Science.gov

Sample records for anchor piles

  1. Prediction of the initial normal stress in piles and anchors constructed using expansive cements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberfield, C. M.

    2000-03-01

    Uses for expansive cements and additives have extended well beyond off-setting the shrinkage characteristics of grout and concrete to include enhancement of rock anchor and pile performance, providing an alternative form of connection for tubular members in off-shore structures and as an excavation tool in open-pit mines. In each case, the design rules governing the quantity of expansive additive to be used are based on guesswork or empiricism. This paper presents analytical solutions for estimating the degree of expansion and the level of normal stress developed for a range of different boundary conditions and expansive additive contents. The expansion process is modelled as a thermal expansion and is governed by one parameter that depends on the type of expansive additive and its dosage. Simple laboratory procedures for determining this property are outlined. Predictions from the analytical solutions are compared with laboratory experiments.

  2. Big Pile or Small Pile?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branca, Mario; Quidacciolu, Rossana G.; Soletta, Isabella

    2013-01-01

    The construction of a voltaic pile (battery) is a simple laboratory activity that commemorates the invention of this important device and is of great help in teaching physics. The voltaic pile is often seen as a scientific toy, with the "pile" being constructed from fruit. These toys use some strips of copper and zinc inserted in a piece…

  3. 107. View showing open caisson Pier 4 with anchor bolts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. View showing open caisson Pier 4 with anchor bolts placed ready for last pour of concrete. Also pile driver driving falsework piles for south anchor arm. Located at end of the old ferry landing slip at Crockett side of straits. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  4. Pile Driving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Machine-oriented structural engineering firm TERA, Inc. is engaged in a project to evaluate the reliability of offshore pile driving prediction methods to eventually predict the best pile driving technique for each new offshore oil platform. Phase I Pile driving records of 48 offshore platforms including such information as blow counts, soil composition and pertinent construction details were digitized. In Phase II, pile driving records were statistically compared with current methods of prediction. Result was development of modular software, the CRIPS80 Software Design Analyzer System, that companies can use to evaluate other prediction procedures or other data bases.

  5. Big Pile or Small Pile?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branca, Mario; Quidacciolu, Rossana G.; Soletta, Isabella

    2013-10-01

    The construction of a voltaic pile (battery) is a simple laboratory activity that commemorates the invention of this important device and is of great help in teaching physics. The voltaic pile is often seen as a scientific toy, with the "pile" being constructed from fruit. These toys use some strips of copper and zinc inserted in a piece of fruit to produce a low-intensity electrical current to power a digital device. In a voltaic pile of this type, the zinc acts as an anode while the copper acts as a cathode. The reduction reaction [i.e.,2H+(aq)+2e⇋H2(g)] occurs on the copper (the cathode). The two electrons that are needed for the reduction are taken from the metal (copper), which remains positively charged, while the anode is the zinc, which is oxidized through the reaction Zn∘(m)⇋Zn+2(aq )+2e, and the two electrons remain on the metal, which is negatively charged. If the two pieces of metal are connected by an external conductor, electrons flow from the zinc to the copper. The electromotive force of this system is about 0.76 V, which is the reduction potential of zinc, as can be found in the table of standard reduction potentials.

  6. Piled tool will level subsea well template for Heidrun TLP

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-13

    This paper reports on piled leveling tools that were contracted for use during the installation of the subsea well template for Conoco Norway Inc.'s Heidrun tension leg platform (TLP) in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. The leveling tools are employed after a template has been positioned on the seafloor and anchor pilings have been driven through the template sleeves. One or more tools are lowered and landed on anchor pilings at the low side of the template. No diver support or guidelines are required.

  7. Optimal Design of Sheet Pile Wall Embedded in Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Manas Ranjan; Das, Sarat Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Sheet pile wall is a type of flexible earth retaining structure used in waterfront offshore structures, river protection work and temporary supports in foundations and excavations. Economy is an essential part of a good engineering design and needs to be considered explicitly in obtaining an optimum section. By considering appropriate embedment depth and sheet pile section it may be possible to achieve better economy. This paper describes optimum design of both cantilever and anchored sheet pile wall penetrating clay using a simple optimization tool Microsoft Excel ® Solver. The detail methodology and its application with examples are presented for cantilever and anchored sheet piles. The effects of soil properties, depth of penetration and variation of ground water table on the optimum design are also discussed. Such a study will help professional while designing the sheet pile wall penetrating clay.

  8. Design of anti-slide piles for slope stabilization in Wanzhou city, Three Gorges Area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chunmei; van Westen, Cees

    2013-04-01

    This study is related to the design of anti-slide piles for several landslides in Wanzhou city located in the Three Gorges area. Due to the construction of the Three Gorges Reservoir the hydro-geological conditions in this area have deteriorated significantly, leading to larger instability problems. China has invested a lot of money in slope stabilization measures for the treatment of landslides in the Three Gorges area. One of the methods for the stabilization of large landslides is the design of anti-sliding piles. This paper focuses on extensive slope stability analysis and modeling of the mechanical behavior of the landslide masses, and the parameters required for designing the number, size and dimensions of reinforced concrete stabilization piles. The study focuses on determining the rock parameters, anchor depth, and the pile and soil interaction coefficient. The study aims to provide guidelines for anti-slide pile stabilization works for landslides in the Wanzhou area. The research work contains a number of aspects. First a study is carried out on the distribution of pressures expected on the piles, using two different methods that take into account the expected pore water pressure and seismic acceleration. For the Ercengyan landslide , the Limit Equilibrium Method and Strength Reduction Method of FEM are compared through the results of the landslide pressure distributions on the piles and stress fields in the piles. The second component is the study of the required anchor depth of antislide piles, which is carried out using a statistical analysis with data from 20 landslides that have been controlled with anti-sliding piles. The rock characteristics of the anchor locations were obtained using laboratory tests, and a classification of rock mass quality is made for the anchors of antislide piles. The relationship between the critical anchor height and the angle of the landslide slip surface is determined. Two different methods are presented for the length

  9. Monitoring ground anchor using non-destructive ground anchor integrity test (NDT-GRANIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Robbany, Z. Handayani, G.

    2015-09-30

    Monitoring at ground anchor commonly uses a pull out test method, therefor we developing a non-destructive ground anchor integrity testing (NDT-GRANIT). NDT-GRANIT using the principle of seismic waves that have been modified into form of sweep signal, the signal will be demodulated, filtered, and Fourier transformation (inverse discrete Fourier transform) so the data can be interpreted reflected wave from the ground anchor. The method was applied to determine whether the ground anchor still gripped in the subsurface by looking the attenuation of the wave generated sources. From the result we can see that ground anchor does not grip. To validate the results of the comparison method of measurement used pile integrity test.

  10. Anchor Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regardt, Olle; Rönnbäck, Lars; Bergholtz, Maria; Johannesson, Paul; Wohed, Petia

    Maintaining and evolving data warehouses is a complex, error prone, and time consuming activity. The main reason for this state of affairs is that the environment of a data warehouse is in constant change, while the warehouse itself needs to provide a stable and consistent interface to information spanning extended periods of time. In this paper, we propose a modeling technique for data warehousing, called anchor modeling, that offers non-destructive extensibility mechanisms, thereby enabling robust and flexible management of changes in source systems. A key benefit of anchor modeling is that changes in a data warehouse environment only require extensions, not modifications, to the data warehouse. This ensures that existing data warehouse applications will remain unaffected by the evolution of the data warehouse, i.e. existing views and functions will not have to be modified as a result of changes in the warehouse model.

  11. Ultrasonic/Sonic Anchor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart

    2009-01-01

    The ultrasonic/sonic anchor (U/S anchor) is an anchoring device that drills a hole for itself in rock, concrete, or other similar material. The U/S anchor is a recent addition to a series of related devices, the first of which were reported in "Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corers With Integrated Sensors"

  12. A Pile of Legos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePino, Andrew, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the relationships a high school built with neighborhood industry, a national laboratory, a national museum, and a large university while trying to build a scale model of the original atomic pile. Provides suggestions for teachers. (MVL)

  13. Basic Pile Group Behavior.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    geotechnical engineer to obtain the values of the soil modulus and the coefficient of horizontal subgrade reaction. The methods provided in this Appendix must...describes a computerized method for pile group design and analysis as practiced in the Corps of Engineers and proposes criteria for sys- tematizing... Engineers , and to propose criteria for systematizing this method in a computer program. This paper describes a computerized method of pile group analysis

  14. Flexible pile thermal barrier insulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, G. E.; Fell, D. M.; Tesinsky, J. S. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A flexible pile thermal barrier insulator included a plurality of upstanding pile yarns. A generally planar backing section supported the upstanding pile yarns. The backing section included a plurality of filler yarns forming a mesh in a first direction. A plurality of warp yarns were looped around said filler yarns and pile yarns in the backing section and formed a mesh in a second direction. A binder prevented separation of the yarns in the backing section.

  15. Test Exponential Pile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fermi, Enrico

    The Patent contains an extremely detailed description of an atomic pile employing natural uranium as fissile material and graphite as moderator. It starts with the discussion of the theory of the intervening phenomena, in particular the evaluation of the reproduction or multiplication factor, K, that is the ratio of the number of fast neutrons produced in one generation by the fissions to the original number of fast neutrons, in a system of infinite size. The possibility of having a self-maintaining chain reaction in a system of finite size depends both on the facts that K is greater than unity and the overall size of the system is sufficiently large to minimize the percentage of neutrons escaping from the system. After the description of a possible realization of such a pile (with many detailed drawings), the various kinds of neutron losses in a pile are depicted. Particularly relevant is the reported "invention" of the exponential experiment: since theoretical calculations can determine whether or not a chain reaction will occur in a give system, but can be invalidated by uncertainties in the parameters of the problem, an experimental test of the pile is proposed, aimed at ascertaining if the pile under construction would be divergent (i.e. with a neutron multiplication factor K greater than 1) by making measurements on a smaller pile. The idea is to measure, by a detector containing an indium foil, the exponential decrease of the neutron density along the length of a column of uranium-graphite lattice, where a neutron source is placed near its base. Such an exponential decrease is greater or less than that expected due to leakage, according to whether the K factor is less or greater than 1, so that this experiment is able to test the criticality of the pile, its accuracy increasing with the size of the column. In order to perform this measure a mathematical description of the effect of neutron production, diffusion, and absorption on the neutron density in the

  16. Piled-Slab Searches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    tinuously as one moves away from the origin (Figure 1). Because such a search is both strategically optimal and locally random, we will refer to it as SOLR ...approximating the inverted cup with a solid composed of n piled slabs. The resulting detection proba- bility will, of course, be smaller than the SOLR ...total effort density in the annulus between Ri−1 and Ri (Figure 2). The total Figure 1. The inverted SOLR cup has the greatest search effort density at

  17. Anchors for Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alok, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Education reforms, considering their significance, deserve better methods than mere "trial and error." This article conceptualizes a network of six anchors for education reforms: education policy, education system, curriculum, pedagogy, assessment, and teacher education. It establishes the futility to reform anchors in isolation and…

  18. Anchor Trial Launch

    Cancer.gov

    NCI has launched a multicenter phase III clinical trial called the ANCHOR Study -- Anal Cancer HSIL (High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion) Outcomes Research Study -- to determine if treatment of HSIL in HIV-infected individuals can prevent anal canc

  19. 40 CFR 264.554 - Staging piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... existing permit (for example, RAP), closure plan, or order be modified to allow me to use a staging pile? (1) To modify a permit, other than a RAP, to incorporate a staging pile or staging pile operating... under § 270.42 of this chapter. (2) To modify a RAP to incorporate a staging pile or staging...

  20. 40 CFR 264.554 - Staging piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... existing permit (for example, RAP), closure plan, or order be modified to allow me to use a staging pile? (1) To modify a permit, other than a RAP, to incorporate a staging pile or staging pile operating... under § 270.42 of this chapter. (2) To modify a RAP to incorporate a staging pile or staging...

  1. 40 CFR 264.554 - Staging piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... existing permit (for example, RAP), closure plan, or order be modified to allow me to use a staging pile? (1) To modify a permit, other than a RAP, to incorporate a staging pile or staging pile operating... under § 270.42 of this chapter. (2) To modify a RAP to incorporate a staging pile or staging...

  2. Test Pile Reactivity Loss Due to Trichloroethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Plumlee, K.E.

    2001-03-09

    The presence of trichloroethylene in the test pile caused a continual decrease in pile reactivity. A system which removed, purified, and returned 12,000 cfh helium to the pile has held contamination to a negligible level and has permitted normal pile operation.

  3. Interaction of Anchors with Soil and Anchor Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    Cro7wn fluke 79 ank f LK j3 a STATO Mooring Ancoer a. placed on seafloor b. flukes keying C. in dense/stiff $@afloor d. in soft seafloor into seafloor 01o4...friction has been found to peak at pile embedment -20 diameter. -Recommnended value of f, for long piles compiled from Ehlers (1977), Angemeer (1975...Laboratory, PO No. M-R450. Port Hueneme, Calif., Oct 1978. Ehlers , C. J., and E. J. Ulrich, Jr. (1977). "Design criteria for grouted piles in sand," in

  4. 1975 Inspection of Experimental Marine Piling.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The cooperative-treated piles at Coco Solo, Canal Zone, and the cooperative-CEL-, and CEL/Industry-treated piles at Pearl Harbor were inspected by a...diver in March and April 1975. After 12 years at Coco Solo, only the dual-treated piles are performing satisfactorily. At Pearl Harbor, the remaining

  5. 1976 Inspection of Experimental Marine Piling.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    The cooperative-treated piles Coco Solo, Canal Zone, and the cooperative-, CEL-, and CEL/Industry-treated piles at Pearl Harbor were inspected by a...diver in March and April 1976. After 13 years at Coco Solo, only the Douglas fir piles treated with ammoniacal copper arsenite followed by cresote

  6. 1972 Inspection of Experimental Marine Piling.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The 54 Cooperative piles at Coco Solo, Canal Zone, and the 267 Cooperative and NCEL experimental piles at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii were inspected during...the periods February 22 to 25 and March 17 to 24, 1972, respectively. After 9 years of exposure at Coco Solo, 11 of the 12 piles treated with 70/30

  7. 1970 Inspection of Experimental Marine Piling.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The 54 Cooperative piles at Coco Solo, Canal Zone and the 273 Cooperative and NCEL experimental piles at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii were inspected during...the weeks of 9 and 23 March 1970, respectively. After 7 years of exposure at Coco Solo, 9 of the 12 piles treated with creosote-coal tar showed borer

  8. Brick-pile To Rubble-pile Impact Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korycansky, Donald; Asphaug, E.

    2010-10-01

    One of the chief lines of evidence that asteroids are "rubble piles", (loose aggregates of rock and/or ice held together by gravity and friction) is the under-density that many of them exhibit compared to the density of solid rock as inferred from surface compositions. Under-densities up to 50% or greater have been found for some objects (Britt and Consolmagno 2002). However, little is known of the internal structure of these bodies. Under-density may be due to "microporosity", i.e. porosity at the level of grains, or "macroporosity" in which void space is provided by the mis-match of large structural blocks that comprise the bulk of the object. We present work that models sub-catastrophic impacts into "brick piles", i.e. close-fitting aggregates with little or no void space. Calculations follow the partial or complete dispersal of an asteroid and its reassembly. After reassembly, the post-impact volume of the object is compared to the pre-impact object to derive a void fraction. Model calculations were carried out with programs based on the Open Dynamics Engine library that has been used by us for a number of studies (Korycansky and Asphaug 2009, Korycansky 2010a,b LPSC). Initial brick-pile objects were constructed by means of quasi-random Voronoi decompositions of an initial volume that is the hull of the pre-impact object. We will present results on the amount and distribution of void space of post-impact rubble piles and compare to the observed distribution of inferred void space, and characterize our results in terms of body and impact parameters, such as numbers and size distribution of pre-impact brick piles and impact velocities and geometry. This work has been supported by NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics program grant NNX07AQ04G.

  9. Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand

    PubMed Central

    Nazir, Ashraf; Nasr, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21–31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18–75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted. PMID:25685412

  10. Bellow seal and anchor

    DOEpatents

    Mansure, Arthur J.

    2001-01-01

    An annular seal is made of a collapsible bellows. The bellows can function as an anchor or a seal and is easily set into position using relative component movement. The bellows folds can be slanted and their outer sealing edges can have different profiles to meet expected conditions. The bellows is expanded for insertion to reduce its outer dimension and sets by compaction as a result of relative movement. The bellows can be straight or tapered and is settable with a minimal axial force.

  11. Are some meteoroids rubble piles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovička, Jiri

    2015-08-01

    It is generally accepted that some asteroids are rubble piles, i.e. strengthless aggregates of boulders of various sizes held together only by mutual gravity. This is particularly true for asteroids in the size range from ~ 200 m to 10 km, whose rotations are in almost all cases slower that the surface disruption barrier, at which the centrifugal force would exceed the gravitational force. On the other hand, smaller asteroids often rotate rapidly.Recently, Sánchez and Scheeres (2014, Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 49, 788) proposed that rubble piles may have some cohesive strength provided by van der Waals forces between small grains. They estimate the strength to be about 25 Pa. Such a low strength would be sufficient to hold some rapidly rotating small asteroids together against centrifugal force, even if they were rubble piles. In particular, Sánchez and Scheeres (2014) argued that asteroid 2008 TC3 was a rubble pile. That asteroid entered the Earth’s atmosphere and produced meteorites Almahata Sitta.Asteroids and meteoroids entering the atmosphere are subject to dynamic pressure p = ρv2, where ρ is atmospheric density and v is velocity. It can be expected that they break-up when the dynamic pressure exceeds their strength. Fragmentation of meteoroids is indeed common. For asteroidal bodies it usually occurs at pressures 0.1 - 10 MPa (Popova et al. 2011, Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 46, 1525). For example, the main break-up of 2008 TC3 occurred at 0.9 MPa. These pressures are lower than the strength of solid meteoric rocks but dramatically exceed the expected strength for rubble piles. They best correspond to fractured stones. Nevertheless, the first break-up of rubble piles can be expected at heights above 100 km, earlier than the intensive evaporation starts and the fireball begins to be visible. Is it possible that some meteoroids were broken-up already at the beginning of observation? I will discuss this question generally and also for several specific cases of

  12. Static and dynamic pile testing of reinforced concrete piles with structure integrated fibre optic strain sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilder, Constanze; Kohlhoff, Harald; Hofmann, Detlef; Basedau, Frank; Habel, Wolfgang R.; Baeßler, Matthias; Niederleithinger, Ernst; Georgi, Steven; Herten, Markus

    2013-05-01

    Static and dynamic pile tests are carried out to determine the load bearing capacity and the quality of reinforced concrete piles. As part of a round robin test to evaluate dynamic load tests, structure integrated fibre optic strain sensors were used to receive more detailed information about the strains along the pile length compared to conventional measurements at the pile head. This paper shows the instrumentation of the pile with extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometers sensors and fibre Bragg gratings sensors together with the results of the conducted static load test as well as the dynamic load tests and pile integrity tests.

  13. PileSort Module Usage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-25

    green turquoise blue yellow orange burnt orange brown bittersweet green blue melon aquamarine thistle mulberry lavender black apricot...violet red white yellow green yellow orange aquamarine blue gray burnt orange cadet blue copper forest green goldenrod chestnut...34 /> </node> - <node id=" aquamarine "> <property id="containing_pile" value="blues" /> <property id="meta_information" value="" /> <property

  14. CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS OF GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL ANCHORS

    PubMed Central

    Swarts, Benjamin M.; Guo, Zhongwu

    2013-01-01

    Many eukaryotic cell-surface proteins and glycoproteins are anchored to the plasma membrane by glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs), a family of glycolipids that are post-translationally attached to proteins at their C-termini. GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins play important roles in many biological and pathological events, such as cell recognition and adhesion, signal transduction, host defense, and acting as receptors for viruses and toxins. Chemical synthesis of structurally defined GPI anchors and GPI derivatives is a necessary step toward understanding the properties and functions of these molecules in biological systems and exploring their potential therapeutic applications. In the first part of this comprehensive article on the chemical synthesis of GPIs, classic syntheses of naturally occurring GPI anchors from protozoan parasites, yeast, and mammals are covered. The second part of the article focuses on recent diversity-oriented strategies for the synthesis of GPI anchors containing unsaturated lipids, “click chemistry” tags, and highly branched and modified structures. PMID:22794184

  15. Prestressed Concrete Fender Piles: Final Designs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    CONFIGURATION ....................... 4-1 4.1 Design Criteria ............................... 4-1 4.2 Residual Crack Width........................... 4-3...criteria were established based on the previous test pile programs [1.3]. The pile design procedure was further refined in this phase to limit residual ...with a residual crack width less than 0.012 in. after 100 cycles of working level load applications. Design aids were developed for a range of pile

  16. Pile Model Tests Using Strain Gauge Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasiński, Adam; Kusio, Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Ordinary pile bearing capacity tests are usually carried out to determine the relationship between load and displacement of pile head. The measurement system required in such tests consists of force transducer and three or four displacement gauges. The whole system is installed at the pile head above the ground level. This approach, however, does not give us complete information about the pile-soil interaction. We can only determine the total bearing capacity of the pile, without the knowledge of its distribution into the shaft and base resistances. Much more information can be obtained by carrying out a test of instrumented pile equipped with a system for measuring the distribution of axial force along its core. In the case of pile model tests the use of such measurement is difficult due to small scale of the model. To find a suitable solution for axial force measurement, which could be applied to small scale model piles, we had to take into account the following requirements: - a linear and stable relationship between measured and physical values, - the force measurement accuracy of about 0.1 kN, - the range of measured forces up to 30 kN, - resistance of measuring gauges against aggressive counteraction of concrete mortar and against moisture, - insensitivity to pile bending, - economical factor. These requirements can be fulfilled by strain gauge sensors if an appropriate methodology is used for test preparation (Hoffmann [1]). In this paper, we focus on some aspects of the application of strain gauge sensors for model pile tests. The efficiency of the method is proved on the examples of static load tests carried out on SDP model piles acting as single piles and in a group.

  17. Pile Spacing Optimization of Short Piled Raft Foundation System for Obtaining Minimum Settlement on Peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suro, S. M.; Bakar, I.; Sulaeman, A.

    2016-07-01

    Short Piled Raft is a modified piled raft foundation system, which represents combination between raft foundation and pile foundation, but the length of pile is relatively shorter. The basic concept of the Short Piled Raft foundation system considers the passive soil pressure creating a stiff condition of slab-pile system. This means that the thin concrete slab floats on the supporting soil, while the piles serve as stiffeners concrete slab and also to reduce settlement of the foundation. Slab to pile ratio of such system has been mentioned by several researchers, however the optimum pile spacing of stability performance for obtaining minimum settlement on peat haven't been clearly discussed. In this study, finite element method to simulate the stability performance related to settlement of Short Piled Raft foundation system was used. Short Piled Raft foundation system with concrete slab of 7.0 m x 7.0 m square was assumed to be built on peat with the thickness of 3.5 m. The material properties of pile and raft were constant. The outer diameter of galvanized steel pipe as pile was 0.30 m; raft thickness was considered to be constant of 0.15 m and the length of pile was 3.0 m, while the pile spacing varied from 0.50 to 3.00 m. Point load varied from 0 to 100 kN with increment of 20 kN was also considered as a static load, acted on the centre of the concrete slab. Optimization was done by comparing each numerical result of simulations, thus conclusion can easily be drawn. The optimum pile spacing was 1.00 m which produced minimum settlement of 30.11 mm under the load of 100 kN.

  18. Underwater Sound Propagation from Marine Pile Driving.

    PubMed

    Reyff, James A

    2016-01-01

    Pile driving occurs in a variety of nearshore environments that typically have very shallow-water depths. The propagation of pile-driving sound in water is complex, where sound is directly radiated from the pile as well as through the ground substrate. Piles driven in the ground near water bodies can produce considerable underwater sound energy. This paper presents examples of sound propagation through shallow-water environments. Some of these examples illustrate the substantial variation in sound amplitude over time that can be critical to understand when computing an acoustic-based safety zone for aquatic species.

  19. Granular Simulation of NEO Anchoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazhar, Hammad

    2011-01-01

    NASA is interested in designing a spacecraft capable of visiting a Near Earth Object (NEO), performing experiments, and then returning safely. Certain periods of this mission will require the spacecraft to remain stationary relative to the NEO. Such situations require an anchoring mechanism that is compact, easy to deploy and upon mission completion, easily removed. The design philosophy used in the project relies on the simulation capability of a multibody dynamics physics engine. On Earth it is difficult to create low gravity conditions and testing in low gravity environments, whether artificial or in space is costly and therefore not feasible. Through simulation, gravity can be controlled with great accuracy, making it ideally suited to analyze the problem at hand. Using Chrono::Engine [1], a simulation package capable of utilizing massively parallel GPU hardware, several validation experiments will be performed. Once there is sufficient confidence, modeling of the NEO regolith interaction will begin after which the anchor tests will be performed and analyzed. The outcome of this task is a study with an analysis of several different anchor designs, along with a recommendation on which anchor is better suited to the task of anchoring. With the anchors tested against a range of parameters relating to soil, environment and anchor penetration angles/velocities on a NEO.

  20. Thermal Conductivity of Rubble Piles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Jing; Goldreich, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Rubble piles are a common feature of solar system bodies. They are composed of monolithic elements of ice or rock bound by gravity. Voids occupy a significant fraction of the volume of a rubble pile. They can exist up to pressure P≈ {ε }Yμ , where {ε }Y is the monolithic material's yield strain and μ its rigidity. At low P, contacts between neighboring elements are confined to a small fraction of their surface areas. As a result, the effective thermal conductivity of a rubble pile, {k}{con}≈ k{(P/({ε }Yμ ))}1/2, can be orders of magnitude smaller than the thermal conductivity of its monolithic elements, k. In a fluid-free environment, only radiation can transfer energy across voids. It contributes an additional component, {k}{rad}=16{\\ell }σ {T}3/3, to the total effective conductivity, {k}{eff}={k}{con}+{k}{rad}. Here ℓ, the inverse of the opacity per unit volume, is of the order of the size of the elements, and voids. An important distinction between {k}{con} and {k}{rad} is that the former is independent of the size of the elements, whereas the latter is proportional to it. Our expression for {k}{eff} provides a good fit to the depth dependence of thermal conductivity in the top 140 cm of the lunar regolith. It also offers a good starting point for detailed modeling of thermal inertias for asteroids and satellites. Measurement of the response of surface temperature to variable insolation is a valuable diagnostic of a regolith. There is an opportunity for careful experiments under controlled laboratory conditions to test models of thermal conductivity such as the one we outline.

  1. 40 CFR 264.554 - Staging piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... than two years, except when the Director grants an operating term extension under paragraph (i) of this section (entitled “May I receive an operating extension for a staging pile?”). You must measure the two... date when you first placed remediation waste into the staging pile for the life of the permit,...

  2. Analyzing paleomagnetic data: To anchor or not to anchor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heslop, David; Roberts, Andrew P.

    2016-11-01

    Paleomagnetic directions provide the basis for use of paleomagnetism in chronological and tectonic reconstructions and for constraining past geomagnetic field behavior over a variety of timescales. Crucial to paleomagnetic analysis is the separation and quantification of a characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM), which relates to a process of interest, from other remanence components. Principal component analysis (PCA) of stepwise demagnetization data is employed routinely in these situations to estimate magnetic remanence directions and their uncertainties. A given ChRM is often assumed to trend toward the origin of a vector demagnetization diagram and prevailing data analysis frameworks allow remanence directions to be estimated based on PCA fits that are forced to pass through the origin of such diagrams, a process referred to as "anchoring." While this approach is adopted commonly, little attention has been paid to the effects of anchoring and the influence it has on both estimated remanence directions and their associated uncertainties. In almost all cases, anchoring produces an artificially low uncertainty estimation compared to an unanchored fit. Bayesian model selection demonstrates that the effects of anchoring cannot typically be justified from a statistical standpoint. We present an alternative to anchoring that constrains the best fit remanence direction to pass through the origin of a vector demagnetization diagram without unreasonably distorting the representation of the demagnetization data.

  3. 29 CFR 1926.1439 - Dedicated pile drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dedicated pile drivers. 1926.1439 Section 1926.1439 Labor... Dedicated pile drivers. (a) The provisions of subpart CC apply to dedicated pile drivers, except as...) Section 1926.1416(e)(4) (Load weighing and similar devices) applies only to dedicated pile...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.1439 - Dedicated pile drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dedicated pile drivers. 1926.1439 Section 1926.1439 Labor... Dedicated pile drivers. (a) The provisions of subpart CC apply to dedicated pile drivers, except as...) Section 1926.1416(e)(4) (Load weighing and similar devices) applies only to dedicated pile...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.1439 - Dedicated pile drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dedicated pile drivers. 1926.1439 Section 1926.1439 Labor... Dedicated pile drivers. (a) The provisions of subpart CC apply to dedicated pile drivers, except as...) Section 1926.1416(e)(4) (Load weighing and similar devices) applies only to dedicated pile...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.1439 - Dedicated pile drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dedicated pile drivers. 1926.1439 Section 1926.1439 Labor... Dedicated pile drivers. (a) The provisions of subpart CC apply to dedicated pile drivers, except as...) Section 1926.1416(e)(4) (Load weighing and similar devices) applies only to dedicated pile...

  7. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of

  8. 116. Photocopied August 1978. NEW INTERLOCKING STEEL SHEET PILING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    116. Photocopied August 1978. NEW INTERLOCKING STEEL SHEET PILING AT PENSTOCK 52 IN THE FALL OF 1926. THE PILES FOR SUPPORTING THE HORIZONTAL ELEMENTS OF THE NEW FOREBAY APRON ARE IN PLACE BETWEEN THE NEW SHEET PILING AND THE FOREBAY WALL. VISIBLE BEYOND THE NEW SHEET PILING IS THE TIMBER SHEET PILING DRIVEN IN 1903 BY VON SCHON TO PREVENT WASHOUTS. (1006) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  9. How anchoring proteins shape pain.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Michael J M; McNaughton, Peter A

    2014-09-01

    Cellular responsiveness to external stimuli can be altered by extracellular mediators which activate membrane receptors, in turn signalling to the intracellular space via calcium, cyclic nucleotides, membrane lipids or enzyme activity. These signalling events trigger a cascade leading to an effector which can be a channel, an enzyme or a transcription factor. The effectiveness of these intracellular events is enhanced when they are maintained in close proximity by anchoring proteins, which assemble complexes of signalling molecules such as kinases together with their targets, and in this way enhance both the speed and the precision of intracellular signalling. The A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) family are adaptor proteins originally named for their ability to associate Protein Kinase A and its targets, but several other enzymes bound by AKAPs have now been found and a wide variety of target structures has been described. This review provides an overview of anchoring proteins involved in pain signalling. The key anchoring proteins and their ion channel targets in primary sensory neurons responding to painful stimuli (nociceptors) are discussed.

  10. ATHLETE : Double Auger Anchoring Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The All-Terrain Hex-Legged Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) is a six-limbed robot designed to support surface explorations on Near Earth Objects, the Moon and Mars. ATHLETE can carry large payloads on its top deck and can carry a fully equipped pressurized habitat in low gravity. The robot has wheels on each of its six articulated limbs, allowing it to actively conform to terrain while driving and to walk when driving is impractical. With the use of a tool adapter, ATHLETE limbs can be equipped with end effectors to support various mission objectives. For work on Near Earth Objects and other microgravity environments, an anchoring mechanism is needed to keep the ATHLETE from floating off the surface. My goal for this spring session at JPL was to design and build a counter rotating, double auger, anchoring mechanism. The mechanism mates to the tool adapter and is driven off the wheel motor. The double auger anchoring mechanism will be tested in a regolith simulant that will determine the uplift capacity of the anchoring mechanism.

  11. Holding Capacity of Plate Anchors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    embedded anchor, and a functional sequence is shown in Figure 1-3. On contact- ing the seafloor, the touchdown probe triggers the safe/arm device which...OOC-DG DiGeorge . Washington, DC; Code 0325, Program Mgr, Washington, DC; Code OOC (LT R. MacDougal). Washington DC; Code OOC-D, Washington, DC; Code PMS

  12. Computer Aided Design of Soldier Pile and Lagging Retaining Walls with Tieback Anchors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    on Ithe apparent earth pressure in overconsolidated clays. 3In another case study in Washington D.C. where the soil stratification was layers of sands...I I I Ou ~ ~ Ne Iau /uIW .1 ata Ih YESurppuIem o.o ID-ata, Neu Value / I Io Ii I C utut Sgai l ha rt I S D I MA NMNIO C ag E n u i s N .1I IS Figure

  13. OTEC Anchors: Selection and Plan for Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    Anchor systems capable of maintaining the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion ( OTEC ) power plants on station were identified and compared. Deadweight...for OTEC , however, is probably not necessary because it is expected that such hard seafloor anchor sites are best avoided by OTEC plants. A plan for...structural analysis and design technique for the anchor, and finally a demonstration of a near prototype size OTEC free-fall deadweight anchor in early 1980. (Author)

  14. Lateral load tests on large pipe piles in coral

    SciTech Connect

    Vines, W.R.; Hong, I.S.

    1984-05-01

    Results are presented for lateral load tests on 36-, 48-, 80-, and 132-in. diameter pipe piles in 26- to 67-ft water depths at a port site in Saudi Arabia. Primary soil types at the site are crushed coral and sand, with layers of intact weak coral. Pile loads were measured with load cells, deflections were measured with potentiometers, and pile slopes were measured with a slope indicator. Pile top deflections and pile deflected shapes are reported at several load levels. Maximum test loads ranged from 72 to 559 kips, and maximum pile top deflections were from 3.6 to 55 inches. Comparison of test results to expectations of behavior based on state-of-the-practice analytical methods shows that the character of pile deflected shapes were predicted well, but that deflections were generally over-predicted in the analyses. Comparison of test pile and reaction pile deflected shapes shows secondary but significant differences.

  15. The ROSETTA Lander anchoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, Markus; Stöcker, Jakob; Rohe, Christian; Kömle, Norbert I.; Kargl, Günter; Hillenmaier, Olaf; Lell, Peter

    2003-09-01

    A major goal of the ESA cornerstone mission ROSETTA is to land a package of scientific instruments known as the ROSETTA Lander on the nucleus of a comet. Due to the low gravity a highly reliable fixation of the ROSETTA Lander to the target comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (3rd) is essential. For that purpose a redundant Anchoring System, consisting of two pyrotechnically actuated Anchoring Harpoons and a redundant Control Electronics has been developed, built and qualified at the Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Garching. The pyrotechnical gas generator has been developed jointly by Pyroglobe GmbH and MPE, the procurement of the control electronics has been sub-contracted to Magson GmbH, Berlin. A study to obtain a suitable lubrication method for the commutator of a brushed DC motor has been conducted at the European Space Tribology Laboratory (ESTL; S. D. Lewis et al., 2003).

  16. Anchoring in Numeric Judgments of Visual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Langeborg, Linda; Eriksson, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert) on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious. PMID:26941684

  17. Independent control of polar and azimuthal anchoring.

    PubMed

    Anquetil-Deck, C; Cleaver, D J; Bramble, J P; Atherton, T J

    2013-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulation, experiment, and continuum theory are used to examine the anchoring exhibited by a nematic liquid crystal at a patterned substrate comprising a periodic array of rectangles that, respectively, promote vertical and planar alignment. It is shown that the easy axis and effective anchoring energy promoted by such surfaces can be readily controlled by adjusting the design of the pattern. The calculations reveal rich behavior: for strong anchoring, as exhibited by the simulated system, for rectangle ratios ≥2 the nematic aligns in the direction of the long edge of the rectangles, the azimuthal anchoring coefficient changing with pattern shape. In weak anchoring scenarios, however, including our experimental systems, preferential anchoring is degenerate between the two rectangle diagonals. Bistability between diagonally aligned and edge-aligned arrangement is predicted for intermediate combinations of anchoring coefficient and system length scale.

  18. 6. CANNERY PILINGS Foundation of a portion of the cannery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. CANNERY PILINGS Foundation of a portion of the cannery over water. Crumbling cement footings and decomposing pilings make portions of this area unsafe. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  19. Use of Suction Piles for Mooring of Mobile Offshore Bases.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-11

    ANNUAL PERFORMANCE REPORT Title: Use of Suction Piles for Mooring of Mobile Offshore Bases (ONR Grant No. N00014-97-1-0887) Period: June...Literature Review The literature study on suction piles has been completed and the final report has been submitted to the Naval Facilities Engineering...Analytical Performance Study of Suction Piles The suction pile performance study using linear elastic soil material properties has been completed. Results

  20. 29 CFR 1926.603 - Pile driving equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pile driving equipment. 1926.603 Section 1926.603 Labor... Operations § 1926.603 Pile driving equipment. (a) General requirements. (1) Boilers and piping systems which are a part of, or used with, pile driving equipment shall meet the applicable requirements of...

  1. 46. Photocopied August 1978. PILE DRIVERS #1 and #2, HOUSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopied August 1978. PILE DRIVERS #1 and #2, HOUSED FOR WINTER WORK, AT COMPLETION OF PILE DRIVING FOR COFFER DAM OF POWER HOUSE, APRIL 1, 1899. SOME OF THE TRIPLE -LAP SHEET PILES USED IN THE DAM ARE SHOWN IN THE FOREGROUND. (29) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  2. 29 CFR 1926.603 - Pile driving equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pile driving equipment. 1926.603 Section 1926.603 Labor... Operations § 1926.603 Pile driving equipment. (a) General requirements. (1) Boilers and piping systems which are a part of, or used with, pile driving equipment shall meet the applicable requirements of...

  3. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 817.81, the...) Drainage control. (1) If the disposal area contains springs, natural or manmade water courses, or...

  4. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 817.81, the...) Drainage control. (1) If the disposal area contains springs, natural or manmade water courses, or...

  5. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 816.81, the...) Drainage control. (1) If the disposal area contains springs, natural or manmade water courses, or...

  6. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 816.81, the...) Drainage control. (1) If the disposal area contains springs, natural or manmade water courses, or...

  7. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 816.81, the...) Drainage control. (1) If the disposal area contains springs, natural or manmade water courses, or...

  8. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 816.81, the...) Drainage control. (1) If the disposal area contains springs, natural or manmade water courses, or...

  9. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 817.81, the...) Drainage control. (1) If the disposal area contains springs, natural or manmade water courses, or...

  10. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 817.81, the...) Drainage control. (1) If the disposal area contains springs, natural or manmade water courses, or...

  11. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Refuse piles; construction requirements. 77.215... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215 Refuse piles; construction requirements. (a) Refuse deposited on a pile shall be spread in layers and compacted in such a manner so as to minimize the flow of...

  12. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; construction requirements. 77.215... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215 Refuse piles; construction requirements. (a) Refuse deposited on a pile shall be spread in layers and compacted in such a manner so as to minimize the flow of...

  13. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Refuse piles; construction requirements. 77.215... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215 Refuse piles; construction requirements. (a) Refuse deposited on a pile shall be spread in layers and compacted in such a manner so as to minimize the flow of...

  14. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Refuse piles; construction requirements. 77.215... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215 Refuse piles; construction requirements. (a) Refuse deposited on a pile shall be spread in layers and compacted in such a manner so as to minimize the flow of...

  15. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Refuse piles; construction requirements. 77.215... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215 Refuse piles; construction requirements. (a) Refuse deposited on a pile shall be spread in layers and compacted in such a manner so as to minimize the flow of...

  16. 30 CFR 77.214 - Refuse piles; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... located in areas which are a safe distance from all underground mine airshafts, preparation plants... covered with clay or other inert material as the piles are constructed. (c) A fireproof barrier of clay or inert material shall be constructed between old and new refuse piles. (d) Roadways to refuse piles...

  17. A lunar/Martian anchor emplacement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, Dustin; Holt, Andrew; Jantz, Erik; Kaufman, Teresa; Martin, James; Weber, Reed

    1993-01-01

    On the Moon or Mars, it is necessary to have an anchor, or a stable, fixed point able to support the forces necessary to rescue a stuck vehicle, act as a stake for a tent in a Martian gale, act as a fulcrum in the erection of general construction poles, or support tent-like regolith shields. The anchor emplacement system must be highly autonomous. It must supply the energy and stability for anchor deployment. The goal of the anchor emplacement system project is to design and build a prototype anchor and to design a conceptual anchor emplacement system. Various anchors were tested in a 1.3 cubic meter test bed containing decomposed granite. A simulated lunar soil was created by adjusting the moisture and compaction characteristics of the soil. We conducted tests on emplacement torque, amount of force the anchor could withstand before failure, anchor pull out force at various angles, and soil disturbances caused by placing the anchor. A single helix auger anchor performed best in this test bed based on energy to emplace, and the ultimate holding capacity. The anchor was optimized for ultimate holding capacity, minimum emplacement torque, and minimum soil disturbance in sandy soils yielding the following dimensions: helix diameter (4.45 cm), pitch (1.27 cm), blade thickness (0.15 cm), total length (35.56 cm), shaft diameter (0.78 cm), and a weight of 212.62 g. The experimental results showed that smaller diameter, single-helix augers held more force than larger diameter augers for a given depth. The emplacement system consists of a flywheel and a motor for power, sealed in a protective box supported by four legs. The flywheel system was chosen over a gear system based on its increased reliability in the lunar environment.

  18. Measurement of Frost Heave Forces on H-Piles and Pipe Piles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    inherent problem with the reaction beam experiments both showed the fluctuations in heave and force-balance methods is that they may under- 3 estimate the...shear stresses developed on the pile in the soil be- frost penetration. low the 0*C isotherm. Therefore, the reaction beam and force-balance methods ...actually measure a net uplift force, which is the total uplift load less METHODS AND MATERIALS the total restraining load acting on the pile. Johnson and

  19. Argonne nuclear pioneers: Chicago Pile 1

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, Harold; Nyer, Warren

    2012-01-01

    On December 2, 1942, 49 scientists, led by Enrico Fermi, made history when Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) went critical and produced the world's first self-sustaining, controlled nuclear chain reaction. Seventy years later, two of the last surviving CP-1 pioneers, Harold Agnew and Warren Nyer, recall that historic day.

  20. 40 CFR 264.554 - Staging piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operations as long as they are intended to prepare the wastes for subsequent management or treatment. (2) (b... Technological Requirements (MTR)? No. Placing hazardous remediation wastes into a staging pile does not constitute land disposal of hazardous wastes or create a unit that is subject to the minimum...

  1. Argonne nuclear pioneers: Chicago Pile 1

    ScienceCinema

    Agnew, Harold; Nyer, Warren

    2016-07-12

    On December 2, 1942, 49 scientists, led by Enrico Fermi, made history when Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) went critical and produced the world's first self-sustaining, controlled nuclear chain reaction. Seventy years later, two of the last surviving CP-1 pioneers, Harold Agnew and Warren Nyer, recall that historic day.

  2. Numerical analysis of kinematic soil—pile interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Francesco; Maugeri, Michele; Mylonakis, George

    2008-07-01

    In the present study, the response of singles pile to kinematic seismic loading is investigated using the computer program SAP2000@. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a numerical model that can realistically simulate kinematic soil-structure interaction for piles accounting for discontinuity conditions at the pile-soil interface, energy dissipation and wave propagation; (2) to use the model for evaluating kinematic interaction effects on pile response as function of input ground motion; and (3) to present a case study in which theoretical predictions are compared with results obtained from other formulations. To evaluate the effects of kinematic loading, the responses of both the free-field soil (with no piles) and the pile were compared. Time history and static pushover analyses were conducted to estimate the displacement and kinematic pile bending under seismic loadings.

  3. Anchored Instruction and Anchored Assessment: An Ecological Approach to Measuring Situated Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael F.; Kulikowich, Jonna M.

    Anchored instruction and anchored assessment are described and illustrated through a mathematics problem from the Jasper problem solving series developed at Vanderbilt University in Nashville (Tennessee). Anchored instruction is instruction situated in a context complex enough to provide meaning and reasons for why information is useful. Problems…

  4. DSSC anchoring groups: a surface dependent decision.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, C; Bowler, D R

    2014-05-14

    Electrodes in dye sensitised solar cells are typically nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 with a majority (1 0 1) surface exposed. Generally the sensitising dye employs a carboxylic anchoring moiety through which it adheres to the TiO₂ surface. Recent interest in exploiting the properties of differing TiO₂ electrode morphologies, such as rutile nanorods exposing the (1 1 0) surface and anatase electrodes with high percentages of the (0 0 1) surface exposed, begs the question of whether this anchoring strategy is best, irrespective of the majority surface exposed. Here we address this question by presenting density functional theory calculations contrasting the binding properties of two promising anchoring groups, phosphonic acid and boronic acid, to that of carboxylic acid. Anchor-electrode interactions are studied for the prototypical anatase (1 0 1) surface, along with the anatase (0 0 1) and rutile (1 1 0) surfaces. Finally the effect of using these alternative anchoring groups to bind a typical coumarin dye (NKX-2311) to these TiO₂ substrates is examined. Significant differences in the binding properties are found depending on both the anchor and surface, illustrating that the choice of anchor is necessarily dependent upon the surface exposed in the electrode. In particular the boronic acid is found to show the potential to be an excellent anchor choice for electrodes exposing the anatase (0 0 1) surface.

  5. Anchors of Religious Commitment in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, Emily; Dollahite, David C.; Hardy, Sam A.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores adolescent religious commitment using qualitative data from a religiously diverse (Jewish, Christian, Muslim) sample of 80 adolescents. A new construct, "anchors of religious commitment," grounded in interview data, is proposed to describe what adolescents commit to as a part of their religious identity. Seven anchors of…

  6. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preformed anchor. 872.3130 Section 872.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preformed anchor. 872.3130 Section 872.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preformed anchor. 872.3130 Section 872.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preformed anchor. 872.3130 Section 872.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preformed anchor. 872.3130 Section 872.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A...

  11. Method of fabrication of anchored nanostructure materials

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2013-11-26

    Methods for fabricating anchored nanostructure materials are described. The methods include heating a nano-catalyst under a protective atmosphere to a temperature ranging from about 450.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. and contacting the heated nano-catalysts with an organic vapor to affix carbon nanostructures to the nano-catalysts and form the anchored nanostructure material.

