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Sample records for anchorage alaska usa

  1. 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake: a photographic tour of Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thoms, Evan E.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Anderson, Rebecca D.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    On March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m., a magnitude 9.2 earthquake, the largest recorded earthquake in U.S. history, struck southcentral Alaska (fig. 1). The Great Alaska Earthquake (also known as the Good Friday Earthquake) occurred at a pivotal time in the history of earth science, and helped lead to the acceptance of plate tectonic theory (Cox, 1973; Brocher and others, 2014). All large subduction zone earthquakes are understood through insights learned from the 1964 event, and observations and interpretations of the earthquake have influenced the design of infrastructure and seismic monitoring systems now in place. The earthquake caused extensive damage across the State, and triggered local tsunamis that devastated the Alaskan towns of Whittier, Valdez, and Seward. In Anchorage, the main cause of damage was ground shaking, which lasted approximately 4.5 minutes. Many buildings could not withstand this motion and were damaged or collapsed even though their foundations remained intact. More significantly, ground shaking triggered a number of landslides along coastal and drainage valley bluffs underlain by the Bootlegger Cove Formation, a composite of facies containing variably mixed gravel, sand, silt, and clay which were deposited over much of upper Cook Inlet during the Late Pleistocene (Ulery and others, 1983). Cyclic (or strain) softening of the more sensitive clay facies caused overlying blocks of soil to slide sideways along surfaces dipping by only a few degrees. This guide is the document version of an interactive web map that was created as part of the commemoration events for the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake. It is accessible at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Alaska Science Center website: http://alaska.usgs.gov/announcements/news/1964Earthquake/. The website features a map display with suggested tour stops in Anchorage, historical photographs taken shortly after the earthquake, repeat photography of selected sites, scanned documents

  2. Summary of Quaternary geology of the Municipality of Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmoll, H.R.; Yehle, L.A.; Updike, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    Quaternary geology of the Upper Cook Inlet region is dominated by deposits of glacier retreats that followed repeated advances from both adjacent and more distant mountains. At several levels high on the mountains, there are remnant glacial deposits and other features of middle or older Pleistocene age. Late Pleistocene lateral moraines along the Chugach Mountain front represent successively younger positions of ice retreat from the last glacial maximum. As the trunk glacier retreated northeastward up the Anchorage lowland, Cook Inlet transgressed the area, depositing the Bootlegger Cove Formation and Tudor Road deposits. The glacier then readvanced to form the latest Pleistocene Elmendorf Moraine, a prominent feature that trends across the Anchorage lowland. Extensive alluvium was deposited both concurrently and somewhat later as Cook Inlet regressed. Mountain valleys contain (1) locally preserved moraines possibly of early Holocene age; (2) poorly preserved moraine remnants of older late Holocene age; and (3) well-preserved moraines formed mainly during the Little Ice Age. Glaciers still occupy large parts of the mountains, the upper ends of some mountain valleys, and small cirques. Holocene landslide deposits, including those formed during the great Alaska earthquake of 1964, occur throughout the area, especially along bluffs containing the Bootlegger Cove Formation.

  3. Treatability Study in Support of Intrinsic Remediation for the Hangar 10 Site. Elmendorf Air Force Base, Anchorage, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-03-01

    ANCHORAGE , ALASKA March 1995 D Prepared for: I * AIR FORCE CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EXCELLENCE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER DIVISION BROOKS AIR FORCE BASE SAN...ANTONIO, TEXAS AND ELMENDORF AIR FORCE BASE ANCHORAGE , ALASKA I Prepared by: I Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. 1700 Broadway, Suite 900 Denver, Colorado...Wnrinsic Remediation TS Elmendorf Air Force Base Anchorage . Alaska 0 125250 500 1000 MENARSNSEIGUINE N FEET Denver, Colorado 5-31

  4. Hydrologic conditions in the Klatt Bog area, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Klatt Bog is a 2.3 sq mi wetland in Anchorage, Alaska which provides habitat for many wildlife species but also offers potential sites for residential, commercial, and agricultural developments. Precipitation, the main source of water for the area, averages 15 in/yr; during the 1983 study period, precipitation was 12.16 inches. Estimates of evapotranspiration, considered to be the major component of water outflow, range from 10 to 20 inches. Surface runoff and groundwater outflow during 1983 are estimated to be 2.8 and < 0.2 inches, respectively. During summer, most of the runoff is derived from groundwater discharge near the upgradient eastern edge of the wetland. The wetland 's aquifer system is composed of fibrous peat which overlies a poorly permeable layer of silt and clay. The aquifer is recharged by infiltration of precipitation and inflow of groundwater from upland areas east of the wetland. During 1983 the water table was at or within 3 ft of land surface in most areas and its seasonal fluctuation was < 2 feet. Water collected from four shallow observation wells, two ponds, and two sites on a stream had concentrations of dissolved iron ranging from 2,300 to 6,100 micrograms/L. (Author 's abstract)

  5. Maps Showing Seismic Landslide Hazards in Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jibson, Randall W.; Michael, John A.

    2009-01-01

    The devastating landslides that accompanied the great 1964 Alaska earthquake showed that seismically triggered landslides are one of the greatest geologic hazards in Anchorage. Maps quantifying seismic landslide hazards are therefore important for planning, zoning, and emergency-response preparation. The accompanying maps portray seismic landslide hazards for the following conditions: (1) deep, translational landslides, which occur only during great subduction-zone earthquakes that have return periods of =~300-900 yr; (2) shallow landslides for a peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 0.69 g, which has a return period of 2,475 yr, or a 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 yr; and (3) shallow landslides for a PGA of 0.43 g, which has a return period of 475 yr, or a 10 percent probability of exceedance in 50 yr. Deep, translational landslide hazard zones were delineated based on previous studies of such landslides, with some modifications based on field observations of locations of deep landslides. Shallow-landslide hazards were delineated using a Newmark-type displacement analysis for the two probabilistic ground motions modeled.

  6. Maps showing seismic landslide hazards in Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jibson, Randall W.

    2014-01-01

    The devastating landslides that accompanied the great 1964 Alaska earthquake showed that seismically triggered landslides are one of the greatest geologic hazards in Anchorage. Maps quantifying seismic landslide hazards are therefore important for planning, zoning, and emergency-response preparation. The accompanying maps portray seismic landslide hazards for the following conditions: (1) deep, translational landslides, which occur only during great subduction-zone earthquakes that have return periods of =300-900 yr; (2) shallow landslides for a peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 0.69 g, which has a return period of 2,475 yr, or a 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 yr; and (3) shallow landslides for a PGA of 0.43 g, which has a return period of 475 yr, or a 10 percent probability of exceedance in 50 yr. Deep, translational landslide hazards were delineated based on previous studies of such landslides, with some modifications based on field observations of locations of deep landslides. Shallow-landslide hazards were delineated using a Newmark-type displacement analysis for the two probabilistic ground motions modeled.

  7. Hydrologic conditions in Connors Bog Area, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Connors Bog is a wetland in Anchorage, Alaska, which provides a habitat for many wildlife species and is a popular area for driving off-road vehicles. A landfill, and residential and commercial developments are present in areas which were once wetland. The main source of water is precipitation, which averages about 15 in/yr. Estimates of evapotranspiration, which is the main component of water outflow, range from 10 to 20 in/yr. Minor amounts of groundwater and surface runoff flow into the area from the northeast and southwest and flow out of the area to the northwest and south. Within the wetland, water in peat and sand is unconfined and becomes more mineralized with depth. A leachate beneath and near an abandoned landfill is characterized by concentrations of dissolved solids, dissolved chloride, and total organics that are higher than those of the area 's natural water. The maximum lateral extent of detectable contamination in 1984 was < 500 ft from the landfill 's edge. Water in glacial deposits that underlie a poorly permeable layer of silt and clay is confined. A well completed in this confined aquifer yielded water that had a low concentration of dissolved solids, 150 mg/L. The potentiometric surface of this aquifer was about 20 ft lower than the water table during 1984. Connors Lake occupies a depression that extends below adjacent groundwater levels. The 40-acre lake has a maximum depth of about 9 ft and a low rate of biological production. The quality of water in the lake has not been adversely impacted by nearby residential development or landfill operations. Lake levels appear to be influenced by precipitation and adjacent groundwater levels. (Author 's abstract)

  8. MEDIA ADVISORY: EPA Region 10 Administrator McLerran speaks at Alaska Forum on the Environment today in Anchorage

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Anchorage - February 8, 2016) Today, U.S. EPA Region 10 Administrator Dennis McLerran will give a keynote address opening the 2016 Alaska Forum on the Environment, in Anchorage, focusing on EPA's work in rural Alaska and ongoing federal commitments highli

  9. "How Will I Sew My Baskets?" Women Vendors, Market Art, and Incipient Political Activism in Anchorage, Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Molly

    2003-01-01

    In this article the author examines the multifaceted role of the Alaska Federation of Natives crafts fair in the lives of Alaska Native women who have left their home villages and moved into Anchorage, Alaska's largest city. At the same time, this discussion raises broader issues such as the evolving politicization of women traders and the growing…

  10. Allergenic airborne pollen and spores in Anchorage, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.H.

    1985-05-01

    Major aeroallergens in Anchorage are birch, alder, poplar, spruce, grass pollen, Cladosporium, and unspecified fungus spores. Lesser pollens are sorrel, willow, pine, juniper, sedge, lamb's-quarters, wormwood, plantain, and others. The aero-flora is discussed in terms of the frequency of allergenically significant events and within-season and year-to-year dynamics.

  11. Elmendorf AFB, Anchorage, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-17

    These is no objection to unlimited distribution of this report to the public at large, or by DDC to the National Technical V Information Service (NTIS...11 93 . ?. o’~ *r7~ L DATA PROCESSING BRANCH 2 USAF TAC PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY!, AIR WEATER SERVICE /MAC 6401 ELt4ENDORF AFB ALASKA/ANCHORAGE M- AAR...Air Weather Service ( MAC ) E-EM0RF AFB ALASKA/AllCHORAGE WI3AI Y 26401 N 61 15 W149 48 ELD ELEV 212 FT EDF V81O # 70272 POR: FROM- BOUBLY 035 JUN, 66

  12. 76 FR 36157 - In the Matter of Alaska Industrial X-Ray, Inc., Anchorage, AK; Confirmatory Order Modifying...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Alaska Industrial X-Ray, Inc., Anchorage, AK; Confirmatory Order Modifying License; Effective Immediately I Alaska Industrial X-Ray, Inc. (AIX or Licensee) is the holder of Materials License 50-16084-01... Industrial X-Ray, Inc. (AIX) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) relating to the NRC's letter...

  13. Characterization of ambient fine particles in the northwestern area and Anchorage, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eugene; Hopke, Philip K

    2008-10-01

    Ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) in the northwestern United States and Alaska is dominated by carbonaceous compounds associated with wood burning and transportation sources. PM2.5 source characterization studies analyzing recent PM2.5 speciation data have not been previously reported for these areas. In this study, ambient PM2.5 speciation samples collected at two monitoring sites located in the northwestern area, Olympic Peninsula, WA, and Portland, OR, and one monitoring site located in Anchorage, AK, were characterized through source apportionments. Gasoline vehicle, secondary sulfate, and wood smoke were the largest sources of PM2.5 collected at the Anchorage, Olympic, and Portland monitoring sites, respectively. Secondary sulfates showed an April peak at Anchorage and a November peak at Portland that are likely related to the increased photochemical reaction and long-range transport in Anchorage and meteorological stagnation in Portland. Secondary nitrate at the Olympic site showed a weak summer high peak that could be caused by seasonal tourism in the national park. Backward trajectories suggested that the elevated aged sea salt concentrations at the Portland monitoring site could be regional transport of sea salt that passed through other contaminated air sheds along the coast. Oil combustion emissions that might originate from ships and ferries were observed at the Olympic monitoring site.

  14. Concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria in creeks, Anchorage, Alaska, August and September 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorava, Joseph M.; Love, Andra

    1999-01-01

    Water samples were collected from five creeks in undeveloped, semi-developed, and developed areas of Anchorage, Alaska, during August and September 1998 to determine concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria. In undeveloped areas of Ship, Chester, and Campbell Creeks, and the semi-developed area of Rabbit Creek, concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria ranged from less than 1 to 16 colonies per 100 milliliters of water. In the semi-developed area of Little Rabbit Creek, concentrations ranged from 30 to 860 colonies per 100 milliliters of water. In developed areas of the creeks, concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria ranged from 6 to 80 colonies per 100 milliliters of water.

  15. Preliminary assessment report for Camp Carroll Training Center, Installation 02045, Anchorage, Alaska. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Krokosz, M.; Sefano, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Alaska Army National Guard property known as Camp Carroll Training Center, located on the Fort Richardson Army facility near Anchorage, Alaska. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for the completion of preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing, corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances used, the nature and amounts of wastes generated or stored at the facility, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. The primary environmentally significant operations (ESOs) associated with the property are (1) the Alaska Air National Guard storage area behind Building S57112 (Organizational Maintenance Shop [OMS] 6); (2) the state of Alaska maintenance facility and the soil/tar-type spill north of the state of Alaska maintenance facility; (3) the waste storage area adjacent to OMS 6; (4) the contaminated area from leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) and the oil-water separator; and (5) soil staining in the parking area at the Camp Carroll Headquarters Building. Camp Carroll appears to be in excellent condition from an environmental standpoint, and current practices are satisfactory. Argonne recommends that the Alaska Department of Military Affairs consider remediation of soil contamination associated with all storage areas, as well as reviewing the practices of other residents of the facility. Argonne also recommends that the current methods of storing waste material behind Building S57112 (OMS 6) be reviewed for alternatives.

  16. Review: groundwater in Alaska (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callegary, J.B.; Kikuchi, C.P.; Koch, J.C.; Lilly, M.R.; Leake, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater in the US state of Alaska is critical to both humans and ecosystems. Interactions among physiography, ecology, geology, and current and past climate have largely determined the location and properties of aquifers as well as the timing and magnitude of fluxes to, from, and within the groundwater system. The climate ranges from maritime in the southern portion of the state to continental in the Interior, and arctic on the North Slope. During the Quaternary period, topography and rock type have combined with glacial and periglacial processes to develop the unconsolidated alluvial aquifers of Alaska and have resulted in highly heterogeneous hydrofacies. In addition, the long persistence of frozen ground, whether seasonal or permanent, greatly affects the distribution of aquifer recharge and discharge. Because of high runoff, a high proportion of groundwater use, and highly variable permeability controlled in part by permafrost and seasonally frozen ground, understanding groundwater/surface-water interactions and the effects of climate change is critical for understanding groundwater availability and the movement of natural and anthropogenic contaminants.

  17. Effects of urbanization on benthic macroinvertebrate communities in streams, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ourso, Robert T.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of urbanization on stream macroinvertebrate communities was examined by using data gathered during a 1999 reconnaissance of 14 sites in the Municipality of Anchorage, Alaska. Data collected included macroinvertebrate abundance, water chemistry, and trace elements in bed sediments. Macroinvertebrate relative-abundance data were edited and used in metric and index calculations. Population density was used as a surrogate for urbanization. Cluster analysis (unweighted-paired-grouping method) using arithmetic means of macroinvertebrate presence-absence data showed a well-defined separation between urbanized and nonurbanized sites as well as extracted sites that did not cleanly fall into either category. Water quality in Anchorage generally declined with increasing urbanization (population density). Of 59 variables examined, 31 correlated with urbanization. Local regression analysis extracted 11 variables that showed a significant impairment threshold response and 6 that showed a significant linear response. Significant biological variables for determining the impairment threshold in this study were the Margalef diversity index, Ephemeroptera-Plecoptera-Trichoptera taxa richness, and total taxa richness. Significant thresholds were observed in the water-chemistry variables conductivity, dissolved organic carbon, potassium, and total dissolved solids. Significant thresholds in trace elements in bed sediments included arsenic, iron, manganese, and lead. Results suggest that sites in Anchorage that have ratios of population density to road density greater than 70, storm-drain densities greater than 0.45 miles per square mile, road densities greater than 4 miles per square mile, or population densities greater than 125-150 persons per square mile may require further monitoring to determine if the stream has become impaired. This population density is far less than the 1,000 persons per square mile used by the U.S. Census Bureau to define an urban area.

  18. Impact of a new gasoline benzene regulation on ambient air pollutants in Anchorage, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Yuriko; Morris, Stephen S.; Salerno, Christopher; Schlapia, Anne M.; Stichick, Mathew

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of a new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard that limits the amount of benzene allowed in gasoline on ambient benzene concentrations. This new standard, together with two companion regulations that limit cold-temperature automotive emissions and the permeability of portable fuel containers, was expected to lower the levels of ambient benzene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) nationwide. In this study the impact of the gasoline benzene standard was evaluated in Anchorage, Alaska in a two-phase ambient air monitoring study conducted before and after the new gasoline standard was implemented. Gasoline sold by Anchorage retailers was also evaluated in each phase to determine the content of benzene and other gasoline components. The average benzene content in Anchorage gasoline was reduced by 70%, from 5.05% (w/w) to 1.53% (w/w) following the implementation of the standard. The annual mean ambient benzene concentration fell by 51%, from 0.99 ppbv in Phase 1 to 0.49 ppbv in Phase 2. Analysis suggests the change in gasoline benzene content alone reduced benzene emissions by 46%. The changes in toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene content in gasoline between Phase 1 and 2 were relatively small and the differences in the mean ambient concentrations of these compounds between phases were modest. Our results suggest that cold winter communities in high latitude and mountainous regions may benefit more from the gasoline benzene standard because of high benzene emissions resulting from vehicle cold start and a tendency to develop atmospheric stagnation conditions in the winter.

  19. Latest Pleistocene advance and collapse of the Matanuska - Knik glacier system, Anchorage Lowland, southern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopczynski, Sarah E.; Kelley, Samuel E.; Lowell, Thomas V.; Evenson, Edward B.; Applegate, Patrick J.

    2017-01-01

    At the end of the last ice age, glacier systems worldwide underwent dramatic retreat. Here, we document the advance and retreat of a glacier system with adjacent marine- and land-based components during the latter part of the Termination. We utilize three lines of evidence: lithologic provenance, geomorphic mapping, and radiocarbon ages derived from lake cores to reconstruct glacier extent and timing of advance and retreat within our study area centered at N 61.50°, W 149.50°, just north of Anchorage, Alaska. Two glaciers, sourced in the Talkeetna and Chugach Mountains, flowed down the Matanuska and Knik Valleys forming a coalesced lobe that advanced onto the Anchorage Lowlands and terminated at Elmendorf Moraine. We use the presence of lithologies unique to the Matanuska catchment in glacial drift to delineate the paleoflow lines and to estimate the suture line of the two glacier systems. The eastern side of the lobe, attributed to ice flow from the Knik Valley, was in contact with elevated marine waters within the Knik Arm fjord, and thus retreat was likely dominated by calving. Geomorphic evidence suggests the western side of the lobe, attributed to ice flow from Matanuska Valley, retreated due to stagnation. We constrain retreat of the combined Matanuska and Knik lobe with thirteen new radiocarbon ages, in addition to previously published radiocarbon ages, and with geomorphic evidence suggesting the retreat occurred in two phases. Retreat from the Elmendorf Moraine began between 16.8 and 16.4 ka BP. A second, faster retreat phase occurred later and was completed by 13.7 ka BP. With the 140 km of total retreat occurring over ∼3000 years or less. This pattern of glacial advance and retreats agrees well with the deglacial histories from the southern sectors of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, as well as many other alpine glacier systems in the western U.S. and northern Alaska. This consistent behavior of glacier systems may indicate that climate oscillated over

  20. Geology and ground-water resources of the Anchorage area, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrom, Dagfin John; Trainer, Frank W.; Waller, Roger Milton

    1964-01-01

    The Anchorage area, at the head of Cook Inlet in south-central Alaska, occupies 150 square miles of a glaciated lowland and lies between two estuaries and the Chugach Mountains. Two military bases are in the area; Anchorage is the largest city in Alaska and the chief transportation center for this part of the State. The bedrock in the Anchorage area is chiefly Tertiary shale in the lowland and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age beneath the adjacent mountain slopes. Glacial drift which underlies nearly the entire area has an average thickness of several hundred feet and appears to include at least five sheets of deposits, two of which are exposed. The drift consists of till, outwash stream and lake deposits (sand and gravel), and estuarine (and lake) deposits (clay and silt). The stratigraphy and lateral distribution of the deposits are complex, but data at hand s, how that the thickest deposits, including all the estuarine and lake sediment and most of the stream-deposited sediment, are beneath the lowland away from the mountain wall, and that the deposits near the mountains are till and subordinate outwash sediments. Deposits of sand and gravel laid down by outwash streams in channels and on outwash plains are the most important aquifers, and the only ones which yield large quantities of ground water from single beds. Thin layers of sandy or gravelly material in till are also important aquifers although they yield relatively small quantities of water. Bedded sand and silt associated with the estuarine and lake(?) clay commonly becomes unstable during drilling and pumping, and has been successfully developed in only a few wells. Unconfined aquifers are extensive, but permeable saturated material is thin in many places and water supplies available from them are small or undependable in those places. The most important aquifers are confined or artesian. Clay and till form the confining beds: the till is somewhat 'leaky' in many places. Near Anchorage the buried water

  1. Identification of linear and threshold responses in streams along a gradient of urbanization in Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ourso, R.T.; Frenzel, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    We examined biotic and physiochemical responses in urbanized Anchorage, Alaska, to the percent of impervious area within stream basins, as determined by high-resolution IKONOS satellite imagery and aerial photography. Eighteen of the 86 variables examined, including riparian and instream habitat, macroinvertebrate communities, and water/sediment chemistry, were significantly correlated with percent impervious area. Variables related to channel condition, instream substrate, water chemistry, and residential and transportation right-of-way land uses were identified by principal components analysis as significant factors separating site groups. Detrended canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the macroinvertebrate communities responded to an urbanization gradient closely paralleling the percent of impervious area within the subbasin. A sliding regression analysis of variables significantly correlated with percent impervious area revealed 8 variables exhibiting threshold responses that correspond to a mean of 4.4-5.8% impervious area, much lower than mean values reported in other, similar investigations. As contributing factors to a subbasin's impervious area, storm drains and roads appeared to be important elements influencing the degradation of water quality with respect to the biota.

  2. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs, Anchorage, Alaska, Roundtable Summary

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-04-14

    The Anchorage, Alaska Roundtable on Tribal Energy Policy convened at 10:00 a.m., Thursday April 15th, at the downtown Anchorage Hilton. The meeting was held by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (Office of Indian Energy). Tracey LeBeau, Director of the Office of Indian Energy, and Pilar Thomas, Deputy Director-Policy of the Office of Indian Energy, represented DOE. Approximately twenty-seven people attended the meeting, including representatives of three native Alaskan villages, four Alaskan tribal corporations representing more than 40 tribal governments, as well as representatives from tribal associations and conferences. Interested state, federal, and non-profit representatives also were present. A full list of attendees is at the end of this summary. The meeting was facilitated by the Udall Foundation’s U.S. Institute for Environmental Conflict Resolution (U.S. Institute).  

  3. Recorded earthquake responses from the integrated seismic monitoring network of the Atwood Building, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    2006-01-01

    An integrated seismic monitoring system with a total of 53 channels of accelerometers is now operating in and at the nearby free-field site of the 20-story steel-framed Atwood Building in highly seismic Anchorage, Alaska. The building has a single-story basement and a reinforced concrete foundation without piles. The monitoring system comprises a 32-channel structural array and a 21-channel site array. Accelerometers are deployed on 10 levels of the building to assess translational, torsional, and rocking motions, interstory drift (displacement) between selected pairs of adjacent floors, and average drift between floors. The site array, located approximately a city block from the building, comprises seven triaxial accelerometers, one at the surface and six in boreholes ranging in depths from 15 to 200 feet (???5-60 meters). The arrays have already recorded low-amplitude shaking responses of the building and the site caused by numerous earthquakes at distances ranging from tens to a couple of hundred kilometers. Data from an earthquake that occurred 186 km away traces the propagation of waves from the deepest borehole to the roof of the building in approximately 0.5 seconds. Fundamental structural frequencies [0.58 Hz (NS) and 0.47 Hz (EW)], low damping percentages (2-4%), mode coupling, and beating effects are identified. The fundamental site frequency at approximately 1.5 Hz is close to the second modal frequencies (1.83 Hz NS and 1.43 EW) of the building, which may cause resonance of the building. Additional earthquakes prove repeatability of these characteristics; however, stronger shaking may alter these conclusions. ?? 2006, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  4. Nitrate source indicators in ground water of the Scimitar Subdivision, Peters Creek area, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Bronwen; Strelakos, Pat M.; Jokela, Brett

    2000-01-01

    A combination of aqueous chemistry, isotopic measurement, and in situ tracers were used to study the possible nitrate sources, the factors contributing to the spatial distribution of nitrate, and possible septic system influence in the ground water in the Scimitar Subdivision, Municipality of Anchorage, Alaska. Two water types were distinguished on the basis of the major ion chemistry: (1) a calcium sodium carbonate water, which was associated with isotopically heavier boron and with chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) that were in the range expected from equilibration with the atmosphere (group A water) and (2) a calcium magnesium carbonate water, which was associated with elevated nitrate, chloride, and magnesium concentrations, generally isotopically lighter boron, and CFC's concentrations that were generally in excess of that expected from equilibration with the atmosphere (group B water). Water from wells in group B had nitrate concentrations that were greater than 3 milligrams per liter, whereas those in group A had nitrate concentrations of 0.2 milligram per liter or less. Nitrate does not appear to be undergoing extensive transformation in the ground-water system and behaves as a conservative ion. The major ion chemistry trends and the presence of CFC's in excess of an atmospheric source for group B wells are consistent with waste-water influences. The spatial distribution of the nitrate among wells is likely due to the magnitude of this influence on any given well. Using an expanded data set composed of 16 wells sampled only for nitrate concentration, a significant difference in the static water level relative to bedrock was found. Well water samples with less than 1 milligram per liter nitrate had static water levels within the bedrock, whereas those samples with greater than 1 milligram per liter nitrate had static water levels near or above the top of the bedrock. This observation would be consistent with a conceptual model of a low-nitrate fractured bedrock

  5. A temporal study of urban development for the municipality of Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markon, Carl J.

    2003-01-01

    A land use/land cover database was produced for a portion of the Municipality of Anchorage, Alaska to document the temporal and spatial extent of urbanization to assist in the analysis of changes in impervious cover and water quality. Data were derived from black and white and color infrared aerial photography, and satellite imagery from the early 1970's to 2000 in roughly ten‐year increments. Aerial photographs and satellite data were manually interpreted to identify and map land use/land cover classes which were then entered into a geographic information system, attributed, and georeferenced to a U.S. Geological Survey topographic map base. The spatial extent of the study was 31,117 hectares. In the early 1970's, approximately 7,356 hectares (24%) of the study area were mapped as urban developed. During the 30‐year analysis period, the largest increase in urban development occurred between the late 1970's and early 1980's when urban area increased to 12,263 hectares (39%). Between 1980 and 1990, and 1990 and 2000, urban area increased to 12,762 hectares (41%), and 13,980 hectares (45%) respectively. Most development occurred in forested or tall shrub areas, although some also occurred in wetlands. Between 1970 and 2000, close to 1,300 hectares of wetlands were lost due to development. Contrary to this, the amount of lake and pond area increased slightly from 261 hectares in 1973 to 334 hectares in 1980, and reduced to 310 hectares by 2000. The increase was primarily due to the filling in of gravel pits with spring melt water.

  6. Libraries in Alaska: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/alaska.html Libraries in Alaska To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Anchorage University of Alaska Anchorage Alaska Medical Library 3211 Providence Drive Anchorage, AK 99508-8176 907- ...

  7. Natural Science of Alaska Handbook. Revised. Anchorage School District Elementary Science Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Valerie Smith; Sumner, Jim

    This handbook is a collection of printed materials that are available to students about the geology, weather, plants, animals and people of Alaska. Topics included are: (1) "Alaska History Line"; (2) "Geography of Alaska" (including maps, rivers, and islands); (3) "Geologic Time"; (4) "Geology" (including…

  8. Ground Water in the Anchorage Area, Alaska--Meeting the Challenges of Ground-Water Sustainability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Edward H.; Galloway, Devin L.

    2006-01-01

    Ground water is an important component of Anchorage's water supply. During the 1970s and early 80s when ground water extracted from aquifers near Ship Creek was the principal source of supply, area-wide declines in ground-water levels resulted in near record low streamflows in Ship Creek. Since the importation of Eklutna Lake water in the late 1980s, ground-water use has been reduced and ground water has contributed 14-30 percent of the annual supply. As Anchorage grows, given the current constraints on the Eklutna Lake water availability, the increasing demand for water could place an increasing reliance on local ground-water resources. The sustainability of Anchorage's ground-water resources challenges stakeholders to develop a comprehensive water-resources management strategy.

  9. Water-Quality Conditions of Chester Creek, Anchorage, Alaska, 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, Roy L.; Ourso, Robert T.

    2006-01-01

    Between October 1998 and September 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program evaluated the water-quality conditions of Chester Creek, a stream draining forest and urban settings in Anchorage, Alaska. Data collection included water, streambed sediments, lakebed sediments, and aquatic organisms samples from urban sites along the stream. Urban land use ranged from less than 1 percent of the basin above the furthest upstream site to 46 percent above the most downstream site. Findings suggest that water quality of Chester Creek declines in the downstream direction and as urbanization in the watershed increases. Water samples were collected monthly and during storms at a site near the stream's mouth (Chester Creek at Arctic Boulevard) and analyzed for major ions and nutrients. Water samples collected during water year 1999 were analyzed for selected pesticides and volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were determined monthly during calendar year 2000. During winter, spring, and summer, four water samples were collected at a site upstream of urban development (South Branch of South Fork Chester Creek at Tank Trail) and five from an intermediate site (South Branch of South Fork Chester Creek at Boniface Parkway). Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate in water increased in the downstream direction. Nitrate concentrations were similar at the three sites and all were less than the drinking-water standard. About one-quarter of the samples from the Arctic Boulevard site had concentrations of phosphorus that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guideline for preventing nuisance plant growth. Water samples collected at the Arctic Boulevard site contained concentrations of the insecticide carbaryl that exceeded the guideline for protecting aquatic life. Every water sample revealed a low concentration of volatile organic compounds, including benzene, toluene

  10. Preliminary tephra-fall records from three lakes in the Anchorage, Alaska area: advances towards a regional tephrochronostratigraphic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, K. L.; Kaufman, D. S.; Schiff, C. J.; Kathan, K.; Werner, A.; Hancock, J.; Hagel, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    Sediment cores recovered from three kettle lakes, all within 10 km of Anchorage, Alaska contain a record of tephra fall from major eruptive events of Cook Inlet volcanoes during the past 11250 yr. Prominent tephra layers from multiple cores within each lake were first correlated within each basin using physical properties, major-oxide glass geochemistry, and constrained by bracketing radiocarbon age. Distinct tephra from each lake were then correlated among all three lakes using the same criteria to develop a composite tephrostratigraphic framework for the Anchorage area. Lorraine Lake, the northern-most lake contains 17 distinct tephra layers; Goose Lake, the eastern most lake contains 10 distinct tephra layers; and Little Campbell Lake, to the west, contains 7 distinct tephra layers. Thinner, less-prominent tephra layers, reflecting smaller or more distant eruptions, also occur but are not included as part of this study. Of the 33 tephra layers, only two could be confidently correlated among all three lakes, and four other correlative deposits were recognized in two of the three lakes. The minimum number of unique major tephra-fall events in the Anchorage area is 22 in the past 11200 years, or about 1 event every 500 years. This number underestimates the actual number of eruptions because not attempt was made to locate crypto-tephra. All but perhaps one tephra deposit originated from Cook Inlet volcanoes with the most prolific source being Mount Spurr/Crater Peak, which is accountable for at least 8 deposits. Combining radiocarbon ages to produce an independent age model for each lake is in progress and will aid in confirming correlations and assigning detailed modeled-tephra age and uncertainty to each tephra layer.

  11. Evaluating School Wellness Policy in Curbing Childhood Obesity in Anchorage, Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Wendy G.; Garcia, Gabriel M.; Hoffman, Pamela K.

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the Anchorage School District implemented a school wellness policy to address the problem of obesity among its elementary-aged students. We assessed whether the addition of this policy is effective in protecting or preventing students from becoming overweight/obese over time. The methods involved following two cohorts of students for 5…

  12. Baseline channel morphology and bank erosion inventory of South Fork Campbell Creek at Campbell Tract, Anchorage, Alaska, 1999 and 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curran, Janet H.

    2001-01-01

    South Fork Campbell Creek drains largely undeveloped land in Anchorage, Alaska, but supports heavy use near the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Campbell Tract facility for recreation and environmental education. To help assess the impacts of human activities in the basin on biological communities, particularly aquatic and terrestrial biota, morphological changes to the channel bed and banks were monitored for 2 years. Erosion conditions and rates of change were measured and 11 transects were surveyed in three reaches of Campbell Creek near the BLM Campbell Creek Science Center in 1999. Repeat measurements at these 33 transects in 2000 documented noticeable differences between horizontal or vertical channel position at eight transects. Repeat measurements of 51 erosion pins at the survey transects provided details of bank erosion between the 2 years. Annual erosion rates at the erosion pins ranged from 0.81 foot per year of erosion to 0.16 foot per year of deposition.

  13. Ground-water investigation at the alluvial fan of the South Fork River, Anchorage, Alaska: results of test drilling, 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dearborn, Larry L.

    1977-01-01

    In late 1976, at Anchorage, Alaska, a ground-water exploration well was drilled to a depth of 487 feet on the South Fork Eagle River fan near the confluence with the mainstream. The well penetrated four sand and gravel strata of low water-yielding capacity and extended 37 ft into metamorphic bedrock. Earth water-bearing stratum was pumped for several hours, and the best aquifer yield was found to be 1.7 gal/min/ft of drawdown. These test results support the conclusion, previously inferred from drilling data at a nearby test hole drilled in 1973, that there are no confined aquifers of large yield in the subsurface at this locality. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Response of a 14-story Anchorage, Alaska, building in 2002 to two close earthquakes and two distant Denali fault earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    2004-01-01

    The recorded responses of an Anchorage, Alaska, building during four significant earthquakes that occurred in 2002 are studied. Two earthquakes, including the 3 November 2002 M7.9 Denali fault earthquake, with epicenters approximately 275 km from the building, generated long trains of long-period (>1 s) surface waves. The other two smaller earthquakes occurred at subcrustal depths practically beneath Anchorage and produced higher frequency motions. These two pairs of earthquakes have different impacts on the response of the building. Higher modes are more pronounced in the building response during the smaller nearby events. The building responses indicate that the close-coupling of translational and torsional modes causes a significant beating effect. It is also possible that there is some resonance occurring due to the site frequency being close to the structural frequency. Identification of dynamic characteristics and behavior of buildings can provide important lessons for future earthquake-resistant designs and retrofit of existing buildings. ?? 2004, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  15. Sea Ice, Bristol Bay, Alaska, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This north looking view shows the coast of Alaska, north of the Aleutians, and the eastern margin of the Bering Sea (58.0N, 159.5W). Bristol Bay is apparent in the foreground and Nunivak Island can be seen just below the Earth's horizon, at a distance of about 300 nautical miles. Similar views, photographed during previous missions, when analyzed with these recent views may yield information about regional ice drift and breakup of ice packs.

  16. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, at Anchorage, Alaska: Chapter A in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Wallace R.

    1965-01-01

    Anchorage, Alaska’s largest city, is about 80 miles west-northwest of the epicenter of the March 27 earthquake. Because of its size, Anchorage bore the brunt of property damage from the quake; it sustained greater losses than all the rest of Alaska combined. Damage was caused by direct seismic vibration, by ground cracks, and by landslides. Direct seismic vibration affected chiefly multistory buildings and buildings having large floor areas, probably because of the long period and large amplitude of the seismic waves reaching Anchorage. Most small buildings were spared. Ground cracks caused capricious damage throughout the Anchorage Lowland. Cracking was mast prevalent near the heads or within landslides but was also widespread elsewhere. Landslides themselves caused the most devastating damage. Triggering of landslides by the earthquake was related to the physical-engineering properties of the Bootlegger Cove Clay, a glacial estuarine-marine deposit that underlies much of the Anchorage area. The Bootlegger Cove Clay contains zones of low shear strength, high water content, and high sensitivity that failed under the vibratory stress of the earthquake. Shear strength in sensitive zones ranged from less than 0.2 tsf to about 0.5 tsf; sensitivity ranged from about 10 to more than 40. Sensitive zones generally are centered about 10 to 20 feet above sea level, between zones of stiff insensitive clay. Many physical tests by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers were directed toward analyzing the causes of failure in the Bootlegger Cove Clay and finding possible remedies. Strengths and sensitivities were measured directly in the field by means of vane shear apparatus. A4tterberg limits, natural water contents, triaxial shear, sensitivity, dynamic modulus, consolidation strength, and other properties were measured in the laboratory. Pulsating-load tests simulated earthquake loading. Most of the destructive landslides in the Anchorage area moved primarily by translation rather

  17. Ground-water quality beneath solid-waste disposal sites at anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zenone, Chester; Donaldson, D.E.; Grunwaldt, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    Studies at three solid-waste disposal sites in the Anchorage area suggest that differences in local geohydrologic conditions influence ground-water quality. A leachate was detected in ground water within and beneath two sites where the water table is very near land surface and refuse is deposited either at or below the water table in some parts of the filled areas. No leachate was detected in ground water beneath a third site where waste disposal is well above the local water table.

  18. 77 FR 8252 - Adequacy Status of the Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Transportation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Conformity Purposes AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of adequacy determination... Alaska on September 20, 2011, is adequate for conformity purposes. EPA made this finding pursuant to the... Transportation will be required to use ] this motor vehicle emissions budget for future transportation...

  19. Evaluating school wellness policy in curbing childhood obesity in Anchorage, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Wendy G; Garcia, Gabriel M; Hoffman, Pamela K

    2014-10-01

    In 2006, the Anchorage School District implemented a school wellness policy to address the problem of obesity among its elementary-aged students. We assessed whether the addition of this policy is effective in protecting or preventing students from becoming overweight/obese over time. The methods involved following two cohorts of students for 5 years, a cohort not exposed and a cohort exposed to the policy. The results show that exposure to the policy does not significantly protect or prevent students from becoming overweight/obese. However, we found that regardless of being exposed to the policy, boys (odds ratio [OR] = 1.12), ethnic minorities, (OR = 1.18), and students from low socioeconomic backgrounds (OR = 1.44) were more likely to remain or become overweight/obese. Our findings suggest that factors outside the school may be impacting students' overweight/obese status. Efforts to curb the problem of childhood obesity should extend to the children's communities and homes.

  20. Effects of artificial-recharge experiments at Ship Creek alluvial fan on water levels at Spring Acres Subdivision, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, William; Patrick, Leslie

    1980-01-01

    The effect of the artificial recharge experiments on water levels at Spring Acres subdivision, Anchorage, Alaska, was evaluated using two digital models constructed to simulate groundwater movement and water-level rises induced by the artificial recharge. The models predicted that the artificial recharge would have caused water levels in the aquifer immediately underlying Spring Acres subdivision to rise 0.2 foot from May 20 to August 7, 1975. The models also predicted a total rise in groundwater levels of 1.1 feet at this location from July 16, 1973 to August 7, 1975, as a result of the artificial-recharge experiments. Water-level data collected from auger holes in March 1975 by a consulting firm for the contractor indicated a depth to water of 6-7 feet below land surface at Spring Acres subdivision at this time. Water levels measured in and near Spring Acres subdivision several years before and after the 1973-75 artificial-recharge experiments showed seasonal rises of 2 to 12.4 feet. A depth to water below land surface of 2.6 feet was measured 600 feet from the subdivision in 1971 and in the subdivision in 1977. Average measured depth to water in the area was 7.0 feet from early 1976 to September 1979. (USGS)

  1. Life on the Edge: Holocene Tephra Stratigraphy of Tanginak Anchorage, Sitkalidak Island, Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahrt, E.; Bourgeois, J.; Fitzhugh, J. B.

    2004-12-01

    Geologic hazards associated with volcanism in the North Pacific have profound if usually temporary effects on the environment and human populations. Ash falls associated with these events are often preserved across large areas providing time specific markers. In the past century, volcanic activity and its effects in the North Pacific have been recorded, but much of the Holocene volcanic record in the Alaskan region is still being investigated. The Kodiak Archipelago, while not volcanic itself, is located near both Aleutian and Alaskan peninsula volcanoes. However, little has been published about the Holocene tephrochronology of the Kodiak region. This study focuses on the area around Tanginak Spring Site (KOD481). Located on Sitkalidak Island it is the earliest known human occupation in the Kodiak archipelago. We are documenting Holocene environmental changes on Sitkalidak Island and relating these changes to the archaeological record. As part of this work, we will establish a local tephrochronology using stratigraphy and geochemistry which will allow us to better correlate sedimentary changes across large areas as well as study human interaction with ashfall events. Herein we report a preliminary tephrochronology in peat excavations on Sitkalidak Island dating back to the earliest Holocene. Dates are radiocarbon years BP on peat directly below tephra. Marker tephra present in our reference sections are Katmai 1912, light gray (historic?), medium gray (3370), medium gray (3720), beige 1 (4340), apricot (5390), beige 3 (6790), black (9280), and white (11,520). Geochemical and petrographic analysis will help to determine with which volcanic events these tephra are associated. Establishing a local tephrochronology is important not only for local correlation but also to ascertain the tephra stratigraphy of the Kodiak Archipelago and beyond. The frequency of tephra in Tanginak Anchorage sections suggests that tephra will be a very useful stratigraphic tool in this

  2. Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, east-central Alaska Range, Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S. D.; Clague, J. J.; Rabus, B.; Stead, D.

    2013-12-01

    Multiple, active, deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSD) are present near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway in the east-central Alaska Range, Alaska, USA. We documented spatial and temporal variations in rates of surface movement of the DSGSDs between 2003 and 2011 using RADARSAT-1 and RADARSAT-2 D-InSAR images. Deformation rates exceed 10 cm/month over very large areas (>1 km2) of many rock slopes. Recent climatic change and strong seismic shaking, especially during the 2002 M 7.9 Denali Fault earthquake, appear to have exacerbated slope deformation. We also mapped DSGSD geological and morphological characteristics using field- and GIS-based methods, and constructed a conceptual 2D distinct-element numerical model of one of the DSGSDs. Preliminary results indicate that large-scale buckling or kink-band slumping may be occurring. The DSGSDs are capable of generating long-runout landslides that might impact the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway. They could also block tributary valleys, thereby impounding lakes that might drain suddenly. Wrapped 24-day RADARSAT-2 descending spotlight interferogram showing deformation north of Fels Glacier. The interferogram is partially transparent and is overlaid on a 2009 WorldView-1 panchromatic image. Acquisition interval: August 2 - August 26, 2011. UTM Zone 6N.

  3. Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Anchorage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Scott; Frazier, Rosyland

    In the spring of 2001, the mayor of Anchorage (Alaska) created a task force to develop recommendations to help heal racism in Anchorage. A series of focus groups were held throughout the community to obtain an assessment of attitudes and opinions about the quality of life in Anchorage from the perspective of different racial groups and to solicit…

  4. Effects of the March 1964 Alaska earthquake on the hydrology of the Anchorage area, Alaska: Chapter B in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects hydrologic regimen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, Roger M.

    1966-01-01

    The Anchorage hydrologic system was greatly affected by the seismic shock. Immediate but temporary effects included increased stream discharge, seiche action on lakes, and fluctuations in ground-water levels. Generally, ground-water levels were residually lowered after the initial period of fluctuation. This lowering is attributed either to changes in the discharge zones offshore or to a change in the permeability of the aquifers by seismically induced strain. Water supplies were disrupted temporarily by snowslides on streams and by sanding or turbidity in wells. Salt-water encroachment to wells on Fire Island seems to have increased. The approximate 3.7-foot lowering of land level and the diminished artesian head may permit further salt-water encroachment. Increased pore pressure in the Pleistocene Bootlegger Cove Clay led to liquefaction in silt and sand lenses that contributed to the disastrous bluff landslides. Measurements after the earthquake indicate that most pore pressures are declining, whereas some remain high or are increasing. Subsidence in the area was caused principally by tectonic readjustment, but differential compaction within the Bootlegger Cove Clay contributed to subsidences estimated to be as much as 0.6 foot beneath Anchorage.

  5. Alarm in Anchorage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Larry

    1991-01-01

    A possible sex scandal involving a teacher and a teenage student rocked the community in Anchorage, Alaska. Privacy and labor laws and union contract forbade board members from discussing the retirement deal that had been negotiated with the accused teacher. Hindsight suggests board members should have shared what information they could with the…

  6. Geoid modeling over Alaska, USA and northwestern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Huang, J.; Roman, D. R.; Wang, Y.; Smith, D. A.; Véronneau, M.

    2013-05-01

    Geoid modeling over Alaska, USA and northwestern Canada is not only a transboudary issue, but also technically challenging. The region features (1) a complex terrain that includes the two highest mountains in North America, Mount McKinely (20,320ft) in Alaska and Mount Logan (19,541ft) in the Yukon Territory and six major mountain chains; (2) a dynamic geology characterized with strong tectonic movement, significant post glacial rebound and ice melting; (3) inhomogeneous and sparse surface gravity data collected over a span of a century; and (4) a lack of high-quality independent validation data limited to a few leveling lines that are subject to large systematic errors. The previous joint studies (EGU 2012 and AGU 2012) between the US National Geodetic Survey and Geodetic Survey Division of Natural Resources Canada showed that GRACE and GOCE have improved the knowledge of the Earth's gravity field, correspondingly the geoid model over this region. However, several key aspects are still open to further improvement including data interpolation, downward continuation, optimal satellite and terrestrial data combination, and geoid validation. This continuous study deals with these aspects in order to improve the determination of, and better understand the accuracy of the resulting geoid model in this region. First, the low to middle degree components of satellite-only global gravity models are used to reflect the long wavelength geology signals of the geoid. Second the tailored spherical harmonic approach is applied to improve the global geopotential model such as EGM2008 in the middle to high frequency band. Third, a rigorous downward continuation in the mountainous regions is employed to account for the topographic effect. Finally the existing GPS-Leveling data are analyzed to detect and reduce the crustal motion effect and systematic errors. They are used to infer the accuracy of the geoid model. The validation also includes comparisons to EGM2008 and CGG2010.

  7. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, on the Eklutna Hydroelectric Project, Anchorage, Alaska, with a section on television examination of earthquake damage to underground communication and electrical systems in Anchorage: Chapter A in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on transportation, communications, and utilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Logan, Malcolm H.; with a section on Television Examination of Earthquake Damage to Underground Communication and Electrical Systems in Anchorage by Burton, Lynn R.

    1967-01-01

    The March 27, 1964, Alaska earthquake and its associated aftershocks caused damage requiring several million dollars worth of repair to the Eklwtna Hydroelectric Project, 34 miles northeast of Anchorage. Electric service from the Eklutna powerplant was interrupted during the early phase of the March 27 earthquake, built was restored (intermittently) until May 9,1964, when the plant was closed for inspection and repair. Water for Eklutna project is transported from Eklutna Lake to the powerplant at tidewater on Knik Arm of Cook Inlet by an underwater intake connected to a 4.46-mile tunnel penstock. The primary damage caused by the earthquake was 1at the intake structure in Eklutna Lake. No damage to the power tunnel was observed. The piles-supported powerplant and appurtenant structures, Anchorage and Palmer substations, and the transmission lines suffered minor dammage. Most damage occurred to facilities constructed on un-consolidated sediments and overburden which densified and subsided during the earthquake. Structures built on bedrock experienced little or no damage. Underground communication and electrical systems in Anchorage were examined with a small-diameter television camera to locate damaged areas requiring repair. Most of the damage was concentrated at or near valley slopes. Those parts of the systems within the major slide areas of the city were destroyed.

  8. Anchorage, AK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Anchorage, Alaska and Cook Inlet are seen in this 30 by 30 km (19 by 19 miles) sub-image, acquired May 12, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). Orbiting at an altitude of 705 km (430 miles) on board NASA's Terra satellite, ASTER provides data at a resolution of 15 m (47 feet) and allows creation of this simulated natural color image. At the center of the image is the Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport; in the upper right corner is Elmendorf Air Force Base. Dark green coniferous forests are seen in the northwest part of the image. A golf course, with its lush green fairways, is just south of the Air Force Base.

    The image covers an area of 30 by 30 km, was acquired May 12, 2000, and is located at 61.2 degrees north latitude and 149.9 degrees west longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and

  9. The Early Years, the Critical Years: Implications of Brain Research on Early Childhood Policy and Practice in Alaska. Conference Proceedings (Anchorage, Alaska, September 23-25, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Community and Regional Affairs, Juneau.

    Alaska's "The Early Years, The Critical Years" conference was designed to educate participants about current brain research, give them an opportunity to discuss public policy with state administrators, provide a forum to develop recommendations and activities to support young children in Alaska, and offer quality training about early…

  10. Airborne Gas Surveillance of Volcanoes in Western USA and Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, T. M.; McGee, K. A.; Doukas, M. P.

    2002-05-01

    Volcanoes of the western USA and Alaska pose challenges to gas surveillance of volcano unrest. Locations are remote, and ground access is generally difficult. Wet climates and melt from glaciers and thick winter snowpack foster hydrothermal and ground waters that can scrub acid gases (SO2, HCl, HF) before they reach the surface, thereby masking their degassing from shallow vapor-saturated subvolcanic magma. These gases may not exhibit significant increases in emission rates until dry pathways or magma itself reaches the surface. Background or low emissions of the acid gases may thus give a false sense of security. CO2 is more likely to give early indication of subvolcanic magma degassing. It is the second most abundant magmatic volatile; it is among the least soluble magmatic volatiles; and it is far less susceptible to scrubbing than SO2, HCl, or HF. Rising H2S emissions are also a plausible early warning, since unlike SO2, HCl and HF, H2S is strongly volatilized from boiling water. Unfortunately, remote sensing of early increases in volcanic CO2 and H2S emissions is usually problematic, owing to high atmospheric CO2 levels, water vapor interference, and poor H2S infrared absorbance. We have therefore developed an aircraft-mounted system that directly measures these gases by extraction sampling of plumes. The system includes an infrared spectrometer for CO2 and an electrochemical sensor for H2S, in addition to a COSPEC and high-precision barometer, temperature probe, and GPS receiver. Measurements are made at different elevations along traverses orthogonal to plume direction or along orbits around a volcano if plume is not visible. Data for all gases are recorded in a data logger at 1-s intervals and tagged with clock time, latitude, longitude, altitude, temperature, and pressure. In-flight wind data are also acquired. Plume cross-sections are constructed with mapping software and used to calculate emission rates. Several campaigns to date show that emission rates

  11. Toxic elements and organochlorines in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi), Kodiak, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, A.K.; Calkins, D.G.; Coon, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    Marine and estuarine habitats near urban or industrialized regions are vulnerable to contaminated runoff. Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi), which occur throughout much of the northern hemisphere, are useful mammalian biomonitors because they feed, reproduce, and rest near or on shore and are high-level trophic consumers. They have often been monitored for contaminants in Europe (Wagemann and Muir 1984). To date, no studies have been reported on contaminants in harbor seals from industrialized areas of Alaska. In the vicinity of Anchorage, Alaska's largest urban and industrial city, harbor seals are sedentary and limited to coastal waters; some movements have been documented but there is no evidence of extensive migrations. Although some harbor seals in the Kodiak Archipelago move up to 100 km along the shore, strong fidelity to specific haulout sites is more common (Pitcher and Calkins 1979). These seals eat mainly non-migratory fishes and octopi. Harbor seal numbers have declined substantially from unknown causes in the southern part of the Kodiak Archipelago. The Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) suggested that the decline is a trend for the entire Kodiak region and other Alaskan waters. Contaminants have been suggested as a possible reason for the precipitous decline of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in the region (Braham et al. 1980), and were suspected in the decline of harbor seals. In this study, harbor seals were sampled from throughout the Kodiak Archipelago to determine concentrations of certain metals, metalloids, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides, and to determine if these concentrations varied by sex or accumulated with age. All seals were collected within 75 km of Cook Inlet, an estuary next to Anchorage. The targeted elements or compounds were known to be toxic to a wide spectrum of organisms (e.g., MARC 1980; Eisler 1986).

