome with atypical distribution of lesions in magnetic resonance imaging of the brain].

    PubMed

    Canneti, Beatrice; Mosqueira, Antonio J; Gilo, Francisco; Carreras, Teresa; Barbosa, Antonio; Meca-Lallana, Virginia; Vivancos, José

    2013-10-16

    Introduccion. El sindrome CLIPPERS (chronic lymphocytic in?ammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids) es un proceso inflamatorio del sistema nervioso central cuyo rasgo distintivo son las lesiones puntiformes en el troncoencefalo captantes en los estudios de resonancia magnetica. Clinicamente, cursa con disartria, ataxia y diplopia, y suele responder a corticoides. Anatomopatologicamente, aparecen infiltrados de linfocitos T en los espacios perivasculares troncoencefalicos. Caso clinico. Mujer de 40 años con cuadro de instauracion subaguda de diplopia binocular, ataxia y disartria. En la resonancia magnetica cerebral presento lesiones puntiformes hipertintensas en secuencia T2 en el tronco, cerebelo, diencefalo y areas cortico-subcorticales bihemisfericas, que realzaron con contraste. Se realizo un estudio etiologico para descartar un origen infeccioso, neoplasico o inflamatorio subyacente, que resulto negativo. La paciente recibio tratamiento en dos ocasiones con metilprednisolona, con descenso progresivo de la dosis, con buena respuesta. Conclusiones. La diplopia y la ataxia, como en nuestro caso, estan presentes practicamente siempre. Los hallazgos en la RM consisten en lesiones captantes puntiformes localizadas en la protuberancia con extension hacia el cerebelo, ganglios basales y cuerpo calloso, con gradiente de captacion menor conforme se alejan rostralmente hacia la corteza, y caudalmente hacia la medula. En el caso de nuestra paciente, este gradiente no se respeta, encontrandose una densidad similar de las lesiones a nivel supratentorial. El diagnostico diferencial es amplio y justifica un estudio diagnostico extenso, y en casos seleccionados la biopsia cerebral. El curso de la enfermedad es remitente-recurrente, y el pronostico mejora cuanto mas precoz y prolongado es el tiempo de corticoterapia.

  1. [Scorpionism causing severe acute flaccid paralysis. Case report].

    PubMed

    Villa-Manzano, Alberto I; Vázquez-Solís, Ma Guadalupe; Zamora-López, Xochitl Xitlalli; Arias-Corona, Fernando; Palomera-Ávila, Francisco Miguel; Pulido-Galaviz, Carlos; Pacifuentes-Orozco, Adán

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el alacranismo es un problema de salud pública en diversas regiones del mundo, siendo México el país que tiene mayor número de casos. Las manifestaciones clínicas oscilan desde sintomatología local hasta cuadros graves con repercusiones a nivel cardiovascular, respiratorio y neurológico, e incluso la muerte. No existen reportes de parálisis flácida como una manifestación del cuadro clínico por picadura del alacrán del género Centruroides, familia Buthidae, especie altamente tóxica, endémica y causante de altos índices de morbimortalidad en nuestra región. Caso clínico: documentamos un caso de alacranismo grave, provocado por escorpión de la familia Buthidae del género Centruroides, que causó parálisis flácida aguda, posterior a resolución de otras manifestaciones severas. Solo existe un reporte de caso de alacranismo que produce parálisis flácida aguda en la literatura médica, pero relacionado con el escorpión de la familia Parabuthus, endémico de Sudáfrica, el cual no es endémico en México. Conclusiones: conocer esta complicación, nueva para nuestra región, permitirá maximizar esfuerzos para diagnosticar y manejar oportunamente esta entidad con la aplicación temprana de faboterápico específico y soporte vital avanzado.

  2. From the Sierra to the Cities: The Urban Campaign of the Shining Path

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    en El Peru: El pensamiento Gonzalo, Brussels, 1989, pp. 43-58, 61-91. See also Carlos Ivan Degregori, "Sendero Luminoso: Los hondos y mortales...desencuentos," in Eduardo Bailon (ed.), Movimientos sociales y crisis: El caso Peruano, Lima, Centro de Estudies y Promoci6n del Desarrollo (DESCO), 1980...Interna- tional Terrorism, the Centro de Estudios y Promoci6n del Desarrollo through its weekly and monthly publications Resumen Semanal and lnformatiuo

  3. Effects of loading concentration, blood and synovial fluid on antibiotic release and anti-biofilm activity of bone cement beads.

    PubMed

    Dusane, Devendra H; Diamond, Scott M; Knecht, Cory S; Farrar, Nicholas R; Peters, Casey W; Howlin, Robert P; Swearingen, Matthew C; Calhoun, Jason H; Plaut, Roger D; Nocera, Tanya M; Granger, Jeffrey F; Stoodley, Paul

    2017-02-28

    Antibiotic loaded cement beads are commonly used for the treatment of biofilm related orthopaedic periprosthetic infections; however the effects of antibiotic loading and exposure of beads to body fluids on release kinetics are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of (i) antibiotic loading density (ii) loading amount (iii) material type and (iv) exposure to body fluids (blood or synovial fluid) on release kinetics and efficacy of antibiotics against planktonic and lawn biofilm bacteria. Short-term release into an agar gel was evaluated using a fluorescent tracer (fluorescein) incorporated in the carrier materials calcium sulfate (CaSO4) and poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA). Different fluorescein concentrations in CaSO4 beads were evaluated. Mechanical properties of fluorescein-incorporated beads were analyzed. Efficacy of the antibiotics vancomycin (VAN) or tobramycin (TOB) alone and in combination was evaluated against lawn biofilms of bioluminescent strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Zones of inhibition of cultures (ZOI) were measured visually and using an in-vivo imaging system (IVIS). The influence of body fluids on release was assessed using CaSO4 beads that contained fluorescein or antibiotics and were pre-coated with human blood or synovial fluid. The spread from the beads followed a square root of time relationship in all cases. The loading concentration had no influence on short-term fluorescein release and pre-coating of beads with body fluids did not affect short-term release or antibacterial activity. Compared to PMMA, CaSO4 had a more rapid short term rate of elution and activity against planktonic and lawn biofilms. This study highlights the importance of considering antibiotic loading and packing density when investigating the clinical application of bone cements for infection management.

  4. Honduran-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-06

    El Tiempo (Honduras), June 30, 2009. 32 “Honduras suspende derechos constitucionales durante toque queda,” Reuters, July 1, 2009. 33 Amnesty... constitucional ,” El Tiempo (Honduras), August 28, 2009. 25 Poder Judicial de Honduras, “Expediente Judicial Relación Documentada Caso Zelaya Rosales...garantías constitucionales ,” El Tiempo (Honduras), September 28, 2009; Elisabeth Malkin & Ginger Thompson, “Honduras Shuts Down 2 Media Outlets, Then

  5. Third-Party Opportunism and the (In)Efficiency of Public Contracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-29

    Cambridge University Press. Iacoviello, M. and M. Tommasi (2002). Diagnóstico institucional de sistemas de servicio civil: caso Argentina. In Diálogo...Savedoff (2000). Oportunismo gubernamental y suministro de agua. In P. T. Spiller and W. D. Savedoff (Eds.), Agua perdida: compromisos institucionales para...el suministro de servicios públicos sanitarios, pp. 1–39. Washington, D.C.: Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo . Spiller, P. T. and M. Tommasi (2007

  6. Spondylotic myelopathy mimicking myelitis: diagnostic clues by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Rua, Adriana; Blanco, Yolanda; Sepúlveda, María; Sola-Valls, Núria; Martínez-Hernández, Eugenia; Llufriu, Sara; Berenguer, Joan; Graus, Francesc; Saiz, Albert

    2015-12-01

    Introduccion. La mielopatia espondilotica es la causa mas frecuente de mielopatia no traumatica. Sus caracteristicas radiologicas en ocasiones son indistinguibles de las de una mielopatia inflamatoria, y pueden ocasionar retrasos diagnosticos o llevar a un diagnostico y tratamiento incorrectos. La descripcion reciente de un patron caracteristico de realce de gadolinio puede ayudar a diferenciar la mielopatia espondilotica de la causa inflamatoria. Casos clinicos. Caso 1: varon de 38 años que consulto por historia de dos años de evolucion de parestesias en las extremidades superiores, a las que se añadieron un año mas tarde calambres en las extremidades derechas y acorchamiento en los dermatomas C5 y C6 en relacion con los movimientos del cuello. Caso 2: varon de 44 años que consulto por historia de un año de evolucion de alteracion progresiva de la marcha con trastorno sensitivo en las manos y disfuncion vesical reciente. En ambos casos, la resonancia magnetica medular mostro en las secciones sagitales una hiperseñal cervical fusiforme en T2, asociada a una banda transversa de realce de gadolinio en forma de barra (pancakelike) justo por debajo de la zona de maxima estenosis, y un realce circunferencial o hemimedular en los cortes axiales. Conclusiones. Las caracteristicas radiologicas de la mielopatia espondilotica pueden parecerse a las de origen inflamatorio. El reconocimiento de un realce transverso en barra inmediatamente por debajo del lugar de maxima compresion como signo radiologico tipico de la mielopatia espondilotica es importante para reducir el riesgo de errores diagnosticos, y de utilidad para el manejo de estos pacientes.

  7. Experimental study of the replacement of calcite by calcium sulphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Putnis, C. V.; Hövelmann, J.; Álvarez-Lloret, P.; Ibáñez-Velasco, A.; Putnis, A.

    2015-05-01

    Among the most relevant mineral replacement reactions are those involving sulphates and carbonates, which have important geological and technological implications. Here it is shown experimentally that during the interaction of calcite (CaCO3) cleavage surfaces with sulphate-bearing acidic solutions, calcite is ultimately replaced by gypsum (CaSO4 2H2O) and anhydrite (CaSO4), depending on the reaction temperature. Observations suggest that this occurs most likely via an interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation reaction, in which the substrate is replaced pseudomorphically by the product. At 120 and 200 °C gypsum and/or bassanite (CaSO4·0.5H2O) form as precursor phases for the thermodynamically stable anhydrite. Salinity promotes the formation of less hydrated precursor phases during the replacement of calcite by anhydrite. The reaction stops before equilibrium with respect to calcite is reached and during the course of the reaction most of the bulk solutions are undersaturated with respect to the precipitating phase(s). A mechanism consisting of the dissolution of small amounts of solid in a thin layer of fluid at the mineral-fluid interface and the subsequent precipitation of the product phase from this layer is in agreement with these observations. PHREEQC simulations performed in the framework of this mechanism highlight the relevance of transport and surface reaction kinetics on the volume change associated with the CaCO3-CaSO4 replacement. Under our experimental conditions, this reaction occurs with a positive volume change, which ultimately results in passivation of the unreacted substrate before calcite attains equilibrium with respect to the bulk solution.

  8. Effects of pH and Salts on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Pea Starch Films.

    PubMed

    Choi, W S; Patel, D; Han, J H

    2016-07-01

    To identify the significant contribution of intermolecular hydrogen bonds of starch molecules to the film structure formation, pH of film-forming solutions was adjusted and also various salts (NaCl, CaCl2 , CaSO4 , and K2 SO4 ) were mixed into the glycerol-plasticized pea starch film. The film made from pH 7 possessed the highest tensile strength-at-break (2 times) and elastic modulus (4 to 15 times) and the lowest elongation-at-break compared with those of the films made from acid and alkali environments. The pH 7 film also has the highest film density and the lowest total soluble matter. At the level of 0.01 to 0.1 M of CaSO4 and 0.1 M of K2 SO4 in a kilogram of starch, the water solubility of the film increased, while chloride salts slightly lowered the solubility. NaCl and CaSO4 reduced water vapor permeability (WVP), while CaCl2 slightly increased WVP at 0.01 and 0.06 M concentrations, and K2 SO4 significantly increased WVP at 0.03 and 0.15 M. Presence of salts increased tensile strength (5 to 14 times than the control films) and elastic modulus (35 to 180 times) of starch film at 0.01 to 0.03 M of CaSO4 and K2 SO4 . Elongation-at-break increased significantly as salt concentration increases to an optimal level. However, when the concentration exceeded above the optimal level, the E of starch films decreased and showed no significant difference from the control film. Overall, the addition of salts modified physical and mechanical properties of pea starch films more than pH adjustment without any salt addition.

