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Sample records for anchor markers link

  1. Constrained Active Learning for Anchor Link Prediction Across Multiple Heterogeneous Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Junxing; Zhang, Jiawei; Wu, Quanyuan; Jia, Yan; Zhou, Bin; Wei, Xiaokai; Yu, Philip S.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, people are usually involved in multiple heterogeneous social networks simultaneously. Discovering the anchor links between the accounts owned by the same users across different social networks is crucial for many important inter-network applications, e.g., cross-network link transfer and cross-network recommendation. Many different supervised models have been proposed to predict anchor links so far, but they are effective only when the labeled anchor links are abundant. However, in real scenarios, such a requirement can hardly be met and most anchor links are unlabeled, since manually labeling the inter-network anchor links is quite costly and tedious. To overcome such a problem and utilize the numerous unlabeled anchor links in model building, in this paper, we introduce the active learning based anchor link prediction problem. Different from the traditional active learning problems, due to the one-to-one constraint on anchor links, if an unlabeled anchor link a=(u,v) is identified as positive (i.e., existing), all the other unlabeled anchor links incident to account u or account v will be negative (i.e., non-existing) automatically. Viewed in such a perspective, asking for the labels of potential positive anchor links in the unlabeled set will be rewarding in the active anchor link prediction problem. Various novel anchor link information gain measures are defined in this paper, based on which several constraint active anchor link prediction methods are introduced. Extensive experiments have been done on real-world social network datasets to compare the performance of these methods with state-of-art anchor link prediction methods. The experimental results show that the proposed Mean-entropy-based Constrained Active Learning (MC) method can outperform other methods with significant advantages. PMID:28771201

  2. Constrained Active Learning for Anchor Link Prediction Across Multiple Heterogeneous Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junxing; Zhang, Jiawei; Wu, Quanyuan; Jia, Yan; Zhou, Bin; Wei, Xiaokai; Yu, Philip S

    2017-08-03

    Nowadays, people are usually involved in multiple heterogeneous social networks simultaneously. Discovering the anchor links between the accounts owned by the same users across different social networks is crucial for many important inter-network applications, e.g., cross-network link transfer and cross-network recommendation. Many different supervised models have been proposed to predict anchor links so far, but they are effective only when the labeled anchor links are abundant. However, in real scenarios, such a requirement can hardly be met and most anchor links are unlabeled, since manually labeling the inter-network anchor links is quite costly and tedious. To overcome such a problem and utilize the numerous unlabeled anchor links in model building, in this paper, we introduce the active learning based anchor link prediction problem. Different from the traditional active learning problems, due to the one-to-one constraint on anchor links, if an unlabeled anchor link a = ( u , v ) is identified as positive (i.e., existing), all the other unlabeled anchor links incident to account u or account v will be negative (i.e., non-existing) automatically. Viewed in such a perspective, asking for the labels of potential positive anchor links in the unlabeled set will be rewarding in the active anchor link prediction problem. Various novel anchor link information gain measures are defined in this paper, based on which several constraint active anchor link prediction methods are introduced. Extensive experiments have been done on real-world social network datasets to compare the performance of these methods with state-of-art anchor link prediction methods. The experimental results show that the proposed Mean-entropy-based Constrained Active Learning (MC) method can outperform other methods with significant advantages.

  3. Genetic marker anchoring by six-dimensional pools for development of a soybean physical map

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaolei; Zhong, Guohua; Findley, Seth D; Cregan, Perry; Stacey, Gary; Nguyen, Henry T

    2008-01-01

    Background Integrated genetic and physical maps are extremely valuable for genomic studies and as important references for assembling whole genome shotgun sequences. Screening of a BAC library using molecular markers is an indispensable procedure for integration of both physical and genetic maps of a genome. Molecular markers provide anchor points for integration of genetic and physical maps and also validate BAC contigs assembled based solely on BAC fingerprints. We employed a six-dimensional BAC pooling strategy and an in silico approach to anchor molecular markers onto the soybean physical map. Results A total of 1,470 markers (580 SSRs and 890 STSs) were anchored by PCR on a subset of a Williams 82 BstY I BAC library pooled into 208 pools in six dimensions. This resulted in 7,463 clones (~1× genome equivalent) associated with 1470 markers, of which the majority of clones (6,157, 82.5%) were anchored by one marker and 1106 (17.5%) individual clones contained two or more markers. This contributed to 1184 contigs having anchor points through this 6-D pool screening effort. In parallel, the 21,700 soybean Unigene set from NCBI was used to perform in silico mapping on 80,700 Williams 82 BAC end sequences (BES). This in silico analysis yielded 9,835 positive results anchored by 4152 unigenes that contributed to 1305 contigs and 1624 singletons. Among the 1305 contigs, 305 have not been previously anchored by PCR. Therefore, 1489 (78.8%) of 1893 contigs are anchored with molecular markers. These results are being integrated with BAC fingerprints to assemble the BAC contigs. Ultimately, these efforts will lead to an integrated physical and genetic map resource. Conclusion We demonstrated that the six-dimensional soybean BAC pools can be efficiently used to anchor markers to soybean BACs despite the complexity of the soybean genome. In addition to anchoring markers, the 6-D pooling method was also effective for targeting BAC clones for investigating gene families and

  4. Genetic marker anchoring by six-dimensional pools for development of a soybean physical map.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaolei; Zhong, Guohua; Findley, Seth D; Cregan, Perry; Stacey, Gary; Nguyen, Henry T

    2008-01-22

    Integrated genetic and physical maps are extremely valuable for genomic studies and as important references for assembling whole genome shotgun sequences. Screening of a BAC library using molecular markers is an indispensable procedure for integration of both physical and genetic maps of a genome. Molecular markers provide anchor points for integration of genetic and physical maps and also validate BAC contigs assembled based solely on BAC fingerprints. We employed a six-dimensional BAC pooling strategy and an in silico approach to anchor molecular markers onto the soybean physical map. A total of 1,470 markers (580 SSRs and 890 STSs) were anchored by PCR on a subset of a Williams 82 BstY I BAC library pooled into 208 pools in six dimensions. This resulted in 7,463 clones (approximately 1x genome equivalent) associated with 1470 markers, of which the majority of clones (6,157, 82.5%) were anchored by one marker and 1106 (17.5%) individual clones contained two or more markers. This contributed to 1184 contigs having anchor points through this 6-D pool screening effort. In parallel, the 21,700 soybean Unigene set from NCBI was used to perform in silico mapping on 80,700 Williams 82 BAC end sequences (BES). This in silico analysis yielded 9,835 positive results anchored by 4152 unigenes that contributed to 1305 contigs and 1624 singletons. Among the 1305 contigs, 305 have not been previously anchored by PCR. Therefore, 1489 (78.8%) of 1893 contigs are anchored with molecular markers. These results are being integrated with BAC fingerprints to assemble the BAC contigs. Ultimately, these efforts will lead to an integrated physical and genetic map resource. We demonstrated that the six-dimensional soybean BAC pools can be efficiently used to anchor markers to soybean BACs despite the complexity of the soybean genome. In addition to anchoring markers, the 6-D pooling method was also effective for targeting BAC clones for investigating gene families and duplicated regions

  5. Linking Composite Scores: Effects of Anchor Test Length and Content Representativeness. Research Report. ETS RR-16-36

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Peng; Dorans, Neil; Weeks, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design is frequently used in test score equating or linking. One important assumption of the NEAT design is that the anchor test is a miniversion of the 2 tests to be equated/linked. When the content of the 2 tests is different, it is not possible for the anchor test to be adequately representative…

  6. Genetic Structure, Linkage Disequilibrium and Signature of Selection in Sorghum: Lessons from Physically Anchored DArT Markers

    PubMed Central

    Bouchet, Sophie; Pot, David; Deu, Monique; Rami, Jean-François; Billot, Claire; Perrier, Xavier; Rivallan, Ronan; Gardes, Laëtitia; Xia, Ling; Wenzl, Peter; Kilian, Andrzej; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Population structure, extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) as well as signatures of selection were investigated in sorghum using a core sample representative of worldwide diversity. A total of 177 accessions were genotyped with 1122 informative physically anchored DArT markers. The properties of DArTs to describe sorghum genetic structure were compared to those of SSRs and of previously published RFLP markers. Model-based (STRUCTURE software) and Neighbor-Joining diversity analyses led to the identification of 6 groups and confirmed previous evolutionary hypotheses. Results were globally consistent between the different marker systems. However, DArTs appeared more robust in terms of data resolution and bayesian group assignment. Whole genome linkage disequilibrium as measured by mean r2 decreased from 0.18 (between 0 to 10 kb) to 0.03 (between 100 kb to 1 Mb), stabilizing at 0.03 after 1 Mb. Effects on LD estimations of sample size and genetic structure were tested using i. random sampling, ii. the Maximum Length SubTree algorithm (MLST), and iii. structure groups. Optimizing population composition by the MLST reduced the biases in small samples and seemed to be an efficient way of selecting samples to make the best use of LD as a genome mapping approach in structured populations. These results also suggested that more than 100,000 markers may be required to perform genome-wide association studies in collections covering worldwide sorghum diversity. Analysis of DArT markers differentiation between the identified genetic groups pointed out outlier loci potentially linked to genes controlling traits of interest, including disease resistance genes for which evidence of selection had already been reported. In addition, evidence of selection near a homologous locus of FAR1 concurred with sorghum phenotypic diversity for sensitivity to photoperiod. PMID:22428056

  7. Multivalent anchoring and cross-linking of mussel-inspired antifouling surface coatings.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qiang; Becherer, Tobias; Mutihac, Radu-Cristian; Noeske, Paul-Ludwig Michael; Paulus, Florian; Haag, Rainer; Grunwald, Ingo

    2014-08-11

    In this work, we combine nature's amazing bioadhesive catechol with the excellent bioinert synthetic macromolecule hyperbranched polyglycerol (hPG) to prepare antifouling surfaces. hPG can be functionalized by different amounts of catechol groups for multivalent anchoring and cross-linking because of its highly branched architecture. The catecholic hPGs can be immobilized on various surfaces including metal oxides, noble metals, ceramics, and polymers via simple incubation procedures. The effect of the catechol amount on the immobilization, surface morphology, stability, and antifouling performance of the coatings was studied. Both anchoring and cross-linking interactions provided by catechols can enhance the stability of the coatings. When the catechol groups on the hPG are underrepresented, the tethering of the coating is not effective; while an overrepresentation of catechol groups leads to protein adsorption and cell adhesion. Thus, only a well-balanced amount of catechols as optimized and described in this work can supply the coatings with both good stability and antifouling ability.

  8. Does Linking Mixed-Format Tests Using a Multiple-Choice Anchor Produce Comparable Results for Male and Female Subgroups? Research Report. ETS RR-11-44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sooyeon; Walker, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the use of subpopulation invariance indices to evaluate the appropriateness of using a multiple-choice (MC) item anchor in mixed-format tests, which include both MC and constructed-response (CR) items. Linking functions were derived in the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design using an MC-only anchor set for 4…

  9. Use of Continuous Exponential Families to Link Forms via Anchor Tests. Research Report. ETS RR-11-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.; Yan, Duanli

    2011-01-01

    Continuous exponential families are applied to linking test forms via an internal anchor. This application combines work on continuous exponential families for single-group designs and work on continuous exponential families for equivalent-group designs. Results are compared to those for kernel and equipercentile equating in the case of chained…

  10. Examining Two Strategies to Link Mixed-Format Tests Using Multiple-Choice Anchors. Research Report. ETS RR-10-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Michael E.; Kim, Sooyeon

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the use of an all multiple-choice (MC) anchor for linking mixed format tests containing both MC and constructed-response (CR) items, in a nonequivalent groups design. An MC-only anchor could effectively link two such test forms if either (a) the MC and CR portions of the test measured the same construct, so that the MC anchor…

  11. TRIM5α requires Ube2W to anchor Lys63-linked ubiquitin chains and restrict reverse transcription

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Adam J; Christensen, Devin E; Nelson, Chad; Tan, Choon Ping; Schaller, Torsten; Lehner, Paul J; Sundquist, Wesley I; Towers, Greg J

    2015-01-01

    TRIM5α is an antiviral, cytoplasmic, E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase that assembles on incoming retroviral capsids and induces their premature dissociation. It inhibits reverse transcription of the viral genome and can also synthesize unanchored polyubiquitin (polyUb) chains to stimulate innate immune responses. Here, we show that TRIM5α employs the E2 Ub-conjugating enzyme Ube2W to anchor the Lys63-linked polyUb chains in a process of TRIM5α auto-ubiquitination. Chain anchoring is initiated, in cells and in vitro, through Ube2W-catalyzed monoubiquitination of TRIM5α. This modification serves as a substrate for the elongation of anchored Lys63-linked polyUb chains, catalyzed by the heterodimeric E2 enzyme Ube2N/Ube2V2. Ube2W targets multiple TRIM5α internal lysines with Ub especially lysines 45 and 50, rather than modifying the N-terminal amino group, which is instead αN-acetylated in cells. E2 depletion or Ub mutation inhibits TRIM5α ubiquitination in cells and restores restricted viral reverse transcription, but not infection. Our data indicate that the stepwise formation of anchored Lys63-linked polyUb is a critical early step in the TRIM5α restriction mechanism and identify the E2 Ub-conjugating cofactors involved. PMID:26101372

  12. Anchoring Linkage Groups of the Rosa Genetic Map to Physical Chromosomes with Tyramide-FISH and EST-SNP Markers

    PubMed Central

    Kirov, Ilya; Van Laere, Katrijn; De Riek, Jan; De Keyser, Ellen; Van Roy, Nadine; Khrustaleva, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    In order to anchor Rosa linkage groups to physical chromosomes, a combination of the Tyramide-FISH technology and the modern molecular marker system based on High Resolution Melting (HRM) is an efficient approach. Although, Tyramide-FISH is a very promising technique for the visualization of short DNA probes, it is very challenging for plant species with small chromosomes such as Rosa. In this study, we successfully applied the Tyramide-FISH technique for Rosa and compared different detection systems. An indirect detection system exploiting biotinylated tyramides was shown to be the most suitable technique for reliable signal detection. Three gene fragments with a size of 1100 pb–1700 bp (Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase, Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthase and Orcinol O-Methyl Transferase) have been physically mapped on chromosomes 7, 4 and 1, respectively, of Rosa wichurana. The signal frequency was between 25% and 40%. HRM markers of these 3 gene fragments were used to include the gene fragments on the existing genetic linkage map of Rosa wichurana. As a result, three linkage groups could be anchored to their physical chromosomes. The information was used to check for synteny between the Rosa chromosomes and Fragaria. PMID:24755945

  13. Anchoring linkage groups of the Rosa genetic map to physical chromosomes with tyramide-FISH and EST-SNP markers.

    PubMed

    Kirov, Ilya; Van Laere, Katrijn; De Riek, Jan; De Keyser, Ellen; Van Roy, Nadine; Khrustaleva, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    In order to anchor Rosa linkage groups to physical chromosomes, a combination of the Tyramide-FISH technology and the modern molecular marker system based on High Resolution Melting (HRM) is an efficient approach. Although, Tyramide-FISH is a very promising technique for the visualization of short DNA probes, it is very challenging for plant species with small chromosomes such as Rosa. In this study, we successfully applied the Tyramide-FISH technique for Rosa and compared different detection systems. An indirect detection system exploiting biotinylated tyramides was shown to be the most suitable technique for reliable signal detection. Three gene fragments with a size of 1100 pb-1700 bp (Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase, Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthase and Orcinol O-Methyl Transferase) have been physically mapped on chromosomes 7, 4 and 1, respectively, of Rosa wichurana. The signal frequency was between 25% and 40%. HRM markers of these 3 gene fragments were used to include the gene fragments on the existing genetic linkage map of Rosa wichurana. As a result, three linkage groups could be anchored to their physical chromosomes. The information was used to check for synteny between the Rosa chromosomes and Fragaria.

  14. A strategy for using multiple linked markers for genetic counseling.

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarti, A; Buetow, K H

    1985-01-01

    A strategy for using multiple linked markers for genetic counseling is to test sequentially individual markers until a diagnosis can be made. We show that in order to minimize the number of tests performed per case while diagnosing all informative cases the order in which the markers are to be tested is critical. We describe an algorithm to obtain this order using the parameter "I," the frequency of informative cases. The I value for a specific locus used depends on the marker frequency, association with the disease locus, and also on the informativeness of the marker loci already tested. Realizing that a direct assay for the beta S gene already exists, and that most cases of beta-thalassemia in Mediterraneans can be directly diagnosed using synthetic oligonucleotide probes, we illustrate the above technique by examining nine DNA polymorphisms in the human beta-globin cluster for their ability to diagnose sickle-cell anemia in American blacks and beta-thalassemia in Mediterraneans. This analysis shows that 95.39% of all sickle-cell pregnancies can be diagnosed by testing a subset of only six markers chosen by our algorithm. Furthermore, six markers can also diagnose 88.03% of beta-thalassemia in Greeks and 83.56% of beta-thalassemia in Italians. The test set is different from that suggested by the individual informative frequencies due to nonrandom associations between the restriction sites. PMID:2996337

  15. BRCA1-linked marker in postmenopausal breast cancer families

    SciTech Connect

    Folsom, A.R.; Chen, P.L.; Sellers, T.A.

    1994-09-01

    A majority of breast and ovarian cancer families and half of the early-onset breast cancer families are linked to markers on 17q (BRCA1). While linkage has been demonstrated in families with premenopausal disease, few studies have tested these markers in families with postmenopausal breast cancer. In the Iowa Women`s Health Study, a population-based study of over 42,000 women, an association of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer was found predominantly in women with a positive family history -- this interaction was associated with a 3.2-fold elevated risk. This effect was even more pronounced when the definition of family history included breast and ovarian cancer, known to be linked to 17q markers. We evaluated evidence for linkage with D17S579, a BRCA-1-linked marker, in 13 families in which the index case had postmenopausal breast cancer. Genotyping for alleles at D17S579 was performed on 84 blood samples. Linkage analysis assumed that the breast cancer trait had an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with a penetrance of 80%. For the 13 families studied, the maximum lod score was 0.29 at a theta of 0.27. There was significant evidence against tight linkage of breast cancer with D17S579 (theta<0.4). Heterogeneity analysis suggested evidence for the presence of both linked and unlinked families. Partitioning informative families on WHR of the index case suggested heterogeneity. These data suggest that, in a subset of families identified by a postmenopausal breast cancer proband, risk of breast cancer may be mediated by BRCA1, with heterogeneity defined by WHR.

  16. Cytodifferentiation in Tetrahymena vorax is linked to glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored protein assembly.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Ryals, P E

    1994-03-15

    The role of glycosyl-PtdIns (GPI)-anchored proteins in the cytodifferentiation of Tetrahymena vorax was examined. Labelling of cells with [3H]myristate or [3H]palmitate followed by electrophoresis showed an array of proteins carrying covalently bound lipids. Electrophoresis of protein from cells labelled with the GPI-anchor components [3H]Ins and [14C]ethanolamine revealed three polypeptides on fluorograms which have apparent molecular masses of approx. 28, 50 and 82 kDa. Labelled lipid associated with these polypeptides was susceptible to release by in vitro exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis PtdIns-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). Using labelled fatty acids, cells induced to differentiate showed altered GPI-anchored protein-labelling patterns in comparison with undifferentiated control cells, with a heavily labelled 32 kDa band appearing upon differentiation. Pre-incubation of cells in 10 mM D-mannosamine, an inhibitor of GPI incorporation into protein, resulted in a reduction of the incorporation of label into the three GPI-anchored proteins, nearly complete inhibition of differentiation and a reduction in the rate of digestive vacuole formation. A 50% inhibition of differentiation was obtained using 500 microM mannosamine. The inhibitory impact of D-mannosamine on differentiation could be competitively and completely reversed by the inclusion of D-mannose, but not D-glucose. Neither glucosamine nor tunicamycin inhibited differentiation. Incubation of cells in PI-PLC (5 units/ml) plus the differentiation inducer resulted in an acceleration of differentiation and generally higher percentages of differentiated cells versus controls.

  17. RAPD markers linked to eastern filbert blight resistance in Corylus avellana

    Treesearch

    S.A. Mehlenbacher; R.N. Brown; J.W. Davis; H. Chen; N.V. Bassil; D.C. Smith; Thomas L. Kubisiak

    2004-01-01

    A total of 1,110 decamer primers were screened for RAPD markers linked to a dominant allele in hazelnut (Corylus avellana) that confers resistance to eastern filbert blight caused by Anisogramma anomnala. Twenty RAPD markers linked in coupling, and five markers linked in repulsion, were found. A seedling population was used to...

  18. Bonding, Bridging, and Linking Social Capital and Self-Rated Health among Chinese Adults: Use of the Anchoring Vignettes Technique

    PubMed Central

    Chen, He; Meng, Tianguang

    2015-01-01

    Three main opposing camps exist over how social capital relates to population health, namely the social support perspective, the inequality thesis, and the political economy approach. The distinction among bonding, bridging, and linking social capital probably helps close the debates between these three camps, which is rarely investigated in existing literatures. Moreover, although self-rated health is a frequently used health indicator in studies on the relationship between social capital and health, the interpersonal incomparability of this measure has been largely neglected. This study has two main objectives. Firstly, we aim to investigate the relationship between bonding, bridging, and linking social capital and self-rated health among Chinese adults. Secondly, we aim to improve the interpersonal comparability in self-rated health measurement. We use data from a nationally representative survey in China. Self-rated health was adjusted using the anchoring vignettes technique to improve comparability. Two-level ordinal logistic regression was performed to model the association between social capital and self-rated health at both individual and community levels. The interaction between residence and social capital was included to examine urban/rural disparities in the relationship. We found that most social capital indicators had a significant relationship with adjusted self-rated health of Chinese adults, but the relationships were mixed. Individual-level bonding, linking social capital, and community-level bridging social capital were positively related with health. Significant urban/rural disparities appeared in the association between community-level bonding, linking social capital, and adjusted self-rated health. For example, people living in communities with higher bonding social capital tended to report poorer adjusted self-rated health in urban areas, but the opposite tendency held for rural areas. Furthermore, the comparison between multivariate analyses

  19. Equating Multiple Tests via an IRT Linking Design: Utilizing a Single Set of Anchor Items with Fixed Common Item Parameters during the Calibration Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yuan H.; Griffith, William D.; Tam, Hak P.

    This study explores the relative merits of a potentially useful item response theory (IRT) linking design: using a single set of anchor items with fixed common item parameters (FCIP) during the calibration process. An empirical study was conducted to investigate the appropriateness of this linking design using 6 groups of students taking 6 forms…

  20. An AFLP marker tightly linked to apomixis reveals hemizygosity in a portion of the apomixis-controlling locus in Paspalum simplex.

    PubMed

    Labombarda, Paola; Busti, Alessandra; Caceres, Maria Eugenia; Pupilli, Fulvio; Arcioni, Sergio

    2002-06-01

    A mapping population of Paspalum simplex segregating for apomixis (asexual reproduction through seeds) was screened with AFLPs to find apomixis-linked markers. Four AFLPs linked to apomixis in coupling phase were found. Three of them did not show recombinants among the 87 individuals of the mapping population, whereas the other was more loosely linked. Integrating the AFLP data with those obtained previously with rice RFLP anchor markers, a map was drawn for the chromosome region of P. simplex encompassing apomixis. We cloned the three AFLPs tightly linked with apomixis into plasmid vectors and used them as probes to hybridize the restriction digested DNA of the mapping population. Two of them revealed RFLP bands linked to apomixis together with other alleles, whereas one was proven to belong to a hemizygous portion of the apomixis locus. The total picture resulting from AFLP and RFLP analyses was that a cluster of markers tightly linked with apomixis was detected in P simplex together with two other markers that were more loosely linked. These two markers enclosed a relatively large chromosome segment characterized by strong repression of recombination. The block of recombination may have caused sequence divergence and, therefore, hemizygosity of some regions belonging to the apomixis-controlling chromosome segment of P. simplex. The potential of developing an apomixis-specific sequence for screening large-fragment libraries for the physical isolation of the locus encompassing apomixis is discussed.

  1. Development of single-locus DNA microsatellite markers using 5'anchored ISSR-PCR method for the mangrove horseshoe crab, Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda (Latreille, 1802) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Adibah, A B; Ling, L Pui; Tan, S G; Faridah, Q Z; Christianus, A

    2012-04-01

    Horseshoe crabs are said to be declining worldwide. However, there is still no published report on the status of horseshoe crabs in Malaysia. Thus, we report here eight informative microsatellite markers that were developed using the 5'-anchored ISSR-PCR enrichment procedure to diagnose the population genetic structure of the mangrove horseshoe crab, Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda from Peninsular Malaysia. This set of markers was tested on 127 samples and showed polymorphism in this species. Hence they should be useful in future essential population genetic studies of these living fossils in the Southeast Asian region.

  2. Intelligent DNA-based molecular diagnostics using linked genetic markers

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, D.K.; Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a knowledge-based system for molecular diagnostics, and its application to fully automated diagnosis of X-linked genetic disorders. Molecular diagnostic information is used in clinical practice for determining genetic risks, such as carrier determination and prenatal diagnosis. Initially, blood samples are obtained from related individuals, and PCR amplification is performed. Linkage-based molecular diagnosis then entails three data analysis steps. First, for every individual, the alleles (i.e., DNA composition) are determined at specified chromosomal locations. Second, the flow of genetic material among the individuals is established. Third, the probability that a given individual is either a carrier of the disease or affected by the disease is determined. The current practice is to perform each of these three steps manually, which is costly, time consuming, labor-intensive, and error-prone. As such, the knowledge-intensive data analysis and interpretation supersede the actual experimentation effort as the major bottleneck in molecular diagnostics. By examining the human problem solving for the task, we have designed and implemented a prototype knowledge-based system capable of fully automating linkage-based molecular diagnostics in X-linked genetic disorders, including Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Our system uses knowledge-based interpretation of gel electrophoresis images to determine individual DNA marker labels, a constraint satisfaction search for consistent genetic flow among individuals, and a blackboard-style problem solver for risk assessment. We describe the system`s successful diagnosis of DMD carrier and affected individuals from raw clinical data.

  3. Exploring Alternative Test Form Linking Designs with Modified Equating Sample Size and Anchor Test Length. Research Report. ETS RR-13-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Qian, Jiahe; Lee, Yi-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of reduced equating sample size and shortened anchor test length on item response theory (IRT)-based linking and equating results. Data from two independent operational forms of a large-scale testing program were used to establish the baseline results for evaluating the results from…

  4. User-friendly markers linked to Fusarium wilt race 1 resistance Fw gene for marker-assisted selection in pea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium wilt is one of the most widespread diseases of pea. Resistance to Fusarium wilt race 1 was reported as a single gene, Fw, located on linkage group III. The previously reported AFLP and RAPD markers linked to Fw have limited usage in marker-assisted selection due to their map distance and l...

  5. Integration of novel SSR and gene-based SNP marker loci in the chickpea genetic map and establishment of new anchor points with Medicago truncatula genome

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Spurthi N.; Zhu, Hongyan; Varghese, Nicy; Datta, Subhojit; Choi, Hong-Kyu; Horres, Ralf; Jüngling, Ruth; Singh, Jagbir; Kavi Kishor, P. B.; Sivaramakrishnan, S.; Hoisington, Dave A.; Kahl, Günter; Winter, Peter; Cook, Douglas R.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the development and mapping of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in chickpea. The mapping population is based on an inter-specific cross between domesticated and non-domesticated genotypes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum ICC 4958 × C. reticulatum PI 489777). This same population has been the focus of previous studies, permitting integration of new and legacy genetic markers into a single genetic map. We report a set of 311 novel SSR markers (designated ICCM—ICRISAT chickpea microsatellite), obtained from an SSR-enriched genomic library of ICC 4958. Screening of these SSR markers on a diverse panel of 48 chickpea accessions provided 147 polymorphic markers with 2–21 alleles and polymorphic information content value 0.04–0.92. Fifty-two of these markers were polymorphic between parental genotypes of the inter-specific population. We also analyzed 233 previously published (H-series) SSR markers that provided another set of 52 polymorphic markers. An additional 71 gene-based SNP markers were developed from transcript sequences that are highly conserved between chickpea and its near relative Medicago truncatula. By using these three approaches, 175 new marker loci along with 407 previously reported marker loci were integrated to yield an improved genetic map of chickpea. The integrated map contains 521 loci organized into eight linkage groups that span 2,602 cM, with an average inter-marker distance of 4.99 cM. Gene-based markers provide anchor points for comparing the genomes of Medicago and chickpea, and reveal extended synteny between these two species. The combined set of genetic markers and their integration into an improved genetic map should facilitate chickpea genetics and breeding, as well as translational studies between chickpea and Medicago. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1265-1) contains supplementary material, which is

  6. Development of a set of PCR-based anchor markers encompassing the tomato genome and evaluation of their usefulness for genetics and breeding experiments.

    PubMed

    Frary, Anne; Xu, Yimin; Liu, Jiping; Mitchell, Sharon; Tedeschi, Eloisa; Tanksley, Steven

    2005-07-01

    Tomato and potato expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences contained in the solanaceae genomics network (SGN) database were screened for simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs. A total of 609 SSRs were identified and assayed on Solanum lycopersicum LA925 (formerly Lycopersicon esculentum) and S. pennellii LA716 (formerly L. pennellii). The SSRs that did not amplify, gave multiple band products, or did not exhibit a polymorphism that could be readily detected on standard agarose gels in either of these species were eliminated. A set of 76 SSRs meeting these criteria was then placed on the S. lycopersicum (LA925) x S. pennellii (LA716) high-density map. A set of 76 selected cleaved amplified polymorphism (CAP) markers was also developed and mapped onto the same population. These 152 PCR-based anchor markers are uniformly distributed and encompass 95% of the genome with an average spacing of 10.0 cM. These PCR-based markers were further used to characterize S. pennellii introgression lines (Eshed and Zamir, Genetics 141:1147-1162, 1995) and should prove helpful in utilizing these stocks for high-resolution mapping experiments. The majority of these anchor markers also exhibit polymorphism between S. lycopersicum and two wild species commonly used as parents for mapping experiments, S. pimpinellifolium (formerly L. pimpinellifolium) and S. habrochaites (formerly L. hirsutum), indicating that they will be useful for mapping in other interspecific populations. Sixty of the mapped SSRs plus another 49 microsatellites were tested for polymorphism in seven tomato cultivars, four S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme accessions and eight accessions of five different wild tomato species. Polymorphism information content values were highest among the wild accessions, with as many as 13 alleles detected per locus over all accessions. Most of the SSRs (90%) had accession-specific alleles, with the most unique alleles and heterozygotes usually found in accessions of self

  7. A High-Resolution InDel (Insertion–Deletion) Markers-Anchored Consensus Genetic Map Identifies Major QTLs Governing Pod Number and Seed Yield in Chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Rishi; Singh, Mohar; Bajaj, Deepak; Parida, Swarup K.

    2016-01-01

    Development and large-scale genotyping of user-friendly informative genome/gene-derived InDel markers in natural and mapping populations is vital for accelerating genomics-assisted breeding applications of chickpea with minimal resource expenses. The present investigation employed a high-throughput whole genome next-generation resequencing strategy in low and high pod number parental accessions and homozygous individuals constituting the bulks from each of two inter-specific mapping populations [(Pusa 1103 × ILWC 46) and (Pusa 256 × ILWC 46)] to develop non-erroneous InDel markers at a genome-wide scale. Comparing these high-quality genomic sequences, 82,360 InDel markers with reference to kabuli genome and 13,891 InDel markers exhibiting differentiation between low and high pod number parental accessions and bulks of aforementioned mapping populations were developed. These informative markers were structurally and functionally annotated in diverse coding and non-coding sequence components of genome/genes of kabuli chickpea. The functional significance of regulatory and coding (frameshift and large-effect mutations) InDel markers for establishing marker-trait linkages through association/genetic mapping was apparent. The markers detected a greater amplification (97%) and intra-specific polymorphic potential (58–87%) among a diverse panel of cultivated desi, kabuli, and wild accessions even by using a simpler cost-efficient agarose gel-based assay implicating their utility in large-scale genetic analysis especially in domesticated chickpea with narrow genetic base. Two high-density inter-specific genetic linkage maps generated using aforesaid mapping populations were integrated to construct a consensus 1479 InDel markers-anchored high-resolution (inter-marker distance: 0.66 cM) genetic map for efficient molecular mapping of major QTLs governing pod number and seed yield per plant in chickpea. Utilizing these high-density genetic maps as anchors, three major

  8. A novel membrane anchor for FtsZ is linked to cell wall hydrolysis in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Meier, Elizabeth L; Razavi, Shiva; Inoue, Takanari; Goley, Erin D

    2016-07-01

    In most bacteria, the tubulin-like GTPase FtsZ forms an annulus at midcell (the Z-ring) which recruits the division machinery and regulates cell wall remodeling. Although both activities require membrane attachment of FtsZ, few membrane anchors have been characterized. FtsA is considered to be the primary membrane tether for FtsZ in bacteria, however in Caulobacter crescentus, FtsA arrives at midcell after stable Z-ring assembly and early FtsZ-directed cell wall synthesis. We hypothesized that additional proteins tether FtsZ to the membrane and demonstrate that in C. crescentus, FzlC is one such membrane anchor. FzlC associates with membranes directly in vivo and in vitro and recruits FtsZ to membranes in vitro. As for most known membrane anchors, the C-terminal peptide of FtsZ is required for its recruitment to membranes by FzlC in vitro and midcell recruitment of FzlC in cells. In vivo, overproduction of FzlC causes cytokinesis defects whereas deletion of fzlC causes synthetic defects with dipM, ftsE and amiC mutants, implicating FzlC in cell wall hydrolysis. Our characterization of FzlC as a novel membrane anchor for FtsZ expands our understanding of FtsZ regulators and establishes a role for membrane-anchored FtsZ in the regulation of cell wall hydrolysis.

  9. Multiple Brain Markers are Linked to Age-Related Variation in Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Hedden, Trey; Schultz, Aaron P.; Rieckmann, Anna; Mormino, Elizabeth C.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Buckner, Randy L.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related alterations in brain structure and function have been challenging to link to cognition due to potential overlapping influences of multiple neurobiological cascades. We examined multiple brain markers associated with age-related variation in cognition. Clinically normal older humans aged 65–90 from the Harvard Aging Brain Study (N = 186) were characterized on a priori magnetic resonance imaging markers of gray matter thickness and volume, white matter hyperintensities, fractional anisotropy (FA), resting-state functional connectivity, positron emission tomography markers of glucose metabolism and amyloid burden, and cognitive factors of processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Partial correlation and mediation analyses estimated age-related variance in cognition shared with individual brain markers and unique to each marker. The largest relationships linked FA and striatum volume to processing speed and executive function, and hippocampal volume to episodic memory. Of the age-related variance in cognition, 70–80% was accounted for by combining all brain markers (but only ∼20% of total variance). Age had significant indirect effects on cognition via brain markers, with significant markers varying across cognitive domains. These results suggest that most age-related variation in cognition is shared among multiple brain markers, but potential specificity between some brain markers and cognitive domains motivates additional study of age-related markers of neural health. PMID:25316342

  10. Multiple Brain Markers are Linked to Age-Related Variation in Cognition.

    PubMed

    Hedden, Trey; Schultz, Aaron P; Rieckmann, Anna; Mormino, Elizabeth C; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Buckner, Randy L

    2016-04-01

    Age-related alterations in brain structure and function have been challenging to link to cognition due to potential overlapping influences of multiple neurobiological cascades. We examined multiple brain markers associated with age-related variation in cognition. Clinically normal older humans aged 65-90 from the Harvard Aging Brain Study (N = 186) were characterized on a priori magnetic resonance imaging markers of gray matter thickness and volume, white matter hyperintensities, fractional anisotropy (FA), resting-state functional connectivity, positron emission tomography markers of glucose metabolism and amyloid burden, and cognitive factors of processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Partial correlation and mediation analyses estimated age-related variance in cognition shared with individual brain markers and unique to each marker. The largest relationships linked FA and striatum volume to processing speed and executive function, and hippocampal volume to episodic memory. Of the age-related variance in cognition, 70-80% was accounted for by combining all brain markers (but only ∼20% of total variance). Age had significant indirect effects on cognition via brain markers, with significant markers varying across cognitive domains. These results suggest that most age-related variation in cognition is shared among multiple brain markers, but potential specificity between some brain markers and cognitive domains motivates additional study of age-related markers of neural health.

  11. Fabrication of manganese dioxide nanoplates anchoring on biomass-derived cross-linked carbon nanosheets for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiju; Yu, Neng; Yan, Peng; Li, Yuguang; Zhou, Xuemei; Chen, Shuangling; Wang, Guiling; Wei, Tong; Fan, Zhuangjun

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, MnO2 nanoplates loading on biomass-derived cross-linked carbon nanosheets have been prepared by a two-step synthesis. At first, the cross-linked carbon nanosheets derived from willow catkin are synthesized by one-step pyrolysis and activation method, then the MnO2 anchored cross-linked carbon nanosheets is prepared via in-situ hydrothermal deposition. The asymmetric supercapacitor with terrific energy and power density is assembled by employing the MnO2 anchored cross-linked carbon nanosheets as the positive electrode and the cross-linked carbon nanosheets as the negative electrode in a 1 M Na2SO4 electrolyte. The asymmetric supercapacitor displays a high energy density of 23.6 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 188.8 W kg-1 within a wide voltage rage of 0-1.9 V. In addition, the asymmetric supercapacitor exhibits excellent cycling stability with only 1.4% capacitance loss after 10000 cycles at 1 A g-1. These discoveries open up the prospect of biomass/biowaste derived carbon-based composites for high-voltage asymmetric supercapacitors with superb energy and power density performance.

  12. Identification of two AFLP markers linked to bacterial wilt resistance in tomato and conversion to SCAR markers.

    PubMed

    Miao, Lixiang; Shou, Senyan; Cai, Jiayan; Jiang, Fang; Zhu, Zhujun; Li, Hongbin

    2009-03-01

    Tomato bacterial wilt (BW) incited by Ralstonia solanacearum is a constraint on tomato production in tropical, subtropical and humid regions of the world. In this paper, we present the results of a research aimed at the identification of PCR-based markers amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) linked to the genes that confer resistance to tomato BW. To this purpose, bulked segregant analysis was applied to an F(2) population segregating for the BW resistant gene and derived from the pair-cross between a BW resistant cultivar T51A and the susceptible cultivar T9230. Genetic analysis indicated that tomato BW was conferred by two incomplete dominant genes. A CTAB method for total DNA extraction, developed by Murray and Thompson with some modifications was used to isolation the infected tomato leaves. Thirteen differential fragments were detected using 256 primer combinations, and two AFLP markers were linked to the BW resistance. Subsequently, the AFLP markers were converted to co-dominant SCAR markers, named TSCAR(AAT/CGA) and TSCAR(AAG/CAT). Linkage analysis showed that the two markers are on the contralateral side of TRSR-1. Genetic distance between TSCAR(AAT/CGA) and TRS-1 was estimated to 4.6 cM, while 8.4 cM between TSCAR(AAG/CAT) and TRS-1.

  13. [RAPD and SCAR molecular markers linked to the sexuality of cycads (Cycas tanqingii D. Y. Wang)].

    PubMed

    Jing, Jian-Zhou; Jin, Hong; Li, Dong-Liang; Chen, Xiao-Ke; Zhang, Yong

    2007-11-01

    The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to amplify DNA fragment, aiming at finding markers linked to the sex trait in Cycas tanqingii D. Y. Wang. A total number of 160 random primers were screened in the RAPD-PCR and more than 2500 RAPD fragments were generated from the male or the female plants. One fragment of about 500 bp was amplified steadily and repeatedly by the S0465 (CCCCGGTAAC) primer only from female plants but not male plants. The RAPD marker was then converted into female-linked dominant SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Regions) marker named STQC-S465-483. The development of this sex-linked SCAR marker provides a possibility of identifying the sex of Cycas tanqingii before sexual maturation, which is very important to in situ or ex situ conservation.

  14. Molecular markers linked to the apple scab resistance gene Vbj derived from Malus baccata jackii.

    PubMed

    Gygax, M; Gianfranceschi, L; Liebhard, R; Kellerhals, M; Gessler, C; Patocchi, A

    2004-11-01

    Breeding for scab-resistant apple cultivars by pyramiding several resistance genes in the same genetic background is a promising way to control apple scab caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis. To achieve this goal, DNA markers linked to the genes of interest are required in order to select seedlings with the desired resistance allele combinations. For several apple scab resistance genes, molecular markers are already available; but until now, none existed for the apple scab resistance gene Vbj originating from the crab apple Malus baccata jackii. Using bulk segregant analysis, three RAPD markers linked to Vbj were first identified. These markers were transformed into more reliable sequence-characterised amplified region (SCAR) markers that proved to be co-dominant. In addition, three SSR markers and one SCAR were identified by comparing homologous linkage groups of existing genetic maps. Discarding plants showing genotype-phenotype incongruence (GPI plants) plants, a linkage map was calculated. Vbj mapped between the markers CH05e03 (SSR) and T6-SCAR, at 0.6 cM from CH05e03 and at 3.9 cM from T6-SCAR. Without the removal of the GPI plants, Vbj was placed 15 cM away from the closest markers. Problems and pitfalls due to GPI plants and the consequences for mapping the resistance gene accurately are discussed. Finally, the usefulness of co-dominant markers for pedigree analysis is also demonstrated.

  15. Transmission/Disequilibrium Test Based on Haplotype Sharing for Tightly Linked Markers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuanglin; Sha, Qiuying; Chen, Huann-Sheng; Dong, Jianping; Jiang, Renfang

    2003-01-01

    Studies using haplotypes of multiple tightly linked markers are more informative than those using a single marker. However, studies based on multimarker haplotypes have some difficulties. First, if we consider each haplotype as an allele and use the conventional single-marker transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT), then the rapid increase in the degrees of freedom with an increasing number of markers means that the statistical power of the conventional tests will be low. Second, the parental haplotypes cannot always be unambiguously reconstructed. In the present article, we propose a haplotype-sharing TDT (HS-TDT) for linkage or association between a disease-susceptibility locus and a chromosome region in which several tightly linked markers have been typed. This method is applicable to both quantitative traits and qualitative traits. It is applicable to any size of nuclear family, with or without ambiguous phase information, and it is applicable to any number of alleles at each of the markers. The degrees of freedom (in a broad sense) of the test increase linearly as the number of markers considered increases but do not increase as the number of alleles at the markers increases. Our simulation results show that the HS-TDT has the correct type I error rate in structured populations and that, in most cases, the power of HS-TDT is higher than the power of the existing single-marker TDTs and haplotype-based TDTs. PMID:12929082

  16. SNP marker development for linkage map construction, anchoring of the common bean whole genome sequence and genetic research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objectives were to identify SNP DNA markers based on a diverse set of common bean cultivars via next generation sequencing technologies; to develop Illumina Infinium BeadChip assays containing SNPs with high polymorphism within and between common bean market classes, to create high density genet...

  17. SCAR markers linked to the common bean rust resistance gene Ur-13.

    PubMed

    Mienie, C M S; Liebenberg, M M; Pretorius, Z A; Miklas, P N

    2005-09-01

    Rust in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is caused by Uromyces appendiculatus Pers.:Pers. (Unger) which exhibits a high level of pathogenic diversity. Resistance to this disease is conditioned by a considerable number of genes. Pyramiding resistance genes is desirable and could be simplified by the use of molecular markers closely linked to the genes. The resistance gene Ur-13, present in the South African large seeded cultivar Kranskop, has been used extensively in the local breeding program. The purpose of this study was the development of a molecular marker linked to Ur-13. An F(2) population derived from a cross between Kranskop and a susceptible (South African) cultivar Bonus was used in combination with bulked segregant analysis utilizing the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. Seven AFLP fragments linked significantly to the rust resistance and five were successfully converted to sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. The co-dominant SCAR markers derived from a 405 bp EAACMACC fragment, KB 126, was located 1.6 cM from the gene. Two additional SCAR markers and one cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence marker were located further from the gene. The gene was mapped to linkage group B8 on the BAT 93/Jalo EEP 558 core map (chromosome 3).

  18. Genetic hetergoeneity in X-linked hydrocephalus: Linkage to markers within Xq27. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Strain, L.; Brock, D.J.H.; Bonthron, D.T. ); Gosden, C.M. )

    1994-02-01

    X-linked hydrocephalus is a well-defined disorder which accounts for [ge]70% of hydrocephalus in males. Pathologically, the conditions is characterized by stenosis or obliteration of the aqueduct of Sylvius. Previous genetic linkage studies have suggested likelihood of genetic homogeneity for this condition, with close linkage to the DXS52 and F8C markers in Xq28. The authors have investigated a family with typical X-linked aqueductal stenosis, in which no linkage to these markers was present. In this family, close linkage was established to the DXS548 and FRAXA loci in Xq27.3. The findings demonstrate that X-linked aqueductal stenosis may result from mutations at two different loci on the X chromosome. Caution is indicated in using linkage for the prenatal diagnosis of X-linked hydrocephalus. 43 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Identification of genetic markers linked to anthracnose resistance in sorghum using association analysis.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Hari D; Wang, Yi-Hong; Sharma, Rajan; Sharma, Shivali

    2013-06-01

    Anthracnose in sorghum caused by Colletotrichum sublineolum is one of the most destructive diseases affecting sorghum production under warm and humid conditions. Markers and genes linked to resistance to the disease are important for plant breeding. Using 14,739 SNP markers, we have mapped eight loci linked to resistance in sorghum through association analysis of a sorghum mini-core collection consisting of 242 diverse accessions evaluated for anthracnose resistance for 2 years in the field. The mini-core was representative of the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics' world-wide sorghum landrace collection. Eight marker loci were associated with anthracnose resistance in both years. Except locus 8, disease resistance-related genes were found in all loci based on their physical distance from linked SNP markers. These include two NB-ARC class of R genes on chromosome 10 that were partially homologous to the rice blast resistance gene Pib, two hypersensitive response-related genes: autophagy-related protein 3 on chromosome 1 and 4 harpin-induced 1 (Hin1) homologs on chromosome 8, a RAV transcription factor that is also part of R gene pathway, an oxysterol-binding protein that functions in the non-specific host resistance, and homologs of menthone:neomenthol reductase (MNR) that catalyzes a menthone reduction to produce the antimicrobial neomenthol. These genes and markers may be developed into molecular tools for genetic improvement of anthracnose resistance in sorghum.

  20. Finding linked markers to En for efficient selection of pea enation Mosaic Virus resistance in pea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) causes an important disease of cool season food legumes, resulting in significant yield loss worldwide. The present investigation was carried out to study the inheritance and identify the molecular markers linked with the PEMV resistance gene (En) in field pea (Pisum ...

  1. Bulked segregant analysis identifies molecular markers linked to Melampsora medusae resistance in Populus deltoides

    Treesearch

    G. M. Tabor; Thomas L. Kubisiak; N. B. Klopfenstein; R. B. Hall; Henry S. McNabb

    2000-01-01

    In the north central United States, leaf rust caused by Melampsora medusae is a major disease problem on Populus deltoides. In this study we identified molecular markers linked to a M. medusae resistance locus (Lrd1) that was segregating 1:1 within an intraspecific P. deltoides...

  2. Identification of molecular markers linked to the mildew resistance gene Pl-d in apple.

    PubMed

    James, C M; Clarke, J B; Evans, K M

    2004-12-01

    Powdery mildew poses a serious problem for apple growers, and resistance to the disease is a major objective in breeding programmes for cultivar improvement. As selective pressure allows pathogens to overcome previously reliable resistances, there is a need for the introduction of novel resistance genes into new breeding lines. This investigation is concerned with the identification of the first set of molecular markers linked to the gene for mildew resistance, Pl-d, from the accession 'D12'. As no prior information on the map position or markers for Pl-d were available, a bulked-segregant approach was used to test 49 microsatellite primers, 176 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primers and 80 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers in a progeny segregating for Pl-d resistance, 'Fiesta' (susceptible) x A871-14 ('Worcester Pearmain' x 'D12'). The segregations of the markers identified in the resistant and susceptible bulks were scored in the progeny, then the recombination fractions between Pl-d and the most tightly linked markers were calculated and a map prepared. Three AFLP, one RAPD and two microsatellite markers were identified. One AFLP was developed into a sequence-characterised amplified region marker, while the microsatellites CH03C02 and CH01D03 were flanking markers, 7 and 11 recombination units, respectively, from Pl-d. Two more distant microsatellites on the same linkage group, CH01D09 and CH01G12, confirmed the orientation of the markers on the linkage group. These microsatellites place Pl-d on the bottom of linkage group 12 in published apple maps, a region where a number of other disease resistance genes have been identified.

  3. Contrasting responses to selection in class I and class IIα major histocompatibility-linked markers in salmon

    PubMed Central

    Consuegra, S; de Eyto, E; McGinnity, P; Stet, R J M; Jordan, W C

    2011-01-01

    Comparison of levels and patterns of genetic variation in natural populations either across loci or against neutral expectation can yield insight into locus-specific differences in the strength and direction of evolutionary forces. We used both approaches to test the hypotheses on patterns of selection on major histocompatibility (MH)-linked markers. We performed temporal analyses of class I and class IIα MH-linked markers and eight microsatellite loci in two Atlantic salmon populations in Ireland on two temporal scales: over six decades and 9 years in the rivers Burrishoole and Delphi, respectively. We also compared contemporary Burrishoole and Delphi samples with nearby populations for the same loci. On comparing patterns of temporal and spatial differentiation among classes of loci, the class IIα MH-linked marker was consistently identified as an outlier compared with patterns at the other microsatellite loci or neutral expectation. We found higher levels of temporal and spatial heterogeneity in heterozygosity (but not in allelic richness) for the class IIα MH-linked marker compared with microsatellites. Tests on both within- and among-population differentiation are consistent with directional selection acting on the class IIα-linked marker in both temporal and spatial comparisons, but only in temporal comparisons for the class I-linked marker. Our results indicate a complex pattern of selection on MH-linked markers in natural populations of Atlantic salmon. These findings highlight the importance of considering selection on MH-linked markers when using these markers for management and conservation purposes. PMID:21266985

  4. Examining the Impact of Drifted Polytomous Anchor Items on Test Characteristic Curve (TCC) Linking and IRT True Score Equating. Research Report. ETS RR-12-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yanmei

    2012-01-01

    In a common-item (anchor) equating design, the common items should be evaluated for item parameter drift. Drifted items are often removed. For a test that contains mostly dichotomous items and only a small number of polytomous items, removing some drifted polytomous anchor items may result in anchor sets that no longer resemble mini-versions of…

  5. Development of a codominant CAPS marker linked to PRSV-P resistance in highland papaya.

    PubMed

    Dillon, S; Ramage, C; Ashmore, S; Drew, R A

    2006-10-01

    Development of resistant papaya varieties is widely considered the best strategy for long-term control of the papaya ringspot virus type P (PRSV-P). Several species of "highland papaya" from the related genus Vasconcellea exhibit complete resistance to PRSV-P, and present a valuable source of resistance genes with potential for application in Carica papaya. The objectives of this study were two fold; to identify molecular markers linked to a previously characterised PRSV-P resistance gene in V. cundinamarcensis (psrv-1), and to develop codominant marker based strategies for reliable selection of PRSV-P resistant genotypes. Using a bulked segregant analysis approach, dominant randomly amplified DNA fingerprint (RAF) markers linked to prsv-1 were revealed in the resistant DNA bulk, which comprised F2 progeny from a V. parviflora (susceptible) x V. cundinamarcensis (resistant) interspecific cross. One marker, Opk4_1r, mapped adjacent to the prsv-1 locus at 5.4 cM, while a second, Opa11_5r, collocated with it. Sequence characterisation of the Opk4_1r marker permitted its conversion into a codominant CAPS marker (PsiIk4), diagnostic for the resistant genotype based on digestion with the restriction endonuclease PsiI. This marker mapped within 2 cM of the prsv-1 locus. Psilk4 was shown to correctly identify resistant genotypes 99% of the time when applied to interspecific F2 progeny segregating for the resistant character, and has potential for application in breeding programs aimed to deliver the PRSV-P resistance gene from V. cundinamarcensis into C. papaya.

  6. Sex-linked AFLP markers indicate a pseudoautosomal region in hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Peil, A; Flachowsky, H; Schumann, E; Weber, W E

    2003-06-01

    In dioecious plants of hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.), males are regarded as heterogametic XY and females as homogametic XX, although it is difficult to discriminate the X cytologically from the Y. The Y chromosome is somewhat larger than the X. Our aim was to analyse AFLP markers on X and Y, and to use them to gain some insight into the structure of the sex chromosomes. Markers located on the sex chromosomes can be grouped into different classes, depending on the presence or absence of a fragment on the X and/or the Y. They are detected by separately analysing male and female progenies of a single cross. Five markers were found to be located on both chromosomes. A few recombinants were observed for marker pairs of this class in the male progenies. Two completely linked markers located on the Y chromosome in the male parent show a recombination rate of r = 0.25 with sex. Recombination must have occurred between the sex chromosomes in the male parent. The recombination analysis led to the conclusion that there is a pseudoautosomal region (PAR) on the sex chromosomes, allowing recombination between the X and the Y chromosome. The other regions of the sex chromosomes show only a few recombination events, for the Y as well as for the X. These results are discussed in comparison to other dioecious plants.

  7. SCAR, RAPD and RFLP markers linked to a dominant gene (Are) conferring resistance to anthracnose in common bean.

    PubMed

    Adam-Blondon, A F; Sévignac, M; Bannerot, H; Dron, M

    1994-08-01

    Anthracnose, caused by the fungusColletotrichum lindemuthianum, is a severe disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) controlled, in Europe, by a single dominant gene,Are. Four pairs of near-isogenic lines (NILs) were constructed, in which theAre gene was introgressed into different genetic backgrounds. These pairs of NILs were used to search for DNA markers linked to the resistance gene. Nine molecular markers, five RAPDs and four RFLPs, were found to discriminate between the resistant and the susceptible members of these NILs. A backcross progeny of 120 individuals was analysed to map these markers in relation to theAre locus. Five out of the nine markers were shown to be linked to theAre gene within a distance of 12.0 cM. The most tightly linked, a RAPD marker, was used to generate a pair of primers that specifically amplify this RAPD (sequence characterized amplified region, SCAR).

  8. Anchor Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regardt, Olle; Rönnbäck, Lars; Bergholtz, Maria; Johannesson, Paul; Wohed, Petia

    Maintaining and evolving data warehouses is a complex, error prone, and time consuming activity. The main reason for this state of affairs is that the environment of a data warehouse is in constant change, while the warehouse itself needs to provide a stable and consistent interface to information spanning extended periods of time. In this paper, we propose a modeling technique for data warehousing, called anchor modeling, that offers non-destructive extensibility mechanisms, thereby enabling robust and flexible management of changes in source systems. A key benefit of anchor modeling is that changes in a data warehouse environment only require extensions, not modifications, to the data warehouse. This ensures that existing data warehouse applications will remain unaffected by the evolution of the data warehouse, i.e. existing views and functions will not have to be modified as a result of changes in the warehouse model.

  9. Collagen VI: A New Candidate Breast Cancer Marker Linked to Resistance to Platinum-Based Cancer Drugs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    cancer marker linked to resistance to platinum-based cancer drugs PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jiyoung Park, Ph.D...breast cancer marker linked to resistance to platinum- based cancer drugs 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-09-1-0562 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...effects on drug resistance , I have tested COL6A3-C5 neutralizing antibodies in combination with cisplatin and TZD using the primary cultured tumor cells

  10. Sibship T2 association tests of complex diseases for tightly linked markers.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ruzong; Knapp, Michael

    2005-06-01

    For population case-control association studies, the false-positive rates can be high due to inappropriate controls, which can occur if there is population admixture or stratification. Moreover, it is not always clear how to choose appropriate controls. Alternatively, the parents or normal sibs can be used as controls of affected sibs. For late-onset complex diseases, parental data are not usually available. One way to study late-onset disorders is to perform sib-pair or sibship analyses. This paper proposes sibship-based Hotelling's T2 test statistics for high-resolution linkage disequilibrium mapping of complex diseases. For a sample of sibships, suppose that each sibship consists of at least one affected sib and at least one normal sib. Assume that genotype data of multiple tightly linked markers/haplotypes are available for each individual in the sample. Paired Hotelling's T2 test statistics are proposed for high-resolution association studies using normal sibs as controls for affected sibs, based on two coding methods: 'haplotype/allele coding' and 'genotype coding'. The paired Hotelling's T2 tests take into account not only the correlation among the markers, but also take the correlation within each sib-pair. The validity of the proposed method is justified by rigorous mathematical and statistical proofs under the large sample theory. The non-centrality parameter approximations of the test statistics are calculated for power and sample size calculations. By carrying out power and simulation studies, it was found that the non-centrality parameter approximations of the test statistics were accurate. By power and type I error analysis, the test statistics based on the 'haplotype/allele coding' method were found to be advantageous in comparison to the test statistics based on the 'genotype coding' method. The test statistics based on multiple markers can have higher power than those based on a single marker. The test statistics can be applied not only for bi

  11. The likelihood ratio as a random variable for linked markers in kinship analysis.

    PubMed

    Egeland, Thore; Slooten, Klaas

    2016-11-01

    The likelihood ratio is the fundamental quantity that summarizes the evidence in forensic cases. Therefore, it is important to understand the theoretical properties of this statistic. This paper is the last in a series of three, and the first to study linked markers. We show that for all non-inbred pairwise kinship comparisons, the expected likelihood ratio in favor of a type of relatedness depends on the allele frequencies only via the number of alleles, also for linked markers, and also if the true relationship is another one than is tested for by the likelihood ratio. Exact expressions for the expectation and variance are derived for all these cases. Furthermore, we show that the expected likelihood ratio is a non-increasing function if the recombination rate increases between 0 and 0.5 when the actual relationship is the one investigated by the LR. Besides being of theoretical interest, exact expressions such as obtained here can be used for software validation as they allow to verify the correctness up to arbitrary precision. The paper also presents results and advice of practical importance. For example, we argue that the logarithm of the likelihood ratio behaves in a fundamentally different way than the likelihood ratio itself in terms of expectation and variance, in agreement with its interpretation as weight of evidence. Equipped with the results presented and freely available software, one may check calculations and software and also do power calculations.