  12. Picking up Clues from the Discard Pile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    As NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander excavates trenches, it also builds piles with most of the material scooped from the holes. The piles, like this one called 'Caterpillar,' provide researchers some information about the soil.

    On Aug. 24, 2008, during the late afternoon of the 88th Martian day after landing, Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager took separate exposures through red, green and blue filters that have been combined into this approximately true-color image.

    This conical pile of soil is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The sources of material that the robotic arm has dropped onto the Caterpillar pile have included the 'Dodo' and ''Upper Cupboard' trenches and, more recently, the deeper 'Stone Soup' trench.

    Observations of the pile provide information, such as the slope of the cone and the textures of the soil, that helps scientists understand properties of material excavated from the trenches.

    For the Stone Soup trench in particular, which is about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep, the bottom of the trench is in shadow and more difficult to observe than other trenches that Phoenix has dug. The Phoenix team obtained spectral clues about the composition of material from the bottom of Stone Soup by photographing Caterpillar through 15 different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager when the pile was covered in freshly excavated material from the trench.

    The spectral observation did not produce any sign of water-ice, just typical soil for the site. However, the bigger clumps do show a platy texture that could be consistent with elevated concentration of salts in the soil from deep in Stone Soup. The team chose that location as the source for a soil sample to be analyzed in the lander's wet chemistry laboratory, which can identify soluble salts in the soil.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif

  13. Crossed ring anchored disk resonator for self-alignment of the anchor

    PubMed Central

    Baghelani, Masoud; Ghavifekr, Habib Badri; Ebrahimi, Afshin

    2013-01-01

    Misalignment is a problematic challenge in RF MEMS resonators. It causes asymmetry in the ultra symmetric radial contour mode disk resonators and degrades their performance by increasing the insertion loss and decreasing their quality factors (Q). Self-alignment method seems to be a good solution for misalignment problem, but it cannot be directly applied on high performance ring shape anchored resonators. This paper discusses misalignment effects for the ring shape anchored resonators and proposes a method for reconfiguring its anchor to be compatible with self-alignment process. Simulation results validate that the crossed ring anchor structure has the same resonance characteristics with the complete ring shape anchored resonator. PMID:25685477

  14. Guyline anchor design keys rig stability

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, R.J.; Laguros, J.G.

    1983-09-01

    Inadequate design and field installation of ground anchors at lease well sites have frequently led to the collapse of well service rigs operating in high surface wind conditions (>50 mph). Such catastrophes incur significant equipment damage and injury to operating personnel. Although collapse of a well service rig can be attributed to inadequate strength in the guyline connection to the mast or anchor or to deformed or inadequate wire rope strength in the guyline itself, most failures result from improperly placed anchors not meeting API specifications to withstand 14,000 lb of force in tension. This article defines the length, diameter, and depth necessary (based on soil conditions) for a buried guyline anchor to meet API specifications. Deficiencies in guyline connection and strength can be alleviated by following the manufacturer's guidance on size of wire rope, its inspection, and size connection criteria in mounting guyline connectors to the mast and anchor.

  15. The effect of accuracy motivation on anchoring and adjustment: do people adjust from provided anchors?

    PubMed

    Simmons, Joseph P; LeBoeuf, Robyn A; Nelson, Leif D

    2010-12-01

    Increasing accuracy motivation (e.g., by providing monetary incentives for accuracy) often fails to increase adjustment away from provided anchors, a result that has led researchers to conclude that people do not effortfully adjust away from such anchors. We challenge this conclusion. First, we show that people are typically uncertain about which way to adjust from provided anchors and that this uncertainty often causes people to believe that they have initially adjusted too far away from such anchors (Studies 1a and 1b). Then, we show that although accuracy motivation fails to increase the gap between anchors and final estimates when people are uncertain about the direction of adjustment, accuracy motivation does increase anchor-estimate gaps when people are certain about the direction of adjustment, and that this is true regardless of whether the anchors are provided or self-generated (Studies 2, 3a, 3b, and 5). These results suggest that people do effortfully adjust away from provided anchors but that uncertainty about the direction of adjustment makes that adjustment harder to detect than previously assumed. This conclusion has important theoretical implications, suggesting that currently emphasized distinctions between anchor types (self-generated vs. provided) are not fundamental and that ostensibly competing theories of anchoring (selective accessibility and anchoring-and-adjustment) are complementary.

  16. Polyhedron Modeling of Rubble-Pile Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korycansky, D. G.; Asphaug, E.

    2005-01-01

    We report on progress in modeling of asteroids as collections of rigid polyhedra ("rubble piles"). Such models are (idealized) candidates for asteroid structures: aggregates of irregular rocky subunits that are held together by self-gravity and friction. We have taken several steps toward greater realism and physical interest in construction of the models (although the gravitational fields are being treated in a simplified manner). -

  17. Response of shallow geothermal energy pile from laboratory model tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marto, A.; Amaludin, A.

    2015-09-01

    In shallow geothermal energy pile systems, the thermal loads from the pile, transferred and stored in the soil will cause thermally induced settlement. This factor must be considered in the geotechnical design process to avoid unexpected hazards. Series of laboratory model tests were carried out to study the behaviour of energy piles installed in kaolin soil, subjected to thermal loads and a combination of axial and thermal loads (henceforth known as thermo-axial loads). Six tests which included two thermal load tests (35°C and 40°C) and four thermo-axial load tests (100 N and 200 N, combined with 35°C and 40°C thermal loads) were conducted. To simulate the behaviour of geothermal energy piles during its operation, the thermo-axial tests were carried out by applying an axial load to the model pile head, and a subsequent application of thermal load. The model soil was compacted at 90% maximum dry density and had an undrained shear strength of 37 kPa, thus classified as having a firm soil consistency. The behaviour of model pile, having the ultimate load capacity of 460 N, was monitored using a linear variable displacement transducer, load cell and wire thermocouple, to measure the pile head settlement, applied axial load and model pile temperature. The acquired data from this study was used to define the thermo-axial response characteristics of the energy pile model. In this study, the limiting settlement was defined as 10% of the model pile diameter. For thermal load tests, higher thermal loads induced higher values of thermal settlement. At 40°C thermal load an irreversible settlement was observed after the heating and cooling cycle was applied to the model pile. Meanwhile, the pile response to thermo-axial loads were attributed to soil consistency and the magnitude of both the axial and thermal loads applied to the pile. The higher the thermoaxial loads, the higher the settlements occurred. A slight hazard on the model pile was detected, since the settlement

  18. Anchored nanostructure materials and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-27

    Anchored nanostructure materials and methods for their fabrication are described. The anchored nanostructure materials may utilize nano-catalysts that include powder-based or solid-based support materials. The support material may comprise metal, such as NiAl, ceramic, a cermet, or silicon or other metalloid. Typically, nanoparticles are disposed adjacent a surface of the support material. Nanostructures may be formed as anchored to nanoparticles that are adjacent the surface of the support material by heating the nano-catalysts and then exposing the nano-catalysts to an organic vapor. The nanostructures are typically single wall or multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

  19. Anchoring Revisited: The Role of the Comparative Question

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Ina; Bohner, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    When people estimate a numeric value after judging whether it is larger or smaller than a high or low anchor value (comparative question), estimates are biased in the direction of the anchor. One explanation for this anchoring effect is that people selectively access knowledge consistent with the anchor value as part of a positive test strategy. Two studies (total N = 184) supported the alternative explanation that people access knowledge consistent with their own answer to the comparative question. Specifically, anchoring effects emerged when the answer to the comparative question was unexpected (lower than the low anchor or higher than the high anchor). For expected answers (lower than the high anchor or higher than the low anchor), however, anchoring effects were attenuated or reversed. The anchor value itself was almost never reported as an absolute estimate. PMID:24454953

  20. 48. Photocopied August 1978. DRIVING PILES FOR THE POWER HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopied August 1978. DRIVING PILES FOR THE POWER HOUSE FOUNDATION, WEST END, AROUND SEPTEMBER 1, 1900. THE COFFER DAM HOLDING BACK THE ST. MARY'S IS AT THE LEFT. PILES SAWED TO LEVEL ARE ON THE LOWER RIGHT-HAND SIDE OF THE PHOTO. UNCUT PILES ARE AT THE CENTER. A SECOND PILE DRIVER WORKING FROM THE EAST END CAN BE SEEN IN THE BACKGROUND, ALONG WITH THE PUMPING PLANT AND THE STONE CRUSHING MACHINE. (71) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  1. Damage Identification of Piles Based on Vibration Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaozhong; Yao, Wenjuan; Chen, Bo; Liu, Dewen

    2014-01-01

    A method of damage identification of piles was established by using vibration characteristics. The approach focused on the application of the element strain energy and sensitive modals. A damage identification equation of piles was deduced using the structural vibration equation. The equation contained three major factors: change rate of element modal strain energy, damage factor of pile, and sensitivity factor of modal damage. The sensitive modals of damage identification were selected by using sensitivity factor of modal damage firstly. Subsequently, the indexes for early-warning of pile damage were established by applying the change rate of strain energy. Then the technology of computational analysis of wavelet transform was used to damage identification for pile. The identification of small damage of pile was completely achieved, including the location of damage and the extent of damage. In the process of identifying the extent of damage of pile, the equation of damage identification was used in many times. Finally, a stadium project was used as an example to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method of damage identification for piles. The correctness and practicability of the proposed method were verified by comparing the results of damage identification with that of low strain test. The research provided a new way for damage identification of piles. PMID:25506062

  2. Reducing Local Scouring at Bridge Piles Using Collars and Geobags

    PubMed Central

    Akib, Shatirah; Liana Mamat, Noor; Basser, Hossein; Jahangirzadeh, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the use of collars and geobags for reducing local scour around bridge piles. The efficiency of collars and geobags was studied experimentally. The data from the experiments were compared with data from earlier studies on the use of single piles with a collar and with a geobag. The results showed that using a combination of a steel collar and a geobag yields the most significant scour reduction for the front and rear piles, respectively. Moreover, the independent steel collar showed better efficiency than the independent geobag below the sediment level around the bridge piles. PMID:25247201

  3. Anchor-Less Secure Session Mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zugenmaier, Alf; Laganier, Julien; Prasad, Anand; Slavov, Kristian

    Communication session mobility relates transferring one endpoint of a communication session including its state from one device to another. Current proposals to deal with this securely require an anchor. We propose an anchor-less solution that takes some ideas from the host identity protocol. We then show how the idea of transferring endpoints simultaneously can be tackled without introducing timeouts as the session initiation protocol currently does.

  4. On the Theory of Ground Anchors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    AD/A-O06 582 ON THE THEORY OF GROUND ANCHORS COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LABORATORY JANUARY 1975 DISTRIBUTED BY: National Tocnical -Intonal...ANCHORS Austin Kovacs, Scott Bicuin Bruce McKelvy and Herman Colligan January 1975 PREPARED FOR U.S. ARMY MATERIL’ COMMAND DA PROJECT IT062112A 130...applications as the tie-backs for retaining walls and bulkheads and in foundations subjected to wind, explosions, earthquakes and thermally induced lateral

  5. Anchoring effects on early autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Daniel L; Bishara, Anthony J; Mugayar-Baldocchi, Marino A

    2017-02-28

    Studies of childhood memory typically show that our earliest memories come from between three and four years of age. This finding is not universal, however. The age estimate varies across cultures and is affected by social influences. Research from the judgments and decision-making literature suggests that these estimates might also involve a judgment under uncertainty. Therefore, they might be susceptible to less social influences such as heuristics and biases. To investigate this possibility, we conducted two experiments that used anchoring paradigms to influence participants' estimates of their age during early autobiographical memories. In Experiment 1, participants answered either a high-anchor or a low-anchor question, and were warned that the anchor was uninformative; they went on to estimate their age during their earliest autobiographical memory. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 and extended the design to examine additional early autobiographical memories. In both experiments, participants in the low-anchor condition gave earlier age estimates than those in the high-anchor condition. These results provide new insights into the methods used to investigate autobiographical memory. Moreover, they show that reports of early autobiographical memories can be influenced by a relatively light touch - a change to a single digit in a single question.

  6. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  7. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  8. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  9. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  10. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  11. The Use of Comics-Based Cases in Anchored Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneller, Matthew F.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to understand how comics fulfill the role of anchor in an anchored instruction learning environment. Anchored instruction addresses the inert knowledge problem through the use of realistic multimedia stories, or "anchors," that embed a problem and the necessary data to solve it within the narrative. In the…

  12. Further Study of the Choice of Anchor Tests in Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trierweiler, Tammy J.; Lewis, Charles; Smith, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we describe what factors influence the observed score correlation between an (external) anchor test and a total test. We show that the anchor to full-test observed score correlation is based on two components: the true score correlation between the anchor and total test, and the reliability of the anchor test. Findings using an…

  13. Occupational PAH Exposures during Prescribed Pile Burns

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, M. S.; Anthony, T. R.; Littau, S. R.; Herckes, P.; Nelson, X.; Poplin, G. S.; Burgess, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    Wildland firefighters are exposed to particulate matter and gases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which are known carcinogens. Our objective was to evaluate the extent of firefighter exposure to particulate and PAHs during prescribed pile burns of mainly ponderosa pine slash and determine whether these exposures were correlated with changes in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), a PAH metabolite. Personal and area sampling for particulate and PAH exposures were conducted on the White Mountain Apache Tribe reservation, working with 21 Bureau of Indian Affairs/Fort Apache Agency wildland firefighters during the fall of 2006. Urine samples were collected pre- and post-exposure and pulmonary function was measured. Personal PAH exposures were detectable for only 3 of 16 PAHs analyzed: naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene, all of which were identified only in vapor-phase samples. Condensed-phase PAHs were detected in PM2.5 area samples (20 of 21 PAHs analyzed were detected, all but naphthalene) at concentrations below 1 μg m−3. The total PAH/PM2.5 mass fractions were roughly a factor of two higher during smoldering (1.06 ± 0.15) than ignition (0.55 ± 0.04 μg mg−1). There were no significant changes in urinary 1-HP or pulmonary function following exposure to pile burning. In summary, PAH exposures were low in pile burns, and urinary testing for a PAH metabolite failed to show a significant difference between baseline and post-exposure measurements. PMID:18515848

  14. ROCK PILE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MISSOURI.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Walden P.; Ellis, Clarence

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and mineral-occurrence survey of the Rock Pile Mountain Wilderness study area in southeastern Missouri indicates the area has little promise for the occurrence of energy and mineral resources. Exploratory drill holes on private land along the west side of the area encountered no mineralization, and none of the rocks or sediments exposed in the area contain any detectable evidence of significant mineralization. Drilling through the Bonneterre Formation, supplemented by geochemical studies of the drill-hole samples, would test the remote possibility of lead mineralization close to the contact with Precambrian rocks.

  15. Anchors as Semantic Primes in Value Construction: An EEG Study of the Anchoring Effect

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qiang; Qiu, Wenwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous research regarding anchoring effects has demonstrated that human judgments are often assimilated to irrelevant information. Studies have demonstrated that anchors influence the economic valuation of various products and experiences; however, the cognitive explanations of this effect remain controversial, and its neural mechanisms have rarely been explored. In the current study, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) experiment to investigate the anchoring effect on willingness to accept (WTA) for an aversive hedonic experience and the role of anchors in this judgment heuristic. The behavioral results demonstrated that random numbers affect participants’ WTA for listening to pieces of noise. The participants asked for higher pay after comparing their WTA with higher numbers. The EEG results indicated that anchors also influenced the neural underpinnings of the valuation process. Specifically, when a higher anchor number was drawn, larger P2 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited, reflecting the anticipation of more intensive pain from the subsequent noise. Moreover, higher anchors induced a stronger theta band power increase compared with lower anchors when subjects listened to the noises, indicating that the participants felt more unpleasant during the actual experience of the noise. The levels of unpleasantness during both anticipation and experience were consistent with the semantic information implied by the anchors. Therefore, these data suggest that a semantic priming process underlies the anchoring effect in WTA. This study provides proof for the robustness of the anchoring effect and neural evidence of the semantic priming model. Our findings indicate that activated contextual information, even seemingly irrelevant, can be embedded in the construction of economic value in the brain. PMID:26439926

  16. View south along subtle ridgeline across a pile of removed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south along subtle ridgeline across a pile of removed gravestones to Doughty-Beck monument, another gravestone pile, and Mill Street houses. - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. 73. VIEW SHOWING THE DRIVING OF FALSEWORK PILES FOR TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. VIEW SHOWING THE DRIVING OF FALSEWORK PILES FOR TOWER BRIDGE, ca February 9, 1935. (Note that the deck has been removed from M Street Bridge, allowing placement of piles directly beneath. Steamer Delta King is moored at River Lines Terminal.) - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  18. 6. UPPER NOTTINGHAM TAILING PILE LOOKING DOWN STREAM BED TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. UPPER NOTTINGHAM TAILING PILE LOOKING DOWN STREAM BED TO LOWER NOTTINGHAM. COLLAPSED BUILDINGS, 'B' AND 'C' AND TOP EDGE OF TAILING PILES ARE VISIBLE IN CENTRAL ARE OF PRINT. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHWEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Upper Nottingham Mine, West face of Florida Mountain, head of Jacobs Gulch, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  19. 45. Photocopied August 1978. PILE DRIVER, NOVEMBER 2, 1898. THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photocopied August 1978. PILE DRIVER, NOVEMBER 2, 1898. THIS MACHINE WAS USED TO DRIVE PILES FOR THE POWER HOUSE COFFER DAM. AT THIS POINT IT IS JUST BEGINNING WORK. (12) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  20. Anticonical anchoring and surface transitions in a nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Faget, L; Lamarque-Forget, S; Martinot-Lagarde, Ph; Auroy, P; Dozov, I

    2006-11-01

    Recent works reported planar and conical azimuthally degenerated nematic anchorings. Here we predict an additional "anticonical" degenerated anchoring. Its energy presents two minima, parallel and perpendicular to the substrate plane, separated by a conical energy barrier. We realize this bistable anchoring on a grafted polymer brush and we observe temperature-driven transitions between the conical, planar, and anticonical degenerated anchorings. Under electric field we break the anticonical anchoring and switch between its bistable states.

  1. Anticonical anchoring and surface transitions in a nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faget, L.; Lamarque-Forget, S.; Martinot-Lagarde, Ph.; Auroy, P.; Dozov, I.

    2006-11-01

    Recent works reported planar and conical azimuthally degenerated nematic anchorings. Here we predict an additional “anticonical” degenerated anchoring. Its energy presents two minima, parallel and perpendicular to the substrate plane, separated by a conical energy barrier. We realize this bistable anchoring on a grafted polymer brush and we observe temperature-driven transitions between the conical, planar, and anticonical degenerated anchorings. Under electric field we break the anticonical anchoring and switch between its bistable states.

  2. Distributed fibre optic strain measurements on a driven pile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woschitz, Helmut; Monsberger, Christoph; Hayden, Martin

    2016-05-01

    In civil engineering pile systems are used in unstable areas as a foundation of buildings or other structures. Among other parameters, the load capacity of the piles depends on their length. A better understanding of the mechanism of load-transfer to the soil would allow selective optimisation of the system. Thereby, the strain variations along the loaded pile are of major interest. In this paper, we report about a field trial using an optical backscatter reflectometer for distributed fibre-optic strain measurements along a driven pile. The most significant results gathered in a field trial with artificial pile loadings are presented. Calibration results show the performance of the fibre-optic system with variations in the strain-optic coefficient.

  3. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    DOEpatents

    Yavorsky, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  4. Polymer's anchoring behavior in liquid crystal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yue

    The current dissertation mainly discusses about the polymers anchoring behavior in liquid crystal cells in two aspects: surface interaction and bulk interaction. The goal of the research is to understand the fundamental physics of anchoring strength and apply the knowledge to liquid crystal display devices. Researchers proposed two main contributors to the surface anchoring strength: the micro grooves generated by external force and the polymer chain's alignment. Both of them has experimental proofs. In the current study, explorations were made to understand the mechanisms of surface anchoring strength and easy axis of surface liquid crystal provided by rubbed polymer alignment layer. The work includes not only the variation of the alignment layer itself such as thickness(Chapter 3) and polymer side chain (Chapter 5), but also the variation of external conditions such as temperature (Chapter 4) and rubbing condition (Chapter 6). To determine the polar and azimuthal anchoring strengths, Rapini-Papoular's expression was applied. However, it was discovered that higher order terms may be required in order to fit the experimental result or theoretically predict unique anchoring behaviors (Chapter 2, Chapter 6). SEM and AFM technologies were introduced to gather the actual structures of polymer alignment layer and extrapolate the alignment of liquid crystal in a micro scale. The result shows that the anchoring strength can be adjusted by the layer thickness, side chain structure, while the easy axis direction can be adjusted by a second rubbing direction. In addition, different anchoring conditions combined with liquid crystal's elastic energy can generate quite different forms of liquid crystals (Chapter 7). In the study of bulk alignment, the main contrition from the current dissertation is applying the understanding of anchoring behavior to optimizing actual switchable devices. Conventional PDLC performance can be tuned with the knowledge of the polymer and the liquid

  5. GPI-anchor and GPI-anchored protein expression in PMM2-CDG patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mutations in PMM2 impair phosphomannomutase-2 activity and cause the most frequent congenital disorder of glycosylation, PMM2-CDG. Mannose-1-phosphate, that is deficient in this disorder, is also implicated in the biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchors. Objective To evaluate whether GPI-anchor and GPI-anchored proteins are defective in PMM2-CDG patients. Methods The expression of GPI-anchor and seven GPI-anchored proteins was evaluated by flow cytometry in different cell types from twelve PMM2-CDG patients. Additionally, neutrophil CD16 and plasma hepatic proteins were studied by Western blot. Transferrin glycoforms were evaluated by HPLC. Results Patients and controls had similar surface expression of GPI-anchor and most GPI-anchored proteins. Nevertheless, patients displayed a significantly diminished binding of two anti-CD16 antibodies (3G8 and KD1) to neutrophils and also of anti-CD14 (61D3) to monocytes. Interestingly, CD16 immunostaining and asialotransferrin levels significantly correlated with patients’ age. Analysis by flow cytometry of CD14 with MΦP9, and CD16 expression in neutrophils by Western blot using H-80 ruled out deficiencies of these antigens. Conclusions PMM2 mutations do not impair GPI-anchor or GPI-anchored protein expression. However, the glycosylation anomalies caused by PMM2 mutations might affect the immunoreactivity of monoclonal antibodies and lead to incorrect conclusions about the expression of different proteins, including GPI-anchored proteins. Neutrophils and monocytes are sensitive to PMM2 mutations, leading to abnormal glycosylation in immune receptors, which might potentially affect their affinity to their ligands, and contribute to infection. This study also confirms less severe hypoglycosylation defects in older PMM2-CDG patients. PMID:24139637

  6. "Landslide at sunuapa 401 (hydrocarbon exploration well). Risk reduction by mitigation measures: drainage, piles barrier and anchorages system, shotcrete and reforestation, Chiapas, México".

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuanalo, Oscar; Polanco, Gabriel; Rivera, Julio

    2013-04-01

    We report the case of a landslide of hydrocarbon exploration well "Sunuapa 401" located in Chiapas, Mexico. First were identified the determinants and triggers factors (morphology, geology, rain, seismic and volcanic activity, human activity, etc); second we assessed the threat, vulnerability and risk from geotechnical stability analysis (safety factor and critical failure surface); third, by using the methodology of valuation factors, stabilization processes were selected and designed, and finally they were built by Petróleos Mexicanos, in order to avoid a disaster (environmental, ecological and social). These construction processes included drainage elements, flattening and benching of slopes, piles barrier and anchors, shotcrete and reforestation.

  7. Threat from Rubble-Pile Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    While chondrites are the most common meteoroids to enter our atmosphere, they represent a small fraction of recovered falls. Most stony meteorites disrupt during entry, consumed by ablation or lost by weathering; in contrast, small iron meteorites (<10 m) disrupt and disperse to create strewnfields due to interacting atmospheric bow shocks [e.g., Passey and Melosh, 1980]. The Carancas impact crater in 2007, however, challenged our understanding [Tancredi et al., 2008]: (a) first eyewitness of a crater formed by a stony meteorite; (b) undetected thermal entry at altitude; (c) no accessory meteorite falls; (d) "explosion" (not low-speed compression) crater; (e) infrasound/seismic data indicating a high-speed entry/collision; and (f) petrologic evidence for shock deformation/melting in breccias indicative of speeds >4 km/s. Although a monolithic chondrite (~ 10 m across) might allow surviving entry, most objects of this size contain multiple flaws, ensuring atmospheric disruption. Hence, an alternative "needle model" was proposed wherein a small rubble-pile object gradually re-shaped itself during entry [Schultz, 2008], a process that minimizes drag, thermal signatures of entry, and catastrophic disruption. First proposed to account for smaller than expected craters on Venus [Schultz, 1992], such a process resembles subsequent Shoemaker-Levy entry models [Boslough and Crawford, 1997] that predicted much deeper entry than standard models. Laboratory experiments at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range simulated this process by breaking-up hypervelocity projectiles into a cloud of debris and tracking its path at near-full atmospheric pressure. The resulting cloud of fragments exhibited less deceleration than a solid sphere at the same speed. Moreover, shadowgraphs revealed constituent fragments "surfing" the pressure jump within the mach cone/column. Previous models proposed that crater-forming impacts must be >50-100 m in diameter in order to survive entry [Bland and

  8. Small asteroids - rubble piles or boulders?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Alan W.

    2013-10-01

    The asteroid rotation spin barrier at ~2.2 h period among asteroids 10 km > D > 200 m doesn’t prove all such asteroids are rubble piles, and the faster rotations among smaller asteroids doesn’t require monolithic strength, either. Only a very modest strength, perhaps no more than van der Waals force, might suffice to hold regolith together on a small super-fast rotator (Sanchez & Scheeres, 2013, arXif:1306.1622v1). The problem is that for a constant or only slowly varying strength with respect to diameter, the spin barrier becomes proportional to 1/D below the size where material strength is dominant, or perhaps a bit steeper if strength increases with decreasing D. What we observe in the distribution of asteroid spins versus diameter is that below D ~ 200 m, the spin barrier goes up at least ~D-3.5, if not abruptly. Models with constant or slowly varying strength fail to fit this observation, and the abrupt transition cannot be an observational selection effect: the void in the phase space of rotations would be among the easiest rotations to observe, e.g. the one conspicuous exception, 2001 OE84 (D ~ 0.7 km, P = 0.5 h) was easily and unambiguously measured (Pravec, et al. 2002, Proc. ACM 2002, ESA SP-500, 743-745). This abrupt transition is most easily explained as a real transition in material properties of asteroids in the size range ~200 m diameter, from “rubble pile” to “boulder”, although neither term may be fully descriptive of the actual structure. Two other lines of evidence suggest that this transition in properties is real: the dip in the size-frequency distribution of NEAs is maximum at ~150 m, suggesting that a transition to stronger material structure occurs about there, and we observe, e.g., Tunguska and the recent Chelyabinsk bolide, that bodies in the tens of meters size range entering the atmosphere behave more like solid rocks than rock piles (Boslough & Crawford 2008, Int. J. Imp. Eng. 35, 1441-1448). I encourage those doing computer

  9. Biomedical applications of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins

    PubMed Central

    Heider, Susanne; Dangerfield, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) use a unique posttranslational modification to link proteins to lipid bilayer membranes. The anchoring structure consists of both a lipid and carbohydrate portion and is highly conserved in eukaryotic organisms regarding its basic characteristics, yet highly variable in its molecular details. The strong membrane targeting property has made the anchors an interesting tool for biotechnological modification of lipid membrane-covered entities from cells through extracellular vesicles to enveloped virus particles. In this review, we will take a closer look at the mechanisms and fields of application for GPI-APs in lipid bilayer membrane engineering and discuss their advantages and disadvantages for biomedicine. PMID:27542385

  10. Fibre-Reinforced Adhesive for Structure Anchoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnat, J.; Bajer, M.

    2015-11-01

    The topic of this paper is the glue-concrete interface of bonded anchors loaded by tension force. The paper is closely focused on bond strength experiments using high strength concrete up to class C50/60 or higher together with pure epoxy resin and fibre-reinforced resin. The goal of this research is to find the limits of the effective use of such glue types in high performance concrete, and also to verify the most commonly used design methods for bonded anchors. The presented research includes experimental analysis of the glue-concrete interface and the influence of its parameters on anchor behaviour. The presented analysis shows some problems of the 'separated failure modes' approach and also presents experimentally verified bond strength values obtained for the currently most widespread glue types. Results of fibre reinforced epoxy resin are also presented in this paper.

  11. Analysis of Wave Fields induced by Offshore Pile Driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhnau, M.; Heitmann, K.; Lippert, T.; Lippert, S.; von Estorff, O.

    2015-12-01

    Impact pile driving is the common technique to install foundations for offshore wind turbines. With each hammer strike the steel pile - often exceeding 6 m in diameter and 80 m in length - radiates energy into the surrounding water and soil, until reaching its targeted penetration depth. Several European authorities introduced limitations regarding hydroacoustic emissions during the construction process to protect marine wildlife. Satisfying these regulations made the development and application of sound mitigation systems (e.g. bubble curtains or insulation screens) inevitable, which are commonly installed within the water column surrounding the pile or even the complete construction site. Last years' advances have led to a point, where the seismic energy tunneling the sound mitigation systems through the soil and radiating back towards the water column gains importance, as it confines the maximum achievable sound mitigation. From an engineering point of view, the challenge of deciding on an effective noise mitigation layout arises, which especially requires a good understanding of the soil-dependent wave field. From a geophysical point of view, the pile acts like a very unique line source, generating a characteristic wave field dominated by inclined wave fronts, diving as well as head waves. Monitoring the seismic arrivals while the pile penetration steadily increases enables to perform quasi-vertical seismic profiling. This work is based on datasets that have been collected within the frame of three comprehensive offshore measurement campaigns during pile driving and demonstrates the potential of seismic arrivals induced by pile driving for further soil characterization.

  12. Multiple magnetic microrobot control using electrostatic anchoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawashe, Chytra; Floyd, Steven; Sitti, Metin

    2009-04-01

    Addressing power and control to individual untethered microrobots is a challenge for small-scale robotics. We present a 250×130×100 μm3 magnetic robot wirelessly driven by pulsed external magnetic fields. An induced stick-slip motion results in translation speeds over 8 mm/s. Control of multiple robots is achieved by an array of addressable electrostatic anchoring pads on the surface, which selectively fixes microrobots, preventing translation. We demonstrate control of two microrobots in both uncoupled individual motion and coupled symmetric motion. An estimated anchoring force of 23.0 μN is necessary to effectively fix each microrobot.

  13. Bond strength of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) grouted anchors

    SciTech Connect

    Bellavance, E.; Xu, H.; Benmokrane, B.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes the results of laboratory and field pull-out tests on cement grouted glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) anchors. As an alternative for grouted steel anchors, GFRP bars have many advantages over steel tendons, and can avoid corrosion and some difficulties in transportation, handling, and installation. Three types of 36 GFRP anchors and 20 steel anchors installed in three types of host media: steel pipe, concrete block, and rock mass were tested in the laboratory as well as in the field. The bond strength, load carrying capacity, load-displacement behavior, and critical bond length of cement grouted GFRP anchors were examined in comparison with conventional steel anchors.

  14. Unsaturated flow modeling of a retorted oil shale pile.

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, F.W.; Freshley, M.D.; Gee, G.W.

    1982-10-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the capabilities of the UNSAT1D model for assessing this potential threat to the environment by understanding water movement through spent shale piles. Infiltration, redistribution, and drainage of water in a spent shale pile were simulated with the UNSAT1D model for two test cases: (1) an existing 35 m pile; and (2) a transient pile growing at a rate of 10 m/year for 5 years. The first test case simulated three different layering scenarios with each one being run for 1 year. The second test case simulated two different initial moisture contents in the pile with each simulation being run for 30 years. Grand Junction and Rifle, Colorado climatological data were used to provide precipitation and potential evapotranspiration for a wet (1979) and dry (1976) year, respectively. Hydraulic properties obtained from the literature on Paraho process spent shale soil, and clay were used as model input parameters to describe water retention and hydraulic conductivity characteristics. Plant water uptake was not simulated in either test case. The two test cases only consider the evaporation component of evapotranspiration, thereby maximizing the amount of water infiltrating into the pile. The results of the two test cases demonstrated that the UNSAT1D model can adequately simulate flow in a spent shale pile for a variety of initial and boundary conditions, hydraulic properties, and pile configurations. The test cases provided a preliminary sensitivity analysis in which it was shown that the material hydraulic properties, material layering, and initial moisture content are the principal parameters influencing drainage from the base of a pile. 34 figures, 4 tables.

  15. Pile mixing increases greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from stored dairy manure was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover pilot-scale manure piles. GHG emissions from piles that were mixed four times during the 80 day trial were about 20% higher than unmixed piles. ...

  16. Formation of pebble-pile planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlberg Jansson, Karl; Johansen, Anders

    2014-10-01

    Asteroids and Kuiper belt objects are remnant planetesimals from the epoch of planet formation. The first stage of planet formation is the accumulation of dust and ice grains into mm- and cm-sized pebbles. These pebbles can clump together through the streaming instability and form gravitationally bound pebble clouds. Pebbles inside such a cloud will undergo mutual collisions, dissipating energy into heat. As the cloud loses energy, it gradually contracts towards solid density. We model this process and investigate two important properties of the collapse: (i) the collapse timescale and (ii) the temporal evolution of the pebble size distribution. Our numerical model of the pebble cloud is zero-dimensional and treats collisions with a statistical method. We find that planetesimals with radii larger than ~100 km collapse on the free-fall timescale of ~25 years. Lower-mass clouds have longer pebble collision timescales and collapse much more slowly, with collapse times of a few hundred years for 10 km scale planetesimals and a few thousand years for 1 km scale planetesimals. The mass of the pebble cloud also determines the interior structure of the resulting planetesimal. The pebble collision speeds in low-mass clouds are below the threshold for fragmentation, forming pebble-pile planetesimals consisting of the primordial pebbles from the protoplanetary disk. Planetesimals above 100 km in radius, on the other hand, consist of mixtures of dust (pebble fragments) and pebbles which have undergone substantial collisions with dust and other pebbles. The Rosetta mission to the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and the New Horizons mission to Pluto will provide valuable information about the structure of planetesimals in the solar system. Our model predicts that 67P is a pebble-pile planetesimal consisting of primordial pebbles from the solar nebula, while the pebbles in the cloud which contracted to form Pluto must have been ground down substantially during the collapse.

  17. Monogenean anchor morphometry: systematic value, phylogenetic signal, and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Soo, Oi Yoon Michelle; Tan, Wooi Boon; Lim, Lee Hong Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anchors are one of the important attachment appendages for monogenean parasites. Common descent and evolutionary processes have left their mark on anchor morphometry, in the form of patterns of shape and size variation useful for systematic and evolutionary studies. When combined with morphological and molecular data, analysis of anchor morphometry can potentially answer a wide range of biological questions. Materials and Methods. We used data from anchor morphometry, body size and morphology of 13 Ligophorus (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) species infecting two marine mugilid (Teleostei: Mugilidae) fish hosts: Moolgarda buchanani (Bleeker) and Liza subviridis (Valenciennes) from Malaysia. Anchor shape and size data (n = 530) were generated using methods of geometric morphometrics. We used 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and ITS1 sequence data to infer a maximum likelihood phylogeny. We discriminated species using principal component and cluster analysis of shape data. Adams’s Kmult was used to detect phylogenetic signal in anchor shape. Phylogeny-correlated size and shape changes were investigated using continuous character mapping and directional statistics, respectively. We assessed morphological constraints in anchor morphometry using phylogenetic regression of anchor shape against body size and anchor size. Anchor morphological integration was studied using partial least squares method. The association between copulatory organ morphology and anchor shape and size in phylomorphospace was used to test the Rohde-Hobbs hypothesis. We created monogeneaGM, a new R package that integrates analyses of monogenean anchor geometric morphometric data with morphological and phylogenetic data. Results. We discriminated 12 of the 13 Ligophorus species using anchor shape data. Significant phylogenetic signal was detected in anchor shape. Thus, we discovered new morphological characters based on anchor shaft shape, the length between the inner root point and the outer root

  18. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.401... wind by use of anchor assembly type installations or by connecting the home to an alternative... must require the home to be secured against the wind, as described in this section. The...

  19. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.401... wind by use of anchor assembly type installations or by connecting the home to an alternative... must require the home to be secured against the wind, as described in this section. The...

  20. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.401... wind by use of anchor assembly type installations or by connecting the home to an alternative... must require the home to be secured against the wind, as described in this section. The...

  1. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the United States' contribution to the International Lunar Network (ILN) project, the Anchor Nodes project. The ILN is an initiative of 9 national space agencies to establish a set of robotic geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon. The project is aimed at furthering the understanding of the lunar composition, and interior structure.

  2. 30 CFR 57.7032 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.7032 Section 57.7032 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  3. 30 CFR 57.7032 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.7032 Section 57.7032 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  4. 30 CFR 57.7032 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.7032 Section 57.7032 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  5. 30 CFR 57.7032 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.7032 Section 57.7032 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  6. 30 CFR 57.7032 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.7032 Section 57.7032 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  7. Anchoring the Panic Disorder Severity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keough, Meghan E.; Porter, Eliora; Kredlow, M. Alexandra; Worthington, John J.; Hoge, Elizabeth A.; Pollack, Mark H.; Shear, M. Katherine; Simon, Naomi M.

    2012-01-01

    The Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) is a clinician-administered measure of panic disorder symptom severity widely used in clinical research. This investigation sought to provide clinically meaningful anchor points for the PDSS both in terms of clinical severity as measured by the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) and to extend…

  8. Finding Chemical Anchors in the Kitchen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haim, Liliana

    2005-01-01

    ''The Chemistry Kitchen'', a unit composed of five activities with kitchen elements for elementary students ages 9-11, introduces the children to the skills and chemical working ideas to be used later as anchors for chemical concepts. These activities include kitchen elements, determining the relative mass and so on.

  9. Weighing Anchor in the "Ragged Times"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Tonya B.

    2012-01-01

    In today's middle school classroom, grouping is an essential learning tool that enhances students' ability to collaborate with others and deepen their own thinking. Implementing group work effectively, though, can be a challenge, especially since groups tend to end their work at "ragged" or staggered times. Creating "anchor activities"--respectful…

  10. 76 FR 30301 - Commercial Acquisition; Anchor Tenancy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    .... ACTION: Proposed rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: NASA proposes to revise the NASA FAR Supplement (NFS) to include guidance consistent with NASA's authority under Section 401 of the Commercial Space Competitiveness Act (CSCA) of 1992. NASA may enter into multi-year anchor tenancy contracts for commercial...

  11. COOPERATIVE MARINE PILING INVESTIGATION. PHASE IIIA. INSPECTION AFTER FIVE YEARS EXPOSURE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Cooperative Marine Piling Committee and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command exposed 54 specially treated piles at Coco Solo Annex, Rodman...Pearl Harbor were still undamaged by marine borers. In March 1967, after four years of exposure, eight of the 54 piles at Coco Solo have been attacked by...Limnoria and one was also attacked by Martesia. By March 1968 the piles at Pearl Harbor were still unattacked but the number of piles at Coco Solo

  12. 345. Caltrans, Photographer September 20, 1935 "WEST ANCHOR ARM"; DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    345. Caltrans, Photographer September 20, 1935 "WEST ANCHOR ARM"; DETAIL VIEW OF CANTILEVER TRUSS WEST ANCHOR ARM UNDER CONSTRUCTION. 7-1023 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed. PMID:27166952

  14. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed.

  15. 9. CABLE ANCHORAGE DETAIL, NORTHWEST ABUTMENT (NOTE MOSSCOVERED CONCRETE ANCHOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. CABLE ANCHORAGE DETAIL, NORTHWEST ABUTMENT (NOTE MOSS-COVERED CONCRETE ANCHOR LEFT OF ANCHOR BOLTS) - Nisqually Suspension Bridge, Spanning Nisqually River on Service Road, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  16. Biodeterioration of concrete piling in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Jadkowski, T.K.; Wiltsie, E.A.

    1985-03-01

    Concrete is one of the most widely used materials in marine construction because of its characteristic durability in sea environments. Recent inspection of concrete piles installed in the Arabian Gulf has revealed that concrete with high content of calcareous aggregate is susceptible to biodeterioration. Marine rock borers and sponges, which are common in areas where the seabed is composed of limestone rock, have been identified as the marine species responsible for the biodeterioration. Boring organisms pose a significant threat to concrete pile structural integrity. Boreholes deteriorate concrete and expose outer pile reinforcement to seawater. This paper describes the causes and magnitude of biodeterioration of piles installed in the Arabian Gulf and presents design parameters and material specifications for the selected preventive repair system.

  17. 6. Photocopy of drawing showing pile bridge construction on Erie ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of drawing showing pile bridge construction on Erie Railway in 1841. Original illustration in DeGolyer Collection, Dallas, Texas. - Erie Railway, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Deposit, Broome County, NY

  18. 1. Photocopy of drawing showing pile superstructure of early railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of drawing showing pile superstructure of early railroad track construction. Original illustration in Degolyer Collection, Dallas, Texas - Erie Railway, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Deposit, Broome County, NY

  19. 48. EXCAVATING AND DRIVING PILES FOR SHOOFLY BRIDGE, YOLO COUNTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. EXCAVATING AND DRIVING PILES FOR SHOOFLY BRIDGE, YOLO COUNTY SIDE OF RIVER, November 7, 1934 - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  20. Airborne thermography of temperature patterns in sugar beet piles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D. G.; Bichsel, S.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the use of thermography for locating spoilage areas (chimneys) within storage piles and to subsequently use the information for the scheduling of their processing. Thermal-infrared quantitative scanner data were acquired initially on January 16, 1975, over the storage piles at Moorhead, Minnesota, both during the day and predawn. Photographic data were acquired during the day mission to evaluate the effect of uneven snow cover on the thermal emittance, and the predawn thermography was used to locate potential chimneys. The piles were examined the day prior for indications of spoilage areas, and the ground crew indicated that no spoilage areas were located using their existing methods. Nine spoilage areas were interpreted from the thermography. The piles were rechecked by ground methods three days following the flights. Six of the nine areas delineated by thermography were actual spoilage areas.

  1. 29 CFR 1926.603 - Pile driving equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Motor Vehicles, Mechanized Equipment, and Marine... signalmen. (2) All employees shall be kept clear when piling is being hoisted into the leads. (3) When...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.603 - Pile driving equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Motor Vehicles, Mechanized Equipment, and Marine... signalmen. (2) All employees shall be kept clear when piling is being hoisted into the leads. (3) When...

  3. VIEW OF PROCESS DEVELOPMENT PILE (PDP) TANK TOP, WITH VERTICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PROCESS DEVELOPMENT PILE (PDP) TANK TOP, WITH VERTICAL ELEMENTS IN BACKGROUND, LEVEL 0’, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  4. 69. VIEW OF DECK AND PILINGS FROM LIFEGUARD TOWER AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. VIEW OF DECK AND PILINGS FROM LIFEGUARD TOWER AT 2ND TEE, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING NEPTUNE'S LOCKER AND CAPTAIN'S GALLEY IN BACKGROUND AT RIGHT - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  5. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENGINE PILE OF AGGREGATE AND MEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENGINE PILE OF AGGREGATE AND MEN WAITING WITH WHEELBARROWS FILLED WITH AGGREGATE. TAKE DEC. 7, 1927. - Marsh Rainbow Arch Bridge, West Eighth Street North, Newton, Jasper County, IA

  6. 52. VIEW SHOWING RAILROAD CRANEMOUNTED PILE DRIVER WORKING ON PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW SHOWING RAILROAD CRANE-MOUNTED PILE DRIVER WORKING ON PIER 2 OF SHOOFLY BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM M STREET BRIDGE, December 28, 1934 - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  7. 33. Steampowered pile driver working on footings for Pier 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Steam-powered pile driver working on footings for Pier 3, with south abutment visible at right; view to south. - Parks Bar Bridge, Spanning Yuba River at State Highway 20, Smartville, Yuba County, CA

  8. VIEW OF SOUTHERN QUARRY, FACING SOUTH, WITH ROCK PILES IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTHERN QUARRY, FACING SOUTH, WITH ROCK PILES IN FOREGROUND - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  9. 8. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, handbuilt rock pile. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, hand-built rock pile. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  10. 2. Pilings at end of Pier 11, low tide, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Pilings at end of Pier 11, low tide, view to north. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 11, Charlestown Waterfront at confluence of Little Mystic Channel & Mystic River at northernmost ent of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. 12. Underneath view of pilings and chain supports on sw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Underneath view of pilings and chain supports on sw side near midsection; looking SE at low tide. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, West Dock, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  12. 4. West side of pier showing distinct piling configuration. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. West side of pier showing distinct piling configuration. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 10, Between Piers 9 & 11 along Mystic River on Charlestown Waterfront at eastern edge of Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. 4. From west side of boat slip; ore piles, unloaders, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. From west side of boat slip; ore piles, unloaders, blast furnaces, tube conveyors, ore conveyors, stock house, powerhouse. Looking north/northeast - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  14. Processing Satellite Imagery To Detect Waste Tire Piles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skiles, Joseph; Schmidt, Cynthia; Wuinlan, Becky; Huybrechts, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    A methodology for processing commercially available satellite spectral imagery has been developed to enable identification and mapping of waste tire piles in California. The California Integrated Waste Management Board initiated the project and provided funding for the method s development. The methodology includes the use of a combination of previously commercially available image-processing and georeferencing software used to develop a model that specifically distinguishes between tire piles and other objects. The methodology reduces the time that must be spent to initially survey a region for tire sites, thereby increasing inspectors and managers time available for remediation of the sites. Remediation is needed because millions of used tires are discarded every year, waste tire piles pose fire hazards, and mosquitoes often breed in water trapped in tires. It should be possible to adapt the methodology to regions outside California by modifying some of the algorithms implemented in the software to account for geographic differences in spectral characteristics associated with terrain and climate. The task of identifying tire piles in satellite imagery is uniquely challenging because of their low reflectance levels: Tires tend to be spectrally confused with shadows and deep water, both of which reflect little light to satellite-borne imaging systems. In this methodology, the challenge is met, in part, by use of software that implements the Tire Identification from Reflectance (TIRe) model. The development of the TIRe model included incorporation of lessons learned in previous research on the detection and mapping of tire piles by use of manual/ visual and/or computational analysis of aerial and satellite imagery. The TIRe model is a computational model for identifying tire piles and discriminating between tire piles and other objects. The input to the TIRe model is the georeferenced but otherwise raw satellite spectral images of a geographic region to be surveyed

  15. Pile Structure Program, Projected Start Date : January 1, 2010 (Implementation).

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Chris; Corbett, Catherine; Ebberts, Blaine

    2009-07-27

    The 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion includes Reasonable and Prudent Alternative 38-Piling and Piling Dike Removal Program. This RPA directs the Action Agencies to work with the Estuary Partnership to develop and implement a piling and pile dike removal program. The program has since evolved to include modifying pile structures to enhance their habitat value and complexity by adding large woody debris. The geographic extent of the Pile Structure Program (PSP) includes all tidally-influenced portions of the lower Columbia River below Bonneville Dam; however, it will focus on the mainstem. The overarching goal of the PSP is to enhance and restore ecosystem structure and function for the recovery of federally listed salmonids through the active management of pile structures. To attain this goal, the program team developed the following objectives: (1) Develop a plan to remove or modify pile structures that have lower value to navigation channel maintenance, and in which removal or modification will present low-risk to adjacent land use, is cost-effective, and would result in increased ecosystem function. (2) Determine program benefits for juvenile salmonids and the ecosystem through a series of intensively monitored pilot projects. (3) Incorporate best available science and pilot project results into an adaptive management framework that will guide future management by prioritizing projects with the highest benefits. The PSP's hypotheses, which form the basis of the pilot project experiments, are organized into five categories: Sediment and Habitat-forming Processes, Habitat Conditions and Food Web, Piscivorous Fish, Piscivorous Birds, and Toxic Contaminant Reduction. These hypotheses are based on the effects listed in the Estuary Module (NOAA Fisheries in press) and others that emerged during literature reviews, discussions with scientists, and field visits. Using pilot project findings, future implementation will be adaptively managed to

  16. The equivalence between dislocation pile-ups and cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H. W.; Gao, Q.