  12. 33 CFR 110.233 - Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.233 Prince William Sound, Alaska. (a) The anchorage grounds. In Prince William Sound, Alaska, beginning at a point at latitude 60°40′00″ N., longitude...

  13. 33 CFR 110.233 - Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.233 Prince William Sound, Alaska. (a) The anchorage grounds. In Prince William Sound, Alaska, beginning at a point at latitude 60°40′00″ N., longitude...

  14. 33 CFR 110.233 - Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.233 Prince William Sound, Alaska. (a) The anchorage grounds. In Prince William Sound, Alaska, beginning at a point at latitude 60°40′00″ N., longitude...

  15. 33 CFR 110.233 - Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.233 Prince William Sound, Alaska. (a) The anchorage grounds. In Prince William Sound, Alaska, beginning at a point at latitude 60°40′00″ N., longitude...

  16. 33 CFR 110.233 - Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.233 Prince William Sound, Alaska. (a) The anchorage grounds. In Prince William Sound, Alaska, beginning at a point at latitude 60°40′00″ N., longitude...

  17. Fifty-Year Record of Glacier Change Reveals Shifting Climate in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research on glacier change shows recent dramatic shrinkage of glaciers in three climatic regions of the United States. These long periods of record provide clues to the climate shifts that may be driving glacier change. The USGS Benchmark Glacier Program began in 1957 as a result of research efforts during the International Geophysical Year (Meier and others, 1971). Annual data collection occurs at three glaciers that represent three climatic regions in the United States: South Cascade Glacier in the Cascade Mountains of Washington State; Wolverine Glacier on the Kenai Peninsula near Anchorage, Alaska; and Gulkana Glacier in the interior of Alaska (fig. 1).

  18. Spatial Analysis of Cryoplanation Landforms in Beringian Uplands, Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyland, K. E.; Nelson, F. E.

    2015-12-01

    Cryoplanation terraces are large periglacial landforms characteristic of cold, unglaciated mountainous environments. Terrace sequences are composed of alternating slope segments with steep rubble-covered risers and gently sloping treads, culminating in extensive summit flats. Entire Beringian upland landscapes are dominated by these features. Cryoplanation terraces are cut into bedrock and thought to evolve through locally intensified periglacial weathering and mass-movement processes in the vicinity of late-lying snowpatches. Geospatial analysis demonstrates that terrace elevation rises from 100-300 m.a.s.l. on Bering Sea islands to median values greater than 1200 m in the Yukon-Tanana Upland, near the Alaska-Canada border. The regional trends of cryoplanation terrace elevation are similar to those of cirques and reconstructed ELAs across interior and western Alaska, with gradients ranging from 0.74 to 1.2 m km-1. The similarity of these trends indicates close genetic links between glacial cirques and cryoplanation terraces, involving topographic position, continentality gradients, and the mass balance of localized snow accumulation. Cryoplanation terraces can be considered as the periglacial analogs of glacial cirques, and have greater potential as sources of paleoclimatic information than smaller periglacial features more sensitive to short-term climate variations. Process-oriented studies, age determinations, and high-resolution mapping are needed before their paleoenvironmental potential of these landforms can be fully realized.

  19. Maestrichtian benthic foraminifers from Ocean Point, North Slope, Alaska ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougall, K.

    1987-01-01

    Previous studies of fauna and flora from Ocean Point, Alaska, have suggested ages ranging from Campanian to early Eocene and that these assemblages are either highly endemic or commonplace. I demonstrate that the moderately abundant benthic foraminifers constitute early Maestrichtian boreal assemblages common to Canada and northern Europe. Paleoenvironmental analysis indicates that deposition took place in outer neritic settings (50 to 150m). The Ocean Point benthic foraminiferal assemblages contain species that migrated from the US Gulf Coast, North American Interior and Europe during the Campanian, and from Europe during the Maestrichtian. These faunal affinities suggest that seaways connected the Arctic to the North American Interior and Atlantic during the Campanian and that a shallow seaway connected the Arctic to the Atlantic during the early Maestrichtian. - from Author

  20. Intertidal benthic resources of the Copper River Delta, Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Sean P.; Bishop, Mary Anne; Grabowski, Jonathan H.; Peterson, Charles H.

    2002-02-01

    The Copper River Delta, Alaska is the largest contiguous coastal wetland system along the West Coast of North America. Vast expanses of tidal mud flats formed by sediments carried by the suspended load of the Copper River serve as a connection between the Gulf of Alaska and the extensive network of wetlands, rivers and sloughs of the delta system. In addition to providing habitat for resident fish, shrimp and crabs, these tidal flats serve as critical feeding grounds for up to 5 million migratory shorebirds as well as an entry and exit corridor for three species of commercially fished salmonids. Here we report the first description of the benthic community of these intertidal flats. Between April and September 2000, we conducted three samplings on the Copper River Delta in which we quantified benthic macro-invertebrates inhabiting silt-clay sediments, the dominant substrate in the system, over a range of tidal inundation. Specifically, sampling was performed in two areas on the delta: near the outflows of the Eyak River and Pete Dahl Slough. Pore-water salinity of surficial sediment ranged from 4 psu during peak summer flow of the Copper River to 14 psu in April prior to increased riverine input. Sediment temperatures corresponded to ambient air temperatures with lowest temperatures during the April-September observation period recorded in April (4°C) and warmest in August (16°C). The benthic community of the delta's tidal flats was characterised by low species diversity and was dominated by the tellinid bivalve Macoma balthica, which reached densities greater than 4000 m -2. Age-length relationship of M. balthica indicated slow growth and longevity of up to 8 years. Polychaete densities, primarily the phyllodocid Eteone longa, were low throughout the study period, reaching a maximum of only 700 m -2 in August. Amphipod densities, primarily the corophid amphipod Corophium salmonis, were high (up to 7000 m -2) only during the August sampling. Spatial patterns of

  1. Exploration computer applications to primary dispersion halos: Kougarok tin prospect, Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Jeffrey C.

    1989-01-01

    Computer processing and high resolution graphics display of geochemical data were used to quickly, accurately, and efficiently obtain important decision-making information for tin (cassiterite) exploration, Seward Peninsula, Alaska (USA). Primary geochemical dispersion patterns were determined for tin-bearing intrusive granite phases of Late Cretaceous age with exploration bedrock lithogeochemistry at the Kougarok tin prospect. Expensive diamond drilling footage was required to reach exploration objectives. Recognition of element distribution and dispersion patterns was useful in subsurface interpretation and correlation, and to aid location of other holes.

  2. New distribution records of Echinococcus multilocularis in the brown lemming from Barrow, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Holt, Denver W; Hanns, Cyd; O'Hara, Todd; Burek, Kathy; Frantz, Rita

    2005-01-01

    We identified Echinococcus multilocularis for the first time in brown lemmings (Lemmus trimucronatus) from Barrow, Alaska, USA. Of 467 brown lemmings trapped between 1995 and 2000, two males and two females (0.9%; 95% confidence interval=0.9+/-0.9%) were found to be infected with metacestodes of E. multilocularis. No metacestodes were found in 17 collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx rubricatus) also trapped at Barrow. In humans, E. multilocularis causes alveolar echinococcosis, which is potentially fatal. Knowledge of the distribution of this parasite is important to protect the public health.

  3. 33 CFR 110.232 - Southeast Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.232 Southeast Alaska. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Hassler Harbor—explosives anchorage. The waters of Hassler Harbor within a circular area with a radius of 1,500...) Except in an emergency, only a vessel that is transporting, loading or discharging explosives may...

  4. Repsol Exploration and Production USA Inc. settles with EPA for Clean Water Act violations at North Slope Alaska Spill

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle - September 3, 2015) Repsol E&P USA, Inc. agreed to pay a penalty for alleged Clean Water Act violations at an oil exploration well pad on the North Slope, Alaska. According to a settlement announced on August 26 by the U.S. Environmental Prot

  5. Tidally generated sea-floor lineations in Bristol Bay, Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlow, M. S.; Stevenson, A. J.; Chezar, H.; McConnaughey, R. A.

    1999-12-01

    Highly reflective linear features occur in water depths of 20-30 m in northern Bristol Bay (Alaska, USA) and are, in places, over 600 m in length. Their length-to-width ratio is over 100:1. The lineations are usually characterized by large transverse ripples with wavelengths of 1-2 m. The lineations trend about N60°E, and are spaced between 20 and 350 m. Main tidal directions near the lineations are N60°E (flood) and S45°W (ebb), which are parallel to subparallel to the lineations. They suggest that the lineations may be tidally generated. The lineations may be bright sonar reflections from a winnowed lag concentrate of coarse sand.

  6. Tidally generated sea-floor lineations in Bristol Bay, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marlow, M. S.; Stevenson, A.J.; Chezar, H.; McConnaughey, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Highly reflective linear features occur in water depths of 20-30 m in northern Bristol Bay (Alaska, USA) and are, in places, over 600 m in length. Their length-to-width ratio is over 100:1. The lineations are usually characterized by large transverse ripples with wavelengths of 1-2 m. The lineations trend about N60??E, and are spaced between 20 and 350 m. Main tidal directions near the lineations are N60??E (flood) and S45??W (ebb), which are parallel to subparallel to the lineations. They suggest that the lineations may be tidally generated. The lineations may be bright sonar reflections from a winnowed lag concentrate of coarse sand.

  7. Growing season and spatial variations of carbon fluxes of Arctic and boreal ecosystems in Alaska (USA).

    PubMed

    Ueyama, Masahito; Iwata, Hiroki; Harazono, Yoshinobu; Euskirchen, Eugénie S; Oechel, Walter C; Zona, Donatella

    2013-12-01

    To better understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of CO2 exchange between Arctic ecosystems and the atmosphere, we synthesized CO2 flux data, measured in eight Arctic tundra and five boreal ecosystems across Alaska (USA) and identified growing season and spatial variations of the fluxes and environmental controlling factors. For the period examined, all of the boreal and seven of the eight Arctic tundra ecosystems acted as CO2 sinks during the growing season. Seasonal patterns of the CO2 fluxes were mostly determined by air temperature, except ecosystem respiration (RE) of tundra. For the tundra ecosystems, the spatial variation of gross primary productivity (GPP) and net CO2 sink strength were explained by growing season length, whereas RE increased with growing degree days. For boreal ecosystems, the spatial variation of net CO2 sink strength was mostly determined by recovery of GPP from fire disturbance. Satellite-derived leaf area index (LAI) was a better index to explain the spatial variations of GPP and NEE of the ecosystems in Alaska than were the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI). Multiple regression models using growing degree days, growing season length, and satellite-derived LAI explained much of the spatial variation in GPP and net CO2 exchange among the tundra and boreal ecosystems. The high sensitivity of the sink strength to growing season length indicated that the tundra ecosystem could increase CO2 sink strength under expected future warming, whereas ecosystem compositions associated with fire disturbance could play a major role in carbon release from boreal ecosystems.

  8. Comparison of geodetic and glaciological mass-balance techniques, Gulkana Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, L.H.; March, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    The net mass balance on Gulkana Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A., has been measured since 1966 by the glaciological method, in which seasonal balances are measured at three index sites and extrapolated over large areas of the glacier. Systematic errors can accumulate linearly with time in this method. Therefore, the geodetic balance, in which errors are less time-dependent, was calculated for comparison with the glaciological method. Digital elevation models of the glacier in 1974, 1993 and 1999 were prepared using aerial photographs, and geodetic balances were computed, giving - 6.0??0.7 m w.e. from 1974 to 1993 and - 11.8??0.7 m w.e. from 1974 to 1999. These balances are compared with the glaciological balances over the same intervals, which were - 5.8??0.9 and -11.2??1.0 m w.e. respectively; both balances show that the thinning rate tripled in the 1990s. These cumulative balances differ by <6%. For this close agreement, the glaciologically measured mass balance of Gulkana Glacier must be largely free of systematic errors and be based on a time-variable area-altitude distribution, and the photography used in the geodetic method must have enough contrast to enable accurate photogrammetry.

  9. Precursory seismicity associated with frequent, large ice avalanches on Iliamna Volcano, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caplan-Auerbach, Jacqueline; Huggel, C.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1994, at least six major (volume>106 m3) ice and rock avalanches have occurred on Iliamna volcano, Alaska, USA. Each of the avalanches was preceded by up to 2 hours of seismicity believed to represent the initial stages of failure. Each seismic sequence begins with a series of repeating earthquakes thought to represent slip on an ice-rock interface, or between layers of ice. This stage is followed by a prolonged period of continuous ground-shaking that reflects constant slip accommodated by deformation at the glacier base. Finally the glacier fails in a large avalanche. Some of the events appear to have entrained large amounts of rock, while others comprise mostly snow and ice. Several avalanches initiated from the same source region, suggesting that this part of the volcano is particularly susceptible to failure, possibly due to the presence of nearby fumaroles. Although thermal conditions at the time of failure are not well constrained, it is likely that geothermal energy causes melting at the glacier base, promoting slip and culminating in failure. The frequent nature and predictable failure sequence of Iliamna avalanches makes the volcano an excellent laboratory for the study of ice avalanches. The prolonged nature of the seismic signal suggests that warning may one day be given for similar events occurring in populated regions.

  10. Seasonal hematology and serum chemistry of wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Bristol Bay, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Norman, Stephanie A; Goertz, Caroline E C; Burek, Kathy A; Quakenbush, Lori T; Cornick, Leslie A; Romano, Tracy A; Spoon, Tracey; Miller, Woutrina; Beckett, Laurel A; Hobbs, Roderick C

    2012-01-01

    We collected blood from 18 beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), live-captured in Bristol Bay, Alaska, USA, in May and September 2008, to establish baseline hematologic and serum chemistry values and to determine whether there were significant differences in hematologic values by sex, season, size/age, or time during the capture period. Whole blood was collected within an average of 19 min (range=11-30 min) after the net was set for capture, and for eight animals, blood collection was repeated in a later season after between 80-100 min; all blood was processed within 12 hr. Mean hematocrit, chloride, creatinine, total protein, albumin, and alkaline phosphatase were significantly lower in May than they were in September, whereas mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, monocytes, phosphorous, magnesium, blood urea nitrogen, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, and creatinine kinase were significantly higher. Mean total protein, white blood cell count, neutrophils, and lymphocytes were significantly higher early in the capture period than they were later. No significant differences in blood analyte values were noted between males and females. Using overall body length as a proxy for age, larger (older) belugas had lower white blood cell, lymphocyte, and eosinophil counts as well as lower sodium, potassium, and calcium levels but higher creatinine levels than smaller belugas. These data provide values for hematology and serum chemistry for comparisons with other wild belugas.

  11. Avian cholera exposure and carriers in greater white-fronted geese breeding in Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a 3-yr study (2001a??03) on greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) breeding in Alaska, USA, to determine the exposure of this population to Pasteurella multocida and the potential role of these birds as disease carriers. We tested sera from nearly 600 adult geese for antibodies to P. multocida serotype 1. We found a low prevalence (<5%) of positive antibodies in adult geese, and based on the short duration of detectable antibodies, these findings indicate recent infection with P. multocida. Prevalence was similar to serologic results from both breeding and wintering lesser snow geese. We also collected oral (n=1,035), nasal (n=102), and cloacal (n=90) swab samples to determine the presence of avian cholera carriers in this population. We were unable to isolate P. multocida serotype 1 from any of the birds sampled. Based on comparison with other waterfowl species, we concluded that these geese may be exposed to avian cholera during the winter or spring migration but are unlikely to play a significant role as carriers of the bacterium causing avian cholera.

  12. Seasonal trends in summer diet of the lapland longspur near Barrow Alaska USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Pitelka, F.A.

    1978-01-01

    Contents of lapland longspur [Calcarius lapponicus] stomachs and esophagi were sampled near Barrow, Alaska [USA], from May-Aug. in 1969, 1971, 1972 and 1973. Data from stomach contents were corrected for differential digestion of prey items. Longspurs shifted seasonally from larval to adult arthropods and back to larvae, responding to changes in the abundance of these prey items. Seeds were a vital supplementary food in late May and Aug., when arthropods were scarce or inaccessible. One species of crane fly was the major dietary component for longspurs during June and July. Its high abundance and substantial dry weight per individual may contribute to the success of longspurs at Barrow. The diets of longspurs and 4 common shorebirds (Calidris spp.) at Barrow were similar in the range of prey items taken except for seeds and tenthredinid larvae. Their diets overlapped closely when feeding sites were restricted because of snow and surface water (chiefly at the beginning of the season) and when prey was abundant in early to mid-July. Competition is possible early in the season but unlikely in July when surface insects are very abundant. Habitat separation and the advantages of fringillid form apparently contribute to the success of longspors in a tundra community of insectivores dominated by shorebirds.

  13. Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.C.; Sears, D.W.

    1981-10-01

    Twenty-five exploratory wells were drilled in Alaska in 1980. Five oil or gas discovery wells were drilled on the North Slope. One hundred and seventeen development and service wells were drilled and completed, primarily in the Prudhoe Bay and Kuparuk River fields on the North Slope. Geologic-geophysical field activity consisted of 115.74 crew months, an increase of almost 50% compared to 1979. These increases affected most of the major basins of the state as industry stepped up preparations for future lease sales. Federal acreage under lease increased slightly, while state lease acreage showed a slight decline. The year's oil production showed a increase of 16%, while gas production was down slightly. The federal land freeze in Alaska showed signs of thawing, as the US Department of Interior asked industry to identify areas of interest onshore for possible future leasing. National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska was opened to private exploration, and petroleum potential of the Arctic Wildlife Refuge will be studied. One outer continental shelf lease sale was held in the eastern Gulf of Alaska, and a series of state and federal lease sales were announced for the next 5 years. 5 figures, 5 tables.

  14. Concentrations of metals and trace elements in blood of spectacled and king eiders in northern Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Heather M.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Troy, Declan

    2004-01-01

    In 1996, we measured concentrations of arsenic, barium, cadmium, lead, mercury, and selenium in blood of adult king (Somateria spectabilis) and spectacled (Somateria fischeri) eiders and duckling spectacled eiders from northern Alaska, USA. Concentrations of selenium exceeded background levels in all adults sampled and 9 of 12 ducklings. Mercury was detected in all adult spectacled eiders and 5 of 12 ducklings. Lead concentrations were above the clinical toxicity threshold in one duckling (0.64 ppm) and two adult female spectacled eiders (0.54 and 4.30 ppm). Concentrations of cadmium and mercury varied between species; barium, cadmium, mercury, and selenium varied between sexes. In female spectacled eiders, mercury concentrations increased during the breeding season and barium and selenium levels decreased through the breeding season. Selenium declined at 2.3 ± 0.9% per day and levels were lower in spectacled eiders arriving to the breeding grounds in northern Alaska than in western Alaska. The variation in selenium levels between breeding areas may be explained by differences in timing and routes of spring migration. Most trace elements for which we tested were not at levels currently considered toxic to marine birds. However, the presence of mercury and elevated lead in ducklings and adult female spectacled eiders suggests these metals are available on the breeding grounds.

  15. Identification of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus isolated from Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus in Prince William Sound Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyers, T.R.; Sullivan, J.; Emmenegger, E.; Follett, J.; Short, S.; Batts, W.N.; Winton, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Ulcerative slun tissues from 2 Pacific cod Gadus rnacrocephalus caught in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, were examined for virus by Fish Pathology staff within the F.R.E.D. Division of the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Six days after inoculation of Epitheliorna papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells at 14"C, diffuse rounding and lifting of cells from the monolayers suggestive of cytopathlc effect became visible in the lower sample dilutions. Ultrastructural examinations of affected EPC cells showed rhabdovirus particles within cytoplasmic vacuoles and on the cell surface membranes. Virus isolates from both cod were subsequently confirmed as viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) by serum neutralizabon and immunoblot assay. This is the first VHSV isolated from Pacific cod, which represents a new host species for the virus. Histologically, cod skin ulcers appeared to be caused by a foreign-body-type inflammatory response to foci of protozoa resembling X cells that also had plasmodial stages. Whether the rhabdovirus was incidental to the slun lesion or played a role in its etiology remains to be determined. The possible relationship between thls virus and the recent occurrences of VHSV in anadromous salmoruds from Washington State, USA, is discussed.

  16. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Though it's not quite spring, waters in the Gulf of Alaska (right) appear to be blooming with plant life in this true-color MODIS image from March 4, 2002. East of the Alaska Peninsula (bottom center), blue-green swirls surround Kodiak Island. These colors are the result of light reflecting off chlorophyll and other pigments in tiny marine plants called phytoplankton. The bloom extends southward and clear dividing line can be seen west to east, where the bloom disappears over the deeper waters of the Aleutian Trench. North in Cook Inlet, large amounts of red clay sediment are turning the water brown. To the east, more colorful swirls stretch out from Prince William Sound, and may be a mixture of clay sediment from the Copper River and phytoplankton. Arcing across the top left of the image, the snow-covered Brooks Range towers over Alaska's North Slope. Frozen rivers trace white ribbons across the winter landscape. The mighty Yukon River traverses the entire state, beginning at the right edge of the image (a little way down from the top) running all the way over to the Bering Sea, still locked in ice. In the high-resolution image, the circular, snow-filled calderas of two volcanoes are apparent along the Alaska Peninsula. In Bristol Bay (to the west of the Peninsula) and in a couple of the semi-clear areas in the Bering Sea, it appears that there may be an ice algae bloom along the sharp ice edge (see high resolution image for better details). Ground-based observations from the area have revealed that an under-ice bloom often starts as early as February in this region and then seeds the more typical spring bloom later in the season.

  17. Reoccurrence of Avian Influenza A(H5N2) Virus Clade 2.3.4.4 in Wild Birds, Alaska, USA, 2016.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Torchetti, Mia K; Killian, Mary Lea; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Swayne, David E

    2017-02-01

    We report reoccurrence of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N2) virus clade 2.3.4.4 in a wild mallard in Alaska, USA, in August 2016. Identification of this virus in a migratory species confirms low-frequency persistence in North America and the potential for re-dissemination of the virus during the 2016 fall migration.

  18. Reoccurrence of Avian Influenza A(H5N2) Virus Clade 2.3.4.4 in Wild Birds, Alaska, USA, 2016

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Killian, Mary Lea; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Swayne, David E.

    2017-01-01

    We report reoccurrence of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N2) virus clade 2.3.4.4 in a wild mallard in Alaska, USA, in August 2016. Identification of this virus in a migratory species confirms low-frequency persistence in North America and the potential for re-dissemination of the virus during the 2016 fall migration. PMID:28098546

  19. Modeling the mass balance of the Wolverine Glacier Alaska USA using the PTAA model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korn, D.

    2010-12-01

    Glaciers in Alaska have been increasingly losing mass over the last several decades. This trend is especially apparent in South-Central Alaska where many glaciers are undergoing rapid changes and contributing substantially to rising sea levels (Arendt et al., 2002). It is important to understand the rates at which these glaciers are losing mass as well as the important climatic drivers to better prepare for what the future holds in this region and the rest of the world. This work compares glacier mass balance data modeled through the Precipitation-Temperature Area Altitude (PTAA) mass balance model for the Wolverine Glacier in the Kenai Peninsula in South-Central Alaska to observed data from the USGS “benchmark” glacier program in order to help validate the model. The mass balance data are also correlated with climate data in order to understand the main climatic drivers of the glacier mass balance in this region.

  20. Assessment Of Errors In Long-Term Mass Balance Records From Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, R. S.; van Beusekom, A. E.; O'Neel, S.

    2009-12-01

    The USGS maintains a long-term glacier mass balance monitoring program at Gulkana and Wolverine glaciers in Alaska. The records produced by this program are a major component of the world’s mountain glacier balance inventory due to the scarcity of such long-term measurements. Recent data that show rapid glacier volume loss in Alaska further emphasize the importance of these records. An integral part of the long-term mass balance program is repeated assessment of the validity of the methods because bias errors in mass balance data are cumulative. Long-term glacier mass balance records in Alaska have previously been shown to be in good agreement with geodetically determined volume changes despite a minimal network of mass balance stakes. Because the rates of negative mass balance and change in glacier geometry have recently increased, this work reassess whether or not the existing stake networks and method of determining glacier-average balance are still working adequately.

  1. Earthshots: Satellite images of environmental change – Hubbard Glacier, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    These Landsat images illustrate an unusual event that was observed twice at the terminus of Hubbard Glacier. Hubbard temporarily blocked Russell Fjord (a long, narrow inlet of the sea) from the rest of Disenchantment Bay and the Gulf of Alaska. It’s even possible that the glacier could one day permanently block the fjord.

  2. Phocine distemper virus in northern sea otters in the Pacific Ocean, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A K; Gill, Verena A; Doroff, Angela M; Burek, Kathy A; Hammond, John A

    2009-06-01

    Phocine distemper virus (PDV) has caused 2 epidemics in harbor seals in the Atlantic Ocean but had never been identified in any Pacific Ocean species. We found that northern sea otters in Alaska are infected with PDV, which has created a disease threat to several sympatric and decreasing Pacific marine mammals.

  3. Powassan virus in mammals, Alaska and New Mexico, USA, and Russia, 2004–2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deardorff, Eleanor R.; Nofchissey, Robert A.; Cook, Joseph A.; Hope, Andrew G.; Tsvetkova, Albina; Talbot, Sandra L.; Ebel, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    Powassan virus is endemic to the United States, Canada, and the Russian Far East. We report serologic evidence of circulation of this virus in Alaska, New Mexico, and Siberia. These data support further studies of viral ecology in rapidly changing Arctic environments.

  4. Anchorage Arrival Scheduling Under Off-Nominal Weather Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon; Chan, William N.; Mukherjee, Avijit

    2012-01-01

    Weather can cause flight diversions, passenger delays, additional fuel consumption and schedule disruptions at any high volume airport. The impacts are particularly acute at the Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Anchorage, Alaska due to its importance as a major international portal. To minimize the impacts due to weather, a multi-stage scheduling process is employed that is iteratively executed, as updated aircraft demand and/or airport capacity data become available. The strategic scheduling algorithm assigns speed adjustments for flights that originate outside of Anchorage Center to achieve the proper demand and capacity balance. Similarly, an internal departure-scheduling algorithm assigns ground holds for pre-departure flights that originate from within Anchorage Center. Tactical flight controls in the form of airborne holding are employed to reactively account for system uncertainties. Real-world scenarios that were derived from the January 16, 2012 Anchorage visibility observations and the January 12, 2012 Anchorage arrival schedule were used to test the initial implementation of the scheduling algorithm in fast-time simulation experiments. Although over 90% of the flights in the scenarios arrived at Anchorage without requiring any delay, pre-departure scheduling was the dominant form of control for Anchorage arrivals. Additionally, tactical scheduling was used extensively in conjunction with the pre-departure scheduling to reactively compensate for uncertainties in the arrival demand. For long-haul flights, the strategic scheduling algorithm performed best when the scheduling horizon was greater than 1,000 nmi. With these long scheduling horizons, it was possible to absorb between ten and 12 minutes of delay through speed control alone. Unfortunately, the use of tactical scheduling, which resulted in airborne holding, was found to increase as the strategic scheduling horizon increased because of the additional uncertainty in the arrival times

  5. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES FOR SELECTED CANINE PATHOGENS AMONG WOLVES (CANIS LUPUS) FROM THE ALASKA PENINSULA, USA.

    PubMed

    Watts, Dominique E; Benson, Anna-Marie

    2016-07-01

    We collected blood samples from wolves ( Canis lupus ) on the Alaska Peninsula, southwest Alaska, US, 2006-11 and tested sera for antibodies to canine adenovirus (CAV), canine coronavirus (CCV), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine herpesvirus (CHV), canine parainfluenza (CPI), canine parvovirus (CPV), Neospora caninum , and Toxoplasma gondii . Detected antibody prevalence was 90% for CAV, 28% for CCV, 12% for CDV, 93% for CHV, 0% for CPI, 20% for CPV, 0% for N. caninum, and 86% for T. gondii . Prevalence of CCV antibodies suggested a seasonal pattern with higher prevalence during spring (43%) than in fall (11%). Prevalence of CCV antibodies also declined during the 6-yr study with high prevalence during spring 2006-08 (80%, n=24) and low prevalence during spring 2009-11 (4%, n=24). Prevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies were highly variable in the study area during 2006-11. Results suggested that some pathogens might be enzootic on the Alaska Peninsula (e.g., CAV and CHV) while others may be epizootic (e.g., CCV, N. caninum , T. gondii ).

  6. Recognizing Non-Stationary Climate Response in Tree Growth for Southern Coastal Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiles, G. C.; Jarvis, S. K.; D'Arrigo, R.; Vargo, L. J.; Appleton, S. N.

    2012-12-01

    Stationarity in growth response of trees to climate over time is assumed in dendroclimatic studies. Recent studies of Alaskan yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach) have identified warming-induced early loss of insulating snowpack and frost damage as a mechanism that can lead to decline in tree growth, which for this species is documented over the last century. A similar stress may be put on temperature-sensitive mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carrière) trees at low elevations, which in some cases show a decline in tree growth with warming temperatures. One of the challenges of using tree-ring based SAT, SST, PDO and PNA-related reconstructions for southern coastal Alaska has been understanding the response of tree-ring chronologies to the warming temperatures over the past 50 years. Comparisons of tree growth with long meteorological records from Sitka Alaska that extend back to 1830 suggest many mountain hemlock sites at low elevations are showing decreasing ring-widths, at mid elevations most sites show a steady increasing growth tracking warming, and at treeline a release is documented. The recognition of this recent divergence or decoupling of tree-ring and temperature trends allows for divergence-free temperature reconstructions using trees from moderate elevations. These reconstructions now provide a better perspective for comparing recent warming to Medieval warming and a better understanding of forest dynamics as biomes shift in response to the transition from the Little Ice Age to contemporary warming. Reconstructed temperatures are consistent with well-established, entirely independent tree-ring dated ice advances of land-terminating glaciers along the Gulf of Alaska providing an additional check for stationarity in the reconstructed interval.

  7. Mercury, arsenic, antimony, and selenium contents of sediment from the Kuskokwim River, Bethel, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belkin, H.E.; Sparck, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Kuskokwim River at Bethel, Alaska, drains a major mercury-antimony metallogenic province in its upper reaches and tributaries. Bethel (population 4000) is situated on the Kuskokwim floodplain and also draws its water supply from wells located in river-deposited sediment. A boring through overbank and floodplain sediment has provided material to establish a baseline datum for sediment-hosted heavy metals. Mercury (total), arsenic, antimony, and selenium contents were determined; aluminum was also determined and used as normalizing factor. The contents of the heavy metals were relatively constant with depth and do not reflect any potential enrichment from upstream contaminant sources. ?? 1993 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Lesson Plans Used with Housekeeping Employees of the Sheraton Anchorage Hotel. Conversation and Reading Skills Correlated with Skill Books 1-3 of the "Laubach Way to English." Workplace Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Polly; King, Richard

    This packet contains four sets of lesson plans designed for the workplace curriculum for housekeeping employees at the Sheraton Anchorage Hotel (Anchorage, Alaska), as part of the Anchorage Workplace Literacy Program. The lesson plans, which are correlated with Laubach literacy method skills books levels 1-3, include conversation (dialogue,…

  9. Spatial analysis of habitat selection by Sitka black-tailed deer in Southeast Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kang-Tsung; Verbyla, David L.; Yeo, Jeffrey J.

    1995-07-01

    We used a vector-based geographic information system (GIS) to examine habitat selection by radiocollared Sitka black-tailed deer ( Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) in logged forests of southeast Alaska. Our main objective was to explain deer habitat selection relative to old-growth/clear-cut edges and edge habitats at two different spatial scales. Deer home ranges contained higher percentages of recent clear-cuts (50-69%) than the study area (37%; P<0.01) and had higher old-growth/clear-cut edge densities than expected by chance ( P<0.01). Deer relocation points were closer to old-growth/clear-cut edges (average=135 m) than random points located within each deer's relocation area (average=168 m; P=0.05). Likewise, deer relocations were closer to old-growth/clear-cut edges than points randomly located within old-growth stands or recent clear-cuts ( P<0.01). As the size of clear-cuts increased, both deer relocation density and the proportion of a clear-cut occupied by deer home ranges decreased. Because old growth is important deer habitat and clear-cuts can produce deer forage for only 20-30 years after logging in southeast Alaska, deer management plans such as preserving entire watersheds and maintaining mixes of old growth and recent clear-cut have been proposed. Our data suggest that deer need a diversity of habitats near each other within their home ranges.

  10. Reassessment of seismically induced, tsunamigenic submarine slope failures in Port Valdez, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, H.J.; Haeussler, P.J.; Kayen, R.E.; Hampton, M.A.; Locat, Jacques; Suleimani, E.; Alexander, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    The M9.2 Alaska earthquake of 1964 caused major damage to the port facilities and town of Valdez, most of it the result of submarine landslide and the consequent tsunamis. Recent bathymetric multibeam surveys, high-resolution subbottom profiles, and dated sediment cores in Port Valdez supply new information about the morphology and character of the landslide deposits. A comparison of pre- and post-earthquake bathymetry provides an estimate of the net volume of landslide debris deposited in the basin and the volume of sediment removed from the source region. Landslide features include (1) large blocks (up to 40-m high) near the location of the greatest tsunamiwave runup (~50 m), (2) two debris lobes associated with the blocks, (3) a series of gullies, channels and talus, near the fjord-head delta and badly damaged old town of Valdez, and (4) the front of a debris lobe that flowed half-way down the fjord from the east end.

  11. Fatal paralytic shellfish poisoning in Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) nestlings, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Lance, Ellen W.; Corcoran, Robin; Piatt, John; Bodenstein, Barbara; Frame, Elizabeth; Lawonn, James

    2014-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is an acute toxic illness in humans resulting from ingestion of shellfish contaminated with a suite of neurotoxins (saxitoxins) produced by marine dinoflagellates, most commonly in the genus Alexandrium. Poisoning also has been sporadically suspected and, less often, documented in marine wildlife, often in association with an outbreak in humans. Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) is a small, rare seabird of the Northern Pacific with a declining population. From 2008 to 2012, as part of a breeding ecology study, multiple Kittlitz's Murrelet nests on Kodiak Island, Alaska, were monitored by remote cameras. During the 2011 and 2012 breeding seasons, nestlings from several sites died during mild weather conditions. Remote camera observations revealed that the nestlings died shortly after consuming sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), a fish species known to biomagnify saxitoxin. High levels of saxitoxin were subsequently documented in crop content in 87% of nestling carcasses. Marine bird deaths from PSP may be underreported.

  12. Geochemical evidence for seasonal controls on the transportation of Holocene loess, Matanuska Valley, southern Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Budahn, James R.; Skipp, Gary L.; McGeehin, John P.

    2016-06-01

    Loess is a widespread Quaternary deposit in Alaska and loess accretion occurs today in some regions, such as the Matanuska Valley. The source of loess in the Matanuska Valley has been debated for more than seven decades, with the Knik River and the Matanuska River, both to the east, being the leading candidates and the Susitna River, to the west, as a less favorable source. We report here new stratigraphic, mineralogic, and geochemical data that test the competing hypotheses of these river sources. Loess thickness data are consistent with previous studies that show that a source or sources lay to the east, which rules out the Susitna River as a source. Knik and Matanuska River silts can be distinguished using Sc-Th-La, LaN/YbN vs. Eu/Eu∗, Cr/Sc, and As/Sb. Matanuska Valley loess falls clearly within the range of values for these ratios found in Matanuska River silt. Dust storms from the Matanuska River are most common in autumn, when river discharge is at a minimum and silt-rich point bars are exposed, wind speed from the north is beginning to increase after a low-velocity period in summer, snow depth is still minimal, and soil temperatures are still above freezing. Thus, seasonal changes in climate and hydrology emerge as critical factors in the timing of aeolian silt transport in southern Alaska. These findings could be applicable to understanding seasonal controls on Pleistocene loess accretion in Europe, New Zealand, South America, and elsewhere in North America.

  13. Geochemical evidence for seasonal controls on the transportation of Holocene loess, Matanuska Valley, southern Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, Daniel; Budahn, James R.; Skipp, Gary L.; McGeehin, John

    2016-01-01

    Loess is a widespread Quaternary deposit in Alaska and loess accretion occurs today in some regions, such as the Matanuska Valley. The source of loess in the Matanuska Valley has been debated for more than seven decades, with the Knik River and the Matanuska River, both to the east, being the leading candidates and the Susitna River, to the west, as a less favorable source. We report here new stratigraphic, mineralogic, and geochemical data that test the competing hypotheses of these river sources. Loess thickness data are consistent with previous studies that show that a source or sources lay to the east, which rules out the Susitna River as a source. Knik and Matanuska River silts can be distinguished using Sc–Th–La, LaN/YbN vs. Eu/Eu∗, Cr/Sc, and As/Sb. Matanuska Valley loess falls clearly within the range of values for these ratios found in Matanuska River silt. Dust storms from the Matanuska River are most common in autumn, when river discharge is at a minimum and silt-rich point bars are exposed, wind speed from the north is beginning to increase after a low-velocity period in summer, snow depth is still minimal, and soil temperatures are still above freezing. Thus, seasonal changes in climate and hydrology emerge as critical factors in the timing of aeolian silt transport in southern Alaska. These findings could be applicable to understanding seasonal controls on Pleistocene loess accretion in Europe, New Zealand, South America, and elsewhere in North America.

  14. Genomic analysis of avian influenza viruses from waterfowl in Western Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, A.B.; Pearce, J.M.; Ramey, A.M.; Ely, C.R.; Schmutz, J.A.; Flint, P.L.; Derksen, D.V.; Ip, H.S.; Trust, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (Y-K Delta) in western Alaska is an immense and important breeding ground for waterfowl. Migratory birds from the Pacific Americas, Central Pacific, and East Asian-Australasian flyways converge in this region, providing opportunities for intermixing of North American- and Eurasian-origin hosts and infectious agents, such as avian influenza virus (AIV). We characterized the genomes of 90 low pathogenic (LP) AIV isolates from 11 species of waterfowl sampled on the Y-K Delta between 2006 and 2009 as part of an interagency surveillance program for the detection of the H5N1 highly pathogenic (HP) strain of AIV. We found evidence for subtype and genetic differences between viruses from swans and geese, dabbling ducks, and sea ducks. At least one gene segment in 39% of all isolates was Eurasian in origin. Target species (those ranked as having a relatively high potential to introduce HP H5N1 AIV to North America) were no more likely than nontarget species to carry viruses with genes of Eurasian origin. These findings provide evidence that the frequency at which viral gene segments of Eurasian origin are detected does not result from a strong species effect, but rather we suspect it is linked to the geographic location of the Y-K Delta in western Alaska where flyways from different continents overlap. This study provides support for retaining the Y-K Delta as a high priority region for the surveillance of Asian avian pathogens such as HP H5N1 AIV.

  15. Concentrations of trace elements in eggs and blood of spectacled and common eiders on Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grand, James B.; Franson, J. Christian; Flint, Paul L.; Petersen, Margaret R.

    2002-01-01

    We examined the relations among nesting success, egg viability, and blood and egg concentrations of As, Cd, Pb, Hg, and Se in a threatened population of spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) and a sympatric population of common eiders (S. mollissima) on the Yukona??Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, USA, during 1995 and 1996. During the early breeding season, males and females had mean Se concentrations in their blood of 19.2 I?g/g and 12.8 I?g/g wet weight, respectively. Blood Se concentrations of females were correlated with egg concentrations. During brood rearing, blood Se levels were higher in adult females than in ducklings. Blood concentrations of Pb in spectacled eider females were higher than in common eider females captured at hatching, but blood concentrations of Se were similar. Trace element concentrations were not related to nest success or egg viability. We submit that nest success and egg viability of spectacled eiders are not related to concentrations of the trace elements we measured. Because blood Se concentrations declined rapidly through the breeding season and were not related to nest success or egg viability, we suggest that spectacled eiders are exposed to high concentrations of Se during winter that pose little threat to this population.

  16. Sensitivity analysis of lake mass balance in discontinuous permafrost: the example of disappearing Twelvemile Lake, Yukon Flats, Alaska (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jepsen, S.M.; Voss, C.I.; Walvoord, M.A.; Rose, J.R.; Minsley, B.J.; Smith, B.D.

    2013-01-01

    Many lakes in northern high latitudes have undergone substantial changes in surface area over the last four decades, possibly as a result of climate warming. In the discontinuous permafrost of Yukon Flats, interior Alaska (USA), these changes have been non-uniform across adjacent watersheds, suggesting local controls on lake water budgets. Mechanisms that could explain the decreasing mass of one lake in Yukon Flats since the early 1980s, Twelvemile Lake, are identified via a scoping analysis that considers plausible changes in snowmelt mass and infiltration, permafrost distribution, and climate warming. Because predicted changes in evaporation (2 cmyr-1) are inadequate to explain the observed 17.5 cmyr-1 reduction in mass balance, other mechanisms are required. The most important potential mechanisms are found to involve: (1) changes in shallow, lateral groundwater flow to the lake possibly facilitated by vertical freeze-thaw migration of the permafrost table in gravel; (2) increased loss of lake water as downward groundwater flow through an open talik to a permeable subpermafrost flowpath; and (3) reduced snow meltwater inputs due to decreased snowpack mass and increased infiltration of snowmelt into, and subsequent evaporation from, fine-grained sediment mantling the permafrost-free lake basin.

  17. Using surface velocities to calculate ice thickness and bed topography: A case study at Columbia Glacier, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNabb, R.W.; Hock, R.; O'Neel, Shad; Rasmussen, Lowell A.; Ahn, Y.; Braun, M.; Conway, H.; Herreid, S.; Joughin, I.; Pfeffer, W.T.; Smith, B.E.; Truffer, M.

    2012-01-01

    Information about glacier volume and ice thickness distribution is essential for many glaciological applications, but direct measurements of ice thickness can be difficult and costly. We present a new method that calculates ice thickness via an estimate of ice flux. We solve the familiar continuity equation between adjacent flowlines, which decreases the computational time required compared to a solution on the whole grid. We test the method on Columbia Glacier, a large tidewater glacier in Alaska, USA, and compare calculated and measured ice thicknesses, with favorable results. This shows the potential of this method for estimating ice thickness distribution of glaciers for which only surface data are available. We find that both the mean thickness and volume of Columbia Glacier were approximately halved over the period 1957–2007, from 281m to 143 m, and from 294 km3 to 134 km3, respectively. Using bedrock slope and considering how waves of thickness change propagate through the glacier, we conduct a brief analysis of the instability of Columbia Glacier, which leads us to conclude that the rapid portion of the retreat may be nearing an end.

  18. Rapid runoff via shallow throughflow and deeper preferential flow in a boreal catchment underlain by frozen silt (Alaska, USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koch, Joshua C.; Ewing, Stephanie A.; Striegl, Robert G.; McKnight, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    In high-latitude catchments where permafrost is present, runoff dynamics are complicated by seasonal active-layer thaw, which may cause a change in the dominant flowpaths as water increasingly contacts mineral soils of low hydraulic conductivity. A 2-year study, conducted in an upland catchment in Alaska (USA) underlain by frozen, well-sorted eolian silt, examined changes in infiltration and runoff with thaw. It was hypothesized that rapid runoff would be maintained by flow through shallow soils during the early summer and deeper preferential flow later in the summer. Seasonal changes in soil moisture, infiltration, and runoff magnitude, location, and chemistry suggest that transport is rapid, even when soils are thawed to their maximum extent. Between June and September, a shift occurred in the location of runoff, consistent with subsurface preferential flow in steep and wet areas. Uranium isotopes suggest that late summer runoff erodes permafrost, indicating that substantial rapid flow may occur along the frozen boundary. Together, throughflow and deep preferential flow may limit upland boreal catchment water and solute storage, and subsequently biogeochemical cycling on seasonal to annual timescales. Deep preferential flow may be important for stream incision, network drainage development, and the release of ancient carbon to ecosystems

  19. Mass-Balance Fluctuations of Glaciers in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josberger, E. G.; Bidlake, W. R.; March, R. S.; Kennedy, B. W.

    2006-12-01

    The mass balance of mid-latitude glaciers of the Pacific Northwest and southern Alaska fluctuates in response to changes in the regional and global atmospheric climate. More than 40 years of net and seasonal mass balance records by the U.S. Geological Survey for South Cascade Glacier, Washington, and Wolverine and Gulkana Glaciers, Alaska, show annual and inter-annual fluctuations that reflect the controlling climatic conditions. South Cascade and Wolverine Glaciers are strongly affected by the warm and wet maritime climate of the Northeast Pacific Ocean, and the winter balances are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillations (PDO). Gulkana Glacier is more isolated from maritime influences and the net balance variation is more closely linked to the summer balance. By the late 1970's, mass-balance records for the three were long enough to reflect the 1976-77 shift in PDO from negative to positive. Both maritime glaciers responded, with net balance of South Cascade Glacier becoming consistently negative and that of Wolverine Glacier becoming predominantly positive. The overall trend of negative mass balance continued through 2004 for South Cascade Glacier, where the 1977 to 2004 cumulative net balance was about -22 meters water equivalent (mweq). After a gain of about 7 mweq, the trend of positive net balance for Wolverine Glacier ended in 1989. Beginning in 1989, the net balance trend for Wolverine Glacier became predominantly negative and the cumulative net balance for 1989 to 2004 was about -14 mweq. Net balance of Gulkana Glacier did not respond appreciably to the 1976-77 PDO shift. The cumulative net balance for Gulkana Glacier from the beginning of the record (1966) through 1988 was about -3 mweq. The major change in trend of mass balance occurred in 1989, when net balance became almost exclusively negative. The cumulative net balance during 1989 through 2004 was about 13 mweq. As a result trends in net balance had become strongly negative for more

  20. Mercury in vegetation and soils at abandoned mercury mines in southwestern Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, E.A.; Gray, J.E.; Theodorakos, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    We chemically analysed vegetation (willow and alder) and soil samples collected at three abandoned mercury (Hg) mines and at background sites in southwestern Alaska and compared Hg concentrations, speciation and distribution. Total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were higher in vegetation and soil samples from all the mine sites compared to samples from the background sites, but there was no correlation between total-Hg concentrations in vegetation and total-Hg concentrations in soil or between total-Hg and MeHg concentrations. However, the percent MeHg of the total Hg was higher in samples from the background sites compared to samples from the mine sites and is higher in vegetation samples than in corresponding soil samples. The percent MeHg is an order of magnitude higher in the willow samples than in corresponding alder or soil samples. The percent of divalent Hg [Hg(II)] is highest in soil samples from the retort and background areas. The higher percent MeHg in vegetation and soil in samples from background sites may be explained by the higher proportions of reactive Hg species, such as Hg(II), at these sites compared to the surface mined and tailings areas where most of the Hg is in the elemental and cinnabar (HgS) forms. Dissolved gaseous Hg species are more readily accumulated in vegetation and are more readily methylated than solid phases like HgS and liquid Hg.

  1. Reassessment of seismically induced, tsunamigenic submarine slpe failures in Port Valdez, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, H.J.; Ryan, H.F.; Haeussler, P.J.; Kayen, R.E.; Hampton, M.A.; Locat, Jacques; Suleimani, E.; Alexander, C.R.; Lykousis, Vasilios; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Locat, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The M9.2 Alaska earthquake of 1964 caused major damage to the port facilities and town of Valdez, most of it the result of submarine landslide and the consequent tsunamis. Recent bathymetric multibeam surveys, high-resolution subbottom profiles, and dated sediment cores in Port Valdez supply new information about the morphology and character of the landslide deposits. A comparison of pre- and post-earthquake bathymetry provides an estimate of the net volume of landslide debris deposited in the basin and the volume of sediment removed from the source region. Landslide features include (1) large blocks (up to 40-m high) near the location of the greatest tsunami wave runup (~50 m), (2) two debris lobes associated with the blocks, (3) a series of gullies, channels and talus, near the fjord-head delta and badly damaged old town of Valdez, and (4) the front of a debris lobe that flowed half-way down the fjord from the east end.

  2. Succession on regraded placer mine spoil in Alaska, USA, in relation to initial site characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, R.V.

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated the rate and pattern of natural succession on regraded placer mine spoil in relation to initial substrate characteristics. The study site was the Glen Creek watershed of the Kantishna mining area of Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska. After regrading, twelve 0.01-ha plots were established and substrate characteristics were measured. Natural plant succession was evaluated after five growing seasons. Three successional patterns were identified on the basis of plant community characteristics using cluster analysis, and were related to substrate characteristics. First, a riparian plant community with vigorous Salix alaxensis and Alnus crispa grew rapidly on topsoil that had been spread over the regraded spoil. Second, a similar plant community with less vigorous S. alaxensis developed more slowly on unprocessed spoil and spoil amended with a small amount of topsoil. Third, processed spoil remained almost bare of vegetation, although S. alaxensis was able to establish and persist in a stunted growth form. In contrast, Alnus crispa had difficulty establishing on processed spoil, but the few established seedlings grew well. Several substrate variables, including the proportion of silt and clay vs. sand, total nitrogen, and water retention capacity, were good predictors of the rate and pattern of succession. Total nitrogen was the best single predictor for the number of vigorous S. alaxensis.

  3. Chemical contaminants in gray whales (eschichtius robustus) stranded in Alaska, Washington, and California, USA. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Varanasi, U.; Stein, J.E.; Tilbury, K.L.; Meador, J.P.; Sloan, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    The concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethanes (DDTs), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p- chlorophenyl) ethenes (DDEs), and chlordanes, and essential (e.g., zinc, selenium, copper) and toxic (e.g., mercury, lead) elements were measured in tissues and stomach contents from 22 gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) stranded between 1988 and 1991. The stranding sites ranged from the relatively pristine areas of Kodiak Island, Alaska, to more urbanized areas in Puget Sound, Washington, and San Francisco Bay, California, with the majority of the sites on the Washington outer coast and in Puget Sound. Similar to concentrations in tissues, no significant differences were observed in concentrations of elements in stomach contents between whales stranded in Puget Sound and whales stranded at the more pristine sites. The lack of data from apparently healthy gray whales limits the assessment of whether the levels of anthropogenic contaminants found in tissues may have deleterious effects on the health of gray whales.

  4. Marine tephrochronology of the Mt. Edgecumbe volcanic field, southeast Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Addison, Jason A.; Beget, James E.; Ager, Thomas A.; Finney, Bruce P.

    2010-01-01

    The Mt. Edgecumbe Volcanic Field (MEVF), located on Kruzof Island near Sitka Sound in southeast Alaska, experienced a large multiple-stage eruption during the last glacial maximum (LGM)-Holocene transition that generated a regionally extensive series of compositionally similar rhyolite tephra horizons and a single well-dated dacite (MEd) tephra. Marine sediment cores collected from adjacent basins to the MEVF contain both tephra-fall and pyroclastic flow deposits that consist primarily of rhyolitic tephra and a minor dacitic tephra unit. The recovered dacite tephra correlates with the MEd tephra, whereas many of the rhyolitic tephras correlate with published MEVF rhyolites. Correlations were based on age constraints and major oxide compositions of glass shards. In addition to LGM-Holocene macroscopic tephra units, four marine cryptotephras were also identified. Three of these units appear to be derived from mid-Holocene MEVF activity, while the youngest cryptotephra corresponds well with the White River Ash eruption at not, vert, similar 1147 cal yr BP. Furthermore, the sedimentology of the Sitka Sound marine core EW0408-40JC and high-resolution SWATH bathymetry both suggest that extensive pyroclastic flow deposits associated with the activity that generated the MEd tephra underlie Sitka Sound, and that any future MEVF activity may pose significant risk to local population centers.

  5. Glacier mass-balance fluctuations in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josberger, Edward G.; Bidlake, William R.; March, Rod S.; Kennedy, Ben W.

    2007-10-01

    The more than 40 year record of net and seasonal mass-balance records from measurements made by the United States Geological Survey on South Cascade Glacier, Washington, and Wolverine and Gulkana Glaciers, Alaska, shows annual and interannual fluctuations that reflect changes in the controlling climatic conditions at regional and global scales. As the mass-balance record grows in length, it is revealing significant changes in previously described glacier mass-balance behavior, and both inter-glacier and glacier-climate relationships. South Cascade and Wolverine Glaciers are strongly affected by the warm and wet maritime climate of the northeast Pacific Ocean. Their net balances have generally been controlled by winter accumulation, with fluctuations that are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Recently, warm dry summers have begun to dominate the net balance of the two maritime glaciers, with a weakening of the correlation between the winter balance fluctuations and the PDO. Non-synchronous periods of positive and negative net balance for each glacier prior to 1989 were followed by a 1989-2004 period of synchronous and almost exclusively negative net balances that averaged -0.8 m for the three glaciers.