  12. Development of co-dominant SCAR markers linked to resistant gene against the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Nedim; Demirelli, Aylin; Ilbi, Hülya; Ikten, Cengiz

    2015-09-01

    We developed highly reliable co-dominant SCAR markers linked to the Frl gene. FORL testing is difficult. The marker is expected to be quickly adapted for MAS by tomato breeders. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici causes Fusarium crown and root rot (FCR), an economically important soil-borne disease of tomato. The resistance against FCR is conferred by a single dominant gene (Frl) located on chromosome 9. The aim of this study was to develop molecular markers linked to the Frl gene for use in marker-assisted breeding (MAS) programs. The FCR-resistant 'Fla. 7781' and susceptible 'B560' lines were crossed, and F1 was both selfed and backcrossed to 'B560' to generate segregating F2 and BC1 populations. The two conserved set II (COSII) markers were found linked to the Frl gene, one co-segregated with FCR resistance in both F2 and BC1 populations and the other was 8.5 cM away. Both COSII markers were converted into co-dominant SCAR markers. SCARFrl marker produced a 950 and a 1000 bp fragments for resistant and susceptible alleles, respectively. The linkage of SCARFrl marker was confirmed in BC2F3 populations developed by backcrossing the resistant 'Fla. 7781' to five different susceptible lines. The SCARFrl marker has been in use in the tomato breeding programs in BATEM, Antalya, Turkey, since 2012 and has proved highly reliable. The SCARFrl marker is expected to aid in the development of FCR-resistant lines via marker-assisted selection (MAS).

  13. Development of molecular markers tightly linked to Pvr4 gene in pepper using next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Devran, Zübeyir; Kahveci, Erdem; Özkaynak, Ercan; Studholme, David J; Tör, Mahmut

    It is imperative to identify highly polymorphic and tightly linked markers of a known trait for molecular marker-assisted selection. Potyvirus resistance 4 (Pvr4) locus in pepper confers resistance to three pathotypes of potato virus Y and to pepper mottle virus. We describe the use of next-generation sequencing technology to generate molecular markers tightly linked to Pvr4. Initially, comparative genomics was carried out, and a syntenic region of tomato on chromosome ten was used to generate PCR-based markers and map Pvr4. Subsequently, the genomic sequence of pepper was used, and more than 5000 single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) were identified within the interval. In addition, we identified nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat-type disease resistance genes within the interval. Several of these SNVs were converted to molecular markers desirable for large-scale molecular breeding programmes.

  14. Development of SSR Markers Linked to Low Hydrocyanic Acid Content in Sorghum-Sudan Grass Hybrid Based on BSA Method.

    PubMed

    Xiao-Xia, Yu; Zhi-Hua, Liu; Zhuo, Yu; Yue, Shi; Xiao-Yu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum-Sudan grass hybrid containing high hydrocyanic acid content can cause hydrocyanic acid poisoning to the livestock and limit the popularization of this forage crop. Molecular markers associated with low hydrocyanic acid content can speed up the process of identification of genotypes with low hydrocyanic acid content. In the present study, 11 polymorphic SSR primers were screened and used for bulked segregant analysis and single marker analysis. Three SSR markers Xtxp7230, Xtxp7375 and Bnlg667960 associated with low hydrocyanic acid content were rapidly identified by BSA. In single marker analysis, six markers Xtxp7230, Xtxp7375, Bnlg667960, Xtxp67-11, Xtxp295-7 and Xtxp12-9 were linked to low hydrocyanic acid content, which explained the proportion of phenotypic variation from 7.6 % to 41.2 %. The markers identified by BSA were also verified by single marker analysis. The three SSR marker bands were then cloned and sequenced for sequence homology analysis in NCBI. It is the first report on the development of molecular markers associated with low hydrocyanic acid content in sorghum- Sudan grass hybrid. These markers will be useful for genetic improvement of low hydrocyanic acid sorghum-Sudan grass hybrid by marker-assisted breeding.

  15. Markers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    Dry erase whiteboards come with toxic dry erase markers and toxic cleaning products. Dry erase markers labeled "nontoxic" are not free of toxic chemicals and can cause health problems. Children are especially vulnerable to environmental health hazards; moreover, schools commonly have problems with indoor air pollution, as they are more densely…

  16. Massively parallel sequencing of single cells by epicPCR links functional genes with phylogenetic markers.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Sarah J; Tamminen, Manu V; Preheim, Sarah P; Guo, Mira T; Briggs, Adrian W; Brito, Ilana L; A Weitz, David; Pitkänen, Leena K; Vigneault, Francois; Juhani Virta, Marko P; Alm, Eric J

    2016-02-01

    Many microbial communities are characterized by high genetic diversity. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing can determine community members, and metagenomics can determine the functional diversity, but resolving the functional role of individual cells in high throughput remains an unsolved challenge. Here, we describe epicPCR (Emulsion, Paired Isolation and Concatenation PCR), a new technique that links functional genes and phylogenetic markers in uncultured single cells, providing a throughput of hundreds of thousands of cells with costs comparable to one genomic library preparation. We demonstrate the utility of our technique in a natural environment by profiling a sulfate-reducing community in a freshwater lake, revealing both known sulfate reducers and discovering new putative sulfate reducers. Our method is adaptable to any conserved genetic trait and translates genetic associations from diverse microbial samples into a sequencing library that answers targeted ecological questions. Potential applications include identifying functional community members, tracing horizontal gene transfer networks and mapping ecological interactions between microbial cells.

  17. Development of three X-linked tetrameric microsatellite markers for forensic purposes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chunnan; Fu, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaojing; Ma, Chunling; Yu, Feng; Li, Shujin; Cong, Bin

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we obtained sequence and population genetic data for three X-linked short tandem repeat markers (X-STRs; DXS7129, DXS2500, G10583). We investigated their population genetics and estimated their forensic parameters in 214 healthy unrelated individuals from the Han population of Northern China (105 males and 109 females). We showed that DXS2500 and G10583 were highly polymorphic and thus have potential for application in forensic medicine. We also estimated the overall linkage disequilibrium between pairs of loci, specific multiallelic or interallelic associations, and haplotype frequencies in males. We showed that the three X-STR loci segregate as stable haplotype blocks; this could be a powerful tool for haplotype analysis in kinship testing.

  18. Markers, Models, and Measurement Error: Exploring the Links Between Attention Deficits and Language Impairments

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The empirical record regarding the expected co-occurrence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and specific language impairment is confusing and contradictory. A research plan is presented that has the potential to untangle links between these 2 common neurodevelopmental disorders. Method Data from completed and ongoing research projects examining the relative value of different clinical markers for separating cases of specific language impairment from ADHD are presented. Results The best option for measuring core language impairments in a manner that does not potentially penalize individuals with ADHD is to focus assessment on key grammatical and verbal memory skills. Likewise, assessment of ADHD symptoms through standardized informant rating scales is optimized when they are adjusted for overlapping language and academic symptoms. Conclusion As a collection, these clinical metrics set the stage for further examination of potential linkages between attention deficits and language impairments. PMID:26501406

  19. Accurate Quantification of Disease Markers in Human Serum Using Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linlin; Tong, Sheng; Zhou, Jun; Bao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and reliable quantification of biomarkers in the blood is essential in disease screening and diagnosis. Here we describe an iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP)-linked immunosorbent assay (ILISA) for detecting biomolecules in human serum. Sandwich ILISA was optimized for the detection of four important serological markers, IgA, IgG, IgM, and C-reactive protein (CRP), and assessed with normal sera, simulated disease-state sera and the serum samples from patients infected with West Nile virus (WNV) or human herpes virus (HHV). Our study shows that using the detection assay formulated with 18.8 nm wüstite nanocrystals, ILISA can achieve sub-picomolar detection sensitivity, and all four markers can be accurately quantified over a large dynamic range. In addition, ILISA is not susceptible to variations in operating procedures and shows better linearity and higher stability compared with ELISA, which facilitates its integration into detection methods suitable for point of care. Our results demonstrate that ILISA is a simple and versatile nanoplatform for highly sensitive and reliable detection of serological biomarkers in biomedical research and clinical applications. PMID:27375784

  20. Accurate Quantification of Disease Markers in Human Serum Using Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linlin; Tong, Sheng; Zhou, Jun; Bao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and reliable quantification of biomarkers in the blood is essential in disease screening and diagnosis. Here we describe an iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP)-linked immunosorbent assay (ILISA) for detecting biomolecules in human serum. Sandwich ILISA was optimized for the detection of four important serological markers, IgA, IgG, IgM, and C-reactive protein (CRP), and assessed with normal sera, simulated disease-state sera and the serum samples from patients infected with West Nile virus (WNV) or human herpes virus (HHV). Our study shows that using the detection assay formulated with 18.8 nm wüstite nanocrystals, ILISA can achieve sub-picomolar detection sensitivity, and all four markers can be accurately quantified over a large dynamic range. In addition, ILISA is not susceptible to variations in operating procedures and shows better linearity and higher stability compared with ELISA, which facilitates its integration into detection methods suitable for point of care. Our results demonstrate that ILISA is a simple and versatile nanoplatform for highly sensitive and reliable detection of serological biomarkers in biomedical research and clinical applications.

  1. Identification and validation of single nucleotide polymorphic markers linked to Ug99 stem rust resistance in spring wheat

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Shiaoman; Singh, Ravi P.; Sorrells, Mark E.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. and E. Henn.) is one of the most destructive diseases world-wide. Races belonging to Ug99 (or TTKSK) continue to cause crop losses in East Africa and threaten global wheat production. Developing and deploying wheat varieties with multiple race-specific genes or complex adult plant resistance is necessary to achieve durability. In the present study, we applied genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for identifying loci associated with the Ug99 stem rust resistance (SR) in a panel of wheat lines developed at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). Genotyping was carried out using the wheat 9K iSelect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip. Phenotyping was done in the field in Kenya by infection of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKST, the Sr24-virulent variant of Ug99. Marker-trait association identified 12 SNP markers significantly associated with resistance. Among them, 7 were mapped on five chromosomes. Markers located on chromosomes 4A and 4B overlapped with the location of the Ug99 resistance genes SrND643 and Sr37, respectively. Markers identified on 7DL were collocated with Sr25. Additional significant markers were located in the regions where no Sr gene has been reported. The chromosome location for five of the SNP markers was unknown. A BLASTN search of the NCBI database using the flanking sequences of the SNPs associated with Ug99 resistance revealed that several markers were linked to plant disease resistance analogues, while others were linked to regulatory factors or metabolic enzymes. A KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) assay was used for validating six marker loci linked to genes with resistance to Ug99. Of those, four co-segregated with the Sr25-pathotypes while the rest identified unknown resistance genes. With further investigation, these markers can be used for marker-assisted selection in breeding for Ug99 stem rust resistance in wheat. PMID:28241006

  2. Identification and validation of single nucleotide polymorphic markers linked to Ug99 stem rust resistance in spring wheat.

    PubMed

    Yu, Long-Xi; Chao, Shiaoman; Singh, Ravi P; Sorrells, Mark E

    2017-01-01

    Wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. and E. Henn.) is one of the most destructive diseases world-wide. Races belonging to Ug99 (or TTKSK) continue to cause crop losses in East Africa and threaten global wheat production. Developing and deploying wheat varieties with multiple race-specific genes or complex adult plant resistance is necessary to achieve durability. In the present study, we applied genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for identifying loci associated with the Ug99 stem rust resistance (SR) in a panel of wheat lines developed at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). Genotyping was carried out using the wheat 9K iSelect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip. Phenotyping was done in the field in Kenya by infection of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKST, the Sr24-virulent variant of Ug99. Marker-trait association identified 12 SNP markers significantly associated with resistance. Among them, 7 were mapped on five chromosomes. Markers located on chromosomes 4A and 4B overlapped with the location of the Ug99 resistance genes SrND643 and Sr37, respectively. Markers identified on 7DL were collocated with Sr25. Additional significant markers were located in the regions where no Sr gene has been reported. The chromosome location for five of the SNP markers was unknown. A BLASTN search of the NCBI database using the flanking sequences of the SNPs associated with Ug99 resistance revealed that several markers were linked to plant disease resistance analogues, while others were linked to regulatory factors or metabolic enzymes. A KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) assay was used for validating six marker loci linked to genes with resistance to Ug99. Of those, four co-segregated with the Sr25-pathotypes while the rest identified unknown resistance genes. With further investigation, these markers can be used for marker-assisted selection in breeding for Ug99 stem rust resistance in wheat.

  3. Bayesian analysis of an admixture model with mutations and arbitrarily linked markers.

    PubMed

    Excoffier, Laurent; Estoup, Arnaud; Cornuet, Jean-Marie

    2005-03-01

    We introduce here a Bayesian analysis of a classical admixture model in which all parameters are simultaneously estimated. Our approach follows the approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) framework, relying on massive simulations and a rejection-regression algorithm. Although computationally intensive, this approach can easily deal with complex mutation models and partially linked loci, and it can be thoroughly validated without much additional computation cost. Compared to a recent maximum-likelihood (ML) method, the ABC approach leads to similarly accurate estimates of admixture proportions in the case of recent admixture events, but it is found superior when the admixture is more ancient. All other parameters of the admixture model such as the divergence time between parental populations, the admixture time, and the population sizes are also well estimated, unlike the ML method. The use of partially linked markers does not introduce any particular bias in the estimation of admixture, but ML confidence intervals are found too narrow if linkage is not specifically accounted for. The application of our method to an artificially admixed domestic bee population from northwest Italy suggests that the admixture occurred in the last 10-40 generations and that the parental Apis mellifera and A. ligustica populations were completely separated since the last glacial maximum.

  4. Deep divergence and apparent sex-biased dispersal revealed by a Y-linked marker in rainbow trout

    PubMed Central

    Brunelli, Joseph P.; Steele, Craig A.; Thorgaard, Gary H.

    2010-01-01

    Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA markers can reveal phylogenetic patterns by allowing tracking of male and female lineages, respectively. We used sequence data from a recently discovered Y-linked marker and a mitochondrial marker to examine phylogeographic structure in the widespread and economically important rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Two distinct geographic groupings that generally correspond to coastal and inland subspecies were evident within the Y marker network while the mtDNA haplotype network showed little geographic structure. Our results suggest that male-specific behavior has prevented widespread admixture of Y haplotypes and that gene flow between the coastal and inland subspecies has largely occurred through females. This new Y marker may also aid conservation efforts by genetically identifying inland populations that have not hybridized with widely stocked coastal-derived hatchery fish. PMID:20546904

  5. Use of diversity arrays technology markers for integration into a cotton reference map and anchoring to a recombinant inbred line map

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A DArT marker platform is developed for the cotton genome to evaluate the use of DArT markers compared to AFLPs in mapping, and transferability across the mapping populations. We used a reference genetic map of tetraploid Gossypium that already contained ~5000 loci which coalesced into 26 chromosom...

  6. A cryptic heterogametic transition revealed by sex-linked DNA markers in Palearctic green toads.

    PubMed

    Stöck, M; Croll, D; Dumas, Z; Biollay, S; Wang, J; Perrin, N

    2011-05-01

    In sharp contrast to birds and mammals, most cold-blooded vertebrates have homomorphic (morphologically undifferentiated) sex chromosomes. This might result either from recurrent X-Y recombination (occurring e.g. during occasional events of sex reversal) or from frequent turnovers (during which sex-determining genes are overthrown by new autosomal mutations). Evidence for turnovers is indeed mounting in fish, but very few have so far been documented in amphibians, possibly because of practical difficulties in identifying sex chromosomes. Female heterogamety (ZW) has long been established in Bufo bufo, based on sex reversal and crossing experiments. Here, we investigate a sex-linked marker identified from a laboratory cross between Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup). The F(1) offspring produced by a female Bufo balearicus and a male Bufo siculus were phenotypically sexed, displaying an even sex ratio. A sex-specific marker detected in highly reproducible AFLP genotypes was cloned. Sequencing revealed a noncoding, microsatellite-containing fragment. Reamplification and genotyping of families of this and a reciprocal cross showed B. siculus to be male heterogametic (XY) and suggested the same system for B. balearicus. Our results thus reveal a cryptic heterogametic transition within bufonid frogs and help explain patterns of hybrid fitness within the B. viridis subgroup. Turnovers of genetic sex-determination systems may be more frequent in amphibians than previously thought and thus contribute to the prevalence of homomorphic sex chromosomes in this group. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Identification of markers linked to disease-resistance genes by bulked segregant analysis: a rapid method to detect markers in specific genomic regions by using segregating populations.

    PubMed Central

    Michelmore, R W; Paran, I; Kesseli, R V

    1991-01-01

    We developed bulked segregant analysis as a method for rapidly identifying markers linked to any specific gene or genomic region. Two bulked DNA samples are generated from a segregating population from a single cross. Each pool, or bulk, contains individuals that are identical for a particular trait or genomic region but arbitrary at all unlinked regions. The two bulks are therefore genetically dissimilar in the selected region but seemingly heterozygous at all other regions. The two bulks can be made for any genomic region and from any segregating population. The bulks are screened for differences using restriction fragment length polymorphism probes or random amplified polymorphic DNA primers. We have used bulked segregant analysis to identify three random amplified polymorphic DNA markers in lettuce linked to a gene for resistance to downy mildew. We showed that markers can be reliably identified in a 25-centimorgan window on either side of the targeted locus. Bulked segregant analysis has several advantages over the use of near-isogenic lines to identify markers in specific regions of the genome. Genetic walking will be possible by multiple rounds of bulked segregation analysis; each new pair of bulks will differ at a locus identified in the previous round of analysis. This approach will have widespread application both in those species where selfing is possible and in those that are obligatorily outbreeding. Images PMID:1682921

  8. Choices in Conceptualizing Classroom-Anchored Research and Linking It to Policy/Practice To Improve Educational Quality in "Developing" Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Mark B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses three scientific traditions (positivist, interpretivist, and critical) as they inform methodological and strategic choices within a USAID-funded "Improving Educational Quality" project in Ghana, Guatemala, and Mali, examining various challenges researchers face when they engage in classroom anchored research in connection with…

  9. Ultrasonic/Sonic Anchor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart

    2009-01-01

    The ultrasonic/sonic anchor (U/S anchor) is an anchoring device that drills a hole for itself in rock, concrete, or other similar material. The U/S anchor is a recent addition to a series of related devices, the first of which were reported in "Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corers With Integrated Sensors"

  10. Biochemical and Genetic Markers in Aggressiveness and Recurrence of Prostate Cancer: Race-Specific Links to Inflammation and Insulin Resistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    PCa. Predisposition of African Americans to hypertension and vascular dysfunction has been linked to suppressed levels of the hormone adiponectin and... adiponectin (as opposed to total protein levels) may be reflective of insulin resistance and oxidative stress [13, 14]. This suggests that certain...specific aims are to: 1) quantitatively assess levels and distribution of multimeric adiponectin complexes and selected biochemical markers related

  11. Identification of markers linked to genes for sprouting tolerance (independent of grain color) in hard white winter wheat (HWWW)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Identification of markers linked to genes for sprouting tolerance (independent of grain color) in hard white winter wheat (HWWW) ABSTRACT Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can negatively impact end-use quality and seed viability at planting. Due to preferences for white ...

  12. Analysis of simple sequence repeat markers linked with blast disease resistance genes in a segregating population of rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Ashkani, S; Rafii, M Y; Sariah, M; Siti Nor Akmar, A; Rusli, I; Abdul Rahim, H; Latif, M A

    2011-07-06

    Among 120 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, 23 polymorphic markers were used to identify the segregation ratio in 320 individuals of an F(2) rice population derived from Pongsu Seribu 2, a resistant variety, and Mahsuri, a susceptible rice cultivar. For phenotypic study, the most virulent blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) pathotype, P7.2, was used in screening of F(2) population in order to understand the inheritance of blast resistance as well as linkage with SSR markers. Only 11 markers showed a good fit to the expected segregation ratio (1:2:1) for the single gene model (d.f. = 1.0, P < 0.05) in chi-square (χ(2)) analyses. In the phenotypic data analysis, the F(2) population segregated in a 3:1 (R:S) ratio for resistant and susceptible plants, respectively. Therefore, resistance to blast pathotype P7.2 in Pongsu Seribu 2 is most likely controlled by a single nuclear gene. The plants from F(2) lines that showed resistance to blast pathotype P7.2 were linked to six alleles of SSR markers, RM168 (116 bp), RM8225 (221 bp), RM1233 (175 bp), RM6836 (240 bp), RM5961 (129 bp), and RM413 (79 bp). These diagnostic markers could be used in marker assisted selection programs to develop a durable blast resistant variety.

  13. Double D-π-A dye linked by 2,2'-bipyridine dicarboxylic acid: influence of para- and meta-substituted carboxyl anchoring group.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Paramaguru; Chandiran, Aravind Kumar; Gao, Peng; Rajalingam, Renganathan; Grätzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2015-04-07

    Starting from 2,2'-bipyridine dicarboxylic acid, two new (D-π-A)2 sensitizers, including m-DA with the carboxyl anchoring group substituted meta to the donor-bridge moiety and p-DA with a para-substituted anchoring group, were synthesized in order to evaluate the impact of the position of the anchoring group on the optical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells. p-DA exhibits red-shifted absorption behavior compared to m-DA, owing to the more efficiently extended π-conjugation with para substitution. Both m-DA and p-DA are adsorbed on the mesoporous TiO2 surface by using both of their carboxylic acid groups in a bianchoring mode, which is confirmed through attenuated total reflectance FTIR analysis. Red-shifted absorption of p-DA assists the achievement of a red-shifted incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency and a higher short-circuit current density than m-DA. The photogenerated electron lifetime in TiO2 is also found to be higher for para substituted p-DA than the meta-substituted m-DA, which results in a higher open-circuit voltage. All of the results suggest that dicarboxyl-2,2'-bipyridine can be used as an acceptor for metal-free organic sensitizers. However, the anchoring segments should be adjusted to the favorable position of the corresponding donor-bridge moieties for better conjugation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Identification of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers Linked to the Co-4 Resistance Gene to Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in Common Bean.

    PubMed

    de Arruda, M C; Alzate-Marin, A L; Chagas, J M; Moreira, M A; de Barros, E G

    2000-07-01

    ABSTRACT New cultivars of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) with durable resistance to anthracnose can be developed by pyramiding major resistance genes using marker-assisted selection. To this end, it is necessary to identify sources of resistance and molecular markers tightly linked to the resistance genes. The objectives of this work were to study the inheritance of resistance to anthracnose in the cultivar TO (carrying the Co-4 gene), to identify random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to Co-4, and to introgress this gene in the cultivar Rudá. Populations F(1), F(2), F(2:3), BC(1)s, and BC(1)r from the cross Rudá x TO were inoculated with race 65 of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, causal agent of bean anthracnose. The phenotypic ratios (resistant/susceptible) were 3:1 in the F(2) population, 1:1 in the BC(1)s, and 1:0 in the BC(1)r, confirming that resistance to anthracnose in the cultivar TO was monogenic and dominant. Six RAPD markers linked to the Co-4 gene were identified, four in the coupling phase: OPY20(830C) (0.0 centimorgan [cM]), OPC08(900C) (9.7 cM), OPI16(850C) (14.3 cM), and OPJ01(1,380C) (18.1 cM); and two in the repulsion phase: OPB03(1,800T) (3.7 cM) and OPA18(830T) (17.4 cM). OPY20(830C) and OPB03(1,800T), used in association as a codominant pair, allowed the identification of the three genotypic classes with a high degree of confidence. Marker OPY20(830C), which is tightly linked to Co-4, is being used to assist in breeding for resistance to anthracnose.

  15. Linking the potato genome to the conserved ortholog set (COS) markers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Conserved ortholog set (COS) markers are an important functional genomics resource that has greatly improved orthology detection in Asterid species. A comprehensive list of these markers is available at Sol Genomics Network (http://solgenomics.net/) and many of these have been placed on the genetic maps of a number of solanaceous species. Results We amplified over 300 COS markers from eight potato accessions involving two diploid landraces of Solanum tuberosum Andigenum group (formerly classified as S. goniocalyx, S. phureja), and a dihaploid clone derived from a modern tetraploid cultivar of S. tuberosum and the wild species S. berthaultii, S. chomatophilum, and S. paucissectum. By BLASTn (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool of the NCBI, National Center for Biotechnology Information) algorithm we mapped the DNA sequences of these markers into the potato genome sequence. Additionally, we mapped a subset of these markers genetically in potato and present a comparison between the physical and genetic locations of these markers in potato and in comparison with the genetic location in tomato. We found that most of the COS markers are single-copy in the reference genome of potato and that the genetic location in tomato and physical location in potato sequence are mostly in agreement. However, we did find some COS markers that are present in multiple copies and those that map in unexpected locations. Sequence comparisons between species show that some of these markers may be paralogs. Conclusions The sequence-based physical map becomes helpful in identification of markers for traits of interest thereby reducing the number of markers to be tested for applications like marker assisted selection, diversity, and phylogenetic studies. PMID:23758607

  16. Improved Selection with Newly Identified RAPD Markers Linked to Resistance Gene to Four Pathotypes of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in Common Bean.

    PubMed

    Alzate-Marin, A L; Menarim, H; de Carvalho, G A; de Paula, T J; de Barros, E G; Moreira, M A

    1999-04-01

    ABSTRACT Three F(2) populations derived from crosses between the resistant cultivar AB 136 and the susceptible cultivar Michelite (MiA), and one F(2) population derived from a cross between AB 136 and Mexico 222 (MeA), were used to identify markers linked to anthracnose resistance genes present in cultivar AB 136. Primer OPZ04 produced a DNA band (OPZ04(560)) linked in coupling phase to the resistance gene for pathotype 89 (8.5 +/- 0.025 cM) in one population derived from the cross MiA. In the same population, primer OPZ09 produced one band (OPZ09(950)) linked in repulsion phase (20.4 +/- 0.014 cM) to the same resistance gene. The simultaneous use of markers in coupling and in repulsion phases allowed the identification of the three genotypic classes. In the other two populations from cross MiA, OPZ04(560) was linked in coupling phase to resistance genes for pathotypes 73 (2.9 +/- 0.012 cM) and 81 (2.8 +/- 0.017 cM). In population MeA, OPZ04(560) was linked in coupling phase (7.5 +/- 0.033 cM) to resistance to pathotype 64. These data suggest that a single gene or complex locus of linked resistance genes present in cultivar AB 136 confers resistance to all four pathotypes of C. lindemuthianum.

  17. Genetic and Sequence Analysis of Markers Tightly Linked to the Soybean mosaic virus Resistance Gene, Rsv3.

    PubMed

    Jeong, S. C.; Kristipati, S.; Hayes, A. J.; Maughan, P. J.; Noffsinger, S. L.; Gunduz, I.; Buss, G. R.; Maroof, M. A. Saghai

    2002-01-01

    Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a major viral pathogen, affecting soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production worldwide. The Rsv3 gene of soybean confers resistance to three of the most virulent strains (G5-G7) of SMV. The objectives of this study were to map Rsv3 and develop polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS) purposes. Disease-response data were collected from two F(2) mapping populations, L29 (Rsv3) x Lee68 (rsv3) and Tousan 140 (Rsv3) x Lee68 (rsv3). Bulk segregant analysis based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers demonstrated that the Rsv3 locus maps to the soybean molecular linkage group (MLG) B2 between restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers A519 and Mng247. These two tightly linked RFLP markers were converted to PCR-based markers to expedite MAS. Sequence analysis of the Mng247 genomic region revealed similarity to the consensus sequence of a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) characteristic of the extracellular LRR class of disease resistance genes. Results from this study will be useful in pyramiding viral resistance genes and in cloning the Rsv3 gene.

  18. Using next generation sequencing for multiplexed trait-linked markers in wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With the advent of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have become the major type of marker for genotyping in many crops. However, the availability of SNP markers for important traits of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that can be effectively used...

  19. Linking the potato genome to the Conserved Ortholog Set (COS) markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conserved ortholog set (COS) markers are an important functional genomics resource that has greatly improved orthology detection in Asterid species. A comprehensive list of these markers is available at Sol Genomics Network (http://www.sgn.cornell.edu) and many of these have been placed in the genet...

  20. Comparative analysis of disease-linked single nucleotide polymorphic markers from Brassica rapa for their applicability to Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Il; Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Tripathi, Swati; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Do-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been conducted in humans, and other animals, and in major crops, including rice, soybean, and Chinese cabbage. However, the number of SNP studies in cabbage is limited. In this present study, we evaluated whether 7,645 SNPs previously identified as molecular markers linked to disease resistance in the Brassica rapa genome could be applied to B. oleracea. In a BLAST analysis using the SNP sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea genomic sequence data registered in the NCBI database, 256 genes for which SNPs had been identified in B. rapa were found in B. oleracea. These genes were classified into three functional groups: molecular function (64 genes), biological process (96 genes), and cellular component (96 genes). A total of 693 SNP markers, including 145 SNP markers [BRH--developed from the B. rapa genome for high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis], 425 SNP markers (BRP--based on the B. rapa genome that could be applied to B. oleracea), and 123 new SNP markers (BRS--derived from BRP and designed for HRM analysis), were investigated for their ability to amplify sequences from cabbage genomic DNA. In total, 425 of the SNP markers (BRP-based on B. rapa genome), selected from 7,645 SNPs, were successfully applied to B. oleracea. Using PCR, 108 of 145 BRH (74.5%), 415 of 425 BRP (97.6%), and 118 of 123 BRS (95.9%) showed amplification, suggesting that it is possible to apply SNP markers developed based on the B. rapa genome to B. oleracea. These results provide valuable information that can be utilized in cabbage genetics and breeding programs using molecular markers derived from other Brassica species.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Disease-Linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphic Markers from Brassica rapa for Their Applicability to Brassica oleracea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young-Il; Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Tripathi, Swati; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Do-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been conducted in humans, and other animals, and in major crops, including rice, soybean, and Chinese cabbage. However, the number of SNP studies in cabbage is limited. In this present study, we evaluated whether 7,645 SNPs previously identified as molecular markers linked to disease resistance in the Brassica rapa genome could be applied to B. oleracea. In a BLAST analysis using the SNP sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea genomic sequence data registered in the NCBI database, 256 genes for which SNPs had been identified in B. rapa were found in B. oleracea. These genes were classified into three functional groups: molecular function (64 genes), biological process (96 genes), and cellular component (96 genes). A total of 693 SNP markers, including 145 SNP markers [BRH—developed from the B. rapa genome for high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis], 425 SNP markers (BRP—based on the B. rapa genome that could be applied to B. oleracea), and 123 new SNP markers (BRS—derived from BRP and designed for HRM analysis), were investigated for their ability to amplify sequences from cabbage genomic DNA. In total, 425 of the SNP markers (BRP-based on B. rapa genome), selected from 7,645 SNPs, were successfully applied to B. oleracea. Using PCR, 108 of 145 BRH (74.5%), 415 of 425 BRP (97.6%), and 118 of 123 BRS (95.9%) showed amplification, suggesting that it is possible to apply SNP markers developed based on the B. rapa genome to B. oleracea. These results provide valuable information that can be utilized in cabbage genetics and breeding programs using molecular markers derived from other Brassica species. PMID:25790283

  2. Coordinated Conditional Simulation with SLINK and SUP of Many Markers Linked or Associated to a Trait in Large Pedigrees

    PubMed Central

    Schäffer, Alejandro A.; Lemire, Mathieu; Ott, Jürg; Lathrop, G. Mark; Weeks, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    Simulation of genotypes in pedigrees is an important tool to evaluate the power of a linkage or an association study and to assess the empirical significance of results. SLINK is a widely-used package for pedigree simulations, but its implementation has not previously been described in a published paper. SLINK was initially derived from the LINKAGE programs. Over the 20 years since its release, SLINK has been modified to incorporate faster algorithms, notably from the linkage analysis package FASTLINK, also derived from LINKAGE. While SLINK can simulate genotypes on pedigrees of high complexity, one limitation of SLINK, as with most methods based on peeling algorithms to evaluate pedigree likelihoods, is the small number of linked markers that can be generated. The software package SUP includes an elegant wrapper for SLINK that circumvents the limitation on number of markers by using descent markers generated by SLINK to simulate a much larger number of markers on the same chromosome, linked and possibly associated with a trait locus. We have released new coordinated versions of SLINK (3.0; available from http://watson.hgen.pitt.edu) and SUP (v090804; available from http://mlemire.freeshell.org/software or http://watson.hgen.pitt.edu) that integrate the two software packages. Thereby, we have removed some of the previous limitations on the joint functionality of the programs, such as the number of founders in a pedigree. We review the history of SLINK and describe how SLINK and SUP are now coordinated to permit the simulation of large numbers of markers linked and possibly associated with a trait in large pedigrees. PMID:21734403

  3. Multiplex PCR Analysis of 17 (11 Novels) STR Markers Linked to Six Autosomal Recessive Intellectual Disability Genes in Iranian Population.

    PubMed

    Shirin, Ghadami; Maryam, Abiri; Farideh, Zonozi Rishsefid; Javad, Tavakkoly-Bazzaz; Sirous, Zeinali

    2016-01-01

    Non-syndromic autosomal recessive intellectual disability (NS-ARID) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disease. More research is needed to study the NS-ARID genes. Using STR markers linked to a specific gene, we can perform homozygosity mapping and prenatal diagnosis. One approach to investigate the NS-ARID genes in large families is homozygosity mapping. In this study, we surveyed allele frequency and allele heterozygosity of 17 NS-ARID STR markers linked to the six NS-ARID genes in Iranian population. The test group consisted of 120 unrelated healthy individuals. STR markers were designed using SERV software. Also, genotyping was done using multiplex PCR. Data was analyzed by Gene Mapper software. Allele frequency and observed heterozygosity rates were estimated using PowerStatV12. Deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was performed based on the Exact test. Out of 17 STR loci, 11 were novel. In total, 166 alleles were detected for the 17 markers. According to our study, the D9MAN1B1SD7.4, D19S872, D6GRIK2SI1.7, D19TECRSDI.8, D1ST3GAL3SIO.5, and D14ZC3H14SD5.3 STR loci were found to be the most informative and polymorphic STR markers for MAN1B1, ZNF526, GRIK2, TECR, ST3GAL3, and ZC3H14 genes, respectively. We also performed other statistical analyses on these STR markers and found that all of the 17 STRs were polymorphic and met the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Finding novel STRs, with high allele heterozygosity, is one of the most significant outcomes of the present study. These findings can be useful for homozygosity mapping, PGD, and PND practices for the NS-ARID.

  4. Identification of a sex-linked SNP marker in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) using RAD sequencing.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Stephen N; Bekaert, Michaël; Taggart, John B; Christie, Hayden R L; Bassett, David I; Bron, James E; Skuce, Philip J; Gharbi, Karim; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus; Sturm, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837)) is a parasitic copepod that can, if untreated, cause considerable damage to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758) and incurs significant costs to the Atlantic salmon mariculture industry. Salmon lice are gonochoristic and normally show sex ratios close to 1:1. While this observation suggests that sex determination in salmon lice is genetic, with only minor environmental influences, the mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse is unknown. This paper describes the identification of a sex-linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) marker, providing the first evidence for a genetic mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) was used to isolate SNP markers in a laboratory-maintained salmon louse strain. A total of 85 million raw Illumina 100 base paired-end reads produced 281,838 unique RAD-tags across 24 unrelated individuals. RAD marker Lsa101901 showed complete association with phenotypic sex for all individuals analysed, being heterozygous in females and homozygous in males. Using an allele-specific PCR assay for genotyping, this SNP association pattern was further confirmed for three unrelated salmon louse strains, displaying complete association with phenotypic sex in a total of 96 genotyped individuals. The marker Lsa101901 was located in the coding region of the prohibitin-2 gene, which showed a sex-dependent differential expression, with mRNA levels determined by RT-qPCR about 1.8-fold higher in adult female than adult male salmon lice. This study's observations of a novel sex-linked SNP marker are consistent with sex determination in the salmon louse being genetic and following a female heterozygous system. Marker Lsa101901 provides a tool to determine the genetic sex of salmon lice, and could be useful in the development of control strategies.

  5. Identification of a Sex-Linked SNP Marker in the Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) Using RAD Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Taggart, John B.; Christie, Hayden R. L.; Bassett, David I.; Bron, James E.; Skuce, Philip J.; Gharbi, Karim; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus; Sturm, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837)) is a parasitic copepod that can, if untreated, cause considerable damage to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758) and incurs significant costs to the Atlantic salmon mariculture industry. Salmon lice are gonochoristic and normally show sex ratios close to 1:1. While this observation suggests that sex determination in salmon lice is genetic, with only minor environmental influences, the mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse is unknown. This paper describes the identification of a sex-linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) marker, providing the first evidence for a genetic mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) was used to isolate SNP markers in a laboratory-maintained salmon louse strain. A total of 85 million raw Illumina 100 base paired-end reads produced 281,838 unique RAD-tags across 24 unrelated individuals. RAD marker Lsa101901 showed complete association with phenotypic sex for all individuals analysed, being heterozygous in females and homozygous in males. Using an allele-specific PCR assay for genotyping, this SNP association pattern was further confirmed for three unrelated salmon louse strains, displaying complete association with phenotypic sex in a total of 96 genotyped individuals. The marker Lsa101901 was located in the coding region of the prohibitin-2 gene, which showed a sex-dependent differential expression, with mRNA levels determined by RT-qPCR about 1.8-fold higher in adult female than adult male salmon lice. This study’s observations of a novel sex-linked SNP marker are consistent with sex determination in the salmon louse being genetic and following a female heterozygous system. Marker Lsa101901 provides a tool to determine the genetic sex of salmon lice, and could be useful in the development of control strategies. PMID:24147087

  6. A genomic map enriched for markers linked to Avr1 in Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme

    Treesearch

    Thomas L Kubisiak; Claire L Anderson; Henry V Amerson; Jason A Smith; John M Davis; C Dana Nelson

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach is presented to map avirulence gene Avr1 in the basidiomycete Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme, the causal agent of fusiform rust disease in pines. DNA markers tightly linked to resistance gene Fr1 in loblolly pine tree 10-5 were used to classify 10-5 seedling progeny as either resistant or susceptible. A single dikaryotic isolate (P2) heterozygous...

  7. Genetic Differentiation and Efficient Sex-specific Marker Development of a Pair of Y- and X-linked Markers in Yellow Catfish

    PubMed Central

    Dan, Cheng; Mei, Jie; Wang, Da; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Pf62-Y and Pf62-X is a pair of allelic Y chromosome-linked and X chromosome-linked markers, and have been used to identify YY super-males, XY males and XX females for commercial production of all-male populations in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). However, the SCAR primers used previously have only two nucleotide difference, which restricts the wide utility because of nucleotide polymorphism. In this study, a continuous 8102 bp Pf62-Y sequence and a 5362 bp Pf62-X sequence have been cloned by genome walking, and significant genetic differentiation has been revealed between the corresponding X and Y chromosome allele sequences. Moreover, three pairs of primers were designed to efficiently identify YY super-males, XY males and XX females in an artificial breeding population, and to distinguish XY males and XX females in various wild populations. Together, the three new sex-specific genetic markers develop a highly stable and efficient method for genetic sex identification and sex control application in sustainable aquaculture of all-male yellow catfish. PMID:24250249

  8. Sequence characterization, in silico mapping and cytosine methylation analysis of markers linked to apospory in Paspalum notatum

    PubMed Central

    Podio, Maricel; Rodríguez, María P.; Felitti, Silvina; Stein, Juliana; Martínez, Eric J.; Siena, Lorena A.; Quarin, Camilo L.; Pessino, Silvina C.; Ortiz, Juan Pablo A.

    2012-01-01

    In previous studies we reported the identification of several AFLP, RAPD and RFLP molecular markers linked to apospory in Paspalum notatum. The objective of this work was to sequence these markers, obtain their flanking regions by chromosome walking and perform an in silico mapping analysis in rice and maize. The methylation status of two apospory-related sequences was also assessed using methylation-sensitive RFLP experiments. Fourteen molecular markers were analyzed and several protein-coding sequences were identified. Copy number estimates and RFLP linkage analysis showed that the sequence PnMAI3 displayed 2–4 copies per genome and linkage to apospory. Extension of this marker by chromosome walking revealed an additional protein-coding sequence mapping in silico in the apospory-syntenic regions of rice and maize. Approximately 5 kb corresponding to different markers were characterized through the global sequencing procedure. A more refined analysis based on sequence information indicated synteny with segments of chromosomes 2 and 12 of rice and chromosomes 3 and 5 of maize. Two loci associated with apomixis locus were tested in methylation-sensitive RFLP experiments using genomic DNA extracted from leaves. Although both target sequences were methylated no methylation polymorphisms associated with the mode of reproduction were detected. PMID:23271945

  9. Sequence characterization, in silico mapping and cytosine methylation analysis of markers linked to apospory in Paspalum notatum.

    PubMed

    Podio, Maricel; Rodríguez, María P; Felitti, Silvina; Stein, Juliana; Martínez, Eric J; Siena, Lorena A; Quarin, Camilo L; Pessino, Silvina C; Ortiz, Juan Pablo A

    2012-12-01

    In previous studies we reported the identification of several AFLP, RAPD and RFLP molecular markers linked to apospory in Paspalum notatum. The objective of this work was to sequence these markers, obtain their flanking regions by chromosome walking and perform an in silico mapping analysis in rice and maize. The methylation status of two apospory-related sequences was also assessed using methylation-sensitive RFLP experiments. Fourteen molecular markers were analyzed and several protein-coding sequences were identified. Copy number estimates and RFLP linkage analysis showed that the sequence PnMAI3 displayed 2-4 copies per genome and linkage to apospory. Extension of this marker by chromosome walking revealed an additional protein-coding sequence mapping in silico in the apospory-syntenic regions of rice and maize. Approximately 5 kb corresponding to different markers were characterized through the global sequencing procedure. A more refined analysis based on sequence information indicated synteny with segments of chromosomes 2 and 12 of rice and chromosomes 3 and 5 of maize. Two loci associated with apomixis locus were tested in methylation-sensitive RFLP experiments using genomic DNA extracted from leaves. Although both target sequences were methylated no methylation polymorphisms associated with the mode of reproduction were detected.

  10. Identification and validation of sex-linked SCAR markers in dioecious Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Elaeagnaceae).

    PubMed

    Korekar, Girish; Sharma, Ram Kumar; Kumar, Rahul; Meenu; Bisht, Naveen C; Srivastava, Ravi B; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh; Stobdan, Tsering

    2012-05-01

    The actinorhizal plant seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., Elaeagnaceae) is a wind pollinated dioecious crop. To distinguish male genotypes from female genotypes early in the vegetative growth phase, we have developed robust PCR-based marker(s). DNA bulk samples from 20 male and 20 female plants each were screened with 60 RAPD primers. Two primers, OPA-04 and OPT-06 consistently amplified female-specific (FS) polymorphic fragments of 1,164 and 868 bp, respectively, that were absent in the male samples. DNA sequence of the two markers did not exhibit significant similarity to previously characterized sequences. A sequence-characterized amplified region marker HrX1 (JQ284019) and HrX2 (JQ284020) designed for the two fragments, continued to amplify the FS allele in 120 female plants but not in 100 male plants tested in the current study. Thus, HrX1 and HrX2 are FS markers that can determine the sex of seabuckthorn plants in an early stage and expedite cultivations for industrial applications.

  11. Identification and Utility of Markers Linked to the Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus Resistance Gene in Watermelon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus Florida stain (ZYMV-FL) is one of the most economically important viruses affecting watermelon in the United States. Inheritance of resistance to ZYMV-FL is conferred by a single recessive gene. Described here is single-reaction, polymerase chain reaction-based marker l...

  12. GLOBAL EXPRESSION PROFILING AS A ROOL TO DEVELOP MOLECULAR MARKERS LINKED TO HERBICIDE STRESS IN ARABIDOPSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Herbicide drift (unintentional physical movement from target to off-target plants) is a cause of crop loss in US. Low-dose, high-potency herbicides that have short environmental persistence times constrain efforts to develop or identify metabolite or biochemical markers of exposu...

  13. GLOBAL EXPRESSION PROFILING AS A ROOL TO DEVELOP MOLECULAR MARKERS LINKED TO HERBICIDE STRESS IN ARABIDOPSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Herbicide drift (unintentional physical movement from target to off-target plants) is a cause of crop loss in US. Low-dose, high-potency herbicides that have short environmental persistence times constrain efforts to develop or identify metabolite or biochemical markers of exposu...

  14. Heteroduplex analysis can increase the informativeness of PCR-amplified VNTR markers: Application using a marker tightly linked to the COL2A1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkin, D.J.; Cohn, D.H. UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA ); Koprivnikar, K.E. )

    1993-02-01

    Variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism provide a high degree of informativeness in linkage studies. Whether performed by standard methods or by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), analysis of these markers involves assessment of the length of each allele. VNTR alleles usually differ in the number of tandem repeats. During PCR amplification of a VNTR closely linked to the type II collagen gene (COL2A1), we identified allelic microheterogeneity through the analysis of unique heteroduplexes between amplified strands of the two alleles. In one large pedigree, heteroduplex analysis identified only three distinct alleles. The identification of these heteroduplexes allowed the determination of the COL2A1 inheritance pattern in the family, which otherwise would have been noninformative. 26 refs., 3 figs.

  15. New Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers for tetraploid oat (Avena magna Murphy et Terrell) provide the first complete oat linkage map and markers linked to domestication genes from hexaploid A. sativa L.

    PubMed

    Oliver, R E; Jellen, E N; Ladizinsky, G; Korol, A B; Kilian, A; Beard, J L; Dumlupinar, Z; Wisniewski-Morehead, N H; Svedin, E; Coon, M; Redman, R R; Maughan, P J; Obert, D E; Jackson, E W

    2011-11-01

    Nutritional benefits of cultivated oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42, AACCDD) are well recognized; however, seed protein levels are modest and resources for genetic improvement are scarce. The wild tetraploid, A. magna Murphy et Terrell (syn A. maroccana Gdgr., 2n = 4x = 28, CCDD), which contains approximately 31% seed protein, was hybridized with cultivated oat to produce a domesticated A. magna. Wild and cultivated accessions were crossed to generate a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Although these materials could be used to develop domesticated, high-protein oat, mapping and quantitative trait loci introgression is hindered by a near absence of genetic markers. Objectives of this study were to develop high-throughput, A. magna-specific markers; generate a genetic linkage map based on the A. magna RIL population; and map genes controlling oat domestication. A Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) array derived from 10 A. magna genotypes was used to generate 2,688 genome-specific probes. These, with 12,672 additional oat clones, produced 2,349 polymorphic markers, including 498 (21.2%) from A. magna arrays and 1,851 (78.8%) from other Avena libraries. Linkage analysis included 974 DArT markers, 26 microsatellites, 13 SNPs, and 4 phenotypic markers, and resulted in a 14-linkage-group map. Marker-to-marker correlation coefficient analysis allowed classification of shared markers as unique or redundant, and putative linkage-group-to-genome anchoring. Results of this study provide for the first time a collection of high-throughput tetraploid oat markers and a comprehensive map of the genome, providing insights to the genome ancestry of oat and affording a resource for study of oat domestication, gene transfer, and comparative genomics.

  16. Imidazopurinones are markers of physiological genomic damage linked to DNA instability and glyoxalase 1-associated tumour multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Thornalley, Paul J; Waris, Sahar; Fleming, Thomas; Santarius, Thomas; Larkin, Sarah J; Winklhofer-Roob, Brigitte M; Stratton, Michael R; Rabbani, Naila

    2010-09-01

    Glyoxal and methylglyoxal are reactive dicarbonyl metabolites formed and metabolized in physiological systems. Increased exposure to these dicarbonyls is linked to mutagenesis and cytotoxicity and enhanced dicarbonyl metabolism by overexpression of glyoxalase 1 is linked to tumour multidrug resistance in cancer chemotherapy. We report herein that glycation of DNA by glyoxal and methylglyoxal produces a quantitatively important class of nucleotide adduct in physiological systems-imidazopurinones. The adduct derived from methylglyoxal-3-(2'-deoxyribosyl)-6,7-dihydro-6,7-dihydroxy-6/7-methylimidazo-[2,3-b]purine-9(8)one isomers-was the major quantitative adduct detected in mononuclear leukocytes in vivo and tumour cell lines in vitro. It was linked to frequency of DNA strand breaks and increased markedly during apoptosis induced by a cell permeable glyoxalase 1 inhibitor. Unexpectedly, the DNA content of methylglyoxal-derived imidazopurinone and oxidative marker 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine were increased moderately in glyoxalase 1-linked multidrug resistant tumour cell lines. Together these findings suggest that imidazopurinones are a major type of endogenous DNA damage and glyoxalase 1 overexpression in tumour cells strives to counter increased imidazopurinone formation in tumour cells likely linked to their high glycolytic activity.

  17. Imidazopurinones are markers of physiological genomic damage linked to DNA instability and glyoxalase 1-associated tumour multidrug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Thornalley, Paul J.; Waris, Sahar; Fleming, Thomas; Santarius, Thomas; Larkin, Sarah J.; Winklhofer-Roob, Brigitte M.; Stratton, Michael R.; Rabbani, Naila

    2010-01-01

    Glyoxal and methylglyoxal are reactive dicarbonyl metabolites formed and metabolized in physiological systems. Increased exposure to these dicarbonyls is linked to mutagenesis and cytotoxicity and enhanced dicarbonyl metabolism by overexpression of glyoxalase 1 is linked to tumour multidrug resistance in cancer chemotherapy. We report herein that glycation of DNA by glyoxal and methylglyoxal produces a quantitatively important class of nucleotide adduct in physiological systems—imidazopurinones. The adduct derived from methylglyoxal-3-(2′-deoxyribosyl)-6,7-dihydro-6,7-dihydroxy-6/7-methylimidazo-[2,3-b]purine-9(8)one isomers—was the major quantitative adduct detected in mononuclear leukocytes in vivo and tumour cell lines in vitro. It was linked to frequency of DNA strand breaks and increased markedly during apoptosis induced by a cell permeable glyoxalase 1 inhibitor. Unexpectedly, the DNA content of methylglyoxal-derived imidazopurinone and oxidative marker 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine were increased moderately in glyoxalase 1-linked multidrug resistant tumour cell lines. Together these findings suggest that imidazopurinones are a major type of endogenous DNA damage and glyoxalase 1 overexpression in tumour cells strives to counter increased imidazopurinone formation in tumour cells likely linked to their high glycolytic activity. PMID:20435681

  18. Development of AFLP and RAPD markers linked to a locus associated with twisted growth in corkscrew willow (Salix matsudana 'Tortuosa').

    PubMed

    Lin, Juan; Gunter, Lee E; Harding, Scott A; Kopp, Richard F; McCord, Rachel P; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Tuskan, Gerald A; Smart, Lawrence B

    2007-11-01

    Salix matsudana Koidz. cultivar 'Tortuosa' (corkscrew willow) is characterized by extensive stem bending and curling of leaves. To investigate the genetic basis of this trait, controlled crosses were made between a corkscrew female (S. matsudana 'Tortuosa') and a straight-stemmed, wild-type male (Salix alba L. Clone 99010). Seventy-seven seedlings from this family (ID 99270) were grown in the field for phenotypic observation. Among the progeny, 39 had straight stems and leaves and 38 had bent stems and curled leaves, suggesting that a dominant allele at a single locus controls this phenotype. As a first step in characterizing the locus, we searched for amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to the tortuosa allele using bulked segregant analysis. Samples of DNA from 10 corkscrew individuals were combined to produce a corkscrew pool, and DNA from 10 straight progeny was combined to make a wild-type pool. Sixty-four AFLP primer combinations and 640 RAPD primers were screened to identify marker bands amplified from the corkscrew parent and progeny pool, but not from the wild-type parent or progeny pool. An AFLP marker and a RAPD marker linked to and flanking the tortuosa locus were placed on a preliminary linkage map constructed based on segregation among the 77 progeny. Sectioning and analysis of shoot tips revealed that the corkscrew phenotype is associated with vascular cell collapse, smaller cell size in regions near the cambium and less developed phloem fibers than in wild-type progeny. Identification of a gene associated with this trait could lead to greater understanding of the control of normal stem development in woody plants.

  19. Marfan syndrome is closely linked to a marker on chromosome 15q1. 5 r arrow q2. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Tsipouras, P.; Sarfarazi, M.; Devi, A. ); Weiffenbach, B. ); Boxer, M. )

    1991-05-15

    Marfan syndrome is a systemic disorder of the connective tissue inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. The disorder imparts significant morbidity and martality. The etiology of the disorder remains elusive. A recent study localized the gene for Marfan syndrome on chromosome 15. The authors present data showing that marker D15S48 is genetically linked to Marfan syndrome. Pairwise linkage analysis gave a maximum lod (logarithm of odds) score of Z = 11.78 at {theta} = 0.02. Furthermore our data suggest that the Marfan syndrome locus is possibly flanked on either side by D15S48 and D15S49.

  20. Development of selective markers linked to a major QTL for parthenocarpy in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Koji; Saito, Takeo; Negoro, Satomi; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Nunome, Tsukasa; Ohyama, Akio; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki

    2012-05-01

    Parthenocarpy, the ability to set fruits without pollination, is a useful trait for setting fruit under unfavorable conditions. To identify the loci controlling parthenocarpy in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), we constructed linkage maps by using co-dominant simple sequence repeat and single nucleotide polymorphism markers in F(2) populations derived from intraspecific crosses between two non-parthenocarpic lines (LS1934 and Nakate-Shinkuro) and a parthenocarpic line (AE-P03). Total map distances were 1,414.6 cM (ALF2: LS1934 x AE-P03) and 1,153.8 cM (NAF2: Nakate-Shinkuro x AE-P03), respectively. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses revealed two QTLs on chromosomes 3 and 8, which we denoted as Controlling parthenocarpy3.1 (Cop3.1) and Cop8.1, respectively. The percentage of phenotypic variance explained (PVE) of Cop3.1 was 6.3% in ALF2 (LOD = 4.2) and 10.6% in NAF2 (LOD = 3.0). The PVE of Cop8.1 was 45.7% in ALF2 (LOD = 23.8) and 29.7% in NAF2 (LOD = 7.9). Using a population of backcross inbred lines, we confirmed the effect of Cop8.1, but there was no evidence to support the contribution of Cop3.1. We need to verify the effect of Cop3.1 under various temperature conditions. In addition, we clarified the effectiveness of selective SSR markers, emf21H22 and emh11J10, mapped on each side of Cop8.1 in other F(2) populations derived from various parental combinations. This is the first report concerning QTL analysis of parthenocarpy in eggplant using molecular markers. It will be useful in marker-assisted selection and in revealing the genomic mechanism underlying parthenocarpy in eggplant.

  1. Detecting the footprints of divergent selection in oaks with linked markers

    PubMed Central

    Goicoechea, P G; Petit, R J; Kremer, A

    2012-01-01

    Genome scans are increasingly used to study ecological speciation, providing a useful genome-wide perspective on divergent selection in the presence of gene flow. Here, we compare current approaches to detect footprints of divergent selection in closely related species. We analyzed 192 individuals from two interfertile European temperate oak species using 30 nuclear microsatellites from eight linkage groups. These markers present little intraspecific differentiation and can be used in combination to assign individual genotypes to species. We first show that different outlier detection tests give somewhat different results, possibly due to model constraints. Second, using linkage information for these markers, we further characterize the signature of divergent selection in the presence of gene flow. In particular, we show that recombination estimates for regions with outlier markers are lower than those for a control region, in line with a prediction from ecological speciation theory. Most importantly, we show that analyses at the haplotype level can distinguish between truly divergent (bi-directional) selection and positive selection in one of the two species, offering a new and improved method for characterizing the speciation process. PMID:22990311

  2. Development of SCAR markers linked to three disease resistances based on AFLP within Nicotiana tabacum L.

    PubMed

    Julio, E; Verrier, J-L; Dorlhac de Borne, F

    2006-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was conducted on a set of 92 Nicotiana tabacum L. accessions from diverse types (flue-cured, dark air-cured, burley, oriental, and cigar wrapper) and breeding origins to identify markers associated with disease resistances. Eleven primer combinations were required to identify 33 polymorphic fragments. This allowed the identification of 92% of these accessions, and yielded sufficient information for building a neighbor joining tree. Clusters of accessions with common traits or breeding origins were observed. An important part of this polymorphism could be related to interspecific introgressions from other Nicotiana species, performed during the breeding history of N. tabacum to confer resistance to pathogens. Seven fragments were associated with three different resistances: two for the blue-mold (Peronospora tabacina Adam) resistance derived from Nicotiana debneyi Domin, two for the Va gene (Potato Virus Y susceptibility), and three for the black root rot (Chalara elegans) resistance of N. debneyi origin. Some of these markers were converted into sequence characterized amplified region markers, and validated on recombinant inbred lines or doubled-haploid lines.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF GENETIC MARKERS LINKED TO SEX DETERMINATION IN THE HAPLOID-DIPLOID RED ALGA GRACILARIA CHILENSIS(1).

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Huanel, Oscar R; Martínez, Enrique A

    2012-04-01

    Bulk segregant analysis, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) methods were used to identify sex-linked molecular markers in the haploid-diploid rhodophyte Gracilaria chilensis C. J. Bird, McLachlan et E. C. Oliveira. One hundred and eighty 10 bp primers were tested on three bulks of DNA: haploid males, haploid females, and diploid tetrasporophytes. Three RAPD primers (OPD15, OPG16, and OPN20) produced male-specific bands; and one RAPD primer (OPD12), a female-specific band. The sequences of the cloned putative sex-specific PCR fragments were used to design specific primers for the female marker SCAR-D12-386 and the male marker SCAR-G16-486. Both SCAR markers gave unequivocal band patterns that allowed sex and phase to be determined in G. chilensis. Thus, all the females presented only the female band, and all the males only the male band, while all the tetrasporophytes amplified both male and female bands. Despite this sex-specific association, we were able to amplify SCAR-D12-386 and SCAR-G16-486 in both sexes at low melting temperature. The differences between male and female sequences were of 8%-9% nucleotide divergence for SCAR-D12-386 and SCAR-G16-486, respectively. SCAR-D12-386 and SCAR-G16-486 could represent degenerated or diverged sequences located in the nonrecombining region of incipient sex chromosomes or heteromorphic sex chromosomes with sequence differences at the DNA level such that PCR primers amplify only one allele and not the other in highly specific PCR conditions. Seven gametic progenies composed of 19 males, 19 females, and the seven parental tetrasporophytes were analyzed. In all of them, the two SCAR markers segregated perfectly with sexual phenotypes.