    1990-01-01

    Cracks and dislocation pile-ups are equivalent to each other. In this paper, the physical equivalence between cracks and pile-ups is delineated, and the relationshps between crack-extension force, force on the leading dislocation, stress-intensity factor, and dislocation density are reviewed and summarized. These relations make it possible to extend quantitatively the recent advances in the concepts and practices of fracture mechanics to the studies of microfractures and microplastic deformations.

  17. 1982 Inspection of Experimental Marine Piling at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    m N atN c S LL. c00 Unclassified SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF T.IIS PAGE (Wh.n n"-,. P’. l ...d) SR O N PREAD INSTRUCTIONSREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEFORE...most were treated with another preservative. Treatment of piles with ammoniacal copper arsenite (ACA) followed by creosote appears to offer considerable...Mechanical properties of preservative treated marine piles: Results of limited full scale testing, by M. L . Eaton, J. A. Drelicharz, and T. Roe, Jr. Port

  18. Students' Anchoring Predisposition: An Illustration from Spring Training Baseball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrweis, Lawrence C.

    2014-01-01

    The anchoring tendency results when decision makers anchor on initial values and then make final assessments that are adjusted insufficiently away from the initial values. The professional literature recognizes that auditors often risk falling into the judgment trap of anchoring and adjusting (Ranzilla et al., 2011). Students may also be unaware…

  19. Emissions from prescribed burning of timber slash piles in Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurell, Johanna; Gullett, Brian K.; Tabor, Dennis; Yonker, Nick

    2017-02-01

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash (Douglas-fir) in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, ultraviolet absorbing PM, elemental/organic carbon, filter-based metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled to determine emission factors, the amount of pollutant formed per amount of biomass burned. The effect on emissions from covering the piles with polyethylene (PE) sheets to prevent fuel wetting versus uncovered piles was also determined. Results showed that the uncovered ("wet") piles burned with lower combustion efficiency and higher emission factors for VOCs, PM2.5, PCDD/PCDF, and PAHs. Removal of the PE prior to ignition, variation of PE size, and changing PE thickness resulted in no statistical distinction between emissions. Results suggest that dry piles, whether covered with PE or not, exhibited statistically significant lower emissions than wet piles due to better combustion efficiency.

  20. Slime thickness evaluation of bored piles by electrical resistivity probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Ok-Hyun; Yoon, Hyung-Koo; Park, Min-Chul; Lee, Jong-Sub

    2014-09-01

    The bottoms of bored piles are generally stacked with soil particles, both while boreholes are being drilled, and afterward. The stacked soils are called slime, and when loads are applied on the pile, increase the pile settlement. Thus to guarantee the end bearing capacity of bored piles, the slime thickness should be precisely detected. The objective of this study is to suggest a new method for evaluating the slime thickness, using temperature compensated electrical resistivity. Laboratory studies are performed in advance, to estimate and compare the resolution of the electrical resistivity probe (ERP) and time domain reflectometry (TDR). The electrical properties of the ERP and TDR are measured using coaxial type electrodes and parallel type two-wire electrodes, respectively. Penetration tests, conducted in the fully saturated sand-clay mixtures, demonstrate that the ERP produces a better resolution of layer detection than TDR. Thus, field application tests using the ERP with a diameter of 35.7 mm are conducted for the investigation of slime thickness in large diameter bored piles. Field tests show that the slime layers are clearly identified by the ERP: the electrical resistivity dramatically increases at the interface between the slurry and slime layer. The electrical resistivity in the slurry layer inversely correlates with the amount of circulated water. This study suggests that the new electrical resistivity method may be a useful method for the investigation of the slime thickness in bored piles.

  1. Improving detection of avalanches on a conical bead pile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajpeyi, Avi; Lehman, Susan; Dahmen, Karin; Leblanc, Michael; Uhl, Jonathan

    A conical bead pile subject to slow driving and an external magnetic field is used as a simple system to investigate the variations in the avalanche size probability distribution function. Steel beads are dropped onto the pile from different heights and at different strengths of applied magnetic field. Avalanches are recorded by the change in mass as beads fall off the pile. Experimentally we observe an increasing deviation from power law behavior as the field and thus cohesion between the beads increases. We compare our experimental results for the probability distribution function to the results of an analytic theory from a mean-field model of slip avalanches [Dahmen, Nat Phys 7, 554 (2011)]. The model also makes predictions for avalanche duration, which is not measurable with the existing system. To more fully characterize the avalanching behavior of the pile over time, a high-speed camera has been added to the system to record the largest avalanches and allow more detailed analysis. The conical pile geometry presents a challenge for observation and particle tracking over the full pile. Our implementation scheme and preliminary results from the video analysis are presented. Research supported by NSF CBET 1336116 and 1336634.

  2. Conoco installs eight-pile rig on four-pile platform

    SciTech Connect

    Albaugh, E.K.

    1983-11-01

    Rig 122 recently became the largest standard self-contained drilling rig ever to be mounted on a four-pile, tender-style platform. The conversion sacrificed none of the rig's deep drilling capability, and enabled Conoco to utilize a self-contained platform drilling rig on a satellite platform in the same field. Two cantilever beams, extending some 42 ft beyond platform columns on two sides, support rig weight. Modifications to the rig include separation of pump and engine packages, a pipe-rack extension and a novel skidding system.

  3. Preliminary report on coal pile, coal pile runoff basins, and ash basins at the Savannah River Site: effects on groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.

    1997-04-28

    Coal storage piles, their associated coal pile runoff basins and ash basins could potentially have adverse environmental impacts, especially on groundwater. This report presents and summarizes SRS groundwater and soil data that have been compiled. Also, a result of research conducted on the subject topics, discussions from noted experts in the field are cited. Recommendations are made for additional monitor wells to be installed and site assessments to be conducted.

  4. The Supercritical Pile Model for GRBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, D.

    2005-01-01

    We present the spectral and temporal radiative signatures expected within the "Supercritical Pile" model of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB). This model is motivated by the need for a process that provides the dissipation necessary in GRB and presents a well defined scheme for converting the energy stored in the relativistic protons of the Relativistic Blast Waves (RBW) associated with GRB into radiation; at the same time it leads to spectra which exhibit a peak in the burst nuF(sub nu) distribution at an energy E(sub p) approx. equal to 1 MeV in the observer s frame, in agreement with observation and largely independent of the Lorentz factor r of the associated relativistic outflow. Futhermore, this scheme does not require (but does not preclude) acceleration of particles at the shock other than that provided by the isotropization of the flow bulk kinetic energy on the RBW frame. In the present paper we model in detail the evolution of protons, electrons and photons from a RBW to produce detailed spectra of the prompt GRB phase as a function of time from across a very broad range spanning roughly 4 log10Gamma decades in frequency. The model spectra are in general agreement with observations and provide a means for the delineating of the model parameters through direct comparison with trends observed in GRB properties.

  5. The Supercritical Pile Model for GRBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demos

    2005-01-01

    We present the spectral and tempora1 radiative signatures expected within the "Supercritical Pile" model of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB). This model is motivated by the need for a process that provides the dissipation necessary in GRB and presents a well defined theme for converting the energy stored in the relativistic protons of the Relativistic Blast Waves (RBW) associated with GRB into radiation; at the same it leads to spectra which exhibit a peak in the burst vFv, distribution at an energy Ep l. MeV in the observer's frame, in agreement with observation and largely independent of the Lorentz factor P of the associated relativistic outflow. Furthermore, this scheme does not require (but does not preclude) acceleration of particles at the shock other than that provided by the isotropization of the flow kinetic energy on the RBW frame. In the present paper we model in detail the evolution of protons, electrons and photons from a RBW within the framework of this model to produce detailed spectra of the prompt GRB phase as a function of time from across a very broad range spanning roughly 4log10P decades in frequency. The model spectra are in general agreement with observations and provide a means for the delineating of the model parameters through direct comparison with trends observed in GRB properties.

  6. The Supercritical Pile Model for GRBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demos

    2006-01-01

    We present the spectral and temporal radiative signatures expected within the Supercritical Pile model of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB). This model is motivated by the need for a process that provides the dissipation necessary in GRB and presents a well defined scheme for converting the energy stored in the relativistic protons of the Relativistic Blast Waves (RBW) associated with GRB into radiation; at the same time it leads to spectra which exhibit a peak in the burst nuF(sub nu) distribution at an energy E(sub p) approximately equal to 1 MeV in the observer s frame, in agreement with observation and largely independent of the Lorentz factor GAMMA of the associated relativistic outflow. Furthermore, this scheme does not require (but does not preclude) acceleration of particles at the shock other than that provided by the isotropization of the flow bulk kinetic energy on the RBW frame. In the present paper we model in detail the evolution of protons, electrons and photons from a RBW to produce detailed spectra of the prompt GRB phase as a function of time from across a very broad range spanning roughly 4 log10 GAMMA decades in frequency. The model spectra are in general agreement with observations and provide a means for the delineating of the model parameters through direct comparison with trends observed in GRB properties.

  7. Dynamic load testing on the bearing capacity of prestressed tubular concrete piles in soft ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chuang; Liu, Songyu

    2008-11-01

    Dynamic load testing (DLT) is a high strain test method for assessing pile performance. The shaft capacity of a driven PTC (prestressed tubular concrete) pile in marine soft ground will vary with time after installation. The DLT method has been successfully transferred to the testing of prestressed pipe piles in marine soft clay of Lianyungang area in China. DLT is investigated to determine the ultimate bearing capacity of single pile at different period after pile installation. The ultimate bearing capacity of single pile was founded to increase more than 70% during the inventing 3 months, which demonstrate the time effect of rigid pile bearing capacity in marine soft ground. Furthermore, the skin friction and axial force along the pile shaft are presented as well, which present the load transfer mechanism of pipe pile in soft clay. It shows the economy and efficiency of DLT method compared to static load testing method.

  8. Guidelines for estimating volume, biomass, and smoke production for piled slash. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, C.C.

    1996-02-01

    Guidelines in the form of a six-step approach are provided for estimating volumes, oven-dry mass, consumption, and particulate matter emissions for piled logging debris. Seven stylized pile shapes and their associated geometric volume formulae are used to estimate gross pile volumes. The gross volumes are then reduced to net wood volume by applying an appropriate wood-to-pile volume packing ratio. Next, the oven-dry mass of the pile is determined by using the wood density, or a weighted-average of two wood densitities, for any of 14 tree species commonly piled and burned in the Western United States. Finally, the percentage of biomass consumed is multiplied by an appropriate emission factor to determine the mass of PM, PM10, and PM2.5 produced from the burned pile. These estimates can be extended to represent multiple piles, or multiple groups of similar piles, to estimate the particulate emissions from an entire burn project.

  9. Electrochromic mirror using viologen-anchored nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Han Na; Cho, Seong M.; Ah, Chil Seong; Song, Juhee; Ryu, Hojun; Kim, Yong Hae

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Three types of ECM device were fabricated using viologen-anchored ECDs. • The devices were investigated according to their optical structures. • The anti-reflection material affects the reflectance and the coloration efficiency. • The device design of ECMs is a crucial factor for clear reflected images. - Abstract: Electrochromic mirrors (ECMs) that are used in automobile mirrors need to have high reflectance, a high contrast ratio, and a clear image. In particular, it is critical that distortions of clear images are minimized for safety. Therefore, an ECM is fabricated using viologen-anchored nanoparticles and a magnesium fluoride (MgF{sub 2}) layer with an anti-reflection function. The ECM has approximately 30.42% in the reflectance dynamic range and 125 cm{sup 2}/C high coloration efficiency.

  10. Composite materials formed with anchored nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-03-10

    A method of forming nano-structure composite materials that have a binder material and a nanostructure fiber material is described. A precursor material may be formed using a mixture of at least one metal powder and anchored nanostructure materials. The metal powder mixture may be (a) Ni powder and (b) NiAl powder. The anchored nanostructure materials may comprise (i) NiAl powder as a support material and (ii) carbon nanotubes attached to nanoparticles adjacent to a surface of the support material. The process of forming nano-structure composite materials typically involves sintering the mixture under vacuum in a die. When Ni and NiAl are used in the metal powder mixture Ni.sub.3Al may form as the binder material after sintering. The mixture is sintered until it consolidates to form the nano-structure composite material.

  11. Lash Transported Anchor for a Tanker Mooring.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    Port Hueneme, California 93043 L_. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 81 3 26 008 CONVERSION FACTORS, U.S. CUSTOMARY TO SI U.S...DOCUMENTATION PAGE READ INSTRUCTIONSREFORE COMPLETING FORM . EPORT NUMBER F, T CESSION NO. 3 RECiPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER TN-1587 , /" 92__" 4. TITLE (,dSbI1tI...1 ANCHOR LOADING .. .......................... 2 SEAFLOOR CHARACTERISTICS. .............. ........ 3 TRANSPORT SHIP CAPABILITIES

  12. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews what we know about the interior and surface of the moon and the need to establish a robotic set of geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon for the purpose of providing significant scientific value to the exploration of the Moon. The ILN Anchor Nodes will provide the backbone of the network in a way that accomplishes new science and allows other nodes to be flexible contributors to the network.

  13. Anchoring in a novel bimanual coordination pattern.

    PubMed

    Maslovat, Dana; Lam, Melanie Y; Brunke, Kirstin M; Chua, Romeo; Franks, Ian M

    2009-02-01

    Anchoring in cyclical movements has been defined as regions of reduced spatial or temporal variability [Beek, P. J. (1989). Juggling dynamics. PhD thesis. Amsterdam: Free University Press] that are typically found at movement reversal points. For in-phase and anti-phase movements, synchronizing reversal points with a metronome pulse has resulted in decreased anchor point variability and increased pattern stability [Byblow, W. D., Carson, R. G., & Goodman, D. (1994). Expressions of asymmetries and anchoring in bimanual coordination. Human Movement Science, 13, 3-28; Fink, P. W., Foo, P., Jirsa, V. K., & Kelso, J. A. S. (2000). Local and global stabilization of coordination by sensory information. Experimental Brain Research, 134, 9-20]. The present experiment examined anchoring during acquisition, retention, and transfer of a 90 degrees phase-offset continuous bimanual coordination pattern (whereby the right limb lags the left limb by one quarter cycle), involving horizontal flexion about the elbow. Three metronome synchronization strategies were imposed: participants either synchronized maximal flexion of the right arm (i.e., single metronome), both flexion and extension of the right arm (i.e., double metronome within-limb), or flexion of each arm (i.e., double metronome between-limb) to an auditory metronome. In contrast to simpler in-phase and anti-phase movements, synchronization of additional reversal points to the metronome did not reduce reversal point variability or increase pattern stability. Furthermore, practicing under different metronome synchronization strategies did not appear to have a significant effect on the rate of acquisition of the pattern.

  14. Resisting anchoring effects: The roles of metric and mapping knowledge.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew R; Windschitl, Paul D

    2015-10-01

    The biasing influence of anchors on numerical estimates is well established, but the relationship between knowledge level and the susceptibility to anchoring effects is less clear. In two studies, we addressed the potential mitigating effects of having knowledge in a domain on vulnerability to anchoring effects in that domain. Of critical interest was a distinction between two forms of knowledge-metric and mapping knowledge. In Study 1, participants who had studied question-relevant information-that is, high-knowledge participants-were less influenced by anchors than were participants who had studied irrelevant information. The results from knowledge measures suggested that the reduction in anchoring was tied to increases in metric rather than mapping knowledge. In Study 2, participants studied information specifically designed to influence different types of knowledge. As we predicted, increases in metric knowledge-and not mapping knowledge-led to reduced anchoring effects. Implications for debiasing anchoring effects are discussed.

  15. Characterization of Odorant Compounds from Mechanical Aerated Pile Composting and Static Aerated Pile Composting

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Priyanka; Lee, Joonhee; Choi, Hong-Lim

    2016-01-01

    We studied airborne contaminants (airborne particulates and odorous compounds) emitted from compost facilities in South Korea. There are primarily two different types of composting systems operating in Korean farms, namely mechanical aerated pile composting (MAPC) and aerated static pile composting (SAPC). In this study, we analyzed various particulate matters (PM10, PM7, PM2.5, PM1, and total suspended particles), volatile organic compounds and ammonia, and correlated these airborne contaminants with microclimatic parameters, i.e., temperature and relative humidity. Most of the analyzed airborne particulates (PM7, PM2.5, and PM1) were detected in high concentration at SAPC facilities compered to MAPC; however these differences were statistically non-significant. Similarly, most of the odorants did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, except for dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and skatole. DMS concentrations were significantly higher in MAPC facilities, whereas skatole concentrations were significantly higher in SAPC facilities. The microclimate variables also did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, and did not correlate significantly with most of the airborne particles and odorous compounds, suggesting that microclimate variables did not influence their emission from compost facilities. These findings provide insight into the airborne contaminants that are emitted from compost facilities and the two different types of composting agitation systems. PMID:26949962

  16. Electropermanent magnetic anchoring for surgery and endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Tugwell, Josef; Brennan, Philip; O'Shea, Conor; O'Donoghue, Kilian; Power, Timothy; O'Shea, Michael; Griffiths, James; Cahill, Ronan; Cantillon-Murphy, Padraig

    2015-03-01

    The use of magnets for anchoring of instrumentation in minimally invasive surgery and endoscopy has become of increased interest in recent years. Permanent magnets have significant advantages over electromagnets for these applications; larger anchoring and retraction force for comparable size and volume without the need for any external power supply. However, permanent magnets represent a potential hazard in the operating field where inadvertent attraction to surgical instrumentation is often undesirable. The current work proposes an interesting hybrid approach which marries the high forces of permanent magnets with the control of electromagnetic technology including the ability to turn the magnet OFF when necessary. This is achieved through the use of an electropermanent magnet, which is designed for surgical retraction across the abdominal and gastric walls. Our electropermanent magnet, which is hand-held and does not require continuous power, is designed with a center lumen which may be used for trocar or needle insertion. The device in this application has been demonstrated successfully in the porcine model where coupling between an intraluminal ring magnet and our electropermanent magnet facilitated guided insertion of an 18 Fr Tuohy needle for guidewire placement. Subsequent investigations have demonstrated the ability to control the coupling distance of the system alleviating shortcomings with current methods of magnetic coupling due to variation in transabdominal wall thicknesses. With further refinement, the magnet may find application in the anchoring of endoscopic and surgical instrumentation for minimally invasive interventions in the gastrointestinal tract.

  17. Robotic Ankle for Omnidirectional Rock Anchors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew; Thatte, Nitish

    2013-01-01

    Future robotic exploration of near-Earth asteroids and the vertical and inverted rock walls of lava caves and cliff faces on Mars and other planetary bodies would require a method of gripping their rocky surfaces to allow mobility without gravitational assistance. In order to successfully navigate this terrain and drill for samples, the grippers must be able to produce anchoring forces in excess of 100 N. Additionally, the grippers must be able to support the inertial forces of a moving robot, as well gravitational forces for demonstrations on Earth. One possible solution would be to use microspine arrays to anchor to rock surfaces and provide the necessary load-bearing abilities for robotic exploration of asteroids. Microspine arrays comprise dozens of small steel hooks supported on individual suspensions. When these arrays are dragged along a rock surface, the steel hooks engage with asperities and holes on the surface. The suspensions allow for individual hooks to engage with asperities while the remaining hooks continue to drag along the surface. This ensures that the maximum possible number of hooks engage with the surface, thereby increasing the load-bearing abilities of the gripper. Using the microspine array grippers described above as the end-effectors of a robot would allow it to traverse terrain previously unreachable by traditional wheeled robots. Furthermore, microspine-gripping robots that can perch on cliffs or rocky walls could enable a new class of persistent surveillance devices for military applications. In order to interface these microspine grippers with a legged robot, an ankle is needed that can robotically actuate the gripper, as well as allow it to conform to the large-scale irregularities in the rock. The anchor serves three main purposes: deploy and release the anchor, conform to roughness or misalignment with the surface, and cancel out any moments about the anchor that could cause unintentional detachment. The ankle design contains a

  18. Contribution to Estimating Bearing Capacity of Pile in Clayey Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drusa, Marián; Gago, Filip; Vlček, Jozef

    2016-12-01

    The estimation of real geotechnical parameters is key factor for safe and economic design of geotechnical structures. One of these are pile foundations, which require proper design and evaluation due to accessing more deep foundation soil and because remediation work of not bearable piles or broken piles is a crucial operation. For this reason, geotechnical field testing like cone penetration test (CPT), standard penetration (SPT) or dynamic penetration test (DP) are realized in order to receive continuous information about soil strata. Comparing with rotary core drilling type of survey with sampling, these methods are more progressive. From engineering geologist point of view, it is more important to know geological characterization of locality but geotechnical engineers have more interest above the real geotechnical parameters of foundation soils. The role of engineering geologist cannot be underestimated because important geological processes in origin or during history can explain behaviour of a geological environment. In effort to streamline the survey, investigation by penetration tests is done as it is able to provide enough information for designers. This paper deals with actual trends in pile foundation design; because there are no new standards and usable standards are very old. Estimation of the bearing capacity of a single pile can be demonstrated on the example of determination of the cone factor Nk from CPT testing. Then results were compared with other common methods.

  19. Numerical experiments with rubble piles: equilibrium shapes and spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Derek C.; Elankumaran, Pradeep; Sanderson, Robyn E.

    2005-02-01

    We present numerical experiments investigating the shape and spin limits of self-gravitating "perfect" rubble piles that consist of identical, smooth, rigid, spherical particles with configurable normal coefficient of restitution and no sliding friction. Such constructs are currently employed in a variety of investigations, ranging from the formation of asteroid satellites to the dynamical properties of Saturn's densest rings. We find that, owing to cannonball stacking behavior, rubble piles can maintain non-spherical shapes without bulk spin, unlike a fluid, and can spin faster than a perfect fluid before shedding mass, consistent with the theory for the more general continuum rubble pile model (Holsapple, 2004, Icarus 172, 272-303). Rubble piles that reassemble following a catastrophic disruption reconfigure themselves to lie within stability limits predicted by the continuum theory. We also find that coarse configurations consisting of a small number of particles are more resistant to tidal disruption than fine configurations with many particles. Overall this study shows that idealized rubble piles behave qualitatively in a manner similar to certain granular materials, at least in the limit where global shape readjustments and/or mass shedding begins. The limits obtained here may provide constraints on the possible internal structure of some small Solar System bodies that have extreme shapes or are under high stress. Amalthea is presented as a case study.

  20. The Pressure Limitations on Flux Pile-Up Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, Y. E.

    1999-05-01

    Flux pile-up magnetic reconnection was thought to be able to provide fast energy dissipation a strongly magnetized plasma, for example, in solar flares. We examine the problem of the plasma pressure limitations on the rapidity of flux pile-up reconnection. It is shown that for a two-dimensional stagnation point flow with nonzero vorticity the magnetic merging rate cannot exceed the Sweet-Parker scaling in a low-beta plasma, which is too slow to explain flares. Moreover, the solution has some undesireable properties such as a diffusion layer at the external boundary and the massively increasing inflow speed. The pressure limitation appears to be somewhat less restrictive for three-dimensional flux pile-up. This work was supported by NSF grant ATM-9813933.

  1. Design of Jetty Piles Using Artificial Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To overcome the complication of jetty pile design process, artificial neural networks (ANN) are adopted. To generate the training samples for training ANN, finite element (FE) analysis was performed 50 times for 50 different design cases. The trained ANN was verified with another FE analysis case and then used as a structural analyzer. The multilayer neural network (MBPNN) with two hidden layers was used for ANN. The framework of MBPNN was defined as the input with the lateral forces on the jetty structure and the type of piles and the output with the stress ratio of the piles. The results from the MBPNN agree well with those from FE analysis. Particularly for more complex modes with hundreds of different design cases, the MBPNN would possibly substitute parametric studies with FE analysis saving design time and cost. PMID:25177724

  2. Avalanche prediction in a self-organized pile of beads.

    PubMed

    Ramos, O; Altshuler, E; Måløy, K J

    2009-02-20

    It is a common belief that power-law distributed avalanches are inherently unpredictable. This idea affects phenomena as diverse as evolution, earthquakes, superconducting vortices, stock markets, etc., from atomic to social scales. It mainly comes from the concept of "self-organized criticality" (SOC), where criticality is interpreted in the way that, at any moment, any small avalanche can eventually cascade into a large event. Nevertheless, this work demonstrates experimentally the possibility of avalanche prediction in the classical paradigm of SOC: a pile of grains. By knowing the position of every grain in a two-dimensional pile, avalanches of moving grains follow a distinct power-law distribution. Large avalanches, although uncorrelated, are on average preceded by continuous, detectable variations in the internal structure of the pile that are monitored in order to achieve prediction.

  3. Avalanche Prediction in a Self-Organized Pile of Beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, O.; Altshuler, E.; Måløy, K. J.

    2009-02-01

    It is a common belief that power-law distributed avalanches are inherently unpredictable. This idea affects phenomena as diverse as evolution, earthquakes, superconducting vortices, stock markets, etc., from atomic to social scales. It mainly comes from the concept of “self-organized criticality” (SOC), where criticality is interpreted in the way that, at any moment, any small avalanche can eventually cascade into a large event. Nevertheless, this work demonstrates experimentally the possibility of avalanche prediction in the classical paradigm of SOC: a pile of grains. By knowing the position of every grain in a two-dimensional pile, avalanches of moving grains follow a distinct power-law distribution. Large avalanches, although uncorrelated, are on average preceded by continuous, detectable variations in the internal structure of the pile that are monitored in order to achieve prediction.

  4. A simple approach for calculating pile skin friction in clays

    SciTech Connect

    Mirza, U.A.A.

    1995-12-31

    A simple method is presented for calculating static shaft resistance of a pile driven into clay. The method is based on correlations established for North Sea clays between index properties and strengths. Application of the method to half a dozen full scale pile load tests which are part of the API RP2A`s data base and include a wide range of plasticity properties, overconsolidation ratios and strengths, is described. Except for short piles in very stiff to hard clays, the predictions agree very well with the measurements. The correlations presented allows an assessment of residual skin friction and indicate the importance of the liquidity index of the clay in static capacity calculations.

  5. Cumulative Damage in Strength-Dominated Collisions of Rocky Asteroids: Rubble Piles and Brick Piles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housen, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory impact experiments were performed to investigate the conditions that produce large-scale damage in rock targets. Aluminum cylinders (6.3 mm diameter) impacted basalt cylinders (69 mm diameter) at speeds ranging from 0.7 to 2.0 km/s. Diagnostics included measurements of the largest fragment mass, velocities of the largest remnant and large fragments ejected from the periphery of the target, and X-ray computed tomography imaging to inspect some of the impacted targets for internal damage. Significant damage to the target occurred when the kinetic energy per unit target mass exceeded roughly 1/4 of the energy required for catastrophic shattering (where the target is reduced to one-half its original mass). Scaling laws based on a rate-dependent strength were developed that provide a basis for extrapolating the results to larger strength-dominated collisions. The threshold specific energy for widespread damage was found to scale with event size in the same manner as that for catastrophic shattering. Therefore, the factor of four difference between the two thresholds observed in the lab also applies to larger collisions. The scaling laws showed that for a sequence of collisions that are similar in that they produce the same ratio of largest fragment mass to original target mass, the fragment velocities decrease with increasing event size. As a result, rocky asteroids a couple hundred meters in diameter should retain their large ejecta fragments in a jumbled rubble-pile state. For somewhat larger bodies, the ejection velocities are sufficiently low that large fragments are essentially retained in place, possibly forming ordered "brick-pile" structures.

  6. Anchor Toolkit - a secure mobile agent system

    SciTech Connect

    Mudumbai, Srilekha S.; Johnston, William; Essiari, Abdelilah

    1999-05-19

    Mobile agent technology facilitates intelligent operation insoftware systems with less human interaction. Major challenge todeployment of mobile agents include secure transmission of agents andpreventing unauthorized access to resources between interacting systems,as either hosts, or agents, or both can act maliciously. The Anchortoolkit, designed by LBNL, handles the transmission and secure managementof mobile agents in a heterogeneous distributed computing environment. Itprovides users with the option of incorporating their security managers.This paper concentrates on the architecture, features, access control anddeployment of Anchor toolkit. Application of this toolkit in a securedistributed CVS environment is discussed as a case study.

  7. 27. The top of a typical pile, F Reactor in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. The top of a typical pile, F Reactor in February 1945 in this case, showing the vertical safety rods (VSRs) and the cables that support them. The rods could be dropped into the pile to effect a rapid shutdown. The four silvered-colored drums on the left contained boron solution and are part of the last ditch safety system. Should the VSRs channels become blocked by an occurrence such as an earthquake, the solution could be dumped into the VSR channels to help shut down the reactor. D-8334 - B Reactor, Richland, Benton County, WA

  8. Effects of Impulsive Pile-Driving Exposure on Fishes.

    PubMed

    Casper, Brandon M; Carlson, Thomas J; Halvorsen, Michele B; Popper, Arthur N

    2016-01-01

    Six species of fishes were tested under aquatic far-field, plane-wave acoustic conditions to answer several key questions regarding the effects of exposure to impulsive pile driving. The issues addressed included which sound levels lead to the onset of barotrauma injuries, how these levels differ between fishes with different types of swim bladders, the recovery from barotrauma injuries, and the potential effects exposure might have on the auditory system. The results demonstrate that the current interim criteria for pile-driving sound exposures are 20 dB or more below the actual sound levels that result in the onset of physiological effects on fishes.

  9. Thermocouples For High Temperature In-Pile Testing

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Rempe

    2005-11-01

    Many advanced nuclear reactor designs require new fuel, cladding and structural materials. Data are needed to characeterize the performance of these new materials in high temperature, oxidizing and radiation conditions. To obtain this data, robust instrumentation is needed htat can survive proposed test conditions. Traditional methods for measuring temperature in-pile degrade at temperatures above 1080 degrees C. Hence, a project was intiated to develop specialized thermocouples for high temperature in-pile applications (see Rempe and Wilkins, 2005). This paper summarizes efforts to develop, fabricate and evaluate these specialized thermocouples.

  10. Dynamic characteristics of a jacket type offshore structure considering non-linear behavior of pile foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Aaghaakouchak, A.A.; Asgarian, B.

    1996-12-31

    Dynamic characteristics of a typical six legged jacket type platform in Persian Gulf have been studied. An equivalent linearized pile stub has been used to model the pile-soil system. The properties of pile stub have been calculated for different levels of the pile-head deformations resulting from the action of different waves. Natural frequencies and mode shapes of resulting linear models have been determined and compared to each other.

  11. Anchor-induced chondral damage in the hip.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Dean K; Bharam, Srino; White, Brian J; Matsuda, Nicole A; Safran, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the outcomes from anchor-induced chondral damage of the hip, both with and without frank chondral penetration. A multicenter retrospective case series was performed of patients with chondral deformation or penetration during initial hip arthroscopic surgery. Intra-operative findings, post-surgical clinical courses, hip outcome scores and descriptions of arthroscopic treatment in cases requiring revision surgery and anchor removal are reported. Five patients (three females) of mean age 32 years (range, 16-41 years) had documented anchor-induced chondral damage with mean 3.5 years (range, 1.5-6.0 years) follow-up. The 1 o'clock position (four cases) and anterior and mid-anterior portals (two cases each) were most commonly implicated. Two cases of anchor-induced acetabular chondral deformation without frank penetration had successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, while one case progressed from deformation to chondral penetration with clinical worsening. Of the cases that underwent revision hip arthroscopy, all three had confirmed exposed hard anchors which were removed. Two patients have had clinical improvement and one patient underwent early total hip arthroplasty. Anchor-induced chondral deformation without frank chondral penetration may be treated with close clinical and radiographic monitoring with a low threshold for revision surgery and anchor removal. Chondral penetration should be treated with immediate removal of offending hard anchor implants. Preventative measures include distal-based portals, small diameter and short anchors, removable hard anchors, soft suture-based anchors, curved drill and anchor insertion instrumentation and attention to safe trajectories while visualizing the acetabular articular surface.

  12. Engineered liquid crystal anchoring energies with nanopatterned surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gear, Christopher; Diest, Kenneth; Liberman, Vladimir; Rothschild, Mordechai

    2015-01-26

    The anchoring energy of liquid crystals was shown to be tunable by surface nanopatterning of periodic lines and spaces. Both the pitch and height were varied using hydrogen silsesquioxane negative tone electron beam resist, providing for flexibility in magnitude and spatial distribution of the anchoring energy. Using twisted nematic liquid crystal cells, it was shown that this energy is tunable over an order of magnitude. These results agree with a literature model which predicts the anchoring energy of sinusoidal grooves.

  13. Nonrotating, self-centering anchor assembly for anchoring a bolt in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Bevan, John E.; King, Grant W.

    1998-01-01

    An expandable anchor assembly is provided for anchoring the threaded end portion of an elongated roof bolt in a borehole. The anchoring assembly includes a hollow outer sleeve in the form of a plurality of symmetrically arranged, longitudinal segmented wall portions with exterior gripping teeth and an inner expander sleeve in the form of a corresponding plurality of longitudinal wall portions symmetrically arranged about a central axis to define an inner threaded cylindrical section. The inner sleeve is captured within and moveable axially relative to the outer sleeve. As the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt is inserted into the inner threaded cylindrical section of the inner sleeve from the trailing end to the leading end thereof, the inner sleeve expands over and clamps around the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt. Thereafter, partial withdrawal of the elongated bolt from the borehole causes the inner sleeve to axially move relative to the outer sleeve from the leading end toward the trailing end of the outer sleeve in a wedging action to cause the outer sleeve to radially expand and force engagement of the gripping teeth against the sidewall of the borehole to thereby secure the expandable anchor assembly and therewith the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt within the borehole.

  14. Nonrotating, self-centering anchor assembly for anchoring a bolt in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Bevan, J.E.; King, G.W.

    1998-12-08

    An expandable anchor assembly is provided for anchoring the threaded end portion of an elongated roof bolt in a borehole. The anchoring assembly includes a hollow outer sleeve in the form of a plurality of symmetrically arranged, longitudinal segmented wall portions with exterior gripping teeth and an inner expander sleeve in the form of a corresponding plurality of longitudinal wall portions symmetrically arranged about a central axis to define an inner threaded cylindrical section. The inner sleeve is captured within and moveable axially relative to the outer sleeve. As the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt is inserted into the inner threaded cylindrical section of the inner sleeve from the trailing end to the leading end thereof, the inner sleeve expands over and clamps around the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt. Thereafter, partial withdrawal of the elongated bolt from the borehole causes the inner sleeve to axially move relative to the outer sleeve from the leading end toward the trailing end of the outer sleeve in a wedging action to cause the outer sleeve to radially expand and force engagement of the gripping teeth against the sidewall of the borehole to thereby secure the expandable anchor assembly and therewith the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt within the borehole. 8 figs.

  15. Nonrotating, self-centering anchor assembly for anchoring a bolt in a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Bevan, John E.; King, Grant W.

    1997-12-01

    An expandable anchor assembly is provided for anchoring the threaded end portion of an elongated roof bolt in a borehole. The anchoring assembly includes a hollow outer sleeve in the form of a plurality of symmetrically arranged, longitudinal segmented wall portions with exterior gripping teeth and an inner expander sleeve in the form of a corresponding plurality of longitudinal wall portions symmetrically arranged about a central axis to define an inner threaded cylindrical section. The inner sleeve is captured within and moveable axially relative to the outer sleeve. As the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt is inserted into the inner threaded cylindrical section of the inner sleeve from the trailing end to the leading end thereof, the inner sleeve expands over and clamps around the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt. Thereafter, partial withdrawal of the elongated bolt from the borehole causes the inner sleeve to axially move relative to the outer sleeve from the leading end toward the trailing end of the outer sleeve in a wedging action to cause the outer sleeve to radially expand and force engagement of the gripping teeth against the sidewall of the borehole to thereby secure the expandable anchor assembly and therewith the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt within the borehole.

  16. A Pressuremeter Method for Single Piles Subjected to Cyclic Lateral Loads in Sand

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    Tests at the University of Houston Foundation Test Facility Sand Site. Is-p 103 -k % Figure 66. Come of Depresion Around Driven ,:.. Co ne Pr e s u r...curves, the model piles for which placement entailed post- compaction were treated as bored piles. The others were driven piles and treated as such

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure: Delaying pile mixing does not reduce overall emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of the timing of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during dairy manure composting was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover replicate pilot-scale compost piles. GHG emissions from compost piles that were mixed at 2, 3, 4, or 5 weeks after initial c...

  18. COOPERATIVE MARINE PILING INVESTIGATION - PHASE III. INSPECTION AFTER FOUR YEARS EXPOSURE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Cooperative Piling Committee and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command exposed 54 specially treated piles at Coco Solo Annex, Rodman Naval...undamaged by marine borers. In March 1967, after 4 years of exposure, 8 of the 54 piles at Coco Solo have been attacked by Limnoria and one was also

  19. 30 CFR 780.25 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., impoundments, and refuse piles. 780.25 Section 780.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION..., and refuse piles. (a) General. Each application must include a general plan and a detailed design plan for each proposed siltation structure, impoundment, and refuse pile within the proposed permit...

  20. 30 CFR 784.16 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., impoundments, and refuse piles. 784.16 Section 784.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION..., and refuse piles. (a) General. Each application must include a general plan and a detailed design plan for each proposed siltation structure, impoundment, and refuse pile within the proposed permit...

  1. 30 CFR 784.16 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., impoundments, and refuse piles. 784.16 Section 784.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION..., and refuse piles. (a) General. Each application must include a general plan and a detailed design plan for each proposed siltation structure, impoundment, and refuse pile within the proposed permit...

  2. 30 CFR 780.25 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., impoundments, and refuse piles. 780.25 Section 780.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION..., and refuse piles. (a) General. Each application must include a general plan and a detailed design plan for each proposed siltation structure, impoundment, and refuse pile within the proposed permit...

  3. 30 CFR 780.25 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., impoundments, and refuse piles. 780.25 Section 780.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION..., and refuse piles. (a) General. Each application must include a general plan and a detailed design plan for each proposed siltation structure, impoundment, and refuse pile within the proposed permit...

  4. 30 CFR 784.16 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., impoundments, and refuse piles. 784.16 Section 784.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION..., and refuse piles. (a) General. Each application must include a general plan and a detailed design plan for each proposed siltation structure, impoundment, and refuse pile within the proposed permit...

  5. 40 CFR 761.347 - First level sampling-waste from existing piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... destined for off-site disposal stacked up uniformly to a peak that is a point centered above the center of...) Setting up the sample site selection system from a pile. Locate a sample in a pile by the use of three... distance around the bottom of the pile. Determine r from b in one of two ways: (1) Multiply c by a...

  6. Venue Recommendation and Web Search Based on Anchor Text

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    experimented with the use of anchor text representations in the language modeling framework, and base our runs ei- ther on full ClueWeb12 or the subset of...anchor text representations in the language modeling framework, and base our runs ei- ther on full ClueWeb12 or the subset of touristic aggregators...ClueWeb12- full anchor text , and run our proposed model based on this dataset. This model is exactly the same as Model-Anchor, but based on the

  7. Infrastructure anchor bolt inspection program with NDE applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, Philip E.

    1996-11-01

    In 1990, Wisconsin Department of Transportation found a high mast light pole with two of six anchor bolts failed. This failure along with published reports from Michigan DOT about anchor bolt failures on cantilever sign structures, raised concern about the quality and condition of anchor bolts on the Wisconsin DOT system. Wisconsin Department of Transportation implemented an Anchor Bolt Inspection Program in 1990 for cantilever sign structures, high mast light towers, interstate light towers, and signal masts. The program requires an experienced inspection team and a practical inspection approach. Inspection preparation includes review of all background information such as design plans, design computations, construction plans, shop plans, and maintenance history. An inspection plan is developed. Special emphasis is placed on determining material type, cut or rolled threads, and type of coating for anchor bolts. Inspection emphasis are on "hands on" and Nondestructive evaluation. Special emphasis is placed on visual conditions of anchor bolts (cut or rolled threads, straightness, corrosion, nut tension etc.) along with ultrasonic inspection. This program places a strong emphasis on Non Destructive Testing (NDT), especially ultrasonic. Procedures and inspection calibrations are developed from similar anchor bolt geometry and material type. Cut notches are placed in the anchor bolts at locations of possible failure. NDT inspection calibrations are performed from these bolts. Report documentation includes all design plans, pictorial documentation of structural deficiencies, sketches, nondestructive evaluation reports, conclusions, and recommendations. This program has been successful in locating failed anchor bolts and critical cracks before failure of an entire structure.

  8. New Retrievable Coil Anchors: Preliminary In Vivo Experiences in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Konya, A. Wright, K.C.

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. To design and test retrievable coil anchors to improve the safety and efficacy of coil embolization. Methods. Fifty-two 0.038-inch homemade retrievable stainless steel coils were equipped with one of four different pre-shaped nitinol anchors and tested in 38 pigs. All coils with the anchor were completely retrieved and redeployed 3-18 times (median 7 times) prior to release. Types 1 and 2 anchored coils were acutely deployed in the external iliac arteries (n = 10 each), and chronically tested (1 week) in the common carotid arteries (n = 6 each). Larger type 1 (n = 4), type 3 (n = 6), and type 4 (n = 4) anchored coils were acutely deployed in the abdominal aorta. The largest type 1 anchors (n = 6) were acutely tested in the inferior vena cava. Results. All anchored coils were successfully retrieved and repositioned several times. All but two coils formed a compact plug and there was no coil migration except with two mechanically defective type 3 anchors. Conclusion. The use of retrievable anchors allowed the coils to be retrieved and repositioned, prevented coil migration, and enabled compact coil configuration.

  9. End-anchored polymers in good solvents from the single chain limit to high anchoring densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, Mark D.; Grest, Gary S.; Douglas, Jack F.; Kent, Michael S.; Suo, Tongchuan

    2016-11-01

    An increasing number of applications utilize grafted polymer layers to alter the interfacial properties of solid substrates, motivating refinement in our theoretical understanding of such layers. To assess existing theoretical models of them, we have investigated end-anchored polymer layers over a wide range of grafting densities, σ, ranging from a single chain to high anchoring density limits, chain lengths ranging over two orders of magnitude, for very good and marginally good solvent conditions. We compare Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations, numerical self-consistent field calculations, and experimental measurements of the average layer thickness, h, with renormalization group theory, the Alexander-de Gennes mushroom theory, and the classical brush theory. Our simulations clearly indicate that appreciable inter-chain interactions exist at all simulated areal anchoring densities so that there is no mushroom regime in which the layer thickness is independent of σ. Moreover, we find that there is no high coverage regime in which h follows the predicted scaling, h ˜ Nσ1/3, for classical polymer brushes either. Given that no completely adequate analytic theory seems to exist that spans wide ranges of N and σ, we applied scaling arguments for h as a function of a suitably defined reduced anchoring density, defined in terms of the solution radius of gyration of the polymer chains and N. We find that such a scaling approach enables a smooth, unified description of h in very good solvents over the full range of anchoring density and chain lengths, although this type of data reduction does not apply to marginal solvent quality conditions.