  6. Glacier mass-balance fluctuations in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Josberger, E.G.; Bidlake, W.R.; March, R.S.; Kennedy, B.W.

    2007-01-01

    The more than 40 year record of net and seasonal mass-balance records from measurements made by the United States Geological Survey on South Cascade Glacier, Washington, and Wolverine and Gulkana Glaciers, Alaska, shows annual and interannual fluctuations that reflect changes in the controlling climatic conditions at regional and global scales. As the mass-balance record grows in length, it is revealing significant changes in previously described glacier mass-balance behavior, and both inter-glacier and glacier-climate relationships. South Cascade and Wolverine Glaciers are strongly affected by the warm and wet maritime climate of the northeast Pacific Ocean. Their net balances have generally been controlled by winter accumulation, with fluctuations that are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Recently, warm dry summers have begun to dominate the net balance of the two maritime glaciers, with a weakening of the correlation between the winter balance fluctuations and the PDO. Non-synchronous periods of positive and negative net balance for each glacier prior to 1989 were followed by a 1989-2004 period of synchronous and almost exclusively negative net balances that averaged -0.8 m for the three glaciers.

  7. Interaction Between Lakes and Terrestrial Ecosystem Dynamics in the Yukon River Floodplain, in Interior Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, V.; Griffith, B.; Euskirchen, E. S.

    2012-12-01

    Lakes have been decreasing in size and abundance in boreal ecosystems around the world. However, while as many as 35% of lakes in parts of interior Alaska are smaller than they were 50 years ago, up to 20% of lakes in the same regions experience large annual and intra-annual fluctuations in area (flooding), which have been linked to climate patterns via winter snowpack densities and the timing of spring thaw. Lake drying and flooding regime may influence plant community dynamics (e.g. succession), productivity, nutrient availability, and respiration, and thereby affect the carbon sink strength of boreal lake-margin wetlands. Climate change is likely to amplify drying trends and alter flooding patterns simultaneously. Predicting the future dynamics of boreal wetland complexes therefore requires quantifying the effects of flooding and drying on ecosystem processes, and the relative importance of these two mechanisms. In this study, we test the following hypotheses: 1) Both drying trends and flooding regime significantly affect lake-margin productivity, composition, and C storage by affecting soil moisture and soil nutrient concentrations, 2) frequently flooding lakes are associated with elevated soil moisture and productivity, but reduced soil carbon and nitrogen content, due to the differential influence of moisture on photosynthesis and decomposition, while drying lakes should show opposite trends. This study was conducted in the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge, located 150 miles north of Fairbanks Alaska. We measured aboveground biomass, aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), and a suite of soil characteristics within 100m of the lakeshore at 16 lakes in 2011 and 2012. Soil measurements included soil moisture, peat depth, seasonal thaw depth, total soil carbon and nitrogen, and available inorganic nitrogen. We classified lakes as drying, frequently flooding, or stable using remotely sensed measurements of long term trends as well as annual & intra

  8. The slow advance of a calving glacier: Hubbard Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trabant, D.C.; Krimmel, R.M.; Echelmeyer, K.A.; Zirnheld, S.L.; Elsberg, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    Hubbard Glacier is the largest tidewater glacier in North America. In contrast to most glaciers in Alaska and northwestern Canada, Hubbard Glacier thickened and advanced during the 20th century. This atypical behavior is an important example of how insensitive to climate a glacier can become during parts of the calving glacier cycle. As this glacier continues to advance, it will close the seaward entrance to 50 km long Russell Fjord and create a glacier-dammed, brackish-water lake. This paper describes measured changes in ice thickness, ice speed, terminus advance and fjord bathymetry of Hubbard Glacier, as determined from airborne laser altimetry, aerial photogrammetry, satellite imagery and bathymetric measurements. The data show that the lower regions of the glacier have thickened by as much as 83 m in the last 41 years, while the entire glacier increased in volume by 14.1 km3. Ice speeds are generally decreasing near the calving face from a high of 16.5 m d-1 in 1948 to 11.5 m d-1 in 2001. The calving terminus advanced at an average rate of about 16 m a-1 between 1895 and 1948 and accelerated to 32 m a-1 since 1948. However, since 1986, the advance of the part of the terminus in Disenchantment Bay has slowed to 28 m a-1. Bathymetric data from the lee slope of the submarine terminal moraine show that between 1978 and 1999 the moraine advanced at an average rate of 32 m a-1, which is the same as that of the calving face.

  9. Organochlorine contaminants in fishes from coastal waters west of Amukta Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Miles, A Keith; Ricca, Mark A; Anthony, Robert G; Estes, James A

    2009-08-01

    Organochlorines were examined in liver and stable isotopes in muscle of fishes from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, in relation to islands or locations affected by military occupation. Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus), Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis), and rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus) were collected from nearshore waters at contemporary (decommissioned) and historical (World War II) military locations, as well as at reference locations. Total (Sigma) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) dominated the suite of organochlorine groups (SigmaDDTs, Sigmachlordane cyclodienes, Sigmaother cyclodienes, and Sigmachlorinated benzenes and cyclohexanes) detected in fishes at all locations, followed by SigmaDDTs and Sigmachlordanes; dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'DDE) composed 52 to 66% of SigmaDDTs by species. Organochlorine concentrations were higher or similar in cod compared to halibut and lowest in greenling; they were among the highest for fishes in Arctic or near Arctic waters. Organochlorine group concentrations varied among species and locations, but SigmaPCB concentrations in all species were consistently higher at military locations than at reference locations. Moreover, all organochlorine group concentrations were higher in halibut from military locations than those from reference locations. A wide range of molecular weight organochlorines was detected at all locations, which implied regional or long-range transport and deposition, as well as local point-source contamination. Furthermore, a preponderance of higher-chlorinated PCB congeners in fishes from contemporary military islands implied recent exposure. Concentrations in all organochlorine groups increased with delta15N enrichment in fishes, and analyses of residual variation provided further evidence of different sources of SigmaPCBs and p,p'DDE among species and locations.

  10. Quantification of total mercury in liver and heart tissue of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) from Alaska USA

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, Kady B.; Hoover-Miller, Anne; Conlon, Suzanne; Prewitt, Jill; O'Shea, Stephen K.

    2011-11-15

    This study quantified the Hg levels in the liver (n=98) and heart (n=43) tissues of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) (n=102) harvested from Prince William Sound and Kodiak Island Alaska. Mercury tissue dry weight (dw) concentrations in the liver ranged from 1.7 to 393 ppm dw, and in the heart from 0.19 to 4.99 ppm dw. Results of this study indicate liver and heart tissues' Hg ppm dw concentrations significantly increase with age. Male Harbor Seals bioaccumulated Hg in both their liver and heart tissues at a significantly faster rate than females. The liver Hg bioaccumulation rates between the harvest locations Kodiak Island and Prince William Sound were not found to be significantly different. On adsorption Hg is transported throughout the Harbor Seal's body with the partition coefficient higher for the liver than the heart. No significant differences in the bio-distribution (liver:heart Hg ppm dw ratios (n=38)) values were found with respect to either age, sex or geographic harvest location. In this study the age at which Hg liver and heart bioaccumulation levels become significantly distinct in male and female Harbor Seals were identified through a Tukey's analysis. Of notably concern to human health was a male Harbor Seal's liver tissue harvested from Kodiak Island region. Mercury accumulation in this sample tissue was determined through a Q-test to be an outlier, having far higher Hg concentrarion (liver 392 Hg ppm dw) than the general population sampled. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury accumulation in the liver and heart of seals exceed food safety guidelines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accumulation rate is greater in males than females with age. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Liver mercury accumulation is greater than in the heart tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury determination by USA EPA Method 7473 using thermal decomposition.

  11. Hydrography and circulation of ice-marginal lakes at Bering Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Josberger, E.G.; Shuchman, R.A.; Meadows, G.A.; Savage, S.; Payne, J.

    2006-01-01

    An extensive suite of physical oceanographic, remotely sensed, and water quality measurements, collected from 2001 through 2004 in two ice-marginal lakes at Bering Glacier, Alaska-Berg Lake and Vitus Lake-show that each has a unique circulation controlled by their specific physical forcing within the glacial system. Conductivity profiles from Berg Lake, perched 135 m a.s.l., show no salt in the lake, but the temperature profiles indicate an apparently unstable situation, the 4??C density maximum is located at 10 m depth, not at the bottom of the lake (90 m depth). Subglacial discharge from the Steller Glacier into the bottom of the lake must inject a suspended sediment load sufficient to marginally stabilize the water column throughout the lake. In Vitus Lake, terminus positions derived from satellite imagery show that the glacier terminus rapidly retreated from 1995 to the present resulting in a substantial expansion of the volume of Vitus Lake. Conductivity and temperature profiles from the tidally influenced Vitus Lake show a complex four-layer system with diluted (???50%) seawater in the bottom of the lake. This lake has a complex vertical structure that is the result of convection generated by ice melting in salt water, stratification within the lake, and freshwater entering the lake from beneath the glacier and surface runoff. Four consecutive years, from 2001 to 2004, of these observations in Vitus Lake show little change in the deep temperature and salinity conditions, indicating limited deep water renewal. The combination of the lake level measurements with discharge measurements, through a tidal cycle, by an acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) deployed in the Seal River, which drains the entire Bering system, showed a strong tidal influence but no seawater entry into Vitus Lake. The ADCP measurements combined with lake level measurements established a relationship between lake level and discharge, which when integrated over a tidal cycle, gives a

  12. Variations in melt inputs and basal sliding velocity on the Kennicott Glacier, Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, W. H.; Barnhart, K. R.; Anderson, R. S.; Rajaram, H.

    2012-12-01

    We present glacier surface motion, meteorologic, and hydrologic observations from the 2012 melt season on the Kennicott Glacier near McCarthy, Alaska. We record 15-second global positioning system (GPS) data from five monuments along the glacier centerline, 10-minute water level data from pressure sensors in four ice-marginal basins and one on the glacier outlet river, 10-minute air temperature and ablation rates, and one-hour time-lapse photography on two ice-marginal basins and the outlet stream. We use these data to investigate linkages between subglacial hydrology and glacier basal sliding velocity. Time-lapse imagery and pressure sensor time series capture a complicated early season fill-and-drain sequence on an ice-marginal lake, likely reflecting the interplay between melt supply and development of a hydrologic link between the basin and a presumed nearby low-pressure subglacial conduit. We also capture a midsummer jökulhlaup in which 20-30 x 10^6 cubic meters of water drain from the ice-dammed Hidden Creek Lake over the course of 60 hours. The flood wave propagates down-glacier, reaching the glacier terminus 15 kilometers away about 30 hours after the initiation of lake drainage. The flood wave raises stage by many tens of meters in ice-marginal basins and doubles discharge on the outlet stream. We compare water level records to differential GPS time series to monitor the glacier sliding response to seasonal, daily, and event-based variations in water inputs. This study builds on our 2006 research in the area by increasing GPS monument density, extending the monitoring season, and including time-lapse photography. These improvements allow us to resolve in greater temporal and spatial detail the glacier's response to hydrologic conditions throughout the melt season. Although the 2012 summer was generally cooler than summer 2006, we find remarkable similarity between the outburst flood hydrographs for the two years, indicating similarities in the evolution

  13. Intrusive rocks and plutonic belts of southeastern Alaska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brew, David A.; Morrell, Robert P.; Roddick, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    About 30 percent of the 175,000-km2 area of southeastern Alaska is underlain by intrusive igneous rocks. Compilation of available information on the distribution, composition, and ages of these rocks indicates the presence of six major and six minor plutonic belts. From west to east, the major belts are: the Fairweather-Baranof belt of early to mid-Tertiary granodiorite; the Muir-Chichagof belt of mid-Cretaceous tonalite and granodiorite; the Admiralty-Revillagigedo belt of porphyritic granodiorite, quartz diorite, and diorite of probable Cretaceous age; the Klukwan-Duke belt of concentrically zoned or Alaskan-type ultramafic-mafic plutons of mid-Cretaceous age within the Admiralty-Revillagigedo belt; the Coast Plutonic Complex sill belt of tonalite of unknown, but perhaps mid-Cretaceous, age; and the Coast Plutonic Complex belt I of early to mid-Tertiary granodiorite and quartz monzonite. The minor belts are distributed as follows: the Glacier Bay belt of Cretaceous and(or) Tertiary granodiorite, tonalite, and quartz diorite lies within the Fair-weather-Baranof belt; layered gabbro complexes of inferred mid-Tertiary age lie within and are probably related to the Fairweather-Baranof belt; the Chilkat-Chichagof belt of Jurassic granodiorite and tonalite lies within the Muir-Chichagof belt; the Sitkoh Bay alkaline, the Kendrick Bay pyroxenite to quartz monzonite, and the Annette and Cape Fox trondhjemite plutons, all interpreted to be of Ordovician(?) age, together form the crude southern southeastern Alaska belt within the Muir-Chichagof belt; the Kuiu-Etolin mid-Tertiary belt of volcanic and plutonic rocks extends from the Muir-Chichagof belt eastward into the Admiralty-Revillagigedo belt; and the Behm Canal belt of mid- to late Tertiary granite lies within and next to Coast Plutonic Complex belt II. In addition, scattered mafic-ultramafic bodies occur within the Fairweather-Baranof, Muir-Chichagof, and Coast Plutonic Complex belts I and II. Palinspastic

  14. Alaska telemedicine: growth through collaboration.

    PubMed

    Patricoski, Chris

    2004-12-01

    The last thirty years have brought the introduction and expansion of telecommunications to rural and remote Alaska. The intellectual and financial investment of earlier projects, the more recent AFHCAN Project and the Universal Service Administrative Company Rural Health Care Division (RHCD) has sparked a new era in telemedicine and telecommunication across Alaska. This spark has been flamed by the dedication and collaboration of leaders at he highest levels of organizations such as: AFHCAN member organizations, AFHCAN Office, Alaska Clinical Engineering Services, Alaska Federal Health Care Partnership, Alaska Federal Health Care Partnership Office, Alaska Native health Board, Alaska Native Tribal health Consortium, Alaska Telehealth Advisory Council, AT&T Alascom, GCI Inc., Health care providers throughout the state of Alaska, Indian Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of U.S. Senator Ted Steens, State of Alaska, U.S. Department of Homeland Security--United States Coast Guard, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Department of Defense--Air Force and Army, United States Department of Veterans Affairs, University of Alaska, and University of Alaska Anchorage. Alaska now has one of the largest telemedicine programs in the world. As Alaska moves system now in place become self-sustaining, and 2) collaborating with all stakeholders in promoting the growth of an integrated, state-wide telemedicine network.

  15. Alaska School District Cost Study Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Bradford H.; Berman, Matthew; Hill, Alexandra

    2005-01-01

    The Legislative Budget and Audit Committee of the Alaska Legislature has asked The Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER) at the University of Alaska Anchorage to make certain changes and adjustments to the Geographic Cost of Education Index (GCEI) that the American Institutes for Research (AIR) constructed and reported on in Alaska…

  16. A radiocarbon-based inventory of methane and inorganic carbon dissolved in surface lake waters in arctic Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czimczik, Claudia; Clayton, Elder; Xu, Xiaomei; Lehman, Jennifer; Townsend-Small, Amy

    2014-05-01

    Major uncertainties in land-atmosphere carbon (C) exchange in the rapidly warming and wetting Arctic are 1) the magnitude and timing of net losses of ancient permafrost C to the atmosphere and 2) the relative changes of C exchange as carbon dioxide (CO2) or the more powerful greenhouse gas methane (CH4). For CH4, the role of diffusive fluxes versus plant-mediated and ebullition fluxes is poorly constrained. Radiocarbon (14C) is a unique tracer for distinguishing ancient permafrost C from C rapidly cycling between the land and atmosphere. In addition, stable isotope ratios (13C/12C and D/H) provide insight to trace gas production and consumption pathways. Previous measurements, however, have focused on CH4 from ebullition fluxes due to technical and logistical challenges in 14C-CH4 analysis. We quantified the 14C content and δ13C signatures of dissolved CH4 and DIC in lake surface waters along a north-south transect on the North Slope of Alaska, USA (69.9°N to 71.28°N, -156.12°W to -156.32°W). Samples were collected at the end of winter before ice break-up (April 2013) and during summer (August 2012 & 2013) in 1 L bottles. A subset of samples was also analyzed for CH4 and CO2 concentrations and stable isotope ratios by the Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON). In addition, in August 2013, we measured the 14C content and δ13C ratios of lake-atmosphere CH4 and CO2 exchange near Barrow, AK, USA (71°N, -156°W). We obtained dissolved CH4 and CO2 sufficient for 14C analysis from lakes with concentrations as low as 0.01 mg C /L) using a novel, in situ preconcentration method (liqui-cel, Membrana). And, we measured and collected isoflux samples of simulated, near-shore ebulltion-derived CH4 and CO2 using floating headspace chambers. Isotope samples were processed using a novel, flow-through vacuum line and analyzed at the KCCAMS facility at the University of California, Irvine, USA with accelerator (0.5MV 1.5SDH-2, National Electrostatics Corporation) and

  17. Airborne particulate matter from primarily geologic, non-industrial sources at levels below National Ambient Air Quality Standards is associated with outpatient visits for asthma and quick-relief medication prescriptions among children less than 20 years old enrolled in Medicaid in Anchorage, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Chimonas, Marc-Andre R; Gessner, Bradford D

    2007-03-01

    In Anchorage, Alaska, particulates with aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 micro m (PM(10)) arise primarily from natural, geologic sources, and particulates with aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 micro m (PM(2.5)) arise primarily from automobile emissions. The current study used a population-based time-series analysis design to evaluate the effects of daily and weekly PM(10) and PM(2.5) on respiratory health outcomes among children <20 years of age residing in Anchorage enrolled in Medicaid. All generated estimating equations models were adjusted for season, year, weekends, temperature, wind speed, and precipitation. Relative to the days with PM(10) mass concentration < or = 13 micro g/m(3), a significant 9.3% increase (RR: 1.093, 95% CI: 1.004-1.191) in the rate of outpatient visits for asthma occurred during days with PM(10) of 20-33 micro g/m(3). No further dose-response occurred for days with PM(10) > or = 34 micro g/m(3). A significant 18.1% increase (RR: 1.181, 95% CI: 1.010-1.381) in the rate of quick-relief medication prescriptions occurred during days with PM(10) of 34-60 micro g/m(3), and a 28.8% increase (RR: 1.288, 95% CI: 1.026-1.619) occurred during days with PM(10) > or = 61 micro g/m(3). Similar results for outpatient asthma visits and quick-relief medication occurred in weekly models. There were no significant associations with PM(2.5) in either daily or weekly models. These subtle but statistically significant associations suggest that non-industrial, geologic sources of PM(10) may have measurable health effects at levels below current national standards.

  18. Association of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus with epizootic hemorrhages of the skin in Pacific herring Clupea harengus pallasi from Prince William Sound and Kodiak Island, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyers, T.R.; Short, S.; Lipson, K.; Batts, W.N.; Winton, J.R.; Wilcock, J.; Brown, E.

    1994-01-01

    Only one-third of the Pacific hernng Clupea harengus pallasi expected to spawn in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, USA, in sprlng 1993 were observed. Of these herring, 15 to 43 '% had external ulcers or subdermal hemorrhages of the skln and fins. A rhabdovirus identified as the North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from affected herring and 1 Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus with skin lesions from PWS, and from herring with similar lesions collected near Kodiak Island. No other pathogens were detected in the herring examined. Although VHSV may have been responsible for the skin lesions, there was no confirmed mass herring mortality observed in PWS; hence the actual cause of the reduced herring numbers is still unknown. The same strain of VHSV was subsequently isolated from captive juvenile herring collected from Auke Bay, Alaska, near Juneau, from herring in British Columbia, Canada, and from Puget Sound, Washington, USA. These findings suggest the virus is an opportunistic pathogen that is widely indigenous to Pacific herring populations in the Pacific Northwest and that herring are a significant marine reservoir for North American VHSV.

  19. Problems of Definition of Tribe in Alaska Relating to Public Law 93-638. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Indian Affairs of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, United States Senate, 94th Congress, 2nd Session on Problems Associated with the Statutory Definitions of Tribe as They Relate to Native Alaskans (Juneau, Alaska, September 2, 1976; Anchorage, Alaska, September 3, 1976; Bethel, Alaska, September 4, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.

    Testimony presented in these hearings centers on the legal problems derived from the many and varied statutory definitions of "tribe" and the resulting confusion on the part of the administrators of Federal programs designed to benefit American Indians and Alaska Natives (e.g., in Alaska, there are currently about 465 legal entities…

  20. Anchorage School District Profile of Performance 1996-97. Assessment and Evaluation Report #97-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Ray

    This report focuses on student achievement across the Anchorage (Alaska) school district and within its individual programs. It does not include information on the social and physical wellness of the district's students. The first section of the report provides an overview of district performance on critical achievement indicators, and the second…

  1. Red-throated loons (Gavia stellata) breeding in Alaska, USA, are exposed to PCBs while on their Asian wintering grounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.; Trust, K.A.; Matz, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Red-throated loons (Gavia stellata) breeding in Alaska declined 53% during 1977-1993. We compare concentrations of environmental contaminants in red-throated loons among four nesting areas in Alaska and discuss potential ramifications of exposure on reproductive success and population trends. Eggs from the four areas had similar total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations, but eggs from the Arctic coastal plain had different congener profiles and greater toxic equivalents (TEQs) than eggs from elsewhere. Satellite telemetry data indicate that red-throated loons from the Arctic coastal plain in northern Alaska winter in southeast Asia, while those breeding elsewhere in Alaska winter in North America. Different wintering areas may lead to differential PCB accumulation among red-throated loon populations. For eggs from the Arctic coastal plain, TEQs were great enough to postulate PCB-associated reproductive effects in piscivores. The correlation between migration patterns and PCB profiles suggests that red-throated loons breeding in northern Alaska are exposed to PCBs while on their Asian wintering grounds.

  2. Exploration case study using indicator minerals in till at the giant Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit, southwest Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Kelley, Karen D.; Fey, David L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Smith, Steven G.

    2011-01-01

    The Pebble deposit in southwest Alaska (Fig. 1) contains one of the largest resources of copper and gold in the world. It includes a measured and indicated resource of 5,942 million tonnes (Mt) at 0.42% Cu, 0.35 g/t Au, and 250 ppm Mo (0.30% copper equivalent, CuEQ, cut off) and contains significant concentrations of Ag, Pd, and Re (Northern Dynasty Minerals 2011). The deposit remains open at depth. The Pebble West zone was discovered in 1989 by Cominco American. In 2005, Northern Dynasty Minerals Ltd. (NDM) discovered Pebble East, and in July 2007, NDM partnered with Anglo American to form the Pebble Limited Partnership (PLP). The U.S. Geological Survey began collaborative investigations with PLP in 2007 to identify techniques that will improve mineral exploration in covered terranes. The Pebble deposit is an ideal location for such a study because the deposit is undisturbed (except for drilling), is almost entirely concealed by post-mineral volcanic rocks and glacial deposits, and because its distribution is well constrained in the subsurface by PLP’s drill-hole geology and geochemistry. An exploration method developed by Averill (2007) that utilizes porphyry copper indicator minerals (PCIMR) in glacial till samples was applied at Pebble; samples were collected up- and down-ice (of former glaciers) from the deposit. The distribution of several PCIMs identifies the deposit, which suggests that PCIMs may be useful in exploration for other concealed porphyry deposits in the region. In this study, we compare the efficacy of PCIMs relative to that of pond and stream sediments also collected in the deposit area. The Pebble deposit is located 380 km southwest of Anchorage, in the Bristol Bay region of southwest Alaska. There is no road network and access to the study area is by helicopter. The deposit is situated in a broad glacially sculpted topographic low at the head of three drainages, Talarik Creek, North Fork Koktuli River, and the South Fork Koktuli River (Fig

  3. Late Pleistocene paleoecology of arctic ground squirrel ( Urocitellus parryii) caches and nests from Interior Alaska's mammoth steppe ecosystem, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaglioti, Benjamin V.; Barnes, Brian M.; Zazula, Grant D.; Beaudoin, Alwynne B.; Wooller, Matthew J.

    2011-11-01

    Botanical analyses of fossil and modern arctic ground squirrel ( Urocitellus parryii) caches and nests have been used to reconstruct the past vegetation from some parts of Beringia, but such archives are understudied in Alaska. Five modern and four fossil samples from arctic ground squirrel caches and nests provide information on late Pleistocene vegetation in Eastern Beringia. Modern arctic ground squirrel caches from Alaska's arctic tundra were dominated by willow and grass leaves and grass seeds and bearberries, which were widespread in the local vegetation as confirmed by vegetation surveys. Late Pleistocene caches from Interior Alaska were primarily composed of steppe and dry tundra graminoid and herb seeds. Graminoid cuticle analysis of fossil leaves identified Calamagrostis canadensis, Koeleria sp. and Carex albonigra as being common in the fossil samples. Stable carbon isotopes analysis of these graminoid specimens indicated that plants using the C 3 photosynthetic pathways were present and functioning with medium to high water-use efficiency. Fossil plant taxa and environments from ground squirrel caches in Alaska are similar to other macrofossil assemblages from the Yukon Territory, which supports the existence of a widespread mammoth steppe ecosystem type in Eastern Beringia that persisted throughout much of the late Pleistocene.

  4. [Different orthodontic anchorage systems. A critical examination].

    PubMed

    Diedrich, P

    1993-08-01

    Every orthodontic measure requires a detailed analysis of the individual anchorage situation in order to absorb (stationary anchorage) or control (reciprocal anchorage) the reactive forces and moments. Basically, an anchorage is oriented to the quality of the biological anchorage of the teeth. This is influenced by a number of factors: size of root surface, attachment level, density and structure of alveolar bone, periodontal reactivity, muscular activity, occlusal forces, craniofacial morphology and the nature of the tooth movement resulting from the planned correction. The quality of the biological anchorage may be enhanced by selective modification of the position of the anchor teeth: cortical anchorage of the first molar (Ricketts), distal inclination of the molars (Tweed, Begg) and differential torque control (Burstone). In this context, undesired anchorage effects also need to be discussed, for example interaction between the teeth being corrected and compact bone structures (symphysis menti, floor of the maxillary sinus) or the loss of anchorage by periodontal hyalinization or excessive friction within the bracket slot. In addition, the anchorage situation of ankylosed teeth and endosseous implants, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of additional mechanical anchorage aids (head-gear, Nance holding arch, lingual arch) are discussed. On the basis of the complexity of the individual biological and biomechanical aspects, guidelines are derived with which to establish anchorage control matched to the specific situation.

  5. Biogeochemical characterization of an undisturbed highly acidic, metal-rich bryophyte habitat, east-central Alaska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, L.P.; Eppinger, R.G.; Briggs, P.H.; Giles, S.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the geochemistry of soil and bryophyte-laden sediment and on the biogeochemistry of willows growing in an undisturbed volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in the Alaska Range ecoregion of east-central Alaska. We also describe an unusual bryophyte assemblage found growing in the acidic metal-rich waters that drain the area. Ferricrete-cemented silty alluvial sediments within seeps and streams are covered with the liverwort Gymnocolea inflata whereas the mosses Polytrichum commune and P. juniperinum inhabit the area adjacent to the water and within the splash zone. Both the liverwort-encrusted sediment and Polytrichum thalli have high concentrations of major and trace metal cations (e.g., Al, As, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mn, Pb, and Zn). Soils in the area do not reflect the geochemical signature of the mineral deposit and we postulate they are influenced by the chemistry of eolian sediments derived from outside the deposit area. The willow, Salix pulchra, growing mostly within and adjacent to the larger streams, has much higher concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Fe, La, Pb, and Zn when compared to the same species collected in non-mineralized areas of Alaska. The Cd levels are especially high and are shown to exceed, by an order of magnitude, levels demonstrated to be toxic to ptarmigan in Colorado. Willow, growing in this naturally occurring metal-rich Red Mountain alteration zone, may adversely affect the health of browsing animals. ?? 2006 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  6. Economic Education Experiences of Award Winning Alaska Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Monica, Ed.

    Award-winning economic education projects devised by Alaska teachers included three elementary (K-6) projects and three second level (7-12) ones. Faith Greenough's students (Chinook Elementary School, Anchorage) compared Tlingit traditional and market economies in Alaska, so economics became an integrated part of elementary instruction. Marie…

  7. Geologic map of the Cook Inlet region, Alaska, including parts of the Talkeetna, Talkeetna Mountains, Tyonek, Anchorage, Lake Clark, Kenai, Seward, Iliamna, Seldovia, Mount Katmai, and Afognak 1:250,000-scale quadrangles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.; Schmoll, Henry R.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Yehle, Lynn A.; Labay, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    In 1976, L.B. Magoon, W.L. Adkinson, and R.M. Egbert published a major geologic map of the Cook Inlet region, which has served well as a compilation of existing information and a guide for future research and mapping. The map in this report updates Magoon and others (1976) and incorporates new and additional mapping and interpretation. This map is also a revision of areas of overlap with the geologic map completed for central Alaska (Wilson and others, 1998). Text from that compilation remains appropriate and is summarized here; many compromises have been made in strongly held beliefs to allow construction of this compilation. Yet our willingness to make interpretations and compromises does not allow resolution of all mapping conflicts. Nonetheless, we hope that geologists who have mapped in this region will recognize that, in incorporating their work, our regional correlations may have required some generalization or lumping of map units. Many sources were used to produce this geologic map and, in most cases, data from available maps were combined, without generalization, and new data were added where available. A preliminary version of this map was published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009–1108. The main differences between the versions concern revised mapping of surfical deposits in the northern and eastern parts of the map area. Minor error corrections have been made also.

  8. Temporary anchorage devices – Mini-implants

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kamlesh; Kumar, Deepak; Jaiswal, Raj Kumar; Bansal, Amol

    2010-01-01

    Orthodontists are accustomed to using teeth and auxiliary appliances, both intraoral and extraoral, to control anchorage. These methods are limited in that it is often difficult to achieve results commensurate with our idealistic goals. Recently, a number of case reports have appeared in the orthodontic literature documenting the possibility of overcoming anchorage limitations via the use of temporary anchorage devices—biocompatible devices fixed to bone for the purpose of moving teeth, with the devices being subsequently removed after treatment. Although skeletal anchorage is here to stay in orthodontics, there are still many unanswered questions. This article describes the development of skeletal anchorage and provides an overview of the use of implants for orthodontic anchorage. PMID:22442547

  9. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Cook Inlet Region, Alaska-Including Parts of the Talkeetna, Talkeetna Mountains, Tyonek, Anchorage, Lake Clark, Kenai, Seward, Iliamna, Seldovia, Mount Katmai, and Afognak 1:250,000-scale Quadrangles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geologic map compiled by Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.; Schmoll, Henry R.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Yehle, Lynn A.; Digital files prepared by Wilson, Frederic H.; Labay, Keith A.; Shew, Nora

    2009-01-01

    The growth in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has highlighted the need for digital geologic maps that have been attributed with information about age and lithology. Such maps can be conveniently used to generate derivative maps for manifold special purposes such as mineral-resource assessment, metallogenic studies, tectonic studies, and environmental research. This report is part of a series of integrated geologic map databases that cover the entire United States. Three national-scale geologic maps that portray most or all of the United States already exist; for the conterminous U.S., King and Beikman (1974a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:2,500,000, Beikman (1980) compiled a map for Alaska at 1:2,500,000 scale, and for the entire U.S., Reed and others (2005a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:5,000,000. A digital version of the King and Beikman map was published by Schruben and others (1994). Reed and Bush (2004) produced a digital version of the Reed and others (2005a) map for the conterminous U.S. The present series of maps is intended to provide the next step in increased detail. State geologic maps that range in scale from 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000 are available for most of the country, and digital versions of these state maps are the basis of this product. The digital geologic maps presented here are in a standardized format as ARC/INFO export files and as ArcView shape files. The files named __geol contain geologic polygons and line (contact) attributes; files named __fold contain fold axes; files named __lin contain lineaments; and files named __dike contain dikes as lines. Data tables that relate the map units to detailed lithologic and age information accompany these GIS files. The map is delivered as a set 1:250,000-scale quadrangle files. To the best of our ability, these quadrangle files are edge-matched with respect to geology. When the maps are merged, the combined attribute tables can be used directly with the merged maps to make

  10. Role of lake regulation on glacier fed rivers in enhancing salmon productivity: The Cook Inlet watershed south central Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Rivers fed by glaciers constitute a major part of the freshwater runoff into the Cook Inlet basin of south-central Alaska. This basin is very important to the economy of the State of Alaska because it is home to more than half of the population and it supports multi-million dollar commercial, subsistence and sport fisheries. Hence an understanding of how glacial runoff influences biological productivity is important for managing rivers that drain into Cook Inlet. This paper examines the ways in which the regulation of glacier-fed rivers by proglacial lakes affects salmon productivity, with particular reference to the Kenai River. Salmon escapement per unit channel length on the Kenai River is between two and ten times that found for rain-and-snowmelt dominated rivers and glacier-fed rivers lacking lake regulation. Lakes are shown to influence biological processes in glacier-fed rivers by attenuating peak flows, sustaining high flows throughout the summer, supplementing winter low flows, settling suspended sediment, and increasing river temperatures. Downstream from large lakes, glacier-fed rivers are less disturbed, channels are relatively stable and have well-developed salmonid habitats. The positive influences are indicated by the high diversity and abundances of benthic macroinvertebrates, which are important food resources for juvenile salmonids. High summer flows allow access for up-river salmon runs and lakes also provide both overwintering and rearing habitat. Copyright ?? 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Rivers fed by glaciers constitute a major part of the freshwater runoff into the Cook Inlet basin of south-central Alaska. This basin is very important to the economy of the State of Alaska because it is home to more than half of the population and it supports multi-million dollar commercial, subsistence and sport fisheries. Hence an understanding of how glacial runoff influences biological productivity is important for managing rivers that drain into Cook Inlet

  11. New U/Pb ages from granite and granite gneiss in the Ruby geanticline and southern Brooks Range, Alaska ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, W.W.; Stern, T.W.; Arth, Joseph G.; Carlson, C.

    1987-01-01

    New U/Pb zircon ages from the Ray Mountains of central Alaska clarify the plutonic history of the Ruby geanticline and support earlier suggestions that the Ruby geanticline and S Brooks Range were once parts of the same tectonostratigraphic terrane. U/Pb zircon ages of 109 to 112 Ma from the Ray Mountains pluton confirm previously reported mid-Cretaceous K/Ar ages and rule out the possibility that the earliest intrusive phase of the pluton is older than mid-Cretaceous K/Ar ages and rule out the possibility that the earliest intrusive phase of the pluton is older than mid- Cretaceous. New U/Pb zircon ages from 4 granite gneiss samples in the Ray Mountains indicate a Devonian protolith age of 390+ or -12 Ma and suggest that the Ruby geanticline, like the S Brooks Range, underwent a major plutonic event in mid-Paleozoic time.-Authors

  12. The Tundra Is the Text: Using Alaska Native Contexts To Promote Cultural Relevancy in Teacher Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickel, Letitia Hochstrasser; Jones, Ken

    In summer 2000, the University of Alaska Anchorage and cooperating professional development schools organized four summer institutes to enhance teachers' cultural and subject matter knowledge. This dual focus was prompted by the new Alaska Content Standards and by guidelines for preparing culturally responsive teachers, developed by Alaska Native…

  13. Mercury and selenium concentrations in skeletal muscle, liver, and regions of the heart and kidney in bearded seals from Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Correa, Lucero; Castellini, J Margaret; Quakenbush, Lori T; O'Hara, Todd M

    2015-10-01

    Mean concentrations of total mercury ([THg]) and selenium ([TSe]) (mass and molar-based) were determined for 5 regions of the heart and 2 regions of the kidney of bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) harvested in Alaska, USA, in 2010 and 2011. Mean [THg] and [TSe] of bearded seal liver and skeletal muscle tissues were used for intertissular comparison. The Se:Hg molar ratios were used to investigate elemental associations and potential antioxidant protection against Hg toxicosis. Age was an important factor in [THg] and Se:Hg molar ratios in heart and kidney. Small but statistically significant differences in mean [THg] occurred among some of the 5 heart regions (p < 0.05). Mean [THg] was highest in liver, 3.057 µg/g, and lowest in heart left ventricle, 0.017 µg/g. Mean [THg] ranked: liver > kidney cortex > kidney medulla > skeletal muscle > heart left ventricle (p < 0.001). Mean [TSe] was highest in liver, 3.848 µg/g, and lowest in heart left ventricle, 0.632 µg/g. Mean [TSe] ranked: liver > kidney cortex > kidney medulla > skeletal muscle > heart left ventricle (p < 0.001). The Se:Hg molar ratios were significantly greater than 1.0 in all tissues (p < 0.001) and represented baselines for normal [TSe] under relatively low [THg]. Mean Se:Hg molar ratios ranked: heart left ventricle > kidney medulla > kidney cortex (p < 0.001).

  14. Chlorinated, brominated, and perfluorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace elements in livers of sea otters from California, Washington, and Alaska (USA), and Kamchatka (Russia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kannan, K.; Moon, H.-B.; Yun, S.-H.; Agusa, T.; Thomas, N.J.; Tanabe, S.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, HCHs, and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and 20 trace elements were determined in livers of 3- to 5-year old stranded sea otters collected from the coastal waters of California, Washington, and Alaska (USA) and from Kamchatka (Russia). Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs were high in sea otters collected from the California coast. Concentrations of DDTs were 10-fold higher in California sea otters than in otters from other locations; PCB concentrations were 5-fold higher, and PBDE concentrations were 2-fold higher, in California sea otters than in otters from other locations. Concentrations of PAHs were higher in sea otters from Prince William Sound than in sea otters from other locations. Concentrations of several trace elements were elevated in sea otters collected from California and Prince William Sound. Elevated concentrations of Mn and Zn in sea otters from California and Prince William Sound were indicative of oxidative stress-related injuries in these two populations. Concentrations of all of the target compounds, including trace elements, that were analyzed in sea otters from Kamchatka were lower than those found from the US coastal locations. ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Chlorinated, brominated, and perfluorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace elements in livers of sea otters from California, Washington, and Alaska (USA), and Kamchatka (Russia).

    PubMed

    Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Yun, Se Hun; Agusa, Tetsuro; Thomas, Nancy J; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-04-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, HCHs, and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and 20 trace elements were determined in livers of 3- to 5-year old stranded sea otters collected from the coastal waters of California, Washington, and Alaska (USA) and from Kamchatka (Russia). Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs were high in sea otters collected from the California coast. Concentrations of DDTs were 10-fold higher in California sea otters than in otters from other locations; PCB concentrations were 5-fold higher, and PBDE concentrations were 2-fold higher, in California sea otters than in otters from other locations. Concentrations of PAHs were higher in sea otters from Prince William Sound than in sea otters from other locations. Concentrations of several trace elements were elevated in sea otters collected from California and Prince William Sound. Elevated concentrations of Mn and Zn in sea otters from California and Prince William Sound were indicative of oxidative stress-related injuries in these two populations. Concentrations of all of the target compounds, including trace elements, that were analyzed in sea otters from Kamchatka were lower than those found from the US coastal locations.

  16. Contamination status and accumulation profiles of organotins in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead along the coasts of California, Washington, Alaska (USA), and Kamchatka (Russia).

    PubMed

    Murata, Satoko; Takahashi, Shin; Agusa, Tetsuro; Thomas, Nancy J; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-04-01

    Organotin compounds (OTs) including mono- to tri-butyltins, -phenyltins, and -octyltins were determined in the liver of adult sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead along the coasts of California, Washington, and Alaska in the USA and Kamchatka, Russia. Total concentrations of OTs in sea otters from California ranged from 34 to 4100ng/g on a wet weight basis. The order of concentrations of OTs in sea otters was total butyltins>total octyltins> or = total phenyltins. Elevated concentrations of butyltins (BTs) were found in some otters classified under 'infectious-disease' mortality category. Concentrations of BTs in few of these otters were close to or above the threshold levels for adverse health effects. Total butyltin concentrations decreased significantly in the livers of California sea otters since the 1990s. Based on the concentrations of organotins in sea otters collected from 1992 to 2002, the half-lives of tributyltin and total butyltins in sea otters were estimated to be approximately three years.

  17. Contamination status and accumulation profiles of organotins in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead along the coasts of California, Washington, Alaska (USA), and Kamchatka (Russia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murata, S.; Takahashi, S.; Agusa, T.; Thomas, N.J.; Kannan, K.; Tanabe, S.

    2008-01-01

    Organotin compounds (OTs) including mono- to tri-butyltins, -phenyltins, and -octyltins were determined in the liver of adult sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead along the coasts of California, Washington, and Alaska in the USA and Kamchatka, Russia. Total concentrations of OTs in sea otters from California ranged from 34 to 4100 ng/g on a wet weight basis. The order of concentrations of OTs in sea otters was total butyltins ??? total octyltins ??? total phenyltins. Elevated concentrations of butyltins (BTs) were found in some otters classified under 'infectious-disease' mortality category. Concentrations of BTs in few of these otters were close to or above the threshold levels for adverse health effects. Total butyltin concentrations decreased significantly in the livers of California sea otters since the 1990s. Based on the concentrations of organotins in sea otters collected from 1992 to 2002, the half-lives of tributyltin and total butyltins in sea otters were estimated to be approximately three years. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River and its Tributaries Between Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, and Eagle, Alaska, USA, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halm, Douglas R.; Dornblaser, Mark M.

    2007-01-01

    The Yukon River basin is the fourth largest watershed in North America at 831,400 square kilometers (km2). Approximately 126,000 people live within the basin and depend on the Yukon River and its tributaries for drinking water, commerce, subsistence, and recreational fish and game resources. Climate warming in the Arctic and Subarctic regions encompassing the Yukon basin has recently become a concern because of possible far-reaching effects on the ecosystem. Large amounts of carbon and nutrients are stored in permafrost and have potential for release in response to this warming. These changes in carbon and nutrient cycling may result in changes in stream chemistry and productivity, including salmon populations, and ultimately changes in the chemistry and productivity of the Bearing Sea. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a 5-year comprehensive water-quality study of the Yukon River and its major tributaries starting in 2000. The study included frequent water-quality sampling at a fixed site network as well as intensive sampling along the Yukon River and its major tributaries. This report contains observations of water and sediment quantity and quality of the Yukon River and its tributaries in Canada during 2004. Chemical, biological, physical, and discharge data are presented for the reach of river between Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, and Eagle, Alaska, USA.

  19. GeoFORCE Alaska, A Successful Summer Exploring Alaska's Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartes, D.

    2012-12-01

    Thirty years old this summer, RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute is a statewide, six-week, summer college-preparatory bridge program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. This summer, in collaboration with the University of Texas Austin, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute launched a new program, GeoFORCE Alaska. This outreach initiative is designed to increase the number and diversity of students pursuing STEM degree programs and entering the future high-tech workforce. It uses Earth science to entice kids to get excited about dinosaurs, volcanoes and earthquakes, and includes physics, chemistry, math, biology and other sciences. Students were recruited from the Alaska's Arctic North Slope schools, in 8th grade to begin the annual program of approximately 8 days, the summer before their 9th grade year and then remain in the program for all four years of high school. They must maintain a B or better grade average and participate in all GeoFORCE events. The culmination is an exciting field event each summer. Over the four-year period, events will include trips to Fairbanks and Anchorage, Arizona, Oregon and the Appalachians. All trips focus on Earth science and include a 100+ page guidebook, with tests every night culminating with a final exam. GeoFORCE Alaska was begun by the University of Alaska Fairbanks in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin, which has had tremendous success with GeoFORCE Texas. GeoFORCE Alaska is managed by UAF's long-standing Rural Alaska Honors Institute, that has been successfully providing intense STEM educational opportunities for Alaskan high school students for over 30 years. The program will add a new cohort of 9th graders each year for the next four years. By the summer of 2015, GeoFORCE Alaska is targeting a capacity of 160 students in grades 9th through 12th. Join us to find out more about this exciting new initiative, which is enticing young Alaska Native

  20. THIAFENTANIL-AZAPERONE-XYLAZINE AND CARFENTANIL-XYLAZINE IMMOBILIZATIONS OF FREE-RANGING CARIBOU (RANGIFER TARANDUS GRANTI) IN ALASKA, USA.

    PubMed

    Lian, Marianne; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Bentzen, Torsten W; Demma, Dominic J; Arnemo, Jon M

    2016-04-28

    Carfentanil-xylazine (CX) has been the primary drug combination used for immobilizing free-ranging ungulates in Alaska, US since 1986. We investigated the efficacy of a potential new drug of choice, thiafentanil (Investigational New Animal Drug A-3080). Captive trials indicated that thiafentanil-azaperone-medetomidine could provide good levels of immobilization. However, field trials conducted in October 2013 on free-ranging caribou ( Rangifer tarandus granti) calves showed the combination too potent, causing three respiratory arrests and one mortality. The protocol was revised to thiafentanil-azaperone-xylazine (TAX), with good results. The induction time was not significantly different between the two combinations. However, the recovery time was significantly shorter for the TAX group than for the CX group. A physiologic evaluation was performed on 12 animals immobilized on CX and 15 animals on TAX. Arterial blood was collected after induction and again after 10 min of intranasal oxygen supplements (1 L/min). Both groups had significant increases in partial pressure of arterial oxygen after oxygen treatment. There was a concurrent significant increase in partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide in both groups. Rectal temperature increased significantly in both groups during the downtime, which is consistent with other studies of potent opioids in ungulates. On the basis of our results, we found TAX to be a potential alternative for the current CX protocol for immobilizing free-ranging caribou calves via helicopter darting.

  1. Pollen, vegetation, and climate relationships along the Dalton Highway, Alaska, USA: a basis for holocene paleoecological and paleoclimatic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Short, S.K.; Andrews, J.T.; Webber, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Dalton Highway extends from Fairbanks, in the interior of Alaska, to Prudhoe Bay on the Arctic Coastal Plain. Over this 600-km transect, July temperatures vary from 17 to 5/sup 0/C. Studies of vegetation along the Dalton Highway identified nine major zones. During the vegetation survey moss polsters were collected within the survey quadrats. Two hundred and nineteen individual moss polsters document regional variations in the modern pollen spectra along this vegetation/climate transect. Treeline is distinguished by a change from dominance by spruce and shrub (especially alder) pollen to the south to herb and shrub (especially willow) pollen dominance to the north; a shift from high modern pollen concentration values to very low values is also noted. Discriminant analysis indicated that the vegetation zones are also defined by different pollen assemblages, suggesting that former changes in vegetation during the Holocene, as recorded in peat deposits, could be interpreted from pollen diagrams. Transfer functions were developed to examine the statistical association between the modern pollen rain and several climatic parameters. The correlation between pollen taxa and mean July temperature was r = 0.84. The most important taxa in the equation are Picea, Alnus, Pinus, Sphagnum, and Betula. 59 references, 7 figures, 4 tables.

  2. Novel poxvirus infection in northern and southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni and Enhydra lutris neiris), Alaska and California, USA.

    PubMed

    Tuomi, Pamela A; Murray, Michael J; Garner, Michael M; Goertz, Caroline E C; Nordhausen, Robert W; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Getzy, David M; Nielsen, Ole; Archer, Linda L; Maness, Heather T D; Wellehan, James F X; Waltzek, Thomas B

    2014-07-01

    Small superficially ulcerated skin lesions were observed between October 2009 and September 2011 during captive care of two orphaned sea otter pups: one northern (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) in Alaska and one southern (Enhydra lutris nereis) in California. Inclusions consistent with poxviral infection were diagnosed by histopathology in both cases. Virions consistent with poxvirus virions were seen on electron microscopy in the northern sea otter, and the virus was successfully propagated in cell culture. DNA extraction, pan-chordopoxviral PCR amplification, and sequencing of the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase gene revealed that both cases were caused by a novel AT-rich poxvirus. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses found that the virus is divergent from other known poxviruses at a level consistent with a novel genus. These cases were self-limiting and did not appear to be associated with systemic illness. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a poxvirus in a mustelid species. The source of this virus, mode of transmission, zoonotic potential, and biological significance are undetermined.

  3. Expansion rate and geometry of floating vegetation mats on the margins of thermokarst lakes, northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsekian, A.D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Jones, M.; Grosse, G.; Walter, Anthony K.M.; Slater, L.

    2011-01-01

    Investigations on the northern Seward Peninsula in Alaska identified zones of recent (<50years) permafrost collapse that led to the formation of floating vegetation mats along thermokarst lake margins. The occurrence of floating vegetation mat features indicates rapid degradation of near-surface permafrost and lake expansion. This paper reports on the recent expansion of these collapse features and their geometry is determined using geophysical and remote sensing measurements. The vegetation mats were observed to have an average thickness of 0.57m and petrophysical modeling indicated that gas content of 1.5-5% enabled floatation above the lake surface. Furthermore, geophysical investigation provides evidence that the mats form by thaw and subsidence of the underlying permafrost rather than terrestrialization. The temperature of the water below a vegetation mat was observed to remain above freezing late in the winter. Analysis of satellite and aerial imagery indicates that these features have expanded at maximum rates of 1-2myr-1 over a 56year period. Including the spatial coverage of floating 'thermokarst mats' increases estimates of lake area by as much as 4% in some lakes. ?? 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Porphyry Cu indicator minerals in till as an exploration tool: Example from the giant pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelley, Karen D.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Lang, J.; Smith, Steven M.; Fey, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Porphyry Cu indicator minerals are mineral species in clastic sediments that indicate the presence of mineralization and hydrothermal alteration associated with porphyry Cu and associated skarn deposits. Porphyry Cu indicator minerals recovered from shallow till samples near the giant Pebble Cu-Au-Mo porphyry deposit in SW Alaska, USA, include apatite, andradite garnet, Mn-epidote, visible gold, jarosite, pyrite, and cinnabar. Sulphide minerals other than pyrite are absent from till, most likely due to the oxidation of the till. The distribution of till samples with abundant apatite and cinnabar suggest sources other than the Pebble deposit. With three exceptions, all till samples up-ice of the Pebble deposit contain 40grains/10kg) are in close proximity to smaller porphyry and skarn occurrences in the region. The distribution of Mn-epidote closely mimics the distribution of garnet in the till samples and further supports the interpretation that these minerals most likely reflect skarns associated with the porphyry deposits. All but two till samples, including those up-ice from the deposit, contain some gold grains. However, tills immediately west and down-ice of Pebble contain more abundant gold grains, and the overall number of grains decreases in the down-ice direction. Furthermore, all samples in the immediate vicinity of Pebble contain more than 65% pristine and modified grains compared to mostly re-shaped grains in distal samples. The pristine gold in till reflects short transport distances and/or liberation of gold during in-situ weathering of transported chalcopyrite grains. Jarosite is also abundant (1-2 500 grains/10kg) in samples adjacent to and up to 7 km down-ice from the deposit. Most jarosite grains are rounded and preliminary Ar/Ar dates suggest the jarosite formed prior to glaciation and it implies that a supergene cap existed over Pebble West. Assuming this interpretation is accurate, it suggests a shallow level of erosion of the Pebble deposit by

  5. Detrital zircon geochronology of the Adams Argillite and Nation River Formation, east-central Alaska, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gehrels, G.E.; Johnsson, M.J.; Howell, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Cambrian Adams Argillite and the Devonian Nation River Formation are two sandstone-bearing units within a remarkably complete Paleozoic stratigraphic section in east-central Alaska. These strata, now foreshortened and fault-bounded, were originally contiguous with miogeoclinal strata to the east that formed as a passive-margin sequence along the northwestern margin of the North American continent. Seventy-five detrital zircon grains from the Adams Argillite and the Nation River Formation were analyzed in an effort to provide constraints on the original sources of the grains, and to generate a detrital zircon reference for miogeoclinal strata in the northern Cordillera. Thirty-five single zircon grains from a quartzite in the Adams Argillite yield dominant age clusters of 1047-1094 (n = 6), 1801-1868 (n = 10), and 2564-2687 (n = 5) Ma. Forty zircons extracted from a sandstone in the Nation River Formation yield clusters primarily of 424-434 (n = 6), 1815-1838 (n = 6), 1874-1921 (n = 7), and 2653-2771 (n = 4) Ma. The Early Proterozoic and Archean grains in both units probably originated in basement rocks in a broad region of the Canadian Shield. In contrast, the original igneous sources for mid-Protcrozoic grains in the Adams Argillite and ??? 430 Ma grains in the Nation River Formation are more difficult to identify. Possible original sources for the mid-Proterozoic grains include: (1) the Grenville Province of eastern Laurentia, (2) the Pearya terrane along the Arctic margin, and (3) mid-Proterozoic igneous rocks that may have been widespread along or outboard of the Cordilleran margin. The ??? 430 Ma grains may have originated in: (1) arc-type sources along the Cordilleran margin, (2) the Caledonian orogen, or (3) a landmass, such as Pearya, Siberia, or crustal fragments now in northern Asia, that resided outboard of the Innuitian orogen during mid-Paleozoic time. Copyright ?? 1999, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  6. Recent lake ice-out phenology within and among lake districts of Alaska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Grosse, Guido

    2013-01-01

    The timing of ice-out in high latitudes is a fundamental threshold for lake ecosystems and an indicator of climate change. In lake-rich regions, the loss of ice cover also plays a key role in landscape and climatic processes. Thus, there is a need to understand lake ice phenology at multiple scales. In this study, we observed ice-out timing on 55 large lakes in 11 lake districts across Alaska from 2007 to 2012 using satellite imagery. Sensor networks in two lake districts validated satellite observations and provided comparison with smaller lakes. Over this 6 yr period, the mean lake ice-out for all lakes was 27 May and ranged from 07 May in Kenai to 06 July in Arctic Coastal Plain lake districts with relatively low inter-annual variability. Approximately 80% of the variation in ice-out timing was explained by the date of 0°C air temperature isotherm and lake area. Shoreline irregularity, watershed area, and river connectivity explained additional variation in some districts. Coherence in ice-out timing within the lakes of each district was consistently strong over this 6 yr period, ranging from r-values of 0.5 to 0.9. Inter-district analysis of coherence also showed synchronous ice-out patterns with the exception of the two arctic coastal districts where ice-out occurs later (June–July) and climatology is sea-ice influenced. These patterns of lake ice phenology provide a spatially extensive baseline describing short-term temporal variability, which will help decipher longer term trends in ice phenology and aid in representing the role of lake ice in land and climate models in northern landscapes.