  4. Development of genetic markers linked to straighthead resistance through fine mapping in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Pan, Xuhao; Zhang, Qijun; Yan, Wengui; Jia, Melissa; Jackson, Aaron; Li, Xiaobai; Jia, Limeng; Huang, Bihu; Xu, Peizhou; Correa-Victoria, Fernando; Li, Shigui

    2012-01-01

    Straighthead, a physiological disorder characterized by sterile florets and distorted spikelets, causes significant yield losses in rice, and occurs in many countries. The current control method of draining paddies early in the season stresses plants, is costly, and wastes water. Development of resistant cultivar is regarded as the most efficient way for its control. We mapped a QTL for straighthead resistance using two recombinant inbred line (RIL) F(9) populations that were phenotyped over two years using monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) to induce the symptoms. One population of 170 RILs was genotyped with 136 SSRs and the other population of 91 RILs was genotyped with 159 SSRs. A major QTL qSH-8 was identified in an overlapping region in both populations, and explained 46% of total variation in one and 67% in another population for straighthead resistance. qSH-8 was fine mapped from 1.0 Mbp to 340 kb using 7 SSR markers and further mapped to 290 kb in a population between RM22573 and InDel 27 using 4 InDel markers. SSR AP3858-1 and InDel 11 were within the fine mapped region, and co-segregated with straighthead resistance in both RIL populations, as well as in a collection of diverse global accessions. These results demonstrate that AP3858-1 and InDel 11 can be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) for straighthead resistant cultivars, which is especially important because there is no effective way to directly evaluate straighthead resistance.

  5. Markers, Models, and Measurement Error: Exploring the Links between Attention Deficits and Language Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The empirical record regarding the expected co-occurrence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and specific language impairment is confusing and contradictory. A research plan is presented that has the potential to untangle links between these 2 common neurodevelopmental disorders. Method: Data from completed and ongoing…

  6. Markers, Models, and Measurement Error: Exploring the Links between Attention Deficits and Language Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The empirical record regarding the expected co-occurrence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and specific language impairment is confusing and contradictory. A research plan is presented that has the potential to untangle links between these 2 common neurodevelopmental disorders. Method: Data from completed and ongoing…

  7. Development of PCR-based SCAR and CAPS markers linked to beta-glucan and protein content QTL regions in oat.

    PubMed

    Orr, Winson; Molnar, Stephen J

    2008-06-01

    A key breeding objective in oat (Avena sativa L.) is cultivars with high and low beta-glucan content. In a targeted strategy to develop PCR-based markers linked to published beta-glucan content quantitative trait loci (QTLs) regions, 15 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fragments were cloned and their sequences used to design sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) primers. The 13 derived SCAR markers and 2 derived CAPS markers were mapped on either the 'Kanota' x 'Ogle' (KO) or the 'Terra' x 'Marion' (TM) oat reference map. In addition, 3 previously reported SCAR markers were characterized further. Ten SCAR markers and one CAPS marker were associated with beta-glucan QTL regions and many of these are also associated with QTLs for protein content or other traits. These markers have the potential to help define homologous and homologous relationships in oat and investigate the complex genetics of beta-glucan and protein content.

  8. Increased serum resistin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes are not linked with markers of insulin resistance and adiposity.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, G; Ohta, M; Ichida, Y; Obayashi, H; Shigeta, M; Yamasaki, M; Fukui, M; Yoshikawa, T; Nakamura, N

    2005-06-01

    The role of resistin in human biology remains uncertain. We measured serum resistin levels in Japanese patients with (n=111) and without (n=98) type 2 diabetes mellitus and investigated the significance of this hormone in the pathophysiology of diabetes. The levels of serum adiponectin and leptin were also measured. Resistin levels were increased significantly in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with non-diabetic subjects (24.7+/-2.6 vs. 15.0+/-1.2 ng/ml, p=0.0013). However, there was no correlation in either patient group between serum resistin levels and markers of insulin resistance, obesity or hyperlipidaemia. These results were in direct contrast to the data of leptin or adiponectin, both of which were closely related to these clinical markers of diabetes. Multivariate regression analysis on the combined data of the two groups demonstrated that the presence of diabetes and HDL cholesterol levels were significant predictors of serum resistin levels (diabetes: beta=0.159, p=0.035; HDL: beta=-0.172, p=0.039). No correlation was observed between C-reactive protein and resistin adjusted for BMI. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that serum resistin levels are increased in patients with type 2 diabetes, but this increase is not linked to markers of insulin resistance or adiposity. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the significance of serum resistin concentration in human pathophysiology.

  9. Development of IP and SCAR markers linked to the yellow seed color gene in Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhen; Liu, Lu; Lu, Hong; Lang, Lina; Zhao, Na; Ding, Juan; Xu, Aixia

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the yellow seed color gene of a yellow mustard was located on the A09 chromosome. In this study, the sequences of the molecular markers linked to the yellow seed color gene were analyzed, the gene was primarily mapped to an interval of 23.304 to 29.402M. Twenty genes and eight markers’ sequences in this region were selected to design the IP and SCAR primers. These primers were used to screen a BC8S1 population consisting of 1256 individuals. As a result, five IP and five SCAR markers were successfully developed. IP4 and Y1 were located on either side of the yellow seed color gene at a distance of 0.1 and 0.3 cM, respectively. IP1, IP2 and IP3 derived from Bra036827, Bra036828, Bra036829 separately, co-segregated with the target gene. BLAST analysis indicated that the sequences of newly developed markers showed good collinearity with those of the A09 chromosome, and that the target gene might exist between 27.079 and 27.616M. In light of annotations of the genes in this region, only Bra036828 is associated with flavonoid biosynthesis. This gene has high similarity with the TRANSPARENT TESTA6 gene, Bra036828 was hence identified as being the gene possibly responsible for yellow seed color, in our research. PMID:27162489

  10. RFLP markers linked to scald (Rhynchosporium secalis) resistance gene Rh2 in barley.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, G F; Baumer, M; Daniel, G; Rugel, H; Röder, M S

    1995-06-01

    Rhynchosporium secalis is the causal organism of barley scald disease. A number of resistance genes against the fungus are well known; one of them, the single dominant Rh2 resistance gene, has been mapped on the linkage map of barley using RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers. The Rh2 gene was located on the distal part of chromosome arm 1S co-segregating with the RFLP marker CDO545 in 85 doubled-haploid progeny plants. The spring barley test population used was a cross between the 6-rowed American spring barley cv Atlas, C.I. 4118, carrying the Rh2 resistance gene, and a Bavarian 2-rowed malting barley cv Steffi, susceptible for R. secalis. The assessment of resistance versus susceptibility was based on artificial infections with a one-spore inoculum in greenhouse tests and with pathotype mixtures in field tests. By testing a pathotype mixture of German origin good resistance was found for the Rh2 gene in the field.

  11. Anchors for Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alok, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Education reforms, considering their significance, deserve better methods than mere "trial and error." This article conceptualizes a network of six anchors for education reforms: education policy, education system, curriculum, pedagogy, assessment, and teacher education. It establishes the futility to reform anchors in isolation and…

  12. Anchors for Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alok, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Education reforms, considering their significance, deserve better methods than mere "trial and error." This article conceptualizes a network of six anchors for education reforms: education policy, education system, curriculum, pedagogy, assessment, and teacher education. It establishes the futility to reform anchors in isolation and…

  13. Design and analysis of an efficient recursive linking algorithm for constructing likelihood based genetic maps for a large number of markers.

    PubMed

    Tewari, S; Bhandarkar, S M; Arnold, J

    2007-04-01

    A multi-locus likelihood of a genetic map is computed based on a mathematical model of chromatid exchange in meiosis that accounts for any type of bivalent configuration in a genetic interval in any specified order of genetic markers. The computational problem is to calculate the likelihood (L) and maximize L by choosing an ordering of genetic markers on the map and the recombination distances between markers. This maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) could be found either with a straightforward algorithm or with the proposed recursive linking algorithm that implements the likelihood computation process involving an iterative procedure is called Expectation Maximization (EM). The time complexity of the straightforward algorithm is exponential without bound in the number of genetic markers, and implementation of the model with a straightforward algorithm for more than seven genetic markers is not feasible, thus motivating the critical importance of the proposed recursive linking algorithm. The recursive linking algorithm decomposes the pool of genetic markers into segments and renders the model implementable for hundreds of genetic markers. The recursive algorithm is shown to reduce the order of time complexity from exponential to linear in the number of markers. The improvement in time complexity is shown theoretically by a worst-case analysis of the algorithm and supported by run time results using data on linkage group-II of the fungal genome Neurospora crassa.

  14. [RAPD-markers linked to the locus for resistance to the race 4 pathogen for black rot, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Pamm.) Dow., in Brassica rapa L].

    PubMed

    Ignatov, A N; Kuginuki, Y; Suprunova, T P; Pozmogova, G E; Seitova, A M; Dorokhov, D B; Hirai, M

    2000-03-01

    Association between the RAPD markers and the resistance to race 4 of the black rot causative agent was studied in Brassica rapa L. Experiments were carried out using doubled haploid lines, obtained via crosses between the race 4-susceptible fodder turnip and resistant pak-choi, and the F2 progeny of the crosses between the doubled haploid lines with contrasting resistance. The WE(22)980 RAPD marker inherited from the pak-choi and associated with the clubroot susceptibility was also linked to the locus responsible for the resistance to race 4 of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. The two other RAPD markers were linked to susceptibility to black rot. Simultaneous association of the same DNA markers with the resistance/susceptibility to two different obligate pathogens favored the hypothesis on cluster organization of the resistance genes in plants. The markers described can be used in plant breeding and in further investigation of the genetic bases of resistance in plants.

  15. A closely linked DNA marker for facioscapulohumeral disease on chromosome 4q.

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, M; Lunt, P W; Sarfarazi, M; Broadhead, W; Daniels, J; Owen, M; Harper, P S

    1991-01-01

    Close linkage of a hypervariable DNA probe on chromosome 4q (pH30, locus D4S139) has been found with the locus for facioscapulohumeral disease. Three recombinants were identified in a total of 140 meioses, giving a maximum lod score of 36.77 at a recombination fraction of 0.02. All but two of the families studied proved informative with this probe; all informative families showed evidence of linkage (except one family with a single scorable meiosis), making genetic heterogeneity unlikely from our data. The close linkage and highly informative nature of the probe will make it suitable for clinical application in presymptomatic and prenatal diagnosis. We have also confirmed loose linkage with the marker (Mfd22, locus D4S171) used to establish the initial assignment of the disorder to chromosome 4. PMID:1941963

  16. Crystal Structure of Human Senescence Marker Protein 30: Insights Linking Structural, Enzymatic, and Physiological Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborti, Subhendu; Bahnson, Brian J.

    2010-05-25

    Human senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30), which functions enzymatically as a lactonase, hydrolyzes various carbohydrate lactones. The penultimate step in vitamin-C biosynthesis is catalyzed by this enzyme in nonprimate mammals. It has also been implicated as an organophosphate hydrolase, with the ability to hydrolyze diisopropyl phosphofluoridate and other nerve agents. SMP30 was originally identified as an aging marker protein, whose expression decreased androgen independently in aging cells. SMP30 is also referred to as regucalcin and has been suggested to have functions in calcium homeostasis. The crystal structure of the human enzyme has been solved from X-ray diffraction data collected to a resolution of 1.4 {angstrom}. The protein has a 6-bladed {beta}-propeller fold, and it contains a single metal ion. Crystal structures have been solved with the metal site bound with either a Ca{sup 2+} or a Zn{sup 2+} atom. The catalytic role of the metal ion has been confirmed by mutagenesis of the metal coordinating residues. Kinetic studies using the substrate gluconolactone showed a k{sub cat} preference of divalent cations in the order Zn{sup 2+} > Mn{sup 2+} > Ca{sup 2+} > Mg{sup 2+}. Notably, the Ca{sup 2+} had a significantly higher value of K{sub d} compared to those of the other metal ions tested (566, 82, 7, and 0.6 {micro}m for Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Mn{sup 2+}, respectively), suggesting that the Ca{sup 2+}-bound form may be physiologically relevant for stressed cells with an elevated free calcium level.

  17. Genetic variability of ten Chinese indigenous goats using MHC-linked microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    E, Guang-Xin; Huang, Yong-Fu; Zhao, Yong-Ju; Ma, Yue-Hui; Na, Ri-Su; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Gao, Hui-Jiang; Wu, Xin

    2015-10-15

    In this study, the genetic variability of Chinese indigenous goat breeds (Capra hircus) was analyzed using the MHC-associated microsatellite markers BF1, BM1818, BM1258, and DYMS1. To examine genetic variability, the levels of heterozigosity, degrees of inbreeding, and genetic differences among the breeds were analyzed. The mean number of alleles ranged from 5.50±3.70 in Enshi black goats (EB) to 11.50±3.70 in the Jianyang big ear (JE) breed. The mean observed heterozygosity and mean expected heterozygosity varied from 0.25±0.04 in Jining Qing goats (JQ) to 0.54±0.05 in Chuannan black goats (CN) and from 0.49±0.18 in Hechuan white goats (HW) to 0.78±0.05 in JE, respectively. The mean FIS values ranged from 0.23 in HW to 0.51 in JQ. In addition, the genetic variation among populations and geographic location did indicate a correlation of genetic differences with geographic distance, which was revealed by the phylogenetic network. In conclusion, the high variability and population structure among Chinese native goats in the Major Histocompatibility Complex would be caused by co-evolution between MHC alleles and the epidemic history or pathogens in different agro-ecological zones.

  18. Evolutionary restoration potential evaluated through the use of a trait-linked genetic marker.

    PubMed

    Apgar, Travis M; Pearse, Devon E; Palkovacs, Eric P

    2017-06-01

    Human-driven evolution can impact the ecological role and conservation value of impacted populations. Most evolutionary restoration approaches focus on manipulating gene flow, but an alternative approach is to manipulate the selection regime to restore historical or desired trait values. Here we examined the potential utility of this approach to restore anadromous migratory behavior in coastal California steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations. We evaluated the effects of natural and anthropogenic environmental variables on the observed frequency of alleles at a genomic marker tightly associated with migratory behavior across 39 steelhead populations from across California, USA. We then modeled the potential for evolutionary restoration at sites that have been impacted by anthropogenic barriers. We found that complete barriers such as dams are associated with major reductions in the frequency of anadromy-associated alleles. The removal of dams is therefore expected to restore anadromy significantly. Interestingly, accumulations of large numbers of partial barriers (passable under at least some flow conditions) were also associated with significant reductions in migratory allele frequencies. Restoration involving the removal of partial barriers could be evaluated alongside dam removal and fishway construction as a cost-effective tool to restore anadromous fish migrations. Results encourage broader consideration of in situ evolution during the development of habitat restoration projects.

  19. Comparison of six statistics of genetic association regarding their ability to discriminate between causal variants and genetically linked markers.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo Bermejo, Justo; Garcia Perez, Alfonso; Brandt, Andreas; Hemminki, Kari; Matthews, Abigail G

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies still rely on the common-disease common-variant hypothesis since the assumption is associated with increased power. In GWA studies, polymorphisms are genotyped and their association with disease is investigated. Most of the identified associations are indirect and reflect a shared inheritance of the genotyped markers and genetically linked causal variants. We have compared six statistics of genetic association regarding their ability to discriminate between markers and causal susceptibility variants, including a probability value (Pval) and a Bayes Factor (BF) based on logistic regression, and the attributable familial relative risk (FRR). We carried out a simulation-based sensitivity analysis to explore several conceivable scenarios. Theoretical results were illustrated by established causal associations with age-related macular degeneration and by using imputed data based on HapMap for a case-control study of breast cancer. Our data indicate that a representation of genetic association by FRRs and BFs generally facilitates the distinction of causal variants. The FRR showed the best discriminative power under most investigated scenarios, but no single statistic outperformed the others in all situations. For example, rare moderate- to low-penetrance variants (allele frequency: 1%, dominant odds ratio: ≤2.0) seem to be best discriminated by BFs. Present results may help to fully utilize the data generated in association studies that take advantage of next generation sequencing and/or multiple imputation based on the 1000 Genomes Project. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Development of molecular markers linked to the 'Fiesta' linkage group 7 major QTL for fire blight resistance and their application for marker-assisted selection.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad A; Durel, Charles-Eric; Duffy, Brion; Drouet, Damien; Kellerhals, Markus; Gessler, Cesare; Patocchi, Andrea

    2007-06-01

    A fire blight resistance QTL explaining 34.3%-46.6% of the phenotypic variation was recently identified on linkage group 7 of apple cultivar 'Fiesta' (F7). However, markers flanking this QTL were AFLP and RAPD markers unsuitable for marker-assisted selection (MAS). Two RAPD markers bracketing the QTL have been transformed into SCAR (sequence-characterized amplified region) markers, and an SSR marker specific for the region was developed. Pedigree analysis of 'Fiesta' with these markers enabled tracking of the F7 QTL allele back to 'Cox's Orange Pippin'. Stability of the effect of this QTL allele in different backgrounds was analyzed by inoculating progeny plants of a cross between 'Milwa', a susceptible cultivar, and '1217', a moderately resistant cultivar, and a set of cultivars that carry or lack the allele conferring increased fire blight resistance. Progenies and cultivars that carried both markers were significantly more resistant than those that did not carry both markers, indicating high stability of the F7 QTL allele in different backgrounds. This stability and the availability of reproducible markers bracketing the QTL make this locus promising for use in MAS.

  1. Anchor Trial Launch

    Cancer.gov

    NCI has launched a multicenter phase III clinical trial called the ANCHOR Study -- Anal Cancer HSIL (High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion) Outcomes Research Study -- to determine if treatment of HSIL in HIV-infected individuals can prevent anal canc

  2. Desired crystal oriented LiFePO4 nanoplatelets in situ anchored on a graphene cross-linked conductive network for fast lithium storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Liu, Anmin; Abdulla, Wael Al; Wang, Dianlong; Zhao, X S

    2015-05-21

    Electron transfer and lithium ion diffusion rates are the key factors limiting the lithium ion storage in anisotropic LiFePO4 electrodes. In this work, we employed a facile solvothermal method to synthesize a "platelet-on-sheet" LiFePO4/graphene composite (LFP@GNs), which is LiFePO4 nanoplatelets in situ grown on graphene sheets with highly oriented (010) facets of LiFePO4 crystals. Such a two-phase contact mode with graphene sheets cross-linked to form a three-dimensional porous network is favourable for both fast lithium ion and electron transports. As a result, the designed LFP@GNs displayed a high rate capability (∼56 mA h g(-1) at 60 C) and long life cycling stability (∼87% capacity retention over 1000 cycles at 10 C). For comparison purposes, samples ex situ modified with graphene (LFP/GNs) as well as pure LiFePO4 platelets (LFP) were also prepared and investigated. More importantly, the obtained LFP@GNs can be used as a basic unit for constructing more complex structures to further improve electrochemical performance, such as coating the exposed LFP surface with a thin layer of carbon to build a C@LFP@GN composite to further enhance its cycling stability (∼98% capacity retention over 1000 cycles at 10 C).

  3. Identification of RAPD Markers Linked to Digestive Amylase Genes using Near Isogenic Lines of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Ashwath, S.K.; Sreekumar, S.; Toms, J.T.; Dandin, S.B.; Kamble, C.K.

    2010-01-01

    Digestive amylase has been identified as a useful marker for breeding in the silkwrom, Bombyx mori L (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), due to its wide genetic divergence, its role in better digestibility and robustness. The low yielding indigenous B. mori breeds of tropics like India are characterized by high activity amylase genes controlled by Amy div or dv alleles, while the high yielding breeds of temperate origin are endowed with ‘null’ type (Amy dn) with low activity. For improving the digestibility and survival of temperate breeds of Japanese origin, Near Isogenic Lines (NILs) were developed introgressing the Amy div and dv alleles from the Donor Parents (DPs) into the genetic background of the Recurrent Parents (RPs) with ‘null’ type of amylase, which showed significant improvement in viability of the NILs. With the objective to know whether the amylase gene itself may confer higher survival by improving digestibility or some other closely linked genes flanking the amylase locus is responsible for better viability of the NILs, RAPD profiles among six B. mori breeds comprising of the DPs, RPs, and NILs developed through introgression of Amy div or dv alleles were analysed using 27 sets of RAPD primers. Out of the 27 primers, six (OPA01, OPA06, OPA09, OPA15, OPAH03, and OPAH05) showed RAPD products linked to the amylase genes of the DPs introgressed in the NILs, which were absent in their respective RPs. Three amplicons of 1584 bp, 1904 bp, and 1232 bp were specific to Amy div allele and one amplified product of 1776 bp was found to be linked with the Amy dv allele. Interestingly, two PCR products of 2628 and 1375 bp were associated with both Amy div and dv alleles. The results are discussed in light of further characterization of these amplified products leading to identification of DNA sequences that may be responsible for better digestibility and higher survival in B. mori. PMID:20673069

  4. Desired crystal oriented LiFePO4 nanoplatelets in situ anchored on a graphene cross-linked conductive network for fast lithium storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Liu, Anmin; Abdulla, Wael Al; Wang, Dianlong; Zhao, X. S.

    2015-05-01

    Electron transfer and lithium ion diffusion rates are the key factors limiting the lithium ion storage in anisotropic LiFePO4 electrodes. In this work, we employed a facile solvothermal method to synthesize a ``platelet-on-sheet'' LiFePO4/graphene composite (LFP@GNs), which is LiFePO4 nanoplatelets in situ grown on graphene sheets with highly oriented (010) facets of LiFePO4 crystals. Such a two-phase contact mode with graphene sheets cross-linked to form a three-dimensional porous network is favourable for both fast lithium ion and electron transports. As a result, the designed LFP@GNs displayed a high rate capability (~56 mA h g-1 at 60 C) and long life cycling stability (~87% capacity retention over 1000 cycles at 10 C). For comparison purposes, samples ex situ modified with graphene (LFP/GNs) as well as pure LiFePO4 platelets (LFP) were also prepared and investigated. More importantly, the obtained LFP@GNs can be used as a basic unit for constructing more complex structures to further improve electrochemical performance, such as coating the exposed LFP surface with a thin layer of carbon to build a C@LFP@GN composite to further enhance its cycling stability (~98% capacity retention over 1000 cycles at 10 C).Electron transfer and lithium ion diffusion rates are the key factors limiting the lithium ion storage in anisotropic LiFePO4 electrodes. In this work, we employed a facile solvothermal method to synthesize a ``platelet-on-sheet'' LiFePO4/graphene composite (LFP@GNs), which is LiFePO4 nanoplatelets in situ grown on graphene sheets with highly oriented (010) facets of LiFePO4 crystals. Such a two-phase contact mode with graphene sheets cross-linked to form a three-dimensional porous network is favourable for both fast lithium ion and electron transports. As a result, the designed LFP@GNs displayed a high rate capability (~56 mA h g-1 at 60 C) and long life cycling stability (~87% capacity retention over 1000 cycles at 10 C). For comparison purposes, samples

  5. Female-only sex-linked amplified fragment length polymorphism markers support ZW/ZZ sex determination in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xue-Hui; Qiu, Gao-Feng

    2013-12-01

    Sex determination mechanisms in many crustacean species are complex and poorly documented. In the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a ZW/ZZ sex determination system was previously proposed based on sex ratio data obtained by crosses of sex-reversed females (neomales). To provide molecular evidence for the proposed system, novel sex-linked molecular markers were isolated in this species. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) using 64 primer combinations was employed to screen prawn genomes for DNA markers linked with sex loci. Approximately 8400 legible fragments were produced, 13 of which were uniquely identified in female prawns with no indication of corresponding male-specific markers. These AFLP fragments were reamplified, cloned and sequenced, producing two reliable female-specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. Additional individuals from two unrelated geographic populations were used to verify these findings, confirming female-specific amplification of single bands. Detection of internal polymorphic sites was conducted by designing new primer pairs based on these internal fragments. The internal SCAR fragments also displayed specificity in females, indicating high levels of variation between female and male specimens. The distinctive feature of female-linked SCAR markers can be applied for rapid detection of prawn gender. These sex-specific SCAR markers and sex-associated AFLP candidates unique to female specimens support a sex determination system consistent with female heterogamety (ZW) and male homogamety (ZZ).

  6. SSR DNA markers linked with Broad-Spectrum rust resistance in common bean discovered by bulk segregant analysis using a large set of SNP markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    DNA markers are invaluable plant breeding tools that can be used in the development of new crop cultivars with disease resistance. We wanted to develop the capacity for marker-assisted selection using the broad-spectrum rust resistance trait present in Mesoamerican common bean PI 310762. This commo...

  7. The anchor integration model: A descriptive model of anchoring effects.

    PubMed

    Turner, Brandon M; Schley, Dan R

    2016-11-01

    Few experimental effects in the psychology of judgment and decision making have been studied as meticulously as the anchoring effect. Although the existing literature provides considerable insight into the psychological processes underlying anchoring effects, extant theories up to this point have only generated qualitative predictions. While these theories have been productive in advancing our understanding of the underlying anchoring process, they leave much to be desired in the interpretation of specific anchoring effects. In this article, we introduce the Anchor Integration Model (AIM) as a descriptive tool for the measurement and quantification of anchoring effects. We develop two versions the model: one suitable for assessing between-participant anchoring effects, and another for assessing individual differences in anchoring effects. We then fit each model to data from two experiments, and demonstrate the model's utility in describing anchoring effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic characterization of Moroccan and the exotic bread wheat cultivars using functional and random DNA markers linked to the agronomic traits for genomics-assisted improvement.

    PubMed

    Henkrar, Fatima; El-Haddoury, Jamal; Ouabbou, Hassan; Bendaou, Najib; Udupa, Sripada M

    2016-06-01

    Genetic characterization, diversity analysis and estimate of the genetic relationship among varieties using functional and random DNA markers linked to agronomic traits can provide relevant guidelines in selecting parents and designing new breeding strategies for marker-assisted wheat cultivar improvement. Here, we characterize 20 Moroccan and 19 exotic bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars using 47 functional and 7 linked random DNA markers associated with 21 loci of the most important traits for wheat breeding. The functional marker analysis revealed that 35, 45, and 10 % of the Moroccan cultivars, respectively have the rust resistance genes (Lr34/Yr18/Pm38), dwarfing genes (Rht1b or Rht2b alleles) and the leaf rust resistance gene (Lr68). The marker alleles for genes Lr37/Yr17/Sr38, Sr24 and Yr36 were present only in the exotic cultivars and absent in Moroccan cultivars. 25 % of cultivars had 1BL.1RS translocation. 70 % of the wheat cultivars had Ppo-D1a and Ppo-A1b associated with low polyphenol oxidase activity. 10 % of cultivars showed presence of a random DNA marker allele (175 bp) linked to Hessian fly resistance gene H22. The majority of the Moroccan cultivars were carrying alleles that impart good bread making quality. Neighbor joining (NJ) and principal coordinate analysis based on the marker data revealed a clear differentiation between elite Moroccan and exotic wheat cultivars. The results of this study are useful for selecting suitable parents for making targeted crosses in marker-assisted wheat breeding and enhancing genetic diversity in the wheat cultivars.

  9. Molecular tagging and validation of microsatellite markers linked to the low germination stimulant gene (lgs) for Striga resistance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench].

    PubMed

    Satish, Kanuganti; Gutema, Zenbaba; Grenier, Cécile; Rich, Patrick J; Ejeta, Gebisa

    2012-04-01

    Striga is a devastating parasitic weed in Africa and parts of Asia. Low Striga germination stimulant activity, a well-known resistance mechanism in sorghum, is controlled by a single recessive gene (lgs). Molecular markers linked to the lgs gene can accelerate development of Striga-resistant cultivars. Using a high density linkage map constructed with 367 markers (DArT and SSRs) and an in vitro assay for germination stimulant activity towards Striga asiatica in 354 recombinant inbred lines derived from SRN39 (low stimulant) × Shanqui Red (high stimulant), we precisely tagged and mapped the lgs gene on SBI-05 between two tightly linked microsatellite markers SB3344 and SB3352 at a distance of 0.5 and 1.5 cM, respectively. The fine-mapped lgs region was delimited to a 5.8 cM interval with the closest three markers SB3344, SB3346 and SB3343 positioned at 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9 cM, respectively. We validated tightly linked markers in a set of 23 diverse sorghum accessions, most of which were known to be Striga resistant, by genotyping and phenotyping for germination stimulant activity towards both S. asiatica and S. hermonthica. The markers co-segregated with Striga germination stimulant activity in 21 of the 23 tested lines. The lgs locus similarly affected germination stimulant activity for both Striga species. The identified markers would be useful in marker-assisted selection for introgressing this trait into susceptible sorghum cultivars. Examination of the sorghum genome sequence and comparative analysis with the rice genome suggests some candidate genes in the fine-mapped region (400 kb) that may affect strigolactone biosynthesis or exudation. This work should form a foundation for map-based cloning of the lgs gene and aid in elucidation of an exact mechanism for resistance based on low Striga germination stimulant activity.

  10. Biomedical applications of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins

    PubMed Central

    Heider, Susanne; Dangerfield, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) use a unique posttranslational modification to link proteins to lipid bilayer membranes. The anchoring structure consists of both a lipid and carbohydrate portion and is highly conserved in eukaryotic organisms regarding its basic characteristics, yet highly variable in its molecular details. The strong membrane targeting property has made the anchors an interesting tool for biotechnological modification of lipid membrane-covered entities from cells through extracellular vesicles to enveloped virus particles. In this review, we will take a closer look at the mechanisms and fields of application for GPI-APs in lipid bilayer membrane engineering and discuss their advantages and disadvantages for biomedicine. PMID:27542385

  11. Development of EST-derived CAPS and AFLP markers linked to a gene for resistance to ryegrass blast (Pyricularia sp.) in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.).

    PubMed

    Miura, Yuichi; Ding, Chenglong; Ozaki, Rie; Hirata, Mariko; Fujimori, Masahiro; Takahashi, Wataru; Cai, Hongwei; Mizuno, Kazuhiko

    2005-09-01

    Ryegrass blast, also called gray leaf spot, is caused by the fungus Pyricularia sp. It is one of the most serious diseases of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) in Japan. We analyzed segregation of resistance in an F(1) population from a cross between a resistant and a susceptible cultivar. The disease severity distribution in the F(1) population suggested that resistance was controlled by a major gene (Lm Pi1). Analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphisms with bulked segregant analysis identified several markers tightly linked to Lm Pi1. To identify other markers linked to Lm Pi1, we used expressed sequence tag-cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (EST-CAPS) markers mapped in a reference population of Italian ryegrass. Of the 30 EST-CAPS markers screened, one marker, p 56, flanking the Lm Pi1 locus was found. The restriction pattern of p 56 amplification showed a unique fragment corresponding to the resistant allele at the Lm Pi1 locus. A linkage map constructed from the reference population showed that the Lm Pi1 locus was located in linkage group 5 of Italian ryegrass. Genotype results obtained from resistant and susceptible cultivars indicate that the p 56 marker is useful for introduction of the Lm Pi1 gene into susceptible germ plasm in order to develop ryegrass cultivars with enhanced resistance to ryegrass blast.

  12. Markers linked to vegetative incompatibility (vic) genes and a region of high heterogeneity and reduced recombination near the mating type locus (MAT) in Cryphonectria parasitica

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Kubisiak; Michael g. Milgroom

    2006-01-01

    To find markers linked to vegetative incompatibility (vic) genes in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, we constructed a preliminary linkage map. In general, this map is characterized by low levels of polymorphism, as evident from the more than 24 linkage groups observed, compared to seven expected from electrophoretic karyotyping....

  13. Male-specific Y-linked transgene markers to enhance biologically-based control of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reliable marking systems are critical to the prospective field release of transgenic insect strains. This is to unambiguously distinguish released insects from wild insects in the field that are collected in field traps, and tissue-specific markers, such as those that are sperm-specific, have particular uses such as identifying wild females that have mated with released males. For tephritid fruit flies such as the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, polyubiquitin-regulated fluorescent protein body markers allow transgenic fly identification, and fluorescent protein genes regulated by the spermatocyte-specific β2-tubulin promoter effectively mark sperm. For sterile male release programs, both marking systems can be made male-specific by linkage to the Y chromosome. Results An A. ludens wild type strain was genetically transformed with a piggyBac vector, pBXL{PUbnlsEGFP, Asβ2tub-DsRed.T3}, having the polyubiquitin-regulated EGFP body marker, and the β2-tubulin-regulated DsRed.T3 sperm-specific marker. Autosomal insertion lines effectively expressed both markers, but a single Y-linked insertion (YEGFP strain) expressed only PUbnlsEGFP. This insertion was remobilized by transposase helper injection, which resulted in three new autosomal insertion lines that expressed both markers. This indicated that the original Y-linked Asβ2tub-DsRed.T3 marker was functional, but specifically suppressed on the Y chromosome. The PUbnlsEGFP marker remained effective however, and the YEGFP strain was used to create a sexing strain by translocating the wild type allele of the black pupae (bp+) gene onto the Y, which was then introduced into the bp- mutant strain. This allows the mechanical separation of mutant female black pupae from male brown pupae, that can be identified as adults by EGFP fluorescence. Conclusions A Y-linked insertion of the pBXL{PUbnlsEGFP, Asβ2tub-DsRed.T3} transformation vector in A. ludens resulted in male-specific expression of the EGFP

  14. Male-specific Y-linked transgene markers to enhance biologically-based control of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Meza, J Salvador; Schetelig, Marc F; Zepeda-Cisneros, C Silvia; Handler, Alfred M

    2014-01-01

    Reliable marking systems are critical to the prospective field release of transgenic insect strains. This is to unambiguously distinguish released insects from wild insects in the field that are collected in field traps, and tissue-specific markers, such as those that are sperm-specific, have particular uses such as identifying wild females that have mated with released males. For tephritid fruit flies such as the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, polyubiquitin-regulated fluorescent protein body markers allow transgenic fly identification, and fluorescent protein genes regulated by the spermatocyte-specific β2-tubulin promoter effectively mark sperm. For sterile male release programs, both marking systems can be made male-specific by linkage to the Y chromosome. An A. ludens wild type strain was genetically transformed with a piggyBac vector, pBXL{PUbnlsEGFP, Asβ2tub-DsRed.T3}, having the polyubiquitin-regulated EGFP body marker, and the β2-tubulin-regulated DsRed.T3 sperm-specific marker. Autosomal insertion lines effectively expressed both markers, but a single Y-linked insertion (YEGFP strain) expressed only PUbnlsEGFP. This insertion was remobilized by transposase helper injection, which resulted in three new autosomal insertion lines that expressed both markers. This indicated that the original Y-linked Asβ2tub-DsRed.T3 marker was functional, but specifically suppressed on the Y chromosome. The PUbnlsEGFP marker remained effective however, and the YEGFP strain was used to create a sexing strain by translocating the wild type allele of the black pupae (bp+) gene onto the Y, which was then introduced into the bp- mutant strain. This allows the mechanical separation of mutant female black pupae from male brown pupae, that can be identified as adults by EGFP fluorescence. A Y-linked insertion of the pBXL{PUbnlsEGFP, Asβ2tub-DsRed.T3} transformation vector in A. ludens resulted in male-specific expression of the EGFP fluorescent protein marker, and was

  15. Anchoring the Deficit of the Anchor Deficit: Dyslexia or Attention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willburger, Edith; Landerl, Karin

    2010-01-01

    In the anchoring deficit hypothesis of dyslexia ("Trends Cogn. Sci.", 2007; 11: 458-465), it is proposed that perceptual problems arise from the lack of forming a perceptual anchor for repeatedly presented stimuli. A study designed to explicitly test the specificity of the anchoring deficit for dyslexia is presented. Four groups, representing all…

  16. RAPD-based SCAR marker SCA 12 linked to recessive gene conferring resistance to anthracnose in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench].

    PubMed

    Singh, Monika; Chaudhary, K; Boora, K S

    2006-12-01

    Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum graminicola, infects all aerial parts of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, plants and causes loss of as much as 70%. F(1) and F(2) plants inoculated with local isolates of C. graminicola indicated that resistance to anthracnose in sorghum accession G 73 segregated as a recessive trait in a cross with susceptible cultivar HC 136. To facilitate the use of marker-assisted selection in sorghum breeding programs, a PCR-based specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was developed. A total of 29 resistant and 20 susceptible recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a HC 136 x G 73 cross was used for bulked segregant analysis to identify a RAPD marker closely linked to a gene for resistance to anthracnose. The polymorphism between the parents HC 136 and G 73 was evaluated using 84 random sequence decamer primers. Among these, only 24 primers generated polymorphism. On bulked segregant analysis, primer OPA 12 amplified a unique band of 383 bp only in the resistant parent G 73 and resistant bulk. Segregation analysis of individual RILs showed the marker OPA 12(383) was 6.03 cM from the locus governing resistance to anthracnose. The marker OPA 12(383) was cloned and sequenced. Based on the sequence of cloned RAPD product, a pair of SCAR markers SCA 12-1 and SCA 12-2 was designed using the MacVector program, which specifically amplified this RAPD fragment in resistant parent G 73, resistant bulk and respective RILs. Therefore, it was confirmed that SCAR marker SCA 12 is at the same locus as RAPD marker OPA 12(383) and hence, is linked to the gene for resistance to anthracnose.

  17. [Panel of X-linked single-nucleotide polymorphic markers for DNA identification (XSNPid) based on multiplex genotyping by multilocus PCR and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Stepanov, V A; Vagaitseva, K V; Kharkov, V N; Cherednichenko, A A; Bocharova, A V

    2016-01-01

    Human genetic markers linked with the X chromosome (X-linked) are used in the field of population and medical genetics, as well as for DNA identification of individuals in forensic science and forensic medicine. We proposed an XSNPid panel that consists of 66 unlinked single nucleotide X chromosome markers and developed a protocol for their multiplex genotyping using multilocus PCR and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The XSNPid panel is genotyped within two multiplexes (36 and 30 markers). The developed protocol provides an efficient genotype reading; the fraction of determined genotypes is 98.29%. The high level of gene diversity (0.461) for the X-linked SNPs included in the panel is characteristic of the Russian population. A total of 63 out of 66 markers that provide a high efficiency of genotyping and independent inheritance are suitable for DNA identification purposes. The XSNPid panel is characterized by a very high discriminating ability when studying the Russian population. The probability of genotype coincidence in two unrelated individuals is 9 × 10^(-27) for women and 2 × 10^(-18) for men. Also, the XSNPid panel has a greater multiplex capacity in addition to a higher discriminating ability compared to the other closest analogues of the X chromosome SNP sets, which makes it more cost effective and less time consuming. The XSNPid panel is a convenient tool, not only for individual DNA identification, but also for population genetic studies.

  18. Monophyletic origin of naked barley inferred from molecular analyses of a marker closely linked to the naked caryopsis gene (nud).

    PubMed

    Taketa, S; Kikuchi, S; Awayama, T; Yamamoto, S; Ichii, M; Kawasaki, S

    2004-05-01

    To elucidate the origin of naked barley, molecular variation of the marker sKT7 tightly linked to the nud locus was examined. A total of 259 (53 wild, 106 hulled domesticated, and 100 naked domesticated) barley accessions were studied. Restriction analysis of the sKT7 PCR-amplified product revealed the alleles I, II, III, and IV. All four alleles were found in wild barley, but allele IV was found only in a single accession from southwestern Iran. Hulled domesticated accessions showed alleles I, II, or III, but all naked domesticated accessions had allele IV. The distribution of allele IV in wild barley and its pervasive presence in naked domesticated lines support the conclusion that naked barley has a monophyletic origin, probably in southwestern Iran. The available results suggest two scenarios for the origin of naked barley: either directly from a wild barley with allele IV or from a hulled domesticated line with allele IV that later became extinct. Naked domesticated accessions from different regions of the world have extremely homogeneous DNA sequences at the sKT7 locus, supporting the monophyletic origin of naked barley. For allele IV, four haplotypes (IVb to IVe) were found in 30 naked accessions: IVb was predominant (66.7%) and widely distributed, while the other three haplotypes, differing by only one nucleotide at different positions relative to IVb, showed a localized distribution. The geographical distribution of the haplotypes of sKT7 allele IV suggests migration routes of naked domesticated barley in central and eastern Asia.

  19. Development of MHC-Linked Microsatellite Markers in the Domestic Cat and Their Use to Evaluate MHC Diversity in Domestic Cats, Cheetahs, and Gir Lions.

    PubMed

    Morris, Katrina M; Kirby, Katherine; Beatty, Julia A; Barrs, Vanessa R; Cattley, Sonia; David, Victor; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Belov, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Diversity within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) reflects the immunological fitness of a population. MHC-linked microsatellite markers provide a simple and an inexpensive method for studying MHC diversity in large-scale studies. We have developed 6 MHC-linked microsatellite markers in the domestic cat and used these, in conjunction with 5 neutral microsatellites, to assess MHC diversity in domestic mixed breed (n = 129) and purebred Burmese (n = 61) cat populations in Australia. The MHC of outbred Australian cats is polymorphic (average allelic richness = 8.52), whereas the Burmese population has significantly lower MHC diversity (average allelic richness = 6.81; P < 0.01). The MHC-linked microsatellites along with MHC cloning and sequencing demonstrated moderate MHC diversity in cheetahs (n = 13) and extremely low diversity in Gir lions (n = 13). Our MHC-linked microsatellite markers have potential future use in diversity and disease studies in other populations and breeds of cats as well as in wild felid species. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Development of MHC-Linked Microsatellite Markers in the Domestic Cat and Their Use to Evaluate MHC Diversity in Domestic Cats, Cheetahs, and Gir Lions

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Katrina M.; Kirby, Katherine; Beatty, Julia A.; Barrs, Vanessa R.; Cattley, Sonia; David, Victor; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Diversity within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) reflects the immunological fitness of a population. MHC-linked microsatellite markers provide a simple and an inexpensive method for studying MHC diversity in large-scale studies. We have developed 6 MHC-linked microsatellite markers in the domestic cat and used these, in conjunction with 5 neutral microsatellites, to assess MHC diversity in domestic mixed breed (n = 129) and purebred Burmese (n = 61) cat populations in Australia. The MHC of outbred Australian cats is polymorphic (average allelic richness = 8.52), whereas the Burmese population has significantly lower MHC diversity (average allelic richness = 6.81; P < 0.01). The MHC-linked microsatellites along with MHC cloning and sequencing demonstrated moderate MHC diversity in cheetahs (n = 13) and extremely low diversity in Gir lions (n = 13). Our MHC-linked microsatellite markers have potential future use in diversity and disease studies in other populations and breeds of cats as well as in wild felid species. PMID:24620003

  1. Identification of sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers linked to the red leaf trait in ornamental kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala).

    PubMed

    Wang, Y S; Liu, Z Y; Li, Y F; Zhang, Y; Yang, X F; Feng, H

    2013-04-02

    Artistic diversiform leaf color is an important agronomic trait that affects the market value of ornamental kale. In the present study, genetic analysis showed that a single-dominant gene, Re (red leaf), determines the red leaf trait in ornamental kale. An F2 population consisting of 500 individuals from the cross of a red leaf double-haploid line 'D05' with a white leaf double-haploid line 'D10' was analyzed for the red leaf trait. By combining bulked segregant analysis and sequence-related amplified polymorphism technology, we identified 3 markers linked to the Re/re locus. A genetic map of the Re locus was constructed using these sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers. Two of the markers, Me8Em4 and Me8Em17, were located on one side of Re/re at distances of 2.2 and 6.4 cM, whereas the other marker, Me9Em11, was located on the other side of Re/re at a distance of 3.7 cM. These markers could be helpful for the subsequent cloning of the red trait gene and marker-assisted selection in ornamental kale breeding programs.

  2. The floating anchored craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Gutman, Matthew J; How, Elena; Withers, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    The "floating anchored" craniotomy is a technique utilized at our tertiary neurosurgery institution in which a traditional decompressive craniectomy has been substituted for a floating craniotomy. The hypothesized advantages of this technique include adequate decompression, reduction in the intracranial pressure, obviating the need for a secondary cranioplasty, maintained bone protection, preventing the syndrome of the trephined, and a potential reduction in axonal stretching. The bone plate is re-attached via multiple loosely affixed vicryl sutures, enabling decompression, but then ensuring the bone returns to its anatomical position once cerebral edema has subsided. From the analysis of 57 consecutive patients analyzed at our institution, we have found that the floating anchored craniotomy is comparable to decompressive craniectomy for intracranial pressure reduction and has some significant theoretical advantages. Despite the potential advantages of techniques that avoid the need for a second cranioplasty, they have not been widely adopted and have been omitted from trials examining the utility of decompressive surgery. This retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data suggests that the floating anchored craniotomy may be applicable instead of decompressive craniectomy.

  3. Anchored paired comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalal, E. N.; Handley, J. C.; Wu, W.; Wang, J.

    2008-01-01

    The method of paired comparisons is often used in image quality evaluations. Psychometric scale values for quality judgments are modeled using Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgment in which distance in a psychometric scale space is a function of the probability of preference. The transformation from psychometric space to probability is a cumulative probability distribution. The major drawback of a complete paired comparison experiment is that every treatment is compared to every other, thus the number of comparisons grows quadratically. We ameliorate this difficulty by performing paired comparisons in two stages, by precisely estimating anchors in the psychometric scale space which are spaced apart to cover the range of scale values and comparing treatments against those anchors. In this model, we employ a generalized linear model where the regression equation has a constant offset vector determined by the anchors. The result of this formulation is a straightforward statistical model easily analyzed using any modern statistics package. This enables model fitting and diagnostics. This method was applied to overall preference evaluations of color pictorial hardcopy images. The results were found to be compatible with complete paired comparison experiments, but with significantly less effort.

  4. Remarkable variation in the informativeness of RFLP markers linked to hemophilia B locus in Indian population groups: implication in the strategy for carrier detection.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, S; Saha, A; Kumar P, Senthil; Chandak, G R; Majumder, P P; Ray, K

    2006-01-01

    Hemophilia B, an X-linked recessive bleeding disorder, is caused by heterogeneous mutations in the factor IX (F9) gene. Hence, carriers of the disease are usually detected by F9 gene linked RFLP analysis. We aimed to test a set of RFLP markers (DdeI, XmnI, MnlI, TaqI & HhaI), used worldwide for carrier detection, to estimate its heterozygosity in different population groups of India, and identify additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) if necessary. A total of 8 population groups encompassing different regions of India, consisting of 107 unrelated normal females without any history of hemophilia B in the family and 13 unrelated obligate carriers were recruited in the study. Regions of F9 gene were amplified by PCR from genomic DNA of the donors followed by restriction enzyme digestion and/or sequencing as appropriate. Combined informativeness for the markers varied between 52-86% among normal females belonging to different geographical locations of India. Haplotype analysis revealed that the most prevalent haplotype lacked the restriction sites for all five RFLP markers. Screening regions of F9 gene that harbor 10 SNPs reported in dbSNP yielded only two SNPs, which increased the overall informativeness in each population group and heterozygosity in the obligate carriers for the disease from 38% to 69%. Our data show that heterozygosity of commonly used RFLP markers is remarkably variable across different regions of India. Thus prudent selection of the markers based on specific population groups including usage of additional markers is recommended for efficient carrier detection.

  5. Remarkable Variation in the Informativeness of RFLP Markers Linked to Hemophilia B Locus in Indian Population Groups: Implication in the Strategy for Carrier Detection

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, S.; Saha, A.; Kumar P., Senthil; Chandak, G. R.; Majumder, P. P.; Ray, K.

    2006-01-01

    Hemophilia B, an X-linked recessive bleeding disorder, is caused by heterogeneous mutations in the factor IX (F9) gene. Hence, carriers of the disease are usually detected by F9 gene linked RFLP analysis. We aimed to test a set of RFLP markers (DdeI, XmnI, MnlI, TaqI & HhaI), used worldwide for carrier detection, to estimate its heterozygosity in different population groups of India, and identify additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) if necessary. A total of 8 population groups encompassing different regions of India, consisting of 107 unrelated normal females without any history of hemophilia B in the family and 13 unrelated obligate carriers were recruited in the study. Regions of F9 gene were amplified by PCR from genomic DNA of the donors followed by restriction enzyme digestion and/or sequencing as appropriate. Combined informativeness for the markers varied between 52–86% among normal females belonging to different geographical locations of India. Haplotype analysis revealed that the most prevalent haplotype lacked the restriction sites for all five RFLP markers. Screening regions of F9 gene that harbor 10 SNPs reported in dbSNP yielded only two SNPs, which increased the overall informativeness in each population group and heterozygosity in the obligate carriers for the disease from 38% to 69%. Our data show that heterozygosity of commonly used RFLP markers is remarkably variable across different regions of India. Thus prudent selection of the markers based on specific population groups including usage of additional markers is recommended for efficient carrier detection. PMID:17264403

  6. Identification and Validation of SNP Markers Linked to Dwarf Traits Using SLAF-Seq Technology in Lagerstroemia

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Yiqian; Jiao, Yao; Feng, Lu; Pan, Huitang; Cheng, Tangren; Zhang, Qixiang

    2016-01-01

    The genetic control of plant architecture is a promising approach to breed desirable cultivars, particularly in ornamental flowers. In this study, the F1 population (142 seedlings) derived from Lagerstroemia fauriei (non-dwarf) × L. indica ‘Pocomoke’ (dwarf) was phenotyped for six traits (plant height (PH), internode length (IL), internode number, primary lateral branch height (PLBH), secondary lateral branch height and primary branch number), and the IL and PLBH traits were positively correlated with the PH trait and considered representative indexes of PH. Fifty non-dwarf and dwarf seedlings were pooled and subjected to a specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) method, which screened 1221 polymorphic markers. A total of 3 markers segregating between bulks were validated in the F1 population, with the M16337 and M38412 markers highly correlated with the IL trait and the M25207 marker highly correlated with the PLBH trait. These markers provide a predictability of approximately 80% using a single marker (M25207) and a predictability of 90% using marker combinations (M16337 + M25207) in the F1 population, which revealed that the IL and the PLBH traits, especially the PLBH, were the decisive elements for PH in terms of molecular regulation. Further validation was performed in the BC1 population and a set of 28 Lagerstroemia stocks using allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) technology, and the results showed the stability and reliability of the SNP markers and the co-determination of PH by multiple genes. Our findings provide an important theoretical and practical basis for the early prediction and indirect selection of PH using the IL and the PLBH, and the detected SNPs may be useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in crape myrtle. PMID:27404662

  7. Chromosome 18 markers: Linked or not linked to bipolar affective disorders in the Old Order Amish? A reply to Gershon et al.

    SciTech Connect

    Pauls, D.L.; Ott, J.; Fann, C.S.J.; Paul, S.M.

    1996-06-01

    We appreciate the careful review of our paper by examining linkage of bipolar affective disorder (BAD) to markers on chromosome 18. These authors have raised several issues concerning our article and specifically challenge our conclusion concerning the presence or absence of a major susceptibility locus for BAD on chromosome 18 in the Old Order Amish sample. 9 refs.

  8. Evolution of apomixis loci in Pilosella and Hieracium (Asteraceae) inferred from the conservation of apomixis-linked markers in natural and experimental populations

    PubMed Central

    Hand, M L; Vít, P; Krahulcová, A; Johnson, S D; Oelkers, K; Siddons, H; Chrtek, J; Fehrer, J; Koltunow, A M G

    2015-01-01

    The Hieracium and Pilosella (Lactuceae, Asteraceae) genera of closely related hawkweeds contain species with two different modes of gametophytic apomixis (asexual seed formation). Both genera contain polyploid species, and in wild populations, sexual and apomictic species co-exist. Apomixis is known to co-exist with sexuality in apomictic Pilosella individuals, however, apomictic Hieracium have been regarded as obligate apomicts. Here, a developmental analysis of apomixis within 16 Hieracium species revealed meiosis and megaspore tetrad formation in 1 to 7% of ovules, for the first time indicating residual sexuality in this genus. Molecular markers linked to the two independent, dominant loci LOSS OF APOMEIOSIS (LOA) and LOSS OF PARTHENOGENESIS (LOP) controlling apomixis in Pilosella piloselloides subsp. praealta were screened across 20 phenotyped Hieracium individuals from natural populations, and 65 phenotyped Pilosella individuals from natural and experimental cross populations, to examine their conservation, inheritance and association with reproductive modes. All of the tested LOA and LOP-linked markers were absent in the 20 Hieracium samples irrespective of their reproductive mode. Within Pilosella, LOA and LOP-linked markers were essentially absent within the sexual plants, although they were not conserved in all apomictic individuals. Both loci appeared to be inherited independently, and evidence for additional genetic factors influencing quantitative expression of LOA and LOP was obtained. Collectively, these data suggest independent evolution of apomixis in Hieracium and Pilosella and are discussed with respect to current knowledge of the evolution of apomixis. PMID:25026970

  9. Evolution of apomixis loci in Pilosella and Hieracium (Asteraceae) inferred from the conservation of apomixis-linked markers in natural and experimental populations.

    PubMed

    Hand, M L; Vít, P; Krahulcová, A; Johnson, S D; Oelkers, K; Siddons, H; Chrtek, J; Fehrer, J; Koltunow, A M G

    2015-01-01

    The Hieracium and Pilosella (Lactuceae, Asteraceae) genera of closely related hawkweeds contain species with two different modes of gametophytic apomixis (asexual seed formation). Both genera contain polyploid species, and in wild populations, sexual and apomictic species co-exist. Apomixis is known to co-exist with sexuality in apomictic Pilosella individuals, however, apomictic Hieracium have been regarded as obligate apomicts. Here, a developmental analysis of apomixis within 16 Hieracium species revealed meiosis and megaspore tetrad formation in 1 to 7% of ovules, for the first time indicating residual sexuality in this genus. Molecular markers linked to the two independent, dominant loci LOSS OF APOMEIOSIS (LOA) and LOSS OF PARTHENOGENESIS (LOP) controlling apomixis in Pilosella piloselloides subsp. praealta were screened across 20 phenotyped Hieracium individuals from natural populations, and 65 phenotyped Pilosella individuals from natural and experimental cross populations, to examine their conservation, inheritance and association with reproductive modes. All of the tested LOA and LOP-linked markers were absent in the 20 Hieracium samples irrespective of their reproductive mode. Within Pilosella, LOA and LOP-linked markers were essentially absent within the sexual plants, although they were not conserved in all apomictic individuals. Both loci appeared to be inherited independently, and evidence for additional genetic factors influencing quantitative expression of LOA and LOP was obtained. Collectively, these data suggest independent evolution of apomixis in Hieracium and Pilosella and are discussed with respect to current knowledge of the evolution of apomixis.

  10. Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers linked to the fertility restorer gene in chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Sun; Kim, Dong Hwan; Yoo, Jae Hyoung; Kim, Byung-Dong

    2006-02-28

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in plants, which is due to failure to produce functional pollen, is a maternally inherited trait. Specific nuclear genes that sup-press CMS, termed fertility restorer (Rf) genes, have been identified in several plants. In this study, Rf-linked molecular markers in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) were detected by bulked segregant analysis of eight amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Only AFRF8 was successfully converted to a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker. This was named AFRF8CAPS and genotype determination using it agreed with that obtained with the original AFRF8. A linkage map with a total size of 54.1 cM was constructed with AFRF8CAPS and the seven AFLP markers using the Kosambi function. The AFRF8CAPS marker was shown to be closest to Rf with a genetic distance of 1.8 cM. These markers will be useful for fast and reliable detection of restorer lines during F(1) hybrid seed production and breeding programs in pepper.

  11. A sex-linked SCAR marker in Bryonia dioica (Cucurbitaceae), a dioecious species with XY sex-determination and homomorphic sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Oyama, R K; Volz, S M; Renner, S S

    2009-01-01

    Genetic crosses between the dioecious Bryonia dioica (Cucurbitaceae) and the monoecious B. alba in 1903 provided the first clear evidence for Mendelian inheritance of dioecy and made B. dioica the first organism for which XY sex-determination was experimentally proven. Applying molecular tools to this system, we developed a sex-linked sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker for B. dioica and sequenced it for individuals representing the full geographic range of the species from Scotland to North Africa. For comparison, we also sequenced this marker for representatives of the dioecious B. cretica, B. multiflora and B. syriaca, and monoecious B. alba. In no case did any individual, male or female, yield more than two haplotypes. In northern Europe, we found strong linkage between our marker and sex, with all Y-sequences being identical to each other. In southern Europe, however, the linkage between our marker and sex was weak, with recombination detected within both the X- and the Y-homologues. Population genetic analyses suggest that the SCAR marker experienced different evolutionary pressures in northern and southern Europe. These findings fit with phylogenetic evidence that the XY system in Bryonia is labile and suggest that the genus may be a good system in which to study the early steps of sex chromosome evolution.

  12. Identification and evaluation of two diagnostic markers linked to Fusarium wilt resistance (race 4) in banana (Musa spp.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Hu, Yulin; Sun, Dequan; Staehelin, Christian; Xin, Dawei; Xie, Jianghui

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (FOC4) results in vascular tissue damage and ultimately death of banana (Musa spp.) plants. Somaclonal variants of in vitro micropropagated banana can hamper success in propagation of genotypes resistant to FOC4. Early identification of FOC4 resistance in micropropagated banana plantlets is difficult, however. In this study, we identified sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers of banana associated with resistance to FOC4. Using pooled DNA from resistant or susceptible genotypes and 500 arbitrary 10-mer oligonucleotide primers, 24 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) products were identified. Two of these RAPD markers were successfully converted to SCAR markers, called ScaU1001 (GenBank accession number HQ613949) and ScaS0901 (GenBank accession number HQ613950). ScaS0901 and ScaU1001 could be amplified in FOC4-resistant banana genotypes ("Williams 8818-1" and Goldfinger), but not in five tested banana cultivars susceptible to FOC4. The two SCAR markers were then used to identify a somaclonal variant of the genotype "Williams 8818-1", which lost resistance to FOC4. Hence, the identified SCAR markers can be applied for a rapid quality control of FOC4-resistant banana plantlets immediately after the in vitro micropropagation stage. Furthermore, ScaU1001 and ScaS0901 will facilitate marker-assisted selection of new banana cultivars resistant to FOC4.

  13. Bellow seal and anchor

    DOEpatents

    Mansure, Arthur J.

    2001-01-01

    An annular seal is made of a collapsible bellows. The bellows can function as an anchor or a seal and is easily set into position using relative component movement. The bellows folds can be slanted and their outer sealing edges can have different profiles to meet expected conditions. The bellows is expanded for insertion to reduce its outer dimension and sets by compaction as a result of relative movement. The bellows can be straight or tapered and is settable with a minimal axial force.

  14. Refined genetic mapping of a gene for familial juvenile nephronophthisis (NPH1) and physical mapping of linked markers

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrandt, F.; Singh-Sawhney, I.; Schnieders, B.