  9. Viral Strain Dependent Differences in Experimental Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever (Junin Virus) Infection of Guinea Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    fiebre hemorragica Argentina. 13 Centers for Disease Control: Classification of Medicina, Buenos Aires 39:441 446 (1979). etiological agents on the...casos de fiebre hemorra- Atlanta 1976). gica Argentina. Pensa med. Argentina 56.605 614 14 The Subcommittee on Arbovirus Laborator (1969). Safety of...tardias de la fiebre hemorragica Ar- Biol. Med. 142: 526 531 (1973). gentina. Medicina. Buenos Aires 41:137 145 (1981). 16 Jahrling. P.B.: Smith, S

  10. Uma comparação entre técnicas de propagação de erros em astrofísica: Monte Carlo x Bootstrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waelkens, A. H.; Janot Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Recentemente Dhillon & Watson (2001) criticaram o procedimento de determinação de erros via simulações de Monte Carlo no caso do imageamento indireto de estrelas, por introduzir ruído nos dados e resultar em erros superestimados. Estes autores propuseram a utilização alternativa do método de Bootstrap como uma técnica superior para a estimativa de erros. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados de um estudo comparativo da performance das técnicas de simulação por Monte Carlo e por Bootstrap para a determinação de erros em duas situações de interesse: (i) ajuste de modelos a espectros observados e (ii) imageamento indireto de discos de acréscimo com técnicas de mapeamento por eclipse. No caso (i), os dados de entrada são espectros de emissão simples de hidrogênio aos quais é adicionado ruído gaussiano de amplitude selecionada. No caso (ii), são produzidas curvas de luz do eclipse de uma distribuição de brilho seguindo a lei TµR-3/4 para discos estacionários cuja taxa de acréscimo varia ao longo do eclipse segundo uma distribuição gaussiana de amplitude selecionada, simulando o ruído. A avaliação da performance é feita com o auxílio de um diagrama do erro relativo na grandeza ajustada, conforme obtido por cada método, versus o erro relativo (ruído/sinal) dos dados de entrada. O estudo mostra que as duas técnicas produzem resultados semelhantes nos dois casos, e que a suposta superioridade do método de Bootstrap não se confirma.

  11. [Arteriovenous malformations of the brain: personal experience with 121 patients treated with microsurgery].

    PubMed

    Vilalta, Jordi

    2015-12-01

    Introduccion. Las malformaciones arteriovenosas (MAV) se pueden encontrar en el 0,1% de la poblacion, y la forma de presentacion mas frecuente es la hemorragia intracraneal. Objetivo. Analisis descriptivo de una serie de MAV operadas por un neurocirujano. Pacientes y metodos. De un registro hospitalario se han seleccionado los casos de MAV cerebrales operados por el autor en el periodo 1990-mayo 2014, revisando los aspectos clinicos, demograficos y angiograficos, y los resultados clinicorradiologicos seis meses despues de la cirugia. Resultados. De los 400 pacientes tratados en el mismo periodo, 121 fueron intervenidos por el autor, con una media de edad de 34,3 años (rango: 5-75 años). El 61,7% de los pacientes se diagnostico por una hemorragia cerebral, y la segunda forma de presentacion mas frecuente, el 19,8%, por crisis epilepticas. La localizacion superficial supratentorial, en 97 casos (80,2%), fue la mas frecuente. Mas de la mitad de los enfermos presentaba una MAV de grados bajos, I-II, segun la escala de Spetzler y Martin. Doce pacientes (10%) tenian aneurismas no intranidales asociados. En la mayoria de los casos, 109 (90,1%), se realizo cirugia electiva. La reseccion completa de la MAV despues del ultimo examen angiografico se obtuvo en 118 pacientes (97,5%). Los resultados clinicos fueron buenos (buena recuperacion y moderada incapacidad) en 114 casos (95%), y malos (gran incapacidad y muerte), en seis (5%). Conclusiones. La cirugia para las MAV cerebrales, con un criterio de seleccion apropiado, es la mejor opcion terapeutica para muchos pacientes.

  12. The Chilean Army, Its History, Organization, Regional Environment and Challenges Over the Next 25 Years

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-09

    estadisticas financieras/fpublica.asp 20 See more in Cheyre, Juan Emilio, (actual CINC of the Army) Medidas de Confianza Mutua: Casos de Am6rica...1997, at http://www.defensa.cl Ministerio de Hacienda de Chile, Direcci6n del Presupuesto (Chilean Finance Minister Budget Directorate) Estadisticas de...las finanzas publicas 2000 - 2001 http://www.dipres.cl/ASP/ estadisticas financieras/fpublica.asp Ministerio de Hacienda de Chile, Direcci6n del

  13. [Frontal variant of Alzheimer's disease. Two pathologically confirmed cases and a literature review].

    PubMed

    Herrero-San Martín, Alejandro; Villarejo-Galende, Alberto; Rábano-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Guerrero-Márquez, Carmen; Porta-Etessam, Jesús; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix

    2013-12-16

    Introduccion. La enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA) es la causa mas frecuente de demencia en nuestro medio. En la mayoria de los pacientes, las manifestaciones iniciales consisten en una afectacion selectiva y progresiva de la memoria. Sin embargo, no se trata de un proceso homogeneo y, en algunos casos, el modo de presentacion puede ser atipico. La presentacion de la EA en forma de alteracion precoz de la personalidad, el comportamiento y las funciones ejecutivas se ha denominado variante frontal de la EA. En nuestro caso, su diagnostico definitivo solo fue posible mediante el estudio histologico, pues los criterios clinicos vigentes resultaron entonces insuficientes para el diagnostico de esta forma atipica de la EA. Casos clinicos. Dos pacientes, una mujer y un hombre de 60 y 52 años respectivamente, presentaron un cuadro progresivo de deterioro cognitivo con afectacion inicial de las funciones ejecutivas y cambio de personalidad, junto con alteraciones del estado de animo, por lo que se realizo el diagnostico inicial de probable demencia frontotemporal. No obstante, en ambos casos, la autopsia revelo datos compatibles con el diagnostico de EA, con una distribucion de la patologia que afectaba fundamentalmente a los lobulos frontales. Conclusiones. La EA tiene una forma heterogenea de presentacion, lo que puede originar errores en su diagnostico inicial, dado que los criterios clinicos actuales no recogen de modo suficiente esta variabilidad clinica. Por ello, consideramos importante prestar atencion a las formas atipicas de la EA con el objeto de desarrollar nuevos metodos diagnosticos que permitan diferenciar la EA del resto de procesos degenerativos.

  14. [Intracranial tumor behavior of plasma cell neoplasms. Report of 2 cases and literature review].

    PubMed

    López-Elizalde, Ramiro; Lemus-Rodríguez, Yazmín; Godínez-Rubí, Marisol; Madrigal-Saray, Arturo; Muñoz-Serrano, José Antonio; Velásquez-Santana, Héctor

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: el mieloma múltiple es una neoplasia de células plasmáticas caracterizada por destrucción ósea, insuficiencia renal, anemia e hipercalcemia. Los plasmacitomas de los huesos del cráneo representan menos de 1% de los tumores de cabeza y cuello. Se manifiestan como lesión primaria o secundaria a mieloma múltiple en 20-30%, incluso pueden aparecer varios años después del diagnóstico. Los autores comunicamos dos casos de pacientes mexicanas con lesiones plasmocíticas intracraneales, asociadas con mieloma múltiple.Casos clínicos: el primer caso es el de una paciente de 24 años de edad, con diagnóstico de mieloma múltiple e infiltración ósea que fue extirpado en 90%. Experimentó una recidiva local que requirió otra intervención para su remoción. El segundo caso es el de una mujer de 62 años de edad con un tumor intracraneal de células plasmáticas que se resecó en su totalidad. Ambas recibieron terapia adyuvante con quimio y radioterapia con resultados favorables. Las pacientes fallecieron a los 5 y 1.5 años, respectivamente, por insuficiencia renal como consecuencia de la enfermedad sistémica. Conclusiones: se propone a la quimioterapia y radioterapia como parte esencial del tratamiento de este tumor porque su comportamiento natural agresivo puede complicar la evolución, a pesar de ser accesibles quirúrgicamente.

  15. El efecto de los neutrinos degenerados en la transición de materia nuclear a materia de quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugones, G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Se estudia la transicion de materia nuclear a materia de quarks en presencia de un gas degenerado de neutrinos electrónicos y muónicos. Se muestra que la presencia de los neutrinos hace que las densidades de desconfinamiento de quarks sean notablemente mayores que las encontradas en el caso en que no haya neutrinos presentes. Se discuten las posibles consecuencias de este efecto en explosiones de supernova y evolución de proto estrellas de neutrones.

  16. [Experience in molecular diagnostic in hereditary neuropathies in a pediatric tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ramos, Joaquín A; López-Laso, Eduardo; Camino-León, Rafael; Gascón-Jiménez, Francisco J; Jiménez-González, M Dolores

    2015-12-01

    Introduccion. La enfermedad de Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) es la neuropatia hereditaria sensitivomotora mas frecuente. Avances en el diagnostico molecular han incrementado las posibilidades diagnosticas de estos pacientes. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio retrospectivo de 36 casos pediatricos diagnosticados de CMT en un centro terciario en el periodo 2003-2015. Resultados. Se identificaron 16 pacientes con CMT1A por una duplicacion en PMP22; dos casos se diagnosticaron de neuropatia hereditaria con predisposicion a paralisis por presion, uno de ellos con una mutacion puntual en PMP22; un varon con un fenotipo leve desmielinizante se diagnostico de CMTX1 por mutacion en GJB1; un paciente con una hipotonia paralitica en el nacimiento y un patron axonal por mutacion en MFN2; un paciente de origen rumano se diagnostico de CMT4D por una mutacion en el gen NDRG1; una paciente con una atrofia muscular espinal congenita distal con neuropatia axonal leve asociada por mutacion en el gen TRPV4; tres niñas de una familia consanguinea de etnia gitana se diagnosticaron de CMT axonal con descargas neuromiotonicas por una mutacion en el gen HINT1; 12 pacientes no tienen diagnostico molecular actualmente, cuatro de ellos de etnia gitana. Conclusiones. CMT1A predomino en nuestra serie (44%), como corresponde a la bibliografia. Destacamos la descripcion de una paciente con una mutacion en TRPV4 recientemente descrita como causa de CMT2C y tres casos de una misma familia consanguinea gitana con la misma mutacion en el gen HINT1 recientemente publicada como causa de neuropatia axonal con neuromiotonia autosomica recesiva (AR-CMT2). El porcentaje de casos sin diagnostico molecular es similar al de grandes series europeas.

  17. A Collection of Economic and Social Data from Glitch, a Massively Multiplayer Online Game

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-05

    A Collection of Economic and Social Data from Glitch, a Massively Multiplayer Online Game Peter M. Landwehr March 5, 2013 CMU-ISR-13...massively multiplayer online games (MMOG) - social and cultural model embedding technologies. Additional support was provided by CASOS — the center for...SUBTITLE A Collection of Economic and Social Data from Glitch, a Massively Multiplayer Online Game 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  18. [Immediate response team. 59 cases with obstetric hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Óscar Arturo; Portillo-Durán, Johana; Tamés-Reyeros, José Ángel; Martínez-Chéquer, Juan Carlos; Carranza-Lira, Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la falta de diagnóstico como de tratamiento médico y/o quirúrgico adecuado debido a un equipo ineficiente de trabajo contribuye a la mortalidad asociada a hemorragia obstétrica. El objetivo fue analizar 59 casos en los que se implementó el equipo de respuesta inmediata (ERI) en pacientes con hemorragia obstétrica. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo/prospectivo, observacional, transversal. Se analizaron 59 casos con hemorragia obstétrica y su atención por medio del ERI. Resultados: se captaron 59 pacientes con diagnóstico de hemorragia obstétrica. La media de la edad de las pacientes fue 30.2 ± 6.8 años. El motivo principal que originó la hemorragia obstétrica fue el desprendimiento prematuro de placenta normoinserta seguido por la atonía uterina. El sitio donde más frecuentemente se implementó el ERI fue la sala de expulsión y en 93.2 % de los casos el médico fue quien inicio el ERI. En 71.2 % no fue necesario transfundir paquete globular. Se realizó una cirugía en el 52.5 % de los casos y dos en 28.8 %. El 90.1 % de las mujeres no pasaron a la unidad de cuidados intensivos, 8.5 % ingresó a UCIA y 1.7 % se trasladó. Conclusiones: De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos en este estudio, la aplicación del ERI fue de forma correcta, integrada y uniforme.

  19. [Registry of myocardial infarction in a tertiary hospital of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    PubMed

    González-Pliego, José Angel; Gudiño-Amezcua, Diego Armando; Celis, Alfredo; Gutiérrez-Díaz, Gonzalo Israel

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: dado que el pronóstico de infarto del miocardio con elevación del segmento ST (IMCEST) depende de su manejo inmediato y de las medidas de prevención secundaria, el no seguir las recomendaciones actuales impide mejorar las expectativas de la población afectada por este padecimiento. El objetivo es describir el perfil clínico-epidemiológico y el proceso de atención del IMCEST en un hospital de tercer nivel. Métodos: se analiza la información clínica, la estratificación de riesgo, la terapia de revascularización y los hábitos de prescripción al egreso de los casos con IMCEST atendidos en un año. Resultados: se incluyeron 246 pacientes con edad promedio de 61 años; el 76 % fueron varones. La mayoría (37.3 %) de IMCEST ocurrió entre los 60 y los 69 años. El sedentarismo fue el factor de riesgo predominante. El 81.7 % de los casos tuvo score TIMI de riesgo bajo. El 35 % tuvo isquemia/viabilidad y en todos los cateterizados se demostraron obstrucciones coronarias. El 76 % se revascularizó con stent, principalmente farmacológico (77.5 %). Al egreso más del 90 % de los casos recibió estatina y antiplaquetarios, mientras otras drogas se prescribieron al 64-82 % de los casos. Conclusiones: el IMCEST predomina en hombres sedentarios de la séptima década. Estratificar el riesgo, buscar isquemia/viabilidad residual y revascularizar con stent farmacológico son prácticas comunes; el cumplimiento de recomendaciones basadas en la evidencia es mejor que en el pasado, pero todavía no es óptimo.