  7. Stable isotope ecology of land snails from a high-latitude site near Fairbanks, interior Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanes, Yurena

    2015-05-01

    Land snails have been investigated isotopically in tropical islands and mid-latitude continental settings, while high-latitude locales, where snails grow only during the summer, have been overlooked. This study presents the first isotopic baseline of live snails from Fairbanks, Alaska (64°51‧N), a proxy calibration necessary prior to paleoenvironmental inferences using fossils. δ13C values of the shell (- 10.4 ± 0.4‰) and the body (- 25.5 ± 1.0‰) indicate that snails consumed fresh and decayed C3-plants and fungi. A flux-balance mixing model suggests that specimens differed in metabolic rates, which may complicate paleovegetation inferences. Shell δ18O values (- 10.8 ± 0.4‰) were 4‰ higher than local summer rain δ18O. If calcification occurred during summer, a flux-balance mixing model suggests that snails grew at temperatures of 13°C, rainwater δ18O values of - 15‰ and relative humidity of 93%. Results from Fairbanks were compared to shells from San Salvador (Bahamas), at 24°51‧N. Average (annual) δ18O values of shells and rainwater samples from The Bahamas were both 10‰ 18O-enriched with respect to seasonal (summer) Alaskan samples. At a coarse latitudinal scale, shell δ18O values overwhelmingly record the signature of the rainfall during snail active periods. While tropical snails record annual average environmental information, high-latitude specimens only trace summer season climatic data.

  8. 33 CFR 334.1300 - Blying Sound area, Gulf of Alaska, Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1300 Section 334.1300... gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. A rhomboidal area... Air Command, U.S. Air Force, Anchorage, Alaska, or such agencies as he may designate. (Sec. 7, 40...

  9. 33 CFR 334.1300 - Blying Sound area, Gulf of Alaska, Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1300 Section 334.1300... gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. A rhomboidal area... Air Command, U.S. Air Force, Anchorage, Alaska, or such agencies as he may designate. (Sec. 7, 40...

  10. 33 CFR 334.1300 - Blying Sound area, Gulf of Alaska, Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1300 Section 334.1300... gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. A rhomboidal area... Air Command, U.S. Air Force, Anchorage, Alaska, or such agencies as he may designate. (Sec. 7, 40...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1300 - Blying Sound area, Gulf of Alaska, Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1300 Section 334.1300... gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. A rhomboidal area... Air Command, U.S. Air Force, Anchorage, Alaska, or such agencies as he may designate. (Sec. 7, 40...

  12. Cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc concentrations in kidneys of grey wolves, Canis lupus, from Alaska, Idaho, Montana (USA) and the Northwest Territories (Canada).

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, S R; Blunck, S A; Petersen, K N; Jones, E M; Koval, J C; Misek, R; Frick, J A; Cluff, H D; Sime, C A; McNay, M; Beckman, K B; Atkinson, M W; Drew, M; Collinge, M D; Bangs, E E; Harper, R G

    2010-11-01

    Cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc levels were measured in the kidneys of 115 grey wolves (Canis lupus) from Idaho, Montana and Alaska (United States), and from the Northwest Territories (Canada). No significant differences in the levels of iron or copper were observed between locations, but wolf kidneys from more northern locations had significantly higher cadmium levels (Alaska > Northwest Territories > Montana ≈ Idaho), and wolves from Alaska showed significantly higher zinc than other locations. Additionally, female wolves in Alaska had higher iron levels than males, and adult wolves in Montana had higher copper levels than subadults.

  13. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Ichthyophonus hoferi, and other causes of morbidity in Pacific herring Clupea pallasi spawning in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Marty, G D; Freiberg, E F; Meyers, T R; Wilcock, J; Farver, T B; Hinton, D E

    1998-02-26

    Pacific herring Clupea pallasi populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, declined from an estimated 9.8 x 10(7) kg in 1992 to 1.5 x 10(7) kg in 1994. To determine the role of disease in population decline, 233 Pacific herring from Prince William Sound were subjected to complete necropsy during April 1994. The North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from 11 of 233 fish (4.7%). VHSV was significantly related to myocardial mineralization, hepatocellular necrosis, submucosal gastritis, and meningoencephalitis. Ichthyophonus hoferi infected 62 of 212 (29%) fish. I. hoferi infections were associated with severe, disseminated, granulomatous inflammation and with increased levels of plasma creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). I. hoferi prevalence in 1994 was more than double that of most previous years (1989 to 1993). Plasma chemistry values significantly greater (p < 0.01) in males than females included albumin, total protein, cholesterol, chloride, glucose, and potassium; only alkaline phosphatase was significantly greater in females. Hypoalbuminemia was relatively common in postspawning females; other risk factors included VHSV and moderate or severe focal skin reddening. Pacific herring had more than 10 species of parasites, but they were not associated with significant lesions. Two of the parasites have not previously been described: a renal intraductal myxosporean (11% prevalence) and an intestinal coccidian (91% prevalence). Transmission electron microscopy of a solitary mesenteric lesion revealed viral particles consistent with lymphocystis virus. No fish had viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN). Prevalence of external gross lesions and major parasites was not related to fish age, and fish that were year-lings at the time of the 1989 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill (1988 year class) had no evidence of increased disease prevalence.

  14. Exposure of sea otters and harlequin ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, to shoreline oil residues 20 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Neff, Jerry M; Page, David S; Boehm, Paul D

    2011-03-01

    We assessed whether sea otters and harlequin ducks in an area of western Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA (PWS), oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from oil residues 20 years after the spill. Spilled oil has persisted in PWS for two decades as surface oil residues (SOR) and subsurface oil residues (SSOR) on the shore. The rare SOR are located primarily on the upper shore as inert, nonhazardous asphaltic deposits, and SSOR are confined to widely scattered locations as small patches under a boulder/cobble veneer, primarily on the middle and upper shore, in forms and locations that preclude physical contact by wildlife and diminish bioavailability. Sea otters and harlequin ducks consume benthic invertebrates that they collect by diving to the bottom in the intertidal and subtidal zones. Sea otters also dig intertidal and subtidal pits in search of clams. The three plausible exposure pathways are through the water, in oil-contaminated prey, or by direct contact with SSOR during foraging. Concentrations of PAH in near-shore water off oiled shores in 2002 to 2005 were at background levels (<0.05 ng/L). Median concentrations of PAH in five intertidal prey species on oiled shores in 2002 to 2008 range from 4.0 to 34 ng/g dry weight, indistinguishable from background concentrations. Subsurface oil residues are restricted to locations on the shore and substrate types, where large clams do not occur and where sea otters do not dig foraging pits. Therefore, that sea otters and harlequin ducks continue to be exposed to environmentally significant amounts of PAH from EVOS 20 years after the spill is not plausible.

  15. Water storage capacity exceedance controls the timing and amount of runoff generated from Arctic hillslopes in Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushlow, C. R.; Godsey, S.

    2014-12-01

    Within the hydrologic community, there is a growing recognition that different runoff generation mechanisms can be unified within a "fill-and-spill" or storage exceedance paradigm. However, testing this unifying paradigm requires observing watersheds at a variety of scales under their full range of storage conditions, which are difficult to observe on typical human timescales in most environments. Polar watersheds underlain by continuous permafrost provide an opportunity to address these issues, because their total capacity for water storage follows a consistent annual cycle of expansion and contraction as a direct consequence of the extreme seasonality of solar energy availability. Cryotic conditions usually limit water storage to the surface snowpack and frozen soils, but summer warming allows the shallow subsurface to progressively thaw, providing a dynamic storage reservoir that is the convolved expression of several factors, including substrate hydrologic properties, watershed structure, and stochastic precipitation. We hypothesize that the amount of remaining water storage capacity in the system directly controls the amount and timing of runoff production for a given input. We test this prediction for six hillslope watersheds in Arctic Alaska over the 2013 and 2014 summer seasons from snowmelt in May through plant senescence in mid-August. We compare water table position to runoff produced from a given storm event or series of storm events. We find that no runoff is produced until a threshold water table position is exceeded; that is, as seasonal storage changes, runoff depends on watershed storage capacity exceedance. Preliminary results suggest that once that threshold is met, hydrologic response is proportional to storage exceedance. Thus, runoff production from Arctic hillslopes can be modeled from the surface energy balance and a reasonable estimate of shallow subsurface material properties. If storage exceedance is the key control on water export from

  16. Current water quality in Cook Inlet, Alaska, study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Segar, D.A.

    1995-03-01

    The University of Alaska Anchorage`s Environment and Natural Resources Institue conducted a 1993 field investigation to establish a baseline of information on the occurrence of petroleum hydrocarbons, naturally occuring radioactive materials, and trace metals in Cook Inlet, Alaska. The sampling and analyses included trace metals and hydrocarbons in water, biota, and sediments; sediment grain size; carbon-hydrogen-nitrogen in sediments; naturally occurring radioactive materials in mollusc shells; total suspended solids and suspended sediment trace metals in water; hydrgraphy; and water and sediment bioassays.

  17. Atmospheric 14CO2 Over the mid Pacific Ocean and at Point Barrow, Alaska, USA From 2002 to 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Trumbore, S.; Ajie, H.; Tyler, S.; Randerson, J.; Krakauer, N.

    2004-12-01

    , while data from a mid-continental site at Niwot Ridge, CO (41° N, 105° W) were significantly higher during the same period (83.7±1.7‰ ). The time series of atmospheric 14CO2 at a coastal site at Point Barrow, Alaska (71° N, 157° W) from July 12, 2003 to August 18, 2004 shows a general decreasing trend with time. The average Δ 14C of this time series was 66.6‰ with a range of about 11‰ , showing a hint of a seasonal cycle and lower 14C values at high northern latitudes. Low Δ 14C values in Pt. Barrow air correlate with wind direction, indicating that part of the temporal variation may be caused by the advection of low 14C air from lower latitudes. Our results confirm large-scale patterns in atmospheric 14C predicted using carbon cycle models coupled with models of atmospheric transport. We plan to continue measuring radiocarbon in CO2 in the mid-Pacific and at the surface US stations in different seasons for the next several years for a fuller picture of seasonal and latitudinal variation in atmospheric Δ 14C.

  18. Sulfide oxidation and distribution of metals near abandoned copper mines in coastal environments, Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koski, R.A.; Munk, L.; Foster, A.L.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Stillings, L.L.

    2008-01-01

    The oxidation of sulfide-rich rocks, mostly leftover debris from Cu mining in the early 20th century, is contributing to metal contamination of local coastal environments in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Analyses of sulfide, water, sediment, precipitate and biological samples from the Beatson, Ellamar, and Threeman mine sites show that acidic surface waters generated from sulfide weathering are pathways for redistribution of environmentally important elements into and beyond the intertidal zone at each site. Volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits composed of pyrrhotite and (or) pyrite + chalcopyrite + sphalerite with subordinate galena, arsenopyrite, and cobaltite represent potent sources of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Co, Cd, and Hg. The resistance to oxidation among the major sulfides increases in the order pyrrhotite ??? sphalerite < chalcopyrite ??? pyrite; thus, pyrrhotite-rich rocks are typically more oxidized than those dominated by pyrite. The pervasive alteration of pyrrhotite begins with rim replacement by marcasite followed by replacement of the core by sulfur, Fe sulfate, and Fe-Al sulfate. The oxidation of chalcopyrite and pyrite involves an encroachment by colloform Fe oxyhydroxides at grain margins and along crosscutting cracks that gradually consumes the entire grain. The complete oxidation of sulfide-rich samples results in a porous aggregate of goethite, lepidocrocite and amorphous Fe-oxyhydroxide enclosing hydrothermal and sedimentary silicates. An inverse correlation between pH and metal concentrations is evident in water data from all three sites. Among all waters sampled, pore waters from Ellamar beach gravels have the lowest pH (???3) and highest concentrations of base metals (to ???25,000 ??g/L), which result from oxidation of abundant sulfide-rich debris in the sediment. High levels of dissolved Hg (to 4100 ng/L) in the pore waters probably result from oxidation of sphalerite-rich rocks. The low-pH and high concentrations of dissolved Fe, Al, and SO4

  19. Racism's Frontier: The Untold Story of Discrimination and Division in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.

    In response to an incident in which white teenagers shot Alaska Natives with frozen paintballs, the Alaska State Advisory Committee (SAC) to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights hosted a 2-day community forum in Anchorage. The forum solicited input about improving race relations from state, local, and federal officials, representatives of advocacy…

  20. Strategies for Successful Retention of Alaska Native and American Indian Study Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redwood, Diana; Leston, Jessica; Asay, Elvin; Ferucci, Elizabeth; Etzel, Ruth; Lanier, Anne P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the strategies used to track and follow 3,828 Alaska Native and American Indian study participants in the city of Anchorage and more rural areas of Alaska and provides characteristics of respondents and non-respondents. Over 88% were successfully followed-up, with 49% of respondents completed in three or fewer attempts.…

  1. 33 CFR 166.400 - Areas along the coast of Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Areas along the coast of Alaska. 166.400 Section 166.400 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Anchorages § 166.400 Areas along the coast of Alaska. (a) Purpose. Fairways, as described in this...

  2. 33 CFR 166.400 - Areas along the coast of Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Areas along the coast of Alaska. 166.400 Section 166.400 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Anchorages § 166.400 Areas along the coast of Alaska. (a) Purpose. Fairways, as described in this...

  3. 33 CFR 166.400 - Areas along the coast of Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Areas along the coast of Alaska. 166.400 Section 166.400 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Anchorages § 166.400 Areas along the coast of Alaska. (a) Purpose. Fairways, as described in this...

  4. 33 CFR 166.400 - Areas along the coast of Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas along the coast of Alaska. 166.400 Section 166.400 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Anchorages § 166.400 Areas along the coast of Alaska. (a) Purpose. Fairways, as described in this...

  5. 33 CFR 166.400 - Areas along the coast of Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas along the coast of Alaska. 166.400 Section 166.400 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Anchorages § 166.400 Areas along the coast of Alaska. (a) Purpose. Fairways, as described in this...

  6. 76 FR 68674 - Proposed Amendment of VOR Federal Airways V-320 and V-440; Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Federal Airways V-320 and V-440; Alaska AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... (VOR) Federal airways in Alaska, V-320 and V-440, due to the relocation of the Anchorage VOR navigation... that V-320 and V-440 did not have satisfactory signal reception coverage in the vicinity of...

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels in mussels from Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, document the return to baseline conditions.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Paul D; Page, David S; Brown, John S; Neff, Jerry M; Burns, William A

    2004-12-01

    Bioavailable hydrocarbons in the Exxon Valdez oil spill zone in Prince William Sound (PWS; AK, USA) shorelines were at or near background levels in 2002, as indicated by low concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mussels (Mytilus trossulus) collected from sites throughout PWS. Total PAH (TPAH) minus parent naphthalene concentrations in mussels collected in 1998 to 2002 from sites oiled in 1989 were at or near reference-site values. Both oiled and reference sites included locations associated with past human and industrial activity (HA). Inclusion of the unoiled HA sites in the range of reference sites that define prespill conditions is consistent with federal regulations. For the period from 1998 to 2002, the geometric mean of TPAH concentrations for 218 mussel samples collected from 72 sites, including four HA sites that had been heavily oiled in 1989, is 54 ng/g dry weight (range, 2-1,190 ng/g). The maximum mussel TPAH concentrations are equivalent to a weathered-oil exposure dose to intertidal foragers that is one to three orders of magnitude less than the doses shown to cause sublethal effects in surrogate species. The geometric mean of TPAH concentrations for mussel samples from 28 locations not oiled in 1989 and unaffected by human use (NHA sites) is 28 ng/g (range, 3-355 ng/g), whereas the geometric mean of TPAH concentrations for mussel samples from 14 locations not oiled in 1989 and affected by human use (HA sites) is 106 ng/g (range, 2-12,056 ng/g). The range of data for the unoiled HA and NHA sites defines the background of bioavailable PAHs to mussels on western PWS shorelines that would have prevailed if the oil spill had not occurred. The low PAH concentrations in mussels from sites known to have subsurface oil residues demonstrates the low bioavailability of these spill remnants and, thus, are a low additional risk to foraging wildlife. The present study shows continuous exposure from four- to six-ring PAHs originating at HA

  8. Hydrocarbon composition and toxicity of sediments following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Page, David S; Boehm, Paul D; Stubblefield, William A; Parker, Keith R; Gilfillan, Edward S; Neff, Jerry M; Maki, Alan W

    2002-07-01

    An 1-year study of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill found that spill residues on the oiled shorelines rapidly lost toxicity through weathering. After 1990, toxicity of sediments remained at only a few heavily oiled, isolated locations in Prince William Sound (AK, USA), as measured by a standard amphipod bioassay using Rhepoxynius abronius. Data from 648 sediment samples taken during the 1990 to 1993 period were statistically analyzed to determine the relationship between the total concentration of 39 parent and methyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (defined as total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [TPAH]) and amphipod mortality and the effect of oil weathering on toxicity. A logistic regression model yielded estimates of the lower threshold, LC10 (lethal concentration to 10% of the population), and LC50 (median lethal concentration) values of 2,600, 4,100, and 10,750 ng/g TPAH (dry wt), respectively. Estimates of the threshold and LC50 values in this field study relate well to corresponding sediment quality guideline (SQG) values reported in the literature. For sediment TPAH concentrations >2,600 ng/g, samples with high mortality values (>90%) had relatively high fractions of naphthalenes and those with low mortality (<20%) had relatively high fractions of chrysenes. By 1999, the median sediment TPAH concentration of 117 ng/g for the post-1989 worst-case sites studied were well below the 2,600 ng/g toxicity threshold value, confirming the lack of potential for long-term toxic effects. Analysis of biological community structure parameters for sediment samples taken concurrently found that species richness and Shannon diversity decreased with increasing TPAH above the 2,600 ng/g threshold, demonstrating a correspondence between sediment bioassay results and biological community effects in the field. The low probability of exposure to toxic concentrations of weathered spill residues at the worst-case sites sampled in this study is consistent with the

  9. 77 FR 25587 - Anchorage Regulations; Wells, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... correct. However, in this case, the Coast Guard directed the mariner to plot the coordinates in a clockwise direction. When the mariner plots the anchorage as directed, the lines will cross and an...

  10. Understanding Energy Code Acceptance within the Alaska Building Community

    SciTech Connect

    Mapes, Terry S.

    2012-02-14

    This document presents the technical assistance provided to the Alaska Home Financing Corporation on behalf of PNNL regarding the assessment of attitudes toward energy codes within the building community in Alaska. It includes a summary of the existing situation and specific assistance requested by AHFC, the results of a questionnaire designed for builders surveyed in a suburban area of Anchorage, interviews with a lender, a building official, and a research specialist, and recommendations for future action by AHFC.

  11. Earthquake Hazard and Risk in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black Porto, N.; Nyst, M.

    2014-12-01

    Alaska is one of the most seismically active and tectonically diverse regions in the United States. To examine risk, we have updated the seismic hazard model in Alaska. The current RMS Alaska hazard model is based on the 2007 probabilistic seismic hazard maps for Alaska (Wesson et al., 2007; Boyd et al., 2007). The 2015 RMS model will update several key source parameters, including: extending the earthquake catalog, implementing a new set of crustal faults, updating the subduction zone geometry and reoccurrence rate. First, we extend the earthquake catalog to 2013; decluster the catalog, and compute new background rates. We then create a crustal fault model, based on the Alaska 2012 fault and fold database. This new model increased the number of crustal faults from ten in 2007, to 91 faults in the 2015 model. This includes the addition of: the western Denali, Cook Inlet folds near Anchorage, and thrust faults near Fairbanks. Previously the subduction zone was modeled at a uniform depth. In this update, we model the intraslab as a series of deep stepping events. We also use the best available data, such as Slab 1.0, to update the geometry of the subduction zone. The city of Anchorage represents 80% of the risk exposure in Alaska. In the 2007 model, the hazard in Alaska was dominated by the frequent rate of magnitude 7 to 8 events (Gutenberg-Richter distribution), and large magnitude 8+ events had a low reoccurrence rate (Characteristic) and therefore didn't contribute as highly to the overall risk. We will review these reoccurrence rates, and will present the results and impact to Anchorage. We will compare our hazard update to the 2007 USGS hazard map, and discuss the changes and drivers for these changes. Finally, we will examine the impact model changes have on Alaska earthquake risk. Consider risk metrics include average annual loss, an annualized expected loss level used by insurers to determine the costs of earthquake insurance (and premium levels), and the

  12. 76 FR 78185 - Anchorage Regulations: Subpart A-Special Anchorage Regulations, Newport Bay Harbor, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ..., California, to encompass and replace temporary anchorage grounds C-1 and C-2, and anchorage ground C-3. This... health or risk to safety that might disproportionately affect children. Indian Tribal Governments This... with Indian Tribal Governments, because it would not have a substantial direct effect on one or...

  13. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Analysis Asphalt Storage Area, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    STORAGE AREA, ELMENDORF AFB, AK This report is focused on an abandoned material storage area located on Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB), Alaska . The...ASPHALT STORAGE AREA, ELMENDORF AFB, AK This report is focused on an abandoned material storage area located on Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB), Alaska . The... Anchorage , Alaska (Figure 1) (adapted from EA Engineering, Inc., 1993). Currently, EAFB, in its entirety, is included in a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA

  14. Performance of Sequoyah Containment Anchorage System

    SciTech Connect

    Fanous, F.; Greimann, L.; Wassef, W.; Bluhm, D.

    1993-01-01

    Deformation of a steel containment anchorage system during a severe accident may result in a leakage path at the containment boundaries. Current design criteria are based on either ductile or brittle failure modes of headed bolts that do not account for factors such as cracking of the containment basemat or deformation of the anchor bolt that may affect the behavior of the containment anchorage system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of a typical ice condenser containment`s anchorage system. This was accomplished by analyzing the Sequoyah Containment Anchorage System. Based on a strength of materials approach and assuming that the anchor bolts are resisting the uplift caused by the internal pressure, one can estimate that the failure of the anchor bolts would occur at a containment pressure of 79 psig. To verify these results and to calibrate the strength of materials equation, the Sequoyah containment anchorage system was analyzed with the ABAQUS program using a three-dimensional, finite-element model. The model included portions of the steel containment building, shield building, anchor bolt assembly, reinforced concrete mat and soil foundation material.

  15. 76 FR 11978 - Proposed Amendment of Federal Airways; Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Federal airways in Alaska. Due to construction of wind turbines on Fire Island, AK, the Anchorage VOR is... (Lat. 55 46'00'' N., long. 161 59'56'' W.) PDN NDB/DME (Lat. 56 57'15'' N., long. 158 38'51'' W.)...

  16. Renewed unrest at Mount Spurr Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Power, John A.

    2004-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO),a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has detected unrest at Mount Spurr volcano, located about 125 km west of Anchorage, Alaska, at the northeast end of the Aleutian volcanic arc.This activity consists of increased seismicity melting of the summit ice cap, and substantial rates of C02 and H2S emission.The current unrest is centered beneath the volcano's 3374-m-high summit, whose last known eruption was 5000–6000 years ago. Since then, Crater Peak, 2309 m in elevation and 4 km to the south, has been the active vent. Recent eruptions occurred in 1953 and 1992.

  17. Evaluating arts-based cancer education using an internet survey among Alaska community health workers.

    PubMed

    Cueva, Melany; Cueva, Katie; Dignan, Mark; Lanier, Anne; Kuhnley, Regina

    2014-09-01

    Cancer, considered a rare disease among Alaska Native people as recently as the 1950s, surpassed heart disease in the 1990s to become the leading cause of mortality. In response to Alaska's village-based Community Health Workers' (CHWs) desire to learn more about cancer for themselves and the people in their communities, cancer education that incorporated the expressive arts of moving, drawing, and sculpting was developed, implemented, and evaluated. Arts-based education integrates the dynamic wisdom and experiences of Alaska Native people and western medical knowledge to share cancer information in a culturally respectful way. Between May 2009 and March 2013, 12 5-day courses that included arts activities to support cancer information were provided for 118 CHWs in Anchorage, AK, USA. A post-course internet survey was conducted in April 2013, to learn how arts-based cancer education affected participants' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Surveys were completed by 54 of the 96 course participants; 22 course participants were lost to follow-up. As a result of integrating the arts with cancer education, respondents reported an increase in their cancer knowledge and comfort with talking about cancer. Additionally, 82 % (44) of respondents described feeling differently about cancer. By integrating the arts with cancer information, participants reported healthy behavior changes for themselves (76 %), with their families (70 %), and in their work (72 %). The expressive arts of moving, drawing, and sculpting provided a creative pathway for diverse adult learners in Alaska to increase their cancer knowledge, comfort with talking about cancer, and wellness behaviors.

  18. PEM Anchorage on Titanium Using Catechol Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Marie, Hélène; Barrere, Amélie; Schoentstein, Frédérique; Chavanne, Marie-Hélène; Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Mora, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Background This study deals with the anchorage of polyelectrolyte films onto titanium surfaces via a cathecol-based linker for biomedical applications. Methodology The following study uses a molecule functionalized with a catechol and a carboxylic acid: 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid. This molecule is anchored to the TiO2 substrate via the catechol while the carboxylic acid reacts with polymers bearing amine groups. By providing a film anchorage of chemisorption type, it makes possible to deposit polyelectrolytes on the surface of titanium. Principal Findings Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements show that the different steps of grafting have been successfully performed. Conclusions This method based on catechol anchorage of polyelectrolytes open a window towards large possibilities of clinical applications. PMID:23226262

  19. 77 FR 22489 - Special Anchorage Regulations, Newport Bay Harbor, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... special anchorage areas in Newport Bay Harbor, California, to encompass and replace temporary anchorage... safety that might disproportionately affect children. Indian Tribal Governments This rule does not have tribal implications under Executive Order 13175, Consultation and Coordination with Indian...

  20. 66. Detail view inside Manhattan anchorage showing connection between cable ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. Detail view inside Manhattan anchorage showing connection between cable and anchorage eyebars. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  1. Impacts of upland thermal erosional features on the vulnerability of carbon and nutrient fluxes from permafrost on the North Slope, Alaska, USA. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, W. B.

    2013-12-01

    Recent reports have concluded that substantial amounts of carbon and other nutrients are currently stored in organic matter in shallow permafrost (upper 3m) in the arctic region. This organic matter is known to be labile and there is currently intense interest to determine the portion of this presently frozen organic matter that is likely to thaw in the future and to determine its fate. The best available estimates are that most of this shallow permafrost could thaw in the next 100 years. But there is still considerable uncertainty about the fates for carbon and nutrients that might be liberated as this organic matter thaws. The short-term manifestations of permafrost thaw are varied. There may be little to no obvious physical change, subtle to dramatic subsidence of the soil surface, or catastrophic failures of entire hillslopes. These latter manifestations are collectively referred to as thermokarst terrain and have been the subject of a large integrated study called the Arctic System Science Thermokarst Project (ARCSS/TK). In this project we focused on the physical, chemical, biological, and hydrological characteristics of several forms of thermo-erosional features (TEFs) that are common on the North Slope of Alaska (USA) and elsewhere in the arctic. The TEFs included glacial thaw slumps, retrogressive thaw slumps, gully erosion thermokarsts, and active layer displacement slides. These TEFs represent an extreme end of the continuum of permafrost thaw dynamics. However, recent evidence suggests that these features have become more numerous in our study area as well as elsewhere in upland arctic landscapes. In the ARCSS/TK project we followed the dynamics of nearly two dozen different TEFs in the vicinity of the Toolik Field Station (68° 38' N, 149° 36' W). We studied 6 of these TEFs in sufficient detail to be able to construct crude budgets for the amounts of materials translocated within the disturbance sites versus the amounts exported from the sites by

  2. 78 FR 44917 - Anchorage Regulations; Port of New York

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... Anchorage Ground No. 27(iii) Flynns Knoll, near Sandy Hook, NJ are not used because their locations leave... Sandy Hook Light 15, which was used as a reference point. We would update the other anchorage ground...(iii) Flynns Knoll, near Sandy Hook, NJ. The irregular shaped area of Anchorage Ground No. 27(ii)...

  3. 76 FR 76295 - Anchorage Regulations; Wells, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... rule, call or email Mr. John J. Mauro, Waterways Management Branch Chief, First Coast Guard District; telephone (617) 223-8355, email John.J.Mauro@uscg.mil . If you have questions on viewing or submitting... placed well within the anchorage areas so that no portion of the hull or rigging will at any time...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.755 - Column anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.755 Column anchorage. (a... field-modified without the approval of the project structural engineer of record. (2) Prior to the erection of a column, the controlling contractor shall provide written notification to the steel erector...

  5. Comparison of temporary anchorage devices and transpalatal arch-mediated anchorage reinforcement during canine retraction

    PubMed Central

    Kecik, Defne

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the dental and skeletal effects of canine retraction using conventional anchorage reinforcement systems and comparing them with the usage of TADs. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 50 patients having Class I malocclusions with bimaxillary protrusion indicated for first premolar extraction, and allocated into two groups. The first group consisted of 25 patients with a mean age of 18,7 years (min:14, max:22 years, 16 girls and 9 boys) that TADs were applied as an anchorage mechanic between attached gingiva of upper second premolar and first molar teeth. The second group consisted of 25 patients with a mean age of 19,4 years (min:15, max:23 years, 14 girls and 11 boys) that conventional molar anchorage with Transpalatal arch (TPA) was applied for the anchorage mechanics against canine retraction. Results: The results showed that mean mesial movement and the tipping of the first molars in TAD group between T0 - T1 were insignificant (P > 0,05), however in the TPA group were significant (P<0,01). Vertical movement of the molars were not significant when two groups were compared (P>0,05). Conclusion: Although TPA is a useful appliance, it doesn't provide an effective anchorage control on anteroposterior movement maxillary first molar teeth concerning first premolar extraction treatment. TADs are more convenient to provide absolute anchorage during maxillary canine retraction in contrast to transpalatal arch. PMID:28042267

  6. Horizontal lifelines - review of regulations and simple design method considering anchorage rigidity.

    PubMed

    Galy, Bertrand; Lan, André

    2017-03-28

    Among the many occupational risks construction workers encounter every day falling from a height is the most dangerous. The objective of this article is to propose a simple analytical design method for horizontal lifelines (HLLs) that considers anchorage flexibility. The article presents a short review of the standards and regulations/acts/codes concerning HLLs in Canada the USA and Europe. A static analytical approach is proposed considering anchorage flexibility. The analytical results are compared with a series of 42 dynamic fall tests and a SAP2000 numerical model. The experimental results show that the analytical method is a little conservative and overestimates the line tension in most cases with a maximum of 17%. The static SAP2000 results show a maximum 2.1% difference with the analytical method. The analytical method is accurate enough to safely design HLLs and quick design abaci are provided to allow the engineer to make quick on-site verification if needed.

  7. Anchorage Dependent Cells Attached to a Polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Anchorage dependent cells on STS-95 will be grown on beads similar to these cells produced during previous investigations. Recombinant proteins may offer the possibility of reducing or eliminating transplant rejections. Research by Synthecon, Inc. using the BioDyn Bioreactor will focus on the preliminary process for growing a proprietary recombinant protein that can decrease rejection of transplanted tissue. The cells producing this protein are anchorage dependent, meaning that they must attach to something to grow. These cells will be cultured in the bioreactor in a medium containing polymer microbeads. Synthecon hopes that the data from this mission will lead to the development of a commercial protein that will aid in prevention of transplant rejection.

  8. Anchorage Dependent Cells Attached to a Polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Anchorage dependent cells on STS-95 will be grown on beads, similar to these cells produced during previous investigations. Recombinant proteins may offer the possibility of reducing or eliminating transplant rejections. Research by Synthecon, Inc. using the BioDyn Bioreactor will focus on the preliminary process for growing a proprietary recombinant protein that can decrease rejection of transplanted tissue. The cells producing this protein are anchorage dependent, meaning that they must attach to something to grow. These cells will be cultured in the bioreactor in a medium containing polymer microbeads. Synthecon hopes that the data from this mission will lead to the development of a commercial protein that will aid in prevention of transplant rejection.

  9. Effects of recent volcanic eruptions on aquatic habitat in the Drift River, Alaska, USA: Implications at other Cook Inlet region volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorava, J.M.; Milner, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Numerous drainages supporting productive salmon habitat are surrounded by active volcanoes on the west side of Cook Inlet in south-central Alaska. Eruptions have caused massive quantities of flowing water and sediment to enter the river channels emanating from glaciers and snowfields on these volcanoes. Extensive damage to riparian and aquatic habitat has commonly resulted, and benthic macroinvertebrate and salmonid communities can be affected. Because of the economic importance of Alaska's fisheries, detrimental effects on salmonid habitat can have significant economic implications. The Drift River drains glaciers on the northern and eastern flanks of Redoubt Volcano: During and following eruptions in 1989-1990, severe physical disturbances to the habitat features of the river adversely affected the fishery. Frequent eruptions at other Cook Inlet region volcanoes exemplify the potential effects of volcanic activity on Alaska's important commercial, sport, and subsistence fisheries. Few studies have documented the recovery of aquatic habitat following volcanic eruptions. The eruptions of Redoubt Volcano in 1989-1990 offered an opportunity to examine the recovery of the macroinvertebrate community. Macroinvertebrate community composition and structure in the Drift River were similar in both undisturbed and recently disturbed sites. Additionally, macroinvertebrate samples from sites in nearby undisturbed streams were highly similar to those from some Drift River sites. This similarity and the agreement between the Drift River macroinvertebrate community composition and that predicted by a qualitative model of typical macroinvertebrate communities in glacier-fed rivers indicate that the Drift River macroinvertebrate community is recovering five years after the disturbances associated with the most recent eruptions of Redoubt Volcano.

  10. RESEARCH: Effects of Recent Volcanic Eruptions on Aquatic Habitat in the Drift River, Alaska, USA: Implications at Other Cook Inlet Region Volcanoes.

    PubMed

    DORAVA; MILNER

    1999-02-01

    / Numerous drainages supporting productive salmon habitat are surrounded by active volcanoes on the west side of Cook Inlet in south-central Alaska. Eruptions have caused massive quantities of flowing water and sediment to enter the river channels emanating from glaciers and snowfields on these volcanoes. Extensive damage to riparian and aquatic habitat has commonly resulted, and benthic macroinvertebrate and salmonid communities can be affected. Because of the economic importance of Alaska's fisheries, detrimental effects on salmonid habitat can have significant economic implications. The Drift River drains glaciers on the northern and eastern flanks of Redoubt Volcano. During and following eruptions in 1989-1990, severe physical disturbances to the habitat features of the river adversely affected the fishery. Frequent eruptions at other Cook Inlet region volcanoes exemplify the potential effects of volcanic activity on Alaska's important commercial, sport, and subsistence fisheries. Few studies have documented the recovery of aquatic habitat following volcanic eruptions. The eruptions of Redoubt Volcano in 1989-1990 offered an opportunity to examine the recovery of the macroinvertebrate community. Macroinvertebrate community composition and structure in the Drift River were similar in both undisturbed and recently disturbed sites. Additionally, macroinvertebrate samples from sites in nearby undisturbed streams were highly similar to those from some Drift River sites. This similarity and the agreement between the Drift River macroinvertebrate community composition and that predicted by a qualitative model of typical macroinvertebrate communities in glacier-fed rivers indicate that the Drift River macroinvertebrate community is recovering five years after the disturbances associated with the most recent eruptions of Redoubt Volcano. KEY WORDS: Aquatic habitat; Volcanoes; Lahars; Lahar-runout flows; Macroinvertebrates; Community structure; Community composition

  11. Revised 14C dating of ice wedge growth in interior Alaska (USA) to MIS 2 reveals cold paleoclimate and carbon recycling in ancient permafrost terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachniet, Matthew S.; Lawson, Daniel E.; Sloat, Alison R.

    2012-09-01

    Establishing firm radiocarbon chronologies for Quaternary permafrost sequences remains a challenge because of the persistence of old carbon in younger deposits. To investigate carbon dynamics and establish ice wedge formation ages in Interior Alaska, we dated a late Pleistocene ice wedge, formerly assigned to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3, and host sediments near Fairbanks, Alaska, with 24 radiocarbon analyses on wood, particulate organic carbon (POC), air-bubble CO2, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Our new CO2 and DOC ages are up to 11,170 yr younger than ice wedge POC ages, indicating that POC is detrital in origin. We conclude an ice wedge formation age between 28 and 22 cal ka BP during cold stadial conditions of MIS 2 and solar insolation minimum, possibly associated with Heinrich event 2 or the last glacial maximum. A DOC age for an ice lens in a thaw unconformity above the ice wedge returned a maximum age of 21,470 ± 200 cal yr BP. Our variable 14C data indicate recycling of older carbon in ancient permafrost terrain, resulting in radiocarbon ages significantly older than the period of ice-wedge activity. Release of ancient carbon with climatic warming will therefore affect the global 14C budget.

  12. Role of lake regulation on glacier-fed rivers in enhancing salmon productivity: the Cook Inlet watershed, south-central Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorava, Joseph M.; Milner, Alexander M.

    2000-10-01

    Rivers fed by glaciers constitute a major part of the freshwater runoff into the Cook Inlet basin of south-central Alaska. This basin is very important to the economy of the State of Alaska because it is home to more than half of the population and it supports multi-million dollar commercial, subsistence and sport fisheries. Hence an understanding of how glacial runoff influences biological productivity is important for managing rivers that drain into Cook Inlet. This paper examines the ways in which the regulation of glacier-fed rivers by proglacial lakes affects salmon productivity, with particular reference to the Kenai River. Salmon escapement per unit channel length on the Kenai River is between two and ten times that found for rain-and-snowmelt dominated rivers and glacier-fed rivers lacking lake regulation.Lakes are shown to influence biological processes in glacier-fed rivers by attenuating peak flows, sustaining high flows throughout the summer, supplementing winter low flows, settling suspended sediment, and increasing river temperatures. Downstream from large lakes, glacier-fed rivers are less disturbed, channels are relatively stable and have well-developed salmonid habitats. The positive influences are indicated by the high diversity and abundances of benthic macroinvertebrates, which are important food resources for juvenile salmonids. High summer flows allow access for up-river salmon runs and lakes also provide both overwintering and rearing habitat.

  13. Removal of Lipid from Serum Increases Coherence between Brucellosis Rapid Agglutination Test and Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay in Bears in Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Godfroid, Jacques; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Helena Nymo, Ingebjørg

    2016-10-01

    In cases of chronic Brucella spp. infection, results of the rose bengal plate test (RBPT) and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) should be coherent, as reported in controlled conditions in the literature. We compared RBPT and ELISA results in 58 Alaska grizzly bears ( Ursus arctos horribilis), eight Kodiak brown bears ( Ursus arctos middendorffi), and six Alaska Peninsula brown bears ( Ursus arctos gyas). Of the 72 bears tested, 42 (58%) were ELISA positive and 53 (73%) were RBPT positive. However, the coherence between the tests was only fair (K=0.37, SE=0.11), suggesting that either the serologic results were not compatible with Brucella spp. infection or that there was a technical problem with the tests. To address a potential technical problem, we performed a 30-min chloroform/centrifugation cleanup. Following cleanup, the ELISA identified 43 positives (59%) and the RBPT identified 47 (65%), and the coherence between the tests was much improved (K=0.80, SE=0.07). We recommend cleaning wildlife sera with a high lipid content before performing RBPT and performing RBPT and ELISA in parallel to assess coherence. Our results suggest that Alaskan brown bears have been exposed to Brucella spp.

  14. Anti-Brucella Antibodies in Moose (Alces alces gigas), Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), and Plains Bison (Bison bison bison) in Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Nymo, Ingebjørg Helena; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Godfroid, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    We used an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) and the rose bengal test (RBT) to test for anti-Brucella antibodies in moose (Alces alces gigas), muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), and plains bison (Bison bison bison) from various game management units (GMUs) in Alaska, US, sampled from 1982 to 2010. A portion of the sera had previously been tested with the standard plate test (SPT), the buffered Brucella antigen (BBA) card test, and the card test (CARD). No antibody-positive plains bison were identified. Anti-Brucella antibodies were detected in moose (iELISA, n=4/87; RBT, n=4/87; SPT, n=4/5; BBA, n=4/4) from GMU 23 captured in 1992, 1993, and 1995 and in muskoxen (iELISA, n=4/52; RBT, n=4/52; CARD, n=4/35) from GMUs 26A and 26B captured in 2004, 2006, and 2007. A negative effect of infection on the health of individuals of these species is probable. The presence of antibody-positive animals from 1992 to 2007 suggests presence of brucellae over time. The antibody-positive animals were found in northern Alaska, an area with a historically higher prevalence of Brucella-positive caribou, and a spillover of Brucella suis biovar 4 from caribou may have occurred. Brucella suis biovar 4 causes human brucellosis, and transmission from consumption of moose and muskoxen is possible.

  15. Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case Control Study in Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    TITLE: Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case Control Study in Alaska PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Caroline M. Tanner, M.D...2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0490 Control Study in...now in progress in Anchorage. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Parkinson’s disease, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Organochlorine pesticides, Methylmercury, Alaska

  16. Stable-isotope evidence for a magmatic component in fumarole condensates from Augustine Volcano, Cook Inlet, Alaska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viglino, J.A.; Harmon, R.S.; Borthwick, J.; Nehring, N.L.; Motyka, R.J.; White, L.D.; Johnston, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    D/H and 18O 16O ratios have been determined for fumarole condensates from Augustine Volcano, an active calc-alkaline stratovolcano in Lower Cook Inlet, Alaska. The isotopic data for the condensates form a linear ?? D-?? 18O array from low-temperature fluids (450??C) fluids collected at the volcano summit which are enriched in both D and 18O (?? D {reversed tilde equals} -35???, ?? 18O {reversed tilde equals} +3.5???). Several lines of evidence suggest that the D-and 18O-rich condensates likely are "magmatic" fluids released into the hydrothermal system during and immediately after the 1976 eruption. Prior to 1976, the Augustine hydrothermal system was dominated completely by local meteoric waters. Between 1976 and 1982, fumarole condensates were observed to be variable mixtures of the "magmatic" fluid and meteoric water, with the proportion of the former systematically decreasing as the hydrothermal system cooled following the 1976 eruption. ?? 1985.

  17. 77 FR 50914 - Anchorage; Change to Cottonwood Island Anchorage, Columbia River, Oregon and Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ..., Columbia River, Oregon and Washington AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information On..., Oregon and Washington. (a) * * * (10) Cottonwood Island Anchorage. The waters of the Columbia...

  18. 75 FR 76275 - Anchorage Regulations; Long Island Sound

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 110 RIN 1625-AA01 Anchorage Regulations; Long Island Sound AGENCY: Coast... grounds in Long Island Sound. These anchorages are located in Connecticut and New York State waters. This..., particularly deep draft vessels, transiting Long Island Sound or awaiting entry to a port or facility in...

  19. Engineering Analysis of Beach Erosion at Homer Spit, Alaska.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    Inlet is approximately 200 miles long, extending from Anchorage to the Kennedy and Stevenson entrances from the Gulf of Alaska and Shelikof Strait...2 axes: one along lower Cook Inlet and Shelikof Strait (northeast-southwest) and the other from the Kennedy and Stevenson Entrances to Kamishak Gap...southwest), and the second axis runs from Kennedy and Stevenson entrances to Kamishak Gap (east-west), according to Macklin et al (1980). This is evident

  20. UNIT, ALASKA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. THE UNIT IS PRESENTED IN OUTLINE FORM. THE FIRST SECTION DEALS PRINCIPALLY WITH THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. DISCUSSED ARE (1) THE SIZE, (2) THE MAJOR LAND REGIONS, (3) THE MOUNTAINS, VOLCANOES, GLACIERS, AND RIVERS, (4) THE NATURAL RESOURCES, AND (5) THE CLIMATE. THE…

  1. Episootiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in Pacific herring from the spawn-on-kelp fishery in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Kocan, R.M.; Elder, N.E.; Meyers, T.R.; Winton, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Both the prevalence and tissue titer of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) increased in Pacific herring Clupea pallasi following their introduction into net pens (pounds) used in the closed pound spawn-on-kelp (SOK) fishery in Prince William Sound, Alaska. VHSV was also found in water samples from inside and outside the SOK pounds after herring had been confined for several days; however, water samples taken near wild free-ranging, spawning herring either failed to test positive or tested weakly positive for virus. Little or no virus was found in tissue samples from free-ranging, spawning herring captured from the vicinity of the pounds, nor did the prevalence of VHSV increase following spawning as it did in impounded herring. The data indicated that increased prevalences of VHSV were correlated with confinement of herring for the closed pound SOK fishery and that infection was spread within the pounds through waterborne exposure to virus particles originating from impounded fish. In addition, pounds containing predominantly young fish had higher prevalences of VHSV, suggesting that older fish may be partially immune, perhaps as a result of previous infection with the virus. Operation of SOK pounds during spawning seasons in which young herring predominate may amplify the disease and possibly exacerbate the population fluctuations observed in wild herring stocks.

  2. Epizootiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in Pacific herring from the spawn-on-kelp fishery in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Kocan, R.M.; Elder, N.E.; Meyers, T.R.; Winton, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Both the prevalence and tissue titer of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) increased in Pacific herring Clupea pallasi following their introduction into net pens (pounds) used in the closed pound spawn-on-kelp (SOK) fishery in Prince William Sound, Alaska. VHSV was also found in water samples from inside and outside the SOK pounds after herring had been confined for several days; however, water samples taken near wild free-ranging, spawning herring either failed to test positive or tested weakly positive for virus. Little or no virus was found in tissue samples from free-ranging, spawning herring captured from the vicinity of the pounds, nor did the prevalence of VHSV increase following spawning as it did in impounded herring. The data indicated that increased prevalences of VHSV were correlated with confinement of herring for the closed pound SOK fishery and that infection was spread within the pounds through waterborne exposure to virus particles originating from impounded fish. In addition, pounds containing predominantly young fish had higher prevalences of VHSV, suggesting that older fish may be partially immune, perhaps as a result of previous infection with the virus. Operation of SOK pounds during spawning seasons in which young herring predominate may amplify the disease and possibly exacerbate the population fluctuations observed in wild herring stocks.

  3. Alaska Humans Factors Safety Study: The Southern Coastal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Reynard, William (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    At the request of the Alaska Air Carriers Association, researchers from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System, at NASA Ames Research Center, conducted a study on aspects of safety in Alaskan Part 135 air taxi operations. An interview form on human factors safety issues was created by a representative team from the FAA-Alaska, NTSB-Alaska, NASA-ASRS, and representatives of the Alaska Air Carriers Association which was subsequently used in the interviews of pilots and managers. Because of the climate and operational differences, the study was broken into two geographical areas, the southern coastal areas and the northern portion of the state. This presentation addresses the southern coastal areas, specifically: Anchorage, Dillingham, King Salmon, Kodiak, Cold Bay, Juneau, and Ketchikan. The interview questions dealt with many of the potential pressures on pilots and managers associated with the daily air taxi operations in Alaska. The impact of the environmental factors such as the lack of available communication, navigation and weather information systems was evaluated. The results of this study will be used by government and industry working in Alaska. These findings will contribute important information on specific Alaska safety issues for eventual incorporation into training materials and policies that will help to assure the safe conduct of air taxi flights in Alaska.

  4. Establishing a culturally sensitive palliative care program in rural Alaska Native American communities.

    PubMed

    DeCourtney, Christine A; Jones, Kristina; Merriman, Melanie P; Heavener, Nina; Branch, P Kay

    2003-06-01

    End-of-life programs that provide an option for patients to die at home are available in most U.S. communities. However, Alaska Natives living in remote Alaska villages often die alone in hospitals and nursing homes hundreds of miles away from home. The Bristol Bay Area Health Corporation (BBAHC), a tribal organization, is the sole provider of comprehensive primary care services to 34 Alaska Native villages located within a 46,000 square mile area in southwest Alaska. The closest tertiary care hospital is 329 air miles away in Anchorage. Because of the high cost of, and difficulties encountered in trying to deliver end-of-life care services to remote communities, a village-focused, culturally sensitive, volunteer and primary care program combined with a regionally based physician and home health nurse to deliver multi-disciplinary palliative care was developed. The Helping Hands Program blends cultural practices with contemporary palliative care medicine to allow Alaska Natives and others living in remote communities to be cared for at home through the end of life. Since the program was implemented in 1999, the percentage of home deaths for selected causes has changed from 33% in 1997 to 77% in 2001. The Anchorage-based Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium (ANTHC) and the Alaska Native Medical Center (ANMC) have recognized the importance and success of the BBAHC program and are investigating expanding the program to other parts of Alaska. Centralizing the program in Anchorage will allow staff trained in palliative care to travel to regional Alaska Native hospitals to help train health care professionals.

  5. Distribution, speciation, and transport of mercury in stream-sediment, stream-water, and fish collected near abandoned mercury mines in southwestern Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, J.E.; Theodorakos, P.M.; Bailey, E.A.; Turner, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    Concentrations of total Hg, Hg (II), and methylmercury were measured in stream-sediment, stream-water, and fish collected downstream from abandoned mercury mines in south-western Alaska to evaluate environmental effects to surrounding ecosystems. These mines are found in a broad belt covering several tens of thousands of square kilometers, primarily in the Kuskokwim River basin. Mercury ore is dominantly cinnabar (HgS), but elemental mercury (Hg(o)) is present in ore at one mine and near retorts and in streams at several mine sites. Approximately 1400 t of mercury have been produced from the region, which is approximately 99% of all mercury produced from Alaska. These mines are not presently operating because of low prices and low demand for mercury. Stream-sediment samples collected downstream from the mines contain as much as 5500 ??g/g Hg. Such high Hg concentrations are related to the abundance of cinnabar, which is highly resistant to physical and chemical weathering, and is visible in streams below mine sites. Although total Hg concentrations in the stream-sediment samples collected near mines are high, Hg speciation data indicate that concentrations of Hg (II) are generally less than 5%, and methylmercury concentrations are less than 1% of the total Hg. Stream waters below the mines are neutral to slightly alkaline (pH 6.8-8.4), which is a result of the insolubility of cinnabar and the lack of acid- generating minerals such as pyrite in the deposits. Unfiltered stream-water samples collected below the mines generally contain 500-2500 ng/l Hg; whereas, corresponding stream-water samples filtered through a 0.45-??m membrane contain less than 50 ng/l Hg. These stream-water results indicate that most of the Hg transported downstream from the mines is as finely- suspended material rather than dissolved Hg. Mercury speciation data show that concentrations of Hg (II) and methylmercury in stream-water samples are typically less than 22 ng/l, and generally less than

  6. Drivers and Estimates of Terrain Suitability for Active Layer Detachment Slides and Retrogressive Thaw Slumps in the Brooks Range and Foothills of Northwest Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balser, A.; Jones, J.