    1995-01-20

    We have recently assigned a gene for familial juvenile nephronophthisis (NPH1) to chromosome 2q between microsatellite markers at loci D2S135 and D2S110. Here we have extended and refined our previous linkage analysis by studying five additional NPH families and by testing five additional markers. By haplotype analysis in a large family yielding proof of linkage, D2S135 and D2S283 were defined with certainty as flanking the NPH1 critical region within a 14-cM interval. These data now allow cytogenetic assignment of the NPH1 critical region to 2q11.1-q21.1. Furthermore, haplotype analysis in 12 small families helped to define as flanking markers D2S293 and D2S363, which span an 8-cM interval. Multipoint linkage analysis by the location score method resulted in a maximum multipoint lod score of 10.30. The {sub max}-1 support interval spans 6.9 cM and is flanked by marker loci D2S293 and D2S363. Since IL1A maps to this region and has been cytogenetically mapped to 2q13 in the literature, NPH1 can be assigned more closely to 2q13 or adjacent bands. Contigs of CEPH mega-YAC clones in the region were established by screening the clones with microsatellite markers, adding marker IL1A to the physical map as a novel assignment. We conclude that the NPH1 gene most probably localizes to an interval of 6.9 cM between marker loci D2S293 and D2S363 in the vicinity of 2q13. This contig mapping provides the basis for cloning of this interval and for isolation of the NPH1 gene. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Career anchors of dentist leaders.

    PubMed

    Tuononen, Tiina; Lammintakanen, Johanna; Suominen, Anna Liisa

    2016-08-01

    The work of a health care leader is demanding; in order to cope, leaders need motivation and support. The occurrence of intrinsic factors called career anchors (combination of one's competence, motives and values) could be a contributing factor in dentist leaders' career decisions. The aim of our study was to identify dentist leaders' career anchors and their association to dentist leaders' retention or turnover of the leadership position. Materials were gathered in 2014 via an electronic questionnaire from 156 current (Leaders) or former (Leavers) Finnish dentist leaders. Career anchor evaluation was conducted by the questionnaire and scoring-table taken from Edgar Schein's Career Anchors Self-Assessment. Both the most and the least important career anchors were detected by the highest and lowest scores and their occurrence reported as percentages. Associations between career anchor scores and tendency to stay were analyzed with logistic regression. 'Technical/Functional Competence' and 'Lifestyle' were most frequently reported as the most important and 'Entrepreneurial Creativity' and 'General Managerial Competence' as the least important career anchors. However, a higher level of 'General Managerial Competence' anchor was most significantly associated with staying in a leadership position. Instead, 'Pure Challenge' and 'Lifestyle' decreased the odds to stay. The knowledge of the important and essential career anchors of dentist leaders' and individuals' could perform crucial part in career choices and also in planning education, work opportunities and human resource policies promoting retention of dentist leaders and probably also other health care leaders.

  16. Identification of SSR markers closely linked to the yellow seed coat color gene in heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Ren, Yanjing; Wu, Junqing; Zhao, Jing; Hao, Lingyu; Zhang, Lugang

    2017-02-15

    Research on the yellow-seeded variety of heading Chinese cabbage will aid in broadening its germplasm resources and lay a foundation for AA genome research in Brassica crops. Here, an F2 segregating population of 1575 individuals was constructed from two inbred lines (brown-seeded '92S105' and yellow-seeded '91-125'). This population was used to identify the linkage molecular markers of the yellow seed coat trait using simple sequence repeat (SSR) techniques combined with a bulk segregant analysis (BSA). Of the 144 SSR primer pairs on the A01-A10 chromosomes from the Brassica database (http://brassicadb.org/brad/), two pairs located on the A06 chromosome showed polymorphic bands between the bulk DNA pools of eight brown-seeded and eight yellow-seeded F2 progeny. Based on the genome sequence, 454 SSR markers were designed to A06 to detect these polymorphic bands and were synthesized. Six SSR markers linked to the seed coat color gene were successfully selected for fine linkage genetic map construction, in which the two closest flanking markers, SSR449a and SSR317, mapped the Brsc-ye gene to a 40.2 kb region with distances of 0.07 and 0.06 cM, respectively. The molecular markers obtained in this report will assist in the marker-assisted selection and breeding of yellow-seeded lines in Brassica rapa L. and other close species. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Identification of SSR markers closely linked to the yellow seed coat color gene in heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yanjing; Wu, Junqing; Zhao, Jing; Hao, Lingyu

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Research on the yellow-seeded variety of heading Chinese cabbage will aid in broadening its germplasm resources and lay a foundation for AA genome research in Brassica crops. Here, an F2 segregating population of 1575 individuals was constructed from two inbred lines (brown-seeded ‘92S105’ and yellow-seeded ‘91-125’). This population was used to identify the linkage molecular markers of the yellow seed coat trait using simple sequence repeat (SSR) techniques combined with a bulk segregant analysis (BSA). Of the 144 SSR primer pairs on the A01-A10 chromosomes from the Brassica database (http://brassicadb.org/brad/), two pairs located on the A06 chromosome showed polymorphic bands between the bulk DNA pools of eight brown-seeded and eight yellow-seeded F2 progeny. Based on the genome sequence, 454 SSR markers were designed to A06 to detect these polymorphic bands and were synthesized. Six SSR markers linked to the seed coat color gene were successfully selected for fine linkage genetic map construction, in which the two closest flanking markers, SSR449a and SSR317, mapped the Brsc-ye gene to a 40.2 kb region with distances of 0.07 and 0.06 cM, respectively. The molecular markers obtained in this report will assist in the marker-assisted selection and breeding of yellow-seeded lines in Brassica rapa L. and other close species. PMID:28069590

  18. Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers tightly linked to a gene for resistance to white pine blister rust in sugar pine

    Treesearch

    Michael E. Devey; Annette Delfino-Mix1; Bohun B. Kinloch; David B. NEALEt

    1995-01-01

    We have genetically mapped a gene for resistance to white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola Fisch.) in sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) by using an approach which relies on three factors: (i) the ability to assay for genetic markers in the haploid stage of the host's life cycle, using...

  19. Biofilm formation on bone-anchored hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Monksfield, P; Chapple, I L C; Matthews, J B; Grant, M M; Addison, O; Reid, A P; Proops, D W; Sammons, R L

    2011-11-01

    To investigate microbiological biofilm contamination of retrieved bone-anchored hearing aids. Nine failed, retrieved bone-anchored hearing aids and 16 internal screws were examined by scanning electron microscopy. A fixture from a failing implant, which had been removed and disassembled under aseptic conditions, was cultured. Finally, an internal screw from a new, unimplanted fixture was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Debris was seen on the fixture and abutment of all bone-anchored hearing aids, and on the heads of the 16 internal screws. On eight screws, biofilm extended down the shaft to the threads, where it was several micrometres thick. Culture of a failing fixture yielded staphylococcus. The new, unimplanted fixture internal screw showed evidence of scratching and metallic debris on the threads, which may interfere with close fitting of the screw and subsequently facilitate microleakage. There may be a link between internal microbial contamination and failure of bone-anchored hearing aids.

  20. CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS OF GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL ANCHORS

    PubMed Central

    Swarts, Benjamin M.; Guo, Zhongwu

    2013-01-01

    Many eukaryotic cell-surface proteins and glycoproteins are anchored to the plasma membrane by glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs), a family of glycolipids that are post-translationally attached to proteins at their C-termini. GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins play important roles in many biological and pathological events, such as cell recognition and adhesion, signal transduction, host defense, and acting as receptors for viruses and toxins. Chemical synthesis of structurally defined GPI anchors and GPI derivatives is a necessary step toward understanding the properties and functions of these molecules in biological systems and exploring their potential therapeutic applications. In the first part of this comprehensive article on the chemical synthesis of GPIs, classic syntheses of naturally occurring GPI anchors from protozoan parasites, yeast, and mammals are covered. The second part of the article focuses on recent diversity-oriented strategies for the synthesis of GPI anchors containing unsaturated lipids, “click chemistry” tags, and highly branched and modified structures. PMID:22794184

  1. The occurrence of preterm delivery is linked to pregnancy-specific distress and elevated inflammatory markers across gestation.

    PubMed

    Coussons-Read, Mary E; Lobel, Marci; Carey, J Chris; Kreither, Marianne O; D'Anna, Kimberly; Argys, Laura; Ross, Randall G; Brandt, Chandra; Cole, Stephanie

    2012-05-01

    There is mounting evidence that stress during pregnancy can have detrimental effects on gestation and birth. Existing studies indicate that prenatal stress may increase levels of circulating inflammatory markers that are associated with prematurity and pregnancy complications, suggesting that stress-related changes in the cytokine milieu may increase the risk of poor pregnancy outcome. Previous studies, however, have not clearly connected stress during pregnancy to changes in inflammatory mediators and, in turn, to clinically-relevant outcomes such as premature delivery. The present study sought to directly connect prenatal stress and changes in inflammatory markers to preterm delivery and gestational age at birth (GAB). A sample of 173 women was recruited during the first trimester of pregnancy and followed through delivery. Overall stress, pregnancy-specific distress, and inflammatory markers were assessed early and later in pregnancy, and the predictive value of these measures for preterm birth and GAB was determined. There were significant differences in pregnancy-specific distress, IL-6, and TNF-α between women who delivered prematurely versus those who delivered at term, and elevated levels of pregnancy-specific distress, IL-6, and TNF-α were predictive of shortened GAB overall. Importantly, in many cases, the effects of overall stress and pregnancy-specific distress on GAB were mediated by levels of circulating inflammatory markers. Collectively, these data provide strong evidence that prenatal stress experiences can affect the timing of parturition via alterations in circulating inflammatory mediators, and underscore the need for ongoing research aimed at further understanding the mechanisms and effects of prenatal stress on maternal and infant health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Tightly linked flanking microsatellite markers for the Usher syndrome type I locus on the short arm of chromosome 11

    SciTech Connect

    Keats, B.J.B.; Nouri, N.; Pelias, M.Z.; Deininger, P.L. ); Litt, M. )

    1994-04-01

    Usher syndrome type I is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by profound congenital hearing impairment and vestibular dysfunction followed by the onset of progressive pigmentary retinopathy in childhood or early adolescence. A locus (USH1C) for one form of this disease was previously assigned to the short arm of chromosome 11 through linkage studies in the Acadian population of southwestern Louisiana. Linkage analyses of a set of microsatellite markers in 27 Acadian families provide evidence that USH1C lies between D11S861 and D11S928. Three markers (D11S419, D11S921, and D11S899) that lie between the flanking markers show no recombination with USH1C, and all 54 chromosomes with the abnormal allele at the disease locus have identical alleles for D11S419 and D11S921. This haplotype was found on only 10 of 50 chromosomes with the normal allele at the disease locus, suggesting a strong founder effect. Of the 54 chromosomes with the abnormal allele, 12 had a divergent allele at D11S899. These results suggest that USH1C is in the 2-3-cM interval between D11S861 and D11S899. 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Careful neuropsychological testing reveals a novel genetic marker, GSTO1*C, linked to the pre-stage of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Umlauf, Ellen; Rappold, Eduard; Schiller, Bettina; Fuchs, Petra; Rainer, Michael; Wolf, Brigitte; Zellner, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 30 million people currently suffer from late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) worldwide. Twin studies demonstrated that 60 to 80% of LOAD is genetically determined, 20% of which remaining unassigned. This case-control study included 118 cognitively healthy controls, 52 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; the pre-stage of LOAD) and 71 LOAD patients. The participants were genotyped for the genetic LOAD marker apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) and the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs4925 in glutathione S-transferase omega-1 (GSTO1). Additive logistic regression showed a novel, statistically significant association of the major allele GSTO1*C with MCI (OR1.9; p = 0.032). However, identification of significant SNP-disease relations required well-defined study groups. When classifying participants solely by the short Mini Mental State examination (MMSE), the associations of GSTO1*C and the reference marker APOE4 with MCI were cancelled. Moreover, even identifying only the control group by MMSE nullified a statistically significant association (OR1.8; p = 0.045) between GSTO1*C and LOAD. In contrast, these statistical relations were retained when the detailed Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD-Plus) test battery was used. Hence, besides proposing rs4925 as a genetic marker for cognitive impairment, this work also emphasized the importance of carefully characterized controls in addition to well-diagnosed patients in case-control studies. PMID:27259244

  4. Tightly linked flanking microsatellite markers for the Usher syndrome type I locus on the short arm of chromosome 11.

    PubMed Central

    Keats, B. J.; Nouri, N.; Pelias, M. Z.; Deininger, P. L.; Litt, M.

    1994-01-01

    Usher syndrome type I is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by profound congenital hearing impairment and vestibular dysfunction followed by the onset of progressive pigmentary retinopathy in childhood or early adolescence. A locus (USH1C) for one form of this disease was previously assigned to the short arm of chromosome 11 through linkage studies in the Acadian population of southwestern Louisiana. Linkage analyses of a set of microsatellite markers in 27 Acadian families provide evidence that USH1C lies between D11S861 and D11S928. Three markers (D11S419, D11S921, and D11S899) that lie between the flanking markers show no recombination with USH1C, and all 54 chromosomes with the abnormal allele at the disease locus have identical alleles for D11S419 and D11S921. This haplotype was found on only 10 of 50 chromosomes with the normal allele at the disease locus, suggesting a strong founder effect. Of the 54 chromosomes with the abnormal allele, 12 had a divergent allele at D11S899. These results suggest that USH1C is in the 2-3-cM interval between D11S861 and D11S899. PMID:8128966

  5. Plasma metabolomics identifies lipid abnormalities linked to markers of inflammation, microbial translocation, and hepatic function in HIV patients receiving protease inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Metabolic abnormalities are common in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART), but the biochemical details and underlying mechanisms of these disorders have not been defined. Methods Untargeted metabolomic profiling of plasma was performed for 32 HIV patients with low nadir CD4 counts (<300 cells/ul) on protease inhibitor (PI)-based ART and 20 healthy controls using liquid or gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Effects of Hepatitis C (HCV) co-infection and relationships between altered lipid metabolites and markers of inflammation, microbial translocation, and hepatic function were examined. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering, principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), Random forest, pathway mapping, and metabolite set enrichment analysis (MSEA) were performed using dChip, Metaboanalyst, and MSEA software. Results A 35-metabolite signature mapping to lipid, amino acid, and nucleotide metabolism distinguished HIV patients with advanced disease on PI-based ART from controls regardless of HCV serostatus (p<0.05, false discovery rate (FDR)<0.1). Many altered lipids, including bile acids, sulfated steroids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and eicosanoids, were ligands of nuclear receptors that regulate metabolism and inflammation. Distinct clusters of altered lipids correlated with markers of inflammation (interferon-α and interleukin-6), microbial translocation (lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein), and hepatic function (bilirubin) (p<0.05). Lipid alterations showed substantial overlap with those reported in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NALFD). Increased bile acids were associated with noninvasive markers of hepatic fibrosis (FIB-4, APRI, and YKL-40) and correlated with acylcarnitines, a marker of mitochondrial dysfunction. Conclusions Lipid alterations in HIV patients receiving PI-based ART are linked to markers of inflammation, microbial translocation, and hepatic

  6. A mature T lymphocyte marker closely linked to Igh-1 that is expressed on the precursor for the suppressor T cell regulating a primary response to SRBC.

    PubMed

    Owen, F L

    1980-03-01

    The product of a new genetic locus closely linked to Igh-1 in the mouse has previously been shown to be expressed on T cells by using an in vitro fluorescent antibody assay. In vivo studies reported here show the determinant coded for by that locus is expressed in unimmunized animals on the precursor for a suppressor T cell regulating a primary response to SRBC. Antisera raised in allotype congenic animals by immunization with suppressor T cells (Ts) for the ARS.CRI stimulate Lyt2+3+ suppressor cells for unrelated antigens. The suppressive effects of the serum can be absorbed with T cells but not with B cells. Suppression of an IgM PFC response in allotype congenic animals confirms close linkage of the marker to Igh-1 but not to H-2. This determinant is expressed on Ts cells for many antigens and may represent a heavy chain linked "constant" portion of the antigen-specific receptor.

  7. Display of GPI-anchored anti-EGFR nanobodies on extracellular vesicles promotes tumour cell targeting

    PubMed Central

    Kooijmans, Sander A. A.; Aleza, Clara Gómez; Roffler, Steve R.; van Solinge, Wouter W.; Vader, Pieter; Schiffelers, Raymond M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are attractive candidate drug delivery systems due to their ability to functionally transport biological cargo to recipient cells. However, the apparent lack of target cell specificity of exogenously administered EVs limits their therapeutic applicability. In this study, we propose a novel method to equip EVs with targeting properties, in order to improve their interaction with tumour cells. Methods EV producing cells were transfected with vectors encoding for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nanobodies, which served as targeting ligands for tumour cells, fused to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor signal peptides derived from decay-accelerating factor (DAF). EVs were isolated using ultrafiltration/size-exclusion liquid chromatography and characterized using western blotting, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, and electron microscopy. EV–tumour cell interactions were analyzed under static conditions using flow cytometry and under flow conditions using a live-cell fluorescence microscopy-coupled perfusion system. Results EV analysis showed that GPI-linked nanobodies were successfully displayed on EV surfaces and were highly enriched in EVs compared with parent cells. Display of GPI-linked nanobodies on EVs did not alter general EV characteristics (i.e. morphology, size distribution and protein marker expression), but greatly improved EV binding to tumour cells dependent on EGFR density under static conditions. Moreover, nanobody-displaying EVs showed a significantly improved cell association to EGFR-expressing tumour cells under flow conditions. Conclusions We show that nanobodies can be anchored on the surface of EVs via GPI, which alters their cell targeting behaviour. Furthermore, this study highlights GPI-anchoring as a new tool in the EV toolbox, which may be applied for EV display of a variety of proteins, such as antibodies, reporter proteins and signaling molecules. PMID:26979463

  8. Granular Simulation of NEO Anchoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazhar, Hammad

    2011-01-01

    NASA is interested in designing a spacecraft capable of visiting a Near Earth Object (NEO), performing experiments, and then returning safely. Certain periods of this mission will require the spacecraft to remain stationary relative to the NEO. Such situations require an anchoring mechanism that is compact, easy to deploy and upon mission completion, easily removed. The design philosophy used in the project relies on the simulation capability of a multibody dynamics physics engine. On Earth it is difficult to create low gravity conditions and testing in low gravity environments, whether artificial or in space is costly and therefore not feasible. Through simulation, gravity can be controlled with great accuracy, making it ideally suited to analyze the problem at hand. Using Chrono::Engine [1], a simulation package capable of utilizing massively parallel GPU hardware, several validation experiments will be performed. Once there is sufficient confidence, modeling of the NEO regolith interaction will begin after which the anchor tests will be performed and analyzed. The outcome of this task is a study with an analysis of several different anchor designs, along with a recommendation on which anchor is better suited to the task of anchoring. With the anchors tested against a range of parameters relating to soil, environment and anchor penetration angles/velocities on a NEO.

  9. Granular Simulation of NEO Anchoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazhar, Hammad

    2011-01-01

    NASA is interested in designing a spacecraft capable of visiting a Near Earth Object (NEO), performing experiments, and then returning safely. Certain periods of this mission will require the spacecraft to remain stationary relative to the NEO. Such situations require an anchoring mechanism that is compact, easy to deploy and upon mission completion, easily removed. The design philosophy used in the project relies on the simulation capability of a multibody dynamics physics engine. On Earth it is difficult to create low gravity conditions and testing in low gravity environments, whether artificial or in space is costly and therefore not feasible. Through simulation, gravity can be controlled with great accuracy, making it ideally suited to analyze the problem at hand. Using Chrono::Engine [1], a simulation package capable of utilizing massively parallel GPU hardware, several validation experiments will be performed. Once there is sufficient confidence, modeling of the NEO regolith interaction will begin after which the anchor tests will be performed and analyzed. The outcome of this task is a study with an analysis of several different anchor designs, along with a recommendation on which anchor is better suited to the task of anchoring. With the anchors tested against a range of parameters relating to soil, environment and anchor penetration angles/velocities on a NEO.

  10. Identification of SSR Markers Linked to the Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility Locus in Red Clover (Trifolium pratense)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Self-pollination is prevented in red clover by a gametophytic self-incompatibility system (SI). This SI system is likely controlled by two tightly linked genes, effectively creating a single locus. While SI genes have been identified in some plants, they have not been identified in red clover or o...

  11. A PCR marker linked to a THCA synthase polymorphism is a reliable tool to discriminate potentially THC-rich plants of Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    Staginnus, Christina; Zörntlein, Siegfried; de Meijer, Etienne

    2014-07-01

    Neither absolute THC content nor morphology allows the unequivocal discrimination of fiber cultivars and drug strains of Cannabis sativa L. unequivocally. However, the CBD/THC ratio remains constant throughout the plant's life cycle, is independent of environmental factors, and considered to be controlled by a single locus (B) with two codominant alleles (B(T) and B(D)). The homozygous B(T)/B(T) genotype underlies the THC-predominant phenotype, B(D)/B(D) is CBD predominant, and an intermediate phenotype is induced by the heterozygous state (B(T)/B(D)). Using PCR-based markers in two segregating populations, we proved that the THCA synthase gene represents the postulated B locus and that specific sequence polymorphisms are absolutely linked either to the THC-predominant or the THC-intermediate chemotype. The absolute linkage provides an excellent reliability of the marker signal in forensic casework. For validation, the species-specific marker system was applied to a large number of casework samples and fiber hemp cultivars.

  12. Seals, Concrete Anchors, and Connections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    Plastic Anchors, Topline Nylon Nailins, and Topline Iamnmer Drive Anchors. Similar anchors are made by Rawl (Rawl Nylon Nailin, Rawl Zamac Nailin...Toggle Bolt GSA Specification FF-B-588C, • • • lype 1, Class A. Style 1. . Zamac Nailin GSA Specification FF-S-325. I K ,Group V Type;’ U. Clss3. Tested...instal[ No hole spotting, 3- Tpor’ block, brick fastener needed `1eAt X" 6" removable. 2 head styles. 30 sizes. Zamac Concrete, block. No other Zinc alloy

  13. Crystal Structure of Human Senescence Marker Protein 30; Insights Linking Structural, Enzymatic and Physiological Functions †,‡

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborti, Subhendu; Bahnson, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    Human senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30), which functions enzymatically as a lactonase, hydrolyzes various carbohydrate lactones. The penultimate step in vitamin-C biosynthesis is catalyzed by this enzyme in non-primate mammals. It has also been implicated as an organophosphate hydrolase, with the ability to hydrolyze diisopropyl phosphofluoridate and other nerve agents. SMP30 was originally identified as an aging marker protein, whose expression decreased androgen independently in aging cells. SMP30 is also referred to as regucalcin and has been suggested to have functions in calcium homeostasis. The crystal structure of the human enzyme has been solved from X-ray diffraction data collected to a resolution of 1.4 Å. The protein has a 6-bladed β-propeller fold and it contains a single metal ion. Crystal structures have been solved with the metal site bound with either a Ca2+ or a Zn2+ atom. The catalytic role of the metal ion has been confirmed by mutagenesis of the metal coordinating residues. Kinetic studies using the substrate gluconolactone showed a kcat preference of divalent cations in the order Zn2+ > Mn2+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+. Notably, the Ca2+ had a significantly higher value of Kd compared to the other metal ions tested (566, 82, 7 and 0.6 µm for Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+, respectively), suggesting the Ca2+-bound form may be physiologically relevant for stressed cells with an elevated free calcium level. PMID:20329768

  14. Molecular characterization of a gender-linked DNA marker and a related gene in Mercurialis annua L.

    PubMed

    Khadka, Deepak Kumar; Nejidat, Ali; Tal, Moshe; Golan-Goldhirsh, Avi

    2005-12-01

    The dioecious Mercurialis annua L. was used as a model plant to study some aspects of the molecular basis of sex determination in plants. We report in this paper the characterization of a previously identified male specific DNA marker, OPB01-1562, from diploid dioecious M. annua. The marker co-segregated with male sex in the progeny of hormonally feminized males. Sequence analysis showed the presence of approximately 0.6 kb retrotransposon-like sequence at its 3' end. Homologous sequences were isolated from diploid female, hexaploid male and monoecious plants. These sequences contained RNaseH and integrase domains of reverse transcriptase and were most similar to pineapple retrotransposon dea1, hence were named M. annua retrotransposon-like sequences (MARL-1 to MARL-5). A 771 bp fragment isolated from a diploid female, named fem771, was homologous to the 5' end of OPB01-1562. Results from DNA blot hybridization suggested OPB01-1562 and fem771 to be from the same locus and MARL-1 from a different one. RNA blot hybridization with OPB01-1562 and MARL-1 detected an approximately 2.8 kb transcript which was expressed strongly in stems and flowers of females but not males. This transcript was named M. annua female expressed (Mafex). Sex linkage of OPB01-1562 and expression of Mafex detected by OPB01-1562 strongly suggested Mafex to be a candidate gene involved in sex determination in M. annua.

  15. Development of molecular markers linked to disease resistance genes in common bean based on whole genome sequence.

    PubMed

    Meziadi, Chouaïb; Richard, Manon M S; Derquennes, Amandine; Thareau, Vincent; Blanchet, Sophie; Gratias, Ariane; Pflieger, Stéphanie; Geffroy, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the most important grain legume for direct human consumption in the world, particularly in developing countries where it constitutes the main source of protein. Unfortunately, common bean yield stability is constrained by a number of pests and diseases. As use of resistant genotypes is the most economic and ecologically safe means for controlling plant diseases, efforts have been made to genetically characterize resistance genes (R genes) in common bean. Despite its agronomic importance, genomic resources available in common bean were limited until the recent sequencing of common bean genome (Andean genotype G19833). Besides allowing the annotation of Nucleotide Binding-Leucine Rich Repeat (NB-LRR) encoding gene family, which is the prevalent class of disease R genes in plants, access to the whole genome sequence of common bean can be of great help for intense selection to increase the overall efficiency of crop improvement programs using marker-assisted selection (MAS). This review presents the state of the art of common bean NB-LRR gene clusters, their peculiar location in subtelomeres and correlation with genetically characterized monogenic R genes, as well as how the availability of the whole genome sequence can boost the development of molecular markers for MAS.

  16. The location of Z- and W-linked marker genes and sequence on the homomorphic sex chromosomes of the ostrich and the emu

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Akira; Murata, Koichi; Mizuno, Shigeki

    1998-01-01

    Perhaps the most striking fact about early Cenozoic avian history some 70 million years ago was the rapid radiation of large, flightless, ground-living birds. It has been suggested that, for a time, there was active competition between these large terrestrial birds and the early mammals. Probably reflecting the above noted early start of Ratitae of the infraclass Eoaves, the presumptive sex chromosomes of their present day survivors, such as the emu and the ostrich, largely remained homomorphic. The signs of genetic differentiation between their still-homomorphic Z and W chromosomes were tested by using two marker genes (Z-linked ZOV3 and the gene for the iron-responsive element-binding protein) and one marker sequence of a part of a presumptive pseudogene (W-linked EE0.6 of the chicken). Their homologues, maintaining 71–92% identities to the chicken counterparts, were found in both the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) and the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Their locations were visualized on chromosome preparations by fluorescence in situ hybridization. In the case of the emu, these three marker sequences were localized on both members of the fifth pair of a female, thus revealing no sign yet of genetic differentiation between the Z and the W. The finding was the same with regard to both members of the fourth pair of male ostriches. In the female ostrich, however, the sequence of the gene for the iron-responsive element-binding protein was missing from one of the pairs, thus revealing the differentiation by a small deletion of the W from the Z. PMID:9539751

  17. Molecular method for sex identification of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) using a novel sex-linked microsatellite marker.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaolin; Xu, Genbo; Chen, Song-Lin

    2014-07-22

    Half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) is one of the most important flatfish species for aquaculture in China. To produce a monosex population, we attempted to develop a marker-assisted sex control technique in this sexually size dimorphic fish. In this study, we identified a co-dominant sex-linked marker (i.e., CyseSLM) by screening genomic microsatellites and further developed a novel molecular method for sex identification in the tongue sole. CyseSLM has a sequence similarity of 73%-75% with stickleback, medaka, Fugu and Tetraodon. At this locus, two alleles (i.e., A244 and A234) were amplified from 119 tongue sole individuals with primer pairs CyseSLM-F1 and CyseSLM-R. Allele A244 was present in all individuals, while allele A234 (female-associated allele, FAA) was mostly present in females with exceptions in four male individuals. Compared with the sequence of A244, A234 has a 10-bp deletion and 28 SNPs. A specific primer (CyseSLM-F2) was then designed based on the A234 sequence, which amplified a 204 bp fragment in all females and four males with primer CyseSLM-R. A time-efficient multiplex PCR program was developed using primers CyseSLM-F2, CyseSLM-R and the newly designed primer CyseSLM-F3. The multiplex PCR products with co-dominant pattern could be detected by agarose gel electrophoresis, which accurately identified the genetic sex of the tongue sole. Therefore, we have developed a rapid and reliable method for sex identification in tongue sole with a newly identified sex-linked microsatellite marker.

  18. Evaluation of serum beta-carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen as marker of bone resorption in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Helmut; Roth, Heinz-Jürgen; Schmidt-Gayk, Heinrich

    2004-01-01

    The carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (beta-CrossLaps, beta-CTX) is released into the circulation during degradation of type I collagen and serves as a marker of bone resorption. beta-CTX is known to undergo a diurnal rhythm in normal individuals and to accumulate in chronic renal failure. beta-CTX has a potential role in noninvasive diagnosis of renal bone disease. Serum beta-CTX was compared to parathyroid hormone (PTH) and other biochemical bone markers in 90 unselected hemodialysis patients. Mean beta-CTX was elevated above the normal range (1.72 +/- 0.93 microg/l); there were large individual variations. Serum beta-CTX was significantly correlated with various PTH assays (r >0.56) and with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b, r = 0.629), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (r = 0.404) and osteocalcin (r = 0.534, all correlations p < 0.001). The correlation between beta-CTX and PTH was significantly higher than the correlation between TRACP 5b and PTH. Several factors which could confound interpretation of serum beta-CTX were assessed in further studies: (i) There was no recognizable influence of the time of blood sampling (morning dialysis shift versus afternoon dialysis shift) on serum beta-CTX. (ii) Serum beta-CTX was not significantly related to residual diuresis of patients. We found a high association between beta-CTX and other established markers of bone and calcium metabolism demonstrating the potential utility of beta-CTX as marker of bone resorption in renal bone disease. However, further studies employing bone histology are still warranted to exactly define the influence of glomerular retention on serum beta-CTX in end-stage renal disease. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Identification of markers tightly linked to tomato yellow leaf curl disease and root-knot nematode resistance by multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Chen, S X; Du, J N; Hao, L N; Wang, C Y; Chen, Q; Chang, Y X

    2012-08-29

    Seven different commercial F₁ hybrids and two F₂ populations were evaluated by multiplex PCR to identify plants that are homozygous or heterozygous for Ty-1 and Mi, which confer resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl disease and root-knot nematode, respectively. The Ty-1 and Mi markers were amplified by PCR and identified by digestion of the amplicons with the TaqI enzyme. The hybrids E13 and 288 were found to be Ty/ty heterozygous plants with 398-, 303-, and 95-bp bands, and B08, 314, 198, and A10 were found to be ty/ty homozygous plants with a 398-bp band; whereas 098 did not give any PCR products. The hybrids E13 and 198 were found to be Mi/Mi homozygous plants with 570- and 180-bp bands, and 288 and A10 were found to be Mi/mi heterozygous plants, with 750-, 570- and 180-bp bands, and B08, 109 and 314 were found to be mi/mi homozygous plants with only a 750-bp band. We additionally developed a multiplex PCR technique for JB-1 and Mi, which confer resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl disease and root-knot nematode. The JB-1 marker identified the genotype of the Ty gene, and the plants that produced the 400-bp band were ty/ty homozygous plants, whereas the plants that produced 400- and 500-bp bands were resistant to tomato yellow leaf curl disease. We conclude that multiplex PCRs can be used to reproducibly and efficiently detect these resistance genes.

  20. Model anchor tests in cohesionless soil

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, G.R.; Taylor, R.J.

    1983-05-01

    Tandem (piggyback), parallel, and single model anchor tests have been performed in cohesionless soil. Tandem anchor arrangements have been found that result in a tandem system capacity that exceeds twice the capacity of a single anchor. These methods are operationally feasible and offer the potential for anchor weight savings.

  1. Analyzing paleomagnetic data: To anchor or not to anchor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heslop, David; Roberts, Andrew P.

    2016-11-01

    Paleomagnetic directions provide the basis for use of paleomagnetism in chronological and tectonic reconstructions and for constraining past geomagnetic field behavior over a variety of timescales. Crucial to paleomagnetic analysis is the separation and quantification of a characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM), which relates to a process of interest, from other remanence components. Principal component analysis (PCA) of stepwise demagnetization data is employed routinely in these situations to estimate magnetic remanence directions and their uncertainties. A given ChRM is often assumed to trend toward the origin of a vector demagnetization diagram and prevailing data analysis frameworks allow remanence directions to be estimated based on PCA fits that are forced to pass through the origin of such diagrams, a process referred to as "anchoring." While this approach is adopted commonly, little attention has been paid to the effects of anchoring and the influence it has on both estimated remanence directions and their associated uncertainties. In almost all cases, anchoring produces an artificially low uncertainty estimation compared to an unanchored fit. Bayesian model selection demonstrates that the effects of anchoring cannot typically be justified from a statistical standpoint. We present an alternative to anchoring that constrains the best fit remanence direction to pass through the origin of a vector demagnetization diagram without unreasonably distorting the representation of the demagnetization data.

  2. Hope Anchored in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyer, L. M.

    2011-01-01

    In South Africa, the processes of democratisation and social restructuring are inextricably linked to the debate on inclusive education. Although the debate on inclusive education originated in the disability discourse, it is increasingly viewed broader as a reform that supports and welcomes diversity. While the constitution and policy framework…

  3. Hope Anchored in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyer, L. M.

    2011-01-01

    In South Africa, the processes of democratisation and social restructuring are inextricably linked to the debate on inclusive education. Although the debate on inclusive education originated in the disability discourse, it is increasingly viewed broader as a reform that supports and welcomes diversity. While the constitution and policy framework…

  4. The construction of a high-density linkage map for identifying SNP markers that are tightly linked to a nuclear-recessive major gene for male sterility in Cryptomeria japonica D. Don.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Yoshinari; Ujino-Ihara, Tokuko; Uchiyama, Kentaro; Futamura, Norihiro; Saito, Maki; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Matsumoto, Asako; Tani, Naoki; Taira, Hideaki; Shinohara, Kenji; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

    2012-03-16

    High-density linkage maps facilitate the mapping of target genes and the construction of partial linkage maps around target loci to develop markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS). MAS is quite challenging in conifers because of their large, complex, and poorly-characterized genomes. Our goal was to construct a high-density linkage map to facilitate the identification of markers that are tightly linked to a major recessive male-sterile gene (ms1) for MAS in C. japonica, a species that is important in Japanese afforestation but which causes serious social pollinosis problems. We constructed a high-density saturated genetic linkage map for C. japonica using expressed sequence-derived co-dominant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, most of which were genotyped using the GoldenGate genotyping assay. A total of 1261 markers were assigned to 11 linkage groups with an observed map length of 1405.2 cM and a mean distance between two adjacent markers of 1.1 cM; the number of linkage groups matched the basic chromosome number in C. japonica. Using this map, we located ms1 on the 9th linkage group and constructed a partial linkage map around the ms1 locus. This enabled us to identify a marker (hrmSNP970_sf) that is closely linked to the ms1 gene, being separated from it by only 0.5 cM. Using the high-density map, we located the ms1 gene on the 9th linkage group and constructed a partial linkage map around the ms1 locus. The map distance between the ms1 gene and the tightly linked marker was only 0.5 cM. The identification of markers that are tightly linked to the ms1 gene will facilitate the early selection of male-sterile trees, which should expedite C. japonica breeding programs aimed at alleviating pollinosis problems without harming productivity.

  5. Age-related changes in synaptic markers and monocyte subsets link the cognitive decline of APPSwe/PS1 mice

    PubMed Central

    Naert, Gaëlle; Rivest, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive memory decline and numerous pathological abnormalities, including amyloid β (Aβ) accumulation in the brain and synaptic dysfunction. Here we wanted to study whether these brain changes were associated with alteration in the population of monocyte subsets since accumulating evidence supports the concept that the innate immune system plays a role in the etiology of this disease. We then determined the immune profile together with expression of genes encoding synaptic proteins and neurotrophins in APPSwe/PS1 mice and their age-matched wild-type (WT) littermates. We found that the progressive cognitive decline and the dramatic decrease in the expression of numerous synaptic markers and neurotrophins correlated with a major defect in the subset of circulating inflammatory monocytes. Indeed the number of CX3CR1lowLy6-ChighCCR2+Gr1+ monocytes remained essentially similar between 5 weeks and 6 months of age in APPSwe/PS1 mice, while these cells significantly increased in 6-month-old WT littermates. Of great interest is that the onset of cognitive decline was closely associated with the accumulation of soluble Aβ, disruption of synaptic activity, alteration in the BDNF system, and a defective production in the subset of CX3CR1lowLy6-ChighCCR2+Gr1+ monocytes. However, these memory impairments can be prevented or restored by boosting the monocytic production, using a short treatment of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). In conclusion, low CCR2+ monocyte production by the hematopoietic system may be a direct biomarker of the cognitive decline in a context of AD. PMID:23125823

  6. A novel gene, Pi40(t), linked to the DNA markers derived from NBS-LRR motifs confers broad spectrum of blast resistance in rice.

    PubMed

    Jeung, J U; Kim, B R; Cho, Y C; Han, S S; Moon, H P; Lee, Y T; Jena, K K

    2007-11-01

    Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe grisea is a continuous threat to stable rice production worldwide. In a modernized agricultural system, the development of varieties with broad-spectrum and durable resistance to blast disease is essential for increased rice production and sustainability. In this study, a new gene is identified in the introgression line IR65482-4-136-2-2 that has inherited the resistance gene from an EE genome wild Oryza species, O. australiensis (Acc. 100882). Genetic and molecular analysis localized a major resistance gene, Pi40(t), on the short arm of chromosome 6, where four blast resistance genes (Piz, Piz-5, Piz-t, and Pi9) were also identified, flanked by the markers S2539 and RM3330. Through e-Landing, 14 BAC/PAC clones within the 1.81-Mb equivalent virtual contig were identified on Rice Pseudomolecule3. Highly stringent primer sets designed for 6 NBS-LRR motifs located within PAC clone P0649C11 facilitated high-resolution mapping of the new resistance gene, Pi40(t). Following association analysis and detailed haplotyping approaches, a DNA marker, 9871.T7E2b, was identified to be linked to the Pi40(t) gene at the 70 Kb chromosomal region, and differentiated the Pi40(t) gene from the LTH monogenic differential lines possessing genes Piz, Piz-5, Piz-t, and Pi-9. Pi40(t) was validated using the most virulent isolates of Korea as well as the Philippines, suggesting a broad spectrum for the resistance gene. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) and pathotyping of BC progenies having two japonica cultivar genetic backgrounds further supported the potential of the resistance gene in rice breeding. Our study based on new gene identification strategies provides insight into novel genetic resources for blast resistance as well as future studies on cloning and functional analysis of a blast resistance gene useful for rice improvement.

  7. Evaluation of the measurement of serum cystatin C by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for humans as a marker of the glomerular filtration rate in dogs.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Yuichi; Takemura, Naoyuki; Hirose, Hisashi

    2009-09-01

    The serum cystatin C (Cys-C) concentration is a better filtration marker than plasma creatinine (Cre) concentration in humans. In veterinary medicine, a few studies have shown that the serum Cys-C concentration in dogs is also a better marker than the plasma Cre concentration. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the applicability of measuring the serum Cys-C concentration by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as a marker of the glomerular filtration rate in dogs with various renal dysfunctions. The serum Cys-C concentration in dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD) was significantly higher (1.23 +/- 0.21 mg/L) than that in 76 control dogs (0.85 +/- 0.15) (P<0.001). The reference range of the serum Cys-C concentrations in samples from the 76 control dogs was 0.55-1.15 mg/l. Serum Cys-C concentration was more strongly correlated with plasma iohexol clearance (r=-0.704, P<0.001) than plasma Cre concentration in dogs (r=-0.598, P<0.001). In a receiver operating characteristics analysis, significant differences between the serum Cys-C and plasma Cre concentrations were found with regard to their AUC (0.949, [SE, 0.019] and 0.849 [SE, 0.029]) and diagnostic sensitivity (90.3% and 73.6%) for detecting decreased PCio (P<0.05). Therefore, the measurement of serum Cys-C concentration by ELISA is more useful for the detection of early CKD than measuring the plasma Cre concentration.

  8. Polyclonal activation of Ts cells with antiserum directed against an IGH-1 linked candidate for a T-cell receptor constant region marker.

    PubMed

    Owen, F L

    1980-01-01

    An anti-T cell serum raised in allotype congenic mice recognizes the product of a new locus coding for a heavy chain-linked polypeptide found on a subpopulation of T cells. Anti-Tsd raised in BALB/cAnN mice against selected C.AL-20 T cells reacts with a cell surface antigen in virgin animals that is found on 25% of mature thymocytes and Lyt-bearing T cells, but not on prothymocytes, Lyt1 T cells or B cells. The antigen is restricted to strains bearing the Ig-1d and Ig-1e heavy chain allotype haplotypes, and is expressed in the F1 animal. The antigen is unlinked in expression to the Lyt2, H-2, or kappa light chain loci. The antigen is not detected in the hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow and appears to mark only the mature peripheral pool of T cells. As previously reported, the antiserum blocks the binding of suppressor T cells to the cross-reactive idiotype for arsonate, while reagents specific for Fab, Fc and Ig were ineffective. It seems probable that the marker may represent a T cell constant region marker analogous to the Igh products on immunoglobulin. Antiserum against this marker induces in vivo triggering of Ts cells for a wide variety of T-dependent antigens. All subclasses of anti-hapten antibodies are suppressed; no affinity restrictions or clonotype specificity is observed in suppressed adult mice. Results suggest that precursor T cells regulating major serum idiotypes regulate individual idiotypes.

  9. Population Structure, Diversity and Trait Association Analysis in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Germplasm for Early Seedling Vigor (ESV) Using Trait Linked SSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Anandan, Annamalai; Anumalla, Mahender; Pradhan, Sharat Kumar; Ali, Jauhar

    2016-01-01

    Early seedling vigor (ESV) is the essential trait for direct seeded rice to dominate and smother the weed growth. In this regard, 629 rice genotypes were studied for their morphological and physiological responses in the field under direct seeded aerobic situation on 14th, 28th and 56th days after sowing (DAS). It was determined that the early observations taken on 14th and 28th DAS were reliable estimators to study ESV as compared to56th DAS. Further, 96 were selected from 629 genotypes by principal component (PCA) and discriminate function analyses. The selected genotypes were subjected to decipher the pattern of genetic diversity in terms of both phenotypic and genotypic by using ESV QTL linked simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. To assess the genetic structure, model and distance based approaches were used. Genotyping of 96 rice lines using 39 polymorphic SSRs produced a total of 128 alleles with the phenotypic information content (PIC) value of 0.24. The model based population structure approach grouped the accession into two distinct populations, whereas unrooted tree grouped the genotypes into three clusters. Both model based and structure based approach had clearly distinguished the early vigor genotypes from non-early vigor genotypes. Association analysis revealed that 16 and 10 SSRs showed significant association with ESV traits by general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM) approaches respectively. Marker alleles on chromosome 2 were associated with shoot dry weight on 28 DAS, vigor index on 14 and 28 DAS. Improvement in the rate of seedling growth will be useful for identifying rice genotypes acquiescent to direct seeded conditions through marker-assisted selection. PMID:27031620

  10. Population Structure, Diversity and Trait Association Analysis in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Germplasm for Early Seedling Vigor (ESV) Using Trait Linked SSR Markers.

    PubMed

    Anandan, Annamalai; Anumalla, Mahender; Pradhan, Sharat Kumar; Ali, Jauhar

    2016-01-01

    Early seedling vigor (ESV) is the essential trait for direct seeded rice to dominate and smother the weed growth. In this regard, 629 rice genotypes were studied for their morphological and physiological responses in the field under direct seeded aerobic situation on 14th, 28th and 56th days after sowing (DAS). It was determined that the early observations taken on 14th and 28th DAS were reliable estimators to study ESV as compared to 56th DAS. Further, 96 were selected from 629 genotypes by principal component (PCA) and discriminate function analyses. The selected genotypes were subjected to decipher the pattern of genetic diversity in terms of both phenotypic and genotypic by using ESV QTL linked simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. To assess the genetic structure, model and distance based approaches were used. Genotyping of 96 rice lines using 39 polymorphic SSRs produced a total of 128 alleles with the phenotypic information content (PIC) value of 0.24. The model based population structure approach grouped the accession into two distinct populations, whereas unrooted tree grouped the genotypes into three clusters. Both model based and structure based approach had clearly distinguished the early vigor genotypes from non-early vigor genotypes. Association analysis revealed that 16 and 10 SSRs showed significant association with ESV traits by general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM) approaches respectively. Marker alleles on chromosome 2 were associated with shoot dry weight on 28 DAS, vigor index on 14 and 28 DAS. Improvement in the rate of seedling growth will be useful for identifying rice genotypes acquiescent to direct seeded conditions through marker-assisted selection.

  11. Brief Report: Elastin Microfibril Interface 1 and Integrin-Linked Protein Kinase Are Novel Markers of Islet Regenerative Function in Human Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Jessie R; Creskey, Marybeth M; Muradia, Gauri; Bell, Gillian I; Sherman, Stephen E; Gao, Jun; Stewart, Duncan J; Cyr, Terry D; Hess, David A; Rosu-Myles, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) transplantation is proposed as a novel therapy for treating diabetes by promoting the regeneration of damaged islets. The clinical promise of such treatments may be hampered by a high degree of donor-related variability in MSC function and a lack of standards for comparing potency. Here, we set out to identify markers of cultured human MSCs directly associated with islet regenerative function. Stromal cultures from nine separate bone marrow donors were demonstrated to have differing capacities to reduce hyperglycemia in the NOD/SCID streptozotocin-induced diabetic model. Regenerative (R) and non-regenerative (NR) MSC cultures were directly compared using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics. A total of 1,410 proteins were quantified resulting in the identification of 612 upregulated proteins and 275 downregulated proteins by ± 1.2-fold in R-MSC cultures. Elastin microfibril interface 1 (EMILIN-1), integrin-linked protein kinase (ILK), and hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) were differentially expressed in R-MSCs, and Ingenuity Pathway Analyses revealed each candidate as known regulators of integrin signaling. Western blot validation of EMILIN-1, ILK, and HDGF not only showed significantly higher abundance levels in R-MSCs, as compared with NR-MSCs, but also correlated with passage-induced loss of islet-regenerative potential. Generalized estimating equation modeling was applied to examine the association between each marker and blood glucose reduction. Both EMILIN-1 and ILK were significantly associated with blood glucose lowering function in vivo. Our study is the first to identify EMILIN-1 and ILK as prospective markers of islet regenerative function in human MSCs. Stem Cells 2016;34:2249-2255.

  12. 25. DETAIL OF SOUTH CANTILEVER ANCHOR ARM CONNECTION L1 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. DETAIL OF SOUTH CANTILEVER ANCHOR ARM CONNECTION L-1 AND LINK EXPANSION BEARING, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Jackson's Ferry Bridge, Route 52 over New River, 6.3 miles south of Route 94, Austinville, Wythe County, VA

  13. Discovery and validation of gene-linked diagnostic SNP markers for assessing hybridization between Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and Florida bass (M. floridanus).

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Gowan, Spencer; Anil, Ammu; Beck, Benjamin H; Thongda, Wilawan; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Peatman, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Efforts to improve recreational fisheries have included widespread stocking of Micropterus floridanus outside its native range of peninsular Florida. Hybridization of Florida bass (M. floridanus) with largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) has now dramatically expanded beyond a naturally occurring intergrade zone in the southeast U.S. In recent years, there has been growing interest in protecting the genetic integrity of native basses and assessing the impact and nature of M. salmoides/M. floridanus introgression from the standpoint of hatchery and sport-fishery managers, fish biologists, ecologists and evolutionary biologists. Here, we conducted RNA-seq-based sequencing of the transcriptomes of M. salmoides, M. floridanus and their F1 hybrid and identified a set of 3674 SNP markers with fixed-allelic differences from 2112 unique genes. We then developed a subset of 25 of these markers into a single diagnostic multiplex assay and validated its capacity for assessing integrity and hybridization in hatchery and wild populations of largemouth and Florida bass. The availability of this resource, high-quality transcriptomes and a large set of gene-linked SNPs, should greatly facilitate functional and population genomics studies in these key species and allow the identification of traits and processes under selection during introgressive hybridization.

  14. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of isomiroestrol, an identical marker, in White Kwao Krua using a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Kitisripanya, Tharita; Jutathis, Kamonthip; Inyai, Chadathorn; Komaikul, Jukrapun; Udomsin, Orapin; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Putalun, Waraporn

    2017-04-15

    Pueraria candollei var. mirifica or White Kwao Krua (WKK) is a phytoestrogen-rich plant widely used among women to improve climacteric symptoms. Additionally, the tuberous roots of this plant have been added as an active ingredient for skin rejuvenation and breast enlargement effects in various functional foods. However, most of the products on the market containing WKK have not been sufficiently standardized with respect to the active compound or identical marker. To control the quality of these plant materials, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using anti-isomiroestrol antibodies was established for the determination of isomiroestrol, an identical marker in WKK. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against isomiroestrol were generated and their specificity characterized in this study. Monoclonal antibody 12C1 showed higher specificity to isomiroestrol and was thus selected to develop the ELISA. Based on the validation analysis and the tested performance of the developed ELISA in variably sourced WKK samples, the assay can provide an alternative approach that is reliable and highly sensitive for the quantitative analysis of isomiroestrol in plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development and validation of DNA markers linked to Sdvy-1, a common bean gene conferring resistance to the yellowing strain of Soybean dwarf virus.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yoko; Takeuchi, Toru; Okuyama, Masataka; Sasaki, Jun; Onodera, Kakumasa; Sato, Mikako; Souma, Chihiro; Ebe, Shigehiko

    2014-12-01

    The yellowing strain of Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV-YS) causes yellowing and yield loss in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). The most effective control is achieved through breeding for resistance. An indeterminate climbing cultivar with a white seed coat, 'Oofuku', is resistant to SbDV-YS in inoculation tests. We crossed 'Oofuku' with an elite cultivar, 'Taisho-Kintoki', which is SbDV-YS-susceptible, determinate dwarf with a red-purple seed coat, and performed amplified-fragment-length polymorphism analysis of F3 lines. From nucleotide sequences of the resistant-specific fragments and their flanking regions, we developed five DNA markers, of which DV86, DV386, and DV398 were closely linked to Sdvy-1, a resistance gene. Using the markers, we developed 'Toiku-B79' and 'Toiku-B80', the near-isogenic lines (NILs) incorporating Sdvy-1 in the background of 'Taisho-Kintoki'. The NILs had similar growth habit, maturity date and seed shape to those of 'Taisho-Kintoki'. The quality of boiled beans was also similar, except that the NILs had more seed coat cracking than 'Taisho-Kintoki'. The NILs showed no SbDV-YS infection in inoculation tests. We suggest that Sdvy-1 is a useful source of SbDV-YS resistance in common bean.

  16. Gene networks in skeletal muscle following endurance exercise are coexpressed in blood neutrophils and linked with blood inflammation markers.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, James; Sampson, Dayle; Sabapathy, Surendran; Haseler, Luke J; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Bulmer, Andrew C; Peake, Jonathan M; Neubauer, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    It remains incompletely understood whether there is an association between the transcriptome profiles of skeletal muscle and blood leukocytes in response to exercise or other physiological stressors. We have previously analyzed the changes in the muscle and blood neutrophil transcriptome in eight trained men before and 3, 48, and 96 h after 2 h cycling and running. Because we collected muscle and blood in the same individuals and under the same conditions, we were able to directly compare gene expression between the muscle and blood neutrophils. Applying weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) as an advanced network-driven method to these original data sets enabled us to compare the muscle and neutrophil transcriptomes in a rigorous and systematic manner. Two gene networks were identified that were preserved between skeletal muscle and blood neutrophils, functionally related to mitochondria and posttranslational processes. Strong preservation measures (Zsummary > 10) for both muscle-neutrophil gene networks were evident within the postexercise recovery period. Muscle and neutrophil gene coexpression was strongly correlated in the mitochondria-related network (r = 0.97; P = 3.17E-2). We also identified multiple correlations between muscular gene subnetworks and exercise-induced changes in blood leukocyte counts, inflammation, and muscle damage markers. These data reveal previously unidentified gene coexpression between skeletal muscle and blood neutrophils following exercise, showing the value of WGCNA to understand exercise physiology. Furthermore, these findings provide preliminary evidence in support of the notion that blood neutrophil gene networks may potentially help us to track physiological and pathophysiological changes in the muscle.NEW & NOTEWORTHY By using weighted gene coexpression network analysis, an advanced bioinformatics method, we have identified previously unknown, functional gene networks that are preserved between skeletal muscle

  17. Persistent Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from mussel production facilities form more biofilm but are not linked to specific genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Jessika; Cruz, Cristina D; Tempelaars, Marcel; Abee, Tjakko; van Vliet, Arnoud H M; Fletcher, Graham C; Hedderley, Duncan; Palmer, Jon; Flint, Steve

    2017-09-01

    Contamination of mussels with the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes occurs during processing in the factory, possibly from bacteria persisting in the factory's indoor and outdoor areas. In this study, a selection of persistent (n=8) and sporadic (n=8) L. monocytogenes isolates associated with mussel-processing premises in New Zealand were investigated for their phenotypic and genomic characteristics. To identify traits that favour or contribute to bacterial persistence, biofilm formation, heat resistance, motility and recovery from dry surfaces were compared between persistent and sporadic isolates. All isolates exhibited low biofilm formation at 20°C, however, at 30°C persistent isolates showed significantly higher biofilm formation after 48h using cell enumeration and near significant difference using the crystal violet assay. All 16 isolates were motile at 20°C and 30°C and motility was fractionally higher for sporadic isolates, but no significant difference was observed. We found persistent isolates tend to exhibit greater recovery after incubation on dry surfaces compared to sporadic isolates. Two of the three most heat-resistant isolates were persistent, while four of five isolates lacking heat resistance were sporadic isolates. Comparison of genome sequences of persistent and sporadic isolates showed that there was no overall clustering of persistent or sporadic isolates, and that differences in prophages and plasmids were not associated with persistence. Our results suggest a link between persistence and biofilm formation, which is most likely multifactorial, combining subtle phenotypic and genotypic differences between isolates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. +2.71 LOD score at zero recombination is not sufficient for establishing linkage between X-linked mental retardation and X-chromosome markers

    SciTech Connect

    Robledo, R.; Melis, P.; Siniscalco, M.

    1996-07-12

    Nonspecific X-linked mental retardation (MRX) is the denomination attributed to the familial type of mental retardation compatible with X-linked inheritance but lacking specific phenotypic manifestations. It is thus to be expected that families falling under such broad definition are genetically heterogeneous in the sense that they may be due to different types of mutations occurring, most probably, at distinct X-chromosome loci. To facilitate a genetic classification of these conditions, the Nomenclature Committee of the Eleventh Human Gene Mapping Workshop proposed to assign a unique MRX-serial number to each family where evidence of linkage with one or more X-chromosome markers had been established with a LOD score of at least +2 at zero recombination. This letter is meant to emphasize the inadequacy of this criterion for a large pedigree where the segregation of the disease has been evaluated against the haplotype constitution of the entire X-chromosome carrying the mutation in question. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Complex patterns of population genetic structure of moose, Alces alces, after recent spatial expansion in Poland revealed by sex-linked markers.

    PubMed

    Swisłocka, Magdalena; Czajkowska, Magdalena; Duda, Norbert; Danyłow, Jan; Owadowska-Cornil, Edyta; Ratkiewicz, Mirosław

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, human activity directly and indirectly influenced the demography of moose in Poland. The species was close to extinction, and only a few isolated populations survived after the Second World War; then, unprecedented demographic and spatial expansions had occurred, possibly generating a very complex pattern of population genetic structure at the present-day margins of the species range in Poland. Over 370 moose from seven populations were collected from Poland, and partial sequences of the mitochondrial control region (mtDNA-cr; 607 bp) were obtained. In addition, the entire mtDNA cytochrome b gene (1,140 bp) and Y-chromosome markers (1,982 bp in total) were studied in a chosen set of individuals. Twelve mtDNA haplotypes that all belonged to the European moose phylogroup were recorded. They could be divided into two distinct clades: Central Europe and the Ural Mountains. The first clade consists of three distinct groups/branches: Biebrza, Polesie, and Fennoscandia. The Biebrza group has experienced spatial and demographic expansion in the recent past. Average genetic differentiation among moose populations in Poland at mtDNA-cr was great and significant (ΦST = 0.407, p < 0.001). Using mtDNA-cr data, four separate groups of population were recognized using spatial analysis of molecular variance and principal coordinate analysis, including a relict population in Biebrza National Park, a reintroduced Kampinos National Park population, as well as populations that were descendants of moose that colonized Poland from the east (Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine) and the north (former East Prussia). Among all the sequenced Y-chromosome markers, polymorphisms were found in the DBY14 marker in three populations only; four haplotypes were recorded in total. No significant differentiation was detected for this Y-linked marker among moose populations in Poland. Our mtDNA study revealed that a variety of different factors-bottleneck, the presence of

  20. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of

  1. How anchoring proteins shape pain.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Michael J M; McNaughton, Peter A

    2014-09-01

    Cellular responsiveness to external stimuli can be altered by extracellular mediators which activate membrane receptors, in turn signalling to the intracellular space via calcium, cyclic nucleotides, membrane lipids or enzyme activity. These signalling events trigger a cascade leading to an effector which can be a channel, an enzyme or a transcription factor. The effectiveness of these intracellular events is enhanced when they are maintained in close proximity by anchoring proteins, which assemble complexes of signalling molecules such as kinases together with their targets, and in this way enhance both the speed and the precision of intracellular signalling. The A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) family are adaptor proteins originally named for their ability to associate Protein Kinase A and its targets, but several other enzymes bound by AKAPs have now been found and a wide variety of target structures has been described. This review provides an overview of anchoring proteins involved in pain signalling. The key anchoring proteins and their ion channel targets in primary sensory neurons responding to painful stimuli (nociceptors) are discussed.