  10. Study on the Deformation Measurement of the Cast-In-Place Large-Diameter Pile Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lei; Yang, Kai; Chen, Xiaorui; Yu, Xiangjuan

    2017-01-01

    Compared with conventional piles such as the circle pile, the cast-in-place large-diameter pile (PCC pile) has many advantages: the lateral area of PCC pile is larger and the bearing capacity of PCC pile is higher. It is more cost-effective than other piles such as square pile under the same condition. The deformation of the PCC pile is very important for its application. In order to obtain the deformation of the PCC pile, a new type of quasi-distributed optical fiber sensing technology named a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is used to monitor the deformation of the PCC pile. The PCC model pile is made, the packaging process of the PCC model pile and the layout of fiber sensors are designed, and the strains of the PCC model pile based on FBG sensors are monitored. The strain of the PCC pile is analyzed by the static load test. The results show that FBG technology is successfully applied for monitoring the deformation of the PCC pile, the monitoring data is more useful for the PCC pile. It will provide a reference for the engineering applications. PMID:28273817

  11. Study on the Deformation Measurement of the Cast-In-Place Large-Diameter Pile Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Yang, Kai; Chen, Xiaorui; Yu, Xiangjuan

    2017-03-03

    Compared with conventional piles such as the circle pile, the cast-in-place large-diameter pile (PCC pile) has many advantages: the lateral area of PCC pile is larger and the bearing capacity of PCC pile is higher. It is more cost-effective than other piles such as square pile under the same condition. The deformation of the PCC pile is very important for its application. In order to obtain the deformation of the PCC pile, a new type of quasi-distributed optical fiber sensing technology named a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is used to monitor the deformation of the PCC pile. The PCC model pile is made, the packaging process of the PCC model pile and the layout of fiber sensors are designed, and the strains of the PCC model pile based on FBG sensors are monitored. The strain of the PCC pile is analyzed by the static load test. The results show that FBG technology is successfully applied for monitoring the deformation of the PCC pile, the monitoring data is more useful for the PCC pile. It will provide a reference for the engineering applications.

  12. Rigid rod anchored to infinite membrane.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kunkun; Qiu, Feng; Zhang, Hongdong; Yang, Yuliang

    2005-08-15

    We investigate the shape deformation of an infinite membrane anchored by a rigid rod. The density profile of the rod is calculated by the self-consistent-field theory and the shape of the membrane is predicted by the Helfrich membrane elasticity theory [W. Helfrich, Z. Naturforsch. 28c, 693 (1973)]. It is found that the membrane bends away from the rigid rod when the interaction between the rod and the membrane is repulsive or weakly attractive (adsorption). However, the pulled height of the membrane at first increases and then decreases with the increase of the adsorption strength. Compared to a Gaussian chain with the same length, the rigid rod covers much larger area of the membrane, whereas exerts less local entropic pressure on the membrane. An evident gap is found between the membrane and the rigid rod because the membrane's curvature has to be continuous. These behaviors are compared with that of the flexible-polymer-anchored membranes studied by previous Monte Carlo simulations and theoretical analysis. It is straightforward to extend this method to more complicated and real biological systems, such as infinite membrane/multiple chains, protein inclusion, or systems with phase separation.

  13. Behavior of pile group with elevated cap subjected to cyclic lateral loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yun-min; Gu, Ming; Chen, Ren-peng; Kong, Ling-gang; Zhang, Zhe-hang; Bian, Xue-cheng

    2015-06-01

    The pile group with elevated cap is widely used as foundation of offshore structures such as turbines, power transmission towers and bridge piers, and understanding its behavior under cyclic lateral loads induced by waves, tide water and winds, is of great importance to designing. A large-scale model test on 3×3 pile group with elevated cap subjected to cyclic lateral loads was performed in saturated silts. The preparation and implementation of the test is presented. Steel pipes with the outer diameter of 114 mm, thickness of 4.5 mm, and length of 6 m were employed as model piles. The pile group was cyclic loaded in a multi-stage sequence with the lateral displacement controlled. In addition, a single pile test was also conducted at the same site for comparison. The displacement of the pile cap, the internal forces of individual piles, and the horizontal stiffness of the pile group are presented and discussed in detail. The results indicate that the lateral cyclic loads have a greater impact on pile group than that on a single pile, and give rise to the significant plastic strain in the soil around piles. The lateral loads carried by each row of piles within the group would be redistributed with loading cycles. The lateral stiffness of the pile group decreases gradually with cycles and broadly presents three different degradation patterns in the test. Significant axial forces were measured out in some piles within the group, owing to the strong restraint provided by the cap, and finally lead to a large settlement of the pile group. These findings can be referred for foundation designing of offshore structures.

  14. 61. Picking Floor, Large Pile of Waste Rock and Wood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. Picking Floor, Large Pile of Waste Rock and Wood date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  15. Airborne sound propagation over sea during offshore wind farm piling.

    PubMed

    Van Renterghem, T; Botteldooren, D; Dekoninck, L

    2014-02-01

    Offshore piling for wind farm construction has attracted a lot of attention in recent years due to the extremely high noise emission levels associated with such operations. While underwater noise levels were shown to be harmful for the marine biology, the propagation of airborne piling noise over sea has not been studied in detail before. In this study, detailed numerical calculations have been performed with the Green's Function Parabolic Equation (GFPE) method to estimate noise levels up to a distance of 10 km. Measured noise emission levels during piling of pinpiles for a jacket-foundation wind turbine were assessed and used together with combinations of the sea surface state and idealized vertical sound speed profiles (downwind sound propagation). Effective impedances were found and used to represent non-flat sea surfaces at low-wind sea states 2, 3, and 4. Calculations show that scattering by a rough sea surface, which decreases sound pressure levels, exceeds refractive effects, which increase sound pressure levels under downwind conditions. This suggests that the presence of wind, even when blowing downwind to potential receivers, is beneficial to increase the attenuation of piling sound over the sea. A fully flat sea surface therefore represents a worst-case scenario.

  16. Aerial sampling of emissions from biomass pile burns in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5 µm), black carbon, ultraviolet absorbing PM, elemental/organic carbon, semi-volatile organics (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans), filter-based metals, and volatile organics were sampled for determination of emission factors. The effect on emissions from covering or not covering piles with polyethylene sheets to prevent fuel wetting was determined. Results showed that the uncovered (“wet”) piles burned with lower combustion efficiency and higher emissions of volatile organic compounds. Results for other pollutants will also be discussed. This work determined the emissions from open burning of forest slash wood, with and without plastic sheeting. The foresters advocate the use of plastic to keep the slash wood dry and aid in the controlled combustion of the slash to reduce fuel loading. Concerns about the emissions from the burning plastic prompted this work which conducted an extensive characterization of dry, wet, and dry with plastic slash pile emissions.

  17. VIEW OF PROCESS DEVELOPMENT PILE (PDP) TANK, LOOKING WESTSOUTHWEST, BASEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PROCESS DEVELOPMENT PILE (PDP) TANK, LOOKING WEST-SOUTHWEST, BASEMENT LEVEL -15’. EDGE O FRESONANCE TEST REACTOR (RTR), LATER KNOWN AS LATTICE TEST REACTOR (LTR), VISIBLE TO RIGHT OF PDP TANK - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  18. Detail section extending from shore. Note the paired support pilings, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail section extending from shore. Note the paired support pilings, concrete curbs with rectangular openings for drainage, and large-diameter metal pipe suspended under the deck. USS MISSOURI in background - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Gasoline Wharf, Offshore, near the intersection of Hornet Avenue & Curtis Street, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. 5. VIEW OF UPPER NOTTINGHAM TAILING PILES LOOKING TOWARDS ROCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPPER NOTTINGHAM TAILING PILES LOOKING TOWARDS ROCK WALL VISIBLE ON SLOPE JUST RIGHT OF CENTER. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Upper Nottingham Mine, West face of Florida Mountain, head of Jacobs Gulch, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  20. 3. VIEW OF EMPIRE STATE MINE WITH TAILING PILE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF EMPIRE STATE MINE WITH TAILING PILE IN BOTTOM LEFT AND COLLAPSED ADIT LOCATED BELOW DARK SHADOWS IN FAR RIGHT/LOWER THIRD. COLLAPSED BUILDING AND PARTIAL VIEW OF ORE CHUTE/BIN IS VISIBLE ON HILLSIDE ABOVE TAILINGS. CAMERA POINTED NORTH/NORTHWEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  1. The impact of wind energy turbine piles on ocean dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grashorn, Sebastian; Stanev, Emil V.

    2016-04-01

    The small- and meso-scale ocean response to wind parks has not been investigated in the southern North Sea until now with the help of high-resolution numerical modelling. Obstacles such as e.g. wind turbine piles may influence the ocean current system and produce turbulent kinetic energy which could affect sediment dynamics in the surrounding area. Two setups of the unstructured-grid model SCHISM (Semi-implicit Cross-scale Hydroscience Integrated System Model) have been developed for an idealized channel including a surface piercing cylindrical obstacle representing the pile and a more realistic test case including four exemplary piles. Experiments using a constant flow around the obstacles and a rotating M2 tidal wave are carried out. The resulting current and turbulence patterns are investigated to estimate the influence of the obstacles on the surrounding ocean dynamics. We demonstrate that using an unstructured ocean model provides the opportunity to embed a high-resolution representation of a wind park turbine pile system into a coarser North Sea setup, which is needed in order to perform a seamless investigation of the resulting geophysical processes.

  2. Windscale pile reactors - Decommissioning progress on a fifty year legacy

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, Richard J.

    2007-07-01

    The decommissioning of the Windscale Pile 1 reactor, fifty years after the 1957 fire, is one of the most technically challenging decommissioning projects in the UK, if not the world. This paper presents a summary of the 1957 Windscale Pile 1 accident, its unique challenges and a new technical approach developed to safely and efficiently decommission the two Windscale Pile Reactors. The reactors will be decommissioned using a top down approach that employs an array of light weight, carbon fiber, high payload robotic arms to remove the damaged fuel, the graphite core, activated metals and concrete. This relatively conventional decommissioning approach has been made possible by a recently completed technical assessment of reactor core fire and criticality risk which concluded that these types of events are not credible if relatively simple controls are applied. This paper presents an overview of the design, manufacture and testing of equipment to remove the estimated 15 tons of fire damaged fuel and isotopes from the Pile 1 reactor. The paper also discusses recently conducted characterization activities which have allowed for a refined waste estimate and conditioning strategy. These data and an innovative approach have resulted in a significant reduction in the estimated project cost and schedule. (authors)

  3. SPH simulations of impacts on rubble pile asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deller, J.; Lowry, S.; Price, M. C.; Sierks, H.; Snodgrass, C.

    2013-09-01

    Many rubble pile asteroids with low bulk densities, like Itokawa, must include a high level of macroporosity, probably more than 40% [1]. Although little is known about their internal structure, numerical simulations of impact events on these rubble pile asteroids rely on assumptions on how the voids are distributed. While most hydrocodes do not distinguish between microand macroporosity, Benavidez et al. [2] introduced a rubble pile model where the asteroid is represented as a spherical target shell filled with an uneven distribution of basalt spheres ranging in radius from 8% to 20% of the asteroid's radius. In this study, we present a new approach to create rubble pile simulants for the use in impact simulations and quantify the dependence of impact outcomes on the internal structure of the target. The formation of the asteroid is modelled as a gravitational aggregation of spherical 'pebbles', that form the building blocks of our target. This aggregate is then converted into a high-resolution Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) model, which also accounts for macroporosity inside the pebbles'. To simulate high-velocity impacts on these models, we use the SPH solver in the code Autodyn. We will compare impact event outcomes for a large set of internal configurations to explore the parameter space of our model-building process. The analysis of the fragment size distribution and the disruption threshold will quantify the specific influence of each set-up parameter. This work is ongoing and we will present preliminary results at the meeting.

  4. Aerial sampling of emissions from biomass pile burns in Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5 µm), ...

  5. Enhanced In-pile Instrumentation for Material Testing Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Joy Rempe; Darrell Knudson; Joshua Daw; Troy Unruh; Benjamin Chase; Kurt Davis; Robert Schley

    2012-07-01

    An increasing number of U.S. nuclear research programs are requesting enhanced in-pile instrumentation capable of providing real-time measurements of key parameters during irradiations. For example, fuel research and development funded by the U.S. Department of Energy now emphasize approaches that rely on first principle models to develop optimized fuel designs that offer significant improvements over current fuels. To facilitate this approach, high fidelity, real-time data are essential for characterizing the performance of new fuels during irradiation testing. Furthermore, sensors that obtain such data must be miniature, reliable and able to withstand high flux/high temperature conditions. Depending on user requirements, sensors may need to obtain data in inert gas, pressurized water, or liquid metal environments. To address these user needs, in-pile instrumentation development efforts have been initiated as part of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF), the Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCR&D), and the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technology (NEET) programs. This paper reports on recent INL achievements to support these programs. Specifically, an overview of the types of sensors currently available to support in-pile irradiations and those sensors currently available to MTR users are identified. In addition, recent results and products available from sensor research and development are detailed. Specifically, progress in deploying enhanced in-pile sensors for detecting elongation and thermal conductivity are reported. Results from research to evaluate the viability of ultrasonic and fiber optic technologies for irradiation testing are also summarized.

  6. Rate of loading parameters for vertically loaded piles in clay

    SciTech Connect

    Briaud, J.L.; Felio, G.Y.; Garland, E.

    1984-05-01

    The analysis of 152 laboratory tests and 32 pile load tests confirms that for clays, the faster the rate of loading, the higher the undrained shear strength and the higher the pile capacity. The data shows that the gain in undrained shear strength due to increasing rate of loading increases with increasing water content, plasticity index, liquidity index, overconsolidation ratio but with decreasing undrained shear strength. A simple model is proposed to quantify the rate of loading effects on undrained shear strength. The viscous exponent n which is the main parameter of the model can be measured by conventional laboratory tests or possibly by cone penetrometer testing, or as a last resort by the proposed empirical correlations to index properties. This model is used to develop rate dependent t-z curves and a computer program to predict the response of a pile subjected to a certain rate of vertical loading. The model and the program are checked by comparing the predicted and measured behavior of two piles.

  7. Corrosion in prestressed concrete: Pipes, piles, and decks

    SciTech Connect

    Szeliga, M.

    1995-12-31

    This is the first compilation or book focusing on prestressed concrete. It features 21 classic NACE papers on prestressed concrete piping, piles, bridge decks, and cathodic protection. It includes basic corrosion mechanisms of prestressed concrete structures with detailed case histories of corrosion failures and corrective measures.

  8. Aerial Sampling of Emissions from Biomass Pile Burns in Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract (already cleared). Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, pa...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.603 - Pile driving equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pile driving equipment. 1926.603 Section 1926.603 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Motor Vehicles, Mechanized Equipment, and...

  10. 11. Historic drawing, Pier 10. Plan of deck and pilings, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic drawing, Pier 10. Plan of deck and pilings, 1932. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 10, Between Piers 9 & 11 along Mystic River on Charlestown Waterfront at eastern edge of Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND MINE MANAGER'S HOME, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. RIGHT, TAILINGS PILES ARE AT CENTER WITH CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS TO THE LEFT OF THE PILES. PARKING LOT IS AT UPPER LEFT. THE AREA BETWEEN THE COLLAPSED TANK AT CENTER LEFT AND THE REMAINS OF THE MANAGER'S HOUSE AT LOWER RIGHT IS A TAILINGS HOLDING AREA. TAILINGS FROM THE MILL WERE HELD HERE. THE LARGE SETTLING TANKS WERE CHARGED FROM THIS HOLDING AREA BY A TRAM ON RAILS AND BY A SLUICEWAY SEEN AS THE DARK SPOT ON THE CENTER LEFT EDGE OF THE FRAME. AFTER THE TAILINGS WERE LEACHED, THEY WERE DEPOSITED ON THE LARGE WASTE PILE AT CENTER RIGHT. THE TANK AT CENTER RIGHT EDGE IS WHERE THE WATER PIPELINE ENTERED THE WORKS. A STRAIGHT LINE OF POSTS IN THE GROUND GO ACROSS THE CENTER FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, WHICH ORIGINALLY SUSPENDED THE WATER PIPELINE GOING FROM THE WATER HOLDING TANK AT RIGHT UP TO THE SECONDARY WATER TANKS ABOVE THE MILL. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  12. 1. GENERAL VIEW FROM BONY PILE LOOKING SOUTH. WASH HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW FROM BONY PILE LOOKING SOUTH. WASH HOUSE IN LEFT BACKGROUND. TIPPLE AND CLEANING PLANT TO RIGHT. IN CENTER IS A TANK USED FOR TREATING MINE REFUSE AND ACID RUNOFF. - Eureka No. 40, Tipple & Cleaning Plant, East of State Route 56, north of Little Paint Creek, Scalp Level, Cambria County, PA

  13. Simplified Analysis Procedures for Flexible Approach Wall Systems Founded on Groups of Piles and Subjected to Barge Train Impact

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    top (Hf) is equal to 0.51. The moment below the mudline ( Mmf ) occurring at the time the moment at the pile to pile cap connection reaches ultimate is...mudline ( Mmf ) occurring at the time the moment at the pile to pile cap connection reaches ultimate is equal to: ( ) ( )( ). . , . hf mf f P T M H

  14. Postmortem analysis of sand grain crushing from pile interface using X-ray tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, I. Matias; Combe, Gaeel; Foray, Pierre; Flin, Frederic; Lesaffre, Bernard

    2013-06-18

    Pile foundations of offshore platforms, wind and water turbines are typically subjected to a variety of cyclic loading paths due to their complex environment. While many studies focus on global pile behaviour, the soil-pile interface is explored here by a micromechanical study of the soil layer in contact with the pile surface. This work is devoted to the analysis of frozen post-mortem silica sand samples recovered at the pile interface following installation and cyclic loading tests in a calibration chamber using x-ray tomography. An experimental procedure developed for three dimensional (3D) snow imaging was adapted for the recovery of the in-situ sand samples to preserve their structure during tomography scans. 3D images at a pixel size of 7 {mu}m were then obtained using a cryogenic cell. Results confirm the presence of a shear band at the pile surface as well as void ratios changes in the direction of the pile's radius.

  15. Postmortem analysis of sand grain crushing from pile interface using X-ray tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, I. Matías; Combe, Gaël; Foray, Pierre; Flin, Frédéric; Lesaffre, Bernard

    2013-06-01

    Pile foundations of offshore platforms, wind and water turbines are typically subjected to a variety of cyclic loading paths due to their complex environment. While many studies focus on global pile behaviour, the soil-pile interface is explored here by a micromechanical study of the soil layer in contact with the pile surface. This work is devoted to the analysis of frozen post-mortem silica sand samples recovered at the pile interface following installation and cyclic loading tests in a calibration chamber using x-ray tomography. An experimental procedure developed for three dimensional (3D) snow imaging was adapted for the recovery of the in-situ sand samples to preserve their structure during tomography scans. 3D images at a pixel size of 7 μm were then obtained using a cryogenic cell. Results confirm the presence of a shear band at the pile surface as well as void ratios changes in the direction of the pile's radius.

  16. Retention of internal anchor tags by juvenile striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Den Avyle, M.J.; Wallin, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    We marked hatchery-reared striped bass Morone saxatilis (145-265 mm total length) with internal anchor tags and monitored retention for 28 months after stocking in the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina. Anchor tags (with an 18-mm, T-shaped anchor and 42-mm streamer) were surgically implanted ventrally, and coded wire tags (1 mm long and 0.25 mm in diameter) were placed into the cheek muscle to help identify subsequent recaptures. The estimated probability of retention (SD) of anchor tags was 0.94 (0.05) at 4 months, 0.64 (0.13) at 16 months, and 0.33 (0.19) at 28 months. Of 10 fish recaptured with only coded wire tags, 5 showed an externally visible wound or scar near the point of anchor tag insertion. The incidence of wounds or scars, which we interpreted as evidence of tag shedding, increased to 50% in recaptures taken at 28 months (three of six fish). Our estimates for retention of anchor tags were generally lower than those in other studies of striped bass, possibly because of differences in the style of anchor or sizes of fish used. Because of its low rate of retention, the type of anchor tag we used may not be suitable for long-term assessments of stock enhancement programs that use striped bass of the sizes we evaluated.

  17. Understanding Rasch Measurement: Partial Credit Model and Pivot Anchoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bode, Rita K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Rasch measurement partial credit model, what it is, how it differs from other Rasch models, and when and how to use it. Also describes the calibration of instruments with increasingly complex items. Explains pivot anchoring and illustrates its use and describes the effect of pivot anchoring on step calibrations, item hierarchy, and…

  18. Using Anchored Instruction to Evaluate Mathematical Growth and Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Terri L.; Batarelo, Ivana

    2005-01-01

    Anchored instruction is designed to present problems in a meaningful context to allow for investigations into real life environments. The Jasper Project was created to allow students to investigate mathematical dilemmas using anchored instruction techniques. This study uses case study methods to examine the perceptions that preservice teachers…

  19. Software Note: Using BILOG for Fixed-Anchor Item Calibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMars, Christine E.; Jurich, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The nonequivalent groups anchor test (NEAT) design is often used to scale item parameters from two different test forms. A subset of items, called the anchor items or common items, are administered as part of both test forms. These items are used to adjust the item calibrations for any differences in the ability distributions of the groups taking…

  20. Electrically insulated MLI and thermal anchor

    SciTech Connect

    Kamiya, Koji; Furukawa, Masato; Murakami, Haruyuki; Kizu, Kaname; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Koidea, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Hatakenaka, Ryuta; Miyakita, Takeshi

    2014-01-29

    The thermal shield of JT-60SA is kept at 80 K and will use the multilayer insulation (MLI) to reduce radiation heat load to the superconducting coils at 4.4 K from the cryostat at 300 K. Due to plasma pulse operation, the MLI is affected by eddy current in toroidal direction. The MLI is designed to suppress the current by electrically insulating every 20 degree in the toroidal direction by covering the MLI with polyimide films. In this paper, two kinds of designs for the MLI system are proposed, focusing on a way to overlap the layers. A boil-off calorimeter method and temperature measurement has been performed to determine the thermal performance of the MLI system. The design of the electrical insulated thermal anchor between the toroidal field (TF) coil and the thermal shield is also explained.

  1. Anchoring submersible ultrasonic receivers in river channels with stable substrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, Phillip William; Scholten, G.D.; Hubbs, D.

    2010-01-01

    We developed an anchoring system for submersible ultrasonic receivers (SURs) that we placed on the bottom of the riverine reaches of three main-stem reservoirs in the upper Tennessee River. Each anchor consisted of a steel tube (8.9 x 35.6 cm) welded vertically to a round plate of steel (5.1 x 40.6 cm). All seven SURs and their 57-kg anchors were successfully deployed and retrieved three times over 547 d by a dive team employing surface air-breathing equipment and a davit-equipped boat. All of the anchors and their SURs remained stationary over two consecutive winters on the hard-bottom, thalweg sites where they were deployed. The SUR and its anchor at the most downriver site experienced flows that exceeded 2,100 m(3)/s and mean water column velocities of about 0.9 m/s.

  2. Effects of accuracy motivation and anchoring on metacomprehension judgment and accuracy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qin

    2012-01-01

    The current research investigates how accuracy motivation impacts anchoring and adjustment in metacomprehension judgment and how accuracy motivation and anchoring affect metacomprehension accuracy. Participants were randomly assigned to one of six conditions produced by the between-subjects factorial design involving accuracy motivation (incentive or no) and peer performance anchor (95%, 55%, or no). Two studies showed that accuracy motivation did not impact anchoring bias, but the adjustment-from-anchor process occurred. Accuracy incentive increased anchor-judgment gap for the 95% anchor but not for the 55% anchor, which induced less certainty about the direction of adjustment. The findings offer support to the integrative theory of anchoring. Additionally, the two studies revealed a "power struggle" between accuracy motivation and anchoring in influencing metacomprehension accuracy. Accuracy motivation could improve metacomprehension accuracy in spite of anchoring effect, but if anchoring effect is too strong, it could overpower the motivation effect. The implications of the findings were discussed.

  3. Conditions of Proper Interaction of Low-Pressure Injection Piles (LIP) with Structure and Soil, Carrying Capacity of Pile Anchorage in Foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachla, Henryk

    2016-12-01

    The formation of a pile in the existing foundation and soil creates a new foundation construction which has a structure of foundation-pile-soil. This construction must be able to transfer loads from the foundation to the pile and from the pile to the soil. The pile structure has to transfer an imposed load. From the point of view of continuum mechanics determination of the capacity of such a system is preceded by the analysis of contact problem of three contact surfaces. Each of these surfaces is determined by different pairs of materials. The pair which creates a pile anchorage is a material from which the foundation is built (structure of stone and grout, brick and grout, concrete or reinforced concrete and grout. The pile structure is formed by grout and steel rebar. The pile formed in soil is created by a pair of grout and soil. What is important is that on contact surfaces the materials adhering to one another are subjected to different deformation types that are controlled by mechanical properties and geometry of these surfaces. In the paper, additional conditions that should be fulfilled for the foundation-pile-soil system to make load transfer from foundation to soil possible and safe are presented. The results of research done by the author on foundation-pile contact surface are discussed. The tests were targeted at verifying the bearing capacity of anchorage and deformation of piles made of grout and other materials from which foundations are built. The specimens were tested in tension and compression. The experiments were conducted on the amount specimens which is regarded as small sample to enable the statistical analysis of the results.

  4. Impact simulations on the rubble pile asteroid (2867) Steins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deller, Jakob; Lowry, Stephen; Snodgrass, Colin; Price, Mark; Sierks, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Images from the OSIRIS camera system on board the Rosetta spacecraft (Keller et al. 2010) have revealed several interesting features on asteroid (2867) Steins. Its macro porosity of 40%, together with the shape that looks remarkably like a YORP evolved body, both indicate a rubble pile structure. A large crater on the southern pole is evidence for collisional evolution of this rubble pile asteroid. We have developed a new approach for simulating impacts on asteroid bodies that connects formation history to their collisional evolution. This is achieved by representing the interior as a 'rubble pile', created from the gravitational aggregation of spherical 'pebbles' that represent fragments from a major disruption event. These 'pebbles' follow a power-law size function and constitute the building blocks of the rubble pile. This allows us to explicitly model the interior of rubble pile asteroids in hyper-velocity impact simulations in a more realistic way. We present preliminary results of a study validating our approach in a large series of simulated impacts on a typical small main-belt rubble pile asteroid using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics solver in LS-DYNA. We show that this approach allows us to explicitly follow the behavior of a single 'pebble', while preserving the expected properties of the bulk asteroid as known from observations and experiments (Holsapple 2009). On the example of Steins, we use this model to relate surface features like the northern hill at 75/100 degrees lon/lat distance to the largest crater (Jorda et al. 2012), or the catena of depletion pits, to the displacement of large fragments in the interior of the asteroid during the impact. We do this by following the movement of pebbles below the surface feature in simulations that recreate the shape of the impact crater. We show that while it is not straightforward to explain the formation of the hill-like structure, the formation of cracks possibly leading to depletion zones can be

  5. Picking up Clues from the Discard Pile (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    As NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander excavates trenches, it also builds piles with most of the material scooped from the holes. The piles, like this one called 'Caterpillar,' provide researchers some information about the soil.

    On Aug. 24, 2008, during the late afternoon of the 88th Martian day after landing, Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager took separate exposures through its left eye and right eye that have been combined into this stereo view. The image appears three dimensional when seen through red-blue glasses.

    This conical pile of soil is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The sources of material that the robotic arm has dropped onto the Caterpillar pile have included the 'Dodo' and ''Upper Cupboard' trenches and, more recently, the deeper 'Stone Soup' trench.

    Observations of the pile provide information, such as the slope of the cone and the textures of the soil, that helps scientists understand properties of material excavated from the trenches.

    For the Stone Soup trench in particular, which is about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep, the bottom of the trench is in shadow and more difficult to observe than other trenches that Phoenix has dug. The Phoenix team obtained spectral clues about the composition of material from the bottom of Stone Soup by photographing Caterpillar through 15 different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager when the pile was covered in freshly excavated material from the trench.

    The spectral observation did not produce any sign of water-ice, just typical soil for the site. However, the bigger clumps do show a platy texture that could be consistent with elevated concentration of salts in the soil from deep in Stone Soup. The team chose that location as the source for a soil sample to be analyzed in the lander's wet chemistry laboratory, which can identify soluble salts in the soil.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA

  6. Experimental investigation on seismic behavior of single piles in sandy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raongjant, Werasak; Meng, Jing

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a quasi-static test program featuring lateral cyclic loading on single piles in sandy soil. The tests were conducted on 18 aluminum model piles with different cross sections and lateral load eccentricity ratios, e/d, ( e is the lateral load eccentricity and d is the diameter of pile) of 0, 4 and 8, embedded in sand with a relative density of 30% and 70%. The experimental results include lateral load-displacement hysteresis loops, skeleton curves and energy dissipation curves. Lateral capacity, ductility and energy dissipation capacity of single piles under seismic load were evaluated in detail. The lateral capacities and the energy dissipation capacity of piles in dense sand were much higher than in loose sand. When embedded in loose sand, the maximum lateral load and the maximum lateral displacement of piles increased as e/d increased. On the contrary, when embedded in dense sand, the maximum lateral load of piles decreased as e/d increased. Piles with a higher load eccentricity ratio experienced higher energy dissipation capacity than piles with e/d of 0 in both dense and loose sand. At a given level of displacement, piles with circular cross sections provided the best energy dissipation capacity in both loose and dense sand.

  7. New Analysis Techniques for Avalanches in a Conical Bead Pile with Cohesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tieman, Catherine; Lehman, Susan

    2015-03-01

    Avalanche statistics and pile geometry for 3 mm steel spheres dropped on a conical bead pile were studied at different drop heights and different cohesion strengths. The pile is initially built on a circular base and is subsequently slowly driven by adding one bead at a time to the apex of the pile. We investigate the dynamic response of the pile by recording avalanches off the pile over the course of tens of thousands of bead drops. The level of cohesion is tuned through use of an applied uniform magnetic field. Changes in the pile mass and geometry were investigated to determine the effect of cohesion and drop height on the angle of repose. The angle of repose increased with cohesion strength, and decreased somewhat for higher drop heights. The packing density of beads is expected to decrease as magnetic cohesion increases, but for our 20 000-bead pile, this effect has not been observed. The proportion of beads removed from the pile by different avalanche sizes was also calculated. Although larger avalanches are much rarer occurrences, they carry away a larger fraction of the total avalanched mass than small avalanches. As the pile cohesion increases, the number of small and medium avalanches decreases so that this mass loss distribution shifts more strongly to large sizes.

  8. Anchoring groups for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Cole, Jacqueline M

    2015-02-18

    The dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) require one or more chemical substituents that can act as an anchor, enabling their adsorption onto a metal oxide substrate. This adsorption provides a means for electron injection, which is the process that initiates the electrical circuit in a DSSC. Understanding the structure of various DSSC anchors and the search for new anchors are critical factors for the development of improved DSSCs. Traditionally, carboxylic acid and cyanoacrylic acid groups are employed as dye anchors in DSSCs. In recent years, novel anchor groups have emerged, which make a larger pool of materials available for DSSC dyes, and their associated physical and chemical characteristics offer interesting effects at the interface between dye and metal oxide. This review focuses especially on the structural aspects of these novel dye anchors for TiO2-based DSSCs, including pyridine, phosphonic acid, tetracyanate, perylene dicarboxylic acid anhydride, 2-hydroxylbenzonitrile, 8-hydroxylquinoline, pyridine-N-oxide, hydroxylpyridium, catechol, hydroxamate, sulfonic acid, acetylacetanate, boronic acid, nitro, tetrazole, rhodanine, and salicylic acid substituents. We anticipate that further exploration and understanding of these new types of anchoring groups for TiO2 substrates will not only contribute to the development of advanced DSSCs, but also of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, water splitting systems, and other self-assembled monolayer-based technologies.

  9. The Pressure Limitations on Flux Pile-up Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, Yuri E.

    1999-05-01

    The problem of the plasma pressure limitations on the rapidity of flux pile-up magnetic reconnection is re-examined, following the claim made by Jardine and Allen (1998) that the limitations can be removed by relaxing the assumption of zero-vorticity two-dimensional plasma flows. It is shown that for a two-dimensional stagnation point flow with nonzero vorticity the magnetic merging rate cannot exceed the Sweet-Parker scaling in a low-beta plasma. The pressure limitation appears to be much less restrictive for weak three-dimensional flux pile-up, provided the perturbation length scale in the third dimension is much less than the global length scale. The actual reconnection rate in the latter case, however, is much lower than this upper estimate unless the current sheet width is also much less than the global scale.

  10. Development of a geotechnical and pile driving database, Adriatic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Carpaneto, R.; Paoletti, L.; Guaita, P.; Pratico, A.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a geotechnical and pile driving data base relevant to offshore installations in the Adriatic Sea. The paper discusses sources of information, structure, content, and engineering applications of the data base. Data available from Agip`s platform installations in the Adriatic was reviewed, and 20 representative platforms were chosen. Two relational data bases were created, for geotechnical and installation data respectively. The data bases provide a comprehensive and organized source of information about past experience in the area. Such experience is now quickly available for geotechnical engineering activities. As a main application of the data bases, information was processed to make data sets for training Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to predict pile driveability. It is envisioned that the data bases will also be used in ongoing installation program design.

  11. The Supercritical Pile Model: Prompt Emission Across the Electromagnetic Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demos; Mastichiadis, A.

    2008-01-01

    The "Supercritical Pile" GRB model is an economical model that provides the dissipation necessary to convert explosively the energy stored in relativistic protons in the blast wave of a GRB into radiation; at the same time it produces spectra whose luminosity peaks at 1 MeV in the lab frame, the result of the kinematics of the proton-photon - pair production reaction that effects the conversion of proton energy to radiation. We outline the fundamental notions behind the "Supercritical Pile" model and discuss the resulting spectra of the prompt emission from optical to gamma-ray energies of order Gamma^2 m_ec^2, (Gamma is the Lorentz factor of the blast wave) present even in the absence of an accelerated particle distribution and compare our results to bursts that cover this entire energy range. Particular emphasis is given on the emission at the GLAST energy range both in the prompt and the afterglow stages of the burst.

  12. High Temperature Thermocouples For In-pile Applications

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Rempe; S. C. Wilkins

    2005-10-01

    Traditional methods for measuring temperature in-pile degrade at temperatures above 1080 degrees C. Hence, a project has been initiated to explore the use of specialized thermocouples that are composed of materials that are able to withstand higher temperature, in-pile test conditions. Results from efforts to develop, fabricate and evaluate the performance of these specialized thermocouples are reported in this paper. Candidate materials were evaluated for their ability to withstand irradiation, to resit material interactions and to remain ductile at high temperatures. In addition, candidate thermocouples were evaluated based on their resolution over the temperature ranges of interest. Results from these evaluations are reported, and additional on-going development activities are summarized.

  13. Pile response to lateral spread: A benchmark case

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, D.; Toprak, S.; O`Rourke, T.D.

    1995-12-31

    The paper compares analytical results with field observations of piles damaged during the 1964 Niigata earthquake. Three different models for liquefied soil-structure interaction are used, including two subgrade reaction models with both drained and undrained strength parameters and a model to account for the viscosity of liquefied soil. The subgrade reaction model provides for the bet agreement between analytical and observed behavior. Recommendations are made for selecting the most appropriate drained and undrained parameters for analysis and design.

  14. Analytical Constraints on Rubble Pile Fission, Dynamics and End States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheeres, Daniel Jay; Gabriel, Travis

    2015-08-01

    Recent progress in the study and analysis of rubble pile asteroids has focused on the numerical simulation of self-gravitating collections of rigid components that can rest on each other. These simulations are complex and can model thousands of grains interacting with each other, but due to this can sometimes present barriers to the understanding of their behavior in terms of fundamental physical principles.To address this we have embarked on an analytical study of the energetics and stability of few-body granular mechanics systems, comprised of gravitationally attracting elements that can rest on each other and transmit surface forces through friction or cohesion. These studies have primarily focused on simple shapes such as spheres and ellipsoids in contact. We have found that rigorous results can be placed on the stability of these resting and orbiting configurations as a function of their total angular momentum. These results shed direct light into the manner in which rubble pile asteroids can fail and what stable configurations they can settle in, accounting only for internal forces and dynamics. We note that these studies are also applicable for the accumulation stage of a rubble pile formation, following the catastrophic disruption of its parent body.There are several fundamental results from these analyses that have physical implications. A notable result provides conditions for when fissioned rubble piles can escape from each other, or conversely remain bound. It is significant that recent observations of asteroid pairs are consistent with these limits. Another result is that when a given configuration becomes unstable due to an increase in its total angular momentum (for example due to YORP), that it may sometimes settle into one of several stable configurations depending on how its energy is dissipated. This introduces a level of indeterminacy into the physical evolution of gravitational aggregates, and motivates the development of statistical approaches

  15. 31. Photocopied August 1978. DRIVING PILES ON SLOPE, NORTH SIDE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Photocopied August 1978. DRIVING PILES ON SLOPE, NORTH SIDE, EARTH SECTION, JANUARY 17, 1901, IN PREPARATION FOR THE INSTALLATION OF THE TIMBER LINING. THE 12 x 12'S FORMING THE BERN OR BULKHEAD ATOP THE LINING IS ALREADY IN PLACE. CLAY WAS TO BE SLOPED BEHIND THE BERN AND PAVED WITH STONE. (117) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  16. Vegetative cover grows directly on acidic mine refuse pile

    SciTech Connect

    Nickeson, F.H.

    1984-02-01

    The paper reports how permanent, self-sustaining vegetation has been established on an acidic, 80-year old coal refuse pile without using a soil cover. Tests were carried out on a number of 1-acre plots which were treated with different mixtures of lime, fertiliser and seeds of grasses and legumes. The results of the tests are discussed and the way in which the final treatment was chosen is explained. The work is considered to have been successful.

  17. Chestnut Ridge Borrow Area Waste Pile work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R. )

    1991-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), through its contractor Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., has constructed a storage facility, the Chestnut Ridge Borrow Area Waste Pile (CRBAWP), for mercury-contaminated soil excavated from the Oak Ridge Civic Center properties and the Oak Ridge Sewer Line Beltway. Excavation of the soil from the Civic Center began in September 1984 and was completed in early 1985. Similar soils from other areas of the city were added to the pile until 1987. Approximately 3000 yd{sup 3} are stored at the present time. An Interim Status RCRA permit was initially sought for this facility. Samples from the waste pile passed the Extraction Procedure Toxicity Test (EP Tox). The Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (now the Tennessee Department of Conservation-TDC) denied the permit based on their conclusion that the waste was not a RCRA-regulated waste. On September 25, 1990 the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) superseded the EP Tox test. TCLP tests are not proposed to satisfy a request by TDC and to make a final determination of the nature of the soils in order to close the CRBAWP as a solid waste disposal facility under Tennessee State rule 1200-1-7-.04. The objectives of this work are to summarize existing site information and detail actions necessary to sample and characterize soils from the waste pile as hazardous or nonhazardous per the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Within the scope of this plan, a site investigation will be discussed; a field sampling plan will be described in terms of sampling locations, procedures, and quality assurance; and ancillary activities such as waste management, data management, and health and safety will be outlines. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Clearing a Pile of Unknown Objects using Interactive Perception

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    blocks and the shampoo . The robot now decides to grasp the bottle of shampoo . Next, the tissue box and the chunk of wood are pushed and grasped. The...20 seconds. Poking an object requires 12 (a) Initial pile (b) Poking macaroni box (c) After poking (d) Grasping shampoo (e) After grasping (f) Pooking...objects: a tissue box, a chunk of wood, a bottle of shampoo , a box of macaroni, and toy blocks. The algorithm switches between pushing to verify

  19. Anchored multi-DOF MEMS gyroscope having robust drive mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Payal; Khonina, S. N.; Pavelyev, V. S.; Fomchenkov, S. A.; Uma, B. V.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the new architecture of 2-DOF (degree-of-freedom) drive mode and 1-DOF sense mode gyroscope with the concept of additional anchoring that retains all the advantages of the Dynamic Vibration Absorber (DVA) concept while being operated at high frequencies. These concepts allow reduction of the bandwidth by varying the coupling parameter during the design, thereby increasing the mechanical sensitivity. In the present design, the anchoring concept has been implemented by adding a central anchor for the sense mass. The steady state response and design concept have been devised using analytical modeling.

  20. Enhanced In-Pile Instrumentation at the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Joy Rempe; Darrell Knudson; Joshua Daw; Troy Unruh; Benjamin Chase; Kurt Davis; Robert Schley; Steven Taylor

    2012-08-01

    Many of the sensors deployed at materials and test reactors cannot withstand the high flux/high temperature test conditions often requested by users at U.S. test reactors, such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory. To address this issue, an instrumentation development effort was initiated as part of the ATR National Scientific User Facility in 2007 to support the development and deployment of enhanced in-pile sensors. This paper provides an update on this effort. Specifically, this paper identifies the types of sensors currently available to support in-pile irradiations and those sensors currently available to ATR users. Accomplishments from new sensor technology deployment efforts are highlighted by describing new temperature and thermal conductivity sensors now available to ATR users. Efforts to deploy enhanced in-pile sensors for detecting elongation and real-time flux detectors are also reported, and recently-initiated research to evaluate the viability of advanced technologies to provide enhanced accuracy for measuring key parameters during irradiation testing are noted.

  1. Enhanced In-Pile Instrumentation at the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    J. Rempe; D. Knudson; J. Daw; T. Unruh; B. Chase; K. Condie

    2011-06-01

    Many of the sensors deployed at materials and test reactors cannot withstand the high flux/high temperature test conditions often requested by users at U.S. test reactors, such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). To address this issue, an instrumentation development effort was initiated as part of the ATR National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in 2007 to support the development and deployment of enhanced in-pile sensors. This paper reports results from this effort. Specifically, this paper identifies the types of sensors currently available to support in-pile irradiations and those sensors currently available to ATR users. Accomplishments from new sensor technology deployment efforts are highlighted by describing new temperature and thermal conductivity sensors now available to ATR users. Efforts to deploy enhanced in-pile sensors for detecting elongation and real-time flux detectors are also reported, and recently-initiated research to evaluate the viability of advanced technologies to provide enhanced accuracy for measuring key parameters during irradiation testing are noted.

  2. NEET In-Pile Ultrasonic Sensor Enablement-Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    J. Daw; J. Rempe; J. Palmer; P. Ramuhalli; R. Montgomery; H.T. Chien; B. Tittmann; B. Reinhardt; P. Keller

    2014-09-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential to measure a range of parameters during irradiation of fuels and materials, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes under harsh irradiation test conditions. There are two primary issues that currently limit in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors. The first is transducer survivability. The ability of ultrasonic transducer materials to maintain their useful properties during an irradiation must be demonstrated. The second issue is signal processing. Ultrasonic testing is typically performed in a lab or field environment, where the sensor and sample are accessible. The harsh nature of in-pile testing and the variety of desired measurements demand that an enhanced signal processing capability be developed to make in-pile ultrasonic sensors viable. To address these issues, the NEET ASI program funded a three year Ultrasonic Transducer Irradiation and Signal Processing Enhancements project, which is a collaborative effort between the Idaho National Laboratory, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Argonne National Laboratory, and the Pennsylvania State University. The objective of this report is to document the objectives and accomplishments from this three year project. As summarized within this document, significant work has been accomplished during this three year project.

  3. Radiocarbon from Pile Graphite; Chemical Methods for Its Concentrations

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Arnold, J. R.; Libby, W. F.

    1946-10-10

    Samples of pile graphite, irradiated in a test-hole at Hanford for 15 months, have been assayed for radioactive C{sup 14} yielding 0.38 ± 0.04 microcuries per gram. At this level of activity, the pile graphite contains very valuable amounts of C{sup14}. The relation between the above assay and the probable average assay of pile graphite is discussed, and it is concluded that the latter is almost certainly above 0.3 microcuries/gram. Controlled oxidation of this graphite, either with oxygen at ~750ºC, or with chromic acid "cleaning solution" at room temperature, yields early fractions which are highly enriched in C{sup 14}. Concentrations of 5-fold with oxygen, and 50-fold with CrO{sub 3}, have been observed. The relation between the observed enrichment and the Wigner effect is discussed, and a mechanism accounting for the observations put forward. According to this, about 25% of the stable carbon atoms in the lattice have been displaced by Wigner effect, a large fraction of which have healed by migrating to crystal edges. All the C{sup 14} atoms have been displaced, and the same fraction of these migrate to the edges. The enrichment then results from surface oxidation, in the oxygen case. Predictions are made on the basis of this hypothesis. A technique of counting radioactive CO{sub 2} in the gas phase is described.

  4. Economics of neuraminidase inhibitor stock piling for pandemic influenza, Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vernon J; Phua, Kai Hong; Chenm, Mark I; Chow, Angela; Ma, Stefan; Goh, Kee Tai; Leo, Yee Sin

    2006-01-01

    We compared strategies for stock piling neuraminidase inhibitors to treat and prevent influenza in Singapore. Cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses, with Monte Carlo simulations, were used to determine economic outcomes. A pandemic in a population of 4.2 million would result in an estimated 525-1,775 deaths, 10,700-38,600 hospitalization days, and economic costs of 0.7 dollars to 2.2 billion Singapore dollars. The treatment-only strategy had optimal economic benefits: stock piles of antiviral agents for 40% of the population would save an estimated 418 lives and 414 million dollars, at a cost of 52.6 million dollars per shelf-life cycle of the stock pile. Prophylaxis was economically beneficial in high-risk subpopulations, which account for 78% of deaths, and in pandemics in which the death rate was >0.6%. Prophylaxis for pandemics with a 5% case-fatality rate would save 50,000 lives and 81 billion dollars. These models can help policymakers weigh the options for pandemic planning.