    2015-12-01

    Active layer detachment sliding and retrogressive thaw slumping are important modes of upland permafrost degradation and disturbance in permafrost regions, and have been linked with climate warming trends, ecosystem impacts, and permafrost carbon release. In the Brooks Range and foothills of northwest Alaska, these features are widespread, with distribution linked to multiple landscape properties. Inter-related and co-varying terrain properties, including surficial geology, topography, geomorphology, vegetation and hydrology, are generally considered key drivers of permafrost landscape characteristics and responses to climate perturbation. However, these inter-relationships as collective drivers of terrain suitability for active layer detachment and retrogressive thaw slump processes are poorly understood in this region. We empirically tested and refined a hypothetical model of terrain factors driving active layer detachment and retrogressive thaw slump terrain suitability, and used final model results to generate synoptic terrain suitability estimates across the study region. Spatial data for terrain properties were examined against locations of 2,492 observed active layer detachments and 805 observed retrogressive thaw slumps using structural equation modelling and integrated terrain unit analysis. Factors significant to achieving model fit were found to substantially hone and constrain region-wide terrain suitability estimates, suggesting that omission of relevant factors leads to broad overestimation of terrain suitability. Resulting probabilistic maps of terrain suitability, and a threshold-delineated mask of suitable terrain, were used to quantify and describe landscape settings typical of these features. 51% of the study region is estimated suitable terrain for retrogressive thaw slumps, compared with 35% for active layer detachment slides, while 29% of the study region is estimated suitable for both. Results improve current understanding of arctic landscape

  7. Species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in shrews from Alaska, U.S.A., and northeastern Siberia, Russia, with description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Lynch, A J; Duszynski, D W

    2008-08-01

    Fecal samples (n = 636) from 10 species of shrews collected in Alaska (n = 540) and northeastern Siberia (n = 96) were examined for the presence of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Five distinct oocyst morphotypes were observed. Three types were consistent with oocysts of previously recognized coccidia species from other shrew hosts. These were Eimeria inyoni, E. vagrantis, and Isospora brevicauda, originally described from the inyo shrew (Sorex tenellus), dusky shrew (S. monticolus), and northern short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda), respectively. We found 5 new host records for E. inyoni, 3 for E. vagrantis, and 3 for I. brevicauda. The 2 additional oocyst morphotypes, both from the tundra shrew (Sorex tundrensis), are putative new species. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria beringiacea n. sp. are subspheroidal, 17.7 x 15.6 microm (14-24 x 13-20 microm) with a length (L)/width (W) ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.4); these lack a micropyle (M), an oocyst residuum (OR), and a polar granule (PG). Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 10.3 x 6.1 microm (7-14 x 4-8 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.7 (1.3-2.3) and have a Stieda body (SB), Substieda body (SSB), and sporocyst residuum (SR). Oocysts of Eimeria tundraensis n. sp. are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 24.8 x 23.5 microm (23-26 x 22-25 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.2); these lack a M and OR, but a single PG is present. Sporocysts are elongate ellipsoidal, 15.4 x 8.3 microm (13-17 x 7-9 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.9 (1.4-2.1) and have a SB, SSB, and SR.

  8. 33 CFR 110.237 - Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage. 110.237 Section 110.237 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.237 Pacific Ocean at...

  9. 33 CFR 110.237 - Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage. 110.237 Section 110.237 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.237 Pacific Ocean at...

  10. 33 CFR 110.237 - Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage. 110.237 Section 110.237 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.237 Pacific Ocean at...

  11. 33 CFR 110.237 - Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage. 110.237 Section 110.237 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.237 Pacific Ocean at...

  12. 33 CFR 110.237 - Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage. 110.237 Section 110.237 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.237 Pacific Ocean at...

  13. 78 FR 9811 - Anchorages; Captain of the Port Puget Sound Zone, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 110 RIN 1625-AA01 Anchorages; Captain of the Port Puget Sound Zone, WA... anchorages in Puget Sound and decreases the size of five general anchorage areas. These administrative... predictability within the anchorages of the Captain of the Port (COTP) Puget Sound zone. DATES: This rule...

  14. Paleoenvironmental interpretation of an ancient Arctic coastal plain: Integrated paleopedology and palynology from the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Prince Creek Formation, North Slope, Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, P. J.; Flaig, P. P.; Fiorillo, A. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Cretaceous (Early Maastrichtian), dinosaur-bearing Prince Creek Formation, North Slope, Alaska, records high-latitude, alluvial sedimentation and soil formation on a low-lying, coastal plain during a greenhouse phase in Earth history. This study combines outcrop observations, micromorphology, geochemistry, and palynological analyses of paleosols in order to reconstruct local paleoenvironments of weakly developed, high-latitude coastal plain soils. Sediments of the Prince Creek Fm. include quartz- and chert-rich sandstone channels, and floodplains containing organic-rich siltstone and mudstone, carbonaceous shale, coal and ashfall deposits. Vertically stacked horizons of blocky-to-platy, drab-colored mudstone and siltstone with carbonaceous root-traces and mottled aggregates alternating with sandy units indicate that the development of compound and cumulative, weakly-developed soils on floodplains alternated with overbank alluviation and deposition on crevasse splay complexes on floodplains . Soil formation occurred on levees, point bars, crevasse splays and along the margins of floodplain lakes, ponds, and swamps. Soil-forming processes were interrupted by repeated deposition of sediment on top of soil profiles by flooding of nearby channels. Alluviation is evidenced by thin (<0.5 m) sand and silt horizons within soil profiles, along with common pedorelicts, papules, and fluctuations with depth in a variety of molecular ratios. Carbonaceous organic matter and root-traces, Fe-oxide depletion coatings, and zoned peds suggest periodic waterlogging, anoxia and gleying. In contrast, Fe-oxide mottles, ferruginous and manganiferous segregations, burrows, and rare illuvial clay coatings suggest recurring oxidation and periodic drying out of some soils. Jarosite mottles and halos, and rare pyrite and gypsum found in some distal paleosols implies a marine influence at the distal margins of the coastal plain. Biota including Peridinioid dinocysts, brackish and freshwater

  15. Observed and Potential Responses of Upland Tundra Ecosystems to a Changing Climate: Results from the Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research Project, North Slope, Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, W. B.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic is one of the most rapidly changing biomes on earth. Research at the Toolik Field Station by the Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research project provides a perspective on changes that are impacting the upland tussock tundra region of the North Slope of Alaska, a region that is typical of ~15% of the arctic region. The arctic is responding to a combination of long-term, gradual changes (presses) and short-term, event-driven changes (pulses). The most important press, of course, is the persistent rise in average annual air temperature observed in most places (though not at Toolik). Associated with this increase in SAT is a well-documented increase in shallow permafrost temperature (which is observed around Toolik). Our long-term research shows that this trend will favor taller and more productive shrub and grass vegetation. Higher SAT translates to earlier spring breakup and later onset of winter. This change in seasonality is affecting interactions between shrub leaf-out, insect emergence, and bird nesting. Persistent and more frequent droughts are having important impacts on the ability of Arctic grayling - the top consumer is most upland tundra streams - to survive and has the potential to block their ability to migrate to essential overwintering lakes. The interaction between temperature (which is changing) and light (which is not) creates a "seasonal asynchrony" that may be increasing the loading of nutrients - notably nitrate - to upland tundra streams late in the season, with impacts that we do not fully understand yet. The upland tundra environment is also responding to an increasing frequency of pulses, most notably wildfires and the development of thermo-erosional failures (TEFs). Wildfires transfer large quantities of carbon and nitrogen directly to the atmosphere. TEFs may deliver large quantities of sediment and nutrients to streams and lakes. Currently these pulse disturbances seem to be having only limited, local impacts. However, as shallow

  16. Alaska Volcano Observatory at 20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) was established in 1988 in the wake of the 1986 Augustine eruption through a congressional earmark. Even within the volcanological community, there was skepticism about AVO. Populations directly at risk in Alaska were small compared to Cascadia, and the logistical costs of installing and maintaining monitoring equipment were much higher. Questions were raised concerning the technical feasibility of keeping seismic stations operating through the long, dark, stormy Alaska winters. Some argued that AVO should simply cover Augustine with instruments and wait for the next eruption there, expected in the mid 90s (but delayed until 2006), rather than stretching to instrument as many volcanoes as possible. No sooner was AVO in place than Redoubt erupted and a fully loaded passenger 747 strayed into the eruption cloud between Anchorage and Fairbanks, causing a powerless glide to within a minute of impact before the pilot could restart two engines and limp into Anchorage. This event forcefully made the case that volcano hazard mitigation is not just about people and infrastructure on the ground, and is particularly important in the heavily traveled North Pacific where options for flight diversion are few. In 1996, new funding became available through an FAA earmark to aggressively extend volcano monitoring far into the Aleutian Islands with both ground-based networks and round-the-clock satellite monitoring. Beyond the Aleutians, AVO developed a monitoring partnership with Russians volcanologists at the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. The need to work together internationally on subduction phenomena that span borders led to formation of the Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes (JKASP) consortium. JKASP meets approximately biennially in Sapporo, Petropavlovsk, and Fairbanks. In turn, these meetings and support from NSF and the Russian Academy of Sciences led to new international education and

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) and harlequin ducks (Histronicus histronicus) in the Eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, A.K.; Flint, P.L.; Trust, K.A.; Ricca, M.A.; Spring, S.E.; Arrieta, D.E.; Hollmen, T.; Wilson, B.W.

    2007-01-01

    Seaducks may be affected by harmful levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at seaports near the Arctic. As an indicator of exposure to PAHs, we measured hepatic enzyme 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) to determine cytochrome P4501A induction in Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) and Harlequin ducks (Histronicus histronicus) from Unalaska, Popof, and Unga Islands (AK, USA) in 2002 and 2003. We measured PAHs and organic contaminants in seaduck prey samples and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in seaduck blood plasma to determine any relationship to EROD. Using Akaike's information criterion, species and site differences best explained EROD patterns: Activity was higher in Harlequin ducks than in Steller's eiders and higher at industrial than at nonindustrial sites. Site-specific concentrations of PAHs in blue mussels ([Mytilus trossilus] seaduck prey; PAH concentrations higher at Dutch Harbor, Unalaska, than at other sites) also was important in defining EROD patterns. Organochlorine compounds rarely were detected in prey samples. No relationship was found between polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in avian blood and EROD, which further supported inferences derived from Akaike's information criterion. Congeners were highest in seaducks from a nonindustrial or reference site, contrary to PAH patterns. To assist in interpreting the field study, 15 captive Steller's eiders were dosed with a PAH known to induce cytochrome P4501A. Dosed, captive Steller's eiders had definitive induction, but results indicated that wild Steller's eiders were exposed to PAHs or other inducing compounds at levels greater than those used in laboratory studies. Concentrations of PAHs in blue mussels at or near Dutch Harbor (∼1,180–5,980 ng/g) approached those found at highly contaminated sites (∼4,100–7,500 ng/g).

  18. 2. DETAIL VIEW OF ANCHORAGE LOOKING EAST, (Wire rope manufactured ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL VIEW OF ANCHORAGE LOOKING EAST, (Wire rope manufactured by Roebling and Son, Trenton, New Jersey) - Corbin Bridge, 2 miles Southeast of Huntingdon on road to Raystown Dam, Huntingdon, Huntingdon County, PA

  19. 65. Detail view inside Manhattan anchorage of splayed cable strands. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. Detail view inside Manhattan anchorage of splayed cable strands. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  20. 75 FR 3641 - Television Broadcasting Services; Anchorage, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Anchorage, AK AGENCY: Federal Communications... broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission amends 47...

  1. 9. CABLE ANCHORAGE DETAIL, NORTHWEST ABUTMENT (NOTE MOSSCOVERED CONCRETE ANCHOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. CABLE ANCHORAGE DETAIL, NORTHWEST ABUTMENT (NOTE MOSS-COVERED CONCRETE ANCHOR LEFT OF ANCHOR BOLTS) - Nisqually Suspension Bridge, Spanning Nisqually River on Service Road, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  2. RadNet Air Data From Anchorage, AK

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Anchorage, AK from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  3. LANDSAT demonstration/application and GIS integration in south central Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, A. W.; Derrenbacher, W.

    1981-01-01

    Automated geographic information systems were developed for two sites in Southcentral Alaska to serve as tests for both the process of integrating classified LANDSAT data into a comprehensive environmental data base and the process of using automated information in land capability/suitability analysis and environmental planning. The Big Lake test site, located approximately 20 miles north of the City of Anchorage, comprises an area of approximately 150 square miles. The Anchorage Hillside test site, lying approximately 5 miles southeast of the central part of the city, extends over an area of some 25 square miles. Map construction and content is described.

  4. Advances in cell culture: anchorage dependence

    PubMed Central

    Merten, Otto-Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    Anchorage-dependent cells are of great interest for various biotechnological applications. (i) They represent a formidable production means of viruses for vaccination purposes at very large scales (in 1000–6000 l reactors) using microcarriers, and in the last decade many more novel viral vaccines have been developed using this production technology. (ii) With the advent of stem cells and their use/potential use in clinics for cell therapy and regenerative medicine purposes, the development of novel culture devices and technologies for adherent cells has accelerated greatly with a view to the large-scale expansion of these cells. Presently, the really scalable systems—microcarrier/microcarrier-clump cultures using stirred-tank reactors—for the expansion of stem cells are still in their infancy. Only laboratory scale reactors of maximally 2.5 l working volume have been evaluated because thorough knowledge and basic understanding of critical issues with respect to cell expansion while retaining pluripotency and differentiation potential, and the impact of the culture environment on stem cell fate, etc., are still lacking and require further studies. This article gives an overview on critical issues common to all cell culture systems for adherent cells as well as specifics for different types of stem cells in view of small- and large-scale cell expansion and production processes. PMID:25533097

  5. 2013 volcanic activity in Alaska: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Cameron, Cheryl; McGimsey, Robert G.; Neal, Christina A.; Waythomas, Chris

    2015-08-14

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, volcanic unrest or suspected unrest, and seismic events at 18 volcanic centers in Alaska during 2013. Beginning with the 2013 AVO Summary of Events, the annual description of the AVO seismograph network and activity, once a stand-alone publication, is now part of this report. Because of this change, the annual summary now contains an expanded description of seismic activity at Alaskan volcanoes. Eruptions occurred at three volcanic centers in 2013: Pavlof Volcano in May and June, Mount Veniaminof Volcano in June through December, and Cleveland Volcano throughout the year. None of these three eruptive events resulted in 24-hour staffing at AVO facilities in Anchorage or Fairbanks.

  6. Timing of ore-related magmatism in the western Alaska Range, southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Graham, Garth E.; Anderson, Eric D.; Selby, David

    2014-01-01

    This report presents isotopic age data from mineralized granitic plutons in an area of the Alaska Range located approximately 200 kilometers to the west-northwest of Anchorage in southwestern Alaska. Uranium-lead isotopic data and trace element concentrations of zircons were determined for 12 samples encompassing eight plutonic bodies ranging in age from approximately 76 to 57.4 millions of years ago (Ma). Additionally, a rhenium-osmium age of molybdenite from the Miss Molly molybdenum occurrence is reported (approx. 59 Ma). All of the granitic plutons in this study host gold-, copper-, and (or) molybdenum-rich prospects. These new ages modify previous interpretations regarding the age of magmatic activity and mineralization within the study area. The new ages show that the majority of the gold-quartz vein-hosting plutons examined in this study formed in the Late Cretaceous. Further work is necessary to establish the ages of ore-mineral deposition in these deposits.

  7. Proceedings of the Alaska-Russia Native Peoples Health and Social Issues Conference. May 1992, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Marshall, D L; Soule, S

    1993-04-01

    An Alaska-Russia Native People's Health and Social Issues Conference, sponsored by the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, the Alaska Native Foundation, the University of Anchorage Institute for Circumpolar Health Studies, the International Scientific Center "ARTIKA" (Magadan, Russia), the Associations of Native People of Chukotka and Kolyma, and the Magadan Native Association, was held in Wasilla, Alaska in May, 1992. The conference brought together Native people, primarily health and social services workers, to discuss differences and similarities in issues and approaches, and to lay the foundation for future collaboration. The primary participants came mostly from rural villages and small regional cities, and represented Native Health Corporations, Native Associations, and villages. Additional participants came from the University of Alaska, the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, the Indian Health Service, the Magadan Health Department, the Inuit Circumpolar Conference, and the International Union for Circumpolar Health. A Total of 39 people participated, including: eight Russian Natives (Chukchi, Even, and Siberian Yup'ik); three non-Native Russians; 18 Alaska Natives (Aleut, Athabaskan, Inupiat, Siberian Yup'ik, Yup'ik); nine non-Native Alaskans; one Canadian. The issues discussed in individual and panel presentations, and in small groups, included history, demography, settlement patterns, the cash and subsistence economies, mental and physical health (epidemiology, etiology, treatment and prevention), education, governance, culture and language. As the conference participants came to know each other better, the discussions became increasingly open, and, particularly around shared feelings of cultural oppression and loss, emotional.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Prevalence of the use of anchorage miniscrews among French orthodontists.

    PubMed

    Barthelemi, Stéphane; Beauval, Hélène

    2015-12-01

    Since always, anchorage has raised frequent problems for orthodontists. Since the early 2000s, the use of anchorage miniscrews has spread on a vast scale among practitioners. For the first time, a broad epidemiological survey (733 exploitable responses) has looked into the habits of French orthodontists regarding the use of anchorage miniscrews. The survey reveals that the majority of French practitioners have adopted miniscrews in their daily practice (66%), particularly among those using the lingual technique. However, the number of patients concerned still remains small for most practitioners (fewer than 10 patients for 65% of users). Seventy-four percent of users are satisfied with their experience with miniscrews although a majority uses them exclusively in adults (64%). The movements most sought by miniscrew users are mesialization/distalization and intrusion/extrusion. Among non-users, 60% have never placed an anchorage miniscrew but are thinking about doing so, whereas 20% of practitioners have used them but have since abandoned them. Finally, 20% of non-users have never used anchorage miniscrews and do not intend to do so.

  9. Non-destructive evaluation of anchorage zones by ultrasonics techniques.

    PubMed

    Kharrat, M; Gaillet, L

    2015-08-01

    This work aims to evaluate the efficiency and reliability of two Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) methods for damage assessment in bridges' anchorages. The Acousto-Ultrasonic (AU) technique is compared to classical Ultrasonic Testing (UT) in terms of defect detection and structural health classification. The AU technique is firstly used on single seven-wire strands damaged by artificial defects. The effect of growing defects on the waves traveling through the strands is evaluated. Thereafter, three specimens of anchorages with unknown defects are inspected by the AU and UT techniques. Damage assessment results from both techniques are then compared. The structural health conditions of the specimens can be then classified by a damage severity criterion. Finally, a damaged anchorage socket with mastered defects is controlled by the same techniques. The UT allows the detection and localization of damaged wires. The AU technique is used to bring out the effect of defects on acoustic features by comparing a healthy and damaged anchorage sockets. It is concluded that the UT method is suitable for local and crack-like defects, whereas the AU technique enables the assessment of the global structural health of the anchorage zones.

  10. Eastern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this SeaWiFS image of eastern Alaska, the Aleutian Islands, Kodiak Island, Yukon and Tanana rivers are clearly visible. Also visible, but slightly hidden beneath the clouds, is a bloom in Bristol Bay. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  11. On the biomechanics of seedling anchorage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzy, Benoît; Edmaier, Katharina; Perona, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    We propose a minimal model for the response of vegetation to pullout constraints at early development stage. We try to capture both the average mechanical properties of the root system and the stochastic component of the uprooting process of seedlings. We identify a minimal set of relevant physical components in the purpose of quantifying the uprooting process: length of the root fibres, elastic response of the fibres and adhesion between the roots and the soil matrix. We present for validation a dataset extracted from Edmaier et al. (under revision), accounting for 98 uprooting experiments using Avena sativa L. seedlings (common oat), growing in non-cohesive sediment under controlled conditions. The corresponding root system has a very simple architecture, with three root fibres of different lengths. The response of the system to the constraint is however complex: the stress-strain signal presents sudden jumps followed by partial elastic recoveries. The analysis of the jumps and partial recoveries gives an insight into the resilience of the system. The anchorage of less mature seedlings rapidly collapses after the peak force has been reached, while more mature seedlings usually recover from partial failures. We explore this crossover with our validation dataset. The type of seedlings we study has been used in flume experiments investigating the feedbacks between the vegetation and the river morphodynamics (see for example Perona et al. (2012)). An understanding of the characteristics of the uprooting curve (maximal uprooting force and total uprooting work) of such vegetation reveals the ability of seedlings to withstand environmental constraints in terms of duration or intensity (see Edmaier et al., under revision), and is therefore helpful for planning future experiments. REFERENCES - P. Perona, P. Molnar, B. Crouzy, E. Perucca, Z. Jiang, S. McLelland, D. Wüthrich, K. Edmaier, R. Francis, C. Camporeale, et al., Biomass selection by floods and related timescales

  12. Effects of the zygoma anchorage system on canine retraction.

    PubMed

    Cetinsahin, Alev; Dinçer, Müfide; Arman-Ozçirpici, Ayça; Uçkan, Sina

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the Gjessing (PG) retraction spring used with and without the zygoma anchorage system (ZAS) on canine retraction. Thirty patients, with an Angle Class I or Class II malocclusion, whose upper first premolars were scheduled for extraction, were divided into two equal groups. Group 1 comprised maximum anchorage cases (nine females and six males with a mean age of 16 years 8 months) in which the ZAS was used to improve posterior anchorage and the PG retraction springs for canine retraction. Moderate anchorage cases (10 females and 5 males with a mean age of 15 years 5 month) were included in group 2 and canine retraction was achieved using only PG retraction springs. Study models and lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained at the initial and final stages of canine retraction were used for comparison of the groups to determine the effects of zygoma anchorage on canine retraction. All measurements were evaluated statistically using a Student's t-test, 2 × 2 repeated measures analysis of variance, Bonferroni-adjusted t-test, and Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests according to the normality of the distribution of the variables. Mesial crown movement of the molars was 0.63 mm (P < 0.05) in group 1 and 1.50 mm (P < 0.001) in group 2. There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) between the groups. No significant difference was observed between the groups for the rate of canine retraction or sagittal and vertical movement of the canines. The ZAS is a reliable and successful anchorage reinforcement method for canine retraction in extraction cases.

  13. 78 FR 11097 - Artificial Island Anchorage No. 2 Partial Closure, Delaware River; Salem, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ..., Delaware River; Salem, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...-0032 Safety Zone Within the Lower Portion of Anchorage 2, Artificial Island Anchorage; Salem, NJ....

  14. Miniscrew implants as temporary anchorage devices in orthodontics: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Jasoria, Gaurav; Shamim, Wamiq; Rathore, Saurabh; Kalra, Amit; Manchanda, Mona; Jaggi, Nitin

    2013-09-01

    In recent times, the use of miniscrew implants to obtain absolute anchorage has gained momentum in clinical orthodontics as rigid anchorage modality. Miniscrew implants offers many advantages when used as temporary anchorage devices like, easy placement and removal, immediate loading, can be used in a variety of locations, provide absolute anchorage, economic and requires less patient cooperation. This makes them as a necessary treatment option in cases with critical anchorage that would have otherwise resulted in anchorage loss if treated with conventional means of anchorage. The aim of this comprehensive review is to highlight the gradual evolution, clinical use, advantages and disadvantages of the miniscrew implants when used to obtain a temporary but absolute skeletal anchorage for orthodontic applications.

  15. Moving Toward a Globally Harmonized Volcanic Ash Forecast System: Anchorage and Tokyo VAAC Best Practices on Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osiensky, J. M.; Moore, D.; Igarashi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Since the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010, there has been an increased awareness on the need for better collaboration between the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs). Work through the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) International Airways Volcano Watch Operations Group (IAVWOPSG) and International Airways Volcano Task Force (IAVTF) brought increased awareness and focus to this challenge. A VAAC Best Practices group was formed out of these larger meetings and focused on VAAC specific issues of importance. Collaboration was one of the topics under consideration. Some ideas and procedures for an effective, yet easy, method for the VAACs to collaborate have been discussed. Implementation has been mainly on a VAAC to VAAC basis, however a more consolidated process needs to be developed and agreed upon between all VAACs in order to successfully move toward harmonization. Collaboration procedures and tools are being considered. The National Weather Service (NWS) Alaska Region has been looking at collaborative software to help the VAACs identify the presence of ash and forecast the plume both in the horizontal and vertical. Having an interactive graphical interface within the forecast operation may help to ensure consistency across VAAC boundaries. Existing chat software within NWS is being investigated to allow Tokyo and Anchorage VAAC to "chat" about forecast issues in real time. This capability is being tested through scenarios. The Anchorage and Tokyo VAACs participated in a series of meetings in Tokyo in March 2014. Collaboration was a major topic of discussion. This paper will outline some of the efforts being undertaken between the Anchorage and Tokyo VAACs as a result of these meetings and subsequent dialogue.

  16. Alaska Resource Data File, Noatak Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.; Dumoulin, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Noatak 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  17. EPA Regional Administrator and American Indian Environmental Office Director Present Recognition of Innovation to Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium's LEO Network

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Anchorage - February 10, 2016) Today, U.S. EPA Region 10 Administrator Dennis McLerran and EPA American Indian Environmental Office National Director JoAnn Chase will present a Recognition of Innovation award to the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium'

  18. 77 FR 45988 - Anchorage Regulations; Great Chebeague Island, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... 12630, Governmental Actions and Interference with Constitutionally Protected Property Rights. Civil... Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform, to minimize litigation, eliminate ambiguity, and reduce burden... any time extend outside of the anchorage. Note: All anchoring in the areas is under the supervision...

  19. 75 FR 22323 - Anchorage Regulations; Port of New York

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 110 RIN 1625-AA01 Anchorage Regulations; Port of New York AGENCY: Coast... New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590-0001. (4) Hand Delivery: Same as mail address above...-mail Mr. Jeff Yunker, Coast Guard Sector New York, Waterways Management Division; telephone...

  20. Osteosynthesis of the proximal femur anchorage of a cervical nail.

    PubMed

    el Banna, S; Burny, F; Bourgois, R; Donkerwolcke, M; Moulart, F

    1994-01-01

    One of the factors determining the stability of osteosynthesis is the mechanical strength of the bone fragments required for the anchorage of the implant. The aim is to study the driving of a Thornton nail in the proximal epiphysis of a human femur as a way to measure the strength of the trabecular bone and to predict the stability of the implanted system.

  1. 77 FR 54493 - Special Anchorage Area; Stockton Springs, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... federalism. 6. Protest Activities The Coast Guard respects the First Amendment rights of protesters... Springs, and the number of vessels using the anchorage is limited due to depth (less than or equal to 15... limited due to depth (less than or equal to 15 feet). If you think that your business, organization,...

  2. Earthquake source studies and seismic imaging in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tape, C.; Silwal, V.

    2015-12-01

    Alaska is one of the world's most seismically and tectonically active regions. Its enhanced seismicity, including slab seismicity down to 180 km, provides opportunities (1) to characterize pervasive crustal faulting and slab deformation through the estimation of moment tensors and (2) to image subsurface structures to help understand the tectonic evolution of Alaska. Most previous studies of earthquakes and seismic imaging in Alaska have emphasized earthquake locations and body-wave travel-time tomography. In the past decade, catalogs of seismic moment tensors have been established, while seismic surface waves, active-source data, and potential field data have been used to improve models of seismic structure. We have developed moment tensor catalogs in the regions of two of the largest sedimentary basins in Alaska: Cook Inlet forearc basin, west of Anchorage, and Nenana basin, west of Fairbanks. Our moment tensor solutions near Nenana basin suggest a transtensional tectonic setting, with the basin developing in a stepover of a left-lateral strike-slip fault system. We explore the effects of seismic wave propagation from point-source and finite-source earthquake models by performing three-dimensional wavefield simulations using seismic velocity models that include major sedimentary basins. We will use our catalog of moment tensors within an adjoint-based, iterative inversion to improve the three-dimensional tomographic model of Alaska.

  3. Uvulo-glossopharyngeal dimensions in non-extraction, extraction with minimum anchorage, and extraction with maximum anchorage.

    PubMed

    Germec-Cakan, Derya; Taner, Tulin; Akan, Seden

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate upper respiratory airway dimensions in non-extraction and extraction subjects treated with minimum or maximum anchorage. Lateral cephalograms of 39 Class I subjects were divided into three groups (each containing 11 females and 2 males) according to treatment procedure: group 1, 13 patients treated with extraction of four premolars and minimum anchorage; group 2, 13 cases treated non-extraction with air-rotor stripping (ARS); and group 3, 13 bimaxillary protrusion subjects treated with extraction of four premolars and maximum anchorage. The mean ages of the patients were 18.1 ± 3.7, 17.8 ± 2.4, and 15.5 ± 0.88 years, respectively. Tongue, soft palate, hyoid position, and upper airway measurements were made on pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalograms and the differences between the mean measurements were tested using Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. Superior and middle airway space increased significantly (P < 0.05) in group 1. In group 2, none of the parameters showed a significant change, while in group 3, middle and inferior airway space decreased (P < 0.01). The findings show that extraction treatment using maximum anchorage has a reducing effect on the middle and inferior airway dimensions.

  4. 33 CFR 110.72aa - Elizabeth River Spectator Vessel Anchorage Areas, between Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Anchorage Areas, between Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia. 110.72aa Section 110.72aa Navigation and... Anchorage Areas § 110.72aa Elizabeth River Spectator Vessel Anchorage Areas, between Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia. (a) Special Anchorage Areas. (1) The waters of the Elizabeth River bounded by the shore and...

  5. Amchitka, Alaska Site Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-15

    Amchitka Island is near the western end of the Aleutian Island chain and is the largest island in the Rat Island Group that is located about 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, and 870 miles east of the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The island is 42 miles long and 1 to 4 miles wide, with an area of approximately 74,240 acres. Elevations range from sea level to more than 1,100 feet above sea level. The coastline is rugged; sea cliffs and grassy slopes surround nearly the entire island. Vegetation on the island is low-growing, meadow-like tundra grasses at lower elevations. No trees grow on Amchitka. The lowest elevations are on the eastern third of the island and are characterized by numerous shallow lakes and heavily vegetated drainages. The central portion of the island has higher elevations and fewer lakes. The westernmost 3 miles of the island contains a windswept rocky plateau with sparse vegetation.

  6. 2008 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Dixon, James P.; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Nuzhdaev, Anton A.; Chibisova, Marina

    2011-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest or suspected unrest at seven separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2008. Significant explosive eruptions at Okmok and Kasatochi Volcanoes in July and August dominated Observatory operations in the summer and autumn. AVO maintained 24-hour staffing at the Anchorage facility from July 12 through August 28. Minor eruptive activity continued at Veniaminof and Cleveland Volcanoes. Observed volcanic unrest at Cook Inlet's Redoubt Volcano presaged a significant eruption in the spring of 2009. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication regarding eruptions or unrest at nine volcanoes in Russia as part of a collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

  7. Molar distalization with the assistance of Temporary Anchorage Devices.

    PubMed

    Palencar, Adrian J

    2015-01-01

    This article describes efficient techniques for distalization of maxillary and mandibular molars with the assistance of Temporary Anchorage Devices (TADs). There are numerous occasions where the distalization of molars is required in lieu of the odontectomy of bicuspids. In the past, extra-oral force has been used, (i.e. Cervical or Combination Head Gear, or intra-oral force, i.e. Posterior Sagittal Appliance, Modified Greenfield Appliance, Williams DMJ 20001, CD Distalizer, Magill Sagittal, Pendulum Appliance, etc.). All the intra-oral appliances have a common denominator the orthodontic clinician has to deal with, the undesirable expression of the Third Law of Newton. The utilization of TADs allows us to circumvent this shortcoming, establishing an absolute anchorage, and thus completely negate the expression of the Third Law of Newton.

  8. Alaska Plants and Trees. Grade 3. Revised. Anchorage School District Elementary Science Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defendorf, Jean, Ed.

    This unit includes 15 lessons on Alaskan plants and trees for third graders. It describes materials, supplementary materials including books and films, use of process skill terminology, unit objectives, vocabulary, background information (including the information source), field trip organization, succession, and major plants. Included are: (1)…

  9. Physical Model of Knik Arm and the Port of Anchorage, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Principles of similitude ............................................................................................................. 8 Geometrically...distorted models............................................................................................... 9 Hydraulic similitude in geometrically...scales ................................................................................................................... 26 Hydrodynamics similitude

  10. 33 CFR 110.231 - Ketchikan Harbor, Alaska, Large Passenger Vessel Anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... boundary lines: A line from Thomas Basin Entrance Light “2” to East Channel Lighted Buoy “4A”, to Pennock Island Reef Lighted Buoy “PR”, to Wreck Buoy “WR6”, then following a line bearing 064 degrees true...

  11. 75 FR 23804 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Alaska State Office, Bureau of Land Management, Anchorage, AK...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ..., Bureau of Land Management; Museum of the Aleutians; University of Wisconsin; and the Smithsonian... Bureau of Land Management sent the remains to the Smithsonian Institution to be inventoried, where...

  12. International Technological Literacy Symposium. Proceedings (Anchorage, Alaska, June 25-26, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Univ., Anchorage.

    The following papers are included: "Technological Literacy: Pedagogy for a New World Order" (Peter McGregor); "Career and Technology Studies, A Curriculum Model" (Clarence Preitz); "Vocational and Technical Education at Secondary Schools in Taiwan, Republic of China" (James Yu); "Blueprint for Literacy in…

  13. 78 FR 59914 - Foreign-Trade Zone 160-Anchorage, Alaska; Application for Reorganization Under Alternative Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... include all of the existing sites as ``magnet'' sites. The ASF allows for the possible exemption of one magnet site from the ``sunset'' time limits that generally apply to sites under the ASF, and...

  14. 76 FR 80394 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Alaska State Office, Bureau of Land Management, Anchorage, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... housed at the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL (Field Museum). The human remains were removed... accordance with the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the... human remains have since been stored at the Field Museum. This notice is published as part of...

  15. Reconnaissance report on geology of Eklutna Lake dam site and conduit route near Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bateman, A.F.

    1947-01-01

    C. A foundation exploration program is recommended that includes deepening test pit No. 1 and drill hole No. 2, and drilling 11 new holes. It is suggested that one drill hold near the center of the valley be taken to bedrock to give a complete picture of the fill materials underlying the foundation. 3. Delivery of water from the forebay of the reservoir to the powerhouse eight miles downvalley by means of a conduit is regarded as infeasible because: difficult terrain of the route will require earthwork more extensive than the volume of the dam; the route is subject to land slides, and will require expensive maintenance; it is more or less completely exposed to adverse winter conditions that may engender icing conditions; and it is easily subject to sabotage. It is recommended that the water be taken to the powerhouse through a rock tunnel.

  16. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, Operable Unit 5, Elmendorf AFB, Anchorage, Alaska. Volume 1. Text

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-04

    solvents were also detected in groundwater samples. In addition, previous investigations found that fly ash deposits had been used to extend the bluff... survey were mea- sured four times during the field seaso at ay 3-week intervals. No floating product layers were detected in the monitoring wells. All...and - Extractable priority pollutants. Benzene was not detected at any of the 10 soil gas survey locations. Toluene was detected at eight locations

  17. Hydrogeology for land-use planning: the Peters Creek area, Municipality of Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunett, Jilann O.; Lee, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Wells currently provide all water supplies in the area. Most wells obtain enough water for individual household needs from unconsolidated, principally glacial and glacioalluvial deposits. In some places, however, wells must be drilled into the underlying bedrock to obtain adequate supplies. It may be possible to develop small community supplies--for individual trailer courts or subdivisions--in areas where yields of 20 gallons per minute or greater are reported for private, domestic wells. Peters Creek is a potential source of surface-water supply, but it would have to be treated to remove glacial silt during summer months. The chemical quality of both ground water and surface water in the area in generally acceptable for most uses. Foundation and excavation conditions, the potential for water pollution from onsite disposal of wastewater through septic tank systems, and the suitability of specific areas for certain types of development may be affected by the following factors: wetlands and areas of shallow ground water underlie about 30 percent of the study area; landslope exceeds 20 percent in about a third of the area; areas of fine-grained, low-permeability sediments are present locally; bedrock is within 25 feet of the land surface in about a third of the area. (USGS)

  18. 33 CFR 110.166 - York River, Va., naval anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... anchorage grounds. Between Yorktown and the Naval Mine Depot, beginning at latitude 37°15′34″, longitude 76°31′25″; thence to latitude 37°15′25″, longitude 76°31′39.5″; thence to latitude 37°16′21.5″, longitude 76°32′46″; thence to latitude 37°17′07.5″, longitude 76°34′17″; thence to latitude...

  19. 33 CFR 110.166 - York River, Va., naval anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... anchorage grounds. Between Yorktown and the Naval Mine Depot, beginning at latitude 37°15′34″, longitude 76°31′25″; thence to latitude 37°15′25″, longitude 76°31′39.5″; thence to latitude 37°16′21.5″, longitude 76°32′46″; thence to latitude 37°17′07.5″, longitude 76°34′17″; thence to latitude...

  20. 33 CFR 110.166 - York River, Va., naval anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... anchorage grounds. Between Yorktown and the Naval Mine Depot, beginning at latitude 37°15′34″, longitude 76°31′25″; thence to latitude 37°15′25″, longitude 76°31′39.5″; thence to latitude 37°16′21.5″, longitude 76°32′46″; thence to latitude 37°17′07.5″, longitude 76°34′17″; thence to latitude...

  1. 33 CFR 110.166 - York River, Va., naval anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... anchorage grounds. Between Yorktown and the Naval Mine Depot, beginning at latitude 37°15′34″, longitude 76°31′25″; thence to latitude 37°15′25″, longitude 76°31′39.5″; thence to latitude 37°16′21.5″, longitude 76°32′46″; thence to latitude 37°17′07.5″, longitude 76°34′17″; thence to latitude...

  2. 33 CFR 110.166 - York River, Va., naval anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... anchorage grounds. Between Yorktown and the Naval Mine Depot, beginning at latitude 37°15′34″, longitude 76°31′25″; thence to latitude 37°15′25″, longitude 76°31′39.5″; thence to latitude 37°16′21.5″, longitude 76°32′46″; thence to latitude 37°17′07.5″, longitude 76°34′17″; thence to latitude...

  3. A new non-metallic anchorage system for post-tensioning applications using CFRP tendons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Mahmoud Reda

    The objective of the work described in this thesis is to design, develop and test a new non-metallic anchorage system for post-tensioning applications using CFRP tendons. The use of a non-metallic anchorage system should eliminate corrosion and deterioration concerns in the anchorage zone. The development of a reliable non-metallic anchorage would provide an important contribution to this field of knowledge. The idea of the new anchorage is to hold the tendon through mechanical gripping. The anchorage consists of a barrel with a conical housing and four wedges. The anchorage components are made of ultra high performance concrete (UHPC) specially developed for the anchorage. Sixteen concrete mixtures with different casting and curing regimes were examined to develop four UHPC mixtures with compressive strengths in excess of 200 MPa. The UHPC mixtures showed very dense microstructures with some unique characteristics. To enhance the fracture toughness of the newly developed UHPC, analytical and experimental analyses were performed. Using 3 mm chopped carbon fibres, a significant increase in the fracture toughness of UHPC was achieved. The non-metallic anchorage was developed with the UHPC with enhanced fracture toughness. The barrel required careful wrapping with CFRP sheets to provide the confinement required to utilize the strength and toughness of the UHPC. Thirty-three anchorages were tested under both static and dynamic loading conditions. The non-metallic anchorage showed excellent mechanical performance and fulfilled the different requirements of a post-tensioning anchorage system. The development of the new non-metallic anchorage will widen the inclusion of CFRP tendons in post-tensioned concrete/masonry structures. The new system will offer the opportunity to exploit CFRP tendons effectively creating an innovative generation of corrosion-free, smart structures.

  4. Synergetic material and structure optimization yields robust spider web anchorages.

    PubMed

    Pugno, Nicola M; Cranford, Steven W; Buehler, Markus J

    2013-08-26

    Millions of years of evolution have adapted spider webs to achieve a range of properties, including the well-known capture of prey, with efficient use of materials. One feature that remains poorly understood is the attachment disc, a network of silk fibers that mechanically anchors a web to its environment. Experimental observations suggest that one possible attachment disc adheres to a substrate through multiple symmetrically branched structures composed of sub-micrometer scale silk fibers. Here, a theoretical model is used to explore the adaptation of the strength of attachment of such an anchorage, and complementary mesoscale simulations are applied to demonstrate a novel mechanism of synergetic material and structural optimization, such that the maximum anchorage strength can be achieved regardless of the initial anchor placement or material type. The optimal delamination (peeling) angle is facilitated by the inherent extensibility of silk, and is attained automatically during the process of delamination. This concept of self-optimizing peeling angle suggests that attachment discs do not require precise placement by the spider, irrespective of adhesion strength. Additional hierarchical branching of the anchorage increases efficiency, where both the delamination force and toughness modulus increase with a splitting of the cross-sectional area.

  5. Optimizing Anterior En Masse Retraction with Miniscrew Anchorage

    PubMed Central

    Vibhute, Pavankumar Janardan

    2011-01-01

    In severely protrusive patients, skeletal anchorage from miniscrew is often used to avoid anchorage loss with preferred miniscrew location near centre of resistance (Cres) of posterior teeth. Biomechanical requirement for directing retraction force towards Cres of posterior teeth demands the insertion of miniscrew in loose mucosa, where risk of infection and failure increases. In addition, undesirable biomechanical side effects on anterior and posterior segments may be possible in all three planes, when continuous arch sliding mechanics are installed with miniscrew anchorage. This paper describes technique of molar-stabilizing power arm (MSPA) for simultaneous intrusion and retraction of anteriors with miniscrew placement at attached gingiva between 1st molar and 2nd premolar. Advantages of this technique include (i) the need of miniscrews placement in loose mucosa apically near the Cres of the posterior teeth is eliminated, (ii) the risk of infection and miniscrew failure is lowered since the miniscrew is placed in attached gingiva rather than the loose mucosa, and (iii) by adjusting vertical length or replacing MSPA, alteration of the retraction force vector is possible in all three planes; thus, need of removal and repositioning of the miniscrew (e.g., in correction of occlusal cant) can be eliminated. PMID:22567438

  6. CFRP Mechanical Anchorage for Externally Strengthened RC Beams under Flexure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Alnadher; Abdalla, Jamal; Hawileh, Rami; Galal, Khaled

    De-bonding of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) sheets and plates from the concrete substrate is one of the major reasons behind premature failures of beams that are externally strengthened with such CFRP materials. To delay or prevent de-bonding and therefore enhancing the load carrying capacity of strengthened beams, several anchorage systems were developed and used. This paper investigates the use of CFRP mechanical anchorage of CFRP sheets and plates used to externally strengthen reinforced concrete beams under flexure. The pin-and-fan shape CFRP anchor, which is custom-made from typical rolled fiber sheets and bundles of loose fiber is used. Several reinforced concrete beams were casted and tested in standard four-point bending scheme to study the effectiveness of this anchorage system. The beams were externally strengthened in flexure with bonded CFRP sheets and plates and then fastened to the soffit of the beams' using various patterns of CFRP anchors. It is observed that the CFRP plates begins to separate from the beams as soon as de-bonding occurs in specimens without CFRP anchors, while in beams with CFRP anchors de-bonding was delayed leading to increase in the load carrying capacity over the un-anchored strengthened beams.

  7. Alaska's model program for surveillance and prevention of occupational injury deaths.

    PubMed Central

    Conway, G A; Lincoln, J M; Husberg, B J; Manwaring, J C; Klatt, M L; Thomas, T K

    1999-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) established its Alaska Field Station in Anchorage in 1991 after identifying Alaska as the highest-risk state for traumatic worker fatalities. Since then, the Field Station, working in collaboration with other agencies, organizations, and individuals, has established a program for occupational injury surveillance in Alaska and formed interagency working groups to address the risk factors leading to occupational death and injury in the state. Collaborative efforts have contributed to reducing crash rates and mortality in Alaska's rapidly expanding helicopter logging industry and have played an important supportive role in the substantial progress made in reducing the mortality rate in Alaska's commercial fishing industry (historically Alaska's and America's most dangerous industry). Alaska experienced a 46% overall decline in work-related acute traumatic injury deaths from 1991 to 1998, a 64% decline in commercial fishing deaths, and a very sharp decline in helicopter logging-related deaths. Extending this regional approach to other parts of the country and applying these strategies to the entire spectrum of occupational injury and disease hazards could have a broad effect on reducing occupational injuries. PMID:10670623

  8. Vegetation and terrain mapping in Alaska using Landsat MSS and digital terrain data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shasby, Mark; Carneggie, David M.

    1986-01-01

    During the past 5 years, the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center Field Office in Anchorage, Alaska has worked cooperatively with Federal and State resource management agencies to produce land-cover and terrain maps for 245 million acres of Alaska. The need for current land-cover information in Alaska comes principally from the mandates of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA), December 1980, which requires major land management agencies to prepare comprehensive management plans. The land-cover mapping projects integrate digital Landsat data, terrain data, aerial photographs, and field data. The resultant land-cover and terrain maps and associated data bases are used for resource assessment, management, and planning by many Alaskan agencies including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, and Alaska Department of Natural Resources. Applications addressed through use of the digital land-cover and terrain data bases range from comprehensive refuge planning to multiphased sampling procedures designed to inventory vegetation statewide. The land-cover mapping programs in Alaska demonstrate the operational utility of digital Landsat data and have resulted in a new land-cover mapping program by the USGS National Mapping Division to compile 1:250,000-scale land-cover maps in Alaska using a common statewide land-cover map legend.

  9. Alaska's Children, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These four issues of the "Alaska's Children" provide information on the activities of the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and other Head Start activities. Legal and policy changes affecting the education of young children in Alaska are also discussed. The Spring 1997 issue includes articles on brain development and the…

  10. Alaska's Economy: What's Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Review of Social and Economic Conditions, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This review describes Alaska's economic boom of the early 1980s, the current recession, and economic projections for the 1990s. Alaska's economy is largely influenced by oil prices, since petroleum revenues make up 80% of the state government's unrestricted general fund revenues. Expansive state spending was responsible for most of Alaska's…

  11. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  12. Comparative photoelastic study of dental and skeletal anchorages in the canine retraction

    PubMed Central

    Claro, Cristiane Aparecida de Assis; Chagas, Rosana Villela; Neves, Ana Christina Elias Claro; da Silva-Concílio, Laís Regiane

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare dental and skeletal anchorages in mandibular canine retraction by means of a stress distribution analysis. Methods A photoelastic model was produced from second molar to canine, without the first premolar, and mandibular canine retraction was simulated by a rubber band tied to two types of anchorage: dental anchorage, in the first molar attached to adjacent teeth, and skeletal anchorage with a hook simulating the mini-implant. The forces were applied 10 times and observed in a circular polariscope. The stresses located in the mandibular canine were recorded in 7 regions. The Mann-Whitney test was employed to compare the stress in each region and between both anchorage systems. The stresses in the mandibular canine periradicular regions were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results Stresses were similar in the cervical region and the middle third. In the apical third, the stresses associated with skeletal anchorage were higher than the stresses associated with dental anchorage. The results of the Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the highest stresses were identified in the cervical-distal, apical-distal, and apex regions with the use of dental anchorage, and in the apical-distal, apical-mesial, cervical-distal, and apex regions with the use of skeletal anchorage. Conclusions The use of skeletal anchorage in canine retraction caused greater stress in the apical third than the use of dental anchorage, which indicates an intrusive component resulting from the direction of the force due to the position of the mini-implant and the bracket hook of the canine. PMID:24713566

  13. Rural Alaska Coal Bed Methane: Application of New Technologies to Explore and Produce Energy

    SciTech Connect

    David O. Ogbe; Shirish L. Patil; Doug Reynolds

    2005-06-30

    The Petroleum Development Laboratory, University of Alaska Fairbanks prepared this report. The US Department of Energy NETL sponsored this project through the Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory (AETDL) of the University of Alaska Fairbanks. The financial support of the AETDL is gratefully acknowledged. We also acknowledge the co-operation from the other investigators, including James G. Clough of the State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys; Art Clark, Charles Barker and Ed Weeks of the USGS; Beth Mclean and Robert Fisk of the Bureau of Land Management. James Ferguson and David Ogbe carried out the pre-drilling economic analysis, and Doug Reynolds conducted post drilling economic analysis. We also acknowledge the support received from Eric Opstad of Elko International, LLC; Anchorage, Alaska who provided a comprehensive AFE (Authorization for Expenditure) for pilot well drilling and completion at Fort Yukon. This report was prepared by David Ogbe, Shirish Patil, Doug Reynolds, and Santanu Khataniar of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and James Clough of the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Survey. The following research assistants, Kanhaiyalal Patel, Amy Rodman, and Michael Olaniran worked on this project.

  14. 78 FR 48299 - Establishment of Class D Airspace; Bryant AAF, Anchorage, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class D Airspace; Bryant AAF, Anchorage... establishes Class D airspace at Bryant Army Airfield (AAF), Anchorage AK. This action provides controlled... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class D airspace at Bryant...

  15. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted area....

  16. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  17. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  18. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with its center at latitude 24°30′50.6″, longitude 81°50′31.6″ with a radius of 300 yards, for use for ammunition exceeding the prescribed limits for pier-side handling. (b) The regulations. (1) When occupied by a...

  19. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  20. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  1. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... the driver's seat and seat belt assembly anchorages that conform to the location and...

  2. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... the driver's seat and seat belt assembly anchorages that conform to the location and...

  3. 76 FR 15246 - Anchorage Regulations; Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... Sound, RI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... an offshore anchorage in Rhode Island Sound south of Brenton Point, Rhode Island, for use by vessels... Sound that under current informal practice is routinely used by mariners as an anchorage while...

  4. Transalveolar screw: a new concept for orthodontic anchorage.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Alfaro, Federico; Egio, Elisabeth; Ruiz, Vanessa

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the use of a new trans-alveolar screw (TAS) as a temporary orthodontic anchorage device for the posterior maxilla, to intrude overerupted maxillary molars. To date, five consecutive patients have been treated with these newly designed screws. Intrusions achieved ranged from 2.1 and 6mm (mean 4.7 mm). The TAS is cheap, easy to place and remove by the orthodontist, has bicortical anchorage, and is loaded on both sides. The main advantage of TAS is that when placed in the maxilla to intrude upper molars, it allows application of intrusive force from both buccal and palatal aspects simultaneously, so that the line of force in relation to the center of resistance of the posterior segment, permits an in-mass intrusion, avoiding buccal tipping or rotations. Moreover the surgical procedure for inserting and removing the bicortical screw is simple and does not require any surgical flap, so complications are minimal and screws can be loaded immediately, without requiring any waiting healing period of time.

  5. Mini-Implants in the Anchorage Armamentarium: New Paradigms in the Orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Masaru; Inami, Toshihiro; Ito, Ko; Kasai, Kazutaka; Tanimoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Paradigms have started to shift in the orthodontic world since the introduction of mini-implants in the anchorage armamentarium. Various forms of skeletal anchorage, including miniscrews and miniplates, have been reported in the literature. Recently, great emphasis has been placed on the miniscrew type of temporary anchorage device (TAD). These devices are small, are implanted with a relatively simple surgical procedure, and increase the potential for better orthodontic results. Therefore, miniscrews not only free orthodontists from anchorage-demanding cases, but they also enable clinicians to have good control over tooth movement in 3 dimensions. The miniplate type also produces significant improvements in treatment outcomes and has widened the spectrum of orthodontics. The purpose of this paper is to update clinicians on the current concepts and versatile uses and clinical applications of skeletal anchorage in orthodontics. PMID:22719763

  6. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Gravesend Bay Anchorage, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D.

    1996-09-01

    The Gravesend Bay Anchorage was one of seven waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in February 1994. Sediment samples were submitted for physical and chemical analyses to provide baseline sediment chemistry data on the Gravesend Bay Anchorage. Individual sediment core samples collected at the Gravesend Bay Anchorage were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Two samples, one of composited sediment cores representing the southeast corner of the anchorage (COMP GR), and one sediment core representing the northeast corner of the anchorage (Station GR-1 0), were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene.

  7. Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus

    2008-01-01

    Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active volcanoes pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors these volcanoes to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine volcano and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.