  2. ATHLETE : Double Auger Anchoring Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The All-Terrain Hex-Legged Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) is a six-limbed robot designed to support surface explorations on Near Earth Objects, the Moon and Mars. ATHLETE can carry large payloads on its top deck and can carry a fully equipped pressurized habitat in low gravity. The robot has wheels on each of its six articulated limbs, allowing it to actively conform to terrain while driving and to walk when driving is impractical. With the use of a tool adapter, ATHLETE limbs can be equipped with end effectors to support various mission objectives. For work on Near Earth Objects and other microgravity environments, an anchoring mechanism is needed to keep the ATHLETE from floating off the surface. My goal for this spring session at JPL was to design and build a counter rotating, double auger, anchoring mechanism. The mechanism mates to the tool adapter and is driven off the wheel motor. The double auger anchoring mechanism will be tested in a regolith simulant that will determine the uplift capacity of the anchoring mechanism.

  3. ATHLETE : Double Auger Anchoring Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The All-Terrain Hex-Legged Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) is a six-limbed robot designed to support surface explorations on Near Earth Objects, the Moon and Mars. ATHLETE can carry large payloads on its top deck and can carry a fully equipped pressurized habitat in low gravity. The robot has wheels on each of its six articulated limbs, allowing it to actively conform to terrain while driving and to walk when driving is impractical. With the use of a tool adapter, ATHLETE limbs can be equipped with end effectors to support various mission objectives. For work on Near Earth Objects and other microgravity environments, an anchoring mechanism is needed to keep the ATHLETE from floating off the surface. My goal for this spring session at JPL was to design and build a counter rotating, double auger, anchoring mechanism. The mechanism mates to the tool adapter and is driven off the wheel motor. The double auger anchoring mechanism will be tested in a regolith simulant that will determine the uplift capacity of the anchoring mechanism.

  4. High Velocity Implanting of Anchors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    easily by a direct rocket. The sponsors had suggested a water jet approach using cold high pressure gas to supply the energy, instead of propellant gas...development promises to be expensive and lengthy. Fortunately, the water jet does not share this problem. Its development should be timely, and costs should be reasonable. Keyword: Anchors (Marine).

  5. A mixture of oleic, erucic and conjugated linoleic acids modulates cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory markers and improve somatosensorial evoked potential in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy female carriers.

    PubMed

    Cappa, Marco; Bizzarri, Carla; Petroni, Anna; Carta, Gianfranca; Cordeddu, Lina; Valeriani, Massimiliano; Vollono, Catello; De Pasquale, Loredana; Blasevich, Milena; Banni, Sebastiano

    2012-09-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a rare inherited demyelinating disorder characterized by an abnormal accumulation of very long chain fatty acids, mainly hexacosanoic acid (26:0), due to a mutation of the gene encoding for a peroxisomal membrane protein. The only available, and partially effective, therapeutic treatment consists of dietary intake of a 4:1 mixture of triolein and trierucin, called Lorenzo's oil (LO), targeted to inhibit the elongation of docosanoic acid (22:0) to 26:0. In this study we tested whether, besides inhibiting elongation, an enhancement of peroxisomal beta oxidation induced by conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), will improve somatosensory evoked potentials and modify inflammatory markers in adrenoleukodystrophy females carriers. We enrolled five heterozygous women. They received a mixture of LO (40 g/day) with CLA (5 g/day) for 2 months. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by the means of plasma levels of 26:0, 26:0/22:0 ratio, modification of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory markers and somatosensory evoked potentials. Changes of fatty acid profile, and in particular CLA incorporation, were also evaluated in CSF and plasma. The results showed that CLA promptly passes the blood brain barrier and the mixture was able to lower both 26:0 and 26:0/22:0 ratio in plasma. The mixture improved somatosensory evoked potentials, which were previously found unchanged or worsened with dietary LO alone, and reduced IL-6 levels in CSF in three out of five patients. Our data suggest that the synergic activity of CLA and LO, by enhancing peroxisomal beta-oxidation and preventing 26:0 formation, improves the somatosensory evoked potentials and reduces neuroinflammation.

  6. Efficiency of typing unaffected relatives in an affected-sib-pair linkage study with single-locus and multiple tightly linked markers

    SciTech Connect

    Holmans, P.; Clayton, D.

    1995-11-01

    In an affected-sib-pair study, the parents are often unavailable for typing, particularly for diseases of late onset. In many cases, however, it is possible to sample unaffected siblings. It is therefore desirable to assess the contribution of such siblings to the power of such a study. The likelihood ratio introduced by Risch and improved by Holmans was extended to incorporate data from unaffected siblings. Tests based on two likelihoods were considered: the full likelihood of the data, based on the identity-by-descent (IBD) sharing states of the entire sibship, and a pseudolikelihood based on the IBD sharing states of the affected pair only, using the unaffected siblings to infer parental genotypes. The latter approach was found to be more powerful, except when penetrance was high. Typing an unaffected sibling, or just one parent, was found to give only a small increase in power except when the PIC of the marker was low. Even then, typing an unaffected relative increased the overall number of individuals that had to be typed to achieve a given power. If there is no highly informative marker locus in the area under study, it may be possible to {open_quotes}build{close_quotes} one by combining the alleles from two or more neighboring tightly linked loci into haplotypes. Typing two loci gave a sizeable power increase over a single locus, but typing further loci gave much smaller gains. Building haplotypes will introduce phase uncertainties, with the result that such a system will yield less power than will a single locus with the same number of alleles. This power loss was small, however, and did not affect the conclusions regarding the worth of typing unaffected relatives. 14 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. A new approach to chromosome-wide analysis of X-linked markers identifies new associations in Asian and European case-parent triads of orofacial clefts.

    PubMed

    Skare, Øivind; Gjessing, Håkon K; Gjerdevik, Miriam; Haaland, Øystein A; Romanowska, Julia; Lie, Rolv T; Jugessur, Astanand

    2017-01-01

    GWAS discoveries on the X-chromosome are underrepresented in the literature primarily because the analytical tools that have been applied were originally designed for autosomal markers. Our objective here is to employ a new robust and flexible tool for chromosome-wide analysis of X-linked markers in complex traits. Orofacial clefts are good candidates for such analysis because of the consistently observed excess of females with cleft palate only (CPO) and excess of males with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P). Genotypes for 14,486 X-chromosome SNPs in 1,291 Asian and 1,118 European isolated cleft triads were available from a previously published GWAS. The R-package HAPLIN enables genome-wide-level analyses as well as statistical power simulations for a range of biologic scenarios. We analyzed isolated CL/P and isolated CPO for each ethnicity in HAPLIN, using a sliding-window approach to haplotype analysis and two different statistical models, with and without X-inactivation in females. There was a larger number of associations in the Asian versus the European sample, and similar to previous reports that have analyzed the same GWAS dataset using different methods, we identified associations with EFNB1/PJA1 and DMD. In addition, new associations were detected with several other genes, among which KLHL4, TBX22, CPXCR1 and BCOR were noteworthy because of their roles in clefting syndromes. A few of the associations were only detected by one particular X-inactivation model, whereas a few others were only detected in one sex. We found new support for the involvement of X-linked variants in isolated clefts. The associations were specific for ethnicity, sex and model parameterization, highlighting the need for flexible tools that are capable of detecting and estimating such effects. Further efforts are needed to verify and elucidate the potential roles of EFNB1/PJA1, KLHL4, TBX22, CPXCR1 and BCOR in isolated clefts.

  8. OTEC Anchors: Selection and Plan for Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    Anchor systems capable of maintaining the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion ( OTEC ) power plants on station were identified and compared. Deadweight...for OTEC , however, is probably not necessary because it is expected that such hard seafloor anchor sites are best avoided by OTEC plants. A plan for...structural analysis and design technique for the anchor, and finally a demonstration of a near prototype size OTEC free-fall deadweight anchor in early 1980. (Author)

  9. Anchors Aweigh: A Demonstration of Cross-Modality Anchoring and Magnitude Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Daniel M.; LeBoeuf, Robyn A.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2008-01-01

    Research has shown that judgments tend to assimilate to irrelevant "anchors." We extend anchoring effects to show that anchors can even operate across modalities by, apparently, priming a general sense of magnitude that is not moored to any unit or scale. An initial study showed that participants drawing long "anchor" lines made higher numerical…

  10. 30 CFR 57.19002 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.19002 Section 57.19002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19002 Anchoring. Hoists shall be anchored securely. ...

  11. 30 CFR 57.19002 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.19002 Section 57.19002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19002 Anchoring. Hoists shall be anchored securely. ...

  12. 30 CFR 57.7032 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.7032 Section 57.7032 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7032 Anchoring. Columns and the drills mounted on them shall be anchored...

  13. 30 CFR 57.19002 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.19002 Section 57.19002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19002 Anchoring. Hoists shall be anchored securely. ...

  14. 30 CFR 56.19002 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anchoring. 56.19002 Section 56.19002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Anchoring. Hoists shall be anchored securely. ...

  15. 30 CFR 56.19002 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Anchoring. 56.19002 Section 56.19002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Anchoring. Hoists shall be anchored securely. ...

  16. 30 CFR 57.7032 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.7032 Section 57.7032 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7032 Anchoring. Columns and the drills mounted on them shall be anchored...

  17. 30 CFR 57.7032 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.7032 Section 57.7032 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7032 Anchoring. Columns and the drills mounted on them shall be anchored...

  18. 30 CFR 57.19002 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.19002 Section 57.19002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19002 Anchoring. Hoists shall be anchored securely. ...

  19. 30 CFR 56.19002 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Anchoring. 56.19002 Section 56.19002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Anchoring. Hoists shall be anchored securely. ...

  20. 30 CFR 57.7032 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.7032 Section 57.7032 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7032 Anchoring. Columns and the drills mounted on them shall be anchored...

  1. 30 CFR 56.19002 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Anchoring. 56.19002 Section 56.19002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Anchoring. Hoists shall be anchored securely. ...

  2. 30 CFR 57.19002 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.19002 Section 57.19002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19002 Anchoring. Hoists shall be anchored securely. ...

  3. 30 CFR 56.19002 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchoring. 56.19002 Section 56.19002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Anchoring. Hoists shall be anchored securely. ...

  4. 33 CFR 401.15 - Stern anchors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stern anchors. 401.15 Section 401... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.15 Stern anchors. (a) Every... equipped with a stern anchor. (b) Every integrated tug and barge or articulated tug and barge unit greater...

  5. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... wind by use of anchor assembly type installations or by connecting the home to an alternative foundation system. See § 3285.301. (b) For anchor assembly type installations, the installation instructions... instructions and design for anchor type assemblies must be prepared by a registered professional engineer or...

  6. SNP Discovery and Chromosome Anchoring Provide the First Physically-Anchored Hexaploid Oat Map and Reveal Synteny with Model Species

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Shiaoman; Jellen, Eric N.; Carson, Martin L.; Rines, Howard W.; Obert, Donald E.; Lutz, Joseph D.; Shackelford, Irene; Korol, Abraham B.; Wight, Charlene P.; Gardner, Kyle M.; Hattori, Jiro; Beattie, Aaron D.; Bjørnstad, Åsmund; Bonman, J. Michael; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Sorrells, Mark E.; Brown-Guedira, Gina L.; Mitchell Fetch, Jennifer W.; Harrison, Stephen A.; Howarth, Catherine J.; Ibrahim, Amir; Kolb, Frederic L.; McMullen, Michael S.; Murphy, J. Paul; Ohm, Herbert W.; Rossnagel, Brian G.; Yan, Weikai; Miclaus, Kelci J.; Hiller, Jordan; Maughan, Peter J.; Redman Hulse, Rachel R.; Anderson, Joseph M.; Islamovic, Emir

    2013-01-01

    A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42) has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources were applied to build the first complete, physically-anchored consensus map of hexaploid oat. Approximately 11,000 high-confidence in silico SNPs were discovered based on nine million inter-varietal sequence reads of genomic and cDNA origin. GoldenGate genotyping of 3,072 SNP assays yielded 1,311 robust markers, of which 985 were mapped in 390 recombinant-inbred lines from six bi-parental mapping populations ranging in size from 49 to 97 progeny. The consensus map included 985 SNPs and 68 previously-published markers, resolving 21 linkage groups with a total map distance of 1,838.8 cM. Consensus linkage groups were assigned to 21 chromosomes using SNP deletion analysis of chromosome-deficient monosomic hybrid stocks. Alignments with sequenced genomes of rice and Brachypodium provide evidence for extensive conservation of genomic regions, and renewed encouragement for orthology-based genomic discovery in this important hexaploid species. These results also provide a framework for high-resolution genetic analysis in oat, and a model for marker development and map construction in other species with complex genomes and limited resources. PMID:23533580

  7. The ROSETTA Lander anchoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, Markus; Stöcker, Jakob; Rohe, Christian; Kömle, Norbert I.; Kargl, Günter; Hillenmaier, Olaf; Lell, Peter

    2003-09-01

    A major goal of the ESA cornerstone mission ROSETTA is to land a package of scientific instruments known as the ROSETTA Lander on the nucleus of a comet. Due to the low gravity a highly reliable fixation of the ROSETTA Lander to the target comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (3rd) is essential. For that purpose a redundant Anchoring System, consisting of two pyrotechnically actuated Anchoring Harpoons and a redundant Control Electronics has been developed, built and qualified at the Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Garching. The pyrotechnical gas generator has been developed jointly by Pyroglobe GmbH and MPE, the procurement of the control electronics has been sub-contracted to Magson GmbH, Berlin. A study to obtain a suitable lubrication method for the commutator of a brushed DC motor has been conducted at the European Space Tribology Laboratory (ESTL; S. D. Lewis et al., 2003).

  8. Anchoring bias in online voting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zimo; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao

    2012-12-01

    Voting online with explicit ratings could largely reflect people's preferences and objects' qualities, but ratings are always irrational, because they may be affected by many unpredictable factors like mood, weather and other people's votes. By analyzing two real systems, this paper reveals a systematic bias embedding in the individual decision-making processes, namely people tend to give a low rating after a low rating, as well as a high rating following a high rating. This so-called anchoring bias is validated via extensive comparisons with null models, and numerically speaking, the extent of bias decays with voting interval in a logarithmic form. Our findings could be applied in the design of recommender systems and considered as important complementary materials to previous knowledge about anchoring effects on financial trades, performance judgments, auctions, and so on.

  9. Anchoring in Numeric Judgments of Visual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Langeborg, Linda; Eriksson, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert) on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious. PMID:26941684

  10. Anchoring in Numeric Judgments of Visual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Langeborg, Linda; Eriksson, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert) on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious.

  11. Anchor for Fiberglas Guy Rod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    Solution to problem of anchoring fiberglas guy rods to install nut with threads on outer circumference, followed by aluminum sleeve. Sleeve has opening oval at upper and round at bottom end. End of rod is split so fiberglas wedge can be inserted to form V-shaped end. Spread end of rod fits into tapered hole in sleeve and threaded aluminum coupling is put over rod and sleeve.

  12. Holding Capacity of Plate Anchors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    Engineering Laboratory, Technical Note N-1545. Port Hueneme, Calif., Jan 1979. 4 safe arm device gun barrel reaction vessel Figure 1-2. CEL 20K propell...anchors in cohesive soils, Civil Engineering Laboratory, Technical Note N-1545. Port Hueneme, Calif., Jan 1979. Berger, W. H., and E. L. Winterer...NORTHWESTERN UNIV Z.P. Bazant Evanston IL NY CITY COMMUNITY COLLEGE BROOKLYN, NY (LIBRARY) NYS ENERGY OFFICE Library, Albany NY OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY (CE

  13. Independent control of polar and azimuthal anchoring.

    PubMed

    Anquetil-Deck, C; Cleaver, D J; Bramble, J P; Atherton, T J

    2013-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulation, experiment, and continuum theory are used to examine the anchoring exhibited by a nematic liquid crystal at a patterned substrate comprising a periodic array of rectangles that, respectively, promote vertical and planar alignment. It is shown that the easy axis and effective anchoring energy promoted by such surfaces can be readily controlled by adjusting the design of the pattern. The calculations reveal rich behavior: for strong anchoring, as exhibited by the simulated system, for rectangle ratios ≥2 the nematic aligns in the direction of the long edge of the rectangles, the azimuthal anchoring coefficient changing with pattern shape. In weak anchoring scenarios, however, including our experimental systems, preferential anchoring is degenerate between the two rectangle diagonals. Bistability between diagonally aligned and edge-aligned arrangement is predicted for intermediate combinations of anchoring coefficient and system length scale.

  14. The construction of a high-density linkage map for identifying SNP markers that are tightly linked to a nuclear-recessive major gene for male sterility in Cryptomeria japonica D. Don

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background High-density linkage maps facilitate the mapping of target genes and the construction of partial linkage maps around target loci to develop markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS). MAS is quite challenging in conifers because of their large, complex, and poorly-characterized genomes. Our goal was to construct a high-density linkage map to facilitate the identification of markers that are tightly linked to a major recessive male-sterile gene (ms1) for MAS in C. japonica, a species that is important in Japanese afforestation but which causes serious social pollinosis problems. Results We constructed a high-density saturated genetic linkage map for C. japonica using expressed sequence-derived co-dominant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, most of which were genotyped using the GoldenGate genotyping assay. A total of 1261 markers were assigned to 11 linkage groups with an observed map length of 1405.2 cM and a mean distance between two adjacent markers of 1.1 cM; the number of linkage groups matched the basic chromosome number in C. japonica. Using this map, we located ms1 on the 9th linkage group and constructed a partial linkage map around the ms1 locus. This enabled us to identify a marker (hrmSNP970_sf) that is closely linked to the ms1 gene, being separated from it by only 0.5 cM. Conclusions Using the high-density map, we located the ms1 gene on the 9th linkage group and constructed a partial linkage map around the ms1 locus. The map distance between the ms1 gene and the tightly linked marker was only 0.5 cM. The identification of markers that are tightly linked to the ms1 gene will facilitate the early selection of male-sterile trees, which should expedite C. japonica breeding programs aimed at alleviating pollinosis problems without harming productivity. PMID:22424262

  15. Structure of the Cell Wall Anchor of Surface Proteins in Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneewind, Olaf; Fowler, Audree; Faull, Kym F.

    1995-04-01

    Many surface proteins are anchored to the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria and are involved in the pathogenesis of these organisms. A hybrid molecule was designed that, when expressed in Staphylococcus aureus, was anchored to the cell wall and could be released by controlled enzymatic digestion. By a combination of molecular biology and mass spectrometry techniques, the structure of the cell wall anchor of surface proteins in S. aureus was revealed. After cleavage of surface proteins between threonine and glycine of the conserved LPXTG motif, the carboxyl of threonine is amide-linked to the free amino group of the pentaglycine crossbridge in the staphylococcal cell wall.

  16. High-throughput physical map anchoring via BAC-pool sequencing.

    PubMed

    Cviková, Kateřina; Cattonaro, Federica; Alaux, Michael; Stein, Nils; Mayer, Klaus Fx; Doležel, Jaroslav; Bartoš, Jan

    2015-04-11

    Physical maps created from large insert DNA libraries, typically cloned in BAC vector, are valuable resources for map-based cloning and de novo genome sequencing. The maps are most useful if contigs of overlapping DNA clones are anchored to chromosome(s), and ordered along them using molecular markers. Here we present a novel approach for anchoring physical maps, based on sequencing three-dimensional pools of BAC clones from minimum tilling path. We used physical map of wheat chromosome arm 3DS to validate the method with two different DNA sequence datasets. The first comprised 567 genes ordered along the chromosome arm based on syntenic relationship of wheat with the sequenced genomes of Brachypodium, rice and sorghum. The second dataset consisted of 7,136 SNP-containing sequences, which were mapped genetically in Aegilops tauschii, the donor of the wheat D genome. Mapping of sequence reads from individual BAC pools to the first and the second datasets enabled unambiguous anchoring 447 and 311 3DS-specific sequences, respectively, or 758 in total. We demonstrate the utility of the novel approach for BAC contig anchoring based on mass parallel sequencing of three-dimensional pools prepared from minimum tilling path of physical map. The existing genetic markers as well as any other DNA sequence could be mapped to BAC clones in a single in silico experiment. The approach reduces significantly the cost and time needed for anchoring and is applicable to any genomic project involving the construction of anchored physical map.

  17. Steric and not structure-specific factors dictate the endocytic mechanism of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bhagatji, Pinkesh; Leventis, Rania; Comeau, Jonathan; Refaei, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Diverse glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins enter mammalian cells via the clathrin- and dynamin-independent, Arf1-regulated GPI-enriched early endosomal compartment/clathrin-independent carrier endocytic pathway. To characterize the determinants of GPI protein targeting to this pathway, we have used fluorescence microscopic analyses to compare the internalization of artificial lipid-anchored proteins, endogenous membrane proteins, and membrane lipid markers in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Soluble proteins, anchored to cell-inserted saturated or unsaturated phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)-polyethyleneglycols (PEGs), closely resemble the GPI-anchored folate receptor but differ markedly from the transferrin receptor, membrane lipid markers, and even protein-free PE-PEGs, both in their distribution in peripheral endocytic vesicles and in the manner in which their endocytic uptake responds to manipulations of cellular Arf1 or dynamin activity. These findings suggest that the distinctive endocytic targeting of GPI proteins requires neither biospecific recognition of their GPI anchors nor affinity for ordered-lipid microdomains but is determined by a more fundamental property, the steric bulk of the lipid-anchored protein. PMID:19687251

  18. Bile acid signaling in lipid metabolism: metabolomic and lipidomic analysis of lipid and bile acid markers linked to anti-obesity and anti-diabetes in mice.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yunpeng; Jiang, Changtao; Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W; Li, Tiangang; Ferrell, Jessica M; Gonzalez, Frank J; Chiang, John Y L

    2015-01-01

    Bile acid synthesis is the major pathway for catabolism of cholesterol. Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway in the liver and plays an important role in regulating lipid, glucose and energy metabolism. Transgenic mice overexpressing CYP7A1 (CYP7A1-tg mice) were resistant to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, fatty liver, and diabetes. However the mechanism of resistance to HFD-induced obesity of CYP7A1-tg mice has not been determined. In this study, metabolomic and lipidomic profiles of CYP7A1-tg mice were analyzed to explore the metabolic alterations in CYP7A1-tg mice that govern the protection against obesity and insulin resistance by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with multivariate analyses. Lipidomics analysis identified seven lipid markers including lysophosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and ceramides that were significantly decreased in serum of HFD-fed CYP7A1-tg mice. Metabolomics analysis identified 13 metabolites in bile acid synthesis including taurochenodeoxycholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, tauroursodeoxycholic acid, taurocholic acid, and tauro-β-muricholic acid (T-β-MCA) that differed between CYP7A1-tg and wild-type mice. Notably, T-β-MCA, an antagonist of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) was significantly increased in intestine of CYP7A1-tg mice. This study suggests that reducing 12α-hydroxylated bile acids and increasing intestinal T-β-MCA may reduce high fat diet-induced increase of phospholipids, sphingomyelins and ceramides, and ameliorate diabetes and obesity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Linking transcription to physiology in lipodomics.

  19. Development of PCR-Based Markers Linked to Quantitative Resistance to Late Blight in a Diploid Hybrid Potato Population of Solanum phureja × S. stenotomum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A diploid hybrid Solanum phureja × S. stenotomum population which has shown relatively high levels of quantitative resistance to late blight was used to develop PCR–based markers for marker assisted selection (MAS) of disease resistance in potato breeding. Two random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD...

  20. Application of in silico bulked segregant analysis for rapid development of markers linked to Bean common mosaic virus resistance in common bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Common bean was one of the first crops that benefited from the development and utilization of molecular markers in tagging major disease resistance genes for marker-assisted selection (MAS). Efficiency of MAS breeding in common bean is still hampered; however, due to the dominance, linkage phase, an...

  1. A lunar/Martian anchor emplacement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, Dustin; Holt, Andrew; Jantz, Erik; Kaufman, Teresa; Martin, James; Weber, Reed

    1993-01-01

    On the Moon or Mars, it is necessary to have an anchor, or a stable, fixed point able to support the forces necessary to rescue a stuck vehicle, act as a stake for a tent in a Martian gale, act as a fulcrum in the erection of general construction poles, or support tent-like regolith shields. The anchor emplacement system must be highly autonomous. It must supply the energy and stability for anchor deployment. The goal of the anchor emplacement system project is to design and build a prototype anchor and to design a conceptual anchor emplacement system. Various anchors were tested in a 1.3 cubic meter test bed containing decomposed granite. A simulated lunar soil was created by adjusting the moisture and compaction characteristics of the soil. We conducted tests on emplacement torque, amount of force the anchor could withstand before failure, anchor pull out force at various angles, and soil disturbances caused by placing the anchor. A single helix auger anchor performed best in this test bed based on energy to emplace, and the ultimate holding capacity. The anchor was optimized for ultimate holding capacity, minimum emplacement torque, and minimum soil disturbance in sandy soils yielding the following dimensions: helix diameter (4.45 cm), pitch (1.27 cm), blade thickness (0.15 cm), total length (35.56 cm), shaft diameter (0.78 cm), and a weight of 212.62 g. The experimental results showed that smaller diameter, single-helix augers held more force than larger diameter augers for a given depth. The emplacement system consists of a flywheel and a motor for power, sealed in a protective box supported by four legs. The flywheel system was chosen over a gear system based on its increased reliability in the lunar environment.

  2. Ships at anchor, Gulf of Oman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    These supertankers, riding at anchor off the coast of the United Arab Emirates, Gulf of Oman (25.5N, 56.5E) cast long shadows and eddy currents in the late afternoon sun. The ships are anchored just outside the Persian Gulf. Because of a surplus of supertankers in the world, many of them are simply moored in the Gulf of Oman where they can be safely anchored and yet be close to the oil ports when activated.

  3. Conventional Anchor Test Results at San Diego and Indian Island

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    catenary changes, anchor drag distance is readily calculated. Spar Marker. Initially, barge position was to be recorded primarily by means of a...10 STAG6SSAC1L0.6T185.46 DEG fP FLUXES ---0Sh £60808 6110141 3450.00 LI. FLOI8 £I|-TTPI. 46.:006. -1 08O0v I-F IX ANN. ARCH *8 TTN -5.0,AI. alCobR...Berkeley CA (B. Bresler): Berkeley CA (Dept of Naval Arch .): Berkeley CA (E. Pearson): DAVIS. CA iCE DEPT. TAYLOR): La Jolla CA (Acq. Dept. Lib. C

  4. Identification of sequence-related amplified polymorphism and insertion-deletion markers linked to the male fertility restorer gene of pol-like CMS06J45 in heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Xu, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, L G; Fang, Z Y

    2014-11-14

    In order to map the restorer gene BrRfp of the polima (pol)-like cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) 06J45 line in heading Chinese cabbage, an F2 segregating population with 258 individuals of CMS06J45 and the restorer line 01S325 were tested by sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and insertion-deletion (InDel) technologies combined with the bulked segregant analysis method. As a result, two SRAP markers, me3em3.366 and pm88bg5.263, that were linked with the BrRfp gene were identified from 463 SRAP primer pairs. By cloning, sequencing, and basic local alignment search tool analysis, the two markers were targeted to the BGIScaffold000053 of Brassica rapa in the Brassica database. Using the BGIScaffold000053 sequence, four InDel primer pairs were designed and identified to be linked with the BrRfp gene in this population. Linkage analysis showed that these markers were distributed on both sides of the BrRfp gene, the linkage distances of two nearest markers InDel878.1125 and InDel920.713 were 0.82 and 0.46 cM, respectively, and the BrRfp gene was restricted to a 243-kb genomic region of B. rapa. These specific markers provided basic information for map-based cloning of the BrRfp gene and will be very valuable for the marker-assisted selection of a new restorer line in heading Chinese cabbage.

  5. Analysis of glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Fivaz, M; Vilbois, F; Pasquali, C; van der Goot, F G

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize mammalian glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins y two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using immobilized pH gradients. Analysis was performed on detergent-resistant membrane fractions of baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, since such fractions have previously been shown to be highly enriched in GPI-anchored proteins. Although the GPI-anchored proteins were readily separated by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), these proteins were undetectable on two-dimensional (2-D) gels, even though these gels unambiguously revealed high enrichment of known hydrophobic proteins of detergent-resistant membranes such as caveolin-1 and flotillin-1 (identified by Western blotting and tandem mass spectrometry, respectively). Proper separation of GPI-anchored proteins required cleavage of the lipid tail with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, presumably to avoid interference of the hydrophobic phospholipid moiety of GPI-anchors during isoelectric focusing. Using this strategy, BHK cells were observed to contain at least six GPI-anchored proteins. Each protein was also present as multiple isoforms with different isoelectric points and apparent molecular weights, consistent with extensive but differential N-glycosylation. Pretreatment with N-glycosidase F indeed caused the different isoforms of each protein to collapse into a single spot. In addition, quantitative removal of N-linked sugars greatly facilitated the detection of heavily glycosylated proteins and enabled sequencing by nanoelectrospray-tandem mass spectrometry as illustrated for the GPI-anchored protein, Thy-1.

  6. The application of GBS markers for extending the dense genetic map of rye (Secale cereale L.) and the localization of the Rfc1 gene restoring male fertility in plants with the C source of sterility-inducing cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Milczarski, Paweł; Hanek, Monika; Tyrka, Mirosław; Stojałowski, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) is an efficient method of genotyping in numerous plant species. One of the crucial steps toward the application of GBS markers in crop improvement is anchoring them on particular chromosomes. In rye (Secale cereale L.), chromosomal localization of GBS markers has not yet been reported. In this paper, the application of GBS markers generated by the DArTseq platform for extending the high-density map of rye is presented. Additionally, their application is used for the localization of the Rfc1 gene that restores male fertility in plants with the C source of sterility-inducing cytoplasm. The total number of markers anchored on the current version of the map is 19,081, of which 18,132 were obtained from the DArTseq platform. Numerous markers co-segregated within the studied mapping population, so, finally, only 3397 unique positions were located on the map of all seven rye chromosomes. The total length of the map is 1593 cM and the average distance between markers is 0.47 cM. In spite of the resolution of the map being not very high, it should be a useful tool for further studies of the Secale cereale genome because of the presence on this map of numerous GBS markers anchored for the first time on rye chromosomes. The Rfc1 gene was located on high-density maps of the long arm of the 4R chromosome obtained for two mapping populations. Genetic maps were composed of DArT, DArTseq, and PCR-based markers. Consistent mapping results were obtained and DArTs tightly linked to the Rfc1 gene were successfully applied for the development of six new PCR-based markers useful in marker-assisted selection.

  7. Linking ecophysiological modelling with quantitative genetics to support marker-assisted crop design for improved yields of rice (Oryza sativa) under drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Junfei; Yin, Xinyou; Zhang, Chengwei; Wang, Huaqi; Struik, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Genetic markers can be used in combination with ecophysiological crop models to predict the performance of genotypes. Crop models can estimate the contribution of individual markers to crop performance in given environments. The objectives of this study were to explore the use of crop models to design markers and virtual ideotypes for improving yields of rice (Oryza sativa) under drought stress. Methods Using the model GECROS, crop yield was dissected into seven easily measured parameters. Loci for these parameters were identified for a rice population of 94 introgression lines (ILs) derived from two parents differing in drought tolerance. Marker-based values of ILs for each of these parameters were estimated from additive allele effects of the loci, and were fed to the model in order to simulate yields of the ILs grown under well-watered and drought conditions and in order to design virtual ideotypes for those conditions. Key Results To account for genotypic yield differences, it was necessary to parameterize the model for differences in an additional trait ‘total crop nitrogen uptake’ (Nmax) among the ILs. Genetic variation in Nmax had the most significant effect on yield; five other parameters also significantly influenced yield, but seed weight and leaf photosynthesis did not. Using the marker-based parameter values, GECROS also simulated yield variation among 251 recombinant inbred lines of the same parents. The model-based dissection approach detected more markers than the analysis using only yield per se. Model-based sensitivity analysis ranked all markers for their importance in determining yield differences among the ILs. Virtual ideotypes based on markers identified by modelling had 10–36 % more yield than those based on markers for yield per se. Conclusions This study outlines a genotype-to-phenotype approach that exploits the potential value of marker-based crop modelling in developing new plant types with high yields. The

  8. Linking ecophysiological modelling with quantitative genetics to support marker-assisted crop design for improved yields of rice (Oryza sativa) under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Gu, Junfei; Yin, Xinyou; Zhang, Chengwei; Wang, Huaqi; Struik, Paul C

    2014-09-01

    Genetic markers can be used in combination with ecophysiological crop models to predict the performance of genotypes. Crop models can estimate the contribution of individual markers to crop performance in given environments. The objectives of this study were to explore the use of crop models to design markers and virtual ideotypes for improving yields of rice (Oryza sativa) under drought stress. Using the model GECROS, crop yield was dissected into seven easily measured parameters. Loci for these parameters were identified for a rice population of 94 introgression lines (ILs) derived from two parents differing in drought tolerance. Marker-based values of ILs for each of these parameters were estimated from additive allele effects of the loci, and were fed to the model in order to simulate yields of the ILs grown under well-watered and drought conditions and in order to design virtual ideotypes for those conditions. To account for genotypic yield differences, it was necessary to parameterize the model for differences in an additional trait 'total crop nitrogen uptake' (Nmax) among the ILs. Genetic variation in Nmax had the most significant effect on yield; five other parameters also significantly influenced yield, but seed weight and leaf photosynthesis did not. Using the marker-based parameter values, GECROS also simulated yield variation among 251 recombinant inbred lines of the same parents. The model-based dissection approach detected more markers than the analysis using only yield per se. Model-based sensitivity analysis ranked all markers for their importance in determining yield differences among the ILs. Virtual ideotypes based on markers identified by modelling had 10-36 % more yield than those based on markers for yield per se. This study outlines a genotype-to-phenotype approach that exploits the potential value of marker-based crop modelling in developing new plant types with high yields. The approach can provide more markers for selection programmes for

  9. Anchored Instruction and Anchored Assessment: An Ecological Approach to Measuring Situated Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael F.; Kulikowich, Jonna M.

    Anchored instruction and anchored assessment are described and illustrated through a mathematics problem from the Jasper problem solving series developed at Vanderbilt University in Nashville (Tennessee). Anchored instruction is instruction situated in a context complex enough to provide meaning and reasons for why information is useful. Problems…

  10. The glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchor is critical for Ly-6A/E- mediated T cell activation

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Ly-6E, a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored murine alloantigen that can activate T cells upon antibody cross-linking, has been converted into an integral membrane protein by gene fusion. This fusion product, designated Ly-6EDb, was characterized in transiently transfected COS cells and demonstrated to be an integral cell surface membrane protein. Furthermore, the fusion antigen can be expressed on the surface of the BW5147 class "E" mutant cell line, which only expresses integral membrane proteins but not GPI-anchored proteins. The capability of this fusion antigen to activate T cells was examined by gene transfer studies in D10G4.1, a type 2 T cell helper clones. When transfected into D10 cells, the GPI-anchored Ly-6E antigen, as well as the endogenous GPI-anchored Ly-6A antigen, can initiate T cell activation upon antibody cross-linking. In contrast, the transmembrane anchored Ly-6EDb antigen was unable to mediate T cell activation. Our results demonstrate that the GPI-anchor is critical to Ly-6A/E-mediated T cell activation. PMID:1825084

  11. Key role of heparan sulfate chains in assembly of anchoring complex at the dermal-epidermal junction.

    PubMed

    Iriyama, Shunsuke; Tsunenaga, Makoto; Amano, Satoshi; Adachi, Eijiro

    2011-11-01

    Epidermal basement membrane forms anchoring complex composed of hemidesmosomes, anchoring filaments, lamina densa and anchoring fibrils to link epidermis to dermis. However, the anchoring complex is rarely formed in skin equivalent models, probably because of degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and heparan sulfate chains by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and heparanase, respectively. To explore the roles of ECM proteins and heparan sulfate in anchoring complex assembly, we used specific inhibitors of MMPs and heparanase, and the formation of anchoring complex was analysed in terms of polarized deposition of collagen VII, BP180 and β4 integrin at the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ) by means of immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The deposition of collagen VII was polarized to the basal side by the addition of MMP inhibitor, and the staining intensity was increased by combined treatment with MMP inhibitor and heparanase inhibitor, which enhanced anchoring fibril formation as observed by TEM. BP180 was polarized to the basal side by heparanase inhibitor, which protects HS chains, but not by MMP inhibitor. MMP inhibitor improved the polarization of β4 integrin. Hemidesmosomes were formed in the presence of each inhibitor, as observed by TEM, and formation was greatly enhanced by the combined treatment. These findings suggest that heparan sulfate chains, in addition to ECM proteins at the DEJ, play an important role in the assembly of anchoring complex, especially hemidesmosomes and anchoring fibrils. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Tri-layer wrinkling as a mechanism for anchoring center initiation in the developing cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Lejeune, Emma; Javili, Ali; Weickenmeier, Johannes; Kuhl, Ellen; Linder, Christian

    2016-07-07

    During cerebellar development, anchoring centers form at the base of each fissure and remain fixed in place while the rest of the cerebellum grows outward. Cerebellar foliation has been extensively studied; yet, the mechanisms that control anchoring center initiation and position remain insufficiently understood. Here we show that a tri-layer model can predict surface wrinkling as a potential mechanism to explain anchoring center initiation and position. Motivated by the cerebellar microstructure, we model the developing cerebellum as a tri-layer system with an external molecular layer and an internal granular layer of similar stiffness and a significantly softer intermediate Purkinje cell layer. Including a weak intermediate layer proves key to predicting surface morphogenesis, even at low stiffness contrasts between the top and bottom layers. The proposed tri-layer model provides insight into the hierarchical formation of anchoring centers and establishes an essential missing link between gene expression and evolution of shape.

  13. Identification of RAPD-SCAR marker linked to white spot syndrome virus resistance in populations of giant black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Dutta, S; Biswas, S; Mukherjee, K; Chakrabarty, U; Mallik, A; Mandal, N

    2014-05-01

    White spot disease (WSD) caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) creates severe epizootics in shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. Despite several efforts, no such permanent remedy was yet developed. Selective breeding using DNA markers would be a cost-effective strategy for long-term solution of this problem. In the present investigation, out of 30 random primers, only one primer produced a statistically significant (P < 0.01) randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker of 502 bp, which provided a good discrimination between disease resistant and disease susceptible populations of Penaeus monodon from three geographical locations along the East coast of India. Because RAPD markers are dominant, a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was developed by cloning and sequencing of 502 bp RAPD fragment, which generates a single 457 bp DNA fragment after PCR amplification only in the disease resistant shrimps. Challenge experiment was also conducted to validate this 457 bp SCAR marker, and the results suggested that the WSSV loads were 2.25 × 10(3) fold higher in disease susceptible than that in disease resistant shrimps using real-time PCR. Therefore, this 457 bp DNA SCAR marker will be very valuable towards the development of disease-free shrimp aquaculture industry. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Observed Score Equating Using a Mini-Version Anchor and an Anchor with Less Spread of Difficulty: A Comparison Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jinghua; Sinharay, Sandip; Holland, Paul; Feigenbaum, Miriam; Curley, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Two different types of anchors are investigated in this study: a mini-version anchor and an anchor that has a less spread of difficulty than the tests to be equated. The latter is referred to as a midi anchor. The impact of these two different types of anchors on observed score equating are evaluated and compared with respect to systematic error…

  15. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preformed anchor. 872.3130 Section 872.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preformed anchor. 872.3130 Section 872.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preformed anchor. 872.3130 Section 872.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A...

  18. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preformed anchor. 872.3130 Section 872.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A...

  19. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preformed anchor. 872.3130 Section 872.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A...

  20. DSSC anchoring groups: a surface dependent decision.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, C; Bowler, D R

    2014-05-14

    Electrodes in dye sensitised solar cells are typically nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 with a majority (1 0 1) surface exposed. Generally the sensitising dye employs a carboxylic anchoring moiety through which it adheres to the TiO₂ surface. Recent interest in exploiting the properties of differing TiO₂ electrode morphologies, such as rutile nanorods exposing the (1 1 0) surface and anatase electrodes with high percentages of the (0 0 1) surface exposed, begs the question of whether this anchoring strategy is best, irrespective of the majority surface exposed. Here we address this question by presenting density functional theory calculations contrasting the binding properties of two promising anchoring groups, phosphonic acid and boronic acid, to that of carboxylic acid. Anchor-electrode interactions are studied for the prototypical anatase (1 0 1) surface, along with the anatase (0 0 1) and rutile (1 1 0) surfaces. Finally the effect of using these alternative anchoring groups to bind a typical coumarin dye (NKX-2311) to these TiO₂ substrates is examined. Significant differences in the binding properties are found depending on both the anchor and surface, illustrating that the choice of anchor is necessarily dependent upon the surface exposed in the electrode. In particular the boronic acid is found to show the potential to be an excellent anchor choice for electrodes exposing the anatase (0 0 1) surface.

  1. Method of fabrication of anchored nanostructure materials

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2013-11-26

    Methods for fabricating anchored nanostructure materials are described. The methods include heating a nano-catalyst under a protective atmosphere to a temperature ranging from about 450.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. and contacting the heated nano-catalysts with an organic vapor to affix carbon nanostructures to the nano-catalysts and form the anchored nanostructure material.

  2. Anchoring and Publicity Effects in Clinical Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Myrna L.; Stockman, Susan J.

    1983-01-01

    Tested anchoring and publicity effects in clinicians' (N=46) successive judgments of detailed interview notes. Results indicated significant anchoring in one case suggesting a clinical bias. Public justification was related neither to subjects' ratings, to reported confidence in their ratings, nor differentially by case. (JAC)

  3. Anchors of Religious Commitment in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, Emily; Dollahite, David C.; Hardy, Sam A.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores adolescent religious commitment using qualitative data from a religiously diverse (Jewish, Christian, Muslim) sample of 80 adolescents. A new construct, "anchors of religious commitment," grounded in interview data, is proposed to describe what adolescents commit to as a part of their religious identity. Seven anchors of…

  4. 33 CFR 401.15 - Stern anchors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stern anchors. 401.15 Section 401.15 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.15 Stern anchors. (a) Every...

  5. Crossed ring anchored disk resonator for self-alignment of the anchor

    PubMed Central

    Baghelani, Masoud; Ghavifekr, Habib Badri; Ebrahimi, Afshin

    2013-01-01

    Misalignment is a problematic challenge in RF MEMS resonators. It causes asymmetry in the ultra symmetric radial contour mode disk resonators and degrades their performance by increasing the insertion loss and decreasing their quality factors (Q). Self-alignment method seems to be a good solution for misalignment problem, but it cannot be directly applied on high performance ring shape anchored resonators. This paper discusses misalignment effects for the ring shape anchored resonators and proposes a method for reconfiguring its anchor to be compatible with self-alignment process. Simulation results validate that the crossed ring anchor structure has the same resonance characteristics with the complete ring shape anchored resonator. PMID:25685477

  6. The Effect of Differential Motivation on IRT Linking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mittelhaëuser, Marie-Anne; Béguin, Anton A.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether simulated differential motivation between the stakes for operational tests and anchor items produces an invalid linking result if the Rasch model is used to link the operational tests. This was done for an external anchor design and a variation of a pretest design. The study also investigated…

  7. Guyline anchor design keys rig stability

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, R.J.; Laguros, J.G.

    1983-09-01

    Inadequate design and field installation of ground anchors at lease well sites have frequently led to the collapse of well service rigs operating in high surface wind conditions (>50 mph). Such catastrophes incur significant equipment damage and injury to operating personnel. Although collapse of a well service rig can be attributed to inadequate strength in the guyline connection to the mast or anchor or to deformed or inadequate wire rope strength in the guyline itself, most failures result from improperly placed anchors not meeting API specifications to withstand 14,000 lb of force in tension. This article defines the length, diameter, and depth necessary (based on soil conditions) for a buried guyline anchor to meet API specifications. Deficiencies in guyline connection and strength can be alleviated by following the manufacturer's guidance on size of wire rope, its inspection, and size connection criteria in mounting guyline connectors to the mast and anchor.

  8. Frequencies of Six (Five Novel) STR Markers Linked to TUSC3 (MRT7) or NSUN2 (MRT5) Genes Used for Homozygosity Mapping of Recessive Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Ghadami, Shirin; Mohammadi, Hossein Malek; Malbin, Jamileh; Masoodifard, Mahboobeh; Sarhaddi, Amene Bandehi; Tavakkoly-Bazzaz, Javad; Zeinali, Sirous

    2015-01-01

    Non-syndromic autosomal recessive intellectual disability (NS-ARID) is an extremely heterogeneous genetic disorder. Therefore, to investigate these genes, more research is required. One approach to investigate the NS-ARID loci is homozygosity mapping which requires appropriate STR markers within or flanking the gene/s of interest. In this research, we aimed to find novel STRs for two common NS-ARID genes (TUSC3 and NSUN2) and, in addition, to identify allele frequencies of those STR markers. The study group included 119 unrelated healthy individuals. STR markers were investigated using the UCSC genome browser web site and SERV software. Genotyping was determined by multiplex PCR. Data were evaluated using Gene Mapper software. Allele frequencies and observed heterozygosity rates were calculated using PowerStatV12. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and expected heterozygosity were assessed using the DNAView software. In total, 56 alleles were detected. According to our research, D8TUSC3SU8.3 and D5NSUN2SU0.5 were the most informative STR markers in MRT7 and MRT5 loci, respectively and showed a high percentage of heterozygosity in Iranian population. The observed range of allele frequencies was from 3.4% to 32.4% and 0.8% to 18.9% for MRT5 and MRT7 loci, respectively. Further, we have evaluated other statistical surveys of these STR markers and discovered that all of the six listed STRs were informative and five meet the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the tester group. Finding novel STRs, with high allele heterozygosity, is one of the most significant current finding in the present study for the two common NSARID genes. The recognized heterozygosity of these markers make MRT flanking STR markers very efficient to be used in diagnostic medical genetics labs or homozygosity mapping on NS-ARID.

  9. The effect of accuracy motivation on anchoring and adjustment: do people adjust from provided anchors?

    PubMed

    Simmons, Joseph P; LeBoeuf, Robyn A; Nelson, Leif D

    2010-12-01

    Increasing accuracy motivation (e.g., by providing monetary incentives for accuracy) often fails to increase adjustment away from provided anchors, a result that has led researchers to conclude that people do not effortfully adjust away from such anchors. We challenge this conclusion. First, we show that people are typically uncertain about which way to adjust from provided anchors and that this uncertainty often causes people to believe that they have initially adjusted too far away from such anchors (Studies 1a and 1b). Then, we show that although accuracy motivation fails to increase the gap between anchors and final estimates when people are uncertain about the direction of adjustment, accuracy motivation does increase anchor-estimate gaps when people are certain about the direction of adjustment, and that this is true regardless of whether the anchors are provided or self-generated (Studies 2, 3a, 3b, and 5). These results suggest that people do effortfully adjust away from provided anchors but that uncertainty about the direction of adjustment makes that adjustment harder to detect than previously assumed. This conclusion has important theoretical implications, suggesting that currently emphasized distinctions between anchor types (self-generated vs. provided) are not fundamental and that ostensibly competing theories of anchoring (selective accessibility and anchoring-and-adjustment) are complementary.

  10. Molecular cloning of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored molecule CDw108.

    PubMed

    Yamada, A; Kubo, K; Takeshita, T; Harashima, N; Kawano, K; Mine, T; Sagawa, K; Sugamura, K; Itoh, K

    1999-04-01

    CDw108, also known as the John-Milton-Hagen human blood group Ag, is an 80-kDa glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane glycoprotein that is preferentially expressed on activated lymphocytes and E. The molecular characteristics and biological function of the CDw108 were not clarified previously. In this manuscript, we identify the cDNA clone containing the entire coding sequence of the CDw108 gene and report its molecular characteristics. The 1998-base pairs of the open reading frame of the cloned cDNA encoded a protein of 666 amino acids (aa), including the 46 aa of the signal peptide and the 19 aa of the GPI-anchor motif. Thus, the membrane-anchoring form of CDw108 was the 602 aa, and the estimated molecular mass of the unglycosylated form was 68 kDa. The RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) cell attachment sequence and the five potential N-linked glycosylation sites were located on the membrane-anchoring form. Flow cytometric and immunoprecipitation analyses of the CDw108 cDNA transfectants confirmed that the cloned cDNA encoded the native form of CDw108. The CDw108 mRNA was expressed in activated PBMCs as well as in the spleen, thymus, testis, placenta, and brain, but was not expressed in any other tissues tested. Radiation hybrid mapping indicated that the CDw108 gene was located in the middle of the long arm of chromosome 15 (15q23-24). This molecular information will be critical for understanding the biological function of the CDw108 Ag.

  11. High-resolution tyramide-FISH mapping of markers tightly linked to the male-fertility restoration (Ms) locus of onion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has not been readily exploited for physical mapping of molecular markers in plants due to the technical challenge to visualize small single-copy probes. Signal amplification using tyramide (tyr) FISH can increase sensitivity up to 100 fold. We used tyr-FISH ...

  12. CAPS markers in an eIF4E gene are linked to Zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistant locus in watermelon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is an economically important virus infecting cucurbits worldwide. Genetic sources of resistance to ZYMV have been identified in wild watermelon germplasm where a single recessive gene (zym) confers ZYMV resistance. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) would greatly fa...

  13. Male-specific Y-linked transgene markers to enhance biologically-based control of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Reliable marking systems are critical to the prospective field release of transgenic insect strains. This is to unambiguously distinguish released insects from wild insects in the field that are collected in field traps, and tissue-specific markers, such as those that are sperm-specific,...

  14. Identification and validation of a SNP marker linked to the gene HsBvm-1 for nematode resistance in sugar beet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The beet-cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schmidt) is one of the major pests of sugar beet. The identification of molecular markers associated with nematode resistance would be helpful for developing resistant varieties. The aim of this study was the identification of SNP (Single Nucleotide Polym...

  15. GPI anchor transamidase of Trypanosoma brucei: in vitro assay of the recombinant protein and VSG anchor exchange.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xuedong; Szallies, Alexander; Rawer, Marc; Echner, Hartmut; Duszenko, Michael

    2002-06-15

    GPI8 from Trypanosoma brucei was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. TbGPI8 encodes a 37 kDa protein (35 kDa after removal of the putative signal sequence) with a pI of 5.5. It contains one potential N-glycosylation site near the N-terminus but no C-terminal hydrophobic region. Enzyme activity assays using trypanosomal lysates or recombinant TbGpi8 exhibited cleavage of the synthetic peptide acetyl-S-V-L-N-aminomethyl-coumarine, indicating that TbGpi8 is indeed directly involved in the proteolytic processing of the GPI anchoring signal. Intracellular localization of TbGpi8 within tubular structures, such as the endoplasmic reticulum, was observed by using specific anti-TbGpi8 antibodies. The transamidase mechanism of GPI anchoring was studied in bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei using media containing hydrazine or biotinylated hydrazine. In the presence of the latter nucleophile, part of the newly formed VSG was linked to this instead of the GPI anchor and was not transferred to the cell surface. VSG-hydrazine-biotin was detected by streptavidin in western blots and intracellularly in Golgi-like compartments.

  16. Anchored nanostructure materials and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-27

    Anchored nanostructure materials and methods for their fabrication are described. The anchored nanostructure materials may utilize nano-catalysts that include powder-based or solid-based support materials. The support material may comprise metal, such as NiAl, ceramic, a cermet, or silicon or other metalloid. Typically, nanoparticles are disposed adjacent a surface of the support material. Nanostructures may be formed as anchored to nanoparticles that are adjacent the surface of the support material by heating the nano-catalysts and then exposing the nano-catalysts to an organic vapor. The nanostructures are typically single wall or multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

  17. Sutures and suture anchors: update 2003.

    PubMed

    Barber, F Alan; Herbert, Morley A; Richards, David P

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate recently introduced sutures and suture anchors for single-pull load-to-failure strength and failure mode. Experimental laboratory biomechanical study. Using an established protocol in fresh porcine femurs, anchors were tested in diaphyseal cortex, metaphyseal cortex, and cancellous troughs after threading them with either steel sutures or strong synthetic material to reduce the likelihood of suture breakage as a mode of failure. An Instron machine (Instron, Canton, MA) applied tensile loads parallel to the axis of insertion at a rate of 12.5 mm/second until failure, and mean anchor failure strengths were calculated. Mode of failure was recorded (anchor pullout, suture eyelet cutout, or wire breakage). Anchors tested included the RotorloC (Smith & Nephew Endoscopy, Andover, MA), TwinFix Ti 3.5, TwinFix Ti 5.0, and TwinFix AB (Smith & Nephew Endoscopy), Super Revo and UltraSorb (Linvatec, Largo, FL), Duet (Bionx Implants, Blue Bell, PA), AlloAnchor RC (Regeneration Technologies, Alachua, FL), Opus Magnum anchor (Opus Medical, San Juan Capistrano, CA), and the BioCorkscrew 5.0 and BioCorkscrew 6.5 (Arthrex, Naples, FL). Sutures tested were No.2 and No. 5 Ethibond (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ), No. 2 Panacryl (Mitek, a division of Ethicon, Somerville, NJ), and Nos. 2, 5, and 2-0 Fiberwire (Arthrex, Naples, FL). The sutures all broke in the midpoint of their tested strand away from the grips. The No. 2 Ethibond failed at a mean of 21 lb (92 N); No. 5 Ethibond failed at a mean of 44 lb (193 N); No. 2, No. 5, and No. 2-0 Fiberwire at means of 44 lb (188 N), 112 lb (483N), and 19 lb (82 N), respectively; and No. 2 Panacryl at a mean of 22 lb (99 N). The suture anchors all failed at levels higher than the associated sutures. Screw anchors showed higher load to failure values than nonscrew designs, and the new biodegradable anchors showed failure loads lower than the anchors. All anchors were stronger than the suture for which they are

  18. Anchoring Revisited: The Role of the Comparative Question

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Ina; Bohner, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    When people estimate a numeric value after judging whether it is larger or smaller than a high or low anchor value (comparative question), estimates are biased in the direction of the anchor. One explanation for this anchoring effect is that people selectively access knowledge consistent with the anchor value as part of a positive test strategy. Two studies (total N = 184) supported the alternative explanation that people access knowledge consistent with their own answer to the comparative question. Specifically, anchoring effects emerged when the answer to the comparative question was unexpected (lower than the low anchor or higher than the high anchor). For expected answers (lower than the high anchor or higher than the low anchor), however, anchoring effects were attenuated or reversed. The anchor value itself was almost never reported as an absolute estimate. PMID:24454953

  19. Feasibility study of a sea-anchored stratospheric balloon for long-duration flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akita, Daisuke

    2012-08-01

    Sea-anchored balloons are stratospheric super-pressure balloons that are anchored to the sea. The sea-anchored balloon is a simple system that has the capability for long-duration flights, fixed-point observations, flexible launch windows, easy telemetry links to ground stations, and quick recoveries. Such balloons are not required to fly through the jet stream while tethered to the ground or sea, because the tether is deployed from a reel on the balloon after reaching a floating altitude. In this study, the feasibility of the sea-anchored balloon is investigated, with particular emphasis on the tether strength, balloon altitude, and system mass, based on the present technological level of the tether's specific strength. Although the wind distribution with altitude is a dominant factor for feasibility, a sea-anchored balloon with an altitude of about 25 km would be feasible if the velocity of the jet stream is sufficiently low. The sea-anchored balloon can be simply flight-tested, since additional ground facilities and special flight operations are not necessary.

  20. The expansion of adult stem/progenitor cells and their marker expression fluctuations are linked with pituitary plastic adaptation during gestation and lactancy.

    PubMed

    Vaca, Alicia Maldré; Guido, Carolina Beatriz; Sosa, Liliana Del Valle; Nicola, Juan Pablo; Mukdsi, Jorge; Petiti, Juan Pablo; Torres, Alicia Ines

    2016-08-01

    Extensive evidence has revealed variations in the number of hormone-producing cells in the pituitary gland, which occur under physiological conditions such as gestation and lactancy. It has been proposed that new hormone-producing cells differentiate from stem cells. However, exactly how and when this takes place is not clear. In this work, we used immunoelectron microscopy to identify adult pituitary stem/progenitor cells (SC/P) localized in the marginal zone (MZ), and additionally, we detected GFRa2-, Sox2-, and Sox9-positive cells in the adenoparenchyma (AP) by fluorescence microscopy. Then, we evaluated fluctuations of SC/P mRNA and protein level markers in MZ and AP during gestation and lactancy. An upregulation in stemness markers was shown at term of gestation (AT) in MZ, whereas there were more progenitor cell markers in the middle of gestation and active lactancy. Concerning committed cell markers, we detected a rise in AP at beginning of lactancy (d1L). We performed a BrdU uptake analysis in MZ and AP cells. The highest level of BrdU uptake was observed in MZ AT cells, whereas in AP this was detected in d1L, followed by a decrease in both the MZ and AP. Finally, we detected double immunostaining for BrdU-GFRa2 in MZ AT cells and BrdU-Sox9 in the AP d1L cells. Taken together, we hypothesize that the expansion of the SC/P niche took place mainly in MZ from pituitary rats in AT and d1L. These results suggest that the SC niche actively participates in pituitary plasticity during these reproductive states, contributing to the origin of hormone cell populations.

  1. Robust Molecular Anchoring to Graphene Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Hatef; Sangtarash, Sara; Lambert, Colin

    2017-08-09

    Recent advances in the engineering of picoscale gaps between electroburnt graphene electrodes provide new opportunities for studying electron transport through electrostatically gated single molecules. But first we need to understand and develop strategies for anchoring single molecules to such electrodes. Here, for the first time we present a systematic theoretical study of transport properties using four different modes of anchoring zinc-porphyrin monomer, dimer, and trimer molecular wires to graphene electrodes. These involve either amine anchor groups, covalent C-C bonds to the edges of the graphene, or coupling via π-π stacking of planar polyaromatic hydrocarbons formed from pyrene or tetrabenzofluorene (TBF). π-π stacked pyrene anchors are particularly stable, which may be advantageous for forming robust single-molecule transistors. Despite their planar, multiatom coupling to the electrodes, pyrene anchors can exhibit both destructive interference and different degrees of constructive interference, depending on their connectivity to the porphyrin wire, which makes them attractive also for thermoelectricity. TBF anchors are more weakly coupled to both the graphene and the porphyrin wires and induce negative differential conductance at finite source-drain voltages. Furthermore, although direct C-C covalent bonding to the edges of graphene electrodes yields the highest electrical conductance, electron transport is significantly affected by the shape and size of the graphene electrodes because the local density of states at the carbon atoms connecting the electrode edges to the molecule is sensitive to the electrode surface shape. This sensitivity suggests that direct C-C bonding may be the most desirable for sensing applications. The ordering of the low-bias electrical conductances with different anchors is as follows: direct C-C coupling > π-π stacking with the pyrene anchors > direct coupling via amine anchors > π-π stacking with TBF anchors. Despite

  2. Anchor-Less Secure Session Mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zugenmaier, Alf; Laganier, Julien; Prasad, Anand; Slavov, Kristian

    Communication session mobility relates transferring one endpoint of a communication session including its state from one device to another. Current proposals to deal with this securely require an anchor. We propose an anchor-less solution that takes some ideas from the host identity protocol. We then show how the idea of transferring endpoints simultaneously can be tackled without introducing timeouts as the session initiation protocol currently does.