  20. Social Network Analysis in Frontier Capital Markets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    their interactions, and the consequences of network activity [Kir10]. Stiglitz and Gallegati [SG11] introduced new heterogeneous agent models to enhance...foster capital market development in countries where social capital can be as important as financial capital. As Stiglitz and Gallegati [SG11] note, “Some...10-27-2011. [ORA] ORA. http://www.casos.cs.cmu.edu/projects/ora/, Accessed 10-05-2011. [SG11] Joseph E Stiglitz and Mauro Gallegati. Heterogeneous

  1. [Diploid/triploid mosaicism: a variable but characteristic phenotype].

    PubMed

    Natera-De Benito, Daniel; Poo, Pilar; Gean, Esther; Vicente-Villa, Asunción; García-Cazorla, Angels; Fons-Estupiña, M Carmen

    2014-08-16

    Introduccion. El mosaicismo diploide/triploide es una alteracion cromosomica poco frecuente. La produce un fallo en la division poscigotica durante el desarrollo embrionario. Da lugar a la coexistencia de dos lineas celulares con diferente constitucion cromosomica (46,XX y 69,XXX) en un mismo individuo. Su fenotipo clinico es caracteristico. Las alteraciones pigmentarias con un patron de distribucion que sigue las lineas de Blaschko son el principal signo guia, asi como las alteraciones de otros tejidos derivados del ectodermo. Casos clinicos. Describimos las caracteristicas clinicas de tres pacientes afectos de mosaicismo diploide/triploide y realizamos una comparacion de su fenotipo clinico con el de los casos publicados previamente en la bibliografia. Las alteraciones observadas con mayor frecuencia fueron alteraciones cutaneas, discapacidad intelectual, obesidad troncular, talla baja, hemihipertrofia, y manos pequeñas y estrechas con clino y camptodactilia. Las caracteristicas fenotipicas de nuestros pacientes fueron similares a las de los casos comunicados previamente. Aunque no existe un fenotipo unico y especifico asociado al mosaicismo diploide/triploide, existen malformaciones caracteristicas que conforman un sindrome malformativo bien definido. El cariotipo realizado en linfocitos de sangre periferica en las tres pacientes fue normal, y se logro el diagnostico mediante cariotipo en fibroblastos cultivados tras biopsia de piel hipopigmentada. Conclusiones. La presencia de discapacidad intelectual asociada a obesidad troncular, talla baja, hemihipertrofia o clino y camptodactilia, ademas de las alteraciones cutaneas, debe hacer pensar en la posible existencia de un mosaicismo diploide/triploide. En la mayoria de los casos, es necesario el estudio del cariotipo en los fibroblastos para llegar al diagnostico.

  2. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition. M-X/MPS (M-X/Multiple Protective Shelter) Environmental Technical Report. Construction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-02

    area is bounded by Roswell , New Mexico on the southwest and Dalhart, Texas on the northeast. Other major cities in the area include Amarillo and...0 .. . . . . . . TEXAS HCNON ROBERTS HEMHIL CASO ULM T "A CONSERR UC ON G R S O R C O R S IE C E 08O pla for A~tRMSTOG 7,ONL C TR i 0 Fifteen

  3. [Arnold-Chiari malformation in Noonan syndrome and other syndromes of the RAS/MAPK pathway].

    PubMed

    Ejarque, Ismael; Millán-Salvador, José M; Oltra, Silvestre; Pesudo-Martínez, José V; Beneyto, Magdalena; Pérez-Aytés, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Introduccion. El sindrome de Noonan (SN) y otros sindromes con fenotipo similar, como LEOPARD, cardiofaciocutaneo, Costello y Legius, estan asociados a mutaciones en genes incluidos en la via RAS/MAPK (rasopatias), una importante via de señalizacion relacionada con la proliferacion celular. El descenso de las amigdalas cerebelares dentro del canal medular cervical, conocido como malformacion de Arnold-Chiari (MAC), se ha descrito en pacientes afectos de SN, lo que ha llevado a sugerir que la MAC podria formar parte del espectro fenotipico del SN. Presentamos dos casos con SN y MAC. Casos clinicos. Caso 1: mujer de 29 años con fenotipo de Noonan. Fue intervenida a los 9 años de estenosis valvular pulmonar. A los 27 años, presento MAC sintomatica que preciso descompresion quirurgica. Presentaba mutacion c.922A>G (N308D) en el gen PTPN perteneciente a la via RAS/MAPK. Caso 2: niña de 10 años con fenotipo de Noonan y MAC asintomatica detectada en resonancia magnetica cerebral. Era portadora de la mutacion c.923A>G (N308S) en el gen PTPN11. Conclusiones. Hemos encontrado en la bibliografia seis pacientes con esta asociacion, cuatro con fenotipo Noonan y dos con LEOPARD. Nuestros dos pacientes aportan evidencia suplementaria a la hipotesis de que la MAC formaria parte del espectro fenotipico del SN. El escaso numero de pacientes publicados con esta asociacion no permite extraer recomendaciones sobre el momento y la frecuencia de estudio de neuroimagen; no obstante, una exploracion neurologica cuidadosa deberia incluirse en la guia anticipatoria de salud en los sindromes de la via RAS/MAPK.

  4. Dosimetric study of thermoluminescent detectors in clinical photon beams using liquid water and PMMA phantoms.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Luciana C; Veneziani, Glauco R; Sakuraba, Roberto K; da Cruz, José C; Campos, Letícia L

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was the dosimetric evaluation of thermoluminescent detectors of calcium sulphate doped with dysprosium (CaSO4:Dy) produced by IPEN compared to the TL response of lithium fluoride doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF:Mg,Ti) dosimeters and microdosimeters produced by Harshaw Chemical Company to clinical photon beams dosimetry (6 and 15 MV) using liquid water and PMMA phantoms.

  5. [New coronavirus infection: new challenges, new legacies].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Gaytán, David Alejandro; Vargas-Valerio, Alfredo; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: emergió una nueva enfermedad por coronavirus. Su historia natural y sus determinantes todavía se están investigando. Se carece de una publicación que estudie todos los casos identificados en el mundo, por lo que el objetivo de este artículo estriba en describir los casos y defunciones por el nuevo coronavirus. Métodos: se revisaron las publicaciones en línea de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, del Centro Europeo para el Control y Prevención de Enfermedades y de la Eurosurveillance. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de los casos, se calcularon los límites para proporciones con un alfa del 0.05 por prueba de Wilson y una prueba t de Student para diferencia de medias. Resultados: son 17 casos confirmados y 11 defunciones en varios países de Asia y Europa; predominaron los pacientes masculinos. La tasa de letalidad fue de 64.70 %; los que fallecieron se hospitalizaron cinco días después de los primeros síntomas. Se carece de publicaciones que describan la historia natural de la enfermedad; sin embargo, lo descrito en las publicaciones de Europa coincide con los resultados de este estudio. Conclusión: es necesario continuar con la vigilancia epidemiológica y la realización de nuevos estudios para evaluar el impacto de esta enfermedad en la salud pública internacional.

  6. Prevalencia de alteraciones en la interfase vitreoretiniana detectadas mediante tomografía de coherencia óptica de dominio espectral.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Julie; Stalmans, Peter

    2017-07-11

    Objetivo: El objetivo principal del presente estudio consistió en determinar la prevalencia de los cambios en la interfase vitreomacular (IVM) mediante tomografía de coherencia óptica (OCT) en la población general. En segundo lugar, se describieron otros cambios de la OCT. Métodos: Las anomalías en la IVM se diagnosticaron mediante OCT y se distribuyeron de acuerdo con la clasificación del grupo International Vitreomacular Traction Study (estudio internacional de tracción vitreomacular, IVTS, por sus siglas en inglés) y se dividieron en 3 grados según John et al. [Retina 2014;34:442-446]. Resultados: La prevalencia calculada de anomalías vitreomaculares en la población belga de ≥50 años fue del 1,17% [intervalo de confianza (IC 0,38-3,62)] en el caso de tracción vitreomacular (TVM) focal de grado 1; del 0,39% (IC 0,05-2,76) en el caso de TVM focal de grado 2; del 8,17% (IC 5,33-12,53) en el caso de adhesión vitreomacular focal; y del 17,9% (IC 13,41-23,9) en el caso de adhesión vitreomacular difusa. Conclusiones: Se presentó la prevalencia de anomalías vitreomaculares en un estudio de cohortes belga. Estos resultados concuerdan en gran medida con los datos presentados previamente sobre la prevalencia de la TVM. Un conocimiento correcto sobre la epidemiología de las alteraciones en la IVM y un diagnóstico temprano permitirán una intervención satisfactoria. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Poly(propylene fumarate)/(calcium sulphate/beta-tricalcium phosphate) composites: preparation, characterization and in vitro degradation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhong-Yu; Yang, De-An; Zhang, Na; Ji, Cheng-Guang; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Tao

    2009-02-01

    This study aimed to prepare a poly(propylene fumarate)/(calcium sulphate/beta-tricalcium phosphate) (PPF/(CaSO(4)/beta-TCP)) composite. We first examined the effects of varying the molecular weight of PPF and the N-vinyl pyrrolidinone (NVP) to PPF ratio on the maximum cross-linking temperature and the composite compressive strength and modulus. Then the in vitro biodegradation behaviour of PPF/(CaSO(4)/beta-TCP) composites was investigated. The effects of varying the molecular weight of PPF, the NVP/PPF ratio and the CaSO(4)/beta-TCP molar ratio on the weight loss and the composite compressive strength and modulus were examined. The cross-linking temperature, which increased with increasing molecular weight of PPF and NVP/PPF ratio, ranged from 41 to 43 degrees C for all formulations. The mechanical properties were increased by a decrease in the NVP/PPF ratio. For all formulations, the compressive strength values fell between 12 and 62 MPa, while the compressive modulus values fell between 290 and 1149 MPa. The weight loss decreased either with increasing molecular weight of PPF or with decreasing NVP/PPF ratio and CaSO(4)/beta-TCP molar ratio during degradation. The compressive strength and modulus increased with decreasing NVP/PPF ratio or decreasing CaSO(4)/beta-TCP ratio. The greatest weight loss over 6 weeks was 14.72%. For all formulations, the compressive modulus values fell between 57 and 712 MPa and the compressive strength fell between 0.5 and 21 MPa throughout 6 weeks degradation. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis of the PPF/(CaSO(4)/beta-TCP) composites demonstrated that hydroxyapatite was deposited on the surface of CaSO(4)/beta-TCP granules during degradation.

  8. [Tropical spastic paraparesis in a non tropical region].

    PubMed

    Pias-Peleteiro, L; Pias-Peleteiro, J M; Arias, M

    2015-10-16

    Introduccion. El virus linfotropo humano de celulas T tipo 1 (HTLV-1) es el agente causal de la paraparesia espastica tropical. Su prevalencia, elevada en determinadas areas tropicales, es baja en Europa y Norteamerica. Casos clinicos. Se describen dos casos de paraparesia espastica tropical en varones naturales y residentes en Galicia. Se realizaron estudios analiticos en la sangre y el liquido cefalorraquideo (LCR), examenes neurofisiologicos y resonancia magnetica craneal y medular. En ambos pacientes, la presentacion clinica fue la de una mielopatia cronica, con cuadro torpido y progresivo que evoluciono a paraparesia espastica. Un paciente desarrollo uveitis antes de la clinica neurologica. En los dos casos, el estudio del LCR demostro leve pleocitosis linfoide, ligera hiperproteinorraquia, bandas oligoclonales negativas y anticuerpos anti-HTLV-1 positivos. La reaccion en cadena de la polimerasa para HTLV-1 resulto positiva en ambos casos. La resonancia magnetica raquidea resulto normal en un paciente y mostro en el otro hiperseñal medular dorsal, que desaparecio tras el tratamiento. No se demostraron datos de polineuropatia periferica. Recibieron corticoides e interferon alfa, con leve mejoria y estabilizacion del cuadro clinico. La anamnesis dirigida revelo antecedentes de contactos sexuales de riesgo en regiones endemicas de HTLV-1. Conclusiones. La uveitis asociada a HTLV-1 podria ser predictora de paraparesia espastica tropical. Esta es probablemente una entidad infradiagnosticada (alto porcentaje de portadores asintomaticos, clinica insidiosa y bajo indice de sospecha en areas no endemicas). Debe considerarse su diagnostico en zonas no tropicales que reciben inmigrantes de areas endemicas y tambien en regiones con una tradicional emigracion a regiones tropicales.

  9. [Prevalence and implicated risk factors associated with the exteriorization of cardiac pacemakers: 5 year follow-up].