  5. Intranuclear Anchoring of Repetitive DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Weipoltshammer, Klara; Schöfer, Christian; Almeder, Marlene; Philimonenko, Vlada V.; Frei, Klemens; Wachtler, Franz; Hozák, Pavel

    1999-01-01

    Centromeres, telomeres, and ribosomal gene clusters consist of repetitive DNA sequences. To assess their contributions to the spatial organization of the interphase genome, their interactions with the nucleoskeleton were examined in quiescent and activated human lymphocytes. The nucleoskeletons were prepared using “physiological” conditions. The resulting structures were probed for specific DNA sequences of centromeres, telomeres, and ribosomal genes by in situ hybridization; the electroeluted DNA fractions were examined by blot hybridization. In both nonstimulated and stimulated lymphocytes, centromeric alpha-satellite repeats were almost exclusively found in the eluted fraction, while telomeric sequences remained attached to the nucleoskeleton. Ribosomal genes showed a transcription-dependent attachment pattern: in unstimulated lymphocytes, transcriptionally inactive ribosomal genes located outside the nucleolus were eluted completely. When comparing transcription unit and intergenic spacer, significantly more of the intergenic spacer was removed. In activated lymphocytes, considerable but similar amounts of both rDNA fragments were eluted. The results demonstrate that: (a) the various repetitive DNA sequences differ significantly in their intranuclear anchoring, (b) telomeric rather than centromeric DNA sequences form stable attachments to the nucleoskeleton, and (c) different attachment mechanisms might be responsible for the interaction of ribosomal genes with the nucleoskeleton. PMID:10613900

  6. Ideals as Anchors for Relationship Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Margaret; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Research on young-adult sexuality in sub-Saharan Africa typically conceptualizes sex as an individual-level risk behavior. We introduce a new approach that connects the conditions surrounding the initiation of sex with subsequent relationship well-being, examines relationships as sequences of interdependent events, and indexes relationship experiences to individually held ideals. New card-sort data from southern Malawi capture young women’s relationship experiences and their ideals in a sequential framework. Using optimal matching, we measure the distance between ideal and experienced relationship sequences to (1) assess the associations between ideological congruence and perceived relationship well-being, (2) compare this ideal-based approach to other experience-based alternatives, and (3) identify individual- and couple-level correlates of congruence between ideals and experiences in the romantic realm. We show that congruence between ideals and experiences conveys relationship well-being along four dimensions: expressions of love and support, robust communication habits, perceived biological safety, and perceived relationship stability. We further show that congruence is patterned by socioeconomic status and supported by shared ideals within romantic dyads. We argue that conceiving of ideals as anchors for how sexual experiences are manifest advances current understandings of romantic relationships, and we suggest that this approach has applications for other domains of life. PMID:27110031

  7. Material Testing for Robotic Omnidirectional Anchor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witkoe, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    To successfully explore near-Earth Asteroids the question of mobility emerges as the key issue for any robotic mission. When small bodies have extremely low escape velocities, traditional methods, such as wheels, would send the robot hurtling off of the asteroid's surface. To solve this problem, JPL has developed an omni-directional anchoring mechanism for use in microgravity that utilizes microspine technology. These microspines are placed in circular arrays with 16 independent carriages biasing the surface of the rock. The asperities in the surface allow the gripper to hold nearly 150N in all directions. While the gripper has been proven successful on consolidated rocks, it had yet to be tested on a variety of other surfaces that are suspected to separate the large boulders on an asteroid. Since asteroid surfaces vary widely, from friable rocks to lose ponds of regolith, the gripper was tested in a large variety of materials such as, bonded pumice, sand, gravel, and loose rocks. The forces are applied tangent, at 45 degrees, and normal to the surface of the material. The immediate results from this experiment will give insight into the gripper's effectiveness across the wide spectrum of materials found on asteroids.

  8. Investigations of release phenomenon of volatile organic compounds and particulates from residual storage chip piles

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, S.; Nagarkatti, M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper outlines the method for estimating Particulate Matter and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) emissions from wood handling and storage operations at a pulp mill. Fugitive particulate matter emissions from wood handling and storage operations are due to material load/dropout operations, wind erosion from storage piles and vehicular traffic on paved roads. The particulate matter emissions are a function of a number of variables like windspeed, surface moisture content, material silt content, and number of days of precipitation. Literature review attributes VOC emissions to biological, microbiological, chemical, and physical processes occurring in wood material storage pile. The VOC emissions are from the surface of these piles and the VOC released during retrieval of chips from the pile. VOC emissions are based on the chip throughput, number of turnovers, moisture content and surface area of the pile. The emission factors with the requisite calculation methodology to be utilized for quantifying VOC emissions from chip piles has been discussed in this paper.

  9. Design of passively aerated compost piles: Vertical air velocities between the pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, N.J.; Cherry, R.S.

    1996-09-01

    Passively aerated compost piles are built on a base of porous materials, such as straw or wood chips, in which perforated air supply pipes are distributed. The piles are not turned during composting, nor is forced-aeration equipment used, which significantly reduces the operating and capital expenses associated with these piles. Currently, pile configurations and materials are worked out by trial and error. Fundamentally based design procedures are difficult to develop because the natural convection air flow rate is not explicitly known, but rather is closely coupled with the pile temperature. This paper develops a mathematical model to analytically determine the maximum upward air flow velocity over an air supply pipe and the drop in vertical velocity away from the pipe. This model has one dimensionless number, dependent on the pile and base properties, which fully characterizes the velocity profile between the pipes. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Measurement of forces inside a three-dimensional pile of frictionless droplets.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J; Long, S; Wang, Q; Dinsmore, A D

    2006-06-16

    We present systematic and detailed measurements of interparticle contact forces inside three-dimensional piles of frictionless liquid droplets. We measured long-range chainlike correlations of the directions and magnitudes of large forces, thereby establishing the presence of force chains in three dimensions. Our correlation definition provides a chain persistence length of 10 mean droplet diameters, decreasing as load is applied to the pile. We also measured the angles between contacts and showed that the chainlike arrangement arises from the balance of forces. Moreover, we found that piles whose height was comparable to the chain persistence length exhibited substantially greater strain hardening than did tall piles, which we attributed to the force chains. Together, the results establish a connection between the microscopic force network and the elastic response of meso- or macroscopic granular piles. The conclusions drawn here should be relevant in jammed systems generally, including concentrated emulsions and piles of sand or other heavy particles.

  11. Impact Simulations on the Rubble Pile Asteroid (2867) Steins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deller, Jakob; Snodgrass, Colin; Lowry, Stephen C.; Price, Mark C.; Sierks, Holger

    2014-11-01

    Images from the OSIRIS camera system on board the Rosetta spacecraft (Keller et al. 2010) has revealed several interesting features on asteroid (2867) Steins. Its macro porosity of 40%, together with the shape that looks remarkably like a YORP evolved body, both indicate a rubble pile structure. A large crater on the southern pole is evidence for collisional evolution of this rubble pile asteroid. We have developed a new approach for simulating impacts on asteroid bodies that connects formation history to their collisional evolution. This is achieved by representing the interior as a ‘rubble pile’, created from the gravitational aggregation of spherical ‘pebbles’ that represent fragments from a major disruption event. These ‘pebbles’ follow a power law size function and constitute the building blocks of the rubble pile. This allows us to explicitly model the interior of rubble pile asteroids in hyper-velocity impact simulations in a more realistic way. We present preliminary results of a study validating our approach in a large series of simulated impacts on a typical small main belt rubble pile asteroid using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics solver in Autodyn. We show that this approach allows us to explicitly follow the behavior of a single ‘pebble’, while preserving the expected properties of the bulk asteroid as known from observations and experiments (Holsapple 2009). On the example of Steins, we use this model to investigate if surface features like the northern hill at 75/100 degrees lon/lat distance to the largest crater (Jorda et al. 2012), or the catena of depletion pits, can be explained by the displacement of large fragments in the interior of the asteroid during the impact. We do this by following the movement of pebbles below the surface feature in simulations that recreate the shape of the impact crater.Acknowledgements: Jakob Deller thanks the Planetary Science Institute for a Pierazzo International Student Travel Award that funds

  12. Anchoring of development workings in a zone of influence of mining in case of the level anchoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demin, V. F.; Fofanov, O. B.; Demina, T. V.; Yavorskiy, V. V.

    2017-02-01

    Regularities of the change of the stress-strain state of coal containing rock masses, depending on mining-geological factors, were revealed. These factors allow establishing rational parameters of anchoring of wall rocks to enhance the stability of development workings. Specific conditions of the deflected mode, displays of rock pressure, terms of maintenance depending on technological parameters are investigated. Researches allowed determining the degree of their development influence on the efficiency of application of the anchoring of the hollow making and will allow a reasonable application of anchoring certificates, provide stability of the rocks mining and reduce expenses on its realization and maintenance.

  13. 34. View of pier 3, showing supporting main anchor arm ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. View of pier 3, showing supporting main anchor arm and cantilever arm spans, as seen from shore near pier 4, looking north - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

  14. 22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main cantilever arm looking south. Note upper chord eyebar arrangement. - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

  15. 43. DETAIL OF PINNED UPPER CHORD CONNECTION BETWEEN ANCHOR ARM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. DETAIL OF PINNED UPPER CHORD CONNECTION BETWEEN ANCHOR ARM AND SUSPENDED (PANEL 67). VIEW TO NORTH. - Blue Water Bridge, Spanning St. Clair River at I-69, I-94, & Canadian Route 402, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  16. 20. DETAIL OF WEST ANCHOR SPAN, CANTILEVER ARMS AND WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL OF WEST ANCHOR SPAN, CANTILEVER ARMS AND WEST HALF OF SUSPENDED SPAN OF THROUGH TRUSS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  17. 19. WEST ANCHOR SPAN OF THROUGH TRUSS AND PIERS NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. WEST ANCHOR SPAN OF THROUGH TRUSS AND PIERS NO. 2 AND 3, FROM WEST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO NORTH. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  18. Anchor Casting and Portal Strut at West Bank Abutment, Endpost ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Anchor Casting and Portal Strut at West Bank Abutment, Endpost Base and Granite Plinth - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Bollman Bridge, Spanning Potomac River at Harpers Ferry, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  19. Visual implant elastomer and anchor tag retention in largemouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, K.J.; Janney, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    We double-marked largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides with Floy FD-68B anchor tags and visible implant elastomer (VIE) marks before stocking to compare retention of the two marks for age-0 (178 mm total length [TL]) and age-1 (273 mm TL) largemouth bass. In a short-term (31-d) evaluation, retention rate of anchor tags was over 94% for each age-class and retention of VIE marks was 98% in both age-classes. In a longer-term comparison of fish stocked into the Ohio River, retention was substantially higher for VIE marks (92.9%) than for anchor tags (42.9%) after 403 d (ages combined). Although anchor tags had high retention in two sizes of largemouth bass during the short-term experiment, they should not be used in situations where accurate identification of marked fish is required for periods longer than 123 d. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  20. 4. INTERIOR VIEW OF NORTH SECTION, SHOWING STEEL DOOR ANCHORS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR VIEW OF NORTH SECTION, SHOWING STEEL DOOR ANCHORS, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, Oil House, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  1. Numerical modeling of Thermal Response Tests in Energy Piles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, A.; Toledo, M.; Moffat, R.; Herrera, P. A.

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays, thermal response tests (TRT) are used as the main tools for the evaluation of low enthalpy geothermal systems such as heat exchangers. The results of TRT are used for estimating thermal conductivity and thermal resistance values of those systems. We present results of synthetic TRT simulations that model the behavior observed in an experimental energy pile system, which was installed at the new building of the Faculty of Engineering of Universidad de Chile. Moreover, we also present a parametric study to identify the most influent parameters in the performance of this type of tests. The modeling was developed using the finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics, which allows the incorporation of flow and heat transport processes. The modeled system consists on a concrete pile with 1 m diameter and 28 m deep, which contains a 28 mm diameter PEX pipe arranged in a closed circuit. Three configurations were analyzed: a U pipe, a triple U and a helicoid shape implemented at the experimental site. All simulations were run considering transient response in a three-dimensional domain. The simulation results provided the temperature distribution on the pile for a set of different geometry and physical properties of the materials. These results were compared with analytical solutions which are commonly used to interpret TRT data. This analysis demonstrated that there are several parameters that affect the system response in a synthetic TRT. For example, the diameter of the simulated pile affects the estimated effective thermal conductivity of the system. Moreover, the simulation results show that the estimated thermal conductivity for a 1 m diameter pile did not stabilize even after 100 hours since the beginning of the test, when it reached a value 30% below value used to set up the material properties in the simulation. Furthermore, we observed different behaviors depending on the thermal properties of concrete and soil. According to the simulations, the thermal

  2. 77 FR 2701 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Pile Placement for ORPC Maine's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... driven to the top of bedrock and would protrude 3-5 m (10-15 ft) above the seafloor. A total of 11 piles.... The monitoring pile would protrude about six m (20 ft) above the seafloor. The two-m diameter pile... spreading loss of 15 log R, OPRC estimates that the 180-dB (Level A) isopleth for the impact hammer could...

  3. Drag Embedment Anchor Tests in Sand and Mud

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    24.0 DISTANCE ACHOR TRAVELLED 24.0 TESI ME 1 FIX 84 FT - 2.185 I11 CHAIN 34 FT - 2 IN WIRE ROPE E BOTTOM 13. ANCHOR FLUKE TIP DEPTH NOTE - POSITIVE SHAN...ANChOIR TYPE .RUCL TIN SHANK ANCHOR "EIGHT 1100.90 Lý. FLUWF ANGLE-TYPE, **4** DEG. - I G= IGV I-FIX "CORING LINE JtSCR’PTI,,N 1l8G FT - 2.0 IN CHAIN

  4. Medial rectus muscle anchoring in complete oculomotor nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Si Hyung; Chang, Jee Ho

    2015-10-01

    The management of exotropia resulting from complete oculomotor nerve palsy is challenging. Conventional therapeutic interventions, including supramaximal resection and recession, superior oblique tendon resection and transposition, and several ocular anchoring procedures have yielded less-than-adequate results. Here we describe a novel surgical technique of anchoring the medial rectus muscle to the medial orbital wall in combination with lateral rectus disinsertion and reattachment to the lateral orbital wall.

  5. Photoinduced ordering and anchoring properties of azo-dye films.

    PubMed

    Kiselev, Alexei D; Chigrinov, Vladimir; Huang, Dan Ding

    2005-12-01

    We study both theoretically and experimentally the anchoring properties of photoaligning azo-dye films in contact with a nematic liquid crystal depending on the photoinduced ordering of azo-dye molecules. In the mean field approximation, we found that the bare surface anchoring energy depends linearly on the azo-dye order parameter and the azimuthal anchoring strength decays to zero in the limit of vanishing photoinduced ordering. From the absorption dichroism spectra measured in azo-dye films that are prepared from an azo-dye derivative with polymerizable terminal groups we obtain the dependence of the dichroic ratio on the irradiation dose. We also measure the polar and azimuthal anchoring strengths in nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cells aligned by the azo-dye films and derive the anchoring strengths as functions of the dichroic ratio, which is proportional to the photoinduced order parameter. Although linear fitting of the experimental data for both anchoring strengths gives reasonable results, it, predicts vanishing of the azimuthal anchoring strength at some nonzero value of the azo-dye order parameter, in contradiction with theory. By using a simple phenomenological model we show that this discrepancy can be attributed to the difference between the surface and bulk order parameters in the films. The measured polar anchoring energy is found to be an order of magnitude higher than the azimuthal strength. Our theory suggests that the quadrupole term of the spherical harmonics expansion for the azo-dye-NLC intermolecular potential might be of importance for the understanding of this difference.

  6. Greedy Successive Anchorization for Localizing Machine Type Communication Devices

    PubMed Central

    Imtiaz Ul Haq, Mian; Kim, Dongwoo

    2016-01-01

    Localization of machine type communication (MTC) devices is essential for various types of location-based applications. In this paper, we investigate a distributed localization problem in noisy networks, where an estimated position of blind MTC machines (BMs) is obtained by using noisy measurements of distance between BM and anchor machines (AMs). We allow positioned BMs also to work as anchors that are referred to as virtual AMs (VAMs) in this paper. VAMs usually have greater position errors than (original) AMs, and, if used as anchors, the error propagates through the whole network. However, VAMs are necessary, especially when many BMs are distributed in a large area with an insufficient number of AMs. To overcome the error propagation, we propose a greedy successive anchorization process (GSAP). A round of GSAP consists of consecutive two steps. In the first step, a greedy selection of anchors among AMs and VAMs is done by which GSAP considers only those three anchors that possibly pertain to the localization accuracy. In the second step, each BM that can select three anchors in its neighbor determines its location with a proposed distributed localization algorithm. Iterative rounds of GSAP terminate when every BM in the network finds its location. To examine the performance of GSAP, a root mean square error (RMSE) metric is used and the corresponding Cramér–Rao lower bound (CRLB) is provided. By numerical investigation, RMSE performance of GSAP is shown to be better than existing localization methods with and without an anchor selection method and mostly close to the CRLB. PMID:27983576

  7. Application of CFG Piles to Soft Soil Treatment of Municipal Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qingli; Song, Yan; Han, Xinzhan

    With rapid development of constructional engineering, methods used for soft soil foundation treatment become increasingly diversified. Because composite foundation has the peculiar advantage that that it makes full use of earth among piles and piles and is featured by short construction period, large treatment depth and relatively good effect, it has been applied more and more widely. The engineering applies CFG pipes, utilizes high bearing capacity of piles and gives full play to carrying capacity of earth among piles by establishing a mattress layer.

  8. Numerical Estimation of the Pile Toe and Shaft Unit Resistances During the Installation Process in Sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konkol, Jakub

    2015-03-01

    Numerical simulations of a pile jacking were carried out. A Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) formulation was used to treat with large deformation problems. An Abaqus, a commercial Finite Element Method software suit, was used as a computing environment. The Mohr-Coulomb constitutive model was applied and the Coulomb model of friction was used to describe pile-soil interaction. Calculations were made for three different pile diameters. Toe and shaft unit resistances versus depth for each pile were investigated and plotted. CPT-based solutions were compared with the results of numerical simulations.

  9. Comparative Model Tests of SDP and CFA Pile Groups in Non-Cohesive Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasiński, Adam; Kusio, Tomasz

    2015-02-01

    The research topic relates to the subject of deep foundations supported on continuous flight auger (CFA) piles and screw displacement piles (SDP). The authors have decided to conduct model tests of foundations supported on the group of piles mentioned above and also the tests of the same piles working as a single. The tests are ongoing in Geotechnical Laboratory of Gdaňsk University of Technology. The description of test procedure, interpretation and analysis of the preliminary testing series results are presented in the paper.

  10. Development of p-y curves of laterally loaded piles in cohesionless soil.

    PubMed

    Khari, Mahdy; Kassim, Khairul Anuar; Adnan, Azlan

    2014-01-01

    The research on damages of structures that are supported by deep foundations has been quite intensive in the past decade. Kinematic interaction in soil-pile interaction is evaluated based on the p-y curve approach. Existing p-y curves have considered the effects of relative density on soil-pile interaction in sandy soil. The roughness influence of the surface wall pile on p-y curves has not been emphasized sufficiently. The presented study was performed to develop a series of p-y curves for single piles through comprehensive experimental investigations. Modification factors were studied, namely, the effects of relative density and roughness of the wall surface of pile. The model tests were subjected to lateral load in Johor Bahru sand. The new p-y curves were evaluated based on the experimental data and were compared to the existing p-y curves. The soil-pile reaction for various relative density (from 30% to 75%) was increased in the range of 40-95% for a smooth pile at a small displacement and 90% at a large displacement. For rough pile, the ratio of dense to loose relative density soil-pile reaction was from 2.0 to 3.0 at a small to large displacement. Direct comparison of the developed p-y curve shows significant differences in the magnitude and shapes with the existing load-transfer curves. Good comparison with the experimental and design studies demonstrates the multidisciplinary applications of the present method.

  11. Pattern-induced anchoring transitions in nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Gómez, Óscar A.; Romero-Enrique, José M.; Silvestre, Nuno M.; Telo da Gama, Margarida M.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we revisit the problem of a nematic liquid crystal in contact with patterned substrates. The substrate is modelled as a periodic array of parallel infinite grooves of well-defined cross-section sculpted on a chemically homogeneous substrate which favours local homeotropic anchoring of the nematic. We consider three cases: a sawtooth, a crenellated and a sinusoidal substrate. We analyse this problem within the modified Frank-Oseen formalism. We argue that, for substrate periodicities much larger than the extrapolation length, the existence of different nematic textures with distinct far-field orientations, as well as the anchoring transitions between them, are associated with the presence of topological defects either on or close to the substrate. For the sawtooth and sinusoidal cases, we observe a homeotropic to planar anchoring transition as the substrate roughness increases. On the other hand, a homeotropic to oblique anchoring transition is observed for crenellated substrates. In this case, the anchoring phase diagram shows a complex dependence on the substrate roughness and substrate anchoring strength.

  12. Genome mapping by random anchoring: A discrete theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M. Q.; Marr, T. G.

    1993-11-01

    As a part of the international human genome project, large-scale genomic maps of human and other model organisms are being generated. More recently, mapping using various anchoring (as opposed to the traditional "fingerprinting") strategies have been proposed based largely on mathematical models. In all of the theoretical work dealing with anchoring, an anchor has been idealized as a point on a continuous, infinite-length genome. In general, it is not desirable to make these assumptions, since in practice they may be violated under a variety of actual biological situations. Here we analyze a discrete model that can be used to predict the expected progress made when mapping by random anchoring. By virtue of keeping all three length scales (genome length, clone length, and probe length) finite, our results for the random anchoring strategy are derived in full generality, which contain previous results as special cases and hence can have broad application for planning mapping experiments or assessing the accuracy of the continuum models. Finally, we pose a challenging nonrandom anchoring model corresponding to a more efficient mapping scheme.

  13. Poor anchoring limits dyslexics' perceptual, memory, and reading skills.

    PubMed

    Oganian, Yulia; Ahissar, Merav

    2012-07-01

    The basic deficits underlying the severe and persistent reading difficulties in dyslexia are still highly debated. One of the major topics of debate is whether these deficits are language specific, or affect both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Recently, Ahissar and colleagues proposed the "anchoring-deficit hypothesis" (Ahissar, Lubin, Putter-Katz, & Banai, 2006), which suggests that dyslexics have a general difficulty in automatic extraction of stimulus regularities from auditory inputs. This hypothesis explained a broad range of dyslexics' verbal and non-verbal difficulties. However, it was not directly tested in the context of reading and verbal memory, which poses the main stumbling blocks to dyslexics. Here we assessed the abilities of adult dyslexics to efficiently benefit from ("anchor to") regularities embedded in repeated tones, orally presented syllables, and written words. We also compared dyslexics' performance to that of individuals with attention disorder (ADHD), but no reading disability. We found an anchoring effect in all groups: all gained from stimulus repetition. However, in line with the anchoring-deficit hypothesis, controls and ADHD participants showed a significantly larger anchoring effect in all tasks. This study is the first that directly shows that the same domain-general deficit, poor anchoring, characterizes dyslexics' performance in perceptual, working memory and reading tasks.

  14. Evaluation of mitral valve replacement anchoring in a phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, A. Jonathan; Moore, John; Lang, Pencilla; Bainbridge, Dan; Campbell, Gordon; Jones, Doug L.; Guiraudon, Gerard M.; Peters, Terry M.

    2012-02-01

    Conventional mitral valve replacement requires a median sternotomy and cardio-pulmonary bypass with aortic crossclamping and is associated with significant mortality and morbidity which could be reduced by performing the procedure off-pump. Replacing the mitral valve in the closed, off-pump, beating heart requires extensive development and validation of surgical and imaging techniques. Image guidance systems and surgical access for off-pump mitral valve replacement have been previously developed, allowing the prosthetic valve to be safely introduced into the left atrium and inserted into the mitral annulus. The major remaining challenge is to design a method of securely anchoring the prosthetic valve inside the beating heart. The development of anchoring techniques has been hampered by the expense and difficulty in conducting large animal studies. In this paper, we demonstrate how prosthetic valve anchoring may be evaluated in a dynamic phantom. The phantom provides a consistent testing environment where pressure measurements and Doppler ultrasound can be used to monitor and assess the valve anchoring procedures, detecting pararvalvular leak when valve anchoring is inadequate. Minimally invasive anchoring techniques may be directly compared to the current gold standard of valves sutured under direct vision, providing a useful tool for the validation of new surgical instruments.

  15. Pattern-induced anchoring transitions in nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Gómez, Óscar A; Romero-Enrique, José M; Silvestre, Nuno M; Telo da Gama, Margarida M

    2017-02-15

    In this paper we revisit the problem of a nematic liquid crystal in contact with patterned substrates. The substrate is modelled as a periodic array of parallel infinite grooves of well-defined cross-section sculpted on a chemically homogeneous substrate which favours local homeotropic anchoring of the nematic. We consider three cases: a sawtooth, a crenellated and a sinusoidal substrate. We analyse this problem within the modified Frank-Oseen formalism. We argue that, for substrate periodicities much larger than the extrapolation length, the existence of different nematic textures with distinct far-field orientations, as well as the anchoring transitions between them, are associated with the presence of topological defects either on or close to the substrate. For the sawtooth and sinusoidal cases, we observe a homeotropic to planar anchoring transition as the substrate roughness increases. On the other hand, a homeotropic to oblique anchoring transition is observed for crenellated substrates. In this case, the anchoring phase diagram shows a complex dependence on the substrate roughness and substrate anchoring strength.

  16. Filamentous structures in skeletal muscle: anchors for the subsarcolemmal space.

    PubMed

    Khairani, Astrid Feinisa; Tajika, Yuki; Takahashi, Maiko; Ueno, Hitoshi; Murakami, Tohru; Soenggono, Arifin; Yorifuji, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    In skeletal muscle fibers, intermediate filaments and actin filaments provide structural support to the myofibrils and the sarcolemma. For many years, it was poorly understood from ultrastructural observations that how these filamentous structures were kept anchored. The present study was conducted to determine the architecture of filamentous anchoring structures in the subsarcolemmal space and the intermyofibrils. The diaphragms (Dp) of adult wild type and mdx mice (mdx is a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy) were subjected to tension applied perpendicular to the long axis of the muscle fibers, with or without treatment with 1% Triton X-100 or 0.03% saponin. These experiments were conducted to confirm the presence and integrity of the filamentous anchoring structures. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that these structures provide firm transverse connections between the sarcolemma and peripheral myofibrils. Most of the filamentous structures appeared to be inserted into subsarcolemmal densities, forming anchoring connections between the sarcolemma and peripheral myofibrils. In some cases, actin filaments were found to run longitudinally in the subsarcolemmal space to connect to the sarcolemma or in some cases to connect to the intermyofibrils as elongated thin filaments. These filamentous anchoring structures were less common in the mdx Dp. Our data suggest that the transverse and longitudinal filamentous structures form an anchoring system in the subsarcolemmal space and the intermyofibrils.

  17. Two Approaches for Using Multiple Anchors in NEAT Equating: A Description and Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; Deng, Weiling; Zhang, Yu-Li

    2011-01-01

    Nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) equating functions that use a single anchor can have accuracy problems when the groups are extremely different and/or when the anchor weakly correlates with the tests being equated. Proposals have been made to address these issues by incorporating more than one anchor into NEAT equating functions. These…

  18. Application of self-balanced loading test to socketed pile in weak rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ye; Gong, Weiming; Dai, Guoliang; Wu, JingKun

    2008-11-01

    Method of self-balanced loading test differs from the traditional methods of pile test. The key equipment of the test is a cell. The cell specially designed is used to exert load which is placed in pile body. During the test, displacement values of the top plate and the bottom plate of the cell are recorded according to every level of load. So Q-S curves can be obtained. In terms of test results, the bearing capacity of pile can be judged. Equipments of the test are simply and cost of it is low. Under some special conditions, the method will take a great advantage. In Guangxi Province, tertiary mudstone distributes widely which is typical weak rock. It is usually chosen as the bearing stratum of pile foundation. In order to make full use of its high bearing capacity, pile is generally designed as belled pile. Foundations of two high-rise buildings which are close to each other are made up of belled socketed piles in weak rock. To obtain the bearing capacity of the belled socketed pile in weak rock, loading test in situ should be taken since it is not reasonable that experimental compression strength of the mudstone is used for design. The self-balanced loading test was applied to eight piles of two buildings. To get the best test effect, the assembly of cell should be taken different modes in terms of the depth that pile socketed in rock and the dimension of the enlarged toe. The assembly of cells had been taken three modes, and tests were carried on successfully. By the self-balanced loading test, the large bearing capacities of belled socketed piles were obtained. Several key parameters required in design were achieved from the tests. For the data of tests had been analyzed, the bearing performance of pile tip, pile side and whole pile was revealed. It is further realized that the bearing capacity of belled socketed pile in the mudstone will decrease after the mudstone it socketed in has been immerged. Among kinds of mineral ingredient in the mudstone

  19. Mapping of noise impact provoked by the execution of foundation piles at high rise building sites.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Adolpho Guido; Gusmão, Alexandre Duarte; Rabbani, Emilia Rahnemay Kohman; Fucale, Stela Paulino

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to map, in a limited area inside and outside of the worksite, the environmental impact generated by sound pollution coming from the driving of foundation piles for high rise buildings, as well as to observe and check if the noise levels produced by the emitting source are tolerable in the urban environment. The methodology of the work includes a survey of technical references about the subject; measurement of noises surrounding the worksite during the foundation phase for four distinct buildings, with different types of piles: prefabricated piles, continuous helical displacement piles , traditional compaction piles and Terra Probe compaction piles. A grid of points was built due to the time of driving and after that the measurements of environmental noises were performed emitted by the execution of each type of pile using a sound level meter. The interpretation of the measurements and their impacts on the neighborhood of the building were performed using the computational tool Suffer for creating noise level contours. The X and Y axes of the grid represent the distances in meters of the area studied and the Z axis represents the noise measured in dB. The contours developed represent the mapping of the noise at the worksites and their surroundings. The mapping of the urban impact of noise, the measurement of its dimensions, and the examination of its propagation around the building are important subsides to adequate individual and collective protection procedures. Seventy one points were measured at four building sites with different types of piles, and the results showed that at only three points was the noise within the limits of the Municipal Law of Recife of 70 dB, which proves the relevance of the research. Finally, the comparative analysis between the four types of piles shows that the continuous helical displacement pile emits the lowest noise level among the four pile types studied.

  20. Pile-Up Discrimination Algorithms for the HOLMES Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, E.; Alpert, B.; Bennett, D.; Faverzani, M.; Fowler, J.; Giachero, A.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Maino, M.; Nucciotti, A.; Puiu, A.; Ullom, J.

    2016-07-01

    The HOLMES experiment is a new large-scale experiment for the electron neutrino mass determination by means of the electron capture decay of ^{163}Ho. In such an experiment, random coincidence events are one of the main sources of background which impair the ability to identify the effect of a non-vanishing neutrino mass. In order to resolve these spurious events, detectors characterized by a fast response are needed as well as pile-up recognition algorithms. For that reason, we have developed a code for testing the discrimination efficiency of various algorithms in recognizing pile up events in dependence of the time separation between two pulses. The tests are performed on simulated realistic TES signals and noise. Indeed, the pulse profile is obtained by solving the two coupled differential equations which describe the response of the TES according to the Irwin-Hilton model. To these pulses, a noise waveform which takes into account all the noise sources regularly present in a real TES is added. The amplitude of the generated pulses is distributed as the ^{163}Ho calorimetric spectrum. Furthermore, the rise time of these pulses has been chosen taking into account the constraints given by both the bandwidth of the microwave multiplexing read out with a flux ramp demodulation and the bandwidth of the ADC boards currently available for ROACH2. Among the different rejection techniques evaluated, the Wiener Filter technique, a digital filter to gain time resolution, has shown an excellent pile-up rejection efficiency. The obtained time resolution closely matches the baseline specifications of the HOLMES experiment. We report here a description of our simulation code and a comparison of the different rejection techniques.

  1. 9. PIER NO. 4, REVISED GENERAL LAYOUT OF PILING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. PIER NO. 4, REVISED GENERAL LAYOUT OF PILING AND FRAMING. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard, Ship Repair Facilities. John Hudspeth, Architect, at foot of Main Street, Alameda, Calif. Sheet no. S3 of 5 sheets, Plan no. 10,037. Various scales. August 26, 1942, last revised 4/15/43. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76. Approved for construction September 17, 1943. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Pier 4, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  2. Method and apparatus for analog pulse pile-up rejection

    DOEpatents

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2013-12-31

    A method and apparatus for pulse pile-up rejection are disclosed. The apparatus comprises a delay value application constituent configured to receive a threshold-crossing time value, and provide an adjustable value according to a delay value and the threshold-crossing time value; and a comparison constituent configured to receive a peak-occurrence time value and the adjustable value, compare the peak-occurrence time value with the adjustable value, indicate pulse acceptance if the peak-occurrence time value is less than or equal to the adjustable value, and indicate pulse rejection if the peak-occurrence time value is greater than the adjustable value.

  3. Timber Piling Barrier and Chemical Preservation Annual Costs Comparison.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    another wrap did not adequately cover an attached bolt and thus borer damage continued at that point only. The aluminum alloy nails used to attach the...been virtually eliminated because of the much lower cost of PVC wrapping. The most common metal used was a 90:10 cupro-nickel alloy in sheets 2 mils...thick. The sheets were fastened to the piling with monel or cupro-nickel nails. The copper does offer some antifouling activity from the slow release

  4. Method and apparatus for analog pulse pile-up rejection

    DOEpatents

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2014-11-18

    A method and apparatus for pulse pile-up rejection are disclosed. The apparatus comprises a delay value application constituent configured to receive a threshold-crossing time value, and provide an adjustable value according to a delay value and the threshold-crossing time value; and a comparison constituent configured to receive a peak-occurrence time value and the adjustable value, compare the peak-occurrence time value with the adjustable value, indicate pulse acceptance if the peak-occurrence time value is less than or equal to the adjustable value, and indicate pulse rejection if the peak-occurrence time value is greater than the adjustable value.

  5. SAS validation and analysis of in-pile TUCOP experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Morman, J.A.; Tentner, A.M.; Dever, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The validation of the SAS4A accident analysis code centers on its capability to calculate the wide range of tests performed in the TREAT (Transient Reactor Test Facility) in-pile experiments program. This paper presents the SAS4A analysis of a simulated TUCOP (Transient-Under-Cooled-Over-Power) experiment using seven full-length PFR mixed oxide fuel pins in a flowing sodium loop. Calculations agree well with measured thermal-hydraulic, pin failure time and post-failure fuel motion data. The extent of the agreement confirms the validity of the models used in the SAS4A code to describe TUCOP accidents.

  6. Drilling template acurately leveled with pile-supported system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-21

    This paper reports on a drilling template for BP Exploration Inc.'s Pompano field set to within 0.015[degrees] of level in Viosca Knoll Block 989 offshore Louisiana. The 280-slot, 285-ton template was installed in 1,290 ft of water. The typical tolerance for a template setting is [plus minus]0.25[degrees] of level. This accuracy ensures that the docking piles will function properly when the jacket is installed and prevents problems with misalignment of drilling and tieback equipment.

  7. Removal and recovery of metals from a coal pile runoff.

    PubMed

    Ibeanusi, Victor M; Phinney, Donna; Thompson, Michelle

    2003-05-01

    The removal and recovery of heavy metals from a coal pile runoff water using a mixture of multiple metal-tolerant bacterial strains of ATCC 55673, and ATCC 55674 and a Pseudomonas sp. was investigated. The analysis of elemental composition of metal precipitates recovered from the bacterial biomass by transmission electron microscopy andenergy dispersive X-ray analysis revealed the presence of metals originally present in the wastewater. In addition, analysis of metals in culture supernatant and bacterial biomass by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP-ES) indicated a removal range of 82-100% and a recovery of 15-58% of metals from the wastewater and bacterial biomass, respectively.

  8. The effect of anchor modality on the reliability of vocal severity ratings.

    PubMed

    Awan, Shaheen N; Lawson, Laura L

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to confirm if anchors (ie, perceptual references) and training affect the inter- and intrarater reliability of perceptual analysis of various voice types and severities compared to receiving training alone, and (2) to determine whether the modality in which the anchor is presented affects rater reliability. In this study, modality refers to whether the anchor is presented auditorily, visually via a written definition (a textual anchor), or a combination of both anchor types. A randomized multigroup comparison was performed. Forty inexperienced judges were selected to rate 36 sustained vowel voice samples of various voice types (ie, normal, breathy, hoarse, and rough) in terms of perceived vocal severity using four different methods (No Anchor, Textual Anchor, Auditory Anchor, and Combined Textual/Auditory Anchors). Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions. Before the rating task, all subject groups received a brief training sessions (15-20 minutes in duration) in which voice quality type and severity definitions were provided and representative voice samples were listened to. A computer program was developed to present anchors in the form of an auditory sample, written definition, or both. A no anchor condition was also presented. Results indicated that the combination of training and anchors significantly improves the interrater reliability of perceptual voice ratings. In addition, the use of auditory anchors resulted in 95% confidence intervals that were significantly smaller for rating mild voice disorders, and both breathy and hoarse voice qualities. Textual anchors did appear to show some improvement over training alone (ie, no anchors), but were generally not as strong as the use of auditory anchors. However, the combination of textual and auditory anchors resulted in the greatest degree of interrater reliability as assessed via mean correlations. The ratings produced by the Auditory and Combined Anchor

  9. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. 300.26 Section 300.26 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile...

  10. In-situ grouting of uranium-mill-tailings piles: an assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, T.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    Passage in 1978 of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) initiated a program of remedial action for 22 existing mill tailings piles generated in the period 1940 to 1970 as part of the nation's defense and nuclear power programs. The presence of these piles poses potential health and environmental contamination concerns. Possible remedial actions proposed include multilayer covers over the piles to reduce water infiltration, reduce radon gas releases, and reduce airborne transport of tailings fines. In addition, suggested remedial actions include (1) the use of liners to prevent groundwater contamination by leachates from the piles and (2) chemical stabilization of the tailings to retain the radioactive and nonradioactive sources of contamination. Lining of the piles would normally be applicable only to piles that are to be moved from their present location such that the liner could be placed between the tailings and the groundwater. However, by using civil engineering techniques developed for grouting rocks and soils for strength and water control, it may be possible to produce an in situ liner for piles that are not to be relocated. The Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office requested that ORNL assess the potential application of grouting as a remedial action. This report examines the types of grouts, the equipment available, and the costs, and assesses the possibility of applying grouting technology as a remedial action alternative for uranium mill tailings piles.

  11. 40 CFR 761.347 - First level sampling-waste from existing piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Waste Destined for Off-Site Disposal, in Accordance With § 761.61 § 761.347 First level sampling—waste... length or width but restricted to 30 cm (1 foot) in depth. A square shaped pile facilitates sampling site... it is necessary to sample a pile which is too large to be spread on the site to a uniform...

  12. 16 CFR 303.24 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. 303.24 Section 303.24 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF... and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products composed thereof may...

  13. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. 300.26 Section 300.26 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF... and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may...

  14. 16 CFR 303.24 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. 303.24 Section 303.24 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF... and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products composed thereof may...

  15. 77 FR 15045 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Pile Placement for ORPC Maine's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... to the top of bedrock and will protrude 3-5 m (10- 15 ft) above the seafloor. A total of 11 piles (10... (30 in) in diameter. The monitoring pile will protrude about six m (20 ft) above the seafloor. ORPC... expected to be 175 dB and 190 dB, respectively. Assuming a practical spreading loss of 15 log R,...

  16. Pile-up correction by Genetic Algorithm and Artificial Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafaee, M.; Saramad, S.

    2009-08-01

    Pile-up distortion is a common problem for high counting rates radiation spectroscopy in many fields such as industrial, nuclear and medical applications. It is possible to reduce pulse pile-up using hardware-based pile-up rejections. However, this phenomenon may not be eliminated completely by this approach and the spectrum distortion caused by pile-up rejection can be increased as well. In addition, inaccurate correction or rejection of pile-up artifacts in applications such as energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometers can lead to losses of counts, will give poor quantitative results and even false element identification. Therefore, it is highly desirable to use software-based models to predict and correct any recognized pile-up signals in data acquisition systems. The present paper describes two new intelligent approaches for pile-up correction; the Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). The validation and testing results of these new methods have been compared, which shows excellent agreement with the measured data with 60Co source and NaI detector. The Monte Carlo simulation of these new intelligent algorithms also shows their advantages over hardware-based pulse pile-up rejection methods.

  17. Computer-Aided Structural Engineering (CASE) Project. User’s Guide: Pile Group Analysis (CPGA) Computer Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    unsupported condition using the assumption that there is no cross bracing between piles, that each pile acts independently as a cantilever above the ground...paragraph 24ee (Scott 1981). An axial load factor (ALF) and combined bending factor ( CBF ) are printed for all piles. The ALF represents the left side...of Equation 1 or 2, while the CBF represents the left side of Equation 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9. For prestressed concrete piles, actual stresses are also

  18. In-pile and out-of-pile testing of a molybdenum-uranium dioxide cermet fueled themionic diode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diianni, D. C.

    1972-01-01

    The behavior of Mo-UO2 cermet fuel in a diode for thermionic reactor application was studied. The diode had a Mo-0.5 Ti emitter and niobium collector. Output power ranged from 1.4 to 2.8 W/cm squared at emitter and collector temperatures of 1500 deg and 540 C. Thermionic performance was stable within the limits of the instrumentation sensitivity. Through 1000 hours of in-pile operation the emitter was dimensionally stable. However, some fission gases (15 percent) leaked through an inner clad imperfection that occurred during fuel fabrication.

  19. A numerical study of the effect of groundwater on spiral coil energy piles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong-Kyun; Lee, Youngmin

    2016-04-01

    Numerical simulations were performed to investigate effects of groundwater on the thermal performance of the geothermal energy pile. Energy piles, a part of the closed-loop geothermal heat pump systems, are used to exchange heat between the ground and the heat pump. A heat-carrying fluid circulates the ground through a coiled pipe installed in pile foundations. The COMSOL multiphysics was used as a simulator, which can solve the equations for the temperature and fluid flow in the pipe system, as well as those in the ground. Water temperatures at the pipe outlet after 90-day injection of warm water (30℃) were calculated from following cases: (1) one energy pile installed at the fully saturated medium with regional groundwater flow (100 m/year), (2) one energy pile installed at the partially saturated medium (water table is located 13.5 m below the ground surface) with regional groundwater flow (1,000 m/year), (3) one energy pile installed at the fully saturated medium with no regional groundwater flow, (4) one energy pile installed at the partially saturated medium with no regional groundwater flow, (5), (6), (7) four energy piles (distance between energy piles is 10, 5 ,2 m) installed at the fully saturated medium with regional groundwater flow, and (8), (9), (10) four energy piles installed at the partially saturated medium with regional groundwater flow. The outlet temperature of each case is (1) 28.11℃, (2) 28.84℃, (3) 28.97℃, (4) 29.09℃, (5) 28.19℃ (mean value), (6) 28.24℃ (mean value), (7) 28.33℃ (mean value), (8) 28.84℃ (mean value), (9) 28.90℃ (mean value), and (10) 29.10℃ (mean value), respectively. The thermal power ratio of the energy pile of each case (standard case is case 1) is (1) 0%, (2) -46%, (3) -39%, (4) -52%, (5) -4%, (6) -7%, (7) -12%, (8) -39%, (9) -42%, and (10) -53%, respectively. Numerical results show that the performance of the energy pile installed at the fully saturated medium with regional groundwater flow (case 1

  20. Residency of Reef Fish During Pile Driving Within a Shallow Pierside Environment.

    PubMed

    Iafrate, Joseph D; Watwood, Stephanie L; Reyier, Eric A; Gilchrest, Matthew; Crocker, Steven E

    2016-01-01

    The potential effects of pile driving on fish populations and commercial fisheries have received significant attention given the prevalence of construction occurring in coastal habitats throughout the world. In this study, we used acoustic telemetry to assess the movement and survival of free-ranging reef fish in Port Canaveral, FL, in response to 35 days of pile driving at an existing wharf complex. The site fidelity and behavior of 15 sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus) and 10 gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus) were determined before, during, and after pile driving. No obvious signs of mortality or injury to tagged fish were evident from the data. There was a significant decline in the residency index for mangrove snapper at the construction wharf after pile driving compared with the baseline, although this may be influenced by natural movements of this species in the study area rather than a direct response to pile driving.

  1. Lateral loading on piles due to slope instability

    SciTech Connect

    Lupini, J.F.; Chacin, M.E.; Furiol, A.; Troconis, C.M.; Vargas, F.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents the Caripito Oil Loading Terminal case history for which very flat slope instability was responsible for the failure and structural collapse of seven mooring and/or breasting dolphins, plus the collapse of all of the intermediate supports of catwalk bridges that provide access to the dolphins, from or to the loading platforms. These supports collapsed before the dolphins did as, in the whole, they were much weaker to support lateral thrusts, even though they were strengthened with additional piles, on several occasions. When movement of the dolphins first became apparent, a monitoring program was designed to measure the displacement of the pile caps. The primary cause for failure was the very weak nature of the subsoil, but the triggering mechanism was the need to dredge the bottom, further than previously in the past, because of the new recent condition of siltation and sedimentation and to accommodate larger tankers with larger draughts. Although most of the dolphins failed in a three year period, the trestles and the loading platforms have not shown, so far, significant signs of distress. This paper deals with the site assessment program, with what caused the failures, how the collapse occurred and the conclusions, that were drawn during the study.

  2. Evaluation of Candidate In-Pile Thermal Conductivity Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    B. Fox; H. Ban; J. Daw; K. Condie; D. Knudson; J. Rempe

    2009-05-01

    Thermophysical properties of materials must be known for proper design, test, and application of new fuels and structural properties in nuclear reactors. In the case of nuclear fuels during irradiation, the physical structure and chemical composition change as a function of time and position within the rod. Typically, thermal conductivity changes, as well as other thermophysical properties being evaluated during irradiation in a materials and test reactor, are measured out-of-pile in “hot-cells.” Repeatedly removing samples from a test reactor to make out-of-pile measurements is expensive, has the potential to disturb phenomena of interest, and only provide understanding of the sample's end state at the time each measurement is made. There are also limited thermophysical property data for advanced fuels. Such data are needed for the development of next generation reactors and advanced fuels for existing nuclear plants. Having the capacity to effectively and quickly characterize fuels and material properties during irradiation has the potential to improve the fidelity of nuclear fuel data and reduce irradiation testing costs.

  3. Acoustic emission intensity analysis of corrosion in prestressed concrete piles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vélez, William; Matta, Fabio; Ziehl, Paul

    2014-02-01

    Corrosion of steel strands in prestressed concrete (PC) bridges may lead to substantial damage or collapse well before the end of the design life. Acoustic Emission (AE) is a suitable nondestructive technique to detect and locate corrosion in reinforced and prestressed concrete, which is key to prioritize inspection and maintenance. An effective tool to analyze damage-related AE data is intensity analysis (IA), which is based on two data trends, namely Severity (average signal strength of high amplitude hits) and Historic Index (ratio of the average signal strength of the most recent hits to the average of all hits). IA criteria for corrosion assessment in PC were recently proposed based on empirical evidence from accelerated corrosion tests. In this paper, AE data from prestressed and non-prestressed concrete pile specimens exposed to salt water wet-dry cycling for over 600 days are used to analyze the relation between Severity and Historic Index and actual corrosion. Evidence of corrosion is gained from the inspection of decommissioned specimens. The selection of suitable J and K parameters for IA is discussed, and an IA chart with updated corrosion criteria for PC piles is presented.