  3. On the Theory of Ground Anchors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    AD/A-O06 582 ON THE THEORY OF GROUND ANCHORS COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LABORATORY JANUARY 1975 DISTRIBUTED BY: National Tocnical -Intonal...ANCHORS Austin Kovacs, Scott Bicuin Bruce McKelvy and Herman Colligan January 1975 PREPARED FOR U.S. ARMY MATERIL’ COMMAND DA PROJECT IT062112A 130...applications as the tie-backs for retaining walls and bulkheads and in foundations subjected to wind, explosions, earthquakes and thermally induced lateral

  4. Lash Transported Anchor for a Tanker Mooring.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    comparable catenary - moored terminal facility is estimated to require an installation time of about 14 days. A Single Anchor Leg Mooring for the OBFS...installing the anchor. A maximum horizontal force of 222 kips (from model tests) on a catenary moored 50,000-dwt tanker in 65 ft water depth with a 4...completed in less than 7 days. A comparable catenary -moored terminal facility is estimated to required an installation time of about 14 days

  5. Experimental and theoretical analysis of CFRP reinforced concrete beam anchored by CF anchors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Ning; Ma, Ye-ming; Dong, Hong-han; Chen, Da

    2017-04-01

    Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets is used to strengthen RC members widely. However, in the actual projects, premature separation of the CFRP sheet from the concrete surface is observed frequently, key issue in CFRP application is the performance of the connection between the CFRP sheet and the peripheral RC members. This paper presented the results of an experimental study to investigate mechanical properties of carbon fiber (CF) anchor dowels, a new CFRP anchoring method, and based on the experimental results, obtained the bearing capacity calculation formula of concrete beam strengthened with CFRP anchoring by carbon fiber anchor dowels .

  6. An ABC Literacy Journey: Anchoring in Texts, Bridging Language, and Creating Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Amy J.; Lang, Lisa F.; Smith, Sharon V.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe how alphabet books teach so much more than just the ABCs. They provide excellent resources, allowing teachers to link and integrate the reciprocal processes of reading and writing. Encapsulated within the writing workshop framework, the authors use multigenre and multicultural alphabet books as anchor texts for a literacy…

  7. Improving performance by anchoring movement and "nerves".

    PubMed

    Iso-Ahola, Seppo E; Dotson, Charles O; Jagodinsky, Adam E; Clark, Lily C; Smallwood, Lorraine L; Wilburn, Christopher; Weimar, Wendi H; Miller, Matthew W

    2016-10-01

    Golf's governing bodies' recent decision to ban all putting styles "anchoring one end of the club against the body" bridges an important practical problem with psychological theory. We report the first experiment testing whether anchoring provides technical and/or psychological advantage in competitive performance. Many "greats" of professional golf from Arnold Palmer and Jack Nicklaus to Tiger Woods have argued against anchoring, believing that it takes "nerves" out of competitive performance and therefore artificially levels the playing field. To shed more light on the issue, we tested participants' performance with anchored and unanchored putters under low and high pressure when controlling for the putter length. We found no statistically significant evidence for a technical advantage due to anchoring but a clear psychological advantage: participants who anchored their putters significantly outperformed unanchored counterparts under high, but not low, pressure. Results provide tentative evidence for the ban's justification from a competitive standpoint. However, before any definite conclusions can be made, more research is needed when using high-level golfers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Anchoring effects on early autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Daniel L; Bishara, Anthony J; Mugayar-Baldocchi, Marino A

    2017-10-01

    Studies of childhood memory typically show that our earliest memories come from between three and four years of age. This finding is not universal, however. The age estimate varies across cultures and is affected by social influences. Research from the judgments and decision-making literature suggests that these estimates might also involve a judgment under uncertainty. Therefore, they might be susceptible to less social influences such as heuristics and biases. To investigate this possibility, we conducted two experiments that used anchoring paradigms to influence participants' estimates of their age during early autobiographical memories. In Experiment 1, participants answered either a high-anchor or a low-anchor question, and were warned that the anchor was uninformative; they went on to estimate their age during their earliest autobiographical memory. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 and extended the design to examine additional early autobiographical memories. In both experiments, participants in the low-anchor condition gave earlier age estimates than those in the high-anchor condition. These results provide new insights into the methods used to investigate autobiographical memory. Moreover, they show that reports of early autobiographical memories can be influenced by a relatively light touch - a change to a single digit in a single question.

  9. An earth anchor system: installation and design guide.

    Treesearch

    R.L. Copstead; D.D. Studier

    1990-01-01

    A system for anchoring the guylines and skylines of cable yarding equipment is presented. A description of three types of tipping plate anchors is given. Descriptions of the installation equipment and methods specific to each type are given. Procedures for determining the correct number of anchors to install are included, as are guidelines for installing the anchors so...

  10. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull vessel...

  11. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull vessel...

  12. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull vessel...

  13. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull vessel...

  14. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull vessel...

  15. The Use of Comics-Based Cases in Anchored Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneller, Matthew F.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to understand how comics fulfill the role of anchor in an anchored instruction learning environment. Anchored instruction addresses the inert knowledge problem through the use of realistic multimedia stories, or "anchors," that embed a problem and the necessary data to solve it within the narrative. In the…

  16. Further Study of the Choice of Anchor Tests in Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trierweiler, Tammy J.; Lewis, Charles; Smith, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we describe what factors influence the observed score correlation between an (external) anchor test and a total test. We show that the anchor to full-test observed score correlation is based on two components: the true score correlation between the anchor and total test, and the reliability of the anchor test. Findings using an…

  17. Further Study of the Choice of Anchor Tests in Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trierweiler, Tammy J.; Lewis, Charles; Smith, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we describe what factors influence the observed score correlation between an (external) anchor test and a total test. We show that the anchor to full-test observed score correlation is based on two components: the true score correlation between the anchor and total test, and the reliability of the anchor test. Findings using an…

  18. The Use of Comics-Based Cases in Anchored Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneller, Matthew F.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to understand how comics fulfill the role of anchor in an anchored instruction learning environment. Anchored instruction addresses the inert knowledge problem through the use of realistic multimedia stories, or "anchors," that embed a problem and the necessary data to solve it within the narrative. In the…

  19. Marker development

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.R.

    1987-05-01

    This report is to discuss the marker development for radioactive waste disposal sites. The markers must be designed to last 10,000 years, and place no undue burdens on the future generations. Barriers cannot be constructed that preclude human intrusion. Design specifications for surface markers will be discussed, also marker pictograms will also be covered.

  20. Development of molecular method for sex identification in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) plantlets using novel sex-linked microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Maryam; Jaskani, Muhammad Jafar; Awan, Faisal Saeed; Ahmad, Saeed; Khan, Iqrar A

    2016-06-01

    Microsatellite markers containing simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are a valuable tool for genetic analysis. Date palm is a dioecious and slow flowering and is very difficult to identify the gender of the trees until it reaches the reproductive age (5-10 years). A total of 12 microsatellite primers were used with 30 date palm samples, 14 parents (8 male + 6 females) and 16 progeny (developed from parents breeding) which showed that microsatellites were highly polymorphic, having a great number of alleles. A total of 124 alleles were characterized in 12 SSR loci. On average, there are 9.08 alleles per locus, with a range from 5 to 16 alleles, for primers mpdCIR15 and mpdCIR57, respectively. These primers produced 15 polymorphic loci specifically in male date palm samples and the seedlings harboring the unique fragments were further characterized as male plants. Increasingly, 38.46 % of these loci were scored as homozygous alleles while 61.53 % heterozygous allelic loci were determined. Primer mpdCIR48 produced a specific locus (250/250) in all male samples whereas the same locus was absent in female samples. Similarly, a locus of 300/310 bp reoccurred in 5 date palm male samples using marker DP-168 which indicated that these are the promising candidate marker to detect the sex in date palm seedlings at early stage. The data resulted from combination of 12 primers enabled the 16 seedling samples progeny (developed from parents breeding) of date palm cultivars to divide into two groups i.e., male and female regarding their sex expression comparative to the parents (male + female) using the principle coordinate analysis.

  1. Anchors as Semantic Primes in Value Construction: An EEG Study of the Anchoring Effect.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingguo; Li, Diandian; Shen, Qiang; Qiu, Wenwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous research regarding anchoring effects has demonstrated that human judgments are often assimilated to irrelevant information. Studies have demonstrated that anchors influence the economic valuation of various products and experiences; however, the cognitive explanations of this effect remain controversial, and its neural mechanisms have rarely been explored. In the current study, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) experiment to investigate the anchoring effect on willingness to accept (WTA) for an aversive hedonic experience and the role of anchors in this judgment heuristic. The behavioral results demonstrated that random numbers affect participants' WTA for listening to pieces of noise. The participants asked for higher pay after comparing their WTA with higher numbers. The EEG results indicated that anchors also influenced the neural underpinnings of the valuation process. Specifically, when a higher anchor number was drawn, larger P2 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited, reflecting the anticipation of more intensive pain from the subsequent noise. Moreover, higher anchors induced a stronger theta band power increase compared with lower anchors when subjects listened to the noises, indicating that the participants felt more unpleasant during the actual experience of the noise. The levels of unpleasantness during both anticipation and experience were consistent with the semantic information implied by the anchors. Therefore, these data suggest that a semantic priming process underlies the anchoring effect in WTA. This study provides proof for the robustness of the anchoring effect and neural evidence of the semantic priming model. Our findings indicate that activated contextual information, even seemingly irrelevant, can be embedded in the construction of economic value in the brain.

  2. Anchors as Semantic Primes in Value Construction: An EEG Study of the Anchoring Effect

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qiang; Qiu, Wenwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous research regarding anchoring effects has demonstrated that human judgments are often assimilated to irrelevant information. Studies have demonstrated that anchors influence the economic valuation of various products and experiences; however, the cognitive explanations of this effect remain controversial, and its neural mechanisms have rarely been explored. In the current study, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) experiment to investigate the anchoring effect on willingness to accept (WTA) for an aversive hedonic experience and the role of anchors in this judgment heuristic. The behavioral results demonstrated that random numbers affect participants’ WTA for listening to pieces of noise. The participants asked for higher pay after comparing their WTA with higher numbers. The EEG results indicated that anchors also influenced the neural underpinnings of the valuation process. Specifically, when a higher anchor number was drawn, larger P2 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited, reflecting the anticipation of more intensive pain from the subsequent noise. Moreover, higher anchors induced a stronger theta band power increase compared with lower anchors when subjects listened to the noises, indicating that the participants felt more unpleasant during the actual experience of the noise. The levels of unpleasantness during both anticipation and experience were consistent with the semantic information implied by the anchors. Therefore, these data suggest that a semantic priming process underlies the anchoring effect in WTA. This study provides proof for the robustness of the anchoring effect and neural evidence of the semantic priming model. Our findings indicate that activated contextual information, even seemingly irrelevant, can be embedded in the construction of economic value in the brain. PMID:26439926

  3. Anchoring of surface proteins to the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus. III. Lipid II is an in vivo peptidoglycan substrate for sortase-catalyzed surface protein anchoring.

    PubMed

    Perry, Adrienne M; Ton-That, Hung; Mazmanian, Sarkis K; Schneewind, Olaf

    2002-05-03

    Surface proteins of Staphylococcus aureus are anchored to the cell wall peptidoglycan by a mechanism requiring a C-terminal sorting signal with an LPXTG motif. Surface proteins are first synthesized in the bacterial cytoplasm and then transported across the cytoplasmic membrane. Cleavage of the N-terminal signal peptide of the cytoplasmic surface protein P1 precursor generates the extracellular P2 species, which is the substrate for the cell wall anchoring reaction. Sortase, a membrane-anchored transpeptidase, cleaves P2 between the threonine (T) and the glycine (G) of the LPXTG motif and catalyzes the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of threonine and the amino group of cell wall cross-bridges. We have used metabolic labeling of staphylococcal cultures with [(32)P]phosphoric acid to reveal a P3 intermediate. The (32)P-label of immunoprecipitated surface protein is removed by treatment with lysostaphin, a glycyl-glycine endopeptidase that separates the cell wall anchor structure. Furthermore, the appearance of P3 is prevented in the absence of sortase or by the inhibition of cell wall synthesis. (32)P-Labeled cell wall anchor species bind to nisin, an antibiotic that is known to form a complex with lipid II. Thus, it appears that the P3 intermediate represents surface protein linked to the lipid II peptidoglycan precursor. The data support a model whereby lipid II-linked polypeptides are incorporated into the growing peptidoglycan via the transpeptidation and transglycosylation reactions of cell wall synthesis, generating mature cell wall-linked surface protein.

  4. SNP identification and allelic-specific PCR markers development for TaGW2, a gene linked to wheat kernel weight.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zibo; Bai, Zhiyuan; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Pei; Wu, Qingxia; Yang, Lin; Li, Liqun; Li, Xuejun

    2012-09-01

    TaGW2, an orthologous gene of rice OsGW2, has been associated with kernel width and weight of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). Difference in TaGW2 coding sequence was not found among different wheat varieties in previous researches. In this study, we found eight exons and seven introns in TaGW2 with a full-length cDNA sequence of 1,275 bp, which contains a conserved function domain and seven splice sites that shared homology with rice OsGW2. A single T-base insertion in the eighth exon of TaGW2 on chromosome 6A was detected in a large-kernel wheat variety, Lankaodali. This insertion mutation reduces the coding protein sequence from normal 424 amino acids (~47.2 kDa) to 328 amino acids (~37.1 kDa) by truncating 96 amino acids. The result was validated by identifying histidine-tagged TaGW2 proteins encoded by both alleles of the mutant and the wild types in SDS-PAGE. Allele-specific PCR markers were developed based on the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site. The SNP markers were genotyped for an F(2) segregation population from the cross of Lankaodali × Chinese Spring. Seed traits of F(2:3) families were evaluated in three different environments. The association analysis indicated that F(2:3) families with the mutated TaGW2 allele significantly increased kernel width (KW) and thousand-kernel weight (TKW), and slightly improved kernel length (KL). Using the SNP markers, another two varieties harbored the mutated TaGW2 allele were successfully identified from 22 additional wheat varieties, and they both have large KW and TKW. Cloning and sequencing of the gene further confirmed the functions of the mutated allele of TaGW2 in the two large kernel varieties. The results suggested that TaGW2 may negatively regulate kernel size variation, which shares the same function as OsGW2 in rice. The successful development of SNP markers provides a useful tool for improving kernel yield in wheat.

  5. Anticonical anchoring and surface transitions in a nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Faget, L; Lamarque-Forget, S; Martinot-Lagarde, Ph; Auroy, P; Dozov, I

    2006-11-01

    Recent works reported planar and conical azimuthally degenerated nematic anchorings. Here we predict an additional "anticonical" degenerated anchoring. Its energy presents two minima, parallel and perpendicular to the substrate plane, separated by a conical energy barrier. We realize this bistable anchoring on a grafted polymer brush and we observe temperature-driven transitions between the conical, planar, and anticonical degenerated anchorings. Under electric field we break the anticonical anchoring and switch between its bistable states.

  6. Anticonical anchoring and surface transitions in a nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faget, L.; Lamarque-Forget, S.; Martinot-Lagarde, Ph.; Auroy, P.; Dozov, I.

    2006-11-01

    Recent works reported planar and conical azimuthally degenerated nematic anchorings. Here we predict an additional “anticonical” degenerated anchoring. Its energy presents two minima, parallel and perpendicular to the substrate plane, separated by a conical energy barrier. We realize this bistable anchoring on a grafted polymer brush and we observe temperature-driven transitions between the conical, planar, and anticonical degenerated anchorings. Under electric field we break the anticonical anchoring and switch between its bistable states.

  7. Global overview of the risk linked to the Bacillus cereus group in the egg product industry: identification of food safety and food spoilage markers.

    PubMed

    Techer, C; Baron, F; Delbrassinne, L; Belaïd, R; Brunet, N; Gillard, A; Gonnet, F; Cochet, M-F; Grosset, N; Gautier, M; Andjelkovic, M; Lechevalier, V; Jan, S

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the food safety and spoilage risks associated with psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus group bacteria for the egg product industry and to search for relevant risk markers. A collection of 68 psychrotrophic B. cereus group isolates, coming from pasteurized liquid whole egg products, was analysed through a principal component analysis (PCA) regarding their spoilage and food safety risk potentials. The principal component analysis showed a clear differentiation between two groups within the collection, one half of the isolates representing a safety risk and the other half a spoilage risk. Relevant risk markers were highlighted by PCA, that is (i) for the food safety risk, the presence of the specific 16S rDNA-1m genetic signature and the ability to grow at 43°C on solid medium and (ii) for the spoilage risk, the presence of the cspA genetic signature. This work represents a first step in the development of new diagnostic technologies for the assessment of the microbiological quality of foods likely to be contaminated with psychrotrophic B. cereus group bacteria. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. P-Cadherin Linking Breast Cancer Stem Cells and Invasion: A Promising Marker to Identify an "Intermediate/Metastable" EMT State.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Sofia; Paredes, Joana

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (also known as EMT) is a fundamental mechanism occurring during embryonic development and tissue differentiation, being also crucial for cancer progression. Actually, the EMT program contributes to the dissemination of cancer cells from solid tumors and to the formation of micro-metastasis that subsequently develop into clinically detectable metastases. Besides being a process that is defined by the progressive loss of epithelial cell characteristics and the acquisition of mesenchymal features, EMT has also been implicated in therapy resistance, immune escape, and maintenance of cancer stem cell properties, such as self-renewal capacity. However, the majority of the studies usually neglect the progressive alterations occurring during intermediate EMT states, which imply a range of phenotypic cellular heterogeneity that can potentially generate more metastable and plastic tumor cells. In fact, few studies have tried to identify these transitory states, partly due to the current lack of a detailed understanding of EMT, as well as of reliable readouts for its progression. Herein, a brief review of evidences is presented, showing that P-cadherin expression, which has been already identified as a breast cancer stem cell marker and invasive promoter, is probably able to identify an intermediate EMT state associated with a metastable phenotype. This hypothesis is based on our own work, as well as on the results described by others, which suggest the use of P-cadherin as a promising EMT marker, clearly functioning as an important clinical prognostic factor and putative therapeutic target in breast carcinogenesis.

  9. Genetic linkage mapping in peach using morphological, RFLP and RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, S; Belthoff, L E; He, G; Estager, A E; Scorza, R; Verde, I; Ballard, R E; Baird, W V; Callahan, A; Monet, R; Abbott, A G

    1995-03-01

    We have constructed a genetic linkage map of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] consisting of RFLP, RAPD and morphological markers, based on 71 F2 individuals derived from the self-fertilization of four F1 individuals of a cross between 'New Jersey Pillar' and KV 77119. This progeny, designated as the West Virginia (WV) family, segregates for genes controlling canopy shape, fruit flesh color, and flower petal color, size and number. The segregation of 65 markers, comprising 46 RFLP loci, 12 RAPD loci and seven morphological loci, was analyzed. Low-copy genomic and cDNA probes were used in the RFLP analysis. The current genetic map for the WV family contains 47 markers assigned to eight linkage groups covering 332 centi Morgans (cM) of the peach nuclear genome. The average distance between two adjacent markers is 8 cM. Linkage was detected between Pillar (Pi) and double flowers (Dl) RFLP markers linked to Pi and flesh color (γ) loci were also found. Eighteen markers remain unassigned. The individuals analyzed for linkage were not a random sample of all F2 trees, as an excess of pillar trees were chosen for analysis. Because of this, Pi and eight other markers that deviated significantly from the expected Mendelian ratios (e.g., 1∶2∶1 or 3∶1) were not eliminated from the linkage analysis. Genomic clones that detect RFLPs in the WV family also detect significant levels of polymorphism among the 34 peach cultivars examined. Unique fingerprint patterns were created for all the cultivars using only six clones detecting nine RFLP fragments. This suggests that RFLP markers from the WV family have a high probability of being polymorphic in crosses generated with other peach cultivars, making them ideal for anchor loci. This possibility was examined by testing RFLP markers developed with the WV family in three other unrelated peach families. In each of these three peach families respectively 43%, 54% and 36% of RFLP loci detected in the WV family were also polymorphic

  10. Monitoring ground anchor using non-destructive ground anchor integrity test (NDT-GRANIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Robbany, Z. Handayani, G.

    2015-09-30

    Monitoring at ground anchor commonly uses a pull out test method, therefor we developing a non-destructive ground anchor integrity testing (NDT-GRANIT). NDT-GRANIT using the principle of seismic waves that have been modified into form of sweep signal, the signal will be demodulated, filtered, and Fourier transformation (inverse discrete Fourier transform) so the data can be interpreted reflected wave from the ground anchor. The method was applied to determine whether the ground anchor still gripped in the subsurface by looking the attenuation of the wave generated sources. From the result we can see that ground anchor does not grip. To validate the results of the comparison method of measurement used pile integrity test.

  11. Polymer's anchoring behavior in liquid crystal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yue

    The current dissertation mainly discusses about the polymers anchoring behavior in liquid crystal cells in two aspects: surface interaction and bulk interaction. The goal of the research is to understand the fundamental physics of anchoring strength and apply the knowledge to liquid crystal display devices. Researchers proposed two main contributors to the surface anchoring strength: the micro grooves generated by external force and the polymer chain's alignment. Both of them has experimental proofs. In the current study, explorations were made to understand the mechanisms of surface anchoring strength and easy axis of surface liquid crystal provided by rubbed polymer alignment layer. The work includes not only the variation of the alignment layer itself such as thickness(Chapter 3) and polymer side chain (Chapter 5), but also the variation of external conditions such as temperature (Chapter 4) and rubbing condition (Chapter 6). To determine the polar and azimuthal anchoring strengths, Rapini-Papoular's expression was applied. However, it was discovered that higher order terms may be required in order to fit the experimental result or theoretically predict unique anchoring behaviors (Chapter 2, Chapter 6). SEM and AFM technologies were introduced to gather the actual structures of polymer alignment layer and extrapolate the alignment of liquid crystal in a micro scale. The result shows that the anchoring strength can be adjusted by the layer thickness, side chain structure, while the easy axis direction can be adjusted by a second rubbing direction. In addition, different anchoring conditions combined with liquid crystal's elastic energy can generate quite different forms of liquid crystals (Chapter 7). In the study of bulk alignment, the main contrition from the current dissertation is applying the understanding of anchoring behavior to optimizing actual switchable devices. Conventional PDLC performance can be tuned with the knowledge of the polymer and the liquid

  12. GPI-anchor and GPI-anchored protein expression in PMM2-CDG patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mutations in PMM2 impair phosphomannomutase-2 activity and cause the most frequent congenital disorder of glycosylation, PMM2-CDG. Mannose-1-phosphate, that is deficient in this disorder, is also implicated in the biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchors. Objective To evaluate whether GPI-anchor and GPI-anchored proteins are defective in PMM2-CDG patients. Methods The expression of GPI-anchor and seven GPI-anchored proteins was evaluated by flow cytometry in different cell types from twelve PMM2-CDG patients. Additionally, neutrophil CD16 and plasma hepatic proteins were studied by Western blot. Transferrin glycoforms were evaluated by HPLC. Results Patients and controls had similar surface expression of GPI-anchor and most GPI-anchored proteins. Nevertheless, patients displayed a significantly diminished binding of two anti-CD16 antibodies (3G8 and KD1) to neutrophils and also of anti-CD14 (61D3) to monocytes. Interestingly, CD16 immunostaining and asialotransferrin levels significantly correlated with patients’ age. Analysis by flow cytometry of CD14 with MΦP9, and CD16 expression in neutrophils by Western blot using H-80 ruled out deficiencies of these antigens. Conclusions PMM2 mutations do not impair GPI-anchor or GPI-anchored protein expression. However, the glycosylation anomalies caused by PMM2 mutations might affect the immunoreactivity of monoclonal antibodies and lead to incorrect conclusions about the expression of different proteins, including GPI-anchored proteins. Neutrophils and monocytes are sensitive to PMM2 mutations, leading to abnormal glycosylation in immune receptors, which might potentially affect their affinity to their ligands, and contribute to infection. This study also confirms less severe hypoglycosylation defects in older PMM2-CDG patients. PMID:24139637

  13. Functional Anchoring Lipids for Drug Delivery Carrier Fabrication and Cell Surface Re-Engineering Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vabbilisetty, Pratima

    For decades, lipid vesicular bodies such as liposomes have been widely used and explored as biomimetic models of cell membranes and as drug/gene delivery carrier systems. Similarly, micellar iron oxide nanoparticles have also been investigated as potential MRI agents as well as drug delivery carrier systems. Cell surface carbohydrate-protein interactions allow them to serve as markers for recognition of many molecular and cellular activities thereby, are exploited as attractive molecules for surface modification of nanocarrier systems with purpose for tissues specific targeting and biocompatibility. In addition, the cell lipid membrane serves as an important platform for occurrence of many biological processes that are governed and guided by cell surface receptors. Introduction of chemoselective functional groups, via bio-orthogonal conjugation strategies, at the cell surface facilitates many cellular modifications and paves path for novel and potential biomedical applications. Anchoring lipids are needed for liposome surface functionalization with ligands of interest and play important roles in ligand grafting density, liposomes stability and biological activity. On the other hand, anchoring lipids are also needed for cell surface re-engineering by lipid fusion approach and have high impact for ligand insertion efficiency and biological activity. Overall, in this dissertation study, functional anchoring lipids for glyco-functionalized carrier systems and for efficient cell surface re-engineering applications were systematically investigated, respectively. Firstly, investigation of the synthesis of glyco-functionalized liposome systems based on phosphatidylethonalamine (PE) and cholesterol (Chol) anchoring lipids, prepared by post chemically selective functionalization via Staudinger ligation were carried out. The effect of anchor lipids on the stability, encapsulation and releasing capacity of the glycosylated liposomes were investigated by dynamic light

  14. Anchoring in rhythmic in-phase and antiphase visuomotor tracking.

    PubMed

    Roerdink, Melvyn; Bank, Paulina J M; Peper, C E; Beek, Peter J

    2013-04-01

    Rhythmic limb movements are often anchored at particular points in the movement cycle. Anchoring may reveal essential task-specific information for motor control. We examined the effect of tracking mode (in-phase, antiphase) and gaze direction (left, right) on anchoring in visuomotor tracking with and without concurrent visual feedback of the hand movement. For in-phase tracking, anchoring was observed at the foveated reversal point whereas for antiphase tracking anchoring was observed at both reversals, suggesting the presence of two reference points instead of one. Anchoring at the foveated reversal reflected gaze anchoring (i.e., coalignment of hand and gaze) while anchoring at the nonfoveated reversal reflected visuomotor synchronization (i.e., the hand was steered to the nonfoveated reversal coincident with a target reversal at the point of gaze). We propose that the number and location of anchor points play a crucial role in the underlying control by providing reference values for error correction processes.

  15. Roles of actin cytoskeleton for regulation of chloroplast anchoring.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yuuki; Takagi, Shingo

    2017-08-22

    Chloroplasts are known to maintain specific intracellular distribution patterns under specific environmental conditions, enabling the optimal performance of photosynthesis. To this end, chloroplasts are anchored in the cortical cytoplasm. In leaf epidermal cells of aquatic monocot Vallisneria, we recently demonstrated that the anchored chloroplasts are rapidly de-anchored upon irradiation with high-intensity blue light and that the process is probably mediated by the blue-light receptor phototropins. Chloroplast de-anchoring is a necessary step rendering the previously anchored chloroplasts mobile to allow their migration. In this article, based on the results obtained in Vallisneria together with those in other plant species, we briefly discussed possible modes of regulation of chloroplast anchoring and de-anchoring by actin cytoskeleton. The topics include roles of photoreceptor systems, actin-filament-dependent and -independent chloroplast anchoring, and independence of chloroplast de-anchoring from actomyosin and microtubule systems.

  16. Priming and Anchoring Effects in Visualizations.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Andre Calero; Ziefle, Martina; Sedlmair, Michael

    2017-08-30

    We investigate priming and anchoring effects on perceptual tasks in visualization. Priming or anchoring effects depict the phenomena that stimulus might influence subsequent human judgements on a perceptual level, or on a cognitive level by providing a frame of reference. Using visual class separability in scatterplots as an example task, we performed a set of five studies to investigate the potential existence of priming and anchoring effects. Our findings show that-under certain circumstances-such effects indeed exist. In other words, humans judge class separability of the same scatterplot differently depending on the scatterplot(s) they have seen before. These findings inform future work on better understanding and more accurately modeling human perception of visual patterns.

  17. Fibre-Reinforced Adhesive for Structure Anchoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnat, J.; Bajer, M.

    2015-11-01

    The topic of this paper is the glue-concrete interface of bonded anchors loaded by tension force. The paper is closely focused on bond strength experiments using high strength concrete up to class C50/60 or higher together with pure epoxy resin and fibre-reinforced resin. The goal of this research is to find the limits of the effective use of such glue types in high performance concrete, and also to verify the most commonly used design methods for bonded anchors. The presented research includes experimental analysis of the glue-concrete interface and the influence of its parameters on anchor behaviour. The presented analysis shows some problems of the 'separated failure modes' approach and also presents experimentally verified bond strength values obtained for the currently most widespread glue types. Results of fibre reinforced epoxy resin are also presented in this paper.

  18. Cardiac and Carotid Markers Link With Accelerated Brain Atrophy: The AGES-Reykjavik Study (Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik).

    PubMed

    Sabayan, Behnam; van Buchem, Mark A; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Zhang, Qian; Meirelles, Osorio; Harris, Tamara B; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Arai, Andrew E; Launer, Lenore J

    2016-11-01

    Pathologies in the heart-brain axis might, independently or in combination, accelerate the process of brain parenchymal loss. We aimed to investigate the association of serum N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), as a marker of cardiac dysfunction, and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), as a marker of carotid atherosclerosis burden, with structural brain changes. In the longitudinal population-based AGES-Reykjavik study (Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik), we included 2430 subjects (mean age, 74.6 years; 41.4% men) with baseline data on NT-proBNP and CITM (assessed by ultrasound imaging). Participants underwent a high-resolution brain magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and 5 years later to assess total brain (TBV), gray matter, and white matter volumes. Each unit higher log-transformed NT-proBNP was associated with 3.6 mL (95% confidence interval [CI], -6.0 to -1.1) decline in TBV and 3.5 mL (95% CI, -5.7 to -1.3) decline in gray matter volume. Likewise, each millimeter higher CIMT was associated with 10.8 mL (95% CI, -17.3 to -4.2) decline in TBV and 8.6 mL (95% CI, -14.4 to -2.8) decline in gray matter volume. There was no association between NT-proBNP and CIMT and changes in white matter volume. Compared with participants with low NT-proBNP and CIMT, participants with both high NT-proBNP and CIMT had 3.8 mL (95% CI, -6.0 to -1.6) greater decline in their TBV and 4 mL (95% CI, -6.0 to -2.0) greater decline in GMW. These associations were independent of sociodemographic and cardiovascular factors. Older subjects with both cardiac dysfunction and carotid atherosclerosis are at an increased risk for brain parenchymal loss. Accumulated pathologies in the heart-brain axis might accelerate brain atrophy. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Post-Messinian evolutionary relationships across the Sicilian channel: Mitochondrial and nuclear markers link a new green toad from Sicily to African relatives

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Little attention has been paid to the consequences of the last landbridge between Africa and Sicily on Mediterranean biogeography. Previous paleontological and scarce molecular data suggest possible faunal exchange later than the well-documented landbridge in the Messinian (5.3 My); however, a possible African origin of recent terrestrial Sicilian fauna has not been thoroughly tested with molecular methods. To gain insight into the phylogeography of the region, we examine two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers (one is a newly adapted intron marker) in green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) across that sea barrier, the Strait of Sicily. Results Extensive sampling throughout the western Mediterranean and North Africa revealed a deep sister relationship between Sicilian (Bufo siculus n.sp.) and African green toads (B. boulengeri) on the mitochondrial and nuclear level. Divergence times estimated under a Bayesian-coalescence framework (mtDNA control region and 16S rRNA) range from the Middle Pliocene (3.6 My) to Pleistocene (0.16 My) with an average (1.83 to 2.0 My) around the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, suggesting possible land connections younger than the Messinian (5.3 My). We describe green toads from Sicily and some surrounding islands as a new endemic species (Bufo siculus). Bufo balearicus occurs on some western Mediterranean islands (Corsica, Sardinia, Mallorca, and Menorca) and the Apennine Peninsula, and is well differentiated on the mitochondrial and nuclear level from B. siculus as well as from B. viridis (Laurenti), whose haplotype group reaches northeastern Italy, north of the Po River. Detection of Calabrian B. balearicus haplotypes in northeastern Sicily suggests recent invasion. Our data agree with paleogeographic and fossil data, which suggest long Plio-Pleistocene isolation of Sicily and episodic Pleistocene faunal exchange across the Strait of Messina. It remains unknown whether both species (B. balearicus, B. siculus) occur in

  20. SSR markers in transcripts of genes linked to post-transcriptional and transcriptional regulatory functions during vegetative and reproductive development of Elaeis guineensis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is a perennial monocotyledonous tropical crop species that is now the world's number one source of edible vegetable oil, and the richest dietary source of provitamin A. While new elite genotypes from traditional breeding programs provide steady yield increases, the long selection cycle (10-12 years) and the large areas required to cultivate oil palm make genetic improvement slow and labor intensive. Molecular breeding programs have the potential to make significant impacts on the rate of genetic improvement but the limited molecular resources, in particular the lack of molecular markers for agronomic traits of interest, restrict the application of molecular breeding schemes for oil palm. Results In the current study, 6,103 non-redundant ESTs derived from cDNA libraries of developing vegetative and reproductive tissues were annotated and searched for simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Primer pairs from sequences flanking 289 EST-SSRs were tested to detect polymorphisms in elite breeding parents and their crosses. 230 of these amplified PCR products, 88 of which were polymorphic within the breeding material tested. A detailed analysis and annotation of the EST-SSRs revealed the locations of the polymorphisms within the transcripts, and that the main functional category was related to transcription and post-transcriptional regulation. Indeed, SSR polymorphisms were found in sequences encoding AP2-like, bZIP, zinc finger, MADS-box, and NAC-like transcription factors in addition to other transcriptional regulatory proteins and several RNA interacting proteins. Conclusions The identification of new EST-SSRs that detect polymorphisms in elite breeding material provides tools for molecular breeding strategies. The identification of SSRs within transcripts, in particular those that encode proteins involved in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation, will allow insight into the functional roles of these proteins by

  1. SSR markers in transcripts of genes linked to post-transcriptional and transcriptional regulatory functions during vegetative and reproductive development of Elaeis guineensis.

    PubMed

    Tranbarger, Timothy John; Kluabmongkol, Wanwisa; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Morcillo, Fabienne; Tregear, James W; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Billotte, Norbert

    2012-01-03

    The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is a perennial monocotyledonous tropical crop species that is now the world's number one source of edible vegetable oil, and the richest dietary source of provitamin A. While new elite genotypes from traditional breeding programs provide steady yield increases, the long selection cycle (10-12 years) and the large areas required to cultivate oil palm make genetic improvement slow and labor intensive. Molecular breeding programs have the potential to make significant impacts on the rate of genetic improvement but the limited molecular resources, in particular the lack of molecular markers for agronomic traits of interest, restrict the application of molecular breeding schemes for oil palm. In the current study, 6,103 non-redundant ESTs derived from cDNA libraries of developing vegetative and reproductive tissues were annotated and searched for simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Primer pairs from sequences flanking 289 EST-SSRs were tested to detect polymorphisms in elite breeding parents and their crosses. 230 of these amplified PCR products, 88 of which were polymorphic within the breeding material tested. A detailed analysis and annotation of the EST-SSRs revealed the locations of the polymorphisms within the transcripts, and that the main functional category was related to transcription and post-transcriptional regulation. Indeed, SSR polymorphisms were found in sequences encoding AP2-like, bZIP, zinc finger, MADS-box, and NAC-like transcription factors in addition to other transcriptional regulatory proteins and several RNA interacting proteins. The identification of new EST-SSRs that detect polymorphisms in elite breeding material provides tools for molecular breeding strategies. The identification of SSRs within transcripts, in particular those that encode proteins involved in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation, will allow insight into the functional roles of these proteins by studying the phenotypic traits

  2. Post-Messinian evolutionary relationships across the Sicilian channel: mitochondrial and nuclear markers link a new green toad from Sicily to African relatives.

    PubMed

    Stöck, Matthias; Sicilia, Alessandra; Belfiore, Natalia M; Buckley, David; Lo Brutto, Sabrina; Lo Valvo, Mario; Arculeo, Marco

    2008-02-23

    Little attention has been paid to the consequences of the last landbridge between Africa and Sicily on Mediterranean biogeography. Previous paleontological and scarce molecular data suggest possible faunal exchange later than the well-documented landbridge in the Messinian (5.3 My); however, a possible African origin of recent terrestrial Sicilian fauna has not been thoroughly tested with molecular methods. To gain insight into the phylogeography of the region, we examine two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers (one is a newly adapted intron marker) in green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) across that sea barrier, the Strait of Sicily. Extensive sampling throughout the western Mediterranean and North Africa revealed a deep sister relationship between Sicilian (Bufo siculus n.sp.) and African green toads (B. boulengeri) on the mitochondrial and nuclear level. Divergence times estimated under a Bayesian-coalescence framework (mtDNA control region and 16S rRNA) range from the Middle Pliocene (3.6 My) to Pleistocene (0.16 My) with an average (1.83 to 2.0 My) around the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, suggesting possible land connections younger than the Messinian (5.3 My). We describe green toads from Sicily and some surrounding islands as a new endemic species (Bufo siculus). Bufo balearicus occurs on some western Mediterranean islands (Corsica, Sardinia, Mallorca, and Menorca) and the Apennine Peninsula, and is well differentiated on the mitochondrial and nuclear level from B. siculus as well as from B. viridis (Laurenti), whose haplotype group reaches northeastern Italy, north of the Po River. Detection of Calabrian B. balearicus haplotypes in northeastern Sicily suggests recent invasion. Our data agree with paleogeographic and fossil data, which suggest long Plio-Pleistocene isolation of Sicily and episodic Pleistocene faunal exchange across the Strait of Messina. It remains unknown whether both species (B. balearicus, B. siculus) occur in sympatry in northern

  3. Multiple magnetic microrobot control using electrostatic anchoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawashe, Chytra; Floyd, Steven; Sitti, Metin

    2009-04-01

    Addressing power and control to individual untethered microrobots is a challenge for small-scale robotics. We present a 250×130×100 μm3 magnetic robot wirelessly driven by pulsed external magnetic fields. An induced stick-slip motion results in translation speeds over 8 mm/s. Control of multiple robots is achieved by an array of addressable electrostatic anchoring pads on the surface, which selectively fixes microrobots, preventing translation. We demonstrate control of two microrobots in both uncoupled individual motion and coupled symmetric motion. An estimated anchoring force of 23.0 μN is necessary to effectively fix each microrobot.

  4. Bond strength of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) grouted anchors

    SciTech Connect

    Bellavance, E.; Xu, H.; Benmokrane, B.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes the results of laboratory and field pull-out tests on cement grouted glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) anchors. As an alternative for grouted steel anchors, GFRP bars have many advantages over steel tendons, and can avoid corrosion and some difficulties in transportation, handling, and installation. Three types of 36 GFRP anchors and 20 steel anchors installed in three types of host media: steel pipe, concrete block, and rock mass were tested in the laboratory as well as in the field. The bond strength, load carrying capacity, load-displacement behavior, and critical bond length of cement grouted GFRP anchors were examined in comparison with conventional steel anchors.

  5. Marker chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Rao, Kiran Prabhaker; Belogolovkin, Victoria

    2013-04-01

    Marker chromosomes are a morphologically heterogeneous group of structurally abnormal chromosomes that pose a significant challenge in prenatal diagnosis. Phenotypes associated with marker chromosomes are highly variable and range from normal to severely abnormal. Clinical outcomes are very difficult to predict when marker chromosomes are detected prenatally. In this review, we outline the classification, etiology, cytogenetic characterization, and clinical consequences of marker chromosomes, as well as practical approaches to prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling.

  6. Differentiation of Z and W chromosomes revealed by replication banding and FISH mapping of sex-chromosome-linked DNA markers in the cassowary (Aves, Ratitae).

    PubMed

    Nishida-Umehara, C; Fujiwara, A; Ogawa, A; Mizuno, S; Abe, S; Yoshida, M C

    1999-01-01

    We identified sex chromosomes of the double-wattled cassowary (Casuarius casuarius) by a replication banding method. The acrocentric Z chromosome, the fifth largest pair in males and slightly smaller W chromosome show no sign of heterochromatinization and share a nearly identical banding pattern in the distal half of the long arm. These chromosomes were further characterized by FISH with three probes linked either to Z or W chromosome in most avian species examined thus far. Contrary to the situation in the chicken, we obtained positive signals with Z-specific ZOV3 and W-specific EEO.6 in the distal region of both Z and W chromosomes. However, IREBP signals localized to the proximal half of the Z chromosome were not detected on the W chromosome. Thus, structural rearrangements such as deletions and inversions might have been the initial step of W chromosome differentiation from an ancestral homomorphic pair in this species.

  7. Monogenean anchor morphometry: systematic value, phylogenetic signal, and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Soo, Oi Yoon Michelle; Tan, Wooi Boon; Lim, Lee Hong Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anchors are one of the important attachment appendages for monogenean parasites. Common descent and evolutionary processes have left their mark on anchor morphometry, in the form of patterns of shape and size variation useful for systematic and evolutionary studies. When combined with morphological and molecular data, analysis of anchor morphometry can potentially answer a wide range of biological questions. Materials and Methods. We used data from anchor morphometry, body size and morphology of 13 Ligophorus (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) species infecting two marine mugilid (Teleostei: Mugilidae) fish hosts: Moolgarda buchanani (Bleeker) and Liza subviridis (Valenciennes) from Malaysia. Anchor shape and size data (n = 530) were generated using methods of geometric morphometrics. We used 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and ITS1 sequence data to infer a maximum likelihood phylogeny. We discriminated species using principal component and cluster analysis of shape data. Adams’s Kmult was used to detect phylogenetic signal in anchor shape. Phylogeny-correlated size and shape changes were investigated using continuous character mapping and directional statistics, respectively. We assessed morphological constraints in anchor morphometry using phylogenetic regression of anchor shape against body size and anchor size. Anchor morphological integration was studied using partial least squares method. The association between copulatory organ morphology and anchor shape and size in phylomorphospace was used to test the Rohde-Hobbs hypothesis. We created monogeneaGM, a new R package that integrates analyses of monogenean anchor geometric morphometric data with morphological and phylogenetic data. Results. We discriminated 12 of the 13 Ligophorus species using anchor shape data. Significant phylogenetic signal was detected in anchor shape. Thus, we discovered new morphological characters based on anchor shaft shape, the length between the inner root point and the outer root

  8. Bile acid signaling in lipid metabolism: Metabolomic and lipidomic analysis of lipid and bile acid markers linked to anti-obesity and anti-diabetes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yunpeng; Jiang, Changtao; Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Li, Tiangang; Ferrell, Jessica M.; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Chiang, John Y.L.

    2014-01-01

    Bile acid synthesis is the major pathway for catabolism of cholesterol. Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway in the liver and plays an important role in regulating lipid, glucose and energy metabolism. Transgenic mice overexpressing CYP7A1 (CYP7A1-tg mice) were resistant to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, fatty liver, and diabetes. However the mechanism of resistance to HFD-induced obesity of CYP7A1-tg mice has not been determined. In this study, metabolomic and lipidomic profiles of CYP7A1-tg mice were analyzed to explore the metabolic alterations in CYP7A1-tg mice that govern the protection against obesity and insulin resistance by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with multivariate analyses. Lipidomics analysis identified seven lipid markers including lysophosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and ceramides that were significantly decreased in serum of HFD-fed CYP7A1-tg mice. Metabolomics analysis identified 13 metabolites in bile acid synthesis including taurochenodeoxycholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, tauroursodeoxycholic acid, taurocholic acid, and tauro-β-muricholic acid (T-β-MCA) that differed between CYP7A1-tg and wild-type mice. Notably, T-β-MCA, an antagonist of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) was significantly increased in intestine of CYP7A1-tg mice. This study suggests that reducing 12α-hydroxylated bile acids and increasing intestinal T-β-MCA may reduce high fat diet-induced increase of phospholipids, sphingomyelins and ceramides, and ameliorate diabetes and obesity. PMID:24796972

  9. Isolation of TIR and non-TIR NBS--LRR resistance gene analogues and identification of molecular markers linked to a powdery mildew resistance locus in chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt).

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Wen, Xiaopeng; Deng, Xiuxin

    2005-09-01

    Toll and interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) and non-TIR nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) resistance gene analogues (RGAs) were obtained from chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) by two PCR-based amplification strategies (direct amplification and overlap extension amplification) with degenerate primers designed to the conserved P-loop, kinase-2, and Gly-Leu-Pro-Leu (GLPL) motifs within the NBS domain of plant resistance gene (R gene) products. Thirty-four of 65 cloned PCR fragments contained a continuous open reading frame (ORF) and their predicted protein products showed homology to the NBS-LRR class R proteins in the GenBank database. These 34 predicted protein sequences exhibited a wide range (19.5--99.4%) of sequence identity among them and were classified into two distinct groups by phylogenetic analysis. The first group consisted of 23 sequences and seemed to belong to the non-TIR NBS-LRR RGAs, since they contained group specific motifs (RNBS-A-non-TIR motif) that are often present in the coiled-coil domain of the non-TIR NBS-LRR class R genes. The second group comprised 11 sequences that contained motifs found in the TIR domain of TIR NBS-LRR class R genes. Restriction fragment length polymorphic (RFLP) markers were developed from some of the RGAs and used for mapping powdery mildew resistance genes in chestnut rose. Three markers, RGA 22 C, RGA 4 A, and RGA 7 B, were identified to be linked to a resistance gene locus, designated CRPM 1 for chestnut rose powdery mildew resistance 1, which accounted for 72% of the variation in powdery mildew resistance phenotype in an F1 segregating population. To our knowledge, this is the first report on isolation, phylogenetic analysis and potential utilization as genetic markers of RGAs in chestnut rose.

  10. Finding Chemical Anchors in the Kitchen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haim, Liliana

    2005-01-01

    ''The Chemistry Kitchen'', a unit composed of five activities with kitchen elements for elementary students ages 9-11, introduces the children to the skills and chemical working ideas to be used later as anchors for chemical concepts. These activities include kitchen elements, determining the relative mass and so on.

  11. Weighing Anchor in the "Ragged Times"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Tonya B.

    2012-01-01

    In today's middle school classroom, grouping is an essential learning tool that enhances students' ability to collaborate with others and deepen their own thinking. Implementing group work effectively, though, can be a challenge, especially since groups tend to end their work at "ragged" or staggered times. Creating "anchor activities"--respectful…

  12. 76 FR 30301 - Commercial Acquisition; Anchor Tenancy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... Competitiveness Act (CSCA) of 1992. NASA may enter into multi-year anchor tenancy contracts for commercial space... NASA's authority under Section 401 of the Commercial Space Competitiveness Act (CSCA) of 1992 (15 U.S.C... Competitiveness Act, 15 U.S.C. 5806, allows NASA, subject to appropriations, to enter into multi-year...

  13. A Description of the Anchor Test Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.

    The Anchor Test Study is described as to objectives, the need for the study, tests selected for the study, States' participation, renumeration of School Test Coordinator, teacher participation, schedule of activities, reports of test results, pupil personnel data needed, and the tests administered during the restandardization phase and equating…

  14. Anchoring the Panic Disorder Severity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keough, Meghan E.; Porter, Eliora; Kredlow, M. Alexandra; Worthington, John J.; Hoge, Elizabeth A.; Pollack, Mark H.; Shear, M. Katherine; Simon, Naomi M.

    2012-01-01

    The Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) is a clinician-administered measure of panic disorder symptom severity widely used in clinical research. This investigation sought to provide clinically meaningful anchor points for the PDSS both in terms of clinical severity as measured by the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) and to extend…

  15. Multimodality of Learning Through Anchored Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Mary Susan

    2004-01-01

    Multimodality of learning results from the intertextual relationship between multimodal design and other meaning-making modes. Meaning making is becoming more multimodal because language is continually reshaped by new forms of communication media. This article examines anchored instruction from a multimodal perspective. The first section includes…

  16. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the United States' contribution to the International Lunar Network (ILN) project, the Anchor Nodes project. The ILN is an initiative of 9 national space agencies to establish a set of robotic geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon. The project is aimed at furthering the understanding of the lunar composition, and interior structure.

  17. 30 CFR 57.7032 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7032 Anchoring. Columns and the drills mounted on them shall be...

  18. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.401... wind by use of anchor assembly type installations or by connecting the home to an alternative... must require the home to be secured against the wind, as described in this section. The installation...

  19. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.401... wind by use of anchor assembly type installations or by connecting the home to an alternative... must require the home to be secured against the wind, as described in this section. The installation...

  20. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.401... wind by use of anchor assembly type installations or by connecting the home to an alternative... must require the home to be secured against the wind, as described in this section. The installation...

  1. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.401... wind by use of anchor assembly type installations or by connecting the home to an alternative... must require the home to be secured against the wind, as described in this section. The installation...

  2. Anchoring the Panic Disorder Severity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keough, Meghan E.; Porter, Eliora; Kredlow, M. Alexandra; Worthington, John J.; Hoge, Elizabeth A.; Pollack, Mark H.; Shear, M. Katherine; Simon, Naomi M.

    2012-01-01

    The Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) is a clinician-administered measure of panic disorder symptom severity widely used in clinical research. This investigation sought to provide clinically meaningful anchor points for the PDSS both in terms of clinical severity as measured by the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) and to extend…

  3. Finding Chemical Anchors in the Kitchen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haim, Liliana

    2005-01-01

    ''The Chemistry Kitchen'', a unit composed of five activities with kitchen elements for elementary students ages 9-11, introduces the children to the skills and chemical working ideas to be used later as anchors for chemical concepts. These activities include kitchen elements, determining the relative mass and so on.

  4. Weighing Anchor in the "Ragged Times"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Tonya B.

    2012-01-01

    In today's middle school classroom, grouping is an essential learning tool that enhances students' ability to collaborate with others and deepen their own thinking. Implementing group work effectively, though, can be a challenge, especially since groups tend to end their work at "ragged" or staggered times. Creating "anchor activities"--respectful…

  5. Cytogenetic anchoring of radiation hybrid and virtual maps of sheep chromosome X and comparison of X chromosomes in sheep, cattle, and human.

    PubMed

    Goldammer, Tom; Brunner, Ronald M; Rebl, Alexander; Wu, Chun Hua; Nomura, Ko; Hadfield, Tracy; Maddox, Jill F; Cockett, Noelle E

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive physical map was generated for Ovis aries chromosome X (OARX) based on a cytogenomics approach. DNA probes were prepared from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the CHORI-243 sheep library and were assigned to G-banded metaphase spreads via fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). A total of 22 BACs gave a single hybridization signal to the X chromosome and were assigned out of 32 tested. The positioned BACs contained 16 genes and a microsatellite marker which represent new cytogenetically mapped loci in the sheep genome. The gene and microsatellite loci serve to anchor between the existing radiation hybrid (RH) and virtual sheep genome (VSG) maps to the cytogenetic OARX map, whilst the BACs themselves also serve as anchors between the VSG and the cytogenetic maps. An additional 17 links between the RH and cytogenetic maps are provided by BAC end sequence (BES) derived markers that have also been positioned on the RH map. Comparison of the map orders for the cytogenetic, RH, and virtual maps reveals that the orders for the cytogenetic and RH maps are most similar, with only one locus, represented by BAC CH243-330E18, mapping to relatively different positions. Several discrepancies, including an inverted segment are found when comparing both the cytogenetic and RH maps with the virtual map. These discrepancies highlight the value of using physical mapping methods to inform the process of future in silico map construction. A detailed comparative analysis of sheep, human, and cattle mapping data allowed the construction of a comparative map that confirms and expands the knowledge about evolutionary conservation and break points between the X chromosomes of the three mammalian species.

  6. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed.

  7. 345. Caltrans, Photographer September 20, 1935 "WEST ANCHOR ARM"; DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    345. Caltrans, Photographer September 20, 1935 "WEST ANCHOR ARM"; DETAIL VIEW OF CANTILEVER TRUSS WEST ANCHOR ARM UNDER CONSTRUCTION. 7-1023 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed. PMID:27166952

  9. 63. ANCHOR WINDLASS ROOM AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. ANCHOR WINDLASS ROOM - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE SHOWING LINE REELS, MAIN ANCHOR CHAIN, CHAIN STOPPERS, CAPSTAN AND CONTROLS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  10. 9. CABLE ANCHORAGE DETAIL, NORTHWEST ABUTMENT (NOTE MOSSCOVERED CONCRETE ANCHOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. CABLE ANCHORAGE DETAIL, NORTHWEST ABUTMENT (NOTE MOSS-COVERED CONCRETE ANCHOR LEFT OF ANCHOR BOLTS) - Nisqually Suspension Bridge, Spanning Nisqually River on Service Road, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  11. Use of an X-linked human neutrophil marker to estimate timing of lyonization and size of the dividing stem cell pool.

    PubMed Central

    Buescher, E S; Alling, D W; Gallin, J I

    1985-01-01

    In families with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), heterozygous females have two stable populations of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in their blood; one normal, the other, deficient in oxygen metabolism. The two types of PMN can be distinguished by the ability or lack of ability to reduce nitroblue tetrazolium dye. The variation in the percent normal PMN among 11 CGD heterozygotes was shown to follow a binomial distribution based on eight independent trials and a chance of success of 50%. This is consistent with the occurrence of X-chromosome inactivation (lyonization) when eight embryonic founder cells for the hematopoietic system are present. Serial determinations of the percent normal PMN in individual heterozygotes showed very limited variability (standard deviations ranged from 2.0% to 5.2%) most of which could be ascribed to experimental error. An estimate of the remaining variation (residual variance) was introduced into a well-known formula to calculate the appropriate number of pluripotent stem cells necessary to support hematopoiesis and a figure exceeding 400 was obtained. Thus, the data indicate that in humans there is a highly polyclonal system of hematopoiesis. PMID:3863835

  12. 62. ANCHOR WINDLASS ROOM AFT LOOKING FORWARD STARBOARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. ANCHOR WINDLASS ROOM - AFT LOOKING FORWARD - STARBOARD TO PORT SHOWING WINDLASS CONTROLS (HANDWHEELS) MAIN ANCHOR CHAIN, ANCHOR WINDLASS, LINE HEELS, AND LADDERWAY TO SECONDARY CONNING STATION OR PILOT HOUSE. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  13. Students' Anchoring Predisposition: An Illustration from Spring Training Baseball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrweis, Lawrence C.

    2014-01-01

    The anchoring tendency results when decision makers anchor on initial values and then make final assessments that are adjusted insufficiently away from the initial values. The professional literature recognizes that auditors often risk falling into the judgment trap of anchoring and adjusting (Ranzilla et al., 2011). Students may also be unaware…

  14. Development of a D genome specific marker resource for diploid and hexaploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Drader, Thomas; Tiwari, Vijay K; Dong, Lingli; Kumar, Ajay; Huo, Naxin; Ghavami, Farhad; Iqbal, M Javed; Lazo, Gerard R; Leonard, Jeff; Gill, Bikram S; Kianian, Shahryar F; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Gu, Yong Q

    2015-08-28

    Mapping and map-based cloning of genes that control agriculturally and economically important traits remain great challenges for plants with complex highly repetitive genomes such as those within the grass tribe, Triticeae. Mapping limitations in the Triticeae are primarily due to low frequencies of polymorphic gene markers and poor genetic recombination in certain genetic regions. Although the abundance of repetitive sequence may pose common problems in genome analysis and sequence assembly of large and complex genomes, they provide repeat junction markers with random and unbiased distribution throughout chromosomes. Hence, development of a high-throughput mapping technology that combine both gene-based and repeat junction-based markers is needed to generate maps that have better coverage of the entire genome. In this study, the available genomics resource of the diploid Aegilop tauschii, the D genome donor of bread wheat, were used to develop genome specific markers that can be applied for mapping in modern hexaploid wheat. A NimbleGen array containing both gene-based and repeat junction probe sequences derived from Ae. tauschii was developed and used to map the Chinese Spring nullisomic-tetrasomic lines and deletion bin lines of the D genome chromosomes. Based on these mapping data, we have now anchored 5,171 repeat junction probes and 10,892 gene probes, corresponding to 5,070 gene markers, to the delineated deletion bins of the D genome. The order of the gene-based markers within the deletion bins of the Chinese Spring can be inferred based on their positions on the Ae. tauschii genetic map. Analysis of the probe sequences against the Chinese Spring chromosome sequence assembly database facilitated mapping of the NimbleGen probes to the sequence contigs and allowed assignment or ordering of these sequence contigs within the deletion bins. The accumulated length of anchored sequence contigs is about 155 Mb, representing ~ 3.2 % of the D genome. A specific

  15. Gold nanoparticles assembled with dithiocarbamate-anchored molecular wires

    PubMed Central

    Reeler, Nini E. A.; Lerstrup, Knud A.; Somerville, Walter; Speder, Jozsef; Petersen, Søren V.; Laursen, Bo W.; Arenz, Matthias; Qiu, Xiaohui; Vosch, Tom; Nørgaard, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    A protocol for the bottom-up self-assembly of nanogaps is developed through molecular linking of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Two π-conjugated oligo(phenylene ethynylene) molecules (OPE) with dithiocarbamate anchoring groups are used as ligands for the AuNPs. OPE-4S with a dithiocarbamate in each end of the molecule and a reference molecule OPE-2S with only a single dithiocarbamate end group. The linking mechanism of OPE-4S is investigated by using a combination of TEM, UV-Vis absorption and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as well as studying the effect of varying the OPE-4S to AuNP concentration ratio. UV-Vis absorption confirms the formation of AuNP aggregates by the appearance of an extended plasmon band (EPB) for which the red shift and intensity depend on the OPE-4S:AuNP ratio. SERS confirms the presence of OPE-4S and shows a gradual increase of the signal intensity with increasing OPE-4S:AuNP ratios up to a ratio of about 4000, after which the SERS intensity does not increase significantly. For OPE-2S, no linking is observed below full coverage of the AuNPs indicating that the observed aggregate formation at high OPE-2S:AuNP ratios, above full AuNP coverage, is most likely of a physical nature (van der Waals forces or π-π interactions). PMID:26471461

  16. Isolation of a potential anchoring motif based on proteome analysis of Escherichia coli and its use for cell surface display.