    PubMed

    Argüello-Hurtado, Marco; Guevara-Valdivia, Milton Ernesto; Aranda-Ayala, Zulema Lisbeth; Hernández-Lara, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: el objetivo de este estudio es establecer la prevalencia y determinar la frecuencia de factores de riesgo de exteriorización de marcapasos definitivos (MPD), en el departamento de Electrofisiología Cardiaca de la UMAE Hospital de Especialidades "Dr. Antonio Fraga Mouret" del Centro Médico Nacional La Raza del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social.Métodos: se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal, descriptivo del periodo: septiembre del 2005 a septiembre del 2010, para el análisis de los factores se manejó como casos y controles; se eligieron emparejándose por edad, sexo y presencia, o no, de factores de riesgo. Se realizó el cálculo de medidas de tendencia central (media, mediana y moda), así como pruebas de chi cuadrada, test de Fisher y razón de momios.Resultados: se implantaron 3192 MPD, identificando 83 casos de exteriorizaciones, seleccionando 43 casos para casos y controles, la edad promedio fue de 71 años. Ninguno de los factores de riesgo ni el tipo de técnica quirúrgica presentó significancia estadística.Conclusiones: nuestra prevalencia de exteriorizaciones es del 2.6 %, valores muy similares a los reportes publicados. Ninguno de los factores de riesgo descritos se encuentra presente como causa de exteriorización en nuestra población. El análisis de la técnica quirúrgica utilizada puede ser un factor importante, por lo que se necesitan estudios posteriores.

  10. ORA User’s Guide 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    http://www.casos.ece.cmu.edu/projects/ORA/index.html. 1 This work was supported by the ONR N00014...ORA User’s Guide 2007 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK ...system. The ORA help set is organized into the following top-level folders: The Main Interface The Main Interface is the area for working with

  11. [Hemicrania continua and paroxysmal hemicrania: clinical and therapeutic characteristics in a series of 23 patients].

    PubMed

    Benítez-Rivero, Sonia; González-Oria, Carmen; Gómez-Caravaca, Teresa; Bernal Sánchez-Arjona, María; Jiménez-Hernández, M Dolores

    2014-10-16

    Introduccion. Las hemicraneas son cefaleas raras caracterizadas por dolor estrictamente unilateral, bien como una cefalea continua, aunque fluctuante, en la hemicranea continua (HC), o en forma de ataques recurrentes en la hemicranea paroxistica (HP). En ambos tipos de cefalea se describe una respuesta absoluta a la indometacina. Objetivo. Analizar el cumplimiento de los criterios diagnosticos actuales para HC y HP, y la reciente introduccion de la HC en el grupo de las cefaleas trigeminoautonomicas. Pacientes y metodos. Evaluamos retrospectivamente las caracteristicas clinicas y terapeuticas de pacientes diagnosticados de HC o HP. Incluimos informacion demografica, sintomatologia, escala analogica de dolor y respuesta a la indometacina. Resultados. Evaluamos una muestra de 12 pacientes con HC (cuatro hombres y ocho mujeres) de un total de 520 casos (2,3%). Edad media de inicio: 47,1 ± 16,4 años. Intensidad de dolor basal: 3,3 ± 1,9. Exacerbaciones: 9,2 ± 1,1. Ocho casos (66,7%) presentaban sintomas autonomicos, cuatro (33,3%) tenian patron horario y dos (16,7%) no respondieron a la indometacina. Evaluamos una muestra de 11 pacientes con HP (100% mujeres) de 520 casos (2,1%). Edad media de inicio: 37,0 ± 13,9 años. Intensidad de dolor: 8,7 ± 2,7. Nueve casos (81,8%) presentaban sintomas autonomicos, tres (27,3%) tenian patron horario y uno (9,1%) no respondio a la indometacina. Conclusiones. Las hemicraneas son diagnosticos infrecuentes en consultas de cefalea. Su diagnostico requiere el cumplimiento de unos criterios que a veces no se cumplen en su totalidad. Pensamos que se precisa una revision de los criterios y apoyamos que la HC se haya introducido recientemente en el grupo de las cefaleas trigeminoautonomicas.

  12. Intraosseous Erythropoietin for Acute Tissue Protection in Battlefield Casualties Suffering Hypovolemic Shock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Care Medicine 32nd Critical Care Congress, February 1, San Antonio , TX. NHE-1 Inhibition Enhances the Pressor Responses to Epinephrine and Vasopressin...32nd Critical Care Congress, February 1, San Antonio , TX. Inhibition of the sodium-hydrogen exchanger isoform-1 (NHE-1) ameliorates reperfusion...Noviembre 1983. 2. Gazmuri RJ, Lobos T, Valdés S. [ARDS associated with elevated Mycoplasma Pneumoniae titers]: Caso clínico. XVII Congreso Chileno

  13. Transnational Organized Crime, Terrorism, and Criminalized States in Latin America: An Emerging Tier-One National Security Priority

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Network of Terror, New York: Broadway Books, 2004. 6. For a detailed look at this development, see Antonio L. Mazzitelli, “The New Transatlantic...See Antonio Mazzitelli, “The Drug Trade: Africa’s Expanding Role,” United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, presentation at the Woodrow Wilson Center...Verdad: Caso Angostura” (“Report of the Commission on Transparency and Truth: The Angostura Case”), December 10, 2009, available from www.scribd.com/doc

  14. A Preferred Spare Decision Support System Incorporating a Life Cycle Cost Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    LCC Model ... ........ 41 Validation of the CASO Models ...... 41 Evaluation of the Model Equations. 42 Acquisition Cost. ........... 42 System...The ALCs are located at Oklahoma City, Ogden, San Antonio , Sacramento, and Warner Robins. Each ALC specializes in maintaining different aircraft and...September 1987 and February 1988 at HQ AFLC, Warner Robins, Oklahoma City, and San Antonio ALCs revealed a problem implementing the preferred spares

  15. Separate and Unequal: Race Relations in the AAF During World War 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    screened and very capable. Later, when the school moved to San Antonio and Maxwell Field, it was reported that blacks were well treated and received a...and 30 ASWAAF. In addition, the OCS at San Antonio began sending eight more graduates each month. The situation at Tuskegee was most frustrating for...Revised by Adolph Caso ]. The Tuskegee Airmen: The Men Who Changed a Nation. Boston, Mass.: Branden Publishing Co., 1997 (originally published 1955

  16. History of the KC-10A Aircraft Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    operations management) at St. Mary’s University of San Antonio , Texas. He has attended the Squadron Officer School, the Air Command and Staff College...tor, of tht- flr..t airc-.aft, and fir.;t. flight by April 19 F .; .ir0. ll tri..t ngL, be cornL,!,-tedi by 31 Octobber 1980. The co1tr1.;t Caso !ljkd

  17. Proceedings of Annual Acquisition Research Symposium (7th), Hershey, Pennsylvania, 31 May-2 Jun 1978

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    caso arante most reuo.mant ara of contractor the odattzaton it chante were aais Government requir ments for response, s delopment proram planning an...TOLERANCE AN~ALYSIS CAPAIJILItY Captain George M. Marton, San Antonio Air Logistics Center First Lioulginant H. Nd. Anstins, San Antonio Air...to engineers at San Antonio Air Logistics Center on three During Phase Two a comprehensive master plan occasions. for implementation of the

  18. Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-22

    Comunicado de Prensa, “Extradición de Manuel Antonio Noriega por el caso Giroldi,” January 12, 2011. Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and...regime of General Manuel Antonio Noriega from power. The intervention was the culmination of two and a half years of strong U.S. pressure against the...Panamanian court agreed to try eight former members of the National Guard, including former Manuel Antonio Noriega, for alleged involvement in the

  19. Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota. 2004-2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    this information was taken from: http://www.ca.blm.gov/ caso /wf-ultimate.html. The following guidelines should be followed when observing animals...Director,•Corisultif1g Operations Planning • Environment • Engineering • Management San Antonio Program Office: 8610 N. New Braunfels. Suite 606...San Antonio , TX 78217-6359 Web: www.jmwaller.com 210-822-8006 Fax: 210-826-7291 Email: jmwa.san@jmwaller.com STAFF SUMMARY SHEET PHONE 319 CES

  20. Surface-Water Quality Assessment of the North Fork Red River Basin Upstream From Lake Altus, Oklahoma, 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    from Lake Altus, Oklahoma, 2002 CaSO (gypsum, anhydrite) 4 CaCO CaMg(CO ) ( dolomite) 3 3 2 calcite, NaCl (halite) NaHCO3 CALCIUM CHLORIDE SU LF AT E PL...Water Resources Engineering, August 16-17, 1995, San Antonio , Texas: American Society of Civil Engineers, p. 77- 86. Wilde, F.D., and Radtke, D.B., eds

  1. Solar Energy Development on Department of Defense Installations in the Mojave and Colorado Deserts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    109 BLM. (2006). California Desert Conservation Area. Retrieved from http://www.blm.gov/pgdata/etc/medialib/blm/ca/pdf/ caso /publications.Par...rebates.php. Goldsmith, Wendi. (2011). Energy Generation. Presentation at ADC Winter Forum, February 14-16, 2011, San Antonio , Texas. Retrieved from... Antonio , Texas. Retrieved from http://www.defensecommunities.org/programs-services/2011-winter-forum/conference- presentations/. Solar Energy Development

  2. [Oral squamous cell carcinoma and lichen planus vs. lichenoid lesions. Case report].

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Pedraza, Lilly; Fernández-Cuevas, Laura; Ruelas-Villavicencio, Ana Lilia; Guerrero-Ramos, Brenda; Hernández-Salazar, Amparo; Milke-García, María Pilar; Méndez-Flores, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el desarrollo de carcinoma escamocelular a partir del liquen plano bucal es controversial. Describimos un caso con carcinoma escamocelular intrabucal, que cursa con lesiones de liquen plano bucal y se analizan las dificultades para distinguir los cambios incipientes del carcinoma escamocelular de las lesiones por liquen plano intrabucales que lleven a establecer un diagnóstico certero de ambas entidades. Caso clínico: hombre de 57 años, con antecedente de tabaquismo y hábito alcohólico crónico, que presenta lesión tumoral ulcerada en borde lateral izquierdo de lengua y placas blancas reticulares bilaterales en mucosa yugal, bordes laterales y vientre de lengua. El reporte histopatológico fue de carcinoma escamocelular invasor moderadamente diferenciado y liquen plano respectivamente. Conclusiones: la naturaleza premaligna del liquen plano bucal es controvertida, esto por inconsistencia en los criterios diagnóstico clínicos e histológicos que permitan diferenciar los casos de liquen plano bucal de otras lesiones como las reacciones liquenoides o displasias intraepiteliales con alto potencial de malignización. Posiblemente las reacciones liquenoides bucales tienen un mayor riesgo de transformación maligna al compararse con el clásico liquen plano bucal.

  3. [First case described of isolated, complete and fluctuating cranial nerve III palsy heralding multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    León-Ruiz, Moisés; Benito-León, Julián; Sierra-Hidalgo, Fernando; García-Soldevilla, Miguel Ángel; Izquierdo-Esteban, Laura; Tejeiro-Martínez, José; Cabrera-Valdivia, Francisco; García-Albea Ristol, Esteban

    2015-02-01

    Introduccion. El mieloma multiple es la neoplasia de celulas plasmaticas mas frecuente. Al ser incurable, el tratamiento persigue obtener el mayor tiempo de supervivencia libre de clinica. Constituye una causa extremadamente rara de afectacion de los nervios craneales y es producido habitualmente por un plasmocitoma intracraneal. Presentamos un caso de mieloma multiple, que asociaba un plasmocitoma intracraneal y que comenzo clinicamente con paralisis aislada, completa y fluctuante del III nervio craneal. Caso clinico. Mujer de 63 años que acudio a urgencias por presentar un cuadro clinico oscilante, consistente en diplopia binocular horizontal y, posteriormente, cefalea. La exploracion neurooftalmologica revelo una paralisis completa del III nervio craneal derecho. Se solicito una tomografia axial computarizada craneal urgente, que revelo multiples lesiones osteoliticas diploicas, asociando una de ellas componente de partes blandas en la hendidura esfenoidal derecha. La paciente fue ingresada, y se le diagnostico posteriormente un mieloma multiple IgA-kappa. Tras recibir induccion quimioterapica y ser sometida a un trasplante autologo de progenitores hematopoyeticos, alcanzo la remision completa. Conclusiones. El mieloma multiple es un trastorno raro de los nervios craneales, una causa muy infrecuente de paralisis aislada y completa del III nervio craneal y menos aun fluctuante, y no se ha encontrado ningun caso publicado con este inicio clinico. Tener en cuenta las posibles manifestaciones neurooftalmologicas del mieloma multiple puede contribuir a un diagnostico precoz y a una incidencia positiva sobre el curso de esta enfermedad.

  4. [Lung eosinophilic syndrome: clinical presentation and cases report].

    PubMed

    Egea, N; Merlo, A; Esponda, L; Cazaux, A; Cambursano, V H; Cortés, J R

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de eosinofilia pulmonar se caracteriza por un grupo de patologías que presentan afección clínico – radiológica pulmonar con eosinofilia periférica o en parénquima pulmonar en su evolución. Materiales y métodos: Se describen las características de presentaciones clínico-radiológicas y evolutivas de pacientes atendidos entre 2007 y 2010 en Hospital Rawson. Resultados: Sobre 8 casos, se observó mayor número de casos en mujeres. Los signos y síntomas principales fueron tos, disnea, fiebre y sibilancias. Los hallazgos radiológicos más prevalentes fueron patrón alveolar y alveolointersticial. En la TAC el más frecuente fue el patrón en vidrio esmerilado. La eosinofilia periférica presentó valores entre 550 y 10.000 cel/mm3. Los pacientes fueron abdordados inicialmente como neumonía adquirida en la comunidad en el 62% de los casos. Los diagnósticos principales realizados fueron neumonía eosinofílica aguda y crónica, ambas con respuesta a esteroides. Conclusiones: El síndrome de eosinofilias pulmonares comparte características clínico-radiológicas comunes con entidades de mayor prevalencia, particularmente NAC.