  4. In-Pile Thermal Conductivity Measurement Method for Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Joy L. Rempe; Brandon Fox; Heng Ban; Joshua E. Daw; Darrell L. Knudson; Keith G. Condie

    2009-08-01

    Thermophysical properties of advanced nuclear fuels and materials during irradiation must be known prior to their use in existing, advanced, or next generation reactors. Thermal conductivity is one of the most important properties for predicting fuel and material performance. A joint Utah State University (USU) / Idaho National Laboratory (INL) project, which is being conducted with assistance from the Institute for Energy Technology at the Norway Halden Reactor Project, is investigating in-pile fuel thermal conductivity measurement methods. This paper focuses on one of these methods – a multiple thermocouple method. This two-thermocouple method uses a surrogate fuel rod with Joule heating to simulate volumetric heat generation to gain insights about in-pile detection of thermal conductivity. Preliminary results indicated that this method can measure thermal conductivity over a specific temperature range. This paper reports the thermal conductivity values obtained by this technique and compares these values with thermal property data obtained from standard thermal property measurement techniques available at INL’s High Test Temperature Laboratory. Experimental results and material properties data are also compared to finite element analysis results.

  5. The rubble-pile asteroid Itokawa as observed by Hayabusa.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, A; Kawaguchi, J; Yeomans, D K; Abe, M; Mukai, T; Okada, T; Saito, J; Yano, H; Yoshikawa, M; Scheeres, D J; Barnouin-Jha, O; Cheng, A F; Demura, H; Gaskell, R W; Hirata, N; Ikeda, H; Kominato, T; Miyamoto, H; Nakamura, A M; Nakamura, R; Sasaki, S; Uesugi, K

    2006-06-02

    During the interval from September through early December 2005, the Hayabusa spacecraft was in close proximity to near-Earth asteroid 25143 Itokawa, and a variety of data were taken on its shape, mass, and surface topography as well as its mineralogic and elemental abundances. The asteroid's orthogonal axes are 535, 294, and 209 meters, the mass is 3.51 x 10(10) kilograms, and the estimated bulk density is 1.9 +/- 0.13 grams per cubic centimeter. The correspondence between the smooth areas on the surface (Muses Sea and Sagamihara) and the gravitationally low regions suggests mass movement and an effective resurfacing process by impact jolting. Itokawa is considered to be a rubble-pile body because of its low bulk density, high porosity, boulder-rich appearance, and shape. The existence of very large boulders and pillars suggests an early collisional breakup of a preexisting parent asteroid followed by a re-agglomeration into a rubble-pile object.

  6. 77 FR 32943 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Pile Driving in the Columbia River, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... Specified Activities; Pile Driving in the Columbia River, WA AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., incidental to pile driving during construction of the Terminal 5 Bulk Potash Handling Facility. DATES... (Eumatopius jubatus) ] incidental to pile driving activities conducted during the construction of the...

  7. Chemical and thermal variations in seeps discharged from a burning coal refuse pile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, D. L.; Doe, C. F.; Stuart, B. J.; Stoertz, M. W.

    2002-12-01

    Acid mine drainage generated by coal refuse piles is affecting the Moxahala watershed in Southeastern Ohio. The major contributor of acidity to this watershed is the Misco refuse pile. This pile was formed during the exploitation of the Misco Mine in Perry County, Ohio, in the early 1950's. In addition to the generation of acid mine drainage, the Misco Pile is burning. There is an impounded pond on the southwest end of the west gob pile, which was created when the valley was filled with refuse. The water from this pond flows into and throughout the gob pile and discharges on the northeast end into Bennet Run. At an elevation close to the elevation of the pond, two seeps are discharged. Temperature, specific conductivity, and pH was monitored in these seeps and correlated to rainfall. A lack of response of water temperature to small rainfall events was observed. This behavior suggest channeling of water inside the pile from the source pond to the main seep, and probably evaporation effects. In comparison, during high rainfall events, transfer of heat from the burning spots to the infiltrating water occurred and an increase in seep temperature was observed. A decrease in conductivity and an increase in pH was observed during the studied period as a dilution effect produced by an increased water storage within the pond and pile. Diurnal effects were stronger in the smaller seep, probably due to lower water velocities and greater residence time at the air-pile interface. From the location of the burning spots and seeps, a water velocity of 1 to 5 feet/s (0.3 to 1.7 m/s) was estimated. The pile can be viewed as a dual-porosity system of continuous conduits and matrix porosity. Only flow with sufficient head can penetrate and transfer heat from the hot areas in the matrix.

  8. Assessing the Extent of Sediment Contamination Around Creosote-treated Pilings Through Chemical and Biological Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefansson, E. S.

    2008-12-01

    Creosote is a common wood preservative used to treat marine structures, such as docks and bulkheads. Treated dock pilings continually leach polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other creosote compounds into the surrounding water and sediment. Over time, these compounds can accumulate in marine sediments, reaching much greater concentrations than those in seawater. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of creosote contamination in sediments, at a series of distances from treated pilings. Three pilings were randomly selected from a railroad trestle in Fidalgo Bay, WA and sediment samples were collected at four distances from each: 0 meters, 0.5 meters, 1 meter, and 2 meters. Samples were used to conduct two bioassays: an amphipod bioassay (Rhepoxynius abronius) and a sand dollar embryo bioassay. Grain size and PAH content (using a fluorometric method) were also measured. Five samples in the amphipod bioassay showed significantly lower effective survival than the reference sediment. These consisted of samples closest to the piling at 0 and 0.5 meters. One 0 m sample in the sand dollar embryo bioassay also showed a significantly lower percentage of normal embryos than the reference sediment. Overall, results strongly suggest that creosote-contaminated sediments, particularly those closest to treated pilings, can negatively affect both amphipods and echinoderm embryos. Although chemical data were somewhat ambiguous, 0 m samples had the highest levels of PAHs, which corresponded to the lowest average survival in both bioassays. Relatively high levels of PAHs were found as far as 2 meters away from pilings. Therefore, we cannot say how far chemical contamination can spread from creosote-treated pilings, and at what distance this contamination can still affect marine organisms. These results, as well as future research, are essential to the success of proposed piling removal projects. In addition to creosote-treated pilings, contaminated sediments must

  9. Structural remodeling, trafficking and functions of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Taroh

    2011-10-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) is a glycolipid that is covalently attached to proteins as a post-translational modification. Such modification leads to the anchoring of the protein to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. Proteins that are decorated with GPIs have unique properties in terms of their physical nature. In particular, these proteins tend to accumulate in lipid rafts, which are critical for the functions and trafficking of GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs). Recent studies mainly using mutant cells revealed that various structural remodeling reactions occur to GPIs present in GPI-APs as they are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. This review examines the recent progress describing the mechanisms of structural remodeling of mammalian GPI-anchors, such as inositol deacylation, glycan remodeling and fatty acid remodeling, with particular focus on their trafficking and functions, as well as the pathogenesis involving GPI-APs and their deficiency.

  10. A reusable suture anchor for arthroscopy psychomotor skills training.

    PubMed

    Tillett, Edward D; Rogers, Rainie; Nyland, John

    2003-03-01

    For residents to adequately develop the early arthroscopy psychomotor skills required to better learn how to manage the improvisational situations they will encounter during actual patient cases, they need to experience sufficient practice repetitions within a contextually relevant environment. Unfortunately, the cost of suture anchors can be a practice repetition-limiting factor in learning arthroscopic knot-tying techniques. We describe a technique for creating inexpensive reusable suture anchors and provide an example of their application to repair the anterior glenoid labrum during an arthroscopy psychomotor skills laboratory training session.

  11. Modeling and Simulation of Anchoring Processess for Small Body Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.; Mazahar, Hammad; Negrut, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes recent work done in modeling and simulation of anchoring processes in granular media, with applications to anchoring on a Near Earth Object (NEO), where the forces due to interactions with the regolith are much stronger than the local surface gravity field. This effort is part of a larger systems engineering capability developed at JPL to answer key questions, validate requirements, conduct key system and mission trades,and evaluate performance and risk related to NEO operations for any proposed human or robotic missions to a NEO.

  12. 17. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING EAST ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING EAST ALONG THE MAIN LINE TRACK LOCATED TO THE NORTH OF THE COS COB POWER PLANT. ANCHOR BRIDGES LOCATED AT TWO MILE INTERVALS WITHSTAND CATENARY TENSION AND PROVIDE A PLATFORM FOR MOUNTING OIL FILLED CIRCUIT BREAKERS, LIGHTNING ARRESTORS AND OTHER ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. THE ROOF OF THE LOAD DISPATCHER'S TOWER CAN BE SEEN DIRECTLY BEHIND THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE BRIDGE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  13. Current status of frameless anchored IUD for immediate intracesarean insertion.

    PubMed

    Wildemeersch, Dirk; Goldstuck, Norman D; Hasskamp, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Immediate postpartum intrauterine device (IUD) insertion deserves great attention as it can provide immediate, timely and convenient contraception plus the added benefit of preventing repeat unintended pregnancies. Although women post vaginal delivery can benefit from immediate post-placenta contraception, women undergoing Cesarean section clearly need contraception, as an inter-delivery interval shorter than 18 months places them at a high risk for uterine rupture. The main drawback of currently available framed IUD devices for immediate postpartum insertion of an IUD is their high expulsion and displacement rates when inserted immediately postpartum after both vaginal and Cesarean delivery. Current research suggests that a brief window of opportunity exists of 10 minutes for insertion of conventional IUDs after which time expulsion rates both immediately and over time are greatly enhanced. This paper summarizes the current research conducted to overcome the expulsion problems associated with conventional T-shaped devices as well as through the use of an anchored frameless device. In the 1970s and 1980s, attempts were made to solve the expulsion problem by modifying existing devices, such as adding absorbable sutures (Delta-T) or additional appendages. These attempts proved to be clinically unsuccessful as the catgut suture added to the transverse arms did not provide sufficient resistance to prevent downward displacement and expulsion. An anchoring technique to suspend a copper IUD to the fundus of the uterus was developed in Belgium in the 1980s and has been the subject of extensive ongoing clinical research since 1985. Recently the frameless copper releasing anchor IUD, GyneFix, has been tested for postplacental insertion. Initially, the anchor was modified by the inclusion of a biodegradable cone which was added below the anchoring knot. Clinical studies confirmed the adequacy of this approach suggesting that it was technically possible to anchor an IUD

  14. Hearing thresholds of two harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) for playbacks of multiple pile driving strike sounds.

    PubMed

    Kastelein, Ronald A; Hoek, Lean; Gransier, Robin; Jennings, Nancy

    2013-09-01

    Pile driving, which creates high amplitude sounds with potentially negative impacts on the marine environment, is used to attach wind turbines to the sea bed. To quantify the distance at which pile driving sounds can be detected by harbor seals, unmasked hearing thresholds were obtained for series of five pile driving sounds recorded at 100 and 800 m from a pile driving location. The played back spectra resembled the spectra of sounds recorded under certain conditions 10-50 km from an offshore pile driving site. The lower the received level, the later within the series of sounds the harbor seals responded. The mean 50% detection threshold sound exposure levels for any sound in the series were: 40 (seal 01, 100 m), 39 (seal 01, 800 m), 43 (seal 02, 100 m), and 43 (seal 02, 800 m) dB re 1 μPa(2)s (add 9 dB for sound pressure level, dB re 1 μPa). The mean 50% detection thresholds based on detection of only the first sound of the series were ca. 5 dB higher. Detection at sea depends on the actual propagation conditions and on the degree of masking of the sounds by ambient noise, but the present study suggests that pile driving sounds are audible to harbor seals up to hundreds of kilometers from pile driving sites.

  15. Field testing of stiffened deep cement mixing piles under lateral cyclic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raongjant, Werasak; Jing, Meng

    2013-06-01

    Construction of seaside and underground wall bracing often uses stiffened deep cement mixed columns (SDCM). This research investigates methods used to improve the level of bearing capacity of these SDCM when subjected to cyclic lateral loading via various types of stiffer cores. Eight piles, two deep cement mixed piles and six stiffened deep cement mixing piles with three different types of cores, H shape cross section prestressed concrete, steel pipe, and H-beam steel, were embedded though soft clay into medium-hard clay on site in Thailand. Cyclic horizontal loading was gradually applied until pile failure and the hysteresis loops of lateral load vs. lateral deformation were recorded. The lateral carrying capacities of the SDCM piles with an H-beam steel core increased by 3-4 times that of the DCM piles. This field research clearly shows that using H-beam steel as a stiffer core for SDCM piles is the best method to improve its lateral carrying capacity, ductility and energy dissipation capacity.

  16. Effects of Cohesion On the Dynamic Response of A Conical Bead Pile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palchoudhuri, Paroma; Lehman, Susan; Jacobs, D. T.

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the critical behavior of a 3D conical bead pile built from uniform 3 mm steel spheres. The pile is initially built on a circular base and is subsequently slowly driven through the addition of one bead at a time to the apex of the pile. We investigate the dynamic response of the pile by recording avalanches from the pile over the course of tens of thousands of bead drops, and determining the resulting distribution of avalanche size. In previous work, we have shown that dropping the beads onto the pile from a greater height causes the distribution to deviate from a simple power law due to a stark reduction in number of the largest avalanches. By placing the pile in a uniform magnetic field, we are now observing changes in the avalanche size distribution due to cohesion. When there is cohesion between beads, we find an increase in probability for the largest avalanches and a strong decrease in the probability of medium-sized avalanches. We also observe an increase in the time between avalanches as the cohesion of the system increases. Preliminary results on the effect of simultaneously increasing cohesion, which tends to make large avalanches more probable, and increasing drop height, which tends to make large avalanches less probable, will also be presented.

  17. Large deformation finite element analysis of undrained pile installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konkol, Jakub; Bałachowski, Lech

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a numerical undrained analysis of pile jacking into the subsoil using Abaqus software suit has been presented. Two different approaches, including traditional Finite Element Method (FEM) and Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation, were tested. In the first method, the soil was modelled as a two-phase medium and effective stress analysis was performed. In the second one (ALE), a single-phase medium was assumed and total stress analysis was carried out. The fitting between effective stress parameters and total stress parameters has been presented and both solutions have been compared. The results, discussion and verification of numerical analyzes have been introduced. Possible applications and limitations of large deformation modelling techniques have been explained.

  18. Prehistoric Packrats Piled Up Clues to Climate Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Kenneth L.

    2008-01-01

    Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey and Northern Arizona University studying climate change in the Southwestern United States are getting a helping hand?or would that be paw??from prehistoric packrats. By hoarding parts of animals and plants, including seeds and leaves, in garbage piles or ?middens,? these bushy-tailed rodents preserved crucial ecological and environmental information about the past. From these middens, scientists are able to reconstruct plant communities and natural systems from as long ago as 50,000 years. The contents of middens allow scientists to understand how ecosystems responded to rapid, large-scale climate changes of the past. The insights gained from midden research could offer clues to future changes driven by rapid climate shifts.

  19. The single pile classification: a new tool for the classification of haemorrhoidal disease and the comparison of treatment results.

    PubMed

    Elbetti, C; Giani, I; Novelli, E; Fucini, C; Martellucci, Jacopo

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the paper is to compare Goligher Classification with the Single Pile Hemorrhoid Classification (SPHC) to show the possible bias and limits of Goligher's use and the possible advantage with the employment of the new classification. SPHC considers the number of pathological piles(N), the characteristics of each internal pile and the characteristics of each external pile, reporting the presence of a fibrous inelastic redundant pile(F), the presence of the subversion of dentate line or the congestion of the external pile(E) and the presence of not tolerated skin tags(S). From September 2010 to December 2012, 197 consecutive patients were analysed according to both classifications. Considering pathological piles, I and II Goligher patients showed a complete agreement between pathological pile and grade, III Goligher patients had 80.5 % of pathological piles of III grade while IV Goligher patients had only 44.3 % of IV grade pathological piles (p < 0.001). Regarding the distribution of the other anatomical variables: F, E, S described in SPHC, the results showed that F was present in 18.3 % while ES was present in 46.2 %. Goligher's Classification has showed to be an inadequate tool to overview surgical outcome or to compare surgical procedure, particularly for high grades, while SPHC showed to be a feasible instrument both to describe and to compare patients affected by hemorrhoid disease.

  20. Development of p-y Curves of Laterally Loaded Piles in Cohesionless Soil

    PubMed Central

    Khari, Mahdy; Kassim, Khairul Anuar; Adnan, Azlan

    2014-01-01

    The research on damages of structures that are supported by deep foundations has been quite intensive in the past decade. Kinematic interaction in soil-pile interaction is evaluated based on the p-y curve approach. Existing p-y curves have considered the effects of relative density on soil-pile interaction in sandy soil. The roughness influence of the surface wall pile on p-y curves has not been emphasized sufficiently. The presented study was performed to develop a series of p-y curves for single piles through comprehensive experimental investigations. Modification factors were studied, namely, the effects of relative density and roughness of the wall surface of pile. The model tests were subjected to lateral load in Johor Bahru sand. The new p-y curves were evaluated based on the experimental data and were compared to the existing p-y curves. The soil-pile reaction for various relative density (from 30% to 75%) was increased in the range of 40–95% for a smooth pile at a small displacement and 90% at a large displacement. For rough pile, the ratio of dense to loose relative density soil-pile reaction was from 2.0 to 3.0 at a small to large displacement. Direct comparison of the developed p-y curve shows significant differences in the magnitude and shapes with the existing load-transfer curves. Good comparison with the experimental and design studies demonstrates the multidisciplinary applications of the present method. PMID:24574932

  1. Modified anchor shaped post core design for primary anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, R; Baroudi, Kusai; Reddy, K Bala Kasi; Praveen, B H; Kumar, V Sumanth; Amit, S

    2014-01-01

    Restoring severely damaged primary anterior teeth is challenging to pedodontist. Many materials are tried as a post core but each one of them has its own drawbacks. This a case report describing a technique to restore severely damaged primary anterior teeth with a modified anchor shaped post. This technique is not only simple and inexpensive but also produces better retention.

  2. End Anchoring in Short-Term Order Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Simon; Lelievre, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Temporally grouping lists has systematic effects on immediate serial recall accuracy, order errors, and recall latencies, and is generally taken to reflect the use of multiple dimensions of ordering in short-term memory. It has been argued that these representations are fully relative, in that all sequence positions are anchored to both the start…

  3. The Effect of Anchor Test Construction on Scale Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antal, Judit; Proctor, Thomas P.; Melican, Gerald J.

    2014-01-01

    In common-item equating the anchor block is generally built to represent a miniature form of the total test in terms of content and statistical specifications. The statistical properties frequently reflect equal mean and spread of item difficulty. Sinharay and Holland (2007) suggested that the requirement for equal spread of difficulty may be too…

  4. Poor Anchoring Limits Dyslexics' Perceptual, Memory, and Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oganian, Yulia; Ahissar, Merav

    2012-01-01

    The basic deficits underlying the severe and persistent reading difficulties in dyslexia are still highly debated. One of the major topics of debate is whether these deficits are language specific, or affect both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Recently, Ahissar and colleagues proposed the "anchoring-deficit hypothesis" (Ahissar, Lubin,…

  5. 24 CFR 3285.402 - Ground anchor installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285... anchoring. Manufactured homes must also be stabilized against wind in the longitudinal direction in all Wind Zones. Manufactured homes located in Wind Zones II and III must have longitudinal ground...

  6. 24 CFR 3285.402 - Ground anchor installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285... anchoring. Manufactured homes must also be stabilized against wind in the longitudinal direction in all Wind Zones. Manufactured homes located in Wind Zones II and III must have longitudinal ground...

  7. 24 CFR 3285.402 - Ground anchor installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285... anchoring. Manufactured homes must also be stabilized against wind in the longitudinal direction in all Wind Zones. Manufactured homes located in Wind Zones II and III must have longitudinal ground...

  8. 49 CFR 178.337-13 - Supporting and anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-13 Supporting and anchoring. (a) A cargo tank that is not permanently attached to or integral with a vehicle chassis must be secured by the...

  9. 49 CFR 178.337-13 - Supporting and anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-13 Supporting and anchoring. (a) A cargo tank that is not permanently attached to or integral with a vehicle chassis must be secured by the...

  10. 49 CFR 178.345-6 - Supports and anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-6 Supports and anchoring. (a) A cargo..., or turning of the cargo tank motor vehicle. The design calculations of the support elements...

  11. 49 CFR 178.338-13 - Supporting and anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.338-13 Supporting and anchoring. (a) On a cargo tank motor vehicle designed and constructed so that the cargo tank constitutes in whole or in...

  12. 49 CFR 178.337-13 - Supporting and anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-13 Supporting and anchoring. (a) A cargo tank that is not permanently attached to or integral with a vehicle chassis must be secured by the...

  13. 49 CFR 178.345-6 - Supports and anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-6 Supports and anchoring. (a) A cargo..., or turning of the cargo tank motor vehicle. The design calculations of the support elements...

  14. 49 CFR 178.337-13 - Supporting and anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-13 Supporting and anchoring. (a) A cargo tank that is not permanently attached to or integral with a vehicle chassis must be secured by the...

  15. Modified Anchor Shaped Post Core Design for Primary Anterior Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, R.; Baroudi, Kusai; Reddy, K. Bala Kasi; Praveen, B. H.; Kumar, V. Sumanth; Amit, S.

    2014-01-01

    Restoring severely damaged primary anterior teeth is challenging to pedodontist. Many materials are tried as a post core but each one of them has its own drawbacks. This a case report describing a technique to restore severely damaged primary anterior teeth with a modified anchor shaped post. This technique is not only simple and inexpensive but also produces better retention. PMID:25379294

  16. 15. DETAIL OF ANCHOR BOLT WHICH FORMERLY SECURED A TIMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL OF ANCHOR BOLT WHICH FORMERLY SECURED A TIMBER SILL BEAM TO THE GRANITE SILL ALONG THE EASTERLY EDGE OF THE SPILLWAY APRON (NOTE 3" SWISS ARMY KNIFE TO RIGHT OF BOLT FOR SCALE); VIEW TO WEST. - Blackstone Canal Millbury Segment, Beginning northwest of State Route 146 & McCracken Road, running along west side of Route 146, Millbury, Worcester County, MA

  17. Ten Anchor Points for Teaching Principles of Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomkovick, Chuck

    2004-01-01

    Effective marketing instructors commonly share a love for their students, an affinity for the subject matter, and a devotion to continuous quality improvement. The purpose of this article is to highlight 10 anchor points for teaching Principles of Marketing, which are designed to better engage students in the learning process. These anchor…

  18. Corrected High-Frame Rate Anchored Ultrasound with Software Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Amanda L.; Finch, Kenneth B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To improve lingual ultrasound imaging with the Corrected High Frame Rate Anchored Ultrasound with Software Alignment (CHAUSA; Miller, 2008) method. Method: A production study of the IsiXhosa alveolar click is presented. Articulatory-to-acoustic alignment is demonstrated using a Tri-Modal 3-ms pulse generator. Images from 2 simultaneous…

  19. 20. DETAIL, ANCHOR BLOCK AND BUTTRESS AT SOUTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL, ANCHOR BLOCK AND BUTTRESS AT SOUTH END OF DAM, SHOWING PROMINENT GROOVE WHERE THE NEXT ARCH COULD HAVE BEEN JOINED TO THE NORTH-SOUTH TRENDING DAM. - Rock Creek Dam, East end of Rock Creek Road, Auburn, Placer County, CA

  20. 33 CFR 164.19 - Requirements for vessels at anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for vessels at anchor. 164.19 Section 164.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.19 Requirements...

  1. 33 CFR 164.19 - Requirements for vessels at anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for vessels at anchor. 164.19 Section 164.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.19 Requirements...

  2. Detecting Anchoring-and-Adjusting in Survey Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Proper survey design is essential to obtain reliable, replicable data from research subjects. One threat to inferences drawn from surveys is anchoring-and-adjusting. Tversky and Kahnemann (1974) observed that participants' responses to questions depended systematically on irrelevant information they received prior to answering. It is important for…

  3. 24 CFR 3285.402 - Ground anchor installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ground anchor installations. 3285.402 Section 3285.402 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind §...

  4. 24 CFR 3285.402 - Ground anchor installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ground anchor installations. 3285.402 Section 3285.402 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind §...

  5. Implementing Anchored Instruction: Guiding Principles for Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLarty, Kim; And Others

    A curriculum based on "anchored instruction" was developed to enhance students' literacy development and acquisition of knowledge. The curriculum was designed to create a rich, shared environment that generates interest and enables students to identify and define problems while they explore the content from many perspectives. Based on…

  6. Equating without an Anchor for Nonequivalent Groups of Examinees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    2015-01-01

    An equating procedure for a testing program with evolving distribution of examinee profiles is developed. No anchor is available because the original scoring scheme was based on expert judgment of the item difficulties. Pairs of examinees from two administrations are formed by matching on coarsened propensity scores derived from a set of…

  7. Anchor Test Study Supplement. Final Report. Volume 31, Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchini, John C.; Loret, Peter G.

    The Anchor Test Study provides a method for translating a pupil's score on any one of eight widely used standardized reading tests for Grades 4, 5, and 6 to a corresponding score on any of the other seven tests, as well as furnishing new nationally representative norms for each of the eight tests. In addition, the Study presents new estimates of…

  8. 24. STARBOARD PROFILE OF ALABAMA (ALABAMIAN); VESSEL AT ANCHOR ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. STARBOARD PROFILE OF ALABAMA (ALABAMIAN); VESSEL AT ANCHOR ON STATION IN GULF OF MEXICO WITH MOTOR BOAT TIED AT STERN Original 4-3/4'x6-3/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  9. Impact of Enhanced Anchored Instruction in Inclusive Math Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottge, Brian A.; Toland, Michael D.; Gassaway, Linda; Butler, Mark; Choo, Sam; Griffen, Ann Katherine; Ma, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics will place more pressure on special education and math teachers to raise the skill levels of all students, especially those with disabilities in math (MD). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) on students with and without MD in co-taught general…

  10. Orbital views of molecular conductance perturbed by anchor units.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yuta; Staykov, Aleksandar; Yoshizawa, Kazunari

    2011-04-20

    Site-specific electron transport phenomena through benzene and benzenedithiol derivatives are discussed on the basis of a qualitative Hückel molecular orbital analysis for better understanding of the effect of anchoring sulfur atoms. A recent work for the orbital control of electron transport through aromatic hydrocarbons provided an important concept for the design of high-conductance connections of a molecule with anchoring atoms. In this work the origin of the frontier orbitals of benzenedithiol derivatives, the effect of the sulfur atoms on the orbitals and on the electron transport properties, and the applicability of the theoretical concept on aromatic hydrocarbons with the anchoring units are studied. The results demonstrate that the orbital view predictions are applicable to molecules perturbed by the anchoring units. The electron transport properties of benzene are found to be qualitatively consistent with those of benzenedithiol with respect to the site dependence. To verify the result of the Hückel molecular orbital calculations, fragment molecular orbital analyses with the extended Hückel molecular orbital theory and electron transport calculations with density functional theory are performed. Calculated results are in good agreement with the orbital interaction analysis. The phase, amplitude, and spatial distribution of the frontier orbitals play an essential role in the design of the electron transport properties through aromatic hydrocarbons.

  11. Promises and Pitfalls of Anchoring Vignettes in Health Survey Research

    PubMed Central

    Verdes-Tennant, Emese; McEniry, Mary; Ispány, Márton

    2016-01-01

    Data harmonization is a topic of growing importance to demographers, who increasingly conduct domestic or international comparative research. Many self-reported survey items cannot be directly compared across demographic groups or countries because these groups differ in how they use subjective response categories. Anchoring vignettes, already appearing in numerous surveys worldwide, promise to overcome this problem. However, many anchoring vignettes have not been formally evaluated for adherence to the key measurement assumptions of vignette equivalence and response consistency. This article tests these assumptions in some of the most widely fielded anchoring vignettes in the world: the health vignettes in the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) and World Health Survey (WHS) (representing 10 countries; n = 52,388), as well as similar vignettes in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (n = 4,528). Findings are encouraging regarding adherence to response consistency, but reveal substantial violations of vignette equivalence both cross-nationally and across socioeconomic groups. That is, members of different sociocultural groups appear to interpret vignettes as depicting fundamentally different levels of health. The evaluated anchoring vignettes do not fulfill their promise of providing interpersonally comparable measures of health. Recommendations for improving future implementations of vignettes are discussed. PMID:26335547

  12. Culturally-Anchored Values and University Education Experience Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitsis, Ann; Foley, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether business students' gender, age and culturally-anchored values affect their perceptions of their university course experience. Design/methodology/approach: Culturally diverse business students (n 1/4 548) studying at an Australian university were surveyed using previously established scales.…

  13. Structural Modeling Of Rubble Piles In Two And Three Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korycansky, Donald

    2012-10-01

    One of the puzzles about the structure of asteroids and other small bodies of the solar system is amount void space that is apparently present, from measurements of their bulk densities as compared to the mineral grain densities of their surfaces. In many cases, void fractions of 40% or more are inferred. The question arises as to whether this large void fraction is the result of large-scale internal structure ("macroporosity") or small-scale grain-density effects ("microporosity"). In this work I present results from modeling rubble piles. In particular, rubble piles are modeled as assemblages of irregular polyhedra. Modeling is done by a so-called "penalty method" where repulsive forces are applied to prevent interpenetration of the constitutent blocks. Displacements are proportional to the forces, so this is a first-order dynamics method (i.e.there is no inertia). Collision detection among the elements is done via Minkowski summation: compilation of the pairwise differences of the polyhedra vertices, followed by the application of a convex hull. Minkowski summation provides the minimum distance required to resolve a collision, but the location of the overlap region is lost. Thus, further operations are done to recover this information. Given the depth of overlaps and their locations, the positions and orientations of polyhedra are adjusted to reduce the overlap until a structure with minimal interpenetration is produced. Initial calculations done with 100 polyhedra derived from voronoi decomposition of a cube yield results with void fractions in the range of 20-25%. Further results will be reported at the DPS conference. This work was supported by NASA PG&G award NNX07AQ04G.

  14. Methods for Predicting Potential Impacts of Pile-Driving Noise on Endangered Sturgeon During Bridge Construction.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Justin; Jacobs, Fred; Conway, Robert; Popper, Arthur N; Moese, Mark; Rollino, John; Racca, Roberto; Martin, Bruce; MacGillivray, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The potential impacts of pile-driving noise on Hudson River sturgeon during construction of the New NY Bridge were predicted. Abundance data for shortnose and Atlantic sturgeon derived from fisheries sampling were combined with data about the spatial extent of pile-driving noise. This approach was used to calculate the number of sturgeon that could occur within sound level isopleths exceeding peak and cumulative noise criteria used by the National Marine Fisheries Service to determine the incidental take of sturgeon. The number of sturgeon subject to the potential onset of physiological effects during pile driving was predicted to be 35-41 fish for each species.

  15. Pile-Driving Pressure and Particle Velocity at the Seabed: Quantifying Effects on Crustaceans and Groundfish.

    PubMed

    Miller, James H; Potty, Gopu R; Kim, Hui-Kwan

    2016-01-01

    We modeled the effects of pile driving on crustaceans, groundfish, and other animals near the seafloor. Three different waves were investigated, including the compressional wave, shear wave, and interface wave. A finite element (FE) technique was employed in and around the pile, whereas a parabolic equation (PE) code was used to predict propagation at long ranges from the pile. Pressure, particle displacement, and particle velocity are presented as a function of range at the seafloor for a shallow-water environment near Rhode Island. We discuss the potential effects on animals near the seafloor.

  16. New anchoring method for tarsal tendon transfers in myelomeningocele patients.

    PubMed

    Tomonori, Kenmoku; Makoto, Kamegaya; Takashi, Saisu

    2007-12-01

    We describe a new anchoring method for tarsal tendon transfers in myelomeningocele patients to protect the sole of the foot from pressure sores and skin necrosis and to loosen the tension of the transferred tendon.Tendon transfer procedures were performed in 51 feet (33 patients) with myelomeningocele. We transferred tibialis anterior tendons to the second or third cuneiform in 19 with equinovarus deformities, and transferred tibialis anterior tendons to the calcaneus through the interosseous membrane in 32 with talipes calcaneus. Clinical results were evaluated with the muscle power of transferred tendons using manual muscle testing 6 months after surgery. The muscle test result was classified as good, fair, and poor.After passing the tendon through the bony hole, a 2.0-mm Kirschner wire was inserted from the sole to the tibia through the ankle joint at neutral. (It extended from the sole through the posterior cortex of the tibia.) The remaining part of the wire was bent and formed into a loop shaped like the Greek letter "zeta" (zeta). The thread was then tied to the loop of the wire as tightly as possible. In this way, there was no contact with the sole during anchoring, thus avoiding ulcers. In addition, the transferred tendon could be kept stable because the patient's ankle was fixed by the Kirschner wire.No cases of wound infection or skin necrosis of the sole occurred. In 49 of the 51 cases, transferred tendons were firmly anchored to tarsal bones. Muscle strength was good for 83%, fair for 13%, and poor for 4%. Consequently, 45 feet could obtain plantigrade pattern during their walking with shoe inserts or occasional use of ankle-foot orthoses.Our anchoring method has the advantage of protecting the sole of the foot from pressure sores and skin necrosis, as well as maintaining tension on the transferred tendon until it settles down in an anchor hole.

  17. Anchoring a Leviathan: How the Nuclear Membrane Tethers the Genome

    PubMed Central

    Czapiewski, Rafal; Robson, Michael I.; Schirmer, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the nuclear envelope has many distinct direct connections to chromatin that contribute to genome organization. The functional consequences of genome organization on gene regulation are less clear. Even less understood is how interactions of lamins and nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) with chromatin can produce anchoring tethers that can withstand the physical forces of and on the genome. Chromosomes are the largest molecules in the cell, making megadalton protein structures like the nuclear pore complexes and ribosomes seem small by comparison. Thus to withstand strong forces from chromosome dynamics an anchoring tether is likely to be much more complex than a single protein-protein or protein-DNA interaction. Here we will briefly review known NE-genome interactions that likely contribute to spatial genome organization, postulate in the context of experimental data how these anchoring tethers contribute to gene regulation, and posit several hypotheses for the physical nature of these tethers that need to be investigated experimentally. Significantly, disruption of these anchoring tethers and the subsequent consequences for gene regulation could explain how mutations in nuclear envelope proteins cause diseases ranging from muscular dystrophy to lipodystrophy to premature aging progeroid syndromes. The two favored hypotheses for nuclear envelope protein involvement in disease are (1) weakening nuclear and cellular mechanical stability, and (2) disrupting genome organization and gene regulation. Considerable experimental support has been obtained for both. The integration of both mechanical and gene expression defects in the disruption of anchoring tethers could provide a unifying hypothesis consistent with both. PMID:27200088

  18. Disintegration of an absorbable rotator cuff anchor six weeks after implantation.

    PubMed

    Kelly, James D

    2005-04-01

    Rotator cuff failure by suture-bone or suture anchor pull-out, suture breakage, knot slippage, and tendon pull-out are well described. I report a case of early disintegration of a bioabsorbable suture anchor. A 77-year-old woman underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. On suspecting failure, the repair was repeated 40 days later. Arthroscopy revealed disintegration of the suture loop from the anchor. Open rotator cuff repair was then performed with transosseous suture and metallic anchors.

  19. 46 CFR 108.705 - Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. 108.705 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.705 Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. (a) Each unit must be fitted with anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers in agreement with the...

  20. 46 CFR 108.705 - Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. 108.705 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.705 Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. (a) Each unit must be fitted with anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers in agreement with the...

  1. 46 CFR 108.705 - Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. 108.705 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.705 Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. (a) Each unit must be fitted with anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers in agreement with the...

  2. 46 CFR 108.705 - Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. 108.705 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.705 Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. (a) Each unit must be fitted with anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers in agreement with the...

  3. 46 CFR 108.705 - Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. 108.705 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.705 Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. (a) Each unit must be fitted with anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers in agreement with the...

  4. Development of low anchoring strength liquid crystal mixtures for bistable nematic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoenescu, D.; Gallaire, D.; Faget, L.; Lamarque-Forget, S.; Joly, S.; Dubois, J.-C.; Martinot-Lagarde, Ph.; Dozov, I.

    2006-02-01

    The recent Bistable Nematic (BiNem (R)) LCD technology presents long term bistability, high level passive matrix multiplexing and high optical quality. The BiNem device, based on anchoring breaking, needs specific low anchoring strength materials - alignment layers and liquid crystal mixtures. We present here our approach to develop nematic mixtures with wide enough temperature range and low zenithal anchoring energy.

  5. 78 FR 45104 - Model Manufactured Home Installation Standards: Ground Anchor Installations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... methods to determine ground anchor performance and resistance. The performance of conventional ground... apparatus for comparative testing purposes. Overall, 104 tests were performed. Ground anchor resistance... performance and should not be relied upon to determine anchor resistance, unless a significantly higher...

  6. Perception of the Raison d'Etre in Anchored Instruction: An Ecological Psychology Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael F.; Barab, Sasha A.

    1999-01-01

    Anchored instruction calls for the establishment of a macrocontext to "anchor" instruction within a realistic situation. Evidence is provided that video anchors encourage students to adopt certain contrived goals over their more naturalistic goals. Suggests that goals that enable the problem solver to detect the "raison d'etre"…

  7. NCME 2008 Presidential Address: The Impact of Anchor Test Configuration on Student Proficiency Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Anne R.

    2008-01-01

    Examined in this study were the effects of reducing anchor test length on student proficiency rates for 12 multiple-choice tests administered in an annual, large-scale, high-stakes assessment. The anchor tests contained 15 items, 10 items, or five items. Five content representative samples of items were drawn at each anchor test length from a…

  8. Mechanical and deformation analyses of pile foundation for supporting structure of off-shore wind turbine at Changhua coast in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. C.; Lin, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the bearing capacities and mechanical behaviors of pile foundation installed on the seabed of wind farm near Chang-Hua coast of western Taiwan for the supporting structure of offshore wind turbine. A series of three-dimensional (3-D) numerical modeling of pile foundation subjected to various types of combined loading were carried out using Plaix-3D finite element program to investigate the interactive behaviors between soil and pile. In the numerical modeling, pile diameter, pile length and pile spacing were selected as design parameters to inspect their effects on the bearing capacities and deformation behaviors of the pile foundation. For a specific design parameter combination, one can obtain the corresponding loading-displacement curve, various ultimate bearing capacities, V-H (Vertical-Horizontal combined loading) ultimate bearing capacity envelope, and p-ycurve of pile foundation. Numerical results indicate that: (1) Large displacement and plastic points at ultimate state mostly distribute and concentrate in the topsoil of seabed and around pile head. (2) The soil resistance on the soil-pile interface is ascending with the increases of depth, pile diameter and pile length. (3) The vertical and horizontal bearing capacities of pile group increase significantly with the increase of pile diameter. (4) The vertical and bending moment capacities of pile group increase greatly with the increase of pile length whereas the horizontal capacity is almost insensitive to pile length. (5) The bending moment of pile is highly influenced by the pile spacing. (6) For different design parameters, the shape of ultimate bearing capacity envelopes of pile group on V-H plane is similar while the envelopes will expand as the design parameters increase. For different loading levels of bending moment, the envelopes on V-H plane will contract gradually as the bending moment loading increasing.

  9. Seismic Performance Research of Transmission Tower in Consideration of the Pile-soil-structure System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuncheng; Mao, Long; Wang, Chongyang; Zha, Chuanming

    2016-11-01

    The seismic performance of transmission tower in consideration of pile-soil- structure dynamic interaction is researched through numerical simulation. Based on a transmission tower of a specific project, pile-soil-transmission tower coupled system is established. By using the method of time history, the pile-soil- transmission tower system dynamic response under seismic load were calculated, and comparing with the results without considering interaction system. Results show that, after considering interaction of the system, the period of the structure have extended and the mode of the structure lagged. On soft sites, compare with no considering the interaction, the results have a big difference, the relative increment of the maximum displacement at the top of the tower is 39.82%, respectively. Therefore it is suggested that the pile-soil-structure dynamic interaction should be fully considered in aseismic design of transmission tower on soft sites and medium soft sites.

  10. Experimental measurement of the angle of repose of a pile of soft frictionless grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feitosa, Klebert; Shorts, Daniel

    It is well known that dry granular materials can flow like a liquid, but can also behave as a solid and sustain a finite angle of repose, partially as a result of inter-particle friction. Here we investigate the nature of piles formed with soft frictionless grains and measure its angle of repose. The pile is produced by a continuous bubbling of air into a soapy solution in a narrow container of rectangular cross section. We observe a gentle slope at the water-foam interface whose angle dependents on the viscosity of the liquid. In contrast with sand piles, the fluidized region along the interface is several layers deep. We also find that, unlike sand piles, upon interruption of the gas flux, the slope relaxes back to zero as a result of bubble rearrangements and liquid drainage.

  11. An interpretation of the ion pile-up region outside the ionospheric contact surface. [Halley's comet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ip, WING-H.; Schwenn, R.; Rosenbauer, H.; Balsiger, H.; Neugebauer, M.; Shelley, E. G.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility that the formation of the plasma pile-up region at comet Halley as observed by Giotto could be the combined result of field-aligned transport and recombination process is discussed. Giotto measurements support the hypothesis.

  12. Corrosion of rock anchors in US coal mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bylapudi, Gopi

    The mining industry is a major consumer of rock bolts in the United States. Due to the high humidity in the underground mining environment, the rock bolts corrode and loose their load bearing capacity which in turn reduces the life expectancy of the ground support and, thus, creates operational difficulties and number of safety concerns[1]. Research on rock anchor corrosion has not been adequately extensive in the past and the effects of several factors in the mine atmosphere and waters are not clearly understood. One of the probable reasons for this lack of research may be attributed to the time required for gathering meaningful data that makes the study of corrosion quite challenging. In this particular work underground water samples from different mines in the Illinois coal basin were collected and the major chemical content was analyzed and used for the laboratory testing. The corrosion performance of the different commercial rock anchors was investigated by techniques such as laboratory immersion tests in five different corrosion chambers, and potentiodynamic polarization tests in simulated ground waters based on the Illinois coal basin. The experiments were conducted with simulate underground mining conditions (corrosive). The tensile strengths were measured for the selected rock anchors taken every 3 months from the salt spray corrosion chambers maintained at different pH values and temperatures. The corrosion potential (Ecorr ), corrosion current (Icorr) and the corresponding corrosion rates (CR) of the selected commercial rock bolts: #5, #6, #6 epoxy coated and #7 forged head rebar steels, #6 and #7 threaded head rebar steels were measured at the solution pH values of 5 and 8 at room temperature. The open circuit potential (OCP) values of the different rock anchors were recorded in 3 selected underground coal mines (A, B & C) in the Illinois coal basin and the data compared with the laboratory electrochemical tests for analyzing the life of the rock

  13. Effects of Pile Driving on the Residency and Movement of Tagged Reef Fish

    PubMed Central

    Iafrate, Joseph D.; Watwood, Stephanie L.; Reyier, Eric A.; Scheidt, Douglas M.; Dossot, Georges A.; Crocker, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    The potential effects of pile driving on fish populations and commercial fisheries have received significant attention given the prevalence of pile driving occurring in coastal habitats throughout the world. Behavioral impacts of sound generated from these activities on fish typically have a greater area of influence than physical injury, and may therefore adversely affect a greater portion of the local population. This study used acoustic telemetry to assess the movement, residency, and survival of 15 sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus) and 10 grey snapper (Lutjanus griseus) in Port Canaveral, Florida, USA, in response to 35 days of pile driving at a wharf complex. No obvious signs of mortality or injury to tagged fish were evident from the data. Received sound pressure levels from pile strikes on the interior of the wharf, where reef fish primarily occur, were on average 152–157 dB re 1 μPa (peak). No significant decrease in sheepshead daytime residency was observed during pile driving within the central portion of the wharf and area of highest sound exposure, and no major indicators of displacement from the exposure wharf with the onset of pile driving were observed. There was evidence of potential displacement from the exposure wharf that coincided with the start of pile driving observed for 2 out of 4 grey snapper, along with a decrease in daytime residency for a subset of this species with high site fidelity prior to the event. Results indicate that snapper may be more likely to depart an area of pile driving disturbance more readily than sheepshead, but were less at risk for behavioral impact given the lower site fidelity of this species. PMID:27880786

  14. Noise reduction by the application of an air-bubble curtain in offshore pile driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsouvalas, A.; Metrikine, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Underwater noise pollution is a by-product of marine industrial operations. In particular, the noise generated when a foundation pile is driven into the soil with an impact hammer is considered to be harmful for the aquatic species. In an attempt to reduce the ecological footprint, several noise mitigation techniques have been investigated. Among the various solutions proposed, the air-bubble curtain is often applied due to its efficacy in noise reduction. In this paper, a model is proposed for the investigation of the sound reduction during marine piling when an air-bubble curtain is placed around the pile. The model consists of the pile, the surrounding water and soil media, and the air-bubble curtain which is positioned at a certain distance from the pile surface. The solution approach is semi-analytical and is based on the dynamic sub-structuring technique and the modal decomposition method. Two main results of the paper can be distinguished. First, a new model is proposed that can be used for predictions of the noise levels in a computationally efficient manner. Second, an analysis is presented of the principal mechanisms that are responsible for the noise reduction due to the application of the air-bubble curtain in marine piling. The understanding of these mechanisms turns to be crucial for the exploitation of the maximum efficiency of the system. It is shown that the principal mechanism of noise reduction depends strongly on the frequency content of the radiated sound and the characteristics of the bubbly medium. For piles of large diameter which radiate most of the acoustic energy at relatively low frequencies, the noise reduction is mainly attributed to the mismatch of the acoustic impedances between the seawater and the bubbly layer. On the contrary, for smaller piles and when the radiated acoustic energy is concentrated at frequencies close to, or higher than, the resonance frequency of the air bubbles, the sound absorption within the bubbly layer

  15. Loop structures in the 5' untranslated region and antisense RNA mediate pilE gene expression in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Masters, Thao L; Wachter, Jenny; Hill, Stuart A

    2016-11-01

    Regulation of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae pilE gene is ill-defined. In this study, post-transcriptional effects on expression were assessed. In silico analysis predicts the formation of three putative stable stem-loop structures with favourable free energies within the 5' untranslated region of the pilE message. Using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analyses, we show that each loop structure forms, with introduced destabilizing stem-loop mutations diminishing loop stability. Utilizing a series of pilE translational fusions, deletion of either loop 1 or loop 2 caused a significant reduction of pilE mRNA resulting in reduced expression of the reporter gene. Consequently, the formation of the loops apparently protects the pilE transcript from degradation. Putative loop 3 contains the pilE ribosomal binding site. Consequently, its formation may influence translation. Analysis of a small RNA transcriptome revealed an antisense RNA being produced upstream of the pilE promoter that is predicted to hybridize across the 5' untranslated region loops. Insertional mutants were created where the antisense RNA is not transcribed. In these mutants, pilE transcript levels are greatly diminished, with any residual message apparently not being translated. Complementation of these insertion mutants in trans with the antisense RNA gene facilitates pilE translation yielding a pilus + phenotype. Overall, this study demonstrates a complex relationship between loop-dependent transcript protection and antisense RNA in modulating pilE expression levels.