    PubMed

    Yim, Sung Sun; An, Seul Ji; Han, Mee-Jung; Choi, Jae Woong; Jeong, Ki Jun

    2013-06-01

    For bacterial cell surface display, the target protein needs to be linked to an anchoring motif, and it is essential to choose an appropriate anchoring motif for efficient and stable display of the protein on the cell surface. To isolate a potential anchoring motif that would allow a stable and enhanced display of target proteins on the surface of an Escherichia coli host, we analyzed the outer membrane proteome of E. coli. On the basis of this proteomic analysis, the outer membrane protein X (OmpX), which has a small, monomeric β-barrel structure and is highly expressed, was selected as a potential anchoring motif. The role of OmpX as an anchoring motif for cell surface display was demonstrated using three important industrial enzymes: endoxylanase, lipase, and alkaline phosphatase. Two different positions (Lys(122), Val(160)) in the extracellular loops of OmpX were examined for C-terminal fusion, and the biological activities and localization of the displayed enzymes were analyzed. All three enzymes examined were efficiently displayed on the E. coli cell surface with high activity. These results reveal that the use of OmpX as an anchoring motif is an efficient method to display functional enzymes on the surface of an E. coli host.

  17. Composite materials formed with anchored nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-03-10

    A method of forming nano-structure composite materials that have a binder material and a nanostructure fiber material is described. A precursor material may be formed using a mixture of at least one metal powder and anchored nanostructure materials. The metal powder mixture may be (a) Ni powder and (b) NiAl powder. The anchored nanostructure materials may comprise (i) NiAl powder as a support material and (ii) carbon nanotubes attached to nanoparticles adjacent to a surface of the support material. The process of forming nano-structure composite materials typically involves sintering the mixture under vacuum in a die. When Ni and NiAl are used in the metal powder mixture Ni.sub.3Al may form as the binder material after sintering. The mixture is sintered until it consolidates to form the nano-structure composite material.

  18. Electrochromic mirror using viologen-anchored nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Han Na; Cho, Seong M.; Ah, Chil Seong; Song, Juhee; Ryu, Hojun; Kim, Yong Hae

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Three types of ECM device were fabricated using viologen-anchored ECDs. • The devices were investigated according to their optical structures. • The anti-reflection material affects the reflectance and the coloration efficiency. • The device design of ECMs is a crucial factor for clear reflected images. - Abstract: Electrochromic mirrors (ECMs) that are used in automobile mirrors need to have high reflectance, a high contrast ratio, and a clear image. In particular, it is critical that distortions of clear images are minimized for safety. Therefore, an ECM is fabricated using viologen-anchored nanoparticles and a magnesium fluoride (MgF{sub 2}) layer with an anti-reflection function. The ECM has approximately 30.42% in the reflectance dynamic range and 125 cm{sup 2}/C high coloration efficiency.

  19. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews what we know about the interior and surface of the moon and the need to establish a robotic set of geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon for the purpose of providing significant scientific value to the exploration of the Moon. The ILN Anchor Nodes will provide the backbone of the network in a way that accomplishes new science and allows other nodes to be flexible contributors to the network.

  20. Anchoring in a novel bimanual coordination pattern.

    PubMed

    Maslovat, Dana; Lam, Melanie Y; Brunke, Kirstin M; Chua, Romeo; Franks, Ian M

    2009-02-01

    Anchoring in cyclical movements has been defined as regions of reduced spatial or temporal variability [Beek, P. J. (1989). Juggling dynamics. PhD thesis. Amsterdam: Free University Press] that are typically found at movement reversal points. For in-phase and anti-phase movements, synchronizing reversal points with a metronome pulse has resulted in decreased anchor point variability and increased pattern stability [Byblow, W. D., Carson, R. G., & Goodman, D. (1994). Expressions of asymmetries and anchoring in bimanual coordination. Human Movement Science, 13, 3-28; Fink, P. W., Foo, P., Jirsa, V. K., & Kelso, J. A. S. (2000). Local and global stabilization of coordination by sensory information. Experimental Brain Research, 134, 9-20]. The present experiment examined anchoring during acquisition, retention, and transfer of a 90 degrees phase-offset continuous bimanual coordination pattern (whereby the right limb lags the left limb by one quarter cycle), involving horizontal flexion about the elbow. Three metronome synchronization strategies were imposed: participants either synchronized maximal flexion of the right arm (i.e., single metronome), both flexion and extension of the right arm (i.e., double metronome within-limb), or flexion of each arm (i.e., double metronome between-limb) to an auditory metronome. In contrast to simpler in-phase and anti-phase movements, synchronization of additional reversal points to the metronome did not reduce reversal point variability or increase pattern stability. Furthermore, practicing under different metronome synchronization strategies did not appear to have a significant effect on the rate of acquisition of the pattern.

  1. Resisting anchoring effects: The roles of metric and mapping knowledge.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew R; Windschitl, Paul D

    2015-10-01

    The biasing influence of anchors on numerical estimates is well established, but the relationship between knowledge level and the susceptibility to anchoring effects is less clear. In two studies, we addressed the potential mitigating effects of having knowledge in a domain on vulnerability to anchoring effects in that domain. Of critical interest was a distinction between two forms of knowledge-metric and mapping knowledge. In Study 1, participants who had studied question-relevant information-that is, high-knowledge participants-were less influenced by anchors than were participants who had studied irrelevant information. The results from knowledge measures suggested that the reduction in anchoring was tied to increases in metric rather than mapping knowledge. In Study 2, participants studied information specifically designed to influence different types of knowledge. As we predicted, increases in metric knowledge-and not mapping knowledge-led to reduced anchoring effects. Implications for debiasing anchoring effects are discussed.

  2. Anchoring-driven spontaneous rotations in active gel droplets.

    PubMed

    Fialho, A R; Blow, M L; Marenduzzo, D

    2017-09-13

    We study the dynamics of an active gel droplet with imposed orientational anchoring (normal or planar) at its surface. We find that if the activity is large enough droplets subject to strong anchoring spontaneously start to rotate, with the sense of rotation randomly selected by fluctuations. Contractile droplets rotate only for planar anchoring and extensile ones only for normal anchoring. This is because such a combination leads to a pair of stable elastic deformations which creates an active torque to power the rotation. Interestingly, under these conditions there is a conflict between the anchoring promoted thermodynamically and that favoured by activity. By tuning activity and anchoring strength, we find a wealth of qualitatively different droplet morphologies and spatiotemporal patterns, encompassing steady rotations, oscillations, and more irregular trajectories. The spontaneous rotations we observe are fundamentally different from previously reported instances of rotating defects in active fluids as they require the presence of strong enough anchoring and entail significant droplet shape deformations.

  3. Electropermanent magnetic anchoring for surgery and endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Tugwell, Josef; Brennan, Philip; O'Shea, Conor; O'Donoghue, Kilian; Power, Timothy; O'Shea, Michael; Griffiths, James; Cahill, Ronan; Cantillon-Murphy, Padraig

    2015-03-01

    The use of magnets for anchoring of instrumentation in minimally invasive surgery and endoscopy has become of increased interest in recent years. Permanent magnets have significant advantages over electromagnets for these applications; larger anchoring and retraction force for comparable size and volume without the need for any external power supply. However, permanent magnets represent a potential hazard in the operating field where inadvertent attraction to surgical instrumentation is often undesirable. The current work proposes an interesting hybrid approach which marries the high forces of permanent magnets with the control of electromagnetic technology including the ability to turn the magnet OFF when necessary. This is achieved through the use of an electropermanent magnet, which is designed for surgical retraction across the abdominal and gastric walls. Our electropermanent magnet, which is hand-held and does not require continuous power, is designed with a center lumen which may be used for trocar or needle insertion. The device in this application has been demonstrated successfully in the porcine model where coupling between an intraluminal ring magnet and our electropermanent magnet facilitated guided insertion of an 18 Fr Tuohy needle for guidewire placement. Subsequent investigations have demonstrated the ability to control the coupling distance of the system alleviating shortcomings with current methods of magnetic coupling due to variation in transabdominal wall thicknesses. With further refinement, the magnet may find application in the anchoring of endoscopic and surgical instrumentation for minimally invasive interventions in the gastrointestinal tract.

  4. Short read DNA fragment anchoring algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wendi; Zhang, Peiheng; Liu, Xinchun

    2009-01-30

    The emerging next-generation sequencing method based on PCR technology boosts genome sequencing speed considerably, the expense is also get decreased. It has been utilized to address a broad range of bioinformatics problems. Limited by reliable output sequence length of next-generation sequencing technologies, we are confined to study gene fragments with 30 - 50 bps in general and it is relatively shorter than traditional gene fragment length. Anchoring gene fragments in long reference sequence is an essential and prerequisite step for further assembly and analysis works. Due to the sheer number of fragments produced by next-generation sequencing technologies and the huge size of reference sequences, anchoring would rapidly becoming a computational bottleneck. We compared algorithm efficiency on BLAT, SOAP and EMBF. The efficiency is defined as the count of total output results divided by time consumed to retrieve them. The data show that our algorithm EMBF have 3 - 4 times efficiency advantage over SOAP, and at least 150 times over BLAT. Moreover, when the reference sequence size is increased, the efficiency of SOAP will get degraded as far as 30%, while EMBF have preferable increasing tendency. In conclusion, we deem that EMBF is more suitable for short fragment anchoring problem where result completeness and accuracy is predominant and the reference sequences are relatively large.

  5. Provirus-anchored long-range (PAL) mapping of mammalian genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Kurdi-Haidar, B.; Levine, F.; Roemer, K.; LaPorte, P.; Friedman, T. )

    1993-02-01

    To design a strategy for more efficient long-range physical mapping of large mammalian genomes, we have developed a method for directional mapping from anchor points of randomly integrated retroviral proviruses containing sequences that provide unique cleavage sites in the genome. Using this method, we have determined a physical map of approximately 1.6 Mb flanking an Mo MLV-proviral integration site in mouse NIH/3T3 cells. Our results indicate that this provirus-anchored long-range (PAL) mapping strategy, which uses only two proviral sequences as univeral hybridization probes, can potentially allow rapid construction of physical maps for chromosomal regions devoid of other genetic markers. 25 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Complications of bioabsorbable suture anchors in the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Aman; Ghodadra, Neil; Karas, Vasili; Salata, Michael J; Cole, Brian J

    2012-06-01

    The development of the suture anchor has played a pivotal role in the transition from open to arthroscopic techniques of the shoulder. Various suture anchors have been manufactured that help facilitate the ability to create a soft tissue to bone repair. Because of reported complications of loosening, migration, and chondral injury with metallic anchors, bioabsorbable anchors have become increasingly used among orthopaedic surgeons. In this review, the authors sought to evaluate complications associated with bioabsorbable anchors in or about the shoulder and understand these in the context of the total number of bioabsorbable anchors placed. In 2008, 10 bioabsorbable anchor-related complications were reported to the US Food and Drug Administration. The reported literature complications of bioabsorbable anchors implanted about the shoulder include glenoid osteolysis, synovitis, and chondrolysis. These potential complications should be kept in mind when forming a differential diagnosis in a patient in whom a bioabsorbable anchor has been previously used. These literature reports, which amount to but a fraction of the total bioabsorbable anchors implanted in the shoulder on a yearly basis, underscore the relative safety and successful clinical results with use of bioabsorbable suture anchors. Product development continues with newer composites such as PEEK (polyetheretherketone) and calcium ceramics (tricalcium phosphate) in an effort to hypothetically create a mechanically stable construct with and improve biocompatibility of the implant. Bioabsorbable anchors remain a safe, reproducible, and consistent implant to secure soft tissue to bone in and about the shoulder. Meticulous insertion technique must be followed in using bioabsorbable anchors and may obviate many of the reported complications found in the literature. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the existing literature as it relates to the rare complications seen with use of bioabsorbable

  7. Robotic Ankle for Omnidirectional Rock Anchors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew; Thatte, Nitish

    2013-01-01

    Future robotic exploration of near-Earth asteroids and the vertical and inverted rock walls of lava caves and cliff faces on Mars and other planetary bodies would require a method of gripping their rocky surfaces to allow mobility without gravitational assistance. In order to successfully navigate this terrain and drill for samples, the grippers must be able to produce anchoring forces in excess of 100 N. Additionally, the grippers must be able to support the inertial forces of a moving robot, as well gravitational forces for demonstrations on Earth. One possible solution would be to use microspine arrays to anchor to rock surfaces and provide the necessary load-bearing abilities for robotic exploration of asteroids. Microspine arrays comprise dozens of small steel hooks supported on individual suspensions. When these arrays are dragged along a rock surface, the steel hooks engage with asperities and holes on the surface. The suspensions allow for individual hooks to engage with asperities while the remaining hooks continue to drag along the surface. This ensures that the maximum possible number of hooks engage with the surface, thereby increasing the load-bearing abilities of the gripper. Using the microspine array grippers described above as the end-effectors of a robot would allow it to traverse terrain previously unreachable by traditional wheeled robots. Furthermore, microspine-gripping robots that can perch on cliffs or rocky walls could enable a new class of persistent surveillance devices for military applications. In order to interface these microspine grippers with a legged robot, an ankle is needed that can robotically actuate the gripper, as well as allow it to conform to the large-scale irregularities in the rock. The anchor serves three main purposes: deploy and release the anchor, conform to roughness or misalignment with the surface, and cancel out any moments about the anchor that could cause unintentional detachment. The ankle design contains a

  8. CSIR at INEX 2008 Link-the-Wiki Track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei; Liu, Dan; Fu, Zhenzhen

    In this paper, we describe methods taken by CSIR in the INEX 2008 Link-the-Wiki track. For the incoming link detection, we use p(d|t), the probability to generate a document, when given the topic file, to judge which documents are proper link sources for the given topic. For the file-to-file task of outgoing link detection, we take a two-step approach: first, we identify a group of candidate target documents by literally matching the topic file title and document content; then, candidate documents are ranked by the number of incoming links. For the anchor-to-BEP task, we use p(d|a,t), the probability to generate a document, when given the topic file and an anchor name, to select anchors and link targets for a given topic.

  9. Enhanced MRI T 2 Relaxivity in Contrast-Probed Anchor-Free PEGylated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, Bibek; Diaz-Diestra, Daysi; Beltran-Huarac, Juan; Weiner, Brad R.; Morell, Gerardo

    2017-04-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs, 11-nm cores) were PEGylated without anchoring groups and studied as efficient MRI T 2 contrast agents (CAs). The ether group of PEG is efficiently and directly linked to the positively charged surface of SPIONs, and mediated through a dipole-cation covalent interaction. Anchor-free PEG-SPIONs exhibit a spin-spin relaxivity of 123 ± 6 mM-1s-1, which is higher than those of PEG-SPIONs anchored with intermediate biomolecules, iron oxide nanoworms, or Feridex. They do not induce a toxic response for Fe concentrations below 2.5 mM, as tested on four different cell lines with and without an external magnetic field. Magnetic resonance phantom imaging studies show that anchor-free PEG-SPIONs produce a significant contrast in the range of 0.1-0.4 [Fe] mM. Our findings reveal that the PEG molecules attached to the cores immobilize water molecules in large regions of 85 nm, which would lead to blood half-life of a few tens of minutes. This piece of research represents a step forward in the development of next-generation CAs for nascent-stage cancer detection.

  10. Histologic and morphologic evaluation of explanted bone anchors from bone-anchored hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Mlynski, Robert; Goldberg, Eva; Ebmeyer, Joerg; Scheich, Matthias; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Schwager, Konrad; Hagen, Rudolf; Shehata-Dieler, Wafaa

    2009-05-01

    Bone-anchored hearing aids are a standard option in rehabilitation of patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss, and also CROS fitting. However, the skin-penetrating bone anchor repeatedly gives reason for discussion about the risk of infection of surrounding tissues as a major cause of malfunction. In the present study, explanted bone anchors with surrounding bone and soft tissue were examined and compared with the morphology of lost implants. The anchors originated from five patients. Two needed explantation due to deafness with the need of cochlea implantation. A third patient underwent explantation due to meningeal irritation by the bone anchor. Another patient lost the implant due to mechanical stress shortly after implantation. The last implant was lost in a child without apparent reason. All implants were clinically free of infection and had been stable for a median implantation period of 12 months. During the explantation procedure, the fixtures were recovered together with the attached soft tissue and bone. The specimens were examined by light microscopy or scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Sectioning for light microscopy was performed with a diamond-coated saw microtome. Histopathologic examination of the surrounding skin and subcutaneous soft tissue showed slight inflammation in one case only. The bone was regularly vital, presenting no signs of inflammation. The threads of the fixtures were filled with bone, with particularly strong attachment to the flank of traction. The SEM investigation exposed the ultrastructural interaction of bone with the implant surface. Filiform- and podocyte-like processes of osteocytes attach to the implant; lost implants did not reflect these features. Implant integration involves both osseointegration as well as soft tissue integration. Titanium oxide as the active implant surface promotes this integration even in unstable implants. The morphologic analysis exposed structural areas of the implant with weak bone

  11. Grave Markers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMuro, Ted

    1985-01-01

    Junior high school students studied the cultural uses, symbolic meanings, and general physical forms of tombs and tombstones and then used basic slab building techniques to construct large clay grave markers. (RM)

  12. Bone Markers

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the amino terminal end of the protein matrix; another marker used to monitor therapy. Deoxypyridinoline (DPD) – a collagen breakdown product with a ring structure. Pyridinium Crosslinks – a group of collagen breakdown products ...

  13. Use of monoclonal antibodies in an epidemiological marker system: a retrospective study of lung specimens from the 1976 outbreak of Legionnaires disease in Philadelphia by indirect fluorescent-antibody and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S L; Bibb, W F; McKinney, R M

    1985-01-01

    Autopsy specimens of lung tissues from 15 patients that contracted legionellosis during the 1976 Philadelphia outbreak of Legionnaires disease were examined for the presence of Legionella organisms and soluble antigens by indirect fluorescent-antibody (IFA) testing and by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. In all 15 cases, at least one specimen was positive for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp-1) antigens by a polyclonal antibody ELISA system. Of the 15 cases tested for Lp-1, 9 were positive by a polyclonal antibody IFA test. Nine mouse monoclonal antibodies to Lp-1 gave essentially the same reactivity pattern with extracts from lung tissue homogenates as that obtained with a Philadelphia 1 culture extract by using a monoclonal antibody ELISA system. The same monoclonal antibody panel gave similar results when used in the IFA system with tissue homogenates. Monoclonal antibodies can be used as epidemiological marker systems with both IFA and ELISA testing. This study provides evidence that the 1976 common source outbreak in Philadelphia was probably caused by a single Lp-1 strain. ELISA testing of the soluble antigen of Lp-1 from lung tissue homogenate supernatants was more sensitive than IFA testing of the homogenates and should be extremely useful as either a primary test or as an adjunct to fluorescent antibody testing for legionellosis. Images PMID:3881470

  14. Screening of IR50 x Rathu Heenati F7 RILs and identification of SSR markers linked to brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sanju; M Sheba, Jennifer; Marappan, Maheshwaran; Ponnuswamy, Shanmugasunderam; Seetharaman, Suresh; Pothi, Nagarajan; Subbarayalu, Mohankumar; Muthurajan, Raveendran; Natesan, Senthil

    2010-09-01

    Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) is one of the major insect pests of rice. A Sri Lankan indica rice cultivar Rathu Heenati was found to be resistant to all biotypes of the brown planthopper. In the present study, a total of 268 F(7) RILs of IR50 and Rathu Heenati were phenotyped for their level of resistance against BPH by the standard seedbox screening test (SSST) in the greenhouse. A total of 53 SSR primers mapped on the chromosome 3 were used to screen the polymorphism between the parents IR50 and Rathu Heenati, out of which eleven were found to be polymorphic between IR50 and Rathu Heenati. The eleven primers that have shown polymorphism between the IR50 and Rathu Heenati parents were genotyped in a set of five resistant RILs and five susceptible RILs along with the parents for co-segregation analysis. Among the eleven primers, two primers namely RM3180 (18.22 Mb) and RM2453 (20.19 Mb) showed complete co-segregation with resistance. The identification of SSR markers linked with BPH resistant could be used for the maker assisted selection (MAS) program in rice breeding and to map the resistant genes on rice chromosomes for further gene cloning.

  15. Index, comprehensive microsatellite, and unified linkage maps of human chromosome 14 with cytogenetic tie points and a telomere microsatellite marker

    SciTech Connect

    Pandit, S.D.; Wang, Jen C.; Veile, R.A.

    1995-10-10

    Three sets of linkage maps (index, comprehensive microsatellite, and unified) have been constructed for human chromosome 14 based on genotypes from the CEPH reference pedigrees. The index maps consist of 18 microsatellite markers, with heterozygosities of at least 68% and intermarker spacing no greater than 11 cM. The sex-average comprehensive microsatellite map is 125 cM in length and includes 115 markers with 54 loci uniquely placed with odds for marker order of at least 1000:1. The sex-average index map length is 121 cM, and the female- and male-specific maps are l43 and 101 cM, respectively. A unified map was also constructed from 147 loci (162 marker systems), which includes 32 RFLP markers in addition to the 115 microsatellites. The sex-average length of the unified map is 128 cM with 69 loci uniquely placed. Our maps are anchored by a microsatellite telomere marker sCAW1 (D14S826), developed from a telomere YAC clone TYAC196, which extends the linkage map to the physical terminus of the long arm of chromosome 14. Furthermore, we have also physically mapped seven of the loci by fluorscence in situ hybridization of cosmid clones or Alu-PCR products amplified from YACs containing the marker sequences. Together with previously established cytogenetic map designations for other loci, our maps display links between genetic markers for 10 of 13 cytogenetic bands of chromosome 14 at the 550 genome band resolution. 54 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Tail-anchored Protein Insertion in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Cardani, Silvia; Maroli, Annalisa; Vitiello, Adriana; Soffientini, Paolo; Crespi, Arianna; Bram, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    The GET (guided entry of tail-anchored proteins)/TRC (transmembrane recognition complex) pathway for tail-anchored protein targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been characterized in detail in yeast and is thought to function similarly in mammals, where the orthologue of the central ATPase, Get3, is known as TRC40 or Asna1. Get3/TRC40 function requires an ER receptor, which in yeast consists of the Get1/Get2 heterotetramer and in mammals of the WRB protein (tryptophan-rich basic protein), homologous to yeast Get1, in combination with CAML (calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand), which is not homologous to Get2. To better characterize the mammalian receptor, we investigated the role of endogenous WRB and CAML in tail-anchored protein insertion as well as their association, concentration, and stoichiometry in rat liver microsomes and cultured cells. Functional proteoliposomes, reconstituted from a microsomal detergent extract, lost their activity when made with an extract depleted of TRC40-associated proteins or of CAML itself, whereas in vitro synthesized CAML and WRB together were sufficient to confer insertion competence to liposomes. CAML was found to be in ∼5-fold excess over WRB, and alteration of this ratio did not inhibit insertion. Depletion of each subunit affected the levels of the other one; in the case of CAML silencing, this effect was attributable to destabilization of the WRB transcript and not of WRB protein itself. These results reveal unanticipated complexity in the mutual regulation of the TRC40 receptor subunits and raise the question as to the role of the excess CAML in the mammalian ER. PMID:27226539

  17. Comparative mapping and marker-assisted selection in Rosaceae fruit crops

    PubMed Central

    Dirlewanger, Elisabeth; Graziano, Enrique; Joobeur, Tarek; Garriga-Calderé, Francesc; Cosson, Patrick; Howad, Werner; Arús, Pere

    2004-01-01

    The development of saturated linkage maps using transferable markers, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, and micro-satellites has provided a foundation for fruit tree genetics and breeding. A Prunus reference map with 562 such markers is available, and a further set of 13 maps constructed with a subset of these markers has allowed genome comparison among seven Prunus diploid (x = 8) species (almond, peach, apricot, cherry, Prunus ferganensis, Prunus davidiana, and Prunus cerasifera); marker colinearity was the rule with all of them. Preliminary results of the comparison between apple and Prunus maps suggest a high level of synteny between these two genera. Conserved genomic regions have also been detected between Prunus and Arabidopsis. By using the data from different linkage maps anchored with the reference Prunus map, it has been possible to establish, in a general map, the position of 28 major genes affecting agronomic characters found in different species. Markers tightly linked to the major genes responsible for the expression of important traits (disease/pest resistances, fruit/nut quality, self-incompatibility, etc.) have been developed in apple and Prunus and are currently in use for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. Quantitative character dissection using linkage maps and candidate gene approaches has already started. Genomic tools such as the Prunus physical map, large EST collections in both Prunus and Malus, and the establishment of the map position of high numbers of ESTs are required for a better understanding of the Rosaceae genome and to foster additional research and applications on fruit tree genetics. PMID:15159547

  18. Comparative mapping and marker-assisted selection in Rosaceae fruit crops.

    PubMed

    Dirlewanger, Elisabeth; Graziano, Enrique; Joobeur, Tarek; Garriga-Calderé, Francesc; Cosson, Patrick; Howad, Werner; Arús, Pere

    2004-06-29

    The development of saturated linkage maps using transferable markers, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, and micro-satellites has provided a foundation for fruit tree genetics and breeding. A Prunus reference map with 562 such markers is available, and a further set of 13 maps constructed with a subset of these markers has allowed genome comparison among seven Prunus diploid (x = 8) species (almond, peach, apricot, cherry, Prunus ferganensis, Prunus davidiana, and Prunus cerasifera); marker colinearity was the rule with all of them. Preliminary results of the comparison between apple and Prunus maps suggest a high level of synteny between these two genera. Conserved genomic regions have also been detected between Prunus and Arabidopsis. By using the data from different linkage maps anchored with the reference Prunus map, it has been possible to establish, in a general map, the position of 28 major genes affecting agronomic characters found in different species. Markers tightly linked to the major genes responsible for the expression of important traits (disease/pest resistances, fruit/nut quality, self-incompatibility, etc.) have been developed in apple and Prunus and are currently in use for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. Quantitative character dissection using linkage maps and candidate gene approaches has already started. Genomic tools such as the Prunus physical map, large EST collections in both Prunus and Malus, and the establishment of the map position of high numbers of ESTs are required for a better understanding of the Rosaceae genome and to foster additional research and applications on fruit tree genetics.

  19. Anchor Toolkit - a secure mobile agent system

    SciTech Connect

    Mudumbai, Srilekha S.; Johnston, William; Essiari, Abdelilah

    1999-05-19

    Mobile agent technology facilitates intelligent operation insoftware systems with less human interaction. Major challenge todeployment of mobile agents include secure transmission of agents andpreventing unauthorized access to resources between interacting systems,as either hosts, or agents, or both can act maliciously. The Anchortoolkit, designed by LBNL, handles the transmission and secure managementof mobile agents in a heterogeneous distributed computing environment. Itprovides users with the option of incorporating their security managers.This paper concentrates on the architecture, features, access control anddeployment of Anchor toolkit. Application of this toolkit in a securedistributed CVS environment is discussed as a case study.

  20. Development of Y chromosome intraspecific polymorphic markers in the Felidae.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shu-Jin; Johnson, Warren E; David, Victor A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Stanyon, Roscoe; Cai, Qing Xiu; Beck, Thomas; Yuhki, Naoya; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Smith, James L D; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2007-01-01

    Y chromosome haplotyping based on microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has proved to be a powerful tool for population genetic studies of humans. However, the promise of the approach is hampered in the majority of nonhuman mammals by the lack of Y-specific polymorphic markers. We were able to identify new male-specific polymorphisms in the domestic cat Felis catus and 6 additional Felidae species with a combination of molecular genetic and cytogenetic approaches including 1) identifying domestic cat male-specific microsatellites from markers generated from a male cat microsatellite-enriched genomic library, a flow-sorted Y cosmid library, or a Y-specific cat bacteria artificial chromosome (BAC) clone, (2) constructing microsatellite-enriched libraries from flow-sorted Y chromosomes isolated directly from focal wildcat species, and (3) screening Y chromosome conserved anchored tagged sequences primers in Felidae species. Forty-one male-specific microsatellites were identified, but only 6 were single-copy loci, consistent with the repetitive nature of the Y chromosome. Nucleotide diversity (pi) of Y-linked intron sequences (2.1 kbp) was in the range of 0 (tiger) to 9.95 x 10(-4) (marbled cat), and the number of SNPs ranged from none in the tiger to 7 in the Asian leopard cat. The Y haplotyping system described here, consisting of 4 introns (SMCY3, SMCY7, UTY11, and DBY7) and 1 polymorphic microsatellite (SMCY-STR), represents the first available markers for tracking intraspecific male lineage polymorphisms in Felidae species and promises to provide significant insights to evolutionary and population genetic studies of the species.

  1. The association between glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits in lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, K R; Rudd, C E; Finberg, R W

    1996-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are nonmembrane spanning cell surface proteins that have been demonstrated to be signal transduction molecules. Because these proteins do not extend into the cytoplasm, the mechanism by which cross-linking of these molecules leads to intracellular signal transduction events is obscure. Previous analysis has indicated that these proteins are associated with src family member tyrosine kinases; however, the role this interaction plays in the generation of intracellular signals is not clear. Here we show that GPI-anchored proteins are associated with alpha subunits of heterotrimeric GTP binding proteins (G proteins) in both human and murine lymphocytes. When the GPI-anchored proteins CD59, CD48, and Thy-1 were immunoprecipitated from various cell lines or freshly isolated lymphocytes, all were found to be associated with a 41-kDa phosphoprotein that we have identified, by using specific antisera, as a mixture of tyrosine phosphorylated G protein alpha subunits: a small amount of Gialpha1, and substantial amounts of Gialpha2 and Gialpha3. GTP binding assays performed with immunoprecipitations of CD59 indicated that there was GTP-binding activity associated with this molecule. Thus, we have shown by both immunochemical and functional criteria that GPI-anchored proteins are physically associated with G proteins. These experiments suggest a potential role of G proteins in the transduction of signals generated by GPI-anchored molecules expressed on lymphocytes of both mouse and human. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8650218

  2. Engineered liquid crystal anchoring energies with nanopatterned surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gear, Christopher; Diest, Kenneth; Liberman, Vladimir; Rothschild, Mordechai

    2015-01-26

    The anchoring energy of liquid crystals was shown to be tunable by surface nanopatterning of periodic lines and spaces. Both the pitch and height were varied using hydrogen silsesquioxane negative tone electron beam resist, providing for flexibility in magnitude and spatial distribution of the anchoring energy. Using twisted nematic liquid crystal cells, it was shown that this energy is tunable over an order of magnitude. These results agree with a literature model which predicts the anchoring energy of sinusoidal grooves.

  3. Anchor-induced chondral damage in the hip.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Dean K; Bharam, Srino; White, Brian J; Matsuda, Nicole A; Safran, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the outcomes from anchor-induced chondral damage of the hip, both with and without frank chondral penetration. A multicenter retrospective case series was performed of patients with chondral deformation or penetration during initial hip arthroscopic surgery. Intra-operative findings, post-surgical clinical courses, hip outcome scores and descriptions of arthroscopic treatment in cases requiring revision surgery and anchor removal are reported. Five patients (three females) of mean age 32 years (range, 16-41 years) had documented anchor-induced chondral damage with mean 3.5 years (range, 1.5-6.0 years) follow-up. The 1 o'clock position (four cases) and anterior and mid-anterior portals (two cases each) were most commonly implicated. Two cases of anchor-induced acetabular chondral deformation without frank penetration had successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, while one case progressed from deformation to chondral penetration with clinical worsening. Of the cases that underwent revision hip arthroscopy, all three had confirmed exposed hard anchors which were removed. Two patients have had clinical improvement and one patient underwent early total hip arthroplasty. Anchor-induced chondral deformation without frank chondral penetration may be treated with close clinical and radiographic monitoring with a low threshold for revision surgery and anchor removal. Chondral penetration should be treated with immediate removal of offending hard anchor implants. Preventative measures include distal-based portals, small diameter and short anchors, removable hard anchors, soft suture-based anchors, curved drill and anchor insertion instrumentation and attention to safe trajectories while visualizing the acetabular articular surface.

  4. Nonrotating, self-centering anchor assembly for anchoring a bolt in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Bevan, John E.; King, Grant W.

    1998-01-01

    An expandable anchor assembly is provided for anchoring the threaded end portion of an elongated roof bolt in a borehole. The anchoring assembly includes a hollow outer sleeve in the form of a plurality of symmetrically arranged, longitudinal segmented wall portions with exterior gripping teeth and an inner expander sleeve in the form of a corresponding plurality of longitudinal wall portions symmetrically arranged about a central axis to define an inner threaded cylindrical section. The inner sleeve is captured within and moveable axially relative to the outer sleeve. As the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt is inserted into the inner threaded cylindrical section of the inner sleeve from the trailing end to the leading end thereof, the inner sleeve expands over and clamps around the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt. Thereafter, partial withdrawal of the elongated bolt from the borehole causes the inner sleeve to axially move relative to the outer sleeve from the leading end toward the trailing end of the outer sleeve in a wedging action to cause the outer sleeve to radially expand and force engagement of the gripping teeth against the sidewall of the borehole to thereby secure the expandable anchor assembly and therewith the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt within the borehole.

  5. Nonrotating, self-centering anchor assembly for anchoring a bolt in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Bevan, J.E.; King, G.W.

    1998-12-08

    An expandable anchor assembly is provided for anchoring the threaded end portion of an elongated roof bolt in a borehole. The anchoring assembly includes a hollow outer sleeve in the form of a plurality of symmetrically arranged, longitudinal segmented wall portions with exterior gripping teeth and an inner expander sleeve in the form of a corresponding plurality of longitudinal wall portions symmetrically arranged about a central axis to define an inner threaded cylindrical section. The inner sleeve is captured within and moveable axially relative to the outer sleeve. As the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt is inserted into the inner threaded cylindrical section of the inner sleeve from the trailing end to the leading end thereof, the inner sleeve expands over and clamps around the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt. Thereafter, partial withdrawal of the elongated bolt from the borehole causes the inner sleeve to axially move relative to the outer sleeve from the leading end toward the trailing end of the outer sleeve in a wedging action to cause the outer sleeve to radially expand and force engagement of the gripping teeth against the sidewall of the borehole to thereby secure the expandable anchor assembly and therewith the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt within the borehole. 8 figs.

  6. Nonrotating, self-centering anchor assembly for anchoring a bolt in a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Bevan, John E.; King, Grant W.

    1997-12-01

    An expandable anchor assembly is provided for anchoring the threaded end portion of an elongated roof bolt in a borehole. The anchoring assembly includes a hollow outer sleeve in the form of a plurality of symmetrically arranged, longitudinal segmented wall portions with exterior gripping teeth and an inner expander sleeve in the form of a corresponding plurality of longitudinal wall portions symmetrically arranged about a central axis to define an inner threaded cylindrical section. The inner sleeve is captured within and moveable axially relative to the outer sleeve. As the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt is inserted into the inner threaded cylindrical section of the inner sleeve from the trailing end to the leading end thereof, the inner sleeve expands over and clamps around the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt. Thereafter, partial withdrawal of the elongated bolt from the borehole causes the inner sleeve to axially move relative to the outer sleeve from the leading end toward the trailing end of the outer sleeve in a wedging action to cause the outer sleeve to radially expand and force engagement of the gripping teeth against the sidewall of the borehole to thereby secure the expandable anchor assembly and therewith the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt within the borehole.

  7. Prediction of bone mass in renal hyperparathyroidism by newly developed bone metabolic markers: evaluation of serum levels of carboxy-terminal pyridinoline cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen and carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, M; Fukunaga, M; Ohtawa, T; Harada, T

    1996-09-01

    Serum levels of the carboxy-terminal pyridinoline cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) and the carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP) were measured in 95 patients with renal hyperparathyroidism who had undergone a total parathyroidectomy and autotransplantation of a small portion of the resected gland. The results were compared with the serum levels of other bone metabolic markers and bone mineral densities in the distal radius (R-BMD) and lumbar vertebrae (L-BMD), which were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and converted to the percentage of the mean value of sex- and age-matched healthy controls. The preoperative mean values of ICTP and PICP were 142.4 ng/ml and 187.8 ng/ml, respectively. Although the serum levels of PICP levels exceeded the normal range in 42.1% of the patients, those of ICTP exceeded it in all of them. The serum levels of ICTP correlated positively not only with those of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP), total alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and osteocalcin but also negatively with the values of %R-BMD and %L-BMD and seemed to manifest specifically the disturbance of bone metabolism. On the other hand, the serum levels of PICP correlated with those of ALP and TRACP but not with values of %BMDs. After surgery, the serum levels of ICTP decreased gradually, but those of PICP increased immediately up to peak values at 7 days and then decreased gradually after 14 days, reaching the normal range at 3 months. These changes in the bone metabolic markers seemed to reflect the change in bone metabolism that was converting from bone resorption to bone formation. The percent change in the PICP/ICTP ratio at 7 days correlated significantly with the percent change in R-BMD at 12 months, and it was suggested that postoperative bone gain might be predicted using a combination of postoperative changes in PICP and ICTP.

  8. New Retrievable Coil Anchors: Preliminary In Vivo Experiences in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Konya, A. Wright, K.C.

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. To design and test retrievable coil anchors to improve the safety and efficacy of coil embolization. Methods. Fifty-two 0.038-inch homemade retrievable stainless steel coils were equipped with one of four different pre-shaped nitinol anchors and tested in 38 pigs. All coils with the anchor were completely retrieved and redeployed 3-18 times (median 7 times) prior to release. Types 1 and 2 anchored coils were acutely deployed in the external iliac arteries (n = 10 each), and chronically tested (1 week) in the common carotid arteries (n = 6 each). Larger type 1 (n = 4), type 3 (n = 6), and type 4 (n = 4) anchored coils were acutely deployed in the abdominal aorta. The largest type 1 anchors (n = 6) were acutely tested in the inferior vena cava. Results. All anchored coils were successfully retrieved and repositioned several times. All but two coils formed a compact plug and there was no coil migration except with two mechanically defective type 3 anchors. Conclusion. The use of retrievable anchors allowed the coils to be retrieved and repositioned, prevented coil migration, and enabled compact coil configuration.

  9. Infrastructure anchor bolt inspection program with NDE applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, Philip E.

    1996-11-01

    In 1990, Wisconsin Department of Transportation found a high mast light pole with two of six anchor bolts failed. This failure along with published reports from Michigan DOT about anchor bolt failures on cantilever sign structures, raised concern about the quality and condition of anchor bolts on the Wisconsin DOT system. Wisconsin Department of Transportation implemented an Anchor Bolt Inspection Program in 1990 for cantilever sign structures, high mast light towers, interstate light towers, and signal masts. The program requires an experienced inspection team and a practical inspection approach. Inspection preparation includes review of all background information such as design plans, design computations, construction plans, shop plans, and maintenance history. An inspection plan is developed. Special emphasis is placed on determining material type, cut or rolled threads, and type of coating for anchor bolts. Inspection emphasis are on "hands on" and Nondestructive evaluation. Special emphasis is placed on visual conditions of anchor bolts (cut or rolled threads, straightness, corrosion, nut tension etc.) along with ultrasonic inspection. This program places a strong emphasis on Non Destructive Testing (NDT), especially ultrasonic. Procedures and inspection calibrations are developed from similar anchor bolt geometry and material type. Cut notches are placed in the anchor bolts at locations of possible failure. NDT inspection calibrations are performed from these bolts. Report documentation includes all design plans, pictorial documentation of structural deficiencies, sketches, nondestructive evaluation reports, conclusions, and recommendations. This program has been successful in locating failed anchor bolts and critical cracks before failure of an entire structure.

  10. Venue Recommendation and Web Search Based on Anchor Text

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    experimented with the use of anchor text representations in the language modeling framework, and base our runs ei- ther on full ClueWeb12 or the subset of...anchor text representations in the language modeling framework, and base our runs ei- ther on full ClueWeb12 or the subset of touristic aggregators...ClueWeb12- full anchor text , and run our proposed model based on this dataset. This model is exactly the same as Model-Anchor, but based on the

  11. Smos Land Product Validation Activities at the Valencia Anchor Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto

    ABSTRACT Soil moisture is a key parameter controlling the exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere. In spite of being important for weather and climate modeling, this parameter is not well observed at a global scale. The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) Mission was designed by the European Space Agency (ESA) to measure soil moisture over continental surfaces as well as surface salinity over the oceans. Since 2001, the Valencia Anchor Station is currently being prepared for the validation of SMOS land products, namely soil moisture content and vegetation water content. The site has recently been selected by the Mission as a core validation site, mainly due to the reasonable homogeneous characteristics of the area which make it appropriate to undertake the validation of SMOS Level 2 land products during the Mission Commissioning Phase, before attempting more complex areas. Close to SMOS launch, ESA has defined and designed a SMOS V alidation Rehearsal C ampaign P lan which purpose is to repeat the Commissioning Phase execution with all centers, all tools, all participants, all structures, all data available, assuming all tools and structures are ready and trying to produce as close as possible the post-launch conditions. The aim is to test the readiness, the ensemble coordination and the speed of operations, and to avoid as far as possible any unexpected deficiencies of the plan and procedure during the real C ommissioning P hase campaigns. For the rehearsal activity, a control area of 10 x 10 km2 has been chosen at the Valencia Anchor Station study area where a network of ground soil moisture measuring stations is being set up based on the definition of homogeneous physio-hydrological units, attending to climatic, soil type, lithology, geology, elevation, slope and vegetation cover conditions. These stations are linked via a wireless communication system to a master post accessible via internet. The ground soil moisture stations will also be used

  12. End-anchored polymers in good solvents from the single chain limit to high anchoring densities.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Mark D; Grest, Gary S; Douglas, Jack F; Kent, Michael S; Suo, Tongchuan

    2016-11-07

    An increasing number of applications utilize grafted polymer layers to alter the interfacial properties of solid substrates, motivating refinement in our theoretical understanding of such layers. To assess existing theoretical models of them, we have investigated end-anchored polymer layers over a wide range of grafting densities, σ, ranging from a single chain to high anchoring density limits, chain lengths ranging over two orders of magnitude, for very good and marginally good solvent conditions. We compare Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations, numerical self-consistent field calculations, and experimental measurements of the average layer thickness, h, with renormalization group theory, the Alexander-de Gennes mushroom theory, and the classical brush theory. Our simulations clearly indicate that appreciable inter-chain interactions exist at all simulated areal anchoring densities so that there is no mushroom regime in which the layer thickness is independent of σ. Moreover, we find that there is no high coverage regime in which h follows the predicted scaling, h ∼ Nσ(1/3), for classical polymer brushes either. Given that no completely adequate analytic theory seems to exist that spans wide ranges of N and σ, we applied scaling arguments for h as a function of a suitably defined reduced anchoring density, defined in terms of the solution radius of gyration of the polymer chains and N. We find that such a scaling approach enables a smooth, unified description of h in very good solvents over the full range of anchoring density and chain lengths, although this type of data reduction does not apply to marginal solvent quality conditions.

  13. End-anchored polymers in good solvents from the single chain limit to high anchoring densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, Mark D.; Grest, Gary S.; Douglas, Jack F.; Kent, Michael S.; Suo, Tongchuan

    2016-11-01

    An increasing number of applications utilize grafted polymer layers to alter the interfacial properties of solid substrates, motivating refinement in our theoretical understanding of such layers. To assess existing theoretical models of them, we have investigated end-anchored polymer layers over a wide range of grafting densities, σ, ranging from a single chain to high anchoring density limits, chain lengths ranging over two orders of magnitude, for very good and marginally good solvent conditions. We compare Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations, numerical self-consistent field calculations, and experimental measurements of the average layer thickness, h, with renormalization group theory, the Alexander-de Gennes mushroom theory, and the classical brush theory. Our simulations clearly indicate that appreciable inter-chain interactions exist at all simulated areal anchoring densities so that there is no mushroom regime in which the layer thickness is independent of σ. Moreover, we find that there is no high coverage regime in which h follows the predicted scaling, h ˜ Nσ1/3, for classical polymer brushes either. Given that no completely adequate analytic theory seems to exist that spans wide ranges of N and σ, we applied scaling arguments for h as a function of a suitably defined reduced anchoring density, defined in terms of the solution radius of gyration of the polymer chains and N. We find that such a scaling approach enables a smooth, unified description of h in very good solvents over the full range of anchoring density and chain lengths, although this type of data reduction does not apply to marginal solvent quality conditions.

  14. Rigid rod anchored to infinite membrane.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kunkun; Qiu, Feng; Zhang, Hongdong; Yang, Yuliang

    2005-08-15

    We investigate the shape deformation of an infinite membrane anchored by a rigid rod. The density profile of the rod is calculated by the self-consistent-field theory and the shape of the membrane is predicted by the Helfrich membrane elasticity theory [W. Helfrich, Z. Naturforsch. 28c, 693 (1973)]. It is found that the membrane bends away from the rigid rod when the interaction between the rod and the membrane is repulsive or weakly attractive (adsorption). However, the pulled height of the membrane at first increases and then decreases with the increase of the adsorption strength. Compared to a Gaussian chain with the same length, the rigid rod covers much larger area of the membrane, whereas exerts less local entropic pressure on the membrane. An evident gap is found between the membrane and the rigid rod because the membrane's curvature has to be continuous. These behaviors are compared with that of the flexible-polymer-anchored membranes studied by previous Monte Carlo simulations and theoretical analysis. It is straightforward to extend this method to more complicated and real biological systems, such as infinite membrane/multiple chains, protein inclusion, or systems with phase separation.

  15. High-Throughput SNP Discovery through Deep Resequencing of a Reduced Representation Library to Anchor and Orient Scaffolds in the Soybean Whole Genome Sequence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The soybean Consensus Map 4.0 facilitated the anchoring of 95.6% of the soybean whole genome sequence developed by the Joint Genome Institute, Department of Energy but only properly oriented 66% of the sequence scaffolds. To find additional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for additiona...

  16. Minireview: Steroid/Nuclear Receptor-Regulated Dynamics of Occluding and Anchoring Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, Bhumika J.

    2014-01-01

    A diverse set of physiological signals control intercellular interactions by regulating the structure and function of occluding junctions (tight junctions) and anchoring junctions (adherens junctions and desmosomes). These plasma membrane junctions are comprised of multiprotein complexes of transmembrane and cytoplasmic peripheral plasma membrane proteins. Evidence from many hormone-responsive tissues has shown that expression, modification, molecular interactions, stability, and localization of junctional complex-associated proteins can be targeted by nuclear hormone receptors and their ligands through transcriptional and nontranscriptional mechanisms. The focus of this minireview is to discuss molecular, cellular, and physiological studies that directly link nuclear receptor- and ligand-triggered signaling pathways to the regulation of occluding and anchoring junction dynamics. PMID:25203673

  17. Endoplasmic reticulum targeting and insertion of tail-anchored membrane proteins by the GET pathway.

    PubMed

    Denic, Vladimir; Dötsch, Volker; Sinning, Irmgard

    2013-08-01

    Hundreds of eukaryotic membrane proteins are anchored to membranes by a single transmembrane domain at their carboxyl terminus. Many of these tail-anchored (TA) proteins are posttranslationally targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane for insertion by the guided-entry of TA protein insertion (GET) pathway. In recent years, most of the components of this conserved pathway have been biochemically and structurally characterized. Get3 is the pathway-targeting factor that uses nucleotide-linked conformational changes to mediate the delivery of TA proteins between the GET pretargeting machinery in the cytosol and the transmembrane pathway components in the ER. Here we focus on the mechanism of the yeast GET pathway and make a speculative analogy between its membrane insertion step and the ATPase-driven cycle of ABC transporters.

  18. Endoplasmic Reticulum Targeting and Insertion of Tail-Anchored Membrane Proteins by the GET Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Denic, Vladimir; Dötsch, Volker; Sinning, Irmgard

    2013-01-01

    Hundreds of eukaryotic membrane proteins are anchored to membranes by a single transmembrane domain at their carboxyl terminus. Many of these tail-anchored (TA) proteins are posttranslationally targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane for insertion by the guided-entry of TA protein insertion (GET) pathway. In recent years, most of the components of this conserved pathway have been biochemically and structurally characterized. Get3 is the pathway-targeting factor that uses nucleotide-linked conformational changes to mediate the delivery of TA proteins between the GET pretargeting machinery in the cytosol and the transmembrane pathway components in the ER. Here we focus on the mechanism of the yeast GET pathway and make a speculative analogy between its membrane insertion step and the ATPase-driven cycle of ABC transporters. PMID:23906715

  19. Preliminary feasibility study of sea-anchored stratospheric balloon for long duration flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akita, Daisuke

    Long duration flights are required for many scientific observations on stratospheric balloons. The flight duration of a super-pressure balloon is limited mainly by the flight distance due to limitations of the telemetry link, recovery possibility and national borders. A stratospheric super-pressure balloon which is anchored to the sea would have following ca-pabilities. 1) Long duration flight 2) Easy telemetry link to ground station 3) Wide launch window 4) Rapid gondola recovery 5) Fixed-point observation 6) Safety flight operation On the other hand, free-flying super-pressure balloons would be required to develop a flight trajectory control system for the long duration flight. Conventional quasi-static launch of a tethered bal-loon is difficult to ascent into the stratosphere through the jet stream. Because the dynamic pressure of the jet stream is significantly high for the balloon structure. The sea-anchored stratospheric balloon system consists of a long tether, a tether reel and a drag sail at the tether end. The flight sequence of the balloon is as follows. 1) Balloon launch with the reeled-in tether 2) Level flight at a designed altitude on the sea 3) Reel-out the tether with the drag sail 4) Sink the drag sail into the sea 5) Anchor the balloon by the drag sail 6) Observation 7) Cut the tether and terminate the flight The sea-anchored balloon does not require additional ground systems. The flight operation is same as normal balloon flights except for the reel-out and the cut of the tether. The sea-anchored balloon would have an appropriate altitude for its feasibility. The lower balloon altitude in the stratosphere results in significant increase of the dynamic pressure due to the jet stream, while the stress on the tether increases with increasing the balloon altitude by its own weight. In this study, the feasibility of the sea-anchored ballon is investigated in particular on the tether strength, balloon altitude and the system mass based on the present

  20. Genome fingerprinting by simple sequence repeat (SSR)-anchored polymerase chain reaction amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Zietkiewicz, E.; Labuda, D. ); Rafalski, A. )

    1994-03-15

    Simple sequence repeats (SSR), or microsatellites, are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes. Here the authors demonstrate the utility of microsatellite-directed DNA fingerprinting by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the interrepeat region. No sequencing is required to design the oligonucleotide primers. They tested primers anchored at 3[prime] or 5[prime] termini of the (A)[sub n] repeats, extended into the flanking sequence by 2 to 4 nucleotide residues [3[prime]-anchored primers: (CA)[sub 8]RG, (CA)[sub 8]RY, and (CA)[sub 7]RTCY; and 5[prime]-anchored primers: BDB(CA)[sub 7]C, DBDA(CA)[sub 7], VHVG(TG)[sub 7] and HVH(TG)[sub 7]T]. Radioactively labeled amplification products were analyzed by electrophoresis, revealing information on multiple genomic loci in a single gel lane. Complex, species-specific patterns were obtained from a variety of eukaryotic taxa. Intraspecies polymorphisms were also observed and shown to segregate as Mendelian markers. Inter-SSR PCR provides a novel fingerprinting approach applicable for taxonomic and phylogenetic comparisons and as a mapping tool in a wide range of organisms. This application of (CA)[sub n] repeats may be extended to different microsatellites and other common dispersed elements. 24 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Investigation of a MMP-2 Activity-Dependent Anchoring Probe for Nuclear Imaging of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Temma, Takashi; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Yonezawa, Aki; Kondo, Naoya; Sano, Kohei; Sakamoto, Takeharu; Seiki, Motoharu; Ono, Masahiro; Saji, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Since matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is an important marker of tumor malignancy, we developed an original drug design strategy, MMP-2 activity dependent anchoring probes (MDAP), for use in MMP-2 activity imaging, and evaluated the usefulness of this probe in in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods We designed and synthesized MDAP1000, MDAP3000, and MDAP5000, which consist of 4 independent moieties: RI unit (111In hydrophilic chelate), MMP-2 substrate unit (short peptide), anchoring unit (alkyl chain), and anchoring inhibition unit (polyethylene glycol (PEGn; where n represents the approximate molecular weight, n = 1000, 3000, and 5000). Probe cleavage was evaluated by chromatography after MMP-2 treatment. Cellular uptake of the probes was then measured. Radioactivity accumulation in tumor xenografts was evaluated after intravenous injection of the probes, and probe cleavage was evaluated in tumor homogenates. Results MDAP1000, MDAP3000, and MDAP5000 were cleaved by MMP-2 in a concentration-dependent manner. MDAP3000 pretreated with MMP-2 showed higher accumulation in tumor cells, and was completely blocked by additional treatment with an MMP inhibitor. MDAP3000 exhibited rapid blood clearance and a high tumor accumulation after intravenous injection in a rodent model. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that MDAP3000 exhibited a considerably slow washout rate from tumors to blood. A certain fraction of cleaved MDAP3000 existed in tumor xenografts in vivo. Conclusions The results indicate the possible usefulness of our MDAP strategy for tumor imaging. PMID:25010662

  2. Developmnent of molecular markers for powdery mildew resistance in grapevines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Molecular markers have been used as a tool for plant breeding for two decades. Markers linked to disease resistance can be used to pyramid resistance genes for improved durability and to improve the efficiency of evaluation. To develop molecular markers linked to resistance to grape powdery mildew ...

  3. Adapting Roof Support Methods for Anchoring Satellites on Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speer, Grant B.

    The use of anchorage in satellite and spacecraft design has been largely restricted to harpoon-inspired technology based on anticipated low strengths of cometary and asteroid material. Initial results from the Rosetta mission to comet 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko, however, have demonstrated both larger-than-expected compressive strengths of cometary materials and the importance of adequate anchorage to mitigate the risk of mission failure. The field of rock mechanics can provide unique insight into the design of these satellite and lander anchors by drawing on existing roof bolt technology. This study compared the behavior of tensioned point anchor and untensioned fully-grouted roof bolts with a polyurethane-anchored bolt under environmental conditions similar to those anticipated in space. These conditions include variation in possible material types as well as variations in regolith properties, anchorage length, and low operating temperatures. Using a Box-Behnken experimental design, this study first compared the effects of anchor depth and rock strength on each of the three anchorage types in a competent rock strength regime. The study then examined the effects of compaction, water content, and temperature on each anchor type in a regolith environment. The subsequent data analysis identified one anchor type as the overall best anchor for these environments. This finding has led to a preliminary design recommendation to advise space agencies on satellite anchor construction based on the target orbital body's anticipated environmental and "exogeologic" conditions.

  4. Using Anchored Instruction to Evaluate Mathematical Growth and Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Terri L.; Batarelo, Ivana

    2005-01-01

    Anchored instruction is designed to present problems in a meaningful context to allow for investigations into real life environments. The Jasper Project was created to allow students to investigate mathematical dilemmas using anchored instruction techniques. This study uses case study methods to examine the perceptions that preservice teachers…

  5. 24 CFR 3285.402 - Ground anchor installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285... anchoring. Manufactured homes must also be stabilized against wind in the longitudinal direction in all Wind Zones. Manufactured homes located in Wind Zones II and III must have longitudinal ground anchors...

  6. Retention of internal anchor tags by juvenile striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Den Avyle, M.J.; Wallin, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    We marked hatchery-reared striped bass Morone saxatilis (145-265 mm total length) with internal anchor tags and monitored retention for 28 months after stocking in the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina. Anchor tags (with an 18-mm, T-shaped anchor and 42-mm streamer) were surgically implanted ventrally, and coded wire tags (1 mm long and 0.25 mm in diameter) were placed into the cheek muscle to help identify subsequent recaptures. The estimated probability of retention (SD) of anchor tags was 0.94 (0.05) at 4 months, 0.64 (0.13) at 16 months, and 0.33 (0.19) at 28 months. Of 10 fish recaptured with only coded wire tags, 5 showed an externally visible wound or scar near the point of anchor tag insertion. The incidence of wounds or scars, which we interpreted as evidence of tag shedding, increased to 50% in recaptures taken at 28 months (three of six fish). Our estimates for retention of anchor tags were generally lower than those in other studies of striped bass, possibly because of differences in the style of anchor or sizes of fish used. Because of its low rate of retention, the type of anchor tag we used may not be suitable for long-term assessments of stock enhancement programs that use striped bass of the sizes we evaluated.

  7. 30 CFR 56.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 56.9311 Section 56.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 56.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing devices...

  8. 107. View showing open caisson Pier 4 with anchor bolts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. View showing open caisson Pier 4 with anchor bolts placed ready for last pour of concrete. Also pile driver driving falsework piles for south anchor arm. Located at end of the old ferry landing slip at Crockett side of straits. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  9. 49 CFR 178.337-13 - Supporting and anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supporting and anchoring. 178.337-13 Section 178.337-13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-13 Supporting and anchoring. (a) A cargo...

  10. 30 CFR 56.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 56.9311 Section 56.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 56.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing devices...

  11. 49 CFR 178.337-13 - Supporting and anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Supporting and anchoring. 178.337-13 Section 178.337-13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-13 Supporting and anchoring. (a) A cargo...

  12. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 57.9311 Section 57.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 57.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing devices...

  13. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 57.9311 Section 57.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 57.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing devices...

  14. 49 CFR 178.345-6 - Supports and anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Supports and anchoring. 178.345-6 Section 178.345-6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-6 Supports and anchoring. (a) A cargo...

  15. 30 CFR 56.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 56.9311 Section 56.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 56.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing devices...

  16. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 57.9311 Section 57.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 57.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing devices...

  17. Anchoring on Self and Others During Social Inferences.

    PubMed

    Willard, Daniel F X; Markman, Arthur B

    2017-07-01

    When making inferences about similar others, people anchor and adjust away from themselves (Tamir & Mitchell, 2013). However, research on relational self theory (Andersen & Chen, 2002) suggests the possibility of using knowledge about others as an anchor when they are more similar to a target. We investigated whether social inferences are made on the basis of significant other knowledge through an anchoring and adjustment process, and whether anchoring on a significant other is more effortful than anchoring on the self. Participants answered questions about their likes and habits, as well as the likes and habits of a significant other, a target similar to their significant other, and a yoked control. We found that prediction differences between the significant other and similar target led to longer response times, and we found the opposite effect for self and target differences, suggesting anchoring and adjustment from the significant other rather than the self. These effects were moderated by the source-relative salience of the dimension being evaluated. The evidence was mixed with respect to the question of whether anchoring on a significant other is more effortful than anchoring on the self. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 57.9311 Section 57.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 57.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing devices...