  5. Remisión de aneurisma luego de exéresis de MAV con aparición de síndrome del acento extranjero

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, Fidel; Bustamante, Jorge; Rodríguez, Facundo; Argañaraz, Romina; Rubino, Pablo; Lambre, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Resumen Introducción: Los aneurismas asociados a malformaciones arteriovenosas (MAV) son lesiones vasculares que suelen encontrarse hasta en el 15% de los casos, incrementando el riesgo global de hemorragia. La conducta frente a los aneurismas asociados es dicotómica en la literatura, mientras existen reportes de la desaparición de los mismos luego de la exéresis de la MAV, otros artículos enfatizan su tratamiento precoz. El síndrome del acento extranjero es un raro trastorno neurológico en el que el paciente habla su lengua materna como lo haría una persona extranjera y suena con “acento” extranjero a oídos de los oyentes nativos. Objetivo: Presentar un paciente que desarrolla el síndrome del acento extranjero posterior a la exéresis de una MAV y la evolución de un aneurisma asociado. Presentación de caso: Paciente pediátrico que luego de la exéresis de una MAV fronto-opercular posterior izquierda remite por completo un aneurisma de hiperflujo asociado, presentando en el postquirúrgico el síndrome del acento extranjero. Conclusión: Queda reportado el caso de este raro síndrome y la resolución espontánea de un aneurisma proximal luego de la exéresis de una MAV. PMID:28480115

  6. Effect of Calcium Sulphate Nanoparticles on Fusion, Mechanical and Thermal Behaviour Polyvinyl Chloride (pvc)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, C. B.; Shisode, P. S.; Kapadi, U. R.; Hundiwale, D. G.; Mahulikar, P. P.

    Calcium Sulphate [CaSO4] was synthesized by in-situ deposition technique and its nano size (60 to 100 nm) was confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Composites of the filler CaSO4 (micro and nano) and the matrix poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) were prepared with different filler loading (0-5 wt. %) by melt mixing. The Brabender torque rheometer equipped with an internal mixer was used for preparation and evaluation of fusion behaviour of composites of different formulations. The effect of nano and micro-CaSO4 content on the structure and properties of composites was studied. The nanostructures and dispersion were studied by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical and thermal properties of PVC/ micro and nano-CaSO4 composites were characterized using Universal Testing Machine (UTM) and Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA). From the results of WAXD and SEM the flocculation of CaSO4 nanoparticles were observed on the surfaces of PVC matrix. The thermal analysis results showed that the first thermal degradation onset (T onset) of PVC/nano-CaSO4 composites for 1 wt. % of filler were higher as compared with corresponding microcomposites and pristine PVC. However, the tensile strength was decreasing with increasing filler content while, it shows increment in magnitude at 1 and 2 wt. % of nano-CaSO4 as compared with corresponding micro-CaSO4 as well as pristine PVC.

  7. Chemical compositions of sulfate and chloride salts over the last termination reconstructed from the Dome Fuji ice core, inland Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyabu, Ikumi; Iizuka, Yoshinori; Uemura, Ryu; Miyake, Takayuki; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Motoyama, Hideaki; Sakurai, Toshimitsu; Suzuki, Toshitaka; Hondoh, Takeo

    2014-12-01

    The flux and chemical composition of aerosols impact the climate. Antarctic ice cores preserve the record of past atmospheric aerosols, providing useful information about past atmospheric environments. However, few studies have directly measured the chemical composition of aerosol particles preserved in ice cores. Here we present the chemical compositions of sulfate and chloride salts from aerosol particles in the Dome Fuji ice core. The analysis method involves ice sublimation, and the period covers the last termination, 25.0-11.0 thousand years before present (kyr B.P.), with a 350 year resolution. The major components of the soluble particles are CaSO4, Na2SO4, and NaCl. The dominant sulfate salt changes at 16.8 kyr B.P. from CaSO4, a glacial type, to Na2SO4, an interglacial type. The sulfate salt flux (CaSO4 plus Na2SO4) inversely correlates with δ18O in Dome Fuji over millennial timescales. This correlation is consistent with the idea that sulfate salt aerosols contributed to the last deglacial warming of inland Antarctica by reducing the aerosol indirect effect. Between 16.3 and 11.0 kyr B.P., the presence of NaCl suggests that winter atmospheric aerosols are preserved. A high NaCl/Na2SO4 fraction between 12.3 and 11.0 kyr B.P. indicates that the contribution from the transport of winter atmospheric aerosols increased during this period.

  8. [Fibromatosis breast in the male. Case study].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Atienza, Virginia; Manzanares-Campillo, María Del Carmen; Sánchez-García, Susana; Pardo-García, Ricardo; Martín-Fernández, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: la fibromatosis mamaria es una enfermedad rara; sus casos son 0.2% de las neoplasias de mama, y en los varones es aún más rara. El diagnóstico definitivo es anatomopatológico. Caso clínico: se comunica el caso de un varón de 52 años, con diagnóstico anatomopatológico de fibromatosis mamaria posterior al estudio de un tumor en la mama derecha. Se le practicó exéresis con amplios márgenes, luego mastectomía subcutánea, con estudio histológico de fibromatosis con márgenes libres. El postoperatorio transcurrió sin complicaciones y no requirió tratamiento coadyuvante. En el seguimiento a seis meses continuaba libre de enfermedad. El tratamiento de elección es la escisión con amplios márgenes y el oncológico coadyuvante es motivo de controversia. Conclusiones: la fibromatosis en la mama es poco frecuente y su aparición en el varón excepcional. El tratamiento quirúrgico es el definitivo, no así la terapia oncológica neoadyuvante que sigue suscitando controversia.

  9. [Pulmonary carcinomatous lymphangitis: presentation as acute pneumopathy. Report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Ré, D P; Cazaux, A; Cambursano, V H; Zaya, A; Cortez, J R

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La linfangitis carcinomatosa(LC) representa el 6-8% de las metástasis pulmonares. Existe evidencia de que puede ser una condición oncológicamente tratable, con impacto sobre la progresión de la disnea y lesiones radiológicas, con mejoría de la sobrevida. Se describen dos casos con el objetivo de inducir la sospecha de esta entidad ante un paciente con datos de neumopatía aguda. Métodos: Caso 1: mujer 32 años, disnea progresiva y tos de dos semanas de evolución sin respuesta a antibióticos. Taquipnea, aumento del trabajo respiratorio, crepitantes bibasales. Insuficiencia respiratoria. Radiografía: radiopacidadalvéolointersticialbibasal. Se inicia tratamiento para neumonía grave de la comunidad. Evoluciona desfavorablemente con requerimiento de ARM y desenlace fatal. Caso 2: mujer 46 años, disnea progresiva y tos de una semana de evolución. Taquipnea, subcrepitantes difusos.Insuficiencia respiratoria. Radiografía: radiopacidadintersticionodulillar difusa, con imagen radiopaca homogénea en vértice derecho.

  10. [Rosai-Dorfman disease presented with involvement of the adrenal gland. A clinical case reported].

    PubMed

    Flores-Carrillo, Víctor Manuel; Santaella-Torres, Félix; Sánchez-Martínez, Luis Carlos; Gómez-Lara, Miguel Humberto; Arellano-Poblete, Moisés; López Segura-Rueda, Eduardo; Villarroel-Noboa, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la afectación extranodal de la glándula suprarrenal es una forma infrecuente de la histiocitosis sinusal con linfadenopatía masiva o enfermedad de Rosai-Dorfman. Aún se desconoce la etiopatogenia de esta enfermedad. Los síntomas y signos de presentación en la afectación adrenal son inciertos. Aunque es una enfermedad de buen pronóstico y curso clínico favorable, el bajo índice de sospecha y el difícil diagnóstico radiológico diferencial llevan a tratamiento radical en la mayoría de los casos. CASO CLÍNICO: se describe el caso de una paciente con enfermedad de Rosai-Dorfman en quien se identificó tumor adrenal derecho de 97 × 99 × 68 mm y tumor nodal infrahiliar izquierdo de 61 × 58 × 57 mm. El tratamiento incluyó adrenalectomía y vigilancia activa del tumor infrahilial mediante tomografía y gammagrama renal. La evolución de la paciente fue adecuada.

  11. Electrochemical mineral scale prevention and removal on electrically conducting carbon nanotube--polyamide reverse osmosis membranes.

    PubMed

    Duan, Wenyan; Dudchenko, Alexander; Mende, Elizabeth; Flyer, Celeste; Zhu, Xiaobo; Jassby, David

    2014-05-01

    The electrochemical prevention and removal of CaSO4 and CaCO3 mineral scales on electrically conducting carbon nanotube - polyamide reverse osmosis membrane was investigated. Different electrical potentials were applied to the membrane surface while filtering model scaling solutions with high saturation indices. Scaling progression was monitored through flux measurements. CaCO3 scale was efficiently removed from the membrane surface through the intermittent application of a 2.5 V potential to the membrane surface, when the membrane acted as an anode. Water oxidation at the anode, which led to proton formation, resulted in the dissolution of deposited CaCO3 crystals. CaSO4 scale formation was significantly retarded through the continuous application of 1.5 V DC to the membrane surface, when the membrane was operated as an anode. The continuous application of a sufficient electrical potential to the membrane surface leads to the formation of a thick layer of counter-ions along the membrane surface that pushed CaSO4 crystal formation away from the membrane surface, allowing the formed crystals to be carried away by the cross-flow. We developed a simple model, based on a modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation, which qualitatively explained our observed experimental results.

  12. Study of thermochemical sulfate reduction mechanism using compound specific sulfur isotope analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meshoulam, Alexander; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Ahmad, Ward Said; Deev, Andrei; Sessions, Alex L.; Tang, Yongchun; Adkins, Jess F.; Liu, Jinzhong; Gilhooly, William P.; Aizenshtat, Zeev; Amrani, Alon

    2016-01-01

    Experiments involving sparingly soluble CaSO4 show that during the second catalytic phase of TSR the rate of sulfate reduction exceeds that of sulfate dissolution. In this case, there is no apparent isotopic fractionation between source sulfate and generated H2S, as all of the available sulfate is effectively reduced at all reaction times. When CaSO4 is replaced with fully soluble Na2SO4, sulfate dissolution is no longer rate limiting and significant S-isotopic fractionation is observed. This supports the notion that CaSO4dissolution can lead to the apparent lack of fractionation between H2S and sulfate produced by TSR in nature. The S-isotopic composition of individual OSCs record information related to geochemical reactions that cannot be discerned from the δ34S values obtained from bulk phases such as H2S, oil, and sulfate minerals, and provide important mechanistic details about the overall TSR process.

  13. [Effects of desulfurization waste on calcium distribution, Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, and antioxidant characteristics of rice leaf under alkali stress].

    PubMed

    Mao, Gui-Lian; Xu, Xing; Zeng, Jin; Yue, Zi-Hui; Yang, Shu-Juan

    2012-02-01

    To approach the action mechanisms of desulfurization waste on alleviating alkali stress-induced injury of rice, a pot experiment was conducted to study the variations of leaf total calcium content, calcium distribution, plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, and reactive oxygen content of rice seedlings under alkali stress after the application of desulfurization waste. In the control, a few calcium particulates scattered in the cell wall and chloroplasts, while applying desulfurization waste or CaSO4 increased the calcium particulates in the plasma membrane, intercellular space, cell wall, and vacuole significantly. With the increasing application rate of desulfurization waste or CaSO4, the leaf total calcium content increased, Ca(2+)-ATPase activity in plasma membrane and tonoplast presented an increasing trend, plasma membrane relative permeability, MDA content, and O2 production rate decreased, and SOD and POD activities increased. The desulfurization waste could relieve the alkali stress to rice in some extent, and the main reactive compound in the waste could be CaSO4.

  14. [Clinical features of Zika virus].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Gaytán, David Alejandro; Galván-Hernández, Stephanie Anaid

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el virus Zika se ha introducido al país y amenaza en propagarse, por lo que el personal de salud se enfrentará a la necesidad de identificar la enfermedad dada una definición operacional de caso; en esta revisión se describen las manifestaciones clínicas de casos probables de Zika de los últimos cinco años. Métodos: se realizó una búsqueda en Google Académico y PubMed con la palabra “Zika”. Se conformó una base de datos, se obtuvieron frecuencias simples y se calcularon los límites para proporciones con un alfa del 0.05 por medio de prueba de Wilson. Resultados: se conjuntaron 109 casos probables de fiebre por Zika, las manifestaciones clínicas fueron heterogéneas, con predominio de afectación a nivel musculoesquelético, dermatológico y sistémico. Conclusiones: es necesario continuar la documentación de las manifestaciones clínicas del virus Zika, que se logrará mediante el fortalecimiento de la vigilancia epidemiológica.

  15. [RIT1: a novel gene associated with Noonan syndrome].