  8. World War 2 in Alaska: A Historic and Resources Management Plan. Volume 1. A History of World War 2 in Alaska and Management Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    Aum M 1& ?VPT do SM a Pft CWAW" U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers Documentary P.O. Box 898 1912-1946 (Final Report) Anchorage, Alaska 99506-0898 14 IL...factors: I) impressions gained .. from the examination of the huge body of primary documentary information which is included in the project data base, 2...which are of interest for other reasons noted in documentary sources. For instance, the Bureau of Indian Affairs operated an extensive radio network in

  9. 33 CFR 165.556 - Regulated Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD. 165.556 Section 165.556 Navigation and..., Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD. (a) Location. The following area is a regulated navigation area: All waters of the Chesapeake and Delaware (C & D) Canal within the anchorage basin at Chesapeake...

  10. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  11. An Ongoing Large Slow Slip Event in the Southern Central Alaska Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freymueller, J. T.; Fu, Y.

    2012-12-01

    We analyze time series of GPS measurement in southern central Alaska, and identify an ongoing long-term slow slip event (SSE) occurring since the end of 2008 around Anchorage Alaska area, starting 7-8 years later after the end of the previous 1998-2001 SSE. The slow slip event is counter-acting the background linear trend of plate convergence between Pacific and North America plates. Significant velocity changes are very obvious in north and height directions, and detectable in the east. Detailed analysis of continuous GPS time series indicates this slow slip event started at ~2008.96, and is still continuing since then. This slow slip event appears to have a very slow rise time, unlike the 1998-2001 event. Through mid-2012, GPS time series during this long-term slow slip can be well fitted with a linear term plus an exponential (or logarithmic) term. The velocity changes are located around and north of Anchorage, which indicates that the SSE is occurring at the downdip of the locked seismogenic zone of the southern central Alaska subduction zone, like the 1998-2001 event. We will use both continuous and campaign (including the campaign measurements of later summer of 2012) GPS measurements to better constrain the location and amplitude of the ongoing SSE in southern central Alaska, and compare with the 1964 earthquake rupture zone to discuss the relationship between locked zone, SSE zone and free slip zone in terms of their contributions to large earthquake in Alaska subduction zone.

  12. Lead shot poisoning of a Pacific loon in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, H.M.; Oyen, J.L.; Sileo, L.

    2004-01-01

    Lead poisoning, associated with ingestion of spent lead shot, was diagnosed in an adult female Pacific loon (Gavia pacifica) observed with partial paralysis on 13 June 2002 and found dead on 16 June 2002 on Kigigak Island, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, western Alaska, USA. A necropsy revealed three pellets of ingested lead shot in the loona??s gizzard and a lead liver concentration of 31 ppm wet weight, which was consistent with metallic lead poisoning. This is the first report of lead poisoning in a Pacific loon and is the only account of lead toxicosis associated with ingestion of lead shot in any loon species breeding in Alaska.

  13. Ground-Water Age and its Water-Management Implications, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, Roy L.

    2002-01-01

    The Cook Inlet Basin encompasses 39,325 square miles in south-central Alaska. Approximately 350,000 people, more than half of Alaska?s population, reside in the basin, mostly in the Anchorage area. However, rapid growth is occurring in the Matanuska?Susitna and Kenai Peninsula Boroughs to the north and south of Anchorage. Ground-water resources provide about one-third of the water used for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes in the Anchorage metropolitan area and are the sole sources of water for industries and residents outside Anchorage. In 1997, a study of the Cook Inlet Basin was begun as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Samples of ground water were collected from 35 existing wells in unconsolidated glacial and alluvial aquifers during 1999 to determine the regional quality of ground water beneath about 790 mi2 of developed land and to gain a better understanding of the natural and human factors that affect the water quality (Glass, 2001). Of the 35 wells sampled, 31 had water analyzed for atmospherically derived substances to determine the ground water?s travel time from its point of recharge to its point of use or discharge?also known as ground-water age. Ground water moves slowly from its point of recharge to its point of use or discharge. This water starts as rain and melting snow that soak into the ground as recharge. In the Matanuska?Susitna, Anchorage, and Kenai Peninsula areas, ground water generally moves from near the mountain fronts toward Cook Inlet or the major rivers. Much of the water pumped by domestic and public-supply wells may have traveled less than 10 miles, and the trip may have taken as short a time as a few days or as long as several decades. This ground water is vulnerable to contamination from the land surface, and many contaminants in the water would follow the same paths and have similar travel times from recharge areas to points of use as the chemical substances analyzed in

  14. G1/S control of anchorage-independent growth in the fibroblast cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    We have developed methodology to identify the block to anchorage- independent growth and position it within the fibroblast cell cycle. Results with NRK fibroblasts show that mitogen stimulation of the G0/G1 transition and G1-associated increases in cell size are minimally affected by loss of cell anchorage. In contrast, the induction of G1/S cell cycle genes and DNA synthesis is markedly inhibited when anchorage is blocked. Moreover, we demonstrate that the anchorage-dependent transition maps to late G1 and shortly before activation of the G1/S p34cdc2-like kinase. The G1/S block was also detectable in NIH-3T3 cells. Our results: (a) distinguish control of cell cycle progression by growth factors and anchorage; (b) indicate that anchorage mediates G1/S control in fibroblasts; and (c) identify a physiologic circumstance in which the phenotype of mammalian cell cycle arrest would closely resemble Saccharomyces cerevisiae START. The close correlation between anchorage independence in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo emphasizes the key regulatory role for G1/S control in mammalian cells. PMID:1955482

  15. Skeletal Class lll severe openbite treatment using implant anchorage.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yuichi; Kuroda, Shingo; Murshid, Sakhr A; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2008-01-01

    A female patient with a skeletal Class III severe anterior openbite was treated using miniplates as the anchorage. The patient was 15 years and 10 months of age when she reported to our university hospital with a chief complaint of anterior openbite and reversed occlusion. The patient had an anterior openbite with an overjet of -3.0 mm and overbite of -5.0 mm and a Class III molar relationship. The cephalometric analysis showed a skeletal Class III relationship (ANB 0 degrees ). After the extraction of the bilateral mandibular third molars, miniplates were placed in the mandibular external oblique line. The mandibular dentition was retracted using elastic chain and miniplates. After treatment, an Angle Class I molar relationship was achieved and overjet and overbite had become 2.0 mm and 1.5 mm. A good facial appearance and occlusal relationship were obtained. The total active orthodontic treatment period was 23 months. Wrap-around type retainers were placed on both jaws and a lingual bonded retainer was also attached in the mandibular incisors. After 1 year of retention, the occlusion was stable, and a good facial profile was also retained. The mandibular deviation to the left was improved and the strain in the circumoral musculature during lip closure disappeared. An appropriate interincisal relationship was achieved by the uprighting of mandibular dentition without changing the vertical intermaxillary relationship. A panoramic radiograph showed no marked root resorption. Our results suggest that implant anchorage is useful for correction of skeletal Class III severe anterior openbite cases.

  16. The 1989-1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska: impacts on aircraft operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casadevall, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    The December 1989-June 1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano affected commercial and military air operations in the vicinity of Anchorage, Alaska. These effects were due to the direct impact of volcanic ash on jet aircraft, as well as to the rerouting and cancellations of flight operations owing to eruptive activity. Between December and February, five commercial jetliners were damaged from ash encounters. The most serious incident took place on December 15, 1989 when a Boeing 747-400 aircraft temporarily lost power of all four engines after encountering an ash cloud as the airplane descended for a landing in Anchorage. While there were no injuries to passengers, the damage to engines, avionics, and aircraft structure from this encounter is estimated at $80 million. Four additional encounters between jet aircraft and Redoubt ash clouds occurred in the Anchorage area on December 15 and 16, 1989 and February 21, 1990; none resulted in engine failure. Two additional encounters took place on December 17, 1989 when jet airliners encountered the Redoubt cloud over west Texas. At the time of these encounters, the cloud was up to 55 hours old and had traveled in excess of 2,900 nautical miles (5,300 km). Following the December 15 encounters, Anchorage International Airport remained open, however, most airline companies canceled operations for up to several days. As communications between Federal agencies and airlines improved, and as a better understanding of the nature and behavior of ash-rich eruption clouds was achieved, most airlines resumed normal service by early January 1990. The resulting loss of revenue at Anchorage International Airport during several months following the eruption is estimated to total $2.6 million. The impact on general aviation and military operations consisted mostly of cancellation and rerouting of flights. ?? 1994.

  17. Comparison of Anchorage Pattern under Two Types of Orthodontic Mini- Implant Loading During Retraction in Type A Anchorage Cases

    PubMed Central

    Khan, B. Imran; Mandava, Prasad; Reddy, G. Vivek; Nettam, Venkatesh; Bhavikati, Venkat Naidu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The orthodontic mini-screws are the mainstay of direct skeletal anchorage which requires minimal compliance and provides maximal anchorage control. However, the timing of initiation of orthodontic loading of these mini-screws is not clearly established in the available studies. Aim The purpose of this study was to determine the reciprocal effects on mini-screw implant with immediate loading in comparison to that of delayed loading during retraction. Materials and Methods The prospective clinical study included a sample of 25 orthodontic patients in the age range of 18-25 years. All the cases were of bi-maxillary proclination with Type-A anchorage demands. All the first premolars were indicated for extraction. A split mouth technique for each patient was utilized by loading mini-implant immediately after its placement on one side and the opposite side implant was loaded after a time lag of two weeks post-insertion. Retraction force of 150g was applied for three months on each side. The displacement of the head and tail of the implant, molar anterior tooth retraction was measured on Orthopantomograph (OPG) taken at T1 (initial) and T2 (after three months). A grid method with each 1mm magnified to 500 pixels was superimposed on OPG and the relative displacements were evaluated. Student’s unpaired ‘t’ test was used for comparison between left and right side and paired ‘t’ test for the parameters on the same side. The p-value equal to or less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results The mean displacement of head of the implant on the immediate loading is 0.57mm where as the tail exhibited 0.75 mm. The head and tail of the implant on the delayed loading displaced by 0.35mm and 0.38mm respectively, on an average when data was analysed. Significant difference between the two types of loading was noted. Conclusion Delayed loading is beneficial as compared to immediate loading during extraction space closure. PMID:27891469

  18. Factors Predisposing to Maxillary Anchorage Loss: A Retrospective Study of 1403 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hong; Han, Bing; Li, Sa; Na, Bin; Ma, Wen; Xu, Tian-Min

    2014-01-01

    Anchorage loss is very disturbing for orthodontists and patients during orthodontic treatment, which usually results in bad treatment effects. Despite the same treatment strategy, different patients show different tendencies toward anchorage loss, which influences the treatment results and should preferably be predicted before the treatment is begun. However, relatively little research has been conducted on which patients are more likely to lose anchorage. The mesial tipping of the first molar marks the onset of anchorage loss, and changes in the angulation of the first molar are closely related to anchorage loss. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine how the mesiodistal angulation of the upper first molars changes during general orthodontic treatment and to identify the individual physiologic factors leading to these changes in a large sample of 1403 patients with malocclusion. The data indicate that the upper first molars tend to be tipped mesially during orthodontic treatment, and this constitutes a type of anchorage loss that orthodontists should consider carefully. Compared to treatment-related factors, patients' physiologic characteristics have a greater influence on changes in the angulation of the upper first molars during orthodontic treatment. The more distally tipped the upper first molars are before treatment, the more they will tip mesially during treatment. Mesial tipping of the upper first molars, and therefore, anchorage loss, is more likely to occur in adolescents, males, patients with class II malocclusion and patients who have undergone maxillary premolar extraction. This finding is of clinical significance to orthodontists who wish to prevent iatrogenic anchorage loss by tipping originally distally tipped upper molars forward, and provides a new perspective on anchorage during orthodontic treatment planning. PMID:25299164

  19. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J.

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  20. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  1. Geoid model computation and validation over Alaska/Yukon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Huang, J.; Roman, D. R.; Wang, Y.; Veronneau, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Alaska and Yukon area consists of very complex and dynamic geology. It is featured by the two highest mountains in North America, Mount McKinely (20,320ft) in Alaska, USA and Mount Logan (19,541ft) in Yukon, Canada, along with the Alaska trench along the plate boundaries. On the one hand this complex geology gives rise to large horizontal geoid gradients across this area. On the other hand geoid time variation is much stronger than most of the other areas in the world due to tectonic movement, the post glacial rebound and ice melting effects in this region. This type of geology poses great challenges for the determination of North American geoid over this area, which demands proper gravity data coverage in both space and time on both the Alaska and Yukon sides. However, the coverage of the local gravity data is inhomogenous in this area. The terrestrial gravity is sparse in Alaska, and spans a century in time. In contrast, the terrestrial gravity is relatively well-distributed in Yukon but with data gaps. In this paper, various new satellite models along with the newly acquired airborne data will be incorporated to augment the middle-to-long wavelength geoid components. Initial tests show clear geoid improvements at the local GPS benchmarks in the Yukon area after crustal motion is accounted for. Similar approaches will be employed on the Alaska side for a better validation to determine a continuous vertical datum across US and Canada.

  2. Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, east-central Alaska Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Stephen Delmont, Jr.

    I investigated active deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD) near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway in the east-central Alaska Range, Alaska, USA. I documented the presence, spatial extent, and rates of DSGSD using field-geology methods and optical, SAR, and D-InSAR remote-sensing images. I also documented and mapped many of the morphological, geological, and structural characteristics of slopes undergoing DSGSD, and constructed conceptual numerical models to better understand potential deformation mechanisms. Results confirm that many large DSGSD slopes in the study area are actively deforming. Deformation rates range from less than a millimetre per month to more than ten centimetres per month, and are spatially and temporally varient within each slope. Deforming slopes are characterized by differential movement of kilometre-scale rock blocks. Recent climatic changes and strong seismic shaking, especially during the recent 2002 Denali Fault earthquake, have exacerbated ongoing deformation. Study-area DSGSDs should be considered capable of generating long-runout rock avalanches that could directly sever the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway, or that could dam up valleys and lead to the buildup and catastrophic failure of landslide-dammed lakes capable of impacting said infrastructure. Keywords: Deep-seated gravitational slope deformation; sackung; Trans-Alaska Pipeline; geomorphology; InSAR; Alaska Range.

  3. Vegetation response to climate change in Alaska: examples from the fossil record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ager, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    Preface: This report was presented as an invited paper at the Fish & Wildlife Service Climate Forum held in Anchorage, Alaska on February 21-23, 2007. The purpose of the talk was to provide some examples of past climate changes that appear to have caused significant responses in Alaskan vegetation. These examples are based on interpretations of dated fossil assemblages (pollen, spores and plant macrofossils) collected and interpreted by U.S. Geological Survey and collaborating scientists from other scientific organizations during the past several decades.

  4. Alaska Problem Resource Manual: Alaska Future Problem Solving Program. Alaska Problem 1985-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Marjorie, Ed.

    "Alaska's Image in the Lower 48," is the theme selected by a Blue Ribbon panel of state and national leaders who felt that it was important for students to explore the relationship between Alaska's outside image and the effect of that image on the federal programs/policies that impact Alaska. An overview of Alaska is presented first in…

  5. Alaska Geochemical Database - Mineral Exploration Tool for the 21st Century - PDF of presentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granitto, Matthew; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Labay, Keith A.; Shew, Nora B.; Gamble, Bruce M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has created a geochemical database of geologic material samples collected in Alaska. This database is readily accessible to anyone with access to the Internet. Designed as a tool for mineral or environmental assessment, land management, or mineral exploration, the initial version of the Alaska Geochemical Database - U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 637 - contains geochemical, geologic, and geospatial data for 264,158 samples collected from 1962-2009: 108,909 rock samples; 92,701 sediment samples; 48,209 heavy-mineral-concentrate samples; 6,869 soil samples; and 7,470 mineral samples. In addition, the Alaska Geochemical Database contains mineralogic data for 18,138 nonmagnetic-fraction heavy mineral concentrates, making it the first U.S. Geological Survey database of this scope that contains both geochemical and mineralogic data. Examples from the Alaska Range will illustrate potential uses of the Alaska Geochemical Database in mineral exploration. Data from the Alaska Geochemical Database have been extensively checked for accuracy of sample media description, sample site location, and analytical method using U.S. Geological Survey sample-submittal archives and U.S. Geological Survey publications (plus field notebooks and sample site compilation base maps from the Alaska Technical Data Unit in Anchorage, Alaska). The database is also the repository for nearly all previously released U.S. Geological Survey Alaska geochemical datasets. Although the Alaska Geochemical Database is a fully relational database in Microsoft® Access 2003 and 2010 formats, these same data are also provided as a series of spreadsheet files in Microsoft® Excel 2003 and 2010 formats, and as ASCII text files. A DVD version of the Alaska Geochemical Database was released in October 2011, as U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 637, and data downloads are available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/637/. Also, all Alaska Geochemical Database data have been incorporated into

  6. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Waitt, Richard B.

    1998-01-01

    Augustine Volcano is a 1250-meter high stratovolcano in southwestern Cook Inlet about 280 kilometers southwest of Anchorage and within about 300 kilometers of more than half of the population of Alaska. Explosive eruptions have occurred six times since the early 1800s (1812, 1883, 1935, 1964-65, 1976, and 1986). The 1976 and 1986 eruptions began with an initial series of vent-clearing explosions and high vertical plumes of volcanic ash followed by pyroclastic flows, surges, and lahars on the volcano flanks. Unlike some prehistoric eruptions, a summit edifice collapse and debris avalanche did not occur in 1812, 1935, 1964-65, 1976, or 1986. However, early in the 1883 eruption, a portion of the volcano summit broke loose forming a debris avalanche that flowed to the sea. The avalanche initiated a small tsunami reported on the Kenai Peninsula at English Bay, 90 kilometers east of the volcano. Plumes of volcanic ash are a major hazard to jet aircraft using Anchorage International and other local airports. Ashfall from future eruptions could disrupt oil and gas operations and shipping activities in Cook Inlet. Eruptions similar to the historical and prehistoric eruptions are likely in Augustine's future.

  7. A Preliminary Evaluation of Child Restraints and Anchorage Systems for an Australian Car

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Judith L.; Fildes, Brian; Laemmle, Ronald; Smith, Stuart; Douglas, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the performance of three rear-facing and two forward-facing child restraints (CRS) with three anchorage systems: standard seatbelt, LATCH (flexible) and ISOFIX (rigid). Frontal (64 km/h) and side impact (15 km/h) HyGe sled tests were conducted using a sedan buck. Overall, the preliminary findings suggested superior performance of rigid over seatbelt and flexible anchorages, particularly in side impacts. The results also suggest a need for design improvement for CRS with flexible anchorages to increase stability in side impacts. The findings have important implications for the proposed introduction of changes to Australian Standards for CRS to permit both flexible and rigid systems to coexist with conventional seatbelt anchorage systems. PMID:15319118

  8. EFFECT OF STRENGTHENING AT EXPECTED DAMAGING ZONE OF A RC MEMBER WITH DAMAGED ANCHORAGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chijiwa, Nobuhiro; Kawanaka, Isao; Maekawa, Koichi

    When a reinforced concrete member having cracks at the anchorage zones is loaded, diagonal crack is formed from the tip of the exsisting crack, and it lead s to brittle shaer failure. A reinforced concrete beam containing corrosion cracks at the anchorage zone were strengthened with sheets at the expected damaging zones, and tested in 3-point loading. Th e test result shows that the load capacity of the strengthened beam was the same to that of the repli cate beam with no damage at the anchorage zones and contained enough shear reinforcement to develop flexural failure. It means that strenghtneing at the expected damaging zone with keeping corrosion cr acks along to the tensile reinforcements at the anchorage zones may improve the load capacity of the damaged reinforced concrete.

  9. The most appropriate position and number for absolute anchorages for orthodontic tooth movements.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian-Hong; Takakuda, Kazuo; Miyairi, Hiroo; Soma, Kunimichi

    2003-04-01

    Absolute anchorages proved to be very effective for orthodontic tooth movements. We used a 3D digitizer to record each tooth on pre-treatment diagnostic and post-treatment predictive setup models and then 3D coordinate system conversion was performed to make the coordinate values comparable. An arithmetic calculation of vector and moment based on the orthodontic forces and the tooth displacement under preliminary premises undertaken to decide the most favorable position and number for absolute anchorages. Position--For two-dimensional and three-dimensional calculations, the most appropriate positions for absolute anchorages should theoretically be on the line of resultant force (2D) and the plane (3D) where the total moment effect tends to be zero. Number--As for the number of the absolute anchorages needed, it depends on the number of target teeth. Different combinations of target teeth provide different sets of results.

  10. 33 CFR 110.72d - Ashley River anchorage areas, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Channel. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 1983. (b) Ashley River Anchorage 2. The waters lying... southwest boundary of the Ashley River Channel. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 1983....

  11. UAFSmoke Modeling in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuefer, M.; Grell, G.; Freitas, S.; Newby, G.

    2008-12-01

    Alaska wildfires have strong impact on air pollution on regional Arctic, Sub-Arctic and even hemispheric scales. In response to a high number of wildfires in Alaska, emphasis has been placed on developing a forecast system for wildfire smoke dispersion in Alaska. We have developed a University of Alaska Fairbanks WRF/Chem smoke (UAFSmoke) dispersion system, which has been adapted and initialized with source data suitable for Alaska. UAFSmoke system modules include detection of wildfire location and area using Alaska Fire Service information and satellite remote sensing data from the MODIS instrument. The fire emissions are derived from above ground biomass fuel load data in one-kilometer resolution. WRF/Chem Version 3 with online chemistry and online plume dynamics represents the core of the UAFSmoke system. Besides wildfire emissions and NOAA's Global Forecast System meteorology, WRF/Chem initial and boundary conditions are updated with anthropogenic and sea salt emission data from the Georgia Institute of Technology-Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) Model. System runs are performed at the Arctic Region Supercomputing Center's Sun Opteron cluster "Midnight". During the 2008 fire season once daily UAFSmoke runs were presented at a dedicated webpage at http://smoke.arsc.edu. We present examples from these routine runs and from the extreme 2004 Alaska wildfire season.

  12. a Comparison of δ13C & pMC Values for Ten Cretaceous-Jurassic Dinosaur Bones from Texas to Alaska USA, China and Europe with that of Coal and Diamonds Presented in the 2003 Agu Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, H. R.; Dennett, R.; de Pontcharra, J.; Giertych, M.; Kline, O.; van Oosterwych, M. C.; Owen, H.; Taylor, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    There is convincing evidence that soft tissue and other biomolecules can survive long periods of fossilization by their interaction with blood iron and/or carbonate absorption. Here are presented the results of investigations showing that ancient biomolecules and their decay products contain significantly more pMC's (% modern 14C) than diamond and coal presented during a poster session held at the AGU 2003 SF convention. The title was: The Enigma of the Ubiquity of 14C in organic samples older than 100,000 K. The given range for five diamonds from Botswana and South Africa ranged from 0.096 to 0.146 pMC. Ten coal specimens from the United States from the Eocene to Pennsylvanian geologic interval yielded 0.1 to 0.46 pMC's. In our extensive field and lab study ten dinosaurs from Texas to Alaska, and China yielded much higher pMC's of 0.76 to 5.59 after pretreatment to remove modern contaminants. When 2g of a Belgium Mosasaur from Europe was pretreated to remove contaminants the pMC was 4.68 or 24,600 RC years on Lund Un AMS in Sweden (Lindgren et al. 2011, PloS ONE, page 9). The endogenous sources of dinosaur pMC's were further enhanced by the δ13C range of -20.1 to -23.8 for collagen, 16.6-28.4 for bulk organic and -3.1 to -9.1 for CO3 fractions. The δ13C values compare favorably to δ13C values of -23 to -27 in a similar study of dinosaur δ13C values from the Judith River formation in Alberta, Canada that (Ostrom et al. 1993, Geology, v. 21). . Diamonds from South America (Taylor-Southon, Nuclear Instruments 2007 ) yielded ages of 66,000 to 80,000 years leaving little doubt that at least the dinosaur ages of 22,020 ± 50 to 39,230 ± 140 were not machine error or a result of contamination anymore than the coal samples. This data explains more clearly why such biomolecules have persisted and therefore should not be ignored as the implications are of utmost importance to science and humanity. Thus the experimental results presented here demonstrate the need for

  13. Assessment of clinical pathology and pathogen exposure in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) bordering the threatened population in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Tracey; Gill, Verena A; Tuomi, Pam; Monson, Daniel; Burdin, Alexander; Conrad, Patricia A; Dunn, J Lawrence; Field, Cara; Johnson, Christine; Jessup, David A; Bodkin, James; Doroff, Angela M

    2011-07-01

    Northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) abundance has decreased dramatically over portions of southwest Alaska, USA, since the mid-1980s, and this stock is currently listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In contrast, adjacent populations in south central Alaska, USA, and Russia have been stable to increasing during the same period. Sea otters bordering the area classified in the recent decline were live-captured during 2004-2006 at Bering Island, Russia, and the Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska, USA, to evaluate differences in general health and current exposure status to marine and terrestrial pathogens. Although body condition was lower in animals captured at Bering Island, Russia, than it was at Kodiak, USA, clinical pathology values did not reveal differences in general health between the two regions. Low prevalences of antibodies (<5%) were found in Kodiak, USA, and on Bering Island, Russia, to Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis neurona, and Leptospira interrogans. Exposure to phocine herpesvirus-1 was found in both Kodiak, USA (15.2%), and Bering Island, Russia (2.3%). Antibodies to Brucella spp. were found in 28% of the otters tested on Bering Island, Russia, compared with only 2.7% of the samples from Kodiak, USA. Prevalence of exposure to Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was 41% in Kodiak, USA, but 0% on Bering Island, Russia. Archived sera from southwest and south-central Alaska dating back to 1989 were negative for PDV, indicating exposure occurred in sea otters in Kodiak, USA, in recent years. Because PDV can be highly pathogenic in naïve and susceptible marine mammal populations, tissues should be examined to explore the contribution of this virus to otter deaths. Our results reveal an increase in exposure to pathogens in sea otters in Kodiak, Alaska, USA, since the 1990 s.

  14. Assessment of clinical pathology and pathogen exposure in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) bordering the threatened population in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, T.; Gill, V.A.; Tuomi, Pamela A.; Monson, D.; Burdin, A.; Conrad, P.A.; Dunn, J.L.; Field, C.; Johnson, Chad; Jessup, David A.; Bodkin, J.; Doroff, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) abundance has decreased dramatically over portions of southwest Alaska, USA, since the mid-1980s, and this stock is currently listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In contrast, adjacent populations in south central Alaska, USA, and Russia have been stable to increasing during the same period. Sea otters bordering the area classified in the recent decline were live-captured during 2004–2006 at Bering Island, Russia, and the Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska, USA, to evaluate differences in general health and current exposure status to marine and terrestrial pathogens. Although body condition was lower in animals captured at Bering Island, Russia, than it was at Kodiak, USA, clinical pathology values did not reveal differences in general health between the two regions. Low prevalences of antibodies (>5%) were found in Kodiak, USA, and on Bering Island, Russia, to Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis neurona, and Leptospira interrogans. Exposure to phocine herpesvirus-1 was found in both Kodiak, USA (15.2%), and Bering Island, Russia (2.3%). Antibodies to Brucella spp. were found in 28% of the otters tested on Bering Island, Russia, compared with only 2.7% of the samples from Kodiak, USA. Prevalence of exposure to Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was 41% in Kodiak, USA, but 0% on Bering Island, Russia. Archived sera from southwest and south-central Alaska dating back to 1989 were negative for PDV, indicating exposure occurred in sea otters in Kodiak, USA, in recent years. Because PDV can be highly pathogenic in naïve and susceptible marine mammal populations, tissues should be examined to explore the contribution of this virus to otter deaths. Our results reveal an increase in exposure to pathogens in sea otters in Kodiak, Alaska, USA, since the 1990s.

  15. Alaska marine ice atlas

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, J.C.; Wise, J.L.; Voelker, R.P.; Schulze, R.H.; Wohl, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive Atlas of Alaska marine ice is presented. It includes information on pack and landfast sea ice and calving tidewater glacier ice. It also gives information on ice and related environmental conditions collected over several years time and indicates the normal and extreme conditions that might be expected in Alaska coastal waters. Much of the information on ice conditions in Alaska coastal waters has emanated from research activities in outer continental shelf regions under assessment for oil and gas exploration and development potential. (DMC)

  16. Alaska geology revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Labay, Keith A.

    2016-11-09

    This map shows the generalized geology of Alaska, which helps us to understand where potential mineral deposits and energy resources might be found, define ecosystems, and ultimately, teach us about the earth history of the State. Rock units are grouped in very broad categories on the basis of age and general rock type. A much more detailed and fully referenced presentation of the geology of Alaska is available in the Geologic Map of Alaska (http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sim3340). This product represents the simplification of thousands of individual rock units into just 39 broad groups. Even with this generalization, the sheer complexity of Alaskan geology remains evident.

  17. The Operational Use of Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Satellite Information in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, C. A.; Goldberg, M.

    2014-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS), Alaska Region (AR) provides warnings, forecasts and information for an area greater than 20% of the size of the continental United States. This region experiences an incredible diversity of weather phenomena, yet ironically is one of the more data-sparse areas in the world. Polar orbiting satellite-borne sensors offer one of the most cost effective means of gaining repetitive information over this data-sparse region to provide insight on Alaskan weather and the environment on scales ranging from synoptic to mesoscale in a systematic manner. Because of Alaska's high latitude location, polar orbiting satellites can provide coverage about every two hours at high resolution. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Satellite, equipped with a new generation of satellite sensors to better monitor, detect, and track weather and the environment was launched October 2011. Through partnership through the with NESDIS JPSS, the University of Alaska - Geographical Information Network of Alaska (GINA), the NWS Alaska Region was able to gain timely access to the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) imagery from S-NPP. The imagery was quickly integrated into forecast operations across the spectrum of NWS Alaska areas of responsibility. The VIIRS has provided a number of new or improved capabilities for detecting low cloud/fog, snow cover, volcanic ash, fire hotspots/smoke, flooding due to river ice break up, and sea ice and ice-free passages. In addition the Alaska Region has successfully exploited the 750 m spatial resolution of the VIIRS/Near Constant Contrast (NCC) low-light visible measurements. Forecasters have also begun the integration of NOAA Unique Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS)/Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) Processing System (NUCAPS) Soundings in AWIPS-II operations at WFO Fairbanks and Anchorage, the Alaska Aviation Weather Unit (AAWU) and the Alaska Region, Regional Operations Center (ROC

  18. Alaska Resource Data File, Nabesna quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Travis L.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  19. Alaska Resource Data File, Wiseman quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Britton, Joe M.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  20. Alaska Resource Data File, Juneau quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnett, John C.; Miller, Lance D.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  1. Alaska: A frontier divided

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dell, R. )

    1986-09-01

    The superlatives surrounding Alaska are legion. Within the borders of the 49th US state are some of the world's greatest concentrations of waterfowl, bald eagles, fur seals, walrus, sea lions, otters, and the famous Kodiak brown bear. Alaska features the highest peak of North America, the 20,320-foot Mount McKinley, and the longest archipelago of small islands, the Aleutians. The state holds the greatest percentage of protected wilderness per capita in the world. The expanse of some Alaskan glaciers dwarfs entire countries. Like the periodic advance and retreat of its glaciers, Alaska appears with some regularity on the national US agenda. It last achieved prominence when President Jimmy Carter signed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act in 1980. Since then the conflict between environmental protection and economic development has been played out throughout the state, and Congress is expected to turn to Alaskan issues again in its next sessions.

  2. Hawkweed Control in Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several hawkweed species from Europe have escaped ornamental planting and have colonized roadsides and grasslands in south central and southeast Alaska. These plants form near monotypic stands, reducing plant diversity and decreasing pasture productivity. A replicated greenhouse study was conducted ...

  3. Heat flow and temperature-depth curves throughout Alaska: finding regions for future geothermal exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batir, Joseph F.; Blackwell, David D.; Richards, Maria C.

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this research is to contribute to the understanding of the thermal regime of Alaska and its relationship to geology, regional tectonics, and to suggest potential sites for future geothermal energy production. New heat flow data were collected and are combined with existing published and unpublished data, although large sections of Alaska still lack data. Fault traces were implemented into the heat flow contouring as an additional gridding constraint, to incorporate both heat flow measurements and geology. New heat flow data supported the use of geologic trends in the heat flow mapping procedure, and a heat flow map of Alaska was produced with this added constraint. The multi-input contouring strategy allows production of a map with a regional interpretation of heat flow, in addition to site-specific heat flow and thermal model interpretations in areas with sufficient data density. Utilizing the new heat flow map, temperature-at-depth curves were created for example areas. Temperature-at-depth curves are calculated to 10 km depth for the areas of Anchorage, Fairbanks, Juneau, the Alaska Peninsula, Bristol Bay, and the Copper River Basin. The temperatures-at-depth predicted near the population centers of Anchorage and Juneau are relatively low, limiting the geothermal resource potential. The Fairbanks area temperature estimates are near conventional power production temperatures (150 °C) between 3.5 and 4 km. All data areas, except at Juneau, have temperatures sufficient for low temperature geothermal applications (40 °C) by 2 km. A high heat flow region exists within the Aleutian Volcanic Arc, although new data show heat flow variations from 59 to 120 mW m-2, so individual geothermal resources within the arc will be irregularly located.

  4. Alaska Resource Data File, Point Lay quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Point Lay 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  5. Alaska looks HOT!

    SciTech Connect

    Belcher, J.

    1997-07-01

    Production in Alaska has been sluggish in recent years, with activity in the Prudhoe Bay region in the North Slope on a steady decline. Alaska North Slope (ANS) production topped out in 1988 at 2.037 MMbo/d, with 1.6 MMbo/d from Prudhoe Bay. This year operators expect to produce 788 Mbo/d from Prudhoe Bay, falling to 739 Mbo/d next year. ANS production as a whole should reach 1.3 MMbo/d this year, sliding to 1.29 MMbo/d in 1998. These declining numbers had industry officials and politicians talking about the early death of the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline System-the vital link between ANS crude and markets. But enhanced drilling technology coupled with a vastly improved relationship between the state government and industry have made development in Alaska more economical and attractive. Alaska`s Democratic Gov. Tommy Knowles is fond of telling industry {open_quotes}we`re open for business.{close_quotes} New discoveries on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet are bringing a renewed sense of optimism to the Alaska exploration and production industry. Attempts by Congress to lift a moratorium on exploration and production activity in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) have been thwarted thus far, but momentum appears to be with proponents of ANWR drilling.

  6. Alaska Resource Data File: Chignik quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilcher, Steven H.

    2000-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences can be found in the report. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska. There is a website from which you can obtain the data for this report in text and Filemaker Pro formats

  7. Pap prevalence and cervical cancer prevention among Alaska Native women.

    PubMed

    Lanier, A P; Kelly, J J; Holck, P

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the Alaska Native Women's Health Project (WHP) were to determine the following: (1) Pap prevalence based on chart review before and during an intervention period; (2) the level of understanding of cancer and cancer screening services with emphasis on cervical cancer; (3) use and satisfaction with current health maintenance services; and (4) improvement in knowledge and cancer screening rates following intervention. A random sample of 481 Alaska Native (Eskimo, Aleut, Indian) women living in Anchorage were interviewed face to face about their understanding of cancer risk factors (tobacco use, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), reproductive issues), cancer screening examinations (Pap test, breast self-examination (BSE), breast exam by a provider, mammography), and their attitudes about health care and health care services. Sixty-two percent of control women were documented to have had at least one Pap test within the 3-year period prior to the beginning of the study; however, only 9% were documented to have had annual Pap screening. The intervention included distribution of educational materials, counseling on any woman's health issue, special evening clinics, and reminders (mail/phone call) of scheduled Pap appointments.

  8. The Politics of Education Provision in Rural Native Alaska: The Case of Yukon Village

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinero, Steven

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, I address the role of educational service provision as a mode of post-colonial assimilation and encapsulation in Native Alaska (USA). I argue that these services have historically served State interests above local interests, implemented with little regard for indigenous values or priorities. The role of education provision in one…

  9. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  10. Mini-implants and miniplates generate sub-absolute and absolute anchorage.

    PubMed

    Consolaro, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The functional demand imposed on bone promotes changes in the spatial properties of osteocytes as well as in their extensions uniformly distributed throughout the mineralized surface. Once spatial deformation is established, osteocytes create the need for structural adaptations that result in bone formation and resorption that happen to meet the functional demands. The endosteum and the periosteum are the effectors responsible for stimulating adaptive osteocytes in the inner and outer surfaces. Changes in shape, volume and position of the jaws as a result of skeletal correction of the maxilla and mandible require anchorage to allow bone remodeling to redefine morphology, esthetics and function as a result of spatial deformation conducted by orthodontic appliances. Examining the degree of changes in shape, volume and structural relationship of areas where mini-implants and miniplates are placed allows us to classify mini-implants as devices of subabsolute anchorage and miniplates as devices of absolute anchorage.

  11. The use of implants for anchorage in the correction of unilateral crossbites.

    PubMed

    Alani, Aws; Bishop, Karl; Knox, Jeremy; Gravenor, Colin

    2010-09-01

    The provision of orthodontic anchorage in the adult patient can be compromised due to reduced periodontal support, insufficient number of teeth and limited supra-gingival tooth tissue. Where tooth borne anchorage is unavailable for significant orthodontic movement implants represent a viable alternative. This paper describes the use of dental implants for orthodontic anchorage in a partially dentate patient with a severe unilateral cross-bite where orthognathic surgery was the only other realistic option. The implants were successfully engaged using a composite bridge and a modified quad helix appliance for correction of the malocclusion. Once orthodontics was completed the patient was restored using highly sintered ceramic crowns and bridges. This paper highlights the importance of the multi-disciplinary team and the close liaison between the restorative dentist, orthodontist and technician in treatment planning and provision.

  12. Temporary anchorage device usage: a survey among Swiss orthodontists

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the survey was to obtain information on the treatment plan preferences, mechanics and characteristics of temporary anchorage device (TAD) application using a single case presented to orthodontists in Switzerland. Methods A structured questionnaire to be completed by all study participants with case-specific (treatment plan including mechanics and TAD usage) and general questions (general fixed appliance and TAD usage as well as professional, educational and demographic questions) together with an orthodontic borderline case was utilised. The case was a female adult with dental Class II/2, deep bite and maxillary anterior crowing, who had been treated in childhood with extraction of four premolars and fixed appliance followed by wisdom tooth extraction. Results The response rate was 24.4% (108 out of 443). The majority (96.3%, 104) proposed comprehensive treatment, while 3.7% (4) planned only alignment of maxillary teeth. 8.3% (9) included a surgical approach in their treatment plan. An additional 0.9% (1) combined the surgical approach with Class II mechanics. 75.1% (81) decided on distalization on the maxilla using TADs, 7.4% (8) planned various types of Class II appliances and 3.7% (4) combined distalization using TADs or headgear with Class II appliances and surgery. Palatal implants were the most popular choice (70.6%, 60), followed by mini-screws (22.4%, 19) and mini-plates on the infrazygomatic crests (7.0%, 6). The preferred site of TAD insertion showed more variation in sagittal than in transversal dimension, and the median size of mini-screws used was 10.0-mm long (interquartile range (IQR) 2.3 mm) and 2.0-mm wide (IQR 0.3 mm). Conclusions Distalization against palatal implants and then distalization against mini-screws were the most popular treatment plans. Preferred site for TAD insertion varied depending on type and size but varied more widely in the sagittal than in the transversal dimension. PMID:24935644

  13. 2012 Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcomes Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2012-01-01

    As set forth in Alaska Statute 14.43.840, Alaska's Departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this first annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship to the public, the Governor, and the…

  14. Aberrant methylation-mediated silencing of microRNAs contributes to HPV-induced anchorage independence

    PubMed Central

    Wilting, Saskia M.; Boon, Debby; Sørgård, Hanne; Lando, Malin; Snoek, Barbara C.; van Wieringen, Wessel N.; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; Lyng, Heidi; Snijders, Peter J.F.; Steenbergen, Renske D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer and a subset of anogenital and head-and-neck carcinomas are caused by high-risk types of the human papillomavirus (hrHPV). During hrHPV-induced malignant transformation keratinocytes become able to grow anchorage independently, a tumorigenic trait at least partly associated with inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. We used hrHPV-containing keratinocytes to investigate the role of DNA methylation-mediated silencing of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the acquisition of anchorage independence. Anchorage dependent (n=11) and independent passages (n=19) of 4 hrHPV-immortalized keratinocyte cell lines were treated with 2′-deoxy-5-azacytidine (DAC). Genome-wide miRNA expression profiles before and after treatment were compared to identify miRNAs silenced by methylation. Bisulfite sequencing and methylation-specific PCR showed increased methylation of hsa-mir-129-2/-137/-935/-3663/-3665 and -4281 in anchorage independent HPV-transformed keratinocytes and cervical cancer cell lines. Mature miRNAs derived from hsa-mir-129-2/-137/-3663 and -3665 showed functional relevance as they decreased anchorage independence in cervical cancer cell lines. Cervical (pre)cancerous lesions demonstrated increased methylation of hsa-mir-129-2/-935/-3663/-3665 and -4281, underlining the clinical relevance of our findings. In conclusion, methylation-mediated silencing of tumor suppressive miRNAs contributes to acquisition of an anchorage independent phenotype. This study further substantiates the importance of miRNAs during early stages of carcinogenesis and underlines their potential as both disease markers and therapeutic targets. PMID:27270309

  15. USGS Alaska State Mosaic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The Alaska State Mosaic consists of portions of scenes from the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics 2001 (MRLC 2001) collection. The 172 selected scenes have been geometrically and radiometrically aligned to produce a seamless, relatively cloud-free image of the State. The scenes were acquired between July 1999 and September 2002, resampled to 120-meter pixels, and cropped to the State boundary. They were reprojected into a standard Alaska Albers projection with the U.S. National Elevation Dataset (NED) used to correct for relief.

  16. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. (a) Definitions. As used in this...

  17. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. (a) Definitions. As used in this...

  18. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. (a) Definitions. As used in this...

  19. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. (a) Definitions. As used in this...

  20. 77 FR 66942 - Anchorages; Lower Mississippi River, Above Head of Passes, Convent, LA and Point Pleasant, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... Passes, Convent, LA and Point Pleasant, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed..., above the Head of Passes (AHP). The first would be located at the Belmont Light extending from Mile... above Head of Passes. The width of the anchorage is 300 feet. The inner boundary of the anchorage is...

  1. Use of miniplates as a method for orthodontic anchorage: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Fernando Gianzanti; Padovan, Luis Eduardo Marques; Kluppel, Leandro Eduardo; Albuquerque, Gustavo Calvalcanti; de Souza, Paulo Cesar Ulson; Claudino, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Temporary anchorage devices (TADs) have been developed to be used as direct adjuncts in orthodontic treatment and have facilitated treatment of more complex orthodontic cases, including patients with dental impaction. Objectives: This clinical case reports the applicability of TADs in the orthodontic treatment of a patient with impacted mandibular second molars. Surgical and orthodontic procedures related to the use of miniplates were also discussed in this study. Conclusions: The use of temporary anchorage devices, such as miniplates, can be suggested as an alternative to treat patients with impacted mandibular second molars. PMID:27901235

  2. Treatability Study in Support of Intrinsic Remediation for Site ST41. Elmendorf Air Force Base, Anchorage, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-10-01

    Although it is unlikely that groundwater would be ingested by humans, this level of long- tenn protection is appropriate. In summary, available data...NONE WEATHER: CLOUDY COMMENTS: PIO BACKGROUND -1.7 porn E6ev Depth Pro- US Sample Son Panel Bz TOT& 1H ..(Lf il C Geologic Description No. Dept fT

  3. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, Operable Unit 5, Elmendorf AFB, Anchorage, Alaska. Volume 3. Appendices K - T

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-04

    55329-00 3m 010 04W 7-.00-3 OHLOROSTHANE 1.5 U 1105K sadilR 56394 3D01 04W 67-66-3 CHLOROFORM 1.1 U UGW5K sad 563294 91419 3010 02 74-117-3 C3 ...I49 2030 3148 73496-2 DICIUMOROU3AME S D IDOL Surface Wowe 5SWl 3 94192 203148 327 I-18-4 3TETA0.030S134YLE14( C3 ) 3IDU UIDL Surface, Waler 5SWI 3 91419...14-OSD WfIl 8010(9100 CHPA 71-25.2 3I0td0M 91O I U 1106 Water QC W-14-OSD 9113923010(910CH0IW 7"-3-9 BROG3MouIAHE I U 1106. WageQC W-14-OSD WISM9 8030

  4. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, Operable Unit 5, Elmendorf AFB, Anchorage, Alaska. Volume 2. Text and Appendices A - J

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-04

    w.o.h.c. Limnodrilus sp. Lixnnodrilus cf. hoffmeisteri Rhyacodri lus montana PLATYHELMINTHES . Turbel laria Tricladida ARTHOPODA Arachnoidea Hydracanina...sp. Lixunodrilus cf. hoffmeisteri Rhyacodrilus montana PLATYHELMINTHES Turbellaria Tricladida11 ARTHOPODA Arachnoidea Hydracarina1113 Crustacea...w.h.c. Tubificidae w.o.h.c. 2 2 Limnodrilus sp. Limnodrilus cf. hoffmeisteri Rhyacodri lus montana PLATYHELMINTHES Turbel laria Tricladida ARTHOPODA

  5. Reconnaissance geologic map and geochemical analyses of stream-sediment and rock samples of the Anchorage A-6 quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Sandra H.B.; Yount, Martha E.

    1972-01-01

    Grateful acknowledgement is given to several persons who made valuable contributions to this report. They include Henry R. Schmoll and Ernest Dobrovolny who mapped the contacts between bedrock and surficial deposits shown in figure 1, David L. Jones who did the paleontological studies, and Susan R. Bartsch and Pamela S. Morse who participated in the geologic mapping and geochemical sampling.

  6. 33 CFR 3.85-15 - Sector Anchorage: Western Alaska Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones; Marine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Canadian boundary to the point of origin; and in addition, all the area described in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) The boundaries of MSU Valdez's Prince William Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port... 61°30′00″ N, longitude 148°26′00″ W; thence east to the United States-Canadian boundary at...

  7. 33 CFR 3.85-15 - Sector Anchorage: Western Alaska Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones; Marine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Canadian boundary to the point of origin; and in addition, all the area described in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) The boundaries of MSU Valdez's Prince William Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port... 61°30′00″ N, longitude 148°26′00″ W; thence east to the United States-Canadian boundary at...

  8. 33 CFR 3.85-15 - Sector Anchorage: Western Alaska Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones; Marine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Canadian boundary to the point of origin; and in addition, all the area described in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) The boundaries of MSU Valdez's Prince William Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port... 61°30′00″ N, longitude 148°26′00″ W; thence east to the United States-Canadian boundary at...

  9. 33 CFR 3.85-15 - Sector Anchorage: Western Alaska Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones; Marine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the EEZ at latitude 60°18′24″ N, longitude 141°00′00″ W, proceeding southwest to latitude 60°01′18″ N, longitude 142°00′00″ W; thence south to the outermost extent of the EEZ at latitude 56°14′50″ N, longitude 142°00′00″ W; thence southwest along the outermost extent of the EEZ to latitude 51°22′15″...

  10. 33 CFR 3.85-15 - Sector Anchorage: Western Alaska Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones; Marine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones; Marine Safety Unit Valdez: Prince William Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port Zones. 3.85-15 Section 3.85-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS,...

  11. Alaska's Cold Desert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brune, Jeff; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Explores the unique features of Alaska's Arctic ecosystem, with a focus on the special adaptations of plants and animals that enable them to survive in a stressful climate. Reviews the challenges facing public and private land managers who seek to conserve this ecosystem while accommodating growing demands for development. Includes classroom…

  12. Alaska Mathematics Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Department of Education & Early Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    High academic standards are an important first step in ensuring that all Alaska's students have the tools they need for success. These standards reflect the collaborative work of Alaskan educators and national experts from the nonprofit National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment. Further, they are informed by public comments.…

  13. Alaska Glaciers and Rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image on October 7, 2007, showing the Alaska Mountains of south-central Alaska already coated with snow. Purple shadows hang in the lee of the peaks, giving the snow-clad land a crumpled appearance. White gives way to brown on the right side of the image where the mountains yield to the lower-elevation Susitna River Valley. The river itself cuts a silver, winding path through deep green forests and brown wetlands and tundra. Extending from the river valley, are smaller rivers that originated in the Alaska Mountains. The source of these rivers is evident in the image. Smooth white tongues of ice extend into the river valleys, the remnants of the glaciers that carved the valleys into the land. Most of the water flowing into the Gulf of Alaska from the Susitna River comes from these mountain glaciers. Glacier melt also feeds glacier lakes, only one of which is large enough to be visible in this image. Immediately left of the Kahiltna River, the aquamarine waters of Chelatna Lake stand out starkly against the brown and white landscape.

  14. Venetie, Alaska energy assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Richard Pearson; Baca, Michael J.; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Brainard, James Robert

    2013-07-01

    This report summarizes the Energy Assessment performed for Venetie, Alaska using the principals of an Energy Surety Microgrid (ESM) The report covers a brief overview of the principals of ESM, a site characterization of Venetie, a review of the consequence modeling, some preliminary recommendations, and a basic cost analysis.

  15. Alaska's Logging Camp School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millward, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    A visit to Ketchikan, Alaska, reveals a floating, one-teacher logging-camp school that uses multiage grouping and interdisciplinary teaching. There are 10 students. The school gym and playground, bunkhouse, fuel tanks, mess hall, and students' homes bob up and down and are often moved to other sites. (MLH)

  16. Seismology Outreach in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardine, L.; Tape, C.; West, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Despite residing in a state with 75% of North American earthquakes and three of the top 15 ever recorded, most Alaskans have limited knowledge about the science of earthquakes. To many, earthquakes are just part of everyday life, and to others, they are barely noticed until a large event happens, and often ignored even then. Alaskans are rugged, resilient people with both strong independence and tight community bonds. Rural villages in Alaska, most of which are inaccessible by road, are underrepresented in outreach efforts. Their remote locations and difficulty of access make outreach fiscally challenging. Teacher retention and small student bodies limit exposure to science and hinder student success in college. The arrival of EarthScope's Transportable Array, the 50th anniversary of the Great Alaska Earthquake, targeted projects with large outreach components, and increased community interest in earthquake knowledge have provided opportunities to spread information across Alaska. We have found that performing hands-on demonstrations, identifying seismological relevance toward career opportunities in Alaska (such as natural resource exploration), and engaging residents through place-based experience have increased the public's interest and awareness of our active home.

  17. Alternative perspectives on the sustainability of Alaska's commercial fisheries.

    PubMed

    Loring, Philip A

    2013-02-01

    Many believe commercial fisheries in Alaska (U.S.A.) are sustainability success stories, but ongoing socioeconomic problems across the state raise questions about how this sustainability is being defined and evaluated. Problems such as food insecurity and the disenfranchisement of Alaska Natives from fishing rights are well documented, yet these concerns are obscured by marketing campaigns that convey images of flourishing fishing communities and initiatives to certify Alaska's fisheries as responsibly managed. Fisheries management mandates and approaches built on such metrics and technologies as maximum sustainable yield and systems of tradable quotas actually serve to constrain, circumscribe, and marginalize some Alaskans' opportunities for effecting change in how the benefits of these fisheries are allocated. Beneath the narrative of sustainability, these management technologies perpetuate a cognitive ecological model of sustainability that is oriented to single-species outcomes, that casts people as parasites, and thus assumes the necessity of trade-offs between biological and social goals. Alternative cognitive models are available that draw metaphors from different ecological concepts such as keystone species and mutualisms. Such models, when used to inform management approaches, may improve societal outcomes in Alaska and elsewhere by promoting food security and sustainability through diversified natural resource harvest strategies that are more flexible and responsive to environmental variability and change.

  18. 77 FR 5743 - Special Anchorage Areas; Port of New York, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... guest mooring options maintained by the Sheepshead Bay boating clubs under the authority of NYC Parks... should contact the NYC Parks Brooklyn Permit Office at (718) 965-8975. For guest moorings and access to... at (718) 965-8975. For guest moorings and access to and from the anchorage areas described...

  19. 33 CFR 401.65 - Communication-ports, docks and anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Radio Communications § 401.65 Communication—ports, docks and anchorages. (a) Every vessel entering or leaving a lake port shall... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Communication-ports, docks...