  16. Survival of plant pathogens in static piles of ground green waste.

    PubMed

    Downer, A J; Crohn, D; Faber, B; Daugovish, O; Becker, J O; Menge, J A; Mochizuki, M J

    2008-05-01

    Ground green waste is used as mulch in ornamental landscapes and for tree crops such as avocados. Survival of Armillaria mellea, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Tylenchulus semipenetrans was assessed for 8 weeks within unturned piles of either recently ground or partially composted green waste. S. sclerotiorum survived at the pile surface and at 10, 30, and 100 cm within the pile for the entire 8 weeks in both fresh green waste (FGW) and aged green waste (AGW). A. mellea and T. semipenetrans did not survive more than 2 days in FGW, while P. cinnamomi persisted for over 21 days in FGW. AGW was less effective in reducing pathogen viability than FGW, most likely because temperatures in AGW peaked at 45 degrees C compared with 70 degrees C in FGW. Survival modeling curves based on pile temperatures indicate the time to inactivate 10 propagules of pathogens was 11, 30, 363, and 50 days for A. mellea, P. cinnamomi, S. sclerotiorum, and T. semipenetrans, respectively. Sclerotia-forming pathogens pose the greatest risk for escape; to ensure eradication of persistent fungi, green waste stockpiles should be turned intermittently to mix pile contents and move pathogen propagules to a location within the pile where they are more likely to be killed by heat, microbial attack, or chemical degradation.

  17. Analysis of inter-event times for avalanches on a conical bead pile with cohesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, Susan; Johnson, Nathan; Tieman, Catherine; Wainwright, Elliot

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the critical behavior of a 3D conical bead pile built from uniform 3 mm steel spheres. Beads are added to the pile by dropping them onto the apex one at a time; avalanches are measured through changes in pile mass. We investigate the dynamic response of the pile by recording avalanches from the pile over tens of thousands of bead drops. We have previously shown that the avalanche size distribution follows a power law for beads dropped onto the pile apex from a low drop height. We are now tuning the critical behavior of the system by adding cohesion from a uniform magnetic field and find an increase in both size and number for very large avalanches and decreases in the mid-size avalanches. The resulting bump in the avalanche distribution moves to larger avalanche size as the cohesion in the system is increased. We compare the experimental inter-event time distribution to both the Brownian passage-time and Weibull distributions, and observe a shift from the Weibull to Brownian passage-time as we raise the threshold from measuring time between events of all sizes to time between only the largest system-spanning events. These results are both consistent with those from a mean-field model of slip avalanches in a shear system [Dahmen, Nat Phys 7, 554 (2011)].

  18. Tuning Parameters and Scaling For Avalanches On A Slowly-Driven Conical Bead Pile with Cohesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, Susan; Jacobs, D. T.; Palchoudhuri, Paroma; Vajpeyi, Avi; Walker, Justine; Dahmen, Karin; Leblanc, Michael; Uhl, Jonathan

    Slip avalanches on a slowly driven pile are investigated experimentally using a 3D conical pile built from uniform 3 mm steel beads. Beads are added to the pile by dropping them onto the apex one at a time; avalanches are measured through changes in pile mass. We investigate the dynamic response of the pile by recording avalanches from the pile over the course of tens of thousands of bead drops. The statistical properties of the avalanches, including probability of particular avalanche sizes and the time between avalanches of given size, are well-characterized by universal power laws and scaling functions. By adding a uniform magnetic field, we may systematically vary the cohesion between the beads and tune the critical behavior of the system. As the cohesion increases we observe an increase in both size and number for very large avalanches and decreases in the mid-size avalanches, causing a deviation from the power law. A full study of the effect of cohesion on the size and time distributions is in process, combining the experimental results with predictions from an analytical mean-field model [Dahmen, Nat Phys 7, 554 (2011)]. Research supported by NSF CBET 1336116 and 1336634.

  19. Equilibrium Configuration in a Nematic Liquid Crystal Droplet with Homeotropic Anchoring of Finite Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanke, Masaki; Sasaki, Kazuo

    2013-09-01

    Equilibrium configuration of order parameter in a nematic liquid crystal droplet with homeotropic anchoring of finite strength at the surface is studied numerically by using the Landau--de Gennes approach. It is found that a hedgehog-like configuration with a disclination loop of a small radius is stable for strong anchoring while an axial configuration without defect is stable for weak anchoring. A first-order phase transition from one configuration to the other occurs as the strength of the anchoring is varied. The critical anchoring strength turns out to increase almost linearly with the inverse of the droplet radius.

  20. Labeling Cell Surface GPIs and GPI-Anchored Proteins through Metabolic Engineering with Artificial Inositol Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lili; Gao, Jian; Guo, Zhongwu

    2015-08-10

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring of proteins to the cell surface is important for various biological processes, but GPI-anchored proteins are difficult to study. An effective strategy was developed for the metabolic engineering of cell-surface GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins by using inositol derivatives carrying an azido group. The azide-labeled GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins were then tagged with biotin on live cells through a click reaction, which allows further elaboration with streptavidin-conjugated dyes or other molecules. The strategy can be used to label GPI-anchored proteins with various tags for biological studies.

  1. Graphene nanoribbons anchored to SiC substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Nam B.; Woods, Lilia M.

    2016-09-01

    Graphene nanoribbons are quasi-one-dimensional planar graphene allotropes with diverse properties dependent on their width and types of edges. Graphene nanoribbons anchored to substrates is a hybrid system, which offers novel opportunities for property modifications as well as experimental control. Here we present electronic structure calculations of zigzag graphene nanoribbons chemically attached via the edges to the Si or C terminated surfaces of a SiC substrate. The results show that the edge characteristics are rather robust and the properties are essentially determined by the individual nanoribbon. While the localized spin polarization of the graphene nanoribbon edge atoms is not significantly affected by the substrate, secondary energy gaps in the highest conduction and lowest valence region may emerge in the anchored structures. The van der Waals interaction together with the electrostatic interactions due to the polarity of the surface bonds are found to be important for the structure parameters and energy stability.

  2. Membrane-anchored serine proteases in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Bugge, Thomas; Wu, Qingyu

    2013-01-01

    Serine proteases of the trypsin-like family have long been recognized to be critical effectors of biological processes as diverse as digestion, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and immunity. In recent years, a subgroup of these enzymes has been identified that are anchored directly to plasma membranes, either by a carboxy-terminal transmembrane domain (Type I), an amino-terminal transmembrane domain with a cytoplasmic extension (Type II or TTSP), or through a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) linkage. Recent biochemical, cellular, and in vivo analyses have now established that membrane-anchored serine proteases are key pericellular contributors to processes vital for development and the maintenance of homeostasis. This chapter will review our current knowledge of the biological and physiological functions of these proteases, their molecular substrates, and their contributions to disease. PMID:21238933

  3. Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita: Autoimmunity to Anchoring Fibril Collagen

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mei; Kim, Gene H.; Prakash, Lori; Woodley, David T.

    2012-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is a rare and acquired autoimmune subepidermal bullous disease of the skin and mucosa. EBA includes various distinct clinical manifestations resembling Bullous Pemphigus, Brunsting-Perry pemphigoid, or cicatricial pemphigoid. These patients have autoantibodies against type VII collagen, an integral component of anchoring fibrils, which are responsible for attaching the dermis to the epidermis. Destruction or perturbation of the normally functioning anchoring fibrils clinically results in skin fragility, blisters, erosions, scars, milia and nail loss, all features reminiscent of genetic dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. These anti-type VII collagen antibodies are “pathogenic” because when injected into a mouse, the mouse develops an EBA-like blistering disease. Currently treatment is often unsatisfactory, however some success has been achieved with colchichine, dapsone, photopheresis, plasmaphresis, infliximab, rituximab and IVIG. PMID:21955050

  4. Accessorizing and anchoring the LINC complex for multifunctionality

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wakam; Worman, Howard J.

    2015-01-01

    The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex, composed of outer and inner nuclear membrane Klarsicht, ANC-1, and Syne homology (KASH) and Sad1 and UNC-84 (SUN) proteins, respectively, connects the nucleus to cytoskeletal filaments and performs diverse functions including nuclear positioning, mechanotransduction, and meiotic chromosome movements. Recent studies have shed light on the source of this diversity by identifying factors associated with the complex that endow specific functions as well as those that differentially anchor the complex within the nucleus. Additional diversity may be provided by accessory factors that reorganize the complex into higher-ordered arrays. As core components of the LINC complex are associated with several diseases, understanding the role of accessory and anchoring proteins could provide insights into pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:25559183

  5. Recycling Suture Limbs from Knotless Suture Anchors for Arthroscopic Shoulder Stabilization.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Timothy S; DiPompeo, Christine M; Ismaeli, Zahra C; Porter, Polly A; Nicholson, Shannon L; Johnson, David C

    2014-06-01

    Recurrent shoulder instability often leads to labral abnormality that requires surgical intervention that may require fixation with suture anchors. The proposed surgical technique allows the surgeon to achieve 2 points of fixation around the labrum and/or capsule with a single suture secured to the glenoid with a knotless anchor. Instead of cutting and discarding the residual suture limbs after anchor insertion, this technique uses the residual suture limbs of the knotless anchor for a second suture pass. This technique (1) creates a more cost- and time-efficient surgical procedure than using multiple single-loaded anchors or double-loaded anchors, (2) decreases the known risk of glenoid fracture from the stress riser at the implant tips of multi-anchor repairs by reducing the number of anchors required for stabilization, (3) decreases the surgical time compared with the use of double-loaded anchors through simpler suture management and less knot tying, (4) allows for the secure reapproximation of the labrum to the glenoid while offering a convenient option for capsulorrhaphy without the need to insert another anchor, and (5) yields more points of soft-tissue fixation with fewer anchors drilled into the glenoid.

  6. Effect of anchoring 4-anilidopiperidines to opioid peptides.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Ravil R; Lee, Yeon Sun; Vardanyan, Ruben S; Liu, Lu; Ma, Shou-wu; Davis, Peg; Lai, Josephine; Porreca, Frank; Vanderah, Todd W; Hruby, Victor J

    2013-06-01

    We report here the design, synthesis, and in vitro characterization of new opioid peptides featuring a 4-anilidopiperidine moiety. Despite the fact that the chemical structures of fentanyl surrogates have been found suboptimal per se for the opioid activity, the corresponding conjugates with opioid peptides displayed potent opioid activity. These studies shed an instructive light on the strategies and potential therapeutic values of anchoring the 4-anilidopiperidine scaffold to different classes of opioid peptides.

  7. Anchoring the Self to the Body in Bilateral Vestibular Failure

    PubMed Central

    Toupet, Michel; van Nechel, Christian; Duquesne, Ulla; Hautefort, Charlotte; Lopez, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that vestibular information plays a significant role in anchoring the self to the body. Out-of-body experiences of neurological origin are frequently associated with vestibular sensations, and galvanic vestibular stimulation in healthy participants anchors the self to the body. Here, we provide the first objective measures of anchoring the self to the body in chronic bilateral vestibular failure (BVF). We compared 23 patients with idiopathic BVF to 23 healthy participants in a series of experiments addressing several aspects of visuo-spatial perspective taking and embodiment. In Experiment 1, participants were involved in a virtual “dot-counting task” from their own perspective or the perspective of a distant avatar, to measure implicit and explicit perspective taking, respectively. In both groups, response times increased similarly when the avatar’s and participant’s viewpoint differed, for both implicit and explicit perspective taking. In Experiment 2, participants named ambiguous letters (such as “b” or “q”) traced on their forehead that could be perceived from an internal or external perspective. The frequency of perceiving ambiguous letters from an internal perspective was similar in both groups. In Experiment 3, participants completed a questionnaire measuring the experienced self/body and self/environment “closeness”. Both groups reported a similar embodied experience. Altogether, our data show that idiopathic BVF does not change implicit and explicit perspective taking nor subjective anchoring of the self to the body. Our negative findings offer insight into the multisensory mechanisms of embodiment. Only acute peripheral vestibular disorders and neurological disorders in vestibular brain areas (characterized by strong multisensory conflicts) may evoke disembodied experiences. PMID:28107424

  8. 19. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM THE ROOF OF THE NORTH SIDE OF THE EAST BOILER ROOM. THE ROOF OF THE LOAD DISPATCHER'S TOWER IS DIRECTLY BEHIND THE FEEDER TOWER ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THIS TERMINAL IS THE JUNCTION BETWEEN NORTHEAST UTILITIES LINES AND THE RAILROAD CATENARY. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  9. Phosphonate-anchored monolayers for antibody binding to magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Benbenishty-Shamir, Helly; Gilert, Roni; Gotman, Irena; Gutmanas, Elazar Y; Sukenik, Chaim N

    2011-10-04

    Targeted delivery of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) to a specific tissue can be achieved by conjugation with particular biological ligands on an appropriately functionalized IONP surface. To take best advantage of the unique magnetic properties of IONPs and to maximize their blood half-life, thin, strongly bonded, functionalized coatings are required. The work reported herein demonstrates the successful application of phosphonate-anchored self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as ultrathin coatings for such particles. It also describes a new chemical approach to the anchoring of antibodies on the surface of SAM-coated IONPs (using nucleophilic aromatic substitution). This anchoring strategy results in stable, nonhydrolyzable, covalent attachment and allows the reactivity of the particles toward antibody binding to be activated in situ, such that prior to the activation the modified surface is stable for long-term storage. While the SAMs do not have the well-packed crystallinity of other such monolayers, their structure was studied using smooth model substrates based on an iron oxide layer on a double-side polished silicon wafer. In this way, atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry, and contact angle goniometry (tools that could not be applied to the nanoparticles' surfaces) could contribute to the determination of their monomolecular thickness and uniformity. Finally, the successful conjugation of IgG antibodies to the SAM-coated IONPs such that the antibodies retain their biological activity is verified by their complexation to a secondary fluorescent antibody.

  10. Subcellular distribution of tail-anchored proteins in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kriechbaumer, Verena; Shaw, Rowena; Mukherjee, Joy; Bowsher, Caroline G; Harrison, Anne-Marie; Abell, Ben M

    2009-12-01

    Tail-anchored (TA) proteins function in key cellular processes in eukaryotic cells, such as vesicle trafficking, protein translocation and regulation of transcription. They anchor to internal cell membranes by a C-terminal transmembrane domain, which also serves as a targeting sequence. Targeting occurs post-translationally, via pathways that are specific to the precursor, which makes TA proteins a model system for investigating post-translational protein targeting. Bioinformatics approaches have previously been used to identify potential TA proteins in yeast and humans, yet little is known about TA proteins in plants. The identification of plant TA proteins is important for extending the post-translational model system to plastids, in addition to general proteome characterization, and the identification of functional homologues characterized in other organisms. We identified 454 loci that potentially encode TA proteins in Arabidopsis, and combined published data with new localization experiments to assign localizations to 130 proteins, including 29 associated with plastids. By analysing the tail anchor sequences of characterized proteins, we have developed a tool for predicting localization and estimate that 138 TA proteins are localized to plastids.

  11. Tidal Disruption of Rubble-Pile Comets and Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movshovitz, Naor; Asphaug, E.; Korycansky, D.

    2010-10-01

    Following the investigations of Richardson et al. (2005) and Korycansky and Asphaug (2006, 2008), we study the shape and spin state of rubble-pile asteroids and cometary nuclei, focusing here on the process and aftermath of tidal disruption. A fast and robust commercial physics engine (www.nvidia.com/physx) is used to model thousands of polyhedral elements including self-gravity and intergranular forces such as friction and cohesion. The physics engine has been tested and validated with small scale laboratory experiments (granular avalanche, brazil-nut effects); its speed and its ability to deal with resting contacts allow us to use a variety of element shapes, from simple primitives to arbitrary polyhedra. Here we model the tidal disruption of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 and other split comets, extending the work of Asphaug and Benz (1996) to include bodies with realistic rubble properties. One result is that a modest cohesion can account for the absence of small tidal-disruption crater chains on Ganymede and Callisto.

  12. Stability of binaries. Part II: Rubble-pile binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ishan

    2016-10-01

    We consider the stability of the binary asteroids whose members are granular aggregates held together by self-gravity alone. A binary is said to be stable whenever both its members are orbitally and structurally stable to both orbital and structural perturbations. To this end, we extend the stability analysis of Sharma (Sharma [2015] Icarus, 258, 438-453), that is applicable to binaries with rigid members, to the case of binary systems with rubble members. We employ volume averaging (Sharma et al. [2009] Icarus, 200, 304-322), which was inspired by past work on elastic/fluid, rotating and gravitating ellipsoids. This technique has shown promise when applied to rubble-pile ellipsoids, but requires further work to settle some of its underlying assumptions. The stability test is finally applied to some suspected binary systems, viz., 216 Kleopatra, 624 Hektor and 90 Antiope. We also see that equilibrated binaries that are close to mobilizing their maximum friction can sustain only a narrow range of shapes and, generally, congruent shapes are preferred.

  13. A comprehensive in-pile test of PWR fuel bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Rixin; Zhang, Shucheng; Chen, Dianshan

    1991-02-01

    An in-pile test of PWR fuel bundle has been conducted in HWRR at IAE of China. This paper describes the structure of the test bundle (3 × 3-2), fabrication process and quality control of the fuel rod, irradiation conditions and the main Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) results. The test fuel bundle was irradiated under the PWR operation and water chemistry conditions with an average linear power of 381 W/cm and reached an average burnup of 25010 MWd/tU of the fuel bundle. After the test, destructive and non-destructive examination of the fuel rods was conducted at hot laboratories. The fission gas release was 10.4-23%. The ridge height of cladding was 3 to 8 μm. The hydrogen content of the cladding was 80 to 140 ppm. The fuel stack height was increased by 2.9 to 3.3 mm. The relative irradiation growth was about 0.11 to 0.17% of the fuel rod length. During the irradiation test, no fuel rod failure or other abnormal phenomena had been found by the on-line fuel failure monitoring system of the test loop and water sampling analysis. The structure of the test fuel assembly was left undamaged without twist and detectable deformation.

  14. Early corrosion monitoring of prestressed concrete piles using acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vélez, William; Matta, Fabio; Ziehl, Paul H.

    2013-04-01

    The depassivation and corrosion of bonded prestressing steel strands in concrete bridge members may lead to major damage or collapse before visual inspections uncover evident signs of damage, and well before the end of the design life. Recognizing corrosion in its early stage is desirable to plan and prioritize remediation strategies. The Acoustic Emission (AE) technique is a rational means to develop structural health monitoring and prognosis systems for the early detection and location of corrosion in concrete. Compelling features are the sensitivity to events related to micro- and macrodamage, non-intrusiveness, and suitability for remote and wireless applications. There is little understanding of the correlation between AE and the morphology and extent of early damage on the steel surface. In this paper, the evidence collected from prestressed concrete (PC) specimens that are exposed to salt water is discussed vis-à-vis AE data from continuous monitoring. The specimens consist of PC strips that are subjected to wet/dry salt water cycles, representing portions of bridge piles that are exposed to tidal action. Evidence collected from the specimens includes: (a) values of half-cell potential and linear polarization resistance to recognize active corrosion in its early stage; and (b) scanning electron microscopy micrographs of steel areas from two specimens that were decommissioned once the electrochemical measurements indicated a high probability of active corrosion. These results are used to evaluate the AE activity resulting from early corrosion.

  15. The Supercritical Pile GRB Model: The Prompt to Afterglow Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastichiadis, A.; Kazanas, D.

    2009-01-01

    The "Supercritical Pile" is a very economical GRB model that provides for the efficient conversion of the energy stored in the protons of a Relativistic Blast Wave (RBW) into radiation and at the same time produces - in the prompt GRB phase, even in the absence of any particle acceleration - a spectral peak at energy approx. 1 MeV. We extend this model to include the evolution of the RBW Lorentz factor Gamma and thus follow its spectral and temporal features into the early GRB afterglow stage. One of the novel features of the present treatment is the inclusion of the feedback of the GRB produced radiation on the evolution of Gamma with radius. This feedback and the presence of kinematic and dynamic thresholds in the model can be the sources of rich time evolution which we have began to explore. In particular. one can this may obtain afterglow light curves with steep decays followed by the more conventional flatter afterglow slopes, while at the same time preserving the desirable features of the model, i.e. the well defined relativistic electron source and radiative processes that produce the proper peak in the (nu)F(sub nu), spectra. In this note we present the results of a specific set of parameters of this model with emphasis on the multiwavelength prompt emission and transition to the early afterglow.

  16. Anchor technique: Use of stent retrievers as an anchor to advance thrombectomy catheters in internal carotid artery occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Stacey Q; Janjua, Rashid M; Hedayat, Hirad; Burnette, Christofer

    2015-01-01

    In three recent cases of acute complete internal artery occlusions, we used stent retriever deployed through the mechanical aspiration/distal access catheters to achieve recanalization. In all cases the stent retriever was used as an anchor and supplemented mechanical thrombectomy. This report describes the technical details of the procedure and presents an alternative plan of action in difficult cases when standard thrombectomy techniques do not work. PMID:26494404

  17. GPI anchor transamidase of Trypanosoma brucei: in vitro assay of the recombinant protein and VSG anchor exchange.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xuedong; Szallies, Alexander; Rawer, Marc; Echner, Hartmut; Duszenko, Michael

    2002-06-15

    GPI8 from Trypanosoma brucei was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. TbGPI8 encodes a 37 kDa protein (35 kDa after removal of the putative signal sequence) with a pI of 5.5. It contains one potential N-glycosylation site near the N-terminus but no C-terminal hydrophobic region. Enzyme activity assays using trypanosomal lysates or recombinant TbGpi8 exhibited cleavage of the synthetic peptide acetyl-S-V-L-N-aminomethyl-coumarine, indicating that TbGpi8 is indeed directly involved in the proteolytic processing of the GPI anchoring signal. Intracellular localization of TbGpi8 within tubular structures, such as the endoplasmic reticulum, was observed by using specific anti-TbGpi8 antibodies. The transamidase mechanism of GPI anchoring was studied in bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei using media containing hydrazine or biotinylated hydrazine. In the presence of the latter nucleophile, part of the newly formed VSG was linked to this instead of the GPI anchor and was not transferred to the cell surface. VSG-hydrazine-biotin was detected by streptavidin in western blots and intracellularly in Golgi-like compartments.

  18. Deformation Measurement of a Driven Pile Using Distributed Fibre-optic Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsberger, Christoph; Woschitz, Helmut; Hayden, Martin

    2016-03-01

    New developments in distributed fibre-optic sensing allow the measurement of strain with a very high precision of about 1 µm / m and a spatial resolution of 10 millimetres or even better. Thus, novel applications in several scientific fields may be realised, e. g. in structural monitoring or soil and rock mechanics. Especially due to the embedding capability of fibre-optic sensors, fibre-optic systems provide a valuable extension to classical geodetic measurement methods, which are limited to the surface in most cases. In this paper, we report about the application of an optical backscatter reflectometer for deformation measurements along a driven pile. In general, pile systems are used in civil engineering as an efficient and economic foundation of buildings and other structures. Especially the length of the piles is crucial for the final loading capacity. For optimization purposes, the interaction between the driven pile and the subsurface material is investigated using pile testing methods. In a field trial, we used a distributed fibre-optic sensing system for measuring the strain below the surface of an excavation pit in order to derive completely new information. Prior to the field trial, the fibre-optic sensor was investigated in the laboratory. In addition to the results of these lab studies, we briefly describe the critical process of field installation and show the most significant results from the field trial, where the pile was artificially loaded up to 800 kN. As far as we know, this is the first time that the strain is monitored along a driven pile with such a high spatial resolution.

  19. Environmental assessment of creosote-treated pilings in the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Butala, J.H.; Webb, D.A.; Jop, K.M.; Putt, A.E.

    1995-12-31

    A comprehensive ecological risk assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental impact of creosote-treated pilings in the marine environment at Moss Landing Harbor, Moss Landing, California. Four areas of investigation comprising the risk assessment were (1) evaluation of environmental conditions around existing creosote-treated pilings (2) investigating effects related to restoration of pilings (3) assessing creosote migration into surrounding environment, one year after pile-driving and (4) confirmation of creosote toxicity in laboratory studies. Biological and chemical evaluation of the impact of creosote-treated pilings was conducted on surface sheen, water column and sediment samples collected at Moss Landing Harbor. Water samples (surface sheen, water column and sediment pore water) were evaluated using short-term chronic exposures with Mysidopsis bahia, while bulk sediment samples were evaluated with 10-day sediment toxicity tests with Ampelisca abdita. Samples of surface, column water and sediment were analyzed for the constituents of creosote by GC mass spectrometry. In addition, a sample of neat material used to preserve treated pilings represented a reference for the polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Verification of organism response and analyses of field collected samples was performed by conducting 10-day A. abdita sediment and 7-day M. bahia elutriate exposures with creosote applied to clean sediment collected at Moss Landing, Evaluations were also performed to determine the effects of photoinduced toxicity on test organisms exposed to PAHs. The biological and analytical results of the field and laboratory exposures are being used to evaluate and determine risk of creosote-treated pilings on the marine environment.

  20. Monitoring lipid anchor organization in cell membranes by PIE-FCCS.

    PubMed

    Triffo, Sara B; Huang, Hector H; Smith, Adam W; Chou, Eldon T; Groves, Jay T

    2012-07-04

    This study examines the dynamic co-localization of lipid-anchored fluorescent proteins in living cells using pulsed-interleaved excitation fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (PIE-FCCS) and fluorescence lifetime analysis. Specifically, we look at the pairwise co-localization of anchors from lymphocyte cell kinase (LCK: myristoyl, palmitoyl, palmitoyl), RhoA (geranylgeranyl), and K-Ras (farnesyl) proteins in different cell types. In Jurkat cells, a density-dependent increase in cross-correlation among RhoA anchors is observed, while LCK anchors exhibit a more moderate increase and broader distribution. No correlation was detected among K-Ras anchors or between any of the different anchor types studied. Fluorescence lifetime data reveal no significant Förster resonance energy transfer in any of the data. In COS 7 cells, minimal correlation was detected among LCK or RhoA anchors. Taken together, these observations suggest that some lipid anchors take part in anchor-specific co-clustering with other existing clusters of native proteins and lipids in the membrane. Importantly, these observations do not support a simple interpretation of lipid anchor-mediated organization driven by partitioning based on binary lipid phase separation.

  1. Not all nutrition claims are perceived equal: anchoring effects and moderating mechanisms in food advertising.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Yoon, Hye Jin; Hove, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Despite the increased use of health claims in food advertising, few studies have investigated how specific nutrition claims have differential effects depending on how they are presented. In this context, the current study tests the anchoring hypothesis. Anchoring refers to a common human tendency to evaluate information differently depending on the presence or absence of a numerical "anchor" or reference point. Two (pilot and main) experimental studies explore anchoring effects on audience response to food advertising both directly and moderated by cognitive, motivational, and message factors. The pilot study finds that food product ads employing nutrition claims with an anchor rather than without an anchor generate two results: First, participants perceive the product to have lower fat/lower calorie contents (anchoring hypothesis); second, they prefer the messages with an anchor over those without an anchor. The main study reports that when anchoring is successfully evoked, it produces favorable attitudes toward the ad, favorable attitudes toward the brand, and purchase intention-but only when moderated by health orientation, claim believability, and nutrition knowledge. Practical implications are provided with respect to regulatory guidelines and effective communication strategies for promoting low-fat and low-calorie products in food advertising.

  2. The Supercritical Pile GRB Model: The Prompt to Afterglow Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2008-01-01

    The 'Supercritical Pile' is a very economical gamma ray burst (GRB) model that provides for the efficient conversion of the energy stored in the protons of a Relativistic Blast Wave (RBW) into radiation and at the same time produces - in the prompt GRB phase, even in the absence of any particle acceleration - a spectral peak at an energy sim 1 MeV. We extend this model to include also the evolution of the RBW Lorentz factor Gamma and thus follow the spectral and temporal features of this model into the early GRB afterglow stage. One of the novel features of the present treatment is the inclusion of the feedback of the GRB produced radiation on the evolution of Gamma with radius. This feedback and the presence of kinematic and dynamic thresholds in the model can be the sources of rich time evolution which we have begun to explore. In particular, one can this way obtain afterglow light curves with steep decays followed by the more conventional flatter afterglow slopes, while at the same time preserving the desirable features of the model, i.e. the well defined relativistic electron source and radiative processes that produce the proper peak in the nu F spectra. Furthermore, the existence of a kinematic threshold in this model provides for a operational distinction of the prompt and afterglow GRB stages; in fact, the afterglow stage sets in when the RBW Lorentz factor cannot anymore fulfill the kinematic condition for pair formation in the photon - proton pair production reactions that constitute the fundamental process for the dissipation of the blast wave kinetic energy. We present the results of a specific set of parameters of this model with emphasis on the multiwavelength prompt emission and transition to the early afterglow.

  3. The formation of technic soil in a revegetated uranium ore waste rock pile (Limousin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boekhout, Flora; Gérard, Martine; Kanzari, Aisha; Calas, Georges; Descostes, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Mining took place in France between 1945 and 2001 during which time ~210 different sites were exploited and/or explored. A total of 76 Kt of uranium was produced, 52 Mt of ore was extracted, but also 200 Mt of waste rocks was produced, the majority of which, with uranium levels corresponding to the natural environment. So far, the processes of arenisation and technic soil formation in waste rock piles are not well understood but have important implications for understanding the environmental impact and long-term speciation of uranium. Understanding weathering processes in waste rock piles is essential to determine their environmental impact. The main objectives of this work are to assess 1) the micromorphological features and neo-formed U-bearing phases related to weathering and 2) the processes behind arenisation of the rock pile. The site that was chosen is the Vieilles Sagnes waste rock pile in Fanay (Massif Central France) that represents more or less hydrothermally altered granitic rocks that have been exposed to weathering since the construction of the waste rock pile approximately 50 years ago. Two trenches were excavated to investigate the vertical differentiation of the rock pile. This site serves as a key location for studying weathering processes of waste rock piles, as it has not been reworked after initial construction and has therefore preserved information on the original mineralogy of the waste rock pile enabling us to access post emplacement weathering processes. The site is currently overgrown by moss, meter high ferns and small trees. At present day the rock pile material can be described as hydrothermally altered rocks and rock fragments within a fine-grained silty clay matrix exposed to surface conditions and weathering. A sandy "paleo" technic soil underlies the waste rock pile and functions as a natural liner by adsorption of uranium on clay minerals. Post-mining weathering of rock-pile material is superimposed on pre-mining hydrothermal and

  4. Response of zooplankton and phytoplankton communities to creosote-impregnated Douglas fir pilings in freshwater microcosms.

    PubMed

    Sibley, P K; Harris, M L; Bestari, K T; Steele, T A; Robinson, R D; Gensemer, R W; Day, K E; Solomon, K R

    2004-07-01

    Creosote has been used extensively as an industrial wood preservative for the protection of marine pilings, railway ties, and utility poles and is a common source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into aquatic environments. At present, there is little information by which to judge the potential for creosote leached from impregnated pilings to cause toxicity to biota in aquatic environments. The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of creosote on zooplankton and phytoplankton populations in freshwater microcosms in relation to changes in the concentration and composition of PAHs leached from creosote-impregnated Douglas fir pilings during an 83-day exposure period. The study consisted of single microcosms containing one half, one, two, three, four, and six treated pilings. Two microcosms that received untreated pilings were used as controls. The total surface area of pilings in each microcosm was normalized by adding the appropriate number of untreated pilings. Samples were collected periodically between -14 and 83 days pre- and postexposure to determine aqueous concentrations of 15 priority PAHs and to assess the response of zooplankton and phytoplankton communities. Plankton community response to creosote was analyzed using principle responses curves. Peak aqueous concentrations of sigmaPAH occurred at day 7, ranging from 7.3 to 97.3 microg/L. Zooplankton abundance decreased in all microcosms after introduction of the impregnated pilings, with the magnitude of response varying as a function of aqueous creosote concentration. Using inverse regression, a no-observed-effect concentration for the zooplankton community of 11.1 microg/L was estimated. In contrast, algal abundance and diversity increased in all treatments between 7 and 21 days and attained levels up to twice that in control microcosms. This trend most likely reflected decreased grazing pressure because of the decrease in zooplankton populations, but it may also have reflected

  5. When is pile-up important in the XMM-Newton EPIC cameras?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jethwa, P.; Saxton, R.; Guainazzi, M.; Rodriguez-Pascual, P.; Stuhlinger, M.

    2015-09-01

    Context. Pile-up in X-ray charged couple device (CCD) detectors is defined as the reconstruction of independent events in the same detection cell as a single event during a read-out cycle. Pile-up can seriously compromise the spectral performance, modifying both the flux and the spectral shape of celestial sources. Aims: In this paper we define rigorous metrics to characterise the effect of pile-up in terms of flux loss and spectral distortion. Methods: We extend analytical formulae derived for pile-up on CCD detectors with the inclusion of the calibrated energy-dependence of the point spread function. We validated our analytical results through both Monte-Carlo simulations of the EPIC cameras on-board XMM-Newton and comparison with pile-up diagnostics in observed data. Results: We estimate new count rate levels corresponding to a given degree of flux loss and spectral distortion for each EPIC imaging acquisition mode and provide guidance to observers wishing to estimate these values in their own observations. Conclusions: We strongly recommend using these thresholds in planning future observations with the EPIC cameras.

  6. Spontaneous vegetation on overburden piles in the Coal Basin of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    dos Santos, R.; Citadini-Zanette, V.; Leal-Filho, L.S.; Hennies, W.T.

    2008-09-15

    The objective of this work was to select indigenous vegetal species for restoration programs aiming at the regeneration of ombrophilous dense forest. Thirty-five spoil piles located in the county of Sideropolis, Santa Catarina, that received overburden disposal for 39 years (1950-1989) were selected for study because they exhibited remarkable spontaneous regrowth of trees compared to surrounding spoil piles. Floristic inventory covered the whole area of the 35 piles, whereas survey on phytosociology and natural regeneration studies were conducted in 70 plots distributed along the 35 piles. Floristic inventory recorded 83 species from 28 botanical families. Herbaceous terricolous plants constituted the predominant species (47.0%), followed by shrubs (26.5%), trees (19.3%), and vines (7.2%). Severe chemical (acidic pH and lack of nutrients) and physical (coarse substrate and slope angle of 40-50{sup o} characteristics displayed by the overburden piles constituted limitations to floristic diversity and size of indigenous trees, indicating the need for substrate reclamation prior to forest restoration.

  7. Isotopically enriched ammonium shows high nitrogen transformation in the pile top zone of dairy manure compost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Koki; Toyoda, Sakae; Yano, Midori; Hattori, Shohei; Fukasawa, Makoto; Nakajima, Keiichi; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of NH4+ in dairy manure compost piles with and without bulking agent (10 % w/w) were compared to understand the effects of the use of bulking agent on nitrogen conversion during manure composting. The δ15N-NH4+ values in each of three pile zones (top, side and core) were also compared. At the end of the process, piles with bulking agent showed significantly higher δ15N values (17.7 ± 1.3 ‰) than piles without bulking agent (11.8 ± 0.9 ‰), reflecting the significantly higher nitrogen conversion and NH3 loss in the former. The samples from the top zone, especially in the piles with bulking agent, showed very high NH4+ concentrations with significantly high 15N (δ15N: 12.7-29.8 ‰) values, indicating that extremely high nitrogen conversion, nitrification-denitrification activity of the microbes and NH3 volatilization occurred in this zone.

  8. Changes in the Distribution of Avalanches on a Conical Bead Pile with Cohesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Justine; Lehman, Susan; Dahmen, Karin; Leblanc, Michael; Uhl, Jonathan

    The probability distributions for avalanches of varying size are experimentally determined for a slowly driven, conical bead pile. The pile is composed of roughly 20 000 steel spheres, 3 mm in diameter, atop a circular base; it is driven by adding one bead at a time to the apex of the pile. We investigate the dynamic response of the pile by recording avalanches off the pile over the course of tens of thousands of bead drops. The avalanching behavior is studied at different drop heights and different amounts of cohesion between the beads. The level of cohesion is tuned through use of an applied uniform magnetic field. Smaller, local avalanches are distinguished from larger, non-local avalanches and the moments of the avalanche distribution are calculated separately for these different populations. The resulting moments scale with cohesion differently, and the results are compared to the scaling predictions from an analytic mean-field model and corresponding simulation of slip avalanches in a shear system [Dahmen, Nat Phys 7, 554 (2011)]. Research supported by NSF CBET 1336116 and 1336634.

  9. Effects of the tip location on single piles subjected to surcharge and axial loads.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yaru; Ding, Xuanming; Wang, Dubo

    2013-01-01

    When applying axial load on piles subjected to negative skin friction (NSF), the yielded NSF is gradually eliminated. The process is notably influenced by the tip location (Y) and still a lack of understanding. This paper reports three-dimensional numerical simulations with tip locations Y = 1.00 pile diameter (D), 0.25D, 0.00D, and -1.00D. It is found that, against expectations, the dragload and NSF are not proportionally related to the tip location. When maximum dragload (P max) is eventually eliminated due to an axial load, there is also a negative crest of the skin friction, indicating that NSF still exists based on the criterion of the dragload reduction. The side resistance of the piles with Y = 1.00D and 0.25D is almost fully mobilised, which is demonstrated by the increment of end resistance that greatly increases with the larger axial loads. However, the side resistance of the piles with Y = 0.00D and -1.00D has a potential capacity to carry more loads with continued displacement since the increment of end resistance increases almost linearly with axial load. Therefore, when designing the pile foundation, the inclusion of the NSF should be governed by the amount of axial load to be resisted.

  10. Effects of the Tip Location on Single Piles Subjected to Surcharge and Axial Loads

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dubo

    2013-01-01

    When applying axial load on piles subjected to negative skin friction (NSF), the yielded NSF is gradually eliminated. The process is notably influenced by the tip location (Y) and still a lack of understanding. This paper reports three-dimensional numerical simulations with tip locations Y = 1.00 pile diameter (D), 0.25D, 0.00D, and −1.00D. It is found that, against expectations, the dragload and NSF are not proportionally related to the tip location. When maximum dragload (Pmax) is eventually eliminated due to an axial load, there is also a negative crest of the skin friction, indicating that NSF still exists based on the criterion of the dragload reduction. The side resistance of the piles with Y = 1.00D and 0.25D is almost fully mobilised, which is demonstrated by the increment of end resistance that greatly increases with the larger axial loads. However, the side resistance of the piles with Y = 0.00D and −1.00D has a potential capacity to carry more loads with continued displacement since the increment of end resistance increases almost linearly with axial load. Therefore, when designing the pile foundation, the inclusion of the NSF should be governed by the amount of axial load to be resisted. PMID:24459418

  11. Kinematic Interaction and Rocking Effects on the Seismic Response of Viaducts on Pile Foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezi, F.; Carbonari, S.; Leoni, G.

    2008-07-01

    This paper is aimed at providing a contribution for a more accurate and effective design of bridges founded on piles. A numerical model is employed herein to determine the stresses and displacements in the piles taking into account soil-foundation-structure interaction. A 3D finite element approach is developed for piles and superstructure whereas the soil is assumed to be a Winkler-type medium. The method is applied to single piers representative for a class of bridges. Varying the soil layers characteristics and the pile spacing (from 3 to 5 diameters), bending and axial stresses along piles as well as the pier base shear are computed. A comparison with respect to a fixed-base model is provided. Special issues such as the contribution of the soil profile, of the local amplification and of the rocking at the foundation level are discussed. Soil-structure interaction is found to be essential for effective design of bridges especially for squat piers and soft soil.

  12. Mechanical properties of all-suture anchors for rotator cuff repair

    PubMed Central

    Zargar, N.; Smith, R. D. J.; Carr, A. J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives All-suture anchors are increasingly used in rotator cuff repair procedures. Potential benefits include decreased bone damage. However, there is limited published evidence for the relative strength of fixation for all-suture anchors compared with traditional anchors. Materials and Methods A total of four commercially available all-suture anchors, the ‘Y-Knot’ (ConMed), Q-FIX (Smith & Nephew), ICONIX (Stryker) and JuggerKnot (Zimmer Biomet) and a traditional anchor control TWINFIX Ultra PK Suture Anchor (Smith & Nephew) were tested in cadaveric human humeral head rotator cuff repair models (n = 24). This construct underwent cyclic loading applied by a mechanical testing rig (Zwick/Roell). Ultimate load to failure, gap formation at 50, 100, 150 and 200 cycles, and failure mechanism were recorded. Significance was set at p < 0.05. Results Overall, mean maximum tensile strength values were significantly higher for the traditional anchor (181.0 N, standard error (se) 17.6) compared with the all-suture anchors (mean 133.1 N se 16.7) (p = 0.04). The JuggerKnot anchor had greatest displacement at 50, 100 and 150 cycles, and at failure, reaching statistical significance over the control at 100 and 150 cycles (22.6 mm se 2.5 versus 12.5 mm se 0.3; and 29.6 mm se 4.8 versus 17.0 mm se 0.7). Every all-suture anchor tested showed substantial (> 5 mm) displacement between 50 and 100 cycles (6.2 to 14.3). All-suture anchors predominantly failed due to anchor pull-out (95% versus 25% of traditional anchors), whereas a higher proportion of traditional anchors failed secondary to suture breakage. Conclusion We demonstrate decreased failure load, increased total displacement, and variable failure mechanisms in all-suture anchors, compared with traditional anchors designed for rotator cuff repair. These findings will aid the surgeon’s choice of implant, in the context of the clinical scenario. Cite this article: N. S. Nagra, N. Zargar, R. D. J. Smith, A. J. Carr

  13. Influence of anchoring on miscarriage risk perception associated with amniocentesis.

    PubMed

    Nuccio, Regina; Hashmi, S Shahrukh; Mastrobattista, Joan; Noblin, Sarah Jane; Refuerzo, Jerrie; Smith, Janice L; Singletary, Claire N

    2015-04-01

    One factor women consider when deciding whether to pursue amniocentesis is the risk of miscarriage. People use mechanisms like anchoring, or the prior belief regarding the magnitude of risk, as a frame of reference for new information. This study aimed to determine a woman's perception of miscarriage risk associated with amniocentesis before and after genetic counseling and to determine what factors anchor a woman's perception of miscarriage risk. One hundred thirteen women being seen for prenatal genetic counseling and possible amniocentesis at six Houston clinics participated in the two-part anonymous survey. While most women (56.7 %) perceived the risk as low or average pre-counseling and indicated the numeric risk of amniocentesis as <1 %, significantly more patients (73 %) correctly identified the numeric risk as <1 % post-counseling (p < 0.0001). However, the majority of patients' qualitative risk perception did not change after the genetic counseling session (60 %). Those who changed their feeling about the risk after counseling showed a decreased perception of the risk (p < 0.0001). Participants who elected amniocentesis had a significantly lower perception of the risk (p = 0.017) whereas those who declined amniocentesis were more likely to view the risk as high (p = 0.004). The only two anchoring factors that had an effect were having a friend or relative with a personal or family history of a genetic disorder (p = 0.001) and having a child already (p = 0.038); both were associated with a lower risk perception. The lack of significant factors may reflect the uniqueness of each patient's risk assessment framework and reinforces the importance of genetic counseling to elucidate individual concerns, particularly as non-invasive prenatal testing becomes more widely available and further complicates the prenatal testing landscape.