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Carrera, I; Solo de Zaldivar-Tristancho, M; Martin-Fernandez, R; Vera-Torres, M; Gonzalez de Buitrago-Amigo, J F; Botet-Rodriguez, J

    2016-10-16

    Introduccion. El sindrome de Noonan es el mas frecuente del grupo de los sindromes malformativos congenitos originados por mutaciones germinales en genes de la via RAS/MAPK, denominados genericamente RAS-opatias, uno de los grupos mas comunes de alteraciones geneticas congenitas en la practica clinica. Recientemente se han descrito mutaciones en el gen RIT1 en pacientes con sindrome de Noonan. Caso clinico. Nina de 7 anos con diagnostico clinico de sindrome de Noonan, que entre sus manifestaciones clinicas incluye miocardiopatia hipertrofica, en la que se ha identificado una mutacion de novo en heterocigosis, en RIT1, c.295T>C (p.Phe99Leu), no descrita previamente, probablemente causal. Conclusiones. RIT1 comparte homologia con otras proteinas RAS y la expresion de alelos mutantes origina un efecto de ganancia de funcion que apoya su papel causal en el sindrome de Noonan. Podemos estimar actualmente que es responsable de un 3-5% de los casos del sindrome. Estos casos con sindrome de Noonan, respecto a los que presentan mutaciones en otros genes, se caracterizan por una mayor frecuencia de alteraciones prenatales, alta frecuencia de miocardiopatia hipertrofica y menor frecuencia de talla baja y deformidad toracica. Destaca la importancia de incorporar los nuevos genes identificados en los paneles diagnosticos.

  16. [Familial microepidemic of food-borne botulism in the Region of Madrid].

    PubMed

    Jalda, D; Junco, A; Alvarez-Moreno, M; Rodero, I; Carneado-Ruiz, J

    2016-07-01

    Introduccion. El botulismo es un sindrome causado por la toxina del bacilo Clostridium botulinum. La toxina actua bloqueando las terminaciones colinergicas presinapticas de la placa motora y del sistema nervioso parasimpatico, y ocasiona una paralisis flacida y un fallo parasimpatico. El modo mas habitual de adquisicion de la enfermedad es por ingesta de toxina preformada presente en las conservas caseras mal esterilizadas, aunque otros mecanismos son posibles. Su incidencia actual en Espana es muy baja. Casos clinicos. Se describen tres miembros convivientes de una familia que presentaron un cuadro de botulismo alimentario. Las manifestaciones clinicas iniciales mostraron predileccion por la paresia ocular y por sintomatologia disautonomica de escasa especificidad, y la agregacion familiar fue el indicio fundamental que sugirio el diagnostico. Posteriormente, los pacientes empeoraron y dos de ellos presentaron afectacion de la funcion respiratoria y precisaron ingreso prolongado en la unidad de cuidados intensivos. Los tres pacientes convalecieron y se recuperaron sin secuelas. Se consiguio detectar la toxina botulinica por bioensayo en los restos de alimentos, lo que confiere al caso la categoria diagnostica de confirmado. Conclusiones. La microepidemia familiar presentada constituye un caso de afectacion inicial predominantemente ocular y disautonomica. Asimismo, ilustra varios aspectos tipicos de la enfermedad: la sospecha diagnostica ante pacientes convivientes que acuden simultaneamente por clinica similar, las complicaciones caracteristicas del proceso y su tratamiento, el diagnostico de laboratorio y su historia natural hacia la resolucion.

  17. [Gelastic seizures as the presenting symptom of infarction of the cingulate gyrus].

    PubMed

    Egea-Lucas, I; Martinez-Mondejar, E; Piqueres-Vidal, C F; Frutos-Alegria, M T

    2015-09-01

    Introduccion. Las crisis gelasticas son crisis epilepticas poco frecuentes en las que la risa inapropiada es la manifestacion principal. Su etiologia es diversa. No hemos encontrado en la bibliografia ningun caso de risa patologica claramente epileptica relacionada con ictus, aunque hay multiples descripciones de risa patologica no epileptica como sintoma prodromico en pacientes con ictus (fou rire prodromique). Presentamos un caso de infarto del giro cingulado que curso con crisis gelasticas al inicio y durante la evolucion del proceso clinico. Caso clinico. Mujer de 81 años, que bruscamente presento episodios de dificultad para la expresion verbal con desconexion del medio, acompañados de accesos de risa inmotivada e incontrolable de duracion inferior a cinco minutos. Tras los episodios, tenia bajo nivel de consciencia. Coincidiendo con alguno de ellos, se observaron tambien movimientos involuntarios de los miembros superiores. La resonancia desvelo la existencia de una lesion isquemica aguda del territorio del giro cingulado izquierdo y el electroencefalograma puso de manifiesto la existencia de actividad epileptogena frontal y temporal anterior izquierda. Conclusiones. El perfil clinico, los resultados de las exploraciones complementarias y la respuesta al tratamiento antiepileptico permiten afirmar que los episodios descritos en esta paciente corresponden a crisis gelasticas relacionadas con una lesion isquemica aguda del giro cingulado izquierdo.

  18. Formation of ettringite, Ca 6Al 2(SO 4) 3(OH) 12·26H 2O, AFt, and monosulfate, Ca 4Al 2O 6(SO 4)·14H 2O, AFm-14, in hydrothermal hydration of Portland cement and of calcium aluminum oxide—calcium sulfate dihydrate mixtures studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Axel Nørlund; Jensen, Torben R.; Hanson, Jonathan C.

    2004-06-01

    In the hydration of calcium aluminum oxide-gypsum mixtures, i.e., Ca 3Al 2O 6, Ca 12Al 14O 33 and CaSO 4·2H 2O, the reaction products can be ettringite, Ca 6Al 2(SO 4) 3(OH) 12·26H 2O, monosulfate, Ca 4Al 2O 6(SO 4)·14H 2O, or the calcium aluminum oxide hydrate, Ca 4Al 2O 7·19H 2O. Ettringite is formed if sufficient CaSO 4·2H 2O is present in the mixture. Ettringite is converted to monosulfate when all CaSO 4·2H 2O is consumed in the synthesis of ettringite. The reactions were investigated in the temperature range 25-170°C using in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. This technique allows the study of very fast chemical reactions that are observed here under hydrothermal conditions. A new experimental approach was developed to perform in situ mixing of the reactants during X-ray data collection.

  19. [Aicardi syndrome with Dandy-Walker type malformation].

    PubMed

    Laguado-Herrera, Yuly V; Manrique-Hernández, Edgar F; Peñaloza-Mantilla, Camilo A; Quintero-Gómez, David A; Contreras-García, Gustavo A; Sandoval-Martínez, Diana K

    2015-07-16

    Introduccion. El sindrome de Aicardi (OMIM 304050) fue descrito en 1965. Su triada clasica esta compuesta por espasmos infantiles, agenesia parcial o total del cuerpo calloso y alteraciones oculares, como lagunas coriorretinianas. Se postula un mecanismo de herencia ligado a X dominante. Caso clinico. Niña nacida a termino, sin antecedentes familiares patologicos ni consanguinidad parental, con diagnostico prenatal de malformacion tipo Dandy-Walker, quien presento episodios convulsivos, coloboma del nervio optico, bloque vertebral toracico con presencia de escoliosis, ecografia transfontanelar con agenesia del cuerpo calloso y cariotipo 46,XX. Se diagnostico de sindrome de Aicardi y fallecio con mes y medio de edad. En la autopsia se evidencio hidrocefalia supratentorial con presencia de papiloma de los plexos coroideos, quiste en la fosa posterior (cuarto ventriculo), hipoplasia del vermis cerebeloso, agenesia del hemisferio del cuerpo calloso y cerebeloso izquierdo, rasgos faciales caracteristicos del sindrome, paladar ojival, pectus excavatum, escoliosis, quiste paraovarico y hepatomegalia. Conclusiones. Pocos casos han descrito la asociacion de la patologia y la presencia de malformacion de Dandy-Walker. Se comunica un nuevo caso con esta asociacion, teniendo en cuenta que las alteraciones relacionadas, principalmente agenesia o hipoplasia del cuerpo calloso, sugieren que tiene un componente genetico de base. El estudio de busqueda de la etiologia de centrarse en evaluar aquellos genes que tengan relacion con el neurodesarrollo y su activacion en la etapa de organogenia. El diagnostico definitivo establece el pronostico, manejo y asesoria genetica a la familia.

  20. [Churg-Strauss abdominal manifestation].

    PubMed

    Suarez-Moreno, Roberto; Ponce-Pérez, Luis Virgilio; Margain-Paredes, Miguel Angel; Garza-de la Llave, Heriberto; Madrazo-Navarro, Mario; Espinosa-Álvarez, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la enfermedad de Churg-Strauss es poco común, idiopática, caracterizada por hipereosinofilia en sangre y tejidos, aunada a vasculitis sistémica en pacientes con antecedentes de asma o rinitis alérgica. Las manifestaciones gastrointestinales del síndrome de Churg Strauss se caracterizan por dolor abdominal, seguido de diarrea y hemorragia en 31-45% de los casos. Caso clínico: paciente masculino con antecedente de asma que acudió a consulta por abdomen agudo con probable apendicitis aguda; durante el protocolo de estudio se diagnosticó síndrome de Churg Strauss, con manifestaciones intestinales. Conclusión: el síndrome de Churg Strauss es una vasculitis poco frecuente que puede manifestarse con síntomas intestinales, como en este caso; es importante tenerlo en mente a la hora de los diagnósticos diferenciales. Existen pocos reportes con este síndrome asociado con abdomen agudo, todos ellos con mal pronóstico.

  1. [Apocrine hidrocystoma associated with gouty tophi of the pinna].

    PubMed

    Gracia-Cazaña, Tamara; Pastushenko, Ievgenia; Lorda, Marta; Padgett, Esteban; Morales-Moya, Ana Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: los hidrocistomas apocrinos, también conocidos como cistoadenomas apocrinos, son lesiones quísticas benignas derivadas de la porción secretora de las glándulas apocrinas. Caso clínico: remiten al servicio de Dermatología a una mujer de 78 años para valorar una lesión asintomática translúcida, bien definida, localizada en la porción superior del hélix. Los hallazgos histológicos fueron compatibles con un hidrocistoma apocrino asociado a tofo gotoso. Conclusiones: reportamos el segundo caso de hidrocistoma apocrino localizado en el pabellón auricular externo y el primer caso asociado a tofo gotoso. Es difícil de conocer qué lesión se estableció primero, y si el tofo gotoso pudo provocar una obstrucción ductal con la subsiguiente retención quística.

  2. Byproduct recovery from reclaimed water reverse osmosis concentrate using lime and soda-ash treatment.

    PubMed

    Mohammadesmaeili, Farah; Badr, Mostafa Kabiri; Abbaszadegan, Morteza; Fox, Peter

    2010-04-01

    Lime and soda-ash softening of reclaimed water reverse osmosis concentrates as a pretreatment step for concentration by seawater reverse osmosis was the focus of this study. The objectives were removal of the potential fouling minerals of calcium, magnesium, and silica by selective precipitation, while producing byproducts with potential resale value. Three different bench-scale lime-soda processes were evaluated. The traditional method produced low-quality magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) byproducts. A modified process with pre-acidification to eliminate carbonate removed 98 to 99% of calcium and magnesium and produced CaCO3 that was > 94% pure. To prevent the contamination of byproducts with calcium sulfate (CaSO4) in high-sulfate concentrates, a CaSO4 crystallization step was added successfully to the modified process to precipitate CaSO4 before Mg(OH)2 precipitation and produce gypsum that was 92% pure. The modified lime-soda process also removed 94 to 97% silica, 72 to 77% barium, and 95 to 96% strontium, which are known as reverse osmosis membrane foulants.

  3. Stump appendicitis: a rare and unusual complication after appendectomy. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Papi, Simona; Pecchini, Francesca; Gelmini, Roberta

    2014-04-07

    L’appendicite del moncone rappresenta una rara ma importante complicanza che può fare seguito a un intervento di appendicectomia, sia laparoscopica che laparotomica, e rappresenta un’eventualità nosologica da tenere presente, e da includere nella diagnosi differenziale dell’addome acuto di un paziente già appendicectomizzato. I casi riportati in letteratura non sono numerosi, probabilmente però come risultato di una sottostima. Il caso clinico riportato riguarda un uomo di 43 anni operato tre mesi prima di appendicectomia laparoscopica e ricoverato con un tipico caso di addome acuto. L’ecografia si è dimostrata non efficace per la diagnosi, mentre la TC ha definito con sufficiente chiarezza la situazione, ponendo l’indicazione ad una laparotomia esplorativa, nel corso della quale si è proceduto all’asportazione del residuo appendicolare. L’esame istologico ha poi in seguito confermato la diagnosi di appendicite acuta perforata del moncone. A conclusione si è proceduto ad un’analisi di 87 casi analoghi presenti nella letteratura di lingua Inglese per evidenziare le caratteristiche anatomo-chirurgiche ed anatomo- patologiche dei diversi casi, e l’esperienza diagnostica nella definizione del singolo caso. Si conclude con i suggerimenti tecnici per prevenire l’evenienza di tali “appendiciti” ricorrenti sia con la tecnica laparoscopica che laparotomica, e stimolando la consapevolezza di tale eventualità.