  20. 33 CFR 162.136 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... River, vessels shall be anchored so as not to swing into the channel or across steering courses. Note: There is an authorized anchorage in Canadian waters just above Fighting Island and an authorized... anchored so as not to swing into the channel or across steering courses....

  1. 33 CFR 162.136 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... River, vessels shall be anchored so as not to swing into the channel or across steering courses. Note: There is an authorized anchorage in Canadian waters just above Fighting Island and an authorized... anchored so as not to swing into the channel or across steering courses....

  2. 33 CFR 162.136 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... River, vessels shall be anchored so as not to swing into the channel or across steering courses. Note: There is an authorized anchorage in Canadian waters just above Fighting Island and an authorized... anchored so as not to swing into the channel or across steering courses....

  3. 33 CFR 162.136 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... River, vessels shall be anchored so as not to swing into the channel or across steering courses. Note: There is an authorized anchorage in Canadian waters just above Fighting Island and an authorized... anchored so as not to swing into the channel or across steering courses....

  4. 33 CFR 162.136 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... River, vessels shall be anchored so as not to swing into the channel or across steering courses. Note: There is an authorized anchorage in Canadian waters just above Fighting Island and an authorized... anchored so as not to swing into the channel or across steering courses....

  5. A Manual for the Anchorage School District Bilingual Education Program Revised Scope and Sequence, K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Maria Nieves Bumanlag Lilagan

    The manual offers a systematic set of procedures and relevant information to facilitate effective use of the Anchorage school district (ASD) bilingual education program (BEP). The historical background of the program's development is presented, available manuals for teaching English to limited English proficiency (LEP) students and related…

  6. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vehicle structure, including, but not limited to, the attachment hardware, seat frames, seat pedestals, the vehicle structure itself, and any part of the vehicle whose failure causes separation of the belt... belt bears upon the seat frame, the seat belt anchorage, if not on the seat structure, shall be aft...

  7. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., other than the webbing or straps, involved in transferring seat belt loads to the vehicle structure, including, but not limited to, the attachment hardware, seat frames, seat pedestals, the vehicle structure... frame, the seat belt anchorage, if not on the seat structure, shall be aft of the rearmost belt...

  8. 49 CFR 571.225 - Standard No. 225; Child restraint anchorage systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... van-type vehicles, vehicles manufactured to be sold exclusively to the U.S. Postal Service, shuttle..., other than Type I or Type II seat belts, that is involved in transferring loads generated by a child restraint system to the vehicle structure. Child restraint anchorage system means a vehicle system that...

  9. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... vehicle structure, including, but not limited to, the attachment hardware, seat frames, seat pedestals, the vehicle structure itself, and any part of the vehicle whose failure causes separation of the belt... belt bears upon the seat frame, the seat belt anchorage, if not on the seat structure, shall be aft...

  10. 33 CFR 401.65 - Communication-ports, docks and anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Radio Communications § 401.65 Communication—ports, docks and anchorages. (a) Every vessel entering or leaving a lake port shall... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication-ports, docks...

  11. 77 FR 50646 - Proposed Establishment of Class D Airspace; Bryant AAF, Anchorage, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class D Airspace; Bryant AAF... (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to establish Class D airspace at Bryant Army Airfield (AAF... 71 by establishing Class D airspace extending upward from the surface at Bryant AAF, Anchorage...

  12. Elderly Alaskan Natives in Anchorage: A Needs-Assessment for Social Services Program Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Charles; And Others

    Eighty-five elderly Alaskan Natives living in Anchorage were interviewed to determine if their needs were being met by programs designed for the elderly on a national level. Agencies serving the elderly were also questioned. Age, sex, and ethnic background of the respondents were compared with the variables of degree of education, marital status,…

  13. 78 FR 58158 - Establishment of Class D Airspace; Bryant AAF, Anchorage, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class D Airspace; Bryant AAF, Anchorage... action corrects a final rule published in the Federal Register August 8, 2013 that establishes Class D... description for Bryant AAF, in that the language indicating Class D airspace as part time was left out....

  14. 33 CFR 110.230 - Anchorages, Captain of the Port Puget Sound Zone, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Puget Sound Zone, WA. 110.230 Section 110.230 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Port Puget Sound Zone, WA. (a) Anchorage grounds. All coordinates are expressed in North American Datum... Traffic Service Puget Sound is designated as the COTP's authorized representative. All vessels should...

  15. 77 FR 60081 - Anchorages; Captain of the Port Puget Sound Zone, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 110 RIN 1625-AA01 Anchorages; Captain of the Port Puget Sound Zone, WA... of the Port (COTP) Puget Sound zone. DATES: Comments and related material must be received by the... Service Puget Sound, Waterways Management Division, Sector Puget Sound, Coast Guard; telephone...

  16. 78 FR 12234 - Anchorages; Captain of the Port Puget Sound Zone, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 110 RIN 1625-AA01 Anchorages; Captain of the Port Puget Sound Zone, WA Correction In rule document 2013-03121, appearing on pages 9811-9814 in the issue of Tuesday, February...

  17. 33 CFR 110.230 - Anchorages, Captain of the Port Puget Sound Zone, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Puget Sound Zone, WA. 110.230 Section 110.230 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Port Puget Sound Zone, WA. (a) Anchorage grounds. All coordinates are expressed in North American Datum... Traffic Service Puget Sound is designated as the COTP's authorized representative. All vessels should...

  18. Management of post midface distraction occlusal discrepancy using temporary anchorage devices in a cleft patient

    PubMed Central

    Koteswara Prasad, N. K.; Hussain, Syed Altaf; Chitharanjan, Arun B.; Murthy, Jyotsna

    2015-01-01

    Open bite deformity following a successful midface advancement by distraction osteogenesis is a common complication. Temporary anchorage devices can be deployed during the distraction and post-distraction settling phases for restoring the occlusion even in severe cases. The following report describes the management of severe anterior open bite following maxillary distraction. PMID:25991895

  19. 78 FR 51061 - Special Anchorage Areas; Port of New York, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 110 RIN 1625-AA01 Special Anchorage Areas; Port of New York, NY AGENCY... convenient access to public transportation, onshore shopping and amenities which facilitate interstate...

  20. Distant Voices, Shared Dreams. Proceedings of the Annual Alaska Bilingual/Multicultural Education Conference (14th, Anchorage, Alaska, February 3-5, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Bilingual/Bicultural Education Programs.

    These conference proceedings include a conference schedule, numerous photographs from the conference and from its events, and these papers: "Role of Literature as a Source of History, Values and Identity" (keynote address, Edna Ahgeak MacLean); "Motivating Young People to Succeed" (Howard Rainer); "Empowering Minority…

  1. The 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake and tsunamis: a modern perspective and enduring legacies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, Thomas M.; Filson, John R.; Fuis, Gary S.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Holzer, Thomas L.; Plafker, George; Blair, J. Luke

    2014-01-01

    The magnitude 9.2 Great Alaska Earthquake that struck south-central Alaska at 5:36 p.m. on Friday, March 27, 1964, is the largest recorded earthquake in U.S. history and the second-largest earthquake recorded with modern instruments. The earthquake was felt throughout most of mainland Alaska, as far west as Dutch Harbor in the Aleutian Islands some 480 miles away, and at Seattle, Washington, more than 1,200 miles to the southeast of the fault rupture, where the Space Needle swayed perceptibly. The earthquake caused rivers, lakes, and other waterways to slosh as far away as the coasts of Texas and Louisiana. Water-level recorders in 47 states—the entire Nation except for Connecticut, Delaware, and Rhode Island— registered the earthquake. It was so large that it caused the entire Earth to ring like a bell: vibrations that were among the first of their kind ever recorded by modern instruments. The Great Alaska Earthquake spawned thousands of lesser aftershocks and hundreds of damaging landslides, submarine slumps, and other ground failures. Alaska’s largest city, Anchorage, located west of the fault rupture, sustained heavy property damage. Tsunamis produced by the earthquake resulted in deaths and damage as far away as Oregon and California. Altogether the earthquake and subsequent tsunamis caused 129 fatalities and an estimated $2.3 billion in property losses (in 2013 dollars). Most of the population of Alaska and its major transportation routes, ports, and infrastructure lie near the eastern segment of the Aleutian Trench that ruptured in the 1964 earthquake. Although the Great Alaska Earthquake was tragic because of the loss of life and property, it provided a wealth of data about subductionzone earthquakes and the hazards they pose. The leap in scientific understanding that followed the 1964 earthquake has led to major breakthroughs in earth science research worldwide over the past half century. This fact sheet commemorates Great Alaska Earthquake and

  2. Alaska Women in the Iditarod.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Peg

    This instructional booklet features biographical stories of Alaskan women who have raced and participated in the annual Iditarod Sled Dog Race. The Iditarod race covers over 1,049 miles from Anchorage to Nome and attracts racers from all over the world. A team consists of 12 to 18 dogs and their trainer or musher. The first Iditarod took place in…

  3. Coal resources of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the late 1800s, whaling ships carried Alaskan coal, and it was used to thaw ground for placer gold mining. Unfortunate and costly political maneuvers in the early 1900s delayed coal removal, but the Alaska Railroad and then World War II provided incentives for opening mines. Today, 33 million acres (about 9% of the state) is classified as prospectively valuable for coal, much of it under federal title. Although the state's geology is poorly known, potential for discovery of new fields exists. The US Geological Survey estimates are outdated, although still officially used. The total Alaska onshore coal resource is estimated to be 216 to 4216 billion tons of which 141 billion tons are identified resources; an additional 1430 billion tons are believed to lie beneath Cook Inlet. Transportation over mountain ranges and wetlands is the biggest hurdle for removal. Known coal sources and types are described and mapped. 1 figure.

  4. Seabirds in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Scott A.; Piatt, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Techniques for monitoring seabird populations vary according to habitat types and the breeding behavior of individual species (Hatch and Hatch 1978, 1989; Byrd et al. 1983). An affordable monitoring program can include but a few of the 1,300 seabird colonies identified in Alaska, and since the mid-1970's, monitoring effotrts have emphasized a small selection of surface-feeding and diving species, primarily kittiwakes (Rissa spp.) and murres (Uria spp.). Little or no information on trends is available for other seabirds (Hatch 1993a). The existing monitoring program occurs largely on sites within the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which was established primarily for the conservation of marine birds. Data are collected by refuge staff, other state and federal agencies, private organizations, university faculty, and students.

  5. Geologic map of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.; Mull, Charles G.; Karl, Susan M.

    2015-12-31

    This Alaska compilation is unique in that it is integrated with a rich database of information provided in the spatial datasets and standalone attribute databases. Within the spatial files every line and polygon is attributed to its original source; the references to these sources are contained in related tables, as well as in stand-alone tables. Additional attributes include typical lithology, geologic setting, and age range for the map units. Also included are tables of radiometric ages.

  6. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Mount Spurr Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Nye, Christopher J.

    2001-01-01

    Mount Spurr volcano is an ice- and snow-covered stratovolcano complex located in the north-central Cook Inlet region about 100 kilometers west of Anchorage, Alaska. Mount Spurr volcano consists of a breached stratovolcano, a lava dome at the summit of Mount Spurr, and Crater Peak vent, a small stratocone on the south flank of Mount Spurr volcano. Historical eruptions of Crater Peak occurred in 1953 and 1992. These eruptions were relatively small but explosive, and they dispersed volcanic ash over areas of interior, south-central, and southeastern Alaska. Individual ash clouds produced by the 1992 eruption drifted east, north, and south. Within a few days of the eruption, the south-moving ash cloud was detected over the North Atlantic. Pyroclastic flows that descended the south flank of Crater Peak during both historical eruptions initiated volcanic-debris flows or lahars that formed temporary debris dams across the Chakachatna River, the principal drainage south of Crater Peak. Prehistoric eruptions of Crater Peak and Mount Spurr generated clouds of volcanic ash, pyroclastic flows, and lahars that extended to the volcano flanks and beyond. A flank collapse on the southeast side of Mount Spurr generated a large debris avalanche that flowed about 20 kilometers beyond the volcano into the Chakachatna River valley. The debris-avalanche deposit probably formed a large, temporary debris dam across the Chakachatna River. The distribution and thickness of volcanic-ash deposits from Mount Spurr volcano in the Cook Inlet region indicate that volcanic-ash clouds from most prehistoric eruptions were as voluminous as those produced by the 1953 and 1992 eruptions. Clouds of volcanic ash emitted from the active vent, Crater Peak, would be a major hazard to all aircraft using Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport and other local airports and, depending on wind direction, could drift a considerable distance beyond the volcano. Ash fall from future eruptions could disrupt many

  7. 76 FR 65106 - Amendment of Federal Airways; Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... enroute altitude (MEA) requirements in the vicinity of Anchorage, AK. DATES: Effective date 0901 UTC... of meeting the existing MEA requirements in the vicinity of Anchorage, AK. Amendments for...

  8. STREPTOCOCCUS PHOCAE ISOLATED FROM A SPOTTED SEAL (PHOCA LARGHA) WITH PYOMETRA IN ALASKA

    PubMed Central

    Hueffer, Karsten; Lieske, Camilla L.; McGilvary, Lisa M.; Hare, Rebekah F.; Miller, Debra L.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    A spotted seal harvested by subsistence hunters in Kotzebue Sound, Alaska (USA), showed a grossly enlarged uterus and associated lymph nodes. Streptococcus phocae was isolated from the purulent uterine discharge. Histopathologic examination revealed inflammation that was limited to the uterine mucosa. Lymph nodes draining the affected organ were reactive but no evidence of active infection was found in the lymph nodes. This report is the first Streptococcus phocae isolated from spotted seals as well as the first report of pyometra as the main pathologic finding associated with this pathogen. Isolation of this pathogen from Alaska expands the reported range to arctic pinnipeds. Zoonotic potential remains unknown. PMID:22946378

  9. 2013 Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcomes Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with Alaska statute the departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this second annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship (APS). Among the highlights: (1) In the public…

  10. Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Terry

    2011-01-01

    For over two years the National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been supporting the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) in NW Alaska with their efforts to reduce high school dropout in 23 remote Yup'ik Eskimo villages. The Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) provides school-based E-mentoring services to 164…

  11. Alaska provides icy training ground

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, B.

    1983-04-01

    Offshore oil drilling platforms and oil exploration off the coast of Alaska are discussed. Sohio is investigating the feasibility of platform supporters from shore such as icebreakers and air-cushion vehicles. At Prudhoe Bay Arco is embarking on the first tertiary oil recovery project to take place on Alaska's North Slope.

  12. Alaska High Altitude Photography Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Earl V.; Knutson, Martin A.; Ekstrand, Robert E.

    1986-01-01

    In 1978, the Alaska High Altitude Photography Program was initiated to obtain simultaneous black and white and color IR aerial photography of Alaska. Dual RC-10 and Zeiss camera systems were used for this program on NASA's U-2 and WB-57F, respectively. Data collection, handling, and distribution are discussed as well as general applications and the current status.

  13. Serologic survey for Toxoplasma gondii in grizzly bears from Alaska.

    PubMed

    Zarnke, R L; Dubey, J P; Kwok, O C; Ver Hoef, J M

    1997-04-01

    Blood samples were collected from 892 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in Alaska (USA) from 1973 to 1987. Sera were tested for evidence of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii by means of the modified agglutination test. Two hundred twenty sera (25%) had titers > or = 25, the minimum threshold titer. Six hundred seventy-two sera (75%) had titers < 25. Antibody prevalence ranged from 9% (18 positive of 196 tested) in southern areas to 37% (162 of 433 tested) in northern areas. There was no readily apparent explanation for these discrepancies in location-specific prevalence.

  14. Geologic framework of the Alaska Peninsula, southwest Alaska, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Detterman, Robert L.; DuBois, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    The boundaries separating the Alaska Peninsula terrane from other terranes are commonly indistinct or poorly defined. A few boundaries have been defined at major faults, although the extensions of these faults are speculative through some areas. The west side of the Alaska Peninsula terrane is overlapped by Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks and Quaternary deposits.

  15. Enhanced MET translation and signaling sustains K-Ras driven proliferation under anchorage-independent growth conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fujita-Sato, Saori; Galeas, Jacqueline; Truitt, Morgan; Pitt, Cameron; Urisman, Anatoly; Bandyopadhyay, Sourav; Ruggero, Davide; McCormick, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic K-Ras mutation occurs frequently in several types of cancers including pancreatic and lung cancers. Tumors with K-Ras mutation are resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs as well as molecular targeting agents. Although numerous approaches are ongoing to find effective ways to treat these tumors, there are still no effective therapies for K-Ras mutant cancer patients. Here we report that K-Ras mutant cancers are more dependent on K-Ras in anchorage independent culture conditions than in monolayer culture conditions. In seeking to determine mechanisms that contribute to the K-Ras dependency in anchorage independent culture conditions, we discovered the involvement of Met in K-Ras-dependent, anchorage independent cell growth. The Met signaling pathway is enhanced and plays an indispensable role in anchorage independent growth even in cells in which Met is not amplified. Indeed, Met expression is elevated under anchorage-independent growth conditions and is regulated by K-Ras in a MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK)-dependent manner. Remarkably, in spite of a global down-regulation of mRNA translation during anchorage independent growth, we find that Met mRNA translation is specifically enhanced under these conditions. Importantly, ectopic expression of an active Met mutant rescues K-Ras ablation-derived growth suppression, indicating that K-Ras mediated Met expression drives “K-Ras addiction” in anchorage independent conditions. Our results indicate that enhanced Met expression and signaling is essential for anchorage independent growth of K-Ras mutant cancer cells and suggests that pharmacological inhibitors of Met could be effective for K-Ras mutant tumor patients. PMID:25977330

  16. 77 FR 47864 - Ocean Energy Safety Advisory Committee (OESC); Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    .... SUMMARY: OESC will meet at the Anchorage Marriott Downtown Hotel in Anchorage, Alaska. DATES: Wednesday...: Anchorage Marriott Downtown Hotel, 820 West 7th Avenue, Anchorage, Alaska 99501. FOR FURTHER...

  17. Competing effects of buckling and anchorage strength on optimal wheat stalk geometry.

    PubMed

    Farquhar, Tony; Zhou, Jiang; Wood, William H

    2002-08-01

    We seek the ideal wheat stalk, which minimizes the structural mass required to support a fixed grain load in the presence of gravity and wind. The optimization search is restricted to stepped cylindrical stems of known moduli and density but unknown dimension. Stem buckling and root anchorage strength are assumed to place restrictions on the permissible stalk resonant frequency in the presence of a specified wind forcing frequency. These effects are described mathematically, and the penalty parameter method is used to find stem mass minima for various stalk heights. In general, there are two alternative solution branches. The lower solution is the global minimum but it is probably impractical for field crops exposed to natural wind. The upper minimum is more conservative and therefore requires more stem mass. Due to the competing requirements of buckling versus anchorage strength, the parameter study shows that optimal wheat stem geometry has a nonlinear dependence on the intensity of gravity and the frequency spectra of the wind.

  18. Patterned Anchorage to the Apical Extracellular Matrix Defines Tissue Shape in the Developing Appendages of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ray, Robert P; Matamoro-Vidal, Alexis; Ribeiro, Paulo S; Tapon, Nic; Houle, David; Salazar-Ciudad, Isaac; Thompson, Barry J

    2015-08-10

    How tissues acquire their characteristic shape is a fundamental unresolved question in biology. While genes have been characterized that control local mechanical forces to elongate epithelial tissues, genes controlling global forces in epithelia have yet to be identified. Here, we describe a genetic pathway that shapes appendages in Drosophila by defining the pattern of global tensile forces in the tissue. In the appendages, shape arises from tension generated by cell constriction and localized anchorage of the epithelium to the cuticle via the apical extracellular-matrix protein Dumpy (Dp). Altering Dp expression in the developing wing results in predictable changes in wing shape that can be simulated by a computational model that incorporates only tissue contraction and localized anchorage. Three other wing shape genes, narrow, tapered, and lanceolate, encode components of a pathway that modulates Dp distribution in the wing to refine the global force pattern and thus wing shape.

  19. SATB2 expression increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Feng; Jordan, Ashley; Kluz, Thomas; Shen, Steven; Sun, Hong; Cartularo, Laura A; Costa, Max

    2016-01-01

    The special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) is a protein that binds to the nuclear matrix attachment region of the cell and regulates gene expression by altering chromatin structure. In our previous study, we reported that SATB2 gene expression was induced in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells transformed by arsenic, chromium, nickel and vanadium. In this study , we show that ectopic expression of SATB2 in the normal human bronchial epithelial cell-line BEAS-2B increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration, meanwhile, shRNA – mediated knockdown of SATB2 significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth in Ni transformed BEAS-2B cells. RNA sequencing analyses of SATB2 regulated genes revealed the enrichment of those involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and cell-movement pathways. Our evidence supports the hypothesis that SATB2 plays an important role in BEAS-2B cell transformation. PMID:26780400

  20. Patterned Anchorage to the Apical Extracellular Matrix Defines Tissue Shape in the Developing Appendages of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Robert P.; Matamoro-Vidal, Alexis; Ribeiro, Paulo S.; Tapon, Nic; Houle, David; Salazar-Ciudad, Isaac; Thompson, Barry J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary How tissues acquire their characteristic shape is a fundamental unresolved question in biology. While genes have been characterized that control local mechanical forces to elongate epithelial tissues, genes controlling global forces in epithelia have yet to be identified. Here, we describe a genetic pathway that shapes appendages in Drosophila by defining the pattern of global tensile forces in the tissue. In the appendages, shape arises from tension generated by cell constriction and localized anchorage of the epithelium to the cuticle via the apical extracellular-matrix protein Dumpy (Dp). Altering Dp expression in the developing wing results in predictable changes in wing shape that can be simulated by a computational model that incorporates only tissue contraction and localized anchorage. Three other wing shape genes, narrow, tapered, and lanceolate, encode components of a pathway that modulates Dp distribution in the wing to refine the global force pattern and thus wing shape. PMID:26190146

  1. Wind-fuel cell hybrid project in rural Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    David Lockard

    2000-02-18

    This is a summary of the work performed on the Wind-Fuel Cell Hybrid Project: (1) On October 5th, Tim Howell of the Golden Field Office and Tom Anderson of Battelle Labs arrived in Anchorage. They met with David Lockard, Project Manager, and Percy Frisby, Director of the Alaska Rural Energy Programs Group. (2) On October 6th, Tim, Tom and David flew to Nome to inspect the proposed wind turbine site and meet with John Handeland, Director of the Nome Joint Utility System. They visited the proposed site as well as several private, residential-sized wind turbines operating in the Nome area. (3)Tim and Tom flew to Unalaska on October 7th to meet with Mike Golat, City of Unalaska Public Utility Director, and to inspect the proposed wind turbine sites at Pyramid Creek and Pyramid Valley. (4)Tim sent a scoping letter on December 17th to a variety of local, state and federal agencies requesting comments on the proposed wind turbine project. (5) David discussed this project with Marc Schwartz and Gerry Nix at NREL. Marc provided David with a list of wind prospectors and meteorologists. (6) Tom raised the question of FAA permits for structures over 200 feet tall. Gerry provided information on NREL's experience with FAA permitting on other projects. David summarized the potential turbine choices and heights in a spreadsheet and initiated contact with the Alaska region FAA office regarding the permitting process. (7) David responded to a list of design questions from Tom regarding the project foundations, power output, and size for use in developing the environmental assessment. (8) David tried to get wind data for the Nome Anvil Mountain White Alice site from the Corps of Engineers and the Air Force, but was not able to find any. (9) David solicited quotes from vendors of wind monitoring equipment and provided cost information to Doug Hooker, federal grant manager in preparation for ordering the equipment.

  2. Kaguyak dome field and its Holocene caldera, Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fierstein, J.; Hildreth, W.

    2008-01-01

    Kaguyak Caldera lies in a remote corner of Katmai National Park, 375??km SW of Anchorage, Alaska. The 2.5-by-3-km caldera collapsed ~ 5.8 ?? 0.2??ka (14C age) during emplacement of a radial apron of poorly pumiceous crystal-rich dacitic pyroclastic flows (61-67% SiO2). Proximal pumice-fall deposits are thin and sparsely preserved, but an oxidized coignimbrite ash is found as far as the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, 80??km southwest. Postcaldera events include filling the 150-m-deep caldera lake, emplacement of two intracaldera domes (61.5-64.5% SiO2), and phreatic ejection of lakefloor sediments onto the caldera rim. CO2 and H2S bubble up through the lake, weakly but widely. Geochemical analyses (n = 148), including pre-and post-caldera lavas (53-74% SiO2), define one of the lowest-K arc suites in Alaska. The precaldera edifice was not a stratocone but was, instead, nine contiguous but discrete clusters of lava domes, themselves stacks of rhyolite to basalt exogenous lobes and flows. Four extracaldera clusters are mid-to-late Pleistocene, but the other five are younger than 60??ka, were truncated by the collapse, and now make up the steep inner walls. The climactic ignimbrite was preceded by ~ 200??years by radial emplacement of a 100-m-thick sheet of block-rich glassy lava breccia (62-65.5% SiO2). Filling the notches between the truncated dome clusters, the breccia now makes up three segments of the steep caldera wall, which beheads gullies incised into the breccia deposit prior to caldera formation. They were probably shed by a large lava dome extruding where the lake is today.

  3. Kaguyak dome field and its Holocene caldera, Alaska Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierstein, Judy; Hildreth, Wes

    2008-10-01

    Kaguyak Caldera lies in a remote corner of Katmai National Park, 375 km SW of Anchorage, Alaska. The 2.5-by-3-km caldera collapsed ~ 5.8 ± 0.2 ka ( 14C age) during emplacement of a radial apron of poorly pumiceous crystal-rich dacitic pyroclastic flows (61-67% SiO 2). Proximal pumice-fall deposits are thin and sparsely preserved, but an oxidized coignimbrite ash is found as far as the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, 80 km southwest. Postcaldera events include filling the 150-m-deep caldera lake, emplacement of two intracaldera domes (61.5-64.5% SiO 2), and phreatic ejection of lakefloor sediments onto the caldera rim. CO 2 and H 2S bubble up through the lake, weakly but widely. Geochemical analyses ( n = 148), including pre-and post-caldera lavas (53-74% SiO 2), define one of the lowest-K arc suites in Alaska. The precaldera edifice was not a stratocone but was, instead, nine contiguous but discrete clusters of lava domes, themselves stacks of rhyolite to basalt exogenous lobes and flows. Four extracaldera clusters are mid-to-late Pleistocene, but the other five are younger than 60 ka, were truncated by the collapse, and now make up the steep inner walls. The climactic ignimbrite was preceded by ~ 200 years by radial emplacement of a 100-m-thick sheet of block-rich glassy lava breccia (62-65.5% SiO 2). Filling the notches between the truncated dome clusters, the breccia now makes up three segments of the steep caldera wall, which beheads gullies incised into the breccia deposit prior to caldera formation. They were probably shed by a large lava dome extruding where the lake is today.

  4. Hazard communication by the Alaska Volcano Observatory Concerning the 2008 Eruptions of Okmok and Kasatochi Volcanoes, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adleman, J. N.; Cameron, C. E.; Neal, T. A.; Shipman, J. S.

    2008-12-01

    The significant explosive eruptions of Okmok and Kasatochi volcanoes in 2008 tested the hazard communication systems at the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) including a rigorous test of the new format for written notices of volcanic activity. AVO's Anchorage-based Operations facility (Ops) at the USGS Alaska Science Center serves as the hub of AVO's eruption response. From July 12 through August 28, 2008 Ops was staffed around the clock (24/7). Among other duties, Ops staff engaged in communicating with the public, media, and other responding federal and state agencies and issued Volcanic Activity Notices (VAN) and Volcano Observatory Notifications for Aviation (VONA), recently established and standardized products to announce eruptions, significant activity, and alert level and color code changes. In addition to routine phone communications with local, national and international media, on July 22, AVO held a local press conference in Ops to share observations and distribute video footage collected by AVO staff on board a U.S. Coast Guard flight over Okmok. On July 27, AVO staff gave a public presentation on the Okmok eruption in Unalaska, AK, 65 miles northeast of Okmok volcano and also spoke with local public safety and industry officials, observers and volunteer ash collectors. AVO's activity statements, photographs, and selected data streams were posted in near real time on the AVO public website. Over the six-week 24/7 period, AVO staff logged and answered approximately 300 phone calls in Ops and approximately 120 emails to the webmaster. Roughly half the logged calls were received from interagency cooperators including NOAA National Weather Service's Alaska Aviation Weather Unit and the Center Weather Service Unit, both in Anchorage. A significant number of the public contacts were from mariners reporting near real-time observations and photos of both eruptions, as well as the eruption of nearby Cleveland Volcano on July 21. As during the 2006 eruption of

  5. SAR measurements of surface displacements at Augustine Volcano, Alaska from 1992 to 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, C.-W.; Lu, Zhiming; Kwoun, Oh-Ig

    2008-01-01

    Augustine volcano is an active stratovolcano located at the southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Augustine volcano had experienced seven significantly explosive eruptions in 1812, 1883, 1908, 1935, 1963, 1976, and 1986, and a minor eruption in January 2006. We measured the surface displacements of the volcano by radar interferometry and GPS before and after the eruption in 2006. ERS-1/2, RADARSAT-1 and ENVISAT SAR data were used for the study. Multiple interferograms were stacked to reduce artifacts caused by different atmospheric conditions. Least square (LS) method was used to reduce atmospheric artifacts. Singular value decomposition (SVD) method was applied for retrieval of time sequential deformations. Satellite radar interferometry helps to understand the surface displacements system of Augustine volcano. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  6. SAR measurements of surface displacements at Augustine Volcano, Alaska from 1992 to 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, C.-W.; Lu, Zhiming; Kwoun, Oh-Ig

    2007-01-01

    Augustine volcano is an active stratovolcano located at the southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Augustine volcano had experienced seven significantly explosive eruptions in 1812, 1883, 1908, 1935, 1963, 1976, and 1986, and a minor eruption in January 2006. We measured the surface displacements of the volcano by radar interferometry and GPS before and after the eruption in 2006. ERS-1/2, RADARSAT-1 and ENVISAT SAR data were used for the study. Multiple interferograms were stacked to reduce artifacts caused by different atmospheric conditions. Least square (LS) method was used to reduce atmospheric artifacts. Singular value decomposition (SVD) method was applied for retrieval of time sequential deformations. Satellite radar interferometry helps to understand the surface displacements system of Augustine volcano. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  7. Lower incisor intrusion with intraoral transosseous stainless steel wire anchorage in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-chao; Huang, Ji-na; Lin, Xin-ping

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the potential use of intraoral transosseous stainless steel wires as anchorage for intrusion of the lower incisors using a rabbit model. Placement of intraoral transosseous stainless steel wires around incisors is similar to that of intraoral transosseous wiring of edentulous mandibular fractures. Ten male New Zealand rabbits, 9 +/- 1.5 months of age, average weight 1.8 +/- 0.3 kg, were used in this study. One lower incisor was intruded with a 50 g bilateral force using a coil spring for 10 weeks, while the other incisor served as the control. Clinical measurements of the distances between the occlusal edges of the incisors (EE) were performed weekly with a calliper. In addition to standard descriptive statistical calculations, a paired Student's t-test was used for comparison of the two groups. All surgical sites healed uneventfully after insertion of the wires. Significant differences were found in the change of EE between the experimental and control sides from 4 weeks onwards. Intrusion of the incisor, 4 +/- 0.58 mm, was seen on the test side, while EE on the control side remained unchanged. Within the limits of this animal study, it is concluded that the intraoral transosseous stainless steel wire anchorage system is a cost-effective method for intrusion of lower incisors when the use of other anchorage system is not possible.

  8. Impedance monitoring at tendon-anchorage via mountable PZT interface and temperature-effect compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Thanh-Canh; Nguyen, Tuan-Cuong; Choi, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Jeong-Tae

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the pre-stress force in pre-stressed concrete (PSC) girders is monitored via mountable PZT interface under varying temperature. Firstly, an impedance-based technique using mountable PZT interface is proposed for pre-stress-loss monitoring in tendon-anchorage systems. A cross correlation-based temperature-effect compensation algorithm using an effective frequency shift (EFS) of impedance signatures is visited. Secondly, lab-scale experiments are performed on a PSC girder instrumented with a mountable PZT interface at tendon-anchorage. A series of temperature variation and pre-stress-loss events are simulated for the lab-scale PSC girder. Thirdly, the feasibility of the mountable PZT interface for pre-stress-loss monitoring in tendon-anchorage is experimentally verified under constant temperature conditions. Finally, the PZT interface device is examined for pre-stress-loss monitoring under temperature changes to validate its applicability. The temperature effect on impedance signatures is compensated by minimizing cross-correlation deviation between impedance patterns of the mountable PZT interface.

  9. Strontium ranelate improved tooth anchorage and reduced root resorption in orthodontic treatment of rats.

    PubMed

    Kirschneck, Christian; Wolf, Michael; Reicheneder, Claudia; Wahlmann, Ulrich; Proff, Peter; Roemer, Piero

    2014-12-05

    The anchorage mechanisms currently used in orthodontic treatment have various disadvantages. The objective of this study was to determine the applicability of the osteoporosis medication strontium ranelate in pharmacologically induced orthodontic tooth anchorage. In 48 male Wistar rats, a constant orthodontic force of 0.25 N was reciprocally applied to the upper first molar and the incisors by means of a Sentalloy(®) closed coil spring for two to four weeks. 50% of the animals received strontium ranelate at a daily oral dosage of 900 mg per kilogramme of body weight. Bioavailability was determined by blood analyses. The extent of tooth movement was measured both optometrically and cephalometrically (CBCT). Relative alveolar gene expression of osteoclastic markers and OPG-RANKL was assessed by qRT-PCR and root resorption area and osteoclastic activity were determined in TRAP-stained histologic sections of the alveolar process. Compared to controls, the animals treated with strontium ranelate showed up to 40% less tooth movement after four weeks of orthodontic treatment. Gene expression and histologic analyses showed significantly less osteoclastic activity and a significantly smaller root resorption area. Blood analyses confirmed sufficient bioavailability of strontium ranelate. Because of its pharmacologic effects on bone metabolism, strontium ranelate significantly reduced tooth movement and root resorption in orthodontic treatment of rats. Strontium ranelate may be a viable agent for inducing tooth anchorage and reducing undesired root resorption in orthodontic treatment. Patients under medication of strontium ranelate have to expect prolonged orthodontic treatment times.

  10. Population genetic structure of moose (Alces Alces) of South-central Alaska.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Robert E.; McDonough, John T.; Barboza, Perry S.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Farley, Sean D.

    2015-01-01

    The location of a population can influence its genetic structure and diversity by impacting the degree of isolation and connectivity to other populations. Populations at range margins areoften thought to have less genetic variation and increased genetic structure, and a reduction in genetic diversity can have negative impacts on the health of a population. We explored the genetic diversity and connectivity between 3 peripheral populations of moose (Alces alces) with differing potential for connectivity to other areas within interior Alaska. Populations on the Kenai Peninsula and from the Anchorage region were found to be significantly differentiated (FST= 0.071, P < 0.0001) with lower levels of genetic diversity observed within the Kenai population. Bayesian analyses employing assignment methodologies uncovered little evidence of contemporary gene flow between Anchorage and Kenai, suggesting regional isolation. Although gene flow outside the peninsula is restricted, high levels of gene flow were detected within the Kenai that is explained by male-biased dispersal. Furthermore, gene flow estimates differed across time scales on the Kenai Peninsula which may have been influenced by demographic fluctuations correlated, at least in part, with habitat change.

  11. A genetic discontinuity in moose (Alces alces) in Alaska corresponds with fenced transportation infrastructure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Robert E.; Farley, Sean D.; McDonough, Thomas J.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Barboza, Perry S.

    2015-01-01

    The strength and arrangement of movement barriers can impact the connectivity among habitat patches. Anthropogenic barriers (e.g. roads) are a source of habitat fragmentation that can disrupt these resource networks and can have an influence on the spatial genetic structure of populations. Using microsatellite data, we evaluated whether observed genetic structure of moose (Alces alces) populations were associated with human activities (e.g. roads) in the urban habitat of Anchorage and rural habitat on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. We found evidence of a recent genetic subdivision among moose in Anchorage that corresponds to a major highway and associated infrastructure. This subdivision is most likely due to restrictions in gene flow due to alterations to the highway (e.g. moose-resistant fencing with one-way gates) and a significant increase in traffic volume over the past 30 years; genetic subdivision was not detected on the Kenai Peninsula in an area not bisected by a major highway. This study illustrates that anthropogenic barriers can substructure wildlife populations within a few generations and highlights the value of genetic assessments to determine the effects on connectivity among habitat patches in conjunction with behavioral and ecological data..

  12. Metamorphic facies map of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; O-Rourke, E.F.; Reading, K.E.; Fitch, M.R.; Klute, M.A.

    1985-04-01

    A metamorphic-facies of Alaska has been compiled, following the facies-determination scheme of the Working Group for the Cartography of the Metamorphic Belts of the World. Regionally metamorphosed rocks are divided into facies series where P/T gradients are known and into facies groups where only T is known. Metamorphic rock units also are defined by known or bracketed age(s) of metamorphism. Five regional maps have been prepared at a scale of 1:1,000,000; these maps will provide the basis for a final colored version of the map at a scale of 1:2,500,000. The maps are being prepared by the US Geological Survey in cooperation with the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys. Precambrian metamorphism has been documented on the Seward Peninsula, in the Baird Mountains and the northeastern Kuskokwim Mountains, and in southwestern Alaska. Pre-Ordovician metamorphism affected the rocks in central Alaska and on southern Prince of Wales Island. Mid-Paleozoic metamorphism probably affected the rocks in east-central Alaska. Most of the metamorphic belts in Alaska developed during Mesozoic or early Tertiary time in conjuction with accretion of many terranes. Examples are Jurassic metamorphism in east-central Alaska, Early Cretaceous metamorphism in the southern Brooks Range and along the rim of the Yukon-Kovyukuk basin, and late Cretaceous to early Tertiary metamorphism in the central Alaska Range. Regional thermal metamorphism was associated with multiple episodes of Cretaceous plutonism in southeastern Alaska and with early Tertiary plutonism in the Chugach Mountains. Where possible, metamorphism is related to tectonism. Meeting participants are encouraged to comment on the present version of the metamorphic facies map.

  13. Field-trip guide to volcanic and volcaniclastic deposits of the lower Jurassic Talkeetna formation, Sheep Mountain, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.; Blodgett, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    This guide provides information for a one-day field trip in the vicinity of Sheep Mountain, just north of the Glenn Highway in south-central Alaska. The Lower Jurassic Talkeetna Formation, consisting of extrusive volcanic and volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks of the Talkeetna arc complex, is exposed on and near Sheep Mountain. Field-trip stops within short walking distance of the Glenn Highway (approximately two hours’ drive from Anchorage) are described, which will be visited during the Geological Society of America Penrose meeting entitled Crustal Genesis and Evolution: Focus on Arc Lower Crust and Shallow Mantle, held in Valdez, Alaska, in July 2006. Several additional exposures of the Talkeetna Formation on other parts of Sheep Mountain that would need to be accessed with longer and more strenuous walking or by helicopter are also mentioned.

  14. Utility of aeromagnetic studies for mapping of potentially active faults in two forearc basins: Puget Sound, Washington, and Cook Inlet, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, R.W.; Blakely, R.J.; Haeussler, P.J.; Wells, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic surveys over forearc basins can detect faults and folds in weakly magnetized sediments, thus providing geologic constraints on tectonic evolution and improved understanding of seismic hazards in convergent-margin settings. Puget Sound, Washington, and Cook Inlet, Alaska, provide two case histories. In each lowland region, shallow-source magnetic anomalies are related to active folds and/or faults. Mapping these structures is critical for understanding seismic hazards that face the urban regions of Seattle, Washington, and Anchorage, Alaska. Similarities in aeromagnetic anomaly patterns and magnetic stratigraphy between the two regions suggest that we can expect the aeromagnetic method to yield useful structural information that may contribute to earth-hazard and energy resource investigations in other forearc basins.

  15. Inconsistency in precipitation measurements across the Alaska-Yukon border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaff, L.; Yang, D.; Li, Y.; Mekis, E.

    2015-12-01

    This study quantifies the inconsistency in gauge precipitation observations across the border of Alaska and Yukon. It analyses the precipitation measurements by the national standard gauges (National Weather Service (NWS) 8 in. gauge and Nipher gauge) and the bias-corrected data to account for wind effect on the gauge catch, wetting loss and trace events. The bias corrections show a significant amount of errors in the gauge records due to the windy and cold environment in the northern areas of Alaska and Yukon. Monthly corrections increase solid precipitation by 136 % in January and 20 % for July at the Barter Island in Alaska, and about 31 % for January and 4 % for July at the Yukon stations. Regression analyses of the monthly precipitation data show a stronger correlation for the warm months (mainly rainfall) than for cold month (mainly snowfall) between the station pairs, and small changes in the precipitation relationship due to the bias corrections. Double mass curves also indicate changes in the cumulative precipitation over the study periods. This change leads to a smaller and inverted precipitation gradient across the border, representing a significant modification in the precipitation pattern over the northern region. Overall, this study discovers significant inconsistency in the precipitation measurements across the USA-Canada border. This discontinuity is greater for snowfall than for rainfall, as gauge snowfall observations have large errors in windy and cold conditions. This result will certainly impact regional, particularly cross-border, climate and hydrology investigations.

  16. 33 CFR 110.232 - Southeast Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... explosives anchorage. (5) A wooden vessel must: (i) Be fitted with a radar reflector screen of metal of sufficient size to permit target indication on the radar screen of commercial type radar; or (ii) Have...

  17. 33 CFR 110.232 - Southeast Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... explosives anchorage. (5) A wooden vessel must: (i) Be fitted with a radar reflector screen of metal of sufficient size to permit target indication on the radar screen of commercial type radar; or (ii) Have...

  18. 33 CFR 110.232 - Southeast Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... explosives anchorage. (5) A wooden vessel must: (i) Be fitted with a radar reflector screen of metal of sufficient size to permit target indication on the radar screen of commercial type radar; or (ii) Have...

  19. 33 CFR 110.232 - Southeast Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... explosives anchorage. (5) A wooden vessel must: (i) Be fitted with a radar reflector screen of metal of sufficient size to permit target indication on the radar screen of commercial type radar; or (ii) Have...

  20. Airborne Gravity Data Enhances NGS Experimental Gravimetric Geoid in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, S. A.; Childers, V. A.; Li, X.; Roman, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. National Geodetic Survey [NGS], through their Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum [GRAV-D] program, continues to update its gravimetry holdings by flying new airborne gravity surveys over a large fraction of the USA and its territories. By 2022, NGS intends that all orthometric heights in the USA will be determined in the field by using a reliable national gravimetric geoid model to transform from geodetic heights obtained from GPS. Several airborne campaigns have already been flown over Alaska and its coastline. Some of this Alaskan coastal data have been incorporated into a new NGS experimental geoid model - xGEOID14. The xGEOID14 model is the first in a series of annual experimental geoid models that will incorporate NGS GRAV-D airborne data. This series provides a useful benchmark for assessing and improving current techniques by which the airborne and land-survey data are filtered and cleaned, and then combined with satellite gravity models, elevation data (etc.) with the ultimate aim of computing a geoid model that can support a national physical height system by 2022. Here we will examine the NGS GRAV-D airborne data in Alaska, and assess its contribution to xGEOID14. Future prospects for xGEOID15 will also be considered.

  1. Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shasby, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group is a community of practice that recognizes the interconnections between the health of ecosystems, wildlife, and humans and meets to facilitate the exchange of ideas, data, and research opportunities. Membership includes the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Sea Life Center, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Alaska Department of Fish and Game.

  2. Amchitka Island, Alaska, Biological Monitoring Report 2011 Sampling Results

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-01

    The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Amchitka Island sites describes how LM plans to conduct its mission to protect human health and the environment at the three nuclear test sites located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Amchitka Island, near the western end of the Aleutian Islands, is approximately 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Amchitka is part of the Aleutian Island Unit of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Since World War II, Amchitka has been used by multiple U.S. government agencies for various military and research activities. From 1943 to 1950, it was used as a forward air base for the U.S. Armed Forces. During the middle 1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) used a portion of the island as a site for underground nuclear tests. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the U.S. Navy constructed and operated a radar station on the island. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. DOD, in conjunction with AEC, conducted the first nuclear test (named Long Shot) in 1965 to provide data that would improve the United States' capability of detecting underground nuclear explosions. The second nuclear test (Milrow) was a weapons-related test conducted by AEC in 1969 as a means to study the feasibility of detonating a much larger device. Cannikin, the third nuclear test on Amchitka, was a weapons-related test detonated on November 6, 1971. With the exception of small concentrations of tritium detected in surface water shortly after the Long Shot test, radioactive fission products from the tests remain in the subsurface at each test location As a continuation of the environmental monitoring that has taken place on Amchitka Island since before 1965, LM in the summer of 2011 collected biological and

  3. An Alaska Soil Carbon Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Kristofer; Harden, Jennifer

    2009-05-01

    Database Collaborator's Meeting; Fairbanks, Alaska, 4 March 2009; Soil carbon pools in northern high-latitude regions and their response to climate changes are highly uncertain, and collaboration is required from field scientists and modelers to establish baseline data for carbon cycle studies. The Global Change Program at the U.S. Geological Survey has funded a 2-year effort to establish a soil carbon network and database for Alaska based on collaborations from numerous institutions. To initiate a community effort, a workshop for the development of an Alaska soil carbon database was held at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. The database will be a resource for spatial and biogeochemical models of Alaska ecosystems and will serve as a prototype for a nationwide community project: the National Soil Carbon Network (http://www.soilcarb.net). Studies will benefit from the combination of multiple academic and government data sets. This collaborative effort is expected to identify data gaps and uncertainties more comprehensively. Future applications of information contained in the database will identify specific vulnerabilities of soil carbon in Alaska to climate change, disturbance, and vegetation change.

  4. Operation IceBridge Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, C.

    2015-12-01

    The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) has flown LiDAR missions for Operation IceBridge in Alaska each year since 2009, expanding upon UAF's airborne laser altimetry program which started in 1994. These observations show that Alaska's regional mass balance is -75+11/-16 Gt yr-1 (1994-2013) (Larsen et al., 2015). A surprising result is that the rate of surface mass loss observed on non-tidewater glaciers in Alaska is extremely high. At these rates, Alaska contributes ~1 mm to global sea level rise every 5 years. Given the present lack of adequate satellite resources, Operation IceBridge airborne surveys by UAF are the most effective and efficient method to monitor this region's impact on global sea level rise. Ice depth measurements using radar sounding have been part of these airborne surveys since 2012. Many of Alaska's tidewater glaciers are bedded significantly below sea level. The depth and extent of glacier beds below sea level are critical factors in the dynamics of tidewater retreat. Improved radar processing tools are being used to predict clutter using forward simulation. This is essential to properly sort out true bed returns, which are often masked or obscured by valley wall returns. This presentation will provide an overview of the program, highlighting recent findings and observations from the most recent campaigns, and focusing on techniques used for the extrapolation of surface elevation changes to regional mass balances.

  5. Alaska's Children, 1998. Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project, Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of four issues of the quarterly report "Alaska's Children," which provides information on the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and updates on Head Start activities in Alaska. Regular features in the issues include a calendar of conferences and meetings, a status report on Alaska's children, reports…

  6. 77 FR 58731 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the 2013... Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the... and Wildlife Service (Service or we) proposes migratory bird subsistence harvest regulations in...

  7. Third International Volcanological Field School in Kamchatka and Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, D.; Eichelberger, J.; Gordeev, E.; Malcolm, J.; Shipman, J.; Izbekov, P.

    2005-12-01

    The Kamchatka State University, Institute of Volcanology and Seismology FEB RAS (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia) and University of Alaska Fairbanks have developed an international field school focused on explosive volcanism of the North Pacific. The concept of the field school envisages joint field studies by young Russian scientists and their peers from the United States and Japan. Beyond providing first-hand experience with some of Earth's most remarkable volcanic features, the intent is to foster greater interest in language study, cultures, and ultimately in international research collaborations. The students receive both theoretical and practical knowledge of active volcanic systems, as well experience in working productively in a harsh environment. Each year, the class is offered in both Alaska and Kamchatka. The Alaska session is held in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Katmai National Park, product of the greatest volcanic eruption of the 20th century. A highlight in 2005 was the discovery of a new 70-m crater atop Trident Volcano. Also this year, we added the Great Tolbachik Eruption of 1975-76 to the itinerary of the Kamchatka school. Day trips were conducted to summit craters of New Tolbachik volcanoes and Plosky Tolbachik, Tolbachik lava flows; fumarole fields of Mutnovsky volcano, and a geothermal area and 60 MWe power plant. Students who attended both the Alaska and Kamchatka sessions could ponder the implications of great lateral separation of active vents - 10 km at Katmai and 30 km at Tolbachik - with multiple magmas and non-eruptive caldera collapse at the associated stratocones. During the evenings and on days of bad weather, the school faculty conducted lectures on various topics of volcanology in either Russian or English, with translation. The field school is a strong stimulus for growth of young volcanologists and cooperation among Russia, USA and Japan, leading naturally to longer student exchange visits and to joint research projects.

  8. Alaska Athabascan stellar astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Stellar astronomy is a fundamental component of Alaska Athabascan cultures that facilitates time-reckoning, navigation, weather forecasting, and cosmology. Evidence from the linguistic record suggests that a group of stars corresponding to the Big Dipper is the only widely attested constellation across the Northern Athabascan languages. However, instruction from expert Athabascan consultants shows that the correlation of these names with the Big Dipper is only partial. In Alaska Gwich'in, Ahtna, and Upper Tanana languages the Big Dipper is identified as one part of a much larger circumpolar humanoid constellation that spans more than 133 degrees across the sky. The Big Dipper is identified as a tail, while the other remaining asterisms within the humanoid constellation are named using other body part terms. The concept of a whole-sky humanoid constellation provides a single unifying system for mapping the night sky, and the reliance on body-part metaphors renders the system highly mnemonic. By recognizing one part of the constellation the stargazer is immediately able to identify the remaining parts based on an existing mental map of the human body. The circumpolar position of a whole-sky constellation yields a highly functional system that facilitates both navigation and time-reckoning in the subarctic. Northern Athabascan astronomy is not only much richer than previously described; it also provides evidence for a completely novel and previously undocumented way of conceptualizing the sky---one that is unique to the subarctic and uniquely adapted to northern cultures. The concept of a large humanoid constellation may be widespread across the entire subarctic and have great antiquity. In addition, the use of cognate body part terms describing asterisms within humanoid constellations is similarly found in Navajo, suggesting a common ancestor from which Northern and Southern Athabascan stellar naming strategies derived.

  9. Effectiveness of interceptive treatment of class III malocclusions with skeletal anchorage: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez de Guzmán-Barrera, Jorge; Sáez Martínez, Carla; Boronat-Catalá, Montserrat; Montiel-Company, Jose María; Paredes-Gallardo, Vanessa; Gandía-Franco, José Luís; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Recently, new strategies for treating class III malocclusions have appeared. Skeletal anchorage appears to reduce the dentoalveolar effects while maximising the orthopaedic effect in growing patients. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to examine the effectiveness of bone anchorage devices for interceptive treatment of skeletal class III malocclusions. Searches were made in the Pubmed, Embase, Scopus and Cochrane databases, as well as in a grey literature database, and were complemented by hand-searching. The criteria for eligibility were: patients who had undergone orthodontic treatment with skeletal anchorage (miniplates and miniscrews). Patients with syndromes or craniofacial deformities or who had undergone maxillofacial surgery were excluded. The following variables were recorded for each article: author, year of publication, type of study, sample size, dropouts, demographic variables, treatment carried out, radiographic study (2D or 3D), follow-up time, and quality of the articles on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The means and confidence intervals of the following variables were employed: Wits, overjet, ANB, SNA and SNB. Initially, 239 articles were identified. After removing the duplicates and applying the selection criteria, 9 were included in the qualitative synthesis and 7 in the quantitative synthesis (meta-analysis). It may be concluded that skeletal anchorage is an effective treatment for improving skeletal Class III malocclusion, but when compared with other traditional treatments such as disjunction and face mask, there is no clear evidence that skeletal anchorage improves the results. PMID:28328995

  10. Hybrid SHM of cable-anchorage system in cable-stayed bridge using smart sensor and interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Khac-Duy; Ho, Duc-Duy; Hong, Dong-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Tae

    2012-04-01

    Cable force is one of the most important parameters of cable-stayed bridge. Since cable system carries most of selfweight of the bridge, the loss of cable force could significantly reduce load carrying capacity of the bridge. This study presents a hybrid structural health monitoring (SHM) method for cable-anchorage system of cable-stayed bridge using smart sensor and interface. The following approaches are carried out to achieve the objective. Firstly, a hybrid SHM method is newly designed for tension force monitoring in cable-anchorage system. In the method, vibration response of cable is utilized for tension force monitoring of global cable, and impedance response of anchorage is utilized to detect tension force change of local tendon. A smart PZT-interface is also designed for sensitively monitoring of electromechanical impedance changes in tendon-anchorage subsystem. Secondly, wireless vibration and impedance sensor network working on Imote2 platform are outlined with regarding to hardware design and embedded software. Finally, an experiment on lab-scale cable-anchorage system is performed to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed SHM method.