  19. 49 CFR 178.345-6 - Supports and anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Supports and anchoring. 178.345-6 Section 178.345-6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-6 Supports and anchoring. (a) A cargo...

  20. 49 CFR 178.337-13 - Supporting and anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Supporting and anchoring. 178.337-13 Section 178.337-13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-13 Supporting and anchoring. (a) A cargo...

  1. 49 CFR 178.337-13 - Supporting and anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Supporting and anchoring. 178.337-13 Section 178.337-13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-13 Supporting and anchoring. (a) A cargo...

  2. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 57.9311 Section 57.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 57.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing devices...

  3. 30 CFR 56.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 56.9311 Section 56.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 56.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing devices...

  4. 30 CFR 56.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 56.9311 Section 56.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 56.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing devices...

  5. Software Note: Using BILOG for Fixed-Anchor Item Calibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMars, Christine E.; Jurich, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The nonequivalent groups anchor test (NEAT) design is often used to scale item parameters from two different test forms. A subset of items, called the anchor items or common items, are administered as part of both test forms. These items are used to adjust the item calibrations for any differences in the ability distributions of the groups taking…

  6. The Critical Role of Anchor Paper Selection in Writing Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn Popp, Sharon E.; Ryan, Joseph M.; Thompson, Marilyn S.

    2009-01-01

    Scoring rubrics are routinely used to evaluate the quality of writing samples produced for writing performance assessments, with anchor papers chosen to represent score points defined in the rubric. Although the careful selection of anchor papers is associated with best practices for scoring, little research has been conducted on the role of…

  7. Understanding Rasch Measurement: Partial Credit Model and Pivot Anchoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bode, Rita K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Rasch measurement partial credit model, what it is, how it differs from other Rasch models, and when and how to use it. Also describes the calibration of instruments with increasingly complex items. Explains pivot anchoring and illustrates its use and describes the effect of pivot anchoring on step calibrations, item hierarchy, and…

  8. Using Anchored Instruction to Evaluate Mathematical Growth and Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Terri L.; Batarelo, Ivana

    2005-01-01

    Anchored instruction is designed to present problems in a meaningful context to allow for investigations into real life environments. The Jasper Project was created to allow students to investigate mathematical dilemmas using anchored instruction techniques. This study uses case study methods to examine the perceptions that preservice teachers…

  9. 33 CFR 401.14 - Anchor marking buoys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchor marking buoys. 401.14 Section 401.14 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.14 Anchor...

  10. Electrically insulated MLI and thermal anchor

    SciTech Connect

    Kamiya, Koji; Furukawa, Masato; Murakami, Haruyuki; Kizu, Kaname; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Koidea, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Hatakenaka, Ryuta; Miyakita, Takeshi

    2014-01-29

    The thermal shield of JT-60SA is kept at 80 K and will use the multilayer insulation (MLI) to reduce radiation heat load to the superconducting coils at 4.4 K from the cryostat at 300 K. Due to plasma pulse operation, the MLI is affected by eddy current in toroidal direction. The MLI is designed to suppress the current by electrically insulating every 20 degree in the toroidal direction by covering the MLI with polyimide films. In this paper, two kinds of designs for the MLI system are proposed, focusing on a way to overlap the layers. A boil-off calorimeter method and temperature measurement has been performed to determine the thermal performance of the MLI system. The design of the electrical insulated thermal anchor between the toroidal field (TF) coil and the thermal shield is also explained.

  11. Anchoring submersible ultrasonic receivers in river channels with stable substrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, Phillip William; Scholten, G.D.; Hubbs, D.

    2010-01-01

    We developed an anchoring system for submersible ultrasonic receivers (SURs) that we placed on the bottom of the riverine reaches of three main-stem reservoirs in the upper Tennessee River. Each anchor consisted of a steel tube (8.9 x 35.6 cm) welded vertically to a round plate of steel (5.1 x 40.6 cm). All seven SURs and their 57-kg anchors were successfully deployed and retrieved three times over 547 d by a dive team employing surface air-breathing equipment and a davit-equipped boat. All of the anchors and their SURs remained stationary over two consecutive winters on the hard-bottom, thalweg sites where they were deployed. The SUR and its anchor at the most downriver site experienced flows that exceeded 2,100 m(3)/s and mean water column velocities of about 0.9 m/s.

  12. Molecular Investigations into the Mechanics of a Muscle Anchoring Complex

    PubMed Central

    Bodmer, Nicholas K.; Theisen, Kelly E.; Dima, Ruxandra I.

    2015-01-01

    The titin-telethonin complex, essential for anchoring filaments in the Z-disk of the sarcomere, is composed of immunoglobulin domains. Surprisingly, atomic force microscopy experiments showed that it resists forces much higher than the typical immunoglobulin domain and that the force distribution is unusually broad. To investigate the origin of this behavior, we developed a multiscale simulation approach, combining minimalist and atomistic models (SOP-AT). By following the mechanical response of the complex on experimental timescales, we found that the mechanical stability of titin-telethonin is modulated primarily by the strength of contacts between telethonin and the two titin chains, and secondarily by the timescales of conformational excursions inside telethonin and the pulled titin domains. Importantly, the conformational transitions executed by telethonin in simulations support its proposed role in mechanosensing. Our SOP-AT computational approach thus provides a powerful tool for the exploration of the link between conformational diversity and the broadness of the mechanical response, which can be applied to other multidomain complexes. PMID:25954889

  13. Effects of accuracy motivation and anchoring on metacomprehension judgment and accuracy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qin

    2012-01-01

    The current research investigates how accuracy motivation impacts anchoring and adjustment in metacomprehension judgment and how accuracy motivation and anchoring affect metacomprehension accuracy. Participants were randomly assigned to one of six conditions produced by the between-subjects factorial design involving accuracy motivation (incentive or no) and peer performance anchor (95%, 55%, or no). Two studies showed that accuracy motivation did not impact anchoring bias, but the adjustment-from-anchor process occurred. Accuracy incentive increased anchor-judgment gap for the 95% anchor but not for the 55% anchor, which induced less certainty about the direction of adjustment. The findings offer support to the integrative theory of anchoring. Additionally, the two studies revealed a "power struggle" between accuracy motivation and anchoring in influencing metacomprehension accuracy. Accuracy motivation could improve metacomprehension accuracy in spite of anchoring effect, but if anchoring effect is too strong, it could overpower the motivation effect. The implications of the findings were discussed.

  14. An anchored framework BAC map of mouse chromosome 11 assembled using multiplex oligonucleotide hybridization.

    PubMed

    Cai, W W; Reneker, J; Chow, C W; Vaishnav, M; Bradley, A

    1998-12-15

    Despite abundant library resources for many organisms, physical mapping of these organisms has been seriously limited due to lack of efficient library screening techniques. We have developed a highly efficient strategy for large-scale screening of genomic libraries based on multiplex oligonucleotide hybridization on high-density genomic filters. We have applied this strategy to generate a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) anchored map of mouse chromosome 11. Using the MIT mouse SSLP data, 320 pairs of oligonucleotide probes were designed with an "overgo" computer program that selects new primer sequences that avoid the microsatellite repeat. BACs identified by these probes are automatically anchored to the chromosome. Ninety-two percent of the probes identified positive clones from a 5.9-fold coverage mouse BAC library with an average of 7 positive clones per marker. An average of 4.2 clones was confirmed for 204 markers by PCR. Our data show that a large number of clones can be efficiently isolated from a large genomic library using this strategy with minimal effort. This strategy will have wide application for large-scale mapping and sequencing of human and other large genomes.

  15. Small-Sample Equating Using a Synthetic Linking Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sooyeon; von Davier, Alina A.; Haberman, Shelby

    2008-01-01

    This study addressed the sampling error and linking bias that occur with small samples in a nonequivalent groups anchor test design. We proposed a linking method called the synthetic function, which is a weighted average of the identity function and a traditional equating function (in this case, the chained linear equating function). Specifically,…

  16. Constructive and problem-based learning using blended learning anchored instruction approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M.

    2012-04-01

    Based on an anchored instruction approach, an enriched blended learning lecture course ("Introduction into GNSS positioning") was established in order to enable constructive and problem-based learning. The lecture course "Introduction into GNSS positioning" is a compulsory part of the Bachelor study course "Geodesy and Geoinformatics" and also a supplementary module of the Bachelor study course "Geophysics". Within the lecture course, basic knowledge and basic principles of Global Navigation Satellite Systems, like GPS, are imparted. The presented higher education technique "anchored instruction" uses a real and up-to-date and therefore authentic scientific paper dealing with a recent large-scale geodetic project (Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link) in order to introduce the topic of GNSS-based positioning to the students. In the beginning of the semester, the students have to read the paper individually and carefully. This enables them to realize a lot of not-known GNSS-related facts. Therefore, questions can be formulated focusing on new, unclear or not-understood aspects of the paper. The lecture course deals with these questions, in order to answer them throughout the semester. During the lecture course this paper is referred, e.g., in the middle of the semester, the paper has to be read again in order to check which questions have been answered; in addition, new question arise. At the end of the lecture course, the author of the scientific paper gave a concluding lecture. The framing anchor technique enables the students to anchor their GNSS knowledge. The presented case study uses a teaching resp. learning setting consisting of classroom lectures (given by teachers and learners), practical trainings (e.g., field exercises, students select topics individually), and online lectures (learning management system ILIAS is used as data, result, and asynchronous communication platform). The implementation and the elements of the anchoring technique, which enables student

  17. Phospholipase C from two bacterial strains acts differently on pure phospholipids and membrane bound glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Arshi; Hutchinson, Tarun E; Pereira, Ben M J

    2005-04-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) was purified to homogeneity from the culture filtrate of Bacillus cereus (65-fold, 540 U/mg protein) and B. thuringiensis (76-fold, 306 U/mg protein) by conventional techniques of enzyme purification. The purified enzymes have the molecular mass of 34 kDa and 38 kDa respectively, as determined by SDS-PAGE. Both the PLCs exhibited identical sensitivity to pH, temperature, cations, anions and inhibitors like glutathione and p-chloromercuribenzoate. PLC-Bc showed a preference for phosphatidylinositol, while PLC-Bt favoured phosphatidylcholine as the substrate. Although both the enzymes were able to hydrolyze pure phosphatidylinositol, distinct differences were observed in their activity on phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins. PLC-Bc cleaved and released alkaline phosphatase, a GPI-anchored marker enzyme from microsomal membranes to a greater extent, than PLC-Bt. Experiments with sperm membranes, followed by SDS-PAGE revealed that the pattern of proteins released from their GPI-anchors by PLC-Bc and PLC-Bt were dissimilar. Although some proteins were cleaved in common by both PLCs, some others including a prominent 57 kDa protein were resistant to PLC-Bt, but sensitive to cleavage by PLC-Bc. The type of modification in the GPI anchor, special environment on membranes, and relative charge of host plasma membrane to the charge of PLC may be the factors that are responsible for the differential action of two enzymes.

  18. Male meiotic cytokinesis requires ceramide synthase 3-dependent sphingolipids with unique membrane anchors.

    PubMed

    Rabionet, Mariona; Bayerle, Aline; Jennemann, Richard; Heid, Hans; Fuchser, Jens; Marsching, Christian; Porubsky, Stefan; Bolenz, Christian; Guillou, Florian; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Gorgas, Karin; Sandhoff, Roger

    2015-09-01

    Somatic cell cytokinesis was shown to involve the insertion of sphingolipids (SLs) to midbodies prior to abscission. Spermatogenic midbodies transform into stable intercellular bridges (ICBs) connecting clonal daughter cells in a syncytium. This process requires specialized SL structures. (1) Using high resolution-mass spectrometric imaging, we show in situ a biphasic pattern of SL synthesis with testis-specific anchors. This pattern correlates with and depends on ceramide synthase 3 (CerS3) localization in both, pachytene spermatocytes until completion of meiosis and elongating spermatids. (2) Blocking the pathways to germ cell-specific ceramides (CerS3-KO) and further to glycosphingolipids (glucosylceramide synthase-KO) in mice highlights the need for special SLs for spermatid ICB stability. In contrast to somatic mitosis these SLs require ultra-long polyunsaturated anchors with unique physico-chemical properties, which can only be provided by CerS3. Loss of these anchors causes enhanced apoptosis during meiosis, formation of multinuclear giant cells and spermatogenic arrest. Hence, testis-specific SLs, which we also link to CerS3 in human testis, are quintessential for male fertility. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Anchoring Groups for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lei; Cole, Jacqueline M.

    2015-02-18

    The dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) require one or more chemical substituents that can act as an anchor, enabling their adsorption onto a metal oxide substrate. This adsorption provides a means for electron injection, which is the process that initiates the electrical circuit in a DSSC. Understanding the structure of various DSSC anchors and the search for new anchors are critical factors for the development of improved DSSCs. Traditionally, carboxylic acid and cyanoacrylic acid groupsare employed as dye anchors in DSSCs. In recent years, novel anchor groups have emerged, which make a larger pool of materials available for DSSC dyes, and their associated physical and chemical characteristics offer interesting effects at the interface between dye and metal oxide. This review focuses especially on the structural aspects of these novel dye anchors for TiO2-based DSSCs, including pyridine, phosphonic acid, tetracyanate, perylene dicarboxylic acid anhydride, 2-hydroxylbenzonitrile, 8-hydroxylquinoline, pyridine-N-oxide, hydroxylpyridium, catechol, hydroxamate, sulfonic acid, acetylacetanate, boronic acid, nitro, tetrazole, rhodanine, and salicylic acid substituents. We anticipate that further exploration and understanding of these new types of anchoring groups for TiO2 substrates will not only contribute to the development of advanced DSSCs, but also of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, water splitting systems, and other self-assembled monolayer-based technologies.

  20. A magnetically actuated anchoring system for a wireless endoscopic capsule.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Alici, Gursel; Munoz, Fredy

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we propose a new magnetically actuated anchoring system for wireless capsule endoscopes (WCE) by employing the principle of a switchable magnetic spring. A force model is derived to predict the magnetic force needed to support the interaction between the anchors and the intestinal lumen. The theoretical and experimental analysis conducted shows that the magnetic spring is capable of providing the force needed to activate the anchoring mechanism, which consists of four foldable legs. A prototype capsule with a size comparable with the size of a commercial WCE was designed, fabricated, and tested. The in-vitro tests with a real small intestine show that the proposed anchoring mechanism is able to raise the friction force between the anchoring legs and inner wall of the intestine by more than two times after its activation using an external magnetic field. Experimental results presented demonstrate that the proposed anchoring system, which has a low foot-print not taking up too much space on the capsule, can provide a reliable anchoring capability with the capsule inside the intestinal lumen.

  1. Anchorage Behaviors of Frictional Tieback Anchors in Silty Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Shih-Tsung; Hsiao, Wen-Ta; Chen, Ke-Ting; Hu, Wen-Chi; Wu, Ssu-Yi

    2017-06-01

    Soil anchors are extensively used in geotechnical applications, most commonly serve as tieback walls in deep excavations. To investigate the anchorage mechanisms of this tieback anchor, a constitutive model that considers both strain hardening and softening and volume dilatancy entitled SHASOVOD model, and FLAC3D software are used to perform 3-D numerical analyses. The results from field anchor tests are compared with those calculated by numerical analyses to enhance the applicability of the numerical method. After the calibration, this research carried out the parameter studies by numerical analyses. The numerical results reveal that whether the yield of soil around an anchor develops to ground surface and/or touches the diaphragm wall depending on the overburden depth H and the embedded depth Z of an anchor, this study suggests the minimum overburden and embedded depths to avoid the yield of soils develop to ground surface and/or touch the diaphragm wall. When the embedded depth, overburden depth or fixed length of an anchor increases, the anchorage capacity also increases. Increasing fixed length should be the optimum method to increase the anchorage capacity for fixed length less than 20m. However, when the fixed length of an anchor exceeds 30 m, the increasing rate of anchorage capacity per fixed length decreases, and progressive yield occurs obviously between the fixed length and surrounding soil.

  2. Anchoring groups for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Cole, Jacqueline M

    2015-02-18

    The dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) require one or more chemical substituents that can act as an anchor, enabling their adsorption onto a metal oxide substrate. This adsorption provides a means for electron injection, which is the process that initiates the electrical circuit in a DSSC. Understanding the structure of various DSSC anchors and the search for new anchors are critical factors for the development of improved DSSCs. Traditionally, carboxylic acid and cyanoacrylic acid groups are employed as dye anchors in DSSCs. In recent years, novel anchor groups have emerged, which make a larger pool of materials available for DSSC dyes, and their associated physical and chemical characteristics offer interesting effects at the interface between dye and metal oxide. This review focuses especially on the structural aspects of these novel dye anchors for TiO2-based DSSCs, including pyridine, phosphonic acid, tetracyanate, perylene dicarboxylic acid anhydride, 2-hydroxylbenzonitrile, 8-hydroxylquinoline, pyridine-N-oxide, hydroxylpyridium, catechol, hydroxamate, sulfonic acid, acetylacetanate, boronic acid, nitro, tetrazole, rhodanine, and salicylic acid substituents. We anticipate that further exploration and understanding of these new types of anchoring groups for TiO2 substrates will not only contribute to the development of advanced DSSCs, but also of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, water splitting systems, and other self-assembled monolayer-based technologies.

  3. Quantifying Heuristic Bias: Anchoring, Availability, and Representativeness.

    PubMed

    Richie, Megan; Josephson, S Andrew

    2017-07-28

    Construct: Authors examined whether a new vignette-based instrument could isolate and quantify heuristic bias. Heuristics are cognitive shortcuts that may introduce bias and contribute to error. There is no standardized instrument available to quantify heuristic bias in clinical decision making, limiting future study of educational interventions designed to improve calibration of medical decisions. This study presents validity data to support a vignette-based instrument quantifying bias due to the anchoring, availability, and representativeness heuristics. Participants completed questionnaires requiring assignment of probabilities to potential outcomes of medical and nonmedical scenarios. The instrument randomly presented scenarios in one of two versions: Version A, encouraging heuristic bias, and Version B, worded neutrally. The primary outcome was the difference in probability judgments for Version A versus Version B scenario options. Of 167 participants recruited, 139 enrolled. Participants assigned significantly higher mean probability values to Version A scenario options (M = 9.56, SD = 3.75) than Version B (M = 8.98, SD = 3.76), t(1801) = 3.27, p = .001. This result remained significant analyzing medical scenarios alone (Version A, M = 9.41, SD = 3.92; Version B, M = 8.86, SD = 4.09), t(1204) = 2.36, p = .02. Analyzing medical scenarios by heuristic revealed a significant difference between Version A and B for availability (Version A, M = 6.52, SD = 3.32; Version B, M = 5.52, SD = 3.05), t(404) = 3.04, p = .003, and representativeness (Version A, M = 11.45, SD = 3.12; Version B, M = 10.67, SD = 3.71), t(396) = 2.28, p = .02, but not anchoring. Stratifying by training level, students maintained a significant difference between Version A and B medical scenarios (Version A, M = 9.83, SD = 3.75; Version B, M = 9.00, SD = 3.98), t(465) = 2.29, p = .02, but not residents or attendings. Stratifying by heuristic and training level, availability maintained

  4. Anchored multi-DOF MEMS gyroscope having robust drive mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Payal; Khonina, S. N.; Pavelyev, V. S.; Fomchenkov, S. A.; Uma, B. V.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the new architecture of 2-DOF (degree-of-freedom) drive mode and 1-DOF sense mode gyroscope with the concept of additional anchoring that retains all the advantages of the Dynamic Vibration Absorber (DVA) concept while being operated at high frequencies. These concepts allow reduction of the bandwidth by varying the coupling parameter during the design, thereby increasing the mechanical sensitivity. In the present design, the anchoring concept has been implemented by adding a central anchor for the sense mass. The steady state response and design concept have been devised using analytical modeling.

  5. Material Testing for Robotic Omnidirectional Anchor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witkoe, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    To successfully explore near-Earth Asteroids the question of mobility emerges as the key issue for any robotic mission. When small bodies have extremely low escape velocities, traditional methods, such as wheels, would send the robot hurtling off of the asteroid's surface. To solve this problem, JPL has developed an omni-directional anchoring mechanism for use in microgravity that utilizes microspine technology. These microspines are placed in circular arrays with 16 independent carriages biasing the surface of the rock. The asperities in the surface allow the gripper to hold nearly 150N in all directions. While the gripper has been proven successful on consolidated rocks, it had yet to be tested on a variety of other surfaces that are suspected to separate the large boulders on an asteroid. Since asteroid surfaces vary widely, from friable rocks to lose ponds of regolith, the gripper was tested in a large variety of materials such as, bonded pumice, sand, gravel, and loose rocks. The forces are applied tangent, at 45 degrees, and normal to the surface of the material. The immediate results from this experiment will give insight into the gripper's effectiveness across the wide spectrum of materials found on asteroids.

  6. Protein prenyltransferases: anchor size, pseudogenes and parasites.

    PubMed

    Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Washietl, Stefan; Eisenhaber, Frank

    2003-07-01

    Lipid modification of eukaryotic proteins by protein prenyltransferases is required for critical signaling pathways, cell cycle progression, cytoskeleton remodeling, induction of apoptosis and vesicular trafficking. This review analyzes the influence of distinct states of sequential posttranslational processing that can be obtained after single or double prenylation, reversible palmitoylation, proteolytic cleavage of the C-terminus and possible reversible carboxymethylation. This series of modifications, as well as the exact length of the prenyl anchor, are determinants in protein-membrane and specific protein-protein interactions of protein prenyltransferase substrates. Furthermore, the occurrence and distribution of pseudogenes of protein prenyltransferase subunits are discussed. Besides being developed as anti-cancer agents, prenyltransferase inhibitors are effective against an increasing number of parasitic diseases. Extensive screens for protein prenyltransferases in genomic data of fungal and protozoan pathogens unveil a series of new pharmacologic targets for prenyltransferase inhibition, including the parasites Brugia malayi, Onchocerca volvulus, Aspergillus nidulans, Pneumocystis carinii, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichinella spiralis and Cryptosporidium parvum.

  7. Ideals as Anchors for Relationship Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Margaret; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Research on young-adult sexuality in sub-Saharan Africa typically conceptualizes sex as an individual-level risk behavior. We introduce a new approach that connects the conditions surrounding the initiation of sex with subsequent relationship well-being, examines relationships as sequences of interdependent events, and indexes relationship experiences to individually held ideals. New card-sort data from southern Malawi capture young women’s relationship experiences and their ideals in a sequential framework. Using optimal matching, we measure the distance between ideal and experienced relationship sequences to (1) assess the associations between ideological congruence and perceived relationship well-being, (2) compare this ideal-based approach to other experience-based alternatives, and (3) identify individual- and couple-level correlates of congruence between ideals and experiences in the romantic realm. We show that congruence between ideals and experiences conveys relationship well-being along four dimensions: expressions of love and support, robust communication habits, perceived biological safety, and perceived relationship stability. We further show that congruence is patterned by socioeconomic status and supported by shared ideals within romantic dyads. We argue that conceiving of ideals as anchors for how sexual experiences are manifest advances current understandings of romantic relationships, and we suggest that this approach has applications for other domains of life. PMID:27110031

  8. Intranuclear Anchoring of Repetitive DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Weipoltshammer, Klara; Schöfer, Christian; Almeder, Marlene; Philimonenko, Vlada V.; Frei, Klemens; Wachtler, Franz; Hozák, Pavel

    1999-01-01

    Centromeres, telomeres, and ribosomal gene clusters consist of repetitive DNA sequences. To assess their contributions to the spatial organization of the interphase genome, their interactions with the nucleoskeleton were examined in quiescent and activated human lymphocytes. The nucleoskeletons were prepared using “physiological” conditions. The resulting structures were probed for specific DNA sequences of centromeres, telomeres, and ribosomal genes by in situ hybridization; the electroeluted DNA fractions were examined by blot hybridization. In both nonstimulated and stimulated lymphocytes, centromeric alpha-satellite repeats were almost exclusively found in the eluted fraction, while telomeric sequences remained attached to the nucleoskeleton. Ribosomal genes showed a transcription-dependent attachment pattern: in unstimulated lymphocytes, transcriptionally inactive ribosomal genes located outside the nucleolus were eluted completely. When comparing transcription unit and intergenic spacer, significantly more of the intergenic spacer was removed. In activated lymphocytes, considerable but similar amounts of both rDNA fragments were eluted. The results demonstrate that: (a) the various repetitive DNA sequences differ significantly in their intranuclear anchoring, (b) telomeric rather than centromeric DNA sequences form stable attachments to the nucleoskeleton, and (c) different attachment mechanisms might be responsible for the interaction of ribosomal genes with the nucleoskeleton. PMID:10613900

  9. Anchoring of development workings in a zone of influence of mining in case of the level anchoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demin, V. F.; Fofanov, O. B.; Demina, T. V.; Yavorskiy, V. V.

    2017-02-01

    Regularities of the change of the stress-strain state of coal containing rock masses, depending on mining-geological factors, were revealed. These factors allow establishing rational parameters of anchoring of wall rocks to enhance the stability of development workings. Specific conditions of the deflected mode, displays of rock pressure, terms of maintenance depending on technological parameters are investigated. Researches allowed determining the degree of their development influence on the efficiency of application of the anchoring of the hollow making and will allow a reasonable application of anchoring certificates, provide stability of the rocks mining and reduce expenses on its realization and maintenance.

  10. The link in Linking

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Jane C; Chiale, Pablo A; Gonzalez, Mario D; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    We present 2 cases of the slow-fast form of AVNRT with initially narrow QRS complexes followed by sudden unexpected transition to persistently wide QRS complexes due to aberrant intraventricular conduction. Introduction of a properly timed extrastimulus in one case and critical oscillations in cycle length due to short-long coupling in the second case set the stage for the initial bundle branch block. However, persistence of the aberrancy pattern once the initial event abated was maintained by the "linking" phenomenon. Delayed, retrograde concealed activation from the contralateral bundle branch perpetuated the initial bundle branch block. PMID:23840106

  11. The link in Linking.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Jane C; Chiale, Pablo A; Gonzalez, Mario D; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2013-05-01

    We present 2 cases of the slow-fast form of AVNRT with initially narrow QRS complexes followed by sudden unexpected transition to persistently wide QRS complexes due to aberrant intraventricular conduction. Introduction of a properly timed extrastimulus in one case and critical oscillations in cycle length due to short-long coupling in the second case set the stage for the initial bundle branch block. However, persistence of the aberrancy pattern once the initial event abated was maintained by the "linking" phenomenon. Delayed, retrograde concealed activation from the contralateral bundle branch perpetuated the initial bundle branch block.

  12. Visual implant elastomer and anchor tag retention in largemouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, K.J.; Janney, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    We double-marked largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides with Floy FD-68B anchor tags and visible implant elastomer (VIE) marks before stocking to compare retention of the two marks for age-0 (178 mm total length [TL]) and age-1 (273 mm TL) largemouth bass. In a short-term (31-d) evaluation, retention rate of anchor tags was over 94% for each age-class and retention of VIE marks was 98% in both age-classes. In a longer-term comparison of fish stocked into the Ohio River, retention was substantially higher for VIE marks (92.9%) than for anchor tags (42.9%) after 403 d (ages combined). Although anchor tags had high retention in two sizes of largemouth bass during the short-term experiment, they should not be used in situations where accurate identification of marked fish is required for periods longer than 123 d. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  13. 22. DETAIL OF EAST (CANADIAN) CANTILEVER AND ANCHOR ARMS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL OF EAST (CANADIAN) CANTILEVER AND ANCHOR ARMS OF MAIN SPAN, SHOWING PIER C. VIEW TO NORTH. - Blue Water Bridge, Spanning St. Clair River at I-69, I-94, & Canadian Route 402, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  14. 6. ANCHOR FIXTURES AT STATION "0", EAST END, LAUNCHING PAD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ANCHOR FIXTURES AT STATION "0", EAST END, LAUNCHING PAD. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 9. LOOKING EAST AT FALLEN CABLE ANCHOR ON NORTH BANK. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. LOOKING EAST AT FALLEN CABLE ANCHOR ON NORTH BANK. TURNOUT STRUCTURE AND WEIR IN BACKGROUND. - Merced Irrigation District, Edendale Creek Turnout & Weir, East of Snelling Highway, Hopeton, Merced County, CA

  16. 7. DETAIL, ANCHOR FIXTURES. Looking to north. Edwards Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL, ANCHOR FIXTURES. Looking to north. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Detail on west elevation of anchor above door; camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail on west elevation of anchor above door; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  18. 23. LOOKING FORWARD FROM BOSUN'S HOLD TOWARD ANCHOR WINDLASS BASE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. LOOKING FORWARD FROM BOSUN'S HOLD TOWARD ANCHOR WINDLASS BASE. WINDLASS BASE DIRECTLY BEHIND VISE. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE PINE, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, South Broad Street, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  19. The anchoring bias reflects rational use of cognitive resources.

    PubMed

    Lieder, Falk; Griffiths, Thomas L; M Huys, Quentin J; Goodman, Noah D

    2017-05-08

    Cognitive biases, such as the anchoring bias, pose a serious challenge to rational accounts of human cognition. We investigate whether rational theories can meet this challenge by taking into account the mind's bounded cognitive resources. We asked what reasoning under uncertainty would look like if people made rational use of their finite time and limited cognitive resources. To answer this question, we applied a mathematical theory of bounded rationality to the problem of numerical estimation. Our analysis led to a rational process model that can be interpreted in terms of anchoring-and-adjustment. This model provided a unifying explanation for ten anchoring phenomena including the differential effect of accuracy motivation on the bias towards provided versus self-generated anchors. Our results illustrate the potential of resource-rational analysis to provide formal theories that can unify a wide range of empirical results and reconcile the impressive capacities of the human mind with its apparently irrational cognitive biases.

  20. 43. DETAIL OF PINNED UPPER CHORD CONNECTION BETWEEN ANCHOR ARM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. DETAIL OF PINNED UPPER CHORD CONNECTION BETWEEN ANCHOR ARM AND SUSPENDED (PANEL 67). VIEW TO NORTH. - Blue Water Bridge, Spanning St. Clair River at I-69, I-94, & Canadian Route 402, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  1. 21. DETAIL OF WEST (AMERICAN) CANTILEVER AND ANCHOR ARMS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL OF WEST (AMERICAN) CANTILEVER AND ANCHOR ARMS OF MAIN SPAN, SHOWING PIER M. VIEW TO NORTH. - Blue Water Bridge, Spanning St. Clair River at I-69, I-94, & Canadian Route 402, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  2. Spin selection at organic spinterface by anchoring group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhao; Qiu, Shuai; Miao, Yuan-yuan; Ren, Jun-feng; Wang, Chuan-kui; Hu, Gui-chao

    2017-07-01

    Control of organic interfacial spin polarization is crucial in organic spintronics. Based on ab initio theory, here we proposed a spin selection at organic interface via anchoring group by adsorbing an organic molecule onto Ni(111) surface. The results demonstrate that either a positive or negative interfacial spin polarization may be obtained by choosing different anchoring groups. The orbital analysis via the projected density of states shows that the interfacial spin polarization is sensitive to the hybridization of the outer orbital of the anchoring atom as well as its energy relative to the d orbital of the ferromagnetic atom. The work indicates a feasible way to realize spin selection at the organic spinterface by anchoring group.

  3. Fluctuation-induced interactions in nematics with disordered anchoring energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi Pour Haddadan, Fahimeh; Naji, Ali; Shirzadiani, Nafiseh; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2014-12-01

    We examine fluctuation-induced (pseudo-Casimir) interactions in nematic liquid-crystalline films confined between two surfaces, where one of the surfaces imposes a strong homeotropic anchoring (ensuring a uniform mean director profile), while the other one is assumed to be a chemically disordered substrate exhibiting an annealed distribution of anchoring energies. We employ a saddle-point approximation to evaluate the free energy of interaction mediated between the two surfaces and investigate how the interaction force is influenced by the presence of disordered surface anchoring energy. It is shown that the disorder results in a renormalization of the effective surface anchoring parameter in a way that it leads to quantitative and qualitative changes (including a change of sign at intermediate inter-surface separations) in the pseudo-Casimir interaction force when compared with the interaction force in the absence of disorder.

  4. Anchor Casting and Portal Strut at West Bank Abutment, Endpost ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Anchor Casting and Portal Strut at West Bank Abutment, Endpost Base and Granite Plinth - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Bollman Bridge, Spanning Potomac River at Harpers Ferry, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  5. 34. View of pier 3, showing supporting main anchor arm ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. View of pier 3, showing supporting main anchor arm and cantilever arm spans, as seen from shore near pier 4, looking north - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

  6. 22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main cantilever arm looking south. Note upper chord eyebar arrangement. - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

  7. 3. VIEW EAST TOWARD STAMFORD ANCHOR BRIDGE #374 OF CIRCUIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW EAST TOWARD STAMFORD ANCHOR BRIDGE #374 OF CIRCUIT BREAKER INSTALLATION ON CROSS BEAM OF BRIDGE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Bridge-Type Circuit Breakers, Long Island shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Cos Cob, Fairfield County, CT

  8. 2. VIEW EAST TOWARD DARIEN ANCHOR BRIDGE #465 OF CIRCUIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW EAST TOWARD DARIEN ANCHOR BRIDGE #465 OF CIRCUIT BREAKER INSTALLATION ON CROSS BEAM OF BRIDGE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Bridge-Type Circuit Breakers, Long Island shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Cos Cob, Fairfield County, CT

  9. 27. CIRCUIT BREAKERS AT SOUTH END OF BRIDGE, CATENARY ANCHOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. CIRCUIT BREAKERS AT SOUTH END OF BRIDGE, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310, COS COB POWER PLANT - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  10. 21. CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310, COS COB POWER PLANT, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310, COS COB POWER PLANT, LOOKING EASTBOUND - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  11. 24. CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310, COS COB POWER PLANT, NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310, COS COB POWER PLANT, NORTH TRUSS FOR POWER LEAD-IN WIRES - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  12. 32. OBLIQUE VIEW SHOWING ASHAPED SUPPORT, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 524, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. OBLIQUE VIEW SHOWING A-SHAPED SUPPORT, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 524, NEAR SOUTH NORWALK SWITCH TOWER - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  13. 25. CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310 AND COS COB POWER PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310 AND COS COB POWER PLANT STRUCTURES, LOOKING WESTBOUND - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  14. 33. VIEW OF ADJACENT SUBSTATION AND TRANSFORMER, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VIEW OF ADJACENT SUBSTATION AND TRANSFORMER, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 524 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  15. 23. OBLIQUE VIEW, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310, COS COB POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. OBLIQUE VIEW, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310, COS COB POWER PLANT - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  16. 22. CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310, COS COB POWER PLANT, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310, COS COB POWER PLANT, LOOKING WESTBOUND - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  17. Anchored but not internalized: shape dependent endocytosis of nanodiamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bokai; Feng, Xi; Yin, Hang; Ge, Zhenpeng; Wang, Yanhuan; Chu, Zhiqin; Raabova, Helena; Vavra, Jan; Cigler, Petr; Liu, Renbao; Wang, Yi; Li, Quan

    2017-04-01

    Nanoparticle-cell interactions begin with the cellular uptake of the nanoparticles, a process that eventually determines their cellular fate. In the present work, we show that the morphological features of nanodiamonds (NDs) affect both the anchoring and internalization stages of their endocytosis. While a prickly ND (with sharp edges/corners) has no trouble of anchoring onto the plasma membrane, it suffers from difficult internalization afterwards. In comparison, the internalization of a round ND (obtained by selective etching of the prickly ND) is not limited by its lower anchoring amount and presents a much higher endocytosis amount. Molecular dynamics simulation and continuum modelling results suggest that the observed difference in the anchoring of round and prickly NDs likely results from the reduced contact surface area with the cell membrane of the former, while the energy penalty associated with membrane curvature generation, which is lower for a round ND, may explain its higher probability of the subsequent internalization.

  18. 4. INTERIOR VIEW OF NORTH SECTION, SHOWING STEEL DOOR ANCHORS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR VIEW OF NORTH SECTION, SHOWING STEEL DOOR ANCHORS, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, Oil House, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  19. 20. DETAIL OF WEST ANCHOR SPAN, CANTILEVER ARMS AND WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL OF WEST ANCHOR SPAN, CANTILEVER ARMS AND WEST HALF OF SUSPENDED SPAN OF THROUGH TRUSS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  20. 19. WEST ANCHOR SPAN OF THROUGH TRUSS AND PIERS NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. WEST ANCHOR SPAN OF THROUGH TRUSS AND PIERS NO. 2 AND 3, FROM WEST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO NORTH. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  1. Medial rectus muscle anchoring in complete oculomotor nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Si Hyung; Chang, Jee Ho

    2015-10-01

    The management of exotropia resulting from complete oculomotor nerve palsy is challenging. Conventional therapeutic interventions, including supramaximal resection and recession, superior oblique tendon resection and transposition, and several ocular anchoring procedures have yielded less-than-adequate results. Here we describe a novel surgical technique of anchoring the medial rectus muscle to the medial orbital wall in combination with lateral rectus disinsertion and reattachment to the lateral orbital wall.

  2. Photoinduced ordering and anchoring properties of azo-dye films.

    PubMed

    Kiselev, Alexei D; Chigrinov, Vladimir; Huang, Dan Ding

    2005-12-01

    We study both theoretically and experimentally the anchoring properties of photoaligning azo-dye films in contact with a nematic liquid crystal depending on the photoinduced ordering of azo-dye molecules. In the mean field approximation, we found that the bare surface anchoring energy depends linearly on the azo-dye order parameter and the azimuthal anchoring strength decays to zero in the limit of vanishing photoinduced ordering. From the absorption dichroism spectra measured in azo-dye films that are prepared from an azo-dye derivative with polymerizable terminal groups we obtain the dependence of the dichroic ratio on the irradiation dose. We also measure the polar and azimuthal anchoring strengths in nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cells aligned by the azo-dye films and derive the anchoring strengths as functions of the dichroic ratio, which is proportional to the photoinduced order parameter. Although linear fitting of the experimental data for both anchoring strengths gives reasonable results, it, predicts vanishing of the azimuthal anchoring strength at some nonzero value of the azo-dye order parameter, in contradiction with theory. By using a simple phenomenological model we show that this discrepancy can be attributed to the difference between the surface and bulk order parameters in the films. The measured polar anchoring energy is found to be an order of magnitude higher than the azimuthal strength. Our theory suggests that the quadrupole term of the spherical harmonics expansion for the azo-dye-NLC intermolecular potential might be of importance for the understanding of this difference.

  3. Greedy Successive Anchorization for Localizing Machine Type Communication Devices

    PubMed Central

    Imtiaz Ul Haq, Mian; Kim, Dongwoo

    2016-01-01

    Localization of machine type communication (MTC) devices is essential for various types of location-based applications. In this paper, we investigate a distributed localization problem in noisy networks, where an estimated position of blind MTC machines (BMs) is obtained by using noisy measurements of distance between BM and anchor machines (AMs). We allow positioned BMs also to work as anchors that are referred to as virtual AMs (VAMs) in this paper. VAMs usually have greater position errors than (original) AMs, and, if used as anchors, the error propagates through the whole network. However, VAMs are necessary, especially when many BMs are distributed in a large area with an insufficient number of AMs. To overcome the error propagation, we propose a greedy successive anchorization process (GSAP). A round of GSAP consists of consecutive two steps. In the first step, a greedy selection of anchors among AMs and VAMs is done by which GSAP considers only those three anchors that possibly pertain to the localization accuracy. In the second step, each BM that can select three anchors in its neighbor determines its location with a proposed distributed localization algorithm. Iterative rounds of GSAP terminate when every BM in the network finds its location. To examine the performance of GSAP, a root mean square error (RMSE) metric is used and the corresponding Cramér–Rao lower bound (CRLB) is provided. By numerical investigation, RMSE performance of GSAP is shown to be better than existing localization methods with and without an anchor selection method and mostly close to the CRLB. PMID:27983576

  4. Systematic derivation of anchoring forces in permafrost-affected bedrock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pläsken, Regina; Keuschnig, Markus; Krautblatter, Michael

    2017-04-01

    High-alpine environments have been demonstrated to react particularly sensitive to recent climate warming. While the thermal response of mountain permafrost to atmospheric warming is usually lagged and attenuated, it is still widely expected to create major engineering problems for high-alpine infrastructures in the foreseeable future. Degradation of permafrost in high alpine regions potentially causes massive negative changes in bearing capacity of affected bedrock/subsoils. Building structures, which are founded on such permafrost-influenced bedrock/subsoils, can be severly damaged by changes in their support conditions. Piles and anchors are the most common engineering measures for the stabilization of such foundation-systems in bedrock . However, despite their frequent use only very limited long term data are available on the mechanical behaviour of anchors in permafrost affected bedrock. This contribution addresses the need for continuous, high-quality data on subsurface conditions in high-alpine locations. At the open-air laboratory Kitzsteinhorn (OPAL) three anchor load plates were installed to measure anchor load and temperature. Rock temperatures up to a depth of 30 m are available from two deep boreholes located in the immediate vicinity. Anchor loads vary significantly between summer and winter. During summer anchor loads stagnate at approximately 450 kN. In autumn anchor load values constantly increase until they reach a maximum of 530 kN in January. Seasonal variations are quantified and physical phenomena and their possible order of magnitude are considered to derive a mechanical model of the system anchor in permafrost affected bedrock.

  5. Genome-wide development and deployment of informative intron-spanning and intron-length polymorphism markers for genomics-assisted breeding applications in chickpea.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Rishi; Bajaj, Deepak; Sayal, Yogesh K; Meher, Prabina K; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Kumar, Rajendra; Tripathi, Shailesh; Bharadwaj, Chellapilla; Rao, Atmakuri R; Parida, Swarup K

    2016-11-01

    The discovery and large-scale genotyping of informative gene-based markers is essential for rapid delineation of genes/QTLs governing stress tolerance and yield component traits in order to drive genetic enhancement in chickpea. A genome-wide 119169 and 110491 ISM (intron-spanning markers) from 23129 desi and 20386 kabuli protein-coding genes and 7454 in silico InDel (insertion-deletion) (1-45-bp)-based ILP (intron-length polymorphism) markers from 3283 genes were developed that were structurally and functionally annotated on eight chromosomes and unanchored scaffolds of chickpea. A much higher amplification efficiency (83%) and intra-specific polymorphic potential (86%) detected by these markers than that of other sequence-based genetic markers among desi and kabuli chickpea accessions was apparent even by a cost-effective agarose gel-based assay. The genome-wide physically mapped 1718 ILP markers assayed a wider level of functional genetic diversity (19-81%) and well-defined phylogenetics among domesticated chickpea accessions. The gene-derived 1424 ILP markers were anchored on a high-density (inter-marker distance: 0.65cM) desi intra-specific genetic linkage map/functional transcript map (ICC 4958×ICC 2263) of chickpea. This reference genetic map identified six major genomic regions harbouring six robust QTLs mapped on five chromosomes, which explained 11-23% seed weight trait variation (7.6-10.5 LOD) in chickpea. The integration of high-resolution QTL mapping with differential expression profiling detected six including one potential serine carboxypeptidase gene with ILP markers (linked tightly to the major seed weight QTLs) exhibiting seed-specific expression as well as pronounced up-regulation especially in seeds of high (ICC 4958) as compared to low (ICC 2263) seed weight mapping parental accessions. The marker information generated in the present study was made publicly accessible through a user-friendly web-resource, "Chickpea ISM-ILP Marker Database

  6. Pattern-induced anchoring transitions in nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Gómez, Óscar A; Romero-Enrique, José M; Silvestre, Nuno M; Telo da Gama, Margarida M

    2017-02-15

    In this paper we revisit the problem of a nematic liquid crystal in contact with patterned substrates. The substrate is modelled as a periodic array of parallel infinite grooves of well-defined cross-section sculpted on a chemically homogeneous substrate which favours local homeotropic anchoring of the nematic. We consider three cases: a sawtooth, a crenellated and a sinusoidal substrate. We analyse this problem within the modified Frank-Oseen formalism. We argue that, for substrate periodicities much larger than the extrapolation length, the existence of different nematic textures with distinct far-field orientations, as well as the anchoring transitions between them, are associated with the presence of topological defects either on or close to the substrate. For the sawtooth and sinusoidal cases, we observe a homeotropic to planar anchoring transition as the substrate roughness increases. On the other hand, a homeotropic to oblique anchoring transition is observed for crenellated substrates. In this case, the anchoring phase diagram shows a complex dependence on the substrate roughness and substrate anchoring strength.

  7. Evaluation of mitral valve replacement anchoring in a phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, A. Jonathan; Moore, John; Lang, Pencilla; Bainbridge, Dan; Campbell, Gordon; Jones, Doug L.; Guiraudon, Gerard M.; Peters, Terry M.

    2012-02-01

    Conventional mitral valve replacement requires a median sternotomy and cardio-pulmonary bypass with aortic crossclamping and is associated with significant mortality and morbidity which could be reduced by performing the procedure off-pump. Replacing the mitral valve in the closed, off-pump, beating heart requires extensive development and validation of surgical and imaging techniques. Image guidance systems and surgical access for off-pump mitral valve replacement have been previously developed, allowing the prosthetic valve to be safely introduced into the left atrium and inserted into the mitral annulus. The major remaining challenge is to design a method of securely anchoring the prosthetic valve inside the beating heart. The development of anchoring techniques has been hampered by the expense and difficulty in conducting large animal studies. In this paper, we demonstrate how prosthetic valve anchoring may be evaluated in a dynamic phantom. The phantom provides a consistent testing environment where pressure measurements and Doppler ultrasound can be used to monitor and assess the valve anchoring procedures, detecting pararvalvular leak when valve anchoring is inadequate. Minimally invasive anchoring techniques may be directly compared to the current gold standard of valves sutured under direct vision, providing a useful tool for the validation of new surgical instruments.

  8. Filamentous structures in skeletal muscle: anchors for the subsarcolemmal space.

    PubMed

    Khairani, Astrid Feinisa; Tajika, Yuki; Takahashi, Maiko; Ueno, Hitoshi; Murakami, Tohru; Soenggono, Arifin; Yorifuji, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    In skeletal muscle fibers, intermediate filaments and actin filaments provide structural support to the myofibrils and the sarcolemma. For many years, it was poorly understood from ultrastructural observations that how these filamentous structures were kept anchored. The present study was conducted to determine the architecture of filamentous anchoring structures in the subsarcolemmal space and the intermyofibrils. The diaphragms (Dp) of adult wild type and mdx mice (mdx is a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy) were subjected to tension applied perpendicular to the long axis of the muscle fibers, with or without treatment with 1% Triton X-100 or 0.03% saponin. These experiments were conducted to confirm the presence and integrity of the filamentous anchoring structures. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that these structures provide firm transverse connections between the sarcolemma and peripheral myofibrils. Most of the filamentous structures appeared to be inserted into subsarcolemmal densities, forming anchoring connections between the sarcolemma and peripheral myofibrils. In some cases, actin filaments were found to run longitudinally in the subsarcolemmal space to connect to the sarcolemma or in some cases to connect to the intermyofibrils as elongated thin filaments. These filamentous anchoring structures were less common in the mdx Dp. Our data suggest that the transverse and longitudinal filamentous structures form an anchoring system in the subsarcolemmal space and the intermyofibrils.

  9. Poor anchoring limits dyslexics' perceptual, memory, and reading skills.

    PubMed

    Oganian, Yulia; Ahissar, Merav

    2012-07-01

    The basic deficits underlying the severe and persistent reading difficulties in dyslexia are still highly debated. One of the major topics of debate is whether these deficits are language specific, or affect both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Recently, Ahissar and colleagues proposed the "anchoring-deficit hypothesis" (Ahissar, Lubin, Putter-Katz, & Banai, 2006), which suggests that dyslexics have a general difficulty in automatic extraction of stimulus regularities from auditory inputs. This hypothesis explained a broad range of dyslexics' verbal and non-verbal difficulties. However, it was not directly tested in the context of reading and verbal memory, which poses the main stumbling blocks to dyslexics. Here we assessed the abilities of adult dyslexics to efficiently benefit from ("anchor to") regularities embedded in repeated tones, orally presented syllables, and written words. We also compared dyslexics' performance to that of individuals with attention disorder (ADHD), but no reading disability. We found an anchoring effect in all groups: all gained from stimulus repetition. However, in line with the anchoring-deficit hypothesis, controls and ADHD participants showed a significantly larger anchoring effect in all tasks. This study is the first that directly shows that the same domain-general deficit, poor anchoring, characterizes dyslexics' performance in perceptual, working memory and reading tasks.

  10. Pattern-induced anchoring transitions in nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Gómez, Óscar A.; Romero-Enrique, José M.; Silvestre, Nuno M.; Telo da Gama, Margarida M.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we revisit the problem of a nematic liquid crystal in contact with patterned substrates. The substrate is modelled as a periodic array of parallel infinite grooves of well-defined cross-section sculpted on a chemically homogeneous substrate which favours local homeotropic anchoring of the nematic. We consider three cases: a sawtooth, a crenellated and a sinusoidal substrate. We analyse this problem within the modified Frank-Oseen formalism. We argue that, for substrate periodicities much larger than the extrapolation length, the existence of different nematic textures with distinct far-field orientations, as well as the anchoring transitions between them, are associated with the presence of topological defects either on or close to the substrate. For the sawtooth and sinusoidal cases, we observe a homeotropic to planar anchoring transition as the substrate roughness increases. On the other hand, a homeotropic to oblique anchoring transition is observed for crenellated substrates. In this case, the anchoring phase diagram shows a complex dependence on the substrate roughness and substrate anchoring strength.

  11. Epoxy-coated rock anchors for upper Occoquan Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Bruen, M.P.; Pansic, N.; Schwartz, M.I.

    1995-12-31

    High-capacity, epoxy-coated anchors were installed at Upper Occoquan Dam to increase the stability of the 70-foot-high concrete gravity dam and powerhouse under revised Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) conditions. The post-tensioned anchorage system consisted of 56 multi-strand rock anchors with design loads of 700 to 1855 kips, averaging 1500 kips per tendon. A double corrosion protection system was specified to provide protection throughout the entire anchor length. During anchor stressing and testing, significant creep movement under constant loads equivalent to 133% of the design load was experienced and exceeded the requisite Post-Tensioning Institute (PTI) criteria. In addition to the creep phenomena, seating losses during transfer of the load to the end anchorage are at least 2 to 3 times greater than that which has been experienced with bare-wire strand tendons. On the basis of anchor test results, modifications were made to the anchor testing protocol, acceptance criteria, and the approach used for assessment of the long-term performance of the anchorage system.

  12. Use of bone anchors for flap fixation in burned patients.

    PubMed

    Danino, Alain M; Guberman, Daniel S; Robe, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    Mitek or Arim anchors were developed for use in orthopaedic surgery to facilitate soft tissue fixation to bone. We believe this tool can be useful in difficult cases when securing various flaps to bone, we present a retrospective study of deep thickness burns patients. We conducted a retrospective study, including severely burned patients who underwent flap reconstruction with Mitek or Arim anchor fixation between 1999 and 2007 in our unit. Characteristics analysed included indications for surgery, and postoperative complications. Nine patients (nine flaps) were included, seven men and two women with age ranging from 22 to 59 years old. Flaps were as follows: one gracilis, two latissimus dorsi, four medial gastrocnemius and two lateral gastrocnemius flaps. Indications for reconstruction were: open fractures or joint exposure in severely burned patient. Only one complication was noted: partial flap necrosis with infection of the bone anchor necessitating ablation and a new mobilisation of the flap. Mitek anchors are a useful tool in plastic surgery. Suture anchors are used when coverage poses a risk of shearing away from the bone or adequate periosteum and soft tissue is not available for standard suture techniques. The anchor system provides a simple, fast, and efficient technique for flap fixation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Genome mapping by random anchoring: A discrete theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M. Q.; Marr, T. G.

    1993-11-01

    As a part of the international human genome project, large-scale genomic maps of human and other model organisms are being generated. More recently, mapping using various anchoring (as opposed to the traditional "fingerprinting") strategies have been proposed based largely on mathematical models. In all of the theoretical work dealing with anchoring, an anchor has been idealized as a point on a continuous, infinite-length genome. In general, it is not desirable to make these assumptions, since in practice they may be violated under a variety of actual biological situations. Here we analyze a discrete model that can be used to predict the expected progress made when mapping by random anchoring. By virtue of keeping all three length scales (genome length, clone length, and probe length) finite, our results for the random anchoring strategy are derived in full generality, which contain previous results as special cases and hence can have broad application for planning mapping experiments or assessing the accuracy of the continuum models. Finally, we pose a challenging nonrandom anchoring model corresponding to a more efficient mapping scheme.

  14. GPI anchor attachment is required for Gas1p transport from the endoplasmic reticulum in COP II vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Doering, T L; Schekman, R

    1996-01-01

    Inositol starvation of auxotrophic yeast interrupts glycolipid biosynthesis and prevents lipid modification of a normally glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked protein, Gas1p. The unanchored Gas1p precursor undergoes progressive modification in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but is not modified by Golgi-specific glycosylation. Starvation-induced defects in anchor assembly and protein processing are rapid, and occur without altered maturation of other proteins. Cells remain competent to manufacture anchor components and to process Gas1p efficiently once inositol is restored. Newly synthesized Gas1p is packaged into vesicles formed in vitro from perforated yeast spheroplasts incubated with either yeast cytosol or the purified Sec proteins (COP II) required for vesicle budding from the ER. In vitro synthesized vesicles produced by inositol-starved membranes do not contain detectable Gas1p. These studies demonstrate that COP II components fulfill the soluble protein requirements for packaging a GPI-anchored protein into ER-derived transport vesicles. However, GPI anchor attachment is required for this packaging to occur. Images PMID:8598201

  15. The Dynamics of Scaling: A Memory-Based Anchor Model of Category Rating and Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrov, Alexander A.; Anderson, John R.

    2005-01-01

    A memory-based scaling model--ANCHOR--is proposed and tested. The perceived magnitude of the target stimulus is compared with a set of anchors in memory. Anchor selection is probabilistic and sensitive to similarity, base-level strength, and recency. The winning anchor provides a reference point near the target and thereby converts the global…

  16. Two Approaches for Using Multiple Anchors in NEAT Equating: A Description and Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; Deng, Weiling; Zhang, Yu-Li

    2011-01-01

    Nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) equating functions that use a single anchor can have accuracy problems when the groups are extremely different and/or when the anchor weakly correlates with the tests being equated. Proposals have been made to address these issues by incorporating more than one anchor into NEAT equating functions. These…

  17. Two Approaches for Using Multiple Anchors in NEAT Equating: A Description and Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; Deng, Weiling; Zhang, Yu-Li

    2011-01-01

    Nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) equating functions that use a single anchor can have accuracy problems when the groups are extremely different and/or when the anchor weakly correlates with the tests being equated. Proposals have been made to address these issues by incorporating more than one anchor into NEAT equating functions. These…

  18. Installation and use of epoxy-grouted rock anchors for skyline logging in southeast Alaska.

    Treesearch

    W.L. Schroeder; D.N. Swanston

    1992-01-01

    Field tests of the load-carrying capacity of epoxy-grouted rock anchors in poor quality bedrock on Wrangel Island in southeast Alaska demonstrated the effectiveness of rock anchors as substitutes for stump anchors for logging system guylines. Ultimate capacity depends mainly on rock hardness or strength and length of the imbedded anchor.

  19. Molecular beacon anchored onto a graphene oxide substrate.

    PubMed

    Darbandi, Arash; Datta, Debopam; Patel, Krunal; Lin, Gary; Stroscio, Michael A; Dutta, Mitra

    2017-09-15

    In this article, we report a graphene oxide-based nanosensor incorporating semiconductor quantum dots linked to DNA-aptamers that functions as a 'turn-off' fluorescent nanosensor for detection of low concentrations of analytes. A specific demonstration of this turn-off aptasensor is presented for the case of the detection of mercury (II) ions. In this system, ensembles of aptamer-based quantum-dot sensors are anchored onto graphene oxide (GO) flakes which provide a platform for analyte detection in the vicinity of GO. Herein, the operation of this ensemble-based nanosensor is demonstrated for mercury ions, which upon addition of mercury, quenching of the emission intensity from the quantum dots is observed due to resonance energy transfer between quantum dots and the gold nanoparticle connected via a mercury target aptamer. A key result is that the usually dominant effect of quenching of the quantum dot due to close proximity to the GO can be reduced to negligible levels by using a linker molecule in conjunctions with the aptamer-based nanosensor. The effect of ionic concentration of the background matrix on the emission intensity was also investigated. The sensor system is found to be highly selective towards mercury and exhibits a linear behavior (r (2) > 0.99) in the nanomolar concentration range. The detection limit of the sensor towards mercury with no GO present was found to be 16.5 nM. With GO attached to molecular beacon via 14 base, 35 base, and 51 base long linker DNA, the detection limit was found to be 38.4 nM, 9.45 nM, and 11.38 nM; respectively.

  20. Molecular beacon anchored onto a graphene oxide substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbandi, Arash; Datta, Debopam; Patel, Krunal; Lin, Gary; Stroscio, Michael A.; Dutta, Mitra

    2017-09-01

    In this article, we report a graphene oxide-based nanosensor incorporating semiconductor quantum dots linked to DNA-aptamers that functions as a ‘turn-off’ fluorescent nanosensor for detection of low concentrations of analytes. A specific demonstration of this turn-off aptasensor is presented for the case of the detection of mercury (II) ions. In this system, ensembles of aptamer-based quantum-dot sensors are anchored onto graphene oxide (GO) flakes which provide a platform for analyte detection in the vicinity of GO. Herein, the operation of this ensemble-based nanosensor is demonstrated for mercury ions, which upon addition of mercury, quenching of the emission intensity from the quantum dots is observed due to resonance energy transfer between quantum dots and the gold nanoparticle connected via a mercury target aptamer. A key result is that the usually dominant effect of quenching of the quantum dot due to close proximity to the GO can be reduced to negligible levels by using a linker molecule in conjunctions with the aptamer-based nanosensor. The effect of ionic concentration of the background matrix on the emission intensity was also investigated. The sensor system is found to be highly selective towards mercury and exhibits a linear behavior (r 2 > 0.99) in the nanomolar concentration range. The detection limit of the sensor towards mercury with no GO present was found to be 16.5 nM. With GO attached to molecular beacon via 14 base, 35 base, and 51 base long linker DNA, the detection limit was found to be 38.4 nM, 9.45 nM, and 11.38 nM; respectively.