  4. Infratentorial angioleiomyoma: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Fernandez, Juan; Penanes, Juan R; Torres, Cristina V; Gordillo-Velez, Carlos H; Manzanares-Soler, Rafael; Sola, Rafael G

    2016-01-16

    Introduccion. Los angioleiomiomas intracraneales son lesiones muy poco frecuentes. Solo se han descrito 22 casos en la bibliografia hasta la actualidad, unicamente tres de ellos de localizacion infratentorial. Caso clinico. Varon de 43 años con un angioleiomioma infratentorial descubierto de forma incidental tras la realizacion de una tomografia computarizada por hipoacusia. La resonancia magnetica mostro una tumoracion de 1,4 cm, descrita inicialmente como un meningioma, con un realce progresivo tras la administracion de gadolinio, un aumento del coeficiente de difusion aparente y un descenso generalizado de metabolitos en la espectroscopia. La lesion se reseco quirurgicamente mediante un abordaje suboccipital con buena evolucion y sin complicaciones postoperatorias. En el estudio histologico, la lesion presentaba un abundante componente vascular, y en la tincion inmunohistoquimica era positiva para actina y caldesmona. Dos años despues de la cirugia, el paciente no presentaba recurrencia en la resonancia magnetica de control. Conclusion. El diagnostico de los angioleiomiomas puede ser complejo, pero algunas de sus caracteristicas radiologicas pueden facilitarlo. Los angioleiomiomas son tumores benignos asociados con un resultado funcional favorable tras su reseccion completa, que en nuestro caso no presento un alto riesgo de sangrado.

  5. Renal arteriovenous fistula simulating hydronephrosis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Lusenti, T; Fiorini, F; Barozzi, L

    2011-12-01

    Sommario INTRODUZIONE: Tra le fistole arterovenose (FAV) acquisite vi sono quelle che si formano quale complicanza dell’esecuzione di una biopsia renale. CASO CLINICO: Gli autori riportano il caso di una paziente giunta in ambulatorio di ecografia nefrologica per l’esecuzione di un’ecografia dei reni e delle vie urinarie per un’ipertensione sistolica di I grado di recente insorgenza. Negli esami di laboratorio era presente microematuria con proteinuria <0.5 g/24 ore. La funzionalità renale risultava ai limiti inferiori della norma (FG 58 mL/min secondo la formula MDRD). L’esame ecografico evidenziava una formazione anecogena “arboriforme” centropielica a livello del rene sinistro suggestiva per idronefrosi. Il color Doppler mostrava viceversa presenza di flusso turbolento all’interno dell’area anecogena stessa, con flusso arterioso elevato e arterializzazione del flusso venoso all’analisi spettrale. La successiva angiografia renale selettiva confermava il sospetto ecografico di FAV mediorenale sinistra con pseudoaneurisma, conseguente ad una biopsia renale effettuata più di 10 anni prima presso altro Centro. Essendo la paziente in pieno benessere veniva consigliato un più stretto follow-up clinico-ecografico. DISCUSSIONE: Tra le malformazioni vascolari renali di non rara osservazione sono le FAV. Il caso descritto ribadisce l’importanza dell’impiego dell’eco color Doppler (ECD) nel sospetto di uropatia ostruttiva, per diagnosticare una FAV, specialmente nei pazienti già sottoposti a biopsia renale.

  6. [Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy associated to natalizumab: the importance of magnetic resonance imaging in its early diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Martí, Glòria; Río, Jordi; Rovira, Àlex; Auger, Cristina; Tintoré, Mar; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Vidal, Anka; Castilló, Joaquín; Montalban, Xavier

    2015-02-16

    Introduccion. El natalizumab es un farmaco utilizado en la esclerosis multiple (EM), cuyo principal efecto adverso es el desarrollo de una leucoencefalopatia multifocal progresiva (LMP). Como esta es potencialmente mortal o discapacitante, el tratamiento debe suspenderse inmediatamente ante su sospecha, teniendo en cuenta el posible desarrollo posterior de un sindrome de reconstitucion inmune o rebrote de la EM. Caso clinico. Se describe un caso de LMP, inicialmente asintomatico, en el contexto del tratamiento con natalizumab en una paciente con EM. Como factores de riesgo se determinaron titulos altos de anticuerpos contra el virus John Cunningham (VJC) y mas de dos años de tratamiento. La reaccion en cadena de la polimerasa para el VJC en el liquido cefalorraquideo resulto negativa en dos determinaciones. El periodo entre el diagnostico radiologico y el inicio de la clinica fue de dos meses. Durante el curso de la enfermedad, la paciente desarrollo un sindrome inflamatorio de reconstitucion inmune y rebrotes de su EM. Presento una buena respuesta tras el inicio de tratamiento con fingolimod, una vez estabilizada la LMP. Conclusion. Este caso ilustra la importancia de una estrecha vigilancia clinicorradiologica en pacientes con EM tratados con natalizumab, sobre todo cuando presentan factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de LMP, asi como su potencial incidencia en la supervivencia y estado funcional final.

  7. [Musical hallucinations: perpetual music].

    PubMed

    Zabalza-Estévez, Ramón J

    2014-03-01

    Introduccion. Las alucinaciones musicales son un tipo de alucinacion auditiva prevalente en la poblacion no psiquiatrica, pero escasamente comunicada en la bibliografia neurologica. Ocurren con mayor frecuencia en la poblacion anciana, del sexo femenino y con perdida de audicion, pero su fisiopatologia esta por desentrañar. Casos clinicos. Se presentan seis casos (cinco mujeres y un hombre) de alucinaciones musicales diagnosticados en una consulta de neurologia general en un lapso de tiempo de cinco años. En cinco de ellos concurria la hipoacusia en mayor o menor grado y uno estaba desencadenado por la pentoxifilina. En su mayoria, el contenido musical de las alucinaciones provenia de experiencias musicales vividas en la infancia y juventud. En los casos sometidos a tratamiento farmacologico la respuesta fue pobre; sin embargo, una vez explicada a los pacientes la benignidad del cuadro y su desvinculacion con patologia psicotica, el grado de aceptacion del sintoma fue bueno. Conclusiones. Las alucinaciones musicales son una patologia fronteriza entre la neurologia, la otorrinolaringologia y la psiquiatria poco conocida, que, con frecuencia, se vincula erroneamente a la enfermedad mental. Es fundamental explicar a pacientes y familiares el caracter no necesariamente psiquiatrico de este sintoma, asi como conocer la potencialidad que tienen algunos farmacos de uso comun para generarlo.

  8. [Association between the evaluation by a patient care team and compliance with the claim of drugs in pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Herrera Marín, Robinson; Estrada Acevedo, Jorge Ivan; Restrepo Jimenez, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Contexto: en la actualidad es reconocido el importante desafio que implica alcanzar una adecuada adherencia farmacologica. Existen multiples metodos para detectar si un paciente es no adherente, entre los cuales el historial de dispensaciones de medicamentos en farmacia ha sido considerado adecuado. Objetivo: determinar la asociacion entre la atencion por un grupo interdisciplinario incluyendo al Farmaceutico y el cumplimiento con la reclamacion de los medicamentos en farmacia. Método: estudio de casos y controles en pacientes con Asma, Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Cronica o Rinitis alergica, que reclamaron sus medicamentos en farmacia durante el periodo Octubre de 2012 y Noviembre de 2013 (n: 526). Se definio como caso a los pacientes que durante el periodo de observacion reclamaron sus medicamentos en farmacia >95% de las veces que debieron haberlos reclamado (n: 263). Para el analisis univariado se utilizaron frecuencias absolutas y relativas y medidas de resumen. Para el bivariado tablas de contingencia y las pruebas de Chi cuadrado, T-Student (U-de Mann Whitney) y ANOVA (H-de Kruskal Wallis). La medida de fuerza estadistica utilizada fue el Odds Ratio. Para el multivariado Regresion Logistica Binaria. Resultados: el 78.3% de los casos y el 47.1% de los controles habian sido atendidos por un grupo interdisciplinario (p.

  9. [Temporal lobe epilepsy and active neurocysticercosis: two representative case reports].

    PubMed

    Ramos-Zúñiga, Rodrigo; Pérez-Gómez, Héctor R; Gaytán-Martínez, Luis A; Vega-Ruiz, Brenda; Soto-Rodríguez, Sofía; Rochín-Mozqueda, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Introduccion. Existen pocas evidencias notificadas de casos de epilepsia del lobulo temporal asociadas a cisticercosis activa en su fase quistica. El objetivo es presentar la correlacion entre cisticercosis activa en zonas topograficas asociadas a epilepsia del lobulo temporal, con las manifestaciones neuropsiquiatricas y el patron de crisis parciales secundariamente generalizadas. Casos clinicos. Dos casos de pacientes adultos con manifestaciones neuropsiquiatricas de un año de evolucion, refractarios a tratamiento farmacologico antipsicotico, y en quienes posteriormente aparecen crisis convulsivas parciales secundariamente generalizadas de inicio tardio. Se identifica la presencia de cisticercosis activa en el lobulo temporal en un paciente, y en la insula, en el otro. Buen control clinico posterior al tratamiento con albendazol, pero se mantiene el mismo tratamiento anticonvulsionante para considerar la pertinencia de su retirada farmacologica. Conclusiones. La neurocisticercosis activa puede ser causa de trastornos neuropsiquiatricos adquiridos y de epilepsia del lobulo temporal de inicio tardio cuando su topografia se encuentra en el circuito mesolimbico. El diagnostico etiologico oportuno y el tratamiento apropiado permiten el control adecuado de su sintomatologia y, potencialmente, su curacion definitiva.

  10. Effect of sulfur and its compounds on the performance of graphite electrooxidation in molten carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Ye, Ke; Du, Mengmeng; Yin, Jinling; Cao, Dianxue; Wang, Guiling

    2015-01-01

    Direct carbon fuel cells are promising power sources with their performance significantly depending on the electrooxidation activity of carbon fuel. The impurities in the carbon fuel may affect the anode reactions. Sulfur and some of its inorganic compounds (CaSO4, K2SO3, K2S, FeS2) were added in molten carbonate and their effect on graphite electrooxidation was investigated. Cyclic voltammograms of gold electrode with addition of these sulfur compounds showed CaSO4 was stable and other compounds were electrochemically oxidized to high valence state sulfur compounds at operating voltage range. Linear sweep voltammetry of graphite with addition of sulfur compounds exhibited enhanced current density compared to pure graphite electrooxidation. Chronoamperometry was carried out to examine steady-state test of graphite electrooxidation in presence of sulfur compounds and the results indicated the enhanced current densities were caused by improved Boudouard reaction for CaSO4 and sulfur electrooxidation for other compounds, respectively. These inorganic sulfur compounds had no impact on electrooxidation process of graphite.

  11. [Posterior reversible encephalopathy: beyond the original description].

    PubMed

    Avecillas-Chasín, Josué M; Matías-Guiu, Jordi A; Bautista-Balbás, Luis

    2015-07-16

    Introduccion. La encefalopatia posterior reversible (EPR) es una entidad clinicorradiologica caracterizada tipicamente por cuadros de cefalea, alteraciones visuales y crisis epilepticas, asociada a edema vasogeno corticosubcortical reversible en la neuroimagen. Objetivo. Presentar una revision de los aspectos fisiopatologicos de esta entidad y tambien de las asociaciones de la EPR descritas en la bibliografia. Desarrollo. Existe una serie de factores desencadenantes bien conocidos, como las crisis hipertensivas, la eclampsia o ciertos medicamentos. La descripcion de cada vez mas casos atipicos desde un punto de vista clinico y radiologico, asi como de posibles nuevos factores desencadenantes, obliga a una redefinicion de la entidad. Conclusiones. La EPR es un conjunto de manifestaciones clinicas y radiologicas que no se pueden enmarcar dentro la palabra 'sindrome'. Aunque la EPR se ha comunicado como irreversible en ciertos casos, el concepto de reversibilidad debe mantenerse en la definicion de esta entidad, ya que, en la mayor parte de los casos, el rapido control de la condicion desencadenante de la EPR permite la reversibilidad de las lesiones.

  12. FREZCHEM2 A Chemical Thermodynamic Model for Electrolyte Solutions at Subzero Temperatures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    C1-(aq 0.31425D-01 0.76077D+01 0.29938D+02 3.9352 0.0000 6 S04 _ (aq) 0.72974D-04 0.17666D-01 0.64149D-02 0.3631 0.0000 7 CaSO4 (,q) 0.64693D-04...1.7681 0.0000 6 S04 2-(aq) 0.78786D-02 0.16995D+00 0.10190D-01 0.0600 0.0000 7 CaSO4 (,q) 0.12993D- 02 0.28027D-01 0.28027D-01 1.0000 -2.7979 8 MgSO4(aq...2.00 CaSO4 (aq) 22 0 .00 .00 .00 1.00 .00 .00 1.00 .00 .00 MgSO4(aq) 23 0 .00 .00 .00 .00 1.00 .00 1.00 .00 .00 H20(1) 30 0 1.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00

  13. [Rare anatomical variation of absence of the sciatic nerve: completely substituted by the tibial and common fibular nerve].