  14. Aromatic Anchor at an Invariant Hormone-Receptor Interface

    PubMed Central

    Pandyarajan, Vijay; Smith, Brian J.; Phillips, Nelson B.; Whittaker, Linda; Cox, Gabriella P.; Wickramasinghe, Nalinda; Menting, John G.; Wan, Zhu-li; Whittaker, Jonathan; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Lawrence, Michael C.; Weiss, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Crystallographic studies of insulin bound to fragments of the insulin receptor have recently defined the topography of the primary hormone-receptor interface. Here, we have investigated the role of PheB24, an invariant aromatic anchor at this interface and site of a human mutation causing diabetes mellitus. An extensive set of B24 substitutions has been constructed and tested for effects on receptor binding. Although aromaticity has long been considered a key requirement at this position, MetB24 was found to confer essentially native affinity and bioactivity. Molecular modeling suggests that this linear side chain can serve as an alternative hydrophobic anchor at the hormone-receptor interface. These findings motivated further substitution of PheB24 by cyclohexanylalanine (Cha), which contains a nonplanar aliphatic ring. Contrary to expectations, [ChaB24]insulin likewise exhibited high activity. Furthermore, its resistance to fibrillation and the rapid rate of hexamer disassembly, properties of potential therapeutic advantage, were enhanced. The crystal structure of the ChaB24 analog, determined as an R6 zinc-stabilized hexamer at a resolution of 1.5 Å, closely resembles that of wild-type insulin. The nonplanar aliphatic ring exhibits two chair conformations with partial occupancies, each recapitulating the role of PheB24 at the dimer interface. Together, these studies have defined structural requirements of an anchor residue within the B24-binding pocket of the insulin receptor; similar molecular principles are likely to pertain to insulin-related growth factors. Our results highlight in particular the utility of nonaromatic side chains as probes of the B24 pocket and suggest that the nonstandard Cha side chain may have therapeutic utility. PMID:25305014

  15. Effect of heterogeneity and anisotropy related to the construction method on transfer processes in waste rock piles.

    PubMed

    Lahmira, Belkacem; Lefebvre, René; Aubertin, Michel; Bussière, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Waste rock piles producing acid mine drainage (AMD) are partially saturated systems involving multiphase (gas and liquid) flow and coupled transfer processes. Their internal structure and heterogeneous properties are inherited from their wide-ranging material grain sizes, their modes of deposition, and the underlying topography. This paper aims at assessing the effect of physical heterogeneity and anisotropy of waste rock piles on the physical processes involved in the generation of AMD. Generic waste rock pile conditions were represented with the numerical simulator TOUGH AMD based on those found at the Doyon mine waste rock pile (Canada). Models included four randomly distributed material types (coarse, intermediate, fine and very fine-grained). The term "randomly" as used in this study means that the vertical profile and spatial distribution of materials in waste rock piles (internal structure) defy stratigraphy principles applicable to natural sediments (superposition and continuity). The materials have different permeability and capillary properties, covering the typical range of materials found in waste rock piles. Anisotropy with a larger horizontal than vertical permeability was used to represent the effect of pile construction by benches, while the construction by end-dumping was presumed to induce a higher vertical than horizontal permeability. Results show that infiltrated precipitation preferentially flows in fine-grained materials, which remain almost saturated, whereas gas flows preferentially through the most permeable coarse materials, which have higher volumetric gas saturation. Anisotropy, which depends on pile construction methods, often controls global gas flow paths. Construction by benches favours lateral air entry close to the pile slope, whereas end-dumping leads to air entry from the surface to the interior of the pile by secondary gas convection cells. These results can be useful to construct and rehabilitate waste rock piles to minimize

  16. 18. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING WEST ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING WEST ALONG THE MAIN TRACK LOCATED TO THE NORTH OF THE COS COB POWER PLANT. THE LOAD DISPATCHER'S TOWER IS SHOWN IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND. AT THIS STATION THE DISPATCHER CONTROLLED POWER OUTPUT TO VARIOUS PARTS OF THE SYSTEM. THE STRUCTURE SERVES THE SAME PURPOSE IN 1993 AND CAN BE OPERATED LOCALLY OR REMOTELY FROM METRO-NORTH'S HEADQUARTERS IN MANHATTAN. THE STEEL STRUCTURE AND STACK IN THE BACKGROUND ARE PART OF THE BOILER 902-903 INSTALLATION. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  17. Simulation of weak anchoring effects on nematic liquid crystal hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillen, Sean; Somers, David A. T.; Munday, Jeremy N.

    The free energy of a nematic liquid crystal droplet depends on an interplay between elastic and surface interactions. When the two contributions are of similar magnitude, there exists a transition of the nematic structure of the droplet. Because the two contributions scale differently with length scales, this transition is visible as a function of the size of the droplet. We carry out numerical simulations to explore the use of this transition in measuring surface anchoring energies. This technique could help elucidate alignment forces on liquid crystals, such as those caused by rubbed surfaces, electric fields, or even the Casimir torque. Electrical and Computer Engineering.

  18. Results of Some Uplift Capacity Tests on Direct Embedment Anchors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    should be expected to vary from those of the terrestrial tesis above. The analysis of direct embedment anchor-holding capacity is complicated by the...was conducted north of the Puerto Rico trench in 5,500 m (18,000 ft) in a pelagic clay or "red clay" deposit. Water contents in the upper 1.2 m (4 ft...north of Puerto Rico Trench. S6 - -~ ~-~d- 70. 60 20 60 j - 12 18 5 fluke 16 embedaent - 10 -0 340 6- -20 20,--6 4 - 10- ൟ 0g 30 2 3 4 5 6 7 4i Time

  19. [Effect of abrasion on three types of sutures in a metallic anchor].

    PubMed

    Acosta Rodríguez, Eduardo; Almazán Díaz, Arturo

    2007-01-01

    It is necessary to slide the suture into the articulation in the arthroscopic techniques, this produce friction and abrasion of the suture, this is the principal cause of failure in the union of anchor-suture. We used a Fastak 2.4 anchor, Sawbones, No 2 Ethibond, No 2 Fiberwire and No 2 Herculine. Each suture was introduce to the anchor eyelet and was cycled in four times with 40N. The angles of traction were 0 degrees and 45 degrees at the same direction of the anchor eyelet and 45 degrees with different direction of the anchor eyelet. Five sutures were used in every test. We performed the Kolmogorov-Smirnof and "t" Student tests. In all the tests there were a significant differences. The strength of the suture is affected by the abrasion in the anchor eyelet.

  20. Self-tapping ability of carbon fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone suture anchors.

    PubMed

    Feerick, Emer M; Wilson, Joanne; Jarman-Smith, Marcus; Ó'Brádaigh, Conchur M; McGarry, J Patrick

    2014-10-01

    An experimental and computational investigation of the self-tapping ability of carbon fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) has been conducted. Six CFR-PEEK suture anchor designs were investigated using PEEK-OPTIMA® Reinforced, a medical grade of CFR-PEEK. Experimental tests were conducted to investigate the maximum axial force and torque required for self-taping insertion of each anchor design. Additional experimental tests were conducted for some anchor designs using pilot holes. Computational simulations were conducted to determine the maximum stress in each anchor design at various stages of insertion. Simulations also were performed to investigate the effect of wall thickness in the anchor head. The maximum axial force required to insert a self-tapping CFR-PEEK suture anchor did not exceed 150 N for any anchor design. The maximum torque required to insert a self-tapping CFR-PEEK suture anchor did not exceed 0.8 Nm. Computational simulations reveal significant stress concentrations in the region of the anchor tip, demonstrating that a re-design of the tip geometry should be performed to avoid fracture during self-tapping, as observed in the experimental component of this study. This study demonstrates the ability of PEEK-OPTIMA Reinforced suture anchors to self-tap polyurethane foam bone analogue. This provides motivation to further investigate the self-tapping ability of CFR-PEEK suture anchors in animal/cadaveric bone. An optimised design for CFR-PEEK suture anchors offers the advantages of radiolucency, and mechanical properties similar to bone with the ability to self-tap. This may have positive implications for reducing surgery times and the associated costs with the procedure.

  1. Application of self-diagnosis FRP to concrete pile for health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Hitoshi; Sugiyama, Takeshi; Okuhara, Yoshiki; Shin, Soon-Gi; Matsubara, Hideaki; Yanagida, Hiroaki

    2000-06-01

    The function and performance of the self-diagnosis composites embedded in concrete blocks and piles were investigated by bending tests and electrical resistance measurements. Carbon powder (CP) and carbon fiber (CF) were introduced in glass fiber reinforced plastics composites to obtain electrical conductivity. The CP composite has commonly good performances in various bending tests of block and pile specimens, comparing to the CF composite. The electrical resistance of the CP composite increases in a small strain to response remarkably micro-crack formation at about 200 μ strain and to detect well to smaller deformations before the crack formation. The CP composite posses a continuous resistance change up to a large strain level near the final fracture of concrete structures reinforced by steel bars. It has been concluded that the self-diagnosis composite is fairly useful for the measurement of damage and fracture in concrete blocks and piles.

  2. Dispersal of Aspergillus fumigatus from Sewage Sludge Compost Piles Subjected to Mechanical Agitation in Open Air

    PubMed Central

    Millner, Patricia D.; Bassett, David A.; Marsh, Paul B.

    1980-01-01

    Aerosolization of the thermophilous fungal opportunist Aspergillus fumigatus from mechanically agitated compost piles was examined at a pilot-scale sewage sludge composting facility and two other selected test sites. Aerosols of A. fumigatus downwind from stationary compost piles were insignificant in comparison with those downwind from agitated piles. These aerosols were generated by a front-end loader moving and dropping compost. Aerial concentrations of the fungus at distances downwind from the point of emission were used to determine an emission rate for A. fumigatus associated with the moving operations. The maximum emission rate, 4.6 × 106A. fumigatus particles per s, was used to calculate predicted concentrations in an unobstructed plume with restrictive, neutral, and dispersive atmospheric mixing conditions up to 1 km downwind from the emission source. PMID:16345563

  3. Acoustic emission signal processing technique to characterize reactor in-pile phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.; Smith, James A.

    2015-03-31

    Existing and developing advanced sensor technologies and instrumentation will allow non-intrusive in-pile measurement of temperature, extension, and fission gases when coupled with advanced signal processing algorithms. The transmitted measured sensor signals from inside to the outside of containment structure are corrupted by noise and are attenuated, thereby reducing the signal strength and the signal-to-noise ratio. Identification and extraction of actual signal (representative of an in-pile phenomenon) is a challenging and complicated process. In the paper, empirical mode decomposition technique is utilized to reconstruct actual sensor signal by partially combining intrinsic mode functions. Reconstructed signal will correspond to phenomena and/or failure modes occurring inside the reactor. In addition, it allows accurate non-intrusive monitoring and trending of in-pile phenomena.

  4. Acoustic Emission Signal Processing Technique to Characterize Reactor In-Pile Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Vivek Agarwal; Magdy Samy Tawfik; James A Smith

    2014-07-01

    Existing and developing advanced sensor technologies and instrumentation will allow non-intrusive in-pile measurement of temperature, extension, and fission gases when coupled with advanced signal processing algorithms. The transmitted measured sensor signals from inside to the outside of containment structure are corrupted by noise and are attenuated, thereby reducing the signal strength and signal-to-noise ratio. Identification and extraction of actual signal (representative of an in-pile phenomenon) is a challenging and complicated process. In this paper, empirical mode decomposition technique is proposed to reconstruct actual sensor signal by partially combining intrinsic mode functions. Reconstructed signal corresponds to phenomena and/or failure modes occurring inside the reactor. In addition, it allows accurate non-intrusive monitoring and trending of in-pile phenomena.

  5. Fiber optic sensing system for temperature and gas monitoring in coal waste pile combustion environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viveiros, D.; Ribeiro, J.; Ferreira, J.; Lopez-Albada, A.; Pinto, A. M. R.; Perez-Herrera, R. A.; Diaz, S.; Lopez-Gil, A.; Dominguez-Lopez, A.; Esteban, O.; Martin-Lopez, S.; Auguste, J.-L.; Jamier, R.; Rougier, S.; Silva, S. O.; Frazão, O.; Santos, J. L.; Flores, D.; Roy, P.; Gonzalez-Herraez, M.; Lopez-Amo, M.; Baptista, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    It is presented an optical fiber sensing system projected to operate in the demanding conditions associated with coal waste piles in combustion. Distributed temperature measurement and spot gas sensing are requirements for such a system. A field prototype has been installed and is continuously gathering data, which will input a geological model of the coal waste piles in combustion aiming to understand their dynamics and evolution. Results are presented on distributed temperature and ammonia measurement, being noticed any significant methane emission in the short time period considered. Carbon dioxide is also a targeted gas for measurement, with validated results available soon. The assessment of this technology as an effective and reliable tool to address the problem of monitoring coal waste piles in combustion opens the possibility of its widespread application in view of the worldwide presence of coal related fires.

  6. Radon flux measurements on Gardinier and Royster phosphogypsum piles near Tampa and Mulberry, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, J.N.; Freeman, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    As part of the planned Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radon flux monitoring program for the Florida phosphogypsum piles, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the EPA, constructed 50 large-area passive radon collection devices and demonstrated their use at two phosphogypsum piles near Tampa and Mulberry, Florida. The passive devices were also compared to the PNL large-area flow-through system. The main objectives of the field tests were to demonstrate the use of the large-area passive radon collection devices to EPA and PEI personnel and to determine the number of radon flux measurement locations needed to estimate the average radon flux from a phosphogypsum pile. This report presents the results of the field test, provides recommendations for long-term monitoring, and includes a procedure for making the radon flux measurements.

  7. SNP Discovery and Chromosome Anchoring Provide the First Physically-Anchored Hexaploid Oat Map and Reveal Synteny with Model Species

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Shiaoman; Jellen, Eric N.; Carson, Martin L.; Rines, Howard W.; Obert, Donald E.; Lutz, Joseph D.; Shackelford, Irene; Korol, Abraham B.; Wight, Charlene P.; Gardner, Kyle M.; Hattori, Jiro; Beattie, Aaron D.; Bjørnstad, Åsmund; Bonman, J. Michael; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Sorrells, Mark E.; Brown-Guedira, Gina L.; Mitchell Fetch, Jennifer W.; Harrison, Stephen A.; Howarth, Catherine J.; Ibrahim, Amir; Kolb, Frederic L.; McMullen, Michael S.; Murphy, J. Paul; Ohm, Herbert W.; Rossnagel, Brian G.; Yan, Weikai; Miclaus, Kelci J.; Hiller, Jordan; Maughan, Peter J.; Redman Hulse, Rachel R.; Anderson, Joseph M.; Islamovic, Emir

    2013-01-01

    A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42) has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources were applied to build the first complete, physically-anchored consensus map of hexaploid oat. Approximately 11,000 high-confidence in silico SNPs were discovered based on nine million inter-varietal sequence reads of genomic and cDNA origin. GoldenGate genotyping of 3,072 SNP assays yielded 1,311 robust markers, of which 985 were mapped in 390 recombinant-inbred lines from six bi-parental mapping populations ranging in size from 49 to 97 progeny. The consensus map included 985 SNPs and 68 previously-published markers, resolving 21 linkage groups with a total map distance of 1,838.8 cM. Consensus linkage groups were assigned to 21 chromosomes using SNP deletion analysis of chromosome-deficient monosomic hybrid stocks. Alignments with sequenced genomes of rice and Brachypodium provide evidence for extensive conservation of genomic regions, and renewed encouragement for orthology-based genomic discovery in this important hexaploid species. These results also provide a framework for high-resolution genetic analysis in oat, and a model for marker development and map construction in other species with complex genomes and limited resources. PMID:23533580

  8. Reinforcing mechanism of anchors in slopes: a numerical comparison of results of LEM and FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Fei; Ugai, Keizo

    2003-06-01

    This paper reports the limitation of the conventional Bishop's simplified method to calculate the safety factor of slopes stabilized with anchors, and proposes a new approach to considering the reinforcing effect of anchors on the safety factor. The reinforcing effect of anchors can be explained using an additional shearing resistance on the slip surface. A three-dimensional shear strength reduction finite element method (SSRFEM), where soil-anchor interactions were simulated by three-dimensional zero-thickness elasto-plastic interface elements, was used to calculate the safety factor of slopes stabilized with anchors to verify the reinforcing mechanism of anchors. The results of SSRFEM were compared with those of the conventional and proposed approaches for Bishop's simplified method for various orientations, positions, and spacings of anchors, and shear strengths of soil-grouted body interfaces. For the safety factor, the proposed approach compared better with SSRFEM than the conventional approach. The additional shearing resistance can explain the influence of the orientation, position, and spacing of anchors, and the shear strength of soil-grouted body interfaces on the safety factor of slopes stabilized with anchors.

  9. Intermittent use of an "anchor system" improves postural control in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Milena de Bem Zavanella; Mauerberg-deCastro, Eliane; Moraes, Renato

    2013-07-01

    Haptic information, provided by a non-rigid tool (i.e., an "anchor system"), can reduce body sway in individuals who perform a standing postural task. However, it was not known whether or not continuous use of the anchor system would improve postural control after its removal. Additionally, it was unclear as to whether or not frequency of use of the anchor system is related to improved control in older adults. The present study evaluated the effect of the prolonged use of the anchor system on postural control in healthy older individuals, at different frequencies of use, while they performed a postural control task (semi-tandem position). Participants were divided into three groups according to the frequency of the anchor system's use (0%, 50%, and 100%). Pre-practice phase (without anchor) was followed by a practice phase (they used the anchor system at the predefined frequency), and a post-practice phase (immediate and late-without anchor). All three groups showed a persistent effect 15min after the end of the practice phase (immediate post-practice phase). However, only the 50% group showed a persistent effect in the late post-practice phase (24h after finishing the practice phase). Older adults can improve their postural control by practicing the standing postural task, and use of the anchor system limited to half of their practice time can provide additional improvement in their postural control.

  10. Prediction of AMD generation potential in mining waste piles, in the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit, Iran.

    PubMed

    Modabberi, Soroush; Alizadegan, Ali; Mirnejad, Hassan; Esmaeilzadeh, Esmat

    2013-11-01

    This study investigates the possibility of acid mine drainage (AMD) generation in active and derelict mine waste piles in Sarcheshmeh Copper Mine produced in several decades, using static tests including acid-base accounting (ABA) and net acid-generating pH (NAGpH). In this study, 51 composite samples were taken from 11 waste heaps, and static ABA and NAGpH tests were carried out on samples. While some piles are acid producing at present and AMD is discharging from the piles, most of them do not show any indication on their AMD potential, and they were investigated to define their acid-producing potential. The analysis of data indicates that eight waste piles are potentially acid generating with net neutralization potentials (NNPs) of -56.18 to -199.3, net acid generating of 2.19-3.31, and NPRs from 0.18 to 0.44. Other waste piles exhibited either a very low sulfur, high carbonate content or excess carbonate over sulfur; hence, they are not capable of acid production or they can be considered as weak acid producers. Consistency between results of ABA and NAGpH tests using a variety of classification criteria validates these tests as powerful means for preliminary evaluation of AMD/ARD possibilities in any mining district. It is also concluded that some of the piles with very negative NNPs are capable to produce AMD naturally, and they can be used in heap leaching process for economic recovery of trace amounts of metals without applying any biostimulation methods.

  11. The effect of dust emissions from open storage piles to particle ambient concentration and human exposure.

    PubMed

    Chalvatzaki, E; Aleksandropoulou, V; Glytsos, T; Lazaridis, M

    2012-12-01

    The current study focus on the determination of dust emissions from piles in open storage yards of a municipal solid waste (MSW) composting site and the subsequent atmospheric dust dispersion. The ISC3-ST (Industrial Source Complex Version 3 - Short Term) model was used for the evaluation of the PM(10) ambient concentrations associated with the dispersion of MSW compost dust emissions in air. Dust emission rates were calculated using the United States Environmental Protection Agency proposed dust resuspension formulation from open storage piles using local meteorological data. The dispersion modelling results on the spatial distribution of PM(10) source depletion showed that the maximum concentrations were observed at a distance 25-75 m downwind of the piles in the prevailing wind direction. Sensitivity calculations were performed also to reveal the effect of the compost pile height, the friction velocity and the receptor height on the ambient PM(10) concentration. It was observed that PM(10) concentrations (downwind in the prevailing wind direction) increased with increasing the friction velocity, increasing the pile height (for distances greater than 125 m from the source) and decreasing the receptor height (for distances greater than 125 m from the source). Furthermore, the results of ISC3-ST were analysed with the ExDoM (Exposure Dose Model) human exposure model. The ExDoM is a model for calculating the human exposure and the deposition dose, clearance, and finally retention of aerosol particles in the human respiratory tract (RT). PM(10) concentration at the composting site was calculated as the sum of the concentration from compost pile dust resuspension and the background concentration. It was found that the exposure to PM(10) and deposited lung dose for an adult Caucasian male who is not working at the composting site is less by 20-74% and 29-84%, respectively, compared to those for a worker exposed to PM concentrations at the composting site.

  12. Litter use by laying hens in a commercial aviary: dust bathing and piling.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L M; Makagon, M M; Swanson, J C; Siegford, J M

    2016-01-01

    The laying hen industry, including in the United States, is responding to social concerns about hen welfare by implementing alternative housing systems such as the aviary, to provide more space and resources to large groups of hens. Data detailing the behavior of hens in commercial aviaries is needed to determine hens' use of the resources in order to understand their impact on hen welfare. The open litter area of aviaries provides additional space for hens during the day. Litter is also a substrate for dust bathing which is a strongly motivated natural behavior. Hens are often synchronous in their performance of dust bathing, which may lead to overcrowding in the litter area. Additionally, the open litter area can facilitate expression of unusual behavior such as flock piling (defined as the occurrence of densely grouped clusters of hens, resulting from no obvious cause and occurring randomly throughout the day and flock cycle) which may be a welfare concern. Therefore, we conducted observations of hen occupancy of the open litter area and the performance of dust bathing and flock piling across 3 production points (peak lay, mid lay and end of lay) for two flocks of Lohmann White laying hens housed in a commercial aviary. All areas of the open litter area were occupied to the same degree. Hens performed dust bathing throughout the day but showed peak dust bathing activity in the afternoon for Flock 1 (all P < 0.001) and in the late morning for Flock 2 (all P < 0.001). Overall, 174 incidents of piling behavior were observed between the 2 flocks, with piles varying in size, duration, and time of occurrence; however, no smothering was detected. Crowding on the open litter area sometimes occurred during peak periods of synchronous dust bathing and when hens piled. Further research is needed to understand the welfare implications of individual hen use of the open litter area and the causes and welfare implications of hen piling.

  13. Study on Load-Bearing Characteristics of a New Pile Group Foundation for an Offshore Wind Turbine

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Run; Lian, Jijian; Ding, Hongyan

    2014-01-01

    Because offshore wind turbines are high-rise structures, they transfer large horizontal loads and moments to their foundations. One of the keys to designing a foundation is determining the sensitivities and laws affecting its load-bearing capacity. In this study, this procedure was carried out for a new high-rise cap pile group foundation adapted to the loading characteristics of offshore wind turbines. The sensitivities of influential factors affecting the bearing properties were determined using an orthogonal test. Through a combination of numerical simulations and model tests, the effects of the inclination angle, length, diameter, and number of side piles on the vertical bearing capacity, horizontal bearing capacity, and bending bearing capacity were determined. The results indicate that an increase in the inclination angle of the side piles will increase the vertical bearing capacity, horizontal bearing capacity, and bending bearing capacity. An increase in the length of the side piles will increase the vertical bearing capacity and bending bearing capacity. When the length of the side piles is close to the central pile, the increase is more apparent. Finally, increasing the number of piles will increase the horizontal bearing capacity; however, the growth rate is small because of the pile group effect. PMID:25250375

  14. 77 FR 69797 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Pile Driving in Port Townsend...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... vicinity of the ferry terminal. Because direct pull and clamshell pile removal, and use of barges do not... we require WSF to monitor before, during, and after all ramp-ups of vibratory and impact pile driving.... Response: We disagree that WSF needs to monitor for marine mammals before, during, and after all...

  15. Study on load-bearing characteristics of a new pile group foundation for an offshore wind turbine.

    PubMed

    Lang, Ruiqing; Liu, Run; Lian, Jijian; Ding, Hongyan

    2014-01-01

    Because offshore wind turbines are high-rise structures, they transfer large horizontal loads and moments to their foundations. One of the keys to designing a foundation is determining the sensitivities and laws affecting its load-bearing capacity. In this study, this procedure was carried out for a new high-rise cap pile group foundation adapted to the loading characteristics of offshore wind turbines. The sensitivities of influential factors affecting the bearing properties were determined using an orthogonal test. Through a combination of numerical simulations and model tests, the effects of the inclination angle, length, diameter, and number of side piles on the vertical bearing capacity, horizontal bearing capacity, and bending bearing capacity were determined. The results indicate that an increase in the inclination angle of the side piles will increase the vertical bearing capacity, horizontal bearing capacity, and bending bearing capacity. An increase in the length of the side piles will increase the vertical bearing capacity and bending bearing capacity. When the length of the side piles is close to the central pile, the increase is more apparent. Finally, increasing the number of piles will increase the horizontal bearing capacity; however, the growth rate is small because of the pile group effect.

  16. Anchored Clathrate Waters Bind Antifreeze Proteins to Ice

    SciTech Connect

    C Garnham; R Campbell; P Davies

    2011-12-31

    The mechanism by which antifreeze proteins (AFPs) irreversibly bind to ice has not yet been resolved. The ice-binding site of an AFP is relatively hydrophobic, but also contains many potential hydrogen bond donors/acceptors. The extent to which hydrogen bonding and the hydrophobic effect contribute to ice binding has been debated for over 30 years. Here we have elucidated the ice-binding mechanism through solving the first crystal structure of an Antarctic bacterial AFP. This 34-kDa domain, the largest AFP structure determined to date, folds as a Ca{sup 2+}-bound parallel beta-helix with an extensive array of ice-like surface waters that are anchored via hydrogen bonds directly to the polypeptide backbone and adjacent side chains. These bound waters make an excellent three-dimensional match to both the primary prism and basal planes of ice and in effect provide an extensive X-ray crystallographic picture of the AFP{vert_ellipsis}ice interaction. This unobstructed view, free from crystal-packing artefacts, shows the contributions of both the hydrophobic effect and hydrogen bonding during AFP adsorption to ice. We term this mode of binding the 'anchored clathrate' mechanism of AFP action.

  17. Cognitive Advantages of Blending with Material Anchors in Energy Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Hunter; Close, Eleanor; Scherr, Rachel; McKagan, Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Conceptual blending theory [1] explains how the human imagination creates unreal situations that help us think about reality. In these imaginary blended situations, we establish new correspondences, interactions, and dynamics, and the outcomes of the dynamics lend insight to the nature of various real situations that were used to compose the blend. Blends are not just in the head, however; in some cases, a material system participates in the blend by lending its material structure as conceptual structure [2]. In the instructional activity Energy Theater [3], people represent units of energy and move around in order to solve puzzles of energy transfer and transformation. We use the ideas of blending and material anchors to understand how learners are able to use the representation to their cognitive advantage. [4pt] [1] Fauconnier, G. & Turner, M. (2002). The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind's Hidden Complexities. New York: Basic Books.[0pt] [2] Hutchins, E. (2005) Material anchors for conceptual blends. Journal of Pragmatics 37, 1555-1577.[0pt] [3] Scherr, R. E., Close, H. G., McKagan, S. B., & Close, E. W. (2010) ``Energy Theater'': Using the body symbolically to understand energy. In C. Singh, M. Sabella, & S. Rebello (Eds.) 2010 PERC Proceedings. Melville, NY: AIP Press.

  18. Anchored clathrate waters bind antifreeze proteins to ice.

    PubMed

    Garnham, Christopher P; Campbell, Robert L; Davies, Peter L

    2011-05-03

    The mechanism by which antifreeze proteins (AFPs) irreversibly bind to ice has not yet been resolved. The ice-binding site of an AFP is relatively hydrophobic, but also contains many potential hydrogen bond donors/acceptors. The extent to which hydrogen bonding and the hydrophobic effect contribute to ice binding has been debated for over 30 years. Here we have elucidated the ice-binding mechanism through solving the first crystal structure of an Antarctic bacterial AFP. This 34-kDa domain, the largest AFP structure determined to date, folds as a Ca(2+)-bound parallel beta-helix with an extensive array of ice-like surface waters that are anchored via hydrogen bonds directly to the polypeptide backbone and adjacent side chains. These bound waters make an excellent three-dimensional match to both the primary prism and basal planes of ice and in effect provide an extensive X-ray crystallographic picture of the AFPice interaction. This unobstructed view, free from crystal-packing artefacts, shows the contributions of both the hydrophobic effect and hydrogen bonding during AFP adsorption to ice. We term this mode of binding the "anchored clathrate" mechanism of AFP action.

  19. Computations of flow in an anchored Solar Vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Dahhea; Fischer, Paul F.; Pearlstein, Arne J.

    2015-11-01

    In regions with high solar insolation, there is a potential to extract mechanical energy from the gravitationally unstable ground-heated air layer, using the substantial axial and azimuthal momentum of an anchored buoyancy-induced columnar vortex to drive a vertical-axis turbine. The seasonal and diurnal availability (which extends well into the late afternoon and even past sunset, due to utilization of the thermal capacity of the ground to heat the air, rather than direct use of photons) is well-matched to air-conditioning loads in the southwestern US. Critical issues in the design of such systems are the geometry of the enclosure that serves to anchor the dust devil-like vortex and prevent it from being blown away by ambient wind, as well as the geometry of the stationary vanes used both to enhance entrainment of ground-heated air into the vortex from a collection area much larger than that of the enclosure, and to utilize any ambient wind to enhance the vortex. Here, we report computations (using the spectral-element code Nek5000) of heated and unheated flows in several geometries of interest. The results are discussed in the context of field experiments. Supported by ARPA-E award DE-AR0000296.

  20. Enhancements to High Temperature In-Pile Thermocouple Performance

    SciTech Connect

    J. C. Crepeau; J. L. Rempe; J. E. Daw; D. L. Knudson; K. G. Condie; S. C. Wilkins

    2008-03-01

    A joint University of Idaho (UI) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) University Nuclear Research Initiative (UNERI) was to initiated to extend initial INL efforts to develop doped lybdenum/niobium alloy High Temperature Irradiation Resistant Thermocouples (HTIR-TCs). The overall objective of this UNERI was to develop recommendations for an optimized thermocouple design for high temperature, long duration, in-pile testing by expanding upon results from initial INL efforts. Tasks to quantify the impact of candidate enhancements, such as alternate alloys, alternate geometries, and alternate thermocouple fabrication techniques, on thermocouple performance were completed at INL's High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL), a state of the art facility equipped with specialized equipment and trained staff in the area of high temperature instrumentation development and evaluation. Key results of these evaluations, which are documented in this report, are as follows. The doped molybdenum and Nb-1%Zr, which were proposed in the initial INL HTIR-TC design, were found to retain ductility better than the developmental molybdenum-low niobium alloys and the niobium-low molybdenum alloys evaluated. Hence, the performance and lower cost of the commercially available KW-Mo makes a thermocouple containing KW-Mo and Nb-1%Zr the best option at this time. HTIR-TCs containing larger diameter wires offer the potential to increase HTIR-TC stability and reliability at higher temperatures. HTIR-TC heat treatment temperatures and times should be limited to not more than 100 °C above the proposed operating temperatures and to durations of at least 4 to 5 hours. Preliminary investigations suggest that the performance of swaged and loose assembly HTIR-TC designs is similar. However, the swaged designs are less expensive and easier to construct. In addition to optimizing HTIR-TC performance, This UNERI project provided unique opportunities to several University of Idaho students, allowing them to

  1. Enhancements to High Temperature In-Pile Thermocouple Performance

    SciTech Connect

    J.C. Crepeau; J.L. Rempe; J.E. Daw; D.L. Knudson: K.G. Condie; S.C. Wilkins

    2008-03-31

    A joint University of Idaho (UI) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) University Nuclear Research Initiative (UNERI) was to initiated to extend initial INL efforts to develop doped molybdenum/niobium alloy High Temperature Irradiation Resistant Thermocouples (HTIR-TCs). The overall objective of this UNERI was to develop recommendations for an optimized thermocouple design for high temperature, long duration, in-pile testing by expanding upon results from initial INL efforts. Tasks to quantify the impact of candidate enhancements, such as alternate alloys, alternate geometries, and alternate thermocouple fabrication techniques, on thermocouple performance were completed at INL's High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL), a state of the art facility equipped with specialized equipment and trained staff in the area of high temperature instrumentation development and evaluation. Key results of these evaluations, which are documented in this report, are as follows. The doped molybdenum and Nb-1%Zr, which were proposed in the initial INL HTIR-TC design, were found to retain ductility better than the developmental molybdenum-low niobium alloys and the niobium-low molybdenum alloys evaluated. Hence, the performance and lower cost of the commercially available KW-Mo makes a thermocouple containing KW-Mo and Nb-1%Zr the best option at this time. HTIR-TCs containing larger diameter wires offer the potential to increase HTIR-TC stability and reliability at higher temperatures. HTIR-TC heat treatment temperatures and times should be limited to not more than 100 C above the proposed operating temperatures and to durations of at least 4 to 5 hours. Preliminary investigations suggest that the performance of swaged and loose assembly HTIR-TC designs is similar. However, the swaged designs are less expensive and easier to construct. In addition to optimizing HTIR-TC performance, This UNERI project provided unique opportunities to several University of Idaho students, allowing them to

  2. SIMULATING ASTEROID RUBBLE PILES WITH A SELF-GRAVITATING SOFT-SPHERE DISTINCT ELEMENT METHOD MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Paul; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2011-02-01

    This paper applies a soft-sphere distinct element method Granular Dynamics code to simulate asteroid regolith and rubble piles. Applications to regolith studies in low gravity are also studied. Then an algorithm to calculate self-gravity is derived and incorporated for full-scale simulations of rubble-pile asteroids using Granular Dynamics techniques. To test its validity, the algorithm's results are compared with the exact direct calculation of the gravitational forces. Further avenues to improve the performance of the algorithm are also discussed.

  3. Noise Mitigation During Pile Driving Efficiently Reduces Disturbance of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Nehls, Georg; Rose, Armin; Diederichs, Ansgar; Bellmann, Michael; Pehlke, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic monitoring of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena L., 1758) indicated a strongly reduced disturbance by noise emitted by pile driving for offshore wind turbine foundations insulated by a big bubble curtain (BBC). This newly developed noise mitigation system was tested during construction of the offshore wind farm Borkum West II (North Sea). Because porpoise activity strongly corresponded to the sound level, operation of the new system under its most suitable configuration reduced the porpoise disturbance area by ~90%. Hence, for the first time, a positive effect of a noise mitigation system during offshore pile driving on an affected marine mammal species could be demonstrated.

  4. Cathodic protection of prestressed concrete bridge pilings in a marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Scannell, W.T.; Sohanghpurwala, A.A.; Powers, R.G.; Hartt, W.H.

    1994-12-31

    Cathodic protection (CP) is the only recognized technique for arresting ongoing corrosion of conventional mild reinforcing steel in concrete. This paper discusses the present state of knowledge regarding the applicability of this technology to prestressing steel. Practical and technical issues to consider in selecting a CP system for prestressed concrete bridge pilings in a marine environment are discussed. The design parameters for the first full scale installation of CP on over 170 prestressed concrete bridge pilings in a marine environment are presented. Performance data obtained on the selected CP system from other small scale installations are also presented.

  5. Pile Driving at the New Bridge at Tappan Zee: Potential Environmental Impacts.

    PubMed

    Popper, Arthur N; Moese, Mark; Rollino, John; Krebs, Justin; Racca, Roberto; Martin, Bruce; Zeddies, David; MacGillivray, Alexander; Jacobs, Fred

    2016-01-01

    A new bridge will be constructed to replace the aging Tappan Zee Bridge over the Hudson River in New York. Construction will potentially result in hydroacoustic impacts to the local fish fauna. As a consequence, a substantial environmental impact analysis had to be conducted to obtain construction permits. This paper describes the process of environmental analysis and some of the results of the studies that led up to the final permitting. The process included modeling of pile-driving acoustics, analysis of river ambient noise, analysis of test piling, and observations on fish behavior during these tests.

  6. Effective and low cost erosion control of inactive coal storage piles

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, D.E.; Degenhardt, G.M.; Jones, R.W.

    1983-11-01

    Erosion of coal stockpiles by wind and rain cost utilities thousands of dollars each year in lost fuel, coal pile maintenance and environmental equipment. The main problem at Nelson Unit 6 was loss due to frequent and heavy rains. Average yearly rainfall in that part of Louisiana is 56''. There is a definite ''rainy season'' in the winter months and the long summer brings heavy tropical type downpours. This paper outlines efforts to control erosion by conventional methods, chemical treatment and finally the application of aereated flyash to the coal pile slopes.

  7. Dynamic response of a laterally loaded fixed-head pile group in a transversely isotropic multilayered half-space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Zhi Yong; Li, Zhi Xiong; Wang, Li Hua

    2016-12-01

    The time-harmonic response of a laterally loaded fixed-head pile group embedded in a transversely isotropic multilayered half-space is investigated using a finite element and indirect boundary element coupling method. The piles are solved by the finite element method (FEM), while the soil can be modeled by the indirect boundary element method (BEM) with the aid of the fundamental solution for a transversely isotropic multilayered half-space in a cylindrical coordinate system. The governing equation of the pile-soil-pile dynamic interaction is established by applying the FEM-BEM coupling method. Numerical examples are carried out to validate the presented theory and to investigate influences of the soil's anisotropy and layering on the dynamic response of pile groups.

  8. APPLICATION OF STEEL PIPE PILE LOADING TESTS TO DESIGN VERIFICATION OF FOUNDATION OF THE TOKYO GATE BRIDGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitou, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Kusakabe, Osamu; Kiyomiya, Osamu; Yoneyama, Haruo; Kawakami, Taiji

    Steel sheet pipe pile foundations with large diameter steel pipe sheet pile were used for the foundation of the main pier of the Tokyo Gateway bridge. However, as for the large diameter steel pipe pile, the bearing mechanism including a pile tip plugging effect is still unclear due to lack of the practical examinations even though loading tests are performed on Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway. In the light of the foregoing problems, static pile loading tests both vertical and horizontal directions, a dynamic loading test, and cone penetration tests we re conducted for determining proper design parameters of the ground for the foundations. Design parameters were determined rationally based on the tests results. Rational design verification was obtained from this research.

  9. Avoidance of Pile-Driving Noise by Hudson River Sturgeon During Construction of the New NY Bridge at Tappan Zee.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Justin; Jacobs, Fred; Popper, Arthur N

    2016-01-01

    Sturgeon movements were monitored during a pile-driving operation. Fewer sturgeon were detected during pile driving and remained for a shorter time than during silent control periods. Moreover, the short time spent by sturgeon near pile driving suggests that they were unlikely to have reached the criterion of 187 dB re 1 μPa(2)·s cumulative sound exposure level. These results suggest that sturgeon are likely to avoid impact pile driving and not remain long enough to experience physiological effects, thus providing empirical evidence that the 206 dB re 1 μPa peak sound pressure level is the appropriate criterion for assessing the impacts of pile-driving noise on sturgeon.

  10. Noise dependence with pile-up in the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. Pile-up noise studies in the ATLAS TileCal calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Araque, J.P.

    2015-07-01

    The Tile Calorimeter, TileCal, is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, positioned between the electromagnetic calorimeter and the muon chambers. It comprises alternating layers of steel (as absorber material) and plastic (as active material), known as tiles. Between 2009 and 2012, the LHC has performed better than expected producing proton-proton collisions at a very high rate. These conditions are really challenging when dealing with the energy measurements in the calorimeter since not only the energy from an interesting event will be measured but a component coming from other collisions, which are difficult to distinguish from the interesting one, will also be present. This component is referred to as pile-up noise. Studies carried out to better understand how pile-up affects calorimeter noise under different circumstances are described. (author)

  11. Rubble-Pile Minor Planet Sylvia and Her Twins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-08-01

    from a primordial asteroid. "It could be up to 60 percent empty space," said co-discoverer Daniel Hestroffer (Observatoire de Paris, France). "It is most probably a "rubble-pile" asteroid", Marchis added. These asteroids are loose aggregations of rock, presumably the result of a collision. Two asteroids smacked into each other and got disrupted. The new rubble-pile asteroid formed later by accumulation of large fragments while the moonlets are probably debris left over from the collision that were captured by the newly formed asteroid and eventually settled into orbits around it. "Because of the way they form, we expect to see more multiple asteroid systems like this." Marchis and his colleagues will report their discovery in the August 11 issue of the journal Nature, simultaneously with an announcement that day at the Asteroid Comet Meteor conference in Armação dos Búzios, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.

  12. Multi-day anchor ice cycles and bedload transport in a gravel-bed stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Philippe; Leconte, Robert; Jay Lacey, R. W.; Bergeron, Normand

    2014-11-01

    River dynamics in cold regions and the physical processes involving ice formation and release remain relatively understudied topics. Current research suggests that anchor ice forms in diurnal cycles and has the potential to move sediments when released from the bed. Given the importance of river ice dynamics, studies are needed to describe the physical processes of anchor ice and its impact on sediment transport. The study presented in this paper investigated in situ anchor ice formation on the Stoke River in Quebec, Canada. In the fall of 2012, we observed multi-day anchor ice formation cycles and release, which usually ended with a small runoff event. During a cycle, there was little or no release of anchor ice, thus allowing its gradual growth as the air temperature remained cold. Surface and anchor ice layers also often merged, leading to the formation of thick ice masses. Sediment transport was monitored using bed particles individually tagged with passive integrated transponders (PIT-tags). Movement of the experimental particles, measured after each multi-day cycle event, ranged from 0.5 to 4 m. Possible transport mechanisms include: (1) anchor ice rafting, (2) ice jam breakup creating a jave with high erosive capacity, (3) flow corridors through anchor ice masses with high erosive capacity, (4) mechanical pushing of particles by drifting ice blocks during ice breakup, and (5) entrainment by flow or drifting ice blocks of anchored ice with strong ice-pebble bonds. Given the coincidental occurrence of anchor ice release and runoff events, it is uncertain which specific mechanism caused the particles to move. This study is a step forward in understanding the behavior of anchor ice processes and ice-related sediment transport.

  13. Methane and carbon dioxide emission in a two-phase olive oil mill sludge windrow pile during composting.

    PubMed

    Manios, Thrassyvoulos; Maniadakis, Konstantinos; Boutzakis, Panagiotis; Naziridis, Yiannis; Lasaridi, Katia; Markakis, George; Stentiford, Edward I

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to make some preliminary evaluations on CO(2) and CH(4) emissions during composting of two-phase olive oil mill sludge (OOMS). OOMS, olive tree leaves (OTL) and shredded olive tree branches (OTB) were used as feedstock for Pile I and Pile II with a 1:1:1 and 1:1:2v/v ratio, respectively. Each pile was originally 1.2m high, 2.0m wide and approximately 15.0m long. Four 500 ml volume glass funnels were inverted and introduced in each pile, two in the core (buried 50-60 cm from the surface) and two near the surface under a thin 10-15 cm layer of the mixture. Thin (0.5 cm diameter) plastic, 80 cm long tubes were connected to the funnels. A mobile gas analyser (GA2000) was used to measure the composition (by volume) of O2, CO2 and CH4 on a daily basis. The funnels were removed prior to each turning and reinserted afterwards. From each pair of funnels (core and surface) of both piles, one was kept closed between samplings. Two way ANOVA was used to test differences between piles and among the tubes. Post hoc Tukey tests were also used to further investigate these differences. There was a significant difference (at p<0.001) in the two piles for all three gases. The average concentrations of O2, CO2 and CH4 in Pile I, from all four funnels was 16.86%, 3.89% and 0.25%, respectively, where for Pile II the average values were 18.07%, 2.38% and 0.04%, respectively. The presence of OOMS in larger amounts in Pile I (resulting in more intense decomposing phenomena), and the larger particle size of OTB in Pile II (resulting in increasing porosity) are the probable causes of these significant differences. Samples from open funnels presented lower, but not significantly lower, O2 composition (higher for CO2 and CH4) in comparison with closed funnels in both depths and both piles. Not significant were also the different mean gas compositions between core and surface funnels in the same pile.

  14. Model Test of Anchoring Effect on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Masses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration. PMID:23997683

  15. 33 CFR 401.49 - Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. 401.49 Section 401.49 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.49 Dropping anchor or tying to canal...

  16. Structural models of the membrane anchors of envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 from pestiviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jimin Li, Yue; Modis, Yorgo

    2014-04-15

    The membrane anchors of viral envelope proteins play essential roles in cell entry. Recent crystal structures of the ectodomain of envelope protein E2 from a pestivirus suggest that E2 belongs to a novel structural class of membrane fusion machinery. Based on geometric constraints from the E2 structures, we generated atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors using computational approaches. The E1 anchor contains two amphipathic perimembrane helices and one transmembrane helix; the E2 anchor contains a short helical hairpin stabilized in the membrane by an arginine residue, similar to flaviviruses. A pair of histidine residues in the E2 ectodomain may participate in pH sensing. The proposed atomic models point to Cys987 in E2 as the site of disulfide bond linkage with E1 to form E1–E2 heterodimers. The membrane anchor models provide structural constraints for the disulfide bonding pattern and overall backbone conformation of the E1 ectodomain. - Highlights: • Structures of pestivirus E2 proteins impose constraints on E1, E2 membrane anchors. • Atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors were generated in silico. • A “snorkeling” arginine completes the short helical hairpin in the E2 membrane anchor. • Roles in pH sensing and E1–E2 disulfide bond formation are proposed for E1 residues. • Implications for E1 ectodomain structure and disulfide bonding pattern are discussed.

  17. Anchoring Effects on Prospective and Retrospective Metacomprehension Judgments as a Function of Peer Performance Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Qin; Linderholm, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate anchoring effects on metacomprehension judgments as a function of fictitious information participants received about past peer performance. In Experiment 1 participants were randomly assigned to one of the three anchor groups that, in some cases, provided past peer performance averages in terms of a…

  18. The glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein repertoire of babesia bovis and its significance for erythrocyte invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycosylphosphatidyl-anchored proteins are particularly abundant on the surface of pathogenic protozoans and might play an important role for parasite survival. In the present work the relevance of GPI-anchored proteins for erythrocyte invasion of Babesia bovis, one of the tick-transmitted causative...

  19. Origins of the Stuttering Stereotype: Stereotype Formation through Anchoring-Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Sean P.; Hall, Shera; MacIntyre, Peter D.

    2007-01-01

    The stereotype of people who stutter is predominantly negative, holding that stutterers are excessively nervous, anxious, and reserved. The anchoring-adjustment hypothesis suggests that the stereotype of stuttering arises from a process of first anchoring the stereotype in personal feelings during times of normal speech disfluency, and then…

  20. An Anchor-Based Pedestrian Navigation Approach Using Only Inertial Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yang; Song, Qian; Li, Yanghuan; Ma, Ming; Zhou, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    In inertial-based pedestrian navigation, anchors can effectively compensate the positioning errors originating from deviations of Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), by putting constraints on pedestrians’ motions. However, these anchors often need to be deployed beforehand, which can greatly increase system complexity, rendering it unsuitable for emergency response missions. In this paper, we propose an anchor-based pedestrian navigation approach without any additional sensors. The anchors are defined as the intersection points of perpendicular corridors and are considered characteristics of building structures. In contrast to these real anchors, virtual anchors are extracted from the pedestrian’s trajectory and are considered as observations of real anchors, which can accordingly be regarded as inferred building structure characteristics. Then a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF) is used to solve the joint estimation of positions (trajectory) and maps (anchors) problem. Compared with other building structure-based methods, our method has two advantages. The assumption on building structure is minimum and valid in most cases. Even if the assumption does not stand, the method will not lead to positioning failure. Several real-scenario experiments are conducted to validate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. PMID:26959031