  11. Detection of bond failure in the anchorage zone of reinforced concrete beams via acoustic emission monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouhussien, Ahmed A.; Hassan, Assem A. A.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, acoustic emission (AE) monitoring was utilised to identify the onset of bond failure in reinforced concrete beams. Beam anchorage specimens were designed and tested to fail in bond in the anchorage zone. The specimens included four 250 × 250 × 1500 mm beams with four variable bonded lengths (100, 200, 300, and 400 mm). Meanwhile, an additional 250 × 250 × 2440 mm beam, with 200 mm bonded length, was tested to investigate the influence of sensor location on the identification of bond damage. All beams were tested under four-point loading setup and continuously monitored using three distributed AE sensors. These attached sensors were exploited to record AE signals resulting from both cracking and bond deterioration until failure. The variations in the number of AE hits and cumulative signal strength (CSS) versus test time were evaluated to achieve early detection of crack growth and bar slippage. In addition, AE intensity analysis was performed on signal strength of collected AE signals to develop two additional parameters: historic index (H (t)) and severity (S r). The analysis of these AE parameters enabled an early detection of both first cracks (at almost the mid-span of the beam) and bar slip in either of the anchorage zones at the beams’ end before their visual observation, regardless of sensor location. The results also demonstrated a clear correlation between the damage level in terms of crack development/measured free end bar slip and AE parameters (number of hits, CSS, H(t), and S r).

  12. Spatial dynamics of the invasive defoliator amber-marked birch leafminer across the Anchorage landscape.

    PubMed

    Lundquist, J E; Reich, R M; Tuffly, M

    2012-10-01

    The amber-marked birch leafminer (Profenusa thomsoni [Konow]) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) has caused severe infestations of birch species in Anchorage, AK, since 2002. Its spatial distribution has been monitored since 2006 and summarized using interpolated surfaces based on simple kriging. Results indicate that this insect pest is unevenly distributed, occurring in multineighborhood sized patches that migrate from year to year. Patches showing heavy infestation one year are followed by light infestations the following year. In this study, we developed methods of assessing and describing spatial distributions of P. thomsoni as they vary from year to year, and speculate on potential causes of these trends in landscape patterns.

  13. Alaska GeoFORCE, A New Geologic Adventure in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartes, D.

    2011-12-01

    RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute is a statewide, six-week, summer college-preparatory bridge program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. A program of rigorous academic activity combines with social, cultural, and recreational activities. Students are purposely stretched beyond their comfort levels academically and socially to prepare for the big step from home or village to a large culturally western urban campus. This summer RAHI is launching a new program, GeoFORCE Alaska. This outreach initiative is designed to increase the number and diversity of students pursuing STEM degree programs and entering the future high-tech workforce. It uses Earth science as the hook because most kids get excited about dinosaurs, volcanoes and earthquakes, but it includes physics, chemistry, math, biology and other sciences. Students will be recruited, initially from the Arctic North Slope schools, in the 8th grade to begin the annual program of approximately 8 days, the summer before their 9th grade year and then remain in the program for all four years of high school. They must maintain a B or better grade average and participate in all GeoFORCE events. The carrot on the end of the stick is an exciting field event each summer. Over the four-year period, events will include trips to Fairbanks, Arizona, Oregon and the Appalachians. All trips are focused on Earth science and include a 100+ page guidebook, with tests every night culminating with a final exam. GeoFORCE Alaska is being launched by UAF in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin, which has had tremendous success with GeoFORCE Texas. GeoFORCE Alaska will be managed by UAF's long-standing Rural Alaska Honors Insitute (RAHI) that has been successfully providing intense STEM educational opportunities for Alaskan high school students for almost 30 years. The Texas program, with adjustments for differences in culture and environment, will be

  14. Stonke Construction Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stonke Construction (the Company) is located in Anchorage, Alaska. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in and around Anchorage, Alaska.

  15. 50 CFR 17.5 - Alaska natives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... resides in Alaska; or (2) Any non-native permanent resident of an Alaskan native village who is primarily... pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section may be sold in native villages or towns in Alaska for native consumption within native villages and towns in Alaska. (c) Non-edible by-products of endangered or...

  16. Alaska Women's Commission Regional Conferences 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Christine

    This booklet describes the work of the Alaska Women's Commission, a state agency dedicated to the achievement of equal legal, economic, social, and political status for women in Alaska. Since its inception, the Alaska Women's Commission has provided funding for regional women's conferences in rural parts of the state. The document describes four…

  17. 75 FR 45649 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. The lands are in the vicinity of Holy Cross, Alaska, and... Bureau of Land Management Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of decision approving lands for conveyance. SUMMARY: As required by 43 CFR...

  18. Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcome Report 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The Alaska Performance Scholarship was established in state law in 2011 and first offered to Alaska high school graduates beginning with the class of 2011. Described as "an invitation to excellence" to Alaska's high school students, its goal was to inspire students to push themselves academically in areas that correlate to success in…

  19. Trends in Alaska's People and Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda; Killorin, Mary; Martin, Stephanie

    This booklet provides data on Alaska's population, economy, health, education, government, and natural resources, including specific information on Alaska Natives. Since 1960, Alaska's population has tripled and become more diverse, more stable, older, less likely to be male or married, and more concentrated. About 69 percent of the population…

  20. Development of Alaska Volcano Observatory Seismic Networks, 1988-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tytgat, G.; Paskievitch, J. F.; McNutt, S. R.; Power, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    The number and quality of seismic stations and networks on Alaskan volcanoes have increased dramatically in the 20 years from 1988 to 2008. Starting with 28 stations on six volcanoes in 1988, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) now operates 194 stations in networks on 33 volcanoes spanning the 2000 km Aleutian Arc. All data are telemetered in real time to laboratory facilities in Fairbanks and Anchorage and recorded on digital acquisition systems. Data are used for both monitoring and research. The basic and standard network designs are driven by practical considerations including geography and terrain, access to commercial telecommunications services, and environmental vulnerability. Typical networks consist of 6 to 8 analog stations, whose data can be telemetered to fit on a single analog telephone circuit terminated ultimately in either Fairbanks or Anchorage. Towns provide access to commercial telecommunications and signals are often consolidated for telemetry by remote computer systems. Most AVO stations consist of custom made fiberglass huts that house the batteries, electronics, and antennae. Solar panels are bolted to the south facing side of the huts and the seismometers are buried nearby. The huts are rugged and have allowed for good station survivability and performance reliability. However, damage has occurred from wind, wind-blown pumice, volcanic ejecta, lightning, icing, and bears. Power is provided by multiple isolated banks of storage batteries charged by solar panels. Primary cells are used to provide backup power should the rechargable system fail or fall short of meeting the requirement. In the worst cases, snow loading blocks the solar panels for 7 months, so sufficient power storage must provide power for at least this long. Although primarily seismic stations, the huts and overall design allow additional instruments to be added, such as infrasound sensors, webcams, electric field meters, etc. Yearly maintenance visits are desirable, but some

  1. Revision of Time-Independent Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Maps for Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesson, Robert L.; Boyd, Oliver S.; Mueller, Charles S.; Bufe, Charles G.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Petersen, Mark D.

    2007-01-01

    We present here time-independent probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Alaska and the Aleutians for peak ground acceleration (PGA) and 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 second spectral acceleration at probability levels of 2 percent in 50 years (annual probability of 0.000404), 5 percent in 50 years (annual probability of 0.001026) and 10 percent in 50 years (annual probability of 0.0021). These maps represent a revision of existing maps based on newly obtained data and assumptions reflecting best current judgments about methodology and approach. These maps have been prepared following the procedures and assumptions made in the preparation of the 2002 National Seismic Hazard Maps for the lower 48 States. A significant improvement relative to the 2002 methodology is the ability to include variable slip rate along a fault where appropriate. These maps incorporate new data, the responses to comments received at workshops held in Fairbanks and Anchorage, Alaska, in May, 2005, and comments received after draft maps were posted on the National Seismic Hazard Mapping Web Site. These maps will be proposed for adoption in future revisions to the International Building Code. In this documentation we describe the maps and in particular explain and justify changes that have been made relative to the 1999 maps. We are also preparing a series of experimental maps of time-dependent hazard that will be described in future documents.

  2. A Century of Retreat at Portage Glacier, South-Central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Ben W.; Trabant, Dennis C.; Mayo, Lawrence R.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The Portage Glacier, in south-central Alaska, is viewed by thousands of visitors annually who come to the U.S. Forest Service Begich, Boggs Visitor Center located on the road system between Anchorage and Whittier, Alaska. During the past century, the terminus of the glacier has retreated nearly 5 kilometers to its present location (fig. 1). Like other glaciers that terminate in water, such as Columbia Glacier near Valdez or Mendenhall Glacier near Juneau, Portage Glacier has experienced accelerated retreats in recent decades that likely were initially triggered by climate change begun at the end of the Little Ice Age in the mid-1800s and subsequently controlled in recent history primarily by calving of the glacier terminus. Photographic records of the terminus covering 1914 until present day track the patterns of retreat. These data, coupled with USGS climate information collected from the southern end of the ice field, provide insight to the patterns of retreat that might be observed in the future.

  3. Alaska low-rank coal-water fuel -- Diesel demonstration Phase 2: Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.; Benson, C.; Wilson, R.; Krier, G.; Ruckhaus, M.; Walsh, D.; Ward, C.

    1998-07-01

    The technical feasibility of producing and utilizing a premium low-rank coal-water fuel (LRCWF) made from ultra-low sulfur Alaskan subbituminous coal following hydrothermal treatment (HT) has been demonstrated in pilot plants in Australia, Japan and the US. Preliminary process economics suggest that LRCWF produced from subbituminous coal from the Beluga coal field near Anchorage, Alaska, with measured coal reserves approaching 2 billion tons, would be competitive with heavy oil priced above about $18 per barrel in Japan. Consequently, a consortium led by Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc. (UCM), the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) and Coal-Water Fuel Services (CWFS) was formed to seek funding for a commercial-scale demonstration project to be built at UAF. Arthur D. Little, Inc. (ADL), with support from the US Department of Energy (DOE), led a team that demonstrated the feasibility of using CWFs in medium speed diesel engines. They were awarded funding in DOE's fifth and final Clean Coal Technology Program solicitation to demonstrate the technology at commercial scale in a Maryland utility. Due to reduced power demands, the utility withdrew and project developers sought a new location. ADL was familiar with the potential synergism with the proposed Alaskan LRCWF project and have joined with the Alaskan team to formulate the LRCWF-Diesel Demonstration Project to be located at UAF. Coltec Industries, Fairbanks Morse Engine Division, will provide commercial CWF diesel technology.

  4. Malaspina Glacier, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite covers an area of 55 by 40 kilometers (34 by 25 miles) over the southwest part of the Malaspina Glacier and Icy Bay in Alaska. The composite of infrared and visible bands results in the snow and ice appearing light blue, dense vegetation is yellow-orange and green, and less vegetated, gravelly areas are in orange. According to Dr. Dennis Trabant (U.S. Geological Survey, Fairbanks, Alaska), the Malaspina Glacier is thinning. Its terminal moraine protects it from contact with the open ocean; without the moraine, or if sea level rises sufficiently to reconnect the glacier with the ocean, the glacier would start calving and retreat significantly. ASTER data are being used to help monitor the size and movement of some 15,000 tidal and piedmont glaciers in Alaska. Evidence derived from ASTER and many other satellite and ground-based measurements suggests that only a few dozen Alaskan glaciers are advancing. The overwhelming majority of them are retreating.

    This ASTER image was acquired on June 8, 2001. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next six years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and

  5. Patients’ and orthodontists’ perceptions of miniplates used for temporary skeletal anchorage: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Marie A.; Scheffler, Nicole R.; Nyssen-Behets, Catherine; De Clerck, Hugo J.; Tulloch, J. F. Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Temporary skeletal anchorage is a relatively recent addition to orthodontic treatment. Surgical miniplates, modified with intraoral attachments, provide an alternative to miniscrews for skeletal anchorage. In this study, we wanted to determine patients’ and providers’ perceptions of miniplate use during orthodontic treatment. Methods Consecutive patients having miniplates placed as part of their treatment completed questionnaires about their experiences during surgery and orthodontic treatment. A total of 200 miniplates were placed for 97 patients. The 30 orthodontists treating these patients also completed questionnaires concerning miniplate success, handling complexity, and whether these devices simplified treatment. Results The success rate was 92.5%. The devices were well tolerated by the patients. After a year, 72% of the patients reported that they did not mind having the implant, and 82% said that the surgical experience was better than expected, with little or no pain. The most frequent problems were postsurgical swelling, lasting 5 days on average, and cheek irritation experienced initially by more than a third of the patients, but it lessened over time. The clinicians reported that these devices were easy to use and greatly simplified orthodontic treatment. Conclusions Miniplates are well accepted by patients and providers and are a safe and effective adjunct for complex orthodontic treatments. PMID:18174066

  6. Skeletal anchorage for orthodontic correction of severe maxillary protrusion after previous orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Eiji; Nishi-Sasaki, Akiko; Hasegawa, Takuro; Nishio, Clarice; Kawai, Nobuhiko; Tanne, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    The correction of a severe maxillary protrusion in an adult by distal movement of the maxillary molars has been one of the most difficult biomechanical problems in orthodontics. This article reports on the treatment of an adult case of severe maxillary protrusion and a large overjet treated with a skeletal anchorage system. A female patient, age 22 years and 3 months, complained of the difficulty of lip closure due to severe maxillary protrusion with a gummy smile. Overjet and overbite were +7.6 mm and -0.9 mm, respectively. She had a history of orthodontic treatment in which her maxillary first premolars were extracted. In order to conduct distal movement of the maxillary molars, anchor plates were placed in the zygomatic process. After achieving a Class I molar relationship, retraction and intrusion of the maxillary incisors were performed. After a 2-year treatment, an acceptable occlusion was achieved with a Class I molar relationship. Her convex facial profile with upper lip protrusion was considerably improved, and the lips showed less tension in lip closure. After a 2-year retention period, an acceptable occlusion was maintained without recurrence of maxillary protrusion, indicating a stability of the occlusion. The result of this treatment indicated that skeletal anchorage is of great importance as a remedy for achieving intrusion and retraction of the maxillary incisors in cases of severe maxillary protrusion with a patient who had previous orthodontic treatment.

  7. Cortical anchorages and cell type segregations of maternal postplasmic/PEM RNAs in ascidians.

    PubMed

    Paix, Alexandre; Yamada, Lixy; Dru, Philippe; Lecordier, Helene; Pruliere, Gerard; Chenevert, Janet; Satoh, Nori; Sardet, Christian

    2009-12-01

    Ascidian postplasmic/PEM RNAs constitute a large class of cortical maternal RNAs which include developmental determinants (macho-1 and pem-1). We have analyzed the localization, cortical anchorage and cell type segregation of postplasmic/PEM RNAs in Ciona intestinalis and Phallusia mammillata using very high-resolution fluorescent in situ hybridization. We also compared RNAs extracted from whole oocytes and from isolated cortices using microarrays and localized RNAs possessing clusters of xCACx motifs in their 3'UTRs. Based on these combined approaches we conclude that: (1) the vast majority of the 39 postplasmic/PEM RNAs (including vasa) are localized in the egg cortex. (2) Many postplasmic/PEM RNAs 3'UTR are enriched in xCACx motifs, allowing us to identify 2 novel postplasmic/PEM RNAs (PSD and MnK). (3) Postplasmic/PEM RNAs anchored to cortical Endoplasmic Reticulum (cER) and those associated with granules have different cell destinations. We propose that there are 2 distinct categories of postplasmic/PEM RNAs on the basis of their cortical anchorages and cell destinations: (1) macho-1-like postplasmic/PEM RNAs anchored to cER which segregate into somatic B8.11 cells. (2) vasa-like postplasmic/PEM RNAs associated with granules which in addition to B8.11 cells segregate into B8.12 germ cells.

  8. Palatal implant versus zygoma plate anchorage for distalization of maxillary posterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Burçak; Sar, Cagla; Arman-Özçirpici, Ayça; Polat-Özsoy, Omür

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to examine the skeletal, dental, and soft tissue effects of the implant-supported pendulum (ISP) and the zygoma anchorage system (ZAS) used for the distalization of maxillary posterior teeth. Among 30 patients showing Angle class II malocclusion, 15 patients with a mean age of 14.3±1.6 years and treated with ISP were included in the first group; 15 patients with a mean age of 14.7±2.5 years and treated with ZAS were included in the second group. The predistalization and postdistalization lateral cephalograms were analysed. Statistical evaluation was carried out using SPSS. Point A and upper incisors protruded in the ISP group, retruded in the ZAS group. Upper posterior teeth were distalized in both groups, but more in the ZAS group. Significant differences were observed between the groups for the sagittal movements of Point A, incisors, and posterior teeth. Overbite decreased in the ISP group, overjet decreased in the ZAS group, upper and lower lips retruded only in the ZAS group. Both methods provided absolute anchorage for distalization of posterior teeth, but the skeletal and soft tissue outcome and distalization obtained was greater in the ZAS group. Both methods can be used as alternatives to extraoral traction and conventional molar distalization appliances with different patient requirements.

  9. Damage detection using high order longitudinal guided waves (HOLGW) in the anchorage zone of stayed cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yong-dong; Jin, Jian; Yang, Feng; Chen, Wei-zhen

    2017-02-01

    High order longitudinal guided waves (HOLGW) are studied for the damage detection in the anchorage zone of stayed cable through the theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and experimental validation. First, based on the theory of elastic wave propagation in cylinder, the dispersion curves of longitudinal modes were obtained and calculated analytically and the high-frequency such as 5MHz corresponding to the higher order longitudinal guided wave modes are identified for the damage detection. Then, the ultrasonic guided waves propagating in a steel wire with or without defects were simulated by using the finite element method and the effects of defect depth and length on the reflection coefficient are studied. Finally, the free wires and a tested cable were studied experimentally. The results show that the finite element method is able to model the high-order guided wave propagation in the steel wire. The agreement between the experiment and theory has demonstrated that the HOLGW is a potential candidate for the damage detection in anchorage zones of stayed-cables.

  10. Behaviour of Plate Anchorage in Plate-Reinforced Composite Coupling Beams

    PubMed Central

    Lam, W. Y.; Li, Lingzhi; Su, R. K. L.; Pam, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    As a new alternative design, plate-reinforced composite (PRC) coupling beam achieves enhanced strength and ductility by embedding a vertical steel plate into a conventionally reinforced concrete (RC) coupling beam. Based on a nonlinear finite element model developed in the authors' previous study, a parametric study presented in this paper has been carried out to investigate the influence of several key parameters on the overall performance of PRC coupling beams. The effects of steel plate geometry, span-to-depth ratio of beams, and steel reinforcement ratios at beam spans and in wall regions are quantified. It is found that the anchorage length of the steel plate is primarily controlled by the span-to-depth ratio of the beam. Based on the numerical results, a design curve is proposed for determining the anchorage length of the steel plate. The load-carrying capacity of short PRC coupling beams with high steel ratio is found to be controlled by the steel ratio of wall piers. The maximum shear stress of PRC coupling beams should be limited to 15 MPa. PMID:24288465

  11. Behaviour of plate anchorage in plate-reinforced composite coupling beams.

    PubMed

    Lam, W Y; Li, Lingzhi; Su, R K L; Pam, H J

    2013-01-01

    As a new alternative design, plate-reinforced composite (PRC) coupling beam achieves enhanced strength and ductility by embedding a vertical steel plate into a conventionally reinforced concrete (RC) coupling beam. Based on a nonlinear finite element model developed in the authors' previous study, a parametric study presented in this paper has been carried out to investigate the influence of several key parameters on the overall performance of PRC coupling beams. The effects of steel plate geometry, span-to-depth ratio of beams, and steel reinforcement ratios at beam spans and in wall regions are quantified. It is found that the anchorage length of the steel plate is primarily controlled by the span-to-depth ratio of the beam. Based on the numerical results, a design curve is proposed for determining the anchorage length of the steel plate. The load-carrying capacity of short PRC coupling beams with high steel ratio is found to be controlled by the steel ratio of wall piers. The maximum shear stress of PRC coupling beams should be limited to 15 MPa.

  12. Proepithelin Regulates Prostate Cancer Cell Biology by Promoting Cell Growth, Migration, and Anchorage-Independent Growth

    PubMed Central

    Monami, Giada; Emiliozzi, Velia; Bitto, Alessandro; Lovat, Francesca; Xu, Shi-Qiong; Goldoni, Silvia; Fassan, Matteo; Serrero, Ginette; Gomella, Leonard G.; Baffa, Raffaele; Iozzo, Renato V.; Morrione, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    The growth factor proepithelin has recently emerged as an important regulator of transformation in several physiological and pathological systems. In this study, we determined the biological roles of proepithelin in prostate cancer cells using purified human recombinant proepithelin as well as proepithelin-depletion strategies. Proepithelin promoted the migration of androgen-dependent and -independent human prostate cancer cells; androgen-independent DU145 cells were the more responsive. In these cells, proepithelin additionally stimulated wound closure, invasion, and promotion of cell growth in vitro. These effects required the activation of both the Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. We have analyzed proepithelin expression levels in different available prostate cancer microarray studies using the Oncomine database and found a statistically significant increase in proepithelin mRNA expression levels in prostate cancers compared with nonneoplastic controls. Notably, depletion of endogenous proepithelin by siRNA and antisense strategies impaired the ability of DU145 cells to grow and migrate after serum withdrawal and inhibited anchorage-independent growth. Our results provide the first evidence for a role of proepithelin in stimulating the migration, invasion, proliferation, and anchorage-independent growth of prostate cancer cells. This study supports the hypothesis that proepithelin may play a critical role as an autocrine growth factor in the establishment and initial progression of prostate cancer. Furthermore, proepithelin may prove to be a useful clinical marker for the diagnosis of prostate tumors. PMID:19179604

  13. Mechanistic insights into the anchorage of the contractile ring by anillin and Mid1

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lingfei; Guan, Ruifang; Lee, I-Ju; Liu, Yajun; Chen, Mengran; Wang, Jiawei; Wu, Jian-Qiu; Chen, Zhucheng

    2015-01-01

    Anillins and Mid1 are scaffold proteins that play key roles in anchorage of the contractile ring at the cell equator during cytokinesis in animals and fungi, respectively. Here, we report crystal structures and functional analysis of human anillin and S. pombe Mid1. The combined data show anillin contains a cryptic C2 domain and a Rho-binding domain. Together with the tethering PH domain, three membrane-associating elements synergistically bind to RhoA and phospholipids to anchor anillin at the cleavage furrow. Surprisingly, Mid1 also binds to the membrane through a cryptic C2 domain. Dimerization of Mid1 leads to high affinity and preference for PI(4,5)P2, which stably anchors Mid1 at the division plane, bypassing the requirement for Rho GTPase. These findings uncover the unexpected general machinery and the divergent regulatory logics for the anchorage of the contractile ring through the anillin/Mid1 family proteins from yeast to humans. PMID:25959226

  14. Alaska Energy Inventory Project: Consolidating Alaska's Energy Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, K.; Clough, J.; Swenson, R.; Crimp, P.; Hanson, D.; Parker, P.

    2007-12-01

    Alaska has considerable energy resources distributed throughout the state including conventional oil, gas, and coal, and unconventional coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass. While much of the known large oil and gas resources are concentrated on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet regions, the other potential sources of energy are dispersed across a varied landscape from frozen tundra to coastal settings. Despite the presence of these potential energy sources, rural Alaska is mostly dependent upon diesel fuel for both electrical power generation and space heating needs. At considerable cost, large quantities of diesel fuel are transported to more than 150 roadless communities by barge or airplane and stored in large bulk fuel tank farms for winter months when electricity and heat are at peak demands. Recent increases in the price of oil have severely impacted the price of energy throughout Alaska, and especially hard hit are rural communities and remote mines that are off the road system and isolated from integrated electrical power grids. Even though the state has significant conventional gas resources in restricted areas, few communities are located near enough to these resources to directly use natural gas to meet their energy needs. To address this problem, the Alaska Energy Inventory project will (1) inventory and compile all available Alaska energy resource data suitable for electrical power generation and space heating needs including natural gas, coal, coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass and (2) identify locations or regions where the most economic energy resource or combination of energy resources can be developed to meet local needs. This data will be accessible through a user-friendly web-based interactive map, based on the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Land Records Information Section's (LRIS) Alaska Mapper, Google Earth, and Terrago Technologies' Geo

  15. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIATION IN SOLAR RADIATION AND PHOTO-ENHANCED TOXICITY RISKS OF SPILLED OIL IN PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND, ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar irradiance (W/m2) and downwelling diffuse attenuation coefficients (Kd; m-1) were determined in several locations in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, between April 2003 and December 2005 to assess temporal and spatial variation in solar radiation and the risks of photoenh...

  16. The Alaska SAR processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carande, R. E.; Charny, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Alaska SAR processor was designed to process over 200 100 km x 100 km (Seasat like) frames per day from the raw SAR data, at a ground resolution of 30 m x 30 m from ERS-1, J-ERS-1, and Radarsat. The near real time processor is a set of custom hardware modules operating in a pipelined architecture, controlled by a general purpose computer. Input to the processor is provided from a high density digital cassette recording of the raw data stream as received by the ground station. A two pass processing is performed. During the first pass clutter-lock and auto-focus measurements are made. The second pass uses the results to accomplish final image formation which is recorded on a high density digital cassette. The processing algorithm uses fast correlation techniques for range and azimuth compression. Radiometric compensation, interpolation and deskewing is also performed by the processor. The standard product of the ASP is a high resolution four-look image, with a low resolution (100 to 200 m) many look image provided simultaneously.

  17. Alaska Pipeline Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Crude oil moving through the 800-mile Trans-Alaska Pipeline must be kept at a relatively high temperature, about 180 degrees Fahrenheit, to maintain the fluidity of the oil. In Arctic weather, that demands highly effective insulation. General Electric Co.'s Space Division, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, provided it with a spinoff product called Therm-O-Trol. Shown being installed on the pipeline, Therm-O-Trol is a metal-bonded polyurethane foam especially formulated for Arctic insulation. A second GE spinoff product, Therm-O-Case, solved a related problem involved in bringing hot crude oil from 2,000-foot-deep wells to the surface without transferring oil heat to the surrounding permafrost soil; heat transfer could melt the frozen terrain and cause dislocations that might destroy expensive well casings. Therm-O-Case is a double-walled oil well casing with multi-layered insulation which provides an effective barrier to heat transfer. Therm-O-Trol and Therm-O-Case are members of a family of insulating products which stemmed from technology developed by GE Space Division in heat transferlthermal control work on Gemini, Apollo and other NASA programs.

  18. Alexander Archipelago, Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    West of British Columbia, Canada, and south of the Yukon Territory, the southeastern coastline of Alaska trails off into the islands of the Alexander Archipelago. The area is rugged and contains many long, U-shaped, glaciated valleys, many of which terminate at tidewater. The Alexander Archipelago is home to Glacier Bay National Park. The large bay that has two forks on its northern end is Glacier Bay itself. The eastern fork is Muir inlet, into which runs the Muir glacier, named for the famous Scottish-born naturalist John Muir. Glacier Bay opens up into the Icy Strait. The large, solid white area to the west is Brady Icefield, which terminates at the southern end in Brady's Glacier. To locate more interesting features from Glacier Bay National Park, take a look at the park service map. As recently as two hundred years ago, a massive ice field extended into Icy Strait and filled the Glacier Bay. Since that time, the area has experienced rapid deglaciation, with many large glaciers retreating 40, 60, even 80 km. While temperatures have increased in the region, it is still unclear whether the rapid recession is part of the natural cycle of tidewater glaciers or is an indicator of longer-term climate change. For more on Glacier Bay and climate change, read an online paper by Dr. Dorothy Hall, a MODIS Associate Science Team Member. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  19. Alaska volcanoes guidebook for teachers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adleman, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    Alaska’s volcanoes, like its abundant glaciers, charismatic wildlife, and wild expanses inspire and ignite scientific curiosity and generate an ever-growing source of questions for students in Alaska and throughout the world. Alaska is home to more than 140 volcanoes, which have been active over the last 2 million years. About 90 of these volcanoes have been active within the last 10,000 years and more than 50 of these have been active since about 1700. The volcanoes in Alaska make up well over three-quarters of volcanoes in the United States that have erupted in the last 200 years. In fact, Alaska’s volcanoes erupt so frequently that it is almost guaranteed that an Alaskan will experience a volcanic eruption in his or her lifetime, and it is likely they will experience more than one. It is hard to imagine a better place for students to explore active volcanism and to understand volcanic hazards, phenomena, and global impacts. Previously developed teachers’ guidebooks with an emphasis on the volcanoes in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Mattox, 1994) and Mount Rainier National Park in the Cascade Range (Driedger and others, 2005) provide place-based resources and activities for use in other volcanic regions in the United States. Along the lines of this tradition, this guidebook serves to provide locally relevant and useful resources and activities for the exploration of numerous and truly unique volcanic landscapes in Alaska. This guidebook provides supplemental teaching materials to be used by Alaskan students who will be inspired to become educated and prepared for inevitable future volcanic activity in Alaska. The lessons and activities in this guidebook are meant to supplement and enhance existing science content already being taught in grade levels 6–12. Correlations with Alaska State Science Standards and Grade Level Expectations adopted by the Alaska State Department of Education and Early Development (2006) for grades six through eleven are listed at

  20. Uplift of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, since the 1964 Prince William Sound earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Steven; Holdahl, Sandford; Caprette, Douglas; Hilla, Stephen; Safford, Robert; Schultz, Donald

    1995-01-01

    Using Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, we reoccupied several leveling benchmarks on the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska which had been surveyed by conventional leveling immediately following the March 27, 1964, Prince William Sound earthquake (M(sub w) = 9.3). By combining the two sets of measurements with a new, high-resolution model of the geoid in the region, we were able to determine the cumulative 1993-1964 postseismic vertical displacement. We find uplift at all of our benchmarks, relative to Seward, Alaska, a point that is stable according to tide gauge data. The maximum uplift of about 1 m occurs near the middle of the peninsula. The region of maximum uplift appears to be shifted northwest relative to the point of maximum coseismic subsidence. If we use tide gauge data at Nikishka and Seward to constrain the vertical motion, then the observed uplift has a trenchward tilt (down to the southeast) as well as an arching component. To explain the observations, we use creep-at-depth models. Most acceptable models require a fault slip of about 2.75 m, although this result is not unique. If the slip has been continuous since the 1964 earthquake, then the average slip rate is nearly 100 mm/yr, twice the plate convergence rate. Comparing the net uplift achieved in 29 years with that observed over 11 years in an adjacent region southeast of Anchorage, Alaska, we conclude that the rate of uplift is decreasing. A further decrease in the uplift rate is expected as the 29-year averaged displacement rate is about twice the plate convergence rate and therefore cannot be sustained over the entire earthquake cycle.

  1. Satellite Observations of Volcanic Clouds from the Eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, K. G.; Ekstrand, A. L.; Webley, P.; Dehn, J.

    2009-12-01

    Redoubt Volcano began erupting on 23 March 2009 (UTC) and consisted of 19 events over a 14 day period. The volcano is located on the Alaska Peninsula, 175 km southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. The previous eruption was in 1989/1990 and seriously disrupted air traffic in the region, including the near catastrophic engine failure of a passenger airliner. Plumes and ash clouds from the recent eruption were observed on a variety of satellite data (AVHRR, MODIS and GOES). The eruption produced volcanic clouds up to 19 km which are some of the highest detected in recent times in the North Pacific region. The ash clouds primarily drifted north and east of the volcano, had a weak ash signal in the split window data and resulted in light ash falls in the Cook Inlet basin and northward into Alaska’s Interior. Volcanic cloud heights were measured using ground-based radar, and plume temperature and wind shear methods but each of the techniques resulted in significant variations in the estimates. Even though radar showed the greatest heights, satellite data and wind shears suggest that the largest concentrations of ash may be at lower altitudes in some cases. Sulfur dioxide clouds were also observed on satellite data (OMI, AIRS and Calipso) and they primarily drifted to the east and were detected at several locations across North America, thousands of kilometers from the volcano. Here, we show time series data collected by the Alaska Volcano Observatory, illustrating the different eruptive events and ash clouds that developed over the subsequent days.

  2. Science for Alaska: Public Understanding of University Research Priorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, D.

    2015-12-01

    Science for Alaska: Public Understanding of Science D. L. Campbell11University of Alaska Fairbanks, USA Around 200 people brave 40-below-zero temperatures to listen to university researchers and scientists give lectures about their work at an event called the Science for Alaska Lecture Series, hosted by the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute. It is held once a week, for six weeks during the coldest part of a Fairbanks, Alaska, winter. The topics range from space physics to remote sensing. The lectures last for 45 minutes with 15 minutes for audience questions and answers. It has been popular for about 20 years and is one of many public outreach efforts of the institute. The scientists are careful in their preparations for presentations and GI's Public Relations staff chooses the speakers based on topic, diversity and public interest. The staff also considers the speaker's ability to speak to a general audience, based on style, clarity and experience. I conducted a qualitative research project to find out about the people who attended the event, why they attend and what they do with the information they hear about. The participants were volunteers who attended the event and either stayed after the lectures for an interview or signed up to be contacted later. I used used an interview technique with open-ended questions, recorded and transcribed the interview. I identified themes in the interviews, using narrative analysis. Preliminary data show that the lecture series is a form of entertainment for people who are highly educated and work in demanding and stressful jobs. They come with family and friends. Sometimes it's a date with a significant other. Others want to expose their children to science. The findings are in keeping with the current literature that suggests that public events meant to increase public understanding of science instead draws like-minded people. The findings are different from Campbell's hypothesis that attendance was based

  3. Alaska Resource Data File, Talkeetna Mountains quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, Robert K.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  4. Alaska Resource Data File, McCarthy quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Travis L.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  5. Comparison of anchorage loss following initial leveling and aligning using ROTH and MBT Prescription – A clinical prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, M; Kishore, MSV; Shetty, K Sadashiva

    2014-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the amount and percentage of anchor loss after initial leveling and aligning using a ROTH and MBT prescription. Materials & Methods: Pre and post alignment lateral cephalograms & dental casts of 10 ROTH & 10 MBT patients. Results: In the study, it was found that the amount of anchor loss is greater in the ROTH group than the MBT group. This could be due to the increased anterior tip in the ROTH prescription, compared to MBT. The total anterior tip in ROTH is 270 and in MBT is 200. The additional tip of 70 in ROTH prescription itself would have resulted in forward thrust of the anteriors. Conclusion: The use of laceback and cinchbacks creates a statistically and clinically significant increase in the anchorage loss specifically when the posterior anchorage is not enhanced. In this study TPA was not used but studies have shown that passive TPA has almost no effect on the clinician's need to preserve anchorage in the correction of malocclusion. On the other hand, the TPA is an excellent way to prevent molar rotation and maintain the original vertical and transverse dimension when desired. How to cite the article: Rajesh M, Kishore MS, Shetty KS. Comparison of anchorage loss following initial leveling and aligning using ROTH and MBT Prescription – A clinical prospective study. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):16-21. PMID:24876697

  6. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages. 110.236 Section 110.236 Navigation and... Grounds § 110.236 Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline...

  7. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages. 110.236 Section 110.236 Navigation and... Grounds § 110.236 Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline...

  8. 78 FR 11745 - Anchorages; Lower Mississippi River, Above Head of Passes, Convent, LA and Point Pleasant, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Passes, Convent, LA and Point Pleasant, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... Passes (AHP), located at the Belmont Light extending from Mile Marker (MM) 152.9 to 154 on the Left... needs of facilities along the river, and vessel traffic can pass safely around the anchorage....

  9. The human leukemia oncogene bcr-abl abrogates the anchorage requirement but not the growth factor requirement for proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Renshaw, M W; McWhirter, J R; Wang, J Y

    1995-01-01

    Proliferation of normal cells in a multicellular organism requires not only growth factors but also the proper attachment to the extracellular matrix. A hallmark of neoplastic transformation is the loss of anchorage dependence which usually accompanies the loss of growth factor requirement. The Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase of human leukemias is shown here to abrogate only the anchorage, not the growth factor, requirement. Bcr-Abl-transformed cells grow in soft agar but do not proliferate in serum-free media. Bcr-Abl does not activate the mitogenic pathway, as indicated by its inability to induce enhancers such as the serum response element or the tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate response element (TRE). However, Bcr-Abl can alleviate the anchorage requirement for the induction of the TRE enhancer; i.e., it allows serum to activate the TRE in detached cells. This activity is dependent on the association of an active Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase with the actin filaments. Despite its association with the adapter protein Grb2, Bcr-Abl's effect on the TRE enhancer is not blocked by dominant negative Ras or Raf. The finding that Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase abrogates only anchorage dependence may have important implications on the pathogenesis of chronic myelogenous leukemia. PMID:7862122

  10. 76 FR 35742 - Superfund Site, New Bedford Harbor, New Bedford, MA: Anchorage Ground and Regulated Navigation Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    .... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is amending an existing anchorage ground which currently overlaps a pilot underwater cap (``pilot cap'') in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) New Bedford Harbor... minimize the potential for human exposure to contamination and to help protect the integrity of the...

  11. 76 FR 20287 - Superfund Site, New Bedford Harbor, New Bedford, MA: Anchorage Ground and Regulated Navigation Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... which currently overlaps a pilot underwater cap (``pilot cap'') in the U.S. Environmental Protection... is to minimize the potential for human exposure to contamination and to help protect the integrity of... anchorage ground so that it no longer overlaps the pilot cap, and by placing the pilot cap in a RNA...

  12. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.110 Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas... ahead and one mile astern, and 500 yards on each side of any liquefied natural gas carrier (LNGC)...

  13. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages. 110.236 Section 110.236 Navigation and... Grounds § 110.236 Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline...

  14. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages. 110.236 Section 110.236 Navigation and... Grounds § 110.236 Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline...

  15. 75 FR 38465 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Port of Anchorage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Fisheries Service (NMFS) has issued a Letter of Authorization (LOA) to the Port of Anchorage (POA) and the U..., 2010, through July 14, 2011. ADDRESSES: The LOA and supporting documentation are available for review... received a request for an LOA renewal pursuant to the aforementioned regulations that would authorize,...

  16. 76 FR 39386 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Port of Anchorage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... issued a Letter of Authorization (LOA) to the Port of Anchorage (POA) and the U.S. Department of.... ADDRESSES: The LOA and supporting documentation are available for review by writing to P. Michael Payne... during the specified activity. Summary of Request On May 6, 2011, NMFS received a request for an...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart E of... - Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart E of... - Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart E of... - Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part...

  20. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart E of... - Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart E of... - Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part...

  2. Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This ASTER image of Teshekpuk Lake on Alaska's North Slope, within the National Petroleum Reserve, was acquired on August 15, 2000. It covers an area of 58.7 x 89.9 km, and is centered near 70.4 degrees north latitude, 153 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 58.7 by 89.9 kilometers (36.4 by 55.7 miles) Location: 70.4 degrees North latitude, 153 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER Bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: ASTER 30 meters (98.4 feet) Dates Acquired: August 15, 2000

  3. Dental caries in rural Alaska Native children--Alaska, 2008.

    PubMed

    2011-09-23

    In April 2008, the Arctic Investigations Program (AIP) of CDC was informed by the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS) of a large number of Alaska Native (AN) children living in a remote region of Alaska who required full mouth dental rehabilitations (FMDRs), including extractions and/or restorations of multiple carious teeth performed under general anesthesia. In this remote region, approximately 400 FMDRs were performed in AN children aged <6 years in 2007; the region has approximately 600 births per year. Dental caries can cause pain, which can affect children's normal growth and development. AIP and Alaska DHSS conducted an investigation of dental caries and associated risk factors among children in the remote region. A convenience sample of children aged 4-15 years in five villages (two with fluoridated water and three without) was examined to estimate dental caries prevalence and severity. Risk factor information was obtained by interviewing parents. Among children aged 4-5 years and 12-15 years who were evaluated, 87% and 91%, respectively, had dental caries, compared with 35% and 51% of U.S. children in those age groups. Among children from the Alaska villages, those aged 4-5 years had a mean of 7.3 dental caries, and those aged 12-15 years had a mean of 5.0, compared with 1.6 and 1.8 dental caries in same-aged U.S. children. Of the multiple factors assessed, lack of water fluoridation and soda pop consumption were significantly associated with dental caries severity. Collaborations between tribal, state, and federal agencies to provide effective preventive interventions, such as water fluoridation of villages with suitable water systems and provision of fluoride varnishes, should be encouraged.

  4. Serologic survey of Toxoplasma gondii in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus), from Alaska, 1988 to 1991.

    PubMed

    Chomel, B B; Zarnke, R L; Kasten, R W; Kass, P H; Mendes, E

    1995-10-01

    We tested 644 serum samples from 480 grizzly bears and 40 black bears from Alaska (USA), collected between 1988 and 1991, for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, using a commercially available latex agglutination test (LAT). A titer > or = 64 was considered positive. Serum antibody prevalence for T. gondii in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) was 18% (87 of 480). Prevalence ranged from 9% (seven of 77) on Kodiak Island to 28% (15 of 54) in northern Alaska. Prevalence was directly correlated to age. No grizzly bears < 2-year-old had T. gondii antibody. High antibody titers were found mainly in grizzly bears captured north of the Arctic Circle. Antibody prevalence in black bears (Ursus americanus) from Interior Alaska was 15% (six of 40), similar to the prevalence in grizzly bears from the same area (13%; five of 40).

  5. Augustine Volcano, Cook Inlet, Alaska (January 31, 2006)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Since last spring, the U.S. Geological Survey's Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has detected increasing volcanic unrest at Augustine Volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska near Anchorage. Based on all available monitoring data, AVO regards that an eruption similar to 1976 and 1986 is the most probable outcome. During January, activity has been episodic, and characterized by emission of steam and ash plumes, rising to altitudes in excess of 9,000 m (30,000 ft), and posing hazards to aircraft in the vicinity. In the last week, volcanic flows have been seen on the volcano's flanks. An ASTER thermal image was acquired at night at 22:50 AST on January 31, 2006, during an eruptive phase of Augustine. The image shows three volcanic flows down the north flank of Augustine as white (hot) areas. The eruption plume spreads out to the east in a cone shape: it appears dark blue over the summit because it is cold and water ice dominates the composition; further downwind a change to orange color indicates that the plume is thinning and the signal is dominated by the presence of ash.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at

  6. Adventures in the Alaska Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackstadt, Steve; Huskey, Lee

    This publication was developed to increase students' understanding of basic economic concepts and the historical development of Alaska's economy. Comics depict major historical events as they occurred, but specific characters are fictionalized. Each of nine episodes is accompanied by several pages of explanatory text, which enlarges on the episode…

  7. Survey of Alaska Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Anda; Sokolov, Barbara J.

    This survey by the Arctic Environmental Information and Data Center at the University of Alaska identifies and describes information and data collections within Alaskan libraries and agency offices which pertain to fish and wildlife or their habitat. Included in the survey are descriptions of the location, characteristics, and availability of…

  8. Alaska and Bering Sea Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Alaska was relatively clear as was part of the Bering Sea where the aquamarine bloom is still visible in this SeaWiFS image. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  9. Licensed Optometrists in Alaska 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Div. of Manpower Intelligence.

    This report presents preliminary findings from a mail survey of all optometrists licensed to practice in the State of Alaska. The survey was conducted in 1973 by the International Association of Boards of Examiners in Optometry as part of a national endeavor to collect data on all optometrists in the United States. Since there was a 100 percent…

  10. Legal Guide for Alaska Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, Buell, Ed.; And Others

    This legal guide, developed by the Alaska Congress of Parents and Teachers, is intended for young citizens and parents to advise youth of their civil rights and explain what constitutes a criminal offense. The aim is to objectively state the law in understandable terms. The book is arranged in four sections. Section one explains the legal rights…

  11. Tuberculosis among Children in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gessner, Bradford D.

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis among Alaskan children under 15 was more than twice the national rate, with Alaska Native children showing a much higher incidence. Children with household exposure to adults with active tuberculosis had a high risk of infection. About 22 percent of pediatric tuberculosis cases were identified through school…

  12. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Alaska Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Alaska state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  13. Minority Women's Health: American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Women's Health > American Indians/Alaska Natives Minority Women's Health American Indians/Alaska Natives Related information How ... conditions common in American Indian and Alaska Native women Accidents Alcoholism and drug abuse Breast cancer Cancer ...

  14. Chronic Liver Disease and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Indian/Alaska Native > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and American Indians/Alaska Natives Among American Indians and Alaska Natives, chronic liver disease is a leading cause of death. While ...

  15. Stroke Mortality Among Alaska Native People

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Ronnie D.; Day, Gretchen M.; Lanier, Anne P.; Provost, Ellen M.; Hamel, Rebecca D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of stroke among Alaska Natives, which is essential for designing effective stroke prevention and intervention efforts for this population. Methods. We conducted an analysis of death certificate data for the state of Alaska for the period 1984 to 2003, comparing age-standardized stroke mortality rates among Alaska Natives residing in Alaska vs US Whites by age category, gender, stroke type, and time. Results. Compared with US Whites, Alaska Natives had significantly elevated stroke mortality from 1994 to 2003 but not from 1984 to 1993. Alaska Native women of all age groups and Alaska Native men younger than 45 years of age had the highest risk, although the rates for those younger than 65 years were statistically imprecise. Over the 20-year study period, the stroke mortality rate was stable for Alaska Natives but declined for US Whites. Conclusions. Stroke mortality is higher among Alaska Natives, especially women, than among US Whites. Over the past 20 years, there has not been a significant decline in stroke mortality among Alaska Natives. PMID:19762671

  16. v-src transformation of rat embryo fibroblasts. Inefficient conversion to anchorage-independent growth involves heterogeneity of primary cultures

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    To clarify whether a single oncogene can transform primary cells in culture, we compared the transforming effect of a recombinant retrovirus (ZSV) containing the v-src gene in rat embryo fibroblasts (REFs) to that in the rat cell line 3Y1. In the focus assay, REFs exhibited resistance to transformation as only six foci were observed in the primary cultures as opposed to 98 in 3Y1 cells. After G418 selection, efficiency of transformation was again somewhat lower with REFs compared to that with 3Y1 cells, but the number of G418-resistant REF colonies was much greater than the number of foci in REF cultures. Furthermore, while 98% of G418-resistant colonies of ZSV-infected REFs were morphologically transformed, only 25% were converted to anchorage- independent growth, as opposed to 100% conversion seen in ZSV-infected 3Y1 cells. The poor susceptibility of REFs to anchorage-independent transformation did not involve differences in expression and subcellular distribution of p60v-src, or its kinase activity in vitro and in vivo. It rather reflected a property of the primary cultures, as cloning of REFs before ZSV infection demonstrated that only 2 out of 6 REF clones tested were permissive for anchorage-independent growth. The nonpermissive phenotype was dominant over the permissive one in somatic hybrid cells, and associated with organized actin filament bundles and a lower growth rate, both before and after ZSV infection. These results indicate that the poor susceptibility of REFs to anchorage-independent transformation by p60v-src reflects the heterogeneity of the primary cultures. REFs can be morphologically transformed by p60v-src with high efficiency but only a small fraction is convertible to anchorage- independent growth. REF resistance seems to involve the presence of a suppressor factor which may emerge from REF differentiation during embryonic development. PMID:8034746

  17. Assessing Posidonia oceanica Seedling Substrate Preference: An Experimental Determination of Seedling Anchorage Success in Rocky vs. Sandy Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Alagna, Adriana; Fernández, Tomás Vega; Anna, Giovanni D; Magliola, Carlo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Badalamenti, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades the growing awareness of the ecological importance of seagrass meadows has prompted increasing efforts to protect existing beds and restore degraded habitats. An in-depth knowledge of factors acting as major drivers of propagule settlement and recruitment is required in order to understand patterns of seagrass colonization and recovery and to inform appropriate management and conservation strategies. In this work Posidonia oceanica seedlings were reared for five months in a land-based culture facility under simulated natural hydrodynamic conditions to identify suitable substrates for seedling anchorage. Two main substrate features were investigated: firmness (i.e., sand vs. rock) and complexity (i.e., size of interstitial spaces between rocks). Seedlings were successfully grown in culture tanks, obtaining overall seedling survival of 93%. Anchorage was strongly influenced by substrate firmness and took place only on rocks, where it was as high as 89%. Anchorage occurred through adhesion by sticky root hairs. The minimum force required to dislodge plantlets attached to rocky substrates reached 23.830 N (equivalent to 2.43 kg), which would potentially allow many plantlets to overcome winter storms in the field. The ability of rocky substrates to retain seedlings increased with their complexity. The interstitial spaces between rocks provided appropriate microsites for seedling settlement, as seeds were successfully retained, and a suitable substrate for anchorage was available. In conclusion P. oceanica juveniles showed a clear-cut preference for hard substrates over the sandy one, due to the root system adhesive properties. In particular, firm and complex substrates allowed for propagule early and strong anchorage, enhancing persistence and establishment probabilities. Seedling substrate preference documented here leads to expect a more successful sexual recruitment on hard bottoms compared with soft ones. This feature could have influenced P

  18. Germination and anchorage of Enteromorpha spp. in sediments of the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schories, D.; Reise, K.

    1993-10-01

    Large quantities of filamentous green algae ( Enteromorpha spp.) have regularly occurred on muddy and sandy tidal flats in Königshafen, on the island of Sylt (North Sea), since 1979 — covering the sediments in thick mats during the summer months. While spores of Enteromorpha were encountered in both mud and sand, germling formation was restricted to sand. However, mud snails ( Hydrobia ulvae Pennant) were overgrown with small Enteromorpha filaments in both habitats, about 50% of them at a muddy site and 20% at a sandy one. Filaments, several cm in length and still adhering to the snails, became tangled into clusters. At the sandy site, with abundant Arenicola marina L., these clusters slid into the feeding funnels of lugworm burrows; the importance of this secondary anchorage is demonstrated by a field experiment. We suggest that the primary and secondary attachment of Enteromorpha filaments provided by benthic fauna is an essential step in the development of green algal mats on sedimentary tidal flats.

  19. A mini-implant for orthodontic anchorage in a deep overbite case.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Hidetake; Yagi, Takakazu; Yasuda, Yoshitaka; Takada, Kenji

    2005-05-01

    This article describes the orthodontic treatment of a 19-year-old female patient with anterior crowding. There was a moderate arch length discrepancy in the lower dental arch, a significant deep overbite, and a "gummy smile." We inserted an orthodontic mini-implant as anchorage for the intrusion of the upper incisor segment, followed by alignment of the upper and lower dental arches with an edgewise appliance without tooth extraction. The overbite was corrected from +7.2 mm to +1.7 mm by upper incisor intrusion, and the gummy smile was improved. Good occlusion and facial esthetics were achieved, and these results have been maintained for two years after completion of the active treatment.

  20. Orthodontic retreatment using anchorage with miniplate to camouflage a Class III skeletal pattern

    PubMed Central

    Farret, Marcel Marchiori

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This manuscript describes the treatment of a 27-year-old patient who was previously treated with two maxillary first premolar extractions. The patient had skeletal Class III malocclusion, Class III canine relationship, anterior crossbite, and a concave profile. As the patient refused orthognathic surgery, a miniplate was used on the right side of the lower arch as an anchorage unit after the extraction of mandibular first premolars, aiding the retraction of anterior teeth. At the end of treatment, anterior crossbite was corrected, in which first molars and canines were in a Class I relationship, and an excellent intercuspation was reached. Furthermore, patient's profile remarkably improved as a result of mandibular incisor retraction. A 30-month follow-up showed good stability of the results obtained. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as one of the requirements to become diplomate by the BBO. PMID:27409659