    PubMed

    Coelho, Paulo; Melo, Catarina; Bernardes, António

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: Existem várias publicações referindo variantes anatómicas do nervo ciático, algumas associadas a síndromes clínicos (como sendo a síndrome do músculo piriforme). Neste contexto, pretendemos apresentar uma variante anatómica rara do nervo ciático.Casos clínicos: Dois cadáveres leucodérmicos, masculinos, com 74 e 78 anos, falecidos de morte natural, sem patologia do membro inferior. Em ambos os casos, observou-se ausência do nervo ciático direito, tendo os nervos tibial e fibular comum origem e trajecto independentes, desde a sua origem nas raízes lombo-sagradas até à região poplítea. O nervo ciático contralateral apresentava a anatomia habitual.Discussão: Analisando a literatura, na Medline, realçamos que apresentamos dois casos raros de ausência do nervo ciático, com origem e trajecto independentes dos nervos tibial e fibular comum. Esta variante poderá ter implicações clínicas, nomeadamente ser um factor de risco para o insucesso de bloqueios anestésicos poplíteos e para a síndrome do músculo piriforme.

  14. [Language disorders in acute cerebellitis: beyond dysarthria].

    PubMed

    Barragan-Martinez, D; Nunez-Enamorado, N; Berenguer-Potenciano, M; Villora-Morcillo, N; Martinez de Aragon, A; Camacho-Salas, A

    2017-01-01

    Introduccion. La cerebelitis aguda es una de las principales causas de sindrome cerebeloso en la infancia. Entre un amplio elenco de manifestaciones, en el que predominan la cefalea y la ataxia, podemos encontrar otras menos habituales, aunque interesantes, como las alteraciones del lenguaje, mas alla de la bien conocida disartria cerebelosa. Las diferentes combinaciones en que pueden aparecer los sintomas, especialmente cuando no se acompañan de ataxia, hacen de este cuadro un verdadero reto para el clinico. Casos clinicos. Se presentan dos pacientes, de 2 y 4 años, con clinica, pruebas de laboratorio y neuroimagen compatibles con cerebelitis aguda parainfecciosa, que asociaron una llamativa alteracion del lenguaje, uno en forma de mutismo cerebeloso y otro en forma de hipofluencia y agramatismo, y este ultimo cursaba ademas en ausencia de ataxia. La evolucion de ambos casos fue buena, y persistieron leves alteraciones del habla en el seguimiento posterior. Conclusiones. Casos como estos amplian el espectro de manifestaciones clinicas de la cerebelitis aguda. Cada vez cobra mayor importancia la participacion del cerebelo en procesos neurocognitivos como el lenguaje y, aunque muchos aspectos son aun especulativos, alcanzar a definir su verdadero papel tendra una repercusion en el diagnostico, el tratamiento y el pronostico a largo plazo de estos pacientes.

  15. [Brain asymmetry and dopamine: beyond motor implications in Parkinson's disease and experimental hemiparkinsonism].

    PubMed

    Segarra, A B; Banegas, I; Prieto, I; Ramirez-Sanchez, M

    2016-11-01

    Introduccion. La asimetria cerebral se puede definir como la existencia de diferencias funcionales, anatomicas o neuroquimicas entre los dos hemisferios cerebrales. Se trata de un fenomeno dinamico modulable por factores endogenos y exogenos. Su significado funcional esta apenas aclarado y solo lo esta en algunos casos muy concretos como, por ejemplo, la relacion existente entre el contenido cerebral lateralizado de dopamina y sus efectos motores, que se manifiesta especialmente en la enfermedad de Parkinson. Desarrollo. El contenido asimetrico cerebral de dopamina no solo da lugar a efectos motores lateralizados, sino que se extiende a consecuencias autonomicas y de conducta igualmente lateralizadas. De hecho, la enfermedad de Parkinson se caracteriza por sintomas motores unilaterales, que surgen en las fases iniciales de la enfermedad, y por otros sintomas no motores, como alteraciones autonomicas o cognitivas, que tambien se manifiestan de forma lateralizada. Conclusiones. La asimetria cerebral ha sido un aspecto infravalorado a la hora de analizar la patogenia de las enfermedades cerebrales, y solo en determinados casos, como en la enfermedad de Parkinson, se ha profundizado parcialmente en su estudio. Sin embargo, se ha puesto en evidencia que es necesario considerar este fenomeno para la adecuada comprension de algunas patologias cerebrales, como es el caso de la enfermedad de Parkinson.

  16. Ethnoecology of Oxalis adenophylla Gillies ex Hook. & Arn.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Juan José; Ladio, Ana Haydeé

    2014-08-08

    environments where the plant grows, its phenology and morphological and organoleptic characteristics, appropriate times for harvesting, and animals that forage for this species. The informants with the greatest ethnoecological knowledge harvested leaves and roots most frequently. The frequency of use did not differ in relation to age or gender. In contrast, frequency of use was the highest when the informant lived with several generations at home, maintained traditional animal husbandry practices and when they considered themselves as belonging to the Mapuche people. Informants perceived low abundance and availability of the plant in the environment, restricted by the great distances involved in obtaining them, seasonality, and in particular, difficulty in finding the roots. Informants believe that the plant is sensitive and it should be harvested in such a way as to ensure no damage to the whole plant, allowing resprouting. Our ecological measurements agreed with this perception. The local risk index for the plant was medium. In Patagonian Argentina, Oxalis adenophylla is a multipurpose species widely used for its medicinal properties but less for its edible roots and ornamental features. In the rural communities where we worked, frequency of use seems to depend on individual ethnoecological knowledge, the practice of indigenous worldview, living in households interacting with other generations and maintaining the activity of cattle raising. Locally, the main risk for the plant is the particular environment where it grows, characterized by slopes vulnerable to erosion. The human practice of local use could promote the conservation of this species through the understanding of its sensitivity to harvesting, and its insipient cultivation. This research shows the importance of obtaining a general overview of useful wild species used by local people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Incidence and survival of stomach cancer in a high-risk population of Chile

    PubMed Central

    Heise, Katy; Bertran, Enriqueta; Andia, Marcelo E; Ferreccio, Catterina

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To study the incidence and survival rate of stomach cancer (SC) and its associated factors in a high risk population in Chile. METHODS: The population-based cancer registry of Valdivia, included in the International Agency for Research on Cancer system, covers 356 396 residents of Valdivia Province, Southern Chile. We studied all SC cases entered in this Registry during 1998-2002 (529 cases). Population data came from the Chilean census (2002). Standardized incidence rates per 100 000 inhabitants (SIR) using the world population, cumulative risk of developing cancer before age 75, and rate ratios by sex, age, ethnicity and social factors were estimated. Relative survival (Ederer II method) and age-standardized estimates (Brenner method) were calculated. Specific survival rates (Kaplan-Meier) were measured at 3 and 5 years and survival curves were analyzed with the Logrank and Breslow tests. Survival was studied in relation to demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory results and medical management of the cases. Those variables significantly associated with survival were later included in a Cox multivariate model. RESULTS: Between 1998 and 2002, 529 primary gastric cancers occurred in Valdivia (crude incidence rate 29.2 per 100 000 inhabitants). Most cases were male (69.0%), residents of urban areas (57.5%) and Hispanic (83.2%), with a low education level (84.5% < 8 school years). SC SIR was higher in men than women (40.8 and 14.8 respectively, P < 0.001), risk factors were low education RR 4.4 (95% CI: 2.9-6.8) and 1.6, (95% CI: 1.1-2.1) for women and men respectively and Mapuche ethnicity only significant for women (RR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2-3.7). Of all cases, 76.4% were histologically confirmed, 11.5% had a death certificate only (DCO), 56.1% were TNM stage IV; 445 cases (84.1%) were eligible for survival analysis, all completed five years follow-up; 42 remained alive, 392 died of SC and 11 died from other causes. Specific 5-year survival, excluding cases

  18. VLT Unit Telescopes Named at Paranal Inauguration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-03-01

    General, speeches were delivered by the President of the ESO Council and the President of Chile. The speakers praised the great achievement of bringing the very complex, high-technology VLT project this far so successfully and also the wonderful new opportunities for front-line research with this new facility. This would not have been possible without excellent cooperation between the many parties to this project, individuals as well as research institutes, companies and governments, all working towards a common goal. The ceremony was concluded with a discourse on "Understanding the Universe" by Physics Nobel Prize winner, Professor Carlo Rubbia, former Director of CERN. At the end of the day, the President of the ESO Council, the ESO Director General and the Heads of Delegations had the opportunity to witness an observing session with the UT1 from the VLT Control Room. The 300 other guests followed this event via internal video broadcast. Mapuche names for the Unit Telescopes It had long been ESO's intention to provide "real" names to the four VLT Unit Telescopes, to replace the current, somewhat dry and technical designations as UT1 to UT4. Four meaningful names of objects in the sky in the Mapuche language were chosen. This indigeneous people lives mostly in the area south of Santiago de Chile. An essay contest was arranged in this connection among schoolchildren of the Chilean II Region of which Antofagasta is the capital to write about the implications of these names. It drew many excellent entries dealing with the rich cultural heritage of ESO's host country. The jury was unanimous in its choice of the winning essay. This was submitted by 17-year old Jorssy Albanez Castilla from Chuquicamata near the city of Calama. She received the prize, an amateur telescope, during the Paranal Inauguration. Henceforth, the four Unit Telescopes will be known as ANTU (UT1; pronounced an-too ; The Sun), KUEYEN (UT2; qua-yen , like in "quake"; The Moon), MELIPAL (UT3; me-li-pal ; The

  19. [Mediterranean Spotted Fever: Retrospective Review of Hospitalized Cases and Predictive Factors of Severe Disease].

    PubMed

    Meireles, Mariana; Magalhães, Rui; Guimas, Arlindo

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: Febre escaro-nodular, uma zoonose antiga a levantar questões actuais. Este estudo pretende reavaliar a imagem clínica da doença e identificar factores prognósticos de doença severa. Material e Métodos: Foram avaliados os casos admitidos num hospital central no período de 12 anos. Os fatores de risco foram determinados por análise uni e multivariada, comparando os indivíduos internados em enfermaria geral versus admitidos em unidades de cuidados intermédios/intensivos ou em caso de morte. Resultados: Foram revistos 71 casos de febre escaro-nodular. A média de idades foi 63,3 ± 16,7 anos e 52,1% eram homens. A escara de inoculação foi identificada em 62,0% dos casos. Febre e exantema foram os achados clínicos mais frequentes. Quarenta e cinco por cento dos doentes desenvolveram complicações e 22,5% foram internados em unidades de cuidados intermédios e/ou intensivos. Apirexia, dispneia, insuficiência renal e níveis de lactato desidrogenase elevados à admissão foram preditores de desenvolvimentode doença severa (p < 0,034). O alcoolismo associou-se a um tempo de internamento prolongado (p = 0,020). Ausênciade febre (p = 0,019) e níveis elevados de creatinina (p = 0,028) constituíram fatores independentes de mau prognóstico. A taxa de mortalidade foi 2,8%.Discussão: Apesar da evolução da febre escaro-nodular ser, geralmente, assumida como benigna, casos graves têm surgido. Quase metade dos doentes hospitalizados desenvolveu complicações. Apirexia e lesão renal predispõem a pior prognóstico. Conclusão: A identificação precoce da infeção e a vigilância contínua dos doentes são determinantes, particularmente naqueles com maior risco de desenvolverem doença severa ou fatal.

  20. [Appendicovesical fistula treated with elective laparoscopic surgery].

    PubMed

    García-Muñoz-Najar, Alejandro; Carrión-Álvarez, Lucía; Medina-García, Manuel; García-González, María Dolores; Pereira-Pérez, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: la fístula apendicovesical es una complicación infrecuente de la apendicitis aguda en estadio avanzado y representa un tipo poco habitual de fístula enterovesical. La laparotomía exploradora ha sido durante muchos años pieza clave para el diagnóstico y su tratamiento efinitivo, pero actualmente el abordaje laparoscópico se está imponiendo entre diferentes grupos experimentados. Caso clínico: aportamos un nuevo caso de fístula apendicovesical en una mujer de 45 años de edad remitida del servicio de Urología por disuria y leucocituria permanente; finalmente, el diagnóstico se estableció mediante técnica de imagen (tomografía computada) y se resolvió por laparoscopia. Este caso se suma a los 115 casos descritos hasta ahora en la bibliografía y a los cuatro tratados mediante laparoscopia. Discusión: los métodos de imagen convencionales no son fiables para el diagnóstico de fístula enterovesical. La mayoría de los casos de fístula apendicovesical son secundarios a una apendicitis aguda no evidenciada y evolucionada. En la mayor parte de las publicaciones consultadas la laparotomía es una herramienta de diagnóstico de la fístula apendicovesical y, en pocos artículos, se describe la laparoscopia como alternativa diagnóstica y terapéutica. En la bibliografía sólo se encontraron tres artículos que hacen referencia al abordaje laparoscópico con fines terapéuticos. Conclusión: ante la sospecha de comunicación entre el tubo digestivo y el aparato urinario, la tomografía computada es el método diagnóstico de elección, sobre todo si se sospecha una fístula apendicovesical. El abordaje laparoscópico de la fístula apendicovesical puede confirmar el diagnóstico radiológico a la vez que constituye una opción quirúrgica definitiva.